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Full text of "The North Carolina booklet : great events in North Carolina history"

REYNOL®S HISTORICAL 
GENEAUOGY COLLECTION. 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01806 0563 



GENEALOGY 
975.6 
N8181B, 
190^-1905 



Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 witli funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/northcarolinaboo19041905nort 




THE c •'■./••:: i \ 

North Carolina Booklet 







GREAT EVENTS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



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v^THg LORDS PROPRIETORS 



OF CAROLINA, 

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A 



BY 



KEMP P. BATTIvE, LL.D. 




PRICE, '10 CENTS 




$ 1 THE YEAR 



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THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. • 

VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

^ Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major Wilb'am A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judere A- C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Jiistice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikea. 
' Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
CkDlonel William H. S. Bur^wyn. Prof. Ck^llier Ck)bb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark, 
llie Earliest English Settlement in America. . • i 

Mr. W. J. Pe«le. 'rr 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. - ' 'V 

Prof. D. H. HiU. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 

Gk>vemor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Cabolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
rV are requested to no\ify at once. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. < 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those at a distance will please 
add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY MILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



DL. IV MAY, 1904 ISo. 1 



THE 



^ORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 
I 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER ! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



> 

RALEIGH 
E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 
1904 . : 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: . 

BEG E NT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-BEGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONOKAUY BEGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
(Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sb. 

SECUETABY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TliEASURER: • 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

BEGISTBAB : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 

FOUNDEB OF THE NORTII CaBOLINA SOCIETY AND ReGENT 1896-1902: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sb. • 



F^ ^ 5 1 



PREFACE. 



The object of the North Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the ''Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church,' Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
jmer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management tlie hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. II. Hill. 



THE LORDS PROPRIETORS OF CAROLINA. 

By KEMP p. BATTLE. LL.D , 
(Professor of History, University of North Carolina). 



The first Lord rr(;))rietor of tlie land now called North 
Carolina was the acooinplishcd courtier, daring .navigator, 
fieroe fighter, elegant ])oet and learned historian, Sir Walter 
Raleigh. His energy and lavish expenditures in settling his 
gi'and territory, and their dismal failure,- are known to all. 
Beyond the introdnctTon into civilized life of the ])otato, and 
giving to our State ca])ital his name, to the county of Robeson 
a claim to have among her half-breed Indians some dro])« of 
the blood of his "Ijost Colony," and to the State the senti- 
mental honor of the first white child born and the first Chris- 
tian, baptism, the first hord Proprietor of Virginia, extend- 
ing indefinitely southward, is only a tender and cherished 
memory. 

Raleigh, having sold ])art of his rights and lost the residue 
by forfeitui-e for treason, James I. in KiOG regrauted the part 
of the land from the Cape Pear northward to Sir Thomas 
Gates and many lords and rich merchants, called Adventurers. 
Under this charter Jamestown was settled. It was vacated 
in 1624, and in 1G21) Charles I. granted to Sir Robert Heath, 
his Attoniev-Oeneral, all the land between '^\'' and 30° north 



6 



latitude from the Afhuitic to the \vi'<t "as far a.s the continent 
extendeth." 

This dc jure Lord l^ro])riotor was a man of mark in his 
day. lie wa:? an al)le hwvvcr and lifhl imj)ortant positions. 
He was mendx'V of Parliament, iicconk'r of London, then 
snccessivelv Solicitor-General and . Attornev-dencral, othees 
of much power in those arhitrary (biys. .\s a reward for 
his activity in advancinu' the ivinu's tyrannical measures, the 
grant of Carolina was nuulc to him. 11(^ was strini^ent 
against non-conforinists, ])rosecuted those who refused to pay 
forced loans, drew uj) an elaborate answer to the Petiti<ui of 
Eight, procured the conviction of Eliot, Holies, Selden and 
other patriots for tlwdr course in Pai'liament, conductcnl the 
prosecutioiys of the Star (^haud)er, which resulted in the atro- 
cious fines, mutilations and imprisonmeur of Leighton, 
Prynne, Ijostwick and others. So well satistied was Charles 
with his zeal that he was elevated to be Chief Justice of^ the 
Court of Common Pleas. He seems then to have become 
alarmed at the storm of hatred oatherinji; against the Crown. 
He was removed from the l)ench, but, when the King desired 
to placate his adversaries of the J.ong Parliament, he was 
created a Judge of rhe C<jui-t of King's Bench. When the 
breach between King and Parliament came he sided with 
the King, and was ap]winted to thi^ em})ty honor of (^hief 
Justice of tlie King's Bench in 1G42. He was impeached by 
the House of Commons, and excepted from the Act of 0]> « 
livion. He tied to France and died at Calais the same year 



in which hi^ royiil master kxst his hoad. 11 is i-oii Edward, 
afli'i' the K<'.-toiati<Jii, was restored to the family estates. 

The only eti'urt of Sir Robert to procure settlei's for his 
province across the Atlantic was the sending of a ship-load 
of Huguenots in KJIU), but for some reason not kuown they 
were landed in Virginia. For tius breach of contract the 
owners of the vessel, named the Mai/fluiccr, possibly the same 
which carried the Pilgrims to Plymouth, were nia<le to pay 
about $3,000 damages. 

Sir liobert lleatli sold his interests in lO.")! to Lord Mal- 
travers, and by several assignments they were vested in Dr. 
Daniel Coxe, to whom, l)y way of compromise, after many 
years, was given a tract of 10(),0()() acres in Western Xew 
York. Early after the Iv<'storation, however, the Heath 
patent was (h'chii'ed vacated and the territory, with the same 
name, was in IGGo grante<l to eight nobles, favorites of 
Charles Jl. Jt apjiears then that the "eponymous hero"N)f 
our State is Charles 1., a much more worthy man than his 
son, debauched in morals and a traitor to his kingdom. The 
old story that the infamous (Miarles IX. of France was so 
honored is disproved by the fact that only the fort at Port 
Royal in li'tVrl, and not the hnni, was called Carolina by the 
French emigrants. 

Two years afterwards a new charter was issued to the same 
Lords Proprietors, including additional strijjs of land on the 
north and the south, i)ractically from the Virginia line to 
about the middle of Llorida. 



Tho powers of these snb-kiiii»-s were to Ih' tin- saint- as exer- 
c'ised by tlie I)isliiji) of Durliaiii in liis eivil capaeity. What 
were tliosc ])owers ^ As in ancient Komi' the l\ing''s mansion 
on the Pahitinc hill was ealled j^alatinm, in the c(nirse of time 
^'palatial" was eipiivalent to royal, and a County i*ahitine was 
one in whieli its i-liief lord had royal jxjwers. 'These eounties 
were on the borders of countries often hostile, and tlie lieu- 
tenant of the Kini;- must have extraordinary jjowers to mwt 
dangerous emcrgeneies. (Jn the continent the (jrernuin dis- 
trict horderinu' on France was called tlie Palatinate, and in 
Eaigland the Karl of Chester and Duke (jf Lancaster giuirded 
tlie west and I he l>isho]> of Durham the S<'oteh fi'ontier. 
Tlie Lords I^ropriejors, therefore, had jura rcjjalui, or royal 
rights, the legislation, however, to he sid)ject to the consent 
of the ))eo])le. 

We now dc.-crilH' the "Proiierty Kings," as DeFoe ealled 
them, ill the order in which they are mentioned in the* two 
charters. 

The first- was the great Edward Hyde, l^ivd High Chan- 
cellor and until 10(17 Prime ^linister, though not then so 
called. He was the son of Henry Hyde of Wiltshire, born 
February 10, lOOS, and was graduated at Oxford Univer- 
sity. He became a lawyer, anil his resolution to pursue 
steadily the dictates of his conscience on all ])ublic matters 
was strengthened by the earnesf injunction of his father, who, 
while charging him never to sacrifice tlie laws and lilK^rty 
of his country to his own interest, fell to the ground under 
a fatal stroke of ai)0])lexy. Accordingly, as a member of 



9 



the Short and of tlu? Loiiu' Parlijimeiits which mot iu 1G40, 
he condemned the iniquitons proceedings of the Star Cham- 
ber, l[i«ili (\)mmissi()U Court, the Privy (\)uucil and the 
(Vnmcil of the ^»'orth, hut 0])])08ed the bill of attainder of 
Strafford, though he did not record his vote againt^t it. When 
Parliament began to raise the militia against the King and 
to dejH'ive the Bishoi>y of their votes in the House of Lords, 
his (conservative temperament led him to take the royal side, 
lie was soon knighted and was matle (^haueellor of the P^x- 
ehequer and Privy (\)uneillor. On the di'feat of the King- 
he retired with Prince Charles to Jersey. Here he began 
his History of the Oreat Relxdlion, which, after nniny inter- 
rn])tions, was conij)leted in KITT). 

^>'otwithstan(ling his staunch ehnrclunanshij), which ad- 
mitted no eom])romise with R(muin Catholicism, he was a 
favorite with C^ueen Henrietta Alaria, and in 1048 was called 
by her to Paris, lie visited Spain as Ambassador to piK)- 
eiire aid for Charles, hut in vain. lie then resided at Ant- 
werp, constaiiJtly intriguing for the Restoration. He held 
the offices successivelv of Secretary of State and Lord High 
Ohajicellor in the little court of the exiled King. When the 
times were ripe for the Restoration he drew up the Declara- 
tion of Breda, and ])rocured the royal assent to" it, thus allay- 
ing the fears of a large nnijority of the ])eople of Llngland. 

Honors fell thick and fast on Sir Kdward Hyde. He 
retained his |M)st of Lord Chancellor, was chosen Chancellor 
of the University of Oxford, was created a peer as Baron 
Hyde of Hindon, and in 10(11 received the titles of Lord 



10 



Cornbiiry and Earl of (^laron.lun. .Moreover, the King- en- 
trusted to him tlie conduct of the government, in which he 
showed strong desire to be as moderate and prudent as was 
consistent with safety. What wvre considered by many as 
proofs of malignant hatred towards non-conformists, the so- 
called Clarendon Acts, namely, the Uniformity, Conventicle, 
Five Mile and CoriKDration Acts, were doubtless inspired 
largely by the fear lest the old soldiers who had once ruled 
the land might b<^ re-embodied for another civil war. He 
Avas in the sunshine of the royal favor wlieii he was named 
as first of the Proprietors of Carolina. 

But the favor was evanescent. He lost the regard of the 
King and his male and female licentious associates. Kis 
severity of aspect excited their ridicule. He was called the 
royal school-master. As Charles and his wife had no chil- 
dren, the marriage of his (.Idest daughter Anne to the Duke of 
York brought his grandchildren near the succession to- the 
throne, and this aroused envy at his grand fortune. His 
building a lialaee costing about $200,000 increased this envy, 
especially when the foul whisperings began that bribes for 
the sale of Dunkirk to the French had furnished the funds. 
A libelous song, called "Clarendon's Hou.se Warming-,'' ^vas 
everywhere sung. He was accused of sacrilege for using in 
the building of his mansion stones dressed oi'iginally for St. 
Paul's, and no credit was given to the explanation that he had 
honestly bought them. He was held responsible for the dis- 
asters of the Dutch war. The cavaliers were dis))leased that 
they did not get more favors from the governmeni, the i)apists 



11 



and iu)ii-c(nit"(jriiiists, Ijccaiise tlicir (.lisabilities were not made 
ligliter. 1 lie jircat Karl was removed from oriice, ami, by 
the King-'s advice, retired to Kuueii in France. Sncli was the 
j>0])ular hatred uf him that he was set u}Hin hv some drunken 
Enalish sailors at lu'reiix, treated with mucli cruelty and 
would have heen slain but for tlie tiiiiely interference of their 
lieutenant. 

(Marendon was an author of ability, his History of the 
Civil War IxBino; esj)ecially valuable for the delineation of the 
eliaracters of the leading men of that im|X)rtaut period. He 
married, first, Anne, daughter of Sir Gregory Ayloft'e, who 
died without issue, and, secondly, Frances, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Aylesbury, by whom he had four sons and two daugh- 
ters. It is noticeable that he named his oldest daughter after 
his first wife, and two of her daughters, Mary and Anne, 
ascended the throne after the expulsion of their father. The 
Chancellor's two sons, ITenry, Earl of Clarendon, and La.w- 
rence, Earl of Kochestei", were elevated to high oftice. Gov- 
eraor Edward Hyde of Xorth (^arolina, after whom a county 
is named, was probably a grandson. 

The title of the noble earl is per])etuated by the name of 
a county in South Carolina. A large county under the J^ro- 
visions (tf the Fimdamental Constitutions, with this name, 
stretching from the (\i]ie Fear sotithwest, was projected but 
abandoned. Cape Fear river was once called Clarendon. 
The name is from Clarendon Park in Wiltshire, Kngland, 
in the "Xew Forest," where the Plantagcnets had a palatial 
hunting' lo<lge. IFere were sometimes held Great ( 'ouncils, 



12 



which aclo])ted weighty ordinances, tliose in tlie days of 
Henry II. being callecl Constitutions of (Maroiidon. Th«3 
pahice was about three miles from Salisbury. 

The second named Pr(>])rietor was George Monk, or Monck, 
Duke of Alknnarle, wlio had a very eventful life. He was a 
Devonshire man, yoimger son of a icnight of slender fortune, 
Sir 1'liomas Monk. He volunteered to serve under Sir Rich- 
ard Grenvilh^ against Spain, and si)W-dily rose to the rank of 
captain in the war against France. He lu'canic a niasrcr in 
the military art, and, wlien ihe civil war broke out. took the 
side of the King. At tirst (\)lonel, he was appointed Briga- 
dier-General in the Irish l^rigade recently bruiiglit to Eng- 
land and engaged in the siege of Xantwicli. lie ai'rived just 
in time to U: present in 'its surjn'isal and defeat by Sir 
Thomas Fairfax. lie was contined in the Tower until No- 
vend>er, ir)4t), when he subscribed t(/ the Covenant and ac- 
ce)>ted service^ umler the Parliament. He was faithf\d to the 
King until his armies were destroyed and he was a captive? 

Monk was given by Parliament the connuand of their forces 
in the north of Ireland, with the rank of JMajor-General. 
Afterwards, as Lieutenant-General of Artillery, he served 
against the Scots, and when Cromwell ])ur.-ue(l (^harles II. 
to his defeat at Worcester, General j\Ioid; was left in Scot- 
land as Conimander-in-Chief. He was then joinetl as Ad- 
miral with Dean in the Dutch war, and, after I)ean was killed 
in battle, continued the tight and gained the \ietory. Peace 
being declared, he was sent into the Highlands of .Scotland 
to quell disturbances, which he effected in for.i- numths. He 



13 



resided in Scotland, near Edinburgh, for tive years, and l>c- 
canie tfo }R>|)\ilar as to incur the suspicion of Cromwell, it is 
said, altliou<»h created by liini a iiieniber of the House of 
Lords. When the nation was ripe for the restoration of 
Oharles to his kingdom, Monk effected it with consummate 
skill, for which he received many pensions and honors, lie 
was made Knight of the (Jrarter, a Privy (^nincillor, a Master 
of the Horse, Baron Monk of Potlieridge, Eeauchanip and 
I Tees, E^rl of Torrington, and Duke of Alluinarle, with a 
I • grant of about $U5, ()()() a year, besides other pensions. When 
I he went up to the House of Lords all the nieuibers of the 
! Ilonse of (-onimous escorted liim to the door. His freedom 
from pride was observed by all. In the Dutch war of 1004 
j he was placed at the head 'of the Board of Admiralty, and 
! during the great plague was entrusted with the care of Lon- 
! don. The saiue year he was appointed Joint Admiral with 
Prince Rupert and dis])layed his usual bravery and energy, 
gaining a great victory off North Foreland. He was recalled 
i to take charge of l^ondon after the great tire of 10 06. Such 
was his hold on the affections of the people that he was hailed 
{ by the ory : "If you had l^een here, my lord, the city would not 
have l^een burned." Ho died in January, 1070, and was 
buried with distinguished honor in the cha])el of Henry VII. 
The title of the great Duke, Albemarle, was transferred 
to England from Normandy, corru}>ted from iVubemare Cas- 
tle. In France it took the fonn of Aumale and was borne 
by a brilliant son of King Tx>nis Philippe, the Due d'Aumale. 
It gives to Virginia the name of a county aud to North Caro- 



14 



lina a sound of tlie Atlantic and a county :r-rat. Monk's Cor- 
ner in South T'arolina' may coinmeniorate his family name. 
The great county of Albomarlo, the first successful ])olitical 
organization in North Carolinu, comnoscd «jf the precincts of 
Currituck, Pas(|Uotank, Perquimans, Chowan and Tyrrell, 
was abolished in 173S and its pre^-incts changed into counties. 

The third named Proprietor wa's William, Earl of Craven, 
bom in IGOG. lie was sun and heir of Sir William Craven, 
Jx)rd Mayor of lx)ndon, whose career resembled that of the 
more ancient Dick Whitt ington. (doming to the great city 
from Yorkshire an hund)U' apprentice, he losr {o its highest 
office and amassed large wealth. ITis motto was virtues in 
actione co-nsislit, and he lived up to it. Besides lending 
lavishly to tlie King wlien in need, lie endowed a large school 
in his native town, IJurnsall ; was president of the great 
(^rist lIosi)ita] in London and its munificent benefactor. 
His funeral was attended by five hundred mourners, llis 
second son, John, Baron Craven, endowed two scholarshjps, 
one at Oxford and one at Cambridge University, which to 
this day educate an aspiring youth in each. 

William Craven, the younger, was of an adventurous turn. 
At the age of seventeen he fought under the gi'eat Maurice, 
Stadtholder of Holland, and Frederick Henry, his successor. 
On his return to England in 1627 he was knighted and then 
made a Baron. 

The beautiful Elizabeth, daughter of James L, married 
the Protestant Frederick, the Elector of the Palatinate of the 
Rhine. ' Tlie Protestants of Bohemia chose liim the King of 



15 

that country, while the Catholic Emperor of Austria, Ferdi- 
nand II., disputed his claim. In tlic war that ensued Fred- 
erick lost lK)th Bohemia and the Palatinate. His English 
father-in-law, notwithstanding* strong- pressure of his people, 
was slow and niggardly in aiding him. The ^larquis of 
Hamilton with a small force was sent over, and Craven was 
one of his officers. At the capture of Creuznach lie was the 
first to mount the breach, although wounded. He received 
a handsome compliment from the* lips of the great Gustavus 
Adolphus, which may be freely transhited: "Young man, you 
bid. your younger brother have fair play for your estate." 
While he was a reckless fighter, his generosity had no limits. 
He gave $150,000 (in our day equal to half a million) to aid 
in fitting out a Heet commanded by Charles Lewis, elder 
brother of Prince Hu])ert, "an act said by many to savor of 
prodigality, by most of folly." I'he Protestant army was 
beaten and Craven was wounded and captured. To the 
titular Queen of Bohemia, after her defeat, he was munifi- 
cent, advancing for her $100,000 at one time, and when^he 
Parliament discontinued her allowance of $50,000 a year 
he supplied her needs out of his own funds. He was espec- 
ially kind to her daughters, supplying them with jewelry, 
dresses and pocket-money, which they, among them Sophia, 
from whom comes the Hanoverian line of Kings of Great 
Britain, repaid with mirthful ridicule of "little Lord Cra- 
ven." He resided in Elizaheth's mansion at The Hague, 
holding the ofiice, then honorary, of Master of Horse. He 
is said to have privately married her, but of this there is no 



16 

evidence, lie was a dcvuted royalist, and onco sui)j)lied 
Charles II. with a loan of £50,000, the I'Cpiivalcnt of ahoiit a 
million of dollars of our money. His projierty was confis- 
cated by J'arlianu'nt in 1(>40 because of his assistance to the 
1 royal cause, but restored at the accession of (MiarKs II. 

At the Kestoration he received many hon(u-.>. He was 
made ]>>rd Lieutenant of Middh'sc.x ami Southwark, (V)lonel 
I of the Cold Stream Guards of the Iteg'ular Army, and Lieu- 
tenant-Genera 1. IK' was also llii;li Steward «>f ('ainhridi^e, 
I and a Privy Cuuneillor, and in l(i(14 created X'i.-coiiut Craven 
j of Utlinglon, an<l Karl (^-avcn. When the su-callcd (^ueen 
1 of Bohemia returned to London, tlie Karl, secini; that the 
King, her nei»liew, delayed assianing her a nsidence, i^ave 
up to her his town mansion-, Drury House, which he after- 
wards rebuilt (Ui a grander scale and nanu'(l Craven House. 
She died at Leicester House in H)(»2,. leaving a tender mem- 
ory by reason of lier virtues and winning manners amid 
many trials, the ancestress of the good Queen \'ict(3ria. The 
constant devotion and generosity, to her of the Karl of Cn\,ven 
are worthy of all praise, whether or not she rewarded him 
with a morganatic marriage. At^her funeral he and his 
brother, Sir Iiol>ei't, supi^orted the heralds-at-ai'ius in the pro- 
cession. She bequeathed to him all her pictures and papers, 
which were jjreseiTcd in his country mansion, (^ombe Abb<?y. 
The mutual friendship between him and her family continued 
to his death. ]n truth, it was Ixdieved by many that his love 
was given to her oldest daughter, Elizal)eth, and the imiH)S- 
sibility of marrying her led to his celibacy, llis old com- 



17 



paiiioii in ariiis^ Prince Knpert, niaile liini iiuai'diini »)i his 
illof^itimatf bnt ac'l\nmvlc(lii('(l dauuliter, Ivnjxita. 

Dnrini^ the; i;TC'at tii'c in London Karl ('raven was very 
active in proservinii' order and extin^inisliinu- ilu Hanu^. 
Tlicre is a euriouii story tliat evi-r aftcM'wards the horse then 
ri<hloii by liini wouhl smell tire at a iireat distanee and e<uild 
with difficulty be restrained from -running- to it at tiili speed. 
. In fC85 lie was nuuie Lieutenant-(Jeneral niider dames II., 
and was ehar/^'ed with the prciteetion of the palace of White- 
hall. \Vlien William 111. entered London in triumph the 
bturdy old' soldier refnsed to surrender his })<jst until he re- 
ceived orders from dames. IFe survived the fiiuht of his 
Stuart master only tw(j years, spending- his last days in build- 
ing; and landscai)e i^ardenino; and in the eonu-enial companion- 
ship of the learned mendjcrs of the Royal Society. It is 
fortunate that we have the memory of one m> ^ood and true 
])erpetuated in the name of one of our counties. 

The fourth Pro|)rietor was John, lx)r(l li^'rkeley, first Baron 
of Stratton, youn«>-est son of Sii^ ]\raurice Berkeley of Sofner- 
setshire, a distant relative of the Pearls of Berkeley, wlujse 
ancestors -came to Eng'land with t\fe CVjnqueror, Ife was an 
ardent member of the King's jjarty, and was apjiointed Am- 
bassador to Sweden. On his return in lO'JS he was knighted, 
then a memlxn* of Parliament, but was exjielled for cons])ir- 
acy. Tie of course was a royalist in the civil wai', distin- 
guished himself nndei- Uopton at Stratton, was ( Nuinnander- 
in-Chief of Devonshire and captured Kxeter. lie was chosen 
to be present at the ba])tism of the child of C^ueen Henrietta 



■? :;<. 






Maria in that city. lie was beaten at Aylesbury, succeeded 
in taking Wellington House, was made Colonel-General of 
Devonshire and Cornwall and lost Ivxeter. He then escaped 
to Paris in the suite of the Queen, witli whom he was a favor- 
ite. One of his foibles wns an exaggerated Ixdief in his 
power of influencing others, lie was busy in acting as 
mediator between the King and " Parliament, but etl'ected 
nothing. He lied with the Ivinjj and joined in the fatal 
counsel to surrender to (\>l()nel Hammond, whom he t'Xj)ectod 
to win to the royal cause. WhiK; Cromwell was supreme he 
served under Turenne in the war against Spain and C'onde. 
In H)5S he was created, by Charles 11., liaron l>crkeley of 
kStratton, and was })lace<l on tlie Admiralty iJoard. He was 
then made Lord l^resident of Connauglit in Ireland. After 
the ]\estoration he was api)ointed in the Privy Council. His 
Tx)ndon house, wdiich cost $150,000, 'was burnt, and on its • 
site is now tlu- mansion of the Duke of Devonshire. He 
became the purchaser of Twickenhani Park, and in 1G70 
received the great oliice of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,', in 
which he favored the Roman Catholics as much as was in his 
power. In negotiating the important treaty (»f Ximuegen he 
was a commissioner on Ix^half of the English, together with 
Sir William Tem])le and Sir T^oline Jeid^ins. He died 
August 20, 1678. HisVife was Christian Piccard. described 
as being ''of large dowry and yet larger graces and virtue:.", 
Sir John Berkeley was a good soldier, faithfid to his con- 
victions, but with the. defects of "vanity, want of tact, and 
iomorance of human nature." His oldest son, Charles, died 



19 



without issue and was succeeded by bis brotber, tbe second 
Jolin, lx>rd Berkeley, who died in I OUT, after distiuguislied 
naval services as \'iee-Adniiral of tbe lied, N'ice-Adiiiii'al of 
tbe Blue, and coinniander of tbe lleet. 

The fifth Proprietor of Carolina was a man of varied for- 
tunes, of commanding intellect, of winning manners, ca))able 
of great things, but of evil moral^ — Anthony Asidey ("'ooj)er, 
Lord Ashley, and Earl of Shaftesbury, lie was bom in 
1021, the son of Sir John (^0(»i)\'r c»f Soutbam{>ton county, 
and Anne, daughter of Sir Anthony Ashley of Dorsetshire. 
He was very jjrecocious and of a bold temper. When a boy 
at school he organized the young(M- boys and successfully re- 
sisted the vile cu.stom of fagging. He entered Oxford at 
the age of fifteen, but did not graduate. He read law at 
Linex)ln's Inn, with great ardor. He was, before reaching 
maturity, elected a niember of Parliament and served through- 
out the civil war. At first he offered his services to the Jving, 
but finding himself out of sympathy with the haughty cava- 
liers, he joined tbe Parliament, .and, accepting a commission, 
did some brilliant fighting, lie was a member of the legis- 
lative body called the Barebones Parliament, and afterwards 
of the Parliament of 1654. He bitterly opfX)sed tbe despotic 
government of CromAvell, but accepted the position of Privy 
Councillor under Picljard Oomwell. Fearing the domina- 
tion of the army, he was active in the restoration of Charles 
II., and being returned a member of the Convention Parlia- 
ment, was a])pointed one of the twelve commissioners to bring 
over the Kinii'. While in Holland his carriaut* was over- 



20 



turaed, by which he rcroived ;i woiiiid iK'twicii the ril)s which 
caused ail incurable uU'cr. 

At the Kestoration he was sworn a Privy (VnuiciUor, cre- 
ated IJaron Ashley, and was one <»t* the connnissioners for the 
trial of the re<;i('i(U'S. He was also made (Miancellor of tho 
Exehetjuer and one of the eoinniissioiiers fm executing the 
office of High 'J'reasurer. \\v was afterward- L<ii<l LieiUeu- 
ant of the county of Dorset, and in ItiTi^ cj-eated Baron 
Cooper and Kai'l of Shaftesbury, and the sauit- year was 
elevated to the office of I>ord High Chancelloi-. in this })osi- 
tion, notwithstanding he luul no cx]H'rience as a practicing 
lawyer, he ])roved to be a very able officer, and in all resjiects 
impartial and just. He was from 1()(>7 to 1()T."> a nieinber 
of tlie Cabal ministry, and su]>ported the King in his futile 
efforts to procure indulgence tor iKui-eouforniists and (/atlio- 
lics. But he was utterly hostile \o .the ruin of Protestant 
Holland, to a close alliance with France, and to ])lacing Eng- 
land under Catholic rule. He aidcnl in })rocuring the jiassage 
of the Test Aet, which drove CaJ^holics from office and broke 
up the Cabal, for which he was dismissed from his Chancellor- 
ship. The King was forced to withdraw from the Prench 
alliance and end the Dutch war. 

Shaftesbury was a leader in organizing the ''Country 
Party," as opposeil'to the ''Court Party," and which after- 
wards develoix^d into the great Whig i)arty. It is to the dis- 
grace of his memory that he also fanned tiie hatred to ihc^ 
Catholics, especially the Duke of ^'(jrk, by cniintenaneing the 
infamous perjuries of Gates and Dangerfiehl. He was nnnle 



21 



President of tlio slioj-t-lived (^onncil vli tliiity, oruaiiizccl uiuler 
tlie :i<lvic'c of Sir Willia'iiL 'rciiiplt'. lie ]>rc)fiir('(l llie jjassa^e 
of the groat iiiunimiiit of lilK.'rtv, rlio Ilalx-as Corjjus Act, 
Avliicli ])rovido(l tlio judicial iiiachiiiorv hy wliicli unlawful 
iini)risonincnt might he remedied, lie was ]>r<iminent in the 
endeavor to force through Parliament the hill for excluding 
Pa}>ists, including the Duke of York, from the thn)nc, which, 
after })assing the Ooinmons, was defeated in the House of 
Ixrds. He then engaged in intvignies in favoi- (if tlu' Duke of 
Monmouth, a fatal ste);, hecause he therehy alienated the sup- 
porters of William and Mary of Orange, Mary iK'ing the heir 
pre'snmptive, as tlie Duke of York had then no son. The 
])eople, too, iuui not lost their dread of civil war, and when 
Shaftesbury hoasted of his jxnver over his "hrisk ))0vs" of 
rx)n(lon, and embodied them for terrorizing the Court party, 
tliere was a reaction against him. This was increased by the 
growing conviction that innocent men had fallen victims 
to whol^ale perjury. He was imprisoned in the Tower, 
invoking in vain his own Habeas Corpus- Act, but was released 
by the grand jury of ^Middlesex ignoring the bill against him. 
The King then, by resort to his cca"rupt courts, succeeded in 
annulling the Ix^ndon charter, rephicing it witli a new charter, 
in which the Tones had control; whereupon Shafteslmry fled 
to Holland and died in a few montiis, in January, 1783. 
Dryden, tlu^ court ])oet, satirized him under rlu- character of 
Achitoj)hel : ^ 



QO 



"For close deriigns and ciookcHl couusels fit, 
Sagacious, bold and turbulent of wit: 
Rastless, unfixed in principles antl place. 
In i>o\ver displeased, impatient of disgrace." 

After the publicatiuu of the bitiiiti; satire of AUsaloiu and 
Achitophel, a vacant schohirship in ilie Chai'terhouse school, 
of which the Earl was Governor, was at his disposal. He 
bestowed it on Dryden's son without solicitation uf any one. 
The poet was so moved that in ^i second edition lie added a 
verse descriptive of the Karl as I>ord Chancellui-: 

"In. Israel's court never sat an Abethdin 
With more discerning eyes or hands more clean, 
Unbribed, unsought, the wretched to redress, 
Swift of dispatch and easy of access." 

Shaftesbury had many virtues and conspicuous vices. When 
not in hot pursuit of some object of alnbition, or of revenge 
for fancied injury, he was honorable in his dealings, amiable 
and generous. When roused bv ambition or resentment, he 
would resort tp any measures, good or evil, necessary to attain 
his object. He had no religious principles, yet was a stouts 
opponent of papacy for political reasons. He was incor- 
ruptible by money, yet was an unblusliing libertine. It was 
to him that the King, who would lx)th take liberties and bear 
them, in reference to Shaftesbury's amours, said: '*T believe, 
Shaftesbury, thou art the wickedest fellow in my dominions," 
With a low bow the P^arl re])lied: ''^lay it ])lease your -Maj- 
esty, of a subject I believe I am." The King laughed 
lieartily. 



23 

The gi-eat autlior, John Ixtcke, vva> his i>riviUe secretary. 
He aided his patruii in devising the ehiborate but fantastic 
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, whose couspieuuus 
failure illustrates the great ])olitieal trutli rliat successful 
governments are the product of growtli, not theory. The 
two rivers around Charleston in Soutli Carolina, Ashley and 
Cooper, are named in his honor, and Currituck county was 
onoe called Shaftesbury ])recinct. The tcjwn which gave the 
title to his earldom lias about* two thousand ti\^e hundred 
inhabitants, • is in Dorsetshire, Enghuid, and is the burial- 
place of King Canute and Edward the Martyr. It is gen- 
erally called Shasbury, but locally Shaston. 

The next named Proprietor is Sir George Carteret, Knight 
and Counsellor, ViceChamberlain of the royal household. 
He was of an ancient N'onnan family, which settled in Jersey 
and Guernsey. , His father, Helier Carteret, at the time of 
his birth in 1599, was Deputy Governor of Jersey. lie early 
entered the sea service, and by his skill and daring soon rose 
to be a captain. When twenty-seven years old he was ap- 
pointed joint Governor with T^rd Jermyn of Jersey and 
Comj^trolle'r of his ^NLajesty's ships. He was so successful 
in })rocuring arms, and ammunition for the Cornwall army 
that the King conferred on him the hon<u- of Ivnight and a 
Baronet. He then returned to Jersey and ruled it so sternly 
that in all the fruitless negotiations with tlie King he was 
excepted from ])ardon. In 1G4G he entertained most lavishly 
the Prince of Wales and his suite at his own expense, which , 
was repeated three years afterwards. Wlien Cliarles I. was 



24 



executed lie iiii(l:mnro(lly prwlaimod (^'liarUs II. Kiiii;', and 
held tlie island for two years against tlie forces of tlic C'oiii- 
nionwealth. He liad or<j;aiiized a litllc navy of small frigates 
and privat<jers, wliieli j!;ave his adxersarii's luiieli annoyance. 
: Such was his }>lnck that after tlic island was all lost except 

I EJizabeth Castle, he fon<iht stontly hchiiid its walls until the 

I supply of provisions was exhaustctl, and Ucinii,- so instructed 

! by Charles II., he lowered the last r(»yal baiinci" and made an 

I honorable capitulation to Admi,ral Illake and (rcncral Ibdnies. 

I Repairing to Paris, he angered Cromwell by organizing a 

i plan to ca])ture English vessels, and pressure was brought on 

(*ardinal Mazarin, then governing France, to in<lnce him 
to iinj)rison Carteret in the Bastile. After his release he 
joined Charles II. at Bnissels and then at lireda. At the 
.. Restoration he rode with the King in his tri\un])hant entry 
into London. Ite was nnide \''ice-Chand)erlain, Privy Coun- 
cillor and Treasurer of the N^avy, and was an active member 
of the House of Commons. He was also, after the resigna- 
: tion by the Duke of York of the office of fligh Admiral, made 
' one of the Commissioners of Admiralty. Afterwards he was 
a Lord of the Committee^ of Tradt- and N'ice-Treasurer Qf 
Ireland. While the King was pre]>aring to confer a peerage 
on him he died, in 1070, and, in recognition of his great ser- 
vices, the King authorized his wi<l()W and youngt^st children 
to "enjoy their precedency and ])re-eminency as if Sir Oiiorge 
had actually been created a Baron." 

, Besides being a Lord Proprietor of Candina, Sir George 
Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley, were, by the gift of the 



25 



Duke of York, Proprietors of ]^[e\v Jersey, so called in recog- 
nition of the gallant defense of the Island (if Jersey. 

The wife of Sir George Cartei-et was a daughter of his 
uncle, Sir Philip Carteret. She was a nohle wunian. When, 
ou a visit to London, she saw the vileness of the society ahout 
the court, she at once turned her hack on its \vicke<luess and 
retired to the purer air of her Channel, island. Her name, 
Elizabeth, was given to a flourishinii, city iu*Xe\v Jersey. 
Their oldest son, Phili]), was a brilliant sohlier for the King 
in the civil war. lie married Jemima, dauglitcf of the 
illustrious Edward Montague, the first Karl of Sandwich, and 
served under him in the Dutch war. In the great sea fight 
in 1672, in Southwold Bay (Solbay), he refustnl to desert 
his father-in-law's shi]) and died with him. His eldest son, 
I-X)rd George (^arterct, married Grace, daughter of John Gran- 
ville, Earl of Path, and was the father of Sir John Carteret, 
Earl of Granville. 

Sir George Carteret was a strong, true, brave man, loyal 
to his convictions through all vicissitudes.' 

The seventh Proprietor was Sir John (\)lleton, Knight and 
Baronet. He was a valiant fighter /or the King in the civil 
war, reaching the rank of colonel of a regiment, which he 
raised in ten days. He expended out of his own means 
$200,000, and lost more than this amount by seijucstration. 
After the ruin of the royal cause he emigratcHl to Harbadoes, 
and for some time aided in keeping the island true to the 
King. At the llestoration he rei'eived the iionor of knight- 
hoo<l. He did not live long after the sec-ond charter was 



26 



granted, dying in 16G0, the first of all his eo-Pro]n'ietur.<, and 
was succeeded by his son, Sir Peter. Another sun, Thomas, 
Avas a prominent mercliant of Barbndoes and aided in the 
settlement of South Carolina. Still another sou was Gov- 
ernor of Carolina in 10S(>. iV sea-coast county S(mth of 
Charleston and an obscure post-othce in A'orth Carolina per- 
petuate the name of the gallant soldier and muniticent royal- 
ist, the seventh Lord Proprietor. 

I^lie last named Lord Pro])rietor was Sir William Berkeley, 
a younger brother of John, I^rd Berkeley. Lie obtained the 
degree of faster of Arts at Oxford Univerjiity, and, after 
traveling on the continent, became an ofticer in the household 
of King Charles I. lie became a devotee of the muses, pub- 
lishing a tragi-comcnly called ''The Lost Lady." lie was sent 
to Virginia as Governor in 1041, and during the civil war 
kept his province so loyal to the King that it gained the title 
of "Old Dominion." After the execution of the King he 
offered Charles 11. an asylum in the wilds of the new world. 
When forced to surrender to the power of the Commonwealth 
he lost his office but was permitted to reside in Virginia. At 
the Kestoration he was again made Governor. As he Ixjcame 
older he became stern and severe, writing to Lord ArlingtiDn 
in 16G7 that age and infirmities had withered his desires and. 
hopes. lie suppressed the "Bacon Bebellion" with cruelty, 
the first Governor of the Albenuirle country, William Drum- 
mond, being one of his victims. The oft-tpioted saying of 
Charles li., "The old fool has taken more lives in that naked 
eounti7 than I for the murder of my father," is accepted as 



27 



authentic. A royal proclamation was issued censuring his 
conduct. He was of autocratic temjDer. He allowed no criti- 
cism of his conduct. His opponents charged that he was too 
fond of gain — that he refused to tight with hostile Indians 
l>ec^iuse war interfered with a profitable fur trade iu which 
he had a pecuniary interest. After the colhqjsc of ihe rebel- 
lion he returned to England, was refused an autiieiice with 
the Iving, and his brother, John, Ix)rd Berkeley, stated that 
the insult contributed to his death in 1GT7. He was en- 
tombed, as we see in Haywood's excellent history of Governor 
William Tryon of North Carolina, in a vault in a church in 
Twickenham, about twelve miles from I>)ndon. In an ad- 
joining church are the tombs of Governor and J.ady Mar- 
garet Tryon, his wife. It is remarkable that when his vault 
was opened the body of Sir William Berkeley was not in a 
coffin but enclosed in lead beaten into the shape of his body, 
showing the form of his features, hands, feet, and even nails. 
This is stated* on the authority of Oobbett's iMemorials of 
TAvickenham. 

Notwithstanding that in his old age his rage at being 
ignorainiously driven from Jamestown^ his capital, and at 
its destruction by fire by the forces of Bacon, drove hiiu, to 
what in our age is considered unnecessary cruelty, Berkeley 
had many good qualities. Governor Ludwell wrote of him: 
''He was pious and exemplary, sober in conversation, prudent 
and just in peace, diligent and valiant in war." The honor 
of knighthood was bestoM-ed on him for his success in sub- 
duing the Indians. His hatred of Quakers was in accord- 



28 



ance with tlie ideas of his age, because they revolted against 
all clnircJi establishments, and tlie Chureli was part of the 
State. The laws rt^onnnended by him were as a rule wise 
and just. For a short while, under a})[X)intnient of the 
I>ords Proprietors, he was ])laced in charge of the inhabitants 
of the Albemarle country, and there was no complaint of his 
administration. In distrusting ])ul)lic schools and the print- 
ing press he was not behind his age. "Freedom ai the ])ress" 
in England did not exist until al>out twenty years after he 
wrote his thanks that Virginia was free fioin that jjcst. lie 
never lost his taste for ])olite literature, in his desk was 
found the manuscript of an un])nblished phiy calknl ''Cor- 
nelia." 

Sir William had little rehitiunship to tlie Earls of Berke- 
ley, the owners of the famous Berkeley Oastle, where Edward 
II. was imprisoned and slain. They were of the Fitzhar- 
dinge family. The name in i*»[orth Carolina was given to 
a precinct of Allx^marle county, afterwards Percpiimans. 
Bisho|>elect Pettigrew, grandfather of General J. J. Petti- 
gTew, wrote about "old i^arkley," as the name was ])ronounced 
in old times, about a hundred years ago. The brothers, Jolm 
and William, were likewise honored by the name of counties 
in South Carolina and West Yirg-inia. 

Under the Fiuidamental (N)nstitutions the Projn'ietors were 
to organize a Palatine's court. The Duke of Albemarle was, 
on 21st October, IGGl), elected the first Palatine, the highest 
officer, and afterwards, in order, John, Lord Berkeley ; Sir 
George Carteret; William, Earl of Craven; John, Earl of 



29 



Bath; John, \jon\ Cirauville; William, I»r(l Craven; Henry, 
Duke of Beaufort; J(.lin, Lord (\irteret, the hist Ixigiuning 
August 10, 1714. 

The devolution of the shares of the eii^ht l^ords Proprietors 
M'ill now l)c traced, a task made easy by the researches of i\Ir. 
!Mc('rady, as will Ix^ seen in the twelfth chapter of his '\South 
Carolina under the Proprietary Government." 

Clarendon's share was, after his exile and until his death, 
111 1()T4. r(^presented hy his oldest son, Henry, Lord Corn- 
bury, who sueeeeded his father as seeond Karl of Cilarendon. 
lie sold it to Scth Southwell, jironouneed and <>enerally writ- 
ten Sothel, in KiSL On his death, in 101)4, by virtue of the 
})rovisions of the Fundamental Constitutions, the other Pro- 
]>rietors sequestered his share and assigned it to Thomas Amy, 
who had been an active ai;ent in inducing settlers to emigrate 
to Carolina. Amy gave it to Nichoks Trott, who married 
Amy's daughter. Under the decree of the Court in (>1iancery, 
this share, and also that which once belonged to Sir William 
Berkeley, was sold, the two bringing al>out $4,500, to Hugh 
Watson as tnistee of Henry and James Ik^'tie. Clarendon's 
share was allotted to ''Honorable Javi<?s Bertie." 

The Ihike of Albemarle, by his Avife, Anne, daughter of 
John enlarges, a farrier, left Christopher, a son, who died' 
in Hi88 without issue. John Granville, Earl of Bath, who 
acquired his share, died in 1701, and was succeeded by his 
son, John, b)rd Granville. Afterwards, in 1701>, Somerset, 
the Duke of Beaufort,, acquired the share and devised it to 
James Bortic and Doddington Greville, trustees for his .sons, 



:^0 



Henry Somerset, sl-coiuI Duke of Hcaufort, and (Mia]'l(\< Noel 
Somerset, a minor. 

The Earl of Craven died in Kl^T witliout issue, and Wil- 
liam, Lord Craven, Ins iirand-ne})lie\v, succeeded liim, and 
left as his siieessdr \Villiani, I.»»rd Cj-aveii, his son. 

Jolm, Lord Berkeley's, share (h'scended to his son, Cliarles, 
M'ho. died withoiu is.-ne, and then r.i lii> .>-ec(;nd sun, John, an 
admiral of great merit, \v1k» died at sea. As he trailed t»j pay 
his (]UOta accordioii,' to aiirecment lie forfeited his share to 
the other Proprietei-.-, who sold ii to dosejili lilakc, the (dder. 
On his ileath his stui. of the same name, sneeeeded to his 
rights. 

The Karl et Sliafle.-hnry diid in exile in HIT'.) and was 
sueceedeil hy his son, Anlliony Ashley, the seeond Karl, who 
died in l(»i);> and wa.-^ sneeeeded hy the third Karl of the same 
name. The >hare aftt-rwards ve.^ted in his lirolher, ^lanriee, 
and after his death in Arehihald Ilntcheson, trustee for Tohn 
("^otton. Jt a))}H'ai's from the Aet of Surrender that vSir John 
Tyrrell was likcAvise onee owner of this ])roj)rietorshi]). 

The share of Sir (jlH>riie C^arteret descended in lOTi^ to his 
grandson of the .-ame name, who married Grace, daughter of 
John Granville, Karl of Bath. After his death in 1095 he 
was succeeded hy his minor son, Jolm, Lord C^irteret. Until 
the maturity of this son his share was represented hy hi^ 
grandfather, the h^arl of Bath. 

Sir John Colleton's share (h'seended in KlOii to his son.. 
Sir Peter, who died in 1(!5M, and was sneeeeded \)\ his son. 
Sir John Colk-ton, tlj(-n under age.' 

i 



31 



Tlicrc was iniicli dii^pute about Sir William Berkeley's 
sjiare. Ife devised it, in 1077, to liis wiili'W, who had been 
the wife of Goveraor Samuel Stevens, and wiiu afterwards 
married Governor Philip i.udwell. Before the latter mar- 
riage, however, she sold it, in 1081, to Th<jmas Arehdale, 
son of John Arehdale. After her marriag-e she and her hus- 
band eonveyed it Hgnin, in 1GS2, tliis time -to Thomas Amy, 
in trust for four Pro]>rietors, Allx>marle, CarK-ni, Craven 
and Colleton. In 101)7 these four, or their sueecssors, re- 
quested William Thornburg to take the ])la('e of Amy, whieli 
was done, although Amy hail the legal title, and in 1705 sold 
it to John Arclulale. Arehdale eonveyed it to John Danson. 
Litigation ensued, resulting in the sale of this sliai'c, together 
with that of Clarendon, to Hugh Watson, as trustee for 
Henry and dames Bertie, as has been explained Ik retofore. 
After over sixty years of eareless, -neghcvf ul and ever bad 
government by the Lords Proprietors, having reeeived little 
profit, the owners of seven of the shares determined to sell 
all their intere*sts to the Crown for £2,500 eaeh, and £500 each 
for arrears of rent due by those who had purchased land from 
them. The sale was perfected by act^of Parliament in the sec- 
ond year of King George II., A. D. 1729, entitled **Au act for 
establishing an agreement with seven of the Loi'ds Proprie- 
tors of Carolina for the surrender of theii' title and inter(?st 
in that ]m)vince to his Majesty." In thi> tlic uiantors and 
their interests are thus described: The j)art, share, interest 
and estate <'f the Earl of Clarendon is vestc(l in Honorable 
James I^ertie of the county of ]yiiddle>ex; tliat of iln- Duke of 

i 



OS 



Allx'iiiarlo in Henry, Duke of Hcant'ort, and tlic said James 
Bertie, and Ilomtrable Doddington Oreville of tlie county of 
Wiltz, devisees of the late Duke of l>eaufort, in trust for the 
present Duke of J3!eaufort an«l liis infant brother, (^harles 
Noell Somerset; tliat of the Earl of Craven in tlic present 
William, Earl of Craven; that of riohn, I^ord Berkeley, in 
Joseph lilake of the })rovinee of Sonth C^u'ijlina ; that of 
Lord Ashley (Earl Shafteshury) in Archibald Ilutcheson of 
the Midillt Temple, l»nd(m, in trust for .John (\)tton (4" the 
]\liddle Temple; that of the late Sir John ('olietou in the 
present Sir .John (\)lleton of Exmouth of the county of 
Devon ; that of Sir William Berkeley iii the Honorable Ifenry 
Bertie of the county of Bucks, Estpiire, or in J\Iary J)an- 
son of the county of ^liddlesex, widow, or in Elizaln'th jVIoor 
of Tendon, widow, some or one of them. It thus ap])ears that 
the share of the doughty warrior, Sir William Berkeley, gave 
as much trouble to the lawyers as he did to the fidlowers of 
Bacon. 

John, Jjord f\irteret, re-fused to surrender his share, but 
became tenant in common with tlfe King, owuing one-eighth 
undividwl interest. The right of government was, however, 
conceded to the (Vown. • * 

Some of the successors to the first lx)rds Pro])rietors de- 
sei*ve special notice. 

Henry Hyde, b:>rd Cornbury, the second Earl of (^laren- 
don, was son of the great Earl and brother-in-law of James 
II. He was elevated to the office of Lord l^rivy Seal in 
1085, and then of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Being, like 



38 



his father, a staunch lueniber of the (/hiucli of Kii^h^nd, he 
siirroiulored all his opiiartunities foi- jiTcatiicss by rctusing to 
aid Jaincs II. in piittiiig Eiig-laiid luidcr Roiiian Catholicisiii. 
lie ^vas dismissed from all his oHiecs. He iutri^uiied, however, 
for the restoration of James, and was thrown for awhile into 
the Tower by William III. He never held otfiee afterwards. 
Southwell (Sothel) was of excellent faniily, came to the 
Albemarle country, was made GuveriK.r, hut behaved so ne- 
fariously that he was banislu'd by the As.M"nd>ly. lie then 
was Governor of Carolina lOUO-'iH hy virtiu^ of h\> Proprie- 
torship, and displayed much exe^-utivc ability, a.^ Mr. Mc- 
Crady shows. 

Nicholas Trott was ])robably father of tin- very able but 
rather un])riuci])led Chief Justice of Carolina of the same 
name. 

Henry and James B;'itie were of noble blood, near rela- 
tives, probably sons, of the Karl of Abiniidon. 

John Granville, PTarl of l>ath, was sncceetled by his son, 
John, l>ord Granville, in 1701, who was a strong (;hnrclanan, 
and as Palatine endeavored ineli'ecttndly fo exclude from the 
Legislature all except members of the Ghui-ch of Kngland. 
He must not be confounded with Jfthn, \j)V(\ Carteret, after- 
wards Earl Granville, s<m of his sister, Lady (iracc, wife of 
the second Sir Gtorg-e Carteret. 

Henry Somerset, first Duke of Beaufort, was a royalist in 
the civil war, but after the death of (Miarles I. retained good 
relations with Oomwell He was made Manpiis of Worces- 
ter and Privy Councillor, and afterwanls Dnkc of Ik'aufort. 



34 



He was descended from Edward III., throiigli dolin of Gaunt, 
and lived in most princely style. Two Inmdrcd })eople were 
feasted at bis nine tables every day. 

Lord Jolm Tyrrel is said to liave been a lineal descendant 
of the Walter Tyrrel wlio was accused of sliootinir Iving Wil- 
liam Eufus. 
i The second Earl of Shaftesbury was of no force. The tliird 

I was a distinguished scholar, and author of ''Characteristics." 
[ Joseph Blake was probably of the family of (n\v of Eng- 

I land's most eminent and wonhy seamen, IJobert 15hike. lie 
I was Governor of Carolina in 1G94 for a few months, and 
i Deputy Governor under Archdale in ll)9() to his death in 
I 1700. The surrender to the C^rown was imide In- his son of 
I the same name. 

John Archdale was appointed by the Proprietors Governor 
L of Carolina in 1094 and continued actively in otlice for two 
years. He published a Ixjok entitled "A New Description 
of that Fertile and Pleasant Province of Carolina, with a 
Brief Account of its Discovery and Settling, and tlie Govern- 
ment thereof to the Time, with several Uemarkable Passages 
of Divine Providence during my Time. By John Archdale, 
' late Governor of the same. London. ^Printed in 1707.'' It 
is not of much value. His Quaker ])rinciples did not prevent 
his acceptance of a barony of 48,000 acres and the titles of 
Landgi-ave and Governor. He was diligent in his office and 
a good man of business. The laws Avhich were passed at his 
instance appear to have been wise. Some of his posterity are 
citizens of North Carolina, descended from his daughter Ann, 



who married Eiiiiiiainiel Lowe. Anioiiii- tlioiii was tlu- wife of 
William Hill, for many years Secretary of State. 

Tlie most conspienous of tlie later Pro])rietors was Jolm, 
J.ord (\irteret, who, on the death of his mother, Grace, ^'is- 
eoiiiitess of Carteret and Countess oi Clranvillc, in 1744, he- 
came E^rl of GranviUe and Viscount Carteret. 

He was a man of hrilliant talents and \'aricd acquirements. 
His knowledge of the classics was so extensive and thorough 
that Dean Swift said that he carried away fi'om Oxford more 
Greek, L,atin and philosojthy than ])roi)erly hecanie a jx-rson 
of his rank. He was distingui>lied for his hrilliant speeches 
in behalf of Whig doctrines and the Hanoveritm dynasty. 
He was thoi-onghly versed in the hist(jry of luir()])e and the 
political questions of his day. As Amhassadur to Sweden 
in 171i>, Secretary of State in 1721 and Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland in 1724-';30, he had eminent success. He joined the 
party opjiosed to Walpole, consisting of William Pitt, PuL 
teney and others, and was for ten years a thorn in his side. On 
Walpole's fall,* in 1742, he became again Secretary of State 
nnder I^rd Wilmington, but resigned in 1744. Two years 
later he was offered the chief })lace in the ministry, but was 
nnable to form a government able to comnnunl a majority 
in the House of Commons. In 1751 he Nvas Pr(-i(l( nt of tlie 
Privy Council, and so continued until his death in 17()->. 

The greatness of Earl (iranville was marred by want of 
steadiness of purpose, the consequence of deep drinking, a ., 
vice carried away from Oxford with his (4re(4; and Latin 



3G 



and practiced ever afterward, r'liesterfield says that ho 
''made himself master of all the modern hmgna^'es. " ^ 
His character may he summed U]) in nice precision, (piick 
decision and nnbonnded ])resnm])tion." lie professed t(j he a 
^'ood Chnrclnnan, init looked on Chrisianity merely as a civil 
institution. For exani])le, he was o])})<'.sed to the conversion 
of negroes because they would not he ohedi(Mit slaves, and 
ar<i;ued that it uould he a calamity to the tish interests of 
England for the PojK' and Italians iivnerally to heconic Protes- 
tants. He deprecated higher learning in the coh»nies hicause 
it W(mld fill the minds of the youth with notions of inde- 
]iendenee. 

Karl Granville married Frances, only daughter of Sir Rob- 
ert Worsley, by whom he had tliree sons tmd live <langhters, 
and after her death. Lady Sophia, daughter of Thomas, Karl 
of Pomfret, by whom he had one daughter. 

His refusal to sell his share to the (Vown could not have 
been caused by tinancial ccmsiderations, as he was notoriously 
contemptuous of money. The distinction of lu'lng lord of 
a territory as large as England prt>l)ably fascinated him. 

. Probably because; he was 0]i]X)sed to the Prinu^ Minister, 
Walpole, his share was not laid off in severalty to him until 
1744, after he succwded to the Karldom, when he was a 
member of the Government as Secretai-y of State. To him 
was allotted in severalty all the territory fnnn the Atlantic 
to the Mississippi, from the latitude of 35° 34' to the Vir- ^ 
ginia line, excepting, of course, what had been already sold. 
This princely domain was confiscated at the Revolution. 



3' 



After the Treaty of Peace and tlie adnption of the C'onstitu- 
tion of tlie United States liis lieirs bi-ouij,ht a test suit in the 
f'ircuit (^ourt against William Ivichardson Davie and Josiali 
Collins for the establishment of iheir title. They failed and 
the appeal to the Sn])reme (^)urt of the United States was 
dro])ped. Ft is said that they received tVcim the British Gov- 
ernment compensation amounting to tdxtut $1^50,000. 



References:— Dictionary of National Biography; Chalmers' Dictionary vf Biography; 
English Histories; Haywoo<l's Life of Tryon; McCrady's History of South Carolina; 
North Carolina Colonial Records; Second Revised Statutes. 



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North Carolina Bookllet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 
• NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 




THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province' of Carolina. 

Kemp P, Battle. LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A- C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 

Adoption. 
^ Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker. Mr. T. M. Pittman. Dr. Walter Sikes. 
Homes of North Carolina — Tlie Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn. Prof. Collier Cobb. 
Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 
ITie Earliest English Settfement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. HilL 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge Jamea C. MacRae. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mi^. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Caeolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
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Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
IV are requested to notify at once. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

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" ^ Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those at a distance will please 
add stamps to cover cost of mailing. \ 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. iV JUNE, 1904 No. 2 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA I CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER I 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 
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1904 



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OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
(Nee Fanny DeBemiere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY: 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER: * 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR: 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 
s. 

Founder of the North' Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the Nokth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the ''Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven montlis before^the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
* signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
! two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
I Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
I document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the' Daughters of the Pevo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and imtiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill.,' 



CONTENTS VOLUME IV. 



The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina^ 

Kemp P. Battle. LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. .» 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Ponn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier WhiUker. Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Herinitage, Vernon Hall. 
Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn. Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthugena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford, Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. . ■ 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

■ Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. » ' 



THE BATTLE OF RAMSAUR'S MILL. 

JUNE 20, 1^60. 



BY WILLIAM A. GRAHAM, 
(Major on Staff of Adjutant General of North Carolina). 



