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Full text of "The North Carolina booklet : great events in North Carolina history"

V 



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in 2011 witii funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



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THE 



North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



THE LORDS PROPRIETORS 
OF CAROLINA, 




THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 

''^f^ ^'^ VOL. iV.^^^ J.Uuj /9a ^ 

"; !-£i^ The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 



> 



V//'/^ The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. ' 

^<,-Ct;, Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 
' . Judge A. C. Avery. 

^'rU^'^ Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 

(I Adoption. 

/j J Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

^'k/'i North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 

' William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 
Semes— of No r th C a rQ l in ar^Tbe- H e rmit ag e, Veinun Hall. 

fj ^ Zj-T^A^'^^^^^:^?-^ Col^eUiV^feiWfe^tfar^cyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

^ \jY Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

I Chief Justice Walter Clark. / 

or if ifl^ The Earliest English Settlement in America. •^ yfc.uJ' .' 9 ^ ^ 



Mr. W. J. Peele. ;i p [if . ,-^ 

^^ Prof. D.H. Hill. / ^"^UU^^ f\lU 

O*' iZ. Rutherfor(^'s Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 
'^^^^''Xl.. Sc-^-^.^ e(:-e^^^^j i^ / Captain S. A. Ashe. .^ /-. f /!/; ^ ■^ 

'^^' L^ The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. ■~~- 

Judge James C. MacRae. 
GsOJignior-JCliOBaarS-PoHeek. 

One Booklet aSnonth will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OP THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Parties who wish to rencAv their subscription to the Booklet "for Vol. 
IV are requested to notify at once. 



h \i i^ ..^ Address /, MISS MARY BILLIARD HINTON, 

^t^ fo^K^ UJjM C.i^^ ^-.... c^^^^'^'^^^^^: 



c. 



Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those at a distance will please 
add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS: 

MISS MARY MILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. IV MAY, 1904 No. 1 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

B. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1904 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-EEGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL. Sr. 



jVnJ- 



a^ PREFACE. 



f 



The object of the Noktii Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal E^ational 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hilj.. 

£' ^y !*>' /n n 



THE LORDS PROPRIETORS OF CAROLINA. 



By KEMP P. BATTLE. LL.D., 
(Professor of History, University of North Carolina). 



The first Lord Proprietor of the laud now called North 
Carolina was the accomplished courtier, daring navigator, 
fierce fighter, elegant poet and learned historian. Sir Walter 
Raleigh. His energy and lavish expenditures in settling his 
grand territory, and their dismal failure, are kno^vn to all. 
Beyond the introduction into civilized life of the potato, and 
giving to our State capital his name, to the county of Robeson 
a claim to have among her half-breed Indians some drops of 
the blood of his "Lost Colony," and to the State the senti- 
mental honor of the first white child born and the first Chris- 
tian baptism, the first Lord Proprietor of Virginia, extend- 
ing indefinitely southward, is only a tender and cherished 
memory. 

Raleigh, having sold part of his rights and lost the residue 
by forfeiture for treason, James I. in 1606 regranted tbe part 
of the land from the Cape Fear northward to Sir Thomas 
Gates and many lords and rich merchants, called Adventurers. 
Under this charter Jamestown was settled. It was vacated 
in 1624, and in 1629 Charles I. granted to Sir Robert Heath, 
his Attorney-General, all the land between 31° and 36° north 



6 



latitude from the Atlantic to the west "as far as the continent 
extendeth." 

This de jure Lord Proprietor was a man of mark in his 
day. lie was an able lawyer and held important positions. 
He was member of Parliament, Recorder of London, then 
successively Solicitor-General and Attorney-General, offices 
of much power in those arbitrary days. As a reward for 
his activity in advancing the King's tyrannical measures, the 
grant of Carolina was made to him. He was stringent 
against non-conformists, prosecuted those who refused to pay 
forced loans, drew up an elaborate answer to the Petition of 
Right, procured the conviction of Eliot, Holies, Selden and 
other patriots for their course in Parliament, conducted the 
prosecutions of the Star Chamber, which resulted in the atro- 
cious fines, mutilations and imprisonment of Leighton, 
Prynne, Bostwick and others. So well satisfied was Charles 
with his zeal that he was elevated to be Chief Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas. He seems then to have become 
alarmed at the storm of hatred gathering against the Crown. 
He was removed from the bench, but, when the King desired 
to placate his adversaries of the Long Parliament, he was 
created a Judge of the Cburt of King's Bench. When the 
breach between King and Parliament came he sided with 
the King, and was appointed to the empty honor of Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench in 1642. He was impeached by 
the House of Commons, and excepted from the x\ct of Ob- 
livion. He fled to France and died at Calais the same vear 



in which his royal master lost his head. His son Edward, 
after the Restoration, was restored to the family estates. 

The only effort of Sir Robert to procure settlers for his 
province across the Atlantic was the sending of a ship-load 
of Huguenots in 1630, but for some reason not known they 
were landed in Virginia. For this breach of contract the 
owners of the vessel, named the Mayflower, possibly the same 
which carried the Pilgrims to Plymouth, were made to pay 
about $3,000 damages. 

Sir Robert Heath sold his interests in 1637 to Lord Mal- 
travers, and by several assignments they were vested in Dr. 
D'aniel Coxe, to w^hom, by way of compromise, after many 
years, was given a tract of 100,000 acres in Western JN^ew- 
York. Early after the Restoration, however, the Heatli 
patent was declared vacated and the territory, with the same 
name, was in 1663 granted to eight nobles, favorites of 
Charles II. It appears then that the "eponymous hero" of 
our State is Charles I., a much more worthy man than his 
son, debauched in morals and a traitor to his kingdom. The 
old story that the infamous Charles IX. of France was so 
honored is disproved by the fact that only the fort at Port 
Royal in 1562, and not the land, was called Carolina by the 
French emigrants. 

Two years afterwards a new charter was issued to the same 
Lords Pi'oprietors, including additional strips of land on the 
north and the south, practically from the Virginia line to 
about the middle of Florida. 



The powers of these sub-kings were to be the same as exer- 
cised by the Bishop of Durham in his civil capacity. What 
were those powers ? As in ancient Eome the King's mansion 
on the Palatine hill was called palatium, in the course of time 
"palatial" was equivalent to royal, and a County Palatine was 
one in which its chief lord had royal powers. These counties 
were on the borders of countries often hostile, and the lieu- 
tenant of the King must have extraordinary powers to meet 
dangerous emergencies. On the continent the German dis- 
trict bordering on France was called the Palatinate, and in 
England the Earl of Chester and Duke of Lancaster guarded 
the west and the Bishop of Durham the Scotch frontier. 
The Lords Proprietors, therefore, had jura regalia^ or royal 
rights, the legislation, however, to be subject to the consent 
of the people. 

We now describe the "Property Kings," as DeFoe called 
them, in the order in which they are mentioned in the two 
charters. 

The first was the great Edward H^'de, Lord High Chan- 
cellor and until 1667 Prime Minister, though not then so 
called. He was the son of Henry Hyde of Wiltshire, born 
February 16, 1608, and was graduated at Oxford Univer- 
sity. He became a lawyer, and his resolution to pursue 
steadily the dictates of his conscience on all public matters 
was strengthened by the earnest injunction of his father, who, 
while charging him never to sacrifice the laws and liberty 
of his country to his own interest, fell to the gTound under 
a fatal stroke of apoplex}-. Accordingly, as a member of 



9 



the Short and of the Long Parliaments which met in 1640, 
he condemned the iniquitous proceedings of the Star Cham- 
ber, High (Commission Gonrt, the Privy Council and the 
Council of the ]Srorth, but opposed the bill of attainder of 
Strafford, though he did not record his vote against it. When 
Parliament began to raise the militia against the King and 
to deprive the Bishops of their votes in the House of Lords, 
his conservative temperament led him to take the royal side. 
He was soon knighted and was made Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer and Privy Councillor. On the defeat of the King 
he retired with Prince Charles to Jersey. Here he began 
his History of the Great Rebellion, which, after many inter- 
ruptions, was completed in 1673. 

Notwithstanding his staunch churchmanship, which ad- 
mitted no com2:)romise with Roman Catholicism, he was a 
favorite with Queen Henrietta Maria, and in 1648 was called 
by her to Paris. He visited Spain as Ambassador to pro- 
cure aid for Charles, but in vain. He then resided at Ant- 
werp, constantly intriguing for the Restoration. He held 
the offices successively of Secretary of State and Lord High 
Chancellor in the little court of the exiled King. When the 
times were ripe for the Restoration he drew up the Declara- 
tion of Breda, and procured the royal assent to it, thus allay- 
ing the fears of a large majority of the people of England. 

Honors fell thick and fast on Sir Edward Hyde. He 
retained his post of Lord Chancellor, was chosen Chancellor 
of the University of Oxford, was created a peer as Baron 
Hyde of Hindon, and in 1661 received the titles of Lord 



10 



Oombury and Earl of Clarendon. Moreover, the King en- 
trusted to him the conduct of the government, in which he 
showed strong desire to be as moderate and prudent as was 
consistent with safety. What were considered by many as 
proofs of malignant hatred towards non-conformists, the so- 
called Clarendon Acts, namely, the Uniformity, Conventicle, 
Five Mile and Corporation Acts, were doubtless inspired 
largely by the fear lest the old soldiers who had once ruled 
the land might be re-embodied for another civil war. He 
was in the sunshine of the royal favor when he was named 
as first of the Proprietors of Carolina. 

But the favor was evanescent. He lost the regard of the 
King and his male and female licentious associates. His 
severity of aspect excited their ridicule. He was called the 
royal school-master. As Charles and his wife had no chil- 
dren, the marriage of his oldest daughter Anne to the Duke of 
York brought his grandchildren near the succession to the 
throne, and this aroused envy at his grand fortune. His 
building a palace costing about $200,000 increased this envy, 
especially when the foul whisperings began that bribes for 
the sale of Dunkirk to the French had furnished the funds. 
A libelous song, called ''Clarendon's House Warming," was 
everywhere sung. He was accused of sacrilege for using in 
the building of his mansion stones dressed originally for St. 
Paul's, and no credit was given to the explanation that he had 
honestly bought them. He was held responsible for the dis- 
asters of the Dutch war. The cavaliers were displeased that 
they did not get more favors from the government, the papists 



11 



and non-conformists, because their disabilities were not made 
lighter. The great Earl was removed from office, and, by 
the King's advice, retired to Rouen in France. Such was the 
popular hatred of him that he was set upon by some drunken 
English sailors at Evreux, treated with much cruelty and 
would have been slain but for the timely interference of their 
lieutenant. 

Clarendon was an author of ability, his History of the 
Civil War being especially valuable for the delineation of the 
characters of the leading men of that important period. He 
married, first, Anne, daughter of Sir Gregory Ayloffe, who 
died without issue, and, secondly, Frances, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Aylesbur)^, by whom he had four sons and two daugh- 
ters. It is noticeable that he named his oldest daughter after 
his first wife, and two of her daughters, Mary and Anne, 
ascended the throne after the expulsion of their father. The 
Chancellor's two sons, Henry, Earl of Clarendon, and Law- 
rence, Earl of Rochester, were elevated to high office. Gov- 
ernor Edward Hyde of iSTorth Carolina, after whom a county 
is named, was probably a grandson. 

The title of the noble earl is perpetuated by the name of 
a county in South Carolina. A large county under the pro- 
visions of the Fundamental Constitutions, with this name, 
stretching from the Cape Fear southwest, was projected but 
abandoned. Cape Fear river was once called Clarendon. 
The name is from Clarendon Park in Wiltshire, England, 
in the ''^ew Forest," where the Plantagenets had a palatial 
hunting lodge. Here were sometimes held Great Councils, 



12 



which adopted weighty ordinances, those in the days of 
Henry II. being called Constitutions of Clarendon. The 
palace was about three miles from Salisbury. 

The second named Proprietor was George Monk, or Monck, 
Duke of Albemarle, who had a very eventful life. He was a 
Devonshire man, younger son of a knight of slender fortune, 
Sir Thomas Monk. He volunteered to serve under Sir Rich- 
ard Grenville against Sipain, and speedily rose to the rank of 
captain in the war against France. He became a master in 
the military art, and, when the civil war broke out, took the 
side of the King. At first Colonel, he was appointed Briga- 
dier-General in the Irish Brigade recently brought to Eng- 
land and engaged in the siege of N^antwieh. He arrived just 
in time to be present in its surprisal and defeat by Sir 
Thomas Fairfax. He was confined in the Tower until jSTo- 
vember, 1646, when he subscribed to the Covenant and ac- 
cepted service under the Parliament. He was faithful to the 
King until his armies were destroyed and he was a captive. 

Monk was given by Parliament the command of their forces 
in the north of Ireland, with the rank of ]\Iajor-General. 
Afterwards, as Lieutenant-General of Artillery, he served 
against the Scots, and when Cromwell pursued Charles II. 
to his defeat at Worcester, General Monk was left in Scot- 
land as Commander-in-Chief. He w^as then joined as Ad- 
miral with Dean in the Dutch war, and, after Dean was killed 
in battle, continued the fight and gained the victory. Peace 
beine' declared, he was sent into the Hiohlands of Scotland 
to quell disturbances, which he effected in four months. He 



13 



resided in Scotland, near Edinburgli, for five years, and be- 
came so popular as to incur the suspicion of Cromwell, it is 
said, although created by him a member of the House of 
Lords. When the nation was ripe for the restoration of 
Charles to his kingdom. Monk effected it with consummate 
skill, for which he received many pensions and honors. He 
was made Knight of the Garter, a Privy Councillor, a Master 
of the Horse, Baron Monk of Potheridge, Beauchamp and 
Tees, Eiarl of Torrington, and Duke of Albemarle, with a 
grant of about $35,000 a year, besides other pensions. When 
he went up to the House of Lords all the members of the 
House of Commons escorted him to the door. His freedom 
from pride was observed by all. In the Dutch war of 1664 
he was placed at the head of the Board of Admiralty, and 
during the great plague was entrusted with the care of Lon- 
don. The same year he was appointed Joint Admiral with 
Prince Rupert and displayed his usual bravery and energy, 
gaining a great victory off jSTorth Foreland. He was recalled 
to take charge of London after the gTeat fire of 1666. Such 
was his hold on the affections of the people that he was hailed 
by the cry : "If you had been here, my lord, the city would not 
have been burned." He died in January, 1670, and was 
buried with distinguished honor in the chapel of Henry VII. 
The title of the great Duke, Albemarle, was transferred 
to England from Kormandy, corrupted from Aubemare Cas- 
tle. In France it took the form of Aumale and was borne 
by a brilliant son of King Louis Philippe, the Due d'Aumiale. 
It gives to Virginia the name of a county and to ISTorth Caro- 



14 



lina a sound of the Atlantic and a county-seat. Monk's Cor- 
ner in South Carolina may commerriorate his family name. 
The great county of Albemarle, the first successful political 
organization in jSTorth Carolina, composed of the precincts of 
Currituck, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Chowan and Tyrrell, 
was abolished in 1738 and its precincts changed into counties. 

The third named Proprietor was William, Earl of Graven, 
born in 1606. He was son and heir of Sir William Craven, 
Lord Mayor of London, whose career resembled that of the 
more ancient Dick Whittington. Cbming to the great city 
from Yorkshire an humble apprentice, he rose to its highest 
office and amassed large wealth. His motto was virtws in 
actione consistit, and he lived up to it. Besides lending 
lavishly to the King when in need, he endowed a large school 
in his native town, Burnsall; was president of the great 
Christ Hospital in London and its munificent benefactor. 
His funeral was attended by five hundred mourners. His 
second son, John, Baron Craven, endow^ed two scholarsliips, 
one at Oxford and one at Cambridge University, which to 
this day educate an aspiring youth in each. 

William Craven, the younger, was of an adventurous turn. 
At the age of seventeen he fought under the gi'eat Maurice, 
Stadtholder of Holland, and Frederick Henry, his successor. 
Oil his return to England in 1627 he was knighted and then 
made a Biaron. 

The beautiful Elizabeth, daughter of James I., married 
the Protestant Frederick, the Elector of the Palatinate of the 
Ehine. The Protestants of Bohemia chose him the Kine' of 



15 



that country, while the Catholic Emperor of Austria, Ferdi- 
nand II., disputed his claim. In the war that ensued Fred- 
erick lost both Bohemia and the Palatinate. His English 
father-in-laAv, notwithstanding strong pressure of his people, 
was slow and niggardly in aiding him. The Marquis of 
Hamilton with a small force was sent over, and Craven was 
one of his officers. At the capture of Creuznach he was the 
first to mount the breach, although wounded. He received 
a handsome compliment from the lips of the great Gustavus 
Adolphus, which may be freely translated: "Young man, you 
bid your younger brother have fair play for your estate." 
While he was a reckless fighter, his generosity had no limits. 
He gave $150,000 (in our day equal to half a million) to aid 
in fitting out a fleet commanded by Charles Lewis, elder 
brother of Prince Enpert, "an act said by many to savor of 
prodigality, by most of folly." The Protestant army was 
beaten and Craven was wounded and captured. To the 
titular Queen of Bohemia., after her defeat, he was munifi- 
cent, advancing for her $100,000 at one time, and when the 
Parliament discontinued her allowance of $50,000 a year 
he supplied her needs out of his own funds. He was espec- 
ially kind to her daughters, supplying them with jewelry, 
dresses and pocket-money, which they, among them Sophia, 
from whom, comes the Hanoverian line of Kings of Great 
Britain, repaid with mirthful ridicule of "little Lord Cra- 
ven." He resided in Elizabeth's mansion at The Hague, 
holding the office, then honorary, of Master of Horse. He 
is said to have privately married her, but of this there is no 



16 



evidence. He was a devoted royalist, and once supplied 
Cliarles II. with a loan of £50,000, the equivalent of about a 
million of dollars of our money. His property was confis- 
cated by Parliament in 1649 because of his assistance to the 
royal cause, but restored at the accession of Charles II. 

At the Restoration he received many honors. He was 
made Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex and Southwark, Colonel 
of the Cold Stream Guards of the Regular Army, and Lieu- 
tenant-General. He was also High Steward of Cambridge, 
and a Privy Councillor, and in 1664 created Viscount Craven 
of Uffington, and Earl Craven. When the so-called Queen 
of Bohemia returned to London, the Earl, seeing that the 
King, her nephew, delayed assigning her a residence, gave 
up to her his town mansion, Drury House, which he after- 
wards rebuilt on a grander scale and named Craven House. 
She died at Leicester House in 1662, leaving a tender mem- 
ory by reason of her virtues and winning manners amid 
many trials, the ancestress of the good Queen Victoria. The 
constant devotion and generosity to her of the Earl of Craven 
are worthy of all praise, whether or not she rewarded him 
with a morganatic marriage. At her funeral he and his 
brother. Sir Robert, supported the heralds-at-arms in the pro- 
cession. She bequeathed to him all her pictures and papers, 
which were preserved in his country mansion, Combe Abbey. 
The mutual friendship between him and her family continued 
to his death. In trutli, it was believed by many that his love 
was given to her oldest daughter, Elizabeth, and the impos- 
sibility of marrying her led to his celibacy. His old com- 



17 



panion in arms, Prince Rupert, made bim guardian of his 
illegitimate but acknowledged daughter, Ruperta. 

During the gTeat fire in London Earl Craven was very 
active in preserving order and extinguishing the flames. 
There is a curious story that ever afterwards the horse then 
ridden by him would smell fire at a great distance and could 
with difficulty be restrained from running to it at full speed. 

In 1685 he was made Lieutenant-General under James II., 
and was charged with the protection of the palace of White- 
hall. AVTien William III. entered London in triumph the 
sturdy old soldier refused to surrender his post until he re- 
ceived orders from James. He survived the flight of his 
Stuart master only two years, spending his last days in build- 
ing and landscape gardening and in the congenial companion- 
ship of the learned members of the Royal Society, It is 
fortunate that we have the memory of one so good and true 
perpetuated in the name of one of our counties. 

The fourth Proprietor was John, Lord Berkeley, first Baron 
of Stratton, youngest son of Sir Maurice Berkeley of Somer- 
setshire, a distant relative of the Earls of Berkeley, whose 
ancestors came to England with the Conqueror. He was an 
ardent member of the King's party, and was appointed Am- 
bassador to Sweden. On his return in 1638 he was knighted, 
then a member of Parliament, but was expelled for conspir- 
acy. He of course was a royalist in the civil war, distin- 
guished himself under Hopton at Stratton, was Commander- 
in-Chief of Devonshire and captured Exeter. He was chosen 
to be present at the baptism of the child of Queen Henrietta 



18 



Maria in that citj. He was beaten at Aylesbury, suc<^e(ied 
in taking Wellington House, was made Colonel-General of 
Devonsbire and Cornwall and lost Exeter. He then escaped 
to Paris in the suite of the Queen, with whom he was a favor- 
ite. One of his foibles was an exaggerated belief in his 
power of influencing others. He was busy in acting as 
mediator between the King and Parliament, but effected 
nothing. He fled with the King and joined in the fatal 
counsel to surrender to Colonel Hammond, whom he expected 
to win to the royal cause. ^Vhile Cromwell was supreme he 
served under Turenne in the war against Spain and Conde. 
In 1658 he was created, by Charles II., Baron Berkeley of 
Stratton, and was placed on the Admiralty Board. He was 
then made Lord President of Connaught in Ireland. After 
the Restoration he was appointed in the Privy Council. His 
London house, which cost $150,000, was burnt, and on its 
site is now the mansion of the Duke of Devonshire. He 
became the purchaser of Twickenham Park, and in 1670 
received the great office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in 
which he favored the Roman Catholics as much as was in his 
power. In negotiating the important treaty of ]^imuegen he 
was a commissioner on behalf of the English, together with 
Sir William Temple and Sir Leoline Jenkins. He died 
August 26, 1678. His wife was Christian Riccard, described 
as being '"of large dowry and 3'et larger graces and virtues." 
Sir John Berkeley was a good soldier, faithful to his con- 
victions, but with the defects of "vanity, want of tact, and 
ignorance of human nature." His oldest son, Charles, died 



19 /2..,«^«..^^^ - 



without issue and was succeeded by his brother, the second 
John, Lord Berkeley, Avho died in 1697, after distinguished 
naval services as Yice-iidmiral of the Red, Yice-Admiral of 
the Blue, and commander of the fleet. 

The fifth Proprietor of Carolina was a man of varied for- 
tunes, of commanding intellect, of winning manners, capable 
of gTcat things, but of evil morals — i\jithony Ashley Cooper, 
Lord Ashley, and Earl of Shaftesbur}'. He was born in 
1621, the son of Sir John Cooper of Southampton county, 
and Anne, daughter of Sir Anthony Ashley of Dorsetshire. 
He was veiy precocious and of a bold temper. When a boy 
at school he organized the younger boys and successfully re- 
sisted the vile custom of fagging. He entered Oxford at 
the age of fifteen, but did not graduate. He read law at 
Lincoln's Inn, with great ardor. He was, before reaching 
maturity, elected a member of Parliament and served through- 
out the civil war. At first he offered his services to the King, 
but finding himself out of sympathy with the haughty cava- 
liers, he joined the Parliament, and, accepting a commission, 
did some brilliant fighting. He was a member of the legis- 
lative body called the Barebones Parliament, and afterwards 
of the Parliament of 1654. He bitterly opposed the despotic 
government of Cromwell, but accepted the position of Privy 
Councillor under Richard Cromwell. Fearing the domina- 
tion of the army, he was active in the restoration of Charles 
II., and being returned a member of the Convention Parlia- 
ment, was appointed one of the twelve commissioners to bring 
over the King. AVliile in Holland his carriage was over- 



20 



turned, by which he received a wound between the ribs which 
caused an incurable ulcer. 

At the Restoration he was sworn a Privy Councillor, cre- 
ated Baron Ashlej^, and was one of the commissioners for the 
trial of the regicides. He was also made Chancellor of the 
Exchequer and one of the commissioners for executing the 
office of High Treasurer. He was afterwards Lord Lieuten- 
ant of the county of Dorset, and in 1672 created Baron 
Cooper and Earl of Shaftesbury, and the same year was 
elevated to the office of Lord High Chancellor. In this posi- 
tion, notwithstanding he had no experience as a practicing 
lawyer, he proved to be a very able officer, and in all respects 
impartial and just. He was from 1667 to 1673 a member 
of the Cabal ministry, and supported the King in his futile 
efforts to procure indulgence for non-conformists and Catho- 
lics. But he was utterly hostile to the ruin of Protestant 
Holland, to a close alliance with France, and to placing Eng- 
land under Catholic rule. He aided in procuring the passage 
of the Test Act, which drove Catholics from office and broke 
up the Cabal, for which he was dismissed from his Chancellor- 
ship. The King was forced to withdraw from the French 
alliance and end the Dutch war. 

Shaftesbury was a leader in organizing the ''Country 
Party," as opposed to the "Court Party," and which after- 
wards developed into the great Whig party. It is to the dis- 
gi'ace of his memory that he also' fanned the hatred to the 
Catholics, especially the Dtike of York, by countenancing the 
infamous perjuries of Oates and Dangerfield. He was made 



21 



President of the sliort-lived Ooimcil of thirty, organized under 
the advice of Sir William Temple. He procured the passage 
of the great muniment of liberty, the Habeas Corpus Act, 
which provided the judicial machinery by which unlawful 
imprisonment might be remedied. He was prominent in the 
endeavor to force through Parliament the bill for excluding 
Papists, including the Duke of York, from the throne, which, 
after passing the Commons, was defeated in the House of 
Lords, He then engaged in intrigmes in favor of the Diike of 
Monmouth, a fatal step, because he thereby alienated the sup- 
porters of William and Mary of Orange, Mary being the heir 
presumptive, as the Dlike of York had then no son. The 
people, too, had not lost their dread of civil war, and when 
Shaftesbury boasted of his power over his "brisk boys" of 
London, and embodied them for terrorizing the Court party, 
there was a reaction against him. This was increased by the 
growing conviction that innocent men had fallen victims 
to wholesale perjury. He was imprisoned in the Tower, 
invoking in vain his own Habeas Cbrpus Act, but was released 
by the grand jury of Middlesex ignoring the bill against him. 
The King then, by resort to his corrupt courts, succeeded in 
annulling the London charter, replacing it with a new charter, 
in which the Tories had control; whereupon Shaftesbury fled 
to Holland and died in a few months, in January, 1783. 
Dryden, the court poet, satirized him under the character of 
Achitophel : 



22 



"For close designs and ciooked counsels fit, 
Sagacious, bold and turbulent of wit : 
Restless, unfixed in principles and place. 
In poiwer displeased, impatient of disgrace." 

After the publication of the bitiug satire of Absalom and 
Achitophel, a vacant scholarship in the Charterhouse school, 
of which the Earl was Governor, w^as at his disposal. He 
bestowed it on DTyden's son wdthout solicitation of any one. 
The poet was so moved that in a second edition he added a 
verse descriptive of the Earl as Lord Chancellor: 

"In Israel's court never sat an Abethdin 
With more discerning eyes or hands more clean, 
Unbribed, unsought, the wretched to redress, 
Swift of- dispatch and easy of access." 

Shaftesbury had many virtues and conspicuous vices. When 
not in hot pursuit of some object of ambition, or of revenge 
for fancied injury, he was honorable in his dealings, amiable 
and generous. When roused by ambition or resentment, he 
would resort to any measures, good or evil, necessary to attain 
his object. He had no religious principles, yet was a stout 
opponent of papacy for political reasons. He was incor- 
ruptible by money, yet was an unblushing libertine. It was 
to him that the King, wdio would both take liberties and bear 
them, in reference to Shaftesbury's amours, said : "I believe, 
Shaftesbury, thou art the wickedest fellow in my dominions," 
With a low bow the Earl re])lied : ''May it please your Maj- 
esty, of a subject I believe I am.'' The King laughed 
heartily. 



23 



'The great author, John Locke, was his private secretary. 
He aided his patron in devising the elaborate but fantastic 
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, whose conspicuous 
failure illustrates the great political truth that successful 
governments are the product of gi'owth, not theory. The 
two rivers around Charleston in South Carolina, Ashley and 
Cooper, are named in his honor, and Currituck county was 
once called Shaftesbury precinct. The town which gave the 
title to his earldom has about two thousand five hundred 
inhabitants, is in Dorsetshire, England, and is the burial- 
place of King Canute and Eidward the Martyr. It is gen- 
erally called Shasbury, but locally Shaston. 

The next named Proprietor is Sir George Carteret, Knight 
an,d Counsellor, Vice-Chamberlain of the royal household. 
He was of an ancient JSTorman family, which settled in Jersey 
and Guernsey. His father, Helier Carteret, at the time of 
his birth in 1599, was Deputy Governor of Jersey. He early 
entered the sea service, and by his skill and daring soon rose 
to be a captain. When twenty-seven years old he was ap- 
pointed joint Governor with I^ord Jermyn of Jersey and 
Comptroller of his Majesty's ships. He was so successful 
in procuring arms and ammunition for the Cornwall army 
that the King conferred on him the honor of Knight and a 
B-aronet. He then returned to Jersey and ruled it so sternly 
that in all the fruitless negotiations with the King he was 
excepted from pardon. In 1616 he entertained most lavishly 
the Prince of Wales and his suite at his own expense, which 
was repeated three years afterwards. AATien Charles I. was 



24 



executed he undauntedly j)roelaimed Charles II. King, and 
held the island for two years against the forces of the Com- 
monwealth. He had organized a little navy of small frigates 
and privateers, which gave his adversaries much annoyance. 
Such was his pluck that after the island was all lost except 
Elizabeth Castle, he fought stoutly behind its walls until the 
supply of provisions was exhausted, and being so instructed 
by Charles II., he lowered the last royal banner and made an 
honorable capitulation to Admiral Blake and General Holmes. 
Repairing to Paris, he angered Cromwell by organizing a 
plan to capture English vessels, and pressure was brought on 
Cardinal Mazarin, then governing France, to induce him 
to imprison Carteret in the Biastile. After his release he 
joined Charles 'II. at Brussels and then at Breda. At the 
Kestoration he rode with the King in his triumphant entry 
into London. He was made Vice-Chamberlain, Privy Coun- 
cillor and Treasurer of the JSTavy, and was an active member 
of the House of Commons. He was also, after the resigna- 
tion by the Duke of York of the office of High Admiral, made 
one of the Commissioners of Admiralty. Aftemvards he was 
a Lord of the Committee of Trade and Vice-Treasurer of 
Ireland. While the King was preparing to confer a peerage 
on him he died, in 1679, and, in recognition of his great ser- 
vices, the King authorized his widow and youngest children 
to "enjoy their precedency and pre-eminency as if Sir George 
had actually been created a Baron." 

Besides being a Lord Proprietor of Carolina, Sir George 
Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley, were, by the gift of the 



25 



Diike of York, Proprietors of K^ew Jersey, so called in recog- 
nitioE of the gallant defense of the Island of Jersey, 

The wife of Sir George Carteret was a daughter of his 
imele, Sir Philip Carteret. She was a noble woman. When, 
on a visit to London, she saw the vileness of the society about 
the court, she at once turned her back on its wickedness and 
retired to the purer air of her Channel island. Her name, 
Elizabeth, was given to a flourishing city in ISTew Jersey. 
Their oldest son, Philip, was a brilliant soldier for the King 
in the civil war. He married Jemima, daughter of the 
illustrious Edw^ard Montagiie, the first Earl of Sandwich, and 
served under him in the Dutch war. 'In the great sea fight 
in 1672, in Southwold Bay (Solbay), he refused to desert 
his father-in-law's ship and died with him. His eldest son, 
Lord George Carteret, married Grace, daughter of John Gran- 
ville, Eari of Bath, and was the father of Sir John Carteret, 
Earl of Granville. 

Sir George Carteret was a strong, true, brave man, loyal 
to his convictions through all vicissitudes. 

The seventh Proprietor was Sir John. Collet on. Knight and 
Baronet. He was a valiant fighter for the King in the civil 
war, reaching the rank of colonel of a regiment, which he_ 
raised in ten days. He expended out of his own means 
$200,000, and lost more than this amount by sequestration. 
After the ruin of the royal cause he emigrated to Barbadoes, 
and for some time aided in keeping the island tiiie to the 
King. At the Restoration he received the honor of knight- 
hood. He did not live lona- after the second charter was 



26 



granted, dying in 1666, the first of all his co-Proprietors, and 
was succeeded by his son, Sir Peter. Another son, Thomas, 
was a prominent merchant of Barbadoes and aided in the 
settlement of South Carolina. Still another son was Gov- 
ernor of Carolina in 1686. A sea-coast county south of 
Charleston and an obscure post-office in iSTorth Carolina per- 
petuate the name of the gallant soldier and munificent royal- 
ist, the seventh Lord Proprietor, 

The last named Lord Proprietor was Sir William Berkeley, 
a, younger brother of John, Lord Berkeley. He obtained the 
degree of Master of Arts at Oxford University, and, after 
traveling on the continent, became an officer in the household 
of King Charles I. He became a devotee of the muses, pub- 
lishing a tragi-comedy called ''The Lost Lady." He was sent 
to Virginia as Governor in 1641, and during the civil war 
kept his province so loyal to the King that it gained the title 
of "Old Dt)minion." After the execution of the King he 
offered Charles II. an asylum in the wilds of the new world. 
When forced to surrender to the power of the Common M'ealth 
he lost his office but was permitted to reside in Virginia. At 
the Restoration he was again made Governor. As he l>ecame 
older he became stern and severe, writing to Lord Arlington 
in 1667 that age and infirmities had withered his desires and 
hopes. He suppressed the "Bacon Rebellion" with cruelty, 
the first Governor of the Albemarle country, William Dnim- 
mond, being one of his victims. The oft-quoted saying of 
Charles II., "The old fool has taken more lives in that naked 
country than I for the murder of my father," is accepted as 



2^ 



autlientic. A royal proclamation was issued censuring his 
conduct. He was of autocratic temper. He allowed no criti- 
cism of his conduct. His opponents charged that he was too 
fond of gain — that he refused to fight with hostile Indians 
because war interfered with a profitable fur trade in which 
he had a pecuniary interest. After the collapse of the rebel- 
lion he returned to England, was refused an audience with 
the King, and his brother, John, Lord Berkeley, stated that 
the insult contributed to his death in 1677. He was en- 
tombed, as we see in Haywood's excellent history of Governor 
William Tryon of ISTorth Carolina, in a vault in a church in 
Twickenham, about twelve miles from London. In an ad- 
joining church are the tombs of Governor and Lady Mar- 
garet Tryon, his wife. It is remarkable that when his vault 
Avas opened the body of Sir William Berkeley was not in a 
cofiin but enclosed in lead beaten into the shape of his body, 
showing the form of his features, hands, feet, and even nails. 
This is stated on the authority of Cobbett's Memorials of 
Twickenham. 

^Notwithstanding that in his old age his rage at being 
ignominiously driven from Jamestown, his capital, and at 
its destruction by fire by the forces of Bacon, drove him to 
what in our age is considered unnecessary cruelty, Berkeley 
had many good qualities. Governor Ludwell wrote of him : 
"He was pious and exemplary, sober in conversation, prudent 
and just in peace, diligent and valiant in war." The honor 
of knighthood was bestowed on him for his success in sub- 
duing the Indians. His hatred of Quakers was in accord- 



28 



anoe with the ideas of his age, because they revolted against 
all church establishments, and the Church was part of the 
State. The laws recommended by him were as a rule wise 
and just. For a short while, under appointment of the 
Lords Proprietors, he was placed in charge of the inhabitants 
of the Albemarle country, and there was no complaint of his 
administration. In distrusting public schools and the print- 
ing press he was not behind his age. "Freedom of the press" 
in England did not exist until about twenty years after he 
wrote his thanks that Virginia was free from that pest. He 
never lost his taste for polite literature. In his desk was 
found the manuscript of an unpublished play called "Cor- 
nelia." 

Sir William' had little relationship to the Earls of Berke- 
ley, the owners of the famous Berkeley Castle, where Edward 
II. was imprisoned and slain. They were of the Fitzhar- 
dinge family. The name in K^orth Carolina was given to 
a precinct of Albemarle county, afterwards Perquimans. 
Bishop^elect Pettigrew, grandfather of General J. J. Petti- 
grew, wrote about "old Barkley," as the name was pronounced 
in old times, about a hundred years ago. The brothers, John 
and William, were likewise honored by the name of counties 
in South Carolina and West Virginia. 

Under the Fundamental Constitutions the Proprietors were 
to organize a Palatine's court. The Duke of Albemarle was, 
on 21st October, 1669, elected the first Palatine, the highest 
ofiiceT, and afterwards, in order, John, Lord Berkeley; Sir 
George Carteret ; William, Earl of Craven ; John, Earl of 



29 



Batli ; John, Lord Granville ; William, Lord Craven ; Henrv, 
Duke of Beaufort ; John, Lord Oarteret, the last beginning 
August 10, 1714. 

The devolution of the shares of the eight Lords Proprietors 
will now be traced, a task made easy by the researches of Mr. 
McCrady, as will be seen in the twelfth chapter of his "South 
Carolina under the Proprietary Government." 

Clarendon's share was, after his exile and until his death, 
m 1674. represented by his oldest son, Henry, Lord Corn- 
bury, who succeeded his father as second Earl of Clarendon. 
He sold it to Seth South\vell, pronounced and generally writ- 
ten Sothel, in 1681. On his death, in 1694, by virtue of the 
provisions of the Fundamental Constitutions, the other Pro- 
prietors sequestered his share and assigned it to Thomas Amy, 
who had been an active agent in inducing settlers to emigTate 
to Carolina. Amy gave it to l^icholas Trott, who married 
Amy's daughter. Under the decree of the Court in Chancery, 
this share, and also that which once belonged to Sir William 
Berkeley, was sold, the two bringing about $4,500, to Hugh 
Watson as trustee of Henry and James Bertie. Clarendon's 
share was allotted to "Honorable James Bertie." 

The Duke of Albemarle, by his v/ife, Anne, daughter of 
John Clarges, a farrier, left Christopher, a son, wdio died 
in 1688 without issue. John Granville, Earl of Bath, who 
acquired his share, died in 1701, and was succeeded by his 
son, John, Lord Granville. Afterwards, in 1709, Somerset, 
the Duke of Beaufort,, acquired the share and devised it to 
James Bertie and Doddington Greville, trustees for his sons, 



30 



Henry Somerset, second Diike of Beanfort, and Charles iSToel 
Somerset, a minor. 

The Earl of Craven died in 1687 without issue, and Wil- 
liam, Lord Craven, liis grand-nephew, succeeded him, and 
left as his sucessor William, Lord Craven, his son. 

John, Lord Berkeley's, share descended to his son, Charles, 
who died without issue, and then to his second son, John, an 
admiral of great merit, who died at sea. As he failed to pay 
his quota according to agTeement he forfeited his share to 
the other Proprietors, who sold it to Joseph Blake, the elder. 
On his death his son, of the same name, succeeded to his 
rights. 

The Earl of Shaftesbury died in exile in 1679 and was 
succeeded by his son, Anthony Ashley, the second Earl, who 
died in 1699 and was succeeded by the third E.arl of the same 
name. The share afterwards vested in his brother, Maurice, 
and after his death in Archibald Hutcheson, trustee for John 
Cbtton. It appears from the Act of Surrender that Sir John 
TyiTell was likewise once owner of this proprietorship. 

The share of Sir George Carteret descended in 1672 to his 
grandson of the same name, who married Grace, daughter of 
John Granville, Earl of Bath. After his death in 1695 he 
was succeeded by his minor son, John, Lord Carteret. Until 
the maturity of this son his share was represented by his 
grandfather, the Earl of Bath. 

Sir John Colleton's share descended in 1666 to his son, 
Sir Peter, who died in 1694, and was succeeded by his son, 
Sir John CWleton, then under aa'e. 



31 



Tliere was iiiucli dispute about Sir William Berkeley's 
share. He devised it, in 1677, to liis widow, who had beeii 
the wife of Governor Siamiiel Stevens, and who afterwards 
married Governor Philip Ludwell. Before the latter mar- 
riage, however, she sold it, in 1681, to Thomas Archdale, 
son of John Archdale. After her marriage she and her hus- 
band conveyed it again, in 1682, this time to Thomas Amy, 
in trust for four Proprietors, Albemarle, Carteret, Craven 
and Colleton. In 1697 these four, or their successors, re- 
quested William Thornburg to take the place of Amy, whidi 
was done, although Amy had the legal title, and in 1705 sold 
it to John Archdale. Archdale conveyed it to John Danson. 
Litigation ensued, resulting in the sale of this share, together 
with that of Clarendon, to Hugh Watson, as trustee for 
Henry and James Bertie, as has been explained heretofore. 

After over sixty years of careless, neglectful and ever bad 
government by the Lords Proprietor, having received little 
profit, the owners of seven of the shares determined to sell 
all their interests to the Crown for £2,500 each, and £500 each 
for arrears of rent due by those who had purchased land from 
them. The sale was perfected by act of Parliament in the sec- 
ond year of King George II., A. D. 1729, entitled "An act for 
establishing an agreement with seven of the Lords Proprie- 
tors of Carolina for the surrender of their title and interest 
in that province to his Majesty." In this the grantors and 
their interests are thus described : The part, share, interest 
and estate of the Eiarl of Clarendon is vested in Honorable 
James Bertie of the countv of Middlesex ; that of the Duke of 



32 



Albemarle in Henry, Duke of Beaufort, and the said James 
Bertie, and Honorable Doddington Greville of the county of 
Wiltz, devisees of the late Duke of Beaufort, in trust for the 
present Duke of Beaufort and his infant brother, Charles 
Noell Somerset ; that of the Earl of Craven in the present 
William, Earl of Craven; that of John, Lord Berkeley, in 
Joseph Blake of the province of South Carolina; that of 
Lord Ashley (Earl Shaftesbury) in Archibald Hutcheson of 
the Middlfe Temple, London, in trust for John Cotton of the 
Middle Temple; that of the late Sir John Colleton in the 
present Sir John Colleton of Exmouth of the county of 
Devon ; that of Sir William Berkeley in the Honorable Henry 
Bertie of the county of Bucks, Esquire, or in Mary Dan- 
son of the county of Middlesex, widow, or in Elizabeth Moor 
of London, widow, some or one of them. It thus appears that 
the share of the doughty warrior, Sir William Berkeley, gave 
as much trouble to the lawyers as he did to the followers of 
Bacon. 

John, Lord Carteret, refused to surrender his share, but 
became tenant in common with the King, oAvning one-eighth 
imdivided interest. The right of government was, however, 
conceded to the Crown. 

Some of the successors to the first Lords Proprietors de- 
serve special notice. 

Henry Hyde, Lord Cornbury, the second Eiarl of Claren- 
don, was son of the great Earl and brother-in-law of James 
11. He was elevated to the office of Lord Privy Seal in 
1685, and then of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Beine;, like 



33 



his father, a staunch member of the Church of England, he 
surrendered all his opportunities for greatness by refusing to 
aid James II. in putting England under Roman Catholicism. 
He was dismissed from all his offices. He intrigued, however, 
for the restoration of James, and a^'Rs thrown for awhile into 
the Tower by William III. He never held office afterwards. 

Sout]n\'ell (Sothel) was of excellent family, came to the 
Albemarle country, was made Governor, but behaved so ne- 
fariously that he was banished by the Assembly. He then 
was Governor of Carolina 1690-'91 by virtue of his Proprie- 
torship, and displayed much executive ability, as Mr. Mc- 
Crady shows. 

ISTicholas Trott was probably father of the very able but 
rather unprincipled Chief Justice of Carolina of the same 
name. 

_Henry and James Bertie were of noble blood, near rela- 
tives, probably sons, of the Eiarl of Abingdon. 

John Granville, Earl of Bath, was succeeded by his son^ 
John, Lord Granville, in 1701, who was a strong Churchman, 
and as Palatine endeavored ineifectually to exclude from the- 
Legislature all except members of the Church of England. 
He must not be confounded with John, Lord Carteret, after- 
wards Earl Granville, son of his sister, Lady Grace, wife of 
the second Sir George Ciarteret. 

Henry Somerset, first Duke of Beaufort, was a royalist in 
the civil war, but after the death of Charles I. retained good 
relations with Cromwell. He was made Marquis of Worces- 
ter and Privy Councillor, and afterwards Duke of Beaufort.. 



34 



He was descended from Edward III., through John of Gaunt, 
and lived in most princely style. Two hundred people were 
feasted at his nine tables every day. 

Lord John Tyrrel is said to have been a lineal descendant 
of the Walter Tyrrel who was accused of shooting King Wil- 
liam Eufus. 

The second Earl of Shaftesbury was of no force. The third 
was a distinguished scholar, and author of "Characteristics." 

Joseph Blake was probably of the family of one of Eng- 
land's most eminent and worthy seamen, Robert Blake. He 
was Governor of Carolina in 1694 for a few months, and 
Deputy Governor under Archdale in 1696 to his death in 
lYOO. The surrender to the Crown was made by his son of 
the saine name. 

John Archdale was appointed by the Proprietors Governor 
of Carolina in 1694 and continued actively in office for two 
years. He published a book entitled "A !Xew Description 
of that Fertile and Pleasant Province of Carolina, with a 
Brief Account of its Discovery and Settling, and the Govern- 
ment thereof to the Time, with several Pemarkable Passages 
of Divine Providence during my Time. By John Archdale, 
late Governor of the same. London. Printed in 1707." It 
is not of much value. His Quaker principles did not prevent 
his acceptance of a barony of 48,000 acres and the titles of 
Landgrave and Governor. He was diligent in his office and 
a good man of business. The laws which were passed at his 
instance appear to have been wise. Some of his posterity are 
citizens of ISTorth Carolina, descended from his daughter Ann, 



35 



who married Emmanuel Lowe. Among tliem was tlie wife of 
William Hill, for many years Secretary of State. 

The most consipicnous of the later Proprietors was John, 
Lord Carteret, avIio, on the death of his mother, Grace, Yis- 
conntess of Carteret and Countess of Granville, in 1744, be- 
came Earl of Granville and Viscount Carteret. 

He was a man of brilliant talents and varied acqiiirements. 
His knowledge of the classics was so extensive and thorough 
that Dean Swift said that he carried away from Oxford more 
Greek, Latin and philosophy than properly became a person 
of his rank. He was distingTiished for his brilliant speeches 
in behalf of Whig doctrines and the Hanoverian dynasty. 
He Avas thoroughly versed in the history of Europe and the 
political questions of his day. As iVmbassador to Sweden 
in 1719, Secretary of State in 1721 and Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland in l724-'30, he had eminent success. He joined the 
party opposed to Walpole, consisting of William Pitt, Pul- 
teney and others, and was for ten years a thorn in his side. On 
Walpole's fall, in 1742, he became again Secretary of State 
under Lord Wilmington, but resigned in 1744. Two years 
later he was offered the chief place in the ministry, but was 
unable to form a government able to command a majority 
in the House of Commons. In 1751 he was President of the 
Priv}' Council, and so continued until his death in 1763. 

The greatness of Earl Granville was marred by \vant of 
steadiness of purpose, the consequence of deep drinking, a 
vice carried away from Oxford with his Greek and Latin 



36 



and practiced ever afterward. Chesterfield says that he 
"made himself master of all the modern languages. * * 
His character may be snmmed up in nice pireeision, quick 
decision and unbounded presumption." He pirofessed to be a 
good Churchman, but looked on Chrisianity merely as a civil 
institution. For example, he was opposed to the conversion 
of negroes because they would not be obedient slaves, and 
argued that it would be a calamity to the fish interests of 
England for the Pope and Italians generally to become Protes- 
tants. He deprecated higher learning in the colonies because 
it would fill the minds of the youth with notions of inde- 
pendence. 

Earl Granville married Frances, onl^^ daughter of Sir Rob- 
ert Worslej^, by whom he had three sons and five daughters, 
and after her death, Lady Sophia, daughter of Thomas, Earl 
of Pomfret, by whom he had one daughter. 

His refusal to sell his share to the Crown could not have 
been caused by financial considerations, as he was notoriously 
contemptuous of money. The distinction of being lord of 
a territory as large as England probably fascinated him. 

Probably because he was opposed to the Prime Minister, 
Walpole, his share was not laid off in severalty to him until 
1744, after he succeeded to the Earldom, when he was a 
member of the Government as Siecretary of State. To him 
was allotted in severalty all the territory from the Atlantic 
to the Mississippi, from the latitude of 35° 34' to the Vir- 
ginia line, excepting, of course, what had been already sold. 
This princel}^ domain was confiscated at the Revolution. 



After the Treaty of Peace and the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States his heirs brought a test suit in the 
Circuit Court against William Richardson Davie and Josiah 
Cbllins for the establishment of their title. They failed and 
the appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States was 
dropped. It is said that they received from the British Gov- 
ernment compensation amounting to about $250,000. 



References: — Dictionary of National Biography; Chalmers' Dictionary of Biography; 
English Histories; Haywood's Life of Tryon; McCrady's History of South Carolina; 
North Carolina Colonial Records; Second Revised Statutes. 



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1. Best Biographical Sketch of a North Carolinian. 

2. Best History of any Decade from 1781 to 1861 (excluding 1791- 
1801 and 1831-1841). 

3. Best History of any County in North Carolina. 

The conditions under which the contest is held will be furnished upon 
application to the Secretary of the Commission. 



The Commission will be glad to be apprised of any valuable unpub- 
lished manuscripts, letters, documents or records relating to the history 
of North Carolina. 



I I VOL. IV 



JUNE, 1904 



No. 2 






THE 



North Carolina Booklet 



I 
f I 




GREAT EVENTS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



THE BATTIvE OF 

RAMSAUR'S MILL, 

BY 

MAJ. WILLIAM A. GRAHAM. 




PRICE, 10 CENTS 



$ 1 THE YEAR 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

Tlie Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

Xorth Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 
Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 
Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 
The Earliest English Settlement in America. .--'VzrTht^-^-u^ 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
IV are requested to notify at once. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 
Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style fOr 50 cents. Those at a distance will please 
add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. IV JUNE, 1904 No. 2 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER. 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1904 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

KEGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-KEGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
(iVee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL. Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the !N^okth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic Avomen who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestr}^ of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jeiferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document aflSrming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Kevo-- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the Korth Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



CONTENTS VOLUME IV. 



The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
Colonel William H. S. Burg-vvyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 
Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 
Judge James C. MacRae. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



THE BATTLE OF RAMSAUR'S MILL. 

JUNE 20, 1^80. 



BY WILLIAM A. GRAHAM, 
(Major on Staff of Adjutant General of North Carolina). 



Sir Henry Clinton, after the surrender of Charleston in 
May, 1780, regarded the Eoyal authority as restored in 
Greorgia and South Carolina, and, leaving Lord Cornwallis in 
command with a force, which was regarded, with the antici- 
pated re-inforcements from friends in upper South Carolina 
and li^orth Carolina, as sufficient to subdue I^orth Carolina, 
sailed with his main army to J^ew York. 

Lord Cbrnwallis' plan of campaigTi was to move with the 
main body of Eegiilars by a central route through Charlotte 
and Salisbury, and to send a small force under a competent 
commander to his right to organize his friends in the upper 
Cape Fear section, and another force to his left to embody 
the adherents of Britain in upper South Carolina and in Tryon 
County; to re-inforoe his main army and also to protect his 
outposts from the attacks of lIcDowell, Cleavland and others 
aided by the "over the mountain men," as those beyond the 
Blue Eidge were called. The crops of the previous year being 
consumed, he delayed his movement until that of 1780 could 
be harvested and threshed. The section around Eamsaur's 
Mill was then, as it is now, very fine for wheat. He sent 



Colonel Jolin Moore into this country to inform the people 
that he was coming and would reward and protect the loyal^ 
but would inflict dire punishment upon his opponents ; for 
them to secure the wheat crop and be in readiness, but to 
make no organization until he should direct. 

THE TORIES. 

Moore had gone from this section and joined the British 
army some time previous and had been made Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel of Hamilton's Tory regiment. He had been an active 
Tory and committed many depredations upon the Whigs 
before his departure, and is especially named with others in 
Laws of 1779, chapter 2, and of 1782, chapter 6, as one whose 
property was to be confiscated. In those days there were no 
post-offices or country stores for the congregating of the people. 
The flouring mills were the points of assembling, and the 
roads usually named for the mills to which they led. 

Derick Eamsaur, who was among the first German (gen- 
erally called Dutch) emigrants to Try on County, erected his 
mill prior to 1770' on the west bank of Clark's Creek, where 
the Morganton road bridge at Lincolnton now spans the 
stream. 

