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Full text of "The North Carolina booklet : great events in North Carolina history"

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LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



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Vol. VI. 



JULY, 1906 



No. i 



"UAe 



NortK Carolina Booklel: 




GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS ofthe REVOLUTION 



CONTENTS 

The Indian Tribes of Eastern Carolina - - - 
By Richard Dillard/M. D. 

Glimpses of History in the Names of Our Counties 

By Kemp. P. Battle, LL. D. 

A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear - - . 

By James Sprunt, British Vice-Gjnsul at Wilmington, N. C. 
(ILLUSTRATED) 



Page 

3 



26 
48 



SINGLE NUMBERS 30 CENTS 



$1.00 THE YEAR 



^•^••X-Jfe-X'-X"X"^^1g^gW^-Jg5g-^^^J^-^-Sg-^"X"^"X"^:^g^^^^gtg^^^^ 



ENTERED IN THE POST-OFFICE AT RALEIGH, N. C, AS SECOHD-CLASS MATTER. 




The North Carolina Booklet. 



Great Events in North Carolina History. 



VOLUME VI. 



Glimpses of History in the Names of our Counties, 

Kemp. P. Battle, LL. D. 

A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), , Mr. James Sprunt. 

The Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina, Richard Dillard, M. D. 
Gov. Thomas Burke, . . . Mr. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton. 

Some North Carolina Histories and their Authors, 

Professor Edward P. Moses. 

The Borough Towns of North Carolina, . . Mr. Francis Nash. 

The John White Pictures, Mr. W. J. Peele. 

Gov. Jesse Franklin, .... Professor J. T. Alderman. 

Industrial Life in Early North Carolina, . . Mr. T. M. Pittman. 
Colonial and Revolutionary Costumes in North Carolina, 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

«North Carolina's Attitude to the Revolution, Mr. Robert C. Strong. 
The Fundamental Constitutions and the Effects on the Colony, 

Mr. Junitis Davis. 

The BooKi^ET will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 
who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. MoflStt. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 
biography, history and genealogy. 



The BooKi^ET will be issued quarteri,y by the North Carolina 
Society of the Daughters op the Revolution, beginning July, 
X906. Each Booklet will contain three articles and will be published 
in July, October, January and April. Price, |i.oo per year, 30 cents for 
single copy. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for 
Vol. VI, are requested to notify at once. 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 
"Midway Plantation," 
Editors: ' Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



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North Carolina State Librafy 
Raieigh 

Vol. VI. JULY, 1906. No. 1 



15he 



flORTH CflROiilj^il BoOKIiET 



^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heaven'' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live zve will cherish, protect and defend her.'' 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. Tlie proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editors. 



i 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 

Mrs. Spier Whitakek. Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. PiIchard Dillard. 

Professor E. P. Moses. Mr. James Sprtjnt. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle. Judge Walter Clark. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, 

1906-1908. 

regent : 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

vice-regent : 
Mrs. WALTER CLARK. 

honorary regent: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 
(Nee Hooper.) 

RECORDING SECRETARY: 

Mrs. J. W. THACKSTON. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY : 

Mrs. W. H. PACE. 

TREASURER: 

Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

Mrs. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 

GENEALOGIST : 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1890-1902; 
Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

REGENT 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.'' 

REGENT 1902-1906: 
Mrs. THOIMAS K. BRUNER. 



*Died December 12, 1904. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



Vol. VI JULY, 1906 No. 1 



THE FOREWORD. 



The sources of information regarding our Indians are both 
meagre and unsatisfactory, history lends but little aid, tradi- 
tion is silent, you must seek elsewhere than in books. There 
is a way we may study — even see them if we will — let me 
tell you the secret; I came upon it one evening just after 
sunset when I was hunting wild forget-me-nots along an idle 
brook away off in Pleasant Valley. If you wander alone 
through the deep everglade of a southern dismal you will 
sometimes stop suddenly to examine what you know is the 
faded footprint of a moccasined foot, or, if the hour is pro- 
pitious, you will listen and listen -again as you catch the 
sound of a warwhoop echoing and re-echoing through the 
deepening twilight of the forest. Or it may be that you will 
find an arrowhead or a broken tomahawk in a ramble through 
a summer field. 

One night when the moon was full, and I sat under a tree 
by the deep mirror of a certain silver stream, the air grew 
suddenly heavy with the drowsy sweetness of the lotus in 
blossom, there was a troubling of the waters as by the angel's 
touch upon the Pool of Bethesda, the leaves clapped fitfully 
together like elfin cymbals at a fairy dance, a few, twisting 
from their stems, came fluttering down upon the river, and 
went sailing off like a phantom squadron ; the sedges rustled 
violently at the water's hem — it was an enchanted spot, and 
I saw as in a dream two painted warriors drag a bound vic- 
tim hurriedly into a canoe, and push off into the stream, but 
as I turned to obser^^e them closely they blended into the 
dreamland of the other shore — the trick then lies in the 
imagination — in the embroidered fantacy of a midsummer- 
night's dream. 



THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET, 



HE INDIAN TRIBES OF EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 



BY RICHARD DILLARD, M.D. 



"Ye whose hearts are fresh and simple, 
Who have faith in God and nature, 
Who believe that in all ages 
Every human heart is human. 
That in even savage bosoms 
There are longings, yearnings, strivings 
For the good they comprehend not, 
That the feeble hands and helpless, 
Groping blindly in the darkness. 
Touch God's right hand in that darkness 
And are lifted up and strengthened; 
Listen to this simple story." 

The first Indian tableau upon wliicli the curtain of our 
history rises isi the royal reception of Aniidas and Barlow by 
Granganameo "in the delicate garden abounding in all kinds 
of odoriferous flowers" on the Island of Wocokon. The last 
is when, chagrined by the defeat and failure of the Tuscarora 
War, they are driven forever from the shores of the Albe- 
marle. The scenes between are interspersed with acts of 
kindness and of cruelty, bloody massacres and the torch, with 
long interludes, in which the curtain is so closely hauled 
down that not a ray of light reaches us, so that the path- 
finders of history can scarcely discern a single blazed tree to 
guide them through that untrodden solitude. 

The mural frescoes by Alexander in the Congressional Li- 
brary most beautifully tell the story of the evolution of learn- 
ing in five allegorical paintings; the first is a picture of a 
cairn built by a prehistoric man to coaumenorate some im- 
portant event; the second is oral tradition, an ancient story- 
teller surrounded by a group of attentive listeners ; the third 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. & 

is represented by hieroglyphics carved upon an Egyptian 
obelisk ; the fourth is the primitive American Indian painting 
upon his buffalo skin the crude story of the chase, the con- 
flict, or the war-dance, while the last is the beautiful consum- 
mation of them all — the printing press. Our own alphabet, 
tlirough a long series of elaboration covering many cen- 
turies, originally came from picture-writing. All knowledge 
began with units, and the compounding of those units in dif- 
ferent ways like the grouping of atoms to form various chemi- 
cal substances produced classified knowledge, or science in all 
of its labyrinthine detail. The language of the Indian is 
metaphorical, and essentially picture-writing, not only picture- 
words representing material objects, but sound-pictures, that 
is the formation of words in imitation of the sounds they are 
intended to represent. He speaks mostly with his eyes, using 
gestures, grimmaces and grunts where his language is inade- 
quate, and emphasis is required. The Iroquois, which were 
composed partly of Eastern J^orth Carolina Indians after the 
Tuscarora War, are especially metaphorical, and of course 
in studying their language we study the language of the dif- 
ferent tribes which compose them. When the weather is 
very cold they say "it is a nose-cutting morning." They use 
the hemlock boughs to protect them from the snow, and when 
one says "1 have hemlock boughs" he means that he has warm 
and comfortable quarters. It is said that twelve letters an- 
swer for all Iroquois sounds, viz. lAEFHIKISrOIlST 
W. The Algonquins, the Iroquois and the Mobilians are con- 
sidered the three primitive stocks, and the dialects now 
spoken throughout the country are traced by ethnologists di- 
rectly to them. 

Thoreau says in his Walden that the Puri Indians had but 
one word for the present, the past, and the future, expressing 
its variations of meaning by pointing backward for yester- 
day — forward for tomorrow — and overhead for to-day. 



6 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

The beautiful eup'honeous Indian names are so inter- 
mingled with our own names and history that time cannot 
erase them. Let us analyze a few of their words and our 
application of them. I suggest the following derivation of 
the word Roanoke as applied to both Roanoke river and Roan- 
oke Island. Wampum, the Indian money, their current 
medium of exchange and equivalent of gold, was of two 
kinds — Wampum Peak, and Wampum Roanoke: It was 
made of a species of conch-shell (Buccinum Undatum), and 
shaped like beads, the darker colors being the most valuable. 
This was usually strung and worn around the waist as a 
belt, and served the double purpose of ornament and money. 
These belts were passed from one nation to another in making 
treaties and in other important transactions, e. g., "By my 
wampum belt I pledge thee." l^ow when Menotoscon, king 
of the Chowanokes, found that the English were principally 
in quest of gold, he beguiled them with all kinds of rococo 
stories about a great river, evidently our Roanoke, which rose 
in a western country, and abounded in mussels filled with 
pearls, and that the sands of this river were of gold, hence 
the English named it Roanoke, and as Roanoke meant money 
or gold, by metonomy Roanoke river means river of gold, 
a name not inappropriate at this day, considering the wealth 
of its fields and the richness and vastness of the forests 
which girt its shores. By the same fanciful analysis Roanoke 
Island may mean island of money or gold, from the great 
quantity of wampum shells abounding in that vicinity. The 
suffix peak appears in the words Chesapeake, Dessamonpeak, 
Corapeak and others, and also gives them a significance of 
profusion or wealth. Mattercomock or Machicomock Creek, 
to the west of Edenton, means Temple of God, doubtless 
from the exquisite beauty of the stream and the tall cypress 
trees along its banks, which stand like huge elaborately 
carved Corinthian columns supporting the dome of the sky. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 7 

The name of the section of country along the Chowan above 
Edenton now called Rockyhock was derived from the Indian 
word Rakioch, meaning cypress tree, which by metathesis 
and the corruptions of successive generations is now spelled 
Rockyhock, meaning literally the Land of Cypress Trees. 
Chowan means paint or color — hence the county is the land 
of rich colors, from the variety and magnificence of its flora, 
and the myriad hues of its emerald forests, or it might have 
been that the Indians obtained their dyes and paints there. 
To the beautiful reflection of trees and sky upon a placid 
stream they gave the name of glimmerglass, shimmering mir- 
ror. The proximity of the Chowanokes to the Tuscaroras 
brought them into frequent communication, and there was 
in consequence some similarity of dialect, a great many of 
their words had in common the suflix ocli, e. g., Uppowock, 
Mattercomock, Rakiock, Moriatock and Ohanock. The origi- 
nal spelling of Currituck was Coratuc, Tar River was Tau, 
meaning river of health, and Hatteras was Hattorask. Little 
River was Kototine, Perquimans River was Ona, Albemarle 
Sound was called Weapomeiock, Yeopim was originally Jau- 
pin. Durant's l^eck was Wecocomicke. The Chowan River 
was called ]*^omopana. Captain John Smith, in his map of 
Virginia made in 1606, changes the vowels and spells Cho- 
wan Chawon, and gives tO' that tribe a large portion of the 
territory southeast of the Powhattan River, now the James. 
Theodore de Bry's map, 1590, gives the Chowans the vast ter- 
ritory along the upper Albemarle and Chowan River. Pas- 
quotank at one time was spelled Passo-Tank, and was derived 
from the Indian PassaquenoJce, meaning the woman's town. 
Resting upon the very bosom of nature, amid the most 
picturesque and beautiful surroundings they possessed neither 
music nor poetry. Grave, imperturbable and mute, their 
souls did not burn with the glowing tints of the autumn 
forest, or thrill at the echo from the hills, or at the grandeur 



8 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

and mystery of the great solitudes, fresh with the virginity 
of nature, or the long light upon the rivers. They hearkened 
not the song of the summer bird whose flight of ecstasy drew 
bars of golden music across the sky, nor the soft reed notes of 
Dio Pan's flute, nor the arpeggios swept from Apollo's lyre^ — 
the star-embroidered peace of the midnight heavens they 
heeded not, but without any of the embellishments of civiliza- 
tion they had a picturesqueness and beauty of costume en- 
tirely in harmony with the wild state of nature. 

We are well assured that the early Indians had a good idea 
of botany, knew the uses of the different plants, and gave 
them names descriptive of their qualities and physical ap- 
pearances, though they knew nothing of classification. A 
great deal of the flora which existed here then is now en- 
tirely extinct, the law of the survival of the fittest applying 
more strongly to the vegetable kingdom than to any other ; 
during my own observation one species of ground-pine in 
this country has entirely disappeared. Many of the wild 
flowers we know and see every day are really adventives 
from Europe, or plants which have escaped from cultivation 
in gardens, and are literally tramping it over the country. 
The botanical characteristics of our forests reveal the fact 
that some parts of them were in cultivation very many years 
ago, for pine is the original growth, and in successive rota- 
tion come gum, oak, etc: I^ature does not falter, she has 
her own ways — her owm days for doing her work, man can 
meddle, but cannot hinder her. Remove the earth from a 
piece of land, deep enough to destroy all remains of the pre- 
viously existing vegetation, and when the soil reforms upon 
it again she will persistently repeat the law by first produc- 
ing pine, and then on in regular rotation again. !N"ow the 
occurrence of oak thickets in most unexpected places argues 
strongly that the Indians had small clearings or assarts 
where thev grew their tobacco and maize. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 9 

It is difficult to believe that they did not love and enjoy 
the wild flowers which grew so profusely about them. Did 
they not pause in the chase to exult in the fragrance of the 
pine and the myrtle, or linger to inhale the delicate perfume 
of the wild grape in blossom, or to be lifted up by the redo- 
lence of the jessamine ? Was there no ''impulse from the 
vernal woods," no swelling of the heart in the springtime — 

" When daisies pied and violets blue, 
And lady-smocks all silver-white, 
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue 
Do paint the meadows with delight?" 

Thanks to the fertile pen and sharp-eyed observation of 
Harriot we know something of their plants and their uses. 
He says they dyed their hair and persons with the roots of 
Chappacor, of which I cannot conjecture the English equiva- 
lent unless it be the Sanguinaria or Bloodroot, still flourishing 
in our forests, but the secret is hidden down deep in the 
chalice of its corolla, its beautiful white petals are silent, and 
cannot be invoked. Kaishackpenauk was a root eaten as 
food, and resembled very much our Irish potato, while Ope- 
nauk was nothing more than the Apios Tuberosa, growing in 
our lowlands, it also served them as food. Coscushaw may 
be the Tuckaboe or Arrowhead, of which hogs are fond, and 
grows in muddy pools and bogs. Ascapo was the Myrtle, and 
the Sassafras they called Winauk. The Prince's Pine was 
Pipsissewa, and Habascon was the horse-radish. One of our 
beautiful wild trailers wears gracefully the name of Cherokee 
Rose, but I condemn the sentiment which named Lobelia, a 
very poisonous plant, Indian Tobacco, and the Indian Tur- 
nip is also most inappropriately nanted. The Squaw Vine 
still paints its berries red in autumn to honor tbe Indian 
maiden. They knew different poisons and did not hesitate to 
use them stealthily and without scruple upon their personal 
enemies. Prominent among their list of poisons was a white 



10 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

root which grew in fresh marshes, and may have been Cicely, 
or Fool's Parsley, belonging to the poisonous hemlock family. 
In Hyde County was the Mattermuskeet or Maramikeet of 
the Machapungo Indians, Lake Mattermuskeet was called by 
them Paquinip, or Paquipe. Upon the shores of this lake 
grows and flourishes as nowhere else an apple called the Mat- 
tennuskeet, maturing late but succulent and full of excel- 
lence. The tradition is that an early settler and hunter killed 
a wild goose upon the lake and upon opening its craw found 
an apple seed which he carefully preserved and planted, and 
which grew rapidly, and bore luscious fruit. 

The North Carolina grape called Scuppemong was origi- 
nally found on Scuppernong River, a tributary of Albemarle 
Sound, by an exploring party sent out by Amidas and Bar- 
low. One small vine, with roots, waiS transplanted to Roanoke 
Island in 1584, where it is still growing and bearing grapes 
every year. In 1855 it covered nearly one and one-half acres. 
Some contend that the proper spelling should be Noscupper- 
nong, but the late Rev. Wm. S. Pettigrew, who was deeply 
versed in Indian legend and lore always held that it should 
be Escappernong. Messrs. Garrett & Co. have named one 
of their excellent wines made from these grapes Escapper- 
nong. An old writer of jSTorth Carolina history says "there 
are no less than five varieties of grapes found about the Albe- 
marle Sound, all of which are called Scuppernongs, to-wit, 
black, green, purple, red and white." The darker varieties 
are generally conceded to be seedlings, as the original grape 
can at present be reproduced only by layering or by grafting 
upon the wild grape. The cause of the change in color of 
this grape is beautifully woven by Mrs. Cotten into the 
Legend of the White Doe or the Fate of Virginia Dare. 
The transposition into prose has been so graphically made 
that I give it verbatim. "Okisko, a brave warrior of the 
tribe that had given shelter to the unfortunate Lost Col- 




■""^"^^-Ssi-''^:^- I''. 



VIRGINIA DARE. 
From a fanciful sketch by Porte Crayon in 1857. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 11 

ony of Sir Walter Raleigh, fell in love with the governor's 
granddaiighter, Virginia Dare, the first white child born on 
American soil. The jealous rage of Chico, the great magi- 
cian, changed her into a white doe which baffled all the 
hunters' attempts to capture it, for it had a charmed life and 
nothing but a silver arrow or an arrow dipped in the magic 
fountain of Eoanoke could slav the beautiful creature. Now 
Wanchese, the great hunter of Pomouik, has crossed the 
waters, and there had received as a present a silver arrow. 
Armed with this he lay in wait for the white doe. Near him 
also was Virginia Dare's faithful lover, Okisko, armed with 
an arrow that had been dipped in the magic fountain. The 
magician Wenaudon, rival of Chico, had explained to Okisko 
that only by piercing to the heart the white doe with this 
magic arrow could the fair Virginia be liberated and restored 
to him, thus unknown to each other the two warriors awaited 
the coming of the white doe, one armed with the silver arrow 
that meant death, the other armed with the magic arrow that 
meant restored life the Okisko's love. Suddenly out in the 
clearing jumped the startled doe ; twang went the bowstrings, 
both arrows fled straight to the mark. To the wonder of 
Wanchese he saw a beautiful white girl laying where he had 
seen the doe fall. To the horror of Okisko he saw the arrow 
piercing his loved one's heart. As if shocked by the awful 
tragedy the magic spring died away. In its place Okisko saw 
growing a tiny grapevine, it seemed a message from his lost 
love, he watched it grow and blossom and bear fruit. Lo ! the 
grapes were red ; he crushed one and lo ! the juice was red — 
red as his dear Virginia's blood. Lovingly he watched and 
tended the vine, and as he drank the pure red juice of the 
gTape he knew that at last he was united to his love — that her 
spirit was entering into his — that he was daily growing more 
like her, the being he loved and worshipped — ^the joy he had 
lost, but now had found again in the magic seedling." It is 



12 THE XOIITH CAKOLI]N"A BOOKLET. 

a fact that a species of white deer is still seen in the country 
around Pungo and Scuppernong Lakes, but the penetrating 
ball of the Winchester possesses a counter chann to the magi- 
cal spell of the Indian magician Chico, and the white doe 
often falls a victim before its unerring aim. 

The mother Scuppernong vine implanted upon the Island 
of Roanoke, as ancient as our civilization, has sent its 
branches like the English speaking race over our broad land, 
the excellence of its amber clusters dropping the honej-dew 
of knowledge and delight — spreading like a banyan, its broad 
arbor is a sacred aegis of Minerva, which will shield and 
hide for aye the mysterious secret of the Lost Colony. 

Who gave us Indian Corn the Agatowr, that beautiful 
tasseled staff of life whose waving fields are a symbol of our 
country's bounty and wealth — this maker of brawn and 
muscle and of the gray stroma of the brain ? I answer each 
red ear blushed with the red man's skin. It was cultivated 
and eaten here before the granaries of the Pharaohs were 
overflowing from the wheat fields of Egypt, or the Libyan 
threshing-floors were groaning under the fatness of the 
harvest. The Indian method of preparing it for food was by 
hollowing out the end of a large stump and pounding the 
grain by means of a log, suspended to an overhanging bough. 

Who gave us LTppowock, the divine tobacco? That com- 
panion of solitude and life of company ! The fabled Assidos 
of the middle ages, which drives away all evil spirits ! The 
nerve stimulant destined to supplant hashisch, opium, betel, 
kava-kava, and all others ! Emissaries from China and Japan 
are buying- American tobacco with the purpose of substituting 
it for the injurious opium habit of those countries. This is 
the herb which that rare old cynic philosopher so' beautifully 
praises and censures by antithesis in his wonderful Anatomy 
of Melancholy, the book Doctor Johnson missed his tea to 
read, as ''divine, rare, superexcellent tobacco, which goes far 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 13 

beyond all the panaceas, potable gold and philosophers' 
stones — a sovereign remedy to all diseases, a virtuous herb if 
it be well qualified, opportunely taken and medicinally used, 
but as it is commonly abused by most men 'tis a plague, a 
mischief, a violent purger of goods, lands and health — devil- 
ish and damned tobacco, the ruin and overthrow of body and 
soul." 

The Indians held Uppowock their tobacco in high esteem, 
attributed to it magical powers. It was the gift of the gods ; 
they often burnt it upon their sacred fires, and cast it upon 
the waters to allay the storm, they scattered it among their 
weirs to increase the catch of fish, and after an escape from 
great danger they would throw it high into the air as if to 
requite the gods themselves. 

Eastern N^orth Carolina is rich in literature based upon 
the history, the legends, the traditions of its Indians. The 
White Doe or Fate of Virginia Dare is as musical as Hia- 
watha, and tells the story of the change of Virginia Dare 
into the shape of a white doe to which I have alluded else- 
where. 

That erudite scholar, Col.R. B. Creecy,in his chef d'oeuvre, 
the Legend of Jesse Batz, tells delightfully the story of Jesse 
Batz, a hunter and trapper who dwelt upon an island in the 
Albemarle Sound, opposite the mouth of Yeopim River, now 
called Batz's Grave (the U. S. G-eog. Soc. gives the spelling 
Batts), but then called Kalola from the number of sea gulls 
congTegating there. Hunting, trapping, and frequently en- 
gaging in the chase with the Indians Batz became intimately 
associated with the Princess Kickawana, the beautiful daugh- 
ter of Kilkanoo, the king of the Chowanokes. Batz loved her 
at first sight, and she in turn loved the white man. 

When Pamunkey made war upon Kilkanoo Batz fought 
with the Chowanokes, and in a hand-to-hand encounter took 
Pamunkey prisoner and helped to drive the hostile tribe back 



14 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

into Virginia. For this act of bravery he was adopted into 
the Chowanoke tribe with the name of Secotan or Great White 
Eagle. The current of love between him and Kickawana ran 
along smoothly, and with an immunity from sorrow beyond 
the usual lot of mortals until one night when the Indian 
maiden was paddling in her canoe across from the mainland 
to the island, as she frequently did to visit her lover, a thund- 
erstorm swept the Albemarle like the besom of destruction: 

"The wind was high, and the clouds were dark, 
And the boat returned no more." 

Batz never more left his island home, and to this day it is 
called Batz's Grave. Its azure outline in dim perspective 
upon the glistening page of the Albemarle seems the far-off 
island of some half -forgotten dream. At one time it belonged 
to George Durant, Jr., and contained many acres ; the erosion 
of the tideSi has been so continuous and rapid that scarcely 
an acre now remains. This constant sloughing of its banks 
causes the magnificent timber to fall into the water in great 
windrows, like broad swaths of grain beneath the sturdy 
stroke of some giant reaper, but the ceaseless murmur of 
each receding wave upon its lonely beach will sigh out f or- 
aye, in a throbbing tumultuous undertone, the story of those 
unfortunate lovers. One of the few landmarks left by the 
Chowan Indians is a part of the soundside road leading to 
Drummond's Point, which curves and re-curves upon itself 
at least a dozen times in a distance of two miles. The tradi- 
tion is that the road was made by the early settlers along the 
course of the old Indian trail ; over this road doubtless passed 
and repassed Kickawana on her visits to the island home 
of Jesse Batz, and it takes but a touch of fancy for the be- 
nighted traveler along this lonely road to see the lithe form 
of Kickawana just receding around the next. bend. 



THE ^TOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 15 

One of the most interesting chapters in our history is the 
account given bj Dr. John Brickell, of Edenton, in his history 
of North Carolina of a trip among the Indians. He was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Burrington to make an exploration into the 
interior, with a view of securing the friendship of the Chero- 
kee Indians. He left Edenton in 1730 with ten men and two 
Indians, and traveled fifteen days without having seen a 
human being. At the foot of the mountains they met the In- 
dians, who received them kindly and conducted them to their 
camp where they spent two days with the chief, who reluct- 
antly permitted them to return. They built large fires and 
cooked the game which the two Indians killed and served it 
upon ]>ine-bark dishes, at night they tethered their horses and 
slept upon the gray Spanish moss (Tillandsia Usneoides), 
which hung from the trees. They lived in truly Robin Hood 
style, and the tour seems to have been more for romance and 
adventure than for scientific search. It is a counterpart in 
our history of the adventures of the Knights of the Golden 
Horse Shoe to the Blue Ridge of Virginia under Gov. Spotts- 
wood. Dr. Brickell had a brother who settled in Hertford 
County in 1739, the Rev. Matthias Brickell, from whom is 
descended some of the best families of that county. 