I , Sir Henry Clinton, after the surrender of Charleston in 
I May, 1780, regarded the Royal autliority as restored in 
|- Georgia and South Carolina, and, leaving Lord Cornwallis in 
! command with a force, which was regarded, with the antici- 
j pated re-inforcements from friends in upper South Carolina 
I and North Carolina, as sufficient to subdue North Carolina, 
1 sailed with his main army to New York. 
I Lord Cornwallis' plan of campaign was to move with the 

main body of Regulars by a central route through Charlotte 
I and Salisbury, and to send a small force under a competent 
I commander to his right to organize his friends in the upper 
I Cape Tear section, and another force to his left to embody 
the adherents of Britain in upper South Carolina and in Tryon 
County; to re-inforce his main anny and also to protect his 
outposts from the attacks of McDowell, Cleavland and others 
aided by the "over the mountain men," as those beyond the 
Blue Ridge were called. The crops of the previous year being 
consumed, he delayed his movement until that of 1780 could 
be harvested and threshed. Tl\e section around Ramsaur's 
Mill was then, as it is now, very iine for wheat. He sent 



6 



Colonel John Moore into this country to inform the people 
that he was coming and would reward and protect the loyal, 
but would inflict dire punishment ui)on his opponents; for 
them to secure the wheat crop and be in readiness, but to 
make no organization until he should direct. 

THE TOKIES. 

Moore had gone from this section and joined the British 
anny some time previous and had been made Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel of Hamilton's Tor^^ regiment. He had been an active 
'Tory and committed many depredations upon the Whigs 
before his departure, and is es|x^cially na;ned.\vith others in 
Laws of 1771), chapter 2, and of 1782, chapter G, as one ^vhose 
property was to be confiscated. In those days there were no 
post-offices or countiy stores for the congregating of the people. 
The flouring mills were tlie points of assembling, and the 
roads usually named for the mills to whicli they led. 

Derick Ramsaur, who was among the first Gennan (gen- 
erally called Dutch) emigrants to Tryon County, erected his 
mill prior to 1770 on the west bank of Clark's Creek, where 
the Morganton road bridge at Lincolnton now spans the 
stream. 

The German population in North Carolina, who mostly 
came here from Pennsylvania, were, during the Revolution- 
ary war, generally favorable to Great Britain. Some have 
attributed this to the fact that the "reigning" family (Bruns- 
wick) was Geraian and that George was King of Hanover 
as well as of Great Britain. However this may have been 



in the lievoliition, it does not seem to have been in evidence 
during the liegulation troubles. After the battle of Ala- 
mance, Governor Tryon wrote th3 Secretary of State that the 
counties of Mecklenburg, Tryon and western liowan beyond 
Yadkin were contemplating hostilities and that he had sent 
General Wadell with the militia of those counties and 
some other troops to require the inhabitants to take the 
oath of allegiance. One of the points at which they were 
arssembled for this puriK)se was Ramsaur's Mill. This would 
hardly have been the case if the people of this region 
had not been in sympathy with the Regulators. Having 
taken the oath of allegiance to King George, it was not 
strange that they should have felt inclined to regard its obli- 
gations, especially when those who were urging them to t^ke 
up arms against tlie King were the very men who had admin- 
istered the oath to them. General Rutherford, Colonel ISTeal, 
Captains Alexander, Shaw and others were at that time offi- 
cers of the militia. They had sympathized with the Regula- 
tors on account of conmion wrongs and. oppressions which they 
suffered, and kiiew^ what the evils were which they wished 
remedied. JSTow the cause of action is taxation, about which 
they had little interest and perhaps less knowledge. The Ger- 
mans, as a race, are a confiding, trusting people to those in 
whom they have confidence and who act candidly with them, 
but they seldom live long enough to forgive any one who 
deceives them or who acts so as to forfeit their confidence. 
At this time the cause of Amenca was in a depressed state, 
and many loyal hearts lost hope. It is not improbable that 



at least some of these people anticipated ^vith pleasure the 
time they should behold Griffith Ivutherford and his comrades 
with bared heads and uplifted hands affirming their loyalty 
to King George and repeating the role they had compelled 
them to act in 1771; at any rate, they Avore not inclined at 
their behest to violate the oath they had forced them to swear. 
The friends of Britain in Tryon County were not confined 
to the Germans; there were probably as large a per cent, of the 
English Tories. Neither ]\loore nor Welch were Gennan. 
Colonel Moore returned to the vicinity and appointed a meet- 
ing for June 10th at his father's (Moses Moore) residence on 
Indian Creek, seven miles from Ramsaur'g. The place of the 
"Tory Camp" is still pointed out, and is on the Gaston side 
of the county line on the plantation Avhich Avas owned by the 
late Captain John II. Roberts. Forty men met him on that 
day. He delivered Lord ComwalH.s' message, but before 
they dispersed a messenger informed them that Major Joseph 
McDowell (who was' one of the most ubiquitous officers of the 
North Carolina militia during the* Revolution) was in the 
neighborhood endeavoring to capture some of the men who 
w^ere present. Moore, having a force double in number to 
that of McDowell, sought him and followed him to South 
Mountains, but did not overtake him. He then dismissed 
the men with directions to meet at Ramsaur's Mill on the 13th 
of the month. About two hundred assembled. Nicholas 
Welch, who had lived just above Moore on Indian Creek, went 
from this vicinity eighteen months prior to this and joined 
the British army. He appeared dressed in a new unifoknn 



and exhibiting a considerable quantity of gold coins, repre- 
senting himself as Major of Hamilton's Regiment. He urged 
the men to embody at once, telling' of the fall of Charleston, 
Buford's defeat and the bad condition of affairs for the Ameri- 
cans everywhere. By his narratives and judicious use of his 
guineas he prevailed over Moore and it was determined to 
organize at once. Eleven hundred men had assembled at 
Bamsaur's, to which Ca])tains Murray and Whitson of Lower 
Ci'eek, Burke (Caldwell) (^ounty, added two hundred on the 
18th. Colonel Moore, although the embodying was contrary 
to his advice, assumed command. He led a force to capture 
Colonel Hugh Brevard and Major Jo. ]\IcI>owell, who came 
into the vicinity with a small company of Whigs, but they 
evaded him. On the 19th, with his command of thirteen hun- 
dred men, he occupied a ridge three hundred yards east of the 
mill and which extended east from the road leading from 
Tuckasegee Ford to Ramsaur's Mill, wdiere it joined the road 
from Sherrill's Ford, and placed his outposts and pickets in 
advance, the pickets being six hmidred 'yards from the main 
force, and upon the Tiiskasegee Road. The ridge had a gentle 
slope and was open, except a few trees, for two hundred yards; 
its foot was bounded by a glade, the side of which was covered 
with bushes. The glade was between the Tuckasegee and 
Sherrill's Ford Roads. 

THE WIIIGS. 

( 

j General Rutherford, learning of the advance of Lord Raw- 
I don to Waxliaw Creek, ordered a portion of his command, the 
^ militia of the Salisbury District, Rowan, ^Mecklenburg and 



10 

Tryon Counties, into service for ti tour of three months. Tliia 
force rendezvoused at Keese's plantation, eighteen miles north- 
east of Charlotte, June 12th. Learning that the British had 
returned to Hanging Rock, General Eutherford advanced ten 
miles to Mallard Creek, and on the l-ith organized his forces 
for the campaign. This point on Mallard Creek is several 
times mentioned in Revolutionary pajiers as occupied hy Whig 
forces. Ilearinii' that the Tories Avere embodying in Tryon 
County, he ordered Colonel Francis Locke, of Rowan, and 
Major David Wilson, of Mecklenburg, to raise a force in 
northern Mecklenburg and west Rowan to disperse the Tories, 
as he did not think his present force coftld undertake this 
task until Lord ]{a\vdon's intentions were developed. On 
the 18th Major Wilson, with sixty-tive men, among whom 
were Captains Patrick Knox and \yilliam Smith, crossed 
the Catawba at Toole's Ford, about fourteen miles from 
Charlotte, near where ]\Ioore's Ferry was for many years and 
Allison's Ferry is now\ The ford has been seldom used 
since 1865, and has been abandoned' as a crossing for many 
years. It is three miles below Cowan's Ford. Taking the 
Beattie's Ford Road, he soon met Major Jo. McDowell with 
twenty-five men, among whom were Captain Daniel McKis- 
sick and John Bowman. [Major ^IcDowell, who had been 
moving about the country awaiting re-inforcements, probably' 
informed him of the position occupied by the Tories. These 
troops, in order to unite with the forces being raised by Colo- 
nel Locke, kept the road up the river, passing Beattie's Ford, 
and three miles above. Captains Falls, Houston, Torrente, 



11 



Reid and Caldwell, who had crossed at McEweii's Ford with 
forty men, joined them. JMoEwen's Ford was near where 
McConnell's Ferry \\as, up to 1870, but kith ford and ferry 
have long been abandoned. 

Marching the road that is now the Xewton Road, past Flem- 
ing's Cross Roads, they camped bn Mountain Creek at a 
place called the ''Glades," sixteen miles from Ramsaur's. 
Here, on the 10th, they received additional forces under 
Colonel Locke, amounting to two hundred and seventy men, 
among whom were Captains Brandon, Sharpe, William Alex- 
ander, Smith, Dobson, Sloan and Hardin. Colonel Locke 
had collected most of this force as he procopded up the river 
and had crossed with them at Sherrill's Ford, which is used to 
this day, and where General ^lorgan crossed the following 
January. The whole force now amounted to about four 
hundred — McDowell's, Fall's and Brandon's men (perhaps 
one hundred) being mounted. A council of war was con- 
vened to determine plan for action. The proximity of the 
Tories and the small number of the Whigs made it necessary 
for quick movemeiat, as the Tories would probably move 
against them as soon as they learned the true condition. Some 
proposed to cross the river at Sherrill's Ford, six miles in 
the rear, and to hold it against the Tories. It was replied 
to this that a retreat would embolden the Tories and that the 
re-inforcement to the Tories, who already outnumbered them 
three to one, wonld probably be greater than to them. Then 
it was suggested to move down the river to join Rutherford^ 
mIio was about forty-five miles distant. It Vv'as objected to 



12 



this that nearly all the serviceable Whigs of this section were 
with them or llutherford, and this would leave their families 
unprotected and exposed to pillage by the Tories ; also the 
Tories might be in motion and they encounter them on the 
march. Then came the insinuation that these suggestions 
came from fear, or at least from unwillingness to meet the 
Tories, and a proposition to march during the night and 
attack the Tories early next morniug, as they would l)e igno- 
rant of their numbers and could be easih^^ routed. This had 
the usual effect; not many soldiers or other people can stand 
an imputation of cowardice. So this plan was adopted. 
Colonel James Johnston, who lived in Tryo« (Gaston) County 
neai' Toole's Ford, and who had joined Major Wilson when he 
crossed the river, was dispatched to inform General Ruther- 
ford of their action. Late in the evening they marched down 
the south side of Anderson's Mountain, "and taking the ''State" 
Road, stopped at th© Mountain Spring to arrange a plan of 
battle. It was agreed that Brandon's, Fall's and McDowell's 
men, being mounted, should open the attack, the footmen to 
follow, and every ihan, without awaiting orders, govern him- 
self as developments might make necessary as the fight pro- 
ceeded. The British having retired to Camden, General 
Rutherford determined to give his attention to Colonel Moore, 
On the 18th of June he marched to Tuckasegee Ford, twelve 
miles from Charlotte and twenty miles from liamsaur's. ' He 
dispatched a message to Colonel Locke, directing him to meet 
him with his couimand at General Joseph Dickson's, three 
miles from Tuckasegee (and Avhere Mr. Ural ^L Johnston, 



13 



a great gTandson of James JohiLston, now lives), on the even- 
ing of tlie lOth or morning of the :20th. That afternoon he 
moved to the Dickson phiee. The morning of the I'.tth was 
J wet, and fearing the anns might be ont of condition, at mid- 
day, when it cleared off, ho ordered them to be diseJiarged and 
examined. The tiring was heard in the adjacent county; 
the people thinking that the enemy were endeavoring to cross 
the river, volunteers came to re-inforce the Whigs. At the 
Catawba, Colonel William Graham, with the J.inculn County 
Kegiment, united with General Rutherford, whose connnand 
now numbered twelve hundred. Colonel Johnston reached 
General Rutherford about ten o'clock at night, who, thinking 
hi^ courier had informed Colonel lA)cke, waited until early 
next morning before moving, when he marched for Ramsaur's. 

THE BATTLE, . 

Leaving the mountain, Colonel Locke's force would follow 
the "State" Road until they came into what is now Buffalo 
^ Shoal Road, then into Sherrill's Ford Road as it ran to Ram- 
i saur's ]\Iill. A mile from the mill they were met by Adam 
Reep with a small company, perhaps twenty. Reep was a 
noted ^Vliig, and although his neighbors generally were loyal 
to King George, he was leader of a few ]iatriots who were 
always ready to answer his call to arms. The story which 
tradition tells of his acts would make a base for a fine nar- 
rative of Revolutionary times. lie gave full account of the 
" Tory position, and further arrangements were made as to plan 
of attack. There are two roads mentioned iu General Gi;^- 



14 



ham's account of tliis battle in ''General Joseph Graham and 
his Eevolutionary Papers." He speaks of the roa.l, I. e„ 
Tuckasegee Road, and this road, /. e., the old or Slierrill's 
Ford Road, the track of which is still visible. They united at 
the western end of the ridge and just beyond the glade, l^e 
road at the right of the Tory position is now a cut eight feet 
or more deep; then it was on top of the ground. The Tories 
were on the right of the cavalry, who came the old road, and 
left of the infantry, who came the Tuckasegee Road— the 
center of the line being between the attacking parties. There 
seems to have been three attacking piirties : First, mounted 
• men, probably un<ler ]\rcDowell, on the qjd road; second, 
mainly infantry, under J.ocke, on the Tuckasegee Road, upon 
Avhich the Tory j)icket was placed, near where the I'iurton 
residence is now; third. Captain Hardin, who came over the 
hill where Lincolnton now stands, th^i through the ravine 
near McLoud's house and gained position on the right flank 
of the Tories. 

^ The central party was formed, cavalry in front, infantry 
in two ranks in the Vear— they moved by flank. The cavalry 

. discovering the picket, chased them to camp. :\rcDoweirs men 
had paished on and reached the enemy about tlie same time, 
and both parties, leaving the road, rode tip within thirty steps 
of the enemy and opened fire. The enemy were considerably 
demoralized at first, but seeing so few (not over one hundred) 
in the attacking party, rallied and poured such a volley into 
them that they retired through the infantry, some of whom 

, joined them and never returned. .Most of the cavalry re-. 



15 



formeil and returned to the contest. Captain Bowman had 
been killed. Captain Falls, being mortally wounded, rode 
some two hundred yards and fell dead from his horse where 
the Sherrill's Ford Road turned down the liill. This s|X)t 
is still noted. The infantry, nothing daunted, pushed for- 
ward, and, coming to the end of the glade, began to form by 
what is now called "'by the right, front into line," and to open 
fire as each man Ciime into ixjsition. The six hundred yards 
pursuit had much disorganizeil their line: The Tories advanced 
down the hill and endeavored to disperse them before they 
could form. As the Whigs came on they filled gaps and ex- 
tended the line to their right and made it so hot that the enemy 
retreated to the top of the hill and a little beyond, so as to 
partly protect their bodies. The Whigs pursued them, but 
the fire was so deadly and their loss so heavy that they in turn 
retreated down the hill to tlie bushes "at the edge of the glade. 
The Tories again advanced half way down the ridge. In 
j the midst of the fight at this time Captain Hardin arrived 

I at his position behind the fence on the right flank of the 

j Tories and opened fire. Captain Sharpe had extended the 

» line until he turned the left of the enemy, and his company 

began firing from that direction (about where Mr. Roseman's 
barn now stands). The Tories, hard pressed in front, fell 
back to the top of the ridge, and, finding that they were still 
exposed to Hardin's fire on the right, as well as to that of 
Sharpe on the left, broke and fled down the hill and across 
the creek, manv beinc,- shot as thev ran. 

When the Wliigs gained the hill they saw quite a force^of 



16 



the enemy over the creek near the mill and supposed the 
attack would he renewed. Formini^ line, they could only 
master eighty-six, and after earnest exertions only one hun- 
dred and ten could be paraded. Major Wilson and Captain 
William Alexander, of Tiowau, were dispatched to hurry 
General Rutherford forward ; they met his forces about where 
Salem Baptist Church now stands, six and a half miles from 
Lineolnton, on the old narrow-gaug"e railroad; Davie's Cav- 
alry was started at a tiallop and the infantry at quick-step. 
Within two miles they met men from the field, who told them 
the result. Wien the battle began tlie Tories who had no 
arms went across the creek. Captain Murray was killed 
early in the action; his and Whitson's men immediately fol- 
lowed. Colonel ^Aloore made his headquarters behind a locust- 
tree near the road. Upon his right flank becoming exposed 
to the galling fire of Hardin, he did not wiiit to see the end, 
and was joined by Major Welch in his change of base. 

Captain Sluirixi's men, in deploying to the right, went be- 
yond the crest of the ridge (below the present Tioseman bam). 
Here, exposed to the deadly aim of the enemy's rifles, they 
advanced from tree to tree until they obtained a position en- 
filading the enemy, and with unerring aim picked olf their 
boldest officers. Captain Sharpe's brother placed his gim 
against a tree to 'Mraw a bead" on a Tory captain ; his arm 
was broken by a shot from the enemy and his gun fell to the 
ground. A wedl-directed shot from the Captain felled the 
Toi-y captain and contributed much to the speedy termination 
of the battle. General Graham says that at this end of the^ 



17 



Toi"}' line ''one tree at the root of which two brothers lay dead 
was gi-azed by three balls on one side and two on the other." 
Colonel Moore, fearing pursuit, sent a flag of truce to pro- 
pose suspension of hostilities to bury the dead and care for 
the wounded; but ordered all footmen and poorly-mounted 
men to leave for home at once. Colonel Locke, not wishing 
the enemy to discover the paucity of his forces, sent Major 
James Rutherford (a son of the General, and who was killed 
at Eutaw) to meet the flag. In answer to the request of 
Moore, he demanded surrender in ten minutes; the flag re- 
turned, when Moore and the fifty who remained with him 
immediately fled. Moore reached Cornwalljs with about thirty 
foHow^rs, was put Tinder arrest, threatened with court-martial 
for disobedience of orders, but was finally released. 

In some instances this was a fight between neighbors and 
kindred, although there were not many Whigs in the Lincoln 
forces — the militia of the county being with Colonel Graham, 
who was with Ivutherford. 

In the thickest of the fight a Dutch Tory, seeing an ac- 
quaintance, said : '''How do you do, Pilly ? I have knowed you 
since you was a little poy, and never knew no harm of you 
except you was a, rebel." Billy, who was out for business and 
not to renew acquaintance, as his gun was empty, clubbed 
it and made a pass at his friend's head, who dodged and said : 
"Stop ! Stop ! I am not going to stand still and be killed like 
a damn fool, needer," and inunediately made a lick at Billy's 
head, which he dodged. A friend of Billy whose gun was 
loaded put it to the Dutchman's side and shot him dead. 



18 



Captain McKissick, who was shot through the slioulder 
early in tlie action, went over towards Lincolnton en route 
to a friend's. He met Abrani Keener, a Tory captain, but per- 
sonal friend, with ten companions, who had been to a neighbor- 
ing farm, and were returning to camp. His companions 
would have treated Captain McKissick badly, probably killed 
him ; but Keener took him prisoner and protected him. On 
reaching tlie camp, and seeing a good many strange faces with 
his acquaintances, who were prisoners. Keener said : ''Hey, 
poys, you seem to have a good many prisoners." The Whigs, 
by his speech, knew he was a Tory, and were going to shoot 
him and his companions, but Captain McKissick interfered, 
and by earnest appeal saved their lives. 

Adam Keep, as part of the history of the battle, was accus- 
tomed to tell that the Tories took all his cattle, including his 
bull, and drove them to their camp ; that when the firing began 
the Tories soon began to pass his house, which was some three 
miles away, and it was not long Ix^fore "old John" ai)peared 
in the procession bellowing: '^'Lib-er-ty ! Lib-er-ty ! ! Lib- 
er-ty ! ! !" '' 

There was no official report of the battle, consequently the 
exact niunber of casualties was never known. The badge of 
the Tories was a green pine twig in the hat. In the heat of 
battle some of these would fall out and others were thrown 
away, so that it could not be told to whicli side many belonged. 

Fifty-six dead lay on the face of the ridge, up and down 
which the forces advanced and retreated. Thirteen of these 



19 



were of Captaiu Sharpe's Fourtli Creek (Statesville) Com- 
pany. ^Maiiy lx»dies lay scattered over the hill. The killed 
were seventy or more, forty of \vhom were Whigs. The 
"svounded were one hundred on each side, some of whom after- 
wards died from their wounds. iVmong the Whij^s killed 
were Captains Dobson, Falls, Armstrong, Smith, Sloan and 
Bowman. Captains McKissick and Jlouston were wounded. 
Some of the Whigs wore a })iece of white paper in their hats 
as a badge. Several of them were shot through the head. 
Many of the dead were buried on the lield. Wives, mothers, 
daughters and other kindred of the contestants came that 
afternoon and next morning to inquire for their friends. As 
they discovered them among the dead and dying, tliere were 
heart-rending scenes of distress and grief. Mrs. Falls came 
twenty-five mih^s on horseback, accompanied by her negro 
cook. Finding her gallant husband dead, she obtained a 
quilt from Mrs. lleinhardt, whose husband lived near the 
battle-ground, and carried his body across Sherrill's Ford 
and buried it with his kindred. 

The troops engaged, except' Keep of Lincoln, and Major 
Wilson, Captains Knox and Smith of Mecklenburg, were 
from (what to 1777 had been) Rowan County. The officers' 
surnames were found among the militia officers of the coimty 
in the proceedings of the "Committee of Safety," of whicli 
many of them were members. Captain John Hardin's beat 
was along Lord Granville's line from Silver Creek in Burke 
to South Fork, and from these two points to the Catawba 
Biver. Captain Joseph Dobson was within it^ bounds. Much 



20 



the largest portion of the troops was from what is now Iredell 
County. Captain John Sloan was from Fourth Creek. I 
do not think all who are mentioned as captains held that 
position at this time; some may have been prior to and some 
became so aftenvard. No account was written until forty 
years had elapsed. There seems to have been but few com- 
mands given in the engagement; officers and privates acted 
as occasion required, and Ijoth sutfered severely. 

This was a battle between the ancestors of the North Caro- 
lina Confederate soldier, and taking armament and surround- 
ings into consideration, is about a sample of what would have 
been witnessed in North Carolina in 18G1-'G5 if those who be- 
lieved the proper co\irse to pursue for redress of wrongs was 
to ^'fight in the Union" had refused to fight outside, or if Pet- 
tigrew's and Cooke's forces had been pitted against Lane's 
and McRae's. Tradition says Locke's" men got some liquor 
at ''Dellinger's Tavern" as they were going into the fight. 
This tavern stood on the present Eobinson block in Lincoln- 
ton. At that time Henry Dellinger kept a tavern seven miles 
from Lincolnton at a cross-road, where John B. Smith now 
lives. It was probably Rutherford's men en route to the 
battlefield w-ho ''took courage" at Bellinger's Tavern. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE BATTLE. 

This battle is but little known in history, yet is one of the 
most important in results and best fought of the Revolution. 
King's Mountain^ and Ramsaur's Mill at that time M'ere both 
in Lincoln County, and not twenty miles apart. If Moore 



21 



had oWyed Lord ('«ini\valli<, and delayed Qi'<raiiization imtil 
' Ferguson advanced, he eouhl have re-iiiforecd liiiii with two 
thousand men. If the Whius had been defeated matters 
'• would have been in even worse condition. Ramsaur's Mill 
i was the first and most important ''act" in Kiiii>'s ^lountain. 
' It destroyed Toryism in that section and causecJ Bryan, with 
his followers, to leave the "forks of the Vadkiii" and not ve- 
I turn until Cornwallis came. The Unteh, as they had kept 
t the oath to King George, kept their **|)ai'(jle" to the Ameri- 
can cause. Cornwallis marched throiiuh this country the 
i following January and camped at Ilamsaur's Mill, lie lost 
more by desertion than he gained in recruits. When he was 
] hero, Morgan })assed the present site of ^laiden, nine miles 
I distant, and. for five days was not twenty miles from him. 
I A messenger on any of . these days would have enaldcd Corn- 
i wallis to place his army between ]\Iorgan and the Catawba 
' River. 1 do not think, in killed and wounded, in i)ioportion 
I to numbers engaged, the battle is equalled in the P.evolution. 
I Forty killed and one hundred wounded, out of four hundred 
engaged, is high class, even in Confederate annals. The 
\ defeat and rout of three times their number is certainly wor- 
thy of note. No attempt has been made to preserve the fea- 
;. tures of this battle-gi'ound ; to-day it is tilled by the \)\ow of 
the farmer, and but slight mementoes of the battle can be 
j seen. On the highest point of the ridge is a head-st<jne mark- 
ing three Tory graves. One at the foot «)f the hill marks 
another. A brick wall near where the hcvere-t fighting was 
done contains the remains of (\iptain Dubson where he fell; 



22 



also the remains of his daughter and lier husband, Wallace 
Alexander, \yho were l)uried beside him some years after the 
Revolution. The battle-field is now \vithin the corporate 
limits of Lincolnton. 



I vie's Cavalry and other tri)ops tlirouoh the conntry arre^tii 
Tories, who were nearly all "jiaroled'' ; a few who had coi 



AKTEK THE BATTLE. 

General Tvutherford remained here two days, sendinu' Da- 

ing 
com- 
mitted serious depredations beini>- sent to Salisbury jail to 
await trial at next term of court, lieing informed that Col- 
onel Bryan, the noted Tory, had organized his forces in the 
''forks of the Yadkin," he determined to give him attentien. 
On mustering his trmips, he found he had only two hundred 
men of the sixteen hundred ])resent two days before. 'Jdns 
iS'a fair sample of the t-onduct of the ^Mecklenburg and Iiowan 
militia in the lievolution. They w(juld answer all calls to 
fight, but when the battle was over, or while })reparation was 
being made, they declined to undergo the wearisomeness of 
camp-life. General "^liutherford did not, as would l>e done 
now, send details to bring the absentees back, but sent mes- 
sengers ahead along the road he would march, and before he 
reached the vicinity of Bryan he had S'ix hundred men. Bryan 
immediately fled, and most of liutherford's men again sought 
their fire-sides — this time by his ])ermission. 

When these people accom])lished the object f'-r whi(di they 
had been called into service, or when the cause fnr the call 



23 

di.sai7i)eared, they regardc'd the piirj)oses for which they wer 
. wanted as fulfilled, and went home ready to answer wl 
; again called for. General Graham, who was one of them, 
I called General Davie's attx'nti..n to this trait of character 
. when General Davie was collecting- a i,n\X' to attack liocky 
. Mount. 



e 
len 



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^iil' 




JULY, 1904 :- 



THE 



North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



^>HISTORIC HOMES IN NORTH 
Ar- CAROLINA— QUAKER 
^1 ^ MEADOWS, 



BY 



JUDGE A. C. AVERY. 




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THE NORTH GAROLiNA BOOKLET^^ 

GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle. LL.D. 
The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 
Homes of North Carolina— The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 
Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 
Ite Earliest English Settlement in America. ^ 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 
The Battle of Guilford Court House. ; 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 
^ Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. ' 

|<r/.-- Captain S. A. Ashe. 

\^ The' Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

> Judge James C. MacRae. ^-' 

V Governor Thomas Pollock. 

- . Mrs. John Hinsdale. . 



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EDITORS; 



St-y 



MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT.^^'^^'^^ 



VOL IV JULY, 1904 No. 3 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA I HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER I 
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OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT: 

• MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

vice-ui;ge.nt: 
MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

IIONORAUY HECiENTS: 

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(Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 
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. N "g* 7 

PREFACE. 



Tlie object of the North Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
! ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months ])efore the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the devo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



HISTORIC HOMES OF NORTH CAROLINA-PLEASANT 

GARDENS AND QUAKER MEADOWS, 

IN BURKE COUNTY. 



BY ALPHONSO C. AVERY, 
(Former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina). 



The historic interest of lionies centers in the families who 
found, occupy and adorn them, and connect them with the 
stirring legends and important events in the annals of a coun- 
try. Amongst the earliest settlers in the valley of the upper 
Catawba, in the old county of Burke, were Joseph McDowell 
the elder, a gTandson of E})hraim, the founder of the family 
in Virginia, Kentucky and our own State, and his cousin^ 
known as '"Hunting John," who was near the same age. They 
migrated, somewhere about the year 1760 and during the 
French-Indian war, from the old home of Ephraim McDowell, 
in Rockbridge county, Virginia, and, because the country 
west of the Catawba was rendered unsafe by roving bands 
of Cherokee and Catawba braves, went with their families 
through Rowan and Mecklenburg counties to some point in 
South Carolina, near the northern boundary line. Their 
sturdy Scotch-Irish friends had already drifted from Pennsyl- 
vania, where they, with the thousands of Germans, were first 
dupiped by the English land-agents upon American soil, to 
upper South Carolina, and had commemorated their first 
American home bv namini>- the three nortliern cuunties of that 



6 



State York^ Chester and Lancaster. Ephraim McDowell was 
born in the north of Ireland. When only sixteen years old he 
distinguished himself as a soldier in the siege of Londonderry. 
He emigrated to America at the age of sixty-two, and, after 
a short sojourn i^ Pennsylvania, moved with his sons to the 
old McDowell home in Kockbridge county, Virginia. He was 
descended from Someril, Lord of the Isles, through his son 
Dougald, who founded the clan of McDougald. Ephraim 
married ^largaret Irvine, also of JScotch descent. His 
son, Captain John McDowell, fell in i-epelling a Shawnee 
incursion, and was the first white man killed by the Indians 
in the Valley of Virginia. His daughter ]\Liry married 
James Greenlee and was the mother of Grizzell or Grace 
Greenlee. She first married Captain Bowman, who fell at 
Ramseur's Mill, and, after the war, her cousin, General 
Charles McLtewcll of Burke, who had inherited Quaker 
Meadows in 1775, at the death of his father, Joseph McDow- 
ell the elder, the first settler on that place. 

"Hunting John" McDowell, so called because of his ventur- 
ing into the wilderness so far from the white settlement in 
pursuit of game, probably first took possession of his beautiful 
home, Pleasant Gardens, in the Catawba Valley, in what is 
now McDowell county, about the time when his cousin Joseph 
settled at Quaker Meadows. I have not been able to ascertain 
the maiden name of the wife of ''Hunting John," nor of the 
lady who married Josej)!! Mcl>owell the elder; but there is 
abundant evidence that both had im])roved the advantages of 
being raised near Lexington, the Scotch-Irish educational cen- 



ter of tlie Valley of Vir«^inia, and made their homes attractive 
to the most refined and cultured people of their day. They 
were doubtless religious, for Ave find that the first Presb}i:e- 
rian minister who ever made his home in old Burke reported 
to Synod in 1777 as the pastor at two points, Quaker Meadows 
and Pleasant Gardens. 

According to tradition the Quaker Meadows farm was so 
called long before the IMcDowells or any other whites estab- 
lished homes in Burke county, and derived its name from tlie 
fact that tlie Indians, after clearing parts of the broad and 
fertile bottoms, had suffered the wild grass to spring up and 
form a large meadow, near which a Quaker had camped be- 
fore the French-Tudian war and traded for furs. On the 19th 
of November, 17rj2, Bisho}) Spangenburg recorded in his 
diary (Vol. V. Colonial Becords, p. 6) that he was encamped 
near Quaker ^leadows, and that he was "in the forest 50 
miles from all settlements." The Bishop desribed the low- 
lands of John's RiA'er as the richest he had seen anywhere in 
Carolina. But, after survevin<? a larsre area, he abandoned 
the idea of taking title for it from Lord Granville, because 
the Indian war began in 1758, the next year, and lasted nom- 
inally seven years, tliough it was unsafe to venture west of 
the Catawba till after 1763, and few incurred the risk of 
doing so before 1770. 

"Hunting John" ^IcDowell first entered "Swan Ponds," 
about three miles above Quaker ]\readows, l)ut sold that place, 
without occupying it, to Colonel Waightstill Avery, and estab- 
lished his home where his son James afterwards lived and 



8 



where still later Adolplius Envin lived for years before his 
death. His home is three miles north of Marion on the road 
leading to Bakersville and Burnsville. The name of Pleasant 
Gardens \vas afterwards ajjplied nut only to this home but to 
the place where Colonel John Carson lived higher up the 
Catawba Valley, at the mouth of Buck Creek. 

The McDowells and Carsons of that day and later reared 
thorough-bred horses and made race-paths in the broad low- 
lands of every large farm. They were superb horsemen, 
crack shots and trained hunters. John McDowell of Pleasant 
Gardens was a Nimrod when he lived in Virginia, and we 
learn from tradition that he acted as guide for his cousins 
over his hunting ground when, at the risk of their lives, 
they with their kinsmen, Greenlee and Bowman, traveled over 
and insj^ected the valley of the Catawba from^Morganton to 
Old Fort, and selected the large domain allotted to each of 
them. They built and occupied strings of cabins, because the 
few plank or boards used by them were sawed by hand and 
the nails driven into them wore shaped in a blacksmith's shop. 
I have seen many old building-s, such as the old houses at Fort 
Defiance, the I^'uoir home, and Swan Ponds, where every 
plank was fastened by a wrought nail with a large round head 
sometimes half an inch in diameter. From tliese homes the 
lordly old proprietors could in half an hour go to the water 
or the woods and provide fish, deer or turkeys to meet the 
Avhim of the lady of tlie house. They combined the pleasure 
of sport with tlie protit of jjroviding for their tables. The 
old Quaker Meadows home is two miles from Morganton, but 



the eastern boundary of the farm is the Catawba, only a mile 
from the court-house. From the northwestern portion of the 
town, since the land along the river has been cleared, this 
magnificent and lordly estate is plainly visible, and the valley 
and river present- a charming view for a landscape painter. 

From his house on a hill on the eastern bank of the river, 
Peter Brank and his son-in-law, Captain David Vance, the 
grandfather of Z. B. Vance, could see the home of the Mc- 
Dowells. The place in the early days was surrounded by the 
newly-found homes of the Greenlees, Erwins and Captain 
Bowman, whose only daughter by his marriage with Grace 
Greenlee was the grandmother of ]\Irs. Harriet Espy Vance, 
first wife to Govenior Vance. She was married to Governor 
Vance at Quaker Meadows — in full view of his grandfather's 
first home in Burke. ^ 

"Hunting John" must have died during the early part of 
the war for independence — probably near the time his cousin 
Joseph died — in 1775. 

THE COUNCIL OAK. 

On the 29tli of August, 1780, Colonel Ferguson moved into 
Tryon (now Kuthei-ford county) and camped first at Gilbert- 
town, three miles north of Rutherfordton, with the purpose of 
capturing Charles McDowell and destroying his command and 
ultimately crossing into Washington and Sullivan counties 
(now Tennessee) and dealing with Shelby and Sevier of the 
Watauga settlement. Ferguson left Gilberttown with a de- 
tachment, in search of Charles McDowell, but McDowell laid 



10 



in ambush at Bedford Hill, on Crane Creek, and fired upon 
his force while crossing the creek at Cowan's Ford. Major 
Dunlap was wounded and Ferguson was forced to retire to ' 
Gillx-rttown. 

x\fter this affair Charles McDowell retreated across tlio 
mountains to warn Shelby and Sevier of the threatened 
desolation of their country and to invite their co-operation in 
an attack on Ferguson. It was agreed that the transmontane 
men should be gathered as expeditiously as possihle, while Mc- 
Dowell should send messengers to Colonels Cleveland and 
Ilemdon of Wilkes county and Major Joseph Winston of 
Surry. The energies of Shelby, of Sullivan and Sevier of 
Washington county, North Carolina, then embracing the 
present State of Tennessee, were quickened by a message, 
which Ferguson had released a prisoner to conv^', to the effect 
that he would soon cross the mountain, hang the leaders and 
lay their country waste with fire and sword. 

The clans were summoned to meet at Quaker Meadows on 
the 30th of Septemher, 1780. Meantime Charles ]\IcDowell 
returned to watch Ferg-uson, protect cattle by assailing for- 
aging parties and give information to Shelby and Sevier of 
Ferguson's movements. 

Rev. Samuel Doak invoked the blessings of God upon the 
Watauga men, as they left for King's Mountain to meet Fer- 
guson, whose blasphemous boast had been that God Almighty 
could not drive him from his position. Those trustful old 
Scotchmen afterwards believed in their hearts that the hand 



11 

of God was in tlie movement which cost him his life and 
destroyed his force. 

On September 30th, Shelby, Sevier, Cleveland, Winston 
and the three McDowells (Charles, Joseph of Quaker Mead- 
ows, and Joseph of Pleasant Gardens) met at Quaker Mead- 
o^vs, and on October 1st held a council of war under the shade 
of a. magnificent oak which stood near a spring on the Quaker 
Meadows farm. This old tree, known as the Council Oak, had 
weathered the storms of more than a century when it was 
killed by lightning a few years since. At this historic spot 
these intrepid leaders agTced upon the plan of campaign 
against Ferguson. The fruit of their council was a victory, 
which was the turning point of the war for independence. 

This venerable tree has been visited by scores of persons, 
and Burke takes pride in perpetuating the memory of the fact 
that there the old pioneer patriots, including three of her own 
sons, laid plans that turned the tide of war and possibly deter- 
mined the destiny of the continent. The local Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution has already bought 
what is left of the old oak to be converted into souvenirs, and 
it has been proposed that the Chapter purchase a little spot, 
including the site of the oak, with the right of way to a road 
leading to it, and erect upon it a pavilion where visitors may 
rest 

THE McDowells at king's mountain. 

Charles McDowell had organized the clans into a compact, 
foi-midable force. The proposed scene of conflict was in his 
district, and, under military rules then in force, he was en- 



12 



titled to conunand. When, however, it became apparent that 
jealousy might impair the efficiency of the little army, he 
cheerfully agreed to go to Mecklen]}urg or Rowan and invite • 
General Davidson to take charge. After he had left on this 
mission it was deemed by the council of war best to attack 
Ferguson before- his force could be strengthened by Corn- 
wallis, and the result indicated the wisdom of this conclusion. 
Governor Shelby published an account in 1823, in which, 
after lauding General Charles McDowell as a patriot and a 
brave and able officer, he said that after it was decided by the 
council to send to headquarters for a general officer to take 
command, Charles McDowell requested, as he could not com- 
mand, to be allowed to take the message, and added that "he 
accordingly started immediately, leaving liis men under liis 
brother, ]\[ajor Joseph McDowell." (Wheeler's History, 
Part II, page 59). It was Shelby who next day made the 
generous move to place Campbell in connnand to obviate 
the danger of delay. Within the next twenty years some 
of the lineal descendants of Joseph McDowell of Pleasant 
Gardens have insisted that the command of the Burke men at 
King's Mountain devolved on their ancestor, not on his cousin 
Joseph of Quaker Meadows. The writer would be rejoiced to 
be convinced that this contention is well founded, but is con- 
strained to conclude that it is not. Shelby had come over with 
Sevier, at the instance of Charles ^[cD<jwcll, under whose 
command he had previously fought with all three of the j\Ic- 
Dowells at Musgrove's Mill and other places. He must have 
k]iown whether the brother or the cousin of Colonel Charles 



13 



McDowell was next in rank to liini, and he said it was the 
brother. 

''Poor's Sketches of Congressmen" states that Joseph Mc- 
Dowell, who was born at Winchester, Va., in 175(J, and died 
in 1801, was elected a member of the third and also of the 
fifth C'ongress; had commanded a portion of the right wing of 
the anny that stormed King's Mountain. In a subsequent 
sketch of Joseph J, McDowell of Ohio he says that he was 
bom in Burke county, N. C, November 13, ISOO, was a son 
of Joseph McDowell, member from North Carolina, and was 
himself a member from 1843 to 1847. The widow of Joseph 
]\[oDowell of Quaker Meadows left North Carolina with her 
little children and wTnt to Kentucky soon after her husband's 
death. His home was on the banks of John's^ River, near 
where Bishop Spangenburg must have encamped when he de- 
clared that the land was the most fertile he had seen in Caro- 
lina. These sketches have always been prepared after consul- 
tation with the member as to his previous history, and we 
must conclude that both fatiier and son bore testimony to 
the truth of history — the father that he was in command, the 
son that such was the family history derived from his mother. 
Dr. Harvey McDowell, of Cynthiana, Ky., who presided over 
the first Scotch-Irish Convention at Nashville, Tenn., and 
who died at the ripe age of fourscore, a year or two since, had 
devoted much of his life to the study of family history, and 
had convexsed with members of the family who knew Joseph 
of Quaker Meadows and Joseph of Pleasant Gardens and 
were familiar with their history. 



14 



Speaking of the agreement of Colonel Charles McDowell to 
goto headquarters, Dr. Harvey McDowell says: 

'^Ile thereupon tunied over the command of liis regiment to 
his brother Joe of Quaker Meadou:s, who was thus promoted 
from the position of Major, which he had held in this regi- 
ment, to that of acting Colonel, and in the regular order of 
promotion. Captain Joe of Pleasant Gardens (the cousin and 
brother-in-law of tlie other Joe) became Major Joe, he havin^. 
been senior Captain of the regiment." * 

With the rank, one of Colonel and tlie other of Major these 
cousins of the same name led the brave sharp-shooters who 
fought so heroically at Cowpens and in the mauv lights of less 
consequence. 8arah McDowell, a daughter of (^.ptain John, 
who was killed by the Shawnees, married C\jlfenel Georo-e 
Moffitt, a wealthy and distinguished officer in the war for indl 
pendence. His accomplished daughter Margaret married 
Joseph ]\IcDowell of Quaker Meadows, and her younger sister 
Mary became the wife of Joseph of Pleasant Gardens. The 
cousins served Burke county acceptably both in the House of 
Commons and Senate of the State Legislature and in tlie Con- 
vention at Hillsboro, as they had both won distinction while 
fighting side by side on a number of battlefields. The writer 
has inclined to the opinion that l>oth served in (^noress 
Joseph McDowell, Jr., of Pleasant Gardens, from 17^3 to 
1795,. when ho died, and Joseph, Sr., of Quaker Meadows, 
from 1797 to 1709. But tliis is still a debated question. 



15 



THE TWO JOSEPHS. 



Josepli McDowell ui Quaker ]\[eadows was a handsome 
man, wonderfully mao-uetic, universally popular, and of more 
than ordinary ainlity. He was a born loader of men and was 
represented by the old men of the succeeding generation to 
have retained- till his death the unbounded confidence and 
affe^rtion of his old soldiers. ]\rargaret Mofiitt was a woman of 
extraordinary beauty, as was her sister ^^lary. 

After the battle of King's Mountain, in October, Joseph 
McDowell of Quaker Meadows remained in the field with 190 
mounted riflemen, including the younger Joseph as one of his 
officers, until he joined ]\[organ on December 29th and partici- 
pated in tlie battle of Cowpens. 

Joseph of Pleasant Gardens was a brilliant ihan of more 
solid ability than his cousin of the same name. The late Silas 
McDowell, who died in Macon county, but lived during his 
early life, first in Burke and then in Buncombe, in discussing 
in an unpublished letter, of which I have a copy, the prominent 
men who lived 'Svest of Lincoln county," reaches the con- 
clusion that, prior to the day of D. L. Swain, Samuel P. 
Carson and Dr. Robert B. Vance, no man in that section had, 
according to tradition, towered far above his fellows intelleo- 
tually except Joseph McDowell of Pleasant Gardens, whose 
"light went out when he was in his noonday prime, and in the 
last decade of the eighteenth century." He was borii February 
26, 1758, and died in 1795. His widow married Colonel 
John Carson, whose first wife was the daughter of ''Hunting 



16 



John." Samuel P. Carson, the oldest son by the second mar- 
riage of Mary Moflit McDowell, was a member of the Senate 
of North Carolina in 1822, and was bom January 22, 1798. 
(See Wheeler's lieminiscences, page 89). Joseph of Quaker 
Meadows was born in 175G, was two years older, and therefore 
must have been Joseph, Sr. Wheeler records the name of 
Joseph McDowell, Jr., as having served successively from 
1787 to 1792, inclusive, as a. member of the House of Com- 
mons from Burke county, but not after the latter date. (See 
list of Burke Legislators, Wheeler's History, Part II, page 
62). Joseph McDowell, according to same authority, was a 
State Senator, succeeding General Charles, from 1791 to 
1795, inclusive, and during that time did not serve in Con- 
gress, though he \mquestionably served later. ^ These and 
other facts have led the writer to believe .Toseph, Jr., served 
one term in Congress, from 1793 to 1795, when he died, and 
that afterwards, and up to the time of his death, the elder 
cousin was a member. Joseph McDowell, Jr., was not in 
public life after 1792, unless he served one tei*m in Congress 
before his death. It is not probable that he lived from 1792 
to 1795 without holding an official ixDsition. 

THE Mcdowell women— mrs. grace greenlee mcdowell, 
mrs. margaret moffitt mcdowell, mrs. mary isioffrit 
Mcdowell. 

Mrs. Margaret Moffitt McDowell, says Dr. Harvey Mc- 
Dowell, was a beautiful and charming woman. After the 
death of her husband she'returned to the Valley of Virginia 
and went thence to Kentucky. Amongst her descendants 



17 



was a son, Joseph J., already mentioned, a member of Con- 
gress, and many other people prominent in public or social 
life, both of Kentucky and Ohio. 

Mrs. Mary Moflltt McDowell was the mother of Mrs. Mar- 
garet McDowell, who- married her cousin, Captain Charles 
McDowell, a son of General Charles, and was the mistress at 
the Quaker Meadows home, where she kept a house always 
open to her friends till her death in 1859. Her oldest 
daughter, Mary, first married General John Gray Bynum in 
1838, and subsequently became the second wife of Chief Jus- 
tice Pearson in 1859. The late Judge John Gray Bynum 
was the only son. Another daughter, Eliza, was the wife of 
Nicholas W. Woodfin, one of the ablest lawyers of his day, 
and another, Margaret, married W. F. McKessoij, and was 
the motlier of the first Mrs. F. H. Busbee and of C. F. 
McKesson. Another daughter married John Woodfin, a 
prominent lawyer, who fell at the head of his battalion, re- 
sisting Kirk's invasion at Warm Springs. The only son who 
survived Mrs. Annie McDowell was Colonel- James C. S. 
McDowell. He married Miss Julia, daughter of Grovernor 
Charles Manly. His first service was when, as Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company G of the Bethel Regiment, he partici- 
pated in the first battle of the war. Later he became Colonel 
of the Fifty-fourth North Carolina Regiment, and fell gal- 
lantly leading it in a charge on Marye's Heights in 18G3. 
James McDowell, his oldest son, married ^largaret Erwin, 
and was the father of Dr. Joseph ]\[cDowell of Buncombe 
and Dr. John C. McDowell of Burke, both of whom were 



18 



members of the Secession Convention of 18C1, and of Colonel 
William, who was Caj^tain in the Bethel Kegimont and after- 
wards Colonel of the Sixtieth North Carolina. Another son, 
John McDowell, was the father of Colonel Jolni of Ruther- 
ford County. 

After the death of her husband, Mrs. Mary McDowell mar- 
ried Colonel John Carson, and made her home at his mansion 
near the mouth of Buck Creek, on the Catawba. The name 
of Pleasant Gardens followed her and was ajjplied to her new 
as well as her old home. Iler oldest son by the second mar- 
riage. Colonel Samuel P. Carson, after serving in the Legis- 
lature of the State, served four tenns in Congress. lie was 
at first a favorite of Old Hickory, and was selected as the 
readiest debater in the House to defend the administration on 
the floor of that body. He afterwards became the friend of 
John O. Calhoun, and his defense of nullification estranged 
Jackson and led to Carson's retirement from Congress. The 
last service of Carson to the State was as one of the members 
from Burke of the Constitutional Convention 'of 1835. His 
father had been one of Burke's members of the Convention of 
1789, 'when the Constitution of tlio United States had been 
ratified by the State. 

In the writer's Iwyhood older men spoke of Sam Carson as 
the most eloquent speaker and the most fascinating gentleman 
they had known. 

In the early part of the year 1835, Samuel Carson went, 
with the view of finding- a home, to the republic of Texas, 
then struggling with Mexico for independence. It was dur- 



19 



ing his absence that he was elected a member of the Coustitu- 
tional Convention of 18)35, Ke migrated to Texas in 183G, 
and soon after his arrival was chosen a meniljer of the Con- 
vention of 1836, which framed a Constitution, and, upon the 
election of General Samuel Houston to the presidency of tlie 
young republic, was made Secretary of State. The efforts 
of Carson to secure recognition of the Jxtne Star State were 
potent in l>oginning tlie agitation, which culminated in 1845 
in recognition and annexation. 

TJIE CARSON-VANCE DUEL, 

Stung by defeat in 1825, Dr. "Robert B. Vance determined 
to break him down in 1827. He believed, it is supposed on 
account of Carson's great amiability, that Carson \\as a cow^- 
ard, though a more fatal mistake was never made, and, acting 
upon that belief, charged in a public discfussion at Morgan- 
ton that Colonel John Carson, the father of his opponent, and 
who has already been mentioned as a member of the Conven- 
tion which adopted the Constitution of the Uiiited States, at 
Fayetteville, was a Tory, and took protection when Ferguson 
invaded Burke. Colonel Carson rose and denounced Vance 
as a liar. Vance tauntingly said to him : "You are too old. 
You have a gallant son, whose duty it is to fight your bat- 
tles." I am reliably informed that Vance did not believe 
that Samuel Carson would resent this insult, and he knew that 
if he should not he could never be elected again after the 
election which was to take place in a few days. 



20 



To sliow how widely mistaken Dr. Vance was in his esti- 
mate of Carson, the writer has heard from his father that on 
the night after this discussion, Samuel P. Carson, his six 
brothers and his father met at the old family home, at the 
mouth of Buck Creek, and though the old Colonel insisted 
upon sending a cliallenge, his sons overruled him, and agreed 
that after tlie approaching election Samuel should challenge 
Vance, and should Samuel fall, each of the brothers, begin- 
ning with the oldest, Joseph ^IcDowell Carson of liuther- 
ford, should -challenge him in succession. The Colonel was 
appeased by an agreement that should Vance kill all of his 
boys he should then have the ©importunity to avenge the insult. 
All of the brothers were cool and courageous and were crack 
shots. Soon after the election Carson crossed thoi Tennessee 
line to avoid a violation of the laws of his own State, and sent 
by Colonel Alney Burgin of Old Fort an invitation to Vance 
to come over to Tennessee and discuss the grievance com- 
plained of. Carson, with the distinguished Warren David 
of South Carolina as a second, and accompanied by David 
Crockett as a friend, met and mortally wounded Vance at 
Saluda. Just Ijefore taking his place, Carson, who was as 
kind as he was courageous, said to Warren David : "I can hit 
him anywhere I choose. I prefer to inflict a wound that will 
not prove fatal." David said: "Vance will try to kill you, 
and, if he receives only a flesh wound, will demand another 
shot, which will mean another chance to kill you. I will not 
act for you unless you promise me to do your best to kill 
him." Carson promised, and Vance fell mortally wounded. 



I 



21 



Carson's heart was tender, and lie died lamenting that the 
demands of an imperious custom had forced him to wreck his 
own peace of mind, in order to save the honor of his family 
and remove the reproach ujibn his name. 

The oldest son of (\jlonel ("arson, Joseph McDowell Car- 
son, was a prominent lawyer, and represented Kntherford 
county in the Convention of 1835, and frequently in the Leg- 
islature. He was the grandfather of Captain Joseph Mills of 
Burke and of Mrs. Frank Coxe of Asheville, as well as of 
Ealph P. Carson, a prominent lawyer of South Carolina. 

One of the Daughters of ^'Hunting John" married a Whit- 
son, and her descendants for a century have heen honored citi- 
zens of ]\IcDowell and Buncoml)e counties. One of them 
married the only daughter of Samuel P. Carson. Joseph 
McD. Burgin of Old Fort, a son of Greneral Aln^y Burgin, 
who bore the message to Vance, is another of his worthy de- 
scendants, and the accomplished daughter of Captain Burgin 
is the wife of the golden-tongned orator of the West, Hon. 
Locke Craig. 

Colonel William Carson, second son of Mrs. Mary Moffitt 
Carson and J. Logan Carson, third son of her marriage with 
Colonel John Carson, both lived and died on one of the farms 
known as Pleasant Gardens. W^illiam married twice, and 
amongst his descendants are many prominent men and esti- 
mable and accomplished ladies. William Carson Ervin of 
Morganton is a grandson of William Carson, and J. L. Car- 
son was the grandfather of ^Irs. W. McD. Burgin and Mi*s. 
P. J. Sinclair of Marion. C. Manly McDowell is the 







Sheriff of Burke county, and her most popular citizen. He 
is a son of Colonel Janies C. S. McDowell of the Fifty-fourth 
North Carolina, who fell at Marye's Heights, and the grand- 
son of Captain Charles, son of General Charles and of Annie, 
daughter of Jose^jh of Pleasant Gardens and jMary Moffitt. 
William Walton, a grandson of Colonel James and a gradu- 
ate of the University, won a commission as Lieutenant in tlie 
Philippines hy his gallantry and good conduct, and, thanks 
to his university training, stood the examination for the regu- 
lar army. 

THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THESE OLD HOMES. 

The sacredness of home to all of us is horn of its associa- 
tion with loved ones who have entered into our lives. So we 
listen to historical legends which connect homes with people 
who have won a place in history. 

The Quaker j\Ieadows of the Revolutionary era was known 
historically as the ])lace where patriots rallied and where the 
chiefs, under the old C^ouncil Oak, laid the foundation stone 
of our independence, l^ater it was known to visitors as the 
home where Grace Greenlee McDowell dispensed a lavish 
hospitality to her friends and to the old comrades of her hus- 
band. She was known as the cultured w^oman who (with an 
infant in her arms, the grandmother of Mrs. Harriet Espy 
Vance) rode to Ramseur's Mills to nurse her wounded hus- 
band, and who afterwards went into a cave to aid in the 
secret manufacture of powder. To her family she was the 
lovely Christian mother wlio whispered into infants' ears the 



23 



story of the Cross, and taught lier children, growing into 
manliood and womanhood, how, though remote from towns, 
to be cultured ladies and gentlemen. 

It seems sad to those who have inherited the old English 
idea of establishing and maintaining family ancestral homes 
that descend from sire to son for ages, that these old dwell- 
ings have passed into the hands of good people outside of the 
I families who founded them. Though their connection with 
family names has ceased^ it is a i)atriotio duty of all who love 
their country and appreciate the blessings of liberty to ]jer- 
petuate the history of these 'old homes as the scenes of great 
events. I have tried to show that many good and true and 
some great people trace their ovigin to the founders of these 
homes that in the last century were nurseries of the courage 
and fortitude that caj-ried King's ^[ountain. ^ 

MRS. C. A. CILLEY, MRS. MARGARET BUSBEE SHIPP, MISS 
MARGARET McDOWELL AND MRS. LEE S. OVERMAN. 

It is not inappropriate to mention a few of the McDowell 

.; women of to-day who are well known in ]^orth Carolina by 

[ other names. 

i The names of Mrs. C. A. Cilley, Mrs. ^fargaret Busbee 

Shipp, Miss Margaret McDowell of Morganton and Mrs. Lee 
S. Overman are living rei)resentatives of the Pleasant Gar- 
dens and Quaker Meadows stock, who show that the families 

i 

I have not degenerated in learning or culture. Mrs. Cilley is 
I the great-granddaughter of Charles jMcDowell and Grace 
j Greenlee. Mrs. Shipp i$ a descendant, one degree furtlier 



24 



removed, of Charles McDowell and Grace Greenlee, and also 
of Joseph McDowell of Pleasant Gardens. Miss Margaret 
McDowell is a great-granddaughter of Joseph McDowell of 
Pleasant Gardens. Mrs. Lee S. Overman is the great-great- 
granddaughter of General Charles McDowell and Grace 
Greenlee. She is the wife of Senator Overman and the 
daughter of the late distinguished Chief Justice Merrimon 
and the niece of Judge James II. Merrimon, the two ablest 
and most distinguished of the descendants of General Charles 
McDowell. All of these ladies contribute interesting articles 
for the press. Mrs. Shipp is the widow of Lieutenant W. E. 
Shipp, who fell at Santiago. North Carolina is proud of 
him as a son and the nation of his career as a soldier. 



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BOOK. KXCH ANGE:, 



VOL. IV 



AUGUST, 1904 



THE 



No. 4 



/i 



North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 






NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY x; 



.:i 



THE CONVENTION OF 1 788-' 89 
AND THE FEDERAL CONSTI- 

,TUTION— HILLSBOROUGH AND, 
FAYETTEVILLE. 




ENTERED AT THE POST-OFFICE AT RALEIGH, N. C, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 



^■k\ 



K'-if 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 

VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
^ ' Kemp P. Battle. LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's MilL 

Major William A. Graham. 

HistoHc Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 

' Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
~ William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. ^ 

ITie Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. * 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. miL 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

:-;.^;The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

r; •*. Judge James C. MacRae. 

■Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



\ One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
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Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 
e - J. •— "Midway Plantation," 

^'j!'.^ / ; Raleigh, N. C. 

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add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS: 

Miss mary milliard hinton. mrs. e. e. moffitt. 



VOL. IV AUGUST, 1904 No. 4 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



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1904 



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OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 



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VICE-REGENT: 

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HONORARY REGENTS: 

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MRS. D. H. HILL, Sb. 

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I -^^"i 



PREFACE. 



I The object of the North Carolina Booklet is to erect 

a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
I the "Edenton Tea Party." 

j These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 

I ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
1 ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
t signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
\ months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
[ two years before Jeiferson penned the immortal "^National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
I document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
! England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
j mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Pevo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



THE CONVENTION OF i?8S-'89 AND THE FEDERAL CON- 
STITUTION-HILLSBORGUGH AND FAYETTEVILLE. 



By henry groves CONNOR, 

(Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina). 