The German population in I^orth Carolina, who mostly 
came here from Pennsylvania, were, during the Revolution- 
ary war, generally favorable to Great Britain. Some have 
attributed this to the fact that the "reigning" family (Bruns- 
wick) was Gennan and that George was King of Hanover 
as well as of Great Britain. However this may have been 



in the Revolution, it does not seem to have been in evidence 
during the Regulation troubles. After the battle of Ala- 
mance, Governor T'ryon wrote the Secretary of State that the 
counties of Mecklenburg, Tryon and western Rowan beyond 
Yadkin were contemplating hostilities and that he had sent 
General Wadell with the militia of those counties and 
some other troops to require the inhabitants to take the 
oath of allegiance. One of the points at which they were 
assembled for this purpose was Ramsaur's Mill. This would 
hardly have been the case if the people of this region 
had not been in sympathy with the Regulators. Having 
taken the oath of allegiance to King George, it was not 
strange that they should have felt inclined to regard its obli- 
gations, especially when those who were urging them to take 
up arms against the King were the very men who had admin- 
istered the oath to them. General Rutherford, Colonel ISTeal, 
Captains Alexander, Shaw and others were at that time ofl&- 
cers of the militia. They had sympathized with the Regula- 
tors on account of common wrongs and oppressions which they 
suffered, and knew what the evils were which they wished 
remedied. ]^ow the cause of action is taxation, about which 
they had little interest and perhaps less knowledge. The Ger- 
mans, as a race, are a confiding, trusting people to those in 
whom they have confidence and who act candidly with them, 
but they seldom live long enough to forgive any one who 
deceives them or who acts so as to forfeit their confidence. 
At this time the cause of America was in a depressed state, 
and many loyal hearts lost hope. It is not improbable that 



at least some of tliese people anticipated with pleasure the 
time thej should behold Griffith Eutherford and his comrades 
with bared heads and uplifted hands affirming their loyalty 
to King George and repeating the role they had compelled 
them to act in 1Y71 ; at any rate, they were not inclined at 
their behest to violate the oath they had forced them to swear. 
The friends of Britain in Tryon County were not confined 
to the Germans ; there were probably as large a per cent, of the 
English Tories. IsTeither Moore nor Welch were Gennan. 
Colonel Moore returned to the vicinity and appointed a meet- 
ing for June 10th at his father's (Moses Moore) residence on 
Indian Creek, seven miles from Ramsaur's. The place of the 
"Tory Gamp"" is still pointed out, and is on the Gaston side 
of the county line on the plantation which Avas owned by the 
late Captain John H. Roberts. Forty men met him on that 
day. He delivered Lord Cbmwallis' message, but before 
they dispersed a messenger informed them that Major Joseph 
McDowell (who was one of the most ubiquitous officers of the 
I^orth Carolina militia during the Revolution) was in the 
neighborhood endeavoring to capture some of the men who 
were present. Moore, having a force double in number to 
that of McDowell, sought him and followed him to South 
Mountains, but did not overtake him. He then dismissed 
the men with directions to meet at Ramsaur's Mill on the 13th 
of the month. About two hundred assembled. ISTicholas 
Welch, who had lived just above Moore on Indian Creek, went 
from this vicinity eighteen months prior to this and joined 
the British army. He appeared dressed in a new uniform 



9 



and exliibiting a considerable qnantity of gold coins, repre- 
senting himself as Major of Hamilton's Regiment. He urged 
the men to embody at once, telling of the fall of Charleston, 
Buford's defeat and the bad condition of affairs for the Ameri- 
cans everywhere. By his narratives and judicious use of his 
guineas he prevailed over Moore and it was determined to 
organize at once. Eleven hundred men had assembled at 
Ramsaur's, to which Captains Murray and Whitson of Lower 
Creek, Burke (Caldwell) County, added two hundred on the 
18th. Colonel Moore, although the embodying was contrary 
to his advice, assumed command. He led a force to capture 
Colonel Hugh Brevard and Major Jo. McDowell, who came 
into the vicinity with a small company of Whigs, but they 
evaded him. On the 19th, with his command of thirteen hun- 
dred men, he occupied a ridge three hundred yards east of the 
mill and which extended east from the road leading from 
Tuckasegee Ford to Ramsaur's Mill, where it joined the road 
from Sherrill's Ford, and placed his outposts and pickets iii 
advance, the pickets being six hundred yards from the main 
force, and upon the Tuskasegee Road. The ridge had a gentle 
slope and was open, except a few trees, for two hundred yards ; 
its foot was bounded by a glade, the side of which was covered 
with bushes. The glade was between the Tuckasegee and 
Sherrill's Ford Roads. 

THE WHIGS. 

General Rutherford, learning of the advance of Lord Raw- 
don to Waxliaw Creek, ordered a portion of his command, the 
militia of the Salisbury District, Rowan, Mecklenburg and 



10 



Tryon Oounties, into service for a tour of three months. This 
force rendezvoused at Eeese's plantation, eighteen miles north- 
east of Charlotte, June 12th, Learning that the British had 
returned to Hanging Eock, General Rutherford advanced ten 
miles to Mallard Creek, and on the 14th organized his forces 
for the campaign. This point on Mallard Creek is several 
times mentioned in Eevolutionary papers as occupied by Whig 
forces. Hearing that the Tories were embodying in Tryon 
County, he ordered Colonel Francis Locke, of Eowan, and 
Major David Wilson, of Mecklenburg, to raise a force in 
northern Mecklenburg and west Eowan to disperse the Tories, 
as he did not think his present force could undertake this 
task until Lord Eawdon's intentions were developed. On 
the 18th Major Wilson, with sixty-five men, among whom 
were Captains Patrick Knox and William Smith, crossed 
the Catawba at Toole's Ford, about fourteen miles from 
Charlotte, near where Moore's Ferry was for many years and 
Allison's Ferry is now. The ford has been seldom used 
since 1865, and has been abandoned as a crossing for many 
years. It is three miles below Cbwan's Ford. Taking the 
Beattie's Ford Eoad, he soon met Major Jo, McDowell with 
twenty-five men, among whom were Captain Daniel McKis- 
sick and John Bowman, Major McDowell, who had been 
moving about the country awaiting re-inforcements, probably 
informed him of the position occupied by the Tories, These 
troops, in order to miite with the forces being raised by Colo- 
nel Locke, kept the road up the river, passing Beattie's Ford, 
and three miles above, Captains Falls, Houston, Torrence, 



11 



Reid and Caldwell, who had crossed at McEwen's Ford with 
forty men, joined them. McEwen's Ford was near where 
MoConnell's Ferry was, up to 1870, but both ford and ferry 
have long been abandoned. 

Marching the road that is now the Newton Road, past Flem- 
ing's Cross Eoads, they camped on Mountain Creek at a 
place called the "Glades," sixteen miles from Ramsanr's. 
Here, on the 19th, they received additional forces under 
Cblonel Locke, amounting to two hundred and seventy men, 
among whom were Captains Brandon, Sharpe, William Alex- 
ander, Smith, Dobson, Sloan and Hardin. Colonel Locke 
had collected most of this force as he proceeded up the river 
and had crossed with them at Sherrill's Ford, which is used to 
this day, and where General Morgan crossed the following 
January. The whole force now amounted to about four 
hundred — McDowell's, Fall's and Brandon's men (perhaps 
one hundred) being mounted. A council of war was con- 
vened to determine plan for action. The proximity of the 
Tories and the small number of the Whigs made it necessary 
for quick movement, as the Tories would probably move 
against them as soon as they learned the true condition. Some, 
proposed to cross the river at Sherrill's Ford, six miles in 
the rear, and to hold it against the Tories. It was replied 
to this that a retreat would embolden the Tories and that the 
re-inforcement to the Tories, who already outnumbered them 
three to one, would probably be greater than to them. Then 
it was suggested to move down the river to join Rutherford, 
who was about forty -five miles distant. It was objected to 



12 



this that nearly all tlie serviceable Whigs of this section were 
with them or Rutherford, and this would leave their families 
unprotected and exposed to pillage by the Tories; also the 
Tories might be in motion and they encounter them on the 
march. Then came the insinuation that these suggestions 
came from fear, or at least from unwillingness to meet the 
Tories, and a proposition to march during the night and 
ajttack the Tories early next morning, as they would be igno- 
rant of their nmnbers and could be easily routed. This had 
the usual effect; not many soldiers or other people can stand 
an imputation of cowardice. So this plan was adopted. 
Colonel James Johnston, who lived in T'ryon (Gaston) County 
near Toole's Fojrd, and who had joined Major Wilson when he 
crossed the river, was dispatched to inform General Euther- 
ford of their action. Late in the evening they marched down 
the south side of Anderson's Mountain, and taking the '^State" 
Eoad, stopped at the Mountain Spring to arrange a plan of 
battle. It was agreed that Brandon's, Fall's and McDowell's 
men, being mounted, should open the attack, the footmen to 
follow, and every man, without awaiting orders, govern him- 
self as developments might make necessary as the fight pro- 
ceeded. The British having retired to Camden, General 
Rutherford determined to give his attention to Colonel Moore, 
On the 18th of June he marched to Tuokasegee Ford, twelve 
miles from Charlotte and twenty miles from Ramsaur's, He 
dispatched a message to Colonel Locke, directing him to meet 
him with his command at General Joseph Dickson's, three 
miles from Tuckasegee (and where Mr. Ural M. Johnston, 



13 



a great grandson of James Johnston, now lives), on the even- 
ing of the 19th or morning of the 20th. That afternoon he 
moved to the Dickson place. The morning of the 19th was 
wet, and fearing the arms might be out of condition, at mid- 
day, when it cleared off, he ordered them to be discharged and 
examined. The firing was heard in the adjacent county; 
the people thinking that the enemy were endeavoring to cross 
the river, volunteers came to re-inforce the Whigs. At the 
Catawba, Colonel William Grraham, with the Lincoln County 
Regiment, united with General Rutherford, whose command 
now numbered twelve hundred. Ck^lonel Johnston reached 
General Rutherford about ten o'clock at night, who, thinking 
his courier had informed Colonel Locke, waited until early 
next morning before moving, when he marched for Ramsaur's. 

THE BATTLE. 

Leaving the mountain. Colonel Locke's force would follow 
the "State" Road until they came into what is now Buffalo 
Shoal Road, then into Sherrill's Ford Road as it ran to Ram- 
saur's Mill. A mile from the mill they were met by Adam 
Reep with a small company, perhaps twenty. Reep was a 
noted Whig, and although his neighbors generally were loyal 
to King George, he was leader of a few patriots who were 
always ready to answer his call to arms. The story which 
tradition tells of his acts would make a base for a fine nar- 
rative of Revolutionary times. He gave full account of the 
Tory position, and further arrangements were made as to plan 
of attack. There are two roads mentioned in General Gra- 



14 



ham's account of this battle in "General Joseph Graham and 
his Eevolutionary Papers." He speaks of the road, i. e., 
Tuckasegee Eoad, and this road, i. e., the old or Sherrill's 
Ford Eoad, the track of which is still visible. They united at 
the western end of the ridge and just beyond the glade. The 
road at the right of the Tory position is now a cut eight feet 
or more deep ; then it was on top of the ground. The Tories 
were on the right of the cavalry, who came the old road, and 
left of the infantry, who came the Tuckasegee Road — ^the 
center of the line being between tlie attacking parties. There 
seems to have been three attacking parties: First, mounted 
men, probably under McDowell, on the old road ; second, 
mainly infantry-, under Locke, on the Tuckasegee Road, upon 
which the Tory picket was placed, near where the Burton 
residence is now ; third. Captain Hardin, who came over the 
hill where Lincolnton now stands, then through the ravine 
near McLoud's house and gained position on the right flank 
of the Tories. 

The central party w^as formed, cavalry in front, infantry 
in two ranks in the rear — they moved by flank. The cavalry 
discovering the picket, chased them to camp. McDowell's men 
had pushed on and reached the enemy about the same time, 
and both parties, leaving the road, rode up within thirty steps 
of the enemy and opened fire. The enem^^ were considerably 
demoralized at first, but seeing so few (not over one hundred) 
in the attacking party, rallied and poured such a volley into 
them that they retired through the infantry, some of whom 
joined them and never returned. Most of the cavalry re- 



15 



formed and returned to tlie contest. Captain Bowman had 
been killed. Captain Falls, being mortally wounded, rode 
some two hundred yards and fell dead from his horse where 
the Sherrill's Ford Road turned down the hill. This spot 
is still noted. The infantry, nothing daunted, pushed for- 
ward, and, coming to the end of the glade, began to form by 
what is now called ''by the right, front into line," and tO' open 
fire as each man came into position. The six hundred yards 
pursuit had much disorganized their line. The Tories advanced 
down the hill and endeavored to disperse them before they 
could form. As the Whigs came on they filled gaps and ex- 
tended the line to their right and made it so hot that the enemy 
retreated to the top of the hill and a little beyond, so as to 
partly protect their bodies. The Wliigs pursued them, but 
the fire was so deadly and their loss so heavy that they in turn 
retreated down the hill to the bushes at the edge of tlie glade. 

The Tories again advanced half way down the ridge. In 
the midst of the fight at this time Captain Hardin arrived 
at his position behind the fence on the right flank of the 
Tories and opened fire. Captain Sharpe had extended the 
line until he turned the left of the enemy, and his company 
began firing from that direction (about where Mr. Koseman's 
barn now stands). The Tories, hard pressed in front, fell 
back to the top of the ridge, and, fijiding that they were still 
exposed to Hardin's fire on the right, as well as to that of 
Sharpe on the left, broke and fled do^^oi the hill and across 
the creek, many being shot as they ran. 

When the Whigs gained the hill they saw quite a force of 



16 



the enemy over the creek near the mill and supposed the 
attack would be renewed. Forming line, they could only 
master eighty-six, and after earnest exertions only one hun- 
dred and ten could be paraded. Major Wilson and Captain 
William Alexander, of Eowan, were dispatched to hurry 
General Eutherf ord forward ; they met his forces about where 
Salem Baptist Church now stands, six and a half miles from 
Lincolnton, on the old narrow-gauge railroad; Davie's Cav- 
alry was started at a gallop and the infantry at quick-step. 
Within two miles they met men from the field, who told them 
the result. When the battle began the Tories who had no 
arms went across the creek. Captain Murray was killed 
early in the action ; his and Whitson's men imuiediately fol- 
lowed. Ct>lonel Moore made his headquarters behind a locust- 
tree near the road. Upon his right flank becoming exposed 
to the galling fire of Hardin, he did not wait to see the end, 
and w^as joined by Major Welch in his change of base. 

Captain Sharpe's men, in deploying to the right, went be- 
yond the crest of the ridge (below the present Eoseman bam). 
Here, exposed to the deadly aim of the enemy's rifles, they 
advanced from tree to tree until they obtained a position en- 
filading the enemy, and with unerring aim picked off their 
boldest ofiicers. Captain Sharpe's brother placed his gun 
against a tree to "draw a bead" on a Tory captain ; his arm 
Avas broken by a shot from the enemy and his gun fell to the 
ground. A well-directed shot from the C^aptain felled the 
Tory captain and contributed much to the speedy termination 
of the battle. General Graham savs that at this end of the 



17 



Tory line "one tree at the root of whicli two brothers lay dead 
was grazed by three balls on one side and two on the other." 
Colonel MooTe, fearing pursuit, sent a ilag of truce to pro- 
pose suspension of hostilities to bury the dead and care for 
the wounded; but ordered all footmen and poorly-mounted 
men to leave for home at once. Colonel Locke, not wishing 
the enemy to discover the paucity of his forces, sent Major 
James Rutherford (a son of the General, and who was killed 
at Eutaw) to meet the flag. In answer to the request of 
Moore, he demanded surrender in ten minutes ; the flag re- 
turned, when Moore and the fifty who remained with him 
immediately fled. Moore reached Cbrnwallis with about thirty 
followers, was put under arrest, threatened with court-martial 
for disobedience of orders, but was finally released. 

In some instances this was a fight between neighbors and 
kindred, although there were not many Whigs in the Lincoln 
forces — the militia of the county being with Colonel Graham, 
who was with Rutherford. 

In the thickest of the fight a Dutch Tory, seeing an ac- 
quaintance, said : "How do you do, Pilly ? I have knowed you 
since you was a little poy, and never knew no harm of you 
except you was a rebel." Billy, who was out for business and 
not to renew acquaintance, as his gun was empty, clubbed 
it and made a pass at his friend's head, who dodged and said : 
"Stop ! Stop ! I am not going to stand still and be killed like 
a damn fool, needer," and immediately made a lick at Billy's 
head, which he dodged. A friend of Billy whose gun was 
loaded put it to the Dtitchman's side and shot him dead. 



18 



Oaptain McKissick, who was shot through the shoulder 
early in the action, went over towards Lincolnton en route 
to a friend's. He met Abram Keener, a Tory captain, but per- 
sonal friend, with ten companions, who had been to a neighbor- 
ing farm, and were returning to camp. His companions 
would have treated Captain McKissick badly, probably killed 
him ; but Keener took him prisoner and protected him. On 
reaching the camp, and seeing a good many strange faces with 
his acquaintances, who were prisoners. Keener said : "Hey, 
poys, you seem to have a good many prisoners." The Whigs, 
by his speech, knew he was a Tory, and were going to shoot 
him and his companions, but Captain McKissick interfered, 
and by earnest appeal saved their lives. 

Adam Eeep, as part of tlie history of the battle, was accus- 
tomed to tell that the Tories took all his cattle, including his 
bull, and drove them to their camp ; that when the firing began 
the Tories soon began to pass his house, which was some three 
miles away, and it was not long before "old John" appeared 
in the procession bellowing : "Lib-er-ty ! Lib-er-ty ! ! Lib- 
er-ty ! ! !" 

There was no official report of the battle, consequently the 
exact nimiber of casualties w^as never known. The badge of 
the Tories was a green pine twig in the hat. In the heat of 
battle some of these would fall out and others were thrown 
away, so that it could not be told to which, side many belonged. 

Fifty-six dead lay on the face of the ridge, up and down 
which the forces advanced and retreated. Thirteen of these 



19 



were of C^aptain Starpe's Fourth Creek (Statesville) Com- 
pany. Many bodies lay scattered over the hill. The killed 
were seventy or more, forty of whom were Whigs. The 
wounded were one hundred on each side, some of whom after- 
wards died from their wounds. Among the Whigs killed 
were Captains Dobson, Falls, Armstrong, Smith, Sloan and 
Bowman. Captains McKissick and Houston were wounded. 
Some of the Whigs wore a piece of white paper in their hats 
as a badge. Several of them were shot through the head. 
Many of the dead were buried on the field. Wives, mothers, 
daughters and other kindred of the contestants came that 
afternoon and next morning to inquire for their friends. As 
they discovered them among the dead and dying, there were 
heart-rending scenes of distress and grief. Mrs. Falls came 
twenty-five miles on horseback, accompanied by her negro 
cook. Finding her gallant husband dead, she obtained a 
quilt from Mrs. Reinhardt, whose husband lived near the 
battle-ground, and carried his body across Sherrill's Ford 
and buried it with his kindred. 

The troops engaged, except Keep of Lincoln, and Major 
Wilson, Captains Knox and Smith of Mecklenburg, were 
from (what to 1777 had been) Eowan County. The ofiicers' 
surnames were found among the militia officers of the county 
in the proceedings of the "Committee of Safety," of which 
many of them were members. Captain John Hardin's beat 
was along Lord Granville's line from Siilver Creek in Burke 
to South Fork, and from these two points to the Catawba 
River. Captain Joseph Dobson was within its bounds. Much 



20 



the largest portion of the troops was from what is now Iredell 
Connty. Captain John Sloan was from Fonrth Creek. I 
do not think all who are mentioned as captains held that 
position at this time ; some may have been prior to and some 
became so afterward. JSTo account was written until forty 
3^ears had elapsed. There seems to have been but few com- 
mands given in the engagement; officers and privates acted 
as occasion required, and both suffered severely. 

This was a battle between the ancestors of the IN^orth Caro- 
lina Confederate soldier, and taking armament and surround- 
ings into consideration, is about a sample of what would have 
been witnessed in IvTorth Carolina in 1861-'65 if those who be- 
lieved the proper course to pursue for redress of wrongs was 
to "fight in the Union" had refused to fight outside, or if Pet- 
tigTcw's and Cooke's forces had been pitted against Lane's 
and McEae's. Tradition says Locke's men got some liquor 
at "Dellinger's Tavern" as they were going into the fight. 
This tavern stood on the present Eobinson block in Lincoln- 
ton. x\t that time Henry Dellinger kept a tavern seven miles 
from Lincolnton at a cross-road, where John B, Smith now 
lives. It was probably Rutherford's men en rauie to the 
battle-field who "took courage" at Bellinger's Tavern. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE BATTLE. 

This battle is but little known in history, yet is one of the 
most important in results and best fought of the Revolution. 
King's Mountain and Ramsaur's Mill at that time were both 
in Lincoln County, and not twenty miles apart. If Moore 



21 



had obeyed Lord Cornwallis, and delayed organization until 
Ferguson advanced, lie could have re-inforced liim with two 
thousand men. If the Wliigs had been defeated matters 
would have been in even worse condition. Ramsaur's Mill 
was the first and most important "act" in King's Mountain. 
It destroyed T'oryism in that section and caused Bryan, with 
his followers, to leave the "forks of the Yadkin" and not re^ 
turn until Cornwallis came. The Dutch, as they had kept 
the oath to King George, kept their "parole" to the Ameri- 
can cause. Ctornwallis marched through this country the 
following January and camped at Ramsaur's Mill. He lost 
more by desertion than he gained in recruits. ^Vhen he was 
here, Morgan passed the present site of Maiden, nine miles 
distant, and for five days v^sls not twenty miles from him. 
A messenger on any of these days would have enabled Corn- 
wallis to place his army between Morgan and the Catawba 
River. I do not think, in killed and wounded, in proportion 
to numbers engaged, the battle is equalled in the Revolution. 
Forty killed and one hmidred wounded, out of four hmidred 
engaged, is high class, even in Confederate annals. The 
defeat and rout of three times their number is certainly wor- 
thy of note. ISlo attempt has been made to jDreserve the fea- 
tures of this battlc'-ground ; to-day it is tilled by the plow of 
the farmer, and but slight mementoes of the battle can be 
seen. On. the highest point of the ridge is a head-stone mark- 
ing three Tory graves. One at the foot of the hill marks 
another. A brick wall near vdiere the severest fighting was 
done contains the remains of Captain Dobson where he fell ; 



22 



also the remains of his daughter and her husband, Wallace 
Alexander, who were buried beside him some years after the 
Eevolution. The battle-field is now within the corporate 
limits of Lincolnton. 

AFTER THE BATTLE. 

General Rutherford remained here two days, sending Da- 
vie's Cavalry and other troops tlirough the country arresting 
Tories, who Avere nearly all "paroled" ; a few who had com- 
mitted serious depredations being sent to Salisbury jail to 
await trial at next term of court. Being informed that Col- 
onel Bryan, the noted Tory, had organized his forces in the 
"forks of the Yadkin," he determined to give him attention. 
On mustering his troops, he found he had only two hundred 
men of the sixteen hundred present tAvo days before. This 
is a fair sample of the conduct of the Mecklenburg and RoAvan 
militia in the Revolution. They would ansAver all calls to 
fight, but Avhen the battle Avas over, or Avhile preparation Avas 
being made, they declined to undergo the Avearisomeness of 
camp-life. General Rutherford did not, as Avould be done 
nO'AV, send details to bring tlie absentees back, but sent mes- 
sengers ahead along the road he Avould march, and before he 
reached the vicinity of Bryan he had six hundred men. Bryan 
immediately fled, and most of Rutherford's men again sought 
their fire-sides — this time by his permission. 

When these people accomplished the object for Avliich they 
had been called into serAuce, or AA^hen the cause for the call 



2^ 



disapipeared, they regarded the purposes for which they were 
wanted as fulfilled, and went home ready to answer when 
again called for. General Graham, who was one of them, 
called General Davie's attention to this trait of character 
when General Davie was collecting a force to attack Eocky 
Moimt. 



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THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

The Earliest English Settlement in America. J'( o-i/-*-^^-^^'-''-^ 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 
Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 
Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
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Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

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Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
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add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY MILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. IV JULY, 1904 No. 3 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA I HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

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1904 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-KEGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORAKY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 

(Nee Fanny DeBemiere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

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TREASURER: 

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REGISTRAR: 

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Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the Noeth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the ''Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-liearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



HISTORIC HOMES OF NORTH CAROLINA— PLEASANT 

GARDENS AND QUAKER MEADOWS, 

IN BURKE COUNTY. 



By ALPHONSO C. AVERY, 
(Former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina). 



The historic interest of homes centers in the families who 
found, occupy and adorn them, and connect them with the 
stirring legends and important events in the annals of a coun- 
try. Amongst the earliest settlers in the valley of the upper 
Catawba, in the old county of Burke, were Joseph McDowell 
the elder, a grandson of Eiphraim, the founder of the family 
in Virginia, Kentucky and our own State, and his cousin, 
known as "Hunting John," who was near the same age. They 
migrated, somewhere about the year 1Y60 and during the 
French-Indian war, from the old home of Ephraim McDowell^ 
in Rockbridge county, Virginia, and, because the country 
west of the Catawba was rendered unsafe by roving bands 
of Cherokee and Catawba braves, went with their families 
through Rowan and Mecklenburg counties to some point in 
South Carolina, near the northern boundary line. Their 
sturdy Scotch-Irish friends had already drifted from Pennsyl- 
vania, where they, with the thousands of Germans, were first 
dumped by the English land-agents upon American soil, to 
upper South Carolina, and had commemorated their first 
American home by naming the three northern counties of that 



State York, Cliester and Lanoaster. Ephraim McDowell was 
born in the north of Ireland. When only sixteen years old he 
distinguished himself as a soldier in the siege of Londonderry. 
He emigrated to America at the age of sixty-two, and, after 
a short sojourn in Pennsylvania, moved with his sons to the 
old McDowell home in Eockbridge county, Virginia. He was 
descended from Someril, Lord of the Isles, through his son 
Dougald, who founded the clan of McDougald. E'phraim 
married Margaret Irvine, also of Scotch descent. His 
son, Captain John McDowell, fell in repelling a Shawnee 
; incursion, and was the first white man killed by the Indians 

; in the Valley of Virginia. His daughter Mary married 

James Greenlee and was the mother of Grizzell or Grace 
Greenlee. She first married Captain Bowman, who fell at 
Ramseur's Mill, and, after the war, her cousin, General 
^ Charles McDowell of Burke, who had inherited Quaker 

]^ea.dowsJnJj775, at the death of his father, Joseph McDow- 
ell the elder, the first settler on that place. 

^'Hunting John" McDowell, so called because of his ventur- 
ing into the wilderness so far from the white settlement in 
pursuit of game, probably first took possession of his beautiful 
home. Pleasant Gardens, in the Catawba Valley, in what is 
now McDowell county, about the time when his cousin Joseph 
settled at Quaker Meadows. I have not been able to ascertain 
the maiden name of the wife of "Hunting John," nor of the 
lady who married Joseph McDowell the elder; but there is 
abundant evidence that both had improved the advantages of 
being raised near Lexington, the Scotch-Irish educational cen- 

j-Ht^il ?^'^^ J)t^-r^ 'hfM -M>- ^^•'^' M^ "h-^u^. '7;^, 



■}"^i: C^%^. ^4^'^f% y — ^mw 'K&d^ H^p^? <c^ Sh^J^ 



ter of the Valley of Virginia, and made their homes attractive 
to the most refined and cultured people of their day. They 
were doubtless religious, for we find that the first Presbyte- 
rian minister who ever made his home in old Burke reported 
to Synod in 1777 as the pastor at two points, Quaker Meadows 
and Pleasant Gardens. 

According to tradition the Quaker Meadows farm was so 
called long before the McDowells or any other whites estab- 
lished homes in Burke county, and derived its name from the 
fact that the Indians, after clearing parts of the broad and 
fertile bottoms, had suffered the wild grass to spring up and 
form a large meadow, near which a Quaker had camped be- 
fore the French-Indian war and traded for furs. On the 19th 
of ISTovember, 1752, Bishop Spangenburg recorded in his 
diary (Vol. V. Colonial Records, p. 6) that he was encamped 
near Quaker Meadows, and that he was "in the forest 50 
miles from all settlements." The Bishop desribed the low- 
lands of John's River as the richest he had seen anywhere in 
Carolina. But, after surveying a large area, he abandoned 
the idea of taking title for it from Lord Granville, because 
the Indian war began in 1753, the next year, and lasted nom- 
inally seven years, though it was unsafe to venture west of 
the Catawba till after 1763, and few incurred the risk of 
doing so before 1770. 

"Hunting John" McDowell first entered "Swan Ponds," 

about three miles above Quaker Meadows, but sold that place, 

without occupying it, to Colonel Waightstill Avery, and estabi- 

lished his home where his son James afterwards lived anid 

3iW^^fc#-(^ AO^ c^iV'iW. Cl-<^i 'Hxi^^^AM, fcr^f-^ ^^ '0^"i^4i 



where still later Adolphus Erwin lived for years before his 
death. His home is three miles north of Marion on the road 
leading to Bakersville and Bnrnsville. The name of Pleasant 
Gardens was afterwards applied not only to this home but to 
the place where Colonel John Carson lived higher np the 
Catawba Valley, at the month of Buck Creek. 

The McDowells and Carsons of that day and later reared 
thorough-bred horses and made race-paths in the broad low- 
lands of every large farm. They were superb horsemen, 
crack shots and trained hunters. John McDowell of Pleasant 
Gardens was a ISTimrod when he lived in Virginia, and we 
learn from tradition that he acted as guide for his cousins 
over his hunting ground when, at the risk of their lives, 
they with their kinsmen, Greenlee and Bowman, traveled over 
and inspected the valley of the Catawba from Morganton to 
Old Port, and selected the large domain allotted to each of 
them. They built and occupied strings of cabins, because the 
few plank or boards used by them were sawed by hand and 
the nails driven into them were shaped in a blacksmith's shop. 
I have seen many old buildings, such as the old houses at Fort 
Defiance, the Lenoir home, and Swan Ponds, where every 
plank was fastened by a wrought nail with a large round head 
sometimes half an inch in diameter. Prom these homes the 
lordly old proprietors could in half an hour go to the water 
or the woods and provide fish, deer or turkeys to meet the 
whim of the lady of the house. They combined the pleasure 
of sport with the profit of providing for their tables. The 
old Quaker Meadows home is two miles from Morganton, but 



9 



the eastern boundary of tlie farm is the Oatawba, only a mile 
from the court-house. From the northwestern portion of the 
town, since the land along the river has been cleared, this 
magnificent and lordly estate is plainly visible, and the valley 
and river present a charming view for a landscape painter. 

From his house on a hill on the eastern bank of the river, 
Peter Brank and his son-in-law, Captain David Vance, the 
grandfather of Z. B. Vance, could see the home of the Mc- 
Dowells. The place in the early days was surrounded by the 
newly-found homes of the Greenlees, Erwins and Captain 
Bowman, whose only daughter by his marriage with Grace 
Greenlee was the grandmother of Mrs. Harriet Espy Vance, 
first wife to Governor Vance. She was married to Govemor 
Vance at Quaker Meadows — in full view of his grandfather's 
first home in Burke. 

"Hunting John" must have died during the early part of 
the war for independence — probably near the time his ^a^^iiajp , 
Joseph died — in 1Y75. 

THE COnSTCIL OAK. 

On the 29th of August, 1780, Colonel Ferguson moved into" 
Tryon (now Kutherford county) and camped first at Gilbert- 
town, three miles north of Eutherfordton, with the purpose of 
capturing Charles McDowell and destroying his command and 
ultimately crossing into Washington and Sullivan counties 
(now Tennessee) and dealing with Shelby and Sevier of the 
Watauga settlement. Ferguson left Gilberttown with a de- 
tachment, in search of Charles McDowell, but McDowell laid 



10 



in ambush, at Bedford Hill, on Crane Creek, and fired upon 
his force while crossing the creek at Cowan's Ford. Major 
Dunlap was wounded and Fergiison was forced to retire to 
Gilberttown. 

After this aifair Charles McDowell retreated across the 
mountains to warn Shelby and Sevier of the threatened 
desolation of their country and to invite their co-operation in 
an attack on Ferguson. It was agreed that the transmontane 
men should be gathered as expeditiously as possible, while Mc- 
Dowell should send messengers to Colonels Cleveland and 
Herndon of Wilkes county and Major Joseph Winston of 
Surry. The energies of Shelby, of Sullivan and Sevier of 
Washington county, Korth Carolina, then embracing the 
present State of Tennessee, were quickened by a message, 
which Ferguson had released a prisoner to convey, to the effect 
that he would soon cross the mountain, hang the leaders and 
lay their country waste with fire and sword. 

The clans were summoned to meet at Quaker Meadows on 
the 30th of September, 1780. Meantime Charles McDowell 
returned to watch Ferguson, protect cattle by assailing for- 
aging parties and give information to Shelby and Sevier of 
Ferguson's movements. 

Eev. Samuel Doak invoked the blessings of God upon the 
Watauga men, as they left for King's Mountain to meet Fer- 
guson, whose blasphemous boast had been that God Almighty, 
could not drive him from his position. Those tmstful old 
Scotchmen afterwards believed in their hearts that tbe hand 



11 



of God was in the movement which cost him his life and 
destroyed his force. 

On September 30th, Shelby, Sevier, Cleveland, Winston 
and the three McDowells (Charles, Joseph of Quaker Mead- 
ows, and Joseph of Pleasant Gardens) met at Quaker Mead- 
ows, and on October 1st held a council of war under the shade 
of a magnificent oak which stood near a spring on the Quaker 
Meadows farm. This old tree, known as the Council Oak, had 
weathered the storms of more than a century when it was 
killed by lightning a few years since. At this historic spot 
these intrepid leaders agreed upon the plan of campaign 
against Ferguson. The fruit of their council was a victory, 
which was the turning point of the war for independence. 

This venerable tree has been visited by scores of persons, 
and Burke takes pride in perpetuating the memory of the fact 
that there the old pioneer patriots, including three of her own 
sons, laid plans that turned the tide of war and possibly deter- 
mined the destiny of the continent. The local Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution has already bought 
what is left of the old oak to be converted into souvenirs, and 
it has been proposed that the Chapter purchase a little spot, 
including the site of the oak, with the right of way to a road 
leading to it, and erect upon it a pavilion where visitors may 

rest. 

THE McDowells at king's mountain. 

Charles McDowell had organized the clans into a compact, 
formidable force. The proposed scene of conflict was in his 
district, and, under military rules then in force, he was en- 



12 



titled to command. When, however, it became apparent that 
jealousy might impair the efficiency of the little army, he 
cheerfully agreed to go to Mecklenburg or Rowan and invite 
General Davidson to take charge. After he had left on this 
mission it was deemed by the council of war best to attack 
Ferguson before his force could be strengthened by Corn- 
wallis, and the result indicated the wisdom of this conclusion. 
Governor Shelby published an account in 1823, in which, 
after lauding General Charles McDowell as a patriot and a 
brave and able officer, he said that after it was decided by the 
council to send to headquarters for a general officer to take 
command, Charles McD'owell requested, as he could not com- 
mand, to be alloVs'ed to take the message, and added that "he 
accordingly started immediately, leaving his men under his 
brother. Major Joseph McDowell." (~Wlieeler's History, 
Part II, page 59). It was Shelby who next day made the 
generous move to place Campbell in command to obviate 
the danger of delay. Within the next twenty years some 
of the lineal descendants of Joseph McDowell of Pleasant 
Gardens have insisted that the command of the Burke men at 
King's Mountain devolved on their ancestor, not on his cousin 
Joseph of Quaker Meadows. The writer would be rejoiced to 
be convinced that this contention is well founded, but is con- 
strained to conclude that it is not. Shelby had come over with 
Sevier, at the instance of Charles McDowell, under whose 
command he had previously fought with all three of the Mc- 
Dowells at Musgrove's Mill and other places. He must have 
known whether the brother or the cousin of Colonel Charles 



13 



McDowell was next in rank to him, and he said it was the 
bTother. 

"Poor's Sketches of Congressmen" states that Joseph Mc- 
Dowell, who was born at Winchester, Ya., in 1756, and died 
in 1801, was elected a member of the third and also of the 
fifth Congress, had commanded a portion of the right wing of 
the army that stormed King's Mountain. In a subsequent 
sketch of Joseph J. McDowell of Ohio he says that he was 
born in Burke county, ]^. C, ISTovember 13, 1800, was a son 
of Joseph McDowell, member from North Carolina, and was 
himself a member from 1843 to 1847. The widow of Joseph 
McDowell of Quaker Meadows left E^orth Carolina with her 
little children and went to Kentucky soon after her husband's 
death. His home was on the banks of John's River, near 
where Bishop Spangenburg must have encamped when he de- 
clared that the land was the most fertile he had seen in Caro- 
lina. These sketches have always been prepared after consul- 
tation with the member as to his previous history, and we 
must conclude that both father and son bore testimony to 
the truth of history — the father that he was in command, the 
son that such was the family history derived from his mother. 
Dr. Harvey McDowell, of Cynthiana, Ky., who presided over 
the first Scotch-Irish Convention at I^ashville, Tenn., and 
who died at the ripe age of fourscore, a year or two since, had 
devoted much of his life to the study of family history, and 
had conversed with members of the family who knew Joseph 
of Quaker Meadows and Joseph of Pleasant Gardens and 
were familiar with their history. 



14 



Speaking of the agreement of Colonel Charles McDowell to 
go to headquarters, Dr. Harvey McDowell says : 

"He thereupon turned over the command of his regiment to 
his brother Joe of Quaker Meadoivs, who was thus promoted 
from the position of Major, which he had held in this regi- 
ment, to that of acting Colonel, and in the regular order of 
promotion. Captain Joe of Pleasant Gardens (the cousin and 
brother-in-law of the other Joe) became Major Joe, he having 
been senior Captain of the regiment." 

With the rank, one of Colonel and the other of Major, these 
cousins of the same name led the brave sharp-shooters who 
fought so heroically at Cowpens and in the many fights of less 
consequence. Sarah McDowell, a daughter of Captain John, 
who was killed by the Shawnees, married) Ciolonel George 
,.M.offitt, a wealthy and distinguished officer in the war for inde- 
pendence. His accomplished daughter Margaret married 
Joseph McDt)well of Quaker Meadows, and her younger sister 
Mary became the wife of Joseph of Pleasant Gardens. The 
cousins served Burke county acceptably both in the House of 
Cbmmons and Senate of the State Legislature and in the Con- 
vention at Hillsboro, as they had both won distinction while 
fighting side by side on a number of battlefields. The writer 
has inclined to the opinion that both served in Congress, 
Joseph McDowell, Jr., of Pleasant Gardens, from 1793 to 
1795, when he died, and Joseph, Sr., of Quaker Meadows, 
from 1797 to 1799. But this is still a debated question. 






J 



15 



THE TWO JOSEPHS. 



Joseph McDowell of Quaker Meadows was a handsome 
man, wonderfully magnetic, universally popular, and of more 
than ordinary ability. He was a born leader of men and was 
represented by the old men of the succeeding generation to 
have retained till his death the unbounded confidence and 
affection of his old soldiers. Margaret Moffitt was a woman of 
extraordinary beauty, as was her sister Mary. 

After the battle of King's Mountain, in October, Joseph 
McDowell of Quaker Meadows remained in the field with 190 
mounted riflemen, including the younger Joseph as one of his 
officers, until he joined Morgan on December 29th and partici- 
pated in the battle of Cowpens. 

Joseph of Pleasant Gardens was a brilliant man of more 
solid ability than his cousin of the same name. The late Silas 
McDowell, who died in Macon county, but lived during his 
early life, first in Burke and then in Buncombe, in discussing 
in an unpublished letter, of which I have a copy, the prominent 
men who lived "west of Lincoln county," reaches the con- 
clusion that, prior to the day of D. L. Swain, Samuel P., 
Carson and Dr. Robert B. Vance, no man in that section had, 
according to tradition, towered far above his fellows intellec- 
tually except Joseph McDowell of Pleasant Gardens, whose 
"light went out when he was in his noonday prime, and in the 
last decade of the eighteenth century." He was bom February 
26, 1758, and died in 1795. His widow married Colonel 
John Carson, whose first wife was the daughter of "Hunting 




th^i-Usp 



Jolm." Samuel P. Oarson, the oldest son by the second mar- 
riage of Mary Moffit McDowell, was a member of the Senate 
of ISTorth Carolina in 1822, and was born January 22, 1798. 
(See Wheeler's Reminiscences, page 89). Joseph of Quaker 
Meadows was born in 1756, was two years older, and therefore 
must have been Joseph, Sr. Wheeler records the name of 
Joseph McDowell, Jr., as having served successively from 
1787 to 1792, inclusive, as a member of the House of Com- 
mons from Burke county, biit not after the latter date. ( See 
list of Burke Legislators, Wheeler's History, Part II, page 
62). Joseph McDowell, according to same authority, was a 
State Senator, succeeding General Charles, from 1791 to 
1795, inclusive, and during that time did not serve in Con- 
gress, though he unquestionably served later. These and 
other facts have led the writer to believe Joseph, Jr., served 
one term in Congress, from 1793 to 179 5, when he died, and 
that afterwards, and up to the time of his death, the elder 
cousin was a member. Joseph McDowell, Jr., was not in 
public life after 1792, unless he served one term in Congress 
before his death. It is not probable that he lived from 1792 
to 1795 without holding an official position. 

THE Mcdowell women— mrs. grace greenlee mcdowell, 
mrs. margaret moefitt mcdowell, mrs. mary moffitt 
Mcdowell. - , 

VMrs. Margaret Moffitt McDowell, says Dr. Harvey Mc- 
D'owell, was a beautiful and charming woman. After the 
death of her husband she returned to the Valley of Virginia 
and went thence to Kentucky. Amongst her descendants 



17 



was a son, Joseph J., already mentioned, a member of Con- 
gress, and many other people prominent in pnblic or social 
life, both of Kentucky and Ohio. 

Mrs. Mary Moffitt McDowell was the mother of Mrs. Mar- 
garet McDowell, who married her cousin, Captain Charles 
McDowell, a son of General Charles, and was the mistress at 
the Quaker Meadows home, wdiere she kept a house always 
open to her friends till her death in 1859. Her oldest 
daughter, Mary, first married General John Gray Bynum in 
1838, and subsequently became the second wife of Chief Jus- 
tice Pearson in 1859. The late Judge John Gray Bynum 
was the only son. Another daughter, Eliza, was the wife of 
l^icholas W. Woodfin, one of the ablest lawyers of his day, 
and another, Margaret, married W. F. McKesson, and was 
the mother of the first Mrs. F. H. Busbee and of C. F, 
McKesson. Another daughter married John Woodfin, a 
prominent lawyer, who fell at the head of his battalion, re- 
sisting Kirk's invasion at Warm Springs. The only son who 
survived Mrs. Annie McDowell was Cblonel James C. S. 
McDowell. He married Miss Julia, daughter of Governor 
Charles Manly. His first service was when, as Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company G of the Bethel Regiment, he partici- 
pated in the first battle of the war. Later he became Colonel 
of the Fifty-fourth ITorth Carolina Regiment, and fell gal- 
lantly leading it in a charge on Marye's Heights in 1863. 
James McDowell, his oldest son, married Margaret Erwin, 
and was the father of Dr. Joseph McDowell of Buncombe 
and Dr. John C. McDowell of Burke, both of whom were 



18 



members of the Secession Convention of 1861, and of Colonel 
William, who was Captain in the Bethel Eegiment and after- 
wards Colonel of the Sixtieth North Carolina. Another son, 
John McDowell, was the father of Colonel John of Ruther- 
ford County. 

After the death of her husband, Mrs. Mary McDowell mar- 
ried Colonel John Carson, and made her home at his mansion 
near the mouth of Buck Cl'oek, on the Catawba. The name 
of Pleasant Gardens followed her and was applied to her new 
as well as her old home. Her oldest son by the second mar- 
riage. Colonel Samuel P. Carson, after serving in the Legis- 
lature of the State, served four terms in Congress. He was 
at first a favorite of Old Hickory, and was selected as the 
readiest debater in the House to defend the administration on 
the floor of that body. He afterwards became the friend of 
John C. Calhoun, and his defense of nullification estranged 
Jackson and led to Carson's retirement from Congress. The 
last service of Carson to the State was as one of the members 
from Burke of the Constitutional Convention of 1835. His 
father had been one of Burke's members of the Convention of 
1Y89, when the Constitution of the United States had been 
ratified by the State. 

In the writer's boyhood older men spoke of Sam Carson as 
the most eloquent speaker and the most fascinating gentleman 
they had known. 

In the early part of the year 1835, Samuel Carson went, 
with the view of finding a home, to the republic of Texas, 
then struggling with Mexico for independence. It was dur- 



19 



ing his absence tliat he was elected a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1835. He migrated to Texas in 1836, 
and soon after his arrival was chosen a member of the Con- 
vention of 1836j which framed a Constitution, and, upon the 
election of General Samuel Houston to the presidency of the 
young republic, was made Secretary of State. The efforts 
of Carson to secure recognition of the Lone Star State were 
potent in beginning the agitation, which culminated in 1845 
in recognition and annexation. 

THE CARSON-VANCE DUEL. 

Stung hj defeat in 1825, Dr. Robert B. Vance determined 
to break him down in 1827. He believed, it is supposed on 
account of Carson's great amiability, that Carson was a cow- 
ard, though a more fatal mistake was never made, and, acting 
upon that belief, charged in a public discussion at Morgan- 
ton that Colonel John Carson, the father of his opponent, and 
who has already been mentioned as a member of the Conven- 
tion which adopted the Constitution of the United States, at 
Fayetteville, was a Tory, and took protection when Ferguson 
invaded Burke. Colonel Carson rose and denounced Vance 
as a liar. Vance tauntingly said to him : "You are too old. 
You have a gallant son, whose duty it is to fight your bat- 
tles." I am reliably informed that Vance did not believe 
that Samuel Carson would resent this insult, and he knew tJiat 
if he should not he could never be elected again after the 
election which was to take place in a few days. 



20 



To sliow how widely mistaken Dr. Vance was in his esti- 
mate of Carson, the writer has heard from his father that on 
the night after this discussion, Samnel P. Carson, his six 
brothers and his father met at the old family home, at the 
mouth of Buck Creek, and though the old Colonel insisted 
upon sending a challenge, his sons overruled him, and agreed 
that after the approaching election Samuel should challenge 
Vance, and should Samuel fall, each of the brothers, begin- 
ning with thci oldest, Joseph McDowell Carson of Ruther- 
ford, should challenge him in succession. The Colonel was 
appeased by an agreement that should Vance kill all of his 
boys he should then have the opportunity to avenge the insult. 
All of the brothers were cool and courageous and were crack 
shots. Soon after the election Carson crossed the Tennessee 
line to avoid a violation of the laws of his own State, and sent 
by Cblonel Alney B'urgin of Old Fort an invitation to Vance 
to come over to Tennessee and discuss the grievance com- 
plained of. Carsouj with the disting-uished Warren David 
of South Carolina as a second, and accompanied by David 
Crockett as a friend, met and mortally wounded Vance at 
Saluda. Just before taking his place, Carson, who was as 
kind as he was courageous, said to Warren David : "I can hit 
him anywhere I choose. I prefer to inflict a wound that will 
not prove fatal." David said: "Vance will try to kill you, 
and, if he receives only a flesh wound, will demand another 
shot, which will mean another chance to kill you. I will not 
act for you unless you promise me to do your best to kill 
him." Carson promised, and Vance fell mortally wounded. 



21 



Carson's heart was tender, and he died lamenting that the 
demands of an imperious custom had forced him to wreck his 
own peace of mind, in order to save the honor of his family 
and remove the reproach upon his name. 

The oldest son of Colonel Carson, Joseph McDowell Oar- 
son, was a prominent lawyer, and represented Rutherford 
county in the Convention of 1835, and frequently in the Leg- 
islature. He was the grandfather of Captain Joseph Mills of 
Burke and of Mrs. Frank Coxe of Asheville, as well as of 
Ralph P. Carson, a prominent lawyer of South Carolina. 

One of the Daughters of "Hunting John" married a Whit- 
son, and her descendants for a century have been honored citi- 
zens of McDowell and Buncombe counties. One of them 
married the only daughter of Samuel P. Carson. Joseph 
McD. Burgin of Old Fort, a son of General Alney Burgin, 
who bore the message to Vance, is another of his worthy de- 
scendants, and the accomplished daughter of Captain Burgin 
is the wife of the golden-tongued orator of the West, Hon. 
Locke Craig. 

Colonel William Carson, second son of Mrs. Mary Moffitt 
Carson and J. Logan Carson, third son of her marriage with 
Colonel John Carson, both lived and died on one of the farms 
known as Pleasant Gardens. William married twice, and 
amongst his descendants are many prominent men and esti- 
mable and accomplished ladies. William Carson Ervin of 
Morganton is a grandson of William Carson, and J. L. Car- 
son was the grandfather of Mrs. W. McD. Burgin and Mrs. 
P. J. Sinclair of Marion. C. Manly McDowell is the 



22 



i" ^ Sheriff of Burke county, and her most popular citizen. He 

' ^ is a son of Colonel James CI S'. McDowell of the Fifty-fourth 

; ^ ISTorth Carolina, who fell at Marye's Heights, and the grand- 

; "^1 son of Captain Charles, son of General Charles and of Annie, 

^ daughter of Joseph of Pleasant Gardens and Mary Moffitt. 

*s^ William Walton, a grandson of Colonel James and a gradu- 

t'X ' ^ ate of the University, won a commission as Lieutenant in the 

('^ \ Philippines by his gallantry and good conduct, and, thanks 

"V"^ to his university training, stood the examination for the regii- 

' ^v '^ lai" army. 

\vA. TPTE PKJESENT CONDITION OF THESE OLD HOMES. 

li ^ C^s. The saoredness of home to all of us is born of its associa- 
' 4 VA^^°^ with loved ones who have entered into our lives. So we 
. ^* 1 {j listen to historical legends which connect homes with people 

, -^W who have won a place in history. 
} ^ d The Quaker Meadows of the Revolutionary era was known 
M '^'k^istorically as the place where patriots rallied and where the 
^ ^ ^ chiefs, under the old Council Oak, laid the foundation stone 
* ' |"''-ti of our independence. Later it was known to visitors as the 
i*^ ^^ home where .Grace Greenlee McDowell dispensed a lavish 
f "^ hospitality to her friends and to the old comrades of her hus- 
"^ \ band. She was known as the cultured woman who (with an 
infant in her arms, the gi'andmother of Mrs. Harriet Espy 
Vance) rode to Eamseur's Mills to nurse her wounded hus- 
band, and who afterwards went into a cave to aid in the 
secret manufacture of powder. To her family she was the 
lovely Christian mother who whispered into infants' ears the 



i 



'^\. J^'ttA ^^ M-'^-e-. 



23 



story of the Cross, and taught her children, growing into 
manhood and womanhood, how, though remote from towns, 
to be cultured ladies and gentlemen. 

It seems sad to those who have inherited the old English 
idea of establishing and maintaining family ancestral homes 
that descend from sire to son for ages, that these old dwell- 
ings have passed into the hands of good people outside of the 
families who founded them. Though their connection with 
family names has ceased, it is a patriotic duty of all who love 
their country and appreciate the blessings of liberty to per- 
petuate the history of these old homes as the scenes of great 
events. I have tried to show that many good and true and 
some great people trace their origin to the founders of these 
homes that in the last century were nurseries of the courage 
and fortitude that carried King's Mountain. 

MRS. C. A. CILLEY, MRS. MARGARET BUSBEE SHIPP, MISS 
MARGARET McDOWELL AND MRS. LEE S. OVERMAN. 

It is not inappropriate to mention a few of the McDowell 
women of to-day who are well known in ISTorth Carolina by 
other names. 

The names of Mrs. O. A. Cilley, Mrs. Margaret Busbee 
Shipp, Miss Margaret McDowell of Morganton and Mrs. Lee 
S. Overman are living representatives of the Pleasant Gar- 
dens and Quaker Meadows stock, who show that the families 
have not degenerated in learning or culture. Mrs. Cilley is 
the great-granddaughter of Charles McDowell and Grace 
Greenlee. Mrs. Shipp is a descendant, one degree further 



24 



removed, of Charles McDowell and Grace Greenlee, and also 
of Joseph McDowell of Pleasant Gardens. Miss Margaret 
McDowell is a great-granddaughter of Joseph McDowell of 
Pleasant Gardens. Mrs. Lee S. Overman is the great-great- 
granddaughter of General Charles McDowell and Grace 
Greenlee. She is the wife of Senator Overman and the 
daughter of the late distinguished Chief Justice Merrimon 
and the niece of Judge James H. Merrimon, the two ahlest 
and most distinguished of the descendants of General Charles 
McDowell. All of these ladies contribute interesting articles 
for the press. Mrs. Shipp is the widow of Lieutenant W. EL 
Shipp, who fell at Santiago. JSTorth Carolina is proud of 
him as a son and the nation of his career as a soldier. 