The Indian Gallows, a poem by William H. Rhodes, pub- 
lished in 1846, deserves the highest place among the Indian 
classic literature of JSTorth Carolina. 

The Indian Gallows was located in the Indian woods of 
Bertie County, a tract of land formerly owned and occupied 
by the Tuscaroras. It was a remarkable freak of nature in 
that the branch of one oak grew so entirely and completely 
into another oak some twenty feet asunder that it was im- 
possible to discern from which tree the cross-branch grew. 
The cross-branch also had large limbs growing upward from 
it. This natural curiosity stood until 1880, when a severe 



16 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

storm uprooted one of the oaks, the other soon commenced 
to decay and was cut down in 1892 and made into relics. 

The story of it runneth thus : A band of pilgrims exiled 
by religious persecution from England were hurled tempest- 
tossed upon the shores of North Carolina, they made their 
way under all sorts of difficulties and contentions with ad- 
verse fates up the Albemarle Sound to the settlement now 
called Edenton. The parents of the heroine Elnora, invited 
by the friendly chief of the Tuscaroras, decided to make 
their homes in the wilds across the sound. Roanoke, the son 
of the old Tuscarora king, soon fell in love with Elnora, and 
at the planning of the Indian Massacree in 1711, set out on 
foot to warn his white friends of their danger, but arrived 
just in time to see their cabin in flames and a band of Tusca- 
roras cut down Elnora's aged parents. Elnora herself by a 
superhuman effort eluded the grasp of the murderous chief 
Cashie and hid in the Indian Woods, w^here she was after- 
wards found by the faithful Roanoke. Enduring all sorts 
of hardships they eventually found a boat, and steering safely 
down the Moriatock River, reached the sound. On and on 
they paddled through the darkness of the night under the 
midnight sky, not knowing whither they were going, each 
angry wave greedy to swallow up their little canoe. Elnora 
exhausted, and wnth hands all blistered, often despaired, and 
would have throwTi herself into the dark waters had she not 
been sustained and comforted by Roanoke. Just at the cru- 
cial moment of their despair Aurora with her dew-drop touch 
tJirew open the rosy chambers^ of the Elast, and the streaks of 
dawn went ploughing golden furrows in the wake of the 
morning star. Dawn is- the hour of resignation and peace, 
they were comforted and cheered as they sighted the headland 
at the entrance of Edenton Bay, they soon reached the shore 
where they told the story of their misfortunes to a crowd of 
eager listeners, among whom was Henry, Elnora's lover, just 



North Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 

THE ]SrORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 17 

arrived on a ship from England. The Thscaroras, when they 
found out that Roanoke had fled to Edenton with Elnora, 
infuriated bj his action and the escape of the white maiden, 
set out at once with a flotilla of canoes to take the fort at 
Edenton^ and massacre the inhabitants, but they were driven 
hopelessly back by the well-prepared settlers, Henry and 
Roanoke fighting gallantly side by side. After the rout of 
the Indians Roanoke lingered sadly at Edenton. Elnora 
showed him every kindness and consideration, but her heart 
belonged unreservedly to Henry. 

"As time fled on Roanoke forgot to smile, 
And lonely walks his saddened weeks beguile: 

A secret grief sits gnawing at his soul, 
Deep are the sorrows that his mind engage. 
Kindness can soothe not— friends cannot assuage." 

Desperate and dejected at his disappointment in love he 
returned to his tribe in Bertie and met with resignation his 
fate. At the council of the chiefs he was condemned to be 
burned at the stake the next morning at dawn, when the sen- 
tence was pronounced the tragic Cashie exclaimed — 

"No — not the stake! 
He loves the paleface ; let him die 
The white man's death ! Come let us bend a tree 
And swing the traitor, as the Red-men see 
The palefaced villian hang. Give not the stake 
To him would the Red man's freedom take. 
Who from our fathers and our God would roam. 

And strives to rob us of our lands and home. 

******* 

They seize him now and drag him to the spot 
Where death awaits, and pangs are all forgot." 

1 Opposite the old Hathaway lot, on Water Street, could be seen a few years ago the 
foundation of what is supposed to have been the old fort built to defend the town 
against the attacks of the Indians, 'and this might have been the one in which Elnora 
and Roanoke took refuge. Watson, in his Journey to Edenton in 1777, says that It 
was then defended by two forts. 

2 



18 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

There is a striking analogy between the motif of the Indian 
Gallows and Campbell's Gertrude of Wyoming. Koanoke 
and Outalisse, the Mohawk chief, were very similar char- 
acters. 

One of the largest and most remarkable Indian mounds in 
Eastern l^orth Carolina is located at Bandon on the 
Chowan, evidently the site of the ancient town of the Cho- 
wanokes wdiich Grenville's party visited in 1585, and. was 
called Mavaton." The map of James Wimble, made in 1729, 
also locates it at about this point. The mound extends along 
the river bank five or six hundred yards, is sixty yards wide 
and five feet deep, covered with about one foot of sand and 
soil. It is composed almost exclusively of mussel shells taken 
from the river, pieces of pottery, ashes, arrow heads and 
human bones, this may have been the dumping ground of the 
village. The finding of human bone» beneath the mound 
might suggest that it is the monument of their distingTiished 
chiefs, just as the ancient Egyptians built pyramids above 
their illustrious Pharaohs. Pottery and arrow heads are 
found in many places throughout this county, especially on 
hillsides, near streams, and indicate that they were left there 
by temporary hunting or fishing parties. Even the Indians of 
the present day are averse to carrying baggage of any kind, 
and the frail manner in wdiich some of their pottery was 
made sliows that it was for temporary purposes only. Certain 
decorations on their pottery occur sufficiently often among the 
Indian tribes of the different sections to be almost character- 
istic of them. 

A sort of corn-cob impression is found on a great deal of 
the Chow^an pottery and also in Bertie, there is however 
considerable variation in different localities, the corn-cob im- 
pression in some specimens being much coarser. There are 
also pieces with parallel striations, oblique patterns, small 

sThe station on the Suffolk and Carolina Railroad was named by the author for 
this town. 



THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 19 

diamond patterns formed by transverse lines, evidenilj made 
bj a sharp stick. Some are decorated witln horizontal lines, 
while a few are perfectly plain. In the deposits on the 
Chowan River, at the site of the ancient Chowanoke town of 
Mavaton, the decorations on the potteiy are both varied and 
artistic, and I am inclined to believe that each clan or family 
had its own distinctive and individual pattern of decora- 
tion — it was their coat of arms. On this same mound I 
found the wild columbine growing, stragglers from Menotosr 
con's flower-garden, and at a nearby spring flourished the 
spear-mint, whose ancestors two hundred years ago doubtless 
seasoned Okisko's venison stew. I have never seen so many 
distinct patterns occurring in the same mound as at Avoca, 
left there by the Tuscaroras. The ancient Tuscarora town 
of Metackwem was located in Bertie County just above Black 
Walnut Point, and most probably at Avoca, from the exten- 
sive deposits there. The Tuscaroras showed a more ad- 
vanced civilization than any of the Eastern tribes, they 
were jealous and revengeful, had more numerical strength, 
more prowess an.d were more belligerent, and influenced the 
weaker tribes near them. They were originally descended 
from the Monacans, a powerful nation whose territory ex- 
tended from the domains of Powhattan down into Carolina, 
and who were well known to many of the early discoverers, 
they are believed by some to have been the aborigines of East- 
ern jSTorth Carolina. Although amalgamated with the Iroquois 
Confederation the Tuscaroras have even to this day pre^ 
sem'-ed, in a great measure, their individuality. The Cho- 
wanokes evidently worshipped the maize, and decorated their 
pottery freely with the corn-cob. We do not know the exact 
shape of their cooking utensils, but judging from the frag- 
ments of pottery they must have been shaped very much like 
the modern flower pot. Calculating the diameter and ca- 
pacity of the vessels from the segments found there was great 



20 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

unifomiity both of size and shape. The Indians knew the 
principle of the wedge, and applied its shape to their axes 
and tomahawks. There is a great similarity in them to the 
English axe, that implement and coat-of-arms of our civiliza- 
tion, this similarity of implements argue strongly the nni- 
versal brotherhood of mankind. 

In the great dismal surrounding Lake Scuppernong is a 
chain of small islands surrounded by pitfalls, which are be- 
lieved to have been dug by the Indians to entrap large game, 
along the shores of the lake a vessel of soapstone, almost in- 
tact, was exhumed some time ago, and at the spot where the 
best j)erch abound. 

To the east of Centre Hill, which forms the di^ade between 
Chowan and Perquimans Rivers, lies a vast tract of land 
called Bear Swamp, depressed fifteen or twenty feet below 
the surrounding country, and a number of years ago some 
parties in making an excavation just east of Centre Hill, 
where the land falls off into this great basin, discovered a boat 
of considerable dimensions, fairly well preserved, six or more 
feet below the surface : it is supposed to be of Indian origin, 
as there is an ancient tradition that it was centuries ago a 
great lake.^ 

The numerical strength of the Indians of Eastern ISTortli 
Carolina in 1710 was as follows: The Tuscaroras had 
fifteen towns ; Haruta, Waqui, Contahnah, Anna-Ooka, Con- 
auh-Tvare, Harooka, Ilna-I^rauhan, Kentanuska, Chunaneets, 
Kenta, Eno, I^aurheghne, Oonossoora, Tosneoc, Xonawhar- 
itse, [N^uhsoorooka and twelve hundred warriors ; the Wacons 
two towns, Yupwarereman and Tooptatmere, one hundred 

sin the branch of Pollock Swamp, which drains the southern extension of Bear 
Swamp, is a most remarliable natural formation in the shape of a salt deposit in the 
bottom of the swamp. It was tirst discovered by cattle going there to lick during 
long drouths when the bottom of the swamp was dry. During the Civil War. when 
salt was gold, some parties dug a well there, collected the water, and evaporated it 
In pans, making a very good quality of salt. When I visited this well several years 
ago, though the bottom of the swamp was entirely dry, the well was full of a sea-green 
water, which I examined and found strongly impregnated with salt. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 21 

and twenty warriors; the Macliapiingas one town, Maramis- 
keet, thirty warriors ; the Bear River Indians one town, Ran 
daii-qiiaquank, fifty warriors ; the Meherrins one town on 
Meherrin River, fifty warriors ; the Chowans one town, Ben- 
net's Creek, fifteen warriors ; the Paspatanks one town on 
Paspatank River, ten warriors ; the Poesketones one town on 
ISTorth River, thirty warriors ; the jSTottaways one town, 
Winoak Creek, thirty warriors ; Hatteras Indians one town, 
Sand Banks, sixteen warriors ; Connamox Indians two towns, 
Coranine and Rarnta, twenty-five warriors ; the Jaupins 
(probably Yeopims), only six people; and the Pamtigough 
Indians one to^^T.i, an island, fifteen warriors. Upon a basis 
that three-fifths were old men, women and children there 
must have been at that time at least ten thousand Indians in 
Eastern jSTorth Carolina. 

September 22, 1711, marks the day of the bloody Indian 
massacre in Eastern ISTorth Carolina, when 112 settlers and 
80 infants v/ere brutally murdered, and that day was kept 
with prayer and fasting throughout the colony for many 
years. With tomahawk and torch they swept like fiends in- 
carnate over Eastern Xorth Carolina, their bloody trail ex- 
tending even to the northeastern shores of Albemarle Sound 
and Chowan River. The desperate war which followed was 
finally brought to a successful close by a series of victories 
through Col. James Moore and his allied Indians ; Capt. 
Barnwell also contributed largely to the success of the war, 
killing more than five hundred Indians. The last of June, 
1713, the Tuscaroras, wlio were occupying Fort Carunche, 
evacuated it and joined the rest of their nation on the Roan- 
oke, soon to abandon Xorth Carolina forever. 

They migrated to the southeastern end of Lake Oneida, 
]^ew York, where they joined the Iroquois Confederation, 
which was composed of five nations, viz. : the Mohawks, 
Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas and the Senecas ; the Tusca- 



22 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

roras with their allies, the Chowans, the Saponas and some 
others, formed the Sixth iSTation of this Confederation : a part 
of the Canadian Indians are descended from the Iroquois. 
King Tom Blount* and a few of his faithful warriors re- 
mained in Bertie for awhile, but just before the Kevolution 
the few Tuscaroras who were left in that county then mi- 
grated to the ISTorth, and joined their brethren of the Six 
ISTations. Before leaving they sold all their vast domain 
(53,000 acres) except a tract in Bertie County about twelve 
miles square, called Indian Woods, which they were com- 
pelled to lease for a long term of one hundred and thirty- 
seven years. 

Succarusa, an old chief of this tribe, visited Bertie about 
1830 to collect the rents due his people on that long lease, and 
while there he went to take a look at the Indian Gallows, this 
was the last footprint of the Indian upon the shores of the 
Albemarle. 

A part of the Tuscarora tribe still reside in Western ISTew 
York where they maintain a tribal government, divided into 
clans called Otter, Beaver, Wolf, Bear, etc. The title of 
Sachem Chief is still given to their governor. Thomas Wil- 
liams (Takeryerter), belonging to the Beaver Clan and rather 
a young man, was Chief Sachem in 1890, and Elias Johnson 
(Towernakee), was then the historian of the tribe. In 1901 
there were three hundred and seventy-one Tuscaroras, all 
wearing citizen's clothes, entirely civilized, the majority of 
them could read and write, and about five-sixths of them 
could speak English. 

In 1768 they numbered 200 

In 1779 they numbered 200 

In 1822 they numbered 314 

(Then residing at Lewiston, on Lake Ontario.) 

In 1825 they numbered 253 

In 1867 they numbered 360 

4The late King Kalakaua was a lineal descendant of King Tom Blount, one of his 
descendants having married into the royal family of the Sandwich Islands. 



THE XORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 23 

In 1775 three departments of Indian Affairs were created 
bv CongTess, and Willie Jones was one of the commissioners 
of the Southern Department. The Tuscarora reservation in 
'New York in 1771 (from an old map made by order of Gov. 
Tryon, the erstwhile notorious Governor of ISTorth Carolina), 
comprised 6249 acres. After their removal to 'New York 
they were loyal to us in the Revolution and in the War of 
1812 ; during' the Civil War they furnished volunteers to the 
United States government. They are now peaceable and 
orderly, with very few laws, and fewer disturbances of the 
public peace ; their income is small and they are poor, though 
there are very few paupers. The Tuscaroras have substantial 
churches with Sunday schools fairly well attended, the most 
of them are Baptists and Presbyterians, while some are still 
pagans. They farm, raise stock, make maple-sugar, also 
baskets and bead-work ; hunt, trap and fish. The sewing 
machine has been introduced among the women. A part of 
the original Six ISTations are also living in Wisconsin and 
Indian Territory. As with other people without a history 
the Six [N^ations rely greatly upon their myths, their legends, 
and their traditions. They account for the presence of the 
Seven-Stars or Pleiades in the heavens by a most remarkable 
story. Many years ago seven little boys wanted to give a 
feast by themselves, which was denied them by their parents, 
in defiance they secretly secured and cooked a little white dog, 
and while dancing around him in great glee some unseen 
spirit translated them to the heavens, and changed them into 
a constellation ; and now when they watch the twinkling of 
the Seven Stars at night in the blue grotto of the skies they 
say it is the seven little boys dancing around the little white 
dog. 

The Yeopims were never very strong and were settled 
along the shores of Perquimans and Little Rivers. They 
granted to George Durant two tracts of land, one deed dated 



24 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

March 1, 1661, conveying a tract called Wecocomicke, now 
Durant's Neck, signed by Kilcocanen or Kistotanew, King of 
Yeopim, and recites "for a valuable consideration of satisfac- 
tion received with ye consent of my people" .... "adjoining 
the land I formerly sold to Samuel Pricklove." Another 
deed dated August 4, 1661, and signed by Cuscutenew as 
King of Yeopim. These deeds were both registered October 
34, 1716, and are now in Book "A," Register of Deeds ofHce 
of Perquimans County. 

An exploring party sent out by Sir Richard Grenville in 
1586 sailed up the Chowan as high as the confluence of the 
Meherrin and Xottoway Rivers, just below which they found 
an Jjidian town called Opanock (not very far from the pres- 
ent town of Winton). These Indians were very numerous 
then and had seven hundred warriors in the field : they were 
the Meherrins. 

Col. Byrd in his History of the Dividing Line, 1729, de- 
scribes in his own unique, original fashion his visit to the 
towTi of the Nottoway Indians near the line, then about about 
200 strong, "The young men had painted themselves in a 
Hideous Manner, not so much for Ornament as terror. In 
that frightful Equipage they entertained us with Sundry War 
Dauces. wherein they endeavoured to look as fonnidable as 
possible. The Instrument they danced to was an Indian drum, 
that is a large Gourd with a skin bract tort over the Mouth of 
it. The Dancers all Sang to this Musick, keeping exact Time 
A\ith their feet, wliile their Heads and Arms were screwed 
into a thousand Menacing Postures. Upon this occasion the 
Ladies had arrayed themselves in all their finery. They were 
Wra]-)t in their Red and Blue Match-Coats thrown so Negli- 
gently about them that their Mehogany Skin appeared in Sev- 
eral Parts like the Lacedaemonian Damsels of Old." 

There is a body of distinct people, mostly white, now living 
in Robeson County, North Carolina, who are recognized by 




THE DAXCE OF THE CAEOLINA INDIANS AS REPRESENTED 
BY JOHN WHITE IN 1585. 

(Original in the British Museum.) 

The Roanoke Indians at their festivals and councils drank the Cassine, 
which served tnem as a sort of stimulant : it was a decoction made from 
the dried leaves of Ilex Yupon, now drank under the name of Yupon 
Tea. 

The reader is referred to ^Ir. Edward Eggleston's able discussion of 
the DeBry pictures in the Nation and Century magazines. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 25 

the State as the Croatans and given separate schools, and who 
by their own traditions trace their genealogy directly from 
the Croatans associated with the lost Raleigh Colony. Prof. 
Alexander Brown, of the Royal Historical Society of Eng- 
land, has discovered some old maps dating back to 1608-1610 
clearly confirming, it is stated, the traditions of these people 
in regard to their lineage, and the reader is respectfully re- 
ferred to those able pamphlets upon that subject by Mr. Ham- 
ilton McMillan and Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

After the Tuscarora War was over the Chowanokes, who 
had remained all the while the faithful friends of the whites 
and were residing at their ancient town on the Chowan, called 
Mavaton, were allotted about four thousand acres of land 
between Sarum" and Beimet's Creek, mostly poquosin, and 
ordered to move there. Of this once populous tribe only 
about fifteen warriors then remained. They had originally 
two good to^vns, Muscamunge and Chowanock — Muscamunge 
was not very far from the present to^vn of Edenton ; they had 
also at one time more than seven hundred warriors in the field. 
King Hoyter was the last of the Chowanoke Kings in this 
section. But restless and dissatisfied they finally requested 
permission to cast their lot with the Saponas, who migrated 
!N^orth to the Tuscaroras and helped to form the complement 
of the Sixth Nation. In their intermarriage with various 
tribes, their divisions, their numerous migrations and amal- 
gamations, they have become scattered all over the !N'orth and 
West, and it is impossible to trace them. 

So passed the pure blood of the Chowanokes, and has been 
lost and blended with the various tribes of our frontier — that 
fantastic caravan which is marching sadly to its own funeral 

5 An old map of this section shows a chapel just south of Bennet's Creek, which 
must have been the Sarum Chapel of the early ministers of the S. P. G. A school . 
the first In North Carolina, was at one time located at Sarum for the religious and 
educational training of these Indians. Lawson says that in 1714 they were still resid- 
ing on Bennet's Creek. 



26 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

pyre across the golden West, but when the drea'my Indian 
summer spreads its blue hazj gauze over the landscape like 
a veiled prophet, and the autumn leaves are painted upon the 
easel of the first frost, and the grand amphitheater of the 
forest is carpeted with the richest patterns of Axminster, and 
the whole world is a wonderland spread upon a gigantic can- 
vass of earth, and sky, and water — when the glittering belt of 
Mazzaroth spans the heavens, and the jewels sparkle brightest 
in the dagger of Orion, it is then that the grim phantom of 
the red man returns to his old hunting ground, as erst he did : 
All feathered and with leather buskins, and bow put cross- 
wise on his breast, in his periagua he crosses the Great Divide 
of the Spirit Land, and from under the black zone of the 
shore-shadows he glides into- the moonlight — out upon the 
dimpled, polished mirror of the river — Hark! you can hear 
each stroke of his paddle, if the wind down the river is fair. 



GLIMPSES OF HISTORY IN THE NAMES OF OUR 
COUNTIES. 



BY KEMP P. BATTLE, LL.D. 



No people can have a proper self-respect who are not fa- 
miliar with the deeds of their ancestors. We ]^orth Caro- 
linians have been deficient in this regard. Men will tell you 
more of Bunker Hill and Brandywine than of the more im- 
portant, more decisive battles of King's Mountain and Guil- 
ford Court-House. They know fairly well the incidents of 
past times in other countries, often very minutely — that 
Caesar was bald and was subject to epileptic fits, that Cleo- 
patra did not have the color and thick lips of a negro, that 
Queen Elizabeth was red-haired and Queen Anne was fat 
and had seventeen children, all of whom died young — but 
when you ask them about the great men of l^orth Carolina 
whose valor gained our independence, whose statesmanship 
shaped our political destinies and whose teachings moulded 
our minds and morals, their answers are va^ie and unsatis- 
factory. 

The names of the counties of our State are especially in- 
structive, x^ssociations with every epoch of our history are 
wrapped up in or suggested by them. Only one seems to be 
what is called a "fancy name," and even that, Transylvania, 
in its sonorous beauty, recalls the fact of our kinship to the 
great conquering, law-giving race inhabiting the imperial city 
of the Old World on the banks of the Tiber, from whom we 
derived much of our blood and more of our speech through 
the ISTorman-Eoman-Celtic people, who followed William 
the Conqueror into England. We find it first in the ambi- 
tious but futile enterprise of Judge Richard Henderson and 
his associates, the Transylvania colony. 

Counties are created for the convenience of the people who 



28 THE NOKTH CAROLHSTA BOOKLET. 

reside in them. In a State gradually filled up by immigration 
the times of their formation indicate quite accurately the 
flow of such immigration. The names given to them by the 
legislatures were as a rule intended to compliment persons 
or things then held in peculiar honor. As the statutes do not, 
except in two instances, mention those intended to be com- 
memorated, we are forced to study the history of the times, 
to look thro' the eyes of our ancestors and thus gather their 
intention. Combining the dates of formation with the names 
of the counties we gather many interesting and important 
facts connected with the past. 

I premise that the Spaniards once claimed our territory to 
be Florida. Queen Elizabeth in the Raleigh charter named 
it with other territory, Virginia. Charles I. (or Carolus), in 
the Heath charter named it Carolina, so when Charles II. in 
the grant to the Lords Proprietors retained the name Caro- 
lina, of course our State name comes from his father. It 
was not called from Charles IX., of France, as Bancroft and 
others say. 

North Carolina has, by the creation of the county of Co- 
lumbus, to the extent of her power, repaired the wrong done 
the learned and daring Genoese in allowing the name of 
Americus Vespucius to be affixed to the JSTew World. 

Our easternmost county, along which rolls the majestic 
ocean, which has within its limits stormy Hatteras and the 
lovel}^ island of Roanoke, its county seat named after the 
good Indian Manteo, records only an infant's wail, a dark 
mystery — a memory of pathos and of wonder. 

What was the fate of Virginia Dare, the first infant born 
to the impetuous, daring, energetic race, in a few short years 
to replace the forests of her day with all the grand works of 
eighty millions of civilized people ! Did the tomahawk crash 
into lier brain ? Did she become the squaw of an Indian war- 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 29 

rior, and did the governor's granddaughter end her days in 
the wigwam of a savage ? Recent writers, Hamilton McMil- 
lan and Stephen B. Weeks, have brought many plausible 
arguments to prove that the lost colony wandered to the 
swamps of Robeson, and the white man's desperate energy 
and the red man's treacherous guile created the cunning, 
cruel, ferocious, bloody Henry Berry Lowery and his gang. 

ISTorth Carolina was the victim of a gigantic monopoly. 
After restoration of Charles II., in the first flush of his 
gratitude, to eight of his great lords he granted of his royal 
prerogative a tract of land stretching across this continent 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the parallel which 
divides l^orth Carolina from Virginia to that which passes 
through Florida by Cedar Keys. ]^o claim, however, was 
ever made west of the Mississippi river, and part of that east 
of it was given up. 

The names of these favored lords were: Edward Hyde, 
Earl of Clarendon, George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, Wil- 
liam, Lord Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony, Lord Ash- 
ley, Sir George Carteret, Sir William Berkeley, Sir John 
Colleton. You find those names, besides in Albemarle Sound, 
in the counties of Craven and Carteret. The county of 
Colleton is in South Carolina. 

Only one of these ever resided in America, Sir Wm. Berke- 
ley, a member of a noble family which in the most dismal 
days of Charles I. and his son, were staunch adherents to the 
crown, suffering banishment and confiscation for its sake. 
He was the Governor Berkeley of Virginia who suppressed 
Bacon's rebellion in so bloody a way that Charles II. said : 
"That old fool has taken more lives without offence in that 
naked country than I in all England for the murder of my 
father," and who thanked his God that "there were no free 
schools or printing press here, and I hope I shall have none 
of them these hundred years." 