The General Assembly of North Carolina, at an adjourned 
session in JaniiarVj 1787, appointed Governor Caswell, Alex- 
ander Martin, General W. R^ Davie, Kichard Dobbs Spaight 
and Willie Jones delegates to the Convention which had been 
called to meet at Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, for the pur- 
pose of proposing amendments to the Articles of Confedera- 
tion. Willie Jones and Governor Caswell could n>9t attend, 
and pursuant to the power vested in him the Governor ap- 
pointed Hugh Williamson and William Blount. On the first 
day of tlie Convention Messrs. Martin, Spaight, Davie and 
Williamson were present. Mr. Bloubt took his seat June 
20, 1787. After a session of four months, the Convention, 
on September 17, 1787, reported to Congress a plan of gov- 
ernment which, when ratified by nine of the thirteen States, 
was to become "between the States so ratifying the same the 
Constitution of the United ■ States." A government was to 
be organized pursuant to its provisions. The Convention 
adopted a resolution expressing the opinion that, after being 
submitted to Congress, tlie Constitution should be submitted 
to a convention of delegates chosen in each State by the peo- 



6 



pie thereof "under the recommend jition of its Legislature." 
Accompanying the Constitntiou was an open letter signed by 
George Washington, President. 

Messrs. Blount, Spaiglit .and Williamson signed the Con- 
stitution in behalf of this State. General Davie left Phila- 
delphia for his home upon the final vote, and before the Con- 
stitution was prepared to be signed. ]\Ir. ]\Iartin was also at 
home, as we learn from a letter to Goveniur Caswell, in 
which he says that he is com^ielled to be at Salisbui^ Supe- 
rior Court.. lie furtlier says: "^ly absence may, I think, 
be the more easily dispensed with when I have the pleasure 
to inform your Excellency the Deputation from the State of 
North Carolina have generally been nnanimous on all great 
questions." In the same letter he explains to th^ Governor 
the reason why he has not had "particular information re- 
specting the Convention," etc. On September 18, 1787, 
Messrs. Blount, S})aight and Williamson sent to the Governor 
an interesting letter regarding the several j^arts of the Con- 
stitution in which the State was specially interested. 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Conven- 
tion, the proposed Constitution Avas submitted to the Legis- 
latures of the several States. On JSTovember 21, 1787, the 
Governor sent to the Legislature of North Carolina a message 
with certain "Papers respecting the Federal Convention." 
The two Houses of the General Assembly fixed the 5th of 
December as "a time at which they will enter on the impor- 
tant business of the Federal Constitution." On that day a 
message was sent to the Senate by the House announcing that 



j they were ready to meet in conference "on this bnsiness in 
I the Commons room immediately." The Senate being ready, 
I the two Houses met in conference and resolved themselves 
I into a Committee of the Whole "to take into consideration the 
I proposed Federal Constitution." The Connnittee. after some 
I debate, adjourned, reporting progress. On the next day the 
Committee again met and adopted a series of resolutions rec- 
ommending that a Convention be called for the purpose of 
"deliberating and determining on the said Constitution," etc. 
Provision was made for the election of five delegates for each 
county and one from each borough town. The third Mon- 
day of July, 1788, was fixed as the time of meeting. The 
place was afterwards agi-eed upon at Hillsborough. The 
Convention was also authorized to fix upon a place for the 
Capital of the State. The delegates were elected on the last 
Friday and Saturday in Marph, 1788. 

Upon the adjournment of the Philadelphia Convention, the 
friends and opponents of the new Coustitution began a spir- 
ited and, in some States, a bitter controversy in regard to 
its merits, etc. The conditions are well described by Mr. 
Fiske. He says : "And now there ensued such a war of pam- 
phlets, broadsides, caricatures, squibs and stump speeches as 
had never yet been seen in America. Cato and Aristides, 
Cincinnatus and Plain Truth were out in full force. What 
was the matter with the old Confederation ? asked the Anti- 
Federalists. Had it not conducted a glorious and successful 
war ? Had it not set us free from the oppression of En- 
gland ? That there was some trouble now in the country 



8 



could not be denied, but all would ,be right if people would 
only curb their extravagance, wear homespun clothes and obey 
the laws. There was government enough in the country 
already. The Philadelphia Convention ought to be distrusted. 
Some of its members had opposed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence," etc. Complaint was made that Hamilton and 
Madison were ''mere boys," while Franklin was an "old 
dotard," a man in his second childhood. Washington, they 
said, was "doubtless a good soldier, but what did he know 
about politics f Some went so far as to say that he was a 
"born fool." 

Thomas Iredell, in a letter to his brother. May 22, 1788, 
says that '']\Ir. Allen read me a part of a letter he received 
from a' gentleman of his acquaintance, who mentions a con- 
versation he had with General Person, the substance of which 
was 'that General Washington was a damned rascal and trai- 
tor to his country for putting his hand to such an infamous 
paper as the new Constitution.' " ♦ 

"Letters from a Federalist Farmer," by Pichard Henry 
Lee, pointed out that the author saw "seeds of an aristocracy 
and of centralization" in the Constitution. That it cre- 
ated "a National J^egislature in which the vote was to be by 
individuals and not by States." 

Many of those who o})posed the proposed Constitution ad- 
mitted the necessity for amendment to the Articles of Con- 
federation, but saw in the new plan danger to the integrity 
of the States and the ^ destruction of local self-government. 
The defenders of the Constitution were by no means silent 



9 



or idle. Hamilton, Madison and Jay published over the name 
*'Publius" a series of essays explaining and defending the 
Constitution, which, when bound in a volume, were known 
as -The Federalist." Mr. Jjodge says: "The 'Federalist' 
throughout the length and breadth of the United States did 
more than anything else that was either written or spoken 
to secure the adoption of the new scheme." Mr. Fiske says: 
"The essays Were widely and eagerly read and probably ac- 
complished more toward insuring the adoption of the new 
Constitution than anything else that was said or done in the 
eventful year." Mr. McEee, in his "Life of Judge Iredell," 
which Mr. Bancroft says "for instruction is an invaluable 
work," says : "Contemporaneous with the meeting of the Con- 
vention at Philadelphia, the two great parties into ^Vhich the 
people were divided began to be known as 'Federalist' and 
'Anti-Federalist/ or 'Republican.' The former in favor of 
a more intimate union of the States, and fully prepared to 
receive the new i)lan of government; fhe latter either content 
with the Confederation, or content to submit to slight or par- 
tial amendments alone." William Dickson, a very intelli- 
gent and observant man, living in ])u]din County, gives us 
a very clear and interesting description of conditions in the 
State. On November 30, 1787, he writes: "During the coarse 
of the last summer a grand (Convention of delegates from 
the several States were assembled at Philadelphia. The only 
production of their councils which I have yet seen pu])lished 
is a Constitution for .the United States of America to be 
submitted to the legislature of each State for their appro- 



10 



bation and concurrence, a copy or a pamphlet of which, for 
amusement, I herewith enclose you. Our General Assem- 
bly for this State htq now convened and have it \uider consid- 
eration. We hear that debate runs high concerning it, also 
the populace in the country are divided in their opinions 
concerning it. For my own paj't, I am but a shallow poli- 
tician, but there are some parts of it I do not like." 

Judge Tredell published in 17S8 an ''Answer to ^Ir ^[a- 
son's Objections to the New Constitution," signed "Marcus." 
In this very able paper he states Mr. Mason's objections and 
proceeds to answer them seriatim'. This paper was published 
in connection with an "Address to the People," by Mr. Mac- 
laine, signed "Publicola." 

That the "Federalist" was circulated. in this State is shown 
by letters referring to it from Davie and Maclaine to Iredell. 
But Iredell was unanimously elected a delegate from 
Edenton to the Convention, Davie secured a seat from the 
to^\^l of Halifax, and Maclaine, Oovernor Johnston and 
Spaight were also selected. The election in a large majority 
of the counties showed much hostility to the proposed Con- 
stitution. "William Hooper writes Iredell from Hillsborough: 
"I'fear those who favor the new Constitution will be far out- 
numbered by their adversaries. The Western Country in 
general is decidedly opposed to it. Mr. ]\loore and myself 
essayed in vain for a seat in the Convention. Our sentiments 
had transpired before the election." ^laclaine writes that 
while he hears that many of the people are changing their 
opinions in favor of the Con.stitution, that it is ii<»t xcry good 



11 



sign that such men as General Allen Jones, William Blount, 
Mr. Hooper, Mr. Moore, General Martin and Judge Wil- 
liams have been rejected 

The Convention met in the Presbyterian Church at Hills- 
borough on July 21, 1788, with two hundred and eighty-four 
members. Governor Johnston, although a strong supporter 
of the Constitution, was unanimously elected President. Mr. 
John Hunt and ]\Ir. Joseph Taylor were elected Secretaries. 
Among the delegates, besides those named, were John Steele 
of Rowan, "laborious, clear-sighted and serviceable for his 
knowledge of men"; General Davie, who had won renown 
as a soldier in the Revolutionary War, served many times 
in the Legislature, a man of eminent ability and destined 
for high honors in the service of the State aiul nation. 

Of James Iredell, Mr. Bancroft says: ''Foremost among 
the Federalists, the master, mind of the Convention was 
James Iredell, who before he was forty years old was placed 
by Washington on the Supreme Bench of the United States." 
He was at that time thirty-six, and had not before served 
in a parliamentary body. Moore says: ''He was as ready in 
debate as he was profound in legal and constitutional knowl- 
edge." 

Archibald Maclaine was a learned and able lawyer and 
ardent patriot, and had rendered eminent service in the Cape 
Fear section in the struggle for independence. He was strong 
in debate, but impatient and at times gave way to a hasty 
'temper 

Richard Dobbs Spaight had been a memlx^r of the Phila- 



12 



delphia Convention. He was a man of ^reat ability, and 
was afterwards Governor of the State 

Among the leaders in the opposition, by far the nioat influ- 
ential was Willie Jones of Halifax. Of this remarkable 
man, Mr. McKee says : "Willie Jones was the most influential 
politician in the State. Although democratic in theory, he 
was aristocratic in habits, tastes, pursuits and prejudices; he 
lived sumptuously and wore fine linen ; he raced, hunted and 
played cards. He was proud of his wealth and social posi- 
tion and fastidious in the selection of associates of his family. 
A patriot in the Revolution, he was now the acknowledged 
head of a great party. * * * Jje was a loving and 
cherished disciple of Jefferson, and was often taunted with 
his subserviency to Virginia 'abstractions.' He seldoih shared 
in discussions. His time for action was chiefly during the 
hours of adjournment; then, it was that he stimulated the 
passions, aroused the suspicions and moderated the ardor of 
his followers ; then it was that, smoking his pij)e and chatting 
of ploughs, stock, dogs, etc., he stole his way into the hearts of 
honest farmers and erected there thrones for himself." 

Judge Spencer, of Anson, was probably the ablest debater 
in the ranks of the opponents. He spoke more frequently 
and at greater length than any other on that side. While 
he strongly advocated guarantees against ap})rehended dan- 
gers, he recognized the necessity for a stronger and closer 
union of the States. His temper was good and his language 
moderate. 

Timothy Bloodworth was one of the most interesting men 



la 



in the body. McKee says of him: "By no means one of the 
least among them, he was one of the most remarkable men of 
that era, distinguished for the versatility of his talents and 
his praetieal knowledge of men, trades, arts and sciences. 
The child of ])overty, diligence and ambition had supplied 
the place of patronage and wealth. Preacher, smith, far- 
mer, doctor, watch-maker, wheelwright aud politician. * * 
In the social circle, good-humored, gay and full of racy 
anecdotes, as a politician he was resolute almost to fierceness 
and almost radical in his democracy, lie was a member 
of Congress and United States Senator. 

Dr. Caldwell, a Presbyterian minister, was learned and 
intelligent. Among his jDcople ''he discharged the triple func- 
tion of preacher, physician and teacher, and for all these vari- 
ous offices his industry and sagacity had so qualified him that 
he had no rival." 

McDowell had won distinction at the battles of King's 
Mountain and Cowpens. lie was a strong man, and always 
spoke with clearness and vigor. "He was throughout his life 
the idol of the people of Western Xorth Carolina." 

General Thomas Persons strongly supported Willie Jones 
in his opposition to the Constitution. Like him, he spoke 
but seldom. 

Among other names prominent in our State's history were 
Elisha Battle, Stephen Cabarrus, Josiah Collins, John Sit- 
greaves, William Barry Grove, Thomas Owens, Thomas 
Brown, Joseph Winston, John Macon (brotlier of Nathaniel), 



14 



William Lenoir, James Kenan, John Branch, Joel Lane, Mat- 
thew Lockes, 

Bancroft says: ''The Convention organized itself with tran- 
quility and dignity and proceeded to discuss the (Constitu- 
tion clause by clause." ^Iclvee says: ''A Mr. Robinson at- 
tended as stenographer. The Federalists were desirous that 
the debates should be })ublished, trusting that their dissemi- 
nation would j)ro<luce a salutary change in the opinions of the 
people. At tiieir instance, Iredell and Davie assumed the 
responsibility and care of their publication. The debates 
are to be seen in Elliott's collection, and do so much honor 
to the State and compare so well with the debates on the same 
subject in other States, that no North (Carolinian can fail in 
grateful recollection of the energy and iudustry of the two 
eminent men to whom he is indebted for their preservation." 
They lost money on their publication. The usual Commit- 
tees on Rules and (Credentials were apjjointed and reports 
adopted. The eU-ction in J)obbs (-ouhty was declared invalid 
because of a riot and disturbance, the box being taken away 
by violence. After hearing the proposed Constitution and 
other papers read, Mr. Galloway moved that the Constitution 
be discussed ''clause* by clause." This was jjromjjtly opposed 
by Willie Jones and General Person, both of whom said that 
they supposed ever}' delegate was prepared to vote at once; 
that the condition of the public treasury was such that no more 
expense should be incurred than was necessary. Judge Ire- 
dell said that he was "astonished at the proposal to decide 
immediately, without the least deliberation, a question which 



15 



was perhaps the greatest ever submitted to any body of men." 
He said that the Constitution was formed after much delibera- 
tion by honest and able men of '^probity and understanding" ; 
that ten States had ratified it. He urged with much ability 
and in excellent spirit a full consideration. Mr. Jones said 
that he was prepared to vote and supposed others were, but if 
gentlemen differed with him he would suhmit. The Conven- 
tion, without coming to a vote, adjourned The next day, 
upon the suggestion of Mr. Galloway, the members of the Con- 
vention went into Committee of the Whole for the purpose of 
discussing the Constitution, JMr. Elisha Battle presiding, 
Mr. Caldwell submitted some ''fundamental rules or princi- 
ples of government" and proposed that the Constitution be 
compared with them. This proposition was rejected as 
impracticable. The preamble being read, Mr. Caldwell at 
once opened the discussion by attacking the language "We the 
People," saying "if they mean by 'We the People' the people 
at large, that he conceived the expression was improper." He 
contended that the delegates who formed the Constitution 
represented the States and had no power to act for "the people 
at large." Mr. Maclaine, admitting that they were "dele- 
gated by the States," insisted that when ado])ted the Consti- 
tution became the work of the people. General Davie said 
that he was called upon to speak because it was charged that 
the delegates had exceeded their powers, which he denied. 
Judge Iredell came to General Davie's aid, but neither of 
these able men could satisfy the troubled mind of the Presby- 
terian preacher, who, at the conclusion, simply said that "he 



16 



wished to know why the gentlemen wlio were delegated by the 
States styled themselves 'We the People' ; that he only wished 
for information." j\Ir. Taylor, in a remarkably clear and 
forceful manner, expressed the thonght of the Anti-Federal- 
ists. He said that by the use of the words '"We the people" 
the delegates assumed a ])ower not delegated. "Had they said 
'We the States,' there would have been a federal intention in 
( it, but it was clear that a consolidation was intended." He 
said that he was ''astonished that the servants of the Legisla- 
ture of ]Srorth Tarulina should go to Philadelphia and instead 
of speaking of the State of North ('arulina blicndd speak of 
the people. T wish to stop power as soon as ])ossible." ^fr. 
]\[aclaine expressed ''astonishment" at tlie (ibjection. He 
showed impatience by referring to it as "tritling," but the 
harddieaded Scotch preacher mildly said that he ''<»nly 
wished to know why they had assumed the name of the ])eo- 
ple." 

Although, during the century or more that has passed since 
these men in Hillslx)rough, Patrick Henry and George ^lason 
in Virginia, and others who were inquisitive in regard to the 
use of the expression, demanded an answer to their question, 
high debate, learned discussion and long treatises have been 
had and written, and grim war has played its part in the 
argument, it has not l)een answered satisfactorily to the 
minds of men like ^Ir. Caldwell. It certainly Avas not 
answered to the satisfaction of Willie Jones and his discci- 
ples. 

The first section of article one, vesting all legislative power 



17 



in Congress, was read and passed over with but little discns- 
sion, My. j\laclaine making some observations in regard to 
biennial elections. Mr. Shepherd remarked that he could 
see no propriety in the friends of the Constitution making 
objections when none were made by the opponents, where- 
upon Mr. Jones said that he would suggest that one of the 
friends of the measure make oljjections and another answer. 
General Davie said that he ho})ed personal reflections would 
be avoided as much as possible, that he was sorry to see so 
much impatience "so early in the business." Mr. Jones 
made no reply and said nothing until the end of the discus- 
sion. Mr. Hloodworth spoke for the first time, saying that 
any gentleman had a right to make objections, and that he 
was sorry to hear reflections made. 

The satus of negroes in making up the basis for represen- 
tation was discussed by ]\[r. Groudy, who '^did not wish to be 
represented with negroes." General Davie said that they 
were an unhappy species of population, but they could not 
then alter their situation ; that the Eastern States were jealous 
in regard to giving the Southern States representation for 
their slaves. He expressed the hope that the gentleman from 
Guilford "would accommodate his feelings to the interest 
and circumstances of his country." Mr. Spaight and Gov- 
ernor Johnston spoke with much good sense and temper. 

"The sole jxjwer of impeachment" conferred upon the 
House of Representatives was objected to and fears were 
expressed that it might be construed to include the impeach- 
ment of State officers. Judge Iredell and Governor Johnston 



18 



fully answered the arguments of ^Ir. Blood worth and Mr. 
Taylor, while ]\lr. ^laclaine referred to them as ''silly." 

Mr. Cabarrus and Judge Iredell discussed the term of 
Senators, and explained the reason why they were fixed at 
six years The sixth section, or clause, gave rise to an acri- 
monious debate, in which ^Ir. jMacluine referred to the objec- 
tions as displaying "horrid ignorance." j\rr. Taylor said : 
"If all are not of equal ability with the gentlenum, he ought 
to possess charity towards us and not lavih^h such severe 
reflections upon us in such a declamatory manner." This 
brought from the rather impatient gentleman a ])rompt ex- 
pression of regi'ct, etc. Mr. Eloodwortli observed tliat he 
was obliged to the gentleman for his construction, but ex- 
pressed the a])prehension that tlie same construction might 
not be put upon tlie clause by Congress. lie sai<l were he to 
go to Congress, he would put that construction on it. ISTo 
one could say what construction Congress would put on it. 
"I do not distrust liim, but I distrust thoni. I M'isli to leave 
no dangerous latitude of construction." 

The first clause of the fourth section being read. Judge 
Spencer spoke for the first time, expressing ai)prehension that 
the power given to Congress to fix the time, jdace and manner 
of holding elections for members of Congress did away with 
the right of the j)eople to elect their re])ros('iitatives every 
two years. He wished the matter exphiiucd. (Governor 
Johnston frankly said: "I confess that I am a v(Ty great 
admirer of the new Constitution, but I cannot com]»r(h('nd the 
reason of this j)art." After some discussion, he said that 



10 

every State which had recommended amendments had given 
directions that the ])rovision be removed, and he hoped that 
this State would do the same, durlgc Spencer here s])oke at 
some length with force and in excell(!nt spirit. He admitted 
that the Constitution had a "grciit deal of merit in it." lie 
thought this clause ''reprehensible." "It apparently looks 
forward to a consolidation of the government of the United 
States, when the State Legislatures may entirely decay away." 
He regarded the State governments as the ''basis of our hap- 
piness, stH!urity and prosj^erity." Mr. Iredell said that he 
was ''glad to see so nmch candor and moderation. The 
liberal sentiments expressed by the honorable gentleman" 
commanded his n^spect. He proceeded to show that this 
power given to CongTess was "both necessary and useful to 
the continued existence of the government," but conceded that 
great jealousy existed in regard to it, saying: "I should, 
therefore, not object to the recommendation of an amendment 
similar to that of other States, that this power in Oongi-ess 
should only be exercised when a State legislature neglected 
or was disabled from making the regulation required." 
After other remarks by several delegates. General Davie made 
an extended argument in defense of the power, to which Mr. 
Caldwell remarked "those things which can be and may be," 
])rotesting strongly against the clause. iVIr. iMuclaine entered 
the list witli tiie somewhat testy observation that the objection 
made by the reverend gcntleimm from Guilford "astonished 
him more than anything he had heard. After making some 
criticisms u])on references to the history of Kngland, he con- 



20 



eluded : "It cannot be supposed that the representatives of our 
general government will be worse than the members of our 
State government. Will we be such fools as to send our 
greatest rascals to the general government ?" Mr. James Gal- 
loway and Mr. Bloodworth spoke strongly against the clause, 
while Mr. Steele, speaking for the first time, presented the 
other side with gi-eat clearness and power. Among other 
things, he said : ''If the Congi'ess make laws inconsistent with 
the Constitution independent judges will not enforce them, 
nor will the people obey them." The debate on this clause 
elicited more learning and ability than any which preceded 
it, the opposition getting rather the better of the argument. 

The clause empowering Congress ''to lay and collect taxes, 
duties, imposts," etc., elicited considerable debate. ^Ir. 
Spencer opened the discussion, expressing apprehension that 
the extensive power conferred upon Congress would deprive 
the States of any source of revenue. The Anti-Federalists 
insisted that Congress should "not have power to levy taxes 
in the first instance, but should apply to the States, and in 
case of refusal then direct taxation shall take place." The 
friends of the Constitution contended that direct taxation 
would not be necessary ; that custom duties and excise taxes 
would meet the ordinary expenses of the government. Gov- 
ernor Johnston led in the debate for the Federalists, aided by 
a strong speech by Mr. llill, who spoke for the first time. 
Mr. Iredell spoke briefly. 

Mr. McDowell objected to the clause regarding the impor- 
tation of slaves and the power conferred u\)on Congress to 



21 



restrict it after the year 1808. Mr. Spai^zlit, who was a 
member of the Pliih'idelphia Convention, exphiined that this 
section was the result of a compromise. ]\lr. Iredell said if 
it were practicable it would give him the greatest pleasure to 
put an end to the importation of slaves immediately. lie 
said: ''When the entire abolition of slavery takes place it will 
be an event that must be pleasing to every generous mind and 
every friend of lunnan nature ; but we often wish for things 
that are not attainable." Mr. Galloway was not satisfied 
with the explanation. He said : "I wish to see the abomin- 
able trade put an end to." In conclusion, he asked the oft- 
repeated, never-answered question : ''I apprehend it means to 
bring forward manumission. If we manumit our slaves, 
what country shall we send them to ? It is impossible for us 
to be happy if, after manumission, they are to stay among us." 
With a few explanatory remarks, this ended, for the time, 
the discussion. Whether it will be ended in ''the tide of 
time" is one of the unsolved problems — unanswered questions. 

When the second article, without further discussion, was 
reached, General Davie, evidently understanding the tactics 
of Willie Jones and his followers, expressed his astonishment 
at the ''precipitancy with which the Convention was proceed- 
ing." j\lr. Taylor thought it a waste of time to make trivial 
objections. 

The several clauses in regard to the manner of electing the 
President and the powers conferred upon him were read and 
debated at considerable length, Mr. Iredell making an able and 
exliaustive defense of the mode of elwtion, etc. The power to 



22 



make treaties with the concurrence of two-tliirds of the Senate, 
was strongly objected to by Mr. S})encer and ^Mr. Bloodworth 
• and defended by General Davie and Mv. Iredell. 

The article establishing and defining the jurisdiction of the 
Federal judiciary gave rise to a spirited and able discussion. 
The strong men on both sides took part, putting forth their 
best efforts. Judge Spencer opened the discussion, stating 
very clearly his objections to the article, lie thought the 
jurisdiction conferred ujKjn the Federal courts too extensive; 
that they would absorb the power of the State courts, leaving 
them nothing to do. lie well understood the tendency of 
courts to extend by construction and implication their juris- 
diction, lie objected that men would be taken long distances 
from their homes to attend upon the courts, and there would 
be a horde of otHcers. He said: "If we consider nothing but 
the article of taxation, duties and excises, and the laws which 
might be made with reference to these, the cases will \ye almost 
infinite." lie strongly protested because of the absence of any 
provision requiring trial by jury in civil cases. In the course 
of this discussion the objection tliat the Constitution contained 
no Bill of Kights was first made. Judge Spencer said: 
"There ought to be a Bill of Rights in order that those in 
power may not step over the boundary between the powers of 
govenmient and the rights of the people." lie was strongly 
supported by ^Ir. Bloodworth and iMr. ^IcDowell. The 
friends of the Constitution joined in defending it and answer- 
ing the objections. Judge Iredell, General Davie and their 
supporters were at their best, and Judge Iredell frankly 



23 



said : ''T am by no means surprised at the anxiety which 
is expressed by gcntloineii on this siiljject. Of all the trials 
that ever were instituted in the world, this, in my opin- 
ion, is the best, and that which I ho])e will continue the 
longest.'' He thought the right sufiiciently guarded. The 
seventh amendment to the Constitution not ouly vindicated 
the wisdom, but removed the objection of Judge Spencer 
and his associates. 

To the demand for a Bill of Ivights, it was answered by 
Judge Iredell and General Davie that, as our government 
was based upon the principle that all political power was 
vested in the peojjle, and that the government possessed only 
such as was expressly granted, it was unnecessary and would 
be incongruous to have a declaration or Bill of Bights. That 
in this respect our government essentially dilfercd from the 
English, wherein all power was vested in the King and the 
people possessed only such rights as were expressly granted 
them. Theoretically, Iredell was correct, but practically and 
in tlie light of the struggle for the protection and preservation 
of civil and religious liberty, Blood worth and Spencer were 
right in demanding that nothing, in this respect, be left to 
''mere construction or opinion." Bloodworth said: 'T still 
see the necessity of a Bill of Rights. Gentlemen use con- 
tradictory arguments on this subject, if I recollect right. 
Without the most express restrictions. Congress may tramjilo 
on your riglits. Iwery possible i)recaution ought to be taken 
when we grant powers. Itulers are always disposed to abuse 
them." j\]r. Bass, who spoke but once, said that he considered 



25 

Union. The question of ultimate sovereignty, ultimate allegi- 
ance remained open until settled hy a four years' bloody war, 
resulting in amendments to the (Constitution, ^[r. Blood- 
Vv'orth touched the sensitive ]Joint and expressed the appre- 
hensions of Southern men by saying: "The Northern States 
are much more poi)uh)us tlian the Southern ones. To the 
north of the Susquehanna there are thirty-six representatives 
and to the south only twenty-nine. They will always out- 
vote us." In the same connection he stated the fears and 
feelings of his people on another then vital question. ''We 
ought to be particular in adopting a Constitution which may 
destroy our currency, when it is to be the supreuje law of the 
land and prohibits the emission of paper money." Mr. Ban- 
croft says of Timothy Bloodworth, that "as a preacher he 
abounded in ollices of charity; as a politician, dreaded the 
subjection of Southern to Northern interests." He says of 
this State, "towards the general government it was a delin- 
quent, and it had not yet shaken from itself the bewildering 
influence of paper money." 

There was grave apprehension that the then existing pub- 
lic and private debts would be made payable in gold and 
silver. .Much was said about assi.o^iing securities to citizens 
of other States and suits being brought in the Federal courts. 
Mr. Cabarrus made a strong speech showing that this could 
not be done, and ]!klr. Galloway called attention to the fact 
that our securities were at a low ebb; that they were taken as 
specie and "hung over our heads as contracts." If Congress 



26 



should make a law requiring them to be paid in specie, they 
would be purchased by speculators at a trifling cost, lieneral 
Davie said tliat no such construction could bo ])ut ujjon that 
clause. 

A very singular and spirited discussion arose over the clause 
prohibiting religious tests for holding oiKce. ^Ir. Abbott had 
grave fear that the Pope of Rome might become President; 
while J\Ir. Caldwell thought there was danger that ''Jews 
and heathens" would acce]jt the invitation to come here and 
^'change the character of our govemincnt." Some said that 
under the power to make treaties Congress might make a 
treaty "engaging with some foreign powers to adopt the 
Koinan Catliolic religion in the United States"; that all sorts 
of infidels "could obtain office/' and that "the Senators and 
Representatives might be all pagans." Mr. Iredell said: 
"Nothing is more desirable tlian to remove the scruples of 
any gentleman on this interesting subject. Those concerning 
religion are entitled to particular regard." Tie spoke at length 
and with much ability. Among other things, he said : "There 
is a danger of a jealousy Avhich it is impossible to satisfy. 
Jealousy in a free government ought to be respected, but it 
may be carried to too great an extent" He said that he had 
seen a pamphlet that morning in which the author stated as a 
very serious danger that the Pope of Rome might be elected 
President. With the only language ap])roaching humor, 
coming from this virtuous, wise and thoroughly good man, 
he remarks: "I confess this never struck me before." In 
response to a request from Mr. Abbott he gave an interesting 



27 

history of tlie various forms of oatlis. Jiidi-e Spencer agi-eed 
with Judge Iredell in regard to this question, and said that 
he wished that every other part of the Constitution "was as 
good and proper." 

^ The reading and discussion of each clause of the Constitu- 
tion being completed, Governor Johnston moved that the com- 
mittee, having fully deliberated, etc., report that though cer- 
tain amendments may be wislied for, that they be proposed 
subsequent to the ratification and that the committee recom- 
mend that the Convention do ratify the Constitution. This 
motion precipitated a general discussion, opened by Mr. 
Ix^noir, who charged that the delegates who were commis- 
sioned to amend the Articles of Confederation "proposed to 
annihilate it." He reviewed its different parts, and in con- 
clusion said: "As millions yet unborn are concerned and 
deeply interested, I would have the most positive and pointed 
security." He urged that amendments be proi)osed before 
ratification. The discussion continued until July 31st, sev- 
eral delegates, who haM not theretofore spoken, taking 'part. 
At the conclusion of quite a long speech by Mr. Lancaster, 
Mr. Willie Jones said that he was against ratifying in the 
manner proposed. lie had, he said, attended with patience 
to the debate. "One party said the Constitution was all per- 
fection ; the other said it wanted a great deal of ])erfection." 
For his part, lie thought so. After s,.nie furher remarks he 
moved the previous question be put, upon a resolution which 
he held, expressing a purpose, if carried, to introduce certain 
amndments which he held in his hand. Govenun- Johnston 



28 



begged the gentleman to remember that the proposed amend- 
ments could not be laid before the other States unless we 
ratified and became a part of the Union. Mt. Iredell wished 
the call for the previous question should be withdrawn. Mr. 
Jones declined to withdraw it. He said the argument had 
been listened to attentively, but he believed no person had 
changed his opinion. Mr. Person and Mr. Shepherd sus- 
tained Mr. Jones. General Davie, referring to a remark 
reflecting uix)n the minority, said that "the gentleman from 
Granville had frequently used ungenerous insinuations, and 
had taken much ])ains out of doors to incite the minds of 
his countrymen against the Constitution, lie called upon 
gentlemen to act openly and above-board, adding that a con- 
trary conduct on this occasion was extremely despicable." 
He criticised the call for the previous question and pointed 
out the danger of a conditional ratification. Mr. Jones said 
that he had not intended to take the House by surprise. He 
had no objection to adjourning but his motion would still be 
before the House. "Here there was a great cry for the ques- 
tion." "Mr. Iredell (the cry for the question still continu- 
ing) : Mr. Chairman, I desire to be heard notwithstanding the 
cry of Hhe question' — 'the question.' Gentlemen have no 
right to prevent any member from speaking to it if he thinks 
proper. Unimportant as I am myself, my constituents are as 
respectable as those of any member of this House." He con- 
tinued speaking with much spirit and ability. At the conclu- 
sion of his speech the previous question was ordered by a 
majority of 99. On the next day the debate continued with 



29 



much spirit, as to whether the Committee would recommend 
adoption suggesting amendments, or postpone adoption until 
amendments were made. Governor Johnston led in the dis- 
cussion. ]\lr. Willie Jones in his reply gave out the plan 
which he, as the leader of the majority, had mapped out in 
advance. Said he: "As great names have been mentioned, I 
heff leave to mention the authority of j\lr, Jefterson, whose 
abilities and respectability are well known. When the Con- 
vention sat in Kichmond, Virginia, Mr. Madison received a 
letter from him. In that letter he said he wished nine States 
would adopt it, not because it deserved ratification, but to 
preserve the Union. P)ut he wished the other four States 
would reject it, that tliere might be a certainty of obtaining 
amendments." Mr. Jones, concluding that it would take 
eighteen months to adopt amendment^, said : ''For my part, I 
would rather be eighteen years out of the Union than adopt 
it in its present defective form." Mr. S])encer concurred 
with Mr. Jones. It was now evident that the end was draw- 
ing near and the result certain. Judge Iredell and General 
Davie made one last appeal to save the Constitution, but 
Willie Jones and General Person were the victors. The 
Committee rose and made its report to the (convention. 

On Friday, August 1, 1788, the Convention met. Mr. 
Iredell arose and said : "I believe, sir, all debate is now at 
an end. It is useless to contend any longer against a major- 
ity that is irrcsisliblc. We submit, with the (k'ferenee that 
becomes us, to the decision cf a majority; but myself and my 
friends are anxious that something may ai>}jear on the Jour- 



30 



nal to show onr sentiments on tlie subject." He then offered 
a resolution wliieh he had in his hand^ and moved tliat the 
consideration of the report of the (Committee be postponed 
in order to take np the resolution, which he read and delivered 
to the Clerk. Mr. McDowell and others most strongly ob- 
jected to the motion. They thought it improper, unprece- 
dented and a great contempt of tlie voice of the majority. 
Mr. Iredell defended his motion and was supported by Mr. 
Maclaine and Mr. Spaight. Mr. Jones and Mr. Spencer 
insisted that the motion was irregular. They said that he 
could protest. General Davie criticised the course of the 
majority. After a warm discussion, it was agreed that Judge 
Iredell withdraw his motion that the resolution of the Com- 
mittee be entered on the Journal, which had not been done. 
The resolution of the Committee of the Whole was then read 
and entered as follows : 

"Resolved, That a declaration of rights, asserting and 
securing from encroachment the great principk?s of civil and 
religious liberty, and the unalienable rights of the people, 
together with amendments to the most ambiguous and excep- 
tionable parts of the Constitution of government, be laid be- 
fore Congress and the Convention of the States that shall or 
may be called for the purpose of amending the said Consti- 
tution, for their consideration previous to the ratitication of 
the Constitution aforesaid on the pifrt of the State of North 
Carolina." 

Then followed a Bill of Rights containing the essential 
principles of the Bill of Rights contained in our State Con- 



31 



stitution, with twciity-six proposed amendinents to the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Spencer moved that the report of the Committee be 
concurred in. Mr. Iredell again endeavored to get a vote 
upon his resolution. '^This gave rise to a very warm alter- 
cation on both sides, during which the House was in great 
confusion," Mr. Willie Jones, Mr. Spaight and Mr. Hill tak- 
ing part. The latter "spoke with great wannth and declared 
that, in his o])inion, if the majority persevered in their tyran- 
nical attempt the minority would^ secede." After some fur- 
ther discussion, the motion of Mr. Spencer was withdrawn, 
whereupon ]\Ir. Iredell offered his resolution, which ratified 
the Constitution, and offered certain amendments, which was 
defeated by a nuijority of one hundred. The Convention 
adjourned for the day. 

On Saturday, August 2, 1788, the Convention, by a vote 
of 184 to 84, adopted the report of the Committee, which was 
a practical rejection of the Constitution. Eleven States hav- 
ing, at this time, ratified the Constitution, the organization 
of the new government was assured. North Carolina was, 
upon the dissolution of the Confederation, a sovereign, inde- 
pendent republic, having no federal relations with other 
States. Her ])olitical organism was intact and in full vigor. 
She therefore took no part in tlie first election or the organiza- 
tion of the new government. 

At tlie session of 1788 (November 17lh) the Legislature 
adopted a resolution calling a ''New Convention" for the 
''purpose of reconsidering the new Constitution held out by 



32 



the Federal Constitution as a government of the United 
States." Provision was made for liolding an election in each 
county, at which three, instead of five, delegates were to be 
elected, each horough town to send one. Fayetteville was 
named as the y)lace and the third ^londay in November, 
1789, the time for holding the Convention. Of the leaders 
in the first Convention, Governor Johnston, General Davie, 
^John Steele, Judge Spencer, Bloodworth, McDowell, Cabar- 
rus, Thomas Person, Mr. Goudy were i)resent. J\idge Ire- 
dell was not a candidate for a seat in the Convention. 
Neither Willie Jones, Archibald Maclaine or Richard Dobbs 
Spaight were members. Dr. Hugh Williamson was a mem- 
ber. The I^egislature being in session at Fayetteville on the 
day appointed for the meeting of the Convention, took a 
recess or adjournment during its session. Several gentlemen 
were members of both bodies. 

The Convention organized by electing Governor Johnston 
President and Charles fFohnston Vice-President. Tlie sec- 
retaries who served the first Convention were elected. After 
the organization, Mr. Williamson introduced a resolution 
ratifying the Constitution. This being objected to, the Con- 
vention went into Committee of the Whole, ^Ir. John B. 
Ashe presiding. The resolution of ^Ir. Williamson, together 
with all ])ap(*rs relating to the new Constitution, were re- 
ferred to the Committee. After some discussion, on Novem- 
ber 20th the Committee reported to the Convention that it 
"had gone through the reading of the Constitution, or plan 
of government, and had come to a resolution thereon." On 



33 



the 21st day of November, General Davie moved that the 
Convention concur in the resolution. Mr. Galloway objected 
and oifercd a resolutiun reciting that although the amend- 
ments proposed by Congress ''embrace in some measure, when 
adopted, the object this State had in view in a Bill of Rights 
and many of the amendments pro])osed by the last Conven- 
tion, and although union with our sister States is our most 
-earnest desire, yet as some of the great and most exceptional 
parts of the said pro]X)sed Constitution have not undergone 
the alterations which were thought necessary by the last Con- 
vention, 

"Resolved, That previous to the ratification in ])ehalf of 
and on the part of the State of North Carolina the following 
amendments be proposed and laid before the Congress, that 
they may be adopted and made a ])art of the said (Constitu- 
tion." 

Following this were four amendments. The resolution 
was rejected by a vote of 82 to 187. The Con/ention there- 
upon considered the report of the Committee of the Whole. 
"Whereas, the General Convention which met in Philadel- 
phia, in pursuance of a recommendation of (\)ngrcss, did rec- 
ommend to the citizens of the United States a Constitution, 
or form of government, in the following words (here follows 
the Constitution) ; Itesolved, That this Cunvention, in be- 
half of the freemen, citizens and iidiabitants of the State of 
North Carolina, do adojjt and ratify the said Constitution 
and form of government." General Davie moved the adop- 
tion of the resolution, which motion was, upon a call of the 



34 



members, adopted by a vote of 195 to 77. General Davie 
completed the work by moviiijr that the Tresident of the 
Convention transmit to the President of the United States 
a copy of the ratification, etc. Mr. Galloway introduced 
a resolution recommendiuo- that certain amendments be sent 
to Congress, whieli was rejected. It was thereupon ordered 
by the Convention that the resolution offered by ]\rr. Gallo- 
^way be referred to a committee and that the committee pre- 
pare and lay before the Convention such aniendmenls as they 
deemed necessary. General Davie, Mr. Smith, Mr. Gallo- 
way, Mr. Blood worth, Mr. Stokes and Mr. Spencer M-ere 
named as the committee. The committee, on the next dav 
made a unanimous report recommending certain amendments 
which was adopted. 

The Convention, after adopting- an ordinance giving to 
Fayetteville .representation in the General Assembly, and 
thanking the presiding oiiieers "for their able and faithful 
services in the arduous discharge of their duty,'" adjourned. 
Judge Iredell was not there to witness the successful com- 
pletion of his labors to bring the State into the Union ; nor 
was Maclaine to give the opposition a parting shot. Judge 
Spencer, Uv. Bloodworth and General Person left their tes- 
timony on record, voting at all times against the Constitu- 
tion. 

On December 4, 1780, Samuel Johnston, President of the 
Convention, sent a letter to "The President of the United 
States," transmitting the resolution, etc. It was filed Janu- 
ary 12, 1790. The length of this paper precludes any com- 



35 

merits upon the record which it has uiidei'taken to set out. 
Samuel Johnston was one of tlie first Senators sent from 
this State. Benjamin Hawkins was his colleague. 

Notwithstanding^ the adoption of the Constitution by so 
largo a majority, the sentiment of the State in its favor was 
far from unanimous. We get from .Mr. Dickson's letters 
a fair view of the way it was regarded by many. He says, 
referring to the (^'onstitution : "I will readily agree witli 
you that a better could not be formed for the United States 
in general. I think it is formed so as to lay the foundation 
of one of the greatest empires now in the world, and from 
the high opinion I have of the illustrious characters who now 
hold the reigns of government, 1 have no fear of any revolu- 
tion taking place in my day. * * * it was a matter 
of necessity ralher than choice when the Convention of North 
Carolina received it about twelve months a20 * ^ * It 
appears to me that the Southern States Mill not receive equal 
benefit with the Northern States. * * * I'lie Southern 
States will have their vote, but will not be able to carry any 
point against so powerful a party in eases where either gen- 
eral or local interests are objects," etc. 

Governor Ixnoir, in a letter to John C. Hamilton, written 
in 1834, says: "Our State had once rejected the Federal 
Constitution and had finally adopted it only as an alternative 
less fatal than absolute severance from tlie adjoining States. 
Those who had from necessity yielded their objections to the 
new plan of Federal Union si ill regarded it with gi-eat 
jealousy." 



36 



The most serious fears entertained by the people were in 
regard to slavery, which has happily passed away. Time 
adjusted the question of paper money. While the State has 
Eot kept her relative position in population or wealth, in the 
light of to-day we see in the views and opinions of James 
Iredell, General Davie, Governor Johnston and those who 
followed them a larger wisdom and clearer view than in Wil- 
lie Jones, Judge Spencer, Timothy Bloodworth and Kev. Mr. 
Caldwell. They all served their day and generation with the 
lights before them, and we are their debtors for faithful ser- 
vice and wise foresight. 



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■ " GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 

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Historic Homes in North Carolina — C^uuker Meadows. 

Judgre A, C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, Jolin Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikea. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hennitage, Vernon Hall. 
Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Coblj. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

ITie Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Juise James C. MacRae. 
Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 

•■ "l . 
, One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Societt 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
$1 per ye;ir. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
.IV are requested to notify at unce. 
; ;, Address MISS MARY HILLL\RD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 
, Raleiqu, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of tlie Booklet 
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add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS: ' 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. IV SEPTEMBER, 1904 No. 5 



THE 



I NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA I CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER I 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



or wi<?oO' « M.n 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UZZELL & Co.. PniNTERS AND BINDERS 
1904 



PREFACE. 



The object of the North Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the ''Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 




JOHN PENN. 



JOHN PENN. 

BY THOMAS MERRITT PITTMAN. 



"There sounds not to the tiuuip of fame 
The echo of a nobler name." 

American liistoiy is rich in examples of men who have 
overcome poverty and humble birtli and wrought out for 
themselves enduring fame. Not many have accomplished 
the more difficult task of winning distinction, where high 
station and easy fortune were joined with associations indif- 
ferent to education and contemptuous of intellectual attain- 
ment. We enter the name of John Penn upon the roll of 
those who have achieved the higher honor. 

He was born in Caroline County, Virginia, May 17, 1741. 

His father, Moses Penn, was a gentleman' of comfortable 
fortune, but so indiflerent to intellectual culture, according 
to Lossing, that he provided his only son no other opportunity 
of acquiring an education than was afforded by two or three 
years' attendance upon a common country school. He died 
when his son was eighteen years of age, and is said to have 
left him the sole possessor of a competent though not lar-e 
estate. * 

His mother was Catherine, daughter of John Taylor one 
of the first Justices of Caroline County. James Tavlor 
who came from Carlisle, England, about 1635, was the "first ' 







of the family to settle in Virginia. The family was an 
important one and has contributed many ahle and useful men 
to the public service, including two Presidents of the United 
States — James Madison and Zachary Taylor, llannis Tay- 
lor, a distinguished son of North Carolina, John K. McLean 
of Ohio and Mrs. Dewey, wife of Admiral Dewey, are 
among the distinguished members of the family at this time. 
Those members of his mother's family with whom John 
Penii came into closest relations and who most influenced 
his course in life were his cousins, John Taylor of Caroline 
and Edmund Pendleton. The lirst, nine years his junior, 
is usually spoken of as his gTandfathcr and sometimes as his 
son-in-law — an miusually wide range of kinship. The last 
may be true, since the family records show that he married 
a Penn, but more likely a sister or other relative than a 
daughter of John Penn. It is said in the family that the 
only daughter of John Penn married Colonel Taylor of 
Granville and died without issue. John Taylor of Caroline 
was born in 1750, graduated from William and Mary Col- 
lege, studied law under Chancellor Kathaniel Pendleton, 
served in- the Pevolution, was Senator from Virginia in 
1792, 1803 and 1822, and was a writer of much note. One 
of his books won the heartiest commendation of Jetfcrson 
"as tlie most logical retraction of our governments to the 
original and true principles of the constitution creating them 
which has aj)p(ared since the adoption of that instrument." 
Edmund l*endleton probably contributed more than any other 
to the shaping of young Penn's career. He was born in 



1721, and was a scholarly man and able lawyer, of con- 
servative views upon political questions. Jefferson, whom 
he sometimes op])osed, says: "lie was the ablest man in 
debate I have ever met with. * * * Add to this tliat 
he was one of the most virtuous and benevolent of men, the 
kindest friend, the most amiable and pleasant of companions, 
which ensured a favorable reception to whatever came from 
him." lie was a member of the Continental CongTess in 
1774 and 1775, President of the Virginia General Commit- 
tee of Safety. lie wrote the preamble and resolutions direct- 
ing the Virginia delegates in Congress to propose to "declare 
the United Colonies free and independent States," was Presi- 
dent of the Convention to consider the Federal Constitution, 
and President of the Virginia Court of Appeals. Upon the 
death of Moses Penn, he gave to his yomig kinsman, who 
resided near him in the same neighborhood, free use of his 
extensive library, an opportunity that was improved to such 
advantage that the defects of early education were largely 
overcome, and, without teacher or other aid than his own 
industry, young Penn studied law and was admitted to the 
bar of his native county when he reached the age of twenty- 
one years. But it may he inferred from a playful allusion 
of Mr. Iredell, "As Air. Penn would say ^in nnhihiis (ex- 
tremely uncertain)," that he was sometimes not entirely 
classical. 

Of Mr. Penn as a lawyer, I^ossing says: "His practice 
soon develo})ed a native eloquence before inert and unsus- 
pected, and by it, in connection with close application to busi- 



ness, he rapidly soared to eminence. llis eloquence was of 
that sweet persuasive kind which excites all the tender emo- 
tions of the soul, and jjossesses a controlling power at times 
irresistihle." 

Mr. Penn remained in Virginia hut a few years. In 
1774, while yet a young man of thirty-three years, he came to 
North Carolina and settled near Williamshoro in the northern 
part of Granville County, then the most important place in 
the county. Whatever may have hecn his attitude tc'wards 
political tpiestions prior to that time, his ardeiii nature 
quickly responded to the intense sentiment of })atriotism that 
prevailed in his new home. He soon became as one to the 
"niajiner horn," and a leader of the peojile in their great 
crisis. The year after locating in (jranvillc he was sent by 
the inhabitants of that county to represent them in the Pro- 
vincial (Revolutionary) Congress, which met at llillsboro, 
August 20, 1773. Here he proved himself more than a 
pleasing speaker, and won the cordial recognition of the Con- 
gress. There were a hundred and eighty-four members, yet 
he was ai>pointed on some fifteen or twenty committees, 
nearly all the more important ones, and his work was extra- 
ordinarily heavy. It will not be amiss to mention a few of 
these committees, with notes of their work : 

(a). To confer with such inhabitants as had j)olitical or 
religious scruples about joining in the Aniirican cause, and 
secure their co-o|)eration : 

'*Tlie religious and political scruples of the Regulators 
were renn»ved by a conference." — Jiaiwrofl. 



9 



(b). To form a temporar}^ form of government: 

"This was the most im]jortant committee yet appointed by 
popuhir authority in our annals." — K. A. Alderman. 

(c). To ])repare a civil constituti<jn : 

Mr. Penn was not on this committee at first, but he and 
William Hooper were added. "Before the body, thus com- 
pleted, was fought one of the most desperate party battles to 
be recorded in the civil history of the State." — Jonea' De- 
fense. 

Government of the ])eople, for the people and by the peo- 
ple was a new and startling thought in those long-ago days. 
Now any fairly good lawyer can write a whole constitution 
by himself, and would be glad of the job if a good fee went 
with it. Then a Constitutional Convention had never been 
heard of, and the very idea of independence itself was held in 
abeyance, while men wondered what sort of government 
should clothe it. In January, 177 (J, ^Ir. Wythe of Virginia 
sat in the chamlK'rs of John Adams and the two talked of in- 
dependence. ^Ir. Wythe thought the greatest obstacle to de- 
claring it was the difhculty of agreeing ui)on a form of govern- 
ment. Mr. Adams replied that each colony should form a gov- 
ernment for itself, as a free and inde})endent State. He was 
requested to put the views there expressed in writing, which, 
upon his com])liance, were' jjublished anonymously by T\. 11. 
Lee, under the title "Thoughts on Government, in a Letter 
from a Gentleman to his Friend." ].ater the delegates from 
Nortli Carolina, by direction of the Provincial Congress, 
called on ^Ir. Adams for advi(.'e concerning a form of govern- 



10 



ment for this State. lie furnished Mr. Penii, whom he calls 
''my liouest aud sincere friend," a letter similar to the pam- 
phlet just mentioned. The conformity of the Constitution 
afterwards adopted to this letter in many particulars, shows 
the practical use to which it was put. The letter was after- 
wards given by ^Ir. Penn to his cousin, John Taylur of Caro- 
line, who used it in his work on the Constitution, mucli to 
Mr. Adams' surprise, who, apjiarently ignorant of the rela- 
tions Ijetwen the two, could not account fur Taylor's posses- 
sion of his views. 

(d). To review and consider statutes, etc., ''and to prepare 
such hills to he passed into laws as might he consistent with 
the genius of a free pcH)ple" : 

"The fruits of their labors are manifest in the laws passed 
in the years immediately succeeding, laws which have re- 
ceived repeated encomiums for the ability and skill and accu- 
racy with which tliey are drawii.'' — Preface lu Heviscd Slat- 
idcs. 

Other committees scarcely less important than those named 
required able and lalx)rious service, but the sjjace allotted to 
this j)aper must exclude them from mention at this time. 

The impress of this stranger, so recently from another 
colony, upon the Congress was S(jmetliing wonderful. On 
Septemlxr S, 1775, less than a month from its assembling, 
it elected him to succeed Uichard Caswell as delegate to the 
Continental (^ongress, with William llooj;er and Joseph 
Hewes. In tliis connection it is state«l in dunes' Defense 
that lie was "a man of sterling integrity as a jjrivate citizen. 



11 



and well deserved the honor which was now conferred upon 
him." We learn from Dr. E. A. Alderman also that this 
"was the heginning of a close and tender friendship and 
sympathy hetween Hooper and Penn in all the trying duties 
of the hour." 

The idea of the jn-ovinee at that time was to secure a 
redress of grievances, not a dissolution of political relations 
with the motlier country. Indeed, the Provincial CongTes3 
declared: "'As soon as the causes of our fears and apprehen- 
sions are removed, with joy will we return these powers to 
their regular channels; and such institutions, formed from 
mere necessity, shall end with that necessity that created 
them." But the trend of events was beyond their choosing. 
No accommodation with British authority was practicable. 
The end was inevitable, and Penn was one of the first to real- 
ize the true situation. He wrote Thomas Person, his friend 
and countyman, Fel)ruary 14, 1770: ''Matters are drawing 
to a crisis. They seem determined to persevere, and are 
forming alliances against us. ^lust we not do something of 
the like nature^ ('an we hope to carry on a war without hav- 
ing trade or conimerce somewhere? Can we even i)ay any 
taxes without it ^ Will [not^| our pai)er money depreciate 
if we go on emitting^ These are serious things and reipiire 
your consideration. The consecpience of making alliances is, 
pi'rhaps, a total .separation with Britain, and without some- 
thing of this sort we may not be able to ])rocure what is neces- 
sary for our defense. My first wish is that America be f ri^e ; 
the second, that we may be restored to peace and harmony 



12 



with Britain upon just and proper terms." Person was a 
member of the Council. By tlie advice of that body the Pro- 
vincial Congress was convened on April 4th. On the 7th 
Penn and the other delegates reached Halifax from Phila- 
delphia. On the 8th a committee, which included Thomas 
Person, was appointed to take into consideration "the usurpa- 
tions and violences attempted and committed by the King 
and Parliament of Britain against America, and the further 
measures to be taken for frustrating the same and for the 
better defense of the Province." This committee reported, 
and the Congress adopted a resolution which empowered the 
delegates to the Continental Congress to "'concur witli tlie 
delegates from the other colonies in declaring independence 
and forming foreign alliances." By virtue of this authority 
William llooj^er, Joseph llewes and John Penn, in behalf 
of North Carolina, joined in the. execution of the Declara- 
tion of American Independence. Colonel W. L. Saunders 
says: ''This was the first authoritative, explicit declaration, 
by more than a month, by any colony in favor of a full, final 
separation from Britain, and the first like expression on the 
vexed question of forming foreign alliances." It may be 
added that both resulted from Mr. Penn's initiative, as just 
8ho^vn. It is entirely possible that the influence of Penn 
may have reached across the border and moved his wusin, 
Edmund Pendleton, to follow and improve ujjon the example 
of Nortli Carolina, and offer the Virginia resolution direct- 
ing the delegates from that colony to propose a declaration 
of independence. 



13 



The significance of Mr. Penn's action does not fully appear 
to the casual view, but the following letter from John Adams 
to William Plumnier throws new light upon the situation: 

''You inquire, in your kind letter of the 10th, whether 
*every member of Congress did, on the 4th of July, 1776, 
in fact cordially approve of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence.' 

"They who were then members all signed, and, as I could 
not see their hearts, it would be hard for me to say tliat they 
did not approve it; but as far as I could penetrate the intri- 
cate internal foldings of their souls, I then believed, and 
have not since altered my opinion, that there were several 
who signed with regret, and several others with many doubts 
and much lukewarmness. The measure had been upon the 
carpet for months, and obstinately opposed from day to day. 
Majorities were constantly against it. For many days the 
majority depended on Mr. Hewes of North Carolina. While 
a member one day was speaking and reading documents from 
all the colonies to prove that the public opinion, the general 
sense of all was in favor of the measure, when he came to 
North Carolina, and jiroduced letters and public proceedings 
which demonstrated that the majority of that colony were in 
favor of it, Mr. Hewes, who had hitherto constantly voted 
against it, started suddenly upriglit, and lifting up both his 
hands to Heaven, as if he had been in a trance, cried out: 'It 
is done, and I will abide by it!' I would give more for a 
perfect painting of the terror and hoiTor u|X)n the faces of 
the old nujjority at that critical moment, than for the best 



u 



])iccc of Knijhael." But for the action of the North Carolina 
Congress it is extronicly doubtful if ^Ir. llcwcs could have 
been induced to .support the measure. Air. Hooper was de- 
tained at home; so ujioii a vote at that tiiiic North C'anjlina's 
vote must have Ih'cu aiiainst the measure, and in(h*])endence 
at least delayed. 

It is not to Ih3 ignored that the first delegates to the Con- 
tinental Conp-ess — iro()])er, llewes and Caswell — were from 
the east, "and ha*l not ceased to reiiard the Kciiulators 
^' * as rcd-haiuK'd traitors," uiiile Penn must 1k> elas.sed as 
a representative of the Ue^ulator element. He was the friend 
of Person and was not eonlially esteemed bv Caswell, pos- 
sibly because (jf that intimacy. Caswell in a htrer to Burke 
characterizes Person as "more troul)lesome liii.- As.«,c mbly, if 
possible, than formerly." IIooi)cr, Ilewes and the men of 
their party were for what we call tiie aristocra<'y, for want 
of a bctt<'r name. They "were in favor of a splendid gov- 
ernment, representing the pro])erty of the jicople, and thus 
giving by its own independence and sjjlendor a high character 
of dignity to tlie State." They had not learned the truth 
that men constitute a State. Kven IIoo])er, almost unap- 
proachable in tineness of spirit, in splendor of intellect and 
loyal patriotism, lacked sympathy and faith in the peo])le. 
In conse(|uence, his life was iiieomplete and lii> iK)wer failed 
at a time when the State had much need of his learning and 
great ability. Penn and Per.son, with their party, stood for 
the petvple, and had constant acce.^^ions of strength with every 
trial of their faith and synijKithy. Governor Caswell wrote 



15 



^Ir. Burke: ''Mr. Harnett * * * I mu ^ure will give 
you his utmost assistauee. Mr. Penn has engaged liis to the 
Assembly, I am tt)l(l. Very little eoiiversation })assed be- 
tween him and myself on public matters." This cannot have 
been the fault of Penn, for it is of record that he made ad- 
vances for the friendshi]) of ("aswell. One after another of 
the delegates to the Continental Congress found the burdens, 
expense and hardships of the office too heavy and retired. 
^Ir. Penn swon became the senior member from North (Caro- 
lina. Others became gloomy and (lisei)urag('d. Peiui, more 
trustful of the i)eoide, (juietly, steadily, hojjefully and uncom- 
plainingly remained at his ])Ost and \vri)te home to Person: 
"For God's sake, my good sir, encourage our })eople; animate 
tliem to dare even to die for their country." 