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THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina, — Quaker Meadows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Vv''alter Sikes. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

ITie Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr, W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 
Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 
Governor Thomas Pollock, 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
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Address MISS MARY HTLLIARD HINTON, 

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EDITORS : 
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VOL. IV AUGUST, 1904 No. 4 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER I 
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1904 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

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(Nee Fanny DeBemiere Hooper), 

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Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
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Regent 1902: 
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PREFACE. 



The object of the IToeth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic wom-en who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England, Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mks. D. H. Hill. 



THE CONVENTION OF irss-'eg AND THE FEDERAL CON- 
STITUTION— HILLSBOROUGH AND FAYETTEVILLE. 



By henry groves CONNOR, 
(Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina). 



The General Assembly of Nortli Carolina, at an adjourned 
session in JanuarVj 1787, appointed Governor Caswell, Alex- 
ander Martin, General W. R. Davie, Richard Dohbs Spaight 
and Willie Jones delegates to the Convention which had been 
called to meet at Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, for the pur- 
pose of proposing amendments to the Articles of Confedera- 
tion. Willie Jones and Governor Caswell could not attend, 
and pursuant to the power vested in him the Governor ap- 
pointed Hugh Williamson and William Blount. On the first 
day of the Convention Messrs. Martin, Spaight, Davie and 
Williamson were present. Mr. Blount took his seat June 
20, 1787. After a session of four months, the Convention, 
on September 17, 1787, reported to Congress a plan of gov- 
ernment which, when ratified by nine of the thirteen States, 
was to become "between the States so ratifying the same the 
Constitution of the United States." A government was to 
be organized pursuant to its provisions. The Convention 
adopted a resolution expressing the opinion that, after being 
submitted to Congress, the Constitution should be submitted 
to a convention of delegates chosen in each State by the peo- 



6 



pie thereof "under the recommendation of its Legislature." 
Accompanying the Constitution was an open letter signed hy 
George Washington, President. 

Messrs. Blount, Spaight and Williamson signed the Con- 
stitution in behalf of this State. General Davie left Phila- 
delphia for his home upon the final vote, and before the Con- 
stitution was prepared to be signed. Mr. Martin was also at 
home, as we learn from a letter to Governor Caswell, in 
which he says that he is compelled to be at Salisbury Supe- 
rior Court. He further says : "My absence may, I think, 
be the more easily dispensed with when I have the pleasure 
to inform your Excellency the Deputation from the State of 
ITorth Carolina' have generally been unanimous on all great 
questions." In the same letter he explains to the Governor 
the reason why he has not had "particular information re- 
specting the Convention," etc. On September 18, 1787, 
Messrs. Blount, Spaight and Williamson sent to the Governor 
an interesting letter regarding the several parts of the Con- 
stitution in which the State was specially interested. 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Conven- 
tion, the proposed Constitution was submitted to the Legis- 
latures of the several States. On ISTovember 21, 1787, the 
Governor sent to the Legislature of North Carolina a message 
with certain "Papers respecting the Federal Convention." 
The two Houses of the General Assembly fixed the 5th of 
December as "a time at which they will enter on the impor- 
tant business of the Federal Constitution." On that day a 
message was sent to the Senate by the House announcing that 



they were ready to meet in conference "on this business in 
the Commons room immediately." The Senate being ready, 
the two Houses met in conference and resolved themselves 
into a Committee of the Whole "to take into consideration the 
proposed Federal Constitution." The Committee, after some 
debate, adjourned, reporting progress. On the next day the 
Committee again met and adopted a series of resolutions rec- 
ommending that a Convention be called for the purpose of 
"deliberating and determining on the said Constitution," etc. 
Provision was made for the election of five delegates for each 
county and one from each borough town. The third Mon- 
day of July, 1Y88, was fixed as the time of meeting. The 
place was afterwards agreed upon at Hillsborough. The 
Convention was also authorized to fix upon a place for the 
Capital of the State. The delegates were elected on the last 
Friday and Saturday in March, 1788. 

Upon the adjournment of the Philadelphia Convention, the 
friends and opponents of the new Constitution began a spir- 
ited and, in some States, a bitter controversy in regard to 
its merits, etc. The conditions are well described by Mr. 
Fiske. He says : "And now there ensued such a war of pam- 
phlets, broadsides, caricatures, squibs and stump speeches .as 
had never yet been seen in America. Cato and Aristides, 
Cincinnatus and Plain Truth were out in full force. What 
was the matter with the old Confederation ? asked the Anti- 
Federalists. Had it not conducted a glorious and successful 
war ? Had it not set us free from the oppression of En- 
gland ? That there was some trouble now in the country 



could not be denied, but all would be right if people would 
only curb their extravagance, wear homespun clothes and obey 
the laws. There was government enough in the country 
already. The Philadelphia Convention ought to be distrusted. 
Some of its members had opposed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence," etc. Complaint was made that Hamilton and 
Madison were "mere boys," while Franklin was an "old 
dotard," a man in his second childhood. Washington, they 
said, was "doubtless a good soldier, but what did he know 
about politics ?" Some went so far as to say that he was a 
"born fool." 

Thomas Iredell, in a letter to his brother, May 22, 1788, 
says that "Mr. Allen read me a part of a letter he received 
from a gentleman of his acquaintance, who mentions a con- 
versation he had with General Person, the substance of which 
was 'that General Washington was a damned rascal and trai- 
tor to his country for putting his hand to such an infamous 
paper as the new Constitution.' " 

"Letters from a Federalist Farmer," by Richard Henry 
Lee, pointed out that the author saw "seeds of an aristocracy 
and of centralization" in the Constitution. That it cre- 
ated "a l^ational Legislature in which the vote was to be by 
individuals and not by States." 

Many of those who opposed the proposed Constitution ad- 
mitted the necessity for amendment to the Articles of Con- 
federation, but saw in the new plan danger to the integrity 
of the States and the destruction of local self-government. 
The defenders of the Constitution ^vere by no means silent 



or idle. Hamiltan, Madison and Jay published over the name 
"Publius" a series of essays explaining and defending the 
Constitution, which, when bound in a volume, were known 
as "The Federalist." Mr. Lodge says: "The 'Federalist' 
throughout the length and breadth of the United States did 
more than anything else that was either written or spoken 
to secure the adoption of the new scheme." Mr. Fiske says: 
"The essays were widely and eagerly read and probably ac- 
complished more toward insuring the adoption of the new 
Constitution than anything else that was said or done in the 
eventful year." Mr. McRee, in his "Life of Judge Iredell," 
which Mr. Bancroft says "for instruction is an invaluable 
work," says : "Contemporaneous with the meeting of the Con- 
vention at Philadelphia, the two great parties into which the 
people were divided began to be known as 'Federalist' and 
'Anti-Federalist,' or 'Republican.' The former in favor of 
a more intimate union of the States, and fully prepared to 
receive the new plan of government; the latter either content 
with the Confederation, or content to submit to slight or par- 
tial amendments alone." William Dickson, a very intelli- 
gent and observant man, living in Duplin County, gives us- 
a very clear and interesting description of conditions in the 
State. On N'ovember 30, 1787, he writes: "During the course 
of the last summer a gTand Convention of delegates from 
the several States were assembled at Philadelphia. The only 
production of their councils which I have yet seen published 
is a Constitution for the United States of America to be 
submitted to the Legislature of each State for their appro- 



10 



bation and concurrence, a copy or a pamphlet of whicli, for 
amusement, I herewitli enclose you. Our General Assem- 
bly for this State are now convened and have it under consid- 
eration. We hear that debate runs high concerning it, also 
the populace in the country are divided in their opinions 
concerning it. For my own part, I am but a shallow poli- 
tician, but there are some parts of it I do not like." 

Judge Iredell published in 1788 an "Answer to Mr Ma- 
son's Objections to the New Constitution," signed "Marcus." 
In this very able paper he states Mr. Mason's objections and 
proceeds to answer them seriatim. This paper was published 
in connection with an "Address to the People," by Mr. Mac- 
laine, signed "Publicola." 

That the "Federalist" was circulated in this State is shown 
by letters referring to it from Davie and Maclaine to Iredell. 
But Iredell was unanimously elected a delegate from 
Edenton to the Convention, Davie secured a seat from the 
town of Halifax, and Maclaine, Governor Johnston and 
Spaight were also selected. The election in a large majority 
of the counties showed much hostility to the proposed Con- 
stitution. William Hooper writes Iredell from Hillsborough : 
"I fear those who favor the new Constitution will be far out- 
numbered by their adversaries. The Western Country in 
general is decidedly opposed to it. Mr. Moore and myself 
essayed in vain for a seat in the Convention. Our sentiments 
had transpired before the election." Maclaine writes that 
while he hears that many of the people are changing their 
opinions in favor of the Constitution, that it is not very good 



11 



sign that snch men as General Allen Jones, William Blonnt, 
Mr. Hooper, Mr. Moore, General Martin and Jndge Wil- 
liams have been rejected 

The Convention met in the Presbyterian Church at Hills- 
borough on July 21, 1788, with two hundred and eighty-four 
members. Governor Johnston, although a strong supporter 
of the Constitution, was unanimously elected President. Mr. 
John Himt and Mr. Joseph Taylor were elected Secretaries. 
Among the delegates, besides those named, were John Steele 
of Eowan, "laborious, clear-sighted and serviceable for his 
knowledge of men" ; General Davie, who had won renown 
as a soldier in the Revolutionary War, served many times 
in the Legislature, a man of eminent ability and destined 
for high honors in the service of the State and nation. 

Of James Iredell, Mr. Bancroft says: "Foremost among 
the Federalists, the master mind of the Convention was 
James Iredell, who before he was forty years old was placed 
by Washington on the Supreme Bench of the United States." 
He was at that time thirty-six, and had not before served 
in a parliamentary body. Moore says : "He was as ready in 
debate as he was profound in legal and constitutional knowl- 
edge." 

Archibald Maclaine was a learned and able lawyer and 
ardent patriot, and had rendered eminent service in the Cape 
Fear section in the struggle for independence. He was strong 
in debate, but impatient and at times gave way to a hasty 
temper 

Richard Dobbs Spaight had been a member of the Phila- 



12 



delphia Convention, He was a man of great ability, and 
was afterwards Governor of tlie State 

Among the leaders in the opposition, hj far the most influ- 
ential was Willie Jones of Halifax. Of this remarkable 
man, Mr. McRee says : "Willie Jones was the most influential 
politician in the State. Although democratic in theory, he 
was aristocratic in habits, tastes, pursuits and prejudices; he 
lived sumptuously and wore fine linen ; he raced, hunted and 
played cards. He was proud of his wealth and social posi- 
tion and fastidious in the selection of associates of his family. 
A patriot in the Revolution, he was now the acknowledged 
head of a great party. * * * Jje -^gg a loving and 
cherished disciple of Jefferson, and was often taunted with 
his subserviency to Virginia "abstractions.' He seldom shared 
in discussions. His time for action was chiefly during the 
hours of adjournment; then it was that he stimulated the 
passions, aroused the suspicions and moderated the ardor of 
his followers ; then it was that, smoking his pipe and chatting 
of ploughs, stock, dogs, etc., he stole his way into the hearts of 
honest farmers and erected there thrones for himself." 

Judge Spencer, of Anson, was probably the ablest debater 
in the ranks of the opponents. He spoke more frequently 
and at greater length than any other on that side. While 
he strongly advocated guarantees against apprehended dan- 
gers, he recognized the necessity for a stronger and closer 
union of the States. His temper was good and his language 
moderate. 

Timothy Bloodworth was one of the most interesting men 



13 



in the body. McRee says of him : "By no means one of the 
least among them, he was one of the most remarkable men of 
that era, distinguished for the versatility of his talents and 
his practical knowledge of men, trades, arts and sciences. 
The child of poverty, diligence and ambition had supplied 
the place of patronage and wealth. Preacher, smith, far- 
mer, doctor, watch-maker, wheelwright and politician. * * 
In the social circle, good-humored, gay and full of racy 
anecdotes, as a politician he was resolute almost to fierceness 
and almost radical in his democracy. He was a member 
of Congress, and United States Senator. 

Dr. Caldwell, a Presbyterian minister, was learned and 
intelligent. Among his people "he discharged the triple func- 
tion of preacher, physician and teacher, and for all these vari- 
ous ofiices his industry and sagacity had so qualified him that 
he had no rival." 

McD'owell had won distinction at the battles of King's 
Mountain and Cowpens. He was a strong man, and always 
spoke with clearness and vigor. "He was throughout his life 
the idol of the people of Western !North Carolina." 

General Thomas Persons strongly supported Willie Jones 
in his opposition to the Constitution. Like him, he spoke 
but seldom. 

Among other names prominent in our State's history were 
Elisha Battle, Stephen Cabarrus, Josiah Collins, John Sit- 
greaves, William Barry Grove, Thomas Owens, Thomas 
Brown, Joseph Winston, John Macon (brother of ISTathaniel), 



14 



William Lenoir, James Kenan, John Branch, Joel Lane, Mat- 
thew Lockes. 

Bancroft says : "The Convention organized itself with tran- 
quility and dignity and proceeded to discuss the Constitu- 
tion clause by clause." MeE.ee says: "A Mr. Robinson at- 
tended as stenographer. The Federalists Avere desirous that 
the debates should be published, trusting that their dissemi- 
nation would produce a salutary change in the opinions of the 
people. At their instance, Iredell and Davie assumed the 
responsibility and care of their publication. The debates 
are to be seen in Elliott's collection, and do so much honor 
to the State and compare so well with the debates on the same 
subject in other States, that no ]S[ortli Carolinian can fail in 
grateful recollection of the energy and industry of the two 
eminent men to whom he is indebted for their preservation." 
They lost money on their publication. The usual Commit- 
tees on Rules and Credentials were appointed and reports 
adopted. The election in Dobbs County was declared invalid 
because of a riot and disturbance, the box being taken away 
by violence. After hearing the proposed Ctinstitution and 
other papers read, Mr. Galloway moved that the Constitution 
be discussed "clause by clause." This was promptly opposed 
by Willie Jones and General Person, both of whom said that 
they supposed evei-y delegate was prepared to vote at once; 
that the condition of the public treasury was such that no more 
expense should be incurred than was necessary. Judge Ire- 
dell said that he was "astonished at the proposal to decide 
immediately, without the least deliberation, a question which 



15 



was perhaps the greatest ever submitted to any body of men." . 
He said that the Constitution was formed after much delibera- 
tion by honest and able men of "probity and understanding" ; 
that ten States had ratified it. He urged with much ability 
and in excellent spirit a full consideration. Mr. Jones said 
that he was prepared to vote and supposed others were, but if 
gentlemen diifered with him he would submit. The Conven- 
tion, without coming to a vote, adjourned The next day, 
upon the suggestion of Mr. Galloway, the members of the Con- 
vention went into Committee of the Whole for the purpose of 
discussing the Constitution, Mr. Elisha Battle presiding, 
Mr. Caldwell submitted some "fundamental rules or princi- 
ples of government" and proposed that the Constitution be 
compared with them. This proposition was rejected as 
impracticable. The preamble being read, Mr. Caldwell at 
once opened the discussion by attacking the language "We the 
People," saying "if they mean by 'We the People' the people 
at large, that he conceived the expression was improper." He 
contended that the delegates who formed the Constitution 
represented the States and had no power to act for "the people 
at large." Mr. Maclaine, admitting that they were "dele- 
gated by the States," insisted that when adopted the Consti- 
tution became the work of the people. General Davie said 
that he was called upon to speak because it was charged that 
the delegates had exceeded their powers, which he denied. 
Judge Iredell came to General Davie's aid, but neither of 
these able men could satisfy the troubled mind of the Presby- 
terian preacher, who, at the conclusion, simply said that "he 



16 



wished to know whj the gentlemen who were delegated by the 
States styled themselves ^We the People' ; that he only wished 
for information." Mr. Taylor, in a remarkably clear and 
forceful manner, expressed the thought of the Anti-Federal- 
ists. He said that by the use of the words "We the people" 
the delegates assumed a power not delegated. "Had they said 
'We the States/ there would have been a federal intention in 
it, but it was clear that a consolidation was intended." He 
said that he was "astonished that the servants of the Legisla- 
ture of North Carolina should go to Philadelphia and instead 
of speaking of the State of North Carolina should speak of 
the people. I wish to stop power as soon as possible." Mr. 
Maclaine expressed "astonishment" at the objection. He 
showed impatience by referring to it as "trifling," but the 
hard-headed Scotch preacher mildly said that he "only 
wished to know why they had assumed the name of the peo- 
ple." 

Although, during the century or more that has passed since 
these men in Hillsborough, Patrick Henry and Greorge Mason 
in Virginia, and others who were inquisitive in regard to the 
use of the expression, demanded an answer to their question, 
high debate, learned discussion and long treatises have been 
had and written, and grim war has played its part in the 
argument, it has not been answered satisfactorily to the 
minds of men like Mr. Caldwell. It certainly was not 
answered to the satisfaction of Willie Jones and his discci- 
ples. 

The first section of article one, vesting all legislative power 



17 



in Congress, was read and passed over with but little discns- 
sion, Mr. Maclaine making some observations in regard to 
biennial elections. Mr. Shepherd remarked that he could 
see no propriety in the friends of the Constitution making 
objections when none were made by the opponents, where- 
upon Mr. Jones said that he would suggest that one of the 
friends of the measure make objections and another answer. 
General Davie said that he hoped personal reflections v\'ould 
be avoided as much as possible, that he was sorry to see so 
much impatience "so early in the business." Mr. Jones 
made no reply and said nothing until the end of the discus- 
sion. Mr. Bloodworth spoke for the first time, saying that 
any gentleman had a right to make, objections, and that he 
was sorry to hear reflections made. 

The satus of negroes in making up the basis for represen- 
tation was discussed by Mr. Groudy, who "did not wish to be 
represented with negroes." General Davie said that they 
were an unhappy species of population, but they could not 
then alter their situation ; that the Eastern States were jealous 
in regard to giving the Southern States representation for 
their slaves. He expressed the hope that the gentleman from 
Guilford "would accommodate his feelings to the interest 
and circumstances of his country." Mr. Spaight and Gov- 
ernor Johnston spoke with much good sense and temper. 

"The sole power of impeachment" conferred upon the 
House of Representatives was objected to and fears were 
expressed that it might be construed to include the impeach- 
ment of State officers. Judge Iredell and Governor Johnston 



18 



fully answered the arguments of Mr. Bloodworth and Mr. 
Taylor, while Mr. Maclaine referred to them as "silly." 

Mr. Cabarrus and Judge Iredell discussed the term of 
Senators, and explained the reason why they were fixed at 
six years The sixth section, or clause, gave rise to an acri- 
monious debate, in which Mr. Maclaine referred to the objec- 
tions as displaying "horrid ignorance." Mr. Taylor said : 
"If all are not of equal ability with the gentleman, he ought 
to possess charity towards us and not lavish such severe 
reflections upon us in such a declamatory manner." This 
brought from the rather impatient gentleman a prompt ex- 
pression of regret, etc. Mr. Bloodworth observed that he 
was obliged to the gentleman for his construction, but ex- 
pressed the apprehension that the same construction might 
not be put upon the clause by Cbngress. He said were he to 
go to Congress, he would put that construction on it. ]^o 
one could say what construction Congress would put on it. 
"I do not distrust him, but I distrust them. I wish to leave 
no dangerous latitude of construction." 

/ The first clause of the fourth section being read, Judge 
/ Spencer spoke for the first time, expressing apprehension that 
I the power given to Congress to fix the time, place and manner 
of holding elections for members of Congress did away with 
the right of the people to elect their representatives every 
two years. He wished the matter explained. Governor 
Johnston frankly said : "I confess that I am a very great 
admirer of the new Constitution, but I cannot comprehend the 
reason of this part." After some discussion, he said that 



19 



every State which had recommended amendments had given 
directions that the provision be removed, and he hoped that 
this State would do the same. Judge Spencer here spoke at 
some length with force and in excellent spirit. He admitted 
that the Constitution had a "great deal of merit in it." He 
thought this clause "reprehensible." "It apparently looks 
forward to a consolidation of the government of the United 
States, when the State Legislatures may entirely decay away." 
He regarded the State governments as the "basis of our hap- 
piness, security and prosperity." Mr. Iredell said that he 
was "glad to see so much candor and moderation. The 
liberal sentiments expressed by the honorable gentleman" 
commanded his respect. He proceeded to show that this 
power given to Congress was "both necessary and useful to 
the continued existence of the government," but conceded that 
great jealousy existed in regard to it, saying: "I should, 
therefore, not object to the recommendation of an amendment 
similar to that of other States, that this power in Congress 
should only be exercised when a State Legislature neglected 
or was disabled from making the regulation required." 
After other remarks by several delegates, General Davie made 
an extended argument in defense of the power, to which Mr. 
Caldwell remarked "those things which can be and may be," 
protesting strongly against the clause. Mr. Maclaine entered 
the list with the somewhat testy observation that the objection 
made by the reverend gentleman from Guilford "astonished 
him more than anything he had heard. After making some 
criticisms -upon references to the history of England, he con- 



20 



eluded : "It cannot be supposed that tlie representatives of our 
general government will be worse than the members of our 
State government. Will we be such fools as to send nnr 
greatest rascals to the general government ?" Mr. James Gal- 
loway and Mr. Bloodworth spoke strongly against the clause, 
while Mr. Steele, speaking for the first time, presented the 
other side with great clearness and power. Among other 
things, he said : "If the Congress make laws inconsistent with 
the Constitution independent judges will not enforce them, 
nor will the people obey them." The debate on this clause 
elicited more learning and ability than any which preceded 
it, the opposition getting rather the better of the argument. 
/ The clause empowering Congress "to lay and collect taxes, 
/ duties, imposts,"- etc., elicited considerable debate. Mr. 
Spencer opened the discussion, expressing apprehension that 
the extensive power conferred upon Congress would deprive 
the States of any source of revenue. The Anti-Federalists 
insisted that Congress should "not have power to levy taxes 
in the first instance, but should apply to the States, and in 
case of refusal then direct taxation shall take place." The 
friends of the Constitution contended that direct taxation 
would not be necessary ; that custom duties and excise taxes 
would meet the ordinary expenses of the government. Gov- 
ernor Johnston led in the debate for the Federalists, aided by 
a strong speech by Mr. Hill, who spoke for the first time. 
Mr. Iredell spoke briefly. 

Mr. McDowell objected to the clause regarding the impor- 
tation of slaves and the power conferred upon Congress to 



21 



restrict it after the year 1808. Mr. Spaight, who was a 
member of the Philadelphia Convention, explained that this 
section was the result of a compromise. Mr. Iredell said if i 
it were practicable it would give him the gTeatest pleasure to \ 
put an end to the importation of slaves immediately. He ^ 
said : "^^^len the entire abolition of slavery takes place it will 
be an event that must be pleasing to every generous mind and 
every friend of human nature ; but we often wish for things 
that are not attainable." Mr. Galloway was not satisfied 
with the explanation. He said: "I wish to see the abomin- 
able trade put an end to." In conclusion, he asked the oft- 
repeated, never-answered question : ''I apprehend it means to 
bring forward manumission. If we manumit our slaves, 
what country shall we send them to ? It is impossible for us 
to be happy if, after manumission, they are to stay among us." 
With a few explanatory remarks, this ended, for the time, ; 
the discussion. Whether it will be ended in "the tide of \ 
time" is one of the unsolved problems — unanswered questions. J 

When the second article, without further discussion, was 
reached. General Davie, evidently understanding the tactics 
of Willie Jones and his followers, expressed his astonishment 
at the "precipitancy with which the Convention was proceed- 
ing." Mr, Taylor thought it a waste of time to make trivial 
objections. 

The several clauses in regard to the manner of electing the 
President and the powers conferred upon him were read and 
debated at considerable length, Mr. Iredell making an able and 
exhaustive defense of the mode of election, etc. The power to 



22 



make treaties with the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senate, 
was strongly objected to by Mr. Spencer and Mr. Bloodworth 
and defended by General Davie and Mr. Iredell. 

The article establishing and defining the jurisdiction of the 
Federal judiciary gave rise to a spirited and able discussion. 
The strong men on both sides took part, putting forth their 
best efforts. Judge Spencer opened the discussion, stating 
very clearly his objections to the article. He thought the 
I jurisdiction conferred upon the Federal courts too extensive ; 
that they would absorb the power of the State courts, leaving 
them nothing to do. He well understood the tendency of 
courts to extend by construction and implication their juris- 
diction. He objected that men would be taken long distances 
from their homes to attend upon the courts, and there would 
be a borde of officers. He said : "If we consider nothing but 
the article of taxation, duties and excises, and the laws which 
might be made with reference to these, the cases will be almost 
infinite." He strongly protested because of the absence of any 
provision requiring trial by jury in civil cases. In the course 
of this discussion the objection tliat the Constitution contained 
no Bill of Rights was first made. Judge Spenoer said: 
"There ought to be a Bill of Eights in order that those in 
power may not step over the boundary between the powers of 
government and the rights of the people." He was strongly 
supported by Mr. Bloodworth and Mr. McDowell. The 
friends of the Constitution joined in defending it and answer- 
ing the objections. Judge Iredell, General Davie and their 
supporters were at their best, and Judge Iredell frankly 



23 



said: "I am by no means surprised at the anxiety which 
is expressed by gentlemen on this subject. Of all the trials 
that ever were instituted in the world, this, in my opin- 
ion, is the best, and that which I hope will continue the 
longest." He thought the right sufficiently guarded. The 
seventh amendment to the Constitution not only vindicated 
the wisdom, but removed the objection of Judge Spencer 
and his associates. 

To the demand for a Bill of Rights, it was answered by 
Judge Iredell and General Davie that, as our government 
was based upon the principle that all political power was 
vested in the people^, and that the government possessed only 
such as was expressly gTanted, it was unnecessary and would 
be incongTuous tO' have a declaration or Bill of Rights. That 
in this respect our government essentially differed from the 
English, wherein all power was vested in the King and the 
people possessed only such rights as were expressly granted \ 
them. Theoretically, Iredell was correct, but practically and | 
in tlie light of the struggle for the protection and preservation \ 
of civil and religious liberty, Bloodworth and Spencer were | 
right in demanding that nothing, in this respect, be left to | 
"mere construction or opinion." Bloodworth said: "I still 
see the necessity of a Bill of Rights. Gentlemen use con- 
tradictory arguments on this subject, if I recollect right. 
Without the most express restrictions. Congress may trample 
on your rights. Every possible precaution ought to be taken 
when we grant powers. Rulers are always disposed to abuse 
them." Mr. Bass, who spoke but once, said that he considered 



24 



tlie Constitution neither necessary nor proper ; that gentlemen 
of the law differed about its meaning; that he could not 
understand it, although he had taken great pains to do so, 
and flattered himself with the possession of common sense 
and reason. He said that from the contrariety of opinion, he 
thought "the thing was uncommonly difficult or absolutely 
unintelligible." He apologized for his ignorance by observ- 
ing "that he never went to school, and was bom blind." He 
wished for information. 

In regard to the fourth article there was no discussion, Mr. 
Iredell simply observing that the expression "persons held to 
service or labor" was used because the l^orthern delegates 
had scruples on' the subject of slavery and objected to the 
use of the word slave. 

Article five, in regard to the manner of making amend- 
ments, was passed over without discussion. 

Section two of article six elicited much discussion. Mr, 
Iredell said that the declaration that the Constitution and 
laws of the United States should be the supreme law of the 
land was no more than saying "that when we adopt the gov- 
ernment we will maintain and obey it." Mr. Bloodworth 
said this explanation was not satisfactory to him; that it 
seemed to him to "sweep off all Constitutions of the States." 
/ Just here was the pivotal point upon which the Federalists 

/ and Anti-Federalists differed in regard to the kind of Con- 
\ . . . . *" . 

stitution they desired. One side saw in the supremacy of the 

national government the destruction of the States ; the other 

side recognized it as essential to the maintenance of the 



25 



Union. The question of ultimate sovereignty, ultimate allegi- 
ance remained open until settled by a four years' bloody war, 
resulting in amendments to tbe Constitution. Mr. Blood- 
worth touched the sensitive point and expressed the appre- 
hensions of Southern men by saying: "The ISTortbern States 
are much more populous than the Southern ones. To the 
north of the Susquehanna there are thirty-six representatives 
and to the south only twenty-nine. They will always out- 
vote us." In the same connection he stated the fears and 
feelings of his people on another then vital question. "We 
ought to be particular in adopting a Constitution which may 
destroy our currency, when it is to be the supreme law of the 
land and prohibits the emission of paper money." Mr. Ban- 
croft says of Timothy Blogdworth, that "as a preacher he 
abounded in offices of charity ; as a politician, dreaded the 
subjection of Southern to Northern interests." He says of 
this State, "towards the general government it was a delin- 
quent, and it had not yet shaken from itself the bewildering 
influence of paper money." 

There was grave apprehension that the then existing pub- 
lic and private debts would be made payable in gold and 
silver. Much was said about assigning securities to citizens 
of other States and suits being brought in the Federal courts. 
Mr. Cabarrus made a strong speech showing that this could 
not be done, and Mr. Galloway called attention to the fact 
that our securities were at a low ebb ; that they were taken as 
specie and "hung over our heads as contracts." If Congress 



26 



should make a law requiring them to he paid in specie, they 
would be purchased by speculators at a trifling cost. General 
Davie said that no such construction could be put upon that 
clause. 

A very singular and spirited discussion arose over the clause 
prohibiting religious tests for holding office. Mr. Abbott had 
grave fear that the Pope of Rome might become President; 
while Mr. Caldwell thought there was danger that ''Jews 
and heathens" would accept the invitation to come here and 
"change the character of our government." Some said that 
under the power to make treaties Congress might make a 
treaty "engaging with some foreign powers to adopt the 
Roman Catholic- religion in the United States" ; that all sorts 
of infidels "could obtain office/' and that "the Senators and 
Representatives might be all pagans." Mr. Iredell said: 
"Nothing is more desirable than to remove the scruples of 
any gentleman on this interesting subject. Those concerning 
religion are entitled to particular regard." He spoke at length 
and with much ability. Among other things, he said : "There 
is a danger of a jealousy which it is impossible to satisfy. 
Jealousy in a free government ought to be respected, but it 
may be carried to too gTeat an extent." He said that he had 
seen a pamphlet that morning in which the author stated as a 
very serious danger that the Pope of Rome might be elected 
President. With the only language approaching humor, 
coming from this virtuous, wise and thoroughly good man, 
he remarks: "I confess this never struck me before." In 
response to a request from Mr. Abbott he gave an interesting 



2Y 



history of the various forms of oaths. Judge Spencer agreed) 
with Judge Iredell in regard to this question, and said that 
he wished that every other part of the Constitution "was as 
good and proper." 

The reading and discussion of each clause of the Constitu- 
tion being completed, Governor Johnston moved that the com- 
mittee, having fully deliberated, etc., report that though cer- 
tain amendments may be wished for, that they be proposed 
subsequent to the ratification and that the committee recom- 
mend that the Convention do ratify the Constitution. This 
motion precipitated a general discussion, opened by Mr. 
Lenoir, who charged that the delegates who were commis- 
sioned to amend the Articles of Confederation "proposed to 
annihilate it." He reviewed its different parts, and in con- 
clusion said: "As millions yet unborn are concerned and 
deeply interested, I would have the most positive and pointed 
security." He urged that amendments be proposed before 
ratification. The discussion continued until July 31st, sev- 
eral delegates, who had not theretofore spoken, taking part. 
At the conclusion of quite a long speech by Mr. Lancaster, 
Mr. Willie Jones said that he was against ratifying in the 
manner proposed. He had, he said, attended with patience 
to the debate. "One party said the Constitution was all per- 
fection; the other said it wanted a great deal of perfection." 
For his part, he thought so. After some furher remarks he 
moved the previous question be put, upon a resolution which 
he held, expressing a purpose, if carried, to introduce certain 
amndments which he held in his hand. Governor Johnston 



28 



begged the gentleman to remember that the proposed amend- 
ments could not be laid before the other States unless we 
ratified and became a part of the Union. Mr. Iredell wished 
the call for the previous question should be withdrawn. Mr. 
Jones declined to withdraw it. He said the argument had 
been listened to attentively, but he believed no person had 
changed his opinion. Mr. Person and Mr. Shepherd sus- 
tained Mr. Jones. General Davie, referring to a remark 
reflecting upon the minority, said that "the gentleman from 
Granville had frequently used ungenerous insinuations, and 
had taken miuch pains out of doors to incite the minds of 
his countrymen against the Constitution. He called upon 
gentlemen to act openly and above-board, adding that a con- 
trary conduct on this occasion was extremely despicable." 
He criticised the call for the previous question and pointed 
out the danger of a conditional ratification. Mr. Jones said 
that he had not intended to take the House by surprise. He 
had no objection to adjourning but his motion would still be 
before the House. "Here there was a great cry for the ques- 
tion." "Mr. Iredell (the cry for the question still continu- 
ing) : Mr. Chairman, I desire to be heard notwithstanding the 
cry of ^the question' — ^the question.' Gentlemen have no 
right to prevent any member from speaking to it if he thinks 
proper. Unimportant as I am myself, my constituents are as 
respectable as those of any member of this House." He con- 
tinued speaking with much spirit and ability. At the conclu- 
sion of his speech the previous question was ordered by a 
majority of 99. On the next day the debate continued with 



29 



much spirit, as to whether the Committee would recommend 
adoption suggesting amendments, or postpone adoption until 
amendments were made. Governor Johnston led in the dis- 
cussion. Mr. Willie Jones in his reply gave out the plan 
which he, as the leader of the majority, had mapped out in 
advance. Said he: "As great names have been mentioned, I 
beg leave to mention the authority of Mr. Jefferson, whose 
abilities and respectability are well known. When the Con- 
vention sat in Richmond, Virginia, Mr. Madison received a 
letter from him. In that letter he said he wished nine States 
would adopt it, not because it deserved ratification, but to 
preserve the Union. But he wished the other four States 
would reject it, that there might be a certainty of obtaining 
amendments." Mr. Jones, conceding that it would take 
eighteen months to adopt amendments, said : "For my part, I 
would rather be eighteen years out of the Union than adopt 
it in its present defective form." Mr. Spencer concurred ^^ 
with Mr. Jones. It was now evident that the end was draw- \ 
mg near and the result certain. Judge Iredell and General ' 
Davie made one last appeal to save the Constitution, but 
Willie Jones and General Person were the victors. The- 
Committee rose and made its report to the Convention. 

On Friday, August 1, 1788, the Convention met. 1/Lt. 
Iredell arose and said: "I believe, sir, all debate is now at 
an end. It is useless to contend any longer against a major- 
ity that is irresistible. We submit, with the deference that 
becomes us, to the decision of a majority ; but myself and my 
friends are anxious that something may appear on the Jour- 



30 



nal to show our sentiments on the subject," He then offered 
a resolution which he had in his hand, and moved that the 
consideration of the report of the Committee be postponed 
in order to take up the resolution, which he read and delivered 
to the Clerk. Mr. McDowell and others most strongly ob- 
jected to the motion. They thought it improper, unprece- 
dented and a great contempt of the voice of the majority. 
Mr. Iredell defended his motion and was supported by Mr. 
fMaclaine and Mr. Spaight. Mr. Jones and Mr. Spencer 
insisted that the motion was irregular. They said that he 
could protest. General Davie criticised the course of the 
majority. After a warm discussion, it was agTeed that Judge 
Iredell withdraw his motion that the resolution of the Com- 
mittee be entered on the Journal, which had not been done. 
The resolution of the Committee of the Whole was then read 
and entered as follows: 

"Eesolved, That a declaration of rights, asserting and 
securing from encroachment the great principles of civil and 
religious liberty, and the unalienable rights of the people, 
together with amendments to the most ambiguous and excep- 
tionable parts of the Constitution of government, be laid be- 
fore Congress and the Convention of the States that shall or 
may be called for the purpose of amending the said Consti- 
tution, for their consideration previous to the ratification of 
the Constitution aforesaid on the part of the State of North 
Carolina." 

Then followed a Bill of Rights containing the essential 
principles of the Bill of Eights contained in our State Con- 



31 



stitution, with twenty-six proposed amendments to the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Spencer moved that the report of the Committee be \ 
concurred in. Mr. Iredell again endeavored to get a vote \ 
upon his resolution. "This gave rise to a very warm alter- i 
cation on both sides, during which the House was in great 
confusion," Mr. Willie Jones, Mr. Spaight and Mr. Hill tak- 
ing part The latter "spoke with great warmth and declared 
that, in his opinion, if the majority persevered in their tyran- 
nical attempt the minority would secede." After some fur- 
ther discussion, the motion of Mr. Spencer was withdrawn, 
whereupon Mr. Iredell offered his resolution, which ratified 
the Constitution, and offered certain amendments, which was 
defeated by a majority of one hundred. The Convention 
adjourned for the day. 

On Saturday, August 2, 1788, the Convention, by a vote 
of 184 to 84, adopted the report of the Committee, which was 
a practical rejection of the Constitution. Eleven States hav- 
ing, at this time, ratified the Constitution, the organization 
of the new government was assured. ]^orth Carolina was, 
upon the dissolution of the Confederation, a sovereign, inde- 
pendent republic, having no federal relations with other 
States. Her political orgariism was intact and in full vigor. 
She therefore took no part in the first election or the organiza- 
tion of the new government. 

At the session of 1788 (ISTovember I7th) the Legislature 
adopted a resolution calling a "]^ew Convention" for the 
"purpose of reconsidering the new Constitution held out by 



32 



the Federal Constitution as a government of the United 

States." Provision was made for holding an election in each 
county, at which three, instead of five, delegates were to be 
elected, each borough town to send one. Fayetteville was 
named as the place and the third Monday in November, 
1Y89, the time for holding the Convention. Of the leaders 
in the first Convention, Governor Johnston, General Davie, 
John Steele, Judge Spencer, Bloodworth, McDowell, Cabar- 
rus, Thomas Person, Mr. Goudy were present. Judge Ire- 
dell was not a candidate for a seat in the Convention. 
Neither Willie Jones, Archibald Maclaine or Richard Dobbs 
Spaight were members. Dr. Hugh Williamson was a mem- 
ber. The Legislature being in session at Fayetteville on the 
day appointed for the meeting of the Convention, took a 
recess or adjournment during its session. Several gentlemen 
were members of both bodies. 

The Convention organized by electing Governor Johnston 
President and Charles Johnston Vice-President. The sec- 
retaries who served the first Convention were elected. After 
the organization, Mr. Williamson introduced a resolution 
ratifying the Constitution. This being objected to, the Con- 
vention went into Committee of the Whole, Mr. John B. 
Ashe presiding. The resolution of Mr. Williamson, together 
Math all papers relating to the new Constitution, were re- 
ferred to the Committee. After some discussion, on Novem- 
ber 20th the Committee reported to the Convention that it 
"had gone through the reading of the Constitution, or plan 
of government, and had come to a resolution thereon." On 



33 



the 21st day of November, General Davie moved that the 
Convention concur in the resolution. Mr. Galloway objected 
and offered a resolution reciting that although the amend- 
ments proposed by Congress "embrace in some measure, when 
adopted, the object this State had in view in a Bill of Eights 
and many of the amendments proposed by the last Conven- 
tion, and although union with our sister States is our most 
earnest desire, yet as some of the great and most exceptional 
parts of the said proposed Constitution have not undergone 
the alterations which were thought necessary by the last Con- 
vention, 

"Resolved, That previous to the ratification in behalf of 
and on the part of the State of i^orth Carolina the following 
amendments be proposed and laid before the Congress, that 
they may be adopted and made a part of the said Constitu- 
tion." 

Following this were four amendments. The resolution 
was rejected by a vote of 82 to 187. The Convention there- 
upon considered the report of the Committee of the Whole. 
"Whereas, the General Convention which met in Philadel- 
phia, in pursuance of a recommendation of Congress, did rec- 
ommend to the citizens of the United States a Constitution, 
or form of government, in the following w^ords (here follows 
the Constitution) ; Resolved, That this Convention, in be-- 
half of the freemen, citizens and inhabitants of the State of 
ISTorth Carolina, do adopt and ratify the said Constitution 
and form of government." General Davie moved the adop- 
tion of the resolution, which motion was, upon a call of the 



34 



members, adopted by a vote of 195 to 77. General Davie 
completed tbe work by moving that the President of the 
Convention transmit to the President of the United States 
a copy of the ratification, etc. Mr. Galloway introduced 
a resolution recommending that certain amendments be sent 
to Congress, which was rejected. It was thereupon ordered 
by the Convention that the resolution offered by Mr. Gallo- 
way be referred to a committee and that the committee pre- 
pare and lay before the Convention such amendments as they 
deemed necessary. General Davie, Mr. Smith, Mr. Gallo- 
way, Mr. Bloodworth, Mr. Stokes and Mr. Spencer were 
named as the committee. The committee, on the next day, 
made a imanimous report recommending certain amendments, 
which was adopted. 

The Convention, after adopting an ordinance giving to 
Fayetteville representation in the General Assembly, and 
thanking the presiding officers "for their able and faithful 
services in the arduous discharge of their duty," adjourned. 
Judge Iredell was not there to witness the successful com- 
pletion of his labors to bring the State into the Union ; nor 
was Maclaine to give the opposition a parting shot. Judge 
Spencer, Mr. Bloodworth and General Person left their tes- 
timony on record, voting at all times against the Constitu- 
tion. 

Ou December 4, 1789, Samuel Johnston, President of the 
Convention, sent a letter to "The President of the United 
States," transmitting the resolution, etc. It was filed Janu- 
ary 12, 1790. The length of this paper precludes any com- 



35 



ments upon the record whicJi it lias undertaken to set out. 
Samuel Johnston was one of the first Senators sent from 
this State. Benjamin Hawkins was his colleague. 

]^ot withstanding the adoption of the Constitution by so 
large a majority, the sentiment of the State in its favor was 
far from unanimous. We get from Mr. Dickson's letters 
a fair view of the way it was regarded by many. He says, 
referring to the Constitution : "I will readily agTee with 
you that a better could not be formed for the United States 
in general. I think it is formed so as to lay the foundation 
of one of the greatest empires now in the world, and from 
the high opinion I have of the illustrious characters who now 
hold the reigns of government, I have no fear of any revolu- 
tion taking place in my day. * * * jj;, -^gg ^ matter 
of necessity rather than choice when the Convention of North 
Carolina received it about twelve months ago. * * * It 
appears to me that the Southern States will not receive equal 
benefit with the I^Torthern States. * * * The Southern 
States will have their vote, but will not be able to carry any 
point against so powerful a party in oases where either gen- 
eral or local interests are objects," etc. 

Governor Lenoir, in a letter to John C. Hamilton, written 
in 1834, says: "Our State had once rejected the Federal 
Constitution and had finally adopted it only as an alternative 
less fatal than absolute severance from the adjoining States. 
Those who had from necessity yielded their objections to the 
new plan of Federal Union still regarded it with great 
jealousy." 



36 



The most serious fears entertained by the people were in 
regard to slavery, which has happily passed away. Time 
adjusted the question of paper money. While the State has 
not kept her relative position in population or wealth, in the 
light of to-day we see in the views and opinions of James 
I Iredell, General Davie, Governor Johnston and those who 
followed them a larger wisdom and clearer view than in Wil- 
lie Jones, Judge Spencer, Timothy Bloodworth and Rev. Mr. 
Caldwell. They all served their day and generation with the 
lights before them, and we are their debtors for faithful ser- 
vice and wise foresight. 



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THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major Wiliiam A. Graham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, Jolm Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. , > 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. ."T 
> Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. ' !' .■• .• ^ <^ f ^ ' 

^ Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

ITie Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 
^ Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

) The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 
^ ^mas P ollock. 

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EDITORS: 
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VOL. IV SEPTEMBER, 1904 No. 5 



THE 



The article on William Hooiper, one of the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, by Mrs. Spier Whitaker, should 
have appeared in this number of the Booklet^ but has neces- 
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1904 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle. LL.D. 
The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Mea,dows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

Eejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 



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VOL. IV SEPTEMBER, 1904 No. 5 



THE 



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OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

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PREFACE. 



The object of the North Cabolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 17 Y4, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mks. D. H. Hill. 




JOHN PENN. 



JOHN PENN. 



BY THOMAS MERRITT PITTMAN. 



"There sounds not to the trump of fame 
The echo of a nobler name." 

American history is rich in examples of men who have 
overcome poverty and humble birth and wrought out for 
themselves enduring fame. Not many have accomplished 
the more difficult task of winning distinction, where high 
station and easy fortune were joined with associations indif- 
ferent to education and contemptuous of intellectual attain- 
ment. We enter the name of John Penn upon the roll of 
those who have achieved the higher honor. 

He was born in Caroline County, Virginia, May 17, 1741. 

His father, Moses Penn, was a gentleman of comfortable 
fortune, but so indifferent to intellectual culture, according 
to Lossing, that he provided his only son no other opportunity 
of acquiring an education than was afforded by two or three 
years' attendance upon a common country school. He died 
when his son was eighteen years of age, and is said to have 
left him the sole possessor of a competent though not large 
estate. 

His mother was Catherine, daughter of John Taylor, one 
of the first Justices of Caroline Cbunty. James Taylor, 
who came from Carlisle, England, about 1635, was the first 



e 



of the family to settle in Virginia. The family was an 
important one and has contributed many able and useful men 
to the public service, including two Presidents of the United 
States^ — James M.adison and Zachary Taylor. Hannis Tay- 
lor, a distinguished son of IsTorth Carolina, John E. McLean 
of Ohio and Mrs. Dewey, wife of Admiral Dewey, are 
among the distinguished members of the family at this time. 
Those members of his mother's family with whom John 
Penn came into closest relations and who most influenced 
his course in life were his cousins, John Taylor of Caroline 
and Edmund Pendleton. The first, nine years his junior, 
is usually spoken of as his grandfather and sometimes as his 
son-in-law — an unusually wide range of kinship. The last 
may be true, since the family records show that he married 
a Penn, but more likely a sister or other relativ.e than a 
daughter of John Penn. It is said in the family that the 
only daughter of John Penn married Ct)lonel Taylor of 
Granville and died without issue. John Taylor of Caroline 
was born in 1Y50, graduated from William and Mary Col- 
lege, studied law under Chancellor jSTathaniel Pendleton, 
served in- the Revolution, was Senator from Virginia in 
1792, 1803 and 1822, and was a writer of much note. One 
of his books won the heartiest commendation of Jefferson 
"as the most logical retraction of our governments to the 
original and true principles of the constitution creating them 
which has appeared since the adoption of that instrument." 
Edmund Pendleton probably contributed more than any other 
to the shaping of young Penn's career. He was born in 



1Y21, and was a scholarly man and able lawyer, of con- 
servative views upon political questions. Jefferson, whom 
he sometimes opposed, says: "He was the ablest man in 
debate I have ever met with. * * * Add to this that 
he was one of the most virtuous and benevolent of men, the 
kindest friend, the most amiable and pleasant of companions, 
which ensured a favorable reception to whatever came from 
him." He was a member of the Continental Congress in 
1774 and 1775, President of the Virginia General Commit- 
tee of Safety. He wrote the preamble and resolutions direct- 
ing the Virginia delegates in Congress to propose to "declare 
the United Colonies free and independent States," was Presi- 
dent of the Convention to consider the Federal Constitution, 
and President of the Virginia Court of Appeals. Upon the 
death of Moses Penn, he gave to his young kinsman, who 
resided near him in the same neighborhood, free use of his 
extensive library, an opportunity that was improved to such 
advantage that the defects of early education were largely 
overcome, and, without teacher or other aid than his own 
industry, young Penn studied law and was admitted to the 
bar of his native county when he reached the age of twenty- 
one years. But it may be inferred from a playful allusion 
of Mr. Iredell, "As Mr. Penn would say 'in nuhihus' (ex- 
tremely uncertain)," that he was sometimes not entirely 
classical. 

Of Mr. Penn as a lawyer, Lossing says: "His practice 
soon developed a native eloquence before inert and unsus- 
pected, and by it, in connection with close application to busi- 



8 



ness, he rapidly soared to eminence. His eloquence was of 
that sweet persuasive kind which excites all the tender emo- 
tions of the soul, and possesses a controlling power at times 
irresistible." 

Mr. Penn remained in Virginia but a few years. In 
1774, while yet a young man of thirty-three years, he came to 
l^orth Carolina and settled near Williamsboro in the northern 
part of Granville County, then the most important place in 
the county. Whatever may have been his attitude towards 
political questions prior to that time, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the intense sentiment of patriotism that 
prevailed in his new home. He soon became as one to the 
'^manner born," and a leader of the people in their great 
crisis. The year after locating in Granville he was sent by 
the inhabitants of that county to represent them in the Pro- 
vincial (Revolutionary) Congress, which met at Hillsboro, 
August 20, 1775. Here he proved himself more than a 
pleasing speaker, and won the cordial recognition of the Con- 
gress. There were a hundred and eighty-four members, yet 
he was appointed on some fifteen or twenty committees, 
nearly all the more imjDortant ones, and his work was extra- 
ordinarily heavy. It will not be amiss to mention a few of 
these committees, with notes of their work: 

(a). To confer with such inhabitants as had political or 
religious scruples about joining in the American cause, and 
secure their co-operation : 

"The religious and political scruples of the Regulators 
were removed by a conference." — Bancroft. 



9 



(b). To form a temporary form of government: 

''This was the most important committee yet appointed by 
popular authority in our annals." — E. A. Alderman^. 

(c). To prepare a civil constitution: 

Mr. Penn was not on this committee at first, but he and 
William Hooper were added. "Before the body, thus com- 
pleted, was fought one of the most desperate party battles to 
be recorded in the civil history of the State." — Jones' De- 
fense. 

Government of the people, for the people and by the peo- 
ple was a new and startling thought in those long-ago days. 
Now any fairly good lawyer can write a whole constitution 
by himself, and would be glad of the job if a good fee went 
with it. Then a Ct)nstitutional Cbnvention had never been 
heard of, and the very idea of independence itself v/as held in 
abeyance, while men wondered what sort of government 
should clothe it. In January, 1776, Mr. Wythe of Virginia 
sat in the chambers of John Adams and the two talked of in- 
dependence. Mr. Wythe thought the greatest obstacle to de- 
claring it was the difficulty of agreeing upon a form of govern- 
ment. Mr. Adams replied that each colony should form a gov- 
ernment for itself, as a free and independent State. He was 
requested to put the views there expressed in writing, which, 
upon his compliance, were published anonymously by R. H. 
Lee, under the title "Thoughts on Government, in a Letter 
from a Gentleman to his Friend." Later the delegates from 
ISTorth Carolina, by direction of the Provincial C'ongTess, 
called on Mr. Adams for advice concerning a form of govern- 



10 



ment for this State. He furnished Mr. Penn, whom he calls 
"my honest and sincere friend," a letter similar to the pam- 
phlet just mentioned. The conformity of the Constitution 
afterwards adopted to this letter in many particulars, shows 
the practical use to which it was put. The letter was after- 
wards given by Mr. Penn to his cousin, John Taylor of Caro- 
line, who used it in his work on the Constitution, much to 
Mr. Adams' surprise, who, apparently ignorant of the rela- 
tions betwen the two, could not account for Taylor's posses- 
sion of his views. 

(d). To review and consider statutes, etc., "and to prepare 
such bills to be passed into laws as might be consistent with 
the genius of a free people" : 

"The fruits of their labors are manifest in the laws passed 
in the years immediately succeeding, laws which have re- 
ceived repeated encomiums for the ability and skill and accu- 
racy with which they are drawn." — Preface to Revised Stat- 
utes. 

Other committees scarcely less important than those named 
required able and laborious service, but the space allotted to 
this paper must exclude them from mention at this time. 

The impress of this stranger, so recently from another 
colony, upon the Congress was something wonderful. On 
September 8, 1775, less than a month from its assembling, 
it elected him to succeed Richard Caswell as delegate to the 
Continental Congress, with William Hooper and Joseph 
Hewes. In this connection it is stated in Jones' Defense 
that he was "a man of sterling integrity as a private citizen. 



11 



and well deserved the honor which was now conferred upon 
him." We learn from Dr. E. A. Alderman also that this 
"was the beginning of a close and tender friendship and 
sympathy between Hooper and Penn in all the trying duties 
of the hour." 