30 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Among them you will notice conspicuous lights in English 
History. There was the Lord Chancellor, Hyde, Earl of 
Clarendon, the eminent historian, whose daughter, wife of 
James II., was the mother of two queens, Mary and Anne. 
There was Anthony Ashley Cooper, the brilliant and wicked 
Earl of Shaftesbury, who, notwithstanding his wickedness, 
was one of the chief authors of that monument of liberty, the 
Habeas Corpus Act. And there was General Monk, the 
Cromwellian general, by whose skill and prudence Charles 
II. was restored to the throne without bloodshed. His title 
you will recognize not only in our eastern sound but in the 
county seat of Stanly. Two of Shaftesbury's names may be 
seen in the two rivers, Ashley and Cooper, which surround 
Charleston, while a kinsman of Earl Clarendon became Gov- 
ernor Hyde, of iSTorth Carolina, and his name was given to 
an eastern county. 

The Lords Proprietors contemplated a county called Clar- 
endon, after Edward Hyde, the Earl of Clarendon, who took 
his title from a royal hunting seat in Wiltshire, England, 
but the settlers moved away and the county fell still-born. 

The first successful municipal corporation in the State was 
Albemarle, comprising all of the area around the Albemarle 
Sound. The plan was to have very large counties, composed 
of ''Precincts." Two only were created — Albemarle, composd 
of Currituck, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Chowan, Tyrrell 
and Bertie, and Bath, composed of Beaufort, Hyde, Craven, 
Carteret, ISTew Hanover, Tyrrell, Edgecombe, Bladen, Ons- 
low. These minor divisions were called Precincts. 

Albemarle perpetuates the ducal title of General Monk. 
In France it took the form of Aumale, and was the title of a 
famous duke of recent years, a member of the Orleans family. 
Until 1696 Albemarle was the only large political organiza- 
tion in our limits. In that year Bath County was created 
out of territorv bordering on Pamlico Sound and as far South 



THE ^'ORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 31 

as Cape Fear River. It was named in honor of John Gran- 
ville, Earl of Bath, whose daughter Grace married Sir George 
Carteret, grandson of the Lord Proprietor of the same name. 
Sir George dying in 1695, the Earl of Bath represented his 
infant grandson, Sir John Carteret, afterwards Earl Gran- 
ville. 

In 1738 the great counties of Albemarle and Bath, with 
their Marshals and Deputy Marshals and separate courts 
were abolished and the Precincts became counties. For con- 
venience sake I will call these latter counties from the bci- 
ginning. 

In 1672 there were four, some say, others three, precincts, 
the eastern being Carteret, the western Shaftesbury, the mid- 
dle Berkeley (pronounced Barclay), and the other unknown. 
Twelve years afterwards the names were changed to Curri- 
tuck, Chowan, Pasquotank and Perquimans, the former 
name of Pasquotank being lost, if it ever existed. 

In 1729 the representatives of seven of the great lords find- 
ing in their possessions neither honor nor profit but only con- 
tinual torment, sold their rights to the crown for only $12,500 
each, it being a wonderful illustration of the rapid growth 
of the country, that about 170 years ago lands through the 
heart of the continent were sold at the rate of 18,000 acres 
for $1.00. 

My father was a practicing lawyer at the time of this great 
sale, when the lands of I^^Torth Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas 
and California were disposed of at the rate of 100 acres for 
one cent. 

Sixty-six years, as in other sublunary matters, make great 
changes in property and titles. Families die out, estates are 
sold, men pass away and others stand in their shoes, and so it 
came to pass that the Lords Proprietors of 1729, in the time 
of George II., were different men from the Lords Proprietors 
of 1663, in the reign of Charles II. 



32 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET, 

We find the names of some of these new owners affixed to 
counties in our State. There are Granville and Beaufort, 
county and town, from Henry, Duke of Beaufort, Bertie 
county from James and John Bertie, Tyrrell from Sir John 
Tyrrell. 

From 1729 the State was a colony under the government 
of England until the war of the Revolution. 

It was fashionable to compliment members of the royalty 
or nobilit} or statesmen, connected officially with the colonies, 
by giving their names to municipal organizations of the new 
country. Hence we have Orang'e, after a collateral descend- 
ant of the great King who banished the Stuarts, I^ew Han- 
over and Brunswick in compliment to the Georges, Cumber- 
land after the great duke who defeated Charles Edward at 
Culloden, Johnston after good old Governor Gabriel John- 
ston, Martin after Governor Josiah Martin. We had once 
Dobbs and Tryon, after provincial governors. We have Ons- 
low after Arthur Onslow, Edgecombe from Baron Richard 
Edgecombe, Bladen, after Martin Bladen, Duplin, after 
Lord Duplin, Baron Hay, Hertford, Halifax, Wilmington, 
Hillsboro, Bute, Richmond, jSTorthampton after the father of 
the Earl of Wilmington, after noblemen of those names, all 
of whom held places of trust in the mother country. I will 
tell particularly of others. 

Of all the statesmen of England the most brilliant was the 
first Wm. Pitt, fondly named by the people the Great Com- 
moner. He was eminent for fiery and impetuous eloquence. 
In a venal ag;e the purity of his morals were unquestioned. 
He made Great Britain the first nation of the world. He 
wrested Canada from the French. He founded the British 
Empire in India. As Lamartine says, "He was a public man 
in all the greatness of the phrase — the soul of a nation per- 
sonified in an individual — the inspiration of a people in the 
heart of a patrician." 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 33 

In 1760, in tlie plentitnde of his fame, the year after 
Wolfe fell victorious on the heights of Quebec, by the influ- 
ence of the Royal Governor Dobbs, a new county formed 
from Craven was called after the great English minister. 

Lord Carteret, afterwards Earl Granville, refused to part 
with his one-eighth share, and to him in 1744 was allotted a 
territory 3,000 miles long and about 70 miles broad, between 
the parallel near the centre of jSTorth Carolina, 35 degrees 34 
minutes, and that which forms the Virginia line. The coun- 
ties created while his land office was open for purchasers de- 
rived their rectangular shape from being made conformable 
to his boundaries, just as the counties of our new States are 
not defined by running streams and mountain ridges and the 
curved limits of swamps, but by the surveyor's chain and the 
theodolite. The straight line north of Moore, Montgomery, 
Stanly, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, and south of Chatham, Ran- 
dolph, Davidson, Rowan and Iredell shows on the map the 
southern limit of Granville's great property. 

In the beginning of this century there occurred at Raleigh 
a battle of giants. The scene of the conflict was the Circuit 
Court of the United States. The arbiter of the fray was 
Judge Henry Potter. On the side of the plaintiffs the leader 
was William Gaston. On the side of the defendant the most 
eminent was Duncan Cameron. It was the heirs of Earl 
Granville struggling to get back from the people of l^orth 
Carolina the magnificent estate which they had won by the 
sword. When the fight was ended all that remained to the 
heirs of the noble Earl was the honor of naming one of our 
counties Granville. They carried their futile quest to the 
Supreme Court of the United States, but the war of 1812 
was coming on and the plaintiff retired from the pursuit, 
somewhat placated by a large indemnity from the British 
Treasurv. 



34 THE NORTH CAROLUSTA BOOKLET. 

Lord Carteret took possession of his Xorth Carolina terri- 
tory in 1744. He sent forth his agents, Childs, Frohock and 
others, and opened his land offices and made his sales. His 
practice was to require reservations of quit-rents to be paid 
yearly. The settlers had the double burden of paying rents 
on their lands to Granville and poll taxes to the royal gov- 
ernor at i^ewbern. 

The money raised from these exactions was carried to 
England or to iSTewbern, and no expenditure w^as made of 
appreciable benefit to taxpayers. A few officials about 
Hillsboro gathered large fees, and grew fat, and a grand Grov- 
ernor's Palace was built in a far-oif town. So rage grew 
fierce and tempers waxed fiery hot, and the old flint and 
steel rifles were rubbed up and oiled and bullets were 
moulded, and rusty scythe blades were sharpened for swords, 
and from the hills of Granville to the secluded gorges of the 
Brushy Mountains the Regulators banded together, and the 
struggle against oppression had its beginning. 

It was a duty that we the inlieritors of the liberty won in 
part by their ^-alor, should show our appreciation of their 
efforts, by giving to one of the most thriving counties in the 
State the name of Alamance, from the name of the battle 
which crushed them. 

Let us proceed with our story. There were four counties 
created by Governor Tryon a year before the battle of Ala- 
mance, in 1770, Guilford, Surry, Chatham and Wake. 
Whence these names ? 

It is difficult for the present generation to understand the 
feelings of our ancestors towards Lord Xorth. afterwards 
Earl of Guilford. He was not a bad nor a cruel man. 
He was in England personally wonderfully popular. He 
combined, like our Vance, genius and power with multiform 
wit and unfading o-ook] huuior. But he was in favor of tax- 
ing America, aud we hated luui. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. ' 35 

Previous to 1770 the county of Rowan covered nearly aU 
Granville's territory west of the Yadkin, and much east of 
that river. Orange, then of extensive area, joined it on the 
east. To prevent combination among the Regulators, Gover- 
nor Tryon procured the incorporation of four new counties, 
and wishing to please all parties he called one after the Earl- 
dom of Guilford, of which Lord North was heir apparent, 
another Surry, in honor of Lord Surrey, afterwards Duke of 
Norfolk, a follower of Chatham; a third Chatham, after the 
great opponent of Lord North, with its county-seat at Pitts- 
borough, and the fourth after the maiden name of his wife. 

The difference between the new and the old country grew 
and became more angry and wide. Again was the sound of 
cannon heard among our hills. With consummate general- 
ship Greene baffled the trained soldiers of Comwallis, and at 
Guilford Court House, though not technically a victor, pre- 
pared the way for Yorktown. 

The obstinate King and his minister were forced to yield 
and a new ministry^ headed by one of the warmest friends of 
the colonies, Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis of Rock- 
ingham, paved the way for the acknowledgement of our inde- 
pendence. And, as if with a grim irony, our ancestors carved 
from the territory of Guilford, as a punishment for its name- 
sake's misconduct, its northern half, and gave to it and its 
county-seat the names of his conquering rival. To the great 
General who had snatched victory from defeat, and rescued 
from British thraldom the Southern province, they expressed 
their gratitude not only by a gift of 25,000 acres of land, 
but kept his memory ever honored and his name ever green, 
by assigning it to a rich county and county seat in the east, 
and to the county seat of Guilford, destined to become a 
prosperous inland city. 

The gi-atitude of our ancestors for the services of those 
abroad and at home, in legislative halls and in the conflicts of 



36 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

war, who had fought for our liberties, did not end here. By 
the neighbor of old Guilford on the south they co mm emorated 
the labors and virtues of the first Pl-esident of the Conti- 
nental Congress, Peyton Randolph, whose kinsmen, Edmund 
Randolph and John Randolph, of Roanoke, afterwards be- 
came so conspicuoais. 

Different sections of old Surry bear the names of John 
"Wilkes, the champion of liberty, the victorious foe of arbi- 
trarv arrests, an ardent supporter of the Marquis of Rock- 
ingham, and John Stokes, covered with honorable scars of bat- 
tle, the first Judge of the District Court of jSTorth Carolina. 
And dotted over the State are many other evidences of the 
gratitude of our people for the sufferings and success of the 
old heroes, not in brass and marble, but in the more enduring 
forms of counties and town of fairest lands and noblest men 
and women — such as Washington and Montgomery, Warren 
and Gates, Lincoln and Wayne, Franklin and Madison, from 
other States, and from our own limits, Ashe, Lenoir and Har- 
nett, Buncombe and Caswell, Cleveland and McDowell, Dav- 
idson and Davie, Nash and Person, Robeson and Sampson, 
Rutherford and Stokes, Alexander and Iredell, Jones, Moore 
and Burke. Their friends in England, the leaders of the 
peace party which, after a long struggle, forced the obstinate 
King to grant independence to the colonies, not only the Mar- j 
quis of Rockingham and John Wilkes and Lord Surrey, j 
whom I have named, but Chief Justice Camden and the 
Duke of Richmond were honored in this land so far from '< 
the scene of their labors. ■ 

Governor Gabriel Johnston, the able Scotchma?!, who was j 
by far the best Governor our State had prior to the Revolu- j 
tion, died in 1752, a year memorable for the change of Old 
Style into Xew Style Calendar. Shortly before his death ■ 
the county of Anson was created, including all the western ; 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 37 

part of the State and Tennessee south of Granville's line. 
After the death of Johnston, for a short while IS^athaniel 
Rice, and on his death Matthew Rowan, an estimable man, 
as President of the Council, acted as Governor until super- 
seded by the Scotch-Irishman, Governor Dobbs. 

It was found best to erect a new county, comprising all the 
lands of Lord Granville west of Orange. The new county 
was called Rowan, in honor of the acting Governor. I^ine 
years afterwards, in 1762, Mecklenburg was cut off from 
Anson and its county seat was called Charlotte. 

In 1761, the Admiral George, Lord Anson, with all the 
pomp and splendor which the British navy could supply, was 
bringing from Germany a blooming bride to the young King 
George III. Her name was Charlotte. She was a princess 
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 

Few men stand out in English history more distingTiished 
for romantic daring as a navigator, for the strong, sturdy 
qualities of English sailors, descendants of the old ISTorth- 
men who issued from their frozen fiords in Denmark, 'Nor- 
way and Sweden, like an irresistible torrent to conquer the 
nations, than George Lord Anson. He led a squadron around 
Cape Horn in the perils of winter, and after many captures 
of Spanish ships and towTis, circumnavigated the globe. He 
was the pioneer of the great victories of the English navy. 

George Lord Anson was the teacher of kelson. He it was 
who gave the daring order which has led to so many victories 
over overwhelming odds, by English over French and Span- 
iards : "Close vvith the enemy, gun to gim, hand to hand, cut- 
lass to cutlass, no matter what odds against you." In early 
life he purchased lands on the waters of the Peedee, but his 
dreams of forest happiness were broken by the alarm of war. 
In 1749, when at the zenith of his popularity, his name was 
given to the vast country which extended from the limits of 
Bladen to the far waters of the mighty Mississippi. 



38 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

George the Third began his reign in 1760, for a few skort 
years, one of the most popular kings who ever sat on a 
throne, both, at home and in the colonies. "When his bride, 
the homely but sensible and pious Charlotte, came from the 
north of Germany to England, she was the favorite of tlie 
day. It was the fashion to admire everything Prussian from, 
the stern Frederick, then striking some of the most terrific 
blows of the seven-year war, to the blooming maiden, whether 
princess or ganzemadchen. The bride was received in Lon- 
don with enthusiastic ovations. Her manner, conversation 
and dress were heralded as if she were a goddess. Her man- 
ners were pronounced by no less a judge than Horace Wal- 
pole as "decidedly genteel." Her dress was of white satin, 
brocaded with gold, distended by enormous hoops. She had 
a stomacher of diamonds. On her head wa& a cap of finest 
lace, stiffened so as to resemble a butterfly, fastened to tke 
front of the head by jewels. I quote one of her speeches. 
When she arrived in front of St. James' Palace, where she 
was to meet the groom, the bride turned pale. The Duchess 
of Hamilton rallied her. The princess replied: ''Yes, my 
dear Duchess, you may laugh, you are not going to be mar- 
ried, but it is no joke to me." It was a tremendously ex- 
citing time. 

Horace Walpole writes, "Royal marriages, coronations and 
victories come tumbling over one another from distant parts 
of the globe like the words of a lady romance wi-iter — I 
don't know where I am — I had scarce found Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz with a magnifying glass on the map before I was 
whisked to Pondicherrv. Then thunder 2:0 the Tower snms ; 
behold the French are totally defeated by Duke Ferdinand 
of Brunswick, at the battle of Minden." The joy of this 
period and the satisfaction over this marriage extended to 
the wilds of North Carolina, and tlie good queen's name, 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg, was afiised, as soon as the news 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET, 39 

came, to a coimtv and its capital. She was a model of do- 
mestic virtue, and the court, through her influence, was pure 
in the midst of a corrupt society. And when our ancestors, 
in the angry passions of war in 1779, expunged from the 
map the hated name of Tryon, when the inhabitants of this 
section were the fiercest fighters against her husband, their 
swords as sharp as hornet stings, they allowed the name of 
the good queen to remain as a perpetual tribute to all 
womanly virtues. 

Note the coincidence, that just as Admiral Anson intro- 
duced Charlotte of Mecklenburg into England as its queen, 
so in the distant colony the county of Anson in ISTorth Caro- 
lina political history, went before and was usher to the county 
of Mecklenburg. 

It should be a warning lesson to all rulers that only 13 
years after this ebullition of loyal affection the most defiant 
resolutions and the most spirited action against England's 
king came from those enlightened men whose county and 
town bore the name of England's queen. The chords of sen- 
timental devotion snapped when strained by hard and real 
assaults on inherited liberties. With many a sigh over the 
sweet past, now turned into bitterness, our ancestors ad- 
dressed themselves to the stern task before them. 

Some of our counties bear the names of Indian tribes 
which once roamed over these hills and dales. There are 
Cherokee and Currituck, Catawba and Chowan, Watauga 
and Pasquotank, Alleghany and Perquimans, Yadkin* and 
Pamlicoi, A miserable remnant of the Cherokees still live 
under the shadow of the Smokies. As these people passed 
away toward the setting sun they left here and there their 
musical names, well nigh the sole relic of tlieir language, 
their sepulchral mounds and mouldering skeletons and tawdy 

*It is conteuded by some that Yadkin is a corrupt pronunciation of Adkin, the 
name of an old settler on this liver. 



40 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

ornaments within, almost the sole reminders of their stal- 
wart warriors and graceful maidens; their arrows and toma- 
hawk heads, the harmless mementos of their once dreaded 
weapons of war. 

CORNWALLIS VS. MORGAN AND GREENE. 

Two of the Piedmont counties, Catawba and Yadkin, have 
rivers flowing by and through them, bearing their names, 
which bring to mind most thrilling incidents of the Revolu- 
tionary war. The gallant Morgan, fighting in defiance of the 
prudential maxims of war, had humbled Tarleton at Cow- 
pens and captured many prisoners, guns and ammunition. 
Cornv\'allis, only 25 miles distant, with his trained army of 
veterans, hastened to avenge the disgrace. It was in the 
dead of winter. The roads were softened by continued rains. 
For twelve days the pursuit continued. ISTearer and nearer 
rushed on the pursuing foe. Success seemed almost in Corn- 
wallis' grasp. From the summit of every hill could be seen 
only a fev\" miles off the retreating columns, foot-store and 
weary, in front the luckless prisoners, in the rear the daunt- 
less rear-guards. Softly and pleasantly flowed the river over 
the pebbles of its Island Ford. Swiftly and easily through 
the v/aters the flying cohunn passed. Up the steep hills they 
toiled and then rested for the night, while the vengeful 
British, only two hours behind, waited .until the morning light 
should direct their steps to sure and easy victory, 

MAN PROPOSES, GOD DISPOSES. 

The race is not always to the swift nor the battle to the 
strong. As the Red Sea waves saved the trembling Israelites 
from boasting Pharaoh's liordes, as Old Father Tiber drove 
back Lars Porsena of Clusium from the gates of Rome, where 
Horatius kept the bridge, so the mighty Catawba roused 
himself in his fury to thwart the exulting Briton. From the 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 41 

slopes of the Brushy, and South and Linville and the distant 
Bine Ridge ^lonntains poured the angTy torrents, and when 
the gray light of morning broke a yellow flood, swift and 
deep and strong, raged in his front. The Greeks or the Ro- 
mans A\-ould have deified the protecting river, and in a lofty 
teirii^le, with splendid architectural adornments, would have 
been a noble statue carved with wonderful art dedicated to 
Catawba Salvator, the protecting river god. 

After a short rest, Cornwallis, who was an active and able 
officer, in later years distinguished as Viceroy of Ireland and 
Governor-General of India, burnt the superfluous baggage of 
his troo])s and hurried to overtake and destroy Greene's army, 
then being gptliered out of the fragments of the forces of 
Gates scattered at Camden. Small bodies of militia guarded 
the fords of t!ie Catawba, now become passable. At Cowan's 
ford was, a young officer, who bad gained promotion under 
the eye of the great Washington at Brandywine, Germanto"wn 
and Moumonth. He was in the place of Rutherford, cap- 
tured at Camden, Brigadier-General of the militia of the sec- 
tion. He was an active and able commander who had in- 
fused his fiery energy and pluck into the people. Making a 
pretended attack at Beattie's ford, Cornwallis directed all 
the force of his army at Cowan's ford. A spirited resist- 
ance was made against the overwhelming odds and the young 
general was left dead on the bloody field. The Continental 
Congress, in grateful recognition of his services, voted that 
a monument be erected to his memory, but a hundred years 
have not witnessed the inception of this worthy undertaking. 

jSTorth Carolina has erected a far more enduring cenotaph 
by giving the name of William Davidson to one of her most 
prosperous counties. 

Forward in rapid retreat push the thin columns of Greene, 
forward press the strong forces of Cornwallis. The fortunes 



42 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

of the entire Southern country tremble in the balance. If 
Greene's army shall be saved, he will rally around him the 
scattered patriots and soon confront his adversary, ready on 
more equal terms to contend for the mastery. If it shall be 
overtaken nothing- can save it from destruction, and from the 
James river to the Chattahooche the standard of King George 
will be raised over a conquered people. The eyes of all 
friends of liberty are turned with alarmed anxiety toward 
the unequal contest. 

Again does the god of battle interpose to thwart the well- 
laid scheme. Again do the descending floods dash their 
angry waters against the baffled Britons. Again does the 
flushed and furious foe stand powerless. The noble Yadkin 
emulates her sister, Catawba, and interposes her swollen 
stream, fierce and deep, between him and the object of his 
vengeance. 

DAVIE AND THE UNIVERSITY. 

Davie was the Father of the University. Joseph Cald- 
w^ell was its first President, cared for it in its early years, 
while Swain carried on his work. Alfred Moore, and John 
Haywood, an able Attorney-General and Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, assisted as Trustees in 
selecting its site, while Mitchell lost his life in her service. 
After all these were counties named. One of the most 
active co-fighters \\'ith Davidson in checking the enemy and 
gaining time for gathering strength to meet him in the field 
was William Richardson Davie, at first a cavalry officer 
and then in the more arduous but more useful position of 
Commissary General. He was a strong staff on which General 
Greene had leaned. He was conspicuous in civil pursuits ; an 
able lawyer, an orator of wide influence. He was afterwards 
Governor of the State ; one of the Envoys of the United States 
to the Court of France, who averted a threatened wax. 1 



THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 43 

Unci him styled in the Journal of the University in 1810, 
"the Father of the University," and he well deserves the 
title. We have his portrait at the University. His face 
shows his character, elegant, refined, noble, intellectual, firm. 
It was most fitting that Davidson and Davie should be side- 
by-side on the banks of the rivers which witnessed their 
patriotism, and in the country whose liberties they gained. 

The county of Wayne brings to our minds the great sol- 
dier, the military genius of whom electrified the well-nigh 
despairing colonists by the brilliant capture of Stony Point. 

James Grlasgow was one of the most trusted men of the 
Revolution. In conjunction with Alexander Gaston, the 
father of Judge Gaston, and Richard Cogdell, grandfather of 
George E. Badger, he was one of the Committee of Safety of 
Newbern District. He was Major of the Regiment of the 
county of Dobbs. 

When North Carolina, on the 18th of December, 1776, 
adopted its constitution and took its place among the free 
States of the earth, Richard Caswell was its first Governor 
and James Glasgow its first Secretary of State. A grateful 
Legislature gave to a county formed out of old Orange, 
mother of counties of great men, the appellation of Caswell. 
And when it expunged from our map the odious remem- 
brance of Dobbs, no name was found more worthy to desig- 
nate one of the counties carved out of its territory than 
Glasgow. 

Behold the reward of dishonesty and crime : The name of 
Greene has supplanted on the map that of the obliterated 
Glasgow, and on the records of the Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons the black, dismal lines of disgrace are drawn around the 
signature of the poor wretch, who was weighed in the balance 
and found wanting. 

Among the heroic men who poured out their life-blood on 
distant battlefields — on the far-away hills of Canada — there 



44 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

was none more gallant than Benjamin Forsyth, whose name 
survives in one of the most flourishing counties in our State. 
The war of 1812 does not seem to have stirred the hearts 
of our people to great extent, as I find no county names from 
its heroes except Forsyth. I feel sure that Jackson was hon- 
ored for his Presidential and Creek Indian services as much 
as for the victory of iNew Orleans and Clay for his popu- 
larity with his party, long after his service as War Speaker 
of the Hoirse of Representatives. 

EASTERN AND WESTERN CONTROVERSY. 

The constitution of 1776 was formed at a time when hatred 
and fear of executive power and of kingly government were 
at the utmost. Hence resulted an instrument under which 
nearly all the powers were in the hands of the General As- 
sembly. This body appointed the Governor, and chief State 
officers, the Attorney-General and Solicitors, the Judges and 
all the militia officers, and likewise controlled their salaries. 
Then, as now, it elected the Justices of the Peace, and these 
officers elected the Sheriffs and other county officers. The 
Assembly thus controlled the executive and judicial branches. 
It had unlimited power of taxation and could incur unlimited 
public debt. It could, and did, tax one kind of property, 
and exempt others. 

Th.e powers of the Legislature of 1776 being so great it 
was important that the different sections of the State should 
have in the elections of the members equivalent voice. But 
this was very far from being the case. The Senate consisted 
of one member froni each county. The House of two from 
each county and six, afterwards seven, Borough members. 
In 1776 there were 25 Eastern and 8 Western counties. In 
both branches the West was outnumbered 3 to 1. 