There can be no doubt that the position of a delegate to 
the Continental Congress was l)eset with great difficulties. 
Under much more favorable conditions the conflict would 
have been unecjual. But situated as the colonies were, the 
o\itlook was appalling. A government and all its departments 
had to be created outright; a currency and credit established; 
an army organized — all in the faee of an enemy ever ready 
for war. There were also domestic jiroblems that embar- 
rassed the national administration at every step. 'I'he Con- 
federation was little more than a rojie of sand, and the gov- 
ernment had little ix)wer to enforce its policies. In North 
Carolina the militia were not even available to opjtose^ the 
invasion of Georgia and South Carcjlina, by which the British 
would reach this Slate, until an act was i>assed by the Gen- 



16 



eral Assembly aiitlioriziiig their eniploymoiit without its bor- 
ders. This is mentioned only to show how serioiis were 
the problems which perplexed and burdened our delegates 
in the Continental Congress. These delegates also abounded 
in labors wholly foreign to their legislative duties. These 
have been strikingly summarized in Dr. Alderman's address 
on Hooper : ''They combined the functions of financial and 
purchasing agents, of commissary-generals, reporters of all 
great rumoi'^ or events, and, in general, liore the relation to 
the remote colony of ministers resident at a foreigii court. 
* * ^ They kept the Council of Safety well informed as 
to the progi-ess of affairs ; thc}^ negotiated for clothing and 
supplies for our troops. In the course of only two months 
they expended five thousand pounds in purchasing horses and 
wagons, which they sent to Halifax loaded with every con- 
ceivable thing — from the English Constitution to the wagon- 
er's rmn — pam])hlets, sermons, cannon, gunpowder, diiims 
and pills. They scoured Philadelphia for salt pans and essays 
on salt-making ; they haggled over the price of gi'ay mares, 
and cursed the incompetency of slothful blacksmiths whose 
aid they sought." 

Is it any wonder, then, that Hooper resigned and Hewes 
laid down his life in the struggle; that Harnett appealed to 
be relieved, and that nearly every man who passed through 
the trials of the iX)sition only reached home to lay down his 
life without even a view of the morning of old age? None 
of these dilficultics moved John Penn. His courage and 



17 



» hopefulness were invinciblt. But lie died while yet a young 

i man ! 

I The delegates served almost without compensation. A sal- 

j ary of sixteen hundred pounds per annum was allowed for a 

{ time, but the depreciation of the currency was so great that 

' the amount proved wholly inadequate, and it was determined 

{ to pay their expenses and defer tlie fixing of compensation 
to a future time. As illustrating the depreciation of the 

I money, Iredell wi'ote in 1780 : ''They are giving the money 

I at the printing-office in so public and careless a manner as to 

1 make it quite contemptible." 

j The scope of this paper does not permit a more detailed 

I discussion of his Congressional career. It may be added that 

•I while he made no conspicuous public display, Mr. Penn's 

I services were highly efficient and useful, and entirely accept- 
able to the people he represented. Another distinguished 

I honor that fell to him during his congressional career may be 

j barely mentioned: with John Williams and Cornelius Ilar- 

I nett, he ratified the Articles of Confederation in behalf of 

I North Carolina. 

i 

j In 1777 he was appointed Judge of the Court of Oyer and 

{ Terminer for the Ilillsboro District. He questioned the 
j legality of the Court and declined the appointment with what 
his associate in the ap})ointment, J. Kitchin, called "inflexible 
j obstinacy." But Samuel Johnston in like manner refused 
! to exercise the same office in the Edenton District and noti- 
fied Governor Caswell that the bar concurred in his opinion. 
' Upon the retirement of Governor Caswell, Abner Nash be- 



18 



came Governor. He com])lained to the Assembly tliat he 
derived no assistance from his Council, and suggested the 
creation of a Board of War. This was acceded to and the 
constitutional prerogatives of the Governor were probably in- 
fringed by the powers granted. It was charged with the con- 
trol of military affaii*s M'ithin the State, and was composed of 
Colonel Alexander Martin, John Penn and Oroondates Da- 
vis. It organized at Ilillsboro in September, 1780. The 
other mend)ers had occasion to leave for their homes within 
two or three days after its organization, and j\rr. Penn be- 
came practically the Board, and exercised its powers alone 
during the greater part of its existence. lie conducted its 
affairs with great energy, decision, tact and efficiency. 
Finall}' he became ill and unable to exercise the office. In 
a little while thereafter there was a clash with the Governor, 
who had become sore over tlie invasion of his dignity and 
authority. He carried his complaint to the next Assembly, 
who discontinued the Board of War and elected a new Gov- 
ernor. Tliere has been some disposition to belittle the Board 
of War and its operations, particularly by General Davie. 
But Governor Graham, who was familiar with the records, 
and whose fairness, diligence and ability to judge correctly 
are beyond (juestion, views their work very ditferently. He 
says: ^'They undertook the work devolved dii llieiii in the 
most devoted spirit of ])atriotism, and with a j)roper sense 
of its magnitude, and executed its duties with fearlessness, 
ability and eminent ])ublic l)enefit." 

While the Board sat at Ilillsboro that villaiic was the scene 



19 



of great activity and was crowded to its utmost capacity. 
Iredell wrote his wife that he and Colonel Williams had to 
ride out every evening two or three miles to Governor 
Burke's, and ''mnst have been deprived of that resource if 
Governor Rutledge had not been so obliging as to stay in town 
and take half of Penn's bed, in order to accommodate us." 

]\Ir. Penn did not thereafter re-enter public life with any 
great activity. In July, 1781, he was appointed a member 
of the Governor's Council, and was notified to attend a meet- 
ing at Williamsboro, near his home, Thomas Burke, his old 
colleague in the Continental Congress, being then Gov- 
ernor, lie replied : ''My ill-state of health * * * will 
perhaps prevent my undertaking to act in the otfiee you 
mention. As [ have always accepted every oiKce I have been 
appointed to by my countrymen, and endeavored to discharge 
my duty previous to this a])pointment, 1 expect my friends 
will not blame me." 

AfttT tlu! war ho was appointed by Robert j\Iorris Receiver 
of Taxes in JS^orth (,^arolina, but resigned after holding the 
office aixjut a month. He was yet a young man, but his work 
was done. In September, 1787, at the age of foi-ty-six years, 
he died at his home in Granville County and was buried near 
Island Creek, whence his dust was moved to Guilford Battle- 
gi*ound a few years ago. 

Tlic halo with which time and sentiment have surrounded 
those who wrought our independence has largely veiled the 
real men from our view, but they were quite as human as the 
men of to-day. ^lention has been made of the bitter political 



20 



differences among' tlie patriots of the devolution. These 
developed at an early period. The election of Penn to the 
Continental Congrcs was the beginning of democratic 
representation from North Carolina in that body. The real 
struggle came over the fonnation of the State Constitution. 
The aristocratic party were deeply chagTined and resentful 
of democratic dominance, and proved sadly inferior to their 
opponents in self-control. The most eminent of their leaders 
was Samuel Johnston, a man of great ability and diaracter, 
whom the State delighted to honor. Intemperate language 
from such a 'man indicates something of the prevailing tone 
of party feeling. He wrote: "Every one who has the least 
pretence to be a gentleman is susi)ected and borne down per 
ignohile vuhjus — a set of men without reading, experience 
or princii)le to govern them." Very naturally Mr. Johnston 
lost his place in the Governor's Council and his seat in tlie 
Provincial Congress ; and in the Congressional election next 
ensuing, u])on a contest between ^Ir. Penn and his old col- 
league, Mr, llewes, the latter was defeated. Throughout 
these controversies ]\[r. Penn seems to have borne himself 
w^ith such pr\idence and moderation as to avoid personal 
entanglements and cununand the respect of those wIkj 0])posed 
him. Aside from Governor Caswell's petulance and Gov- 
ernor Davie's silly sneer, he was almost uuifitrmly s]K)ken of 
in resi)ectful terms, even in the free and confidential corre- 
sjwndenco of Johnston and Iredell. 

It is unfortunate that so little is known of Penn as a man 
and in his })ersonal relations. At tlie age of twenty-two years 



21 



he married Susan Lyme, by whom he had two children, Lucy, 
wlio married Colonel Taylor, of Granville, and died without 
issue, and William, who removed to Virginia. No mention 
is made of Mrs. Penn in his will written in 1784, nor in his 
correspondence. It may be that she died before his removal 
to North Carolina. Messrs. James G. Penn, of Danville, 
Virginia, and Frank R. Penn, of Reidsville, North Carolina, 
are among the descendants of William. A sister married 

Hunt, of Granville County, and many descendants of 

that marriage yet live in Granville and Vance Counties, 
useful and honored citizens. That Mr. Penn was an orator 
is proof that he possessed warmth of feeling. The absence 
of controversy marks liim an amiable and discreet man. His 
labors show him to liave been a patriot, endowed with judg- 
ment, tact, industry and ability. That he was not devoid of 
social tastes is very clearly recognized by his colleagues in the 
Continental Congress. Mr. Burke wrote from Philadelphia : 
''The city is a scene of gaiety and dissipation, public assem- 
blies every fortnight and private balls every night. In all 
such business as this we i)ropose that Mr. Penn shall represent 
the whole State." One anecdote is preseiTcd of his life in 
Philadelphia. lie became involved in a personal ditiieulty 
with Mr, I^urens, President of the Congress, and a duel 
was arranged. They were fellow-boarders, and breakfasted 
together. They then started for the place of meeting on a 
vacant lot ojjposite tlie Masonic Hall on Chestnut street. 
"In crossing at Fifth street, where was then a diMjj) slough, 
Mr. Penn kindly otfercd his hand to aid Mr. Laurens, then 



00 



iiiiich the older, who acccptx^d it. He suggested to Mr. 
Laurens, who had clialk^nged him, tliat it was a foolish attair, 
and it was made u]) on the spot." 

His fidelity could not shield hini from criticism. But as 
he made no coui})laints of hardships, so he made no etfort 
to justify himself, but was content in saying to Governor 
Nash : ""I have done, and still am willing to do, everything 
in my power for tho interest of my country, as I prefer 
answering for my conduct after we have beaten the enemy." 
Others were more considerate of his reputation. ^Ir. Burke 
wrote Governor (^aswell, declaring his own diligence, and 
said of Penn, ''nor did ])erceive him in the least remiss." 
Harnett wrote the Governor, "his conduct as a delegate and a 
gentleman has been worthy and disinterested." The General 
Assembly on July 2!), 1779, directed the Speaker of the 
House to transmit to him its resolution of thanks in ])art as 
follows: "The General Assembly of North Carolina, by the 
unanimous resolves of both houses, have agreed that the 
thanks of the State be presented to you for the many great 
and important services you have rendered your country as 
a delegate in the Continental Congress. The assiduity and 
zeal with which you hav(? re})rescnted our affairs in that 
Supreme Council of the Continent, during a long and painful 
absence from your family, demand the respectful attention 
of your countrymen, whose minds are impressed with a sense 
of the most lively gratitude." 

Neither the county nor the State which Mr. Benn rep- 
resented with such fidelity and credit have erected any 



23 

memorial to his memory. But tlie Guilford Battle ground 
Company, whicli is making a veritable Westminster Abbey 
for iN^orth Carolina, has been more mindful to render honor. 
Maj. J. M. ^loreliead, President of the Company, writes: 
"There is a handsome monument at Guilford Battle-ground, 
twenty feet in height, crowned with a statue of an orator hold- 
ing within his hand a scroll — The Declaration — and bearing 
this inscription on a bronze tablet : 

IN MEMORIAM. 

William Hooper and John Penn, Delegates fbom North Carolina, 

1776, TO THE Continental Congress, and Signers of the 

Declaration of Independence. Their Remains were 

Re-interred Here 1894. Hewes' Grave is Lost. 

He was the Third Signer. 

• •*•••••• 

To Judge Jeter C, Pritchard Primarily the State is Indebted fob 
AN Appropriation out of which this ^Monument was Eulcted. 

After all, the value of the man's life rests in its example 
of unselfish, devoted patriotism, its fidelity to principle, its 
loyalty to the great spirit of Democracy — in that he lived not 
for num but for mankind. 

*'Vivit post funera die, quern virtus non. marmar in 
externum sacrat." 



Note. — A curious instance of the failure of different branches of American families to' 
keep track of oach other was brouRht to liffht in the preparation of the forejroing: paper. 

Mr. J. P. Taylor, of Henderson. N. C, and Mr. J. G. Penn, of Danville, Vu., have been 
copartners in business for seventeen years. In a recent conversation they first learned 
that they were kinsmen, one repre.sentinK the male line of John Taylor, the other repre- 
sentinK the female line throuph John Penn. T. M. P. 




JOSEPH HEWES. 



JOSEPH HEWES. 

By falter SIKES, M. a., Ph.D., 
(Profiiasor of Political Science, Wake Forest College). 

"Particularly cultivate the notice of Mr. Hewes," wrote 
Henr}' E. ^rcCiilloch to his relative, young James Iredell, 
as he was about to leave his home in England to take up his 
abode at Edenton, N. C, in September, 1768. Young Ire- 
dell came to Edenton and wrote to his father after\vards that 
''I must say there is a gentleman in this toAvn who is a very 
particular favorite of mine. His name is llewes. He is a 
merchant here, and our member for tlie town : the patron and 
the greatest honor of it. About six or seven years ago he was 
in a few days of being married to one of Air. Johnston's 
sisters (elder than the two young ladies now living), who died 
rather suddenly; and this unhappy circumstance for a long 
time imbittered every satisfaction in life to him. He has 
continued ever since unmarried, which I believe he will do. 
His connection with Mr. Johnston's family is just such as if 
he had really been a brother-in-law, a circumstance that mu- 
tually does honor to them both." When young Iredell met 
this man, who was not yet forty, he became charmed with his 
society and his character. 

Hewes' parents had Hud from the Indian nuissacrcs in Con- 
necticut in 1728 to New Jersey. AVhile crossing the Hoiisa- 
tonic river his mother was wounded in the neck by an Indian. 
The family came to Kingston, N. J., where Joseph was born 



26 



in 1730. Though his liome was not far from Princeton, he 
never attended college. However, he received such education 
as the schools in his vicinity offered. His family were Qua- 
kers, aud at. an early age he was seut to a counting-house in 
the Quaker city of Philadelphia. At manhood he entered 
the mercantile and commercial business. Most of his time 
was spent in Philadelphia, though he was often drawn to 
New York on business. 

In 17G3 he decided to move to Edenton, where he entered 
into partnership with Polx^rt Smith, an attorney. This firm 
owned its own wharf and sent its ships down to the sea. 
It is very })robable that his sister, Mrs. Allan, came with 
him. His nephew, Nathaniel Allan, was certainly with him. 
This young nephew Hewes treated as his own son and very 
probably made him his heir. This young man became tlie 
fathej* of Senator AUan of Ohio and grandfather of Allen 
G. Tlmrman. 

Edenton was a town of four hundred inhabitants probably 
when Joseph Hewes came to live there. It was a society 
scarcely surpassed in culture by any in Americiu In the 
vicinity lived Ccilonel Piehard Buncombe, Sir Nat. Dukin- 
held, Colonel John Harvey, Samuel Johnston, Dr. Oathcai-t, 
Thomas Jones, Charles Johnston and Stei)hen (^abarrus. 
Hewes was at once a(hnitted into this charming circle. 

Hewes was possessed of those charms that attract gentle 
folks. He was very com])anionable and social. Very fre- 
(piently in James Iredell's diary for 1772-1771 such entries 
arc found as ^'cJiatted with Hewes and others on his piazza"; 



27 



"found IIcwcs at Jlorniblow's tavern"; ''Hcwes and I spent 
the evening at Mrs. Blair's"; "Dr. Cathcart, Mr. Johnston 
and I dined with llewes"; "went to llewes' to call on Mr. 
and Mrs. Cornelius Harnett on their r(.'turn from the north/' 
and '•they played cards nil the ev(^.ning at Mr. llewes'." 
These and similar records show that he was a deliiihtful (-(tm- 
panion and was a center of social life. 

His Quaker training- llewes threw aside easily. Some 
writers say that he (inittcil the (Quakers only when they re- 
fused in 177{) to join heartily in the M'ar for independence, 
and that his Quaker beliefs easily ojiened the door of pros- 
perit}' and honor for him among the Quakers of the Albe- 
marle section. This can hardly be true. In 1770. he was 
present at the services of the Church of Eniiland at Edenton 
and read tlie res])onses. lie certainly attended that church 
long before the Kevolution. Also in the same year he was 
"playing backfjammon at Ilorniblow's tavern." These 
things were not done by good Quakers. Hewes' associates — 
social and political — were not Quakers. He belonged to 
those conservativ^es whose leaders were Samuel Johnston and 
Thomas Jones. 

llewes' popularity, wealth and influence caused him to be 
chosen to represent the town of Edenton in the General As- 
sembly three years after his arrival. This jiosition he held 
from 1766-1770 till he was called to a field of wider useful- 
ness. In these Assemblies he was very active, and at one time, 
he was on ten committees at least. This was an interesting 
]K'riod in the history of the colony. It was during this 



28 



period that the Eo^iilator troubles arose, the court contro- 
versy, tlie taxation ]>roblems, and the other difficulties that 
prepared North Carolina for the revolution that was to be 
very soon. 

Before the meeting of the Provincial Congress to appoint 
delegates to the Continental Congress, Ilewes was a member 
of the Committee of Correspondence. This was a wise choice. 
As a merchant his ships were known in other ports. This 
brought him into contact with the greatest commercial cen- 
ters of the other colonies. In this way he was not unknoAvn 
to the Adamses of Massachusetts. Ilewes was chosen to 
attend the first Provincial Congress at New Bern, August, 
1774. At this CongTCss he read many letters that his com- 
mittee had received. Ilewes, together with Richard Caswell 
and William Hooper, was appointed to attend the Continen- 
tal Congress in Philadelphia. This North Carolina Con- 
gress pledged itself to abide by the acts of their representa- 
tives. 

Merchants are not revolutionists. They want a govern- 
ment that will assure them the enjoyment of their labors. 
Ilewes was a merchant, but he jdedged his ])eople to commer- 
cial non-intercourse with Great Britain, though this meant 
personal loss to the firm of Ilewes & Smith. This meas- 
ure was goring his own ox, but he gave it his loyal sup- 
port. Says he, in a letter written at the close of the Con- 
gress, and before leaving Philadelphia: ''Our friends are un- 
der apprehension tliat the administration will endeavor to lay 
hold of as many delegates as possible, and have them carried 



29 



to England and tried as rebels; this induced Congi-ess to en- 
ter into a resolve in such case to make a reprisal. I have no 
fears on that ht^ad, but should it be my lot, no man uu earth 
could be better s])ared. Were 1 to suffer in the cause of 
American liberty, should I not bo translated immediately to 
heaven as Enoch of old was ?" 

Hewes' health was always poor. To go to Philadelphia 
was not a pleasant journey, save that it permitted him to see 
his aged mother, who lived })robal)ly at the old home in New 
I Jersey. Says Hewes, in a letter: "I had a very disagreeable 
i time of it till I arrived here, since which I have had but little 
( health or spirits." Ilewes, Caswell and Hooper were not the 
only Carolinians present in Philadelphia at this meeting, 
j for Hewes says he dined with Caswell and other Carolinians, 
j In December Ilewes returned to Edenton and the next 

\ April found him and James Iredell in their gigs on their way 
j to attend tlie General Assembly at New Bern, and also that 
second Provincial Congress which was to meet at the same 
time and place. Both bodies thanked their delegates for the 
: faithful discharge of their duties. The aged, yet spirited, 
f Harvey delivered the brief address for the bodies. This 
Provincial Congress re-elected Hewes, Caswell and Hooper. 
Hewes aiul C^jswell together proceeded at once to Phila- 
delphia, where the Congress met on May 10. On Sunday 
evening they arrived in Petersburg, where they learned of 
the collision "between the Bostonians and the iCing's troops." 
Their passage through Virginia was attended with mucli 
pomp and military parade, "such as was due to general ofii- 



30 



cers." Tliey stopped a day in Baltimore, where "Colonel 
Washinf^ton, accompanied by the rest of the delegates, re- 
viewed the troops." 

Hewes was in Philadelphia, where, he said, the enthusi- 
asm was great, lie was very anxious for Xorth Carolina to 
take an active part in alfairs. lie expressed himself as 
uneasy about the slo^^^less of IS^orth Carolina. Though 
Hewes was sick and hardly able to write, he joined in an 
address to the i)eople of North Carolina and wrote letters 
to his friends describing in detail the military preparations 
of Congress. Hewes was not an eager war man. Said he, 
in a letter to Samuel Johnston on July 8, 1775: "I consider 
myself now over head and cars in what the ministry call 
rebellion. I feel no compunction for the part 1 have taken 
nor for the number of our enemies lately slain at the battle 
of Bunker's Hill. I wish to be in the camp before Boston, 
tho' I fear I shall not W able to get there 'till next campaign." 
He prevailed u}>on Philadelphia clergymen to write letters 
to the "Presbyterians, Lutherans and Calvinists" in North 
Carolina. 

Hewes was a member of the oonmiittee to fit out vessels 
for the beginning of the American navy. On this committee 
there was no more valuable meml)er. There were not many 
merchants in Congress. Hewes' mercantile knowledge served 
Congress well. This is Hewes' chief contribution to the war 
of independence. He could not speak like Adams and Lee, 
nor write like Jefferson, but he knew where were the sinews 
of war. AVhen not in Congress he was employed by it to fit 



31 



out vessels. The firm of Ilewes & Smith was its agent in 
^orth Carolina. Some vessels Ilewes fitted ont bv advanc- 
ing the money for the Congress. 

Ilewes was back in North Carolina in August, 1775, and 
represented Edentcm at the third Provincial CougTcss at 
Ilillsboro, where he was placed on the conm:iittee to secure 
arms for the State, to prepare an address for the inhabitants, 
and a form of government. Here he was again elected to the 
Continental Congress along with Caswell and Hooper. 

He returned to Philadelphia at once and prevailed upon 
Congress to- send two ministers to the western part of North 
Carolina. Though he was very sick, he urged the early in- 
crease of tlie army and its equi}>ment, Ilewes fully exjxx^ted 
to go into the army; in him there was nothing of the Tory 
spirit. Said he, on February 11, 1776: "If we mean to de- 
fend pur liberties, our dearest rights and privileges against 
the power of Britain to the last extremity, we ought to bring 
ourselves to such a temper of mind as to stand unmoved at 
the bursting of an eartlupiake. Although the storm thickens, 
I feel myself cpiite composed. I have furnished myself with 
a good musket and bayonet, and when I can no longer be use- 
ful in council I lu)j)e I shall l)e willing to take the tield. I 
think I had rather fall than be carried oil' by a lingering 
illness. An ohstinate ague and fever, or rather an intermit- 
tent fever, jjirsccutcrt me continually. I have n»» way to 
remove it unless I retire from Congress and from })\iblic busi- 
ness; this I am determined not to do till North Carolina 



32 



sends another deleaate, provided 1 am able to crawl to tlie 
Congress chamber." 

Ilewes was elected to represent Edenton in the fourth Pro- 
vincial Congress at Halifax in April, 177G, bnt did not leave 
Philadelphia. It was more important that he should remain 
there. lie wrote that he was anxious to know the kind of 
constitution they had adopted, but more anxious to know how 
they were preparing to defend their country. In the Conti- 
nental Congress he was on the committee to prepare the arti- 
cles of the confederation also. 

ITewes sjji'nt tlie year 1770 in Philadelphia. He did not 
visit North Carolina at all. Hooper and Penn probably did. 
Ilewes was alone at the time the great debate was in progress 
on the wisdom of declaring independence. Says he, in a let- 
ter dated Philadeljjhia, July S, 1770: "What has l>ecome of 
my friend Hooper? I exjiected to have seen him ere now. 
My friend Penn came time enough to give his vote for inde- 
pendence. I send you the Declaration of Independence en- 
closed. I had the weiaht of Xorth Carolina on my shoulders 
within a day or two of three months. The service was too 
severe. I have sat some days from six in the morning till 
five or sometimes six in the afternoon, without eating or 
drinking. Some of my friends thought I should not be able 
to keej) soul and body together to this time, H'lty, inclina- 
tion and self-preservation call on me now to make a little 
excursion into the country to see my mother. This is a duty 
which I have not allowed myself time to jxu-foriii during the 
almost nine months I have been liere." 



33 



Here is a picture of devotion to duty not surpassed in the 
annals of any country. 

The months during which lie labored so dutifully, and 
alone bore the burden of Xorth Carolina on his shoulders, 
were the days when the great question of independence was 
discussed. In this discussion there was no inspiration. 
There was gathered together a band of brave men trying 
prayerfully to do the right. Clouds and uncertainty were 
thick about theni. The measure had been discusscid for 
months, but the majorities were constantly against it. John 
Adams, in a- letter written March 28, 1S13, says ^Ir. Ilewea 
determined the vote for independence. ^'For many days the 
majority depended on jMr. Ilewes of North Carolina. While 
a member one day was speaking, and reading documents 
from all the colonies, to prove that public opinion, the gen- 
eral sense of all, was in favor of the measure, when he came 
to North Carolina and produced letters and public proceed- 
ings which demonstrated that the majority in that colony 
were in favor of it, Mr. Hewes, who had hitherto constantly 
voted against it, started suddenly upright, and lifting both 
hands to heaven as if he had been in a trance, cried out: 'It 
is done! and I will abide by it.' I would give more for a 
I)erfect painting of the terror and horror u])on the fa&3 of 
the old majority at that critical moment than for the best 
piece of Raphael. The question, however, was eluded by 
an immediate motion fur adjournment." 

In the full liewes returned to North (^irolina in time to 
attend the Provincial Congress at Halifax in November, 



34 



177G. His adrairin*^ friendd in Edenton again chose him 
to represent them as tliey liad heen doing for ten years. 
Here he took part in the making of the State Constitution, 
heing on the eommittee. However, lie was d«juhtless more 
interested in the prcjiaration to defend the in(k'})endence for 
wliich he had just voted, Hewes was again active on the 
important committees. This Provincial Congress made and 
adopted the lirst Constitution for North Carolina. What 
Hewes thought of it is not known, but many of his friends 
in Edenton did not like it. Samuel Johnston was open in 
his disapproval. 

After the close of the Provincial Congress at Halifax, 
Hewes returned to Edenton, with his healtii injured by over- 
work in the Continental Congress. He had expected to re- 
turn to Philadelphia in February, but the rheumatism would 
not permit him. He was not idle. He was in the secret com- 
mittee of Congress for purchasing equipment. He and Mor- 
ris were the merchant members of CongTcss, and had much 
of this work to do. April found him at home but expecting 
at any time to start north. 

The first General Assembly under the new State Constitu- 
tion met at New Bern in Ajn-il, 1777. Hewes, for the first 
time in ten years, was not chosen to represent Edenton. 
John Green was the member in his place. This new republi- 
can Assembly contained many new men. There had been a 
clash in the making of this new Constitution. Samuel John- 
ston had led the conservatives and been defeated, while Wil- 
lie Jones had led the raureaia to victory. There was bitter- 



35 



ness and strife. Johnston, and donbtlcss his followers, were 
partial to Ilewcs and Hooper, hut they carctl little for Penn. 
When the time came to elect representatives to the Continen- 
tal Congress, Hooper, though no competitor appeared against 
him, lost a great many votes. He obtained seventy-six out 
of ninety. Hooper refused to accept. Hewes failed of elec- 
tion, securing only forty out of ninety. Samuel Johnston 
said: "Hewes was supplanted of his seat in Congress by the 
most insidious arts and glaring falsehoods." James Iredell 
said that the reason alleged for his defeat was that he had 
been at home so loni; and also that he was holdinii' two uHices 
under one government, being a member of Congress and also 
a member of its most im])ortant committee. 
I After Hooper's resignation, Hewes' friends felt lliat he 

I oould be elected unanimously, but thought al<o that it would 
\ bo an indignity. Only P(Min was I'cturned and his majority 
I was re<luci'd. Whatever nniy have Iwi-n the i-ause of t!iis de- 
t feat, it looks like an example of a republic s ingratitude. 
I Nevertheless, this Assembly was willing to I'mjiloy Hewes, 

» and asked him to fit out two vessels — the "Pennsylvania 
; Farmer" and "King Taminy," but he declined because he 
I was already the agent of the Continental Congress. 
\ During the remainder of 1778 he remained in Edentou, 

! making at least one trip to Boston on business. In 1778 he 
was still interested in ijurchascs for the conchict of the war. 
i IHs health was in the meantiine much imitrov»'d. Hewes 
was probably returned to tlxc Assembly by his oKl constitu- 



36 



ents of Edenton in 1778. Here he was, as usual, a member 
of many comiiiittces. 

When this Assembly was called ujxjii to elect delegates to 
the Continental Congress, Ilewes was again chosen. James 
Iredell wrote his wife, who was an ardent admirer of Ilewes, 
and looked upon him as a brother, since the death of her sis- 
ter, Miss Johnston: ^'Ilewes will be down soon * * * 
nothing now detains him but his goodness in settling ac- 
counts he has no business with, and which no other man is 
equal to." 

On his .return to Philadelphia in 1779 he worked hard, 
but his healtli was. fast failing. lie was never strong, and 
the trying times of 1770 had taxed his strength to the utmost. 
He sent his resignation to the General Assembly, which met 
in October at Halifax, but in November he died in Phila- 
delphia at the post of duty, aged fifty. James Iredell wrote 
his wife: "The loss of such a man will long be severely felt, 
and his friends must ever remember him with the keenest 
sensibility." Hooper wrote to Iredell: "The death of Hewes 
still preys upon my feelings. I know and had probed the 
secret recesses of his soul and found it devoid of guilt and 
replete with benignity." His funeral was attended by Con- 
gress, the Pennsylvania Assembly, the Minister of France, 
and many citizens, while Congress resolved to wear crape 
for him. 

Such was Joseph Ilewes, the merchant member of Con- 
gress, an early Secretary of the Navy, a friend loved and 
trusted, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. 



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NORTH CAROLINA IN SOUTH 
.' . ,, ■ AMERICA 

• ■ T J 

-NORTH CAROLINA IN WAR— 
•• HER TROOPS^ND GENERALS 

BY 

; CHIEF JUSTICE WALTER CLARK 






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The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in fiORTH Carolina History 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. ^ 

KempP. JJattle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Kaniaour'a Mill. 

Major Wlllitiin A. (iraham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Juds^e A. C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Asboclate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Siguers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
Williani Hooper, John Penn, Joneph Howes. 

Mrs. ispler Whltaker, Mr. T. M. IMltuian, Ur. Walter Hikes. 

Homes of North Carolina— The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel WllUuni 11. «. lUugwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 
Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

The Earliest English Settlement in America. ' 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain .S. A. Asbe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 
Judge JauiBfi C. MacKae. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinadale. 



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VOL IV OCTOBER. 1904. NO. 6 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



CarolinaI Carolina! Heaven's Blessings Attend HerI 
While Wk Link We will Chekisii, pKOTEtT and Defend Her." 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving North 
Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will be 
devoted to patriotic pnrpos^'^'. Editors. 

( biiiljiii2t(!r!iiulSc..i..s' 

i OF V^ISCONSIN 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETT 
DAUGHTERS Qp THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

HKGKNT: 

iMliS. THOMAS K. BKl'NKl^. 

vice-uegknt: 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

IIONORAUY RKOEM'S: 

MRS. SPIER VVillTAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBernieiu Hooper), 

MRS. I), n. HILL, Sh. 

.secretary: 
MRS. K. K. ]\10FFirr. 

tkka.surkk: 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

keoi.stkak: 

MliS ED. CHAMBERS SMlTfL 



Founder of the Nokth Cakoi.ina Socikty and Rh:(ii;NT 189G-1902: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Re(iknt 1902: 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sk. 



NORTH CflROLINfl TROOPS IN SOUTH 
AMERICA. 

"the lost battalion." 



BV CHIEF JUSTICE WAI/I'EK CEAKK. 



North Carolina has always known how to nuike history. 
She has never troubled herself to write it. Hence much credit 
due her is unrecorded. There were certainly "brave men 
before AaaniemnoiE" Lut we know not their names nor their 
deeds. Tliey serve not to arouse the heart. For posterity 
they have in effect not lived, while Achilles, Hector, Nestor, 
nysses are alive to this day, more tndy and more effectively 
alive, as regar<ls their im])ress \\\Mm the a<:e than most of the 
men whom we meet on the streets. 

There are many forgotten cha})ters in North Carolina his- 
tory which if recalled would brighten her fame. Among the 
many creditable incidents i>f her colonial history are the pa- 
triotism and enterprise shown in sending her troops on the 
successive expeditions to St. Augustine, to South America, 
and to join Braddock's march to the Ohio. We will in this 
paper be restricted to the South American expetlition. 

The only time prior to 181)8 that troops from any part of 
the United States have ever served beyond the limits «if this 
continent was in the expedition to Venezuela in IT-Kl, known 
as the Cartagena expedition. North Carolina was represent- 
ed there, and both by land and sea her troops did their duty. 



Note. — This is substantially the same article that appeared in Tlie Uni- 
versity Magazine, 1894. A more complete account of the e.Tpeditiou, by 
the writer, will be found in J/arpers Magazine for October, 189U. w. c. 



She sent 400 meu, a contribution as large in proportion to the 
population of the colony at that time as if the State were now 
to furnish 50,000 troops. We know that these men served, 
that they took an active part in the sea attack upon Boca 
Cliico, and that they subsecpiently aided in the deadly assault 
by land u})on the fort of San Lazaro, when half the storming 
colunm was left dead or wounded on the field. AVc know 
that not a fifth of the gallant 400 returned. But we know 
with certainty the names of only two officers, of these brave 
North Carolinians, indeed the expedition itself is almost 
unknown to the North Carolinians of the present day. It 
may not be amiss therefore to recall the little that has been 
left us of this early display of patriotism by the province of 
North Carolina. 

History records few instances of official incapacity and 
mismanagement so gross as the ill-fated expedition to South 
America back in 1740, in which perished to no purpose, over 
three thousand Americans from the colonies on the Atlantic 
seaboard, and nearly seven times that numl)er of English. 
Historians have not loved to linger over its details. Hence it 
is hardly noted in our books; yet it was a stern sad reality in 
its day. 

Six times have troops from what is now the United States 
visited in hostility the territory of our neighbour on the 
north, viz., in King William's war, 1000; in Queen Anne's 
war, 1710; at the taking of Louisburg, 1744; in the old 
French war of 1755-170;] (when Quebec fell, and Canada 
passed to the English) again during the Revolution, and in the 
war of 1812. In 1846 we invaded our Southern neighbor. 
The expedition against Cartagena is the only case in which 
our troops ever engaged an enemy on another continent. 



Tlie war of 1898 was upon the islands of Cuba, Porto Rico 
and the Philippines. 

In October, 1739, England declared war against Spain. 
The real object, all pretexts aside, was to open the ports of 
Spanish America to British vessels. These ports were her- 
metically closed to all except Spanish keels. The object was 
no small one from a mercantile standpoint, for Spanish Amer- 
ica then reached from the Southern boundary of Georgia and 
the northern boundary of California down to Terra del Fuego 
and Cape Horn. From this vast territory there could be 
excepted on the mainland only the possessions of the Portu- 
guese in Brazil, together with Jamaica and a few of the small- 
er Islands in the West Indies. The stake was a large one, 
and England could win only by destroying the colonial system 
of Spain. 

It was a contest for the enrichment of the merchants and 
traders of England. Small interest had the North American 
colonies therein. But loving letters and proclamations were 
sent out calling on them for aid. Promptly on the outbreak 
of war Anson was sent to the Pacific coast, and Vernon to the 
Atlantic. Disaster at sea destroyed the hopes of conquest 
of the former, and turning his expedition into one for booty, 
and losing all his ships but one, he circumnavigated the 
globe, reaching home by way of the east, loaded with fame 
and enriched with s})oils. Vernon, in Xovember, 1739, with 
ease captured Porto Bello and Fort Chagi'es (near the pres- 
ent town of Asi)inwall), both on the Isthmus of Panama, and 
became the hero of the hour. The following year Great 
Britain determined to send out a masterful expedition under 
the same victorious auspices. 

In 1740, Great Britain, then at war with Spain, determin- 



j 



ed to strike a blow at the Spanish Colonial possessions. An 
expedition left Spithead, England, in Oetoher, 1740, for the 
West Indies, composed of 15,000 sailors connnanded l)y Sir 
Chalouer Ogle, and 12,000 land troops under Lord Cathcart. 
There were thirty shii)s of the line and ninety other vessels. 
On arriving at the West Indies these were joined at Jamaica 
by 30 companies containing 3,000 men from the North Amer- 
ican colonies. 

By the royal instructions these companies consisted of a 
hundred men each, including 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, and 2 
drunnners, besides commissioned otticers, consisting of one 
captain, two' lieutenants, and an ensign. The British gov- 
ernment, however, reserved the appointment of field and staff 
officers and one lieutenant and one sergeant in each company. 
The total was over 3,000 men. The provinces of Xew Hamp- 
shire, Delaware, South Carolina and Georgia sent no troops 
— the latter two i)robably because their forces were sent 
against St. Augustine (to which Xorth Carolina also contrib- 
uted men), and Delaware was probably counted in Pennsyl- 
vania, it being then known as "the three lower counties on 
Delaware." Why New Hampshire took no part is not ex- 
plained. 

It was ordered that the American troops should be em- 
bodied in four regiments or battalions, under the connnand 
of Sir Alexander Spotswood, to whom Colonel William Blak- 
eney was to serve as adjutant-general. Spotswood had served 
under ^Iarll)orough at Blenheim, 1704; had been governor of 
Virginia, 1710 to 1723, and in 1714 had been the first white 
man to cross the Blue Bidge — a feat which procured him the 
honor of knighthood. He was an olHcer of rare talent, a 
scholar, and a man of high character. II is career was unfor- 



tunately cut short by his death at Annapolis, 7 June, 1740, 
while waiting for his tr(»ops to assemble. lie was succeeded 
in the command ])y Sir William Gooch, then Governor of Vir- 
ginia — a post which he filled from 1720 to 1749. Blakeney, 
the adjutant-general sent out from England, was born in 
County Limerick, Ireland, 1G72, and was therefore in his 
sixty-ninth year. He lived over twenty years after this 
expedition, to hold Stirling Castle for the Xing "in the '45," 
to surrender ^finorca (of which he was governor) to the 
French, after a gallant resistance, in 1750, and to be raised 
to tlie peerage as Lord Blakeney. He died in 17G1. 

The Massachusetts troops were conmianded by Captains 
Daniel Goffe, John Prescott, Thomas Phillips, George Stew- 
art and John Winslow. The hrst lieutenancies of these com- 
panies were presuTuably filled under the general order by 
ap))ointnients sent out from England and are not named. 

Kliode Island sent two companies of 100 men each. The 
Xewport company, equii^ped in tlie spring, was commanded 
by Captain Joseph Slieffield, and the Providence com])any 
by Captain William Ilo]»kins. The names «d" the other offi- 
cers are not given, but it is mentioned that the tirst lieutenants 
of each company were sent out from England. 

Connecticut sent two companies, commanded it wo\ild seem, 
by Captains Winslow and Prescott; and in this province also, 
in the Fall of 1741 and February, 1742, a proclamation was 
issued to raise recruits under Captain Prescott, wiio had been 
sent home l»y General Wentworth ff)r that purpose from 
Jamaica. 

Xew York sent one company in Se]itember and four more 
on 10 Octol)er. These last were j<tined by those of the Xew 
Jersey troops whicli were to embark at Amboy (the West Jer- 



8 

sey troops were to go down the Delaware River t*; meet them). 
Oil 12 October the expedition sailed to join Colonel Gooch 
with the Maryland and X'irginia troops. Xew York raised 
£2,500 for the service and Massaehnsetts voted £17,5U0, (Jon- 
neeticut gave £4,000 towards bonnties {pccinia they styled it) 
and the expences of the two eomiuinies she sent. Application 
was made to New Wn-k also for recruits in 1741. New 
Jersey raised two coni})anics, and voted £2,000 and recrnits; 
for they were also duly called for there, as elsewhere, CajitJiin 
Farmer being sent home for that jjurpose. Pennsylvania sent 
eight companies, but refused any a})i)roi>riation. Of the 
Pennsylvania troops 300 were white bond-servants who were 
given their liberty on condition of enlistment, much to the dis- 
satisfaction of the province, ^laryland voted ifiOO and sent 
3 companies. N'irginia sent 400 and a])})ropriat<?(l £5,000 for 
their hU])port. Tiie captain ()f <»ne of her Companies was Law- 
rence Washington, the lialf brother of George \\'ashington. 
Lawrence, who \vas then twenty years uf age, distinguished 
himself in the ca])tnre of the fort at Boca Cliica, and was also 
in the deadly assault on San Lazaro, when GOO men, half of 
the assaultim;- column were left on the gromid. He was f(jur- 
teen years older than his more distinguished br<4her. 

North Carolina .sent four comi)anies. Gov. Johnson in his 
letter to the Duke of New Castle 5 Nov. 1840, states that three 
of these companies were raised in the Xorthern ])art of the 
province, i. e., in the Albemarle section. The other it seems 
was recruited in the Ca]»e Fear section. There is some reason 
to believe that Col. rlames Iniies of subsequent fame served as 
Captain of this ccmipauy. All four c<>m]KUiies embarked on 
transports in the Cape Fear, 5 Nov., 1740, and sailed direct- 
ly for Janniica where they joined Admiral Vernon's squadron. 



The contribution of money by North Carolina to this expe- 
dition was as hirge in pr(»])ortion as her levy of men. On 21 
August, 1740, Gov. Johnston informed the Assembly of the 
King's desire that North Carolina should assist in the war. 
This the Assembly prom])tly assented to, and a tax was laid of 
3 shillings on the ])()11, but owing to the scarcity of money it 
was provided that tlie tax could be paid either "in specie or 
by tobacco at ten shillings the liuudnM], rice at seven shillings 
and six pence tlie ])ound, dressed deer skins at two shillin<;-? 
and six pence the pound, taUow at four pence, ])orlc at -even 
shillings the barrel, or current ])ai)er money at seven and a 
half for one." Warehouses for receiving the commodities 
were directed to be built in each county. 

The forces were united in the harbor ui Kingston, Jamaica, 
January, 1741, under Admiral Vernon. llTid he at once 
proceeded to Havana, as intended, it must have fallen, and 
Cuba would have passed under English rule and the treasures 
sent from New Spain would have ]>een intercepted. But 
with strange incompetence Vernon lay idle till Havana was 
fortified and garri- 
soned and then lie 
started east in search 
of the French fleet 
off IIis])aniola. Find- 
ing that .it had left 
for France, towards 
the end of P^ebruary 
he sailed to attack 
Cartagena on the 
coast of Venezuela. 

On the way he fell 




J 



10 

in with the French fleet. France wa.s still at peace 
with Great Britain thoni'h not verv friendlv. This fleet 
refnsed to show its colors. A fierce flight ensnecl in which 
many men were killed and wounded. The next morning the 
French fleet showed its colors, whereupon the Admirals grave- 
ly apologized to each other and each fleet took its course. This 
is a characteristic incident of those times. Smt)llett, the cele- 
brated historian and novelist, was serving in the British fleet 
as assistant surgeon and has left us an accurate descri])tion, 
it is said, of this sea flght in the naval battle dei)icted by him 
in Roderick llandom. 

On 4 March, iTil the fleet anchored oif Cartagena, which 
had three hundred guns mounted. Instead of pressing the 
attack Admiral Vernon lay inactive until the"" 0th, giving op- 
portunity for better fortification and re-enforcements to the 
enemy, lie then landed troops on Terra-Bondja, near the 
mouth of the harbor known as Boca-Chica (or little mouth), 
and attacked the land Itatteries also with his ships. In this 
attack Lord Aubrey Beauclerc, commanding one of the ships 
was slain. In the land attack 200 American troo])s, led by 
Captain Lawrenci^ Washington, were mentioned for their gal- 
lantry. The passage, however, was carried 25 ^larch, and 
three days later the troops were landed within a mile of Car- 
tagena, which lay at the other end of the spacious harbor, 
which is really a bay several miles in length. The town was 
protected by the formi<lable fort San Lazaro. The enemy 
abandoned Castillo (Jrande, the fort on the opposite side of 
the bay. Had there been proper concurrence between the 
attacks, made by the lan<l forces and the fleet, San Lazaro 
wouhl have been readily taken, but the worst of feeling pre- 
vailed between General Wentworlfi and Admiral Vernon, and 



11 

thus there were two poor commanders instead of one good 
one, as was so essential to success. The town was bombarded 
three days, terrifying the inhabitants and injuring church 
steeples and convents. After repeated demands by Admiral 
Vernon that a land attack shoidd bo made, sailing into the 
inner harbor Admiral Vernon (lisend)arked the land forces. 




Lord Cathcart having died, command of these forces had pass- 
ed to Gen. W'entworth. The ill feeling and rivalry between 
Wentworth and Admiral Vernon thwarted every movement 
An attack was made on Fort San Lazaro April but it was 
not aided by the fleet and was repulsed, losing half of the 
twelve hundred men of the storming colinnn on the field, 
among them its gallant leader Col. Grant* 

The whole expedition was shamefully mismanagod. The 
troops were brave but the leaders wei'e inconii^etent The heat 



* 179 killed, 459 wounded, 16 prisoners 



12 

and disease of the climate slew more than the sword. The 
army finally withdrew bnt it numbered on reaching Jamaica 
only 3,000 of the original 15,000. Of these only 2,000 sur- 
vived to return home. The loss amung the sailors was also 
heavy. The number of JS^orth Carolina troops who returned 
home is not known but it is ])resumed that their ratio of loss 
equaled that of the rest of the army. Of the 500 men sent 
by Massachusetts only 50 returned. Such, in brief, is an out- 
line of this •ill-starred exijcdition. Admiral Vernon inci- 
dentally touches later American history by the fact that his 
name was bestowed by Lawrence Washington (who served 
under him) on his residence which afterwards took its place 
in history as Mount Vernon. It is the irony of fate which 
thus links his name with immortal fame, for 'few men so in- 
competent ever trod a quarter-deck as that same vice-admiral 
of the Blue, Edward \'ernon. lie was subsequently dismiss- 
ed from the service — cashiered. 

This ill-fated expedition added one word to the English 
language. According to the army and navy regulations of 
that day rum was served out twice a day to the 15,000 sailors 
and 12,000 soldiers. Dy Admiral Vernon's orders, it was, 
for the first time, diluted with water before being issued, to 
the intense disgust of the recipients, lie wore a grogram 
overcoat and the men dubbed the thin potation old '*grog." 
After many unfiattering comments. u])on the leading, Smollett 
adds ''Good brandy and good rum mixed with hot water, 
composing a most uni)alatable drench, was the cause of fail- 
ure." We, however, can see the cause in a far truer light. 

Prior to* 1700, the regimental rolls were not preserved in 
the British War Otfice, hence we know very little of the dis- 
tinctive composition of the American contingent. We know 



13 

that there were eight regiments of British troops aud four 
battalions of Americans. The latter were composed of thirty- 
six companies and contained 3,500 or 3,000 men. Of these, 
it a})])ears from the letter of Col. William Blakeney to the 
Duke of Xew Castle of 23 October, 1840, there were four 
companies from Virginia, eight from Pennsylvania, three 
from Maryland. These were to go out under Col. Wm. 
Gooch, the Lieut. Gov. of Virginia. There preceded these 
five companies from J^oston, two froui Rhode Island, two from 
Connecticut, five froui ]^ew York, three from New Jersey. 
The four companies from Xorth Carolina arrived last of all. 
On arrival the Northern companies were to be commanded 
by Col. Gooch, and those from Maryland, Virginia and North 
Carolina were to l)e coiumauded by Col. l>lakeney. On 14 
Decend)er, 1740, Col. Blakeney wrote from Jamaica that Col. 
Gooch with the Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia troops 
had arrived and the North Carolina troops were daily ex- 
pected.'^ They sul)se(]uently arrived but exactly when is not 
known. Lord Cathcart died at Januaica, 20 December, 1840, 
and was succeede<l by Gen. Wentworth. From a letter of 
Gov. Gooch to the Duke of New Castle it appears that the 
Colonial com})anies were jdaced in battalions without refer- 
ence to the respective ])rovinces from which they came and 
were distinguished as the "American Regiments." From an 
extract of a return of Col. Gooch we find that in the 2d P>iit- 
talion was Lt. Col. Coletraiij "with the remainder of his com- 
pany, viz.: two Lieutenants, two Sergeants, two Corporals, 
one Drummer and forty Centinels from Xorth Carolina." 
Tliis is the oidy name of an otKeer exce])t Cai)tain Rol)ert 
Holton wliieh is distinctively given as being in conunand of 



*11 N. C. State Records. 42-45. 



14 

North Carolina troops. It is not certain that Coletrain was 
from the State, for in one of the published accounts of that 
day it is stated of those ''American Kegiments" that the "field 
officers were all men of long service, named by his Majesty, 
and sent from Britain. The companies were raised chiefly 
by the interest and at the charge of their respective captains ; 
of whom some were members of the Assembly in the province 
where they resided; others lived upon their own plantations 
and had commands in the militia ; and some few had been 
concerned in tratiic." Tlis !^[ajesty, it is further stated, ''sent 
out thirty cadets of family who were provided with positions 
as Lieutenants in American Com])anies." It was charged by 
a pamphleteer that "the gTcatest part of the private soldiers 
enlisted in North America were either Irish Papists or Eng- 
lish who had been under a necessity of leaving their own 
country." This if true of any of the provinces, could not 
have been so as to the North Carolina companies. Gov. 
Johnst(m of North Carijina, in his letter to the Duke of New 
Castle, 5 Nov., 1840, says: "I have good reason to beliese that 
we coidd have easily raised 200 more if it had been possible to 
negotiate the bills of exchange in this part of the continent, 
but as that was impracticable we were obliged to rest satislied 
with four companies," which he further states, ''are now 
embarked and just going to sea." 

The most striking incident of the campaign — apart from 
its terrible mismanagement and loss of life — was the lard 
attack upon the fortifications of Cartagena. General Went- 
worth, in a note to Admiral Vernon, 2 April, 1741, demanded 
that a detachment of 1,500 Americans slxndd be landed, nndor 
the connnand of Col. Gooch, to assist him. On G A})ril. he 
acknowledges the landing of the Americans, who took part 



15 

in the storming San Lazaro i) April. This is thus de- 
scribed by Smollett: "Stung by the reproaches of the Ad- 
miral (Vernon), Gen. Wentworth called a council of hia 
officers, and with tlieir advice he attempted to carry Fort San 
Lazaro by storm. Twelve hundred men headed Ijy Gen. Guisa, 
and guided by some Spanish deserters or peasants, who were 
either ignorant, or which is more likely, in the ])ay of the 
Spanish Governor whom they pretended to have left, marched 
boldly up to the foot of the fort. But the guides led the^a 
to the very strongest part of the fortiticatiuns; and what was 
worse, when they came to try the scaling ladders with which 
they were provided, they found them too short. This occa- 
sioned a fatal delay, and presently the brilliant morning of the 
tro})ics broke with its glaring light upon what ha<l been in- 
tended for a nocturnal attack. Under these circumstances, 
the wisest thing wouKl have been an instant retreat ; but the 
soldiers had come to take the fort, and with bull^dog resolution 
they seemed determined to take it at every disadvantage, 
They stood, under a terril)le i)lunging fire, adjusting their 
ladders antl tixing upon points where they might climb; and 
they did not yield an inch of ground, •though every Spanish 
cannon and nnisket told upon and thinned their ranks." One 
party of grenadiers even attained a footing on the top of a 
rampart, when their brave leader, Col. Grant, was mortally 
wounded. The grenadiers were swept over the wall, biit still 
the rest sustained the enemy's fire for several hours, and did 
not retreat till six hundred, or one-half of their original num- 
l)er, lay dead or wounded at the foot of those fatal walls. It 
is said that Vernon stood inactive on his quarter-deck all the 
while, and did not send in his boats full of men till the last 
moment when \Ventworth was retreatinjx. The heavv rains 



16 

now set in, and disease spread with snch terrible rapidity 
that in less than two days one-half the troops, on shore were 
dead, dying-, or nntit for service. The cxi)edition was then 
given up, and the survivors re-enibarked and sailed for 
Jamaica. They were later landed in Eastern Cuba, at a place 
christened Cund)erland llarljor, probably Guantanamo, and 
strong appeals were made to the colonies for re-inforcements. 

Three thousand recruits, part of thorn from the Xorth 
American colonies, were sent Went worth, and he also oruan- 
izcil and drilled 1,000 Jamaica negroes with a design of at- 
tacking Santiago de Cuba, but this was abandoned. Thus 
ended probably the most formidable and thoroughly equipped 
expedition which up to that time Great Britain had sent out. 
Everything was expected of it. Tnder good leadershi]) it 
might have taken Cuba, and have anticijjated by more than a 
century and a half the end of the rule of the Spaniard in 
that island. Its failure is only comparable to that sustained 
by Nicias in Sicily, as narrated l)y Plutarch. ' Vernon's utter 
defeat overthrew the Walpole ministry. 

It is '•-ertAin that the North Carolinians were among the 
American troops taking i)art in the assault. It also ap- 
pears from Admiral A'ernon's rei)orts tllat the American Col- 
onies contributed several sloops to the fleet, but how numy 
and by whom conniianded is not stated. After his return to 
Jamaica, he writes to the Duke of Newcastle, 30 May, 1741, 
that ''without the ai«I of some of the Americans we could not 
get our ships t« sea." Yet he had the affrontery to write, 
suggesting tliat the survivors of the Americans shouhl be 
colonized in Eastern Cuba, as "North America is already too 
thickly settled, and its peo])le wish to estal)lish numufactures 
wliich would injure those at home" (in Hi-itain). In fact, 



17 

many Americans, probably sailors iu the sloops, were drafted 
to the British ships going to England. 

Thus early in her career, 104: years ago this fall, North 
Carolina came to the front. She responded to the King's call 
for aid, with men and means to the full of her ability. Her 
soldiers served, as they have always done since, faitlifidly,aye, 
brilliantly. Beneath the tropical sun, in the sea fight, at the 
carrying <»f the passage of Boca Chico, in the deadly assault 
upon ISan Lazaro, amid the more deadly pestilence that walk- 
eth by noonday, Xorth Carolinians knew how to do their duty 
and to die. The merest handful returned home. But their 
State has ])reserved no memento of their deeds. The historian 
has barely mentioned them. Possibly the names of three of 
our soldiers ha\'e been jtrcserved. The recollection of so much 
heroism should n(»t be allowed t(» die. Xorth Carolina should 
yet erect a cenotaph to these her sons, to the 

''Brave men who perisLed by their gUns 
Though they conquered not — " 

to the ''unreturning brave" who sleep Iteneath the walls of 
St. Aup-iistine, by the Cartagenian summer sea beneath the 
walls of San Lazaro, and amid the rolli»ig hills where Brad- 
dock fell. Walter Clark. 

Ralbigh, N. C, 

10 October, 1904. 



NORTH CAROLiriA'5 RECORD IN WAR. 

TROQFS AMD QENERALS. 



BY CHIEF JUSTICE WALTER CLAKK. 



The following is a list of generals whom North Carolina, 
has furnished and of the various wars through which she has 
passed. 

BEFOKE THE REVOLUTION. 

Before the Revolution, North Carolina, owing tu the small 
numher of troops she could furnish, had iiu generals except 
those of the militia. She had a severe Indian war at home, 
in 1711-13, which hegan with the massacre of 22 Sept. 1711, 
when two hundred men, women and children in a few hours 
fell beneath the scalping knife. North Carolina was ma- 
terially aided in tlie war tliat followed by troops sent from 
South Carolina, her own small forces being counnanded by 
Col. Mitchell and Col. ^^lacKee. In 1715 she sent her first 
expedition Ix'vond the State, being horse and foot soldiers 
under Col. ^Maurice ^loore to aid South Carolina against the 
Yemassee Indians. In 1740 she sent four^ companies of 100 
men each, in the only expedition soldiers from this country 
have ever made beyond the Continent, to Cartagena, South 
America. ]^>bert llolton and possibly James Innes (after- 
wards Colonel in the French war), and Coletrain were three of 
the captains. In the same year, 1710, she sent troo])s in the 
expedition umkr Ogh-thorpe against St. Augustine, .Fla., 
then held by the Sjjani^li. Her troops in tliat exitcdition, 
were combined with tlic \'irginia and South Carolina troops 
into a regiment comm:nidi'<l by Van Derdus.sen. 

In the French war she sent in 17.")!:, the year before Brad- 



19 

dock's defeat, a regiment to Winchester, Va., under command 
of Col. James Innes, who took the command outranking at 
the time, Colonel George Washington who then commanded 
the Virginia forces. In 1755 she sent 100 men under Capt. 
Edward Brice T)obhs (son of Gov. Dobbs) in the ill-fated 
Braddock expedition, but fortimately they were in the reserve 
under Col. Dunbar and did not share in the defeat. In 1756, 
she sent four companies under Major Edward Dobbs to New 
York in the French war. Two years later iSTorth Carolina 
sent throe com])anies under ATaj. Hugh Waddell in Gen. 
Forbes' expedition wliich took Fort Du Quesne, the North 
Carolinians being the first to enter the fort. In 1759 and 
17 Gl slie sent a large force under Col. Hugh Waddell against 
the Cherokees. 