The idea of the province at that time was to secure a 
redress of grievances, not a dissolution of political relations 
with the mother country. Indeed, the Provincial Congress 
declared: "As soon as the causes of our fears and apprehen- 
sions are removed, with joy will we return these powers to 
their regular channels; and such institutions, formed from 
mere necessity, shall end with that necessity that created 
them." But the trend of events was beyond their choosing. 
1^0 accommodation with British authority was practicable. 
The end was inevitable, and Penn was one of the first to real- 
ize tlie true situation. He wrote Thomas Person, his friend 
and countytnan, February 14, 17Y6 : "Matters are drawing 
to a crisis. They seem determined to persevere, and are 
forming alliances against us. Must we not do something of 
the like nature ? Can we hope to carry on a war without hav- 
ing trade or commerce somewhere? Can we even pay any 
taxes without it ? Will [not ?] our paper money depreciate 
if we go on emitting? These are serious things and require 
your consideration. The consequence of making alliances is, 
perhaps, a total separation with Britain, and without some- 
thing of this sort we may not be able to procure what is neces- 
sary for our defense. My first wish is that America be free ; 
the second, that we may be restored to peace and harmony 



12 



with Britain upon just and proper terms." Person was a 
member of the Council. By the advice of that body the Pro- 
vincial Congress was convened on April 4th. On the 7th 
Penn and the other delegates reached Halifax from Phila- 
delphia. On the 8th a committeCj which included Thomas 
Person, was appointed to take into consideration "the usurpa- 
tions and violences attempted and committed by the King 
and Parliament of Britain against America, and the further 
measures to be taken for frustrating the same and for the 
better defense of the Province." This committee reported, 
and the Cong-ress adopted a resolution which empowered the 
delegates to the Continental Congress to "concur with the 
delegates from the other colonies in declaring independence 
and forming foreign alliances." By virtue of this authority 
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and John Penn, in behalf 
of ]^orth Carolina, joined in the execution of the Declara- 
tion of American Independence. Colonel W. L. Saunders 
says : "This was the first authoritative, explicit declaration, 
by more than a month, by any colony in favor of a full, final 
separation from Britain, and the first like expression on the 
vexed question of forming foreign alliances." It may be 
added that both resulted from Mr. Penn's initiative, as just 
shown. It is entirely possible that the influence of Penn 
may have reached across the border and moved his cousin, 
Edmund Pendleton, to follow and improve upon the example 
of ]^orth Carolina, and offer the Virginia resolution direct- 
ing the delegates from that colony to propose a declaration 
of independence. 



13 



The significance of Mr. Penn's action does not fully appear 
to the casual view, but the following letter from John Adams 
to William Plummer throws new light upon the situation : 

"You inquire, in your kind letter of the 19th, whether 
'every member of Congress did, on the 4th of July, 1776, 
in fact cordially approve of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence.' 

"They who were then members all signed, and, as I could 
not see their hearts, it would be hard for me tO' say that they 
did not approve it; but as far as I could penetrate the intri- 
cate internal foldings of their souls, I then believed, and 
have not since altered my opinion, that there were several 
who signed with regret, and several others with many doubts 
and much lukewarmness. The measure had been upon the 
carpet for months, and obstinately opposed from day to day. 
Majorities were constantly against it. For many days the 
majority depended on Mr. Hewes of I^orth Carolina. While 
a member one day was speaking and reading documents from 
all the colonies to prove that the public opinion, the general 
sense of all was in favor of the measure, when he came to 
]^orth Carolina, and produced letters and public proceedings 
which demonstrated that the majority of that colony were in 
favor of it, Mr. Hewes, who had hitherto constantly voted 
against it, started suddenly upright, and lifting up both his 
hands to Heaven, as if he had been in a trance, cried out: 'It 
is done, and I will abide by it!' I would give more for a 
perfect painting of the terror and horror upon the faces of 
the old majority at that critical moment than for the best 



14 



piece of Raphael." 'But for the action of the jSTorth Carolina 
Congress it is extremely doubtful if Mr. Hewes could have 
been induced to support the measure. Mr. Hooper was de- 
tained at home ; so upon a vote at that time jSTorth Carolina's 
vote must have been against the measure, and independence 
at least delayed. 

It is not to be ignored that the first delegates to the Con- 
tinental Congress — ^Hooper, Hewes and Caswell — were from 
the east, "and had not ceased to regard the Regulators 
* * as red-handed traitors," while Penn must be classed as 
a representative of the Regulator element. He was the friend 
of Person and was not cordially esteemed by Caswell, pos- 
sibly because of that intimacy. Caswell in a letter to Burke 
characterizes "Person as "more troublesome this Assembly, if 
possible, than formerly." Hooper, Hewes and the men of 
their party were for what we call the aristocracy, for want 
of a better name. They "were in favor of a splendid gov- 
ernment, representing the property of the people, and thus 
giving by its own independence and splendor a high character 
of dignity to the State." They had not learned the truth 
that men constitute a State. Even Hooper, almost unap- 
proachable in fineness of spirit, in splendor of intellect and 
loyal patriotism, lacked sympathy and faith in the people. 
In consequence, his life was incomplete and his power failed 
at a time when the State had much need of his learning and 
great ability. Penn and Person, with their party, stood for 
the people, and had constant accessions of strength Avith every 
trial of their faith and sympathy. Governor Caswell wrote 



15 



Mr. Burke: "Mr. Harnett * * * I am sure will give 
you his utmost assistance. Mr. Penn has engaged his to the 
Assembly, I am told. Very little conversation passed be- 
tween him and myself on public matters." This cannot have 
been the fault of Penn, for it is of record that he made ad- 
vances for the friendship of Caswell. One after another of 
the delegates to the Continental Cbngress found the burdens, 
expense and hardships of the office too heavy and retired, 
Mr. Penn soon became the senior member from l^orth Caro- 
lina. Others became gloomy and discouraged. Penn, more 
trustful of the people, quietly, steadily, hopefully and uncom- 
plainingly remained at his post and wrote home to Person: 
"For God's sake, my good sir, encourage our people ; animate 
them to dare even to die for their country." 

There can be no doubt that the position of a delegate to 
the Continental Congress was beset with great difficulties. 
Under much more favorable conditions the conflict would 
have been unequal. But situated as the colonies were, the 
outlook was appalling. A government and all its departments 
had to be created outright ; a currency and credit established ; ' 
an army organized — all in the face of an enemy ever ready 
for war. There were also domestic problems that embar- 
rassed the national administration at every step. The Con- 
federation was little more than a rope of sand, and the gov- 
ernment had little power to enforce its policies. In iN^orth 
Carolina the militia were not even available to oppose the 
invasion of Georgia and South Carolina, by which the British 
wonld reach this State, until an act was passed by the Gen- 



16 



eral Assembly authorizing their employment without its bor- 
ders. This is mentioned only to show how serious were 
the problems which perplexed and burdened our delegates 
in the Continental Congress. These delegates also abounded 
in labors wholly foreign to their legislative duties. These 
have been strikingly summarized in Dr. Alderman's address 
on Hooper : "They combined the functions of financial and 
purchasing agents, of commissary-generals, reporters of all 
great rumors or events, and, in general, bore the relation to 
the remote colony of ministers resident at a foreign court. 
* * * They kept the Council of Safety well informed as 
to the progresa of affairs ; they negotiated for clothing and 
supplies for our troops. In the course of only two months 
they expended five thousand pounds in purchasing horses and 
wagons, which they sent to Halifax loaded with every con- 
ceivable thing — from the English Constitution to the wagon- 
er's rum — pamphlets, sermons, cannon, gunpowder, drums 
and pills. They scoured Philadelphia for salt pans and essays 
on salt-making; they haggled over the price of gray mares, 
and cursed the incompetency of slothful blacksmiths whose 
aid they sought." 

Is it any wonder, then, that Hooper resigned and Hewes 
laid down his life in the struggle; that Harnett appealed to 
be relieved, and that nearly every man who passed through 
the trials of the position only reached home to lay down his 
life without even a view of the morning of old age? ISTone 
of these difficulties moved John Penn. His courage and 



11 



hopefulness were invinciblt. But he died while yet a young 
man ! 

The delegates served almost without compensation. A sal- 
ary of sixteen hundred pounds per annum was allowed for a 
time, but the depreciation of the currenqj^ was so great that 
the amount proved wholly inadequate, and it was determined 
to pay their expenses and defer the fixing of compensation 
to a future time. As illustrating the depreciation of the 
money, Iredell wrote in 1780: "They are giving the money 
at the printing-ofiice in so public and careless a manner as to 
make it quite contemptible." 

The scope of this paper does not permit a more detailed 
discussion of his Congressional career. It may be added that 
while he made no conspicuous public display, Mr. Penn's 
services were highly efficient and useful, and entirely accept- 
able to the people he represented. Another distinguished 
honor that fell to him during his congressional career may be 
barely mentioned : with John Williams and Cornelius Har- 
nett, he ratified the Articles of Confederation in behalf of 
l^orth Carolina. 

In 1777 he was appointed Judge of the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer for the Hillsboro District. He questioned the 
legality of the Court and declined the appointment with what 
his associate in the appointment, J. Kitchin, called "inflexible 
obstinacy." But Samuel Johnston in like manner refused 
to exercise the same office in the Edenton District and noti- 
fied Governor Caswell that the bar concurred in his opinion. 

Upon the retirement of Governor Caswell, Abner ISTash be- 



18 



came Governor. He complained to the Assembly that he 
derived no assistance from his Council, and suggested the 
creation of a Board of War. This was acceded to and the 
constitutional prerogatives of the Governor were probably in- 
fringed by the powers granted. It was charged with the con- 
trol of military affairs within the State, and was composed of 
Colonel Alexander Martin, John Penn and Oroondates Da- 
vis. It organized at Hillsboro in September, 1780. The 
other members had occasion to leave for their homes within 
two or three days after its organization, and Mr. Penn be- 
came practically the Bioard, and exercised its powers alone 
during the greater part of its existence. He conducted its 
affairs witli great energy, decision, tact and efficiency. 
Finally he became ill and unable to exercise the office. In 
a little while thereafter there was a clash with the Governor, 
who had become sore over the invasion of his dignity and 
authority. He carried his complaint to the next Assembly, 
who discontinued the Board of War and elected a new Gov- 
ernor. There has been soiue disposition to belittle the Board 
of War and its operations, particularly by General Davie. 
But Governor Graham, who was familiar with the records, 
and whose fairness, diligence and ability to judge correctly 
are beyond question, views their work very differently. He 
says : "They undertook the work devolved on them in the 
most devoted spirit of patriotism, and with a proper sense 
of its magnitude, and executed its duties with fearlessness, 
ability and eminent public benefit." 

While the Board sat at Hillsboro that villao'e was the scene 



19 



of great activity and was crowded to its utmost capacity. 
Iredell wrote his wife that he and Cblonel Williams had to 
ride out every evening two or three miles to Governor 
Burke's, and "must have been deprived of that resource if 
Governor Eutledge had not been so obliging as to stay in town 
and take half of Penn's bed, in order to accommodate us." 

Mr. Penn did not thereafter re-enter public life with any 
great activity. In July, 1781, he was appointed a member 
of the Governor's Council, and was notified to attend a meet- 
ing at Williamsboro, near his home, Thomas Burke, his old 
colleague in the Cbntinental Congress, being then Gov- 
ernor. He replied: "My ill-state of health ■5«- * * -^iU 
perhaps prevent my undertaking to act in the ofiice you 
mention. As I have always accepted every office I have been 
appointed to by my countrymen, and endeavored to discharge 
my duty previous to this appointment, I expect my friends 
will not blame me." 

After the war he was appointed by Ebbert Morris Receiver 
of Taxes in ISTorth Carolina, but resigned after holding the 
office about a month. He was yet a young man, but his work 
was done. In September, 1787, at the age of forty-six years, 
he died at his home in Granville County and was buried near 
Island Creek, whence his dust was moved to Guilford Battle^ 
ground a few years ago. 

The halo' with which time and sentiment have surrounded 
those who wrought our independence has largely veiled the 
real men from our view, but they were quite as human as the 
men of to-day. Mention has been made of the bitter political 



20 



differences among the patriots of the Revolution. These 
developed at an earlj period. The election of Penn to the 
Continental Congres was the beginning of democratic 
representation from North Carolina in that body. The real 
struggle came over the formation of the State Constitution. 
The aristocratic party were deeply chagrined and resentful 
of democratic dominance, and proved sadly inferior to their 
opponents in self-control. The most eminent of their leaders 
was Samuel Johnston, a man of great ability and character, 
whom the State delighted to honor. Intemperate language 
from such a man indicates something of the prevailing tone 
of party feeling. He wrote: "Every one who has the least 
pretence to be a gentleman is suspected and borne down per 
ignobile vulgus — a set of men without reading, experience 
or principle to govern them." Very naturally Mr. Johnston 
lost his place in the Governor's Council and his seat in the 
Provincial Congress ; and in the Congressional election next 
ensuing, upon a contest between Mr. Penn and his old col- 
league, Mr. Hewes, the latter was defeated. Throughout 
these controversies Mr. Penn seems to have borne himself 
with such prudence and moderation as to avoid personal 
entanglements and command the respect of those who opposed 
him. Aside from Governor Caswell's petulance and Gov- 
ernor Davie's silly sneer, he was almost uniformly spoken of 
in respectful terms, even in the free and confidential corre- 
spondence of Johnston and Iredell. 

It is unfortimate that so little is known of Penn as a man 
and in his personal relations. At the age of twenty-two years 



21 



he married Susan Lr)rme, by whom he had two children, Lucy, 
who married Cblonel Taylor, of Granville, and died without 
issue, and William, who removed to Virginia. IsTo mention 
is made of Mrs. Penn in his will written in 1784, nor in his 
correspondence. It may be that she died before his removal 
to ISTorth Carolina. Messrs. James G. Penn, of Danville, 
Virginia, and Frank R. Penn, of Eeidsville, JSTorth C'arolina, 
are among the descendants of William. A sister married 

— Hunt, of Granville County, and many descendants of 

that marriage yet live in Granville and Vance Counties, 
useful and honored citizens. That Mr. Penn was an orator 
is proof that he possessed warmth of feeling. The absence 
of controversy marks him an amiable and discreet man. His 
labors show him to have been a patriot, endowed with judg- 
ment, tact, industry and ability. That he was not devoid of 
social tastes is very clearly recognized by his colleagues in the 
Continental Congress. Mr. Burke wrote from Philadelphia : 
"The city is a scene of gaiety and dissipation, public assem- 
blies every fortnight and private balls every night. In all 
such business as this we propose that Mr. Penn shall represent 
the whole State." One anecdote is preserved of his life in 
Philadelphia. He became involved in a personal difficulty 
with Mr. Laurens, President of the Congress, and a duel 
was arranged. They were fellow-boarders, and breakfasted 
together. They then started for the place of meeting on a 
vacant lot opposite the Masonic Hall on Chestnut street. 
"In crossing at Fifth street, where was then a deep slough, 
Mr. Penn kindly offered his hand to aid Mr. Laurens, then 



22 



miicli the older, who accepted it. He suggested to Mr. 
Laurens, who had challenged him, that it was a foolish affair, 
and it was made up on the spot." 

His fidelity could not shield him from criticism. But as 
he made no complaints of hardships, so he made no effort 
to justify himself, but was content in saying to Grovernor 
ISTash: "I have done, and still am willing to do, everything 
in my power for the interest of my country, as I prefer 
answering for my conduct after we have beaten the enemy." 
Others were more considerate of his reputation. Mr. Burke 
wrote Governor Caswell, declaring his own diligence, and 
said of Penn, "nor did perceive him in the least remiss." 
Harnett wrote the Governor, "his conduct as a delegate and a 
gentleman has been worthy and disinterested." The General 
Assembly on July 29, 1779, directed tlie Speaker of the 
House to transmit to him its resolution of thanks in part as 
follows: "The General Assembly of North Carolina, by the 
unanimous resolves of both houses, have agreed that the 
thanks of the State be presented to you for the many great 
and important services you have rendered your country as 
a delegate in the Continental Congress. The assiduity and 
zeal with which you have represented our affairs in that 
Supreme Council of the Continent, during a long and painful 
absence from your family, demand the respectful attention 
of your countrymen, whose minds are impressed with a sense 
of the most lively gratitude." 

Neither the county nor the State which Mr. Penn rep- 
resented with such fidelity and credit have erected any 



23 



memorial to his memory. But tlie Guilford Battle-ground 
Company, whicli is making a veritable Westminster Abbey 
for l^ortb Carolina, has been more mindful to render honor. 
Maj. J. M. Morehead, President of the Company, writes: 
"There is a handsome monument at Guilford Battle-ground, 
twenty feet in height, croT^med with a statue of an orator hold- 
ing within his hand a scroll — The Declaration — and bearing 
this inscription on a bronze tablet: 

IN MEMORIAM. 

William Hoopee and John Penn, Delegates from North Carolina, 

1776, TO THE Continental Congress, and Signers of the 

Declaration of Independence. Their Remains were 

Re-interred Here 1894. Hewes' Grave is Lost. 

He was the Third Signer. 
********* 

To Judge Jeter C. Pritchard Primarily the State is Indebted for 
AN Appropriation out of which this Monument was Erected. 

After all, the value of the man's life rests in its example 
of unselfish, devoted patriotism, its fidelity to principle, its 
loyalty to the great spirit of Democracy — in that he lived not 
for man but for mankind. 

*'yivii post funera ille, quern virtus non marmor m 
ceternum sacrat." 



Note.— A curious instance of the failure of diflferent branches of American families to 
keep track of each other was brought to light in the preparation of the foregoing paper. 

Mr. J. P. Taylor, of Henderson, N. C, and Mr. J. G. Penn, of Danville, Va., have been 
copartners in business for seventeen years. In a recent conversation they first learned 
that they were kinsmen, one representing the male line of John Taylor, the other repre- 
senting the female line through John Penn. T. M. P. 




JOSEPH HEWES. 



;^ w£«^'^ 



JOSEPH HEWES. 



By WALTER SIKES, M. A., PH.D., 
(Professor of Political Science, Wake Forest College). 



"Partioularly cultivate the notice of Mr. Hewes," wrote 
Henr)' E. McCullocli to his relative, young James Iredell, 
as he was about to leave his home in England to take up his 
abode at Edenton, 'N. C, in September, 1768. Young Ire- 
dell came to Edenton and wrote to his father afterwards that 
'''I must say there is a gentleman in this town who is a very- 
particular favorite of mine. His name is Hewes. He is a 
merchant here, and our member for the town : the patron and 
the greatest honor of it. About six or seven years ago he was 
in a few days of being married to one of Mr. Johnston's 
sisters (elder than the two young ladies now living), who died 
rather suddenly; and this unhappy circumstance for a long 
time imbittered every satisfaction in life to him. He has 
continued ever since unmarried, which I believe he will do. 
His connection with Mr. Johnston's family is just such as if 
he had really been a brother-in-law, a circumstance that mu- 
tually does honor to them both." When young Iredell met 
this man, who was not yet forty, he became charmed with his 
society and his character. 

Hewes' parents had fled from the Indian massacres in Con- 
necticut in 1T28 to ISTew Jersey. While crossing the Housa- 
tonic river his mother was wounded in the neck by an Indian. 
The family came to Kingston, IST. J., where Joseph was born 



26 



in 1730. Though his home was not far from Princeton, he 
never attended college. However, he received such education 
as the schools in his vicinity offered. His family were Qua- 
kers, and at an early age he was sent to a counting-house in 
the Quaker city of Philadelphia. At manhood he entered 
the mercantile and commercial business. Most of his time 
was spent in Philadelphia, though he was often drawn to 
ISTew York on business. 

In 1Y63 he decided to move to Edenton, where he entered 
into partnership with Eobert Smith, an attorney. This firm 
owned its own wharf and sent its ships down to the sea. 
It is very probable that his sister, Mrs. Allan, came with 
him. His nephew, ISTathaniel Allan, was certainly with him. 
This young nephew Hewes treated as his own son and very 
probably made him his heir. This young man became the 
father of Senator Allan of Ohio and grandfather of Allen 
G. Thurman. 

Edenton was a town of four hundred inhabitants probably 
when Joseph Hewes came to live there. It was a society 
scarcely surpassed in culture by any in America. In the 
vicinity lived Colonel Eiohard Buncombe, Sir ISTat. Dukin- 
field, Ctilonel John Harvey, Samuel Johnston, Dr. Cathcart, 
Thomas Jones, Charles Johnston and Stephen Cabarrus. 
Hewes was at once admitted into this charming circle. 

Hewes was possessed of those charms that attract gentle 
folks. He was very companionable and social. Very fre- 
quently in James Iredell's diary for 1772-1774 such entries 
are found as "chatted with Hewes and others on his piazza" ; 



27 



"found Hewes at Horniblow's tavern" ; "Hewes and I spent 
the evening at Mrs. Blair's" ; "Dr. Cathcart, Mr. Johnston 
and I dined with Hewes" ; "went to Hewes' to call on Mr. 
and Mrs. Cornelius Harnett on their return from the north," 
and "they played cards all tlie evening at Mr, Hewes'." 
These and similar records show that he was a delightful com- 
panion and was a center of social life. 

His Quaker training Hewes threw aside easily. Some 
writers say that he quitted the Quakers only Avhen they re- 
fused in 1776 to join heartily in the war for independence, 
and that his Quaker beliefs easily opened the door of pros- 
perity and honor for him among the Quakers of the Albe- 
marle section. This can hardly be true. In 1770 he was 
present at the services of the Church of England at Edenton 
and read the responses. He certainly attended that church 
long before the Revolution. Also in the same year he was 
"playing backgammon at Horniblow's tavern." These 
things were not done by good Quakers. Hewes' associates — 
social and political — were not Quakers. He belonged to 
those conservatives whose leaders were Samuel Johnston and 
Thomas Jones. 

Hewes' popularity, wealth and influence caused him to be 
chosen to represent the town of Edenton in the General As- 
sembly three years after his arrival. This position he held 
from 1766-1776 till he was called to a field of wider useful- 
ness. In these Assemblies he was very active, and at one time, 
he was on ten committees at least. This was an interesting 
period in the history of the colony. It was during this 



28 



period that tlie Regtilator troubles arose, the court contro- 
versy, the taxation problems, and the other difficulties that 
prepared jSTorth Carolina for the revolution that was to be 
very soon. 

Before the meeting of the Provincial Congress to appoint 
delegates to the Continental Congress, Hewes was a member 
of the Committee of Correspondence. This was a wise choice. 
As a merchant his ships were known in other ports. This 
brought him into contact with the greatest commercial cen- 
ters of the other colonies. In this way he was not unknown 
to the Adamses of Massachusetts. Hewes was chosen to 
attend the first Provincial Congress at ISTew Bern, August, 
1Y74. At this Congress he read many letters that his com- 
mittee had received. Hewes, together with Richard Caswell 
and William Hooper, was appointed to attend the Continen- 
tal Congress in Philadelphia. This I^orth Carolina Con- 
gress pledged itself to abide by the acts of their representa- 
tives. 

Merchants are not revolutionists. They want a govern- 
ment that will assure them the enjoyment of their labors. 
Hewes was a merchant, buti he pledged his people to commer- 
cial non-intercourse with Great Britain, though this meant 
personal loss to the firm of Hewes & Smith. This meas- 
ure was goring his own ox, but he gave it his loyal sup- 
port. Says he, in a letter written at the close of the Con- 
gress, and before leaving Philadelphia : "Our friends are im- 
der apprehension that the administration will endeavor to lay 
hold of as many delegates as possible, and have them carried 



29 



to England and tried as rebels ; this induced Congress to en- 
ter into a resolve in such case to make a reprisal. I have no 
fears on that head, but should it he mj lot, no man on earth 
could be better spared. Were I to suffer in the cause of 
American liberty, should I not be translated immediately to 
heaven as Enoch of old was ?" 

Hewes' health was always poor. To go to Philadelphia 
was not a pleasant journey, save that it permitted him to see 
his aged mother, who lived probably at the old home in ISTew 
Jersey. Says Hewes, in a letter : "I had a very disagreeable 
time of it till I arrived here, since which I have had but little 
health or spirits." Hewes, Caswell and Hooper were not the 
only Carolinians present in Philadelphia at this meeting, 
for Hewes says he dined with Caswell and other Carolinians. 

In December Hewes returned to Edenton and the next 
April found him and James Iredell in their gigs on their way 
to attend the General Assembly at !Rew Bern, and also that 
second Provincial Congress which was to meet at the same 
time and place. Both bodies thanked their delegates for the 
faithful discharge of their duties. The aged, yet spirited, 
Harvey delivered the brief address for the bodies. This 
Provincial Congress re-elected Hewes, Caswell and Hooper. 

Hewes and Caswell together proceeded at once to Phila- 
delphia, where the Congress met on May 10. On Sunday 
evening they arrived in Petersburg, where they learned of 
the collision "between the Bostonians and the King's troops." 
Their passage through Virginia was attended with much 
pomp and military parade, "such as was due to general offi- 



30 



cers." They stopped a day in Baltimore, where "Colonel , 
Washington, accompanied by the rest of the delegates, re- J 
viewed the troops." 

Hewes was in Philadelphia, where, he said, the enthusi- 
asm was great. He was very anxious for ISTorth Carolina to 
take an active part in affairs. He expressed himself as 
uneasy about the slowness of North Carolina. Though 
Hewes was sick and hardly able to vsrrite, he joined in an 
address to the people of ITorth Carolina and wrote letters 
to his friends describing in detail the military preparations 
of Congress. Hewes was not an eager war man. Said he, 
in a letter to Samuel Johnston on July 8, 1775 : "I consider 
myself now over head and ears in what the ministry call 
rebellion. I feel no coinpunction for the part I have taken 
nor for the number of our enemies lately slain at the battle 
of Bunker's Hill. I wish to be in the camp before Boston, 
tho' I fear I shall not be able to get there 'till next campaign." 
He prevailed upon Philadelphia clergymen to write letters 
to the "Presbyterians, Lutherans and Calvinists" in J^orth 
Carolina. 

Hewes was a member of the committee to fit out vessels 
for the beginning of the American navy. On this committee 
there was no more valuable member. There were not many 
merchants in Congress. Hewes' mercantile knowledge served 
Congress well. This is Hewes' chief contribution to the war 
of independence. He could not speak like Adams and Lee, 
nor write like Jefferson, but he knew where were the sinews 
of war. When not in Congress he was employed by it to fit 



31 



out vessels. Tlae firm of Hewes & Smitli was its agent in 
l!^ortli Carolina. Some vessels Hewes fitted out bj advanc- 
ing the money for the Congress. 

Hewes was back in ISTorth Carolina in August, 1775, and 
represented Edenton at the third Provincial Congress at 
Hillsboro, where he was placed on the committee to secure 
arms for the State, to prepare an address for the inhabitants, 
and a form of government. Here he was again elected to the 
Continental Congress along with Caswell and Hooper. 

He returned to Philadelphia at once and prevailed upon 
Congress to send two ministers to the western part of !N^orth 
Carolina. Though he Avas very sick, he urged the early in- 
crease of the army and its equipment. Hewes fully expected 
to go into the army ; in him there was nothing of the Tory 
spirit. Said he, on February 11, 1776 : "If we mean to de- 
fend our liberties, our dearest rights and privileges against 
the power of Britain to the last extremity, we ought to bring 
ourselves to such a temper of mind as to stand unmoved at 
the bursting of an earthquake. Although the storm thickens, 
I feel myself quite composed. I have furnished myself with, 
a good musket and bayonet, and when I can no longer be use- 
ful in council I hope I shall be willing to take the field. • I 
think I had rather fall than be carried off by a lingering 
illness. An obstinate ague and fever, or rather an intermit- 
tent fever, persecutes me continually. I have no way to 
remove it unless I retire from Congress and from public busi- 
ness; this I am determined not to do till ISTorth Carolina 



32 



sends another delegate, provided I am able to crawl to the 
Congress chamber." 

Hewes was elected to represent Edenton in the fourth Pro- 
vincial Congress at Halifax in April, 1776, but did not leave 
Philadelphia. It was more important that he should remain 
there. He wrote that he was anxious to know the kind of 
constitution they had adopted, but more anxious to know how 
they were preparing to defend their country. In the Conti- 
nental Congress he was on the committee to prepare the arti- 
cles of the confederation also. 

Hewes spent the year 1776 in Philadelphia. He did not 
visit N"orth Carolina at all. Hooper and Penn probably did. 
ETewes was alone at the time the gTeat debate was in progress 
on the wisdom of declaring independence. Says he, in a let- 
ter dated Philadelphia, July 8, 1776 : "What has become of 
my friend Hooper? I expected to have seen him ere now. 
My friend Penn came time enough to give his vote for inde- 
pendence. I send you the Declaration of Independence en- 
closed. I had the weight of ISTorth Carolina on my shoulders 
within a day or two of three months. The service was too 
severe. I have sat some days from six in the morning till 
five or sometimes six in the afternoon, without eating or 
drinking. Some of my friends thought I should not be able 
to keep soul and body together to this time. Duty, inclina- 
tion and self-preservation call on me now to make a little 
excursion into the country to see my mother. This is a duty 
which I have not allowed myself time to perform during the 
almost nine months I have been here." 



33 



Here is a picture of devotion to duty not surpassed in the 
annals of any country. 

The months during which he labored so dutifully, and 
alone bore the burden of ]^orth Carolina on his shoulders, 
were the days when the great question of independence was 
discussed. In this discussion there was no inspiration. 
There was gathered together a band of brave men trying 
prayerfully to do the right. Clouds and uncertainty were 
thick about them. The measure had been discussed for 
months, but the majorities were constantly against it. John 
Adams, in a letter written March 28, 1813, says Mr. Hewes 
determined the vote for independence. "For many days the 
majority depended on Mr. Hewes of ISTorth Carolina. While 
a member one day was speaking, and reading documents 
from all the colonies, to prove that public opinion, the gen- 
eral sense of all, was in favor of the measure, when he came 
to l!»[orth Carolina and produced letters and public proceed- 
ings which demonstrated that the majority in that colony 
were in favor of it, Mr. Hewes, who had hitherto constantly 
voted against it, started suddenly upright, and lifting both 
hands to heaven as if he had been in a trance, cried out: 'It 
is done ! and I will abide by it.' I would give more for a 
perfect painting of the terror and horror upon the face of 
the old majority at that critical moment than for the best 
piece of Raphael. The question, however, was eluded by 
an immediate motion for adjournment." 

In the fall Hewes returned to Xortli Carolina in time to 
attend the Provincial Congress at Halifax in iJ^ovember, 



34 



1776. His admiring friends in Eden ton again chose him 
to represent them as they had been doing for ten years. 
Here he took part in the making of the State Constitution, 
being on the committee. However, he was doubtless more 
interested in the preparation to defend the independence for 
w^hich he had just voted. Hewes was again active on the 
important committees. This Provincial Congress made and 
adopted the first Constitution for ISTorth Carolina. What 
Hewes thought of it is not known, but many of his friends 
in Edenton did not like it. Samuel Johnston was open in 
his disapproval. 

After the close of the Provincial Congress at Halifax, 
Hewes returned to Edenton, with his health injured by over- 
work in the Continental Congress. He had expected to re- 
turn to Philadelphia in February, but the rheumatism would 
not permit him. He was not idle. He was in the secret com- 
mittee of CongTess for purchasing equipment. He and Mor- 
ris were the merchant members of CongTess, and had much 
of this work to do. April found him at home but expecting 
at any time to start north. 

The first General Assembly under the new State Constitu- 
tion met at New Bern in April, 1777. Hewes, for the first 
time in ten years, was not chosen to represent Edenton. 
John Green was the member in his place. This new republi- 
can Assembly contained many new men. There had been a 
clash in the making of this new Constitution. Samuel John- 
ston had led the conservatives and been defeated, while Wil- 
lie Jones had led the radicals to victory. There was bitter- 



35 



ness and strife. Jolmstoii, and doubtless his followers, were 
partial to Hewes and Hooper, but tbey cared little for Penn. 
When the time came to elect representatives to the Continen- 
tal Congress, Hooper, though no competitor appeared against 
him, lost a great many votes. He obtained seventy-six out 
of ninety. Hooper refused to accept. Hewes failed of elec- 
tion, securing only forty out of ninety. Samuel Johnston 
said : "Hewes was supplanted of his seat in Congress by the 
most insidious arts and glaring falsehoods." James Iredell 
said that the reason alleged for his defeat was that he had 
been at home so long and also that he was holding two offices 
under one government, being a member of Congress and also 
a member of its most important committee. 

After Hooper''s resignation, Hewes' friends felt that he 
could be elected unanimously, but thought also that it would 
be an indignity. Only Penn was returned and his majority 
was reduced. Whatever may have been the cause of this de- 
feat, it looks like an example of a republic's ingTatitude. 

ISTevertheless, this Assembly was willing to employ Hewes, 
and asked him to fit out two vessels — the "'Pennsylvania 
Parmer" and "King Taminy," but he declined because he 
was already the agent of the Continental Congress. 

During the remainder of 1778 he remained in Edenton, 
making at least one trip to Boston on business. In 1778 he 
was still interested in purchases for the conduct of the war. 
His health was in the meantime much improved. Hewes 
was probably returned to the Assembly by his old constitu- 



36 



ents of Edenton in 1778. Here he was, as usual, a member 
of many committees. 

When this Assembly was called upon to^ elect delegates to 
the Continental Congress, Hewes was again chosen. James 
Iredell wrote his wife, who was an ardent admirer of Hewes, 
and looked upon him as a brother, since the death of her sis- 
ter, Miss Johnston: "Hewes will be down soon * * -sfr 
nothing now detains him but his goodness in settling ac- 
counts he has no business with, and which no other man is 
equal to." 

On his return to Philadelphia in 1779 he worked hard, 
but his health was fast failing. He was never strong, and 
the trying times of 1776 had taxed his strength to the utmost. 
He sent his resignation to the General Assembly, which met 
in October at Halifax, but in IN^ovember he died in Phila- 
delphia at the post of duty, aged fifty. James Iredell wrote 
his wife : "The loss of such a man will long be severely felt, 
and his friends must ever remember him with the keenest 
sensibility." Hooper wrote to Iredell : "The death of Hewes 
still preys upon my feelings. I know and had probed the 
secret recesses of his soul and found it devoid of guilt and 
replete with benignity." His funeral was attended by Con- 
gress, the Pennsylvania Assembly, the Minister of France, 
and many citizens, while Congress resolved to wear crape 
for him. 

Such was Joseph Hewes, the merchant member of Con- 
gress, an early Secretary of the N^avy, a friend loved and 
trusted, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. 



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VOL IV 




OCTOBER, 1904. 



THE 



North Carolina Booklet. 



GREAT EVENTS Ifi 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 




NORTH CAROLINA IN SOUTH 
AMERICA 

NORTH CAROLINA IN WAR— 
HER TROOPS AND GENERALS 



CHIEF JUSTICE WALTER CLARK 




ENTERED AT THE POST-OFFICE AT RALEICH, N. C, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 



The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events IN /Iorth Carolina History 



VOIv. IV, 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carohna. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.U. 

The Battle of Eamsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Gi'aham. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

Eejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

Homes of North Carolina— The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, ]775. 
Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 
Judge James C. MacRae. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



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VOL. IV OCTOBER, 1904. NO. 6 



THE 



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NORTH CAROLINA TROOPS IN SOUTH 
AMERICA. 



THE LOST BATTALION. 



BY CHIEF JUSTICE WALTEE CLARK. 



]S[orth Carolina has always known how to make history. 
She has never troubled herself to write it. Hence much credit 
due her is unrecorded. There were certainly "brave men 
before Agamemnon." But we know not their names nor their 
deeds. They serve not to arouse the heart. For posterity 
they have in effect not lived, while Achilles, Hector, IN'estor, 
Ulysses are alive to this day, more truly and more effectively 
alive, as regards their impress upon the age than most of the 
men whom we meet on the streets. 

There are many forgotten chapters in I^orth Carolina his- 
tory which if recalled would brighten her fame. Among the 
many creditable incidents of her colonial history are the pa- 
triotism and enterprise shown in sending her troops on the 
successive expeditions to St. Augustine, to South America, 
and to join Braddock's march to the Ohio. We will in this 
paper be restricted to the South American expedition. 

The only time prior to 1898 that troops from any part of 
the United States have ever served beyond the limits of this 
continent was in the expedition to Venezuela in 1740, known 
as the Cartagena expedition. ISTorth Carolina was represent- 
ed there, and both by land and sea her troops did their duty. 



Note. — This is substantially the same article that appeared in The Uni- 
versity Magazine, 1894. A more complete account of the expedition, by 
the writer, will be found in Harpers Magazine for October, 1896. w. c. 



4 

She sent 400 men, a contribution as large in proportion to the 
population of the colony at that time as if the State were now 
to furnish 50,000 troops. We know that these men served, 
that they took an active part in the sea attack upon Boca 
Chico, and that they subsequently aided in the deadly assault 
by land upon the fort of San Lazaro, when half the storming 
column was left dead or wounded on the field. We know 
that not a fifth of the gallant 400 returned. But we know 
with certainty the names of only two officers, of these brave 
J^orth Carolinians. Indeed the expedition itself is almost 
unknown to the jSTorth Carolinians of the present day. It 
may not be amiss therefore to recall the little that has been 
left us of this early display of patriotism by the province of 
I^orth Carolina. 

History records few instances of official incapacity and 
mismanagement so gross as the ill-fated expedition to South 
America back in 1740, in which perished to no purpose, over 
three thousand Americans from the colonies on the Atlantic 
seaboard, and nearly seven times that number of English. 
Historians have not loved to linger over its details. Hence it 
is hardly noted in our books ; yet it was a stern sad reality in 
its day. 

Six times have troops from what is now the United States 
visited in hostility the territory of our neighbour on the 
north, viz., in King William's war, 1690; in Queen Anne's 
war, 1710; at the taking of Louisburg, 1744; in the old 
French war of 1755-1763 (when Quebec fell, and Canada 
passed to the English) again during the Revolution, and in the 
war of 1812. In 1846 we invaded our Southern neighbor. 
The expedition against Cartagena is the only case in which 
our troops ever engaged an enemy on another continent. 



The war of 1898 was upon the islands of Cuba, Porto Rico 
and the Philippines. 

In October, 1739, England declared war against Spain. 
The real object, all pretexts aside, was to open the ports of 
Spanish America to British vessels. These ports were her- 
metically closed to all except Spanish keels. The object was 
no small one from a mercantile standpoint, for Spanish Amer- 
ica then reached from the Southern boundary of Georgia and 
the northern boundary of California down to Terra del Fuego 
and Cape Horn. Prom this vast territory there could be 
excepted on the mainland only the possessions of the Portu- 
guese in Brazil, together with Jamaica and a few of the small- 
er Islands in the West Indies. The stake was a large one, 
and England could win only by destroying the colonial system 
of Spain. 

It was a contest for the enrichment of the merchants and 
traders of England. Small interest had the ISTorth American 
colonies therein. But loving letters and proclamations were 
sent out calling on them for aid. Promptly on the outbreak 
of war Anson was sent to the Pacific coast, and Vernon to the 
Atlantic. Disaster at sea destroyed the hopes of conquest 
of the former, and turning his expedition into one for booty, 
and losing all his ships but one, he circumnavigated the- 
globe, reaching home by way of the east, loaded with fame 
and enriched with spoils. Vernon, in !N"ovember, 1739, with 
ease captured Porto Bello and Fort Chagres (near the pres- 
ent town of Aspinwall) , both on the Isthmus of Panama, and 
became the hero of the hour. The following year Great 
Britain determined to send out a masterful expedition under 
the same victorious auspices. 

In 1740, Great Britain, then at war with Spain, determin- 



6 

ed to strike a blow at the Spanish Colonial possessions. An 
expedition left Spithead, England, in October, 1740, for the 
West Indies, composed of 15,000 sailors commanded by Sir 
Chaloner Ogle, and 12,000 land troops under Lord Cathcart. 
There were thirty ships of the line and ninety other vessels. 
On arriving at the West Indies these were joined at Jamaica 
by 36 companies containing 3,600 men from the North Amer- 
ican colonies. 

By tKe royal instructions these companies consisted of a 
hundred men each, including 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, and 2 
drummers, besides commissioned officers, consisting of one 
captain, two lieutenants, and an ensign. The British gov- 
ernment, however, reserved the appointment of field and staff 
officers and one .lieutenant and one sergeant in each company. 
The total was over 3,600 men. The provinces of ISTew Hamp- 
shire, Delaware, South Carolina and Georgia sent no troops 
— the latter two probably because their forces were sent 
against St. Augustine (to which N'orth Carolina also contrib- 
uted men), and Delaware was probably counted in Pennsyl- 
vania, it being then known as "the three lower counties on 
Delaware." Why New Hampshire took no part is not ex- 
plained. 

It was ordered that the American troops should be em- 
bodied in four regiments or battalions, under the command 
of Sir Alexander Spotswood, to whom Colonel William Blak- 
eney was to serve as adjutant-general. Spotswood had served 
under Marlborough at Blenheim, 1704 ; had been governor of 
Virginia, 1710 to 1723, and in 1714 had been the first white 
man to cross the Blue Ridge — a feat which procured him the 
honor of knighthood. He was an officer of rare talent, a 
scholar, and a man of high character. His career was unfor- 



tunately cut short by his death at Annapolis, 7 June, 1740, 
while waiting for his troops to assemble. He was succeeded 
in the command by Sir William Gooch, then Governor of Vir- 
ginia — a post which he filled from 1729 to 1749. Blakeney, 
the adjutant-general sent out from England, was born in 
County Limerick, Ireland, 1672, and was therefore in his 
sixty-ninth year. He lived over twenty years after this 
expedition, to hold Stirling Castle for the King "in the '45," 
to surrender Minorca (of which he was governor) to the 
French, after a gallant resistance, in 1756, and to be raised 
to the peerage as Lord Blakeney. He died in 1761. 

The Massachusetts troops were commanded by Captains 
Daniel Goffe, John Prescott, Thomas Phillips, George Stew- 
art and John Winslow. The first lieutenancies of these com- 
panies were presumably filled under the general order by 
appointments sent out from England and are not named. 

Rhode Island sent two companies of 100 men each. The 
jSTewport company, equipped in the spring, was commanded 
by Captain Joseph Sheffield, and the Providence company 
by Captain William Hopkins. The names of the other offi- 
cers are not given, but it is mentioned that the first lieutenants 
of each company were sent out from England. 

Connecticut sent two companies, commanded it would seem, 
by Captains Winslow and Prescott ; and in this province also, 
in the Fall of 1741 and February, 1742, a proclamation was 
issued to raise recruits under Captain Prescott, who had been 
sent home by General Wentworth for that purpose from 
Jamaica. 

jSTew York sent one company in September and four more 
on 10 October. These last were joined by those of the ^ew 
Jersey troops which were to embark at Amboy (the West Jer- 



8 

•sey troops were to go down the Delaware River to meet them) .' 
On 12 October the expedition sailed to join Colonel Gooch 
with the Maryland and Virginia troops. ISTew York raised 
£2,500 for the service and Massachusetts voted £17,500, Con- 
necticut gave £4,000 towards bounties (premia they styled it) 
and the expences of the two companies she sent. Application 
was made to N^ew York also for recruits in 1741. Xew 
Jersey raised two companies, and voted £2,000 and recruits ; 
for they were also duly called for there, as elsewhere, Captain 
Farmer being sent home for that purpose. Pennsylvania sent 
eight companies, but refused any appropriation. Of the 
Pennsylvania troops 300 were white bond-servants who were 
given their liberty on condition of enlistment, much to the dis- 
satisfaction of the province. Maryland voted £500 and sent 
3 companies. Virginia sent 400 and appropriated £5,000 for 
their support. The captain of one of her Companies was Law- 
rence Washington, the half brother of George Washington. 
Lawrence, who was then twenty years of age, distinguished 
himself in the capture of the fort at Boca Chica, and was also 
in the deadly assault on San Lazaro, when 600 men, half of 
the assaulting column were left on the ground. He was four- 
teen years older than his more distinguished brother, 

JSTorth Carolina sent four companies. Gov. Johnson in his 
letter to the Duke of jS'ew Castle 5 i^ov. 1840, states that three 
of these companies were raised in the Northern part of the 
province, i. e., in the Albemarle section. The other it seems 
was recruited in the Cape Fear section. There is some reason 
to believe that Col. James Innes of subsequent fame served as 
Captain of this company. All four companies embarked on 
transports in the Cape Fear, 5 ISTov., 1740, and sailed direct- 
ly for Jamaica where they joined Admiral Vernon's squadron. 



9 



The contribution of money by l^orth Carolina to this expe- 
dition was as large in proportion as her levy of men. On 21 
August, 174:0, Gov. Johnston informed the Assembly of the 
King's desire that ISTorth Carolina should assist in the war. 
This the Assembly promptly assented to, and a tax was laid of 
3 shillings on the poll, but owing to the scarcity of money it 
was provided that the tax could be paid either "in specie or 
by tobacco at ten shillings the hundred, rice at seven shillings 
and six pence the pound, dressed deer skins at two shillings 
and six pence the pound, tallow at four pence, pork at r^even 
shillings the barrel^ or current paper money at seven and a 
half for one." Warehouses for receiving the commodities 
were directed to be built in each county. 

The forces were united in the harbor of Kingston, Jamaica, 
9 January, 1741, under Admiral Yernon. Had he at once 
proceeded to Havana, as intended, it must have fallen, and 
Cuba would have passed under English rule and the treasures 
sent from !N^ew Spain would have been intercepted. But 
with strange incompetence Vernon lay idle till Havana was 
fortified and garri- 
soned and then he 
started east in search 
of the French fleet 
off Hispaniola. Find- 
ing that it had left 
for France, towards 
the end of February 
he sailed to attack 
Cartagena on the 
coast of Venezuela, 

On the way he fell 




10 

in with the French fleet. France was still at peace 
with Great Britain thongh not very friendly. This fleet 
refused to show its colors. A fierce fight ensued in which 
many men were killed and w^ounded. The next morning the 
French fleet showed its colors, whereupon the Admirals grave- 
ly apologized to each other and each fleet took its course. This 
is a characteristic incident of those times. Smollett, the cele- 
brated historian and novelist, was serving in the British fleet 
as assistant surgeon and has left us an accurate description, 
it is said, of this sea fight in the naval battle depicted by him 
in Roderick Random. 

On 4 March, 1741 the fleet anchored off Cartagena, which 
had three hundred guns mounted. Instead of pressing the 
attack Admiral Vernon lay inactive until the 9th, giving op- 
portunity for better fortification and re-enforcements to the 
enemy. He then landed troops on Terra-Bomba, near the 
mouth of the harbor known as Boca-Chica (or little mouth), 
and attacked the land batteries also with his ships. In this 
attack Lord Aubrey Beauclerc, commanding one of the ships 
was slain. In the land attack 200 American troops, led by 
Captain La^vrence Washington, were mentioned for their gal- 
lantry. The passage, however, was carried 25 March, and 
three days later the troops were landed within a mile of Car- 
tagena, which lay at the other end of the spacious harbor, 
which is really a bay several miles in length. The town was 
protected by the formidable fort San Lazaro. The enemy 
abandoned Castillo Grande, the fort on the opposite side of 
the bay. Had there been proper concurrence between the 
attacks, made by the land forces and the fleet, San Lazaro 
would have been readily taken, but the worst of feeling pre- 
vailed between General Wentworth and Admiral Vernon, and 



11 



thus there were two poor commanders instead of one good 
one, as was so essential to success. The town was bombarded 
three days, terrifying the inhabitants and injuring church 
steeples and convents. After repeated demands by Admiral 
Vernon that a land attack should be made, sailing into the 
inner harbor Admiral Vernon disembarked the land forces. 




Lord Cathcart having died, command of these forces had pass- 
ed to Gen. Wentworth. The ill feeling and rivalry between 
Wentworth and Admiral Vernon thwarted every movement. 
An attack was made on Fort San Lazaro 9 April but it was 
not aided by the fleet and was repulsed, losing half of the 
twelve hundred men of the storming column on the field, 
among them its gallant leader Col. Grant.* 

The whole expedition was shamefully mismanaged. The 
troops were brave but the leaders were incompetent. The heat 

*179 killed, 459 wounded, 16 prisoners. 



12 

and disease of tiie climate slew more than the sword. The 
army finally withdrew but it numbered on reaching Jamaica 
only 3,000 of the original 15,000. Of these only 2,000 sur- 
vived to return home. The loss among the sailors was also 
heavy. The number of JSTorth. Carolina troops who returned 
home is not known but it is presumed that their ratio of loss 
equaled that of the rest of the army. Of the 500 men sent 
by Massachusetts only 50 returned. Such, in brief, is an out- 
line of this ill-starred expedition. Admiral Vernon inci- 
dentally touches later American history by the fact that his 
name was bestowed by Lawrence AVashington (who served 
under him) on his residence which afterwards took its place 
in history as Mount Vernon. It is the irony of fate which 
thus links his name with immortal fame, for few men so in- 
competent ever trod a quarter-deck as that same vice-admiral 
of the Blue, Edward Vernon. He was subsequently dismiss- 
ed from the service — cashiered. 

This ill-fated expedition added one word to the English 
language. According to the army and navy regulations of 
that day rum was served out twice a day to the 15,000 sailors 
and 12,000 soldiers. By Admiral Vernon's orders, it was, 
for the first time, diluted with water before being issued, to 
the intense disgust of the reciiDients. He wore a grogram 
overcoat and the men dubbed the thin potation old '^gi'og," 
After many unflattering comments upon the leading, Smollett 
adds "Good brandy and good rum mixed with hot water, 
composing a most unpalatable drench, was the cause of fail- 
ure." We, however, can see the cause in a far truer light. 

Prior to 1Y60, the regimental rolls were not preserved in 
the British War Ofiice, hence we know very little of the dis- 
tinctive composition of the American contingent. We know 



13 

that there were eight regiments of British troops and four 
battalions of Americans. The latter were composed of thirty- 
six companies and contained 3,500 or 3,600 men. Of these, 
it appears from the letter of Col. William Blakeney to the 
Duke of E"ew Castle of 23 October, 1840, there were four 
companies from Virginia, eight from Pennsylvania, three 
from Maryland. These were to go out under Col. Wm. 
Gooch, the Lieut. Gov. of Virginia. There preceded these 
five companies from Boston, two from Rhode Island, two from 
Connecticut, five from 'New York, three from ISTew Jersey. 
The four companies from ]**J'orth Carolina arrived last of all. 
On arrival the Northern companies were to be commanded 
by Col. Gooch, and those from Maryland, Virginia and North 
Carolina w^ere to be commanded by Col. Blakeney. On 14 
December, 1740, Col. Blakeney wrote from Jamaica that Col. 
Gooch with the Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia troops 
had arrived and the iSTorth Carolina troops were daily ex- 
pected.* They subsequently arrived but exactly when is not 
known. Lord Cathcart died at Jamaica, 20 December, 1840, 
and was succeeded by Gen. "Wentworth. From a letter of 
Gov. Gooch to the Duke of ISTew Castle it apjjears that the 
Colonial companies were placed in battalions without refer- 
ence to the respective provinces from which they came and 
were distinguished as the "American Regiments." From an 
extract of a return of Col. Gooch we find that in the 2d Bat- 
talion was Lt. Col. Coletrain "with the remainder of his com- 
pany, viz. : two Lieutenants, two Sergeants, two Corporals, 
one Drummer and forty Centinels from jSTorth Carolina." 
This is the only name of an officer except Captain Robert 
Holton which is distinctively given as being in command of 



* 11 N. 0. State Records, 42-45. 



14 

ISTorth Carolina troops. It is not certain that^Coletrain was 
from the State, for in one of the published accounts of that 
day it is stated of these "American Regiments" that the "field 
officers were all men of long service, named by his Majesty, 
and sent from Britain. The companies were raised chiefly 
by the interest and at the charge of their respective captains ; 
of whom some were members of the Assembly in the province 
where they resided; others lived upon their own plantations 
and had commands in the militia ; and some few had been 
concerned in traffic." His Majesty, it is further stated, "sent 
out thirty cadets of family who were provided with positions 
as Lieutenants in American Companies." It was charged by 
a pamphleteer that "the greatest part of the private soldiers 
enlisted in I^orth America were either Irish Papists or Eng- 
lish who had been u,nder a necessity of leaving their own 
country." This if true of any of the provinces, could not 
have been so as to the IsTorth Carolina companies. Gov. /'^ 
Johnston of ISTorth Carolina, in his letter to the Duke of IsTew 
Castle, 5 Isoy., 1840, says : "I have good reason to believe that 
we could have easily raised 200 more if it had been possible to 
negotiate the bills of exchange in this part of the continent, 
but as that was impracticable we were obliged to rest satisfied 
with four companies," which he further states, "are now 
embarked and just going to sea." 