The wonderful invention which is effecting greater changes 
in behalf of mankind than all the inventions the world ever 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 45 

saw before, the railroad, inflamed to fever heat, the hostility 
of the Western people to the old constitution, which had 
been quickened a dozen years before when canal digging 
everywhere had been inaugurated by the finishing of the 
Erie Canal, of j^ew York. An agitation ensued which shook 
the State from the Smoky Mountains to Chickamicomico — 
the West demanding in thunder tones the correction of the 
abominable inequality and injustice of representation by 
counties. 

One of the most prominent leaders in this movement so im- 
portant to the West was Wm. Julius Alexander, in 1828 
Speaker of the House of Commons, afterwards Solicitor of 
the Western District, in his prime one of the most popular 
and able men of this section. He was, young people will be 
interested in learning, likewise distinguished for having won 
the hand of a most beautiful and admired belle, Catharine 
Wilson, whose charms attracted visitors from distant regions. 

Some of the other prominent actors in this struggle, such 
as Cabarrus, Macon, Gaston, Yancey, Stanly, Swain, Hen- 
derson, Graham, are represented in your list of counties. 

The deep valleys which separate the hills of Devonshire 
in England are called ^^coombes," or as w^e spell it, "combes." 
On the margin of the Tamar, which with the Plym, forms 
tlie noble harbour of Plymouth, rises a hill noted for its 
picturesque loveliness. It is called Mount Edgecombe (the 
edge or margin of the valley). It is the territorial title of 
an English Earl. In 1733 Sir Richard, Baron Edgecombe, 
was a lord of the Treasury, and it was in his honor that the 
new-born county in jSTorth Carolina was called. The emi- 
nent Admiral, George, Earl of Edgecombe, w^as his son. 

The name Wilson brings to our minds one of the best types 
of Xorth Carolina statesmen. He was long the trusted rep- 
resentative in the State Senate of a people who required of 
their public men, prudence, economy, and strictest integrity. 



y 



46 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

It was when he might have been seeking the repose of an 
honorable old age that Louis D. Wilson offered his services as 
a volunteer in the war with Mexico. It was a grateful act 
on the part of the General Assembly, on the motion of the 
people who loved him and whom he loved, and to whose poor 
he bequeathed the bulk of his fortune, to name the county 
cut off mostly from his native Edgecombe in his perpetual 
honor. 

The county of I^ash is, like Wilson, the danghter of Edge- 
combe. In one of the darkest hours of the Revolution, after 
famine and freezing cold had reduced our troops almost to 
despair, fell General Francis Nash, brother of Governor 
Abner IsTash, at Germantown. The General Assembly in 
the year of the battle' created this county as his monument. 
All who knew his nephew, the late Chief Justice Frederick 
Nash, so distinguished for Christian virtues and the natural 
courtesy of the perfect gentleman, could trace in him the 
features of the chivalric military hero. It was reserved for 
a large-hearted citizen of Pennsylvania, Mr. John F. Wat- 
son, with the aid of his townsmen of Germantown, to erect a 
marble' shaft over his dust at Kulpsville^ where his shattered 
body was interred in the presence of Washington and his 
gallant army in 1777, amid the falling of the October leaves. 

In a distant part of the State, among the peaks and ra- 
vines of the Blue Ridge, is the memorial county, as is stated 
in the charter, of another Revolutionary hero, who was 
wounded when Nash was killed, who fought also at Brandy- 
wine, Camden, Guilford Court House and Eutaw, and was 
a leading citizen for half a century after the achievement of 
our independence. Lieutenant- Colonel William Polk, one of 
our earliest and wisest friends of higher education. 

Another epoch in onr history I will mention and my paper 
will be finished. It is the great Civil War, in which 
North Carolina struggled for the victorv mth all the con- 



THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 47 

scioiTsness of rectitude, with all the devotion of patriotism 
and the desperate energy of a high-spirited race unused to 
defeat and fighting for what thej thought their rights. She 
threw without grudging the sacrifice into the tremendous vor- 
tex the most valued of her treasures and the noblest of her 
sons. Although defeated and for a season crushed, she could 
not forget those who at her bidding served so faithfully and 
strove so manfully, albeit vainly, mth muscle and brain to 
carry out her orders. She bows obediently to the decision of 
the God of Battles, yet in her gTeat warm heart she cherishes 
the fame and the sufferings of her sons, and hence we find 
on the map of the State the name of one of Lee's best gen- 
erals, the gallant Pender, whose blood stained the heights of 
Gettysburg, and of him who after a short, faithful service at 
the front, became the best War Governor of the South, who 
in the direst needs of the Confederacy fed and clothed our 
Xorth Carolina soldiers and re-animated their drooping 
spirits ^vitli fervid eloquence, our beloved Senator, Zebulon 
Baird Vance. Illustrating this and other periods in legisla- 
tive halls is, in the front ranlv of our statesmen, William A. 
Graham. 

It is most fitting that the extraordinary advancement in in- 
dustrial enterprise, first inaugurated in the town of Durham, 
slioukl be recognized by our law-making power in the creation 
of the county of the same name. May it be an incitement to 
and prognostication of the develop^ment of our resources and 
the increase of wealth in our borders. The name is all the 
more fitting because to the Lords Proprietors were given the 
almost royal powers of the Bishop of Durham. 

In conclusion, the county last created transfers to our map 
the name of the land so full of associations of beauty and of 
grandeur, from which, partly by direct immigration, partly 
by way of JS^orth Ireland, so many of our ablest and best 
people came — Scotland. 



48 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

And now let us point the moral of these glimpses of past 
history. When you hear the names of our counties, do not 
stand with vacant eyes. Let them bring to mind the teach- 
ings associated with their names, the various epochs of our 
history, Indian traditions, hereditary aristocracy, colonial 
systems, the horrors of war, the upward march toward consti- 
tutional liberty, the triumphs of industry, the advance of 
civilization and of Christianty. In remembering the lead- 
ers do not forget the humble followers, "the unnamed demi- 
gods of history," as Kossuth calls them, who gained so much 
for their descendants and for mankind generally, and lie in 
forgotten graves. 

From the exterminated Indians learn a great political les- 
son. If their warring tribes could have united and opposed 
their combined strength against the European invaders, they 
might for many years have held their homes, and in the end 
amalgamated with their conquerors. Let us all discard past 
differences and cherish the union of the States, for in that 
Union, the States "distinct as the billows, yet one as the sea," 
in the words of the poet, or in the language of the Supreme 
Court, an "undissoluble union of indestructible States," lies 
our strength. Let the hatreds of our great Civil War be 
buried forever. The God of Battles has decided against the 
idea of secession. On the w^alls of the Atheneum in Boston 
are two swords crossed, their deadly mission ended. Under 
them is an inscription showing that they belonged to tlie an- 
cestors of the historian, Prescott, who fought on opposite 
sides on Bunker Hill. The old warfare of A^Tiigs and Tories 
has long since ceased, and in like manner let the descendants 
of those who followed the Stars and Stripes, shoulder to 
shoulder with those above whom waved the Stars and Bars, 
strive to gain all moral excellence and all material prosperity 
for the great Eepublic of the World. 




ADMIRAL SIR THOMAS FRANKLAND. 



A COLONIAL ADMIRAL OF THE CAPE FEAR. 



BY JAMES SPRUNT, BRITISH VICE-CONSUL AT WILMINGTON, N. C. 



Tlie Colonial plantations on the lower Cape Fear River 
have long yielded to the patient and persevering student of 
local literature a generous contribution of interesting history 
pertaining to the eventful years which marked the destiny of 
a brave and generous people. Throughout the Colonial pe- 
riod these important estates were held by men of eminence 
and of action, and from that time to the present day their 
owners have been gentlemen to the manner born, fitted by 
birth and education for the highest social and civic stations. 
Read, for example, the line of "Orton" proprietors who have 
lived upon this land for nearly two hundred years. 

Originally obtained by patent from the Lords Proprietors 
under Charles II. in 1725, to Col. Maurice Moore, then 
"King" Roger Moore, William Moore 2nd, Governor Arthur 
Dobbs, Governor Wm. Tryon, Richard Quince 1st, Richard 
Quince 2nd, Richard Quince 3rd, Governor Benjamin Smith, 
Dr. Fred J. Hill, Richard Currer Roundell (a nephew of 
Lord Selboume, Lord Chancellor of England), and, lastly, 
to the late Col. K. M. Murchison. 

The lordly residence of the Chief Justice Eleazer Allen, 
upon the adjacent plantation of Lilliput, which was distin- 
guished in his day by a large and liberal hospitality, has long 
since disappeared, but the grand old oaks which lifted their 
majestic branches to the soft south breezes in Colonial times, 
still sing their murmured requiem above a "boundless conti- 
guity of shade." 

Here, upon the banks of our historic river, which 
stretches two miles to the eastern shore, is heard the booming 
of the broad Atlantic as it sweeps in its might and majesty 



50 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

from Greenland to the Gulf. Along the shining beach, from 
I'isher to Fort Caswell, its foaming breakers run and roar, 
tlie racing steeds of Neptune, with their white crested manes, 
charging and reforming for the never ending fraj. 

The adjacent larger plantation of Kendal, originally 
owned by "King" Roger Moore, from whom it passed to others 
of his descendants, was later the property of James Smith, a 
brother of Governor Benjamin Smith's, and it was here, near 
the banks of Orton creek, which di^ades this estate from the 
splendid domain of Orton, with its 10,000 acres, that the 
quarrel between the Smith brothers ended by the departure 
of James to South Carolina, where he assumed his mother's 
name, Rhett, leaving his intolerant and choleric brother 
Benjamin to a succession of misfortunes, disappointments 
and distresses, which brought him at last to a pauper's grave. 
Aide de camp to Washington, a General of the State Militia, 
a Governor of the State, a benefactor of the University, a 
melancholy example of public ingratitude. 

Behind Kendal is McKenzie's Mill Dam, the scene of a 
battle between the British troops and the minute men from 
Brunswick and from Wilmington. 

We linger at Orton, the most attractive of all the old Eng- 
lish estates on the Cape Fear. For a hundred and eighty- 
one years it has survived the vicissitudes of war, pestilence 
and famine, and until the recent death of its last proprietor 
has maintained its reputation of Colonial days for a refined 
and generous hospitality. Here in the exhilaration of the 
hunter, the restful seclusion of the angler, the quiet quest of 
the naturalist, the peaceful contemjjlation of the student, is 
found surcease from the vanities and vexations of urban life. 
For nearly two centuries it has been a haven of rest and recre- 
ation to its favoured guests. The house, or Hall, built by 
^"King" Roger Moore in 1735, with its stately white pillars 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 51 

gleaming in the sunshine through the surrounding forest, is 
a most pleasing vista to the passing mariner. The river 
view stretches for ten miles southward and eastward, includ- 
ing "Big Sugar Loaf," Fort Anderson, Fort Buchanan and 
Fort Fisher. 

We love its traditions and its memories, for no sorrow came 
to us there. The primeval forest with its dense undergrowth 
of dogwood blossoms which shine with the brightness of the 
falling snow; the thickets of Cherokee roses, which surpass 
the most beautiful of other regions; the brilliant carpet of 
wild azaleas, the golden splendour of the yellow jessamine, 
the modest drosera, the marvellous dionea mucipula, and the 
trumpet saracenias ; the river drive to the white beach, from 
which are seen the distant breakers ; the secluded spot in the 
wilderness commanding a wide view of an exquisite land- 
scape where, safe from intrusion, we sat upon a sheltered 
seat beneath the giant pines and heard the faint "yo ho" of 
the sailor, outward bound ; a place apart for holy contempla- 
tion when the day is far spent, where the overhanging 
branches cast the shadow of a cross and where later, through 
the interlacing foliage, the star of hope is shining; the joy- 
ful reception at the big house, the spacious hall with its ample 
hearth and blazing oak logs; around it, after the bountiful 
evening meal, the old songs were sung and the old tales were 
told, and fun and frolic kept dull care beyond the threshold. 

Through the quiet lanes of Orton to the ruins of the Pro- 
vincial Grovernor Tryon's palace, is half a mile. Here is the 
cradle of American independence, for upon this spot, now 
hidden by a dense undergrowth of timber, occurred, between 
six and seven o'clock on the evening of the 19th of February, 
1766, the first open resistance to the British Stamp Act in 
the American colonies, by 150 armed men, who surrounded 
the palace and demanded the surrender of the custodians of 
the obnoxious symbols of the King's authority. 



52 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Ten miimtes walk farther down brings us to the ruins of 
the Colonial Parish Church of St. Philip, the scene of many 
notable incidents and the resting place of the early pioneers. 
It was built by the citizens of Brunswick and principally by 
the landed gentry about the year 1740. In the year 1751, 
Mr. Lewis Henry deRosset, a member of Governor Gabriel 
Johnston's council, and subsequently an expatriated Royalist, 
introduced a bill appropriating to the Church of St. Philip 
at Brunswick and to St. James' Church at Wilmington, 
equally, a fund that was realized by the capture and destruc- 
tion of a pirate vessel, which, in a squadron of Spanish 
buccaneers, had entered the river and plundered the planta- 
tions. A picture, "Ecce Homo," captured from this pirate, 
is still preserved in the vestry room of St. James' Church in 
Wilmington. The walls of St. Phillip's Church are nearly 
three feet thick, and are solid and almost intact still; the 
roof and floor have disappeared. It must have possessed 
much architectural beauty and massive grandeur with its 
high-pitched roof, its lofty doors and beautiful chancel 
windows. 

A little to the west, surrounded by a forest of pines, lies 
Liberty Pond, a beautiful lake of clear spring water, once 
stained with the blood of friend and foe in a deadly conflict, 
hence its traditional name. It is now a most restful, tran- 
quil spot — the profound stillness, the beach of snow-wliite 
sand, the unbroken surface of the lake, which reflects the 
foliage and the changing sky line. 

Turning to the southeast, we leave the woodland and 
reach a bluff upon the river bank, still known as Howe's 
Point, where the Revolutionary patriot and soldier, General 
Robert Howe, was born and reared. His residence, long 
since a ruin, was a large frame building on a stone or brick 
foundation, still remembered as such by several aged citizens 
of Brunswick. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 53 

A short distance from the Howe place, the writer found 
some years ago, in the woods and upon a commanding site 
near the river, under many layers of pine straw, the clearly 
defined ruins of an ancient fort, which Avas undoubtedly of 
Colonial origin. Mr. Reynolds, who lives at his place near- 
by, says that his great-grandfather informed him forty years 
ago that this fort was erected long before the war of the Revo- 
lution by the Colonial Government for the protection of the 
colonists against buccaneers and pirates, and that he remem- 
bers having heard of an engagement in 1776 beirween the 
Americans who occupied this fort and the British troops who 
landed from their ships in the river, in which battle the 
British drove the Americans from the fort to McKenzie's 
Mill Dam. 

Hence to the staid old county seat is a journey of an hour ; 
it was originally known as Fort Johnston, a fortification 
named for the Colonial Governor, Gabriel Johnston. It was 
established about the year 1745 for the protection of the 
colony against pirates which infested the Cape Fear River. 
The name was subsequently changed to Smithville in honour 
of Benjamin Smith, to whom reference has been made, who 
had behaved with conspicuous gallantry under Moultrie 
when he drove the British from Port Royal ; he was subse- 
quently elected fifteen times to the Senate and became Gover- 
nor of the Commonwealth in 1810. By recent authority of 
the State Legislature the name was again changed to South- 
port. In the old Court-house, which is its principal build- 
ing, may be seen the evidence that on the death of Mr. Allen, 
17th January, 1749, aged 57 years, at Lilliput, where he 
was buried, this plantation became the property (and it is 
said the residence for a brief period) of the great-grandson 
of Oliver Cromwell, Sir Thomas Frankland, Admiral of the 
White in the British navy, a position of great distinction, 
which he attained at the early age of 28 years, and of his 



54 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

wife, who was Sarah Rhett, the daughter of Colonel Rhett, 
of South Carolina, and a niece of Chief Justice Allen. 

It appears also from the Colonial Records, in a letter from 
Rev. John McDowell, who served the twin parishes of St. 
Philip's at Brunswick and St. James' at Wilmington, ad- 
dressed to the Secretary of the Honourable Society which 
supported him, in London, and written from Brunswick 
April 16, 1761, and also by subsequent letters with particu- 
lar reference to the long delayed completion of the Parish 
Church of St. Philips, that Admiral Frankland and Lady 
Prankland contributed substantial sums of money for its 
support. 

The records of these two interesting personages in the 
early history of our settlement are too obscure for a connected 
narrative. All of my endeavors to obtain sufficient material 
for a sketch of this Colonial Cape Fear Admiral, in Charles- 
ton, in Boston, in the IsTational Library at Washington and 
in London, were in vain until I obtained an introduction to 
the present head of the house, the great-grandson of Admiral 
Frankland, Sir Ralph Payne Gallway, of Thirkleby Park, 
Thirsk, Yorkshire, one of the most beautiful county seats in 
England, who has been good enough to compile for me the 
following notes with reference to Sir Charles Frankland, the 
Colonial Collector of the port of Boston, and his romantic 
marriage with Agnes Surriage, and, to his successor. Sir 
Thomas Frankland, the youthful Admiral and rover of the 
seas, of whose life upon the Carolina station and in Charles- 
ton and on the Cape Fear River at Lilliput, there is unfor- 
tunately but fragmentary and unsatisfying evidence. 

Sir Charles Frankland was born in 1716 in Bengal, India ; 
he died at Bath in 1768. He was the eldest son of Henry 
Frankland, Governor of Bengal, who died in 1728, who was 
a brother of Sir Thomas Frankland, third Baronet of Thirk- 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 55 

leby, the latter being a descendant of Cromwell and also of 
Charles I. Sir Charles was on a visit to Lisbon during the 
great earthquake of 1755. He returned to Lisbon as Consul 
General of Portugal in 1757. In 1763 Sir Charles re- 
turned to Boston, where he resumed his duties as "Collector 
of the Customs of the Port," though he at the same time held 
his office as Consul General of Portugal till 1767, in which 
year he returned to Thirkleby and died the following one. 

Sir Charles Frankland's romantic marriage with Agnes 
Surriage at Lisbon, where she rescued him from the ruins of 
the earthquake, has been the subject of several books and ro- 
mances, even plays, as well as the beautiful ballad of "Agnes,' 
by Oliver Wendell Holmes." The history of Sir Charle-s 
and Agnes Surriage, or "Boston in Colonial Times," is to be 
found in a book by thei Rev. Elias Mason. A more recent 
work on the same subject is called "Agnes Surriage." It is 
by Edwin Lasetter Bynner, 1886. Agnes Surriage was the 
daughter of a poor fisherman at Marblehead, near Boston. 
Sir Charles was buried for several hours in the remains of a 
church that was thrown down. Agnes Surriage searched for 
him until she heard the sound of his voice, and then, by large 
offers of money, and all the jewelry she wore at the time, she 
persuaded some terrified people near, who chanced to be 
uninjured, to excavate her lover. On his recovery from his 
wounds Sir Charles at once married his rescuer as a proof of 
gratitude. The person who was buried alive with Sir Charles 
at Lisbon, under the fallen stones of the church, in her mad- 
ness and pain tore a piece out of his coat with her teeth. 
This coat, with the rent in it, was preserved at Thirkleby as 
a memento of an awful experience 'till it, at length, fell to 
pieces from age. 

In 1751 Sir Charles built a good house and purchased a 
fair estate at Hopkinston, near Boston. This house was de- 
stroyed by fire January 23d, 1758, but on the same site a 



56 THE NORTPI CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

new house was ere long erected, which was built to resemble 
the old one. In 1747 Sir Charles succeeded his uncle, the 
third Baronet, but, owing to a disputed will, did not for 
some years inherit the estates at Thirkleby and elsewhere. 

His uncle, whom he succeeded in the title, was 11. P for 
Thirsk, 1711-1747, and a Lord of the Admirality ; he died in 
1747. He, Sir Thomas Frankland, third Baronet, made 
three wills. In the first, dated 1741, he left Thirkleby and 
his other estates to his nephew, afterwards Sir Charles. In 
1744, he altered all this and left Thirkleby to his widow for 
her life. In his last and third will he left Thirkleby and 
all his estates to his wido^v absolutely. It was contended by 
Sir Charles, his successor, that the last will was made when 
Sir Tliomas was of unsound mind, and under undue influ- 
ence. A lawsuit was, therefore, entered on by Sir Charles 
to set aside Sir Thomas's last will, and in this he was suc- 
cessful, and hence gained Thirkleby and the other family 
estates. 

Sir Charles died in 1768 at Bath, and in Weston Church, 
in the suburbs of Bath, there is a long inscription to him. 
He was twice in residence at Lisbon as Consul General of 
Portugal. 

Lady Frankland (Agues Surriage) returned to Hopkinton, 
near Boston, after her liusband's death, near where she was 
born, and lived until Sir Charles took her away. She re- 
sided at Hopkinton 'till the declaration of war, and for a 
short, time after. She witnessed from her house the battle 
of Bunker's Hill, a bullet breaking the glass of the window 
she was looking through. 

Being a Loyalist, she returned to England, and paid a long 
visit to Thirkleby. She then moved, in 1782, to Chichester, 
where she married Mr. John Drew, a banker. She died the 
following year and is buried at Chichester ; aged 57 years. 



THE Js^ORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 57 

Admiral Sir- Thomas FranMand succeeded, as fifth. Baro- 
net, his elder brother, Sir Charles, in the family estates and 
title. He was born in 1718, and died at Bath, 1784, aged 
66. Member of Parliament for the Borough of Thirsk 1747- 
1784. Successively Admiral of the Red and then of the 
White in the King's navy. Buried at Thirkleby. Married 
Sarah, the daughter of Colonel William Rhett, of South 
Carolina, May, 1743 ; she died April, 1808, aged 84. Sir 
Thomas, the Admiral, was the great grandson of Oliver 
Cromwell and the great grandfather of the writer of these 
notes. The inscription to the Admiral in Thirkleby Church 
is as f ollow^s : 

''Sir Thomas Frankland, second son of Henry Frankland, 
Governor of Fort William in Bengal. Admiral of theWhite, 
who represented the Borough of Thirsk in six Parliaments. 
He died at Bath on the 21st of j^ovember, 1784, aged 66. 
He married Sarah, daughter of William Rhett, Esq., of 
South Carolina, by whom he left seven sons and three 
daughters." 

When in Boston, in 1742, Captain Thomas Frankland, as 

he then was, paid a -^dsit to his elder brother. Sir Charles, 

whom ho eventually succeeded in title and Thirkleby estates. 

Whilst at Charlestovni he fell in love with. Sarah Rhett, and 

on his su.bsequent visit there he married her. He was at 

that time Captain of H. M. Frigate Rose, though only 25 

years of age. Some very effusively complimentary verses 

were printed in the Boston Evening Post on the occasion of 

Captain Frankland's visit to Boston in 1742. A few of these 

lines I quote, but the poem is too long to give in full here : 

"From peaceful solitude and calm retreat 
I now and then look out upon the great. 
Praise where 'tis due I'll give, no servile tool 
Of honorable knave, or reverend fool ; 
Surplice or red-coat, both alike to me. 
Let him that wears them great and worth v be." 



58 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

"We see thee Frankland dreadful o'er the main 
Not terrible to children, but to Spain. 
Then let me lisp thy name; thy praise rehearse 
Though in weak numbers and in feeble verse. 
Though faint the whisper when the thunder roars, 
And speak thee great through all Hispanios shores! " 

I have had a photograph purposely done of Admiral Sir 
Thomas Frankland's picture here tO' accompany these notes. 
I have also had one done at the same time of his ship pre- 
served in model form in the hall here. Though this model 
is six feet long and most minutely made, and also, no doubt, 
most faithfully copied from the original vessel at great ex- 
pense ; yet we do not know her name. My brother, lately a 
Post Captain in the navy, did all he could to ascertain from 
the Admiralty, and from other sources her name, but with- 
out success. I should be very glad if the name could be dis- 
covered. On the sides of the model G. R. (George Rex) is 
painted in several parts. That the model is an exact copy of 
the original there can be do doubt, and it could not be built 
now at less than £300, at least so an expert in marine model 
building assures me. From the figure-head of the model she 
should be "Ajax," "Achilles," "Centurion," "Warrior," and 
the most likely of all, "Perseus," as on the shield borne by 
the figure on the prow is carved the head of "Medusa." ^one 
of the foregoing names belonged, as far as I can discover, to 
any ship which Admiral Frankland was connected with. 
Family tradition declares that the model is of the ship which 
Admiral Franldand was aboard when he captured a Spanish 
galleon. The galleon is said to have had so much treasure on 
board that from his share of the prize-money the Admiral 
settled five thousand pounds on each of his eight daughters, 
though only three of these survived him. However, I con- 
sider the very rich Spanish (so-called) ship that Frankland 
captured is the one described in the following extract from 
"A New Naval History, by John Entick, M.A., 1757": 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 59 

"Tlie Rose, man of war, 20 guns, commanded by Captain 
Frankland, being cruising on the Carolina station on Jan- 
uary 12th, 1744, fell in with the Conception, a French ship 
with a Spanish register of 400 tons, 20 guns and 326 men, 
bound from Carthagena to- Havana. After a smart engage- 
ment of eleven glasses, in which the Conception had 110 
men killed, the Rose, with the loss of only 5 men, took the 
prize into Charleston, in South Carolina, where she proved 
a very valuable acquisition. Her cargo consisted of 800 
serons of cocoa, in each of which was deposited a bar of gold, 
of the total value of 310,000 pieces of eight; wrought plate 
of equivalent value ; a complete set of church plate ; a large 
quantity of pearls, diamonds, and other precious stones, and 
gold buckles and snuff boxes; a curious silver chaise, the 
wheels, axles and other parts of it being all of silver. There 
was, besides, 600 pounds weight of gold, the whole of which 
was worth £200,000." 