Her troops who fought the battle of Alamance against the 
Regulators IG ^lay, 1771, were detachments of militia com- 
manded by their Colonels under Governor Try on who was 
in chief comnumd. Gen'l Hugh Waddell, who had seen ser- 
vice against the French and Indians in a lower rank, com- 
manded some 300 militia across the Yadkin but did not reach 
the battle field. 

IN THE REVOLUTION 1775-'S3. 

North Carolina had in the "Continental Line" : 

One JMajor General — Robert Howe. 

Four Brigadier Generals — (1) James ^loore, died in ser- 
vice Feb., 1777; (2) Francis Nash, killed at Germantown, 
4 October, 1777; (3) Jethro Sunnier; (4) James Ilogun, 
died a prisoner of war at Charleston, S. C, 4 January, 1781. 

Besides these, who were regular or Continental officers, 
the following Generals of Militia commanded troops in ac- 
tion : 



20 

General John Ashe, at Briar Creek, Ga., 3 March, 1779. 

General liichard Caswell, at Cauulen, S. C, 10 August, 
1780. 

General Isaac Gre<j:ory, at Camden, S. C, IG Aufrust, 1780, 
where he was wounded and the conduct of his uu-n hi<;hly 
praised hy the British. 

General Griliitli Kutherford, at Stono, 20 June, 1770, and 
at Camden, S. C, 10 August, 1780, where he was wounded 
and ca])tured. lie commanded also in the ex])edition3 
against the Seovelite Tories and the Overhill Indians. 

General William Lee Davidson, killed at Cowan's Ford, 
1 Feh., 1781. (He had been a Lieutenant Colonel in the 
Continental Line). 

General dolm Butler, at Stono, 20 June, 1770, at Camden, 
10 August, 1780, and at Guilford C. II. 15 ^farch, 1781. 

General Thomas Eaton, at Guilford C. II., L") ^larch, 
1781. 



Xorth Carolina furnished ten regiments of Regulars to the 
Continental Line, one hattery of artillery (Kingsbury's), and 
three companiets of cavalry. Besides this her militia were 
frequently ordered out on "tours of duty". Alone and \maid- 
ed they won the brilliant victory at ^loore's Creek, Bamsour's 
^rill and King's ^lountain, and helped the regulars lose the 
battles of Camden and Guilford C. J I. Under Butherford's 
leadership early in 1770, they so crushed the Seovillite 
tories in South Carolina and in July of that year the Overhill 
Indians in Tennessee, that neitlier gave further troid)le dur- 
ing the entire war. In the later expedition 2,400 X, C. 
militia were engaged. They also shared in the battles of 
Stono, Briar Creek, Cowpens and the defense and surrender 
of Charleston. The Xorth Carolimi Continentals rendered 



21 

efficient service at Erandywiiie, Geniiantown, ^Moiiiuoiith, at 
the capture of Stony Point (where tliey had a conspicuous 
part), at llobkirk's Hill, Eutaw, at huih sieges of Charleston 
and Savannah and elsewhere, and formed a part of the gar- 
rison of West Point, when our ^lajor General Howe succeed- 
ed Arnold in coniniand there upon his treason. 

IN Tin: WAU OF 1812-'15. 

Brigadier General -Joseph Graham v/as sent in command 
of the brigade of North Carolina and South C/arolina troops, 
in 1814 to aid of General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. 
General G-raham had attained the rank of ^fajor in the Pevo- 
lutionary Why and had been badly wounded at the capture of 
Charh)tte, 2G Sipt., ITsO. A Pn-igadc of Militia under 
General Jos. F. l)ickiii>ou was the same year marched to 
Norfolk, when* they remained fo\ir nn»nths and were pres- 
ent when the Pritisli Heet was drivt-n baek at the battle oif 
Craney Island. 

Johnson Plakely, of Wilmington, in command of the 
"Wasp" rendered elHeient service at sea. Capt. Otway 
Burns was most prominent among the ])rivateersmen from 
this State. X<irth Carolina Troops were also sent to Canada, 
where Captain Penjamin Forsythe was among the slain. 

IX IVIKXICAN WAIJ. lS4(3-'7. 

Colonel Pobert Treat Paine, of the North Carolina Regi- 
ment and Colonel Louis 1). Wilson, 12 V. S. Infantry, who 
died at Vi-ry Cruz, 1"5 August, 1847. 

North Carolina had no General in that war. She furnish- 
ed one regiment (»f volunteers — Paine's; and one company to 
the 12 U. S. in the regular service. 



22 

IN THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-'65. 

Two Lieutenant Generals, (1) T. 11. Holmes, (2) D. H. 
Hill. 

Seven Major Generals, (1) Ivobert Ransom; (2) W. D. 
Peiuler, died of wounds received at Gettysburg in July, 
1803; (3) It. F. Hoke; (4) S. D. rcamseur, killed at Cedar 
Run, 180-4; (5) W. 11. C. Whiting, died of wounds received 
at Fort Fisher, 21 January, 18(33; (0) Bryan Grimes; (7) 
Jeremy F. Gilmer, a distinguished Engineer Oilicer and 
Chief of .Statf of the Army of the West. 

Twenty-six Brigadier Generals: (1) Richard C. Gatling; 
(2) L. O'B. Branch, killed at Sharpsburg, 17 September, 
1802; (3) J. Johnston Pettigrew, died of wounds received 
at Falling Waters, 11 July, 1803; (4) James G. ^^lartin; 
(5) Thoimis L. Clingman ; (0) Geo. B. Anderson, died of 
wounds received at Sharjjsburg 17 Septeiuber, 1802; (7) 
Junius Daniel, died of woiuids received at Wild,erness, ^lay, 
1804; (8) John R. Cooke; (iJ) James 11. Lane; (10) Robert 
B. Vance, since M. C. ; (11) ^latthew W. Ransom, since U. 
S. Senator; (12) Alfred AL Scales, since M. C, also Gover- 
nor 1885-1881); (13) Lawrence S. Baker; (14) William W. 
Kirkland; (15) Robert D. Johnston; (10) Jas. B. Gordon, 
died of wounds received at Yellow Tavern, 14 ^lay, 1804; 
(17) W. Gaston Lewis; (18) W. R. Cox, since M. C. ; (10) 
Thomas F. Tviou, since Superintendent of Publci Instruc- 
tion; (20) Rufus Barringer; (21) A. C. Godwin, killed at 
Winchester 2!) Se])temb('r, 1S(J4; (22) William AlacKae; 
(23) Collctt Leventhorpc; (24) John 1). Barry; (25) Wil- 
liam P. lioborts, since State Auditor; (lM)) (Jaliriel J. Rains. 

Gen. Iverson, for a while conunaiided a N. C. "Brigade, 
but he was a Georoiaii. Tliere were manv natives of X. C. 



23 

not in the above list because appointed from other States, as 
Gen. Braxton Bragg, Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk ; Major Gen- 
eral C. M. Wilcox, Brigadier Generals ZoUicoffer, ^IcCul- 
lough, and many others. On tlie other hand ^faj. Gen. 
^^^liting, born in j\Iississippi, and Brig. Gen. Cooke, born in 
Missouri, are in the list because they threw in their fortunes 
with Nortli Carolina during the war and were appointed from 
this State. 

At sea, James I. Waddell in command of the Shenandoah 
illustrated the courage of his race and State on every sea and 
was the last to lower the (Jonfederate Hag in November, 1865. 
In the aboi'e lists the generals are named according to the 
dates of their respective commissions — except Generals Gil- 
mer and Ivains. 

jSTotwithstanding the State furnished 127,000 troops to 
the Confederacy it had at the close of the war in service only 
one Lieutenant General, D. IL II ill, and three Major Gen- 
erals, Robert Ransom, Robert F. Iloke and Bryan Grimes — 
Pender, Whiting and Ramseur having been killed in battle. 
Of her 20 Brigadier Generals six (Branch, Pettigrew, An- 
derson, Daniel, Gordon and Godwin) were killed ; one was 
on the retired list, one in the State service as Adjutant Gen- 
eral, and four prisoners of war — leaving nine in service and 
four at home wounded, several of our de])leted brigades being 
commanded by colonels and majors and one even by a captain. 
At the Appomattox surrender (0 Ai)ril, 1805) the parole list 
shows from Nc»rth Carolina one ^lajor General — Bryan 
Grimes, conniiaudiiig divisitiu, and six Brigadier Generals 
v.'ere paroled in connuaud of their res])ective brigades — John 
R. Cooke, James IL Lane, ^l. W. Ransom, W. G. LeWis, Wil- 
liam R. Cox and W. P. Roberts. Another, General Rufus 



24 

Barringer, had been captured the week before during the re- 
treat. 

At Joseph E. Johnston's surrender, 26 April, 1865, N'orth 
Carolina had one Lieutenant General, D. H. Hill ; one Major 
General, Robert F. Iloke and one Briuadier, Kirkland; 
though Leventhorpe and Baker, with their commands, were 
also embraced in the terms. 

To this war ]^orth Carolina sent "84 Regiments, 16 Bat- 
talions, and 13 unattached companies and individuals from 
this State serving in commands from other States, and 9 regi- 
ments of Home Guards and militia rendering short tours of 
duty." 4'N. C. Regimental Histories, page 224. 



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North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



THB FIRST ENGLISH SETTLEMENT 
V IN AMERICA— A STUDY IN 
LOCATION, 

By W. J. PEELE. 







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THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.' 

GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. ■ _.- 

VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

Kemp p. Battle, LL.D. • 

The Battle of Ramsour'a Mill. V^ 

Major William A. Graham. "■? At 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. , • 

Judsre A. C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
. William Jlooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikea. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn. Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief J uatice Walter Clark. 

The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W.J. Peele. • . • ' ' 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. . ' • 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. • '. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judi;a James C. MacRae. '_^ 

Governor Thomas Pollock. V 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 

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VOL. IV NOVEMBER, 1904 No. z 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER ! 
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FOUNUEB or TUE NOBTII CAROLINA SOCIETY AND ReuENT 1896-1902: 

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Regent 1902: 
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THE FIRST ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA- 
A STUDY IN LOCATION. 



BY W. J. PEELE. 



PART I. 



There is a belief among the present inhabitants of Roanoke 
Island that Anii(his and r)ar]u\ve came into the sound through 
an inlet opposite to the island. They say little in support of 
that view, so visitors usually give it small eonsideration. A 
little cape running out from tlie i.-^land into U<»an(»ke S«)\ind, 
still called "!-)Ldla.-t Point," marks tlic place; where the early 
colonial navigators cast overboard their ballast; and there, 
stones from nnmy lands, especially from the West Indies, may 
still be fo\uid. That there was an iidet at the jdace where 
they claim and that it was used by the colonial navigators is 
not doubted, but this fact gives but small clue tc determine 
the point in controversy. 

The inlet through wliich Amidas and iJarlowe appear to 
have sailed, about twenty miles north-east of R<>an()k(^ Island, 
was subsequently closed uj) and was probably very badly 
damaged at least as early as the great st<M-m (d' l<it)r». Under 
the name of "Trinity Harbor" it is i^lainly laid down in 
both of ])ei>ry\s maps (ir>!>l»), and und(;r the name <if *'\\'or: 
cester Inlet" it is [)lainly laid down in Ca})tain John Smith's 
map, published in 1020. 



This same storm (1G9G) appears to have deepened Ocra- 
coke (ealled in Lawson's map "Ocacock") Inlet. Tliis inlet, 
or one near it, was called "Wokokon" on Deliry's map of 
Lane's expedition, the name which the Indians gave to an 
"ont island" (meaning the banks) adjoining the inlet. 

The first point of land discovered by the expedition nnder 
Amidas and l^arlowe (Jnly 4, 1584) was probabl}^ what is 
now called Cai)e Ilatteras — significantly named on Captain 
John Smith's map "Cape Amidas." 

We learn from White's last voyage especially (1500), that 
the early navigjitors sailed np the Gnlf-stream, in their voy- 
ages to Virginia, to gain the advantage of tlie nortliward cur- 
rent until they arrived off the coast upon which they expected 
to land, and that then, after taking a reckoning of their lati- 
tude, they changed their course and made toward the shore, 
still bearing northward, in the meanwhile, and sailing cau- 
tiously as the soundings showed that the sea was growing 
more and more shallow. 

Under the "last and perfect directions * '^' * con- 
firraing the former directions and commandments" given by 
Sir Walter Kaleigli himself to Amidas and liarlowe, it is 
easy to believe that they knew better than to land anywhere 
near the South Carolina coast, which had witnessed the fright- 
ful destruction of Admiral Coligny's colonists by the Span- 
ish only a few years before. So we find the first exjiedition, 
on July -d, in "shoal water" and near enough to the shore 
to smell "so sweet and strong a smell as if in some sweet Und 
delicate garden * * * by which," liarlowe continues, 



"we were assured the land could not be far distant," and it 
was near at hand, though they sailed two days more before 
they saw it. Sailing up from the south or south-east and 
"bearing but slack sail, the 4th of the month we arrived," 
continues Barlowe, ''upon the coast * * * * an<] ^ve 
sailed along the same one hundred and twenty English miles 
before we could lind any entrance or river issuing into the 
sea. The first that appeared unto us we entered." Sighting 
the land from a point, say twenty miles south of Cape llat- 
teras, they continued sailing along (but now for the first 
time in sight of) the coast and northward until they found 
an inlet — passing, probiibly in the night, the tWo they might 
have entered or tried to enter if the same had "appeared" to 
them — and finally entering one some twenty miles north- 
east of Roanoke Island. The distance as the crow Hies is not 
over seventy miles, but as sailed was probably nearer a hun- 
dred, and easily estimated, by one unacquainted with the 
currents, at "a hundred and twenty." They were strangers 
feeling their way for a day and night, at least, along an un- 
known coast, straining their eyes and imaginations to divine 
the meaning of the long yellow ridge of sand-hills that 
stretched like a huge serjKmt before them. The record of 
IJarlowe, and that of those who folh)wed him in the subse- 
(pient expeditions (from 1585 to 1590), indicates mistakes 
more considerable than this, their first exaggeration. \n- 
other reason wliy the first point of land siglited uff our coast 
should be Cape Ilatteras rather than Cape Lookout, or any 
jX)int in its vicinity, is that the very next expedition (that of 



1585) and the others which followed found many inlets be- 
tween the regions of Cape Lookout and Trinity Harbor and 
"made tryalls of many," and no reason can be seen why this 
expedition should not have done the same thing if it had 
struck our coast as low down as the subsequent ex])editions 
did. 

The inlets in that part of the coast between Cape ITatteras 
and Trinity Harbor were beaten through the banks by the 
prevalent storms from the north-east, the violence of which 
may well.be imagined when, as we learn from Barlowe, the 
inlet through which the first explorers sailed was six miles 
from sea to sound, which was the width of the island through 
which it was driven; and as it may have been diagonal in its 
direction across the banks, this would easily have made it 
seven miles in length. This explains what fJarlowe meant 
when he said : "This land [the banks on the south side of the 
inlet j lay stretching itself to the west — wliich after wo found 
to be but an island twenty miles long." The indication is 
that he was not then considering the length of the island 
which he "after" saw, but the hrcadth, which he could then 
easily see straight down the inlet for six or seven miles, for he 
was standing on the sand-banks ("being but of mean height") 
adjoining it. It cannot be supposed that he could see through 
the woods for twenty miles down the banks, for they were 
then well M-ooded, and, even within the memory of men still 
living, nearly covered with live-oaks. 

White appears to have entered at this same inlet in 1590, 
when he c:inie to look for his lost colony; and it is well to 



note here, also, that liis reckoning placed it at lluiii/si.v de- 
grees and twenty minntes — only ahout ten niile^ too liigh 
for Trinity llarhor as nieasnred hy our mon; accurate in- 
struments, lie indicates its Jiiertit>n too, for he said the 
wind blew ''at north-east and direct into the harbor" — 
the name by whicli this inlet was often called — "Trinity 
Harbor" being the full name given on Del>ry's nnips, but 
tlie "Trintij" part of the name is not mentioned in any 
other recorch It is i>robable that White lookccl down this 
inlet south-west to lioanoke Island, for he says: "At our 
first coming to anchor on this shore \ve saw a great smoke 
rise in the Isle of U(janoke near ilie place- where I left 
the colony in 1587." This was the north end of the island, 
wdiere the renniins of Fort Raleigh may still be fomid. It 
need not confuse the cart-fid reader that White called this 
inlet, or the banks adjoining, "Ilatorask," while DeHry, on 
both his majjs, writes that same name near to an inlet oppo- 
site the aoulli end of ]toano];e Island. The Indians doubt- 
less called the banks all along there, pi.'rhaps chnm down to. 
Cape llatteras, by that name, wiiile the English very natu- 
rally used it to designate the inlet or banks adjoining it, or 
they might logically, or p('rha|)s negligently, Inive ai)plied 
the name to two inlets piercing the banks known among the 
Indians by one name. It is oi" course i)ossibl(' that after 
using Trinity Harbor to make their first entry they found 
the lower inloX butter suited i\)r their purposes and adopted 
it, calling it ''Ilatorask." if this lower inlet, or the one six 
or seven miles north of it, afterwards called Roanoki!, was, 



()r subscquoiilly became, the best, Trinity Harbor would have 
been 6]jetHJiIy abandoned with little ceremony and its very 



name lorgotten. 



The establisliment of this view, however, only makes 
With's (or White's, as the English translation of llackluyt 
ex])resses it) drawin«i, ''The Arrival of tlu English in Vir- 
ginia,'' all the more certainly a jjicture of the landing of 
IJarlowc's exj)edition, as will presently apjjcar, for the boat 
with the ei^ht or nine men in it is plainly sailing from Trin- 
iitj Harbor suulh-irest loiiard JloanoL'c. I^^land and Ihc Indian 
cdUujc arihe norlh end of it, while the record of the landing 
of Grenviile and Lam.' sets forth with ecjmil «x[ilii-itii(ss that 
iiitli came thnnigh "Ilatorask." lint whatever apparent 
confnsi(.>n there is as -to names, the records plainly indicate 
that the early explorers from 1585 to 151)0 all headed fi)r an 
inlet or harbor 'Svell known to our English," near Koanoke 
Island, called 'TTatorask." The name Trinity Harbor, which 
only appears in DeBry's maps, may have been an after-thought 
with the ])ious JIariot, who aided in their ])reparation, or 
it may have been given by the expedition of 1584 to denote 
the religious purpose which our exi)lorcrs, as well as others 
of that time, had, or thought they had, in taking iX)Ssession of 
our shores. In the prow of the boat shown on the drawing 
entitled ''The Arrival of the Eniili>h in Viriiinia,'' stands a 
man holding out a cross toward the island and the village. 
This picture, as jjainted by John With (Wl.iti.-), donbtless 
serves well the pur|)oso of re})resenting the arrival of either 
Amidas and Harlowe, or of Grenviile and Lane in the year fol- 



lowing, or both. They both came to the island through ITato- 
rask Eanks and may woll have come through the same inlet. 
The exj)hination of this drawing was put into Latin by ITack- 
luyt, and the Injoks containing the drawing have come down to 
us with the explanations. The Latin (edition of 1590), as ac- 
curately translated, says: '*'^ "^^ ■^' Entering, therefore, the 
inlet and ])urusing our navigation a little way, we observed a 
great river inaLimj its way out of this rcfjion of the aforesaid 
islands [the coastal ishnids constituting the banks already 
mentioned in the exi)laiiation], wliich, however, we could ni'C 
ascend by reason of its narrowness and the heaps of sand 
which obstructed its moutli." The old English reads: "After 
wee had ])as8ed opp and sayled ther in for a short space wee 
discovered a myglitie riuer faUi/i(/ downe iido the Sounds 
over against those ilands, which, nevertlieless, wee could not 
sayle opp anything far by reason of the shallewnes, the mouth 
ther of bcinge annoyed with sands driven in with the tyde." 
The Latin evidently described Currituck Sound, but the 
English also tits the Albemarle, as represented on DeBry's 
maps, with a bar across its mouth. While the illustration rep- 
resents the first coming of the English to Roanoke, and per- 
haps as well also the second, the explanations, both in English 
and Latin, aj)pear to be maiidy descriptive of the second land- 
ing on the ishnul which both White and llariot saw with their 
own eyes, and the latter doubtless instructed ILackluyt 
abount Virginia as he did Deliry. Barlowe says that his 
expedition entered into the first inlet that appeared unto 
them, while Grenville experimented with inlets all the 



• 10 

way from tlie rcoioii of ('n]Xt Lookout to tljc ITatorask Har- 
bor. If White only mudt.. the drawing and Ifariot or Ilack- 
lii.yt was liic aiilh(u- ratluT than tlic mere translator and editor 
of the descri))ii(ins, we can Hee wliy lie addid ineidents which 
did not occur at the lir.^t landini;-. The painter apjionrs 
to hav(^ hccii iisino' iju; second hindin^i!,-, which he naw, to 
aid him in deserihii:- the lirst, which he did not see; for 
if he nieajit to re pn -.•ni the second "Comino- of ilu' i^n^lish 
im<. Virginia, " he \un\U\, it seems, have j)aint('d the banks 
and iidet at \Vo];okon, ihrouuh which J.ane entered \'iririnia 
several days before he came to Koanoke Island. Perhaps 
Uariot or Ilacklnyt, who may not have had Ihulowi-'s acc(mnt 
before him, th(^naht the c-xplanations fitte.l, m- could be nuide 
to lit, both landings at Roanoke as well as the dra\v•in_L^ At h 
any rate the old English (see the translation apjicnded ' 
hereto) left out what the Latin contains: "At leu.:;t}i we 
foutid a i-ertaiu entra!ice well /.-fiot'n h, our I'^nnlisli." 'j'his 
sentence makes the Latin explanation more natuially, but not 
necessarily, refer to the second landinu", the knowle<lge of the 
inlet having been fraiued through the first expedition. Theve 
are other incidents described alike in the I\niilish and the 
Latin which al.Mj nnd^e the explanaliun rcter to the second 
landin«r, though, as above hinted, Ilariot (or wlioever edited 
the explanations of the drawings which were sui>posed to 
have been written by DeJJry or the i)ainter hinis(df ) may not 
have had Marlowe's account before him, and iKrhaj.s could 
not compare the details of liis landing and the ditVerent recep- 
tions given by the Indians to the two ex-^peditions. 



11 



However these things may be, a casiuil glance at t)ie draw- 
ing itself sjhows tliat its per-spective is allogethiT from the 
stand-point of ships aiu.'honHl (jff an inlet abont twenty miles 
north-east of lioanuke Island. Iroiu this inlet the ex])lora- 
tions are shown to extend about (he s-.mik' distance in tlie three 
directions tlicy covered — norlli, wcsi niid :50\ith — jnst abont 
the territm-y explored i)y the expedition of ir>;3k ( Lane's cov- 
ered more tl:an a Imndrod miles in every direction). Rven 
Currituck SdUJid, which ihcy could not asciMid with the boat 
they were in, is shown almost in its entirety, antl appears 
wider even tiian the; Albemarle, only the west end of which 
is outlined, whih', of the Pandico just etiough apj^ears to show 
the setting of tlu- islan<l. 

The three towns gi\en arc Uoanoac, Dasanionguepeuk, 
"four or ti\e mile-" west of it, and Pasipienoke, a little fur- 
ther to the west on the north shore of the Allieinarle; while 
Pomeioc, about twenty miles south of Poanolce Island, is 
not shown at all, though it would have bc-en the nearest town 
and the one logically they would iiave lirst iintered if they 
had come in twenty miles south of the island. The inlcls' 
shown are all opposilc to or uortli of (he ishin i; nothing ap- 
pears clearer than that the artist did not ivgani Pandico 
Sound as forming any essential part of his picture; and the 
picture is a travesty on what it rcjirescnts, unless the coming 
in was from :ni inlet north of the island. 

Parlowe's narrative, carefully c<Misidered, is hardly less 
conclusive. it s;.ys: "i\fter they [the Indians] had been 
divers times on board the ships, myself with seven more went 



12 



about twenty miles into the river tliat runs towards' Skicoak 
[a town represented on Del>ry's niaj) to be near one of the 
tributaries of the (Jliesapc^ake and not far fruni the upper 
Chowan j, whieli river tliey call Occam; and the eveninji; fol- 
lowin<^ we came to an island which they call lioanoke, distant 
from the harbor by which we entered seven leagues." The ac- 
count of Drake's voyage speaks of proceeding to a "place they 
[Lane's colony] called their port," the ''road" of whieh was 
"about six leagues" from Lane's "f(jrt," in an "island which 
they call Roanoac." 'idiis tixes the distance of the inlet, sup- 
posing they both used the same, at six or seven leagues. Lar- 
lowe continues: "Leyt)nd this ishind tlu-rc; is a niaiiihiiid, and 
over against this island falls into thi:^ s})acious water [the 
water in which the ishiiid was situated] the great river called 
Occam by the Inhahitants, on which slauds a town called 
Pomeioe, and six days' journey from the same is situated 
their greatest city, called Skicoak. '^^ '^ ^' Into this river 
falls another great river called (^ipo, in which there is found 
a great store of nuiscles in which there are |)e:irls. Likewise 
there descendeth into this Occam another riM-r c:;lled Nomo- 
pana [which is Occam extended toward Skicoak], on one 
side whereof stands a great town called i'liaauinool,-." The 
great river Occam is the Albenuirle So\nid ; the A»^mopana, 
oil which was the town of Chawanook (allerwards ascc'rtained 
to be a c(juntry containing eighteen towns), was wliat is now 
calletl the Chowan River; (.-ipo was llie Koanoke liiver. Llie 
Albemarle falls into tlie "spacious water" in wliich, (tr at the 
head of which, Koanoke Island is situated, and upon which 



13 



the record doubtless intended to say Poraeioc was situated, 
for otherwise we would be forced to extend the river Occam 
twenty miles below Ivoanoke Island, unless the narrator con- 
fuses this name with the country (Weajjomcioc) on the north 
shores of the Albemarle. 

Another point that may be noted, is that the banks about 
twenty miles north of lioanoke Island are still about '*six 
miles" wide. 

To show that Cipo is the Roanoke, the "great river" (in the 
language of iiarlowe) that falls into Occam, it may be noted 
that it ]K)urs about as much water into the Albenuirle as all 
its other tributaries combined. Lane (in 1 ')>>(!) thus describes 
•|- . a* -X- -x- Directly fi'om the west runs a most notable 
river called the Moratok (doubtless so-called from the **j)rin- 
cipal Indian town" of the same name on its north bank.] 
This river oi)('ns into the broad sound of W(ni])omeiok [the 
name by which l^ane called the Albemarle Hound and the 
country north of it.] And whereas, the river of Chawanook, 
and all the other sounds and bays, salt and fresh, shew no 
current in the world in c:ilm weather, but are moved alto- 
gether with the wind; this river of Ahjratoc has so violent a 
current from the west and south-west that it made me almost 
of opinion that with oars it would scarce be navigable; it 
passes with many creciks and turning-^, and for the space of 
thirty miles' rowing and nion; it is as broad as the Thames 
betwixt (jirci'nwifh and the Isle; of Dogs, in some places more, 
and in some less; iIk^ current runs as strong, bi-ing entered 



14 



so liii^li into the river, as at London bridt^e upon' a vale 
water." 

Nornopana, the beautiful name of the Cliowan, was lost 
to Lane's expedition, but the '^CMiawanoke'' country on the 
upper dhowan was explored and duly located on i)el>ry's 
map; this substautiates (lie conclusion ihat the Occiiiu of 
liarlowe's expedition was the Allteiuarle Sound, "the ^reat 
river" into wliich Harlowe sailed twenty miles before he came 
to lioanoke Island, (yij)o and Xouioj)ana beinj^ fixed as its 
principal tributaries also identilics it with that sou!id. The 
sound once indentified, fixes the location of the inlet through 
which Amidas and llarlowe sailod, and >o fixes the spot of 
ground on the south side of that inlet upon which the exjiedi- 
tion of ir)S-j land(,'d and took yxissession of 'in the riglit of 
the C^ueeu's most Excellent i\Iaj(;sfy as riuhtL'ul (^ucen and 
Princess of the same." John With's (White's) ])icture, there- 
fore, represents an event second in importance only to tlie dis- 
covery of America. 

liarlowe'a language is: 'MJeyond this island there is the 
mainland" — referring, (!ou])tless, to Dasamonguepeuk, the 
land immediately we-,t of the isLind across Croatan Sound — 
for if they had been coming np from the south they would 
have been sailing up along the continent for about twenty 
miles b(;fore they came to Itoanoke L-^land, and the waters of 
the Albemarle Sound (instead of the ''mainland') would 
]>ave b(,'eii "beyond" it. 

Again: "Lcvond this i-land called Rt)anoke ^re many main 
islands [those along the shores of the mainland | '^' '•' * 



15 



together with many towns and villngcs along the side of the 
continent." " ■'^" * DeHry's map of Lane's expedition 
gives sevent3^-six islands, ten of which are "ont-islands" (the 
banks), and sixty-six of which are within the sounds — one 
in the Alhcmarle, one where the watc^rs of the Allujmarle and 
Currituck come together; the other<, except tiu,>e in Curri- 
tuck Sound, are all in the Pandico, unless we except the few 
small ones in (h-oatan Sound. Those in Currituck are not 
referred to because they are not "together with mauy towns 
and villages," for no towns and villages are mentioned in any 
of the maps or records as being on tliis sonnd ; therefore those 
referred to must be "beyond" lioanokc.' Ishnid lo discoverers 
coming in from the north-east. In the Pandico Sounil were 
shown on DePry's maj) numerous islands and many points 
and peniusulas which miglit have been readily luistakcn for 
them. 

Nor does the concluding portion of iJarlowc's narrative 
conflict with the interpretation abi)\'e given: "When w(.' iirst 
had sight of this couutry some thuught the first land we saw 
to be the continent, but after we entered into the haven we 
saw before us another mighty long sea [the water which ex- 
pands through all its sounds fifty miles north and one hun- 
dred and lifly miles south of Trinity Harbor] ; for there 
lieth along tlie coast a tract of island two hundred miles in 
length, adjoining to the ocean sea, and between the inlands 
two or three entrances; wiien you are cnTcred hetsvcen ihem 
(these islands being very narrov/ for the most Jjart, as in must 
places six miles broad, in some i)laccs less, in few more) then 



16 



there appeared another great sea, containing in breadth, in 
some places, forty, and in some iifty, in some twenty miles 
over, before you come unto tlie continent, and in this enclosed 
sea there are above a hundred islands of divers bignesses, 
whereof one is sixteen miles long [Roanoke Island], at which 
we were, finding it a most pheasant and fertile groun<l." " " 

DeBry's map shows eleven inlets or ''entrant>es," so, as 
Barlowe expressly limits the niunber to ''two or three," it 
shows that he had only examined those next lo Koanoke 
Island — Trinity Harbor, Ilat<ji-ask and (;ne between them. 

One purpose of this discussion is to show the value of 
White's drawing as an historic re})resentati(>n of the taking 
possession ot* this contin(;nt by tlie luiglisli in ir)S4 — though 
it is hardly less valuable if it only represents the landing of 
1585. It is passing strange that no rei)ro(iuctiim of it on a 
great scale, such, for example, as the painting on the drop- 
curtain in the Music Hall of the Olivia Kaney Library, has 
ever been made, either for the State, the nation or tbe Eng- 
lish-speaking people, an event in which all are interested. 
The artist who will reproduce, on a scale proportioned to the 
event, in living colors, this drawing of John White, the painter 
selected by Queen Elizabeth herself, will discharge a duty to 
his country and his race; will represent the most interesting 
picture connected with American liistory, and will show that 
North Carolina contains tlie si)ot on which formal posscission 
of the continent was taken by the l^nglish raei*. 

Below is given a representation of the drawing, together 
with the cxiJanafions in old English and a recent transla- 




m 



£-:-^<$<34:F:;- 



^i^^^5?» 












4^ 




Ml.M.^M IMM-,, XM... 



17 



tion of the original Latin ; also the joint preface of DcBry 
and Ilackluyt to the Hackhiyt's translation in DeBry's "True 
Pictures, etc., of Virginia," and the title-page and an extract 
of Harlot's "Briefe Beport" — all tending to throw light on 
the "discoveries of the new found land in Virginia" — North 
Carolina. 



Tin-] AKRIUAL OF THE ENGLISIIEMEN IN VIRGINIA. 
(From Dor>ry's "True Pictures, etc., of Virginia.")* 

The sea coasts of Virginia arre full of Hands, wher by the 
entrance into the mayne land is hard to finde. For although 
' they bee separated with diners and snndrie large Diuisions, 
which seenie to yecjld conuenient entrance, yet to our great 
perill we proued that they wear shallowe, and full of danger- 
ous flatts, and coid<l never perce opp into the mayne land, until 
wee made trialls in many places with or small ]jinnebs. At 
lengthe wee fownd an entrance vpon our mens diligent serche 
thereof. Affter that we liad pa.ssed opp, and sayled ther in 
for a short space we discouered a mightye riuer fallinge 
downe into the .sownde oner against those Hands, which 
neuertheless wee could not saile opp any thing far by Reason 
of the shallewnes, the mouth ther of beinge annoyed with 
sands driuen in with the tyde; therefore sayling further, wee 
came vnto a Good bigg yland, the Iidiabitants thereof as soone 
as they saw vs began to make a great and liorrible crye, as 
peopel which i.euer befoer had scene men apparelled like vs, 



'Flariot also made a translation from the Latin into English. 



18 



and came away niakinu;e out crys Jiko wild beasts or men out 
of their wyts. l^iit l)CGnii,e ^cntlye called ba{;k, we offered 
them of our wares, as glasses, kniues, babies (dolls), and 
oUier trilk's, which wee thoii^i^L they (le!ii^ted in. S(;e they 
stood slill, and jiereeuiii^e our Good will and courtesie, 
earn fa\\iiini;(! vpon vs and bade us welcome. Then they 
brouiit vs to their village in the iland called TJoanoac, and 
vnto their Wi'roans or Prince, which entertained vs with 
Reasonable curtesie, althou*;' they wear anuis.ed at the first 
slight of vs. Suche was our arriuall into the i)arte of the world 
which we call \'irginia, the stature of bodye of wich people, 
th(!yr atlire, and maneer of liuini;(^, their leasts, and ban- 
ketts, I will ]tarticunerlye declare viilo yow. 



THE CO.MING Ol^ THE ENGLISH TO VIUOINIA. 

(From a roient translation ol' the Latin of DeBry's "Truo Pictures, 

etc., of Virginia.") 

The coasts of Virginia abound (are fringed) with islands 
which afford quite a didicult ai)])roach (entrance) to that 
region, for although they arc separated from one another by 
n\nnerous and wide intervals (inlets) wliich seem to promise 
a convenient entrance, still to our great cost v\'e found them 
to be shallow ami infested with breakers, in.r were we ever 
able to penetrate into the inner places (.sounds) until we 
made trials in many different places with a snuillcr boat. At 
length we found an entrance in a certain place well known 



It) 



to our English, iliivini!; therefore entered and contimiing 
our voyiige for a coni:ideral)k' distance, we encountered a 
hirge river einerging from the region of the aforesaid ishinds, 
which, however, it was not possible to enter on account of 
the' narrowness (of its channel), as the sands filled its mouth 
(It: a bar of sand filling its mouth). Therefore, continuing 
our voyage, wo arrived at a large island, whose inhabitants 
upon the sight of us began to raise a gi'oat and awful outcry, 
because (forsooth) they had never hckcld itien like unto us, 
and taking headhmg to flight, they filled all places with their 
yells after the nuinner of wild beasts ur niadnicn. Hut being 
recalled by our friendly overture-^, and our \\:\\\-^ having been 
displayed, such as mirrors, small knives (dnils), and other 
triid^ets wliieh we thought would be pleasiiig to them, they 
halted, and, ha\ing observed our friendly disposition, they 
became amicable and showed ])leasure at our arrival. After- 
wards they conducted us to their town called lioanoac and to 
their Weroans, or chief, who received us very courteously, 
tliough (evidently) astonished at or.r appearance. 

Such was our arri\al in tliat i)art of tlie new world which 
we call Virginia. 

1 shall describe to you by illustrations (drawings and pic- 
tures) the figures of the inhabitants, their ornaments, man- 
ner of living, festivities and feasts. 



20 

TITLE-PAdE OF DeBKY'S "TRUE I'IC3tUUES, ETC., OF 

VIKGINIA/' 

THE TRVE I'ICTVRES 

AND FASHIONS OF 

THE PEOPLE IN THAT ]'AR- 
TE OF AMERICA NOW CAL- 
LED VIRGINIA, DISCOWREI) HY ENOLLSMEN 

sciii thilher in iJic years of onr Lorde 15S5, att the speciall 

charge and direction of 
tlie Honourable Sir Walter Ralegh Knight Lord Warden 
of the stannaries in tlie duchies of ("oronwal and Oxford who 
therein hath ])ynne fauored and auctoriffnl l>y lier 
^LvAiESTiE and her let- 
ters patents. 

Translated out of Latin into English by 
niCIIARD IIACk'LVTT. 




DILWENTLYE COLLECTED AND DRAOW- 

ne hy Iiion White wlio ivas sent tliilcr six'ciallye and for 

the same pur- 
pose hy the said Sir Walter Kaleoh the year ahoue said 
1585. and also the year 1588. now cult in cojijier and first 
published by TUKO\K)]lK de BRV 
all his wone chardyes. 



21 



EXTRACT TliANSLATi:i) FROM TIIIO LATIN OF DeBIIYS IN- 

ti:()1>i;c:tk)N to the "Tuiji-: I'K'iijufs, etc., of viu- 

GINIA." 

^'I^liave (Icterniinod to j)r('.s('iit in iliis \n>vk tnic representa- 
tions of tlu-ni [the Indians) which (with (he assistance of 
Kichard llackhiyt of Oxford, a servant of God's AVord, who 
was in that rei:;ion and was the advi-er tlnit this work should 
be published), I have copied from a ]irot(»type imparted to me 
by .John With, an lui^-Jish painter who was sent into that 
same region of her ^lajesty, the (^uecn of England, for the 
express purpose of rna'.infj Us lupufjraplii/ and rcj)rc'senting, 
according to life, the form of its irdiahiiants, their dress, mode 
of life and customs — by means of tin* no small outlay of the 
noble Knight, Sir Walter Tlaleigh, who ha^ expended very 
much in examining and exploring that region from the year 
1585 to the end (if the year 1588. " " '" 1 and my chil- 
dren have devoted ourselves diligently to engraving and ren- 
dering of the figures into copper whenever the matter is of 
sufficient importance." 



00 



TITLE PAGE OF IIAIIKIOT'S "VIRGINIA." 

A liPJEFE AM) TRfJE PJv 

I'oirr oi" Tin: m:\v foum) lwd oi- viUMiiMA: ok 

the Co-mmodUles ilicrc found and to he raijscd^ as well mar- 

cliantablc, as others tVir vicUuill, buiMini^ and ciIIilt iieccssa- 

rie uses for those iliat are and sJtalhe the planters Ihvre ; and of the nOr 

tiire and inaiincrs of tlio iiaturall inlial)il:mt.s : DI^coihitsI by the 

E}i()UsU Colony there sealed hij Sir IJich.ud (Jri iuvih' K ni(jhl in the 

yecre 15S5. \vhicli rtiiiaiiicd viidci- the i2,()ii('i'iii;iLid of Kafe Pane Es- 

quier, one of her Ma'iesties Ktiu'wres, durhiy (he spare of twelue 

iiionetlios: at tlie .sjjoeial fliari^e and (lircc-ti<Jij of tlic Honourable 

SIK WAl.TKi: IJALKIGII Kni-ht, lord Warden of 

the htaniieries; who therein liath bccne faiiou- 

red and autliorised by her ^[aicatie and 

her letters ])atents: 

Dlh'KCTi;!) TO TllIC ADUKNTUKKKS, FA UOUKKKS, 

and W'eUrillcrs of the action, for the mhabi- 
linfj a)id plant ln<j there: 

By Thotnas llariot; seruant to llie abounanied 

Sir Waller^ a nietnher of the Oolonij, and 

there iniploycd in diseouerinp 




Jmi'rinti;i> at London 1588. 



23 



EXTRACT FROM THE INTRODUC'J'ION TO HARIOT'S 
"VIRGINIA." 

TO THE ADUENTURERS, FAUOllEBS, 
AND WELWILLERS OF THE ENTERPRISE FOR THE INHA- 
BITING AND PLANTING IN VIRGINIA. 

Since the first vndertakiii^ by ISir Walter !\aU'if^h to deale 
in the action of <liscoiierin<^ of tbat (■uiiutivy which is now 
called and known by the name of Virginia; many voyages 
having bin tbitlicr made iit siindric; times to liis great charge; 
as first in the yoi^vo 1584-, and afterwards in the yeeres 1585, 
1580, and now of late this last yeare of 15S7 : There bane bin 
diners and variahh' reports with some slaundtsrous ami .^hame- 
full spcecluis bruiteil abroade by many that returned from 
thence. Especially of tliat disconery whicli was made by the 
Colony traiis])orted by Sir Tlichard (Jreinnik- in the yeare 
1585, being of all the others the most principal and as yet of 
most effect, the time of their abode in the countrey beeing a 
whole yeare, when as in the other voyage before they staied 
but sixc weeks; and the others after were onelie for supply 
and transportation, nothing more being discoucred then had 
beenbeforc^ - * - '^- * * * " * * * 
I have therefore thought it good beeing one that have beene 
in the discoveries and in dealing with the naturall inhabitants 
specially imploide, etc. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 

UNDER AUSPICES OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Society Daughters of the Revolution. 

YOUR tJORTH CAROLINA ANCESTRY CAN BE 
CAREFULLY TRACED. 



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VOL IV 



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THE 



North Carolina Booklet. ■ 




QREflT EVeriTS IN 



/NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



RDTHERFORD'S EXPEDITION 
AGAINST THE INDIANS, 1776, 

BY 

CAPTAIN S. A. ASHE. 




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1. May — The Lords Proprietors of tlie Province of Carolina. 
k Kemp r. Buttle, LL.D. 

r 2. June — The Battle of Kamsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Qraham. 

r^ 3 July — Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subae-. 

J quent Adoption. 

•'.. Associate Justice Henry G. Counor. 

I" 4. August — North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Inde-. 
' pendence: William Ilooijer, John Penn, J(^8ej)h Hewes. ^ 

Mrs. 'Spier NVhltaker, -Mr. T. M. Plttinaa, Dr. Waller .Slkes. .^,- 

•• 5. September — Homes of North Carolina— The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
i . Colouel William II. S. Burgwyu, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

' 6, October — ?2xpedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

^- ■ Chief J usllce Walter Clark. 

7. November — Tha Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. i'eele. 

8. December — The Battle of Gnilford Conrt House. 

I'rof. D. H. 11111. 

9. January — Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1776. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

10. February — The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judye James C. MacKae. 

11. March — The Scotch-Irish Settlement in North Carolina. 

12. April — Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 

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VOL. IV. DECEMBER, 1904. NO. 8 



THE 



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RUTHERFORD'S EXPEDITION AQAINST 
THE INDIANS. 1776. 



BT CAPT. 5. A. ASHE. 



The march of historical events has often been influenced 
by mountain ran<iv.s with their intervening valleys and their 
meandering streams; and it is convenient before entering 
on an acecnint of Oen. Rutherford's ex})edition in Se[)tember, 
177(1, to give some descri])tiou of the territory which was the 
scene of operations. 

While the three great moimtain chains trending to the 
Southwest lie nearly |)arallel, towards the Virginia line the 
Smokies a])i)roach the ]>lue Kidge, but South of the French 
Inroad they diverge leaving u wide plateau, high and moun- 
tainous, a region n.-markable for its fertility and loveliness. 
Further west, between the Smokies and the .MIeghanies, is an 
extensive valley, some sixty miles broad, running from Vir- 
ginia to Alabanui. It lie.^ likcii great trough in the mountain 
region. The Il«»ls|dn, the Olinch and the Fowells rivers ris- 
ing in Virginia ilow down it, and being joined by the French 
Broad and the Little Tennessee form the Tennessee which 
o^ntinues in tlie same direction. 

In this region was the home of the Cherokee^,* whose chief 



• The nnme Cherokee, it is said, seems to refer to "comiug out of the 
ground". In iiuuiv of the Iiidiuu liiiit;\mgos the name by which lliis 
nntion was known i.s said to have iluit aiijnirtcation. Tiic old men of ihe 
tribe, aa reported by Hewitt, (1778), held the tradition tl)at they had lived 
from time immcnjoriid in their mountnin homes and hud " orijjinally 
aprnrig fr<»m the gnmnd tliere". However, by their hinguage they are 
now identified with th<; Iroquois tribes of tlic far North, and lliey are 
thought to have bci.'n the Rechahcerians, a tribe tliat came from the moun- 
tains to the falls of the James lliverand made war on the Virginians in 1656. 



strongholds lay to the Southward, and who occupied some 
forty towns on tlie plateau from Pigeon Kiver (near Waynes- 
ville) to the Iliwassee; many towns in the foothills of the 
Blue Itidge on the head waters of the Savannah river and a 
still greatca- numher in the valley and hi^yond tlie Smoky ^ 
^fountains called ''the overhill towns." This numerous and 
powerful tribe had hy treaty been awarded all the territory 
lying west of a line running from the W'liite Oak Moimtains 
(in Polk County) north to the waters of the Watauga, a I 
branch of tlie llolstou; l>ey<tnd whicli white settlements were 
forbidden^ and on the other hand, the Indians were not to 
cross that line without permission. 

To the westward they claimed as their hunting ground the 
territory now endu-aced in Tennessee and Kentucky. To ,1 
the Southward, they occupied the North-western j)ortion of li 
South Carolina. - In Georgia and Alal)ama, were the Creeks ,\ 
and Choctaws; and to tlie Northward were the Shawnees, ^, 
a tribe that originally inliabitecl lands on the Savannah, but T 
was driven Northward, and at first located in Kentucky, but I 
being exi^elled from that region by the Cheroke(^s settled ' 
North of the Ohio, Kentucky becoming the debatable land 
of these war-like tribes and the scene of their constant war- 
fare, and hence known as "the dark and bloody gn.und." 

The Indians had long been used as allies by the Whites 
in their wars; the French occupying Canada and claiming 
the Alississippi territory had early engaged them in their 
warfare against the English Colonists, and in like manner the 
English had sought to enlist the friendly tribes for their own 
assistance. 

For the purposes of trade and in order to control the In- 
dians at the South, the British Government had for years 



employed agents to reside among them, who reported to the 
general superintendent, Captain John Stuart, a distinguished 
British officer, who was intimately associated with the Cher- 
okees from 170U until 1777, when because of the disastrous 
result of the outbreak lie inaugurated he returned to England 
where ho died in 177*J. lie had great power over them as 
well as with the Creeks and Choetaws. His agent in the 
Uppertowns of the Cherokees was a Scotchman named Cam- 
eron, who had long resided among them and lived as an 
Indian, and exerted great influence over the Cherokee Na- 
tion. The lines between the coLniies had not been established 
even to the Blue Jlidge and all beyond was a wilderness — 
Indian country, — and the Cherokees living to the Northwest 
of Charleston traded there and had but little intercourse with 
North Carolina. 

In the progress of settlement the lands of Western North 
Carolina were well occupied at the Southward beyond the 
Catawba and at the Northward along the Yadkin to the foot 
of the mountains; and in 17G9 William Bean, a Xorth Caro- 
linian, cios.sed the mountains and built the first cabin occu- 
j)ied by a white man on the Watauga Biver, and shortly after- 
wards a stream of settlers from North Carolina, Virginia and 
Pennsylvania pressed down the Tennessee Valley and occu- 
pied the fertile lands of the Holston and on the Nollichunky 
(west of ^ritchell county) following the Indian trail and the 
trading ]i:ith fidm the Northward to the Cherokee towns. It 
is worthy of rcuiark that this valley was a great open 
thoroughfare that nature had ])rovided in tlie mouutains and 
it was used as a war i)ath and easy means of couuuunication 
between the Xortheru ami Southern Indians. 

In our day commerce and traffic witli its railroad line fol- 



6 

low the Indian trail of primeval times, and where the echoes 
of thiinderin<>' trains are now heard the war wh()Oj).s of the 
Delawares and oi' the Shawnees resounded in tlicir forays 
against the (Jherokees and the Choetaws an.l the Creeks. As 
the settl(Mnents on the Wataniia and lIol.«,t(»n and NoUi- 
clnmky were within the territory accorded to the ( herokees, 
that Nation had Income restless and in a measure hostile to 
the invading Colonists; and tliey naturally looked to the 
British Crown, with whom their treaties were made, as the 
only source of ])r()tection from the encroachments of the ad- 
venturous settlers. 

In 1771 there had been in upper South Carolina an insur- 
rection similar to that known as "the lu-giilation movement" 
in North Carolina. It was under the leadcrshi]) of a man 
named Scovell, and although it was easily suppressed, discon- 
tent was felt hy the Scovellites against the men who had de- 
feated tliem and against the measures they proposed; and 
80 when the trouhles came on with the "^^other Country many 
of the Sco\'ellil('s threw themselves into the o]>))osition, be- 
coming active Tories. When the Kevolutionary war had be- 
gun, in order to induce the Cherokees to entertain friendly 
sentiments towards the Colonists, fcdlowing the usual custom 
a present consisting in ])art of ammunition was in the fall 
of 177") sent to them; and as the pack-horses were ])assing 
through up])er R<uith Carolina, the Scovellites rose and em- 
bodied, and seizeil the ])owder, claiuiing that it was intended 
for the ln<lians to use in making war uixdi them. Tliis led 
to a hasty movement on the part of South Carolina, in which 
the inhabitants of Kowan and Mecklenburg counties joined, 
to su])])res.s the Scovellites and regain ]>ossession of those 
munitions of war. 



Col. Alexander ^[artin, of Mecklenlmrg County, com- 
manding two (•onij)anii's of (\>ntinontals, and Col. livither- 
ford, of Rowan, and Col. Tom Polk, of Meckk'nlmri;-, com- 
manding detachments of militia, liastened intf) South Caro- 
lina and disperse<l tlie malcontents, some of whom tied to the 
Cherokees and allied themselves with Cameron who was then 
stirring np the Indians against the Colonists. This expedi- 
tion, undertaken in Decemher, 1775, because of the heavy 
snow then on the ground, was known as the snow campaign. 

Such was the situation when tlie I^ritish Government 
agrCo<l to ado])t the plan pro])osed by Gov. Martin, who had 
fled to Fort Johnston on the lower Cape Fear, for the subju- 
gation of North Carolina aiul the Situthern (\donies. This 
plan contemplated the use of a large British force on the Sea- 
board, the rising of the loyalists in the interior, and an ex- 
tensive Indian warfare on the outlying district wliich it was 
expected would engage "the attention of the inhabitants so 
thoroughly as to prevent any interference with the embody- 
ing of the loyalists and their juncture with the British troops 
on the Seaboard. (^i])t. John Stuart, the Indian Superin- 
tendent, wh(j for several months in the S])ring of 177<> was at 
Fort Jolinston awaiting the arrival of Gen. Clinton's troops, 
said in liis re])ort of May 2()th, that he had been cut ofT from 
any correspondence with his deputies, and that he had no 
instr\ictions u]) to that tinu.' from Gen. Ilowe <»r Gen. Clinton 
to emi)loy the Indians, yet he proi>o>et] to u>e his utmost en- 
deavors to keep the Indians in teni|K'r and disposed to act 
when re{|uire(l to do so. In th(> meantime the Continental 
Congress ha<l apjiointed agents to have a nn-eting with the 
Creeks an<l Cherokees an«l to engage them to remain neutral, 



and Willie Jones was one of the Commissioners. They met 
with many of tlie Indians at Augusta and succeeded in ob- 
taining their pn/inise of neutrality; but still (Japt Stuart re- 
ported tliat he did not despair of getting them to act for his 
JMajesty's service when found necessary. Later however, 
the Continental Congress directed its Commissioners to form 
an alliance with the Indians and to engage their active aid, 
but before that had been done, the British arranged for the 
Cherokees and all the tribes from the Oliio to Ahd)ama to 
begin hostilities against the Western borders. Towards the 
end of June, fifteen Shawnees were with the Creek Nation 
concerting measures in regard to the War, and the Cherokees 
received the war belt from the Shawnees, the Alingoes and 
the Delaware Nations. It was agreed that a force of live 
hundred Creeks, live liundred Choctaws, five hundred Chick- 
asaws, and a body of troo})s from Pensacola together with all 
the Clierokee Nation, were •immediately to fall on the fron- 
tiers of Virginia and the two Carolinas. Henry Stuart, a 
British agent, wrote to the settlers on the Watanga and Nol- 
lichnnky recommending that whoever among them were 
willing to join his ^lajesty's forces should re])air to the 
King's stiindard and find protection among the Cherokees; 
those who failed lo ih^'lare their loyalty were to be cut off 
by the Indians. 

At that ])erio(l when the Provincial Congress of the State 
was not in session, the supreme direction of affairs, under 
some limitaticjns, was committed to the Council of State com- 
posed of thirteen members. A messenger carrying the plans 
for the Indian rising to General CJagt* for his approval was 
captured, and information being received by the Council of 

'I • ^ ' 



the proposed movement of tlie Indians, General Uiitherford 
was directed tu ])re))aro to withstand th(Mn. It was at the 
end of rlnne, just wlien the British made their assault on 
Fort Aloultrie at Ciuirleston, that the Indians bciian their 
murderous attack on upper South (^irolina. President Knt- 
ledge on r]u\y Ttli wrote to the Xorth (^arolina (^juncil that 
on the fJOth of dune the Cherokees had made sever;d prison- 
ers, plundered houses and killed some of the settlers. He 
]>r('])Os(Hi a joint moxement by Mhich Major Willijtmson with 
about eleven hundred men shouhl proceed frini South (,'aro- 
lina against tlie Lower Cherokees, and a force from North 
Carolina should attack the middle towns, and being joined 
by Major Williamson shotdd proceed against the settlements 
on Valley lliver and the Iliwassee, while a detachment from 
Virginia shouhl come down the llolst/m and attacl: the Over- 
hill towns. Ihit in advance of his letter, N(»rth Carolina was 
arcmsed. The sava;ies did not delay their opcralious, but 
struck (juickly. • 

The; ("i-eeks had joined the Cherokees, and ttjgether they 
rushed up the valley of the Tennessee, intent on devastating 
the outlying districts. l>ut from Iv-hota, the Capital of the 
Nation, on the Little Teimessee, (some thirty miles west of 
Graham County), Nancy Ward hurriedly sent word of the 
intended invasion to the Whites on the llolston vdio fled to 
their forts for ])rotection. This woman was a half-breed 
and a niece of Ata-kullakulla, (the Little Carpenter) one of 
the most noted of the Indian Chieftains of that ])eriod. In his 
younger days he had visited Kngland, to (.'ontirm a treaty of 
peace with the King, and like Manteo, he had ever renniined 
a faithful friend of the Whites. At the fearful massacre in 



10 

17r>8 -At I'\)rt J.imdoii,* lie liad saved tin,' life of Captain John 
Stuart and had secretly carried liini to Virginia and arranged 
ft)r the raii-ciu of tlie surviving captives; and jit this jx-riod 
and later, he was a friend of the C.Vjlonists in their contest 
with the Mother Country. Kchota, the cai)ital, was '*a ])eace 
town/' "a city of refuge," and Nancy Ward, who hore the 
title of "heh)Ved \V(*iHan," was accorded tlie privilege of talk- 
ing in the ('ouiicils of the Cliiefs and of deciding on the fate 
of ])risouei's, and possessed niuch inlluence among the In- 
dians; and upon several oticasions she rendered the Wliitea 
great service. TJecause of her warning, the greater part of 
the settlei's -on the Ilolr^ton and Watauga escaped from the 
irrn])tion of the invading savages; hut a Mrs. ]>ean, perhaps 
the witV' of the lirst settler, and a hoy, ^[(X/re, were taken 
alive. The l)(»y was hurnt at the stako and Mrs. Bean was 
also hound !<» the >take ready for the hurning, when Nancy 
Ward interfered and saved her life. 

In the Spring of 177(5 the State had been laid off into 



• Tbure were two FiTt Loucions; one near Winclicatc'r. Va.; and the other 
on the Little Tcmu'ssce at the junction of Tellico I^ivcr, near where 
Loudon's Station on tlie railroad now is. a few miles to the west of Kchota. 
This fort was constnioti-d hy the South Carolina forces about 1756 for the 
purjjose of holding the 'h'Tokccs in check, anil was irarrisoiM-il bv 200 
soldicT^. In 17oH, after a long sie.i,^e, it was taken hy the Indians; and the 
siege and the niassaere of the garrison and of the whiti-s who had taken 
refuge there form the basis of a very interesting and meritorious novel, the 
title being 'Old F« rt Loudon." The author «losely follow s tht- historical 
account given by Hewitt in his history t)f South C.oolina. writlm in 1770. 
It is particularly c-omnicndcd to the rea<lers of the Booklet. It is in the 
lianey Library. 

The writer of this article tates this opportunity to acknowledge his 
indebtedness to the l!Hh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, J. W. Powell, liirector, for much information. 



11 

military districts aud Colonel Griftith Rntliorford, of Salis- 
bury, had hecn a])puinted Bri^^adier-General of the Western 
District lie was an Irishman, not well educated, but a man 
of couraii'o, energy, aud a born soldier. At tlie inception 
of the tntiihk's, lie was (.'ohjuel of Tif»wan County, and year 
by year he attained liigher eminence and rendered more im- 
})ortaut services, until at the very last lie drove tlie British 
parrison from Wihiiinaton and freed the State from tlieir 
])resence. After (he war he moved to Tennessee and died 
there. 

in the first we('l< of duly, while the forts on the Holston 
were beiuii' attacked, bands of warriors crossed the moun- 
tains and fell uj)(tn the miarmed settlers on Crooked Creek 
(near Kuthcrf<a-(lt(m ), and a larue force establishe(l tlieir 
head(inart('rs on the Nolllchunky, and came up the Toe, anil, 
passin^u: the Blue Kidi;e, invade(l the frontier of liowan, 
which tlu-n extended to the mountains. 