The most striking incident of the campaign — apart from 
its terrible mismanagement and loss of life — was the land 
attack upon the fortifications of Cartagena. General ^Yent- 
worth, in a note to Admiral Vernon, 2 April, 1741, demanded 
that a detachment of 1,500 Americans should be landed, under 
the command of Col. Gooch, to assist him. On 6 April, he 
acknowledges the landing of the Americans, who took part 



15 

in the storming San Lazaro 9 April. This is thus de- 
scribed by Smollett: ''Stung by the reproaches of the x\d- 
miral (Vernon), Gen. Wentworth called a council of his 
officers, and with their advice he attempted to carry Fort Sau 
Lazaro by storm. Twelve hundred men headed by Gen. Guisy, 
and guided by some Spanish deserters or peasants, who were 
either ignorant, or which is more likely, in the pay of the 
Spanish Governor whom they pretended to have left, marched 
boldly up to the foot of the fort. But the guides led them 
to the very strongest part of the fortifications ; and what was 
worse, when they came to try the scaling ladders with which 
they were provided, they found them too short. This occa- 
sioned a fatal delay, and presently the brilliant morning of the 
tropics broke with its glaring light upon what had been in- 
tended for a nocturnal attack. Under these circumstances, 
the wisest thing would have been an instant retreat; but the 
soldiers had come to take the fort, and with bull-dog resolution 
they seemed determined, to take it at every disadvantage. 
They stood, under a terrible plunging fire, adjusting their 
ladders and fixing upon points where they might climb ; and 
they did not yield an inch of ground, though every Spanish 
cannon and musket told upon and thinned their ranks." One 
party of grenadiers even attained a footing on the top of a 
rampart, when their brave leader. Col. Grant, was mortally 
wounded. The grenadiers were swept over the wall, but still 
the rest sustained the enemy's fire for several hours, and did 
not retreat till six hundred, or one-half of their original num- 
ber, lay dead or wounded at the foot of those fatal walls. It 
is said that Vernon stood inactive on his quarter-deck all the 
while, and did not send in his boats full of men till the last 
moment when Wentworth was retreating. The heavy rains 



16 

now set in, and disease spread with sucli terrible rapidity 
that in less than two days one-half the troops, on shore were 
dead, dying, or unfit for service. The expedition was then 
given up, and the survivors re-embarked and sailed for 
Jamaica. They were later landed in Eastern Cuba, at a place 
christened Cumberland Harbor, probably Gruantanamo, and 
strong appeals were made to the colonies for re-inforcements. 

Three thousand recruits, part of them from the ISTorth 
American colonies, were sent Wentworth, and he also organ- 
ized and drilled 1,000 Jamaica negroes with a design of at- 
tacking Santiago de Cuba, but this w^as abandoned. Thus 
ended probably the most formidable and thoroughly equipped 
expedition which up to that time Great Britain had sent out. 
Everything was expected of it. Under good leadership it 
might have taken Cuba, and have anticipated by more than a 
century and a half the end of the rule of the Spaniard in 
that island. Its failure is only comparable to that sustained 
by Nicias in Sicily, as narrated by Plutarch, Vernon's utter 
defeat overthrew the Walpole ministry. 

It is certain that the iSTorth Carolinians were among the 
American troops taking part in the assault. It also ap- 
pears from Admiral A'^ernon's reports that the x\merican Col- 
onies contributed several sloops to the fleet, but how many 
and by whom commanded is not stated. After his return to 
Jamaica, he writes to the Duke of IvTewcastle, 30 May, 1741, 
that "without the aid of some of the Americans we could not 
get our ships to sea." Yet he had the afProntery to write, 
suggesting that the survivors of the Americans should be 
colonized in Eastern Ciiba, as "ISs'orth America is already too 
thickly settled, and its people wish to establish manufactures 
which would injure those at home" (in Britain). In fact, 



17 

many Americans, probably sailors in the sloops, were drafted 
to the British ships going to England. 

Thus early in her career, 164 years ago this fall, ISTorth 
Carolina came to the front. She responded to the King's call 
for aid, with men and means to the full of her ability. Her 
soldiers served, as they have always done since, faithfully, aye, 
brilliantly. Beneath the tropical sun, in the sea fight, at the 
carrying of the passage of Boca Chico, in the deadly assault 
upon San Lazaro, amid the more deadly pestilence that walk- 
eth by noonday, North Carolinians knew how to do their duty 
and to die. The merest handful returned home. But their 
State has preserved no memento of their deeds. The historian 
has barely mentioned them. Possibly the names of three of 
our soldiers have been preserved. The recollection of so much 
heroism should not be allowed to die. ISTorth Carolina should 
yet erect a cenotaph to these her sons, to the 

' ' Brave men who perished by their guns 
Though they conquered not — " 

to the ^'unreturning brave" who sleep beneath the walls of 
St. Augustine, by the Cartagenian summer sea beneath the 
walls of San Lazaro, and amid the rolling hills where Brad- 
dock fell. Walter Claek. 
Raleigh, N. C, 

10 October, 1904. 



NORTH CAROLIfiA'S RECORD IN WAR. 

TR09FS PJiD QENERALS. 



BY CHIEF JUSTICE WALTEE CLARK. 



The following is a list of generals whom ISTorth Carolina 
has furnished and of the various wars through which she has 
passed. 

BEFORE THE REVOLUTION. 

Before the Revolution, jSTorth Carolina, owing to the small 
number of troops she could furnish, had no generals except 
those of the militia. She had a severe Indian war at home, 
in 1711-13, which began with the massacre of 22 Sept. lYll, 
when two hundred men, women and children in a few hours 
fell beneath the scalping knife. ]^orth Carolina was ma- 
terially aided in the war that followed by troops sent from 
South Carolina, her own small forces being commanded by 
Col. Mitchell and Col. MacKee. In 1715 she sent her first 
expedition beyond the State, being horse and foot soldiers 
under Col. Maurice Moore to aid South Carolina against the 
Yemassee Indians. In 1740 she sent four companies of 100 
men each, in the only expedition soldiers from this country 
have ever made beyond the Continent, to Cartagena, South 
America. Robert Holton and possibly James Innes (after- 
wards Colonel in the French war), and Coletrain were three of 
the captains. In the same year, 1740, she sent troops in the 
expedition under Oglethorpe against St. Augustine, Fla., 
then held by the Spanish. Her troops in that expedition, 
were combined with the Virginia and South Carolina troops 
into a regiment commanded by Van Derdussen. 

In the French war she sent in 1754, the vear before Brad- 



19 

dock's defeat, a regiment to Winchester, Va., under command 
of Col. James Innes, who took the command outranking at 
the time. Colonel George Washington who then commanded 
the Virginia forces. In 1755 she sent 100 men under Capt. 
Edward Brice Dobbs (son of Gov. Dobbs) in the ill-fated 
Braddock expedition, but fortunately they were in the reserve 
under Col. Dunbar and did not share in the defeat. In 1756, 
she sent four companies under Major Edward Dobbs to ISTew 
York in the French war. Two years later l^orth Carolina 
sent three companies under Maj. Hugh Waddell in Gen. 
Forbes' expedition which took Fort Du Quesne, the ISTorth 
Carolinians being the first to enter the fort. In 1759 and 
1761 she sent a large force under Col. Hugh Waddell against 
the Cherokees. 

Her troops who fought the battle of Alamance against the 
Regulators 16 May, 1771, were detachments of militia com- 
manded by their Colonels imder Governor Tryon who was 
in chief command. Gen'l Hugh Waddell, who had seen ser- 
vice against the French and Indians in a lower rank, com- 
manded some 300 militia across the Yadkin but did not reach 
the battle field. 

. I]Sr THE EEVOLTTTION 1775-'83. 

jSTorth Carolina had in the "Continental Line" : 

One Major General — Robert Howe. 

Four Brigadier Generals — (1) James Moore, died in ser- 
vice Feb., 1777; (2) Francis I*«[ash, killed at Germantown, 
4 October, 1777; (3) Jethro Sumner; (4) James Hognin, 
died a prisoner of war at Charleston, S. C, 4 January, 1781. 

Besides these, who were regular or Continental ofiicers, 
the following Generals of Militia commanded troops in ac- 
tion: 



20 

General John Ashe, at Briar Creek, Ga., 3 March, 1779. 

General Richard Caswell, at Camden, S. C, 16 August, 
1Y80. 

General Isaac Gregory, at Camden, S. C, 16 August, 1780, 
where he was wounded and the conduct of his men highly 
praised by the British. 

General Griffith Rutherford, at Stono, 20 June, 1779, and 
at Camden, S. C, 16 August, 1780, where he was wounded 
and captured. He commanded also in the expeditions 
against the Scovelite Tories and the Overhill Indians. 

General William Lee Davidson, killed at Cowan's Ford, 
1 Feb., 1781. (He had been a Lieutenant Colonel in the 
Continental Line). 

General John Butler, at Stono, 20 June, 1779, at Camden, 
16 August, 1780, and at Guilford C. H. 15 March, 1781. 

General Thomas Eaton, at Guilford C. H., 15 March, 
1781. 



I^orth Carolina furnished ten regiments of Regulars to the 
Continental Line, one battery of artillery (Kingsbury's), and 
three companies of cavalry. Besides this her militia were 
frequently ordered out on "tours of duty". Alone and unaid- 
ed they won the brilliant victory at Moore's Creek, Ramsour's 
Mill and King's Mountain, and helped the regulars lose the 
battles of Camden and Guilford C. H. Under Rutherford's 
leadership early in 1776, they so crushed the Scovillite 
tories in South Carolina and in July of that year the Overhill 
Indians in Tennessee, that neither gave further trouble dur- 
ing the entire war. In the later expedition 2,400 ^. C. 
militia were engaged. They also shared in the battles of 
Stono, Briar Creek, Cowpens and the defense and surrender 
of Charleston. The ISTorth Carolina Continentals rendered 



21 

efficient service at Brandj^vine, Germanto^\ni, Monmouth, at 
the capture of Stony Point (where they had a conspicuous 
part) , at Hobkirk's Hill, Eutaw, at both sieges of Charleston 
and Savannah and elsewhere^ and formed a part of the gar- 
rison of West Point, when our Major General Howe succeed- 
ed Arnold in command there upon his treason. 

IjM" the wae of 1812-'15. 

Brigadier General Joseph Graham was sent in command 
of the brigade of iSI^orth Carolina and South Carolina troops, 
in 1814 to aid of General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. 
General Graham had attained the rank of Major in the Revo- 
lutionary War and had been badly wounded at the capture of 
Charlotte, 26 Sept., 1780. A Brigade of Militia under 
General Jos. F. Dickinson was the same year marched to 
ITorfolk, where they remained four months and were pres- 
ent when the British fleet was driven back at the battle off 
Craney Island. 

Johnson Blakely, of Wilmington, in command of the 
"Wasp" rendered efficient service at sea. Capt. Otway 
Burns was most prominent among the privateersmen from 
this State. ISTorth Carolina Troops were also sent to Canada, 
where Captain Benjamin Forsythe was among the slain. 

IN MEXICAN WAE^ 184:6-'7. 

Colonel Robert Treat Paine, of the jSTorth Carolina Regi- 
ment and Colonel Louis D. Wilson, 12 U. S. Infantry, who 
died at Very Cruz, 13 AugTist, 1847. 

iN^orth Carolina had no General in that war. She furnish- 
ed one regiment of volunteers — Paine's ; and one company to 
the 12 U. S. in the regular service. 



22 



IN THE CIVIL WAE, 1861-'65. 

Two Lieutenant Generals, (1) T. H. Holmes, (2) D. H. 
Hill. 

Seven Major Generals, (1) Robert Ransom; (2) W. D. 
Pender, died of wounds received at Gettysburg in July, 
1863; (3) R. F. Hoke; (4) S. D. Ramseur, killed at Cedar 
Run, 1864; (5) W. H. C. Whiting, died of wounds received 
at Fort Fisher, 21 January, 1865; (6) Bryan Grimes; (Y) 
Jeremy F. Gilmer, a distinguished Engineer Officer and 
Chief of Staff of the Army of the West. 

Twenty-six Brigadier Generals: (1) Richard C. Gatling; 
(2) L. O'B. Branch, killed at Sharpsburg, 17 September, 
1862; (3) J. Johnston Pettigrew, died of wounds received 
at Falling Waters, 14 July, 1863; (4) James G. Martin; 
(5) Thomas L. Clingman; (6) Geo. B. Anderson, died of 
wounds received at Sharpsburg 17 September, 1862 ; (7) 
Junius Daniel, died of wounds received at Wilderness, May, 
1864; (8) JohnR. Cooke; (9) James H. Lane; (10) Robert 
B. Vance, since M. C. ; (11) Matthew W. Ransom, since TJ. 
S. Senator; (12) Alfred M. Scales, since M. C, also Gover- 
nor 1885-1889; (13) Lawrence S. Baker; (14) William W. 
Kirkland; (15) Robert D. Johnston; (16) Jas. B. Gordon, 
died of wounds received at Yellow Tavern, 14 May, 1864; 
(17) W. Gaston Lewis; (18) W. R. Cox, since M. C. ; (19) 
Thomas F. Toon, since Superintendent of Publci Instruc- 
tion; (20) Rufus Barringer; (21) A. C. Godwin, killed at 
Winchester 29 September, 1864; (22) William MacRae; 
(23) Collett Leventhorpe ; (24) John D. Barry; (25) Wil- 
liam P. Roberts, since State Auditor; (26) Gabriel J. Rains. 

Gen. . Iverson, for a while commanded a IST. C. Brigade, 
but he was a Georgian. There were many natives of IST. C. 



23 

not in tlie above list because appointed from other States, as 
Gen. Braxton Bragg, Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk ; Major Gen- 
eral C. M. Wilcox, Brigadier Generals ZoUicoffer, McCul- 
lough, and many others. On the other hand Maj. Gen. 
Whiting, born in Mississippi, and Brig. Gen. Cooke, born in 
Missouri, are in the list because they threw in their fortunes 
with North Carolina during the war and were appointed from 
this State. 

At sea, James I. Waddell in command of the Shenandoah 
illustrated the courage of his race and State on every sea and 
was the last to lower the Confederate flag in ISTovember, 1865. 
In the above lists the generals are named according to the 
dates of their respective commissions — except Generals Gil- 
mer and Rains. 

ISTotwithstanding the State furnished 127,000 troops to 
the Confederacy it had at the close of the war in service only 
one Lieutenant General, D. H. Hill, and three Major Gen- 
erals, Robert Ransom, Robert F. Hoke and Bryan Grimes — 
Pender, AVhiting and Ramseur having been killed in battle. 
Of her 26 Brigadier Generals six (Branch, Pettigrew, An- 
derson, Daniel, Gordon and Godwin) were killed; one was 
on the retired list, one in the State service as Adjutant Gen- 
eral, and four prisoners of war — ^leaving nine in service and 
four at home wounded, several of our depleted brigades being 
commanded by colonels and majors and one even by a captain. 
At the Appomattox surrender (9 April, 1865) the parole list 
shows from ]!^orth Carolina one Major General — Bryan 
Grimes, commanding division, and six Brigadier Generals 
were paroled in command of their respective brigades — John 
R. Cooke, James H. Lane, M. W. Ransom, W. G. Lewis, Wil- 
liam R. Cox and W. P. Roberts. Another, General Rufus 



24 

Barringer, had been captured the week before during the re- 
treat. 

At Joseph E. Johnston's surrender, 26 April, 1865, l^orth 
Carolina had one Lieutenant General, T>. H. Hill ; one Major 
General, Robert F. Hoke and one Brigadier, Kirkland; 
though Leventhorpe and Baker, with their commands, were 
also embraced in the terms. 

To this war liorth Carolina sent "84 Regiments, 16 Bat- 
talions, and 13 unattached companies and individuals from 
this State serving in commands from other States, and 9 regi- 
ments of Home Guards and militia rendering short tours of 
duty." 4 ]Sr. C. Regimental Histories, page 224, 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



UNDER AUSPICES OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA 

SOCIETY DAUGHTERS of the REVOLUTION, 

YOUR NORTH CAROLINA ANCESTRY CAN BE 
CAREFULLY TRACED. 



The Colonial Records of North Carolina, records of the different coun- 
ties, family papers and State histories will be readily examined for parties 
desiring to have their ancestry traced. Their ancestors must have resided 
in the State of North Carolina during the Revolutionary and Colonial 
periods. 

Fee for such researches, $5. 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mbs. Helen DeBerniere Hooper Wills, 

Corner Person and Polk Streets, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 



COATS OP arms emblazoned AT REASONABLE RATES. 
PICTURES OP OLD HOMES AND PORTRAITS SECURED IF OBTAINABLE. 

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Nortb Carolina Historical Coiiission. 



Established by Laws op 1903. 



MEMBERS. 



Mr. W. J. PEELE, Chairman, Raleigh. N. C. 

Mr. R. D. W. CONNOR, Secretary, Wilmington, N. C. 

Rev. Dr. J. D. HUFHAM, Henderson, N. C. 

Dr. R. H. DILLARD, Edenton, N. C. 

Mr. F. a. SONDLEY, Asheville, N. C. 



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2. Best History of any Decade from 1781 to 1861 (excluding 1791-1801 
and 1831-1841 J. 

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application to the Secretary of the Commission. 



The Commission will be glad to be apprised of any valuable unpub- 
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of North Carolina. 



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THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 

VOL. IV, 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. ^ 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. I 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. i 

Major William A. Graham. f 

( 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. j 

Judge A. C. Avery. i 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in, 1788, and its Subsequent ; 

Adoption. ? 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. j 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: ; 

William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. • 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. | ' 

Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 
Ck)lonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. ' 

Tlie Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 
Captain S. A. Ashe. 

The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 
Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 

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VOL. IV NOVEMBER, 1904 No. i 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



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OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
(Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sb. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

: 

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FOUNDEE OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY AND REGENT 1896-1902; 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sb. 



THE FIRST ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA- 
A STUDY IN LOCATION. 



BY ^. J. PEELE. 



PART I. 



There is a belief among tlie present inhabitants of Roanoke 
Island that Aniidas and Barlowe came into the sonnd through 
an inlet opposite to the island. They say little in support of 
that view, so visitors usually give it small consideration. A 
little cape running out from the island into Roanoke Sound, 
still called ".Ballast, Point,'' marks the place where the early 
colonial navigators cast overboard their ballast; and there, 
stones from many lands, especially from the West Indies, may 
still be found. That there was an inlet at the place where 
they claim and that it was used by the colonial navigators is 
not doubted, but this fact gives but small clue to determine 
the point in controversy. 

The inlet through which Amidas and Barlowe appear to 
have sailed, about twenty miles north-east of Roanoke Island, 
was subsequently closed up and was probably very badly 
damaged at least as early as the great storm of 1696. Under 
the name of "Trinity Harbor" it is plainly laid down in 
both of DeBry's maps (1590), and under the name of "Wor- 
cester Inlet" it is plainly laid down in Captain John Smith's 
map, published in 1629. 



Y-i-'^^-rir'i 



This same storm (1696) appears to have deepened Ocra- 
coke (called in Lawson's map "Ocacock") Inlet. This inlet, 
or one near it, was called "Wokokon" on DeBry's map of 
Lane's expedition, the name which the Indians gave to an 
"ont island" (meaning the banks) adjoining the inlet. 

The first point of land discovered by the expedition under 
Amidas and Barlowe (July 4, 1584) was probably what is 
now called Cape Hatteras — sigiiificantly named on Captain 
John Smith's map "Cape Amidas." 

We learn from White's last voyage especially (1590), that 
the early navigators sailed up the Gulf-stream, in their voy- 
ages to Virginia, to gain the advantage of the northward cur- 
rent until they arrived off the coast upon which they expected 
to land, and that then, after taking a reckoning of their lati- 
tude, they changed their course and made toward the shore, 
still bearing northward, in the meanwhile, and sailing cau- 
tiously as the soundings showed that the sea was growing 
more and more shallow. 

Under the "last and perfect directions * * * con- 
firming the former directions and commandments" given by 
Sir Walter Raleigh himself to ximidas and Barlowe, it is 
easy to believe that they knew better than to land anywhere 
near the South Carolina coast, which had witnessed the fright- 
ful destruction of Admiral Coligny's colonists by the Span- 
ish only a few years before. So we find the first expedition, 
on July 2d, in "shoal water" and near enough to the shore 
to smell "so sweet and strong a smell as if in some sweet and 
delicate garden * * * by which," Barlowe continues, 



"we were assured the land could not be far distant," and it 
was near at hand, though they sailed two days more before 
they saw it. Sailing up from the south or south-east and 
"bearing but slack sail, the 4tli of the month we arrived," 
continues Barlowe, "upon the coast * * * * ^nd we 
sailed along the same one hundred and twenty English miles 
before we could find any entrance or river issuing into the 
sea. The first that appeared unto us we entered." Sighting 
the land from a point, say twenty miles south of Cape Hat- 
teras, they continued sailing along (but now for the first 
time in sight of) the coast and northward until they found 
an inlet — passing, probably in the night, the two they might 
have entered or tried to enter if the same had "appeared" to 
them- — and finally entering one some tw^enty miles north- 
east of Roanoke Island. The distance as the crow flies is not 
over seventy miles, but as sailed was probably nearer a hun- 
dred, and easily estimated, by one unacquainted with the 
currents, at "a hundred and twenty." They were strangers 
feeling their way for a day and night, at least, along an un- 
known coast, straining their eyes and imaginations to divine 
the meaning of the long yellow ridge of sand-hills that 
stretched like a huge serpent before them. The record of 
Barlowe, and that of those who followed him in the subse- 
quent expeditions (from 1585 to 1590), indicates mistakes 
more considerable than this, their first exaggeration. An- 
other reason why the fi.rst point of land sighted off our coast 
should be Cape Hatteras rather than Cape Lookout, or any 
point in its vicinity, is that the very next expedition (that of 



6 



1585) and the others which followed found many inlets be- 
tween the regions of Cape Lookout and Trinity Harbor and 
"made tryalls of many," and no reason can be seen why this 
expedition should not have done the same thing if it had 
struck our coast as low down as the subsequent expeditions 
did. 

The inlets in that part of the coast between Cape Hatteras 
and Trinity Harbor were beaten through the banks by the 
prevalent storms from the north-east, the violence of w^hich 
may well be imagined when, as we learn from Barlowe, the 
inlet through which the first explorers sailed w^as six miles 
from sea to sound, which was the width of the island through 
which it was driven ; and as it may have been diagonal in its 
direction across the banks, this would easily have made it 
seven miles in length. This explains what Barlowe meant 
when he said : "This land [the banks on the south side of the 
inlet ] lay stretching itself to the west — which after we found 
to be but an island twenty miles long." The indication is 
that he was not then considering the length of the island 
which he "after" saw, but the breadth, which he could then 
easily see straight down the inlet for six or seven miles, for he 
was standing on the sand-banlvs ("being but of mean height") 
adjoining it. It cannot be supposed that he could see through 
the woods for twenty miles down the banks, for 'they were 
thei) Yv'cll wooded, and, even w^ithin the memory of men still 
living, nearly covered with live-oaks. 

White appears to have entered at this same inlet in 1590, 
when he came to look for his lost colony; and it is well to 



note here, also, that his reckoning placed it at thirty-six de- 
grees and twenty minutes — only about ten miles too high 
for Trinity Harbor as measured by our more accurate in- 
struments. He indicates its direction too, for he said the 
wind blew "at north-east and direct into the harbor" — 
the name by which this inlet was often called — "Trinity 
Harbor" being the full name given on DeBry's maps, but 
the "Trinty" part of the name is not mentioned in any 
other record. It is probable that White looked down this 
inlet south-west to Roanoke Island, for he says : "At our 
first coming to anchor on this shore we saw a great smoke 
rise in the Isle of Roanoke near the place where I left 
the colony in 1587." This was the north end of the island, 
where the remains of Fort Raleigh may still be found. It 
need not confuse the careful reader that White called this 
inlet, or the banlvS adjoining, "Hatorask," while DeBry, on 
both his maps, writes that same name near to an inlet oppo- 
site the south end of Roanoke Island. The Indians doubt- 
less called the banks all along there, perhaps clean down to 
Cape Hatteras, by that name, while the English very natu- 
rally used it to designate the inlet or banks adjoining it, or 
they might logically, or perhaps negligently, have applied 
the name to two inlets piercing the banks known among the 
Indians by one name. It is of course possible that after 
using Trinity Harbor to make their first entry they found 
the lower inlet better suited for their purposes and adopted 
it, calling it "Hatorask." If this lower inlet, or the one six 
or seven miles north of it, afterwards called Roanoke, was^ 



or subsequently became, the best, Trinity Harbor would have 
been speedily abandoned with little ceremony and its very 
name forgotten. 

The establishment of this view, however, only makes 
With's (or White's, as the English translation of Haekluyt 
expresses it) drawing, ''The Arrival of thj English in Vir- 
ginia," all the more certainly a picture of the landing of 
Barlowe's expedition, as will presently appear, for the boat 
v/ith the eight or nine men in it is plainly sailing from Trin- 
ity Ilarhor soutJi-ivest toward Roanoke Island and the Indian 
village at the north end of it, v\'hile the record of the landing 
of Grenville and Lane sets forth with equal explicitness that 
they came through "Platorask." But whatever apparent 
confusion there is as to names, the records plainly indicate 
that the early explorers from 1585 to 1590 all headed for an 
inlet or harbor "well known to our English," near Eoanoke 
Island, called "Hatorask." The name Trinity Harbor, which 
only appears in DeBry's maps, may have been an after-thought 
with the pious Hariot, who aided in their preparation, or 
it may have been given by the expedition of 1584 to denote 
the religious purpose which our explorers, as well as others 
of that time, had, or thought they had, in taking possession of 
our shores. In the prow of the boat shown on the drawing 
entitled "The Arrival of the English in Virginia," stands a 
man holding out a cross toward the island and the village. 
This picture, as painted by John With (White), doubtless 
serves well the purpose of representing the arrival of either 
Amidas and Barlowe, or of Grenville and Lane in the year fol- 



9 



lowing, or both. They both came to the island through Hato~" 
rask Banks and may well have come through the same inlet. 
The exjDlanation of this drawing was put into Latin by Hack- 
luyt, and the books containing the drawing have come down to 
us with the explanations. The Latin (edition of 1590), as ac- 
curately translated, saj^s : "* * * Entering, therefore, the 
inlet and purusing our navigation a little way, we observed a 
great river making its ivay out of this region of the aforesaid 
islands [the coastal islands constituting the banks already 
mentioned in the explanation], which, however, we could noc 
ascend by reason of its narrowness and the heaps of sand 
which obstructed its mouth." The old English reads: "After 
wee had passed opp and sayled ther in for a short space wee 
discovered a myghtie riuer falling downe into the Sounde 
over against those ilands, which, nevertheless, wee could not 
sayle opp anything far by reason of the shallewnes, the mouth 
ther of beinge annoyed with sands driven in with the tyde." 
The Latin evidently described Currituck Sound, but the 
English also fits the Albemarle, as represented on DeBry's 
maps, with a bar across its mouth. While the illustration rep- 
resents the first coming of the English to Roanoke, and per- 
haps as well also the second, the explanations, both in English 
and Latin, appear to be mainly descriptive of the second land- 
ing on the island which both White and Hariot saw with their 
own eyes, and the latter doubtless instructed Hackluyt 
abount Virginia as he did DeBry. Barlowe says that his 
expedition entered into the first inlet that appeared unto 
them, while Grenville experimented with inlets all the 



10 



way from the region of Cape Lookout to the Hatorask Har- 
bor. If White only made the drawing and Hariot or Hack- 
kiyt was the author rather than the mere translator and editor 
of the descriptions, we can see why he added incidents which 
did not occur at the iirst landing. The painter appears 
to have been using the second landing, which he saw, to 
aid him in describing the first, which he did not see; for 
if he meant to represent the second '^Coming of the English 
into Virginia," he would, it seems, have painted the banks 
and inlet at Wokokon, through v/hich Lane entered Virginia 
several days before he came to Eoanoke Island. Perhaps 
Hariot or Llackluyt, wdio may not have had Barlowe's account 
before him, thought the explanations fitted, or could be made 
to fit, both landings at Eoanoke as well as the drawing. At 
any rate the old English (see the translation appended 
hereto) left out what the Latin contains: "At length we 
found a certain entrance ivell Icnown to our lilnglisli." This 
sentence makes the Latin explanation more naturally, but not 
necessarily, refer to the second landing, the knowledge of the 
inlet having been gained through the first expedition. There 
are other incidents described alike in the English and the 
Latin which also make the explanation refer to the second 
landing, though, as above hinted, Hariot (or whoever edited 
the explanations of the drawings which were supposed to 
have been written by DeBry or the painter himself) may not 
have had Barlowe's account before him, and perhaps could 
not compare the details of his landing and the different recep- 
tions given by the Indians to the two expeditions. 



11 



However these things may be, a casual glance at the draw- 
ing itself shows that its perspective is altogether from the 
stand-point of ships anchored oil an inlet about twenty miles 
north-east of Roanoke Island. From this inlet the explora- 
tions are shown to extend about the same distance in the three 
directions they covered — north, west and south — just about 
the territory explored by the expedition of 1584, (Lane's cov- 
ered more than a hundred miles in every direction). Even 
Currituck Sound, which they could not ascend with the boat 
they were in, is shown almost in its entirety, and appears 
wider even than the Albemarle, only the west end of which 
is outlined, while of the Pamlico just enough appears to show 
the setting of the island. 

The three towns given are lioanoac, Dasamonguepeuk, 
"four or five miles" west of it, and Pasquenoke, a little fur- 
ther to the west on the north shore of the Albemarle; while 
Pomeioc, about twenty miles south of lioanoke Island, is 
not shown at all, though it would have been the nearest town 
and the one logically they would have first entered if they 
had come in twenty miles south of the island. The inlets 
shown are all opposite to or north of the island; nothing ap- 
pears clearer than that the artist did not regard Pamlico 
Sound as forming any essential part of his picture ; and the 
picture is a travesty on what it represents, unless the coming 
in was from an inlet north of the island. 

Barlowe's narrative, carefully considered, is hardly less 
conclusive. It says: "After they [the Indians] had been 
divers times on board the ships, myself with seven more went 



12 



about twenty miles into the river that runs towards Skicoak 
[a town represented on DeBry's map to be near one of the 
tributaries of the Chesapeake and not far from the upper 
Chowan], which river they call Occam; and the evening fol- 
lowing we came to an island which they call Roanoke, distant 
from the harbor by which we entered seven leagues." The ac- 
count of Drake's voyage speaks of proceeding to a "place they 
[Lane's colony] called their port," the "road" of which was 
"about six leagues" from Lane's "fort," in an "island which 
they call Roanoac." This fixes the distance of the inlet, sup- 
posing they both used the same, at six or seven leagues. Bar- 
lowe continues : "Beyond this island there is a mainland, and 
over against this island falls into this spacious water [the 
water in which the island was situated] the great river called 
Occam by the inhabitants, on wdnch stands a town called 
Pomeioc, and six days' journey from the same is situated 
their gTeatest cit}", called Skicoak. * * * Lito this river 
falls another great river called Cipo, in which there is found 
a great store of muscles in which there are pearls. Likewise 
there descendeth into this Occam another river called N^omo- 
pana [which is Occam extended toward Skicoak], on one 
side wdiereof stands a great town called Chawanooh." The 
great river Occam is the Albemarle Sound ; the ISTomopana, 
on which was the town of Chawanook (afterwards ascertained 
to be a country containing eighteen towns), was what is now 
called the Chowan River ; Cipo w^as the Roanoke River. The 
Albemarle falls into the "spacious Avater" in which, or at the 
head of which, Roanoke Island is situated, and upon which 



13 



the record doubtless intended to say Pomeioc was situated, 
for otherwise we would be forced to extend the river Occam 
twenty miles below Roanoke Island, unless the narrator con- 
fuses this name with the country (Weapomeioc) on the north 
shores of the Albemarle. 

Another point that may be noted, is that the banks about 
twenty miles north of Roanoke Island are still about ''six 
miles" wade. 

To show that Cipo is the Roanoke, the "great river" (in the 
language of Barlowe) that falls into Occam, it may be noted 
that it pours about as much water into the Albemarle as all 
its other tributaries combined. Lane (in 1586) thus describes 
•|-, a* * * Directly from the west runs a most notable 
river called the Moratok [doubtless so-called from the ''prin- 
cipal Indian town" of the same name on its north bank.] 
This river opens into the broad sound of Weapomeiok [the 
name by which Lane called the Albemarle Sound and the 
country north of it.] And whereas, the river of Chawanook, 
and all the other sounds and bays, salt and fresh, shew no 
current in the world in calm weather, but are moved alto- 
gether with the wind ; this river of Moratoc has so violent a 
current from the west and south-west that it made me almost 
of opinion that with oars it would scarce be navigable ; it 
passes with many creeks and turnings, and for the space of 
thirty miles' rowing and more it is as broad as the Thames 
betwixt Greenwich and the Isle of Dogs, in some places more, 
and in some less ; the current runs as strong, being entered 



14 



so high into the river, as at London bridge upon a vale 
water." 

iSTomopana, the beantiful name of the Chowan, was lost 
to Lane's expedition, but the "Chawanoke" country on the 
upper Chowan was explored and duly located on DeBry's 
map ; this substantiates the conclusion that the Occam of 
Barlowe's expedition was the Albemarle Sound, "the gTeat 
river" into which Barlowe sailed twenty miles before he came 
to Roanoke Island. Cipo and IsTomopana being fixed as its 
principal tributaries also identifies it with that sound. The 
sound once indentified, fixes the location of the inlet through 
which Amidas and Barlowe sailed, and so fixes the spot of 
ground on the south side of that inlet upon which the expedi- 
tion of 1584 landed and took possession of "in the right of 
the Queen's most Excellent Majesty as rightful Queen and 
Princess of the same." John With's (White's) picture, there- 
fore, represents an event second in importance only to tlie dis- 
covery of America. 

Barlowe's language is: "Beyond this island there is the 
mainland" — referring, doubtless, to Dasamonguepeuk, the 
land immediately west of the island across Groatan Sound — 
for if they had been coming up from the south they would 
have been sailing up along the continent for about tvv'enty 
miles before they came to Roanoke Island, and the waters of 
the Albemarle Sound (instead of the "mainland") would 
have been "beyond" it. 

Again : "Beyond this island called Roanoke are many main 
islands [those along the shores of the mainland] * * * 



15 



together with many towns and villages along the side of the 
continent." * * * DeBry's map of Lane's expedition 
gives seventy-six islands, ten of which are "out-islands" (the 
banks), and sixty-six of which are within the sounds — one 
in the Albemarle, one where the waters of the Albemarle and 
Currituck come together ; the others, except those in Curri- 
tuck Sound, are all in the Pamlico, unless we except the few 
small ones in Croatan Sound. Those in Currituck are not 
referred to because they are not "together with many towns 
and villages," for no towns and villages are mentioned in any 
of the maps or records as being on this sound ; therefore those 
referred to must be "beyond" Roanoke Island to discoverers 
coming m from the north-east. In the Pamlico Sound were 
shown on DeBry's map numerous islands and many points 
and peninsulas which might have been readily mistaken for 
them. 

ISTor does the concluding portion of Barlowe's narrative 
conflict with the interpretation above given: "When we first 
had sight of this country some thought the first land we saw 
to be the continent, but after we entered into the haven we 
saw before us another mighty long sea [the water which ex- 
pands through all its sounds fifty miles north and one hun- 
dred and fifty miles south of Trinity Harbor] ; for there 
lieth along the coast a tract of island two hundred miles in 
length, adjoining to the ocean sea, and between the islands 
two or three entrances; when you are entered between them 
(these islands being very narrow for the most part, as in most 
places six miles broad, in some places less, in few more) then 



16 



there appeared another great sea, containing in breadth, in 
some places, forty, and in some fifty, in some twenty miles 
over, before you come unto the continent, and in this enclosed 
sea there are above a hundred islands of divers bignesses, 
whereof one is sixteen miles long [Roanoke Island], at which 
we were, finding it a most pleasant and fertile ground." " * 

DeBry's map shows eleven inlets or "entrances," so, as 
Barlowe expressly limits the number to "two or three," it 
shows that he had only examined those next to Roanoke 
Island — Trinity Harbor, Hatorask and one between them. 

One purpose of this discussion is to show the value of 
White's drawing as an historic representation of the taking 
possession of this continent by the English in 158-1 — though 
it is hardly less valuable if it only represents the landing of 
1585. It is passing strange that no reproduction of it on a 
great scale, such, for example, as the painting on the drop- 
curtain in the Music Hall of the Olivia Raney Library, has 
ever been made, either for the State, the nation or the Eng- 
lish-speaking people, an event in which all are interested. 
The artist who will reproduce, on a scale proportioned to the 
event, in livii]g colors, this drawing of John White, the painter 
selected by Queen Elizabeth herself, will discharge a duty to 
his country and his race ; will represent the most interesting 
picture connected with American history, and will show that 
North Carolina contains the spot on which formal possession 
of the continent was taken by the English race. 

Below is given a representation of the drawing, together 
with the ex'planatio'ns in old English and a recent transla- 



17 



tion of the original Latin ; also the joint preface of DeBry 
and Hackluyt to the Hackluyt's translation in DeBry's "True 
Pictures, etc., of Virginia," and the title-page and an extract 
of Harlot's "Briefe Report" — all tending to throw light on 
the "discoveries of the new found land in Virginia" — North 
Carolina. 



THE ARRIUAL OF THE ENGLISHEMEN IN VIRGINIA. 
(From DeBry's "True Pictures, etc., of Virginia.")* 

The sea coasts of Virginia arre full of Hands, wher by the 
entrance into the mayne land is hard to finde. For although 
they bee separated with diuers and sundrie large Diuisions, 
which seeme to yeeld conuenient entrance, yet to our great 
perill we proued that they wear shallowe, and full of danger- 
ous flatts, and could never perce opp into the mayne land, until 
wee made trialls in many places with or small pinness. At 
lengthe wee fownd an entrance vpon our mens diligent serche 
thereof. Alfter that we had passed opp, and sayled ther in 
for a short space we discouered a mightye riuer f allinge 
downe into the sownde ouer against those Hands, which 
neuertheless wee could not saile opp any thing far by Reason 
of the shallewnes, the mouth ther of beinge annoyed with 
sands driuen in with the tyde ; therefore sayling further, wee 
came vnto a Good bigg yland, the Inhabitants thereof as soone 
as they saw vs began to make a great and horrible crye, as 
peopel which neuer befoer had scene men apparelled like vs, 



*Hariot also made a translation from the Latin into English. 



18 



and came away makinge out crys like wild beasts or men ont 
of their wyts. But beenge gentlye called back, we offered 
them of our wares, as glasses, kniues, babies (dolls), and 
otber trifles, which wee thougt they deligted in. Soe they 
stood still, and perceuiuge our Good will and courtesie, 
cam fawninge vpon vs and bade us welcome. Then they 
brougt vs to their village in the iland called Eoanoac, and 
vnto their Weroans or Prince, which entertained vs with 
Reasonable curtesie, althoug they wear amased at the first 
sight of vs. Siiche was our arriuall into the parte of the world 
which we call Virginia, the stature of bodye of wich people, 
theyr attire, and maneer of liuinge, their feasts, and ban- 
ketts, I will particullerlye declare vnto yow. 



THE COMING OF THE ENGLISH TO VIRGINIA. 

(From a recent translation of the Latin of DeBry's "True Pictures, 
etc., of Virginia.") 

The coasts of Virginia abound (are fringed) with islands 
which afford quite a difficult approach (entrance) to that 
region, for although they are separated from one another by 
numerous and wide intervals (inlets) which seem to promise 
a convenient entrance, still to our great cost we found them 
to be shallow and infested with breakers, nor were we ever 
able to penetrate into the inner places (sounds) until we 
made trials in many different places with a smaller boat. At 
length v/e found an entrance in a certain place well known 



19 



to our English. Having therefore entered and continuing 
our voyage for a considerable distance, we encountered a 
large river emerging from the region of the aforesaid islands, 
which, however, it Avas not possible to enter on account of 
the narrowness (of its channel), as the sands filled its mouth 
(It: a bar of sand filling its mouth). Therefore, continuing 
our voyage, we arrived at a large island, whose inhabitants 
upon the sight of us began to raise a great and awful outcry, 
because (forsooth) they had never beheld men like unto us, 
and taking headlong to flight, they filled all places with their 
yells after the manner of wild beasts or madmen. But being 
recalled by our friendly overtures, and our wares having been 
displayed, such as mirrors, small knives (dolls), and other 
trinkets which we thought would be pleasing to them, they 
halted, and, having observed our friendly disposition, they 
became amicable and showed pleasure at our arrival. After- 
wards they conducted us to their town called Roanoac and to 
their Weroans, or chief, who received us very courteously, 
though (evidently) astonished at our appearance. 

Such was our arrival in that part of the new world which 
we call Virginia. 

I shall describe to you by illustrations (drawings and pic- 
tures) the figures of the inhabitants, their ornaments, man- 
ner of living, festivities and feasts. 



20 

TITLE-PAGE OF DeBRY'S "TRUE PICTURES, ETC., OF 
VIRGINIA." 

THE TRVE PICTVRES 

AND FASHIONS OF 

THE PEOPLE IN THAT PAR- 
TE OF AMERICA NOW CAL- 
LED VIRGINIA^ DISCOWRED BY ENGLISMEN 

sent tJiither in the years of our Lorde 1585. att tlie speeiall 

charge and direction of 
the Honourable Sir Walter Ralegh Knight Lord Warden 
of the stannaries in the dnchies of Corenv,'al and Oxford who 
therein hath bynne fauored and aiictorifed by her 
Maaiestie and her let- 
ters patents. 

Translated out of Latin into English by 
RICHARD HACKLVIT. 




DILIGENTLYE COLLECTED AND DRAOW- 
ne by Ihon White who was sent thiter speciallye and for 

the same pur- 
pose by the said Sir Walter Ralegh the year aboue said 
1585. and also the year 1588. now cutt in copper and first 
published by THEODOPtE; de BRY 
att his wone chardges. 



21 



EXTRACT TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN OF DeBRY'S IN- 
TRODUCTION TO THE "TRUE PICTURES, ETC., OF VIR- 
GINIA." 

''I hare determined to present in this book true representa- 
tions of them [the Indians] which (with the assistance of 
Kichard Hackluyt of Oxford, a servant of God's Word, who 
was in that region and was the adviser that this work should 
be published), I have copied from a prototype imparted to me 
by John With, an English painter v/ho was sent into that 
same region of her Majesty, the Queen of England, for the 
express purpose of mahing its topography and representing, 
according to life, the form of its inhabitants, their dress, mode 
of life and customs- — by means of the no small outlay of the 
noble Knight, Sir Walter Raleigh, who has expended very 
much in examining and exploring that region from the year 
1585 to the end of the year 1588. * * * I and my chil- 
dren have devoted ourselves diligently to engTaving and ren-. 
dering of the figures into copper whenever the matter is of 
sufficient importance." 



22 

TITLE-PAGE OF HARRIOT'S "VIRGINIA." 

A BRIEFE AND TRUE RE- 

PORT OF THE NEW FOUND LAND OF VIRGINIA : OF 

the commodities there found and to he raysed, as well mar- 
chantable, as others for victiiall, building and other necessa- 
rie uses for those that are and sliaTbe the "planters there; and of the na- 
ture and manners of the naturall inhabitants : Discouered by the 
English Colony there seated by Sir Richard Greinvile Knight in the 
yeere 1585. which remained vnder the gouernment of Rafe Lane Es- 
quier, one of her Maiesties Equieres, during the space of tivelue 
monethes : at the special charge and direction of the Honourable 
SIR WALTER, RALEIGH Knight, Lord Warden of 
the stanneries ; who therein hath beene f auou- 
red and authorised by her Maiestie and 
her letters patents: 

DIRECTED TO THE ADUENTUEERS^ FAUOURERS, 

and Welwillers of the action.^ for the inhabi- 
ting and planting there: 

By Thomas Hariot; seruant to the abounamed 

8ir Walter, a 7neniber of the Colony, and 

there imployed in discouering. 




i 



Imprinted at London 1588. 



23 



EXTRACT FROM THE INTRODUCTION TO HARIOT'S 
"VIRGINIA." 

TO THE ADUENTUREES^ FAUOEEES, 

AND WELWILLEES OF THE ENTEEPEISE FOE THE DSTHA- 

BITING AND PLANTING IN VIEGINIA. 

Since the first vndertaking by Sir Walter Raleigh to deale 
in the action of discouering of that Countrey which is now 
called and known by the name of Virginia; many voyages 
having bin thither made at sundrie times to his gTeat charge ; 
as first in the yeere 1584, and afterwards in the yeeres 1585, 
1586, and now of late this last yeare of 1587 : There haiie bin 
diners and variable reports with some slaunderoiis and shame- 
full speeches bruited abroade by many that returned from 
thence. Especially of that discouery which was made by the 
Colony transported by Sir Richard Greinuile in the yeare 
1585, being of all the others the most principal and as yet of 
most effect, the time of their abode in the countrey beeing a 
whole yeare, when as in the other voyage before they staled 
but sixe weeks ; and the others after were onelie for supply 
and transportation, nothing more being discouered then had 
been before. ********-3«-** 

I have therefore thought it good beeing one that have beene 
in the discoveries and in dealing with the naturall inhabitants 
specially imploide, etc. 



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I VOL. IV 



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NO. 6 I 



THE 



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GREAT EVENTS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 




RUTHERFORD'S EXPEDITION 
AGAINST THE INDIANS, 1776, 



CAPTAIN S. A. ASHE. 




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Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

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Major William A. Graham. 

3 July — Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and it's Subse- 
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Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

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Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

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Captain S. A. Ashe. 

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VOL, IV. DECEMBER, 1904. NO. 5. 



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RUTHERFORD'S EXPEDITION AOAINST 
THE INDIANS, 17 76. 



BY CAFT. 5. A. ASHE. 



The march of historical events has often been influenced 
by mountain ranges with their intervening valleys and their 
meandering streams ; and it is convenient before entering 
on an account of Gen. Rutherford's expedition in September, 
1776, to give some description of the territory which was the 
scene of operations. 

While the three great mountain chains trending to the 
Southwest lie nearly parallel, towards the Virginia line the 
Smokies approach the Blue Eidge, but South of the French 
Broad they diverge leaving a wide plateau, high and moun- 
tainous, a region remarkable for its fertility and loveliness. 
Further west, between the Smokies and the Alleghanies, is an 
extensive valley, some sixty miles broad, running from Vir- 
ginia to Alabama. It lies like a great trough in the mountain 
region. The Holston, the Clinch and the Powells rivers ris- 
ing in Virginia flow down it, and being joined by the French 
Broad and the Little Tennessee form the Tennessee which 
continues in the same direction. 

In this region was the home of the Cherokees,* whose chief 



* The name Cherokee, it is said, seems to refer to "coining out of the 
ground". In many of the Indian languages the name by which this 
nation was known is said to have that signification. The old men of the 
tribe, as reported by Hewitt, (1778), held the tradition that they had lived 
from time immemorial in their mountain homes and had " originally 
sprung from the ground there". However, by their language they are 
now identified with the Iroquois tribes of the far North, and they are 
thought to have been the Rechahecrians, a tribe that came from the moun- 
tains to the falls of the James River and made war on the Virginians in 1656. 



strongliolds lay to the Southward, and who occupied some 
forty towns on the plateau from Pigeon River (near Waynes- 
ville) to the Hiwassee ; many towns in the foothills of the 
Blue Ridge on the head waters of the Savannah river and a 
still greater number in the valley and beyond the Smoky 
Mountains called ''the overhill towns." This numerous and 
powerful tribe had by treaty been awarded all the territory 
lying west of a line running from the White Oak Mountains 
(in Polk County) north to the waters of the Watauga, a 
branch of the Holston; beyond which white settlements were 
forbidden; and on the other hand, the Indians were not to 
cross that line without permission. 

To the v/estward they claimed as their hunting ground the 
territory now ■ embraced in Tennessee and Kentucky. To 
the Southward, they occupied the IN^orth-western portion of 
South Carolina. In Georgia and Alabama, were the Creeks 
and Choctaws ; and to the ISTorthward were the Sha^vnees, 
a tribe that originally inhabited lands on the Savannah, but 
was driven J^orthward, and at first located in Kentucky, but 
being expelled from that region by the Cherokees settled 
ISTorth of the Ohio, Kentucky becoming' the debatable land 
of these war-like tribes and the scene of their constant war- 
fare, and hence kno^vn as "the dark and bloody gTound." 

The Indians had long been used as allies by the Whites 
in their wars ; the French occupying Canada and claiming 
the Mississippi territory had early engaged them in their 
warfare against the English Colonists, and in like manner the 
English had sought to enlist the friendly tribes for their o^^ti 
assistance. 

For the purposes of trade and in order to control the In- 
dians at the South, the British Government had for years 



employed agents to reside among them, wlio reported to the 
general superintendent, Captain John Stuart, a distinguished 
British officer, who was intimately associated with the Cher- 
okees from 1760 until 1777, when because of the disastrous 
result of the outbreak he inaugurated he returned to England 
where he died in 1779. He had great power over them as 
well as with the Creeks and Choctaws. His agent in the 
TJppertowns of the Cherokees was a Scotchman named Cam- 
eron, who had long resided among them and lived as an 
Indian, and exerted great influence over the Cherokee Na- 
tion. The lines between the colonies had not been established 
even to the Blue Ridge and all beyond was a wilderness — 
Indian country, — and the Cherokees living to the ISTorthwest 
of Charleston traded there and had but little intercourse with 
J^orth Carolina. 

In the i^rogi-ess of settlement the lands of Western JSTorth 
Carolina were well occupied at the Southward beyond the 
Catawba and at the iSTorthw^ard along the Yadkin to the foot 
of the mountains; and in 1769 William Bean, a JSTorth Caro- 
linian, crossed the mountains and built the first cabin occu- 
pied by a white man on the Watauga River, and shortly after- 
wards a stream of settlers from IsTorth Carolina, Virginia and 
Pennsylvania pressed down the Tennessee Valley and occu- 
pied the fertile lands of the Holston and on the T^ollichunky 
(west of Mitchell county) following the Indian trail and the 
trading path from the ISTorthward to the Cherokee towns. It 
is worthy of remark that this valley was a great open 
thoroughfare that nature had provided in the mountains and 
it was used as a war path and easy means of communication 
between the ISTorthern and Southern Indians. 

In our day commerce and traffic with its railroad line fol- 



6 

low the Indian trail of primeval times, and where the echoes 
of thundering trains are now heard the war whoops of the 
Delawares and of the Shawnees resounded in their forays 
against the Cherokees and the Choctaws and the Creeks. As 
the settlements on the Watauga and Holston and I^^oUi- 
chunky were within the territory accorded to the Cherokees, 
that ISTation had become restless and in a measure hostile to 
the invading Colonists ; and they naturally looked to the 
British Crown, with whom their treaties were made, as the 
only source of protection from the encroachments of the ad- 
venturous settlers. 

In 17Y1 there had been in upper South Carolina an insur- 
rection similar to that known as "the Regulation movement" 
in N^orth Carolina. It was under the leadership of a man 
named Scovell, and although it was easily suppressed, discon- 
tent was felt by the Scovellites against the men who had de- 
feated them and against the measures they proposed; and 
so when the troubles came on with the Mother Country many 
of the Scovellites threw themselves into the opposition, be- 
coming active Tories. When the Revolutionary war had be- 
gun, in order to induce the Cherokees to entertain friendly 
sentiments towards the Colonists, following the usual custom 
a present consisting in part of ammunition was in the fall 
of 1775 sent to them; and as the pack-horses were passing 
through upper South Carolina, the Scovellites rose and em- 
bodied, and seized the powder, claiming that it was intended 
for the Indians to use in making war upon them. This led 
to a hasty movement on the part of South Carolina, in which 
the inhabitants of Rowan and Mecklenburg counties joined, 
to suppress the Scovellites and regain possession of those 
munitions of war. 



Col. Alexander Martin, of Mecklenburg County, com- 
manding two companies of Continentals, and Col. Ruther- 
ford, of Rowan, and Col. Tom Polk, of Mecklenburg, com- 
manding detachments of militia, hastened into South Caro- 
lina and dispersed the malcontents, some of whom fled to the 
Cherokees and allied themselves with Cameron who was then 
stirring up the Indians against the Colonists. This expedi- 
tion, undertaken in December, 1775, because of ' the heavy 
snow then on the ground, was known as the snow campaign. 

Such was the situation when the British Government 
agreed to adopt the plan proposed by Gov. Martin, who had 
fled to Fort Johnston on the lower Cape Fear, for the subju- 
gation of ISTorth Carolina and the Southern Colonies. This 
plan contemplated the use of a large British force on the Sea- 
board, the rising of the loyalists in the interior, and an ex- 
tensive Indian warfare on the outlying district which it was 
expected would engage the attention of the inhabitants so 
thoroughly as to prevent any interference with the embody- 
ing of the loyalists and their juncture with the British troops 
on the Seaboard. Capt. John Stuart, the Indian Superin- 
tendent, who for several months in the Spring of 1776 was at 
Fort Johnston awaiting the arrival of Gen. Clinton's troops, 
said in his report of May 20th, that he had been cut off from 
any correspondence with his deputies, and that he had no 
instructions up to that time from Gen. Howe or Gen. Clinton 
to employ the Indians, yet he proposed to use his utmost en- 
deavors to keep the Indians in temper and disposed to act 
when required to do so. In the meantime the Continental 
Congress had appointed agents to have a meeting with the 
Creeks and Cherokees and to engage them to remain neutral, 



8 



and Willie Jones was one of the Commissioners. They met 
with many of the Indians at Augusta and succeeded in ob- 
taining their promise of neutrality ; but still Capt Stuart re- 
ported that he did not despair of getting them to act for his 
Majesty's service when found necessary. Later however, 
the Continental Congress directed its Commissioners to form 
an alliance with the Indians and to engage their active aid, 
but before that had been done, the British arranged for the 
Cherokees and all the tribes from the Ohio to Alabama to 
begin hostilities against the Western borders. Towards the 
end of June, fifteen Shawnees were with the Creek I^ation 
concerting measures in regard to the War, and the Cherokees 
received the war belt from the Shawnees, the Mingoes and 
the Delaware ISTations. It was agTeed that a force of five 
hundred Creeks, five hundred Choctaws, five hundred Chick- 
asaws, and a body of troops from Pensacola together with all 
the Cherokee ^KTation, were immediately to fall on the fron- 
tiers of Virginia and the two Carolinas. Henry Stuart, a 
British agent, wrote to the settlers on the Watauga and ISTol- 
lichunky recommending that whoever among them were 
willing to join his Majesty's forces should repair to the 
King's standard and find protection among the Cherokees ; 
those who failed to declare their loyalty were to be cut off 
by the Indians. 