From this account it will be seen that the Rose, of only 
20 guns, cannot be the three-decker, the model of which is 
now at Thirkleby. The model is of a man of war that has 
as many as 74 guns in three tiers, including deck guns, and 
she must have been a large line of battleship such as an Ad- 
miral might hoist his pennant on when in command of a fleet. 
Perhaps from the photograph of the figure-head of the model 
some information may be obtained regarding its name, which 
I have always been so anxious to obtain. There is no doubt 
that— 

1. The model is a copy of a ship commanded by Cap- 
tain (or Admiral) Frankland at one time of his naval career. 

2. Or, that the model is a copy of a ship captured from the 
enemy by Captain (or Admiral) Frankland, and afterwards 
converted into a British man of war. 

We know that the model has been here at Thirkleby for 
some 150 years. 



60 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

You desire to know about Sir Thomas Frankland's resi- 
dence at Lilliput Plantation on the Cape Fear River in IsTorth 
Carolina, and particularly in regard to his life in K"orth 
Carolina, and his estates on the Cape Fear River. 

It occurs to me that the Admiral was too busy chasing 
French and Spanish ships of the enemy to have retired to an 
estate in Carolina, and to have had a house on a plantation 
there, especially as he was so active and constant in his ser- 
vices in the King's l^avy. The only suggestion I can find 
that the Admiral (at that time Captain) did retire from ac- 
tive service for a short time is hinted in the first two lines of 
the poem I have quoted, and which run — 

"From peaceful solitude and calm retreat, 
I now and then look out upon the great." 

The old early Elizabethan Hall at Thirkleby was pulled 
down in 1793, when the present house was completed. The 
old house, of which we have a picture, was the home of Ad- 
miral Frankland. Many flowers of the old gardens still 
force their heads above the soil every summer. As a boy of 
about twelve years of age I very well recollect an old family 
game-keeper who lived at Thirkleby, who at that time of my 
life was just 90 years of age. His name was W. Hudson. 
He often pointed out to me the walnut tree in the park here, 
up which, when he was a boy of ten or twelve, the Admiral 
used to order him to climb to gather the walnuts; and which 
the Admiral used to throw his big crook-handled stick up 
among its boughs to try and knock the walnuts down himself. 
As Hudson was born in 1770 and the Admiral died in 1784, 
the reminiscences of the old keeper were no doubt correct, 
and enables me to say that I knew a man who knew Admiral 
Sir Thomas Frankland, who was born in 1718, and it is quite 
probable that the Admiral knew a man, who, as a child, saw 
Charles the First's head cut off at Whitehall. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 61 

On the subject of reminiscences, though rather out of 
place here, as it has nothing to do with the Frankland fam- 
ily, I may relate that an old friend of mine, now alive and 
well and but 72 years of age, perfectly recollects his grand- 
father, who lived to a great age. The grandfather in ques- 
tion took a purse of gold concealed in a basket of strawber- 
ries to Prince Charlie (the Young Pretender) when he was 
keeping court at Hobgood Palace in 1745. The messenger 
with the strawberries was, of course, a child at the time, and 
was, as such, selected, by partisans of the Stewarts, to allay 
suspicion as to the real object of his visit to Hobgood, which 
was to aid the Prince with money to establish his rights to his 
throne in Scotland. This incident, (with many others of a 
similar kind, I found here in the muniment room among the 
papers of my great uncle. Lord Lavington, who was Governor 
of some of the West Indies Islands and was buried there), I 
had printed and sent to the late Queen Victoria of blessed 
memory. Her Majesty was greatly interested in the book I 
compiled and sent her, the only thing she took exception to 
was my allusion to Prince Charlie as "A Pretender." The 
young pretender was tall and handsome, and the beau ideal of 
a gallant cavalier, but he died, alas, at Florence, as a dissi- 
pated and drunken wreck, morally and physically. 

On the following page I have attached a photograph I have 
had specially taken tO' illustrate these notes. 

(iST. B. — The g'entleman who for many years has con- 
ducted in the most able manner, at very moderate cost, in 
British Museum, a great deal of research for me, historical, 
documentary and otherwise, and who is also a most excellent 
copyist of old illustrations, is William Woodrow, E'sq. The 
Reading Room, British Museum, Bloomsbury, London.) 



62 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

THE BADGE OF ULSTER. 

Given to Sir William FranMand, first Baronet of Thirkle- 
bj, by Charles II. in 1660 as a credential of bis title. The 
only Ulster badge in existence, excepting one tbat is supposed 
to be a copy of it. It was worn as a proof of his rank and 
person by Sir Thomas Frankland, third Baronet, when on a 
mission abroad at the service of his King. 

(Illustration is full size. The Red Hand, or Bloody 
Hand, is on white porcelain oval set round with stones. The 
date of confer and name of Baronet and his creation on 
reverse side.) The tradition is that the King of Ulster and 
another disputed the ownership of an estate. They agreed 
to race to it from a certain distance, and the one who first 
touched the land with his hand was to possess it. Ulster, 
finding himself a few yards behind at the finish, cut off his 
left hand and threw it in front of him over the boundary 
fence, and thus won the estate. 

A characteristic letter from Admiral Frankland, in which 
he refers tO' the death of a gardener who has been inadvert- 
ently stifled in his master's hot-house. 

^'Bond Street (where the Admiral owned a house) 1760. 

A. P. G. 

"Mr. ISTugent, they say, spoke an hour against opening the 
distillery, and when they divided, voted for it, so the joke 
goes that he acted in the character of his country. Surely 
money never was so scarce, we can hardly get enough to 
carry on common house expenses. We shall have no peace 
this year its believed, and I think another year makes us 
stop payment, as our enemies have done, and what must we 
do who have our all in the stocks. 

"^'Have you read Tristam Shandy? The ladies say (my 
wife and daughters read it not) its very clever ; now pray is 
it indelicate or not fit? Upon my word I am abused and 
called a Prude for saying its scandalous for a Clergyman to 
write such (I was going to say Bawdy), a rapsody of hard 
words. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 63 

"I hear yoii are in low spirits about the death of your 
gardener. Good God, what wretches we sailors must be. I 
order 40 men aloft and ye mast goes and they are drowned. 
Their deaths are not at my door. I order the ship to be 
smoked to prevent sickness, and some fools stay below in the 
smoke and dye ; Sir, am I to charge myself with their deaths ? 

"We have expeditions fitting out now, where bound a 
secret. 

(Signed) Thos. Franklajstd. 

(1) There is a long article on Admiral Frankland, his 
life and adventures, to be found in Gharnock's Biographic 
Vavalis, Vol. V— 1797— page 19. 

(2) Also see Schomberg's ISTaval Chronology, Vol. I, page 
220 — 1745. In this latter book the following curious inci- 
dent is related : 

"Another fortunate circumstance was the discovery caused 
thro' a little French boy that Capt. Frankland had taken 
into his service. This boy made a complaint against one of 
the sailors for having taken from him a stick in appearance of 
no value. Captain Frankland recovered it for the boy, and 
on returning it to him gave him a playful tap on the shoulder. 
The head of the stick fell off then and diamonds were found 
inside it worth 20,000 pistoles. When the enemy surren- 
dered, the Captain gave the stick to the boy in the hopes of 
saving it, not imagining that such a trifle would ever be 
noticed." 

In Charnocks Chronicles a graphic account is given of Cap- 
tain Frankland's fight with (1742) three of the enemies 
ships, all of which he captured and took into Carolina. One 
of these ships tried very hard to escape, the reason being 
that its captain was the notorious "Fandino," who some years 
before had cut off the ears of Jenkins, an English Captain. 
Frankland sent this man at once to Hyland to be tried for his 
life. 



64 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

I see Captain Frankland married Miss Rhett (1743), 
daughter of Chief Justice of Carolina, by whom he had six 
sons and eight daughters. (He had nineteen cliildren in 
all; several died infants.) 

June, 1756, made Rear Admiral of the Blue; retained the 
command of the Pvose 'till October, 1746, when he was pro- 
moted to the Dragon. In 1755 appointed Commodore on the 
Antigua Station and hoisted his broad pennant on board the 
Winchester, 50 guns, at Spithead, 10th August, and sailed 
very soon after for the West Indies. On his arrival there 
he at once quarrelled with the retiring Commodore, Pye, be- 
cause this sailor had condemned his ship, the Advice. Ad- 
miral Frankland reported Commodore Pye for doing so, and 
to prove he was wrong, actually fitted up the Advice for him- 
self and started on a cruise in her to show she was seaworthy, 
with the result that Admiral Frankland and ship nearly went 
to the bottom of the sea together. This quarrel and Admiral 
Frankland's career is to be found in a story that appeared 
in the London Magazine of 1774-1775, under the title of 
"Edward & Maria," by Capt. Ed. Thompson, R. :N'. In this 
story Admiral Freeland is "Frankland," and Commodore 
Pye is "Sir Richard Spry," as he afterwards became. 

British Museum, Add. MS. 32, 935, p. 447. 

Sir: — The Barons of the Exchequer, having ordered me 
immediately to Lay before the Hon'ble and Rev'd. Mr. Chol- 
mondeley, Auditor General of his Maj'ts Revenues in 
America, the Amount of the French Ships and Cargoes de- 
tained bv me at the Leeward Islands before the Declaration 
of War. ■ 

The Charge attending the Dieting the Crews of those being 
refused to be allowed me in those i\.ccounts, and as it cannot 
be imagined that I can bear those Expenses, Lett me entreat 
your assistance to get a Dispensing Order to the Sick and 
Hurt Office that the Account there may be paid me. As they 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 65 

require Vonchers Bj their Establishment which the Nature 
of Those Captures could not produce. 

The Governors of the Three Islands absolutely refused to 
give any Receipts for the French men Landed, or written 
Orders for their Discharges. 

Their Constant Answers were they never had received the 
least Orders about their Detention. 

]^o Cartel was settled or Commissarys appointed. There- 
fore how could I produce Vouchers from the Latter. 

The account for the subsistance of those men, which I have 
now Laying before the Sick and Hurt Office is such, as I am 
ready to make any affimiation to. It has passed thro the 
Kavy Office, in regard to the names, and Entrys and Dis- 
charges of the Particular Crews. 

The Men sent into Hallifax and Jamacia have been paid 
By the Publick. But as where I commanded there was 
neither Hospital of the Kings to send them to, or Contract 
subsisting for me to have ordered them Agents to have vic- 
tualled them or had I ships sufficient to have keep them on 
board and victualled them afloat, I had no other method to 
follow. 

As this is the only obstacle that hinders my finally closing 
these Accounts let me again beg your aid, and I am, sir. 
Your most obedient and very humble servant, 

Old Bond Street Thos. Franklanb. 

18th March, 1762. 

(Endorsed) Ad^l. Frankland. 

Public Becoro Office — Frankland Letters. 
(Adm. Sec. M. Letters.) 

There are two series letters — one covering the period when 
stationed at the Bahamas as Captain of the Rose (about 40). 

Another series when stationed at the Leeward Islands as 
Admiral, (about 80 to lOO) (l755-'59), Pye incident. These 
letters are of varying interest and would suggest a selection 
of which specimen given re-taking the Conception. 



66 THE NOHTII CAROLIXA BOOKLET. 

(Ad. Sec. M. Letters, ^^o. 1782.) 
•Captain Thomas Frankland to Secretary of the Admiralty : 
His Majesty's Ship "Rose," Cooper Riveb, 

South Carolina, Jan. ye 23rd, 1744-5. 
My last was dated 'Rov. 14th acquainting you of my de- 
livering the letters as I Avas directed by Sir Chaloner Ogle. 
I proceeded afterwards off St. Jago de Cuba, and so between 
the south side of Cuba and the IsT. side of Jamaica down to 
the Grand Comanon, where I watered, wooded and heel'd, 
for I was hurryed out of Jamaica without time to get or do 
either there. I then intended to go and cruize between the 
Rogiies Cape Florida and the Pan of Matanzas (on the IST. 
side of Cuba), but on my way on (about 35 leagues to the 
w'ward of the Havanna) the first day of December just be- 
fore daylight I found myself almost on board a large ship. 
We were to windward and astern withall ; I kept my wind 
until the day broke, then finding she had but one tier of guns 
but full of men by her working, for before I showed my 
colors, she run her courses up, bunted her mainsails, and I 
observed everything ready to engage and her decks crowded 
with people. About seven in the morning we began our en- 
gagement, which lasted until half after noon ; we had a 
fresh gale and a great sea, and yet we were alongside of one 
another three or four times, for he would, as I observed, 
fought till night at a distance; he at last struck, for he had 
near a hundred men killed outright and four of his guns on 
one side disabled. The ship is called the Conception of St. 
Male, Mons. Adrien Mercan, Master from Cartagena bound 
to Cadiz, but was to touch at the Havannah in order to land 
upwards of two hundred seamen besides officers that belonged 
to Don Blase de Leso's squadron that were destroyed at Cart- 
agena ; they were commanded bv Sig'r. Don Pedro Lisagrale, 
a Captain of a Frigate and Major of the Galleys. We killed 
an officer, which vnll be a great loss to the Spaniards, being 
the best pilot they had for the West Indies ; he was made a 
Captain de Fregattes by iVdmiral Tovas' request for the ser- 
vices he did him that way ; his name is Don Pedro IManuell 
Long. 

I had only five men killed, about ten or a dozen danger- 



THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 67 

ouslj wounded, including the master, and several slightly. 
The cargo was hides and cocoa, with several chests of gold 
and silver, containing about three hundred and ten pieces of 
eight. She had several passengers on board, from which we 
got about five thousand ounces of gold in doublins, pistoles, 
bars, etc. When (we) gott all the prisoners on board the 
Rose and had manned the prize with my best people, for she 
was torn all to pieces, and began to count our numbers, I was 

very (some words are covered in binding), 

but one hundred seventy and seven men, officers and boys at 

first, the prize manned 20 so wounded could no duty 

and people to attend them that we had two Spaniards to one 
of us and in sight of their own shore running down by the 
Havanna and Matanzas and certain three or four of their 
men of war at sea, a prize astern without a ...... mast and 

all her other masts wounded, as was my main mast and fore 
yard that I immediately resolved within myself by all means 
to land them. Fortune favored us with moderate weather 

and a wind to fetch Key Sail (it ly E. IST E 15 leagues 

from the Bay of Matanzas were ...... and put all the 

Spaniards ashore, giving them the prize's shallop and my 
cutter, in either of which, taking fair weather, they may go 
to the Havanna in 20 hours ; with provisions, tents and all 
other conveniences of life. We stayed at that key till we 
put the prize to rights and so proceeded down the gulf to 
South Carolina ; I arrived the 17th day of December. I am 
a getting a new mast and repairing, for I received some dam- 
age from the enemy, and shall put for the sea with all speed 
to proceed to the Bahamas tho' I am in great hopes the Albor- 
ough is coming out to relieve me, for I have represented to 
their Lordships the necessity these twelve months past. 

I am sorry to acquaint you that the Swallow sloop was lost 
on the above keys. Captain Jelfe writes by this opportunity 
and has sent his Lieut, home, who I suppose will wait di- 
rectly on their Lordships. 

I am, sirs, your most humble servant, 

(Signed) Thos. Eeankland. 

Eec'd. and read 20 Mar. 

To Thos. Corbett, Esq. 



6S 



THE NORTH CAROLIiSrA BOOKLET. 



Dr. John Campbell in "The Present State of Europe," 
1761, thus tabulates the relative naval strength of the 
Powers : 

"If the shipping of Europe be divided into twenty parts, 
then — 

Great Britain, etc., hath 6 

The United Provinces 6 

The subjects of the Northern Crowns 2 

The trading cities and seaports of Germany and Austrian 

Netherlands 1 

France 2 

Spain and Portugal 2 

Italy and rest of Europe 1 

List of Plans, Maps^ etc.^ in British Museum. 

K. 122 (62) Wilmington. A drawn plan of the town 

of Wilmington, in "New Hanover County, 
1*^0 rth Carolina, surveyed and drawn in 
December, 1Y69, by C. I. Sauther. 

2 Tab. 122-51 A complete map of ISTorth Carolina, from 

an actual survey by Captain Collet, 1770. 
Two sheets. 

71965 (1) C^nrolina. A general map of C. describ- 

ing its sea coast and rivers. Printed for 
E. Blome Loud 1672. This map be- 
longs to Blome's "Description of the Is- 
land of Jamaica." Loud 1672. 

71965 (6) A new map of C. by P. Lea Loud 1700. 

S. 100 (18) A new map of C. 'by J. Thornton & W. 

Fisher (a large draught of Ashley and 
Cooper's rivers) Loud 1704. 

71965 (2) A map of IvTorth and South Carolina by J. 

Lawson Loud 1704. This map belongs to 
Lawson's "ISTew vovage to Carolina" Loud 
1709. 

71965 (7) A map of the province of C. divided into 

its parishes, etc., by H. Wall Loud 1710. 

71965(3) A uew map of the country of C. by J. Gas- 

coigne, Loud 1710. 

C. 18 A. 10 (3) Caroliua. Several maps — Carolina de- 
scribed in "A Brief Description of the 
Province of C." Loud 1666. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 69 

I^AVAL & Military Memoirs of Grt. Britain from 1727 
TO 1783, BY Robert Beatson, Esq., L.L.D. Vol. 1, p. 
281-283. Loud 1804. 

The Rose, Captain Frankland, took, after a long and ob- 
stinate engagement, the La Conception, of four hundred tons, 
twenty guns, and three hundred and twenty-six men, from 
Cartagena for the Havanna. The Rose had only one hun- 
dred and seventy-five men on board when the action began. 
The enemy had one hundred and sixteen men killed, and 
thirteen wounded. The prize was carried into Charleston, 
South Carolina, and proved of great value, having on board 
800 serons of cocoa, sixty-eight chests of silver, gold and 
silver coin, and plate to a great amount, a curious two- 
wheeled chaise, the wheels and axletree all of silver ; some 
diamonds, pearls, and precious stones. On board the prize 
was the Viceroy's Secretary, and other persons of distinc- 
tion. To form a proper idea of the immense value of the 
prize, we shall quote the words of a very respectable author, 
viz., Peter Henry Bruce, Esq., who was at Charleston when 
the Conception arrived: 

"Captain Thomas Erankland brought in here a very rich 
Fi'ench prize, whose principal lading consisted in pistoles, a 
few chests of dollars, and a great deal of wrought gold and 
silver. The quantity was so great that the shares were de- 
livered by weight, to save the trouble of counting it, so that 
the pistoles were now seen in greater plenty than the dollars 
had been in Providence ; which could not be very mortifying 
to Governor Tinker, who was thereby deprived of the profits 
accruing from her condemnation, considering Captain Frank- 
land was stationed there. But he met with this mortifica- 
tion in general, as no privateer would we enter with their 
prizes into the harbor of Providence, after the treatment 
that Gibball and Do wall had met with. After all, when the 
cargo was taken out of this prize, and the vessel was to be 
put up for sale, the French Captain told Captain Frankland, 
that if he would engage to reward him handsomely, he would 
discover a hidden treasure to him, which no one ever knew 
of but himself. Captain Frankland engaged to reward him 
very generously, and he did discover thirtv thousand pistoles 
in a place where no one would have thought of finding them. 



70 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

The French Captain afterwards told Governor Glenn, that 
Captain Frankland's generosity consisted only in one thou- 
sand pistoles, a poor reward, he said, for so great a discovery. 
Captain Frankland made another very accidental discovery ; 
he had taken into his service a brisk little French boy, who 
had belonged to the French Captain, who, having a walking 
stick of no value, one of the sailors had taken it from him. 
The boy lamented this loss so much that Captain Frankland 
ordered search to be made for it, to return it to the boy. The 
stick was brought to the Captain, who, seeing it was of no 
value, asked the boy how he could make so mucli ado about 
such a trifle. The boy replied briskly, he could not walk 
like a gentleman and show his airs, without a stick in his 
hand. Upon the Captain's going to return him the stick, he 
gave him a tap on the shoulder with it, and finding something 
rattling inside of it, withdrew to a room by himself, and tak- 
ing off the head of it, he found jewels (according to the 
French Captain's report) worth 20,000 pistoles. The Cap- 
tain had given the stick to the boy when he surrendered, in 
hopes of saving it, imagining no person would take notice of 
such a trifle in the hands of a boy." 

Memoirs of the Prolectoval — House of Cromwell, by 
Mark I^oble, F. A. S. of L. & E., Vol. 2, pp. 434-5, 
Birmingham, 1787. 

Sir Thomas Frankland, the late Baronet, was bora in 
July, 1718, and brought up to the l^aval Department. He 
became a Captain in July, 1740, and in December, 1744, he 
was so fortunate as to take a French ship of great value, off 
the Havannah, with a Spanish register, homeward bound, 
after an engagement of several hours. Upon the death of 
his brother he succeeded to the title of Baronet. He rose 
afterwards to be Vice-Admiral of the Red Squadron of his 
Majesty's fleet, and, as such, was one of the supporters of 
the canopy at his royal highness the Duke of York's funeral ; 
and was afterwards an Admiral of the White. He repre- 
sented the borough of Thirsk in five successive parliaments. 
His lady was ]\Iiss Sarah Rhett, granddaughter of the Chief- 
Justice of South Carolina, in North America, whom he mar- 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. Yl 

ried in that province, in May, 1743. Sir Thomas died at 
Bath ISTov. 21, 1784; he had five sons and eight daughters — 

(1) Henry Frankland, who died an infant. 

(2) Sir Thomas Frankland, the present baronet, of whom 
below. 

(3) Hugh Frankland, who died an infant. 

(4) Will Frankland, fellow of All-Souls, in Oxford, and 
a member of the Society of Gray's Inn. 

(5) Roger Frankland, B.A., a student at Christchurch 
College, Oxford, and designed for the church. 

(6) Mary, married to Sir Boyle Roche, bart. ; there is no 
issue of this marriage. 

(7) Sarah, died young. 

(8) Harriet, unmarried. 

(9) Ann, married March 24, 1778, to John Lewis, of 
Harpton Court, in Radnorshire, by whom she has Thomas 
Frankland Lewis, born May 14, 1779, and Louisa, born July 
8, 1783. 

(10) Dinah, married to Will Bowles, of Heale, Wilts, 
Esq., by whom she had one son, William, and three daugh- 
ters Ann, Lucy, and Charlotte. 

(11) Catherine, married to Thomas Whingates, Esq., an 
officer in India ; their issue is two sons, Thomas and Manners, 
and also several daughters. 

(12) Charlotte, married to Rob. Xichols, of Ashton- 
Ivearns, Wilts, Esq. They have two sons and one daughter, 
Edw. Rob. and Charlotte. 

(13") Grace, who is unmarried. 

Sir Thomas Frankland, the present and sixth Baronet, was 
born in September, 1750, and was educated at Eaton, and 
Merton College in Oxford ; he married Dorothy, the daugh- 
ter of Sir Will Smelt, and niece of Leonard Smelt, Esq., 
Sub-Governor to Gf ^rge. Prince of Wales ; their issue is four 
children. Henry, Rob., Amelia and Marian. 

The history of the family of Frankland is taken from the 
baronetages, various other writers, and corrected and en- 
larged by information whicli I had the honor to receive from 
the late Lord Grantham, the late Sir Thomas Frankland, 
Bart., and the present baronet of that name, the Rev. De- 
C^eenhill, the Rev. Sam Pegge, and Sam Pegge, Esq. It 



72 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

may be necessary to correct a passage in the history of the 
life of the first Sir Thomas Frankland in the Baronetages: 
They say that the Earl of Fauconberg was descended from 
Mary, daughter of the Protector, Oliver; but his Lordship 
married that lady instead of being descended from her, as is 
sufficiently proved in these Memoirs. 

BlOGRAPHIA T\"aVALIS, BY JoHN ChARNOCK, VoL. 5, PP. 18- 

21, Loud, 1797. 

Frankland, Sir Thomas, was a nephew of a baronet of the 
same name, who was for many years one of the commission- 
ers for executing the office of Lord High Admiral. He was 
on the 15th of July, 1740, promoted to the command of the 
Rose frigate; and at the conclusion of the year was ordered 
out to the Bahama Islands, to convey thither Mr. Tinker, 
who had been appointed Governor two years before. After 
he had landed his passenger he continued on the same station, 
being instructed to remain there and cruise for the protec- 
tion of those islands and the adjacent coast from the depre- 
dations of the guarda-costas. In the month of June, 1742, 
he distinguished himself by his activity in capturing a Span- 
ish vessel of that description, together with three vessels 
which she herself had made prizes of a short time before. 

The guarda-costa, which carried ten carriage and as many 
swivel guns, supported by two of the prizes, which were 
armed vessels, engaged the Rose for nearly three hours, but 
finding jier too powerful and too well conducted to afford 
them any hope of ultimate success, the two prizes stood 
away, one keepina; to windward, the other large, with all the 
sail they could crowd. The guarda-costa maintained a run- 
ning fight for an hour longer through the desperation of her 
captain, and even at last, the crew, in opposition to him, 
hauled do^ni the colors and called for quarter. 

Captain Frankland shifted the prisoners with all possible 
expedition, and having ]iut some of his own men, under 
proper officers, on board the prize, dispatched her after the 
vessel which had hauled her wind, he himself following the 
otlier two. So successful was his activitv on this occasion 
that the three vessels were all, without difficulty, captured 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 73 

and carried safely into Carolina. The cause of the obstinate 
defence made by the Spanish vessel was, on enquiry, discov- 
ered to be owing to her Captain being Fandino, the fellow 
who some years before had cut off the ears of Captain Jen- 
kins, and thereby caused so great, so just and general an in- 
digTiation through the whole British nation. Captain Frank- 
land, judging a monster of so cruel a description, who had 
manifested a conduct that would have disgraced a pirate, 
might be released as a prisoner on parole, or even exchanged, 
sent him home to be treated as administration should think 
proper. 