The unexpected appearance of these murderous bands in 
the .ontlyiuiz; settlements (paused p:reat consternation, and as 
the news sjiread the biickwoodsnien wci'e arou>t*d to resolute 
action. 

On the r2tli of July, General Kutherford wrote to the 
Council that he had that ilay received an ex])ress that the 
week before there wow. forty Indians on (^rt)ok('d Creek (in 
the vicinity of Ilutherfonlton) and that api)lications were 
niiule him <1aily for relief; and he ])lead for ex])edition. And 
on the next day, he ai:ain sent an exj)ress to the Council 
about the alarminir condition of the country, stating that the 
Indians were making great progress in destroying and mur- 
dering on tlie frontier of Howan County. ''Thirty-seven 
persons," he said, "were killed last Weduesday and Tliurs- 



12 

day on the CataAvba Tliver," and "[ am also informed that 
Colonel ^IcDowell and ten men more and one hmidred and 
twenty wonien and children are hesieged in some liind of a 
fort, and the Indians annmd them; no help to them lx?fore 
yester<lay, and they were snrronnded on Wednesday. I 
expect the next account to hear is that they are all destroyed. 
Pray, gentlemen, consider our distress, send us plenty of 
powder, and T hope, under God, we of Salishury District 
are ahle to stand them; hut if you allow us to go t«> the Na- 
tion, I (ixpcct you will order Ilillshoro J)istrict to join Salis- 
hury. Three of our Captains are killed and one wounded. 
This day 1 set out with what men T can raise for the relief 
of the district." 

At that time then^ was a fort at ''Old Fort," constructed 
twenty years earlier hy the whites as a protection for the 
Catawhas against the Cherokees, these tril)es heintr always 
at enmity. This fortification I'eing on land owned hy (\>lonel 
Davidson, was in 177() kuown as Davidson's Fort; and in 
it the people of the vicinity found refuge. There was an- 
other on Turkey Cove; a third at Lenoir; a fourth at War- 
rior Ford on ITi)per Creek, north of AforganUm, and several 
others in the exposed settlements of Burke County, and in 
these the inhahitants assemhled. 

The plan of operations suggested hy President Putledge 
was agreed on and it was arranged that General Rutherford 
shouhl march t^) the Indian Country where he was to be 
joined on Septend)er Otli hy Colonel Williamson, near Cowee 
on the Little Tennessee, and togetlmr they were to devastate 
the Indian towns. Colonel Williamson, who had with him 
some ('atawba Indians, besides his force of l,iSOO whites, 
moved with great promptness, and speedily penetrated to the 



I 



13 

Lower Towns, about the head of the Savannah Tiiver, in the 
vicinity of Walhalhi, which he destroyed, driving the Indians 
before him. liut at the town of Seneca, Cameron and his 
Tories, the Scovellites who had joined him, and a harge 
number of braves made a desperate stand, l)ut were finally 
routed and dispersed; and Williamson found there and 
destroyed, besides other stores, more than six thousand bush- 
els of corn. Having completed the destruction of the Lower 
Towns, he crossed through Kabun Gap* and hurried to the 
rendezvous. I lis route was north, down the Little Tennessee, 
through -iMacon County, but being delayed he did not make 
the juncture at the apj)ointed place. 

General llutherford acted with that energy that ever dis- 
tinguished him. On the IDth (hiy of July, he had marched 
at tlie head of 2,500 men to protect the frontier of his 
County; for the men of Western Carolina had sprung to arms 
with zeal and a\idity, and were animated by a great desire to 
inflict heavy ])unishment upon their murderous foe. The 
vari(uis Xorth Car(dina detachments under his command, 



* Rabun Gap, at tlieSoutliern Hue of Macon count}', was a natural gate- 
way to the interior of the Indian country from the soutliward. 

It may be interesting to note that the first expedition into the Cherokee 
country was made by Col. Miuirice Moore, who, just after the Tuscaroras 
bad been subdued, led a force of wliite men from tlie Albemarle settlement 
to aid the people of South Carolina, then threatened with extermination 
by the Indians. He passed up the Savannah river and through Rabun 
Gap and down tlie Little Tennessee, and a part of his force went even 
beyond the Smokies to Echota. That wu.s the route of conuimnication 
from the south to the Tennessee Valley. Col. Montgomery, in 1758, going 
to the relief of Fort Loudon, followed the same route and fought a battle 
near Franklin and was defeated and driven back by the Indians. A few 
months later he distinguisiied himself with Wolfe, at Quebec, and in 1775, 
being a Major-Genenil in tiie Continental army, was killed at (Quebec. 



,rl 



14 

having: orf^anized at different points, concentrated at David- 
son's (Old Fort). Leaving the main body there, on tlie 2'Jth 
of Jnly, with a detachment of 500 men, Jiiitherford 
crossed the mountains to dislodge a force of some 200 Lraves 
who had established themselves (»n the Nollichnnky, from 
where they had made their incursions on the frontier. 

As it was not until the *Jth of KSeptember that he was to 
unite with \Villianison at a point only eighty miles distant, 
he spent the month of August in j)rotecting the exposed set- 
tlements and in ])reparing for the ex})edition. He was rein- 
forced by a regiment of militia from Surry under the com- 
mand of Coloncd iMartin Armstrong, am<mg whose Cajjtains 
was Benjamin Cleveland, with whom was William Lenoir, 
afterwards the well-known General, and William Gray, as 
Lieutenants. They joined Kutherford at Catchey's Fort; 
while another regiment of three hundred men from Surry 
under Colonel Joe Williams, crossed the mountains further 
north and joined Colonel Christian and his Virginians at 
Big Island on the ITolston. 

General iiutherford was skilled in Indian warfare and 
knew the advantage of swift and sudden movement, and the 
disadavantages of allowing the Indian enemies an oppor- 
tunity of harrassing his army in the coves of the mountains 
while on the march. His men were well anned and equipped, 
and every precaution was taken to proceed with dispatch, 
and secrecy, and not only to make the expedition successful 
but to put an end to all aj)prehension3 of any future trouble 
from the Indians. On the 23rd of August, the Council of 
State being then in session at Wake Court House, President 
Samuel Ashe wrote to General Rutherford by General Per- 
son, making guggcstions, and Person found the army ready 

■'i ' ' 



15 

to move, and on the 1st of September it entered Swanuanoa 
Gap and pressed forward. Ju the meantime a regiment from 
Orange County, under Colonel Joseph Taylor, was dis- 
patehed to reinforce K\itherfor<l, but on reaching the moun- 
tains aljout the middle of August its assistance was found 
unnecessary, and it was disbanded and the men returned 
home. 

When liutherford moved, he proceeded with great rapid- 
ity and with such secrecy that he passed fifty miles into the 
wilderness witliout being discovered by the Indians. Ilis 
route was said to have been across the I^lue liidge at Swan- 
nanoa Gaj), then following tlie Swannanoa to its junction with 
the Fren('li Broad, across the latter river at Warrior Ford 
(below Aslicville). His course was tlience up ilominy 
Creek and across the ridge to Pigeon Kiver; then to liich- 
land Creek (crossing it just above Waynesville) and over 
the dividing ridge, between Haywood and Jackson Counties, 
to the head of Scott's Creek, which he followed to its junction 
with the Tuckaseegee. 

All of this journey through the mountains was a very 
arduous and ditticult performance. Without a road and 
sometimes without even a trail, he led his aruiy over moun- 
tains and across streams, a hard undertaking even under 
favorable circumstances, and he jjursued his way in momen- 
tary danger of attack by his wily foe. But so sagacious was 
he that every ol)stacle was successfully overcome, and it was 
not until he had penetrated two-tliirds of his way into the 
forest that his movement was discovered. His men were 
in fine spirits, and keenly enjoyed the excitement of their 
march through the solitude of the mountains and were eager 
to meet the enemy. At length he reached a point only thirty 



16 

miles distant from the Middle Settlements on the Tuckasee- 
gee. Here a detaclmient of a thousand niuu was sent for- 
ward by a forced march to surprise the Indians in their 
toAvns and fall ui)on them like a thunderbolt. Pursuing their 
quiet but ra[)id journc}', lliey came u})()n some thirty Indians 
who disputed their progress; but after a short encounter the 
enemy lied, having wounded only one man and killed none. 
But they carried information of the invasion to the settle- 
ment, and when Kulhcri'urd reached the towns they had all 
been evacmited. Without losing time he began the work of 
destruction and speedily devastated the iields and l)urnt every 
house. When this was accomplished he took another detach- 
ment of 1)00 men, with ten days' provisions, and hurried 
along the Little Tennessee, and then cm to attack the settle- 
ments on \'alley Kiver and the lliwassee, destroying every 
town as he readitHl it. 

Williamson was to have met him with the South ('arolina 
force at Cowee, but not arriving, Uutherford ])ro('eeded alone. 
Without an intcdligent guide he fomid great ditficulty in 
nudviug his way through that unknown C(Uintry and was 
much end)arrassed in his march. But even this circumstance 
]>ro\'cd foi'tunate. lie mi-sed (he usual trail, and cr( >s(m1 the 
Nantahala Mountains at an unaccustomed place. The usual 
route lay through Waya Gap, where the trail crosses from 
Cartoogoya Creek of the Tittle Tennessee to Laurel Creek 
of Xantahala Kiscr; and there five hundred braves lay in 
and)ush exjiectiiig to destroy his army, as they had beat 
back Montgomery's twenty years before. For several days 
they had lain in position awaiting his coming, and ignorant 
of his movement they still waited, whih; he crossed further 
down and reachecl the headwaters of Valley lliver. 



17 

In a brief diary kept hy (^iptaiii Cliarles Pulk, who com- 
manded a company in tliis cxjx'dition, lie says: '•On Thurs- 
day, the lL>lh of Sept(.niber, we inarched dowii llic river tliree 
miles to (V)wee town and in camp. On this day there was 
i» purly uf incH scut down this river ( Xuckessey ••) ten miles, 
to cut down the corn; the Indians tired on them as they 
Avere eutliui; the corn and kille.l Hancock Polk, of Colonel 
Jk'ekmau's re-iinent." On i-ri(h.y, the l;;ii,, they remained 
in camp m ( 'owee Town. On Saturday, the'lith, "we 
marched to Nuckessey Town, six miles higher u^) the river 
and encam],ed. On Sunday, the 15th, one of Caj.tain Irwin's 
men was huried in Xuckessey Town. On .Monday, the 16th, 
we marched hve miles— this day with a detachment of 1,200 
inon, t.>r the valley towns, an.l encamped <m the waters of 
lenness(.e U.ver. Mr. Hall preached a sermon last Sunday; 
HI time .d thit sermon the express we sent to the South army 
returiK.l. On Tuesday, the 17th, we mai:ched six uiiles and 
arrived at a touii calh-d A'owee, about 12 o'clock: three t^uns 
were tired at Pol.ert Harris, of .Mecklenbur- by the fudhm. 
said Hams beino; th(, rear of the army. We marched one 
nnle from Xowc and encamiKnl ou the siih^ „f a steep moun- 
tain without any fire. ((\ L. Tfunter's sketches of V; A^ C 
p. 180.) 

His route seems to have been southward of the present 
town .d Wbillic-r, ami down (\>wee Creek to the waters of 
kittle 'i'ennosee in the present countv uf Macon, and then 
across to \^dley River. Kvery town upon the Tuckasee^ee 
^'j'-' >''•' "P!"'- part of Tittle T<MUicssee, thirtv-six towns^n 
alf, w(.re .lcstroye<l, the corn cut down or trample! under 

* Doubtless "Tuckaseegee". 



18 

the Loofs of atock driven into the iioUls for that purpose, and 
the btoek itself killed or earried olt. His army ascended 
Cartoogaja Creek, west from the present tcjwn of Franklin, 
to the Xantaluihi Alouutaiiis ; and ln»m thu Naiitahala 
(ahout Jarrett JStation) the route lay aeross tiie mountains 
into the present county of Clierokee to Valley River, and 
down the Valley Jiiver to the Jliwassee, at the site of the pres- 
ent town of Murjihey. The Indian braves heing away, the 
towns on Valley liiver were destroyed each in turn. an»l it 
was as if a hcsom of destruction had swe])t over those settle- 
ments, so suddiii and ra[>id was Rutherford's movement and 
so destructive his action. Two days after liutlierford's army 
had escaped fallinii,' inlo the amhuscade pi\-p:ired for them 
at Waya Gap, .Colonel Williamson with the St»uth Carolina 
troops hurrviui;' on and crossinu' hy the usual trail, notwith- 
standing h(; ha<l Catawha Indians as scouts, fell into the trap 
and lost twehe killed and twenty wounded. The Indians, 
however, suffi'red still more heavily and were finally put to 
rout. In de^ti-oyiuLT tlie Valley towns General Rutherford 
killed twelve Indians and captured nine, and he also t^ok 
seven white men, from whom he got four negroes, consider- 
ahle stock and leather an«l ahout one hundri-d weight (jf gun- 
powder and a ton of lead which they were conveying to 
Mohile. His own loss was slight. On the whole e-\i)edition 
he lost but three men. (Vol. 10, Col. Records, p. 861.) lie 
had the good fortune to avoid a ]>itehed hattle, and with 
great skill he moved with such ctdcrity that he was attacked 
but once on the route, and then only by some thirty Indians. 
It will be seen that his operations were entirely within the 
limits of the present State of North Carolina ; still the Valley 
settlementii were so distant that at that time it was a very 



19 

arduous undertaking for Rutherford to lead his expedition 
through the unbroken forests of the mountains to the banks 
of tlie iliwassee. 

It ha<l l>een expected that the two armies would unite 
on the Dill of September on the Little Tennessee, but Wil- 
liamson being delayed, Rutherford crossed the Nantahala 
Alountains, and it was not until the 2Gth that Colonel Wil- 
liamson etlected a junction with Rutherford's force on the 
Hiwassee. The work had then been done. All the towns, 
the corn and everything else that might be of service to the 
Indians of that region had been entirely destroyed, and the 
Valley settlement was obliterated. 

A fortnight after General Rutherford had begun hid 
march, the Council of State, which had adjourned from 
W^ake Court House to Salisbury so as to be nearer the scene 
of operations, sent Colonel Avery, provided with an escort, 
to confer with the General and to carry directions that he 
should, after destroying the towns, erect some forts in the 
Indian Country and send a detachment to assist Colonel 
Christian in his operations against the Overhill towns, and 
on his return he should cut a road through the mountains for 
future use. 

On the arrival of Colonel Williamson's force a conference 
of officers was held and the subject of assisting Colonel Chris- 
tian was considered, but it was deemed utterly impracticable 
to cross the Smoky jMountains, f(<r the gap through those 
mountains was found to be impassable for an army in case of 
opposition ; and it was agreed that having expelled the In- 
dians and accomplished all they could they should return 
home. 

Their work indeed had been fully performed. As the 



20 

army advanced every house in every settlement had been 
burned, ninety liouses in one town alone, ami tlie fiekls Avere 
utterly devastated. The Indians were driven, iiouieless refu- 
gees without food or raiment, save what they wore, into the 
dark recesses of the Nantahala, or to more remote localities 
beyond the mountains. Some sought slielter at the Overhill 
towns, but the greater nund)er turned to the soulhwest and 
fouml a temporary home on the C'oosawatchee Itiver with the 
Creeks, and others made their ])ainful way to their British 
allies in Floriihi, wiiere 5U0 of 4-hem were received and sup- 
plied with food during that winter. Indeed tlie ctlcct upon 
the Oherokees of this invasion by more than 4,000 well armed 
men was appallinu'. Nearly all of their towns and posses- 
sions east of tlie Sinoldes were ell'aced ; and desolate wander- 
ers they were, fugitives and outcasts, like wild animals 
without shelter and dependent on acorns and chestnut^^ and 
wild game for s\d)sistence. Satisiied with the result of their 
operations, which had been so well coutlucted that there had 
been but little loss of life, ^\'illiamson and iiiitherford now 
turned their faces homeward, liiithert'ord on hi> ivtiirn pur- 
sued the same route by which he had advance;*!, and the road 
he cut through the mountains has since been known as 'Miiith- 
erford's Trace." The time occui)ied was rather nn)re than 
a month, and he reached Salisbury early in October and at- 
tended the meeting of tlie Provincial (vongi-ess, which met 
on the 12th of Novend)er at Halifax, he bciiiii: an iiiii»(<rt;int 
member of that body. 

Further to the uorthward Colonel William Christian as- 
sembled his men on tin- lioKton in .\uuu->t, there being among 
them the regiment from S\irrv (\ unity luuhir Coloiud Joseph 
Williams, (\)lonel Love and Major Winston. lie pressed 



21 

cautiously along the great rndian war path to the 
crossing of the French Broad, and then advanced with- 
out ojjposition to the Little Tennessee, where early in 
November he was proceeding to destroy the towns one after 
the other. So swift and strong had been the action 
of tlic (colonists that the Indians, imable to resist, 
now sought terms of peace ; and Colonel C'liristiau was the 
more willing lo l)e lenient as he hoped to draw their 
trade to Virginia and away from South Carolina. lie sent 
out some runners, uiT^^l several of the head men came into his 
camp and agreed to surrender all iheir j)risoners and to cede 
to the whites all the disputed territory occupied in the Ten- 
nessee settlements. On their solemn promise that such a treaty 
should be made when the tribe could be assembled. Christian 
suspended hostilities and withdrew his force. An exception 
was made, however, as to two towns, especially the to^\^l 
of Tuskecgee, which had been concerne«l in the burning of 
the iMoore b(»y who was captured along with Mrs. Beau, 
which was de.-troyed ; but the peace town of Echota was not 
molested. 

Colonel Williams was not pleased with Colonel Christian's 
action. From Citi(!0 town on the Little Tennessee under date 
of the 0th of N'ovend)er, 177G, he wrote to the President of 
the Congi-ess as follows: "AgTeeable to instructions from 
General Uutherford, I marched three hundred men from 
Surry County and joined the Virginians against the Overhill 
Cherokee Indians, the whole commanded by Colonel Wil- 
liam Christian. We arrived in Tomotly (one of their towns') 
the 18th ultimo, an<l have been lying in their towns till this 
day; nothing done except burning five of their towTis, and 
patched up a kind of peace (a co))v of which you have en- 



22 

closed). I propose \s'aiting on yo\i myself as soon as J re- 
turn to North (.'arolina, at which time will endeavor to give 
a more ])articiilar account. 1 have this day obtained leave 
to return with my battalion." 

Another letter from him to the Congress from Surry 
ronnty, dated the 'i2nd of November, says: "I sent a copy 
of the articles of peace; 1 now send you a coy)V of a letter 
f roui Colonel Christian to Colonel llussell ; both of which 
are convincing proof to me that .souk; of the Virginia gentle- 
men are ilesirons of havin> the (,'herokees under their |)ro- 
tection, which I humbly conceive is not their right, as almost 
t!)c whole of' tlie (^herokee Conntry lies in the limit- of 
Xorth Carolina and ought, \ think, to be under th(;ir i)rotec- 
tion, aiul hope will Ix; the o})inion of every mend»er ix'loug- 
ing to this State. .\s our frontiers an; inhal)ited far beyond 
where tlie Colony line is extended, in (uvlcr to avoid further 
dis])utes, it woidd be well for commissioners to be appointed 
from each Colony and have the line extended, otherwise by 
all ])robabilitv thin-c will be great C(»ntentions in our fron- 
tiers." 

Hy a treaty ma<lc in South (\arolina, the following ^Fay, 
the Lower Ch(q-okees surrendered all their renniining t(M'ri- 
tory in South Carolina, (;xce])t a narrow strip, and in duly 
by treaty at the Long Island, as had been arranged by Colo- 
nt'l (Christian, the Middle and Upper Cherokees ceihMl all 
their possessions east of the Blue Kidge, together with all 
the dispute<l territ«»ry on the Watauga, Xolliehunky, TIi»per 
Ilolston and New Kiver; an<l an agent was ap])ointcd to rep- 
resent the whites and to reside at Echota and prevent any 
movements nnfriendly to the American can.se. 

General liutherft)rd reached Salisburv earlv in Octol)er, 



23 

and to destroy some towns not in his route, and perhaps tx) 
aid Colonel (Christian, then heyond the Smokies in the Ten- 
nessee Valley, he directed Cajitain William Moore to collect 
his company , of Lii^ht Horse and to join Captain Harden of 
the Tryon Troops, and to retiirn into the Indian ('(jiintry. 
Caj)tain Muore's account of this e.\i)editi(-n has hcen pre- 
.-.erved. (WA. 10, Col. liecords.) The entire force num- 
bered about one hundred horsemen. They left Cathey's Fort 
on tlie 21) th of Octol)er and pushed on down to the Tuckasee- 
gee Jviver, but (/U a^iviuii at tlie ruskaseci^ee and in the 
vicinity of tlie town of Too Cowcc (which was situated over 
the Cowec- M<nintain on the exact i»,round recently occupied 
by the residence of lion. W. II. Thomas, for many years the 
Senator liwDi ,Jackson County and well known as the Chief 
of the Clierokee Tribe), Moore pressed on with great vigor, 
hoping to reach the town before ni<iht. But the distance 
proved tireatcr than hi' exi)ccted, and he diil not reach it mitil 
next morning-. 'J'he enemy havini; lK;come alarmed had all 
fled, and the town, consisting of twenty-five houses, was 
destroyed, togc'thcr with the orchards and ticlds of the In- 
dians. The location of this settlement is said to be j\ist above 
the i»resent railroad bridue of Whittier in Swain County. 
A detachment left the nuiin body and pursued the fugitives 
northward on the other side of the river to Oconaluftee liiver 
and ScK'o ( 'reck. This detachment was under Captain Moore, 
and aft(n- many experiences it finally crossed "a i)rodigioii3 
I mountain where it felt a severe shock of an earthquake," and 

I then steered a course east and south two days through "pro- 

j digious mountains which were almost imi)assable and struck 

I the road in Richland Creek Mountains and returned to Pig- 

I eon Ttiver." 



24 

The murderous warfare of the savages begot a similar 
spirit of fierce revenge on the part of tlie hardy spirits who 
had to struggle with them in the distant njountains, and the 
life of an Indian was seldom s])ared unless for the ])urpose of 
converting liim into a slave. The whites practiced the art of 
scalping witli etpial skill as the lied ^lan, and boasted of 
their prowess by exhibiting their bloody scaljis. When Cap- 
tain William ^loore's horsemen were returning and arrived 
at Pigeon liiver, a disi)ute arose between him and the whole 
body of ollicers and men concerning the sale of the prisoners. 
He deemed it his duty to submit tlie ([\u?stion t') the Congi'css 
whether they sliould be sold as slaves or not, but "'the greater 
part swore bhx^dily that if they were not sold slaves upon the 
spot, they w<tuhl hill and scalp them inunediately," upon 
which the Captain was obliged to give way. In his report, 
he says: "The three prisoners were sold for 242 pounds, 
while the wlnde amount of plunder amounted to above eleven 
hundred pounds." "Our men," he adds, "were very si»irited 
anil eagei- lor action, and were very desirous th.it your ILaiur 
would order them upon a second ex])edition.'"* 

The following relative to General Kutherford mny be of 
interest: The Kutherfords were originally Scotch, and for 
centuries they were classed among the most ancient and ])ow- 
erfnl families in Teviotdale, on the borders of England. One 
()f the most distinLTuished of the name was l^ev. Samuel Ruth- 
erford, who, in 1()14, published his "L(;x Kex," which gives 
him a ])rominent place among the early writers on Constitu- 



* Moore's report is sometimrs improperly q\ioted as giving an account 
of Rulberfonl'a expedition. Moore's expedition was ft subscijnent foray 
into the Indian country. 



25 

tional Laws. On tlie liustoration this work was ordered to be 
burnt and he was charged with high treason, but died in IGGl 
before he was brought to triah Later some members of his 
family removed fr(»iu Scothmd to Ireland, where John Ruth- 
erford married a .Miss (Iriliith, a lady from Wales. Their 
son, Griihth Rutherford, sailed from irelauil to America in 
173U, accompanicul by his wife and their only son, Griilith, 
then about eight years of age. The parents died either on 
the voyage or soon after their arrival, and young Griliith 
Ttutherford fell to the care of an old German couple, lie 
came to Rowan comity, ]Sorth Carolina, probably about 175-3, 
along with the early settlers, being then about 22 years of 
age. 

In 175G he ])urchased from James Lynn two tracts of land 
on the south fork of Grant's Creek, ab»)ut seven miles south- 
west of the little settlement of Salisbury, and adjoining the 
land of James Graham, whose sister, Elizabeth, he married 
about that tiiue. 'i'heir son, James Rutherford, killed at the 
J^attle of luitaw, was a Major in 17><0 and was born ])robably 
in ]7r)7. Although (Jeneral Rutherford's ctlucation was not 
a finished one, it was not so delicient as to be a hindrance to 
him in ])ublie life. TFis association was with the l)e.>5t i)eople 
of his section and his residence was in the center of the 
Locke settlenu!nt. 

A man of strong charact(^r, resolute and dettM'inined aiul of 
unusual capacity ainl sterling worth, he early iittaiucd a |)Osi- 
tion of ])romin('nce. He was a mei'aber of the Assembly as 
early as 17<';), uiul about that time, |>erhaps earlier, he was 
Sheriff of Rowan ('ouuty. lie was in the Asscudily of 1770 
and 1771, and at that time was Captain of his militia coni- 
]K\u\ froiu his s(>ction of Rowan. 



26 

When in 1771 tlie IJc^iilators of Kowan County questioned 
the lefj^ality of tlie fees taken by tlie oiHeers of that county, 
Rutlierford and Frolunvk and Alexander ^lavtin and other 
officers agreed to refer the uiatters in dispute to a coniuiittee 
of proniiueut citizens, seme heiu'i,' chosen froui aiiioui;- the 
leaders of the Rei^'ulation and others so res])ectal)le as to have 
the eutire coniidence of the peo])le, such as Matthew Locke 
and Thomas Person. This a<>"reement was entered into at 
Salisbury on ^larcli 7, 1771, and was entirely satisfactory 
to b(jth otiicers and the ))eo|»le, and if it had not been inter- 
fered with, but had been carried iuto effect, it probably would 
have been the entire solution of the questions then ai^itating 
the ])eo]de. ]>ut Ooveruor Tryon <lisapiU'ov('<l of it as being 
unconstitutional and ])ressed forward his uiilitary uiovenient 
that resultecl in the P>attle of Alamance. I'litherford, being 
Captain of the militia company, was active in enfoi'cing law 
and order and restraining the excesses of the l^egulators, and 
he led his com])any into General \Vad<lell's cam]), but it was 
by his advice that Waddell retired before the licuulation 
forces and avoided a battle with the peo]de. hnmediately 
after the Battle of Alauiance he, along with Waddell 's other 
troops joined Tryon's army and he contiinuMl on that service 
as long as necssiiry. ^'et it is to be observed that if the 
course agreed up(;n by Kutherf<»rd in 7darch ha<l been ad- 
hered to antl not disjillowed by Governor Tryon, the Regula- 
tors would probably have been entirely satisfie<l and the 
country ]);icified, and thore would ha\'e been no crmflict and 
no necessity to resort to force in (U'der to maintain lav and 
th- authority of government. 

The people contimied to elect Rutherford to represent them 
in the Assenddv, and he was a mcndicr in the Lejiislature of 



27 



177.3 ami 1774, and lie was elected a meml)er of tlie Provin- 
cial Congress of 1775 and was ai)pointed a nieniber of tlie 
Committee of Safety for llowan ('ounty, and Colonel of tliat 
county. He was in all tlie subsequent Provincial Con^^resses 
and assisted in formin<;- the State Constitution. Indeed, for 
years he had been one of tlie ])r()minent and strong men in 
the Legislature, active and always forward in important busi- 
ness. In Ajjril, iTTll, he was appointed Brigadier General 
for the Western District, and was Senator from Rowan from 
1777 to 17N(i, except when a ])risoner of war in 17>1 and 
1782. 

During the lievolution he was among the most active and 
enterprising military men in the Stati'. He led the Rowan 
Regiment ti) South C^irolina against the Scovellite Tories in 
the "Snow Camjiaigu" in December, 1775, and cond\ieted the 
exj)edition agaiii^l the Indians in September, 177<), The fol- 
lowing years (juict reigned in Xortli (^arolina, but in 1779 
he carried his brigade to the; Savannah to the aid of General 
Lincoln; and in June, 17^0, he sup])ressed the Tories at 
Ramseur's Mills and threatened Lord Rawdtm in South Car- 
olina, and dispersed the Tories on the Yadkin. Indeed, he 
was ever a terror to the disaffected and maintained the author- 
ity of the State with great activity. He marcluMl with Gates 
to C'amden, where lie fell badly woundecl, and being taken 
prisoner was confined at St. Augustine. In the summer of 
17S1 he was cxchaiigcMlj and at once calling his brigade to- 
gether, he rcsoliilcly marched against Major Craig at Wil- 
niingt(»n. On his way, he drove the Tories before him, and 
about the mid<lle of November, ai)j>r(>ached the town; but 
Major Craig had then heard (d* the surrender of Corinvallis, 



28 

and he hurriedly evacuated Wihnington, retired from the 
Cape Fear and escaped. 

In 178G General Kutherford moved to Tennessee, where 
he settled in Sunmer County, and in 17'J4, upon the organi- 
zation of the territory south of the Ohiu, President Washing- 
ton appointed him a meml>er of the Legislative Council for 
the Goverment of the "Territory of the United States South 
of the Ohio," and he was elected President of that hody. 
Six years later, in 1800, he died at his home in Sunmer 
County, much lamented in Tennessee. J lis son, John Kuth- 
erford, married a daughter of ^Matthew Locke, the founder 
of the Locke family of Rowan County, and ]\Irs. E. A. Long, 
of Memphis, Tenn., is one of his descendants. 



North Carolina Historical Commission. 



ESTAHLISHKD BY LaWS OP 1903. 



MEMBERS. 



Mn. W. J. PEKLE. Chairman, Raleigli. N. C. 

Mr. R. I). W. CONNOR, Secretary, Wiluiington, N. C. 

Rev. Dr. J. D. IIUFHAM, Hendereon, N. C. 

Dr. R. n. DILLARD, Edtnton, N. C. 

Mr. F. a. SONDLEY, Aeheville, N. C. 



PRIZES. 

The Commiesion offers three prizes of $100 each, as follows: 

1. Best Biographical Sketch of a North Carolinian. 

2. Best History of any Decade from 1781 to 1801 (excluding 1791-1801 
and 1831-1841), 

3. Best History of any County in North Carolina. 

The conditions under which the contest is held will be furnished upon 
application to the Secretary of the Commission. 



The Commission will be glad to be apprised of any valuable unpub- 
lished manuscripts. Iftters, documents or records relating to the history 
of North Carolina. 



tell Carolina Historical Commission. 



ESTAIJLISHKD BY LaW8 OF 1903. 



MEMVEKS. 



Mn. W. J. PEELE, Chairman, Raleigh. N. C. 

Mil. K. D. W. CONNOR, Secretary, Wilmington, N. C. 

Rev. Dit. J. D. IIUFHAM, Hendereon, N. C. 

Dii. R. n. DILLARD, Edcnton, N. C. 

Mk. F. a. SONDLEY, Asheville, N. C. 



PRIZES. 

The Commipsion offers three prizes of $100 each, as follows: 

1. Best Biographical Sketch of a North Carolinian. 

2. Best History of any Decade from 1781 to 18(31 (excluding 1791-1801 
and 1831-1841). 

3. Best History of any County in North Carolina. 

The conditions under which the contest is held will be furnished upon 
application to the Secretary of the Commission. 



The Commission will be glad to be apprised of any valuable unpub- 
lished manuscripts, letters, documents or records relating to the hi.story 
of North Carolina. 



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vNials Hisiofioal Socie^ 

OF WISCONSIN 




VOL IV 



JANUARY. 1905, 



NO. 9 



THE 



North Carolina Booklet, 




GREAT EVEriTS IN 
riORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 






SOME CHANGES IN THE NORTH 
CAROLINA COAST SINCE 1585. 

UY 



PROF. COLLIER COBB 




; Price 10 Cents 



$1 THE Year 




.'} , liNUBKBD AT XHK PO.ST-OKKICK AT EALKIUH, N. C, A8 HJiCON U-CLAS« MATTKB. 



'the North Carolina Booklet- 



k' 



\: 



Great Events in riORTH CAROLiNft History 



VOL. IV. 



i 1 ifau— The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. .^, •;. 

I'-' " Kemp P. Buttle, I.L.U. '^'^^ 

^ 2. Jwn^— The Battle of Ranisonr's Mill. V 

f Major VVlUlain A. Graham. 

J ' 3 /uZy— Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subse- >.^ 

I ' quent Adoption. . > 

$>: '. . Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. ,. '; 

?;;' -4 August— l^OTih Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Inde- , > 

I pendence: William Hooper, .lohn I'enn, Josei.h Howes. \^K 

C'. *^ Mra..Spier Whltaker, .%Ir. T. M. IMltniun, Dr. Walter Slkes. ii V^^V 

r ,5 ^p<m6er--Honie9 of North Carolina— The Hermitage. Vernon Hall. 

i, Colonel William H. S. Uurgwyu, I'rof. Collier Cobb. 

6, Oc<o6e^-— Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 
Chief Jubtlce Walter Clark. 

7. November— The Earliest English Settlement in America. 
;, ^ Mr. W. J. Peele. 
t 8 December— The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

i'rof. D. H. Hill. 
«i 9. /anwan/— Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775, 

■■ ■ ., Captain ti. A. Ashe. 

f ' 10 February— The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 
c ,' ' Judge James C. MacUae. 

[o-V . 11. March— The Scotch-Irish Settlement in North Carolina. 

f 12. Jpri/— Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Ji," ^ Mrs. John Hinsdale. 




;• One Booklet a month will be issued bv the North Carolina Society 

t OF the Dauouthus ok the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 

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n ■ "Midway Plantation," 

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Arrangernent« have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
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EDITORS: 
MISS MARY MILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



I 






VOL. IV. JANUARY, 1905. NO. 9. 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's Blessings Attend Her! 
While Wb Live We will Cherish, Protect and Defend Her." 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving North 
Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will bo 
devoted to patriotic purposes. Editors. 



OFFICERS OF THE MORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 
DAUGHTERS Of THE REVOLUTION, 1903-1905: 

KEQENT: 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-UKGKNT: 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS SPIER WIIITAKER, 
{Nte Fauny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. IL HILL, Sk.* 

SICRKTARV: 

MRS. E. E. MOEFITT. ^ 

treasuuer: 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

registrar: 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder or trk North Carolina Society ani> Regent 1896-1902; 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Rec.ent 1902: 

MRS. I). H. HILL, Sr. 

♦Died December VI, H)04. 



•>.- 



SOME CliANQES IN THE NORTH CAROLINA 
COAST SINCE 1563.* 



BT COLLIER COBB, F. Q. 5. A., 

(Professor of Geology. University of North Carolina.) 



From earliest times the coast of N^orth Carolina has been 
the dread of mariners. All students of our history are fa- 
miliar with the fac siinilcs of DeBry's map of "The Arrival 
of the Eni>lishmen in Virginia, 1584," from Harlot's "Ac- 
count of Virginia," in which a wrecked vessel marks the 
entrance to every inlet. Wrecks are characteristic features 
of all the early maps of our coast, with only two exceptions; 
viz., that made by John White, artist to the Raleigh Colony, 
in 1585, now in the Orenville Collection in the British Mu- 
seum; and I)el]ry's map of Lane's expedition. Hardly an 
August or a December jiasses that the pa]>crs do not tell us 
of stately shi))s and ocean steamers stranded on the Inner 
Diamond Shoals, or gone to the bottom of "Hell's Hole" in 
this ''Graveyard of American Shipping." And numerous 
smaller sailing craft and fishing sloops go down within the 
bars that mark our outer coast-line. 

Through which inlet the Kuiilish adventurers of 1584- en- 
tered the sounds of North (^irolina, has been the theme of 
much discussion from the days of our earliest historians. 
Among men who have studied the questi<»n solely from an 
historical point of view, the writings of (Jeorge Baiu'roft, 
Francis L. Hawks, and .lohn Wheeler ^loore, are worthy of 



* Names in itaiicH indicate the spelling on old maps whenever that 
differs from presenl day UHUgc. 



consideration; as well as later eoniininiieatioiis to learned 
societies from, and magazine articles ])\, William L. \\'elch, 
of Boston, and the late .folni I). Davis, of I>eauf<irt, who 
arrived at very different ectnehisions. Mr. Welch, however, 
is the only student of our history who has made a serious 
attempt to note any of the changes that have taken place in 
onr coast line since 1584, his interest in the^^e chaniics dating 
from a month of military service at Ilattcras Inlet in 18G4-. 
Jn a connnnnication to the Essex Institute, of Salem, ^lass., 
in 18S5, he brings forward the evidence that the im-sent Ilat- 
teras Inlet was ()pene(l hy the great gale of Se}>teHjl)cr, 1S46, 
which was so severe on our southern coast. 

The ])resent writer has spent several seasons during the 
last two decades in a study of sanil movements along our en- 
tire coast, and has re])orted his investigations and ])resented 
the results- of his studies before the Geological Society of 
America and the American Association for the Ad\ancement 
of Science. He has gathered all the maps of our coast, in 
originals, ])lK)togra])hs or tracings, from John AVhite's map 
of 1585, which lu^ co])ied in the British Museum, July 3d, 
181)5, to tlu! (\tast Survey charts of the present day, and has 
tram])i.'(l the "Banks," as these sand-reefs are called, and 
sailed nnich in all the sonnds. ITe has also examined ships' 
logs, and records of light houses, life saving stations, and 
Weather Hureajj signal stations, and has C(»nvcrsed with the 
life-savers, captains and surfmen, and recorded ('(tiiNersations 
and kei)t corn'spondence with the more noteworthy citizens 
of this sandstrip. The <lata thus obtaineil have been com- 
])ared with information in possession of the TI. S. (^)ast and 
Geodetic Survey, beginning with the manuscript ''l^eport 



by William Latham on Survey of the Coast of Xorth Caro- 
lina from Caj)c llatteras to Cape Fear, 180G." 

Having located a number of old inlets from their aneient 
channels in the sounds, and from the tojiographic outlines 
and structural features of the adjacent sand reefs, 1 turned 
to the Colonial Records seeking to correlate the geological 
and historical records. Leaving to the historians all ques- 
tions of the inlet entered by the English, it is my purpose to 
point out such changes in our coast line as are recorded in 
our hunum documents or in the earth itself. 

John White, as his water color sketches and map studies 
made in \'irginia (Carolina) show, was an accurate observer 
and an artist of no mean ability. His map, drawn in 1585, 
shows a wide oi)cn inlet where Caflfey's Inlet now is. lie 
calls the strip of sand bank to the South of it Croatamung 
and the water between this Bank and the mainland Tcripano. 
To the north of this two slight inlets are indicated; while 
to tlie south and just Ixdow the Ivill Devil Hills op])Osite 
Colleton Island (which is unname(l) a small and shallow 
inlet is indicated. Just below this slight indication of an 
inlet is the word Etacrfitrac, which jirobably indicates the 
prominences about Nag's Head. Next to the south is a well 
nnirked wide-open inlet marked Porjt FcriUnaiido, due east of 
the southern extremity of Roanoke Island (called here 
Roanoar), and a picture of a shij) is nearly opiH)site, sailing 
away from liie inlet. H(dow tliis inlet c»nnes Ihitorask, evi- 
dently the name id' the sandstrij) to the north of the great 
elbow jutting out into the sea; and the sandstrip to the south 
as far as the pre-^iut (Icracoke Inlet is called Pa<iniac. There 
is no break in the Banks from Port Ferdinando (near site 
of present Oregon lidi't) t-o Onoaconun, which 1 identify with 



6 

the present Oernooke Inlet. Wococon, which by soniewriters 
has heen identiiied witli Ocracoke, was more }>ruhalily Wliale- 
bone Inlet, whieli is now closed. Between this j)(*int and 
Cape I^ookont three other inlets are indicated ; but no inlet is 
marked on White's mtip between (!!ape J>ookoiit and Shackle- 
ford Lanks, though there is an inlet just Uj tlie north of the 
cape and opj)Osite Ilarker's Jsland. A lar<^e ship sails sea- 
ward from what I identify witli Cedar Inlet, closed since 
1805. 

DeBry's map, already mentioned, with its wrecks marking 
the entrance to every inlet, shows Trinity llarl)or ( Caffey's 
Inlet? closed in 1800), two inlets to the north of it, and two 
inlets opposite lioanoac island, that o])posite the southern ex- 
tremity of the island l)eing marked, Ilcdorasck, though the 
name may apply to the land to the south as in White's map, 
rather than to the inlet. Fac siuiiles of this map may be 
readily consulted by any readers of the Booklet. It is 
wortliy of note that the region of Kitty I lawk Bars and Col- 
leton Island is mapped very much as it is to-day, with no in- 
let opposite the ishirid. 

The next map we have is found in "A Brief Description of 
the Province of Carolina," a pam])hlet published in London, 
in 160G for Robert llorne. It is entitled "(Carolina De- 
scribed, lOGG." The Library of Congress has the anonymous 
pamphlet, but without the map. The map is re{)roduced in 
fac simile in Hawks II, 42. This map, which is clearly less 
accurate than either of the preceding, gives Coraiuck, an inlet 
evidently near the present site of Currituck Light House; 
Roanoak- Inlet, op])osite the southern extremity of lioanoak 
/[sland] ; C. Ilaltorasch, and six inlets between that point 



Cape Lookout, here called C. Hope, the last being im- 
mediately north of Cape Lookout. 

The map entitled ''A New Description of Carolina by or- 
der of the Lords Proprietors [A. D. 1G71.] James Maxon, 
soul.," gives Caratuch inlet in essentially the same position as 
the foregoing, Muaheto Inlet (Caifey's) Roanoah Inlet oppo- 
site Roanoke island, three inlets between that point and 
Hatteras Island, and an inlet between Cape Ilatteras and 
Ocock (Ocracol-e), evidently much nearer to the Cape than 
the present ILitteras Inlet. Whalebone Inlet is indicated, 
but not named, and there are two others between this and 
Cap Lookout. 

"Carte General de la Caroline Dresse sur les Memoires le 
plus nouveaux Par le Siena S**"^ A Amsterdam Chez Pierre 
Mortier, Libraire, Avcc Privilege de jS'os Seigneurs les 
Etats." (1071 ?], gives old Caratock Inlet, Nouveau Passage 
(Caifey's Inlet), and Yieu Passage opposite Colleton Island, 
at the mouth of Albemarle River. It shows Passage de Ilat- 
teras north of its present site, Wosston (Ocracoke), Whale- 
bone Inlet, and an inlet just north of (Jape Lookout. 

The next ''i\[ap of the Inhabited Parts of N. Carolina, 
prepared. by ion Lawson, Surveyor General of N. C, 1709," 
shows Currituc Inlet, Colleton I. with no inlet opposite, Roan- 
oke Inlet and the three inlets to the South separating suc- 
cessively Cou> I., Body I., and Dugs from the large; Island 
with its projection marked Cape Ilatteras. Hatteras Inlet 
is indicated somewhat to the southwest of its present position 
containing an island of some size and Ocarovk is a broad inlet 
with two important islands. Drum Inlet, op])osite Cedar 
Island, connects Corantug Sound with llie ]Vester7i Ocean, 



8 

and no other inlets are indicated until 'Topsail Inlet is 
reached. 

Wimhle's map of 1738 gives Currituck Inlet on the line 
between Virginia and N(jrth Carolina with feet of water; 
Nag's Head Inlet opposite Roanoke Island, with a depth of 
2-i feet, and llalteras Inlet somewhat U) the north of its pres- 
ent position. The charts of .Mouzin 1775, Atlantic Xeptune 
1780, and Lewis 171)5, are simply copies of Wimble's or 
some other ohler chart. 

Uundibbin's chart made in 17(54 has no inlet between Cape 
llatteras and Ocracokc, and gives 4 fathoms of water on the 
bar at Ocracoke, and 9 ft. in. slioalest water on the bar 
inside. 

Joliii Collett's iMaj), London, S. Tloo])er, 1770, shows three 
sand hills just below Cafley's Inlet, no inlet at Kag's Head 
or at Roan<jke though the names are there, Gunt Inlet, Chic- 
onockuminucL- Inlet, and no inlet between there and Occacoch 
Inlet. 

It is not known when Nags Head Inlet was closed, or the 
llatteras Inlet indieatecl on the earlier majjs. In 1S44 an 
effort was made in Congress to get an api)ropriation to re- 
open Xag's Head Inlet, and in 1S55 a plan was ]>erfected 
under the auspices of the State to cut a channel through on 
the site of this inlet from Roanoke Wharf to the ocean, but 
the ])lan was never carried out. 

Cole and Rrice's chart, ISOG, based u])on actual surveys, 
sh(.)ws no trace of llatteras Inlet, nor does it occur on any of 
the chai-ts of the State until 1S55 when it a))])(^ars farther to 
the South than is indicate<l on any previous maps. Major 
Cole and Mr. donathan Price were associated with William 
Tatham in a ^urvev (d' the coast of North Carolina from 



9 

Cape Ilatteras to (^apc Fear, under Act of Coni^ress of April 
10th, 180(). Tatliaiii's cliart^ were lost in llie wreck of the 
revenue cutter, (iocernor Williams, September 2Sth, 180G, 
the very day he completed his investigations and placed hi3 
haggage on hoard for transportation to Xew Bern. Tatham 
and his colleagues did not work together, and the charts of 
Cole and Price were not lost. 

]\Ir. Tatham, however, made a re])ort to Hon. Albert Gal- 
latin, Secretary of the Treasury, in January 1807, dealing 
mainly with the difficulties and disaster of the undertaking. 
This rei)ort has never been published, but is preserved in the 
office of the (.\)ast and Geodetic Survey at \Vashingt<m. In 
this acc^uint he mentions incidentally })laces where inlets 
formerly existed, gives some attention to the efl"ect,s ])roduced 
by the Gulf-stream in counter currents, and nud;es some 
really valuable «)bservatious on tlu; formation of shoals and 
islands, the movement and ti.xation of wind-blown sands, and 
the blocking uj) of inlets. Talliam's obs(;rvation and con- 
clusions remind one of the musings of the Pythagoreans, and 
examining his re])ort with care is like delving iu an ancient 
scroll of the fifteenth i)ook of Ovid's Metamorphoses. I have 
had ocxjasion, in anothi*r ))aper t-o compare some of these ob- 
servations with the geological record as it exists to-day. 

The ma]) of Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia, com- 
piled by F. Lewis in ISOT, for tlie atlas ac('oui])anying Mar- 
shall's life t)f Washington, is ukmcIv a copy of the then exist- 
ing nujps, as is also Wayne's map of \'^irginia, .\orth Caro- 
lina ami Georgia, pid)lished in tiie same year. Hut the small- 
er copy of the same atlas, issuecl in a later edition, shows 
the ''slew," or creek, on Ocracoke Island just above the site 
of the present light liou>e, where it still exists in jjart. None 



10 

of these maps show any inlet between Cai)e Ilattcras and 
Ocracoclc. 

The map by Price and Strother, Philadelphia, 1808, gives . 
Currituck Inlet much to the north of its })reseut position, and 
marks the old inlet on the state line; shows lioan(»ke Inlet to 
the north of its later })o.sition and another inlet just below the 
southern end of lloanoke Island, No other inlet is met with 
on the coast as slunvn in this map until Ocrficock is reached. 

This map, much improved from later surveys — especially 
in the interior, was rei)ublished in lvS2i) by II. 8. Tanner, of 
Philadelphia. 'I'anner's revision Currituck Inlet, C^affey's 
Inlet (unnamed), Roanoke Inlet (marked 'iilled uj)"), New 
Inlet, Ocrucock Inlet, and Cedar Inlet, and indicates a series 
of reefs two to live miles within llatteras Island (which in- 
cludes Chicotnacomacli' Paid^s to the nortli and llatteras 
Banks to the south. 

The map of Nortli Carolina published by F. Lucas, Jr., 
Baltimore, 1822, shows Currituck Inlet just opposite the 
southern end of Knott's Island, but is not otherwise ililTerent 
from Tanner's revision of Strother. 

S. A. Mitchell's nuip of 18:32 shows an unbroken stretch 
of sand from C'ape Henry to Orcfron Inlet, thence to Ocra- 
cock Inlet, thence to Cedar Inlet. 

The larue uui]>, .']r)x84 in., ])ublished by J. ^facBae, Fay- 
etteville, 1833, far surpassed in accuracy an<l in detail all 
previously published maps. ^fr. MacKae was for many years 
postmaster at Fayetteville, and had oxccllent op])ortunities 
for compilinfi^ such a map. i^Iuch actual field work was 
done for the nui]) by Bobt. IT. B. Brazier, who was an ex- 
perienced engineer and excellent draftsman ; and this was 
the mother-map of all later mai)s of North Carolina down 



11 

to 1880, tboiiiili Cook and some others as late as 1857 copied 
the errors of earlier maps. Cook's map, however, shows the 
inner reefs of llatteras cut down to low water. On the Mac- 
Rae-Brazier map no inlets are shown north of New Inlet 
above Chickoiiocornack Hank, and none between there and 
Ocracock Inlet. Cedar inlet is marked as closed, and the 
next inlet indicated is between Cape Lookout and Sharhle- 
fonVs Banks. 

The present llatteras Inlet was opened by the gTcat storm 
of Se])tenil)er, 184(5, and was cut out sometime during the 
night of Sept. 7-8. Zachariah Burrus, still living at llat- 
teras in April, ll)0;3, was the first man to cross the inlet, Sept. 
8th, 1840. Re<lding K. (^uidley piloted a vessel into llat- 
teras inlet in danuaiy, 1847, where he anchored for the night, 
leaving next morning and going into Ocracoke. ISlr. Quid- 
ley Avas also j)ilot of the first vessel that passed through into 
Pamlico Sound, Feb. 5, 1847, schooner Asher C. Havens, 
Cai)t. David Barrett, Commander. 

A former llatteras Inlet, about six miles to the southwest 
of the present Uatteras inlet, was closed in 1839 by the 
stranding of an English vessel in the inlet, followed by tlie 
sanding up of the Avreck, and the "making down" of the 
beach. Tliese facts 1 have learned by conversation with and 
letters from IMessrs. Bedding Quidley, Homer W. Styron, 
Zachariah Burruss, A. W. Simpson, John Austin, J. W. Rol- 
linson — and several others. 

The last chart to show this inlet is Wimble's map, 1838. 
It is not on nundil)bin's chart of 17(14, and no llatteras Inlet 
appears again <»n the ma])s of the State until 1855. 

The same storm that ]iroduced llatteras Inlet opened Ore- 
gon Inlet on Se])t, 8, 184C, eight miles south of the site of 



12 

Roanoke Inlet It cut through the middle of the base line 
which J. C. Keilson had laid out in 1843. The inlet had 11 
feet of water on the bar in 1882, but is reported to have 
shoaled greatly since that time. The inlet was named for 
the tirst shi}) that passed out through it, 'J'he Oregon, owned 
hy John Fowde, Esq., of Washington, X(a-th Carolina. 

The present writer has located the sites of the several old 
inlets on the coast by methods already mentioned. Old Cnr- 
rituck Inlet, New Currituck Inlet five miles to the south- 
ward, Cali'ey'd inlet and the old inlet opposite Colleton 
Island, at the mouth of Albemarle iiiver, are all distinctly 
marked t<j-day by channels in the sounds ap])roaching the 
Banks and are clearly shown by a low meadow strij) across 
the sand and the arrested dunes. In the case of the Colle- 
ton island i(»let the Ivill iX'vil Hills with the fresh ponds 
below them mark the site iind the remuaiit of the ancient 
inlet The sites of numy former inlets are marked in this 
way all the way ihnvn U) I^eaufort Harlxn-, there being three 
distinct inlets indicated on llatteras island, one above and 
two l)elow till* cape, one on ()crac«»ke, three between Ports- 
month and Cape Lookout and two just to the southwest of 
Ca])e I.ookcmt. These were evidently all closed by the sands 
filling in around obstructions, and new inlets iiave from time 
to time l)een oi)ened by st<n-ms. All of our inlet.s in tlie 
region nniler consideration in this paper arc moving steadily 
southward by the actiou of the winds driving the dune sands, 
l^ut tbis is n<>t tlie place for the <liscussion of ]>hysi{»graj)hic 
|)ror'ess on our const. That has ali-eady becu (k'scribed in 
det^iil and fully illustnited Ity this \\v'i\cv cNewhcre. His 
object here is to study thc>e chaniies in the zone of early 



•I 



13 

exploration and settlement as they have infliienced the his- 

j tory of the state. 

I In the (^olonial Kceords, vol. i, Alhemarle Sonnd is called 

J ... 

the Carolina River in niany of the deeds given hy Sir Wil- 

' liani IJerkeley in the second half of tlie 17th ('entnry. These 

were all written in Virginia. The Indians had called this 

sonnd (^howan Hiver, hut the Lords Proprietors in their com- 

i mission to Governor Berkeley, speak of it as ''the river 

I Chowan now named hy ns Alhemarle river." Carlyle Island 

I Avas granted to Sir Jno. Colleton, Sept. 8th, Kido, and it is 

described in the deed of gTant as ''tlie island hertofore called 

I Carlyle Island n<»w Colleton Island lying ncjare the month of 

j Chowane now Alhemarle river." Nag's Head Inlet is also 

■ described in a document of the same date. C rants still held 

on the l^>anks at various points mention inlets that have long 

since ceased to be. 

The ])robl^m of the inlet entered may be impossible of soln- 

tion. Thr/notes here })resenteil will reveal to the student 

of our history .something of the nature of the problem. The 

influence of these shifting sands n])on the development of our 

state is an interesting snl)ject for the student of earth science 

in its relation to man. An acquaintance with the inhabitants 

of these ever changing sand reefs, fair women and brave men, 

who live and do for others, life-savers, heroes, will cause one 

to thank God and take courage for the future of the hnman 

race. 



M 



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VOL IV 



FEBRUARY. 190 



w^^'^ 



'■■/ 



North Carolina Booklet:' 




THE HIGHLAND-SCOTCH SET- 
TLEMENT IN NORTH CAROLINA 



i 



B? 

JUDGE JAMES C. MacRAE 



Price 10 Cents 





GREAT EVENTS IN 



nORTH CAROLINA HISTORYi 



lENTKKBD AT THE I'OST-OKKICK AT KAI.KlttH, N. C, 48 SKroN U-CLA88 MATTER. 



The North Carolina BooKinrf 



GREATEwENTSiNMoRTii Carolina History 



VOIv. IV. 



"^' 



■n 



1. Jilay — The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

Kfinp 1'. Uullle, lAj.l). _ l^^ 

2. Jwne— The Battle of Kamsuiir'H Mill. .. -'^ 

Alujor Wlllluri) A. (jrahaiii. ' 'mSm 

8 July — Rejection of the Federal Contititution in 178b, and its Subee-/:^> 

qucnt Adoption. ' ' ^ 

Associate .Iu»Uce Henry G. Connor. ..V;.< 

4. Augxi»t — North Carolina i>i<rners of the Nuiional Declaration of Inde- ?;'•- 

pendence: ^ViHianl Hooper. Jnhn I'enu, .Joseph Hewet- j4-' 

Mra. Spier WhiUiker, Mi. T. M. I'illinau, Dr. VS uiler Hikes. \^:, 

5. St'pternler' — Homes of North Carolina— The Heriiiitage, Vernon Hall. .■*^' 

Colunul Wllilaiii H. .S. liurgwyn, Trdf. Collier Cobb 

6. October — Expedition to Caithagena in 1740. (', 

Cliiel JiLsiiei- \Salter Clark. ■ jj^ 

7. November — The Earliest Englihh Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

8. December — The Battle of (iuilford C(jnrt House. 

I'rof. I>. H. Hill. 

9. January — Rutherford's E.xpi dition AfiainsJt the Indians, 1770. 

Caplaln rt. .\. Aalie. 

10. February — The Highland Scotch Settleiij<;nt in North Carolina. 

Jiult.'e James <;. Mucltae. . 

11. March — The Scotch Irish St'tilenient in North Carolina. ^ 

12. April — Governor Thoiiia.^ PollocU. ^ 

Mrs. JoLu lllnsdalf. ■ * 

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VOL. IV. FEBRUARY, 1905. NO. 10. 



THE 



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OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 
DAUGHTERS Qp THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

UEGENT: 

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VICK-UKGKNT: 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

I10NOR.\RY UKGKNTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nfe Fanny DcBernicie Hooper), 

MRS. D. IL HILL, Sk.* 

SKCKl'.TAKY: 

MRS. E. E. MUFFITT. 

THEASUllliU: 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

KEOIbTKAU: 

MRS ED. CHAIMBER^ SMITH. 



Founder OF the Noktii Carolina Sociiiiy anu Regent 1896- H>02: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 

MRS. D. H. Hir.L, Sit. 



•Died December 12, 1904. 



THE HICfiLAMD-SCOTCH SETTLEMENT IN 
NORTH CAROLINA. 

BT JUDQE JAnCS C. nACRAE, OF CUHBERLA/iD. 



The Seotcli llijililaiulcrs were tlie ])eo])lc who occupiiHl that 
portion of Scotland whicli lies north of tlic Tay on the one 
i side i'.nd the Clyde on the other, and all the islands fringing 
I the e<>a>st« of the ureat prunioiitorv from the Mull of Kintyre 
i to the Orkneys and the llehrides, and down the North Sea 
I to the Firlhs .of Tay and of Forth. 