At that p'eriod when the Provincial Congress of the State 
was not in session, the supreme direction of affairs, under 
some limitations, was committed to the Council of State com- 
posed of thirteen members. A messenger carrying the plans 
for the Indian rising to General Gage for his approval was 
captured, and information being received by the Council of 



the proposed movement of the Indians, General Rutherford 
was directed to prepare to withstand them. It was at the 
end of June, just when the British made their assault on 
Fort Moultrie at Charleston, that the Indians began their 
murderous attack on upper South Carolina. President Rut- 
ledge on July 7th wrote to the jSTorth Carolina Council that 
on the 80th of June the Cherokees had made several prison- 
ers, plundered houses and killed some of the settlers. He 
ja'oposed a joint movement by which Major Williamson with 
about eleven hundred men should proceed from South Caro- 
lina against the Lower Cherokees, and a force from ITorth 
Carolina should attack the middle towns, and being joined 
by Major Williamson should proceed against the settlements 
on Valley River and the Hiwassee, while a detachment from 
Virginia should come down the Holston and attack the Over- 
hill towns. But in advance of his letter, I^orth Carolina was 
aroused. The savages did not delav their operations, but 
struck quickly. 

The Creeks had joined the Cherokees, and together they 
rushed up the valley of the Tennessee, intent on devastating 
the outlying districts. But from Echota, the Capital of the 
]'^^ation, on the Little Tennessee, (some thirty miles west of 
Graham County), ISTancy Ward hurriedly sent word of the 
intended invasion to the ^^Tiites on the Holston who fled to 
their forts for protection. This v/oman was a half-breed 
and a niece of Ata-kuUakulla, (the Little Carpenter) one of 
the most noted of the Indian Chieftains of that period. In his 
younger days he had visited England, to confirm a treaty of 
peace with the King, and like Manteo, he had ever remained 
a faithful friend of the ^Vhites. At the fearful massacre in 



10 

175S at Fort London,* he had saved the life of Captain -John 
Stuart and had secretly carried him to Virginia and arranged 
for tlie ransom of the surviving captives ; and at this period 
and later, he was a friend of the Colonists in their contest 
with the Mother Country. Echota, the capital, was "a peace 
town," "a city of refuge," and ISTancy Ward, who bore the 
title of "^'beloved woman," was accorded the privilege of talk- 
ing in the Councils of the Chiefs and of deciding on the fate 
of prisoners, and possessed much influence among the In- 
dians ; and upon several occasions she rendered the Whites 
great service. Because of her warning, the greater part of 
the settlers on the Holston and Watauga escaped from the 
irruption of the invading savages ; but a Mrs. Bean, perhaps 
the wife of the first settler, and a boy, Moore, were taken 
alive. The boy' was burnt at the stake and Mrs. Bean was 
also bound to the stake ready for the burning, when ISTancy 
A¥ard interfered and saved her life. 

In the Spring of 1Y76 the State had been laid off into 



* There were two Fort Louclons; one near Winchester. Va. ; and the other 
on the Little Tennessee at the junction of Tellico River, near where 
Loudon's Station on the railroad now is, a few miles to the west of Echota. 
This fort was constructed by the South Carolina forces about 1756 for the 
purpose of holding the ^''herokees in check, and was garrisoned by 200 
soldiers. In 1758, after a long siege, it was taken by the Indians; and the 
siege and the massacre of the garrison and of the whites who had takeu 
refuge there form the basis of a very interesting and meritorious novel, the 
title being "Old Fcrt Loudon." The author closely fol](jws the historical 
account given by Hewitt in his history of South Carolina, written in 1770. 
It is particularly commended to the readers of the Booklet. It is in the 
Raney Library. 

The writer of this article takes this opportunity to acknowledge his 
indebtedness to the 19th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, J. W. P<nvell, director, for much information. 



11 

military districts and Colonel Griffith Rntlierford, of Salis- 
bury, had been appointed Brigadier-General of the Western 
District. He was an Irishman, not well educated, but a man 
of courage, energy, and a born soldier. At the inception 
of the troubles, he was Colonel of Rowan County, and year 
by year he attained higher eminence and rendered more im- 
portant services, until at the very last he drove the British 
garrison from Wilmington and freed the State from their 
presence. After the war he moved to Tennessee and died 
there. 

In the first week of July, while the forts on the Holston 
were being attacked, bands of warriors crossed the moun- 
tains and fell ujDon the unarmed settlers on Crooked Creek 
(near Rutherfordton), and a large force established their 
lieadquarters on the ISTollichunky, and came up the Toe, and, 
passing the Blue Ridge, invaded the frontier of Rowan, 
which then extended to the mountains. 

The unexpected appearance of these murderous bands in 
the outlying settlements caused great consternation, and as 
the news spread the backwoodsmen were aroused to resolute 
action. 

On the 12th of July, General Rutherford wrote to the 
Council that he had that day received an express that the 
week before there were forty Indians on Crooked Creek (in 
the vicinity of Rutherfordton) and that applications were 
made him daily for relief ; and he plead for expedition. And 
en the next day, he again sent an express to the Council 
about the alarming condition of the country, stating that the 
Indians were making great progress in destroying and mur- 
dering on the frontier of Rowan County. "Thirty-seven 
persons," he said, "were killed last Wednesday and Thurs- 



12 

day on the Catawba River," and "I am also informed that 
Colonel McDowell and ten men more and one hundred and 
twenty women and children are besieged in some kind of a 
fort, and the Indians around them; no help to them before 
yesterday, and they were surrounded on Wednesday. I 
expect the next account to hear is that they are all destroyed. 
Pray, gentlemen, consider our distress, send us plenty of 
powder, and I hope, under God, we of Salisbury District 
are able to stand them ; but if you allow us to go to the ISTa- 
tion, I expect you will order Hillsboro District to join Salis- 
bury. Three of our Captains are killed and one wounded. 
This day I set out with what men I can r^ise for the relief 
of the district." 

At that time -there was a fort at "Old Fort," constructed 
twenty years earlier by the whites as a protection for the 
Catawbas against the Cherokees, these tribes being always 
at enmity. This fortification being on land owned by Colonel 
Davidson, was in 1776 known as Davidson's Fort; and in 
it the people of the vicinity found refuge. There was an- 
other on Turkey Cove ; a third at Lenoir ; a fourth at War- 
rior Ford on Upper Creek, north of Morganton, and several 
others in the exposed settlements of Burke County, and in 
these the inhabitants assembled. 

The plan of operations suggested by President Eutledge 
was agreed on and it was arranged that General Rutherford 
should march to the Indian Country where he was to be 
joined on September 9th by Colonel Williamson, near Cowee 
on the Little Tennessee, and together they were to devastate 
the Indian towns. Colonel Williamson, who had with him 
some Catawba Indians, besides his force of 1,800 whites, 
moved with great promptness, and speedily penetrated to the 



13 

Lower Towns, about the head of the Savannah River, in the 
vicinity of Walhalla, which he destroyed, driving the Indians 
before him. But at the town of Seneca, Cameron and his 
Tories, the Scovellites who had joined him, and a large 
number of braves made a desperate stand, but were finally 
routed and dispersed ; and Williamson found there and 
destroyed, besides other stores, more than six thousand bush- 
els of corn. Having completed the destruction of the Lower 
Towns, he crossed through Rabun Gap* and hurried to the 
rendezvous. His route was north, down the Little Tennessee, 
through Macon County, but being delayed he did not make 
the juncture at the appointed place. 

General Rutherford acted with that energy that ever dis- 
tinguished him. On the 19th day of July, he had marched 
at the head of 2,500 men to protect the frontier of his 
County ; for the men of Western Carolina had sprung to arms 
with zeal and avidity, and were animated by a great desire to 
inflict heavy punishment upon their murderous foe. The 
various ISTorth Carolina detachments under his command. 



* Rabun Gap, at the Southern line of Macon county, was a natural gate- 
way to the interior of the Indian country from the southward. 

It may be interesting to note that the first expedition into the Cherokee 
country was made by Col. Maurice Moore, who, just after the Tuscaroras 
had been subdued, led a force of white men from the Albemarle settlement 
to aid the people of South Carolina, then threatened with extermination 
by the Indians. He passed up the Savannah river and through Rabun 
Gap and down the Little Tennessee, and a part of his force went even 
beyond the Smokies to Echota. That was the route of communication 
from the south to the Tennessee Valley. Col. Montgomery, in 1758, going 
to the relief of Fort Loudon, followed the same route and fought a battle 
near Franklin and was defeated and driven back by the Indians. A few 
months later he distinguished himself with Wolfe, at Quebec, and in 1775, 
being a Major-General in the Continental army, was killed at Quebec. 



14 

having organized at different points, concentrated at David- 
son's (Old Fort). Leaving the main body there, on the 29th 
of July, with a detachment of 500 men, Rutherford 
crossed the mountains to dislodge a force of some 200 braves 
who had established themselves on the iSTollichunky, from 
where they had made their incursions on the frontier. 

As it was not until the 9th of September that he was to 
unite with Williamson at a point only eighty miles distant, 
he spent the month of August in protecting the exposed set- 
tlements and in preparing for the expedition. He was rein- 
forced by a regiment of militia from Surry under the com- 
mand of Colonel Martin Armstrong, among whose Captains 
was Benjamin Cleveland, with whom was William Lenoir, 
afterwards the well-known General, and William Gray, as 
Lieutenants. They joined Rutherford at Catchey's Fort; 
while another regiment of three hundred men from Surry 
under Colonel Joe Williams, crossed the mountains further 
north and joined Colonel Christian and his Virginians at 
Big Island on the Holston. 

General Rutherford was skilled in Indian warfare and 
knew the advantage of swift and sudden movement, and the 
disadavantages of allowing the Indian enemies an oppor- 
tunity of harrassing his army in the coves of the mountains 
while oh the march. His men were well armed and equipped, 
and every precaution was taken to proceed with dispatch, 
and secrecy, and not only to make the expedition successful 
but to put an end to all apprehensions of any future trouble 
from the Indians. On the 23rd of August, the Council of 
State being then in session at Wake Court House, President 
Samuel Ashe wrote to General Rutherford by General Per- 
son, making suggestions, and Person found the army ready 



15 

to move, and on the 1st of September it entered Swannanoa 
Gap and pressed forward. In the meantime a regiment from 
Orange Comity, under Colonel Joseph Taylor, was dis- 
patched to reinforce Rutherford, but on reaching the moun- 
tains about the middle of August its assistance was found 
unnecessary, and it was disbanded and the men returned 
home. 

When Rutherford moved, he proceeded with great rapid- 
ity and with such secrecy that he passed fifty miles into the 
wilderness without being discovered by the Indians. His 
route was said to have been across the Blue Ridge at Swan- 
nanoa Gap, then following the Swannanoa to its junction with 
the French Broad, across the latter river at Warrior Ford 
(below Asheville). His course was thence up Hominy 
Creek and across the ridge to Pigeon River ; then to Rich- 
land Creek (crossing it just above Waynesville) and over 
the dividing ridge, between Haywood and Jackson Counties, 
to the head of Scott's Creek, which he followed to its junction 
with the Tuckaseegee. 

All of this journey through the mountains was a very 
arduous and difiicult .performance. Yfithout a road and 
sometimes without even a trail, he led his army over moun- 
tains and across streams, a hard undertaking even under 
favorable circumstances, and he pursued his way in momen- 
tary danger of attack by his wily foe. But so sagacious was 
he that every obstacle was successfully overcome, and it was 
not until he had penetrated two-thirds of his way into the 
forest that his movement was discovered. His men were 
in fine spirits, and keenly enjoyed the excitement of their 
march through the solitude of the mountains and were eager 
to meet the enemy. At length he reached a point only thirty 



16 

miles distant from the Middle Settlements on the Tuckasee- 
gee. Here a detachment of a thousand men was sent for- 
ward by a forced march to surprise the Indians in their 
towns and fall upon them like a thunderbolt. Pursuing their 
quiet but rapid journey, they came upon some thirty Indians 
who disputed their progress ; but after a short encounter the 
enemy fled, having wounded only one man and killed none. 
But they carried information of the invasion to the settle- 
ment, and when Kutherford reached the towns they had all 
been evacuated. Without losing time he began the work of 
destruction and speedily devastated the fields and burnt every 
house. Y\"hen this was accomplished he took another detach- 
ment of 900 men, with ten days' provisions, and hurried 
along the Little Tennessee, and then on to attack the settle- 
ments on Valley River and the Hiwassee, destroying every 
town as he reached it. 

Williamson was to have met him with the South Carolina 
force at Cowee, but not arriving, Rutherford proceeded alone. 
Without an intelligent guide he found great difficulty in 
making his way through that unlmo^vn country and was 
much embarrassed in his march. But even this circumstance 
proved fortunate. He missed the usual trail, and crossed the 
Nantahala Mountains at an unaccustomed place. The usual 
route lay through Way a Gap, where the trail crosses from 
Cartoogoya Creek of the Little Tennessee to Laurel Creek 
of Nantahala River ; and there five hundred braves lay in 
ambush expecting to destroy his army, as they had beat 
back Montgomery's twenty years before. For several days 
they had lain in position awaiting his coming, and ignorant 
of his movement they still waited, while he crossed further 
down and reached the headwaters of Vallev River. 



17 

In a brief diary kept by Captain Charles Polk, who com- 
manded a company in this expedition, he says: ^'On Thurs- 
day, the 12th of September, we marched down the river three 
miles to Cowee town and in camp. On this day there was 
a party of men sent down this river (TsTuckessey*) ten miles, 
to cnt down the corn; the Indians fired on them as they 
were cutting the corn an'd killed Hancock Polk, of Colonel 
Beekman's regiment." On Friday, the 13th, they remained 
in camp in Cowee Town. On Saturday, the 14th, "we 
marched to ISTuckessey Town, six miles higher up the river, 
and encamped. On Sunday, the 15th, one of Captain Irwin's 
men was buried in IvTuckessey Town. On Monday, the 16th, 
we marched five miles — this day with a detachment of 1,200 
men, for the valley towns, and encamped on the waters of 
Tennessee River. Mr. Hall preached a sermon last Sunday ; 
in time of the sermon the express we sent to the South army 
returned. On Tuesday, the lYth, we marched six miles and 
arrived at a to^AH called ISTowee, about 12 o'clock ; three guns 
were fired at Robert Harris, of Mecklenburg, by the Indians, 
said Harris being the rear of the army. We marched one 
mile from N^owee and encamped on the side of a steep moun- 
tain without any fire. (C. L. Hunter's sketches of W. JST. C, 
p. 189.) 

His route seems to have been southward of the present 
town of Whittier, and do^vn Cowee Creek to the waters of 
Little Tennessee in the present county of Macon, and then 
across to Valley River. Every town upon the Tuckaseegee 
and tlie upper part of Little Tennessee, thirty-six towns in 
all, were destroyed, the corn cut down or trampled under 

* Doubtless "Tuckaseegee". 



18 

the hoofs of stock driven into the fields for that purpose, and 
the stock itself killed or carried off. His army ascended 
Cartoogaja Creek, west from the present town of Franklin, 
to the JSTantahala Mountains ; and from the l!^antahala 
(about Jarrett Station) the route lay across the mountains 
into the present county of Cherokee to Valley River, and 
down the Valley River to the Hiwassee, at the site of the pres- 
ent town of Murphey. The Indian braves being away, the 
towns on Valley River were destroyed each in turn, and it 
was as if a besom of destruction had swept over those settle- 
ments, so sudden and rapid was Rutherford's movement and 
so destructive his action. Two days after Rutherford's army 
had escaped falling into the ambuscade prepared for them 
at Waya Gap, Coionel Williamson with the South Carolina 
troops hurrying on and crossing by the usual trail, notwith- 
standing he had Catawba Indians as scouts, fell into the trap 
and lost twelve killed and twenty wounded. The Indians, 
however, suffered still more heavily and were finally put to 
rout. In destroying the Valley towns General Rutherford 
killed twelve Indians and captured nine, and he also took 
seven white men, from whom he got four negroes, consider- 
able stock and leather and about one hundred weight of gun- 
powder and a ton of lead which they were conveying to 
Mobile. His own loss was slight. On the whole expedition 
he lost but three men. (Vol. 10, Col. Records, p. 861.) He 
had the good fortune to avoid a pitched battle, and with 
great skill he moved with such celerity that he was attacked 
but once on the route, and then only by some thirty Indians. 
It will be seen that his operations were entirely within the 
limits of the present State of ISTorth Carolina ; still the Valley 
settlements were so distant that at that time it was a very 



19 

arduous undertaking for Rutherford to lead his expedition 
through the unbroken forests of the mountains to the banks 
of the Hiwassee. 

It had been expected that the two armies would unite 
on the 9th of September on the Little Tennessee, but Wil- 
liamson being delayed, Rutherford crossed the ]^[antahala 
Mountains, and it was not until the 26th that Colonel Wil- 
liamson effected a junction with Rutherford's force on the 
Hiwassee. The work had then been done. All the towns, 
the corn and everything else that might be of service to the 
Indians of that region had been entirely destroyed, and the 
Valley settlement was obliterated. 

A fortnight after General Rvitherford had begun his 
march, the Council of State, which had adjourned from 
Wake Court House to Salisbury so as to be nearer the scene 
of operations, sent Colonel Avery, provided with an escort, 
to confer with the General and to carry directions that he 
should, after destroying the towns, erect some forts in the 
Indian Country and send a detachment to assist Colonel 
Christian in his operations against the Overhill towns, and 
on his return he should cut a road through the mountains for 
future use. 

On the arrival of Colonel Williamson's force a conference 
of officers was held and the subject of assisting Colonel Chris- 
tian was considered, but it was deemed utterly impracticable 
to cross the Smoky Mountains, for the gap through those 
mountains was found to be impassable for an army in case of 
opposition; and it was agreed that having expelled the In- 
dians and accomplished all they could they should return 
home. 

Their work indeed had been fully performed. As the 



20 

army advanced every house in every settlement had been 
burned, ninety houses in one town alone, and the fields were 
utterly devastated. The Indians were driven, homeless refu- 
gees without food or raiment, save what they wore, into the 
dark recesses of the ISTantahala, or to more remote localities 
beyond the mountains. Some sought shelter at the Overhill 
towns, but the greater number turned to the southwest and 
found a temporary home on the Coosawatchee River with the 
Creeks, and others made their painful way to their British 
allies in Florida, where 500 of them were received and sup- 
plied with food during that winter. Indeed the effect upon 
the Cherokees of this invasion by more than 4,000 well armed 
men was appalling. ISTearly all of their towns and posses- 
sions east of the Smokies were effaced ; and desolate wander- 
ers they were, fugitives and outcasts, like wild animals 
without shelter and dependent on acorns and chestnuts and 
wild game for subsistence. Satisfied with the result of their 
operations, which had been so well conducted that there had 
been but little loss of life, Williamson and Rutherford now 
turned their faces homeward. Rutherford on his return pur- 
sued the same route by which he had advanced, and the road 
he cut through the mountains has since been known as "Ruth- 
erford's Trace." The time occupied was rather more than 
a month, and he reached Salisbury early in October and at- 
tended the meeting of the Provincial Congi'ess, which met 
on the 12th of ]Srovember at Halifax, he being an important 
member of that body. 

Further to the northward Colonel William Christian as- 
sembled his men on the ITolston in August, there being among 
them the regiment from Surry County under Colonel Joseph 
Williams, Colonel Love and Major Winston. He pressed 



21 

cautiously along the great Indian war patli to the 
crossing of the French Broad, and then advanced with- 
out opposition to the Little Tennessee, where early in 
JSTovember he was proceeding to destroy the to^vns one after 
the other. So swift and strong had been the action 
of the Colonists that the Indians, unable to resist, 
now sought terms of peace; and Colonel Christian was the 
more willing to be lenient as he hoped to draw their 
trade to Virginia and away from South Carolina. He sent 
out some runners, and several of the head men came into his 
camp and agreed to surrender all their prisoners and to cede 
to the whites all the disputed territory occupied in the Ten- 
nessee settlements. On their solemn promise that such a treaty 
should be made when the tribe could be assembled. Christian 
suspended hostilities and withdrew his force. An exception 
was made, however, as to two towns, especially the to^vn 
of Tuskeegee, which had been concerned in the burning of 
the Moore boy who was captured along with Mrs. Bean, 
which was destroyed ; but the peace town of Echota was not 
molested. 

Colonel Williams was not pleased with Colonel Christian's 
action. From Citico town on the Little Tennessee under date 
of the 6th of J^ovember, 177 Q, he wrote to the President of 
the Congress as follows : "AgTeeable to instructions from 
General Rutherford, I marched three hundred men from 
Surry County and joined the Virginians against the Overhill 
Cherokee Indians, the whole commanded by Colonel Wil- 
liam Christian. We arrived in Tomotly (one of their towns) 
the 18th ultimo, and have been lying in their towns till this 
day ; nothing done except burning five of their towns, and 
patched up a kind of peace (a copy of which you have en- 



22 

closed). I propose waiting on you myself as soon as I re- 
turn to North Carolina, at which time will endeavor to give 
a more particular account. I have this day obtained leave 
to return with my battalion." 

Another letter from him to the Congress from Surry 
County, dated the 22nd of JSTovember, says: ""J sent a copy 
of the articles of peace ; I now send you a copy of a letter 
from Colonel Christian to Colonel Russell; both of which 
are convincing proof to me that some of the Virginia gentle- 
men are desirous of having the Cherokees under their pro- 
tection, which I humbly conceive is not their right, as almost 
the whole of the Cherokee Country lies in the limits of 
-Xorth Carolina and ought, I think, to be under their protec- 
tion, and hope will be the opinion of every member belong- 
ing to this State. As our frontiers are inhabited far beyond 
where tlie Colony line is extended, in order to avoid further 
disputes, it would be well for commissioners to be appointed 
from each Colony and have the line extended, otherwise by 
all probability there will be great contentions in our fron- 
tiers." 

By a treaty made in South Carolina, the following May, 
the Lower Cherokees surrendered all their remaining terri- 
tory in South Carolina, except a narrow strip, and in July 
by treaty at the Long Island, as had been arranged by Colo- 
nel Christian, the Middle and Upper Cherokees ceded all 
their possessions east of the Blue Eidge, together with all 
the disputed territory on the Vv-'atauga, Xolliehunky, Upper 
Holston and ISTew River ; and an agent was appointed to rep- 
resent the whites and to reside at Echota and prevent any 
movements unfriendly to the American cause. 

General Rutherford reached Salisburv early in October, 



23 

aucl to destroy some towns not in his route, and perhaps to 
aid Colonel Christian, then beyond the Smokies in the Ten- 
nessee Valley, he directed Captain William Moore to collect 
his company of Light Horse and to join Captain Harden of 
the Tryon Troops, and to return into the Indian Country. 
Captain Moore's account of this expedition has been pre- 
served. (Vol. 10, Col. Records.) The entire force num- 
bered about one hundred horsemen. They left Cathey's Fort 
on the 29tli of October and pushed on down to the Tuckasee- 
gee River, but on arriving at the Tuskaseegee and in the 
vicinity of the tow^n of Too Cowee (which was situated over 
the Cowee Mountain on the exact ground recently occupied 
by the residence of Hon. W. H. Thomas, for many years the 
Senator from Jackson County and well known as the Chief 
of the Cherokee Tribe), Moore pressed on with great vigor, 
hoping to reach the town before night. But the distance 
]:)roved greater than he expected, and he did not reach it imtil 
next morning. The enemy having become alarmed had all 
fled, and the town, consisting of tw^enty-five houses, was 
destroyed, together with the orchards and fields of the In- 
dians. The location of this settlement is said to be just above 
the present railroad bridge of Whittier in Swain County. 
A detachment left the main body and pursued the fugitives 
northward- on the other side of the river to Oconaluftee River 
and Soco Creek. This detachment was under Captain Moore, 
and after many experiences it finally crossed "a prodigious 
mountain where it felt a severe shock of an earthquake," and 
then steered a course east and south two days through "pro- 
digious mountains which were almost impassable and struck 
the road in Richland Creek Mountains and returned to Pig- 
eon River." 



24 

The murderous warfare of the savages begot a similar 
spirit of fierce revenge on the part of the hardy spirits who 
had to struggle with them in the distant mountains, and the 
life of an Indian was seldom spared unless for the purpose of 
converting him into a slave. The whites practiced the art of 
scalping with equal skill as the Red Man, and boasted of 
their prowess by exhibiting their bloody scalps. A^Tien Cap- 
tain William Moore's horsemen were returning and arrived 
at Pigeon River, a dispute arose between him and tlie whole 
body of officers and men concerning the sale of the prisoners. 
He deemed it his duty to submit the question to the Congress 
whether they should be sold as slaves or not, but "the greater 
part swore bloodily that if they were not sold slaves upon the 
spot, they would kill and scalp them immediately," upon 
which the Captain was obliged to give way. In his report, 
he says : "The three prisoners were sold for 242 pounds, 
while the whole amount of plunder amounted to above eleven 
hundred pounds." "Our men," he adds, "were very spirited 
and eager for action, and Vv'ere very desirous that your Honor 
Avould order them upon a second expedition."* 



The following relative to General Rutherford may be of 
interest: The Rutherfords were originally Scotch, and for 
centuries they were classed among the most ancient and pow- 
erful families in Teviotdale, on the borders of England. One 
of the most distinguished of the name was Rev. Samuel Ruth- 
erford, who, in 1644, published his "Lex Rex," which gives 
him a prominent place among the early writers on Constitu- 



* Moore's report is sometimes improperly quoted as giving an account 
of Rutherford's expedition. Moore's expedition was a subsequent foray 
into the Indian country. 



25 

tional Laws. On the Restoration this work was ordered to be 
burnt and he was charged with high treason, but died in 1661 
before he was brought to triaL Later some members of his 
family removed from Scotland to Ireland, where John Ruth- 
erford married a Miss Griifith, a lady from Wales. Their 
son, Griffith Rutherford, sailed from Ireland to America in 
1739, accompanied by his wife and their only son, Griffith, 
then about eight years of age. The parents died either on 
the voyage or soon after their arrival, and young Griffith 
Rutherford fell to the care of an old German couple. He 
came to Rowan county, ISTorth Carolina, probably about 1753, 
along with the early settlers, being then about 22 years of 
age. 

In 1756 he purchased from James Lynn two tracts of land 
on the south fork of Grant's Creek, about seven miles south- 
west of the little settlement of Salisbury, and adjoining the 
land of James Graham, whose sister, Elizabeth, he married 
about that time. Their son, James Rutherford, killed at the 
Battle of Eutaw, was a Major in 1780 and was born probably 
in 1757. Although General Rutherford's education was not 
a finished one, it was not so deficient as to be a hindrance to 
him in public life. His association was with the best people 
of his section and his residence was in the center of the 
Locke settlement. 

A man of strong character , resolute and determined and of 
unusual capacity and sterling worth, he early attained a posi- 
tion of prominence. He was a member of the Assembly as 
early as 1769, and about that time, perhaps earlier, he was 
Sheriff of Rowan County. He was in the Assembly of 1770 
and 1771, and at that time was Captain of his militia com- 
pany from his section of Rowan. 



26 

When in 1771 the Regulators of Rowan County questioned 
the legality of the fees taken by the officers of that county, 
Rutherford and Frohawk and Alexander Martin and other 
officers agreed to refer the matters in dispute to a committee 
of prominent citizens, some being chosen from among the 
leaders of the Regulation and others so respectable as to have 
the entire confidence of the people, such as Matthew Locke 
and Thomas Person. This agreement was entered into at 
Salisbury on March 7, 1771, and was entirely satisfactory 
to both officers and the people, and if it had not been inter- 
fered with, but had been carried into effect, it probably would 
have been the entire solution of the questions then agitating 
the people. But Governor Tryon disapproved of it as being 
unconstitutional -and pressed forward his military movement 
that resulted in the Battle of Alamance. Rutherford, being 
Captain of the militia company, was active in enforcing law 
and order and restraining the excesses of the Regulators, and 
he led his company into General Waddell's camp, but it was 
by his advice that Waddell retired before the Regulation 
forces and avoided a battle with the people. Immediately 
after the Battle of Alamance he, along with Waddell's other 
troops joined Tryon's army and he continued on that service 
as long as necssary. Yet it is to be observed that if the 
course agreed upon by Rutherford in March had been ad- 
hered to and not disallowed by Governor Tryon, the Regula- 
tors would probably have been entirely satisfied and the 
country pacified, and there would have been no conflict and 
no necessity to resort to force in order to maintain la\^' and 
th- fiuthority of government. 

The people continued to elect Rutherford to represent them 
in the Assembly, and he was a member in the Legislature of 



27 



1773 and 1774, and he was elected a member of the Provin- 
cial Congress of 1775 and was appointed a member of the 
Committee of Safety for Rowan Connty, and Colonel of that 
county. He was in all the subsequent Provincial Congresses 
and assisted in forming the State Constitution, Indeed, for 
years he had been one of the prominent and strong men in 
the Legislature, active and always forward in important busi- 
ness. In April, 1776, he was appointed Brigadier General 
for the Western District, and was Senator from Rowan from 
1777 to 1786, except when a prisoner of war in 1781 and 
1782. 

During the Revolution he was among the most active and 
enterprising military men in the State. He led the Rowan 
Regiment to South Carolina against the Scovellite Tories in 
the "Snow Campaign" in December, 1775, and conducted the 
expedition against the Indians in September, 1776. The fol- 
lowing years quiet reigned in ISTorth Carolina, but in 1779 
he carried his brigade to the Savannah to the aid of General 
Lincoln; and in June, 1780, he suppressed the Tories at 
Ramseur's Mills and threatened Lord Rawdon in South Car- 
olina, and dispersed the Tories on the Yadkin. Indeed, he 
was ever a terror to the disaffected and maintained the author- 
ity of the State with great activity. He marched with Gates 
to Camden, where he fell badly wounded, and being taken 
prisoner was confined at St. Augustine. In the summer of 
1781 he was exchanged, and at once calling his brigade to- 
gether, he resolutely marched against Major Craig at Wil- 
mington. On his way, he drove the Tories before him, and 
about the middle of l^ovember, approached the town; but 
Major Craig had then heard of the surrender of Cornwallis, 



28 

and He hurriedly evacuated Wilmington, retired from the 
Cape Fear and escaped. 

In 1786 General Rutherford moved to Tennessee, where 
he settled in Sumner County, and in 1794, upon the organi- 
zation of the territory south of the Ohio, President Washing- 
ton appointed him a member of the Legislative Council for 
the Goverment of the "Territory of the United States South 
of the Ohio," and he was elected President of that body. 
Six years later, in 1800, he died at his home in Sumner 
County, much lamented in Tennessee. His son, John Ruth- 
erford, married a daughter of Matthew Locke, the founder 
of the Locke family of Rowan County, and Mrs. E. A. Long, 
of Memphis, Tenn., is one of his descendants. 



North Carolina Historical Commission. 



Established by Laws op 1903. 



MEMBERS. 



Mr. W. J. PEELE, Chairman, Ealeigh, K C. 

Mr. E. D. W. CONNOR, Secretary, Wilmington, N. C. 

Rev. Dr. J. D. HUFHAM, Henderson, N. C. 

Dr. R. H. DILLARD, Edenton, N. C. 

Mr. F. a. SONDLEY, Asheville, N. C. 



PRIZES. 

The Commission offers three prizes of $100 each, as follows: 

1. Best Biographical Sketch of a North Carolinian. 

2. Best History of any Decade from 1781 to 1861 (excluding 1791-1801 
and 1831-1841 J. 

3. Best History of any County in North Carolina. 

The conditions under which the contest is held will be furnished upon 
application to the Secretary of the Commission. 



The Commission will be glad to be apprised of any valuable unpub- 
lished manuscripts, letters, documents or records relating to the history 
of North Carolina. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



UNDER AUSPICES OP THE 

NORTH CAROLINA 

SOCIETY DAUGHTERS of the REVOLUTION, 

YOUR NORTH ClkROUN^ ANCESTRY CAN BE 
CAREFULLY TRACED. 



The Colonial Records of North Carolina, records of the different coun- 
ties, family papers and State histories will be readily examined for parties 
desiring to have their ancestry traced. Their ancestors must have resided 
in the State of North Carolina during the Revolutionary and Colonial 
periods. 

Fee for such researches, $5. 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mrs. Helen DeBerniere Hooper Wills, 

Corner Person and Polk Streets, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 



COATS OF arms emblazoned AT REASONABLE RATES. 
PICTURES OF OLD HOMES AND PORTRAITS SECURED IF OBTAINABLE. 

For Coats of Arms, etc. , address 

Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, 

"Midway Plantation," 
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VOL. IV 



JANUARY, 1905. 



NO. 9 i 



THE 



North Carolina Booklet. 




ni"^^ 



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NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 




ENTfiRED AT THE POST-OFFICE AT RALEIGH, N. C, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 



The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events IN fiORTH Carolina History 



><^OIv. IV. 

1. May — The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

2. June — The Battle of Eamsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

3. July — Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subse- 

quent Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

4. August — North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Inde- 

pendence: William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 
Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

5. September — Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

6. October — Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

7. November — The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

8. December — The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

9. January — Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

10. February — The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 

11. March — The Scotch-Irish Settlement in North Carolina. 

13. April — Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



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VOL. IV. JANUnKT, 1905. HO. 9. 



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I 



SOME CHANQES IN THE NORTH CAROLINA 
COAST SINCE 1555.* 



BT COLLIER COBB, P. Q. S. Pi., 

(Professor of Geology. University of North Carolina.) 



From earliest times the coast of jSTortli Carolina has been 
the dread of mariners. All students of our history are fa- 
miliar with the fac similes of DeBry's map of "The Arrival 
of the Englishmen in Virginia, 1584," from Harlot's "Ac- 
count of Virginia," in which a wrecked vessel marks the 
entrance to every inlet. Wrecks are characteristic features 
of all the early maps of our coast, with only two exceptions ; 
viz., that made by John White, artist to the Raleigh Colony, 
in 1585, now in the Grrenville Collection in the British Mu- 
seum; and DeBry's map of Lane's expedition. Hardly an 
August or a December passes that the papers do not tell us 
of stately ships and ocean steamers stranded on the Inner 
Diamond Shoals, or gone to the bottom of "Hell's Hole" in 
this "Graveyard of American Shipping." And numerous 
smaller sailing craft and fishing sloops go down within the 
bars that mark our outer coast-line. 

Through which inlet the English adventurers of 1584 en- 
tered the sounds of ISTorth Carolina, has been the theme of 
much discussion from the days of our earliest historians. 
Among men who have studied the question solely from an 
historical point of view, the writingSi of George Bancroft, 
Erancis L. Hawks, and John ^Vheelef „Moore, are worthy of 



* Names in italics indicate the spelling on old maps whenever that 
differs from present day usage. 



consideration; as well as later communications to learned 
societies from, and magazine articles by, William L. Welcli, 
of Boston, and the late John D. Davis, of Beaufort, who 
arrived at very different conclusions. Mr. Welch, however, 
is the only student of our history who has made a serious 
attempt to note any of the changes that have taken place in 
our coast line since 1584, his interest in these changes dating 
from a month of military service at Hatter as Inlet in 1864. 
In a communication to the Essex Institute, of Salem, Mass., 
in'1885, he brings forward the evidence that the present Hat- 
teras Inlet was opened by the great gale of September, 1846, 
Avhich was so severe on our southern coast. 

The present writer has spent several seasons during the 
last two decades in a study of sand movements along our en- 
tire coast, and has reported his investigations and presented 
the results of his studies before the Geological Society of 
America and the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. He has gathered all the maps of our coast, in 
originals, photographs or tracings, from John White's map 
of 1585, which he copied in the British Museum, July 3d, 
1895, to the Coast Survey charts of the present day, and has 
tramped the "Banks," as these sand-reefs are called, and 
sailed much in all the sounds. Pie has also examined ships' 
logs, and records of light houses, life saving stations, and 
Weather Bureau signal stations, and has conversed with the 
life-savers, captains and surfmen, and recorded conversations 
and kept correspondence with the more noteworthy citizens 
of this sandstrip. The data thus obtained have been com- 
pared with information in possession of the H. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, beginning with the manuscript "Report 



6 

by William Latham on Survey of the Coast of ISTorth Caro- 
lina from Cape Hatteras to Cape Fear, 1806." 

Having located a number of old inlets from their ancient 
channels in the sounds, and from the topographic outlines 
and structural features of the adjacent sand reefs, I turned 
to the Colonial Records seeking to correlate the geological 
and historical records. Leaving to the historians all ques- 
tions of the inlet entered by the English, it is my purpose to 
point out such changes in our coast line as are recorded in 
our human documents or in the earth itself. 

John White, as his water color sketches and map studies 
made in Virginia (Carolina) show, was an accurate observer 
and an artist of no mean ability. His map, drawn in 1585, 
shows a wide open inlet where Caffey's Inlet now is. He 
calls the strip of sand bank to the South of it Croatamung 
and the water between this Bank and the mainland Teripano. 
To the north of this two slight inlets are indicated ; while 
to the south and just below the Kill Devil Hills opposite 
Colleton Island (which is unnamed) a small and shallow 
inlet is indicated. Just below this slight indication of an 
inlet is the word Etacrmuac, which probably indicates the 
prominences about ]S[ag's Head. 'Next to the south is a well 
marked wide-open inlet marked Po7\t Ferdinando, due east of 
the southern extremity of Roanoke Island (called here 
Roanoac), and a picture of a ship is nearly opposite, sailing 
away from the inlet. Below this inlet comes Hatorash, evi- 
dently the name of the sandstrip to the north of the great 
elbow jutting out into the sea ; and the sandstrip to the south 
as far as the present Ocracoke Inlet is called Paquiac. There 
is no break in the Banks from Port Ferdinando (near site 
of present Oregon Inlet) to Onoaconan, which I identify with 



6 

the present Ocracoke Inlet. Wococon, whicli by some writers 
has been identified with Ocracoke, was more probably Whale- 
bone Inlet, which is now closed. Between this point and 
Cape Lookout three other inlets are indicated ; but no inlet is 
marked on White's map between Cape Lookout and Shackle- 
ford Banks, though there is an inlet just to the north of the 
cape and opposite Harker's Island. A large ship sails sea- 
ward from what I identify with Cedar Inlet, closed since 
1805. 

DeBry's map, already mentioned, with its wrecks marking 
the entrance to every inlet, shows Trinity Harbor (Caffey's 
Inlet? closed in 1800), two inlets to the north of it, and two 
inlets opposite Roanoac Island, that opposite the southern ex- 
tremity of the island being marked, Hatorasck, though the 
name may apply to the land to the south as in White's map, 
rather than to the inlet. Fac similes of this map may be 
readily consulted by any readers of the Booklet. It is 
worthy of note that the region of Kitty Hawk Bars and Col- 
leton Island is mapped very much as it is to-day, with no in- 
let opposite the island. 

The next map we have is found in "A Brief Description of 
the Province of Carolina," a pamphlet published in London, 
in 1666 for Robert Home. It is entitled "Carolina De- 
scribed, 1666." The Library of Congress has the anonymous 
pamphlet, but without the map. The map is reproduced in 
fac simile in Hawks II, 42. This map, which is clearly less 
accurate than either of the preceding, gives Coratucl\. an inlet 
evidently near the present site of Currituck Light House ; 
Roanoah Inlet, opposite the southern extremity of Roanoak 
/[sland] ; C. Hattorascli, and six inlets between that point 



Cape Lookout, here called C. Hope, the last being im- 
mediately north of Cape Lookout. 

The map entitled "A ISTew Description of Carolina by or- 
der of the Lords Proprietors [A. D. 1671.] James Maxon, 
scul./' gives Caratuch Inlet in essentially the same position as 
the foregoing, Musheto Inlet (Caffey's) Roanoah Inlet oppo- 
site Roanoke Island, three inlets between that point and 
Hatteras Island, and an inlet between Gape Hatteras and 
Ococh (Ocracoke), evidently much nearer to the Cape than 
the present Hatteras Inlet. Whalebone Inlet is indicated, 
but not named, and there are two others between this and 
Cap LooJcout. 

"Carte General de la Caroline Dresse sur les Memoires le 
plus nouveaux Par le Siena S*** A Amsterdam Chez Pierre 
Mortier, Libraire, Avec Privilege de I^Tos Seigneurs les 
Etats." [1671?], gives old Caratock Inlet, Nouveau Passage 
(Caifey's Inlet), and Vieu Passage opposite Colleton Island, 
at the mouth of Albemarle River. It shows Passage de Hat- 
teras north of its present site, Wosston (Ocracoke), Whale- 
bone Inlet, and an inlet just north of Cape Lookout. 

The next "Map of the Inhabited Parts of ]S[. Carolina, 
prepared by Ion Lawson, Surveyor General of IST. C, 1709,'^ 
shows Currituc Inlet, Colleton I. with no inlet opposite, Roan- 
oJce Inlet and the three Inlets to the South separating, suc- 
cessively Cotv I., Body I., and Dugs from the large Island 
with its projection marked Cape Hatteras. Hatteras Inlet 
is indicated somewhat to the southwest of its present position 
containing an island of some size and Ocacock is a broad inlet 
with two important islands. Drum Inlet, opposite Cedar 
Island, connects Corantug Sound with The Western Ocean, 



8 

and no other inlets are indicated until Topsail Inlet is 
reached. 

Wimble's map of 1738 gives Currituck Inlet on the line 
between Virginia and ISForth Carolina with 6 feet of water; 
Nag's Head Inlet opposite Roanoke Island, with a depth of 
24 feet, and Hatteras Inlet somewhat to the north of its pres- 
ent position. The charts of Mouzin 1775, Atlantic l^eptnne 
1780, and Lewis 1795, are simply copies of Wimble's or 
some other older chart. 

Dundibbin's chart made in 1764 has no inlet between Cape 
Hatteras and Ocracoke, and gives 4 fathoms of water on the 
bar at Ocracoke, and 9 ft. 6 in. shoalest water on the bar 
inside. 

John Collett's Map, London, S. Hooper, 1770, shows three 
sand hills just below Caffey's Inlet, no inlet at ]!^ag's Head 
or at Roanoke though the names are there, Gunt Inlet, Chic- 
onockominock Inlet, and no inlet between there and Occacock 
Inlet. 

It is not known when Nags Head Inlet was closed, or the 
Hatteras Inlet indicated on the earlier maps. In 1844 an 
effort was made in Congress to get an appropriation to re- 
open ISI^ag's Head Inlet, and in 1855 a plan was perfected 
under the auspices of the State to cut a channel through on 
the site of this inlet from Roanoke Wharf to the ocean, but 
the phm was never carried out. 

Cole and Price's chart, 1806, based upon actual surveys, 
shows no trace of Hatteras Inlet, nor does it occur on any of 
the charts of the State until 1855 when it appears farther to 
the South than is indicated on any previous maps. ]\Iajor 
Cole and Mr. Jonathan Price were associated with William, 
atham in a survev of the coast of I^orth Carolina from 



Ji tt^j 4ASt\^^->y^ y n^ 



9 

Cape Hatteras to Cape Fear, under Act of Congress of April 
10th, 1806. (^^^atham's charts were lost in the wreck of the 
revenue cutter, Governor Williams, September 28th, 1806, 
the very day he completed his investigations and placed his r^ 
baggage on board for transportation to ISTew Bern. ^-Aatham os^- 
and his colleagues did not work together, and the charts of 
Cole and Price were not lost. 

Mr. Tatham, however, made a report to Hon. Albert Gal- 
latin, Secretary of the Treasury, in January 1807, dealing 
mainly with the difficulties and disaster of the undertaking. 
This report has never been published, but is preserved in the 
office of the Coast and Geodetic Survey at Washington. In 
this account he mentions incidentally places where inlets 
formerly existed, gives some attention to the effects produced 
by the Gulf-stream in counter currents, and makes some 
really valuable observations on the formation of shoals and 
islands, the movement and fixation of wind-blown sands, and 
the, blocking up of inlets. Tatham's observation and con- 
clusions remind one of the musings of the Pythagoreans, and 
examining his report v\dth care is like delving in an ancient 
scroll of the fifteenth book of Ovid's Metamorphoses. I have 
had occasion, in another paper to compare some of these ob- 
servations with the geological record as it exists to-day. 

The map of Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia, com- 
piled by F. Lewis in 1807, for the atlas accompanying Mar- 
shall's life of Washington, is merely a copy of the then exis1>- 
ing maps, as is also Wayne's map of Virginia, jSTorth Caro- 
lina and Georgia, published in the same year. But the small- 
er copy of the same atlas, issued in a later edition, shows 
the '"slew," or creek, on Ocracoke Island just above the site 
of the present light house, where it still exists in part. ISTone 



10 

of these maps show any inlet between Cape Hatteras and 
Ocracock. 

The map by Price and Strother, Philadelphia, 1808, gives 
Currituck Inlet much to the north of its present position, and 
marks the old inlet on the state line ; shows Roanoke Inlet to 
the north of its later position and another inlet just below the 
southern end of Roanoke Island. 'No other inlet is met with 
on the coast as shown in this map until Ocracock is reached. 

This map, much improved from later surveys — especially 
in the interior, was republished in 1820 by H. S. Tanner, of 
Philadelphia. Tanner's revision Currituck Inlet, Caffey's 
Inlet (unnamed), Roanoke Inlet (marked "filled up"), ISFew 
Inlet, Ocracock Inlet, and Cedar Inlet, and indicates a series 
of reefs two to five miles within Hatteras Island (which in- 
cludes Chicomacomack Banks to the north and Hatteras 
Banks to the south. 

The map of ISTorth Carolina published by F. Lucas, Jr., 
Baltimore, 1822, shows Currituck Inlet just opposite the 
southern end of Knott's Island, but is not otherwise different 
from Tanner's revision of Strother. 

S. A. Mitchell's map of 1832 shows an unbroken stretch 
of sand from Cape Henry to Oregon Inlet, thence to Ocra- 
cock Inlet, thence to Cedar Inlet. 

The large map, 35x84 in., published by J. MacRae, Pay- 
etteville, 1833, far surpassed in accuracy and in detail all 
previously published maps. Mr. MacRae was for many years 
postmaster at Payetteville, and had excellent opportunities 
for compiling such a map. Much actual field work was 
done for the map by Robt. H. B. Brazier, who was an ex- 
perienced engineer and excellent draftsman; and this was 
the mother-map of all later maps of !N^orth Carolina down 



11 

to 1880, though Cook and some others as late as 185Y copied 
the errors of earlier maps. Cook's map, however, shows the 
imier reefs of Hatteras cut down to low water. On the Mac- 
Rae-Brazier map no inlets are shown north of l^ew Inlet 
above Chickonocomack Bank, and none between there and 
Ocracock Inlet. Cedar Inlet is marked as closed, and the 
next inlet indicated is between Cape Lookout and Shackle- 
ford's Banks. 

The present Hatteras Inlet was opened by the great storm 
of September, 1846, and was cut out sometime during the 
night of Sept. Y-8. Zachariah Burrus, still living at Hat- 
teras in April, 1903, was the first man to cross the inlet, Sept. 
8th, 1846. Redding E. Quidley piloted a vessel into Hat- 
teras inlet in January, 1847, where he anchored for the night, 
leaving next morning and going into Ocracoke. Mr. Quid- 
ley was also pilot of the first vessel that passed through into 
Pamlico Sound, Feb. 5, 1847, schooner Asher C. Havens, 
Capt. David Barrett, Commander. 

A former Hatteras Inlet, about six miles to the sovithwest 
of the present Hatteras inlet, was closed in 1839 by the 
stranding of an English vessel in the inlet, followed by the 
sanding up of the wreck, and the "making down" of the 
beach. These facts I have learned by conversation with and 
letters from Messrs. Redding Quidley, Homer W. Styron, 
Zachariah Burruss, A. W. Simpson, John Austin, J. W. Rol- 
linson — and several others. 

The last chart to show this inlet is Wimble's map, 1838. 
It is not on Dundibbin's chart of 1764, and no Hatteras Inlet 
appears again on the maps of the State until 1855. 

The same storm that produced Hatteras Inlet opened Ore- 
gon Inlet on Sept. 8, 1846, eight miles south of the site of 



12 

Roanoke Inlet. It cut through the middle of the base line 
which J. C. N'eilson had laid out in 1843. The inlet had 11 
feet of water on the bar in 1882, but is reported to have 
shoaled greatlj since that time. The inlet was named for 
the first ship that passed out through it, The Oregon, owned 
by John Fowle, Esq., of Washington, I^orth Carolina. 

The present writer has located the sites of the several old 
inlets on the coast by methods already mentioned. Old Cur- 
rituck Inlet, ISTew Currituck Inlet five miles to the south- 
ward, Cafi^ey's Inlet and the old inlet opposite Colleton 
Island, at the mouth of Albemarle River, are all distinctly 
marked to-day by channels in the sounds approaching the 
Banks and are clearly shown by a low meadow strip across 
the sand and the arrested dunes. In the case of the Colle- 
ton Island inlet the Kill Devil Hills with the fresh ponds 
below them mark the site and the remnant of the ancient 
inlet. The sites of many former inlets are marked in this 
way all the way down to Beaufort Harbor, there being three 
distinct inlets indicated on Hatteras Island, one above and 
two below the cape, one on Ocracoke, three between Ports- 
mouth and Cape Lookout and two just to the southwest of 
Cape Lookout. These were evidently all closed by the sands 
filling in around obstructions, and new inlets have from time 
to time been opened by storms. All of our inlets in the 
region under consideration in this paper are moving steadily 
southward by the action of the winds driving the dune sands. 
But this is not the place for the discussion of physiographic 
process on our coast. That has ah'eady been described in 
detail and fully ilhistratcd by this writer elsewhere. His 
object here is to study these changes in the z(^ne of early 



13 

exploration and settlement as they have influenced the his- 
tory of the state. 

In the Colonial Records, vol. i, Albemarle Sound is called 
the Carolina River in many of the deeds given by Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley in the second half of the 17th Century. These 
were all written in Virginia. The Indians had called this 
sound Chowan River, but the Lords Proprietors in their com- 
mission to Governor Berkeley, speak of it as "the river 
Chowan now named by us Albemarle river." Carlyle Island 
was granted to Sir Jno. Colleton, Sept. 8th, 1663, and it is 
described in the deed of grant as "the island hertofore called 
• Carlyle Island now Colleton Island lying neare the mouth of 
Chowane now Albemarle river." JSTag's Head Inlet is also 
described in a document of the same date. Grants still held 
on the Banks at various points mention inlets that have long 
since ceased to be. 

The problem of the inlet entered may be impossible of solu- 
tion. The notes here presented will reveal to the student 
of our history something of the nature of the problem. The 
influence of these shifting sands upon the development of our 
state is an interesting subject for the student of earth science 
in its relation to man. An acquaintance with the inhabitants 
of these ever changing sand reefs, fair women and brave men, 
who live and do for others, life-savers, heroes, will cause, one 
to thank God and take courage for the future of the human 
race. 



¥ 



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VOL. IV 



FEBRU/IRT, 1905 



NO. 10 I f 



THE 



North Carolina Booklet. 




GREAT EVE/ITS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



f I 



THE HIGHLAND-SCOTCH SET- 
TLEMENT IN NORTH CAROLINA. 




ENTERED AT THE POST-OFFICE AT RALEIGH, N. C, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 



The Morth Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in /Iorth CflROLiNfl History 



VOL. IV. 

1. May — The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

2. Jime — The Battle of Eamsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

3 JtiZj'— Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subse- 
quent Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

4. August — North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Inde- 

pendence: William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 
Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 

5. September — Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 

6. October — Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

" Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

7. November — The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

8. December — The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

9. January — Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1776. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 

10. February — The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 

11. March — The Scotch-Irish Settlement in Nort,h Carolina. 

12. April — Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the Nokth Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
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Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
IV are requested to notify at once. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
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ED5TORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. ly. PEBRUART. 1905. NO. 10. 