Captain Frankland continued in the same command, and 
remained on the same station some years, but is not again 
particularly mentioned until the vear 1744, when he signal- 
ized himself remarkably in an action with a very large, and, 
as it afterwards proved, valuable Spanish ship, the particu- 
lars we shall insert at length from the account officially 
given of this very spirited encounter. 

Being on his passage to his station as a cruiser between the 
Boques, Cape Florida, and the Pan of Matanzas, on the 
]Srorth sirle of Cuba, about thirty-five leagues to the West- 
ward of TJavannah, on December 21st, just before daylight 
he found himself almost on board a large ship, of which he 
was to windward and astern withall. Captain Frankland, 
who had kept his wind until day-light, then found his antago- 
nist had but one tier of g*uns, but was bv her working, full of 
men, for before the Captain showed his colors she had run 
her courses up, bunted her mainsail, and had everything 
ready to engage, her decks being crowded with people. 
About seven in the morning they began an engagement which 
lasted until half an hour past twelve. There was a fresh 
gale and a great sea, notwithstanding which, they were along- 
side each other three or four times before the enemy struck. 
She had near 100 men killed outright, and four of her guns 
on one side disabled. She is called the Conception, of St. 
Malo, Adrian Mercan, Master, bound from Cartagena to 
Cadiz, bu+ was to touch at Havana to land upwards of 200 
seamen, besides officers. The Rose had only five men killed 
and about ten or twelve dangerously wounded, including the 



74 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

master and several slightly. The cargo of the prize con- 
sisted of hides and cocoa, with seventy chests of gold and 
silver, containing about three hundred and ten thousand 
pieces of eight. She had several passengers on board, from 
whom they got about 5,000 ounces of gold in dollars, pis- 
toles, bars, etc. The crew of the Rose of no more than one 
hundred and seventy-seven men, officers and boys included. 
The prize was safely carried into South Carolina. 

Captain Frankland retained the command of the Rose till 
the month of October, 1746, and was then promoted to the 
Dragon, of sixty guns, in which ship he continued until the 
conclusion of the war, being, in 1748, on the West India 
Station with Mr. Pocock. We do not find any subsequent 
mention made of him till the month of July, 1755, when he 
was appointed Commodore on the Antigua Station. He 
hoisted his broad pennant on board the Winchester, of fifty 
guns, at Spithead, on the lOth day of August, and sailed 
very soon afterwards for the West Indies. On his arrival 
there his first operation was to quarrel with Commodore Pye, 
whom he was sent out to succeed. The first pretence was 
frivolous in the extreme, consisting merely in an exception, 
or affront Mr. Frankland thought proper to take, because the 
former had not struck his broad pennant on the instant he 
was informed of the latter's arrival. 

A second, and, as it proved afterwards, equally futile, and 
indeed unjust cause, was a more serious charge of miscon- 
duct against his predecessor, in having condemned the Ad- 
ince, his own ship. Mr. Prankland asserted this measure to 
have been impro]:)er and made a regular representation 
against it to the Board of Admiralty. In further proof of 
the propriety of his opinon, as if he supposed his own hardi- 
ness sufficient to establish it, he ordered the Advice to be fitted 
for himself, and absolutely went so far as to make a short 
cruise in her. The final event, however, did not reflect any 
great honor on Mr. Frankland's judgment; the ship on its 
return to Eno'land, proved so very defective and unfit to keep 
the sea, that it was with the utmost difficulty the crew could, 
by frapping her around with hausers and every other precau- 
tion, prevent her from almost literally falling to pieces during 
her passage. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. T5 

Mr. rrankland, after his return to England, appears no 
more in the character of a l^aval Commodore. In the month 
of June, 1756, he was advanced to be rear-admiral of the 
Blue, as he was progressively afterwards, through the differ- 
ent gradations and ranks of flag-ofl&cers, till he at last arrived 
at that of Admiral of the White, the highest in the service, 
the Admiral of the fleet, or senior admiral on the list ex- 
cepted. On the death of his brother, Sir Charles Erankland, 
at Bath, in the year 1768, he succeeded to the title, and con- 
tinued during his life totally abstracted from all public busi- 
ness, further than his occasional attendance in the House of 
Commons, as representative for the borough of Thirsk, in 
Yorkshire, for which place he had been member ever since 
the year 1749. Sir Thomas died at Bath on the 21st No- 
vember, 1784. 



76 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 



INTRODUCTION TO BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES AND 
OTHER CO-INCIDENT MATTERS. 



It is the object of the publishers of the ISTorth Carolina 
Booklet to enter on its pages short sketches of the lives and 
times of those men and women of the State who have contrib- 
uted to its columns, from its inception to the present. To the 
memory of those writers who have passed from earthly exist- 
ence and to those who are living, the ISTorth Carolina Society 
Daughters of the Revolution owe a debt of gratitude. And 
in no way can they better show their appreciation than by 
recording their names among those other historians of the 
State who have helped to preserve its history, for in these 
individual records may be found available material, bearing 
on important periods, which may aid the future historian. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 77 

MAJOR GRAHAM DAVES, A.B. 



BY MRS. E, E. MOFFITT. 



Major Graham Daves was the first to contribute an article 
for the ISTorth Carolina Booklet, which first number appeared 
in May, 1901. 

He chose for his subject '^Virginia Dare," she being the 
first English child born in America — a fitting subject for a 
magazine issued imder the auspices of the North Carolina 
Society ''Daughters of the Revolution," edited by women, 
and the proceeds to memoralize the heroism of women. It is 
also a noteworthy fact that the first expeditions for discovery 
and exploration were sent out under the orders of the Virgin 
Queen, that the new-found country was called Virginia in 
her honor, and that these first colonists having landed upon 
the Island of Roanoke were first greeted by the wife of Gran- 
ganimeo, the Indian king, with all hospitality, and "enter- 
taining them with all love and kindness." All of this no 
one can gainsay that women helped to form the preface to 
our history, and to v^^hich facts Major Daves has made special 
mention. 

Graham Daves was bom in ISTew Bern, IT. C, July 16, 
1836. He was the third son of John Pugh Daves and Eliza- 
abeth Batchelor Graham, his Avife, and grandson of Captain 
John Daves, who served in the Third Regiment of the IsTorth 
Carolina Continental Infantry. His father died when he was 
about two years old. He attended school at the ISTew Bern 
Academy ; and at the age of fifteen he was placed as a cadet 
of the Maryland Military Academy, where he remained for 
two years. In 1853 ha entered Trinity College, Hartford, 
Conn., from which he graduated in July, 1857. 

After his graduation he read law with Judge Richmond 
M. Pearson, afterwards Chief Justice of North Carolina. 



78 THE NORTH CAROLIXA BOOKLET. 

On January 1, 1859, was appointed Private Secretary to 
Hon, John W. Ellis, Governor of i^orth Carolina, his brother- 
in-law. He held this position until the outbreak of the War 
between the States. He joined the Confederate army, serv- 
ing faithfully as Lieutenant, Adjutant, Assistant Adjutant- 
General, Captain, Major, and Aide-de-Camp, filling all of 
these positions with honor to himself and fidelity to his coun- 
try. The field of his activity extended from Virginia to 
Mississippi during the whole war. He was paroled April 26, 
1865, at Greensboro, N. C. 

Returning to his home in ]^ew Bern, 'N. C, he was occu- 
pied at different times in mercantile and other active pur- 
suits. Major Daves married on November 27, 1862, Alice 
Lord DeRosset, of Wilmington, JST. C, daughter of Dr. 
Armand DeRosset — Mrs. Daves died on September 2, 1897 ; 
their only child, a boy, died in infancy. 

Major Graham Daves retired from active business in 1891 
and devoted himself to the study of ISTorth Carolina history, 
bringing into exercise those talents mth which he was so 
richly endowed. He worked diligently to reorganize the 
dormant North Carolina branch of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, and on April 4, 1896, he realized the consummation 
of his hopes ; in grateful recogTiition of this service he was 
elected honorary member of the order, and remained its 
faithful devotee to the day of his death. He was also a 
member of the ISTorth Carolina Society of Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, and Association of United Confederate Veterans. To 
other patriotic organizations he was equally devoted. As 
President of the "Roanoke Colony Memorial Association" no 
one could have accomplished more than he. This Association 
was instituted to commemorate the first English settlement in 
America — 'and to this day the outlines of Fort Raleigh are 
distinctly visible and the angles are now permanently marked 
by granite pillars. 



THE XORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 79 

On the site of the old fort stands a monument erected by 
this Association, the base of which is IS^orth Carolina granite 
and the tablet of Virginia granite. The tablet bears the 
following inscription: "On this site, in August, 1585, the 
colonists sent from England by Sir Walter Raleigh built the 
fort called the Xew Fort in Virginia," 

The monument was dedicated with appropriate religious 
exercises on 28th of November, 1901, and an address was 
delivered by Major Daves, embodying the following facts : 
that these colonists were the first settlers of the English race 
in America; they returned to England in 1586 ^\dth Sir 
Francis Drake; here was born on the 18th of August, 1587, 
Virgia Dare, the first child of English parents born in 
America, the daughter of Ananias Dare and Eleanor White, 
his wife, members of another body of colonists sent out by 
Sir Walter Raleigh in 1587. Two days after her birth she 
was baptized. Manteo, a friendly chief of the Hatteras In- 
dians, had been baptized a few days before. These baptisms 
were the first celebrations of the Christian sacrament in the 
territory of the thirteen original United States. 

Major Daves was a recognized type of the Southern gentle- 
man of the old regime, and those who knew him can never for- 
get his patrician military bearing and courtly manners. 

He contributed many articles of historical value to the col- 
umns of various periodicals. He died in Asheville (where 
he had gone seeking restored health) on October 27, 1902. 
Mourned by a large circle of admiring friends, well deserving 
of honor is the memory of this pure-minded scholar and 
writer, whose name will go down to posterity as a master 
spirit in the re^dval of interest in the history of his native 
State. 

(The above facts are chiefly condensed from a sketch of Major Daves in the Minutes 
of the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati for 1903.) 



Genealogical Department 

floRTH CARoiiifiA Society 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



iiiiii 



YOUR ANCESTRY CAN BE CAREFULLY TRACED 



The Colonial Records of North Carolina, Records of different States 
and Counties, family papers, State histories and biogra- 
phies will be diligently examined for parties de- 
siring to have their ancestry traced. 



Fee for Such Researches, $5.20 for 
each Line Traced. 



Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mrs. Helen DeBerniere Wills. 
(Genealogist for N. C. D. R. and Raleigh Circle Colonial Dames.) 

Raleigh, North Carolina. 



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Burnt on Wood, $3.00. Painted, $3.00. 

India Ink Dravcing, $3.00. 

For Coats of Arms, etc., address, 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

"Midway Plantation," 
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Vol. I 

"Colonial New Bern," Sarah Beaument Kenneday. 
"Greene's Retreat," Prof. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vol. II 

" Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

" Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War." Judge Walter Clark. 

"Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. ClewelL 

" Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

"The Revolutionary Congresses." Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

" Raleigh and the Old Town of B'oomsburg." 

"Historic Homes," Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hays, Rodman, Blount^ 

Dillard. 
"Historic Homes. The Groves, Cape Fear, Wakefield," Burgwyn, 

Waddell. Haywood. 
"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 
" Signal and Secret Service." Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 
" Last Days of the War " Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

" Volunteer State Tennei^see as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

" Historic Hillsboro, Mr. Francis Nash 

"Was Alamance First Battle of the Revolution?" Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 

" Governor Charles Eden," Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

" Colony of Transylvania." Judge Walter Clark 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina" Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL D. 
" Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. 1776," Prof. M. C. S Noble. 
"North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

" Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780 " Major Wm. A. Graham. 

" Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

"Convention of 1788." Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

" North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence," John Penn 
and Joseph Hewes. by T M Pittman, of Walter Sikes. 

" Expedition to Cartagena. 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 

" First English Settlement in America," W. J. Peele. 

"Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

" Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585." Prof. Collier Cobb. 

"Highland Scotch Settlement in N. i;.," Judge James C. McRae. 

"The Scotch-Irish Settlement." 

" Battle of Guilford < Jourt-House and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 



Vol. 1, single copies 25c.; Vols. 2, 3, 4, single copies 15c. 



1 

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R. D. W. CONNER, Secretary, . . Raleigh. N. C. 

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THOMAS W. BLOUNT Roper, N. C. 



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but if these cannot be sectired, arrayigements will 
be made to have certified copies made without cost 
to the owners. The possessors of siich documents 
are urged to co-operate with the Cotnmission in 
their efforts to preserve a?id rerider available the 
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Vol. VI. 



OCTOBER, 1906 



No. 2 



U/?e 



NortK Carolina Booklcl: 




GREAT EVENTS 



IN 



NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS of the REVOLUTION 



CONTENTS 

The Borough Towns of North Carolina 

By Francis Nash 

Governor Thomas Burke ----- 

By J. G. dt Roulhac Hamilton, Ph. D. 

Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History 
By Col. Fred. A. Olds 

The N. C Society D. R. and its Objects 
Biographical and Genealogical Sketches 
By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 

(ILLUSTRATED) 



Page 
83 

103 

123 

146 
151 



SINGLE NUMBERS 35 CENTS 



$1.00 THE YEAR 



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KSTKMKb IN THl': fOST Ol'FI CK AT HAI.ElOil, X, C, AM .-JECONU-t LA..SS .U^TTEU. 



The North Carolina Booklet. 



Great Events in North Carolina History. 



VOLUME VL 



Glimpses of History in the Names of our Counties, 

Kemp. P. Battle, LL. D. 
A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), Mr. James Sprunt. 

The Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina, Richard Dillard, M. D. 
Gov. Thomas Burke, . . . Mr . J . G . de Roulhac Ham.Uton . 
Some North Carolina Histories and their Authors, 

Professor Edward P. Moses. 
The Borough Towns of North Carolina, . . Mr. Francis Nash. 

The John White Pictures, Mr. W.J.Peele. 

Gov. Jesse Franklin, .... Professor J. T. Alderman. 

Industrial Life in Early North Carolina, . . Mr. T. M. Pittman. 
Colonial and Revolutionary Costumes in North Carolina, 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 
North Carolina's Attitude to the Revolution, Mr. Robert Cowan Strong. 
The Fundamental Constitutions and the Effects on the Colony, 

Mr. Junius Davis. 

The BOOKI^ET will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 
who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. Moflfitt. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 
biography, history and gexiealogy. 



The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North Carolina 
Society of the Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1906. Each Booklet will contain three articles and will be published 
in July, October, January and April. Price, |i.oo per year, 35 cents for 
single copy. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for 
Vol. VI, are requested to notify at once. 

Address, 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 
"Midway Plantation," 
Editors: Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



Vol. VI. OCTOBER, 1906. No. 2 



IShe 



J^ORTH CflROIimfl BoOKIiET 



^^Carolma! Carolina! Heaven'' s blessings atteyid her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and deferid her. ' ' 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editobs. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 

Mrs. Spiek Whitakee. Mbb. T, K. Beunee. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Me. K D. W. Connoe. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Professor E. P, Moses. Dr. Richard Dillaed. 

De. Kemp P. Battle. Me. James Speunt. 

Mr. IMarshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Clabk. 

EDITORS : 
Miss Maey Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, 

1906-1908. 

regent : 
Mrs. E. E. moffitt. 

vice-regent : 
-Mrs. WALTER CLARK. 

honoeaey regent: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 
{Nee Hooper.) 

RECORDING SECRETARY: 

Mrs. J. W. THACKSTON. 

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Mrs. W. H. PACE. 

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Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

Mrs. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 

GENEALOGIST : 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

REGENT 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

REGENT 1902-1906: 
Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

* Died December 12, 1904. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



Vol. VI OCTOBER. 1906 No. 2 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



BY FRANCIS NASH. 



Human progress — human life, indeed — is so much the re- 
sultant of the impact of external forces upon peoples or 
individuals, that freedom of action, to say nothing of free- 
dom of thought, is rather ideal than real, and can he attained 
only approximately, never absolutely. We inherit our tem- 
perament, our tastes, and our aptitudes; so much so that 
quite frequently the habits of our ancestors become instincts 
to us. We are also, to some degree, creatures of our training 
and environment, and as members of society we are subject 
to the will of that society, whether expressed in its legislation 
or in its unwritten law — public opinion. But man and 
nations struggle to attain this ideal freedom, and the result 
of this struggle, on the whole, is progress. In this struggle 
are two opposing forces — radicalism and conservatism — and 
these are but the outward expression of two instincts that 
are common to all humanity — ^the desire for the new, and 
the love of the old. In the action and interaction of these 
forces is found safety; for radicalism unchecked by conserv- 
atism is destructive, while conservatism uninspired by radi- 
calism is stagnant. 

The erection of little hamlets into boroughs, or franchised 
towns, in our early colonial history, is an instance of con- 
servatism which had become stagnant. As, regardless of 
beauty, privacy and utility, the colonists located their resi- 
dences on the street lines of these towns, because their ances- 
tors had done the same in crowded England or Scotland, so 



84 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

these little commimities of twenty or thirty families must 
be franchised because the greater towns of England had been. 
Thus the influence of inherited tastes, aptitudes and manners 
proved stronger than common sense. 

It is my purpose in this article to deal with these towns as 
political entities. I could by no possibility compress within 
the limits of a Booklet article any satisfactory account of 
their social, industrial and educational life and progress. 

In England, before representative goveiTnnent was estab- 
lished, the term "borough" bore the sigTiification of a pledge; 
that is, when a number of men congregated in a community, 
thus forming a village or a town, that tovm or village became 
responsible for the acts of its inhabitants — became, in other 
words, a borough or pledge for their good conduct. 

Later, as the merchants increased in wealth, and through 
that wealth acquired power, the monarch conferred the fran- 
chise upon these to\viis, both as a reward for services ren- 
dered and that there might be some check upon the over- 
weening arrogance of the landed gentry. 

It is well kno"\vn that the first successful struggle for liberty 
in England was that of the lords and barons against the arbi- 
trary power of the King; the second was that of the com- 
mercial classes against the tyranny of the aristocracy. In the 
latter struggle the King was on the side of commerce ; and 
so trade, tlirough these franchised towns, was represented in 
Parliament. The system itself thus forms part of the great 
scheme of checks and balances upon which the English Con- 
stitution is builded. In England it was a necessary safe- 
guard against the encroachments of a landed aristocracy, and 
90 constitutes one of the landmarks in man's progress towards 
civil liberty. In the Province of North Carolina, however, 
while in a sense there was a landed aristocracy, in no sense 
was there any appreciable commerce. 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 85 

The Board of Trade, September 8, 1721 (2 C. R, 419), 
writes thus to the Secretary: 

''There are great tracts of good land in this province, and 
it is a very healthy country, but the situation renders it for- 
ever incapable" (it must be remembered that this was before 
the day of railroads and river and harbor bills) "of being a 
place of considerable trade, by reason of a great sound, near 
sixty miles over, that lies between this coast and the sea, 
barred by a vast chain of sand-banks so very shallow and 
shifting that sloops drawing only five-foot water run great 
risk of crossing them. The little commerce, therefore, driven 
to this colony is carried on by very small sloops, chiefly from 
INTew England, who bring them clothing and ironware in 
exchange for their pork and corn, but of late they have made 
small quantities of pitch and tar, which are first exported to 
Xew England and thence to Great Britain." 

Besides, in j!^orth Carolina the few merchants were almost 
without exception also land owners. If they resided in these 
towns their slaves, under the direction of an overseer, culti- 
vated their plantations near by. Indeed, the merchants were 
as much a part of the aristocracy of the province as the land 
cwners or the lawyers. In addition to this, the representa- 
tion of these boroughs was quite frequently in the hands of 
lawyers and others whose interest in trade was only secondary. 

The right to confer the franchise upon a town was part of 
the King's prerogative. At first, however, it was not asserted ; 
New Bern, Bath, Edenton, Wilmington and Brunswick being 
created boroughs by act of the Assembly (23 S. R., pages 79, 
133, 251 and 398). Section 31 of the Act of 1715 reads 
thus : '"For the further encouragement of this town of Bath, 
and all other towns now or hereafter built within this govern- 
ment, it shall and may be lawful for the freeholders of said 
town of Bath, and of all other towns now or hereafter built 
or to be built within this government, at all times hereafter, 



86 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

when representatives or burgesses are to be chosen for the 
precinct wherein the town lies, to elect one burgess to repre- 
sent the same in all succeeding Assemblies: Provided, that 
this election for members of Assembly to serve for the town 
of Bath, or any other town whatsoever, shall not begin nor 
commence till such town shall have at least sixty families." 
In the next section, however, New Bern is allowed to send 
a representative, regardless of the sixty-family provision. In 
the time of Governor Dobbs, 1754, the King's prerogative to 
confer this privilege was asserted and established. (5 0. E., 
pages 406-7; see also 6 C. R., page 752, and 23 S. R., page 
251.) 

There were some variations in the qualifications of voters 
in these towns. Stated generally, they must have been house- 
holder or freeholder residents for some definite period — in 
some instances three and others six months. (23 S. R., pages 
133 and 140.) To be eligible as a burgess, one must have 
been a freeholder, but not necessarily a resident. 

It was only at the beginning of their existence that any of 
them could have been considered pocket boroughs, in the 
sense that a single man or family could dispose of an election 
to the Assembly from them. Later, indeed, the elections in 
many instances were hotly contested and the majorities were 
very small. 

Bath. — Though New Bern was the first town to be repre- 
sented in the General Asembly,Bath was the oldest to^m in the 
province. It was laid off in 1705, but was not represented until 
after 1715. Of the borough towns, therefore, Bath shall be 
considered first. Rev. William Gordon, an intelligent mis- 
sionary, gives us this account of Bath County and town in 
1709 (1 0. R., page 715) : 

^'Bath County contains most of that laud which lies to the 
southward of Albemarle Sound to Pamlico River and thirty 
or forty miles more southerly to the Neuse River, which 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 87 

(being but lately peopled by a few Frencb who left Virginia) 
is not laid down on the draft. They have divided the whole 
county into three precincts or parishes, though the inhabitants 
of all are but equal in number to any one of the other, most 
of which are seated on Pamlico River or its branches. Here 
is no church, though they have begun to build a town called 
Bath. It consists of about twelve houses and is the only town 
in the whole province. They have a small collection of books 
for a library, which were carried over by Rev. Dr. Bray, and 
some land is laid out for a glebe, but no minister would ever 
stay long in the place, though several have come hither from 
the West Indies and other plantations in America ; and yet I 
must own it is not the unpleasantest part of the country — 
nay, in all probability it will be the center of a trade, as 
having the advantage of a better inlet for shipping, and sur- 
rounded with the most j)leasant of savannahs, very useful for 
stocks of cattle." In 1711 that picturesque misfit of a par- 
son, John Urmston, styled it the most obscure, inconsider- 
able place in the country. He wanted Dr. Bray's library, 
though, and was provoked at its location at Bath, (1 C. R., 
page 772.) During the Indian outbreak of 1711 that town 
was in very serious danger, but it was protected by a stock- 
aded fort and a small garrison, so its inhabitants were not 
massacred, though in much alarm. (1 C R., 826.) In 1714, 
Mr. Urmston again writes : "We expect to hear that famous 
city of Bath, consisting of nine houses, or rather cottages, 
once styled the metropolis and seat of this government, will 
be totally deserted ; and yet I cannot find means to secure 
that admirable collection of books sent in by the Rev. Dr. 
Bray for the use of the ministers of this province, but it will 
in all probability ser\'e for a bonfire to the Indians. (2 C. R., 
144.) 

Dr. Bray had been a missionary to the province and had 
married Martha, daughter of Thomas Pollock, the elder. He 



88 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

is said to have been learned and to have originated the first 
systematic movement in the Church of England for missions 
to the dependencies of Great Britain. When he returned 
home in 1699 he sent a few of his own books to the colony, 
and the following year, 1700, was instrumental in having 
others sent over. (1 C. R., 572.) The Assembly, in 1715, 
enacted an elaborate law to secure this library. (23 S. R., 
76 et seq.) It, however, shared the fate of all such enter- 
prises in communities where there are few readers and no 
book lovers. Commenting on this act in 1731, Grovernor 
Burrington said: ''This, though a long act, only concerns a 
town where little improvements have been made, and for 
securing a small library that was too much embezzled before 
the act was made." (3 C. R, 187.) 

At its foundation there were some anticipations of a future 
greatness which have never been realized. In 1716 the Pro- 
prietors made it a seaport town, with the privileges of the 
same. It was the county-seat of Bath County, and many of 
the prominent officials of the province lived in its neighbor- 
hood, including Tobias Knight and Teach, the pirate. It 
was badly located, however (on sixty acres of land lying on 
Old Town Creek, a short tributary on the north side of Pam- 
lico River), and was crowded to the wall first by ISTew Bern 
and then by Beaufort and Washington. For these reasons, it, 
in its best estate, grew slowly, and never at any time became 
an important point. It has long since ceased to be more than 
a memory. It was disfranchised by the Constitution of 1776. 
The following is a list of its representatives, so far as they 
can now be ascertained, to the adoption of the State Consti- 
tution : 

Roger Kennion, John Lahey, Rog^r Kennion, Robert Tur- 
ner, Richard Rigby, Robert Turner, Michael Coutanche, 
Wyriot Ormond, Michael Coutanche, Robert Palmer, Wyriot 
Ormond, Patrick Gordon, John Maule, Wyriot Ormond and 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 89 

William Brown. The latter also represented Bath in each 
of the four Provincial Congresses or Conventions. 