It is said, however, in <»tHeial reports of the condition of 
I those sections, nuule soon after the I^attle of (^dloden in 
I 1740. that "the inhahitants of the lands adioininu- to tlie 
nirmntains to the nortliAvartl of those rivers, on the shores of 
Perth, F(<rfar, Kincardine, Aherdeen, Banfl" and Murray, 
where some sort of iiidii-rry has prevaile(l and where the soil 
is toleral)le, have for many years left off the lliuhland dress, 
and lost the Irish lani;uaiic, an<l have discontinued the use of 
weajxtus; the consetpiencc whcre(»f is that thi'V «*an not he con- 
sidered as dan«!;erons to tlu; ])nl)lic peace, and that the laws 
ha\e their course amon::st them." The forepiiuu; is a memo- 
randum of Lord President F<trl>es, written ])erhaj)s in 17+0. 
The writer proceeds to /^.ive a sorry account of the inhahitants 
of the northern hilU and islan<U, which we may not take 
without jtrejiidice,* 



* Scoltipli History from ('nnti-inponuv W rii'Ts No. Ill, "Tin- Last Ja- 
cobite Uprisinu:." l)y Srtiifitul Tin \ . U. A., University Lcturcr on His- 
tory in the Univt-rsitv oi .Vbcnlitn. 



These llii^hlaiuls are on three si(U;s washed by the cold 
waters of the X«»rLheru Oceans, wliich heat n)>on the islands 
and pierce the mainlands, where for all time heautifid hills 
covered with heather and «^()rse ati'orded shelter in their fast- 
nesses, and valleys cmhellished wilh excjuisite lakes, gave 
pastnre and drink to the llocks and herds of the i)ristine iii- 
hahitr.nts, Lanur.ai;e, in jx.'etry and prose, has been ex- 
hansted in the descri})tion of the snblime scenery of this his- 
toric section. 

The story of Uie first settlements of this land is lost in 
myth ; bnt there are, here and there, to be fonnd vesti<ies of an 
intelliiicnt and, for ity time, a cnltnred race, who lived and 
flonrished here so lonu; aj>o as in the ])rehistoric A^e of Stone; 
and ahmu- ihe snccessivc; ai^es of man the Archaeohjgist traces 
the steps of these interesting people. 

Thongh these western isles are mentioned by Greek writers 
long before the (Christian Era, in connecti(»n with the com- 
merce of Phoenicia and Carthage, we know nothing practical 
of them niitil fi-<im the time of ^Inlins Ciesar's nnsucccssful 
attem})t to snlxlne the Island of liritain. llicre begins to 
loom np the history, or tradition, of the first known inhabi- 
tant-*, the Pi<t-, and later the Scots, who bronght their name 
from Irf'huiil, v.hicli was the original Sc-otia. Their history 
is that of a ])eri)ctiial strnggle, and for ages a successfnl one, 
for free<l(»m. 

Ca'sar ne\{'r roachetl the confines of their dominions, and 
near a centnry later, the lionnin armies were stopj^ed, and 
Agricola failed to make a lodgment. According to Tacitus, 
the Caledttnians, a~; they were then calletl, thirty thousand 
I stronjr, nnder (ialgacns, Scotland's first iiistoric hero, were 
defeated by the Komans at ^lons Granpius in A. D. 86. But 



\ 



it was a barren vict<jry, for, lialf a ceiiturv later, ITadrian 
and Antoniniiis Imilt walls to kec]) them out of the imperial 
provinces of Kume. The all-prevailing Anglo-Saxon spent 
centuries of endeavor, and his conquest at last was only per- 
fected by their accc'])tance of the King of Scotland, James 
the Sixth, to be the first James of Englan«l. 

Long years afterwards, when the Stuart Dynasty had had 
its day, a considerable })ortion of these Highlanders remained 
faithful to this House, and their lauds afforded harbor and 
iiiccor to the efforts of the Chevaliers and Pretenders to the 
throne of fuighmd, and there were many risings and abortive 
attem])ts to disturb the settled constitution of England and 
bring back to the tiirone the ancient Scottish Royal Family, 
until, at CuHoden, in 1740, it was finally defeated, and the 
Highlands were harried and their ])eo})le put to death, or 
scattered and banished to distant lands, and, with those who 
were ])ermitted to reuu\in, the traditional clans were de- 
stroyed, and tlicir \'<'rv hmguage itself was almost olditerated. 

These were the lligldanders, principally, from v.hich the 
American Colonies were peopled; but we must not forget that 
they were greatly divided among themselves, even in the 
hills, and that Scotland itself was divided into the Ifighlands 
and the Lowlands, inhabited by distinctly different races, and 
bearing to each other marked anti])athy. 

The race of whicli we write lived tiie old patriarchial life 
inherited from the Aryan trilx?s on the liigh Stepi)es of Asia. 
The heatl of the faiuily was the leader; tlie family ])y growth 
became the Se})t; the Sept grew into the Clan, the chief of 
which was the lord, whose retainers were his kinsmen and 
were ready to follow him in the foray over the border, in 
the long crusade to the Holy Land, in the wars upon the Con- 



6 

tinent or in tlie tierce conflict with the gruwinij j)u\ver of 
Enghmd. 

The Jlighhmders were a strong and exluiberant race. 
Their habitations were liives from whieh, at intervals, went 
ont swarms to people the earth. The heads of the Clans were 
often educated in foreign lands and in the Universities in 
the Lowlands; while imbued with the tierce s])irit of their 
race, they were endowed with the graces of l»irth and culture, 
and it was from their children that the ^liddle Class came 
to be formed in the course of time; the body of the people 
were bold, faithful and devoted. Among tliem there was less 
of religious- division than in other sections. 

The Christian religion had come tx) them in its earliest sim- 
plicity. Xiuian i)rea('hed to them al)i)ut the year of our Lord 
four hundretl, and about five hundred and sixty-tive, Cohuuba 
established the celebrated 8eat of Religion on the island of 
lona, whieh developed into a great monastei-y, from which 
every ])art of the llighhinds was readied by its mi>,siouaries. 
The records of these earlier days have all been lost, or de- 
stroyed of ])urj)o.>-e, l)ut tliere s(;ems to have been not so imu-h 
of the bitterness of strife among the Christians of tlie High- 
lands, nor the fearful religious persecutions there as among 
their southern neighbors. 

After every rising in the North, notably in 1000, 1715 
and 1740, a stream of emigration passed out into foreign 
lands, much of it com))ulsory. 

Of the disturbed conditions of the Highlands for centuries, 
we have not the space to make more than menticai. One of 
the most n(;ted and fateful of the euiigrations from Scotland, 
and this was not only froui tlu' Highlau<ls but from tlie Low- 
lands also, was that which was called the Darien Seheme in 



1G95, which, like many another adventure over the unkno^vn 
ocean, led only to disaster. 

In 17^3 a colony of these people came to Georgia under 
the auspices of Governor Oglethorpe, an<l fought the Span- 
iards; and years afterwards, at the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion, had become so tlioroughly imbued with the spirit of 
liberty that they were generally the first to espouse the Cause 
of the Colonies against Great Britain, and many of their 
descendants are now prominent citizens of Georgia. About 
the same time a colony came to New York under the leader- 
ship of Lauchlan Campbell, who fought the Indians, and 
espoused the Koyal Chaise in the Revolution. 

In 1773 a colony of four hundred Highlanders was settled 
on the xMohawk, led by three gentlemen named McDonnell, 
under the auspices of Mr. William Johnson, 
j There was an earlier settlement in Nova Scotia, which was 

' the nucleus of streams of their countrymen, whose descend- 
! ants at this day take large ])art in the Dominion of Canada. 
I3ut we ha\e to do with those who came to the Cape Fear 
I and up the river to what is known as the Highland settle- 
I ments of North Carolina. 

j It was a l)eautiful country to which they began to come so 

I early and continued to come until after the war of the Revo- 
lution had actually begun, and long after it was at an end. 

It must liave been a gratefid change to these troubled peo- 
ple, who sought for peace if not for rest on the far away 
shores of the new world. There was comparatively little un- 
dergrowth ; the tall ])iues, with their jierennial green, upon 
the uplands, sang t(D them a i)eaceful welcome; the surface 
of the earth was covered with a luxuriant growth of wild 
pea vines, and the bottoms with rich cane brakes, affording 



8 

abimdant prcser\e for innumerable small game, especially 
deer and turkeys; sand-hill streams were, and are to this day, 
an unfailing- supply of drink, even in the dryest seasons; the 
climate was mihl and fav( arable, all eomhincd to utl'er an ideal 
land for the shepherd with his flocks and hci-ds. The Indian 
had already sought other hunting grounds in and beyond the 
mountain range some hundi-ed miles toward the setting sun. 

Spreading out beyond the (^ape Fear, as high up as the 
confluence of the Deep and Haw, and to the Pedee Avhere the 
Yadkin and Uwharie/'ome together, they planted their homes 
in what is now (/umberland, Harnett, ^foore, ^^ontg(>mery, 
Anson, TvichnKtnd and ui)pcr Kobcson, and in the adjoining 
districts of South Carolina. 

Here they seemed to have readied "the haven where they 
would be." 

A religious people, simple, virtuous, honorable and full 
of courage, they lived for years in (piiet and content. The 
settler here was like Xorval's father on the Grampian Hills, 
"A frugal swain whose constant care was to incerease his 
store, and keej) his 'sons' at home." 

The large village of Ooss Creek, nR)ved up a mile from 
the town of (\im)jbellton on the banks of tlie river, with its 
merchant mill mid trading store, was the seat of their most 
important town, at the head of navigation. A large and flour- 
ishing mill still occu])ies its site, in the center of the city of 
Fayetteville, owned and (jj)erat<'d l)y an enterprising citizen 
who bears the name though not the lineage of some of the 
most distinguished of the ])ioneer leaders of that day. 

The street in Fayetteville still called ''ATaiden Lane," and 
for a huig time known as "Scotch Town," was the princij)al 
residence part of the town, althouirh the place where tlie cele- 



brated Flora ]\rcl)onal(l lived is pointed out ou the banks of 
the creek near where it is crossed by Green street. ^lany 
traditions have been handed down of the time when the old 
Scotch ladies sat before their doors in the gloaming and told 
the tales of the grandfathers, about the "Old Country" to 
listening youth and maiden gathered round. 

In Foote's Sketches of North Carolina, it is said : 

''The name of the village took its origin from the curious 
fact that the two small streams, Cross Creek and Blunts 
Creek, the one coming from the south and the other from the 
west, met and ajjparcntly separated, and, forming an island 
of some size, again united and flowed on to the river. It was 
said that the .streams, when swelled ]jy rains, would actually 
cross each other in their rapitl course to form a junction. 
This belief arose from the circumstance that iloat-wood com- 
ing down the stream would sometimes shoot across the com- 
mingling waters in the direction of its i)revious course, and, 
floating round the island, would fall into the united current. 
The action of a mill dam prevents the recMirrcncc." 

This was written in 1.S4G. Old citizens of Fayetteville will 
point out the i)lace now to the (nirious iHijuirer. 

The town is described in a book once h»aneil the writer by 
the late General liufus Barringer, of Charlotte, which was 
published by a traveler who was .studying tlu' fauna and the 
flora of this section, a long time before the f devolution, as a 
flourishing town of fifteen hundred houses. 

The writer of tJiis >]<vU-h is greatly indebted t^* his old 
friend, Hamilton McMillan, Ks(i., for much valuable informa- 
tion and suggestion. He says that there is not the shadow of 
a doubt that the first Highland immigrants reache«l this re- 
gion at an earlier date than 1T2'.»; and he further says: 



10 

"There is a tradition preserved in the McFarland family that 
members of that chin reached jS^orth Carolina as early as 
1090. When the (^uliele clan located in Ciiniherlaud it is 
now impossible to tell ; but they probably came over about the 
time that the ]\LcFarlands settled in what is now Scotland 
County. It is a tradition that many Scotchmen located on the 
Cai>e Fear, after tlie disastrous rising in 1715.'' 

We know, from contemj)orary history, that a great num}>er 
of Highlanders were banished to the plantations in 1710.* 

Professor J. P. McLean, of Cleveland, Ohitj, in his very 
interesting "Jlistorical Account of the Settlements of Scotch 
Highlanders in America," in which he has displayed nmch 
research, says that while the time when they first began to 
occupy this section is not definitely known; some were located 
there in 1721), at the time of the separation of the Province 
into Nortli and South Carolina, and this information he gets 
from Foote and C-arnthcrs. 

In C^olonel Saunders' Prcfaratory Remarks Uj the fourth 
volume of the Colonial Records, it is said: ''fn So])tend)er, 
17;>'J, Dugald McNeal, Colonel McAlister and several other 
Scotch gentlemen, arrived with three Inunlred and fifty 
Scotch pet>i)le, doubtless in the Cape Fear Country. And in 
1740, in the lTi)pcr House of the Legislature, residutiona 
were passed ai)]tro])riatina £1,000, to be ]»aid out of the pub- 
lic money -by II is Excellency's Warrant, to be lodged with 
Duncan Campbell, Dugald McNeal and Daniel McXeal, 
Esqrs., to be by them distrilmted among the several families 
in said petition mentioned. 

It was further resolved, that, as an encouragement for pro- 



•Mltcheira History of the Highlands, page 578. 



i 



11 

testants to remove from Europe into this province, provided 
they exceed forty i^ersons in one body or company, thi;y shall 
be exempted from payment of any public or county tax for 
the space of ten years next ensuing their arrival, and an ad- 
dress was sent to the Governor asking him to use his interest 
in the giving of encouragement to this inunigration. 

Governor Gabriel Johnson was himself a Scotchman, 
though a Lowlander, and was so warm in his encouragement 
of these measures that it was complained against him that 
he showed special favor to the Scotcli rebels. In 1740 appear 
the lirst names of the llighhinders in the Commission of the 
Peace. On the 20th of February, 1740, "further considera- 
tion was shown to the new (tomers by the appointment by the 
Governor and Council of Duncan C\\mpbell, Dugald McXeil, 
Col. JMcAlister and Neil j\lcNeil, as Magistrates for the 
County of Bladen. According to J)r. Cnrutliers, the party 
which (.-amc over in 17o'.) found Ih-ctor ]\IrXi';d with his col- 
ony already settled nciir "tlu- liliitT" on the imi-t'; side of the 
Cape J^^ear, about t\vclve miles abo\e Fayoll(\i.lK'. 

The late Kev. ])r. ]ylcXeill ^^IcKay, a distininiishetl Pres- 
byterian di\ine, ])re]^ared and delivered a most interesting 
history of the l>liifT Church, which, to the Vvriter's surprise, id 
not to be found in the University Library, and which he has 
made an ineffectual effort to obtain for use in the preparation 
of this sketch, lie has found there a late ))iiblication con- 
cerning the family of Colonel Alexander ]\rcAllister, himself 
a descendflnt of Fergas Mor, the Lord of the Isles. In this 
goodly comi)any apj)ear the nauies of almost e'cry jiroininent 
citizen of Harnett and u]^]i('r Cinnberland. 

]\fr. ^fc^Iillan continues his interesting letter: 

*'Tlie irreatest immigration followed the rising of 1745. 



12 

Neill iMc'Xc'ill, of Jura, was in America inspoctiiig the lands 
in Penn!^yl\ania and in Xortli Candina, while tlie tronhles on 
account of Charles Jul ward, the Pretender, were occurrina: in 
1745-4G. Soon after Cnlloden and, if 1 am not mistaken, 
in 1747, McNeill le<l a lai'^^e colony to the Cape Fear. Many, 
principally Lowlanders, settled near Governor Johnson's 
place in IMadcn, while the greater nnndx'r located in Cumber- 
land and Harnett. 

"Governor .loliiison had huilt a <i,reat })alace on the river, 
four miles above the })resent town of Elizabeth Town, and 
there he concealed for a nund>er of years his brother, who had 
escaped British vengeance after CulKxlcn. The (\)urt House 
then stood a short distance s<nith of the palace, and near the 
residence (»f the late Hon. T. I). McDowell. This building 
was destroyed by tire in 1705, and a new one built in after 
years, about four miles below. This buildiiii;', .^o destroyed, 
was temjtorarily re])laced b}' another on the old site; for in a 
diary ke])t by (ilovernor Johnson's brother during- these event- 
ful times (and ret*ently discovered by a great grandson in 
Georgia, among a mass of old ])a])ers) it is related that Fran- 
cis Mitrion organized his fauKjus band in the Co\irt House in 
Bladen, and tbat said baud was composed largely of Cape 
Fear Patriots. 

''There are other accounts in South Carolina histi)ries of 
the (organization <tf Marion's men, but it is do\d)tless true 
that some jxtrtions oi his famous baud were here recruited 
and organivxid." 

And the Highlanders were re]->resented in Clarion's b:t.nd 
of ])atriots, for Sergeant ^IcDonald, said to be near kin to tln' 
^McDonalds who beaded the loyalists rising, was one of the 
' most celebrated soldiers of !N[ar ion's men. 



13 

"The early settlers in the Upper Cape Fear region tried to 
establidh a town in wliat is now Harnett County, but this 
effort was a failure, and 'Chaffeninghani' became a 'deserted 
village.' 

''The settlement at Carapbelton became permanent and 
gradually extended westward. John Elwell, a Revolutionary 
Patriot, told my father, the late William ^Ic^fillan, that 
when he was a small boy there was one dwelling on Cross 
Creek, west of Campl)elton. This, according to tradition, 
was the J^ranson dwelling, and, when demolished a few years 
ago, had the date of ITl-i marked on the wall. 

''The ]\IrLaurins came to America, and reached Campbel- 
ton in 1730. They had been under the ])r<jtt.'ction of the 
McGregors up to that year, who kept them from being exter- 
minated by hostile clans. They left Scothmd, accordiug to 
Sir Walter Scott, in August, 173(3, and it is cjuitc probable 
that they arrived at Cauii»belt(m in the fall of that year. 

"There were occasional bands of iumiigrauts who arrived 
in the years preceding the Revolution, but larger numbers 
arrived in the years 1.S04 and 1805. 

"The destruction of the Court House in Bladen in 1705, 
together with its records, renders it difficult to tiud any writ- 
ten evidence corroborating existing traditions." 

We may a<ld that there sennns to be nothing on record in 
the State Department at Kaleigli, or in the Colonial Records, 
which shows earlier grants to the Scotch than 1721). 

A fund of infni-niatioii concerning thcsi- jx'oplc nmy be 
found in the life of Dr. Caldwell and the Revolntionary Inci- 
dents by Dr. (^anithcrs, and the Sketches of Xorth Carolina 
by the Rev. William Henry Foote, which is a most interesting 
history of the Presbyterian Church in North Can.lina. Dr. 



14 

Caruthers pays high tribute to them as a whole, and attempts 
to account for so hirge a portion of them having taken sides 
with the King. 

''The Scotch settlements extended from the Ocean up to 
the Cape Fear and Deep Kivers, and from these rivers to the 
Pedee. This space includes eight or ten of our ])resent coun- 
ties, and was settled almost exclusively by tlie Highlanders. 
In addition to their sacred regard for the obligation of an 
oath, they had been for many generations accustomed to a 
kingly government, and they seemed to think that no other 
was admissible. They seem to have always had the elements 
of republicanism, especially in matters of religion; for at all 
times, and under all circumstances, they held the right of 
worshipping God according to their own understanding of 
His Word, as one of vital importance. In all ]»eri<tds of their 
authentic history it seems they must have a king; but, 
as they believed that a royal government was the only one 
sanctioned in the Bible, be must Ije a man after their own 
hearts, and he must be bound by oath and covenant, like the 
Jewish kings of old, to serve the God of the Bible, while he 
maintained the true religion and ruled in moderation he was 
their rightful sovereign, and there never was or could be a 
more loyal and devoted peoi)le. He was the Lord's An- 
nointed, and to rebel against him was the same thing as to 
rebel against the Lord Himself." 

These were also a clannish people, and paid tlie utmost de- 
ference t(» their lairds or petty chieftains, whether in a civil, 
social or religious capacity; and such continued to be the fact, 
to a great extent, l'>ug alter they came U) Auhvu-a. But there 
was another and a large class of population in and around 
CampbelU^n, especially on the east side of the Cape Fear 



il 



15 

Kiver, who were infused with the spirit of resistance to ty- 
rants by the patriots of the Lower Cape Fear, and who early 
declared for independence, although still hoping for recon- 
ciliation between Great Britain and America.* 

Colonel Alexander McAllister was the colonel of the Cum- 
berland Militia, lie, witli Farquhard Campbell and Alex- 
ander McKay, Thomas Kutherford and David Smith, was a 
delegate to the General Assembly of Deputies at Xew Bern 
in 1774. 

The conclusion reached by Caruthers and Foote, while they 
dealt with those who remained loyal with the most abundant 
charity, was that those who had come to this region in the 
earlier immigrations were in sympathy with the patriots and 
many joined their rankg. But the body of those who came 
later, and some arrived almost in the beginning of the Revo- 
lution, in 1775, were, to a gi*eat extent, poor and unlettered, 
speaking only the Gaelic language, and entirely unacquainted 
witli the matters in dis])ute and under the influence of their 
leaders who brought them here ; and were led by them to fol- 
low the royal standard when it was raised by General McDon- 
ald, their nat\iral loader; and it was principally those, who 
with the Regulators, met with defeat at Moore's Crcek, as has 
been so graphically and intelligently detailed in the Booklet 
recently pre])ared by Professor Xoble. The truth is that 
these people had come here for peace. They were not much 
concerned in the troubles in Boston, so far to the north of them. 
The better educated and the wealthier of those who had been 
here for some time gave countenance and sympatliy to and 



* See the Resolves of the Association at Liberty Point, June 20th, 1775. 
Wheeler, page 125. 



16 

joined the patriots. jMuny of them were with ]\Iarioii's men. 
iu the later troubles, after the British had transferred their 
operations to !Xorth and Soutli Carolina, for they seemed to 
have been fated to be in the center of disturbance, all that 
territory between the Cape Fear and the Pedee was overswept 
by marauding bands, and to those who desired to be neutral 
the danger was greater than it was to those who were bold 
enough to take sides. There were small battles, as to num- 
bers engaged, but fearful as to cruelty and bloodshed, the 
worst character of civil war. The Highlanders who re- 
mained on the side of the King were a small })art of the tories 
under Fanning, who came down from the higlier country and 
ravaged and destroyed, and who, of course, were met in the 
same spirit by the wilder sort of those who were in sympathy 
with the whigs. 

For a long time before hostilities broke out in North Caro- 
lina, there were great efforts made by both sides to secure the 
sympathy of the Highlanders who were everywhere acknowl- 
edged to be a people of conscientious convictions and high 
character. 

Colonel ^Iclntosh came among them from the Scotch who 
lived near Society Hill in South Carolina, himself an ardent 
Whig, and, no doubt influenced many to take the patriots' 
side. 

When Fanning captured Governor Burke at Ilillsboro and 
carried him to Wilmington the Tories stopped ^\ith liim one 
night on Dee]) Biver at the house of the father of Colin 
^lacRae, who was the ])rogenitor of that branch of the ^lac- 
Baes who afterwards lived, and now live in Wilmington, the 
iwife of ^Ir. MacUae, wlio was herself a kinswonnin of Gov- 
ernor Burke, made an ineffectual effort to help him to escape. 



17 

Captain ]\[cCranie commanded a company of Whigs in 
Cumberland and many of tlie IIi<rlilanders who had been in 
this country some time l)efore the Kevohition, joined the 
Whigs. Cornwallis was disappointed at tlie faihire of the 
Iiii»ldanders to come to him as he })assed Cross Creek on his 
way t'l Wihnington. 

j\lr. jMc-Milhui fnrtlier writes: 

''Among some old books 1 have read, I find it stated that 
one i^lcAlister, who carried on a mercantile business in Camp- 
belton, was a great friend of Benjamin Fraidvlin. Boxes of 
goods from Philadel])hia contained reading matter calculated 
to intiuenee the })eople trading in Canij)l)elt<ni in favor of in- 
dependence, and these books and pam])hleti5 were distributed 
among the jjeople in all tlie back country by Herman Hus- 
bands, a cousin of Franklin, who was sent t<^ North (^arolina 
to prepare tlie ])eople for resistance to British tyranny." 

It is a remarkable thing that by some means the iirst spark 
of freedom was (luendicd at Alamance by those who after- 
wards became the lca<!ers of the ])atriots, and that those who 
iirst fought against o])])ression were turned by these \mtoward 
events to be the Tories in the war which soon ensued. It is no 
more sing\ilar, however, than was the fate of those gallant 
young Frenchmen with LaFayette at Yorktown, who got 
back to France in time to be guillotined as Aristocrats. Hon. 
W. H. Bailey, of ^lecklenburg, now living in Texas, once told 
the writer that he had heard from some one that a letter was 
sent by a special messenger from some of these Highlanders 
to Dr. AVithersp(H»n, the ])resident of the College of New Jer- 
sey, to ask his advice as to which side they should take, and of 
course he v.rote by the messenger strongly urging them to de- 
clare for independence; but the messenger was captured by 



18 

the Tories on his return journey, and a different letter sub- 
stituted, advising them to stand for the King. 

This, however, is too much like Peregrine Pickle's letter 
to his sweetheart, which was worn out in the messenger's 
shoe and another one substituted in its place. 

But the work was done with these Highlanders, and espe- 
cially with those who came just before the Uevolution, by the 
di)niinant inliucnce of the AFcDonalds and ^IcLeods and 
McLeans, ^\ho came \vith them from Scotland, or later came 
from the British army at Boston, in Avhich they were com- 
missioned oiiicers, au'l stirred the bhxjd of their kinsmen to 
take up arms i(>T the King. 

In Foote's Sketches, on page 148, chapter XIT., is the story 
of Flora .McDonald, the aristocratic young Highland maiden 
who so romantically saved the life of Charles Edward, the 
Pretender, in the face of a reward of £:)(), 000 for his head, 
although she had not been in sympathy with the rebellion in 
liis faNov; her jirrest and imirisonmciit in the Tower of l.on- 
don ; her finding favor with Prince Frederick, the heir ap- 
parent; her interview with King George the Second, and how, 
in rei>ly to his inquiry, "How could you dare to succor the 
enemies of my crown and kingdom?" she said, \.ith great 
simplicity, "ft was no more than I would have done to your 
majesty, had you been in like situation"; her free release, 
and ride back to Scotland, accompanied by Malcom ^[cTeod, 
who used afterwards to boast that he went to London to be 
hanged, but rode back in a chaise and four with Flora 
^rcDimahl. The beautiful young girl had married Allan 
]\fcl)onald. of King-bnrgh, and by him ha<l several sons, who 
in time became officers in the l^ritish army. She and her 
husband came with the Tliiihlanders to rund)erlaud in 1775. 



19 

They were visited by the young officers, the ^IcDonalds and 
McLeods, from Boston, who came to influence tlie immigrants 
to be true to the King. The inliuence of these high-born 
Scotch upon the more kiwly ones, who had been accustomed 
to foHow tliem all their lives; their utter ignorance of the 
matter in controversy; the extraordinary efforts of Governor 
Martin to confirm their faith in the King, and the fact that, 
at the beginning of the controversy, there was little or no bit- 
terness between the Whigs and Uoyali^ts in tliat section goes 
far to account for their adherence to the crown. 

Carutliers says: 

''Even in November and December, 1775, the two ])arties 
in Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, mustered on oi)})osite sides 
of the village, then returned to town antl lived in great har- 
mony. But this state of things could not continue." 

As the strife came nearer home, the lines were more; closely 
drawn, and, at last, when the royal standard was raised at 
Cross (^reek by General ^r(d)onal(l, formerly an officer in the 
■ British army, and now conunissioned with higher rank, when 
Governor Martin had sent commissions to tlie young and aspir- 
ing men among them, and every blandishment was used upon 
them, there was a blare of enthusiasm. The i)ibroch's strains 
were heard through the sand hills, and there was in this far- 
away land the last gatJiering of the clans, with the result of 
which we are so familiar. ]\rost of the Higldanders in arms 
being captured at j\loore's C^reek, their officers carried away 
prisoners, and tliemselves ]iaroled ; tliis was the (aul of organ- 
ized o])ositiou on their ])art. How gladly they returned to 
their homes, and would have remained there until the strife 
was over if it were possible in a time like that to be neutral. 



20 

^rany tried to stay at home and some met with cruel death, 
and all with the devastation and horrors of civil war. 

J>ut at last it all ])assed awa}'; the victory was won, and, 
strange t<» say, it was these same llighhuulers, or what was 
left of them, who became the leading citizens of their section. 

In tlie list of the members of the General Assembly from 
Cnnd)erland, beginning with Alexander JMcAlister and com- 
ing down and up the century to the present time, a large ma- 
jority of the members were these Highlanders and their des- 
cendants. And, even at this writing, the Senator from Cum- 
berland comes of a great clan, whose abode was in the most 
northern part of the mainland in Scotland ; and one of the 
present members of the House from Cundu'rhiud is a native 
Highland Scotchman. For many years the Judges of the 
Superior Court of the present Seventh Tu<licial Distriet have 
been Highland Scotclimen by descent, and so is the president 
of the Corporation Commission. 

Among these people for half a century and nnich longer 
after the Revolution, for it is in the memory of the writer, 
the Gaelic tongue was as commonly spoken on the streets of 
Fayetteville and in the sand hills of Cumberland, and in 
parts of Kichmond and Tiobcson, as the Kngli-^h. The older 
ones spoke little else; the younger understood and could speak 
it, and did s])eak it to tlieir fathers and mothers. Even the 
negi'o slaves, who were treated with the greatest kindness, 
some of them sjtoke the CJaclic \Vc well remember wlien, at 
Galatia Church especially, the first sermon in the morning 
was preached in Ciaclic by that Old ^fan of God, Rev. Colin 
.Mclver; and after his «leath, by the Kev. Mr. Sinclair, who 
. was sent for to succeed him because he cuuld speak the lan- 
j guage most familiar tn the congregation. 



21 

It would require a large book, rather than a booklet, to 
i>ather \i\) the traditions of these people. 
I The writer, when a little boy, was accustomed to spend the 

I summers at the farm of old J\[r. and Mvs. Archie J\IcGreg(jr 
j in the san^l hills of Cumberland, now Harnett, and nut very 
; far from Cameron Hill, where Flora j\rcDonald for a time 
I resided. ]t was near Cypress Church where Kev. l^vander 
j j\IcXair, of blessed memory, preached, and he preached some- 
times in Gaelic, we think; we know that he could s^Kjak it, 
j and not far away from Barbecue where the ^fcDonalds once 
j Worshipped. 

It was late in the gloaming of one summer evening when 
I the night began to fall and some dark clouds in the west 
j threatened a storm, and the family had all gathered in, when, 
far away in the distance, floating on the evening breeze, was 
i lieard the faint notes of the bag})ipe sounding an ohl lligh- 
i land tune. W'c wish you could imagine the eh-etrictd effect of 
I those far oil" sounds ujxm that family; the anxiety <»n every 
I face, the haste with which the old claybank horse, "General," 
was hitched up to the cart (it was before the days of buggies), 
, and the young men started in quest of the old lost ]nper. 
! He was a wanderer among the Scotch families in all that 
section ; he was a welcome guest at every lireside so long as he 
j chose to abide with them, lie was very old; his breath was 
j too thin to till the l)ag for his pipe, and his stcj) tottered as he 
! walked, and he was almost blind. When he wandered off and 
got lost in the woods his cnstxnn was to sit down on a fallen 
tree and play the pipes as best he could. And of one thing he 
might be sure, that if there were any of his countrymen or 
women within the sound of his j)ipe he woidd soon find suc- 
cor and a hospitable welcome. So, in an hour they found 



i:.j 



22 

him, sitting on a log in the "lochy place" and brought him 
in to a good supper and a comfortable bed. The old man was 
the last of his race in the sand hills of Cundjerland. His 
name was Urquhart. He remained with the McGregors for 
several days, maybe weeks, and used to pipe as well as he 
could for them the old Scotch airs, to which they listened with 
a kind of awe. lie spoke wliat little he did s})eak in Gaelic, 
aiid they talked to him in the same lau<»uage, all of which 
has left us but the little IJible, and that is now in an unknown 
tongue. After a wliile the restless fit came upon him and he 
wandered away, folhnved by the kind w(u-ds of all the 
l^IcGregors. The writer never saw him again in the flesh, but 
he can see the little old man now, as he went down tlie road 
with his bagpipes under his arm. We know not wliether he 
had any home or family of his own in the sand hills of Cum- 
berland, but it could not have been long before he heard 
sweeter luusic than the notes of his own beloved ])ipes, for he 
must soon have found a hospitable resting place for his weary 
old soul in ''the far away land of the blest." 

The great characteristic of those people was tlieir love of 
education. The good schools they had in the counties where 
they lived up to the last generation, before the war 
is the period l)y whieh we all measure everything, and I 
doubt not there are many of them yet, those schools, especially 
one we knew on Long Street in Cuml)erland, of wliich Archie 
Ray was the prin('ii)al, were the l)est schools of their time, 
and there are no l)etter in the new light of this day. They 
have .stfut uuiuy n uir.u to take the houors of the Universitv 
and of Davidson College, and some to Princeton; and they 
have pre])ared many another for the l)attle oi life, and sent 
him out in the world. 



23 

The men of this section have gone by way of the imiver- 
sitiea and colleges, and some times by way direct from the 
country high schools, all over the South and West, to take 
honored })laces among the people; and the rolls of our higher 
institutions to-day of cither sex will bear many a name which 
was a familiar one in old Cross Creek, and from tlie Cape 
Fear to the Pedee in earlier days. 

ijowever divided or however wrong they may have gone 
when they came across the waters to find peace, and found 
a sword, of one thing there is no question — that in later times 
of strife they all followed the light which was set before them, 
as they saw .the light, and they all saw it alike this time. 

This same Scotcli settlement was a sadly broken one in 
ISdO, when so many of tlie young men never returned, and 
when war, just as its leader called it, swept with Slicrman's 
th<jusands through these tpiiet settlements. 

lv\])erience has am])ly taught that tliere is no place in all 
tlie world where the seeker after jK'ace may l)e sure he has 
found it. 

We Itave stood in the door of one of these desolated places, 
not far from Long street an<l Galatia, and counted «)ver the 
names of a score of young men who lived in sight of where we 
stood, who were buried in Pennsylvania or Maryland or Vir- 
ginia. 

But, resurgam ! These settlements are all tiourishing now. 
Xew enterj)rises have taken the jdaees of tlu- old. .Vew roads 
are crossing each otiier. Xew school houses are open, and 
new churcii sj)ires j)oint the old way in jdl that region. And 
men and wonii-n of thi^ day, in whose veins course the same 
red blood which drove l>ack the TJonian legions from the hills 
of Srnthinfl are <till rcadv to <iiv, as their iicneral <:iid, ac- 



24 

cording to Tacitus near two thousand years ago, "As there- 
fore you advance to battle look back \\\nm your ancestors; 
look forward to your posterity." 

Let us ho])e that tliis race has at last found the desired 
peace, and that all their strivings luwy liereafter be for the 
betterment of themselves, and of all the people. 

iSToTE. — In the prej»aration of this sketch the writer has 
been i?reatlv aided bv his friends, ex-Senat')rllamiltun ^fcMil- 
Ian and Captain E. It. McKethan, ex-mend)er of the North 
Carolina Legislature, lie has had access to ]\Iitcheirs His- 
tory of the Highlands; iMcLean's Highlanders in America; 
Caruther's Life of Dr. Caldwell and Kevolutionary Inci- 
dents; Foote's Sketches of Xorth Carolina, ami, of course, to 
the Colonial Records. 



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NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET f 




GREAT EVENTS IN -'f r 

NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY.'t 



iTHE SCOTCH-IRISH 
10F NORTH CAROLINA 



BY 



REV. A. J.MCKELWAY 




J PRICE IOC ^i THK YEAR l^ 

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IjThe North Carolina Booklet '^' 

f^ 

l'^'- Great Events in North Carolina History. 

1^ , VOL. V. 

j^s^;^l.— Genesis of Wake County. 

r'^-^' Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

^j 2. — St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations. 

;■ I Richard Dlllard, M. D. 

;.*• 3. — North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Indepen- 
'^' - dence: Part II., William Hooper. 

i Mrs. Spier Whi taker. 

I ■ 4.— North Carolina at Kings' Mountain. 

I . ' 5. — Social Conditions in Eastern Carolina in Colonial Times. 

« Hon. J. Bryan Grimes. 

l\' 6. — North Carolina's Poets. 

■ - Rev. Hlght 0. Moore. 

7.— The History of the Capitol. 

Mrs. Cliarles Earl Johusoii. 

» - . 

{-. 8.— Cornelius Harnett. 

I. - Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Pi* 9.— Edward Moseley. "■ 

1^ Prof. D. H. Hill. 



jhT 10. — Governor Jesse Franklin. 

Mr. S. Porter Graves. 



. ,; 11 .—Governor Thomas Pollock. 
I \, Mrs. John \V. Ulufldale. 

1^ ' 12.— Battle of Cowan's Ford. 



Major William A. Graham. 



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VOL. IV. 



MARCH, 1905 



NO. 11 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



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*I)ied December 12, 1904. 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH OF NORTH 
CAROLINA 



BY REV. A. J. McKELWAY 



The ancient kingdom of Stratliolyile, included, within the 
boundaries of Scotland, the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, 
Ayr, Dumfries, Wif^town, Kirkcudbrif^ht and Dumbarton, 
an area about as large as tlie State of Connecticut. The 
men of Scottish birth who have written their names high on 
the roll of fame have nearly all come from this district. It 
is the reputed birthplace of St. Patrick, the patron saint of 
Ireland ; while hero are to be fooind the most frequent tradi- 
tions of the reio-n of King Arthur. It is only necessary to 
mention the names of William Wallace, Robert Bruce, John 
Knox and Robert Burns to show that the race tliat inhabited 
these western Lowlands was a virile race. Here arose tlie 
royal line of the Stuarts; the family of which William Ewart 
Gladstone was the most illustrious scion ; and the ancestors of 
our own Washington. Here lived the Lollards, Reformers 
before the Reformation, and here were marshalled the lead- 
ers and annies of the Reformation itself. Here was the 
chief home of the Covenantee. Here has been built the 
great manufacturing city of the modern world, Glasgow, a 
model city in many respects. And from these seven counties 
flowed the main stream of immigrants into the province of 
Ulster, Ireland, from which they emigrated in turn to tlie 
American colonies to be known henceforth as the Scotch- 
Irish. How near akin the American strain is to the people 
who still occupy the Southwestern corner of Scotland is evi- 
dent from the following description of Hugh Miller: 



4 



**The Scotch Lowlaiider is, as a rule, of fair height, long- 
legged, strongly built, and without any tendency to the 
obesity so common among his kinsmen of England. His eye 
is ordinarily brighter than that of the Englishman, and his 
features more regular; but his cheeks are more prominent 
and the leanness of the face helps to accentuate these features. 
Of all the men of Great Britain those of Southwestern Scot- 
land are distinguished for their tall stature. The Lowlander 
is intelligent, of remarkable sagacity in business, and })erse- 
vering M'hen.onee he has determined upon accomplishing a 
task; but his prudence degenerates into distrust, his thrift 
into avarice. * * * The love of education for its own sake 
is far more widely spread in Scotland than in England." 

In view of the part tliis race has played in the life of the 
world it is a matter of interest to inquire what were its origi- 
nal constituents. 

The aboriginal Briton was probably not unlike the modem 
Esquimo, a short and slight peo})le, though muscular. The 
Celts who invaded Briton from Gaul belonged to the later 
Bronze and the early Iron Age. They j)robably exteraii- 
nated rather than absorbed the aborigines, the notable excei)- 
tion being in the very region which we are considering, tlie 
NovantcC and the Scglovie being mentioned by Ptolemy, 
these coalescing later into the ^'fierce and warlike" tribe of 
the Attecotti, who constantly harassed the Bonuuis, and after- 
wards were known as tlie "Galloway Picts." The Roman 
invasion and occupation embraced this district and the Ro- 
mans left traces of their blood as well as their language with 
the conquered Celts. It is still a mooted question wlio were 
the Picts, Picti, "painted ])eople," whom the Romans were 



unable to conquer, who after the Romans withdrew waged 
fierce warfare against the Celts. It is believed that they 
were a Teutonic race. But we come to historic ground in the 
invasion of the Angles and Saxons, who gave the larger Teu- 
tonic. element to the Lowland type. In the year 875 the 
Kingdom of Strathelyde was invaded by the Danes and a 
large number of the Britons left Strathelyde for Wales. The 
district was often the field of battle between the Picts or 
Caledonians and the Saxons. But not only the Danes, the 
Dubhgail, or black-haired strangers, but the Norsemen' the 
Fiungaill, or fair-haired, made their inroads upon Galloway 
and the latter left a permanent settlement there. And from 
the year 875 the Danes and Norsemen contended for the 
mastery of all this part of Scotland, and in the reign of Mac- 
beth, who was neither so guilty nor Duncan so innocent of 
blood as Shakespeare has made the world believe, the Norse 
influence was at its height in Scotland, Earl Thorfinn pos- 
sessing Galloway, as one of his nine earldoms. Galloway in- 
cluded parts of Dumfries and Ayr as well as Kirkcudbright 
and Wigtown. Finally tlie Normans brought a fresh in- 
fusion of Teutonic blood with a Latin language to temper 
the Saxon speech. 

It is only necessary to call attention to the fact that this " 
was a fighting race of people that was thus formed by the 
mingling of Celtic and Roman and Teutonic blood. Scot- 
land came into her own in Uie family of nations through such 
toil and moil aiid blood as has seldom been the lot of any peo- 
ple for so long a stretch of the centuries. The kingdom was 
united under ]\Ialcolm, son of Duncan, and the peaceful 
amalgamation of Uiese warring races began. It would seem 



6 



that if there was rough work in the worhl to do, from the 
conquest of tyrant kings to the building of an empire in a 
new worhl, here was the race that was destined to do it. 

It would be interesting to trace the history of this re- 
markable district of Scothmd through tlie long wars between 
England and Scotland in the period between Malcolm and 
Mary, Queen of Scots. There was the strength of the Scot- 
tish Reformation. It was James the First of England and 
Sixth of Scotland, the "'wisest fool in Christe'ndom," who 
brought about the peopling of the North of Ireland by the 
men of the Seven Counties. 

All through the reign of Elizabeth there had been trouble 
in Xortli Ireland. The government of the country was in 
the hands of English military officers whose authority did 
not extend Ix^yond their posts. 1 he Northeast corner of 
Ireland had been contiuered and held by the ^IcDonnells, a 
Scotch clan from the Isle of Jura and from Canty re on the 
-Mainland of Scotland. A little later a wild Irishman by 
the name of Con ^IcNeale McBryan Feartach O'Neill got 
into trouble with the King over the duty on wine, lie was 
cast into prison. Hugh Montgomery, Laird of Braidstane, 
drove a hard bargain with him, agreeing to rescue him from 
prison in return fur half his lands in county Down. In 
order to obtain the pardon of Con, James Hamilton, another 
canny Scot, was called in, who had great intlucnce with the 
King, and Con lost anotiier third of his patrimony, not long 
afterwards running through the remaining third by his habits 
t)f conviviality. Montgomery and Hamilton then proceeded 
to ''plant" their lands thoroughly from the famous Seven 
Counties in Scotland. 



Soon aftenvards, the Irish chiefs of Ulster began a trea- 
sonable "correspondence with Spain and their letters were in- 
tercepted by Kin^- James. O'Neill, of Tyrone, and O'Don- 
nell, of Tyrconnell, left the country with a number of their 
adherents. O'Dogherty perished in the rebellion and his 
lands were confiscated to the crown. Other Irish chieftains 
fled the kingdom and so it happened that not less than 
3,800,000 acres of land in Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Ferme- 
gan and Cavan, were placed at the disposal of the Crown, 
making with Down and Antrim, Nortli Ireland, or Ulster. 
This region James determined to settle mainly with Scotch 
from the seven counties of the Southwest. The first 
settlers were those that left their country for their 
country's good. These were shortly followed by a 
great army of earnest, industrious colonists, building 
their rush-thatched huts first near the landlord's 
castle, and later gathering into villages. The best lands had 
been selected for the colonists, the poorest being reserved for 
the remnant of the Irish, between whom there existed and 
exists to this day an unconquerable race antipathy. There 
was almost no mixing of these two races, the name, Scotch- 
Irish, being a geographical rather than a racial descriptive. 
The natives were even driven to the woods, becoming known 
as wood-kernes, and they were severely punished for their 
crimes when caught. The new settlers had to war against 
the wolves also. But they drained the swamps, felled the 
forests, sowed wheat and flax, raised cattle and sheep, began 
the manufacturing of linen and wo<3len cloth, and not only 
made all their own goods, even the tools with which to work, 
but began the exportation of linen and woolen cloth to Eng- 



8 



land. And they were Presbyterian in faith, as has been in- 
timated froin the ])art the Seven Counties took in the Refor- 
mation. Scotch ministers went with their congregations to 
the new hinds. Peter Heylin, tlie champion of the English 
Church of his day, writes: "They brought witli them hitlier 
such a stock of Puritanism, such a contempt of bishops, sucJi 
a neglect of the ])ublic liturgy, that there was nothing less to 
l>c found among them than the government and forms of 
worship established in the Church of England." 

At the time of the accession of Charles the First to the 
English throne, in 1G25, Ulster was receiving a steady 
stream of immigrants from the Ix>wlands, at the rate of four 
thousand a year. High rents in Scotland drove many of 
the people to accept the chances of life in Ireland. This immi- 
gration was checked and actually turned back upon Scotland 
by religious persecution. The Episcoi)al Church of Ireland 
was so evangelical that Presbyterians who had fled from Scot- 
land for their faith had no hesitation in joining it. But with 
the rise of Archbishop Laud, the effort was made to secure 
uniformity of worship in Ireland. Against the protests of 
Archbishop Usher the Scottish ministers were de})osed and 
several of them set sail for New England in IG.'JG. Their 
vessel was driven back, however, to the Irish shore. In the 
same year the attem])t was made to administer the "black 
oath," compelling all the i>eople of Ulster, Catholics excepted, 
to swear obedience in advance to all the "royal commands" of 
the King. Thousands of Scots refused to take the oath 
and thousands returned to Scotland. In the midst of this 
confusion, the native Irish, under Sir Phelim O'Neill, wlio 
claimed to be acting under the King's commission, rose in 



9 



amis throughout Ulster and seized nearly all the castles. 
There followed a reigTi of terror in which ten thousand Uls- 
terites lost their lives, the blow falling less heavily upon the 
Scots because so many of them had returned to Scotland. 
It may be noted here that the distance across the Oliannel by 
one route is only twenty-one and a half miles, so that com- 
munication was easy. 

In the meantime tlie Scots had raised an army to defend 
their religious freedom, the royal standard was raised and 
the Civil War had begun. The ''Covenant" was adminis- 
tered to a large part of the Protestant population of Ireland, 
then estimated at seventy thousand, and the Ulsterites had 
their share of victories and defeats on the battlefield. It 
I is worthy of note that the Irish Presbytery protested vehe- 

j raently against the execution of Charles and brought down 

I upon their heads the wrath of John Milton, in a scurrilous 

I reply that ill beseemed the great poet. But Cromwell was 

nowsthe real ruler of the realm and having pacified England 
\ and Scotland he proceeded to sul>due Ireland, a feat that 

I was never accomplished but this one time. The Irish Pres- 
j byterians were not molested though they were not in high 

i favor. As a result of the vast confiscation of estates by 

Cromwell three-fourths of the country passed into the hands 
: of the Protestants. Only in North Ireland, however, was 

this colonization effective, tliough settlere were now num- 
bered at 100,000. 

Religious persecution began again with the accession of 
Charles II, but it soon passed and tiiat good-natured monarch 
granted some recognition to tlie Presbyterian Church. But dur- 
ing his reign two important acts were passed, the banning of 



10 

the policy that drove the Ulsterites to America. The ex- 
portation of catthi from Ireland to England was forbidden 
and l>y the lYavi4i,ation Act, ships from Ireland were treated 
as foreign vessels. 

The Kevolution of 1688 was peaceful exce])t in Ireland, 
which was the last stronghold of James II. His lord deputy, 
Tyrconnel, had put arms into the handj uf the Irish i>ea9- 
antry, who began a series of depredations upon their Scotch 
neighbors in which a million head uf cattle changed owners. 
With the outbreak of the Revolution the Protestants fled to 
Enniskilleh and Londonderry and the defence of these cities 
against overwhelming odds and under privations unspeakable 
is of the least glorious chapter in the history of the men of 
Ulster. Unfortunately for the bravo people who had suf- 
fered so much for the new King, a certain clerical ^lunchau- 
sen, Ilcv. George Walker, so falsified the facts of the great 
siege of Londonderry as to put the Scotch in rather a bad 
light At any rate Ulster began to learn something of the 
ingratitude of Kings and the Ulsterite became the hereditary 
enemy of the House of Hanover. It is computed that be- 
sides the natural increase in the Scotch population from 
early and prolific marriages there had Ix^en an addition of 
50,000 Scotch inmiigrants between tlie Revolution of 1688 
and the reiuii of Queen Anne. We have this interesting 
testimony from tbe pen of Lionel Jenkins, Secretary of State, 
in a letter written to the Duke of Onnund in 1670, who says 
that "those of the north of Ireland " * * are most Scots 
and Scotch breed and are the Nortliem Presbyterians and 
phanatiques, lustly, able-bodied, hardy and stout men, where 
one may see three or four hundred at every meeting-house on 



11 



Sunday, and all the North of Ireland is inhabited by these, 
which is the popular place of all Ireland by far. They are 
very numerous and greedy after land." It should be under- 
stood, howevei:, that not all the Ulsterites were either Scoteh 
or Presbyterian. There was a gcx)dly element of English 
Episcopalians with a remnant of Catholic Irish. Some 
Latin blood was added to the Presbyterian element in an im- 
mig>*atioin) of French Huguenots, whose names still exist 
among the Scoteh-Irisli emigrants to America. 

In the reign of Queen Anne the whole people of Ireland, 
Catholics and Presbyterians as well, were under the ban of 
the High Church regime. Immigration from Scotland into 
Ireland had ceased. Emigration from the North of Ireland 
into America began. In 1704 an act was passed requiring 
that all public olHcers should take the Sacrament according 
to the rites of the Established Churcli. The Catholics, in 
protesting, showed that this affected also the Presbyteriafts, 
''who had saved Ireland," but the protest fell upm deaf ears. 
Presbyterian magistrates and postmasters were deprived of 
})ower and sup|X)rt. 

In the same year Presbyterians were excommunicated for 
the crime of being married by their own ministers. The 
meetings of Presbytery were declared illegal meetings. Pres- 
byterians were eom])elled to pay tithes for the sn})port of the 
Establishment. Every Presbyterian schoolnuister became 
liable to imprisonment for teaching, when these people were 
the strongest adherents of John Knox, who "first sent the 
gchoolma&ter into all corners, saying, 'I>et the people be 
taught' " Then the doors of the cluirches were nailed up. 
But the people were at last aroused and when there was dan- 



12 



ger of the succession of the Jacobite Pretender to the throne, 
it was quietly ascertained that there were fifty thousand 
Irish Preshyterians wlio were capable of bearing arms and 
willing to fight for the Protestant succession. After the ac- 
cession of George I an act of toleration was passed, though 
the strongest friends of the crown in Ireland were still for- 
bidden to bear arms. 

During this period of religious ]K'rsecution there were 
other repressive measures. For the ''protection" of the Eng- 
lish woolen, trade from Irish competition, an act was passed 
forbidding the exportation of woolens from Ireland, later 
followed by acts forbidding the exi>ortation to any country 
but England. Thus one of the great manufacturing enter- 
prises of the Ulsteritcs was destroyed as had been their rais- 
ing of cattle for the English markets. The people turned to 
linen manufacture as a last alternative and this grew and 
flourished. 

It was only natural, therefore, that men of this bK?od 
should seek a freer land. They felt that they were pilgrims 
and strangers as their fathers were. The great fact of the 
eighteenth century relating to both England and America is 
the Scotch-Irish emigration. Between 1725 and 1768 the 
emigration increased from 3,000 to G,000 a year, not less 
than 200,000 of the people having left Ireland for the xVmeri- 
can Colonies in that period. From 1771 to 1773 there were 
thirty thousand emigrants. The Protestant poi)ulatiou of 
Ireland had in the meantime grown to 527,505, making 
allowances for the gradual increase a full third of the popula- 
tion had left for America. The raising of rents after a 
period of famine augmented this exodus from Ireland. Re- 



13 



calling that it began with an emigi-ation of 20,000 in 1698 
and allowing for the increase of the population in America, 
it has been computed that there were not less than 400,000 
people of Scotch-Irish birth or descent in America at the be- 
ginning of the Revolution, A few went to New England, 
where they were duly persecuted by their Puritan brethren. 
Yet there was one congregation of 750 members, London- 
derry, and they gave to the Revolution General Stark and his 
Green Mountain boys. They named "Bunker Hill" from 
a hill in Ireland overlooking Belfast. And from this New 
England settlement went Henry Knox, the first American 
Secretary of War, Matthew Thornton, signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, and Horace Greenly and Asa Grfty. 
The Scotch-Irish settled a good part of New York State. 
The first governor of the State, Clinton, was of this race. 
They settled New Jersey, and the chaplain of the First Brig- 
ade was the fighting parson, Rev. James Caldwell. But tho 
chief port of entry was Philadelphia, which city was soon 
taken possession of and has been held to this day. From 
Pliiladelphia the waves of colonization spread westward until 
the best lands of western Pennsylvania were taken and then 
the stream poured Southward, down through the Valley of 
Virginia, into Piedmont North Carolina, across the line into 
South C^arolina and into tlie hill counti*y of Georgia. But 
another im}X)rtant port of entry was Charleston, and as tlie 
immigration sought the hill country the wave from Charles- 
ton met and mingled with tlie wave from Pennsylvania in the 
border counties of the Western Carolinas. The breed in 
North Carolina alone gave three Presidents to the Nation, 
Jackson, Polk and Johnson. And what shall I mo^e say, 



14 



for the time would fail me to tell of Patrick Henry and John 
Witherspoon, of the twenty-one Scotch-Irish generals of the 
Kevolutionary war, of the seven Preshyterian eklers, ^lorgan 
and Pickens and Camphell and Slielby and Clevcdand and 
Williams and Sevier, of Presidents Jefferson and Monroe 
and Jackson and the Harrisons, of Polk and Buchanan and 
Johnson and Grant and Hayes and Arthur and Cleveland and 
^rdvinley and Poosevelt ; of the long line of C^abinet officers, 
Sui>renie Court Justices, Senators, Kepresentatives and Gov- 
ernors, in \yhoni ran the blood of this great people, fighting 
for life and liberty for a thousand years, aiid schieviug it at 
last in America. 

It has been deemed necessary that this long introduction 
should be written to the sketch of the Scotch-Irish in North 
Carolina, that our people may know that their roots reach 
far back into the historic past and that the branches of this 
tree in America have not borne unworthy fruit. 

The first settlement of Scotch-Irish in North Carolina was 
made by Henry McCulloh in 1730, on a grant of land in 
Duplin County, the colonists forming the congregations of 
Goshen and the Grove. The Scotch-Irish are not to be con- 
founded with the Scotch colonists on the ('ape Fear. These 
were Highland Scots, of almost pure Celtic blood, while the 
Scotch-Irish are mainly Saxon, not having intermingled with 
the Irish Celts, so that there is a racial as well as a geo- 
graphical difference between the Scottish Highlander and 
Lowlander, between the Cape Fear Scotch and the Scotch- 
Irish of North Carolina. Of course the largest settlements 
of the Scotch-Irish were in the counties of Guilford, Orange, 
■ Alamance, Caswell, Powan, Iredell, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, 



15 



Lincoln and Gaston, with the center of the immigration in 
Mecklenburg. 

As many of the Scotch-Irish settlers had already had ex- 
perience in Pennsylvania or Virginia they were able to secure 
the best lands, as the pioneers of the Piedmont region. The 
Indians were mostly friendly to the whites. The country 
alternated between forest and prarie and abounded in game, 
deer, buffalo, and bear, while panthers were not infrequently 
found. The pioneers came from the North in wagons in 
which they slept until they had built a house on land of their 
own selection. The house was built of hewn logs, the inter- 
stices stopped with clay, the roof covered with riven boards. 
One room, one door and one window, closed with a wooden 
shutter, was the characteristic style of architecture. The 
furniture of the house consisted of beds, a few stools, a table, 
on which were set pewter dippers and plates, and wooden 
trenches. A few plow irons and harrow teeth, a hoe and a 
mattock and an axe, a broad-axe, wedges, mauls and a chisel, 
would be the inventory of the tools on the farm. Cattle, 
sheep and geese, horses and hogs, Avere raised with grent 
profit and from the wool the clothes of the family were spun, 
and from the goose an annual tax of feathers was secured for 
pillows and featlier-beds. When the family began to put in 
a glass window and to buy cups and saucers of chinaware, 
they were considered wealthy. 

They did have their wealth in their own capacity to manu- 
facture what they needed. When the goods brought with 
them began to wear out, tlie blacksmith built his forge, the 
weaver set up his loom and the tailor brought out liis goose. 
A tannei-y was built on the nearest stream and mills for 



16 



grindino' the wlieat and corn were erected on the swift water 
courses. Saw mills were set up and lugs were turned into 
plank. The women not only made their own dresses but the 
material for them as well, spinning the wool and afterwards 
the cotton into lindsey and checks and dying it according to 
the individual taste. The beavers furnished elegant tiles for 
the gentry. The immigrants were recorded as weavers, join- 
ers, coopers, wheelwrights, wagon-makers, tailors, teachers, 
blacksmiths, hatters, merchants, laborers, wine-makers, min- 
ers, rojje-makers, fullers, surveyors, and gentlemen, the last 
being rather a rank than a vocation. In other words the 
people were an industrial as well as an industrious people. 
They were producers. And when a man has built a little 
home in an untrodden wilderness, felled tlie forest, furnished 
the home, and has begun to produce not only for his necessi- 
ties but a comfortable surplus for his family he does not feel 
like paying tribute to a king or a parliament across the seas, 
'»\ho drove him across the seas by their stupid tyranny. 