THE 



MORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



''Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's Blessings Attend Her! 
WniLE We Live We will Cherish, Protect^ and Defend Heb." 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving North 
Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will be 
devoted to' patriotic purposes. Editobs. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 
DAUGHTERS Qp THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

kegent: 
MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT: 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

treasurer: 

MRS. FRANK SPIERWOOD. 

registrar: 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

*Died December 13, 1904. 



THE HIGHLAND-SCOTCH SETTLEMENT IN 
NORTH CAROLINA. 



BY JUDQE JAHES C. n/\CRAE, OF CUnDERLAND. 



The Scotch Highlanders were the people who occupied that 
portion of Scotland Avhich lies north of the Tay on the one 
side and the Clyde on the other, and all the islands fringing 
the coasts of the great promontory from the Mull of Kintyre 
to the Orkneys and the Hebrides, and down the ISTorth Sea 
to the Firths of Tay and of Forth. 

It is said, however, in official reports of the condition of 
these sections, made soon after the Battle of Culloden in 
1746, that "the inhabitants of the lands adjoining to the 
mountains to the northward of those rivers, on the shores of 
Perth, Forfar, Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff and Murray, 
where some sort of industry has prevailed and ^vhere the soil 
is tolerable, have for many years left off the Highland dress, 
and lost the Irish language, and have discontinued the use of 
weapons; the consequence whereof is that they can not be con- 
sidered as dangerous to the public peace, and that the laws 
have their course amongst them." The foregoing is a memo- 
randum of Lord President Forbes, written perhaps in 1746. 
The writer proceeds to give a sorry account of the inhabitants 
of the northern hills and islands, which we may not take 
without prejudice." 



* Scottish History from Contemporary Writers No. Ill, "The Last Ja- 
cobite Uprising," by San ford Terry, U. A., University Lecturer on His- 
tory iu the University oi Aberdeen. 



These Highlands are on three sides washed by the cold 
waters of the ISTorthern Oceans, which beat upon the islands 
and pierce the mainlands, where for all time beautiful hills 
covered with heather and gorse afforded shelter in their fast- 
nesses, and valleys embellished with exquisite lakes, gave 
pasture and drink to the flocks and herds of the pristine in- 
habitants. Language, in poeti\y and prose, has been ex- 
hausted in the description of the sublime scenery of this his- 
toric section. 

The story of the first settlements of this land is lost in 
myth ; but there are, here and there, to be found vestiges of an 
intelligent and, for its time, a cultured face, who lived and 
flourished here so long ago as in the prehistoric Age of Stone ; 
and along the successive ages of man the Archaeologist traces 
the steps of these interesting people. 

Though these western isles are mentioned by Greek writers 
long before the Christian Era, in connection with the com- 
merce of Phoenicia and Carthage, we know nothing practical 
of them until from the time of Julius Csesar's unsuccessful 
attempt to subdue the Island of Britain. There begins to 
loom up the history, or tradition, of the first known inhabi- 
tants, the Picts, and later the Scots, who brought their name 
from Ireland, ^^■hich was the original Scotia. Their history 
is that of a perpetual struggle, and for ages a successful one, 
for freedom. 

Ca?sar never reached the confines of their dominions, and 
near a century later, the Roman armies were stopped, and 
Agricola failed to make a lodgment. According to Tacitus, 
the Caledonians, as they were then called, thirty thousand 
strong, under Galgacus, Scotland's first historic hero, were 
defeated by the Romans at Mons Granpius in A. D. 86. But 



it was a barren victor}^, for, half a centiirv later, Hadrian 
and Antoninus built walls to keep them out of the imperial 
provinces of Eome. The all-prevailing Anglo-Saxon spent 
centuries of endeavor, and his conquest at last was onlv per- 
fected by their acceptance of the King of Scotland, James 
the Sixth, to be the first James of England. 

Long years afterwards, when the Stuart Dynasty had had 
its day, a considerable portion of these Highlanders remained 
faithful to this House, and their lands afforded harbor and 
succor to the efforts of the Chevaliers and Pretenders to the 
throne of England, and there were many risings and abortive 
attempts to disturb the settled constitution of England and 
bring back to the throne the ancient Scottish Royal Family, 
until, at CuUoden, in 1746, it was finally defeated, and the 
Highlands were harried and their people put to death, or 
scattered and banished to distant lands, and, with those who 
were permitted to remain, the traditional clans were de- 
stroyed, and their very language itself was almost obliterated. 

These were the Highlanders, principally, from which the 
American Colonies were peopled ; but we must not forget that 
they were greatly divided among themselves, even in the 
hills, and that Scotland itself was divided into the Highlands 
and the Lo^\'lands, inhabited by distinctl}^ different races, and 
bearing to each other marked antipathy. 

The race of which we write lived the old patriarchial life 
inherited from the Aryan tribes on the high Steppes of Asia. 
The head of the family was the leader ; the family by gro^vth 
became the Sept; the Sept grew into the Clan, the chief of 
which was the lord, whose retainers were his kinsmen and 
were ready to follow him in the foray ovei' the border, in 
the long crusade to the Holy Land, in the wars upon the Con- 



6 

tinent or in the fierce conflict with the growing power of 
England. 

The Highlanders were a strong and exhnberant race. 
Their habitations were hives from which, at intervals, went 
out swarms to people the earth. The heads of the Clans were 
often educated in foreign lands and in the Universities in 
the Lowlands ; while imbued with the fierce spirit of their 
race, they were endowed with the graces of birth and culture, 
and it was from their children that the Middle Class came 
to be formed in the course of time ; the body of the people 
were bold, faithful and devoted. Among them there was less 
of religious division than in other sections. 

The Christian religion had come to them in its earliest sim- 
plicity. Xinian preached to them about the year of our Lord 
four hundred, and about five hundred and sixty-five, Columba 
established the celebrated Seat of Religion on the Island of 
lona, which developed into a great monastery, from which 
every part of the Highlands was reached by its missionaries. 
The records of these earlier days have all been lost, or de- 
stroyed of purpose, but there seems to have been not so much 
of the bitterness of strife among the Christians of the High- 
lands, nor the fearful religious persecutions there as among 
their southern neighbors. 

After every rising in the Xorth, notably in 1690, 1715 
and 1Y46, a stream of emigration passed out into foreign 
lands, much of it compulsory. 

Of the disturbed conditions of the Highlands for centuries, 
we have not the space to make more than mention. One of 
the most noted and fateful of the emigrations from Scotland, 
and this was not only from the Highlands but from the Low- 
lands also, was that which was called the Darien Scheme in 



1695, which, like many another adventure over the unknown 
ocean, led only to disaster. 

In 1733 a colony of these people came to Georgia under 
the auspices of Governor Oglethorpe, and fought the Span- 
iards ; and years afterwards, at the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion, had become so thoroughly imbued with the spirit of 
liberty that they were generally the first to espouse the Cause 
of the Colonies against Great Britain, and many of their 
descendants are now prominent citizens of Georgia. About 
t^e same time a colony came to ISTew York under the leader- 

p of Lauchlan Campbell, who fought the Indians, and 
espoused the Royal Cause in the Revolution. 

In 1773 a colony of four hundred Highlanders was settled 
on the Mohawk, led by three gentlemen named McDonnell, 
imder the auspices of Mr. William Johnson. 

There was an earlier settlement in ISTova Scotia, which was 
the nucleus of streams of their countrymen, whose descend- 
ants at this day take large part in the Dominion of Canada. 

But we have to do with those who came to the Cape Fear 
and up the river to what is known as the Highland settle- 
ments of ISTorth Carolina. 

It was a beautiful country to which they began to come so' 
early and continued to come until after the war of the Revo- 
lution had actually begun, and long after it was at an end. 

It must have been a grateful change to these troubled peo- 
ple, who sought for peace if not for rest on the far away 
shores of the new world. There was comparatively little un- 
dergrowth ; the tall pines, with their perennial green, upon 
the uplands, sang to them a peaceful welcome; the surface 
of the earth was covered with a luxuriant growth of wild 
pea vines, and the bottoms with rich cane brakes, affording 



abundant preserve for innumerable small game, especially 
deer and turkeys ; sand-hill streams were, and are to this day, 
an unfailing supply of drink, even in the dryest seasons ; the 
climate was mild and favorable, all combined to offer an ideal 
land for the shepherd with his flocks and herds. The Indian 
had already sought other hunting grounds in and beyond the 
mountain range some hundred miles toward the setting sun. 

Spreading out beyond the Cape Fear, as high up as the 
confluence of the Deep and Haw, and to the Pedee where the 
Yadkin and Uwharie come together, they planted their homes 
in what is now Cumberland, Harnett, Moore, Montgomery, 
Anson, Richmond and upper Robeson, and in the adjoining 
districts of South Carolina. 

Here they seemed to have reached "the haven where they 
would be." 

A religious people, simple, virtuous, honorable and full 
of courage, they lived for years in quiet and content. The 
settler here was like J^orval's father on the Grampian Hills, 
"A frugal swain whose constant care was to incerease his 
store, and keep his '^soisrs^ at home." 

The large village of Cross Creek, moved up a mile from 
the town of Campbellton on the banks of the river, with its 
merchant mill and trading store, was the seat of their most 
important town, at the head of navigation. A large and flour- 
ishing mill still occupies its site, in the center of the city of 
Fayetteville, owned and operated by an enterprising citizen 
who bears the name tliough not the lineage of some of the 
most distinguished of the pioneer leaders of that day. 

The street in Fayetteville still called "Maiden Lane," and 
for a long time kno^vn as "Scotch Town," was the principal 
residence part of the town, although the place where the cele- 



9 

brated Flora McDonald lived is pointed out on the banks of 
the creek near where it is crossed by Green street. Many 
traditions have been handed doTVTi of the time when the old 
Scotch ladies sat before their doors in the gloaming and told 
the tales of the grandfathers, abont the "Old Country" to 
listening youth and maiden gathered round. 

In Foote's Sketches of ISForth Carolina, it is said : 

"The name of the village took its origin from the curious 
fact that the two small streams, Cross Creek and Blunts 
Creek, the one coming from the south and the other from the 
west, met and apparently separated, and, forming an island 
of some size, again united and flowed on to the river. It was 
said that the streams, when swelled by rains, would actually 
cross each other in their rapid course to form a junction. 
This belief arose from the circumstance that float-w^ood com- 
ing down the stream would sometimes shoot across the com- 
mingling waters in the direction of its previous course, and, 
floating round the island, would fall into the united current. 
The action of a mill dam prevents the recurrence." 

This was written in 1846. Old citizens of Fayetteville will 
point out the place now to the curious inquirer. 

The town is described in a book once loaned the writer by 
the late General Rufus Barringer, of Charlotte, which was 
published by a traveler who was studying the fauna and the 
flora of this section, a long time before the Revolution, as a 
flourishing town of fifteen hundred houses. 

The writer of this sketch is greatly indebted to his old 
friend, Hamilton McMillan, Esq., for much valuable informa- 
tion and suggestion. He says that there is not the shadow of 
a doubt that the first Highland immigrants reached this re- 
gion at an earlier date- than 1Y29 ; and he further says: 



10 

^'There is a tradition preserved in the McFarland family that 
members of that clan reached I^orth Carolina as early as 
1690. ^A^len the Quhele clan located in Cumberland it is 
now impossible to tell ; but they probably came over about the 
time that the McFarlands settled in what is now Scotland 
County. It is a tradition that many Scotchmen located on the 
Caj)e Fear, after the disastrous rising in 1715." 

We know, from contemporary history, that a great number 
of Highlanders were banished to the plantations in 1716.* 

Professor J. P. McLean, of Cleveland, Ohio, in his very 
interesting "Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch 
Highlanders in America," in which he has displayed much 
research, says that while the time when they first began to 
occupy this section is not definitely known ; some were located 
there in 1729, at the time of the separation of the Province 
into IsTorth and South Carolina, and this information he gets 
from Foote and Caruthers. 

In Colonel Saunders' Prefaratory Remarks to the fourth 
volume of the Colonial Records, it is said: "In September, 

1739, Dugald McNeal, Colonel McAlister and several other 
Scotch gentlemen, arrived with three hundred and fifty 
Scotch people, doubtless in the Cape Fear Country. And in 

1740, in the Upper House of the Legislature, resolutions 
were passed appropriating £1,000, to be paid out of the pub- 
lic money by His Excellency's Warrant, to be lodged with 
Duncan Campbell, Dugald McISTeal and Daniel MclNeal, 
Esqrs., to be by them distributed among the several families 
in said petition mentioned. 

It was further resolved, that, as an encouragement for pro- 



* Mitchell's History of the Highlands, page 578. 



11 

testants to remove from Europe into this province, provided 
they exceed forty persons in one body or company, they shall 
be exempted from payment of any public or county tax for 
the space of ten years next ensuing their arrival, and an ad- 
dress was sent to the Governor asking him to use his interest 
in the giving of encouragement to this immigration. 

Governor Gabriel Johnson was himself a Scotchman, 
though a Lowlander, and was so warm in his encouragement 
of these measures that it was complained against him that 
he showed special favor to the Scotch rebels. In 1740 appear 
the first names of the Highlanders in the Commission of the 
Peace. On the 29th of February, 1740, "further considera- 
tion was shown to the new comers by the appointment by the 
Governor and Council of Duncan Campbell, Dugald McISTeil, 
Col. McAlister and ISTeil McE"eil, as Magistrates for the 
County of Bladen. According to Dr. Caruthers, the party 
which came over in 1739 found Hector MclNeal with his col- 
ony already settled near "the Bluff" on the north side of the 
Cape Fear, about twelve miles above Fayetteville. 

The late Rev. Dr. McJ^eill McKay, a distingaiished Pres- 
byterian divine, prepared and delivered a most interesting 
history of the Bluff Church, which, to the writer's surprise, is 
not to be found in the University Library, and which he has 
made an ineffectual effort to obtain for use in the preparation 
of this sketch. He has found there a late publication con- 
cerning the family of Colonel Alexander McAllister, himself 
a descendant of Fergas Mor, the Lord of the Isles. In this 
goodly company appear the names of almost every prominent 
citizen of Harnett and upper Cumberland. 

Mr. McMillan continues his interesting letter : 

"The iireatest immiaTation followed the risina: of 1745. 



12 

jSTeill McNeill, of Jura, was in America inspecting the lands 
in Pennsylvania and in JSTorth Carolina, while the troubles on 
account of Charles Edward, the Pretender, were occurring in 
1745-46. Soon after Culloden and, if I am not mistaken, 
in 174:7, Mclsreill led a large colony to the Cape Fear. Many, 
principally Lowlanders, settled near Governor Johnson's 
place in Bladen, while the greater number located in Cumber- 
land and Harnett. 

"Governor Johnson had built a great palace on the river, 
four miles above the present town of Elizabeth Town, and 
there he concealed for a number of years his brother, who had 
escaped British vengeance after Culloden. The Court House 
then stood a short distance south of the palace, and near the 
residence of the l-ate Hon. T. D. McDowell. This building 
was destroyed by fire in 1765, and a nev/ one built in after 
years, about four miles below. This building, so destroyed, 
was temporarily replaced by another on the old site ; for in a 
diary kept by Governor Johnson's brother during these event- 
ful times (and recently discovered by a great grandson in 
Georgia, among a mass of old papers) it is related that Fran- 
cis Marion organized his famous band in the Court House in 
Bladen, and that said band was composed largely of Cape 
Fear Patriots. 

"There are other accounts in South Carolina histories of 
the organization of ]\Iarion's men, but it is doubtless true 
that some portions of his famous band were here recruited 
and organized." 

And the Highlanders ivere represented in Marion's band 
of patriots, for Sergeant McDonald, said to be near kin to the 
]\IcDonalds who headed the loyalists rising, was one of the 
most celebrated soldiers of Marion's men. 



13 

"The early settlers in the Upper Cape Fear region tried to 
establish a town in what is now Harnett County, but this 
effort was a failure, and 'Chaffeningham' became a 'deserted 
village.' 

"The settlement at Campbelton became permanent and 
gradually extended westward. John Elwell, a Revolutionary 
Patriot, told my father, the late William McMillan, that 
when he was a small boy there was one dwelling on Cross 
Creek, west of Campbelton. This, according to tradition, 
was the Branson dwelling, and, when demolished a few years 
ago, had the date of 1714 marked on the wall. 

"The McLaurins came to America, and reached Campbel- 
ton in 1730. They had been under the protection of the 
McGregors up to that year, who kept them from being exter- 
minated by hostile clans. They left Scotland, according to 
Sir Walter Scott, in xVugiist, 1730, and it is quite probable 
that they arrived at Campbelton in the fall of that year. 

"There were occasional bands of immigrants who arrived 
in the years preceding the Revolution, but larger numbers 
arrived in the years 1804 and 1805. 

"The destruction of the Court House in Bladen in 1765, 
t<)gether with its records, renders it difficult to find any writ- 
ten evidence corroborating existing traditions." 

We may add that there seems to be nothing on record in 
the State Department at Raleigh, or in the Colonial Records, 
which shows earlier grants to the Scotch than 1729. 

A fund of information concerning these people may be 
found in the life of Dr. Caldwell and the Revolutionary Inci- 
dents by Dr. Caruthers, and the Sketches of JSTorth Carolina 
by the Rev. William Henry Foote, which is a most interesting 
history of the Presbyterian Church in ISTorth Carolina. Dr. 



14 

Camtliers pays liigli tribute to them as a wiiole, and attempts 
to account for so large a portion of them having taken sides 
with the King. 

"The Scotch settlements extended from the Ocean up to 
the Cape Fear and Deep Rivers, and from these rivers to the 
■Pedee. This space includes eight or ten of our present coun- 
ties, and was settled almost exclusively by the Highlanders. 
In addition to their sacred regard for the obligation of an 
oath, they had been for many generations accustomed to a 
kingly government, and they seemed to think that no other 
was admissible. They seem to have always had the elements 
of republicanism, especially in matters of religion ; for at all 
times, and under all circumstances, they held the right of 
worshipping God according to their own understanding of 
His Word, as one of vital importance. In all periods of their 
authentic history it seems they must have a king; but, 
as they believed that a royal government was the only one 
sanctioned in the Bible, he must be a man after their own 
hearts, and he must be bound by oath and covenant, like the 
Jewish kings of old, to serve the God of the Bible, while he 
maintained the true religion and ruled in moderation he was 
their rightful sovereign, and there never was or could be a 
more loyal and devoted people. He was the Lord's An- 
nointed, and to rebel against him was the same thing as to 
rebel against the Lord Himself." 

These were also a clannish people, and paid the utmost de- 
ference to their lairds or petty chieftains, whether in a civil, 
social or religious capacity ; and such continued to be the fact, 
to a great extent, long after they came to America. But there 
was another and a large class of population in and around 
Campbelton, especially on the east side of the Cape Fear 



15 

River, wiio were infused with the spirit of resistance to ty- 
rants by 'the patriots of the Lower Cape Fear, and who early 
declared for independence, although still hoping for recon- 
ciliation between Great Britain and America.* 

Colonel Alexander McAllister was the colonel of the Cum- 
berland Militia. He, with Farquhard Campbell and Alex- 
ander McKay, Thomas Rutherford and David Smith, was a 
delegate to the General Assembly of Deputies at jSTew Bern 
in 1774. 

The conclusion reached by Caruthers and Foote, while they 
dealt with those who remained loyal with the most abundant 
charity, was that those who had come to this region in the 
earlier immigrations were in sympathy with the patriots and 
many joined their ranks. But the body of those who came 
later, and some arrived almost in the beginning of the Revo- 
lution, in 1775, were, to a gTeat extent, poor and unlettered, 
speaking only the Gaelic language, and entirely unacquainted 
with the matters in dispute and under the influence of their 
leaders who brought them here ; and were led by them to fol- 
low the royal standard when it was raised by General McDon- 
ald, their natural leader; and it was principally those, who 
with the Regulators, met with defeat at Moore's Creek, as has 
been so gTaphically and intelligently detailed in the Booklet 
recently prepared by Professor ISToble. The truth is that 
these people had come here for peace. They were not much 
concerned in the troubles in Boston, so far to the north of them. 
The better educated and the wealthier of those who had been 
here for some time gave countenance and sympathy to and 



* See the Resolves of the Association at Liberty Point, June 20th, 1775. 
Wheeler, page 125. 



16 

joined the patriots. Many of them were with Marion's men. 
in the later troubles, after the British had transferred their 
operations to jSTorth and South Carolina, for they seemed to 
have been fated to be in the center of disturbance, all that 
territory between the Cape Fear and the Pedee was overswept 
by marauding bands, and to those who desired to be neutral 
the danger was greater than it was to those who were bold 
enough to take sides. There were small battles, as to num- 
bers engaged, but fearful as to cruelty and bloodshed, the 
worst character of civil war. The Highlanders who re- 
mained on the side of the King were a small part of the tories 
under Fanning, who came down from the higher country and 
ravaged and destroyed, and who, of course, were met in the 
same spirit by the wilder sort of those who were in sympathy 
with the whigs. 

For a long time before hostilities broke out in Xorth Caro- 
lina, there were great efforts made by both sides to secure the 
sympathy of the Highlanders who were every^vhere acknowl- 
edged to be a people of conscientious convictions and high 
character. 

Colonel Mcintosh came among them from the Scotch who 
lived near Society Hill in South Carolina, himself an ardent 
Whig, and, no doubt influenced many to take the patriots' 
side. 

When Fanning captured Governor Burke at Hillsboro and 
carried him to Wilmington the Tories stopped with him one 
night on Deep River at the house of the father of Colin 
MacEae, who was the progenitor of that branch of the Mac- 
Raes who afterwards lived, and now live in Wilmington, the 
wife of Mr. MacRae, who was herself a kinswoman of Gov- 
ernor Burke, made an ineffectual effort to help him to escape. 



17 

Captain McCranie commanded a company of Whigs in 
Cumberland and many of the Highlanders who had been in 
this country some time before the Revolution, joined the 
Whigs. Cornwallis was disappointed at the failure of the 
Highlanders to come to him as he passed Cross Creek on his 
way to Wilmington. 

Mr. McMillan further writes : 

''Among some old books I have read, I find it stated that 
one McAlister, who carried on a mercantile business in Camp- 
belton, was a great friend of Benjamin Franklin. Boxes of 
goods from Philadelphia contained reading matter calculated 
to influence the people trading in Campbelton in favor of in- 
dependence, and these books and pamphlets were distributed 
among the people in all the back country by Herman Hus- 
bands, a cousin of Franklin, who was sent to jSTorth Carolina 
to prepare the people for resistance to British tyranny." 
f It is a remarkable thing that by some means the first spark 
of freedom was quenched at Alamance by those who after- 
wards became the leaders of the patriots, and that those who 
first fought against oppression were turned by these untoward 
events to be the Tories in the war which soon ensued. It is no 
more singular, however, than was the fate of those gallant 
young Frenehm^en with LaFayette at Yorktown, who got 
back to France in time to be giiillotined as Aristocrats. Hon. 
W. H. Bailey, of Mecklenburg, now living in Texas, once told 
the writer that he had heard from some one that a letter was 
sent by a special messenger from some of these Highlanders 
to Dr. Witherspoon, the president of the College of ISTew Jer- 
sey, to ask his advice as to which side they should take, and of 
course he wrote by the messenger strongly urging them to de- 
clare for independence ; but the messenger was captured by 



18 

the Tories on his return journey, and a different letter sub- 
stituted, advising them to stand for the King. 

This, however, is too much like Peregrine Pickle's letter 
to his sweetheart, which was worn out in the messenger's 
shoe and another one substituted in its place. 

But the work was done with these Highlanders, and espe- 
cially with those who came just before the Revolution, by the 
dominant influence of the ^McDonalds and McLeods and 
McLeans, who came with them from Scotland, or later came 
from the British army at Boston, in which they were com- 
missioned officers, and stirred the blood of their kinsmen to 
take up arms for the King. 

In Foote's Sketches, on page 148, chapter XII., is the story 
of Flora McDonald, the aristocratic young Highland maiden 
who so romantically saved the life of Charles Edward', the 
Pretender, in the face of a reward of £30,000 for his head, 
although she had not been in sympathy with the rebellion in 
his favor ; her arrest and im.prisonment in the Tower of Lon- 
don; her finding favor with Prince Frederick, the heir ap- 
parent ; her interview with King George the Second, and how, 
in rej)ly to his inquiry, "LIow could you dare to succor the 
enemies of my crown and kingdom ?" she said, vnth great 
simplicity, ''It was no more than I would have done to your 
majesty, had you been in like situation" ; her free release, 
and ride back to Scotland, accompanied by Malcom McI/Cod, 
who used afterwards to boast that he went to London to be 
hanged, but rode back in a chaise and four v^ath Flora 
McDonald. The beautiful young girl had married Allan 
McDonald, of Kingsburgh, and by him had several sons, who 
in time became officers in the British army. She and her 
husband came with the Highlanders to Cumberland in 1775. 



19 

Thej were visited by the young officers, the McDonalds and 
McLeods, from Boston, who came to influence the immigrants 
to be true to the King. The influence of these high-born 
Scotch upon the more lowly ones, who had been accustomed 
to follow them all their lives ; their utter ignorance of the 
matter in controversy; the extraordinary efforts of Governor 
Martin to confirm their faith in the King, and the fact that, 
at the beginning of the controversy, there was little or no bit- 
terness between the Whigs and Royalists in that section goes 
far to account for their adherence to the crown. 

Caruthers says : 

^'Even in jSTovember and December, 1775, the two parties 
in Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, mustered on opposite sides 
of the village, then returned to town and lived in great har- 
mony. But this state of things could not continue." 

As the strife came nearer home, the lines were more closely 
drawn, and, at last, when the royal standard was raised at 
Cross Creek by General McDonald, formerly an officer in the 
British army, and now commissioned with higher rank, when 
Governor Martin had sent commissions to the young and aspir- 
ing men among them, and every blandishment was used upon 
them, there was a blare of enthusiasm. The pibroch's strains 
were heard through the sand hills, and there was in this far- 
away land the last gathering of the clans, with the result of 
which we are so familiar. Most of the Highlanders in arms 
being captured at Moore's Creek, their officers carried away 
prisoners, and themselves paroled ; this was the end of organ- 
ized ©position on their part. How gladly they returned to 
their homes, and would have remained there until the strife 
was over if it were possible in a time like that to be neutral. 



20 

Many tried to stay at home and some met with cruel death, 
and all with the devastation and horrors of civil war. 

But at last it all passed away; the victory was won, and, 
strange to say, it was these same Highlanders, or what was 
left of them, who became the leading citizens of their section. 

In the list of the members of the General Assembly from 
Cumberland, beginning with Alexander McAlister and com- 
ing down and up the century to the present time, a large ma- 
jority of the members were these Highlanders and their des- 
cendants. And, even at this writing, the Senator from Cum- 
berland comes of a great clan, whose abode was in the most 
northern part of the mainland in Scotland ; and one of the 
present members of the House from Cumberland is a native 
Highland Scotchman. For many years the Judges of the 
Superior Court of the present Seventh Judicial District have 
been Highland Scotchmen by descent, and so is the president 
of the Corporation Commission. 

Among these people for half a century and much longer 
after the Revolution, for it is in the memory of the writer, 
the Gaelic tongue was as commonly spoken on the streets of 
Fayetteville and in the sand hills of Cumberland, and in 
parts of Richmond and Robeson, as the English. The older 
ones spoke little else ; the younger understood and could speak 
it, and did speak it to their fathers and mothers. Even the 
negTo slaves, who were treated with the greatest kindness, 
some of them spoke the Gaelic. We well remember when, at 
Galatia Church especially, the first sermon in the morning 
was preached in Gaelic by that Old Man of God, Rev. Colin 
Mclver ; and after his death, by the Rev. Mr. Sinclair, who 
was sent for to succeed him because he could speak the lan- 
guage most familiar to the congregation. 



21 

It would require a large book, rather than a booklet, to 
gather up the traditions of these people. 

The writer, when a little boy, was accustomed to spend the 
summers at the farm of old Mr. and Mrs. Archie McGregor 
in the sand hills of Cumberland, now Harnett, and not very 
far from Cameron Hill, where Flora McDonald for a time 
resided. It was near Cypress Church where Rev. Evander 
Mc^air, of blessed memory, preached, and he preached some- 
times in Gaelic, we think; we know that he could speak it, 
and not far away from Barbecue where the McDonalds once 
worshipped. 

It was late in the gloaming of one summer evening when 
the night began to fall and some dark clouds in the west 
threatened a storm, and the family had all gathered in, when, 
far away in the distance, floating on the evening breeze, was 
heard the faint notes of the bagpipe sounding an old High- 
land tune. We wish you could imagine the electrical effect of 
those far off sounds upon that family; the anxiety on every 
face, the haste with wdiich the old claybank horse, "General," 
was hitched up to the cart (it was before the days of buggies), 
and the young men started in quest of the old lost piper. 
He was a wanderer among the Scotch families in all that 
section ; he was a welcome guest at every fireside so long as he 
chose to abide with them. He was very old ; his breath .was 
too thin to fill the bag for his pipe, and his step tottered as he 
w^allvcd, and he was almost blind. When he wandered off and 
got lost in the w^oods his custom was to sit do^^m on a fallen 
tree and play the pipes as best he could. And of one thing he 
might be sure, that if there were any of his countrymen or 
women within the sound of his pipe he would soon find suc- 
cor and a hospitable welcome. So, in an hour they found 



22 

him, sitting on a log in the "lochy place" and brought him 
in to a good supper and a comfortable bed. The old man was 
the last of his race in the sand hills of Cumberland. His 
name was Urquhart. He remained with the McGregors for 
several days, maybe weeks, and used to pipe as well as he 
could for them the old Scotch airs, to which they listened with 
a kind of awe. He spoke what little he did speak in Gaelic, 
and they talked to him in the same language, all of which 
has left us but the little Bible, and that is now in an unkno'^m 
tongue. After a while the restless fit came upon him and he 
wandered away, followed by the kind words of all the 
McGregors. The writer never saw him again in the flesh, but 
he can see the little old man now, as he went down the road 
with his bagpipes under his arm. We know not whether he 
had any home or family of his o^\ti in the sand hills of Cum- 
berland, but it could not have been long before he heard 
sweeter music than the notes of his own beloved pipes, for he 
must soon have found a hospitable resting place for his weary 
old soul in "the far away land of the blest." 

The great characteristic of those people was their love of 
education. The good schools they had in the counties where 
they lived up to the last generation, before the war 
is the period by which we all measure everything, and T 
doubt not there are many of them yet, those schools, especially 
one we knew on Long Street in Cumberland, of which Archie 
Ray was the principal, were the best schools of their time, 
and there are no better in the new light of this day. They 
have sent many a man to take the honors of the University 
and of Davidson College, and some to Princeton; and they 
have prepared many another for the battle of life, and sent 
him out in the world. 



23 

The men of this section have gone by way of the univer- 
sities and colleges, and some times by way direct from the 
country high schools, all over the South and AVest, to take 
honored places among the people ; and the rolls of our higher 
institutions to-day of either sex will bear many a name which 
was a familiar one in old Cross Creek, and from the Cape 
Fear to the Pedee in earlier days. 

However divided or hoM-ever wrong they may have gone 
when they came across the waters to find peace, and found 
a sword, of one thing there is no question — that in later times 
of strife they all followed the light which was set before them, 
as they saw the light, and they all saw it alike this time. 

This same Scotch settlement was a sadly broken one in 
IS 65, when so many of the young men never returned, and 
when war, just as its leader called it, swept with Sherman's 
thousands through these quiet settlements. 

Experience has amply taught that there is no place in all 
the world where the seeker after peace may be sure he has 
found it. 

We have stood in the door of one of these desolated places, 
not far from Long street and Galatia, and counted over the 
names of a score of young men who lived in sight of where we 
stood, who were buried in Pennsylvania or Maryland or Vir- 
ginia. 

But, resurgam ! These settlements are all flourishing now. 
Xew enterprises have taken the places of the old. ^ew roads 
are crossing each other. Xew school houses are open, and 
new church spires point the old way in all that region. And 
men and women of this day, in whose veins course the same 
red blood which drove back the Roman legions from the hills 
of Scotland are still ready to say, as their general said, ac- 



24 

cording to Tacitus near two thousand years ago, "As there- 
fore you advance to battle look back upon your ancestors; 
look forward to your posterity." 

Let us hope that this race has at last found the desired 
peace, and that all their strivings may hereafter be for the 
betterment of themselves, and of all the people. 

ISToTE. — In the preparation of this sketch the writer has 
been greatly aided by his friends, ex-SenatorHamilton McMil- 
lan and Captain E. R. McKethan, ex-member of the North 
Carolina Legislature. He has had access to Mitchell's His- 
tory of the Highlands ; McLean's Highlanders in America ; 
Caruther's Life of Dr. Caldwell and Eevolutionary Inci- 
dents; Foote's Sketches of IvTorth Carolina, and, of course, to 
the Colonial Records. 



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4 Vol. IV 



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No. Ill 



a^HE 



1 NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET fl 




GREAT EVENTS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



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4THE SCOTCH-IRISH 
lOF NORTH CAROLINA 

i BY 

i_ REV. A. J.MCKELWAY 

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THE SCOTCH-IRISH OF NORTH 
CAROLINA 



BY REV. A. J. McKELWAY 



The ancient kingdom of Strathclyde, included, within the 
boundaries of Scotland, the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, 
Ayr, Dumfries, Wigtown, Kirkcudbright and Dumbarton, 
an area about as large as the State of Connecticut. The 
men of Scottish birth who have written their names high on 
the roll of fame have nearly all come from this district. It 
is the reputed birthplace of St. Patrick, the patron saint of 
Ireland ; while here are to be found the most frequent tradi- 
tions of the reign of King Arthur. It is only necessary to 
mention the names of William Wallace, Robert Bruce, John 
Knox and Robert Burns to show that the race that inhabited 
these western Lowlands was a virile race. Here arose the 
royal line of the Stuarts ; the family of which William Ewart 
Gladstone was the most illustrious scion ; and the ancestors of 
our own Washington. Here lived the Lollards, Reformers 
before the Reformation, and here were marshalled the lead- 
ers and armies of the Reformation itself. Here was the 
chief home of the Covenanters. Here has been built the 
great manufacturing city of the modern world, Glasgow, a 
model city in many respects. And from these seven counties 
flowed the main stream of immigrants into the province of 
Ulster, Ireland, from which they emigrated in turn to the 
American colonies to be known henceforth as the Scotch- 
Irish. How near akin the American strain is to the people 
who still occupy the Southwestern corner of Scotland is evi- 
dent from the following description of Hugh Miller: 



"The Seotch Lowlander is, as a rule, of fair height, long- 
legged, strongly built, and without any tendency to the 
obesity so common among his kinsmen of England. His eye 
is ordinarily brighter than that of the Englishman, and his 
features more regular; but his cheeks are more prominent 
and the leanness of the face helps to accentuate these features. 
Of all the men of Great Britain those of Southwestern Scot- 
land are distinguished for their tall stature. The Lowlander 
is intelligent, of remarkable sagacity in business, and perse- 
vering when once he has determined upon accomplishing a 
task; but his prudence degenerates into distrust, his thrift 
into avarice. * * * The love of education for its own sake 
is far more widely spread in Scotland than in England." 

In view of the part this race has played in the life of the 
world it is a matter of interest to inquire what were its origi- 
nal constituents. 

The aboriginal Briton was probably not unlike the modern 
Esquimo, a short and slight people, though muscular. The 
Celts who invaded Briton from Gaul belonged to the later 
Bronze and the early Iron Age. They probably extermi- 
nated rather than absorbed the aborigines, the notable excep- 
tion being in the very region which we are considering, the 
^N^ovantse and the Seglovaj being mentioned by Ptolemy, 
these coalescing later into the "fierce and warlike" tribe of 
the Attecotti, who constantly harassed the Romans, and after- 
wards were known as the "Galloway Picts." The Roman 
invasion and occupation embraced this district and the Ro- 
mans left traces of their blood as well as their language with 
the conquered Celts. It is still a mooted question who were 
the Picts, Picti, "painted people," whom the Romans were 



unable to conquer, who after the Romans withdrew waged 
fierce warfare against the Celts. It is believed that they 
were a Teutonic race. But we come to historic ground in the 
invasion of the Angles and Saxons, who gave the larger Teu- 
tonic element to the Lowland type. In the year 875 the 
Kingdom of Strathclyde was invaded by the Danes and a 
large number of the Britons left Strathclyde for Wales. The 
district was often the field of battle between the Picts or 
Caledonians and the Saxons. But not only the Danes, the 
Dubhgail, or black-haired strangers, but the l^orsemen, the 
Finngaill, or fair-haired, made their inroads upon Galloway 
and the latter left a permanent settlement there. And from 
the year 875 the Danes and Norsemen contended for the 
mastery of all this part of Scotland, and in the reign of Mac- 
beth, who was neither so guilty nor Duncan so innocent of 
blood as Shakespeare has made the world believe, the Norse 
influence was at its height in Scotland, Earl Thorfinn pos- 
sessing Galloway, as one of his nine earldoms. Galloway in- 
cluded parts of Dumfries and Ayr as well as Kirkcudbright 
and Wigtown. Finally the Normans brought a fresh in- 
fusion of Teutonic blood with a Latin language to temper 
the Saxon speech^ 

It is only necessary to call attention to the fact that this 
was a fighting race of people that was thus formed by the 
mingling of Celtic and Roman and Teutonic blood. Scot- 
land came into her own in the family of nations through such 
toil and moil and blood as has seldom been the lot of any peo- 
ple for so long a stretch of the centuries. The kingdom was 
united under Malcolm, son of Duncan, and the peaceful 
amalgamation of these warring races began. It would seem 



6 



that if there was rough work in the world to do, from the 
conquest of tyrant kings to the building of an empire in a 
new world, here was the race that was destined to do it. 

It would be interesting to trace the history of this re- 
markable district of Scotland through the long wars between 
England and Scotland in the period between Malcolm and 
Mary, Queen of Scots. There was the strength of the Scot- 
tish Reformation. It was James the First of England and 
Sixth of Scotland, the "wisest fool in Christendom," who 
brought about the peopling of the ISTorth of Ireland by the 
men of the Seven Counties. 

All through the reign of Elizabeth there had been trouble 
in N^orth Ireland. The government of the country was in 
the hands of English military officers whose authority did 
not extend beyond their posts. The ISTortheast corner of 
Ireland had been conquered and held by the McDormells, a 
Scotch clan from the Isle of Jura and from Cantyre on the 
Mainland of Scotland. A little later a wild Irishman by 
the name of Con McE'eale McBryan Feartach O'JSTeill got 
into trouble with the King over the duty on wine. He was 
cast into prison. Hugh Montgomery, Laird of Braidstaue, 
drove a hard bargain with him, agreeing to rescue him from 
prison in return for half his lands in county Down. In 
order to obtain the pardon of Con, James Hamilton, another 
canny Scot, was called in, who had gTeat influence with the 
King, and Con lost another third of his patrimony, not long 
afterwards running through the remaining third by his habits 
of conviviality. Montgomery and Hamilton then proceeded 
to "plant" their lands thoroughly from the famous Seven 
Counties in Scotland. 



Soon afterwards, tbe; Irish chiefs of Ulster began a trea- 
sonable correspondence with Spain and their letters were in- 
tercepted by King James. O'lSTeill, of Tyrone, and O'Don- 
nell, of Tyrconnell, left the country with a number of their 
adherents. O^'Dogherty perished in the rebellion and his 
lands were confiscated to the crown. Other Irish chieftains 
fled the kingdom and so it happened that not less than 
3,800,000 acres of land in Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Ferme- 
gan and Cavan, were placed at the disposal of the Crown, 
making with Down and Antrim, North Ireland, or Ulster. 
This region James determined to settle mainly with Scotch 
from the seven counties of the Southwest. The first 
settlers were those that left their country for their 
country's good. These were shortly followed by a 
great army of earnest, industrious colonists, building 
their rush-thatched huts first near the landlord's 
castle, and later gathering intO' villages. The best lands had 
been selected for the colonists, the poorest being reserved for 
the remnant of the Irish, between whom there existed and 
exists to this day an unconquerable race antipathy. There 
was almost no mixing of these two races, the name, Scotch- 
Irish, being a geogi'aphical rather than a racial descriptive. 
The natives were even driven to the woods, becoming known 
as wood-kernes, and they were severely punished for their 
crimes when caught. The new settlers had to war against 
the wolves also. But they drained the swamps, felled the 
forests, sowed wheat and flax, raised cattle and sheep, began 
the manufacturing of linen and woolen cloth, and not only 
made all their own goods, even the tools with which to work, 
but began the exportation of linen and woolen cloth to Eng- 



8 



land. And they were Presbyterian in faith, as has been in- 
timated from the part the Seven Counties took in the Refor- 
mation. Scotch ministers went with their congregations to 
the new lands. Peter Heylin, the champion of the English 
Church of his day, writes: "They brought with them, hither 
such a stock of Puritanism, such a contempt of bishops, such 
a neglect of the public liturgy, that there was nothing less to 
be found among them than the government and forms of 
worship established in the Church of England." 

At the time of the accession of Charles the First to the 
English throne, in 1625, Ulster was receiving a steady 
stream of immigrants from the Lowlands, at the rate of four 
thousand a year. High rents in Scotland drove many of 
the people to accept the chances of life in Ireland. This immi- 
gration was checked and actually turned back upon Scotland 
by religious persecution. The Episcopal Church of Ireland 
was so evangelical that Presbyterians who had fled from Scot- 
land for their faith had no hesitation in joining it. But with 
the rise of Archbishop Laud, the effort was made to secure 
uniformity of worship in Ireland. Against the protests of 
Archbishop Usher the Scottish ministers were deposed and 
several of them set sail for New England in 1636. Their 
vessel was driven back, however, to the Irish shore. In the 
same year tbe attempt was made to administer the "black 
oath," compelling all the people of Ulster, Catholics excepted, 
to swear obedience in advance to all the "royal commands" of 
the King. Thousands of Scots refused to take the oath 
and thousands returned to Scotland. In the midst of this 
confusion, the native Irish, under Sir Phelim 0']*^eill, who 
claimed to be acting under the King's commission, rose in 



9 



arms thronglioiit Ulster and seized nearly all the castles. 
There followed a reign of terror in which ten thousand Uls- 
terites lost their lives^ the blow falling less heavily upon the 
Scots because so many of them had returned to Scotland. 
It may be noted here that the distance across the Channel by 
one route is only twenty-one and a half miles, so' that com- 
munication was easy. 

In the meantime the Scots had raised an army to defend 
their religious freedom, the royal standard was raised and 
the Oivil War had begun. The "Covenant" was adminis- 
tered to a large part of the Protestant population of Ireland, 
then estimated at seventy thousand, and the TJlsterites had 
their share of victories and defeats on the battlefield. It 
is worthy of note that the Irish Presbytery protested vehe- 
mently against the execution of Charles and brought down 
upon their heads the wrath of John Milton, in a scurrilous 
reply that ill beseemed the great poet. But Cromwell was 
now the real ruler of the realm and having pacified England 
and Scotland he proceeded to subdue Ireland, a feat that 
was never accomplished but this one time. The Irish Pres-j 
byterians were not molested though they were not in high 
favor. As a result of the vast confiscation of estates by 
Cromwell three-fourths of the country passed into the hands 
of the Protestants. Only in North Ireland, however, was 
this colonization effective, though settlers were now num- 
bered at 100,000. 

Religious persecution began again with the accession of 
Charles II, but it soon passed and that good-natured monarch 
granted some recognition to the Presbyterian Church. But dur- 
ing his reign two important acts were passed, the beginning of 



10 



the policy that drove the Ulsterites to America. The ex- 
portation of cattle from Ireland to England was forbidden 
and by the ]^avigation Act, ships from Ireland were treated 
as foreign vessels. 

The Revolution of 1688 was peaceful except in Ireland, 
which was the last stronghold of James II. His lord deputy, 
Tyrconnel, had put arms into the hancxKj of the Irish peas- 
antry, who began a series of depredations upon their Scotch 
neighbors in which a million head of cattle changed owners. 
With the outbreak of the Revolution the Protestants fled to 
Enniskillen and Londonderry and the defence of these cities 
against overwhelming odds and under privations unspeakable 
is of the least glorious chapter in the history of the men of 
Ulster. Unfortunately for the brave people who had suf- 
fered so much for the new King, a certain clerical Munchau- 
sen, Rev. George Walker, so^ falsified the facts of the great 
siege of Londonderry as to put the Scotch in rather a bad 
light. At any rate Ulster began to learn something of the 
ingratitude of Kings and the Ulsterite became the hereditary 
enemy of the House of Hanover. It is computed that be- 
sides the natural increase in the Scotch population from 
early and prolific marriages there had been an addition of 
50,000 Scotch immigrants between the Revolution of 1688 
and the reign of Queen Anne. We have this interesting 
testimony from the pen of Lionel Jenkins, Secretary of State, 
in a letter written to the Duke of Ormond in 1679, who says 
that "those of the north of Ireland * * * are most Scots 
and Scotch breed and are tlie Northern Presbyterians and 
phanatiques, lustly, able-bodied, hardy and stout men, where 
one may see three or four hundred at every meeting-house on 



11 



Sunday, and all the jSTorth of Ireland is inhabited by these, 
which is the popular place of all Ireland by far. They are 
very numerous and greedy after land." It should be under- 
stood, however, that not all the Ulsterites were either Scotch 
or Presbyterian. There was a goodly element of English 
Episcopalians with a remnant of Catholic Irish. Some 
Latin blood was added to the Presbyterian element in an im- 
migtration) of F'rench 'Huguenots, whose names still exist 
among the Scotch-Irish emigrants to America. 

In the reign of Queen Anne the whole people of Ireland, 
Catholics and Presbyterians as well, were under the ban of 
the High Church regime. Immigration from Scotland into 
Ireland had ceased. Emigration from the North of Ireland 
into America began. In 1704 an act was passed requiring 
that all public officers should take the Sacrament according 
to the rites of the Established Church. The Catholics, in 
protesting, showed that this affected also the Presbyterians, 
"who had saved Ireland," but the protest fell upon deaf ears. 
Presbyterian magistrates and postmasters were deprived of 
power and support. 

In the same year Presbyterians were exconmiunicated for 
the crime of being married by their own ministers. The 
meetings of Presbytery were declared illegal meetings. Pres- 
byterians were compelled tO' pay tithes for the support of the 
Establishment. Every Presbyterian schoolmaster became 
liable to imprisonment for teaching, when these people were 
the strongest adherents of John Knox, who "first sent the 
schoolmaster into all corners, saying, 'Let the people be 
taught.' " Then the doors of the churches were nailed up. 
But the people were at last aroused and when there was dan- 



12 



ger of the succession of the Jacobite Pretender to tlie throne, 
it was quietly ascertained that there were fifty thousand 
Irish Presbyterians who' were capable of bearing arms and 
willing to fight for the Protestant succession. After the ac- 
cession of George I an act of toleration was passed, though 
the strongest friends of the crown in Ireland were still for- 
bidden to bear arms. 

During this period of religious persecution there were 
other repressive measures. For the "protection" of the Eng- 
lish woolen trade from Irish competition, an act was passed 
forbidding the exportation of woolens from Ireland, later 
followed by acts forbidding the exportation to any country 
but England. Thus one of the great manufacturing enter- 
prises of the Ulsterites was destroyed as had been their rais- 
ing of cattle for the English markets. The people turned to 
linen manufacture as a last alternative and this grew and 
flourished. 

It was only natural, therefore, that men of this breed 
should seek a freer land. They felt that they were pilgrims 
and strangers as their fathers were. The great fact of the 
eighteenth century relating to both England and America is 
the Scotch-Irish emigration. Between 1725 and 1768 the 
emigration increased from 3,000 to 6,000 a year, not less 
than 200,000 of the people having left Ireland for the Ameri- 
can Colonies in that period. From 1771 to 1773 there were 
thirty thousand emigrants. The Protestant population of 
Ireland had in the meantime grown to 527,505, making 
allowances for the gradual increase a full third of the popula- 
tion had left for America. The raising of rents after a 
period of famine aiigmented this exodus from. Ireland. Re- 



13 



calling that it began with an emigration of 20,000 in 1698 
and allowing for the increase of the population in America, 
it has been computed that there were not less than 400,000 
people of Scotch-Irish birth or descent in America at the be- 
ginning of the Revolution. A few went to !New England, 
where they were duly persecuted by their Puritan brethren. 
Yet there was one congregation of 750 members, London- 
derry, and they gave to the Revolution General Stark and his 
Green Mountain boys. They named "Bunker Hill" from 
a hill in Ireland overlooking Belfast. And from this ISTew 
England settlement went Henry Knox, the first American 
Secretary of War, Matthew Thornton, signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, and Horace Greely and Asa Gray. 
The Scotch-Irish settled a good part of New York State. 
The first governor of the State, Clinton, was of this race. 
They settled !N^ew Jersey, and the chaplain of the Eirst Brig- 
ade was the fighting parson. Rev. James Caldwell. But the 
chief port of entry was Philadelphia, which city was soon 
taken possession of and has been held to this day. From 
Philadelphia the waves of colonization spread westward until 
the best lands of western Pennsylvania were taken and then 
the stream poured Southward, down through the Valley- of 
Virginia, into Piedmont North Carolina, across the line into 
South Carolina and into the hill country of Georgia. But 
another important port of entry was Charleston, and as the 
immigration sought the hill country the wave from Charles- 
ton met and mingled with the wave from Pennsylvania in the 
border counties of the Western Carolinas. The breed in 
North Carolina alone gave three Presidents to the Nation, 
Jackson, Polk and Johnson. And what shall I more say, 



14 



for the time would fail me to tell of Patrick Henry and John 
Witherspoon, of the twenty-one Scotch-Irish generals of the 
Revolutionary war, of the seven Presbyterian elders, Morgan 
and Pickens and Campbell and Shelby and Cleveland and 
Williams and Sevier, of Presidents Jefferson and Monroe 
and Jackson and the Harrisons, of Polk and Buchanan and 
Johnson and Grant and Hayes and Arthur and Cleveland and 
McKinley and Roosevelt ; of the long line of Cabinet officers. 
Supreme Court Justices, Senators, Representatives and Gov- 
ernors, in whom ran the blood of this great people, fighting 
for life and liberty for a thousand years, and schieving it at 
I'ost in America. 

It has been deemed necessary that this long introduction 
should be written to the sketch of the Scotch-Irish in jSTorth 
Carolina, that our people may know that their roots reach 
far back into the historic past and that the branches of this 
tree in America have not borne unworthy fruit. 

The first settlement of Scotch-Irish in North Carolina was 
made by Henry McCulloh in 1736, on a grant of land in 
Duplin County, the colonists forming the congregations of 
Goshen and the Grove. The Scotch-Irish are not to be con- 
founded with the Scotch colonists on the Cape Fear. These 
were Highland Scots, of almost pure Celtic blood, while the 
Scotch-Irish are mainly Saxon, not having intermingled with 
the Irish Celts, so that there is a racial as well as a geo- 
graphical difference between the Scottish Highlander and 
Lowlander, between the Cape Fear Scotch and the Scotch- 
Irish of I^orth Carolina. Of course the largest settlements 
of the Scotch-Irish were in the counties of Guilford, Orange, 
Alamance, Caswell, Rowan, Iredell, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, 



15 



Lincoln and Gaston, with the center of the immigration in 
Mecklenburg. 

As many of the Scotch-Irish settlers had already had ex- 
perience in Pennsylvania or Virginia they were able to secure 
the best lands, as the pioneers of the Piedmont region. The 
Indians were mostly friendly to the whites. The country 
alternated between forest and prarie and abounded in game, 
deer, buffalo, and bear, while panthers were not infrequently 
found. The pioneers came from the l^Torth in wagons in 
which they slept until they had built a house on land of their 
own selection. The house was built of hewn logs, the inter- 
stices stopped with clay, the roof covered with riven boards. 
One room, one door and one window, closed with a wooden 
shutter, was the characteristic style of architecture. The 
furniture of the house consisted of beds, a few stools, a table, 
on which were set pe^vter dippers and plates, and wooden 
trenches. A few plow irons and harrow teeth, a hoe and a 
mattock and an axe, a broad-axe, wedges, mauls^ and a chisel, 
would be the inventory of the tools on the farm. Cattle, 
sheep and geese, horses and hogs, were raised with great 
profit and from the wool the clothes of the family were spun, 
and from the goose an annual tax of feathers was secured for 
pillows and feather-beds. When the family began to put in 
a glass window and to buy cups and saucers of chinaware, 
they were considered wealthy. 