Xew Bern. — I^ew Bern was, from DeGraffenreid's own 
narration, the child of his sorrow. Hunger and starvation, 
disease and death preyed upon the Palatines after their arrival 
in the province in 1710, and when he came later in the same 
year Avith his Bernese he found them in despair. "I cannot," 
said he (1 C. P., 910), "enough insist on the wretched and 
sorrowful state in which I found these poor people on my 
arrival — nearly all sick and at the last gasp, and the few who 
had kept their health despairing entirely." Mrs. Kennedy 
thus beautifully describes the tongue of land on wliich they 
had been located : "A long point of land, bounded north and 
south by a strip of shining river ; and on this land a virgin 
forest, draped in long, gray moss; here and there a tangle 
of vines, a rainbow blending of parti-colored blossoms, with 
brilliant grosbeaks and red-winged blackbirds darting like 
living flowers through the golden sunshine, leaving a trail of 
song behind, or whip-poor-wills and chuck-will-widows calling 
wistfully to each other through the lonesome darkness. And 
out beyond the apex of the tongue of land the two rivers, 
blended into one wide current, flowing ceaselessly to the dis- 
tant waiting sea." Over this beautiful scene hovered the 
Angel of Death. Many of these recent comers from the purer 
atmosphere of the Upper Rhine and the mountains of Switz- 
erland were prostrated by the fever that lurked in the low- 
grounds and swamps which surroimded them. The coming 
of DeGraffenreid with his Sivitzers, however, inspired the 
dejected colonists with new life, and they entered more heart- 
ily into the improvement of their surroundings. The town 
of ]^ew Bern was founded and many settlements were cleared 
about it. They were beginning, as their crops were maturing 
the following year, 1711, to look with hope to the future, 
when the Indians in overwhelming force burst upon them, 



90 THE NOETH CAROLI]?^A BOOKLET. 

massacred eighty of them and carried twenty or more off 
into captivity. During the rest of that war they were lit- 
tle troubled by their savage foes, DeGraffenreid, himself 
escaping death and imprisonment, had made a treaty with 
them, by which his colonists would be exempt from attack so 
long as they remained neutral in the war, which in a desul- 
tory way continued four years longer. Financial and other 
troubles coming thick upon DeGraffenreid, he, after making 
over all his property to Thomas Pollock, left his colonists 
and the country, and they (the Palatines and Swiss) being 
scattered about the section, lost their distinctive organization. 
In 1715 the town was franchised, and in 1723 it was incor- 
porated and its limits extended to include 250 acres. A 
curious provision of this law was contained in section 7 : ''If 
any person or persons shall die possessed of any of said lots 
without leaving heir or Avithout making a will of the said lot, 
then and in such case the absolute fee to the same shall come 
and revert to said Cullen Pollock, his heirs and assigns, for- 
ever." 

The Assembly for the first time met in 'New Bern in 1738. 
The seat of government was fixed there in 1746. (23 S. E., 
252.) This, however, did not mean that the Governor was 
to reside there, nor that he could not call the Assembly to- 
gether at another place. It will appear later that it met at 
other places after this period. Indeed, until Tryon came, 
New Bern seems not to have been a favorite of any of the 
Governors. Johnston was evidently partial to the new town, 
Wilmington on the Cape Pear, while Dobbs, living at Bruns- 
wick, did all he could to make that an important place. New 
Bern, despite of this, continued to grow in population and to 
thrive commercially, and when the Tryon Palace was com- 
pleted in 1770 it became the political metropolis of the prov- 
ince. The following were its burgesses to the adoption of the 
Constitution: Walter Lane, Samuel Powell, Walter Lane, 



THE BOEOUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 91 

George Bould, William Wilson, John Cariithers, Jeremiah 
Vail, Solomon E,ew, James Davis, Joseph Leech, Alexander 
Emslej, Richard Caswell, Christopher ISTeale, and in the first 
Convention Abner ISTash and Isaac Edwards; second idem, 
Abner ISTash, James Davis, William Tisdale and Richard 
Ellis ; third idem, Abner ISTash ; fourth idem, Abner IT ash. 

Edenton. — The To^vne on Queen Anne's Creek was estab- 
lished by an act of the Assembly in 1712. There a court- 
house was to be built and a house to hold the Assembly in. 
In 1722 it was incorporated as the town of Edenton. It was 
located in what was then the best settled and the most pros- 
perous section of the province. And thus it continued for 
many years, but, the center of population moving further west 
and south, it was found too much out of the way to remain a 
political capital. So much culture, wealth and ability were 
grouped about it, however, that no community had so great 
an influence upon affairs in the province, and later, in the 
founding of the State, as Edenton. Men like Samuel John- 
ston, Thomas Jones, Joseph Hewes, James Iredell and others 
could scarcely be found elsewhere in jSTorth Carolina, or, if 
found, had not formed themselves into a compact and efficient 
coterie. From 1720 to 1738 the Assembly met in Edenton. 
In 1738 and 1739 it met in ISTew Bern. It resumed its sit- 
tings in Edenton in 1740, but in 1743 was the last of its meet- 
ings in that place. The following were its burg-esses to 1777 : 

Thomas Parris, Robert Lloyd, William Williams, Charles 
Westbeer, William Badham, James Craven, Samuel Still- 
well, Thomas Barker, Joseph Hewes, Samuel Johnston, Jos- 
eph Hewes, Samuel Johnston, Joseph Hewes, and Joseph 
Hewes, in all of the Provincial Congresses, with Jasper 
Charlton with him in the second Congress. 

Wilmington. — If there was any section of ISTorth Caro- 
lina that vied with Edenton in culture and wealth, it was the 
Cape Eear section. Governor Johnston, writing of the in- 



92 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

habitants of this section, December 24, 1734, says: "They 
are a very sober and industrious set of people and have made 
amazing progress in their improvement since their first set- 
tlement, which was about eight years ago. As proof of this 
I find by the Collector's books forty-two ships went loaded 
from this river within these twelve months last past. There 
are now several of them planting mulberries for raising of 
raw silks, and cultivating vines for producing wine, in 
which they seem very expert. Some few are likewise making 
attempts for oil from the olive and from divers sorts of nuts 
and seeds which grow almost spontaneously here, for all which 
both climate and soil seem wonderfully adapted." 

The little hamlet of i^e^^^on existed as early as 1732, and 
Grovernor Johnston opened a land office there on the 13th of 
May, 1735. It was incorporated in March of that year (4 
C. R., page 43). Governor Johnston became the patron of 
this little town, very much as Governor Dobbs afterwards be- 
came the patron of Brunswick and Governor Tryon of Hills- 
boro. He o\^^led lands adjoining it on the northeast, and in 
1739 had it incorporated as a town under the name of Wil- 
mington, and made a borough (23 S. R., page 133). It was 
found necessary to include in the borough those who resided 
out of the limits of the town "between the bounds of said town 
upwards and Smith's Creek, and within 120 poles of the 
northeast branch of the Cape Fear River," and who should be 
the inhabitant of a brick house of the length of thirty feet 
and width of sixteen feet. It was through Governor Johnston's 
influence that one session of the Assembly was held at Wil- 
mington in 1741 and one session in 1746. During his long 
administration, with these exceptions and also a session at Bath 
in 1752, the Assembly met at ISTew Bern. Wilmington was 
granted a royal charter, March 5, 1763 (23 S. R., 654.) The 
following were the Burgesses from Wilmington from 1740 to 
1777 : William Farris, Thomas Clark, Lewis DeRosset, Cor- 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 93 

nelius Harnett; to the first Convention, Francis Claji;on; to 
the second, Cornelius Harnett and A. Maclaine ; to the third, 
Cornelius Harnett; to the fourth, William Hooper. 

Brunswick. — The Moores, Maurice and Roger, were the 
founders of Brunswick. It was begun in 1725, but Governor 
Johnston threw his influence in favor of its rival, jSTewton, 
and it was not incorporated until 1745, and was franchised by 
special act of the Assembly in 1754, though it did not contain 
more than twenty families. (5 C. R., 158 and 151.) There 
was for years great rivaliy between Brmiswick and Wilming- 
ton, but the open roadstead of the former, together with the 
better location of the latter, soon settled the fate of both towns. 
The site of Brunswick is known now only from the ruins of 
St. Philip's Church, while Wilmington is a thriving city of 
30,000 inliabitants. The Burgesses of Bnmswick to its dis- 
franchisement by the Constitution of 1776, were as follows: 
Maurice Moore, William Dry, Maurice Moore, and in the 
first Convention unrepresented, in the second, Maurice Moore, 
in the third, the same, in the fourth, Parker Quince. 

Halifax. — This town was incorporated in 1757. The 
Assembly applying the old Bath to^vn 60 family law of 1715, 
admitted Stephen Dewey as Burgess from Halifax in April, 
1760, and again in 1761, Alexander Emsley, but this was 
disapproved in England (6 C. R., 752). In 1764, however, 
a charter was granted to the town by Governor Dobbs, and 
thence forward until 1835 it continued to send Burgesses to 
the General Assembly. It is well known that in and about 
Halifax from 1770 until the Civil War, there continued to 
be many well-to-do and cultured planters and merchants. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War it, too, became an important 
political point, the third and fourth Provincial Conventions 
meeting there. There the first instructions for independence 
were adopted, April, 1776, and there, too, was the birth of 
the State in December of the same year. A session of the 



94 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

Legislature of 1780 was also held in Halifax in 1781. The 
Burgesses of the town from 1764 to the adoption of the Con- 
stitution were: Abner Nash, Joseph Montfort; in the first 
Convention, John Geddy; in the second, Willie Jones and 
Francis Kash ; in the third and fourth, Willie Jones. 

Salisbury. — Salisbury was laid off by William Churton, 
that founder of towus in the middle section of the Province, 
in 1753, although it appears not to have been regularly incor- 
porated until 1770. Governor Tryon, no doubt influenced 
by the inequality of representation between the East and the 
West, created it a borough by charter in 1765 or 1766. The 
Burgesses from it to the adoption of the Constitution of 1776 
were : Jolin Mitchell, John Dunn and Hugh Montgomery ; 
to the first Convention, William Kennon ; to the second, Hugh 
Montgomery and Robert Rowan; to the third and fourth, 
David JSTesbit. 

HiLLSBORO. — In 1754 William Churton laid off a town 
on the north bank of the Eno River, where the great Indian 
tiail crossed it. This town was in 1759 incorporated under 
the name of Childsburg. In 1766 its name was changed to 
Hillsboro. Governor Tryon seemed to be much interested in 
this fiourishing settlement in the back country, and, July 9, 
1770, made it a market to\ATi and borough by charter. He 
has been criticised for tliis, it being said that he franchised a 
little hamlet that his friend, Edmund Fanning, who had 
been defeated by Herman Husband in the county, might have 
a pocket borough to represent in the Assembly. I suppose 
that the desire to have Fanning in the Assembly did influence 
the Governor in thus exercising the royal prerogative, but in 
doing so, he at no point strained the law. Bath, Edenton 
and ISTew Bern were the only boroughs in the province that 
had been franchised by the Assembly. It was attempted in 
the case of Wilmington, BrunsAvick and Halifax, but in each 
case the act of the Assembly was repealed in England, and 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 95 

these boroughs were re-franchised by charter. The old Bath 
60-family act, 1715, had been construed as allowing a town 
with due proof that it contained 60 families to apply to the 
governor for a charter, and thus construed it did not limit the 
King's prerogative, but it did not and could not prevent the 
King or liis viceroy, the Governor, from chartering a town, 
though it might have contained less than 60 families. This 
was done in the case of Salisbury in 1766, a smaller town 
than Hillsboro, It is very probable, too, that the latter 
place, counting free blacks as well as whites, had the full 
complement of 60 families in 1770. The following were the 
Burgesses from Hillsboro to the adoption of the Constitution : 
Edmund Fanning, Francis ISTash ; unrepresented in the first 
Convention ; in the second, William Armstrong and l^athaniel 
Eochester; in the third and fourth, William Johnston. 

Campbelton. — Campbelton was incorporated as a town in 
1762. Being at the head of the navigation of the Cape Fear 
River, and having dependent upon it for a market an exten- 
sive and fertile back country, then rapidly filling up with 
settlers, it was thought that it was one of the most eligible 
localities in the Province for a town. It soon had a rival, 
hoAvever, in the near-by village of Cross Creek, the latter 
seeming to absorb the lion's share of the trade. The Legis- 
lature of 1778, first session, included Cross Creek in Camp- 
belton, and so that village ceased to have a legal existence 
independent of the latter place. Campbelton was made a 
borough by charter in 1773, Martin being Governor. In 
April, 1783, the Legislature, reciting that the said town from 
its convenience to the western settlements and the easy trans- 
portation of goods down the Cape Fear River, must necessa- 
rily become a great mart for the produce of the interior 
country, changed its name to Fayetteville. Campbelton was 
disfranchised by the Constitution of 1776, but Fayetteville 
was franchised by an ordinance of the Convention of 1789, 



96 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

which had met at that place to consider, and, in fact, adopt 
the Federal Constitution. The Burgesses from Campbelton 
to its disfranchisement were: William Hooper, Robert Eow- 
an; in the first Convention it was unrepresented; in the sec- 
ond, James Hepburn; in the third, Arthur Council; in the 
fourth, Thomas Hadley. 

Disfranchisement. — Bath, Brunswick and Carnpbelton 
were disfranchised by the Constitution of 1776, leaving Xew 
Bern, Wilmington, Edenton, Halifax, Hillsboro and Salis- 
bury still boroughs, and as above stated, Fayetteville again 
became a borough town in 1789. The Convention of 183-5 did 
away entirely with all borough representation. The Act of 
January 5, 1835, (the Convention Act,) gave the Convention 
a discretion to abolish borough representation in whole or in 
part. The act itself, thus committing their fate to the Con- 
vention, was enacted by the aid of the borough members. The 
debate in the Convention arose on a resolution of Dr. James 
S. Smith, a representative from Orange and for forty years 
a resident of Hillsboro, in these words : "It is expedient to 
abolish borough representation entirely." Judge Gaston op- 
posed this, because, first, the towns had certain definite and 
distinct interests of their own, which could be adequately pro- 
tected only by their o^vn representatives. In them property 
was in a more concentrated form, and they paid a large pro- 
portion of the taxes of the county in which they were located ; 
second, agriculture was represented through the counties — 
trade and commerce should be represented through the towns ; 
third, boroughs were more apt than the counties to send their 
best men to the Legislature. Later in the same day, June 10, 
1835, he elaborated the second point thus: "It is vain to 
deny that commercial communities have peculiar interests of 
their own. These they must endeavor to protect and ad- 
vance through some agent or other. If we deny them a con- 
stitutional agent, they will be driven to get agents of another 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 97 

kind. If tliey are to liave no member in the hall of legisla- 
tion, thej may be compelled to send you lobby members. 
Heard in the Legislature, they can do no harm. So few in 
number, their voice can be effectual only when it is the voice 
of truth and justice. But when members of the Assembly 
shall be approached through the other agents, means of per- 
suasion may be used of a different character. The intelli- 
gent may indeed be addressed by reason, and the just by fair 
statements — but the uninformed may be misled by falsehood, 
and those whose consciences are in their pockets, may be 
convinced by arguments directed to the seat of their sensi- 
bility." 

These arguments were met by the suggestions, first, repre- 
sentation in the House of Commons was to be based upon 
Federal population. If these small, though compact and 
populous communities, were to be allowed a special repre- 
sentative this principle would have to be disregarded, and as 
a consequence there would be an unequal representation, the 
very evil that the Convention had been called to remedy. 

Second, if there had ever been anything in the doctrine that 
trade and commerce were entitled to special representation, 
the Federal Constitution had removed this by placing inter- 
state and foreign commerce under the care of the Federal 
Government. On this point Mr. Jesse Wilson, of Perqui- 
mans, trenchantly asked: "If it be true that this right of 
representation is essential to the protection of their interests, 
why has not the fostering care of the Legislature, for more 
than fifty years, been able to prevent them from sinking into 
ruin ? Halifax, sir, is gone ; Edenton is gone, and N"ew Bern 
is not far behind." And again: "But, sir, it is said that 
there are mysteries about this trade and commerce that only 
mercantile gentlemen can understand. Why then, sir, do 
they not send merchants, instead of lawyers or doctors ?" 



98 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Third, though it was true that the majority of borough rep- 
resentatives were men of intelligence and character, the coun- 
ties may still avail themselves of the services of such men, so 
the State will in reality lose little in this regard. But what 
seemed to have most weight with the members of the Conven- 
tion was the debauchery and corruption and violence that 
accom23anied nearly all these borough elections. In 1825, in 
a contest between that brilliant, but thoroughly unprincipled, 
firebrand, Robert Potter, and Jesse A. Bynum in Halifax, 
the election became first a free fight and then a riot in which 
one man was killed and a number injured. Dr. Smith said 
in the Convention : ''Has the moral condition of the borough 
towns been improved by the privilege which they possess of 
sending members to the Legislature ? On the contrary, the 
annual elections, it is notorious, in most of the towns are 
productive of feuds, quarrels and bloodshed. Mechanics and 
others are excited by the parties interested in such elections, 
business is neglected, and the morals of the people are cor- 
rupted." This of Hil'lsboro. Mr. Charles Fisher, of Salis- 
bury, said : ''Who has not witnessed the excitement caused 
by these borough elections ? Who has not seen the worst pas- 
sions of our nature brought into active exercise by them ? 
Who has not heard that corruption of the basest kind is fre- 
quently practised to carry a doubtful contest. He knew 
these things and how the whole system worked. Every man 
is known, as are his calling and necessities. His weak side is 
sought out, that he may be successfully approached. Sir," 
(to the Chair, Judge Daniel, of Halifax), "you know all these 
things. Have you not witnessed at the elections in your 
borough scenes of the most violent character, which not un- 
f requently terminated in bloodshed ? Have you not seen 
men pressed for their debts, in order to drive them to pursue 
a course in direct opposition to their convictions of right ? 
Have you not, sir, like myself, seen the elective franchise 



THE BOBOrGH TOWNS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 99 

abused in every variety of form ? * * * X have seen in these 
contests family arrayed against family — carried to the ex- 
tremes of bitterness. I have seen neighbors separated and 
estranged, and social intei'course destroyed. Yes, sir, even 
has this pestiferous influence penetrated the church, and dis- 
turbed its harmony and brotherhood." And then Mr. Hohnes, 
of Wilmington: "But, sir, great as are the evils V7hich he 
(Mr. Fisher) portrayed, they are infinitely magnified in our 
commercial towns. Our population is of a more abandoned 
cast. We have more dependent and more pliable materials 
to work upon. He alluded to seamen and others who went 
to their employers to know how they should vote, l^othing 
was more common than a day or two before the election to 
house the voters as they housed their cattle. This was no 
extravagance ; he had participated in these contests and knew 
the fact." 

Certainly there could not have been a more forcible arraign- 
ment of the whole system than this, and it proved effective, 
notwithstanding it was opposed by such able men as Gaston, 
Swain, Daniel and Toomer. These sought to save from the 
general wreck of the borough towns, Edenton, JSTew Bern, 
Wilmington and Fayetteville, but could not. After debating 
the question for two days, it was, on June 11, 1835, referred 
to a committee of 26, at whose head was Governor Swain. 
That committee reported on June 23 in favor of the franchise 
for Edenton, ]N^ew Bern, Wilming-ton and Eayetteville. The 
report, after discussion on the 25th, was disagreed to by a vote 
of 50 yeas to 73 nays, and so, though other votes were taken 
with the same result, all these towns were disfranchised. 

Mr. Wilson, of Perquimans, said irreverently in the debate : 
"The monkey is not the only imitative animal. Men are 
equally so. Our forefathers scarcely touched this soil before 
they began to exercise this imitative faculty. You have seen, 
sir, little misses dressing their dolls, and boys switching their 



100 THE NORTH CAKOLIlSrA BOOKLET. 

stick horses. Like them in the exercise of imitative powers, 
our fathers, to ape Great Britain with her Manchester, her 
Birmingham, and her Liverpool, gave the right of representa- 
tion to Halifax, to Edenton, and to Hillsboro." However 
defective Mr. Wilson's knowledge of history may have been, 
it must be admitted that there is some truth in his assertion. 
The fact that neither Bimiingham nor Manchester was a 
franchised town until after the Reform Bill became a law in 
1832, may impeach his accuracy, but it detracts little from 
the force of his remarks. 

From the Lords Proprietors' day to the beginning of the 
Civil War, those in authority in JSTorth Carolina continued 
to deplore the lack of an adequate seaport. Among the 
earliest of the Proprietors' instructions was one requiring the 
establishment of three to^wns in the Colony. In addition to 
what has already been said of the physical difficulties in the 
way of such a project, was this, which has been suggested by 
Capt. S. A. Ashe: In the early days the small vessels ply- 
ing to colonial ports could readily approach the private 
wharves of the rich planters, thus rendering the concentra- 
tion and regulation of trade difficult. On this account the 
attempt to establish central marts was a failure. This of 
course applies only to the towns on navigable waters. As 
to the interior towns other reasons prevailed. The inhabi- 
tants of the country districts had few interests in common 
with those of the towns. Says Prof. C. L. Raper: "Town 
life never became very attractive to many of the colonists of 
N^orth Carolina, and what few towns there were became much 
more important as centers of political activity than they did 
of commercial, industrial or social life. They were centers 
of local government, and often of political conflicts. They 
were places where a few products were bought and sold — not 
places of their making. The surplus products of the farms 
for miles about them were taken there and exchanged for 



THE BOROUGH TOWNS OF NOKTH CAROLINA. 101 

a few simple articles, salt being a very important one, and 
now and then converted into currency. At times they were 
the centers of religious devotion and of intellectual life. 
There churches were erected, but during the last fifty years 
of the province more places for religious worship were to 
be found in the country than in the towns. Here, too, were 
a few schools and libraries, but there were more in the rural 
districts." 

Of course the making of certain of these towns boroughs 
was, throughout their whole history, intended as a stimulus 
to their growth, but it may well be doubted whether the 
possession of the franchise added anything to their com- 
mercial or industrial development. The Convention of 1776, 
still impressed with the view that commerce, being a special 
interest, was entitled to special representation in the Legis- 
lature, determined to continue the tide-water towns as 
boroughs. Selecting these — ISTew Bern, Wilmington and 
Edenton — there immediately arose a political necessity, in 
order to placate the western interest, to continue an equal 
number of the western to^vas as boroughs. The continuing 
of the franchise to Salisbury, Hillsboro and Halifax was 
probably based wholly on such a compromise as this. By 
1835, however, the people had thoroughly tested the system, 
and no doubt they were wholly right in doing away with it 
forever. 

There is a debt of gratitude that the State owes these towns, 
to which I must refer before I close. They had been recipi- 
ents of special favors from the royal government, and might 
perhaps have been excused for some degree of lukewarmness 
in the controversy between that government and its colonies. 
But they were not lukewarm. Instead, the history of the 
times, properly interpreted, shows that the revolutionary 
movement had its origin in these towns and spread from 
them to the country districts, where, finding excellent food 



102 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

to feed upon, it grew so great as to cover the whole province. 
Wilmington, ISTew Bern and Edenton were the head and front 
of this "sedition and treason," and following immediately 
after them were Halifax, Hillshoro and Salisbury. The 
story of the Revolution in North Carolina would be very 
tame, very fragmentary, very inconclusive, if the part that 
the great men who lived in or about these towns took was 
eliminated from it. They were the men whom Providence 
raised up for the emergency, and without them ISTorth Caro- 
lina would probably have remained a hot-bed of Toryism. 
So we who live to-day may well acknowledge our indebtedness 
to them. 



I 



GOVERNOR THOMAS BURKE. 



BY 

J, G. deRoulhac Hamilton, Ph.D., 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Among those who accompanied William of Xormandy on 
his victorious expedition to England in 1066 were two broth- 
ers, sons of Eustice de Burgo, Serlo and John de Burgo, or^ 
as it soon became, Burke. For their services the Conqueror 
rewarded them with the grant of several manors in York, 
where Serlo built the castle of Knaresborough. Dying with- 
out issue, he was succeeded by his brother John, now called 
Monoculus, on account of the loss of one of his eyes. The 
latter married a i^orman lady of large fortune, Beatrice de 
Vessey by name, and from this union were born two sons, 
James of Knaresborough and Richard the Red. Richard 
had one son, Walter, who in turn was the father of three 
distinguished sons, Haburt, Earl of Kent and Chief Justice 
of England ; Jeffrey, Bishop of Ely ; and William, sumamed 
de Adehnel, who was sent to Ireland by Henry II and was 
given a grant comprising the greater part of the Province of 
Connaught. The line of descent of the branch of the family 
remaining in England must have been lost, as a letter from 
Edanus Burke to Thomas Burke, dated December 2, 1769, 
states that all trace of the family in England had disappeared. 
Of the Irish branches the same -writer states that from the 
similarity of arms^ until 1627 he judged that all were re- 
lated. One of these branches was known as the Burkes of 

^ The arms were as follows : 

The field. Or. Cross-Gules, in the dexter canton, a Lion Eampant, Sable. 

Crest: A wreath, a cat and mountain. Proper. 

Motto: Un Proy, Une foy, Une Loy. 



104 THE ISrORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Tvaquin, after the family estate which had descended line- 
ally since Henry II, and from this branch was born the sub- 
ject of this sketch. 