Nearly all the farms of any size had a distillery attached 
and a good deal of the corn was marketed in liquid form. 
One of the faults of the Scotch settlers was drunkenness, 
though the majority were temperate drinkers. A punch 
bowl and glasses were found among the etfects of Kev. Alex- 
ander Craighead, founder of the earliest cliLirches of the 
Mecklenburg region. Whiskey played a great part on 
funeral occasions, and esp<icially at *' vendues" where it was 
bupposed to i)ut the buyers in good humor and was charged 
to the estate disiK>sed of. The tavern on the public road was 
a famous institution of these early days ami the variety of 
the liquors sold reminds one of the English inn that Dickens 



17 



has partrayed. Among the amusements of the i)eople were 
horse raciuo- and shoot ini»- matches and the oame of loni^ hul- 
lets, phayed witli an iron ball, the etfort of each side being, 
as in foot ball, to kee]> tlie ball from passing the adversary's 
goal and putting it through one's own. But while gambling 
was permitted and drunkenness condoned, profane swearing 
was punished severely, the amount of the fine sometimes de- 
pending on the vigor and variety of the oaths used. The 
children received six months schooling and the number of 
college-bred men in a Scotch-Irish community was large. 
The warlike instincts of the people were ke])t alive by the 
military muster, which became the occasion for a gathering 
together of a county to the county-seat. The Scotch-Irish 
were noted for their skill with the rifle, and rifles were manu- 
factured at Jligli Shoals at an early date, a sixicimen, with 
its long barrel and wooden stock extending to the end of the 
barrel, having been presented to General Washington and 
being highly prized by him. 

But the life of the Scotch-Irish, as in Scotland and in Ire- 
land, centered around the church. 

One of the earliest notes of the pre6enc4? of Scotch-Irish 
in the West was made by Governor Dobbs, in 1755, who 
found that some "Irish Protestants had settleil together, with 
families of eiglit or ten children each, and had a school 
teaclier of their own." In the same year Hev. Hugh 
McAden made a missionary visit from the Ilico to the^ Ca- 
tawba and found Scotch-Irish settlements in ^fecklenburg 
nt Kocky River, Sugar Creek, and the Waxhaws. The 
seven Presbyterian churches of ^lecklenburg created the 
Hocial and religious, and we had almost said the political 



18 



life of the county, for the first fifty years of its history. 
Alexander Craiahead, getting into difHeulty with New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery in New Jersey on account of his extreme 
republican views, found a congenial home "n tliis Scotch- 
Irish section. Ilanna calls him "the foreuu st American of 
his day in advo(.'ating the prinicples of civil lil)erty under a 
Republican fonn of government." Besides him wimv Hugh 
iMcAden, who settled in Caswell, the ''eloquent PatiliV>'' of 
Granville and Orange, Caldwell of Guilford, celebrated for 
his connection Avith the battle of the Alamance and the later 
struggles of the Revolution ; McCorkle of Rowan, Hall of 
Iredell, Balch, McCaule and Alexander. These men were 
conservative, as witness their reluctance to espouse the cause 
of the Regulation. But they were e^jually firm in advocat- 
ing the real principles of liberty that came to the front at 
the beginning of the Revolution. 

It is interesting to trace the grievances of the colonists as 
the day of the Revolution dawned and to see how they were 
the same from which the Ulsterites had suffered. There 
were religious exactions which were galling in the extreme, 
although it must be confessed that the Scotch-Irish of North 
Carolina managed to escape the operation of the laws that 
were intended to oppress them. Their ministers performed 
the marriage ceremony in spite of the etlorts to make it 
illegal and the marriage void. Presbyterian elders had 
themselves duly elected vestrymen of St. George^s Parish and 
thus were in a position to see to it that the Established 
Church was not established in Mecklenburg. There were 
the petty annoyances of the slave trade forced uix>n an un- 
willing ixiO})le by the King, and the stamp tax, and then the 



19 



determination to t^x the people of America without allowing 
them representation in Parliament. Finally, when the peo- 
ple had planned the erection of a great university, Queen's 
College, that it was hoped would rival Oxford and Camb- 
ridge, the charter was refused them by the King on the 
ground that he could not afford to promote Presbyterian 
education. By this time, the colony of North Carolina had 
been thorouglily organized with county committees, the 
Scotch-Irish counties having their pco])le fully disciplined 
to the work that was cut out for them. One of tho6e com- 
mittees met, in connection with a military muster, which was 
really a turning out of the people, at Charlotte, on May 19th, 
1775. While cert;iin papers and ^solutions, looking to 
county action in the present disordered state of the country 
were being earnestly discussed, the messenger arrived with 
the stirring news of the battle of Lexington. The watch- 
word of the CVlony had long been, ''The cause of Boston is 
the cause of us all." But with the story of a conflict with 
British troops, in which a military company had been fired 
upon by the red-coats, in which also the Americans, raw 
troops as they were, had won a notable victory, the feelings 
of the people surged forth. The rei)orts that had been before 
the m£eting were referred to a committee of three and after 
midnight of the day of assemblage, on May 20th, in fact, the 
^recklenburg Declaration was rcad to the [X^ople, the moving 
cause of the proceedings being really stated in the second 
resolution : 

^^Eesolved, That we, the citizens of ^lecklenburg, do here- 
by dissolve the political bands which have connected us with 
the mother country, and absolve ourselves from all allegiance 



20 



to tlie Britisli cro\vn, abjuring all political connection with 
a nation that has wantonly trampled on our rights and lilxT- 
ties and iiilnimanly shed tlie innocent hlcMKl of Americans at 
Lexington." 

On the 31st of the same month the committee met accord- 
ing to adjournment to pass laws and regulations fur the 
county, and, perhaps feeling that there was a better reason 
for the passage of such regulations than the battle of Lexing- 
ton, made another declaration of independence on the ground 
that Parliament had declared the colonies in a state of relK'l- 
lion and they were therefore forced to provide against anar- 
chy. A member of Parliament had pointed out that any of 
tiie Colonies could plead this reason for indejK3ndence, once 
the act was passed dcidaring that a rel^ellion existed in the 
('olony of ^lassachusetts. Any man who signed the Declara- 
tion of the Twentieth of ^lay could have signed the Resolves 
of the 31st. And to the canny Scotch of Mecklenburg the 
lattei-^ were equally eft'ective and a bit safer in case of the 
victory of King George. 

The Scotch-Irish wore conspicuous in the battle of ^loore's 
Creek, which saved the colony to the cause of freedom. In 
that battle they met the Scotch as Lowlander and High- 
lander had often met before in Scotland. But the Scotch- 
Irish played a scurvy trick upon tlieir brethren, the Scotch 
Ivoyalists, by using the rille against tlie broadsword and forc- 
ing the Highlanders to cross a narrow foot-bridge on which 
the ritle-tire was concentrated. 

The battle of Ramsour's ^lill in what was then Tryon 
County was one of the most successful of tlio entire war, 400 
patriots under Colonel Locke having vanquished 1,100 To- 



21 



ries. Colonel I>avi(lsoii with 2r>0 men put to flight a larger 
body of Tories at Colson's Farm, at the eonlliienee of Iloeky 
Eiver and tlio Pee Dee. Tlie Scotch-Irish were conspicuous 
sufferers in tlie disaster of Hanging Rook. The Battle of 
C'liarlotte itself was no inconsiderahle skirmish, in which 
three or four hundred mounted militiamen under Major 
Joseph Graham held a force of ten times tiieij muahcr 
in check and thrice repulsed them. The affair at Mcln- 
tyre's farm doubtless helped to earn for Charlotte the 
soubriquet of the "Hornets' Nest." There, fourteen men, 
expert riflemen, fired u]X)n a British foraging party of more 
than a hundred, killed eight at the first fire and wounded 
twelve of the enemy, and esca[>ed without injury though they 
sent the foraging party in a hurry back to Charlotte. If 
these encountei*s of American and British soldiers had occur- 
red in New England, they would have been immortalized in 
song and story. The Scotch-Irish have not been as particular 
about writing history as they have been busy making it. 

But the battle of Kings Mountain was the most glorious 
witness of the valor of the Scotcli-Irish during the Revolu- 
tion and it was at tlio same time the victory that made York- 
town iK>ssible. The majority of the troops were North Caro- 
linians while the Virginians were from Washington County 
in the Scotch-Irish section and the South Carolina troops 
had been recruited in Rowan County, NortJi Carolina. 
These thirteen hundred and seventy men attacked Ferguson 
in his strong; position, with over one thousand men to defend 
it, on King's Mountain, and killed or captured the entire 
force after a desixjrate fight. The victory put heart of hope 
into the failing: Continental cause and was influential in de- 



22 



termining the subsequent movements of Ooi-nwallis and his 
final surrender. Tlie battle of Guilford Court House Avas 
really another British defeat, as Cornwallis lost OOU men in 
killed and wounded and some of his most valued ofHeei*s, re- 
treating to Wilmington instead of advancing into Virginia. 
The Xorth Carolina militia from Guilford and the adjoin- 
ing counties do not deserve the reproach that has been heaped 
upon them by careless military critics. They were ordered 
to fire twice by General Greene himself ajul then to retire. 
They waited until the enemy were 150 yards away, fired 
their first volley with great effect, loaded and fired again, 
some of them the third time, and only retreated when the 
bayonets clashed against their unloaded rifles. And these 
were troops who had never been under fire, meeting the 
flower of the British army. A conclusive te.stimony to their 
cool courage is given by Captain Dugald Stuart, who com- 
manded the Scot-ch Highlanders, the Seventy-First Regi- 
ment. Writing nearly fifty years afterwards, he says: 'Tn 
the advance we received a very deadly fire from the Irish 
line of the American army, composed of their marksmen 
lying on the ground behind a rail fence. One-half the High- 
landers dropped on that spot." 

From the close of the Ivevolution to the brealcing out of the 
Civil War the Scotch-Irish of North Carolina were foremost 
in the peaceful upbuilding of the commonwealth, in govern- 
ment, in education, in commercial enterprise. Nor were they 
wanting when the country was at war again, whetlier with 
Great Britain a second time, with Mexico or in the clash of 
the gi*eat Civil conflict. Theirs has Ix'cn a long line of Caro- 
lita statesmen. They liave ornamente<l tlie bar and the pul- 



23 



I pit. Than tlieir soldiers there have been none braver. There 

j was many a Stonewall Jackson in tlie ranks, claiming the 

I same heroic bloud, as they followed him. And on Virginians 

J battlefields, yea in Tennessee and Pennsylvania, there lie 

j in unmarked graves thousands of the descendants of that 

I ancient Scottish race, that fought at Londonderry and En- 

I niskillen as their children fought at Gettysburg and Chica- 

I mauga. 

I To-day the most prcxsperous section of the Old Xorth State 
j is just that section which the Scotch-Irish settlers chose for 
! their homes. It is a great race of people. They fear God 
j and have no other fear. They stand for truth and right, 
j Their fault is sometimes that tlirift (k'gcnerates into penuri- 
ousness. They keep the Sabbath and all else that they can 
lay their hands U])on. But they have had to iii^ht so hard 
for so many centuries to establish for others tlie difference 
■between tneani and tuu7fi that we should ix^rhajhi give tlieni 
a little time to get over the itialization of the nieum at last. 
They sjKJak Uie truth, and though they may want the utter- 
most farthing that is due them, they do not want, and they 
will not take, a farthing more. In ^iccklenburg County for 
a hundred years of recorded history not a white native was 
indicted for larceny. 

Theirs is the race of the hard head but the warm heart, of 
the stiff" backbone but also of tlie achieving hand. They have 
done their share in working out the jjrinicples of civil and 
religious lilicrty and of erecting our iubtitutons of govern- 
nient. They love order and law even though their fighting 
propensities may nowadays bloom in legal contentious of 
Avhich there is no profit. But whether in peace or war, the 



24 



State and the ^N'ation can oc^mt on this hardy and heroic 
strain for high and noble service. They are of those \vlio 
swear to tlieir own hnrt and change not. It might be said of 
thonsands, as was said of their great compatriot, John Kno^j, 
''they never feared the fa(^e of man.'' And the surprises and 
even the convulsions of the fnture will find tliem unafraid. 

Authorities: The Scotch-Irish Families of America, 
diaries A. Ilanna; Foote's Sketches of North Carolina ; 
Colonial Eecords; Hawk's History of North Carolina; Mar- 
tin's History of North Carolina ; Wheeler's Sketches ; David 
Schenck's, North Carolina in 1780-81 ; Tompkin's History of 
Mecklenburg County ; General Joseph Graham and Revolu- 
tionary Papers; with sixicial indebteilness to tlie first-named 
book for its valuable historical and statistical notes. 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT TO THE MEMORY 

OF MRS. D. H. HILL, WHO DIED ON 

DECEMBER 12, 1904. 



WiiEKEAs^ Since our last meeting it lias pleased onr All- 
wise and Heavenly Father to remove from ns our honored 
Vice-President, whom we loved for her noble womanly quali- 
ties of head and heart, and in whom we found a j^enial, gentle 
and ever-willing associate, descended from a line of Christian 
heroes, prominent in time of war as well as in times of jxiace ; 
therefore, 

Besolved, That we mourn her loss to the Society and to the 
State, and blend our tears with those of her immediate family, 
to whom we extend our cordial and earnest sympathy in this 
sad l)ereavement, and while doing so, urge our mend>ers to 
emulate her noble Christian character, her patriotism and 
her generosity. 

Resolved, That this resolution be spread uiK)n the records 
of the Society, and a copy forwarded by the Secretary to 
the family of the deceased. 

!Mi£s. Thomas K. Bkuneu, Regent. 

!Mks. E. E. ^loi'-FiTT, Secretary. 

Jkfus. Ed. Chamuers Smith, 

^NfuSi MaUY B. SllKKWOOl), 

Mna. Paul Hinton Lee, 
Mua. IIuBEUT Haywood, 

! Mks. Ivan Proctok, 

!Mrs. John Cross, 

': Miss Grace Bates, 

CortimiUee. 



26 

TRIBUTE FROM A FRIEND. 



In Menioriam ^hs. Isabella Morrison Hill, Widow of Gen. 

D. II. Hill. 

''The fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, long-s\iffering, 
gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness and temperance." 

This summary of the full fruition of a U'autiful life was 
never more admirably illustrated than in the declining days 
of the lovely lady, who seems to have k'cn spared to reach 
the ripe old age otf nearly four score years to prove before 
the world the truth of God's Holy Word. Mrs. Isabella 
^lorrison Hill survivcnl most of her youthful friends and 
conteniix)raries, but she was comforted by biMug sparetl to 
see her children in the front rank of tliose who are faith- 
ful to God and useful to their fellow-men. She descendeil, 
through lx)th father and mother, from men and women who 
feared God and served their State by showing their devo- 
tion to civil and religious liberty. Her father, J)r. Kol)crt 
Hall Jilorrison, was a profound scholar, an able preacher 
and an exemplary Cliristian. He had the cultured manner 
of a Cavalier with the stem virtues of a Covenanter. 

Dr. Morrison was the son of Xeill ^Iorris<jn, one of the 
Scotch-Irishmen who signed the ^lecklenbiirg Declaration of 
Independence. Her mother was .Mary (jlraham, the young- 
est daughter of the Revolutionary hero, General Joseph Gra- 
ham, and his wife Isabella Davidson, who was a daughter of 
LMajor John Davidson and grand-daughter of Samuel Wilson, 
both of whom pledged their lives by signing the same noted 
instrument. ^liss Isalx.'lla Davidson 'Morrison was born at' 



1 /^ M 






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1 _;il»'.. • Hi <,_ .' '.1. ' ' ' . ' • iv,!f/ > 

•I,.) , ■ .1. Ivl \ \:.'. r , ;i)^ Oil' f •' '- -W-frM .T* I 



> 'I.) -i'l I. 1.;-I0ii 



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27 



rayetteville on the 28th day of January, 1825, while her 
father was servino- the ohl church, whose history went back 
to the days of (^Jross Creek and Fkjra JMcDonakL Slie would 
have attained the a^e of eighty within a few weeks. 

On the 2nd of November, 1848, she was happily married 
to Major D, 11. Hill, who had gone to ]\Iexico a Second Lieu- 
tenant, had won by gallantry the rank of JMajor, and was 
destined to win higher honors and render more iin])ortant 
service in the struggle for the Lost Cause. 

Mrs. Hill was the oldest of six sisters, two of whom, Mrs. 
Jackson and Mrs. Bro\m, are living, and three of whom, 
Mvs. Irwin, Mrs. Ilufns Barringer and Airs. A. C Avery, 
are dead. She leaves five children, jMrs. Eugeniu Arnold, 
wife of Thomas Jackson Arnold, the nephew of General T. 
J. (Stonewall) Jackson; Miss Nannie Hill, a teacher of art, 
now residing in Florida; Dr. Randolph Hill, of Los Angeles, 
Cal. ; D. H. Hijl, author and professor of literature in the 
A. and M. College at Raleigh, and Chief Justice Joseph M. 
Hill, of Arkansas. Those Avho know her children, all lead- 
ers in their chosen life work, realize that she has not lived 
in vain. 

Mrs. Hill's devotion to her husband and her faithful care 
of her children marked her as a model wife and mother. 
Patient in suffering, submissive to Gwi's will, her face wore 
a serene smile during her last days that suggested the re- 
flected light of the land uiKtn whose Iwrder she was conscious 
she stood. 





Genealogical Department. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Society Daughters of the Revolution, 

YOUR NORTH CAROLINA ANCESTRY CAN BE 
CAREFULLY TRACED. 



The Colonial Records of North Carolina, records of the different 
counties, family papers and State histories will be readily examined 
for parties desiring to have their ancestry traced. Their ancestors 
must have resided in the State of North Carolina during the Revolu- 
tionary and Colonial periods. 
Fee for such researches, $5. 
Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mhb. Helen DbBkhnibkk Hoopeb Wills, 
Corner Person and Polk Streets, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 



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PICTUBE8 OF OLD HOMES AND PORTRAITS SKCURBD IK OBTAINABLE. 

For Coats of Arms, etc., address , 

Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, 
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Ralkioh, North Carolina. 



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J. C. DREWRY, President. B. S. JERMAN, Treasurer. 

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iVOL. IV 



APRIL, 1905 



No. 12 



IHE 



NOltTII CAIIOLINA BlIOIil.liT ?■ 




F 



GREAT EVENTS IN •. r 

a- 

NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY I 



SKETCH OFTHE BATTLEOF 
GUILFORD COURT-HOUSE 

BY MAJOR JOSEPH M. MOREHEAD 



THE GERMAN PALATINES 
IN NORTH CAROLINA 

BY JUDGE OLIVER H. ALLEN. 




j PRICE IOC Si THK YEAR { 

^|l"«ll||(|l-%|J| ||| |||M'>U|| I|||l<'>ll||| ||| lj|l" ll|j|l |||l<-»l||| I|||l<'«>|||l |||l"'M|||l l|l"'"l||ll'".l|||.»'.|||(ll..«UHI.Ni|^, 

KNTKKKU IN IHK POSI OKKU K AT RAl.KIHU. S C, AH SKCONI" ri ASS MATTF.R. 



The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History. 

VOL. V. 

1. — Genesis of Wake County. 

Mr. Marslmll DeLnncey Huywood. 

2.— St. Paul's Church, Kdenton, N. C, and its Asaociations. 

RU-hard Dillard. M. I). 

3. — North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Indepen- 
dence: Partll., William Hooper. 
Mrs. .Spier Wliitakfr 

4. — North Carolina at King's Mountain. 

5. — Social Conditions in Eastern Carolina in Colonial Times. 

U«ni. .1. Bryan (i rimes. 

,.6.— North Carolina's Poets. 

Key. Hight (J. Moore. 

7.— The History of the Capitol. 

Uolonel Charles Earl JoliiiHOii 

. 8.— Cornelius Harnett. 

Mr. K. I). \V. (Joiiuor. 

9. — Edward Moseley. 

Prof. D. M. Hill. 

10. — Governor Jesse Franklin. 

Mr. .S. Porter Ciravea. 

11 .—Governor Thomas PolU)ck. 

Mrs. Jolin W. Hinadale. 

12.— Battle of Cowan's Ford. 

Major William A. Uraham. 



Thk BpoKi,KT will be issued by the North Carolina Sooibty op thb 
Dauohtkrs ok thk Revolution, beginning May, 1906 Price, $1.00 
per year. Parties who wish tp renew their subscription to Tiik Book- 
let for Vol. v., are requested to notify at once. 

Address MISS MAKY HH.LIAHI) HINTON, 

" Midway Plantation," 

1{AI KIOH, N. 0. 

EDITORS: 
Miss MARY MILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. IV. MARCH, 1905 NO. 12 



ANNOUNCEMENT TO SUBSCRIBERS 



\Vitli this issue ends the last of the twelve numbers 
of Vol. IV of The North Caroj.ina Booklet. An 
attractive list of subjects is offered for the coinin*; 
year. We regret more tlian words can express tlin 
irregularity with which the periodical has api)eared. 
This has been due to our former printer, who was 
crowded with State work and could not give it the 
necessary attention. A change enables us to assure oui- 
readers that in the future The Booklet will be mailed 
on time. It will appear quarterly^ in July, Octobei-, 
January and April. We thank our writers and all of 
our subscribers for their i)atriotic assistance, by which 
we have succeeded in realizing a small sum to be de- 
voted to patriotic purposes. We trust that each sub- 
scriber will renew his or her subscription to The 
Booklet at once and will also endeavor to obtain other 
subscribers. 

The Ej)itohs. 



VOL. IV. MARCH, 1905 NO. 12 



TTHE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



'Carolina 1 Carolina! Hraven's Blessings attbnd Her! 
WniLK Wk Livff We will Ciierisfi, Protect and Dkfbnd Hbr." 





, .. _ 


--'«■ 






.^.^ 




i ::":i! - \.\. . 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editors. 



Officers of The North Carolina Society 
Daughters of the Revolution, 1903-1905: 

rkqent: 
MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

vicb-reqent: 
MRS WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY RIQKNTSt 

MRg. SPIER WHITAKER, 

(Nee Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr.» 

skcrbtary: 
MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

treasurer: 
MRS. 5*RANK SHERWOOD. 

registrar: 
MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and regent 1896-1902: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

♦Died December 12, 1904. 



SHORT SKETCH OF THE BATTLE OF GUIL- 
FORD COURT-HOUSE FROM THE 
VIEW-POINT OF RESULTS. 



BY MAJOR JOSEPH M. MOREHEAD. 



The name of Washington overshadows of course that of 
every other Revolutionary sohlier, and yet the inquiry pre-, 
sents itself, did Washington assume graver responsihility, or 
evmce truer courage in accepting the connnand of the Ameri- 
can Army than that assumed and displayed hy Greene in 
accepting the command of the Southern Department in 
December, 1780 ? I take it to be true that when England 
determined in the winter of '79-80 to transfer the seat of 
active hostilities to the Southern Department from Delaware 
to Virginia, inclusive, Greene was Washington's choice as 
commander for the same, as he was his favorite .of all the 
officers under him. l^)Ut the fearful lessons of the fall of 
Charleston in May '80 and of the disastrous defeat at Camden 
in August following, it seems were necessary before the ap- 
pointment was allowed to be made and accepted. Upon bis 
arrival at Charlotte, X. C, in December '80 Greene in the 
face of a hitherto victorious army of British Regulars was 
\uider the necessity of creating an army from militia who had 
borne the brunt of war for five weary years — around a nucleus 
of Regulars — a handful — too naked to api>ear on dress parade. 
After the battle of Cowpens, January 17th, 1781, Greene re- 
treated rapidly as possible across North Carolina and effected 



his escape from Cornwallis by crossing the Dan river below 
Danville, Va., on February 15th or 14th. Cornwallis arrived 
on the south bank the same day. With what courage, forti- 
tude and skill Greene and his men {)ushed their forlorn hope 
to victory let the fathers tell. The reader is referred to the 
Diplomatic Correspondence of the American lievolution pub- 
lished by Congress in 1890. 

Here we read, Volume 4, page 303, John A'dams to Benja- 
min Franklin (Paris). 

''LeydenJIolland, April 10, 1781 — I think ;he Southerif 
States will have the honor, after all, of putting this continent 
in the right way of finishing the business of tlie war. There 
has been more sheer fighting there in pro}>roriion than any- 
where." 

Page 410, Adams to Franklin (Amsterdam). 

"May 10, 1781 — The news from the Southern States of 
America of continual fighting, in which our countrymen 
have done themselves great honor, has raised the >i»irit of 
Holland from that unmanly gloom and despondency into 
which they had been tlirown by defeats by the English.". 

Page 802, Kobert Livingstone, Secretary of State for For- 
eign Affairs, to Dana, in Europe. 

"Philadelphia, October 22, 1781 — I have the pleasure of 
communication to you the important account of two signal 
victories lately obtained over the enemy in these quarters: 
One by General Greene, whi(;h has been followed by the rc- 
tstablishment of the governments of South Carolina and of 
Georgia. The other at Yorktown. You will not fail to make 
the best use of this intelligence which must fix our independ- 



once not only l)oy()n(l iill iloul)t, but even beyond controversy." 
Page 817, liobert ^Morris to General Greene: 
"Oftice of Finance, November 2, 17S1 — Your favor of the 
l7th of September last lias been delivered to me. I hope it 
is ininecessary to make assurances of my disposition to render 
your situation both easy and respectable." ^ * J have 
neither for<>otten nor neglected your department. I have 
done the utuu>st to ])r()vide vlothing, arms, accoutrements, 
medicines, h()S])ital stores, etc., and 1 tlatter myself that you 
will receive through the different departments both benetit 
and relief from my exertions. * * " ••■ '^ You have 
done so much with so little that my wishes to increase your 
activity have every possible stimulus." 

Beyond doubt Guilford was the most important battle 
embraced within all this fighting. Jiut the one fact that Corn- 
v.allis kept the field has wrongfully transferred victory there 
to the British instead o*t' to the Amei-ican Army. King's 
Mountain and Cowpens, glorious and complete victories as 
they were, by no means drove Cornwallis from his original 
purpose and plan of capturing South (\irolina, North Caro- 
lina and Virginia, though they conduced tremendously to that 
triumph achieved at the battle of Guilford Gourt House; just 
as the release of South Garolimi and Georgia flowed from it. 
Upon receipt of the news of the ''victory" Fox said, that 
the results to Cornwallis of the "victory" were identical with 
those that would have been caused by defeat. Jn Tarleton's 
(yam])aigns, i)age o20, we read the following extract from 
a. letter of (Jcneral Greene to Fhiladcl])liia — the battle 
having Ijeen fought ]\larch 15tli, when Greene had retired 



6 



nortliward "in good order," as Stednum nfHnns, to his forti- 
fied camp eii;liteen miles north of the battk'fi(dd. 

Tarleton ailirms that when urged to eome out and again join 
battles ('ornwallis rei)lied that among the streams of South 
Carolina Greene might entangle and destroy his army. 

"GjiKKNE's IIeADQUAKTEKS, Ka.MSEY's, 

"J)i:i:i' KiVKK, :Mareh 30, 1781. 

''I wrote you tlie 2ord instant from Jhittalo Creek (South 
Guilford). since which time we have been in jiursuit of the 
enemy with tlie determination to bring them into action 
again. On the :27th we arrivt'd at liigden's Ford, 12 miles 
above this, and found the enemy tlien lay at Kamsey's. Our 
army was put in motion without loss of time, but we found 
the enemy had crossed some hours before our arrival and 
with such preci})itation that they had left their dead unburicd 
upon the ground." 

Tarleton says, pages 279 and 280: ^'Tfie British obtained 
infonnation that General Greene's arm}- had reached Buffalo 
Creek, southward of Guilford Court House. The -day before 
the King's troops arrived at Kanisey's the Americans insulted 
the Yagers in their encampment, 'i'he Royalists remained a 
few days at Ramsey's for the benefit of the wounded and to 
complete a bridge over Deep River, when the light troops of 
the American again disturbed the pickets. The British 
crossed the river and the same day General Greene reached 
Ramsey's with the intention to attack them. The halt of the 
King's troops at that jilace nearly occasioned an action which 
would not probably have been advantageous to the royal forces 



on account of tlic position and the (lishcavtoning circumstance 
of their l)cing encunihcred with so many wounded otticers and 
men in tlie a-'tion at G\iilford." 

Having reached his shi})s at Wilmington Comwalli3 was 
tendered the alternative of again fighting Greene or of seeing 
him unmolested destroy in detail the J>ritish troops, then 
garrisoning South Carolina and (Jcttrgia. Tie chose the 
former. 

Stedman, perhaps the most trustworthy historian of the 
period, in his account of the Battle of Guilford Court House, 
gives us the most unique connnentary, account or criticisnl 
upon or of any hattle v.hatcvcr, that 1 ever saw. It is a liter- 
ary curiosity, as well as a curiosity historical lie says: 
*'Th\is we find that the hattle of Guilford drew after it some, 
and it will afterwards ai)pear that it was followed hy all the 
consequences of something nearly allied to a defeat." So 
will the conscientious squirm when too harj pressed. 

As soon as Greene had passed southward Cornwallis has- 
tened to Virginia with no one to conf n>nt him — tluLs ahandon- 
ing South Carolina and Georgia to their fate and the original 
plan and pur])ose of his cam])aign in hoj)es, I suppose, that 
something might turn up in Virginia. \'ain hoitc! Con- 
fronted in Virginia hy no force worthy of his stcol he idled 
around effecting nothing till Washingt(»n, giving Clinton in 
New York the slij), haggcd him at \'orktown. 

I recall no hattle of tlie lievolutionary War more extensive 
or more fortunate in its results to the American cause, than 
that of the battle of Guilford Court House. 



My allotted space being occupied I add Imniedly and in 
conclusion that it is a matter of easy proof, that the plan and 
conduct of the battle of Guilford Court House was conceived 
in wisdom and courageously and effectively carried out, and 
that even Greene's retreat from the field was a matter of 
judgment and not of necessity. Greene had, as he had pre- 
viously written Washington that he would do, so crippled 
Cornwallis and burdened him with wounded men and ofhcers 
as to rid North Carolina of his presence, and he had, as he 
had affirmed he would do, preserved his regulars — the last he 
could hope to get, with whom as a nucleus he released two 
States and caused the surrender of Cornwallis at Yortkowu. 
That was the end of the war. 




THE GERMAN PALATINES IN NORTH 
CAROLINA. 



BY JUDGE OLIVER H. ALLEN. 



The barbarity of Avar has its only parallel in the (jruelties 
of religions pci'secutioiis. 

The remarkable people who are the subject of this paper 
suffered from both in a manner that appeals to the pathetic 
side of our nature above that of all the peoples that ever came 
to our land in early days excepting perhaps, the Lost Colony 
whom they excelled in long suffering. 

The revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1(585) by Louis 
XIV, which in 151)8 had insured religious freedom to protes- 
tants in that part of Europe embracing the country inhabited 
by these people began afresh the fires of persecution which 
drove the Huguenots and Dissenters from tlTeir homes. Many 
of them eventually settled in North and South (^arolina and 
their protestant German neighbors soon followed them. 

One of the most picturesque spots in all Europe on both 
sides of the Khine around Ileidelburg, its i)rincipal city, was 
the country known as ''The Palatinate on the Rhine," whose 
inhabitants were Germans, a country no longer having a place 
in the geography of Euro])e — but the territory now mostly 
forming a part of IJavaria and Banden, and its population 
scattered abroad and known f(jr a long time as "The Pala- 
tines." A large number of them were settled in New York 
and other in South Carolina. Dr. Benjamin Push in his 



10 



essay on the Gerniau iuliabitaiits of Poiinsylv;niia says: ''The 
aged Germans and the ancestors of those who are young 
migratctl chiefly from the Palatinate," and from the-e latter 
come our thrifty German population in the central part of 
the State, who came to Xorth Carolina ]>ecause ''Lands could 
not be obtained in Pennsylvania without much difficulty." 

Close upon the causes which drove the Huguenots from 
their country came the "Spanish War of Succession." Long 
before this war the Palatines had been objects of hatred and 
persecution but they clung to their beautiful land. 

Ileidelburg from the time of the liefornuition had been 
the stronghold of ])rotestant learning and heuce a mark of 
Itomish rancour. In 1G22 it had been redu.ced to ruins and 
its splendid library sent to Rome. 

When the war over tlie Spanish throne arose, lasting 
thirteen years and involving a greater i)arl of Europe, Louis 
XIV. seized upon the o])portunity of carrying his arms into 
Germany, whose inhabitants were mostly .|)rotestants, and it 
is said "that wherever he sent his army among the Germans 
it carried fire and sword, desolation and ruin." 

The rest of the story of their suffering is vividly told by 
Dr. Bernheim : 

"The peaceful inhabitants of the Palatinate, plundered of 
all their earthy possessions, were driven in midwinter as 
exiles from their native lands to seek an asylum in some safe 
and friendly country. They beheld tlieir comfortable cottages 
and once amply-filled barns and storehouses smouldering in 
the flames behind them, whilst they and tlieir helpless wives 
tlnd children, ruined in worldly prosperity, naked, feeble, and 



11 

in a starvin^^ condition, ^vere wending their weary way over 
vast fields of snow and ice, leaving their bloody footprints in 
the frozen snow, seeking shelter and finding none. 

''Numbers perished by the way, others dragged along their 
feeble bodies nntil at last they found safety in the Nether- 
lands, and from thence they journeyed into England. This 
is no overdrawn pictnre. Says a distinguished writer: 'The 
ravages of Louis XIV. in the beautiful valleys of the Khine, 
were more fierce and cruel than even ]\Iahometans cudd have 
had the heart to perpetrate. Private dwellings wei-e razed to 
the ground, fields laid waste, cities burnt, churches demol- 
ished, and the fruits of industry wantonlv and ruthlessly 
destroyed. But three days of grace were allowed to the 
wretched inhabitants to flee their country, and in a short time, 
the historian tells us, 'the roads were blackened by innumera- 
ble multitudes of men, wwmen and children, Hying from their 
homes.' 

''Many died of cold and hunger; but cnouf;li survived to till 
the streets of all the cities of Europe with lean and squalid 
beggars, who had once been thriving farmers and shopkeep- 
ers.' " 

About twelve thousand of them went to England, beinir 
invited there by the good Queen Ann (T70S), who e;ired for 
them with a genuine Christian magnanimity. Four thou- 
sand of them were settled by her in Xew Vork ami others 
elsewhere. 

About this time Christopher DeGraffenried and Louis 
Mitchell were preparing to emigrate to America with a Iar«»-e 
Swiss population, their own countrymen. Negotiations were 



12 



entered into between them and the Queen's conunissioners 
by which it was arranged for about six hundred of the Pala- 
tines to be settled in Carolina rtpon ten tliousrmd aere.s of 
land located in one body on or between the Neuse and Cape 
Fear rivers. Accordingly thc-^e Palatine ininiigarnts started 
for America in January, 1710, (though another account says 
1709), DeGraifenried says he selected tlieiu, young, laborious 
and of all kind of avocations and handicraft and provided for 
them well, but they were overtaken by terrible storms and 
were thirteen weeks crossing the Atlantic. ^lore than half of 
them died on the sea. They arrived at the mouth of the 
James river and were there assailed and ])lundered by a 
French captain. After recruiting they started by land for 
Carolina, stopping with Thomas Pollock on the Chowan river, 
who put them across the sound scd pro pc-unia and in 
September they arrived on a tongue of land between the Kense 
and Trent rivers and were first settled on the so\ithern side of 
Trent river on lands which it turned out belonged mostly to 
the Surveyor General and there they reuuiined in a state of 
"sickness, want and desperation" till the arrival later of 
DeGraifenried with his Swiss colony, and here was started 
the city of New Ikrn, named after the capital city of Switzer- 
land. 

One would su))po3e that the trials and misfortunes of these 
unfortunate i)eoi)le were now at an end save the hardships 
incidental to the life of the early settlers, but not so. 

As to their further experience let them speak for them- 
selves through a docmnent preserved in the Colonial Records 



13 



which is so interesting that no apology is necessary for copy- 
ing it in full: 

"To His Most Excellent ^lajesty King George the Second 
King of Great Britain, Scotland, France and Ireland, De- 
fender of the Faith. 

''The Jhunblc Petition of the Palatines in North America 
Humbly Shewith 

"That your Petitioners being sent, six hundred in nundxir, 
bylTerMost GraciousMajesty Queen Ann intu America under 
the Care of Christopher Gravenreid Parronet Her Majesty, of 
her bountiful kindness, paid each man Twenty Shillings Ster- 
ling fur to ])urchase Xecessarys for their ])e(»plin«r and settling 
her Plantations in North America, And Gentlemen of England 
raised the like sum Avith six pair of hand mill-stones and two 
pair of water mill-stones for like purpose which said sums 
and mill-stones your })etitioners put \uU} the care of their 
Trustee aforesaid, who promised to ])ay them in Xnrth Caro- 
lina three pounds for one received from, them in England. 

"That your Petitioners, pursuant to Her ^fajesty's Procla- 
mation sent to Germany in the year of our Lord One Thou- 
sand seven hundred and eight had their Lands laid out to 
them (to wit) to each Family two hundred and fifty acres; 
That your Petitioners Trustee Baron Grovenreid aforesaid 
entered into an agreement with them to rind each Family 2 
cows and 2 calves, 2 sows with their young, 2 ewe sheep 
and 2 lambs with a male of eacli kind, which said stock your 
petitioners were to have in possession for the space of seven 
years, and at tlie Expiration of such Term to deliver tlieir 
said Trust(^e the said Principal and at Expiration of tjjif years 



14 



of said Tcnii to pay liim tlio yearly rent of two pence i)er acre. 
That in the year of our Lord One Thousand seven hinidred 
and nine your petitioner arrived in America and in the year 
1711 Indians broke out against and dcistroyed several Faniilys 
in which enterprize our Trustee was taken by the Indians 
whilst he was yet amongst them. We expected him killed 
then came one Thomas Pollock who ruled both Goveneur and 
(^luntry and acted in behalf as a General send to his Captain 
William Brice to take all the Dutch that were able to bear 
arms and moot him at an Indian Town which was about six 
Leagues from our Inhabitants accordingly we did but he 
never met but left us to sit two days and one night with the 
Indians soon after Grovenrcid was brought in but did not 
stay long with us who carried oif from out Settlements all 
that he could conveniently come at, promising to return with 
provisions and necessarys for the war but never returned n(tr 
made the least satisfaction for these Things received nor the 
money alowed us by her most Gracious ^[ajesty or the Gen- 
tlemen of England with two hundred pounds, which we also 
put into interest at our departure from England. 

"That as soon as our Trustee departed, the said Colonel 
Thomas Pollock came to our Settlements and took every thing 
even the mill stones and left us without any Assistance 
entirely naked to the mercy of the Indians. 

"That at the expiration of four years the Indian War 
ended and then came the said Pollock and took our Lands 
from us that we had in Virtue of her Majesty's Proclamation 
laid out to us. We your distressed Petitioners being in an 
unknown ]>art of the world and quite destitute of any assis- 



la 



tancc was obliged to submit to him the said Pollock who 
under Colours of a relapsed j)attent holds the land to this day. 
That in the year One Thousand seven hundred and forty 
seven, the fifth day of January the Heir of Colonel Thomas 
Pollock come to our Plantations to turn us otf from our jxjs- 
sessions by virtue of Authority in order to settle the Kebels the 
Scots in our possessions it being in the dead time of Winter 
not knowing which way to go with our Famiiys by which we 
were compelled to give him our Bonds for as much as he was 
pleased to ask. 

'"That your Petitioner most hiunbly prays that your most 
sacred Majesty will be })leascd to jiward us your \yx)Y Peti- 
tiuners who have undergone the Fatigues of so long and 
Tedious a War against the Barbarous Indians a Decree for 
our said Land and at any Term of rents under ^'our Most 
Gracious Majesty, as to your ^lajesty nniy seem meet. 

"And your Distressed Petitioners as in Duty bound will 
eber pray 

"Philip Feneyer, Henry Grest, C'liristian Esler, Jacob 
stiller, llernmu Grum, Christian Walker, Peter Knder, Mat- 
thias Beasonover, Joseph Pugar, Dennis Moor, Adam Moor, 
John Granade, Abraham Pusit, John Pimer, Henry Morris, 
i!kliehael Gesibel, Jacob Kibach, Christian Pavar, Nicholas 
Kimer, Peter Keyet, dohn Ivin.sey, ^lichael Kiscr, Andrew 
Wallis, Peter J..ots, John Simons, Daniel Tetchey, Daniel 
Simons, Peter Pillnum, George Sneidor, Abraham Haver, 
Frederick ^Market, Christian Ganter, Casper Ki.'^herd, Simon.,^^^ 
Kehler, ^liehael Shel fcr, Jacob Huber, .Ino Lekgan Alillor, 



10 



Jno Bernard, Shone Woolf, George l{ene«(0, Christ i.ui Ilul>- 
boch, John Kensey, Phillip Onicnd." 

The Lords of Trade and Plantations (Pitt, Greenville and 
Duplin) thereupon reported that p\irsuant t<» the orders of 
the Privy Council of 13th June, 1747, they had taken into 
consideration the humble petition of the Palatines in Xorth 
Carolina, who Avere a ''laborious people eniphjyed in manufac- 
turing pitch and tar and other commodities, that they had 
struggled with great hardships as alleged in their jxtition and 
dispossessed of their possessions." 

They are further represented in this report as being a 
"sober, industrious people and had a great numy near rela- 
tions murdered in the Indian War and yet are in a worse posi- 
tion than any of His ]\[ajesty's subjects in that Province by 
reason of exorbitant quit rents and proclamation iiiom-y 
which was an intolerable load." 

Governor Gabriel Johnston Avas directed to investigate the 
matter and he re])orted that he had the heirs of Thomas Pol- 
lock and "these people" before him and the heirs of Pi>llock 
represented that DeGratTenricd had been to considerable 
expense on account of the Palatines and had gotten in debt 
to their father between six and seven hundred pounds for 
which he gave a bill of exchange which was pn.tested an«l 
thereupon he mortgaged all his estate in that Province both 
real and personal iov the payment of the said debt. A decree 
in chancery was obtained for said estate and, upon DeCiratTen- 
ried failing to pay, these lands were siirveyed ami ])atented in 
Pollock's name. 

The Palatines were a<lvised to apply to chancery for roli<-f. 



17 



but the report says "as tl»ey were not well aequainted with the 
langiiago and ignorjint of tiie laws lliey wore afraid to corn- 
men ee a suit." 

The King directed and required that grants be forthwith 
made to the petitioners of st) inu(*h land as sho\dd be (Hpiiva- 
lent to the lands they had been dis|)ossessed of. 

In 1749 about two years later David Shuts and George 
Kernegu of the surviving Palatines appeared before the coun- 
cil with a list of those entitled to the relief and Governor 
Gabriel JoJmslon requested the General Assembly to provide 
for surveying the lands, but that body requested a posti)one- 
nient because "tliey hail been so long from their homes/' and 
finally in 1750 Governor .Tohnstim reported that he should 
put the order relative to the "poor Palatines" into immediate 
execution. 

Thus forty years at least after their arrival in America 
those who survived commenced colonial life anew. That they 
were treated badly there is no doidit, but at this hite day it 
is difficult to fix the blame with any degree of satisfaction. 
There has never been any suggestion of wrong conduct on the 
part of Mitchell. The heirs of Pollock justify their course on 
the ground that DeGraffenried mortgaged the i)roperty to 
their ancestor and he was given two years to reileem it after 
the decree was obtained, and there is no evidence that Thomas 
Pollock knew that l)e(jlratferied was trustet* unless his posi- 
tion as Governor was siieh as to i)ut liim on notice. DeGraf- 
fenried was disaj)pointed and in <lel)t, and after his narrow 
esca})e from death at the hamls of the Indians wlien Lawson 
AVas cruelly burned, he likely l>oeonie de-<p«M:ite aiul detojjr 



18 



mined to try some other venture. So lie went to Virginia and 
undertook a mining scheme which proved a signal faihiru and 
being threatened with arrest for debt he advised with friends, 
made his way up to Xew York, and sailed for England 
where after having some trouble with his distressed miners 
who had followed he passed in disguise to the c*>ntinent. 
Thus his condition Avith this German colony might rest but 
for one thing. He defames them without cause and does it 
in general terms without stating any facts. 

It comes with bad grace in a pai)er written after he reached 
Switzerland to "justify himself" when he had passed through 
England and failed to make any report to the (^ueen with 
whose commissioners he had entered into a solemn contract 
to colonize these people. One of the ])rovisions of the con- 
tract was that "these articles shall be taken ami construed in 
the most favorable sense for the ease, comfort and ailvantagc 
of the said poor Palatines inten<ling to settle in the country 
or Province of T^orth Carolina." 

This and every subsequent act of the good Queen Ann and 
of the King afterwards shows that they were regarded ten- 
derly by them, and Gabriel Johnston likewise shows a becom- 
ing anxiety for them. 

There is nowhere in any record or history a line that speaks 
otherwise than favorable of them save in the ex parte account 
by the Baron of his various "mishai)s." it smacks of calumny 
upon these p(;ople in or<ler to furnish an ex(uise f(»r his own 
failure and wrong, aiul he spares not his own liernese jMJople. 
On the contrary, their ]>ast hist<.ry, their lives of in-rsecntion 



19 



and poverty and perseverence as well as a study of their 
descendants refutes every insinuation against them. 

As to their religion they were likely of the Lutheran 
Church originally. DeGraifenried says that on the day 
before their de[)arture he went with ^Ir. Cesan, a German 
minister of the Jieformed (.Miurch of J^ondon, to cheer up 
these people and to wish them a hapjjy voyage, but he after- 
wards arranged with the Hishop of London to accej)t him 
and his people into the English Church, and in the course of 
time their .descendants became connected with the various 
Christian denominations in their section of the State. 

After the second grant of lands to them they were mostly 
thrown out into the territory covered by the counties of 
Craven, Jones, Onslow, Duplin and contiguous sections where 
their descendants are now mostly to be found, and, mixing 
with the scattering Huguenots, the Scotch in the Cape Fear 
section and the descendants of the early Irish settlers of Pup- 
lin and Sampson, whose fathers like theirs had come over in 
search of religious and political freedom, they with their 
allies have become one of the most substantial class of i>eople 
known to any country. 

While no account has been kept of the Palatines it is ensy 
to recognize many of the families from the few names we have 
recorded, allowing for the corru})tion of names which was 
very common in that day. 

For instance: Croom (Gnun), Lsler (Ksler), ^loore 
(^[ohr), Wallace (Wallis), Simmons (Simons), Gaunto 
(Qantor), Teachey (Tetchey), ICornegay (Kernegce — 
IJenege), ^fartin Franch (^Lirtin Franko), ^liller (Muil- 



20 



ler), Morris, Walker, Iviiisey and others. Wherever found 
they represent tlie best type of German industry, frugaltiy 
and integrity. 

Kush says of the Germans of his State: ''A German fann 
may he distin«^nislic(l from the farms of other citizens of the 
State." 

The Palatines are spoken of as ''sol)cr, moral and indus- 
trious," the others as ''industrious, frugal, ])unetual an<l 
just." And so other resemhlances might he easily shown hy 
reference to individuals especially. 

Little is known as to what hecame of the Swiss colony. 
They are repn^sented hy one historian as heing tifteen him- 
dred in numher, hut DeGralfenricd ^ays "a snnill colony 
from Bern." They departed from their own eoimtry ami at 
a dilferent time from the others and they were not emhraced 
in the agreement with ller .Majesty's Gommissioners. 

References: DeGrafienried's Manuscript, Xorth Garolina 
Histories. Golonial Keeonls— Vols. 1, p. 1)05 and IV. liern- 
heim's German Settlements in the Gan.linas. Rush's Es- 
says. 

Had DeGraifenried remained with tliem and carried out 
his contract their identity would likely have Ixhmi as v;ell 
preserved to this day as the (German character is still in New 
York a'nd Pennsylvania and in some counties in the central 
part of the State, for they are the same people. 

Note some of the resenddances: l)eGratfenrie<l says of the 
Palatines: They were "healthy, laborious and of all kind 
of avocation and hiiii.lirraft." Push says of the Germans of 



21 



Pennsylvania : "TUey were farmers and many mechanics, 
weavers, tanners, shoemakers, smiths," etc. lie also says that 
many of them lost valuable estates by being unacquainted 
with the common forms of law. The Lords of Plantations 
report that the Palatines by reason of their ignorance of the 
law would not go into chancery concerning the loss of their 
lands. 

DeGraffenried says of their thrift, that within eighteen 
months they managed to build homes and made themselves 
so comfortable that they made more progress in that length 
of time than the English inhabitants did in several years. 



(APPENDIX.) 
CONTRACT WITH DeGRAFFENRIED. 

(FROM WILLIAMSONS HISTORY.) 

"Articels of agreement, identified and made, i)ublished and 
agreed upon, this tenth day of October Anno Domini One 
thousand Seven hundred and nine, and in the eight year 
of the reign of our Sovereign lady Anne, by the Grace of God 
queen of Great Britain, France and Ireland, <]efender of the 
faith, betweou Christoplior de Gratfcnvid of l.ondon Esq. and 
Lewis Mitchell of the same j)lacc Esq. of tlie one part, and Sir 
John Phillips Part, Sir Alexander Oairnes Part, Sir Theo- 
dore Janson Knt, White Kennet I). D., and dean of Peter- 
borough, John (Miandiorlain, Esq., Frederick Slore, doctor of 
Physic, and I^Ir. J^Iicajah Perry merchant, seven of the Com- 



22 



missioiiers and tnistoos iioininated aiul appointed by her 
Majesty's late grueious letters patent, under the great seal of 
Great Britian, fur tlie collecting, receiving an<l ilisposing of 
the money to be collected for the subsistence and settlement of 
the poor Palatines lately arrived in (Ireat Britain, t»n the 
other part. 

^'Whereas the above named Christopher de Gralfenrid and 
Lewis j\litchell have i)urchased to themselves and their heirs 
in fee, and are entitled to a large tract of land in that part of 
her Majesty's dominions in America called Xorth Carolina, 
Avhich now lies waste and uncultivated for want of inhabi- 
tants; and they the said Christopher de GraHenrid and Lewis 
^litchell have ai)[)lied themselves to the Commissioners ap- 
pointed by the letters patent above mentione^l for the sub- 
sistence and settlement of the poor distressed Palatines, that 
some number of the said i)0()r Palatines nuiy be disposed of 
and settled in the said tract of land in Xorth ('arolina afore- 
said, as well for the benefit of the said (>hristopher de Gratfen- 
rid and Lewis Mitchell as for the relief and support of the 
said poor Palatines. 

"And whereas, the said Commissioners have thought fit to 
disix)se of for this purpose six hundred pers<ms of the said 
Palatines, which may be ninety-two families more or less, and 
have laid out and disposed ui to each of the said six hundred 
poor Palatines the sum of twenty shillings in clothes, and 
have likewise paid and secured to Ix; paid to the said Christo- 
l)her de Gralfenrid and Lewis ^litchell the smn of five pounds 
ton shillings lawful money of Great I>ritain for each of the 
said six hundred ])ersons, in consideration of and for their 



23 



trnnsportiition into Xortli Carolina nfor(sni<l, nnd for tlicir 
comfortable settlenient there. 

"It is constitiited, connlndcd and ajrreed, Ity and with the 
said parties to these presents in manner following: 

"In primis, that the said Christopher de Graffenrid and 
Lewis ^Mitchell for the consideration aforesaid, at their own 

proper costs and charfjes shall, within the year next 

after the date hereof eiid)ark or cause to he embarked on ships 
board, in and upon two several, shii)s, six hundred of such of 
the said ix>or Palatines as shall be directed by the said com- 
missionres, which toji;ether may in all make up ninety-two 
families m(»re or less, and cause the said ])erst»ns to bo directly 
transported to Nc»rth Carolina aforesai<l, providing them with 
food and other necessaries during their voyage thither. 

''Item, that upon the arrival of the said six hundred poor 
Palatines in North Carolina aforesaid, the said Christopher 
de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell shall, within three months 
next after their said arrival there, survey and set out, or cause 
to be surveyed and set out, by metes and bounds, so much of 
the said tract of land above mentioned ;'.s shall amount to two 
hundred and fifty acres for each family of the said six hun- 
dred poor Palatines, be they ninety-two families more or less; 
and that the said several two hundred an«l fifty acrc^ for each 
fauiilv l>e as conti'j:uous as mav Ik; for the more mutual love 
and assistance of the said poor Palatines one to another, as 
well with respect to the exorcise (»f their religi(»n as the man- 
agement of their temporal affairs. 

**And for avoiding disputes and contentions among the said 
l^alatincs in the division of the said several two hundred and 



24 



fifty acres of laud, It is agreed, that the said htnd^ when set 
out by two hundred and fifty acres to a family, 1x2 divided to 
each family by lot. 

''Item, that the said Cliristopher de Graifenrid and Lewis 
Mitchell, their heirs executors or administrators, witliin three 
months next after the arrival of the said })oor Palatines in 
North Carolina aforesaid, sliall give and dispose of unto the 
said poor Palatines and to each family, by lot, two hundred 
and fifty acres of the tract of land above mentioned and by 
good assurances in law grant and convey the said several two 
hundred and fifty acres to the first and chief person or i)er- 
sons of each family their heirs and assigns forever: to be held 
the first five years thereafter without any acknowledgement 
for the same, and rendering and ])aying unto the said Chris- 
topher do Graffenrid and Lewis ^Mitchell, their heirs execu- 
tors and administrators, for every acre the siun of two pence 
lawful money of that country yearly and every year after the 
said term of five years. 

*'Item, that for and during one whole year after the arrival 
of the said poor Palatines in North Carolina aforesaid, the 
said Christopher de GratTcnrid and Lewis Mitchell shall pro- 
vide, or cause to be provided for, and deliver to the said poor 
Palatines sufiicient (piantities of grain and provision and 
other things for the comfortable support of lifi'; but it is 
agreed, that the said poor Palatines res'pcctively shall repay 
and satisfy the said Christopher de GratTcnrid and Lewis 
Mitchell, their heirs executors and administrators, for the full 
value of what they shall respectively receive on the amount 
at the end of the first year then next after. 



25 



"Item, that tlie said Cliristoplier de Graffenrid and Lewis 
Mitchell, at their ovrn proper costs and charges v/ithin four 
months after their arrival there, shall provide for the said 
Palatines and give and deliver, or cause to be given or deliv- 
ered to them, for their use and improvement, two cows and 
two calves, five sows with their several yoimg, two ewe sheep 
and two lambs, with a male of eacli kind, who may be able to 
propngate, that at the expiration of seven years thereafter 
each family shall return to the said Christopher de GratTenrid 
and Lewis Mitchell, their heirs or executors, the value of the 
said cattle to be delivered to them, with a moiety of the stock 
then remaining in their hands at the expiration of the said 
seven years. 

"Item, that immediately after the division of the said two 
hundred and fifty acres among the families of the said Pala- 
tines, the said Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell 
shall give and dispose of gratis to each of the said Palatines 
a sufficient number of tools and implements for felling of 
wood and building of houses, etc. 

"And lastly, it is covenanted, constituted and agreed, by and 
between all parties to these presents, that these articles shall 
be taken and construed in the most favorable sense for the 
ease, comfort and advantage of the said poor Palatines intend- 
ing to settle in the country or province of North Carolina; 
that the' said poor Palatines, doing and performing what is 
intended by these presents to be (h)ne on their parts, shall 
have and enjoy the benefits and advantages hereof withoiit 
fitly further or other demand of and from the said Christo- 
pher de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell, their heirs executors 



26 

or administrators or any of them ; and that in case of diffi- 
culty it sliall be referred to the Governor of the country or 
province of North Carolina, for the time being, whose order 
and directions, not contrary to the intentions of these presents, 
shall be binding upon the said Christopher de Graffenrid and 
Lewis Mitchell, his heirs executors and administrators, as to 
the said poor Palatines. 

''Witness whereof the said parties to these presents have 
interchangeably set their hands and seals the day above 
written. "John Puillips (L. S.) 

Alexander Cairnes (L. S.) 

White Kennet (L. S.) 

1 John Chamberlain (L. S.) 

Frederick Slore (L. S.) 
MiCAJAH PEliRY (L. S.) 

"Sealed and delivered by the within named Sir John 
Philips, Alexander Cairnes, White Kennet, John Chamber- 
lain, Frederick Slore, Micajah Perry, having two six penny 
stamps. 

"In presence of us. 

William Taylor^ 
James De Pratt. 

"We the within named Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis 
Mitchell,' for ourselves, our heirs, executors and administra- 
tors, do hereby covenant and agree to and with the Commis- 
sioners and trustees within written, for and upon the like 
consideration mentioned, to take and receive fifty other per- 
sptis in the families of the poor Palatines, to be disposed of 



27 

in like manner as the six hundred poor Palatines within speci- 
fied, and to have and receive the like grants, privileges, bene- 
fits and advantages as the said six hundred Palatines have, 
may or ought to have, in every article and clause within 
Avritten, and as if the said fifty Palatines had been comprised 
therein, or the said articles, clause and agreements had been 
here again particularly repeated and recited on to them. 

''Witness our hands and seals this 21st day of Octobre, 
A. D. 1709. 

^'ClIEISTOPHEE DE GrAFFENEID, 

Lewis Mitchell. 

"Sealed and delivered this agreement in the presence of 

''^Wm. Taylor^ 
Jas. De Pratt." 




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"The Scotch Irish Settlement, 

William Hooper, "the Signer," Mrs. Spier AVhitaker. 

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