They did have their wealth in their own capacity to manu- 
facture what they needed. When the goods brought with 
them began tO' wear out, the blacksmith built his forge, the 
weaver set up his loom and the tailor brought out his goose. 
A tannery was built on the nearest stream and mills for 



16 



grinding the wheat and corn were erected on the swift water 
courses. Saw mills were set up and logs were turned into 
plank. The women not only made their own dresses but the 
material for them as well, spinning the wool and afterwards 
the cotton into lindsey and checks and dying it according to 
the individual taste. The beavers furnished elegant tiles for 
the gentry. The immigrants were recorded as weavers, join- 
ers, coopers, wheelwrights, wagon-makers, tailors, teachers, 
blacksmiths, hatters, merchants, laborers, wine-makers, min- 
ers, rope-makers, fullers, surveyors, and gentlemen, the last 
being rather a rank than a vocation. In other words the 
people were an industrial as well as an industrious people. 
They were producers. And when a man has built a little 
home in an untrodden wilderness, felled the forest, furnished 
the home, and has begun to produce not only for his necessi- 
ties but a comfortable surplus for his family he does not feel 
like paying tribute to a king or a parliament across the seas, 
who drove him across the seas by their stupid tyranny. 

J^Tearly all the farms of any size had a distillery attached 
and a good deal of the corn was marketed in liquid form. 
One of the faults of the Scotch settlers was drunkenness, 
though the majority w^ere temperate drinkers. A punjch 
bowl and glasses were found among the effects of Eev. Alex- 
ander Craighead, founder of the earliest churches of the 
Mecklenburg region. Whiskey played a great part on 
funeral occasions, and especially at "vendues" where it was 
supposed tO' put the buyers in good hvimor and was charged 
to the estate disposed of. The tavern on the public road was 
a famous institution of these early days and the variety of 
the liquors sold reminds one of the English inn that Dickens 



17 



has portrayed. Among' the amusements of the people were 
horse racing and shooting matches and the game of long bul- 
lets, played with an iron hall, the effort of each side being, 
as in foot ball, to keep the ball from passing the adversary's 
goal and putting it through one's own. But while gambling 
was permitted and drunkenness condoned, profane swearing 
was punished severely, the amount of the fine sometimes de- 
pending on the vigor and variety of the oaths used. The 
children received six months schooling and the number of 
college-bred men in a Scotch-Irish community was large. 
The warlike instincts of the people were kept alive by the 
military muster, which became the occasion for a gathering 
together of a county tO' the county-seat. The Scotch-Irish 
were noted for their skill with the rifle, and rifles were manu- 
factured at High Shoals at an early date, a specimen, with 
its long ban-el and wooden stock extending to the end of the 
barrel, having been presented to General Washington and 
being highly prized by him. 

But the life of the Scotch-Irish, as in Scotland and in Ire- 
land, centered around the church. 

One of the earliest notes of the presence of Scotch-Irish 
in the West was made by Governor Dobbs, in 1755, who 
found that some "Irish Protestants had settled together, with 
families of eight or ten children each, and had a school 
teacher of their own." In the same year Rev. Hugh 
McAden made a missionary visit from the Hico to the Ca- 
tawba and foimd Scotch-Irish settlements in Mecklenburg 
at Rocky River, Sugar Creek, and the Waxhaws. The 
seven Presbyterian churches of Mecklenburg created the 
social and religious, and we had almost said the political 



18 



life of the county, for the first fifty years of its history. 
Alexander Craighead, getting intoi difficulty with 'New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery in New Jersey on account of his extreme 
republican views, found a co'ngenial home 'n this Scotch- 
Irish section. Hanna calls him "the foremc st vimericau of 
his day in advocating the prinicples of civil liberty under a 
Republican form of government." Besides him were Hugh 
McAden, who settled in Caswell, the "eloquent Patillo" of 
Granville and Orang'e, Caldwell of Guilford, celebrated for 
his connection with the battle of the Alamance and the later 
struggles of the Revolution ; McCorkle of Rowan, Hall of 
Iredell, Balch, McCaule and Alexander. These men were 
conservative, as witness their reluctance to espouse the cause 
of the Regulation. But they were equally firm in advocat- 
ing the real principles of liberty that came to the front at 
the beginning of the Revolution. 

It is interesting to trace the grievances of the colonists as 
the day of the Revolution dawned and to see how they were 
the same from which the Ulster ites had suffered. There 
were religious exactions which were galling in the extreme, 
although it must be confessed that the Scotch-Irish of North 
Carolina managed to escape the operation of the laws that 
were intended to oppress them. Their ministers performed 
the marriage ceremony in spite of the efforts to make it 
illegal and the marriage void. Presbyterian elders had 
themselves duly elected vestrymen of St. George's Parish and 
thus were in a position to see tO' it that the Established 
Church was not established in Mecklenburg. There were 
the petty annoyances of the slave trade forced upon an un- 
willing people by the King, and the stamp tax, and then the 



19 



determination to tax the people of America without allowing 
them representation in Parliament. Finally, when the peo- 
ple had planned the erection of a great university, Queen's 
College, that it was hoped would rival Oxford and Camb- 
ridge, the charter was refused them by the King on the 
ground that he could not afford to promote Presbyterian 
education. By this time, the colony of IvTorth Carolina had 
been thoroughly organized with county committees, the 
Scotch-Irish counties having their people fully disciplined 
to the work that was cut out for them. One of those com- 
mittees met, in connection with a military muster, which was 
really a turning out of the people, at Charlotte, on May 19th, 
1775. While certain papers and resolutions, looking to 
county action in the present disordered state of the country 
were being earnestly discussed, the messenger arrived with 
the stirring news of the battle of Lexington. The watch- 
word of the Colony had long been, "The cause of Boston is 
the cause of us all." But with the story of a conflict with 
British troops, in which a military company had been fired 
upon by the red-coats, in which also the Americans, raw 
troops as they were, had won a notable victory, the feelings 
of the people surged forth. The reports that had been before 
the meeting were referred to a committee of three and after 
midnight of the day of assemblage, on May 20th, in fact, the 
Mecklenburg Declaration was read to the people, the moving 
cause of the proceedings being really stated in the second 
resolution : 

"Resolved, That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg, do here- 
by dissolve the political bands which have connected us with 
the mother country, and absolve ourselves from all allegiance 



20 



to the Britisli crown, abjiirin,^ all political connection with 
a nation that has wantonly trampled on our rig-hts and liber- 
ties and inhumanly shed the innocent blood of Americans at 
Lexington." 

On the 31st of the same month the committee met accord- 
ing to adjournment to pass laws and regulations for the 
county, and, perhaps feeling that there was a better reason 
for the passage of such regulations than the battle of Lexing- 
ton, made another declaration of independence on the ground 
that Parliament had declared the colonies in a state of rebel- 
lion and they were therefore forced to provide against anar- 
chy. A member of Parliament had pointed out that any of 
the Colonies could plead this reason for independence, once 
the act was passed declaring that a rebellion existed in the 
Colony of Massachusetts. Any man who' signed the Declara- 
tion of the Twentieth, of May could have signed the Resolves 
of the 31st. And to the canny Scotch of Mecklenburg the 
latter were equally effective and a bit safer in case of the 
victoiy of King George. 

Tlie Scotch-Irish were conspicuous in the battle of Moore's 
Creek, which saved the colony to the cause of freedom. In 
that battle they met the Scotch as Lowlander and High- 
lander had often met before in Scotland. But the Scotch- 
Irish played a scurvy trick upon their brethren, the Scotch 
Royalists, by using the rifle against the broadsword and forc- 
ing the Highlanders to cross a narrow foot-bridge on which 
thei rifle-fire was concentrated. 

The battle of Ramsour's Mill in what was then Tryon 
County was one of the most successful of the entire war, 400 
patriots under Colonel Locke having vanquished 1,100 To- 



21 



ries. Colonel Davidson with 250 men put to flight a larger 
body of Tories at Colson's Farm, at the confluence of Rocky 
Eiver and the Pee Dee. The Scotch-Irish were conspicuous 
sufferers in the disaster of Hanging Rock. The Battle of 
Charlotte itself was no inconsiderable skirmish, in which 
three or four hundred mounted militiamen under Major 
Joseph Graham held a force of ten times their number 
in check and thrice repulsed them. The affair at Mcln- 
tyre's farm doubtless helped to earn for Charlotte the 
soubriquet of the "Hornets' JSTest." There, fourteen men, 
expert riflemen, fired upon a British foraging party of more 
than a hundred, killed eight at the first fire and wounded 
twelve of the enemy, and escaped without injury though they 
sent the foraging party in a hurry back to Charlotte. If 
these encounters of American and British soldiers had occur- 
red in New England, they woiuld have been immortalized in 
song and storJ^ The Scotch-Irish have not been as particular 
about writing history as they have been busy making it. 

But the battle of Kings Mountain was the most glorious 
witness of the valor of the Scotch-Irish during the Revolu- 
tion and it was at the same time the victory that made York- 
town possible. The majority of the troops were jSTorth Caro- 
linians while the Virginians were from Washington County 
in the Scotch-Irish section and the South Carolina troops 
had been recruited in Rowan County, North Carolina. 
These thirteen hundred and seventy men attacked Ferguson 
in his strong position, with over one thousand men to defend 
it, on King's Mountain, and killed or captured the entire 
force after a desperate fi^ht. The victory put heart of hope 
into the failing Continental cause and was influential in de- 



22 



termining the subsequent movements of Cbrnwallis and his 
final surrender. The battle of Guilford Court House was 
really another British defeat, as Cornwallis lost 600 men in 
killed and wounded and some of his most valued ofiicers, re- 
treating to Wilmington instead of advancing into Virginia. 
The jSTorth Carolina militia from Guilford and the adjoin- 
ing counties do not deserve the reproach that has been heaped 
upon them by careless military critics. They were ordered 
to fire twice by General Greene himself and then to retire. 
They waited until the enemy were 150 yards away, fired 
their first volley with great effect, loaded and fired again, 
some of them the third time, and only retreated when the 
bayonets clashed against their unloaded rifles. And these 
were troops who had never been under fire, meeting the 
flower of the British army. A conclusive testimony to their 
cool courage is given by Captain Dugald Stuart, who com- 
manded the Scotcli Highlanders, the Seventy-First Regi- 
ment. Writing nearly fifty years afterwards, he says: "In 
the advance we received a very deadly fire from the Irish 
line of the American army, composed of their marksmen 
lying on the ground behind a rail fence. One-half the High- 
landers dropped on that spot." 

From the close of the Revolution to the breaking out of the 
Civil War the Scotch-Irish of North Carolina were foremost 
in the peaceful upbuilding of the commonwealth, in govern- 
ment, in education, in commercial enterprise. ISTor were they 
wanting when the country was at war again, whether with 
Great Britain a second time, with Mexico or in the clash of 
the great Civil conflict. Theirs has been a long line of CarO'- 
lina statesmen. They have ornamented tlie bar and the pul- 



23 



pit. Than their soldiers there have been none braver. There 
was many a Stonewall Jackson in the ranks, claiming the 
same heroic blood, as they followed him. And on Virginia's 
battlefields, yea in Tennessee and Pennsylvania, there lie 
in unmarked graves thoaisands of the descendants of that 
ancient Scottish race, that fought at Londonderry and En- 
niskillen as their children fought at Gettysburg and Chica- 
mauga. 

To-day the most prosperous section of the Old iSTorth State 
is just that section which the Scotch-Irish settlers chose for 
their homes. It is a great race of people. They fear God 
and have no other fear. They stand for truth and right. 
Their fault is sometimes that thrift degenerates into penuri- 
ousness. They keep the Sabbath and all else that they can 
lay their hands upon. But they have had to fight so hard 
for so many centuries to establish for others the difference 
between meum and tuum that we should perhaps give them 
a little time to get over the realization of the Tneiim. at last. 
They speak tlie truth, and though they may want the utter- 
most farthing that is due them, they do not want, and they 
will not take, a farthing more. In Mecklenburg County for 
a hundred years of recorded history not a white native was 
indicted for larceny. 

Theirs is the race of the hard head but the warm heart, of 
the stiff backbone but also of the achieving hand. They have 
done their share in working out the prinicples of civil and 
religious liberty and of erecting our institutons of govern- 
ment. They love order and law even though their fighting 
propensities may nowadays bloom in legal contentions of 
which there is no profit. But whether in peace or war, the 



24 



State and the ISTation can ccmnt on this hardy and heroic 
strain for hig'h and nohle service. They are of those who 
swear to their own hurt and change not. It might be said of 
thousands, as was said of their great compatriot, John Knox, 
"they never feared the face of man." And the surprises and 
even the convulsions of the future will find them unafraid. 

Authorities: The Scotch-Irish Families of America. 
Charles A. Hanna ; Fbote's Sketches of North Carolina; 
Cblonial Records; Hawk's History of I^orth Carolina; Mar- 
tin's History of ISTorth^ Carolina ; Wheeler's Sketches ; David 
Schenck's, North Carolina in 1780-81 ; Tompkin's History of 
Mecklenburg Cbunty; General Joseph Graham and Revolu- 
tionary Papers; with special indebtedness tO' the first-named 
book for its valuable historical and statistical notes. 



£. r 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT TO THE MEMORY 

OF MRS. D. H. HILL,\WHO DIED ON 

DECEMBER 12, 1904. 



Whereas^ Since our last meeting it has pleased our All- 
wise and Heavenly Father to remove from iis our honored 
Vice-Hsfisi^^al/whom we loved for her noble womanly quali- 
ties of head and heart, and in whom, we found a genial, gentle 
and ever-willing associate, descended from a line of Christian 
heroes, prominent in time of war as well as in times of peace ; 
therefore, 

Resolved, That we mourn her loss to the Society and to the 
State, and blend our tears with those of her immediate family, 
to whom we extend our cordial and earnest sympathy in this 
sad bereavement, and while doing so, urge our members to 
emulate her noble Christian character, her patriotism aud 
her generosity. 

Resolved', That this resolution be spread upon the records 
of the Society, and a copy forwarded by tlie Secretary to 
the family of the deceased. 

Mrs. Thomas K. Beunek^ Regent. 
Mks. E. E. Moffitt^ Secretary. 
Mes. Ed. Ohambees Smith^ 
Mes. Maey B. Sheewood, 
Mes. Paul Hinton Lee^ 
Mes. Hubeet Haywood^ 
Mes. Ivan Peoctoe^ 
Mes. John Ceoss^ 
Miss Geace Bates^ 
1/1 / /< / / CommiUee. 



26 
TRIBUTE FROM A FRIEND. 



In Memoriam Mrs. Isabella Morrison Hill, Widow of Gen. 

D. H. Hill. 

"The fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, 
gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness and temperance." 

This summary of the full fruition of a beautiful life was 
never more admirably illustrated than in the declining days 
of the lovely lady, who seems to have been spared to reach 
the ripe old age ojf nearly four score years to prove before 
the world the truth of God's Holy Word. Mrs. Isabella 
Morrison Hill survived most of her youthful friends and 
contemporaries, but she was comforted by being spared to 
see her children in the front rank of those who are faith- 
ful to God and useful to their fellow-men. She descended, 
through both father and mother, from men and women who 
feared God and served their State by showing their devo- 
tion to civil and religious liberty. Her father. Dr. Robert 
Hall Morrison, was a profound scholar, an able preacher 
and an exemplary Christian. He had the cultured manner 
of a Cavalier with the stem virtues of a Covenanter. 

Dr. Morrison was the son of l^eill Morrison, one of the 
Scotch-Irishmen who signed the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence. Her mother was Mary Graham, the young- 
est daughter of the Revolutionary hero. General Joseph Gra- 
ham, and his wife Isabella Davidson, who was a daughter of 
[Major John Davidson and grand-daughter of Samuel Wilson, 
both of whom pledged their lives by signing the same noted 
instrument. Miss Isabella Davidson Morrison wa& born at 



27 



Fajetteville ou the 28tli day of Jamiary, 1825, while her 
father was servin^^ the old church, whose histor}- went back 
to the days of Cross Creek and Flora McDonald. She would 
have attained the age of eighty within a few weeks. 

On the 2nd of J^ovember, 1848, she was happily married 
to Major D. H. Hill, who had gone to Mexico a Second Lieu- 
tenant, had won by gallantry the rank of Major, and was 
destined to win higher honors and render more important 
service in the struggle for the Lost Cause. 

Mrs. Hill was the oldest of six sisters, two of whom, Mrs. 
Jackson and Mrs. Brown, are living, and three of whom, 
Mrs. Irwin, Mrs. Rufus Barringer and Mrs. A. C. Avery, 
are dead. She leaves five children, Mrs. Eugenia Arnold, 
wife of Thomas Jackson Arnold, the nephew of General T. 
J. (Stonewall) Jackson; Miss I^Tannie Hill, a teacher of art, 
now residing in Florida ; Dr. Kandolph Hill, of Los Angeles, 
Cal. ; D. H. Hill, author and professor of literature in the 
A. and M. College at Raleigh, and Chief Justice Joseph M. 
Hill, of Arkansas. Those who know her children, all lead- 
ers in their chosen life work, realize that she has not lived 
in vain. 

Mrs. Hill's devotion to her husband and her faithful care 
of her children marked her as a model wife and mother. 
Patient in suffering, submissive to God's will, her face wore 
a serene smile during her last days that suggested the re- 
flected light of the land upon whose border she was conscious 
she stood. 



Genealogical Department. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Society Daughters of the Revolution, 

YOUR NORTH CAROLINA ANCESTRY CAN BE 
CAREFULLY TRACED. 



The Colonial Records of North Carolina, records of the different 
counties, family papers and State histories will be readily examined 
for parties desiring to have their ancestry traced. Their ancestors 
must have resided in the State of North Carolina during the Revolu- 
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iVOL. IV 



APRIL, 1905 



No. I2I [ 



THE 



3 1 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 




n 



GREAT EVENTS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



SKETCH OF THE BATTLE OF 
GUILFORD COURT-HOUSE 

BY MAJOR JOSEPH M. MOREHEAD 






= { 



THE GERMAN PALATINES 
IN NORTH CAROLINA 

BY JUDGE OLIVER H. ALLEN. 




i PRICE IOC 



fi THK YEAR 



nlM""!|||i'""lll i||P I||i""i||iii""l||i"'"ll|i""i||l I||i"'"l|l l||i"'iM|l i||l'""i|||i'""l|l"""l|li""i|||ii"ii||l i||l I||i"'"l||i'""l|r 

BNTERKD IN THE POST-OFFICR AT RAT.ETQH, N. C. AS SKCOND-OLAPS MATTER 



k t 



The North Carolina Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History. 



VOL. V. 

1. — Genesis of Wake County. 

Mr. Marshall DeLaneey Haywood. 

2. — St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations. 
Richard Dlllard, M. D. 

3. — North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Indepen- 
dence: Part II., William Hooper. 

Mrs. Spier Whitakpr. 

4. — North Carolina at King's Mountain. 

5. — Social Conditions in Eastern Carolina in Colonial Times. 

Hon. ,T. Bryan (-rriines. 

6. — North Carolina's Poets. 

Rev. Hight C. Moore. 

7. — The History of the Capitol. 

Colonel Charles Barl Johnson. 

8, — Cornelius Harnett. 

Mr. R. T>. W. Connor. 

9. — Edward Moseley. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

10. — Governor Jesse Franklin. 

Mr. S. Porter Graves. 

11 . — Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 

12.— Battle of Cowan's Ford. 

Major William A. Graham. 



The Booklet will be issued by the North Carolin.v Society of the 
Daughters op the Revolution, beginning May, 1905. Price, $1.00 
per year. Parties who wish to renew their subscription to The Book- 
let for Vol. v., are requested to notify at once. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

" Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 
EDITORS: 

MISS MARY MILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. IV. 




^^rf^H, 1905 



NO. 12 



TPHE 



NORTH CAROLIM BOOKLET 



"Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's Blessings attend Her! 
While We Live We will Cherish, Protect and Defbnd Her." 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editors. 



Officers of The North Carolina Society 
Daughters of the Revolution, 1903-1905: 

rkgbnt: 
MRS. THOMAS K. BEITNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS WALTER CLARK. 

HONOBARY KEGENTS ! 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 

(Nee Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

secretary: 
MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

treasurer: 
MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

KKGISTRAB : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder op the North Carolina Society and regent 1896-1902: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

♦Died December 12, 1904. 



SHORT SKETCH OF THE BATTLE OF GUIL- 
FORD COURT-HOUSE FROM THE 
VIEW-POINT OF RESULTS. 



BY MAJOR JOSEPH M. MOREHEAD. 



The name of Washington overshadows of course that of 
every other Revolutionary soldier, and yet the inquiry pre- 
sents itself, did Washington assume graver responsibility, or 
evince truer courage in accepting the command of the Ameri- 
caji Army than that assumed and displayed by Greene in 
accepting the (/ommand of the Southern Department in 
December, 1780 ? I take it to be true that when England 
determined in the winter of '79-80 to transfer the seat of 
active hostilities to the Southern Department from Delaware 
to Virginia, inclusive, Greene was Washington's choice as 
commander for the same, as he was his favorite of all the 
officers under him. But the fearful lessons of the fall of 
Charleston in May '80 and of the disastrous defeat at Camden 
in August following, it seems were necessary before the ap- 
pointment was allowed to be made and accepted. Upon his 
arrival at Charlotte, l!»[. C, in December '80 Greene in the 
face of a hitherto victorious army of British Regulars was 
under the necessity of creating an army from militia who had 
borne the brunt of war for five weary years — around a nucleus 
of Regulars — a handful — too naked to appear on dress parade. 
After the battle of Cowpens, January 17th, 1781, Greene re- 
treated rapidly as possible across I^orth Carolina and effected 



his escape from Cornwallis by crossing the Dan river below 
Danville, Va., on February 15th or 14th. Cornwallis arrived 
on the south bank the same clay. With what courage, forti- 
tude and skill Greene and his men pushed their forlorn hope 
to victory let the fathers tell. The reader is referred to the 
Diplomatic Correspondence of the xVmerican Revolution pub- 
lished by Congress in 1890. 

Here we read. Volume 4, page 363, John Adams to Benja- 
min Franklin (Paris). 

"Leyden,Holland, April 16, 1781 — I think the Southern 
States will have the honor, after all, of putting this continent 
in the right way. of finishing the business of the war. There 
has been more sheer fighting there in proprortion than any- 
where." 

Page 419, Adams to Franklin (x\msterdam). 

"May 16, 1781— The news from the Southern States of 
America of continual fighting, in which our countryiuen 
have done themselves great honor, has raised the spirit of 
Holland from that unmanly gloom and despondency into 
which they had been thrown by defeats by the English." 

Page 802, Robert Livingstone, Secretary of State for For- 
eign Affairs, to Dana, in Europe. 

"Philadelphia, October 22, 1781—1 have the pleasure of 
communication to you the important account of two signal 
victories lately obtained over the enemy in these quarters: 
One by General Greene, which has been followed by the re- 
establishment of the governments of South Carolina and of 
Georgia. The other at Yorktown. You will not fail to make 
the best use of this intelligence which must fix our independ- 



ence not only beyond all doubt, but even beyond controversy." 
Page 817, Robert Morris to General Greene : 
''Office of Finance, J^ovember 2, 1781 — Your favor of the 
I7tli of September last has been delivered to me. I hope it 
is unnecessary to make assurances of my disposition to render 
your situation both easy and respectable." * * I have 
neither forgotten nor neglected your department. I have 
done the utmost to provide clothing, arms, accoutrements, 
medicines, hospital stores, etc., and I flatter myself that you 
will receive through the different departments both benefit 
and relief from my exertions. ***** Yq^i have 
done so much with so little that my wishes to increase your 
activity have every possible stimulus." 

Beyond doubt Guilford was the most important battle 
embraced within all this fighting. But the one fact that Corn- 
wallis kept the field has wrongfully transferred victory there 
to the British instead of to the iV^merican Army. King's 
Mountain and Cowpens, glorious and complete victories as 
they were, by no means drove Cornwallis from his original 
purpose and plan of capturing South Carolina, ISTorth Caro- 
lina and Virginia, though they conduced tremendously to that 
triumph achieved at the battle of Guilford Court House ; just 
as the release of South Carolina and Georgia flowed from it. 
Upon receipt of the news of the ^'victory" Fox said, that 
the results to Cornwallis of the "victory" were identical with 
those that would have been caused by defeat. In Tarleton's 
Campaigns,, page 320, we read the following extract from 
a letter of General Greene to Philadelphia — the battle 
having been fought March 15th, when Greene had retired 



6 



northward ''in good order," as Stedman affirms, to his forti- 
fied camp eighteen miles north of the battlefield. 

Tarleton affirms that when urged to come ont and again join 
battles Cornwallis replied that among the streams of South 
Carolina Greene might entangle and destroy his army. 

"Geeene^s I'Ieadquaeters^ Ramsey^s^ 

"Deep River, March 30, 1781. 

"I wrote you the 23rd instant from Buffalo Creek (South 
Guilford) since which time we have been in pursuit of the 
enemy with the determination to bring them into action 
again. On the 2'7th we arrived at Rigden's Ford, 12 miles 
above this, and found the enemy then lay at Ramsey's. Our 
army was put in motion without loss of time, but we found 
the enemy had crossed some hours before our arrival and 
with such precipitation that they had left their dead unburied 
upon the ground." 

Tarleton says, pages 279 and 280: "The British obtained 
information that General Greene's army had reached Buffalo 
Creek, southward of Guilford Court House. The day before 
the King's troops arrived at Ramsey's the Americans insulted 
the Yagers in their encampment. The Royalists remained a 
few days at Ramsey's for the benefit of the wounded and to 
complete a bridge over Deep River, when the light troops of 
the American again disturbed the pickets. The British 
crossed the river and the same day General Greene reached 
Ramsey's with the intention to attack them. The halt of the 
King's troops at that place nearly occasioned an action which 
would not probably have been advantageous to the royal forces 



on account of the position and the disheartening circumstance 
of their being encumbered with so many wounded officers and 
men in the action at Guilford." 

Having reached his ships at Wihnington Cornwallis was 
tendered the aUernative of again fighting Greene or of seeing 
him immolested destroy in detail the British troops, then 
garrisoning South Carolina and Georgia. He chose the 
former. 

Stedman, perhaps the most trustworthy historian of the 
period, in his account of the Battle of Guilford Court House, 
gives us the most unique commentary, account or criticism 
upon or of any battle whatever, that I ever saw. It is a liter- 
ary curiosity, as well as a curiosity historical. He says : 
"Thus we find that the battle of Guilford drew" after it some, 
and it will afterwards appear that it was followed by all the 
consequences of something nearly allied to a defeat." So 
will the conscientious squirm when too hard pressed. 

As soon as Greene had passed southv/ard Cornwallis has- 
tened to Virginia with no one to confront him — thus abandon- 
ing South Carolina and Georgia to their fate and the original 
plan and purpose of his campaign in hopes, I suppose, that 
something might turn up in Virginia. Vain hope ! Con- 
fronted in Virginia by no force worthy of his steel he idled 
around effecting nothing till Washington, giving Clinton in 
ISTew York the slip, bagged him at Yorkto^vn. 

I recall no battle of the Revolutionary War more extensive 
or more fortunate in its results to the American cause, than 
that of the battle of Guilford Court House. 



My allotted space being occupied I add hurriedly and in 
conclusion that it is a matter of easy proof, that the plan and 
conduct of the battle of Guilford Court House was conceived 
in wisdom and courageously and effectively carried out, and 
that even Greene's retreat from the field was a matter of 
judgment and not of necessity. Greene had, as he had pre- 
viously written Washington that he would do, so crippled 
Cornwallis and burdened him with wounded men and officers 
as to rid ISTorth Carolina of his presence, and he had, as he 
had affirmed he would do, preserved his regulars — the last he 
could hope to get, with M^hom as a nucleus he released two 
States and caused the surrender of Cornwallis at Yortko^^Ti. 
That was the end of the war. 




THE GERMAN PALATINES IN NORTH 
CAROLINA. 



3Y JUDGE OLIVER H. ALLEN. 



The barbarity of war has its only parallel in the cruelties 
of religious persecutions. 

The remarkable people who are the subject of this paper 
suffered from both in a manner that appeals to the pathetic 
side of our nature above that of all the peoples that ever came 
to our land in early days excepting perhaps, the Lost Colony 
whom they excelled in long suffering. 

The revocation of the Edict of l^antes (1685) by Louis 
XIV, which in 1598 had insured religious freedom to protes- 
tants in that part of Europe embracing the country inhabited 
by these people began afresh the fires of persecution which 
drove the Huguenots and Dissenters from their homes. Many 
of them eventually settled in ISTorth and South Carolina and 
their protestant German neighbors soon f oUov/ed them. 

One of the most picturesque spots in all Europe on both 
sides of the Rhine around Heidelburg, its principal city, was 
the country known as "The Palatinate on the Rhine," whose 
inhabitants were Germans, a country no longer having a place 
in the geography of Europe — but the territory now mostly 
forming a part of Bavaria and Banden, and its population 
scattered abroad and known for a long time as "The Pala- 
tines." A large number of them were settled in I^ew York 
and other in South Carolina. Dr. Benjamin Rush in his 



10 



essay on the German inhabitants of Pennsylvania says : "The 
aged Germans and the ancestors of those who are young 
migrated chiefly from the Palatinate," and from these latter 
come our thrifty German population in the central part of 
the State, who came to jSTorth Carolina because "Lands could 
not be obtained in Pennsylvania without much difficulty." 

Close upon the causes which drove the Huguenots from 
their country came the "Spanish War of Succession." Long- 
before this war the Palatines had been objects of hatred and 
persecution but they clung to their beautiful land. 

Heidelburg from the time of the Reformation had been 
the stronghold of protestant learning and hence a mark of 
Romish rancour. In 1622 it had been reduced to ruins and 
its splendid library sent to Rome. 

When the war over the Spanish throne arose, lasting 
thirteen years and involving a greater part of Europe, Louis 
XIV. seized upon the opportunity of carrying his arms into 
Germany, whose inhabitants were mostly protestants, and it 
is said "that wherever he sent his army among the Germans 
it carried fire and sword, desolation and ruin." 

The rest of the story of their suffering is vividly told by 
Dr. Bernheim: 

"The peaceful inhabitants of the Palatinate, plundered of 
all their earthy possessions, were driven in midwinter as 
exiles from their native lands to seek an asylum in some safe 
and friendly country. They beheld their comfortable cottages 
and once amply-filled barns and storehouses smouldering in 
the flames behind them, whilst they and their helpless wives 
and children, ruined in worldly prosperity, naked, feeble, and 



11 



in a starving condition, were wending their weary way over 
vast fields of snow and ice, leaving their bloody footprints in 
the frozen snow, seeking shelter and finding none. 

"jSTumbers perished by the way, others dragged along their 
feeble bodies until at last they fonnd safety in the ISTether- 
lands, and from thence they journeyed into England. This 
is no overdrawn picture. Says a distinguished writer: 'The 
ravages of Louis XIV. in the beautiful valleys of the Rhine, 
were more fierce and cruel than even Mahometans could have 
had the heart to perpetrate. Private dwellings were razed to 
the ground, fields laid waste, cities burnt, churches demol- 
ished, and the fruits of industry wantonly and ruthlessly 
destroyed. But three days of grace were allowed to the 
wretched inhabitants to flee their country, and in a short time, 
the historian tells us, 'the roads were blackened by innumera- 
ble multitudes of men, women and children, flying from their 
homes.' 

"Many died of cold and hunger ; but enough survived to fill 
the streets of all the cities of Europe with lean and squalid 
beggars, who had once been thriving farmers and shopkeep- 
evs: " 

About twelve thousand of them went to England, being- 
invited there by the good Queen Ann (1708), who cared for 
them with a genuine Christian magnanimity. Four thou- 
sand of them were settled by her in jSTew York and others 
elsewhere. 

About this time Christopher DeGraffenried and Louis 
Mitchell were preparing to emigrate to America with a large 
Swiss population, their ovm countrymen. ISTegotiations were 



12 



entered into between them and the Queen's commissioners 
by which it was arranged for about six hundred of the Pala- 
tines to be settled in Carolina upon ten thousand acres of 
land located in one body on or between the ISTeuse and Cape 
Fear rivers. Accordingly these Palatine immigarnts started 
for America in January, 1710, (though another account says 
1709), DeGraffenried says he selected them, young, laborious 
and of all kind of avocations and handicraft and provided for 
them well, but they were overtaken by terrible storms and 
were thirteen weeks crossing the Atlantic. More than half of 
them died on the sea. They arrived at the mouth of the 
James river and were there assailed and plundered by a 
French captain. After recruiting they started by land for 
Carolina, stopping with Thomas Pollock on the Chowan river, 
who put them across the sound sed p/'o perunia and in 
September they arrived on a tongue of land between the ]^euse 
and Trent rivers and were first settled on the southern side of 
Trent river on lands which it turned out belonged mostly to 
the Surveyor General and there they remained in a state of 
"sickness, want and desperation" till the arrival later of 
DeGraifenried with his Swiss colony, and here was started 
the city of 'New Bern, named after the capital city of Switzer- 
land. 

One would suppose that the trials and misfortunes of these 
unfortunate people were now at an end save the hardships 
incidental to the life of the early settlers, but not so. 

As to their further experience let them speak for them- 
selves through a document preserved in the Colonial Records 



13 



which is so interesting that no apology is necessary for copy- 
ing it in full : 

"To His Most Excellent Majesty King George the Second 
King of Great Britain, Scotland, France and Ireland, De- 
fender of the Faith, 

''The Humble Petition of the Palatines in l!^orth America 
Humbly Shewith 

"That your Petitioners being sent, six hundred in number, 
by Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Ann into America under 
the Care of Christopher Gravenreid Barronet Her Majesty, of 
her bountiful kindness, paid each man Twenty Shillings Ster- 
ling for to purchase ISTecessarys for their peopling and settling 
her Plantations in ISTorth America, And Gentlemen of England 
raised the like sum with six pair of hand mill-stones and two 
pair of water mill-stones for like purpose which said sums 
and mill-stones your petitioners put into the care of their 
Trustee aforesaid, who promised to pay them in I*^orth Caro- 
lina three pounds for one received from them in England. 

"That your Petitioners, pursuant to Her Majesty's Procla- 
mation sent to Germany in the year of our Lord One Thou- 
sand seven hundred and eight had their Lands laid out to 
them (to wit) to each Family two hundred and fifty acres; 
That your Petitioners Trustee Baron Grovenreid aforesaid 
entered into an agreement with them to find each Family 2 
cows and 2 calves, 2 sows with their young, 2 ewe sheep 
and 2 lambs with a male of each kind, which said stock your 
petitioners were to have in possession for the space of seven 
years, and at the Expiration of such Term to deliver their 
said Trustee the said Principal and at Expiration of five years 



14 



of said Term to pay him the yearly rent of two pence per acre. 
That in the year of our Lord One Thousand seven hundred 
and nine your petitioner arrived in America and in the year 
1711 Indians broke out against and destroyed several Familys 
in which enterprize our Trustee was taken by the Indians 
whilst he was yet amongst them. We expected him killed 
then came one Thomas Pollock who ruled both Goveneur and 
Country and acted in behalf as a General send to his Captain 
William Brice to take all the Dutch that were able to bear 
arms and meet him at an Indian Town which was about six 
Leagues from our Inhabitants accordingly we did but he 
never met but left us to sit two days and one night with the 
Indians soon after Grovenreid was brought in but did not 
stay long with us v/ho carried off from out Settlements all 
that he could conveniently come at, promising to return with 
provisions and necessarys for the war but never returned nor 
made the least satisfaction for these Things received nor the 
money alowed us by her most Gracious Majesty or the Gen- 
tlemen of England with two hundred pounds, which we also 
put into interest at our departure from England. 

"That as soon as our Trustee departed, the said Colonel 
Thomas Pollock came to our Settlements and took every thing 
even the mill stones and left us w^ithout any Assistance 
entirely naked to the mercy of the Indians. 

"That at the expiration of four years the Indian War 
ended and then came the said Pollock and took our Lands 
from us that we had in Virtue of her Majesty's Proclamation 
laid out to us. We your distressed Petitioners being in an 
unknown part of the world and quite destitute of any assis- 



15 



tance was obliged to submit to him the said Pollock who 
under Colours of a relapsed pattent holds the land to this day. 
That in the year One Thousand seven hundred and forty 
seven, the fifth day of January the Pleir of Colonel Thomas 
Pollock come to our Plantations to turn us off from our pos- 
sessions by virtue of iVuthority in order to settle the Rebels the 
Scots in our possessions it being in the dead time of Winter 
not knowing which way to go with our Pamilys by which we 
were compelled to give him our Bonds for as much as he was 
pleased to ask. 

■^'That your Petitioner most humbly prays that your most 
sacred Majesty will be pleased to award us your poor Peti- 
tioners who have undergone the Fatigues of so long and 
Tedious a War against the Barbarous Indians a Decree for 
our said Land and at any Term of rents under Your Most 
Gracious Majesty, as to your Majesty may seem meet. 

"And your Distressed Petitioners as in Duty bound will 
eber pray 

"Philip Feneyer, Henry Grest, Christian Esler, Jacob 
Miller, Herman Grum, Christian Walker, Peter Ender, Mat- 
thias Reasonover, Joseph Pugar, Dennis Moor, Adam Moor, 
John Granade, Abraham Busit, John Rimer, Henry Morris, 
Michael Gesibel, Jacob Eibach, Christian Bavar, ISTicholas 
Rimer, Peter Reyet, John Kinsey, Michael Kiser, Andrew 
Wallis, Peter Lots, John Simons, Daniel Tetchey, Daniel 
Simons, Peter Pillman, George Sneidor, Abraham Baver, 
Frederick Market, Christian Ganter, Casper Risherd, Simon 
Kehler, Michael Shelfer, Jacob Huber, Jno Lekgan Miller, 



16 



Jno Bernard, Shone Woolf, George Renege, Cliristian Hiib- 
boch, John Kensej, Phillip Omend." 

The Lords of Trade and Plantations (Pitt, Greenville and 
Duplin) thereupon reported that pursuant to the orders of 
the Privy Council of loth June, 1747, they had taken into 
consideration the humble petition of the Palatines in I^orth 
Carolina, who were a "laborious people employed in manufac- 
turing pitch and tar and other commodities, that they had 
struggled with great hardships as alleged in their petition and 
dispossessed of their possessions." 

They are further represented in this report as being a 
"sober, industrious people and had a great many near rela- 
tions murdered in the Indian War and yet are in a worse posi- 
tion than any of His Majesty's subjects in that Province by 
reason of exorbitant quit rents and proclamation money 
which was an intolerable load," 

Governor Gabriel Johnston Avas directed to investigate the 
matter and he reported that he had the heirs of Thomas Pol- 
lock and "these people" before him and the heirs of Pollock 
represented that DeGraffenried had been to considerable 
expense on account of the Palatines and had gotten in debt 
to their father between six and seven hundred pounds for 
which he gave a bill of exchange which was protested and 
thereupon he mortgaged all his estate in that Province both 
real and personal for the payment of the said debt. A decree 
in chancery was obtained for said estate and, upon DeGraffen- 
ried failing to pay, these lands were surveyed and patented in 
Pollock's name. 

The Palatines were advised to apply to chancery for relief, 



17 



but the report says "as they were not well acquainted with the 
language and ignorant of the laws they were afraid to coiu- 
mence a suit." 

The King directed and required that grants he forthwith 
made to the petitioners of so much land as should be equiva- 
lent to the lands they had been dispossessed of. 

In 1749 about two years later David Shuts and George 
Kernegu of the surviving Palatines appeared before the coun- 
cil with a list of those entitled to the relief and Governor 
Gabriel Johnston requested the General Assembly to provide 
for surveying the lands, but that body requested a postpone- 
ment because "they had been so long from their homes," and 
jBnally in 1750 Governor Johnston reported that he should 
put the order relative to the "poor Palatines" into immediate 
execution. 

Thus forty years at least after their arrival in America 
those who survived commenced colonial life anew. That they 
were treated badly there is no doubt, but at this late day it 
is difficult to fix the blame with any degree of satisfaction. 
There has never been any suggestion of wrong conduct on the 
part of Mitchell. The heirs of Pollock justify their course on 
the ground that DeGrafFenried mortgaged the property to 
their ancestor and he Avas given two years to redeem it after 
the decree was obtained, and there is no evidence that Thomas 
Pollock knew that DeGrafferied was trustee unless his posi- 
tion as Governor was such as to put him on notice. DeGraf- 
fenried was disappointed and in debt, and after his narrow 
escape from death at the hands of the Indians when Lawson 
was cruelly burned, he likely become desperate and deter- 



18 



mined to try some other venture. So he went to Virginia and 
midertook a mining scheme which proved a signal failure and 
being threatened with arrest for debt he advised with friends, 
made his way up to 'New York, and sailed for England 
where after having some trouble with his distressed miners 
who had followed he passed in disguise to the continent. 
Thus his condition with this German colony might rest but 
for one thing. He defames them without cause and does it 
in general terms without stating any facts. 

It comes with bad grace in a paper written after he reached 
Switzerland to '^justify himself" when he had passed through 
England and failed to make any report to the Queen with 
whose commissioners he had entered into a solemn contract 
to colonize these people. One of the provisions of the con- 
tract was that "these articles shall be taken and construed in 
the most favorable sense for the ease, comfort and advantage 
of the said poor Palatines intending to settle in the country 
or Province of ISTorth Carolina." 

This and every subsequent act of the good Queen Ann and 
of the King afterwards shows that they were regarded ten- 
derly by them, and Gabriel Johnston likewise shows a becom- 
ing anxiety for them. 

There is nowhere in any record or history a line that speaks 
otherwise than favorable of them save in the ex parte account 
by the Baron of his various "mishaps." It smacks of calumny 
upon these people in order to furnish an excuse for his own 
failure and wrong, and he spares not his own Bernese people. 
On the contrary, their past history, their lives of persecution 



19 



and poverty and perseverence as well as a study of their 
descendants refutes every insinuation against tliem. 

As to their religion they were likely of the Lutheran 
Church originally. DeGraffenried says that on the day 
before their departure he went with Mr. Cesan, a German 
minister of the Reformed Church of London, to cheer up 
these people and to wish them a happy voyage, but he after- 
wards arranged with the Bishop of London to accept him 
and his people into the English Church, and in the course of 
time their descendants became connected with the various 
Christian denominations in their section of the State. 

After the second grant of lands to them they were mostly 
thrown out into the territory covered by the counties of 
Craven, Jones, Onslow, Duplin and contiguous sections where 
their descendants are now mostly to be found, and, mixing 
with the scattering Huguenots, the Scotch in the Cape Fear 
section and the descendants of the early Irish settlers of Pup- 
lin and Sampson, whose fathers like theirs had come over in 
search of religious and political freedom, they v\'ith their 
allies have become one of the most substantial class of people 
known to any country. 

•■ While no account has been kept of the Palatines it is easy 
to recognize many of the families from the few names we have 
recorded, allowing for the corruption of names which was 
very common in that day. 

Por instance: Croom (Grum), Isler (Esler), Moore 
(Mohr), Wallace (Wallis), Simmons (Simons), Gaunto 
(Gantor), Teachey (Tetchey), Kornegay (Kernegee — 
Renege), Martin Franch (Martin Franke), Miller (Muil- 



20 



ler), Morris, Walker, Kinsey and others. Wherever found 
they represent the best type of German industry, frugaltiy 
and integrity. 

Rush says of the Germans of his State: ''A German farm 
may be distinguished from the farms of other citizens of the 
State." 

The Palatines are spoken of as "sober, moral and indus- 
trious," the others as "industrious, frugal, punctual and 
just." And so other resemblances might be easily shown by 
reference to individuals especially. 

Little is known as to what became of the Swiss colony. 
They are represented by one historian as being fifteen hun- 
dred in number, but DeGraffenried says "a small colony 
from Bern." They departed from their own country and at 
a different time from the others and they were not embraced 
in the agreement with Her Majesty's Commissioners. 

References: DeGraffenried's Manuscript, ^orth Carolina 
Histories. Colonial Records — Vols. I, p. 905 and IV. Bern- 
heim's German Settlements in the Carolinas. Rush's Es- 
says. 

Had DeGraffenried remained with them and carried out 
his contract their identity would likely have been as well 
preserved to this day as the German character is still in I^ew 
York and Pennsylvania and in some counties in the central 
part of the State, for they are the same people. 

ISTote some of the resemblances : DeGraffenried says of the 
Palatines: They were "healthy, laborious and of all kind 
of avocation and handicraft." Rush says of the Germans of 



SI 



Pennsylvania: "They were farmers and many mechanics, 
weavers, tanners, shoemakers, smiths," etc. He also says that 
many of them lost valuable estates by being unacquainted 
with the common forms of law. The Lords of Plantations 
report that the Palatines by reason of their ignorance of the 
law would not go into chancery concerning the loss of their 
lands. 

DeGraffenried says of their thrift, that within eighteen 
months they managed to build homes and made themselves 
so comfortable that they made more progress in that length 
of time than the English inhabitants did in several years. 



(APPENDIX.) 
CONTRACT WITH DeGRAFFENRIED. 

(FROM WILLIAMSON'S HISTORY.) 

"Articels of agreement, identified and made, published and 
agreed upon, this tenth day of October Anno Domini One 
thousand Seven hundred and nine, and in the eight year 
of the reign of our Sovereign lady Anne, by the Grace of God 
queen of Great Britain, Prance and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, between Christopher de Graffenrid of London Esq. and 
Lewis Mitchell of the same place Esq. of the one part, and Sir 
John Phillips Bart, Sir Alexander Cairnes Bart, Sir Theo- 
dore Janson Knt, White Kennet D.D., and dean of Peter- 
borough, John Chamberlain, Esq., Frederick Slore, doctor of 
Physic, and Mr. Mica j ah Perry merchant, seven of the Com- 



22 



missioners and trustees nominated and appointed by her 
Majesty's late gracions letters patent, under the great seal of 
Great Britian, for the collecting, receiving and disposing of 
the money to be collected for the subsistence and settlement of 
the poor Palatines lately arrived in Great Britain, on the 
other part. 

'^Whereas the above named Christopher de GrafPenrid and 
Lewis Mitchell have purchased to themselves and their heirs 
in fee, and are entitled to a large tract of land in that part of 
her Majesty's dominions in America called ^STorth Carolina, 
which now lies waste and uncultivated for want of inhabi- 
tants ; and they the said Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis 
Mitchell have applied themselves to the Commissioners ap- 
13ointed by the letters patent above mentioned for the sub- 
sistence and settlement of the poor distressed Palatines, that 
some number of the said poor Palatines may be disposed of 
and settled in the said tract of land in N^orth Carolina afore- 
said, as well for the benefit of the said Christopher de Graifen- 
rid and Lewis Mitchell as for the relief and support of the 
said poor Palatines. 

"And whereas, the said Commissioners have thought fit to 
dispose of for this purpose six hundred persons of the said 
Palatines, Avhich may be ninety-two families more or less, and 
have laid out and disposed of to each of the said six hundred 
poor Palatines the sum of twenty shillings in clothes, and 
have likewise paid and secured to be paid to the said Christo- 
pher de GrafPenrid and Lewis Mitchell the sum of five pounds 
ten shillings lawful money of Great Britain for each of the 
said six hundred persons, in consideration of and for their 



23 



transportation into ISTortli Carolina aforesaid, and for their 
comfortable settlement there. 

"It is constituted, concluded and agreed, by and with the 
said parties to these presents in manner following: 

"In primis, that the said Christopher de Graffenrid and 
Lewis Mitchell for the consideration aforesaid, at their own 

proper costs and charges shall, within the year next 

after the date hereof embark or cause to be embarked on ships 
board, in and upon two several, ships, six hundred of such of 
the said poor Palatines as shall be directed by the said com- 
missionres, which together may in all make up ninety- two 
families more or less, and cause the said persons to be directly 
transported to IS^orth Carolina aforesaid, providing them with 
food and other necessaries during their voyage thither. 

"Item, that upon the arrival of the said six hundred poor 
Palatines in TvTorth Carolina aforesaid, the said Christopher 
de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell shall, within three months 
next after their said arrival there, survey and set out, or cause 
to be surveyed and set out, by metes and bounds, so much of 
the said tract of land above mentioned as shall amount to two 
hundred and fifty acres for each family of the said six hun- 
dred poor Palatines, be they ninety-two families more or less ; 
and that the said several two hundred and fifty acres for each 
family be as contiguous as may be for the more mutual love 
and assistance of the said poor Palatines one to another, as 
well with respect to the exercise of their religion as the man- 
agement of their temporal affairs. 

"And for avoiding disputes and contentions among the said 
Palatines in the division of the said several two hundred and 



24 



fifty acres of land, It is agreed, that the said land, when set 
out by two hundred and fifty acres to a family, be divided to 
each family by lot. 

''Item, that the said Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis 
Mitchell, their heirs executors or administrators, within three 
months next after the arrival of the said poor Palatines in 
JSTorth Carolina aforesaid, shall give and dispose of unto the 
said poor Palatines and to each family, by lot, two hundred 
and fifty acres of the tract of land above mentioned and by 
good assurances in law grant and convey the said several two 
hundred and fifty acres to the first and chief person or per- 
sons of each family their heirs and assigns forever : to be held 
the first five years thereafter without any acknowledgement 
for the same, and rendering and paying unto the said Chris- 
topher de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell, their heirs execu- 
tors and administrators, for every acre the sum of two pence 
lawful money of that country yearly and every year after the 
said term of five years. 

"Item, that for and during one whole year after the arrival 
of the said poor Palatines in North Carolina aforesaid, the 
said Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell shall pro- 
vide, or cause to be provided for, and deliver to the said poor 
Palatines sufficient quantities of grain and provision and 
other things for the comfortable support of life; but it is 
agreed, that the said poor Palatines respectively shall repay 
and satisfy the said Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis 
Mitchell, their heirs executors and administrators, for the full 
value of what they shall respectively receive on the amount 
at the end of the first year then next after. 



25 



"Item, that tlie said Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis 
Mitchell, at their o^Yla. proper costs and charges within fonr 
months after their arrival there, shall provide for the said 
Palatines and give and deliver, or cause to he given or deliv- 
ered to them, for their nse and improvement, two cows and 
tv\-o calves, five sows with their several yonng, two ewe sheep 
and two lambs, with a male of each kind, who may be able to 
propagate, that at the expiration of seven years thereafter 
each family shall return to the said Christopher de Graffenrid 
and Lewis Mitchell, their heirs or executors, the valne of the 
said cattle to be delivered to them, with a moiety of the stock 
then remaining in their hands at the expiration of the said 
seven years. 

"Item, that immediately after the division of the said two 
hundred and fifty acres among the families of the said Pala- 
tines, the said Christopher de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell 
shall give and dispose of gratis to each of the said Palatines 
a sufficient number of tools and implements for felling of 
wood and building of houses, etc. 

"And lastly, it is covenanted, constituted and agreed, by and 
between all parties to these presents, that these articles shall 
be taken and construed in the most favorable sense for the 
ease, comfort and advantage of the said poor Palatines intend- 
ing to settle in the country or province of ]^orth Carolina : 
that the said poor Palatines, doing and performing what is 
intended by these presents to be done on their parts, shall 
have and enjoy the benefits and advantages hereof without 
any further or other demand of and from the said Christo- 
pher de Graffenrid and Lewis Mitchell, their heirs executors 



26 



or administrators or any of them ; and that in case of diffi- 
culty it shall be referred to the Governor of the country or 
province of ISTorth Carolina, for the time being, whose order 
and directions, not contrary to the intentions of these presents, 
shall be binding upon the said Christopher de Graffenrid and 
Lewis Mitchell, his heirs executors and administrators, as to 
the said poor Palatines. 

"Witness whereof the said parties to these presents have 
interchangeably set their hands and seals the day above 
written. 



"John Phillips 


(L. 


S.) 


Alexawdek Caiknes 


(L. 


S.) 


White Kennet 


(L. 


S.) 


John" Chamberlain 


(L. 


S.) 


Feedekick Sloee 


(L. 


S.) 


MiCAJAH PeEEY 


(L. 


S.) 



"Sealed and delivered by the within named Sir John 
Philips, Alexander Cairnes, White Kennet, John Chamber- 
lain, Frederick Slore, Mica j ah Perry, having two six penny 
stamps. 

"In presence of us. 

William Tatlok, 
James De Peatt. 

"We the within named Christopher de Graff enrid and Lewis 
Mitchell, for ourselves, our heirs, executors and administra- 
tors, do hereby covenant and agree to and with the Commis- 
sioners and trustees within written, for and upon the like 
consideration mentioned, to take and receive fifty other per- 
sons in the families of the poor Palatines, to be disposed of 



27 



in like manner as the six hundred poor Palatines within speci- 
fied, and to have and receive the like grants, privileges, bene- 
fits and advantages as the said six hundred Palatines have, 
may or ought to have, in every article and clause within 
written, and as if the said fifty Palatines had been comprised 
therein, or the said articles, clause and agreements had been 
here again particularly repeated and recited on to them. 

"Witness our hands and seals this 21st day of Octobre, 
A. D. 1Y09. 

"Cheistophee de Geaffeisteid^ 
Lewis Mitchell. 

"Sealed and delivered this agreement in the presence of 

"Wm. Tayloe^ 
Jas. De Peatt." 



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