Thomas Burke, the son of Ulick Burke and Letitia Ould, 
was born in Galway, Ireland, about 1747. Almost nothing 
is kno^^^l of his early life, except that he spent some time at 
a university, probably Dublin. Before he reached manhood 
he became involved in some family quarrel, the particulars 
of which are unkno^vn, and about 1764 he came to Acco- 
mac County, Virginia, and commenced the study and practice 
of medicine. He tells in a letter to an old acquaintance in 
Ireland, a Mrs. Jones, that his proficiency was equal, if not 
superior, to that of most physicians in the colonies, and that 
his success was very great. But the pecuniary rewards were 
small, and he soon found that law would be more profitable 
and of far less responsibility. After pursuing his studies 
for a few months with great earnestness, he was licensed at 
his first examination, and, as he said, ''with great applause." 
At some time during this period he removed to ]SrorfoIk, 
where, in 1770, he married Mary Freeman. 

Soon after this, probably about 1771, he moved to ISTorth 
Carolina and settled in Orange County, about two miles north 
of Hillsboro, on a place which he named Tyaquin, after the 
family place in Ireland. He had already gone to Halifax 
wii'-i D view to settling there, but decided in favor of Hills- 
boro. There he was licensed to practice before the Superior 
Court in March, 1772. In his new home he soon won dis- 
tinction in his profession and made many friends. 

When the relations between the colonies and the mother 
country became strained in consequence of the Stamp Act 
and other measures which the colonies thought oppressive, 
Burke was a strong advocate of American rights. While 
living in Virginia he had written against the Stamp Act. 
Concerning his position he Ma-ote his uncle: "I am and ever 



GOVERNOR THOMAS BURKE. 105 

shall be avowedly a passionate lover of Liberty and Hater of 
Tyranny. The essentials of the former I take to, being gov- 
erned by Laws made with Constitutional consent of the com- 
munity, ultimately Judged by that Community, and enjoying 
and disposing of their property only agreeable to Will, and 
the latter is undeniably anything Subversive of those Privi- 
leges. How far the Stamp Act was so, sufficiently appears 
upon the very face of it." 

Dr. Burke's first official public service was as a member 
from Orange to the Provincial Congress which met in IvTew 
Bern in 1775. He was again a member of the Congress which 
met in Hillsboro August 20, 1775. In the first day's session he 
was placed upon two important committees — the first, to pre- 
pare a test to be signed by all the members of the Cong-ress ; the 
other, to confer with such of the inhabitants of the province 
as might entertain religious or political scruples in regard 
to taking part in the American cause, with a view of in- 
ducing them to unite in the common defence of the rights of 
the province. The test, as prepared and signed, declared 
that the Parliament of Great Britain had no right to impose 
taxes upon the colonies, and that any attempt to do so ought 
to be resisted by the people ; that the people were bound by 
the acts of the Continental and Provincial Congresses, be- 
cause they were representative of them ; and, finally, the 
members bound themselves to support all such acts to the 
utmost of their pow^r. A few days later Burke was placed 
upon the committee to prepare an address to the inhabitants 
of the province. He was also a member of the Ways and 
Means Committee, of which Richard Caswell was chairman. 

Dr. Burke was also a. member of the Congress which met 
in Halifax April 4, 1776. In this body he was on the fol- 
lowing committees : Privileges and Elections ; Claims ; to take 
into consideration the usurpations and violences attempted 
by the King and Parliament of Britain against America, and 



106 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

the further measure to be takeu for frustrating the same; 
and for the better defence of the province ; Ways and Means ; 
to prepare a temporary civil Constitution; to supply the 
province with arms and ammunition; a standing committee 
to form a temporary form of govermnent; and ways and 
means to prevent the desertion of slaves. He was chairman of 
the Committee of Secrecy, Intelligence and Observation, and 
was also on nine minor special committees. On April 12th 
the Committee on Usurpations^ reported a resolution empower- 
ing the delegates of the colony to the Constinental Congress 
to concur with the delegates of the other colonies in declaiming 
independence, reserving for the colony the sole right of form- 
ing a Constitution and laws for the colony, and of appointing 
from time to time delegates to meet those from the other 
colonies in regard to matters of common welfare. This was 
passed unanimously. Before the Congress adjourned Burke 
was elected paymaster of militia for the Hillsboro district. 

Before he went to Halifax the people of Orange had caused 
Burke to sign certain instructions which, it is said, he wrote 
himself, in regard to the form of the proposed new govern- 
ment. In brief, they were as follows : 

1. Political power of two kinds, principal and supreme, derived and 
inferior. 

2. Principal possessed only by the people at large. Derived by their 
servants. 

3. Whatever persons chosen by people can possess only derived power. 

4. Whatever constituted by principal power can be altered only by 
people. 

5. Rules for derived power's exercise made by principal. 

6. No power but principal shall exist. 

7. Derived power never to subvert principal. 

8. Constitution to be submitted to the people. 

9. No established religion. 

10. Three branches of government, Executive, Legislative, and Judi- 
cial, all distinct. 

11. Two houses in Assembly. 

12. All elections by ballot. 

13. Executive elected every year. 



GOVERNOK THOMAS BUKKE. 107 

The election of delegates to the Congress held at Halifax 
in November of the same year was accompanied by great 
tumult, and in consequence a petition was sent up against 
those elected, with a request for a new election. The Con- 
gress at first refused to unseat the sitting members, but later 
rescinded their action and ordered a new election. This was 
probably due in large part to Burke's influence, as he was 
present at the sessions of the body. It is very likely that the 
leaders in the body wished for his presence. When the new 
election was held he was among those elected, and took his 
seat on December 16th. Here, besides being placed on a 
number of minor committees, he was a member of a com- 
mittee appointed to consider, prepare and rej)ort on the busi- 
ness necessary to be transacted by the Congress. The Bill of 
Rights and Constitution adopted at this session is said to 
have been largely the work of Thomas Jones, Thomas Burke, 
and Richard Caswell. 

On December 20th, Burke, with William Hooper and 
Joseph Hewes, was elected a delegate to the Congress of the 
United States. For their services each was allowed the sum 
of $2,000 per annimi. Dr. Burke now resigned his position 
as paymaster of militia, but remained at Halifax until the 
close of the session^ December 23, 1Y76. 

In the Congress Burke seems to have taken quite a promi- 
nent part in the debates, particularly when he thought the 
rights of tlie individual States were threatened. His letters 
express great fear lest an attempt should be made to give 
Congress more power than was compatible with the rights 
of the States. In fact, he was opposed to any forms of gov- 
ernment, not absolutely necessary, being set up until entire 
independence should be secured. 

During the first part of his attendance upon the sessions 
of Congress, Burke wrote regular and full accounts of the 
proceedings to Governor Caswell, but this did not continue. 



108 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

In April, 1T77, he was re-elected. At the same session of 
the General Assembly a new county w^as erected from a part 
of Rowan and was named in his honor.^ 

In the autumn of that year Burke left the sessions of 
Congress for a few days and took part as a volunteer in the 
battle of Brandywine. This adventure of his was the in- 
direct cause of a serious quarrel later. He became convinced 
that the American defeat there was largely due to the ineffi- 
ciency of Gen. John Sullivan, and preferred charges against 
him in Congress. General Sullivan wrote a letter to Con- 
gress containing reflections on Burke, though he was not 
mentioned by name. A correspondence between the two fol- 
lowedj resulting in a challenge from Burke, and seconds were 
named. ^SJ'o meeting was ever brought about, probably on 
account of the distance separating them. 

In October Dr. Burke returned to ISTorth Carolina, and 
on December 1st took his seat as a member of the House of 
Commons, to fill the unexpired term of E^athaniel Rochester, 
who had shortly before resigned to become Clerk of the Court 
of Orange. As usual, Burke seems to have served upon most 
of the important committees. 

It is not known when Burke returned to Philadelphia, but 
he was there by the middle of February, 1778. The pre- 
ceding summer he had recommended the appointment of 
Hand, of Pennsylvania, as an additional brigadier for ITorth 
Carolina, and this excited great feeling among the North 
Carolina troops and in the State. Probably this was the 
reason why he was not re-elected to Congress in April, 1778. 

' There has been some discussion as to whether or not Burke county 
was named for Governor Burke or Edmund Burke. Wheeler says it was 
for the latter, and his statement has usually been accepted. But the 
following extract from a letter of Abner Nash seems final authority on 
the subject : "Our Assembly have paid a compliment to our worthy 
delegate Dr. Burke, which no private man has experienced before. A 
new county taken from Surry {sic) is called for him." 



GOVERNOR THOMAS BURKE. 109 

He was, however, very anxious to get home, and this may 
have had something to do with it, though it is scarcely prob- 
able. But for an incident which occurred in April^ 1778, 
his political career might have closed here. 

The report of a committee of Congress appointed to reply 
to a letter of General Washington contained certain expres- 
sions which seemed to reflect upon Washington. A pro- 
longed and bitter debate followed, in which Burke took an 
active pai-t in opposition to the reply of the committee. The 
opposition was so strong as to secure an amendment to the 
reply. The final vote on the amended reply came late at 
night. It was then discovered that there was no quorum, 
nine votes being necessary, and Dr. Burke, who was worn out 
by the long session, having gone to his lodgings and to bed. 
A messenger was sent for him, and returned with a most 
violent message of refusal to comply with the demand of 
Congress. It turned out that the messenger had not made 
himself clearly understood to Dr. Burke, who thought that 
he was hearing a message from Colonel Duer, of 'New York. 
He repeatedly expressed his regret for his language, but 
when Congress was not inclined to accept his explanation, 
but debated the matter for fifteen days and actually served 
a rule upon him as for contempt, Burke, while acknowledging 
that he had been wrong in absenting himself without the con- 
sent of Congress, which had a right to compel the attendance 
of its members, said : 

" An unreasonable exercise of any power is tyranny and to keep a 
member at such unreasonable hours, and under such circumstances is, 
in my opinion, tyranical, and I will not submit to it but by force upon 
my person. I consider every freeman as having a right to judge for 
himself when the exercise of any power is unreasonable, and if I err in 
my judgment, the power of punishment lies within the State which I 
I represent." 

He further stated that he would regard any attempt of 
Congress to act in the matter as an infringement upon the 



110 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

rights of his State, and that to ISTorth Carolina alone would 
he be responsible. Congress then appealed to the General 
Assembly of JSTorth Carolina, which referred the matter to a 
committee headed by William Hooper. Before the commit- 
tee could report, the Assembly elected Dr. Burke and Whit- 
mel Hill as additional delegates to Congress, thus showing 
where the sympathies of the members were. The committee 
reported, August 14th, exonerating him from all blame and 
agreeing with him that Congress had no power in the matter. 
This naturally closed the incident, 

Burke was again elected in 1779 and 1780. In October, 
1779, he and Whitmel Hill were invit-ed to the State Senate and 
formally thanked by the Speaker for their long and faithful 
service in Congress. The Speaker of the House of Commons 
also expressed the thanks of that body. In May of the same 
year Burke had been elected by the Legislature a trustee of 
Granville Hall, an institution of learning in Granville 
County. 

By this time Burke had become heartily tired of Philadel- 
phia, and in April, 1780, he wrote Cornelius Harnett that 
his health was declining, and, said he : "1 am satisfied that 
another year's close application in Congress would make a 
perpetual citizen in Philadelphia and give me a right to the 
soil from whence nothing short of the final Judgment of the 
World could evict me." 

In the suimner of 1780 Burke returned to Hillsboro. His 
presence at the time was most fortunate, for the conditions 
in the section around Hillsboro were most distressing and 
alarming. General Gates, with the army, was there on his 
way south, and no provision having been made for feeding 
the troops, they subsisted for the most part by foraging and 
impressment. ISTot only was food taken, but there was wan- 
ton destruction of property. Horses and wagons were seized, 
horses were turned into fields of standing grain, and numer- 
ous other outrages were committed, which excited the anger 



GOVEENOR THOMAS BUEKE. Ill 

of the most loyal and roused the slumbering disaffection of 
those already inclined to Toryism. This was increased by 
the insolence and haughtiness of the officials who had charge 
of the matter of procuring supplies. Burke declared that he 
would resist any such injustice with force, and, his neighbors 
appealing to him for advice and assistance, he at once entered 
into correspondence with General Gates and the President of 
Congress, stating that he would see that supplies were fur- 
nished if the people were fairly treated. To him, largely, 
belongs the credit of settling what threatened to be a most 
serious matter. 

On June 25, 1781, the General Asembly which met at 
Wake Court House elected Dr. Burke Governor to succeed 
Abner IN^ash, and he entered upon the duties of his office the 
next day. The Speaker of the Senate, Alexander Martin, in 
his announcement speech, said, among other things : 

" It gives me a particular pleasure to have at the head of the Executive, 
a Gentleman on whose Integrity, Firmness, and Abilities, we can rely with 
confidence at a Time this State is invaded by a cruel Enemy, and threat- 
ened with all the Horrors of War, which to oppose and avert caU for the 
most spirited Exertions of this Country, that Independence and Peace 
be secm-ed to it on a lasting Basis." 

Governor Burke, in expressing his thanlcs and appreciation 

for the honor conferred upon him, said : 

" At any period less difficult, dangerous and critical than the present, 
I should beg leave to decline an office so much above my abilities and 
so illy suiting my private Inclinations and Circumstances. But no con- 
siderations of private convenience or of difficulty or danger shall deter 
me from any duty to which my Country may call me while her aff"airs 
labor under unfavorable Appearances. I therefore consent to take upon 
me the Office and Dignity to which the Honorable the General Assembly 
have been pleased to elect me, and shall entirely devote myself to the 
Establishing of Internal Peace, Order, and Economy and Security from 
External Enemies." 

For the next three months Burke devoted all his energies 
to the task of properly arming and equipping the ISTorth Caro- 
lina troops. He became involved in a disagreement in regard 



112 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

to executive power with the Board of War, but notified them 
that he had the alternative of obeying the Constitution or the 
laws, and preferred the former, and that if he could not 
exercise the powers given him under the Constitution, he 
would immediately resign. This ended the discussion. 

He spent most of the summer in Halifax, but early in 
September came to Hillsboro. When he reached there he 
heard that McISreill and Fanning were advancing with a 
large force against General Butler, who was on Haw River. 
Burke warned Butler, and the Tories were disappointed in 
the main object of their expedition. But they at once turned 
to Hillsboro, and, before daylight on September 12, 1781, cap- 
tured the town. Burke was then residing on Queen street, 
at what is now the residence of Mrs. Edwin Heartt. The 
house was besieged, and Burke, believing that all would be 
massacred if they surrendered, decided to hold out as long 
as possible. After some hot firing, a British officer, brought 
up by Captain Reid, Burke's aid-de-camp, assured him of 
proper treatment and received his surrender. The jail was 
then opened and the town sacked. The party then set out 
for Wilmington. At Cane Creek they were attacked by the 
W^higs, who, if properly led, would have won a decisive vic- 
tory. As it was, a drawn battle was the result. Colonel 
McN^eill was killed and Fanning was wounded. A bit of 
contemporary doggerel on the subject is interesting: 

"The Governor and Council in Hillsborough sought 
To establish some new laws the Tories to stop. 
They thought themselves safe and so went on with their show, 
But the face of bold Fanning proved their overthrow. 
We took Governor Burke with a sudden surprise, 
As he sat on horseback and just ready to ride. 
We took all their cannon and colors in town, 
And formed our brave boys and marched out of town. 
But the rebels waylaid us and gave us a broadside 
That caused our brave Colonel to lie dead on his side. 
The flower of our company was wounded full sore 
' Twas Captain McNeill and two or three more." 



GOVERNOR THOMAS BURKE. 113 

Governor Burke was taken to Wilmington and kept as a 
prisoner of State for some time. From there, in October, he 
wrote to Willie Jones, giving a rather humorous account of 
his uncomfoi-table surroundings. He described his room as 
a grotto in winter and a hot-house in summer, and said it had, 
at first, utterly lacked furniture, but that later he had been 
given a bed and some other furniture by a Mr. William 
Campbell. He stated that, although he was not shut up in a 
seraglio, yet he was as difficult of access as his Majesty of 
Constantinople. The following extracts from his letter seem 
worthy of quotation: 

" My pride if I have any, has this consolation that my most trifling 
movements are considered as dangerous to a Prince who is lord of so 
many brave battalions and so invincible a navy and such inexhaustible 
resources as his Majesty of Great Britain. And this perhaps it is, that 
has restored my good humor. I knew before that I was upon the axle- 
tree of the chariot but never thought that I made much of the surround- 
ing dust. You will no doubt perceive I sometimes smile while I am 
writing, but I beg you not to conclude from thence that I am upon a bed 
of roses and that I may well stay there sometime longer. You know, 
Sir, that tho' I have some firmness, I have also much sensibility of spirit, 
that tho' the one enables me to bear, the other obliges me to feel my 
situation, and with peculiar poignancy, that restraint which prevents 
me from employing such talents as nature has given me, be they what 
they may, for the bringing to a complete and happy Issue the cause in 
which our country is engaged. You know me well enough to believe 
that I cannot lose sight of what I was, nor cease to compare it what I 
now am and what I have the prospect of being if this absurd and vexa- 
tious question ' should be drawn to any length. 

" I will not injure you by thinking it necessary to urge you to hasten 
my exchange. I will only add that the opinion my enemies entertain 
of my power of injuring them ought to have some weight with my coun- 
try since I must be capable of serving her in proportion, but do not take 
this as a promise. I will be assured always to do my best, but the 
Enemy think me capable of more than I ever thought myself, altho' I 
am no pretender to humility, but enough in all conscience on such a 
subject." 

^ Governor Burke was here referring to the difficulties which were 
being put in the way of his exchange, and the question as to whether 
he was a prisoner of State or merely a prisoner of war. 
3 



114 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

From Wilmington Governor Bnrke was removed to Sulli- 
van's Island, where he was closely confined. Burke at once 
wrote Lieutenant-Colonel Balfour, the commandant at 
Charleston, demanding an explanation of the difference be- 
tween his treatment and that of the other prisoners. Colonel 
Balfour answered that he could make no decision, but offered 
to parole him to James Island. On Xovember 6th Burke 
accepted the parole and went to James Island, where he was 
treated with consideration and respect. After he had been 
there for some time a number of refugees were sent there. 
They were of the lowest type, and outrage and crime at once 
became frequent. Many of them were from Xorth Carolina, 
and Burke was to them an object of venomous hatred. He 
was often threatened, but at first made no complaint, hoping 
that he would soon be exchanged. 

Finally a group at his quarters was fired on, and a man 
standing on one side of him was killed and one on the other 
wounded. Further violence was only prevented by a British 
officer who interfered. The next morning Burke wrote Gen- 
eral Leslie, explaining the danger of his situation and re- 
questing a parole within the American lines. Xo answer 
was made to the letter, nor was anything done for his safety. 
For sixteen days he waited, exposed always to great danger 
and finding it necessary to change his sleeping place con- 
stantly and secretly. Finally he w^as notified that General 
Leslie was prevented from keeping his promise of paroling 
him to Xorth Carolina by Major Craig's making it a point 
that the governor should be kept as a subject of retaliation 
for the Tories in Xorth Carolina, particularly Fanning. 
Governor Burke had seen a letter from Major Craig to Abner 
ISTash, in which he said he would not hesitate to deliver to 
those who were in arms for the King such prisoners as would 
most gratify them in tlieir sentiments of revenge. After 
thinking over the treatment he had received, and remember- 



GOVERNOR THOMAS BURKE. 115 

ing how James Island was regarded with horror in Charles- 
ton, even by the British, he decided that he had been exposed 
intentionally to the dangers of the place. ]!Tor can the im- 
partial student of the facts in the case fail to arrive at a simi- 
lar conclusion. 

After long reflection, he decided that as a parole was given 
in exchange for protection, failure to protect a prisoner would 
have the effect of releasing him from his parole. He then 
decided to make his escape, and wrote a letter to ISTorth Caro- 
lina, asking that the laws might be executed against the 
Tories, regardless of him. Finally, on January 16, 1782, 
he made good his escape and at once went to General Greene's 
headquarters. From there, at the advice of General Greene, 
he wrote to General Leslie, informing him of his escape. He 
said at the close : 

"But though I carried this resolution to escape into effect, I do not 
thereby intend to deprive you of the advantages which my capture, by 
the rights of war, entitle you to. I purpose returning to my Govern- 
rnent, and there to expect an answer from you to the following propo- 
sition : 

" I will endeavor to procure for you a just and reasonable equivalent 
in exchange for me, or if this cannot be effected, I will return within 
your lines on parole, provided you will pledge your honor that I shall 
not be treated in any manner different from the officers of the Conti- 
nental Army when prisoners of War." 

jSTo answer was returned, and Governor Burke, who had 
gone to Halifax, ISTorth Carolina, where his wife had been 
during his captivity, notified General Greene that he would 
wait no longer than April 1st before assuming the reins of 
government. This was his most fatal mistake, but there were 
many reasons to cause him to make it. When he left Greene's 
headquarters it was with the avowed intention of having 
nothing to do with political affairs. He expected to find the 
General Assembly in session at Salem and to resign to them 
his office. But it did not meet, and Governor Burke decided 
to go to some other State in order not to embarrass the acting 



116 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Governor. But Alexander Martin, the Speaker of the Sen- 
ate, reminded him that the office of Speaker would expire at 
the next general election, and that the State would be left 
without an executive head. So Burke, fearing that confusion 
and injury to the affairs of the State would result, decided to 
undertake again, and at once, the duties of his office, comfort- 
ing himself by coming to the conclusion that it was not 
unjustifiable unless his escape was equally so, which he 
declined to concede. 

In the meantime General Leslie had written to General 
Greene that the reasons Burke had advanced were so chimeri- 
cal that he could not give them the smallest credit, and ex- 
pressing the belief that General Greene would at once direct 
Burke to deliver himself up to the commissary of prisoners 
at Charleston, where he would be assured of every protec- 
tion. General Greene replied that while he could not justify 
the breaking of a parole, he could not agree with him in 
regard to Governor Burke's reason for doing so, stating that 
Colonel Washing-ton had said that he would prefer a dungeon 
to going on parole to J'ames Island. He desired to know in 
what light Governor Burke was regarded — whether as a pris- 
oner of war or of state. 

As might be expected, criticism was at once aroused by 
Burke's action. Col. William R. Davie wrote him in Feb- 
ruary from Salisbury that Colonel Williams, who had lately 
come from Greene's headquarters, had stated that Greene 
and his officers believed that his conduct was reprehensible 
and dishonorable to the State, and that the enemy still had 
a claim on him. He advised Burke to take some measures 
for his justification, at the same time offering his services in 
the matter. Governor Burke at once wrote General Greene, 
stating what had been said and thanking him for his efforts 
to procure an exchange. At the same time he informed him 
that he would not feel bound to consent to any arrangement 



GOVERJN^OR THOMAS BUKKE. 117 

which provided for his return, as he had decided that if 

General Leslie did not answer him he was done with him, 

and that if he (General Leslie) asked anything unreasonable 

he would not feel bound to accede. 

On March 18th, on learning that Burke had resumed the 

duties of his office, Greene wrote him, expressing his regret 

that he had done so, and informing him that all attempts 

at exchange had proved futile. On April 8th he again wrote 

him, denying that Colonel Williams had any authority to 

make the statements concerning Burke. In his letter he shows 

that he thought Burke's escape justifiable, though he said on 

another occasion that his idea of the sacredness of a parole 

was such that he would sooner have abided the consequences 

than left the enemy's lines. Burke had already written to 

Colonel Williams, accusing him of misrepresentation. His 

letter shows traces of the bitterness which was already rising 

within him at the general misunderstanding and disapproval 

of his course. April 12th he wrote Greene that the enemy 

placed a higher value upon him than his own country did, 

but that he was fast preparing to take a final leave of all 

public business. Greene replied, expressing sympathy for his 

hard case, and closing the personal part of his letter with 

these words of advice: 

"If the people intend to treat you with ingratitude, I am sorry for it. 
Much is due to your zeal and ability and as far as I am acquainted with 
the people of your State, they think your captivity a very great misfor- 
tune. I beg you will not copy the example of many other great men 
who have gone before you, refuse yovu- services because the people ap- 
pear at the time to be insensible of their importance. We all have our 
dark days. No man has been under greater censure and reproach than 
myself ; but I was always determined to persevere to the end in the per- 
suasion that the public would be just at last." 

The General Assembly met on April 16, 1782. Governor 
Burke, in his message, gave the members a full account of the 
circumstances of his capture and escape. On April 23d, 



118 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

when the election of Governor came up, he was placed in 
nomination. He at once wrote the Assembly, in part, as fol- 
lows : 

" This afternoon is appointed for the Election of a Governor, and I am 
in nomination. Permit me to say it was my wish that the several Inti- 
mations I have given the General Assembly might have prevented any 
Gentleman from naming me as a candidate for an office which I sincerely 
wish to be filled by a much abler man, or by any man rather than my- 
self. When the General Assembly did me the honor to make choice of 
me for their Chief magistrate, tho' nothing could be more injurious to 
me or repugnant to my inclinations, I accepted the trust because I was 
apprehensive that dechning it would be construed into a doubt of our 
success, which at a time when our prospects were overcast, might have 
had bad Consequences. Happily that reason no longer exists, and I do 
not now feel the necessity of sacrificing my time and Industry which are 
absolutely necessary to retrieve my private aftairs from the ruin in which 
my being constantly employed in public Service for several years has 
very nearly involved them. My misfortunes during this year have been 
heavy and complicated and have involved me in debts and in [private 
distresses which it would be painful to particularize. I hope it may be 
sufficient to say that it will require the best exertions of my Industry to 
Extricate me from them." 

The General Assembly at once passed a resolution of 
thanks to Burke for his services as Governor, and elected 
Alexander Martin to succeed him. 

Burke was notified on October 25th of his exchange. The 
following extract from General Greene's letter is interesting, 
particularly when Burke's States' Rights views are remem- 
bered : 

"That you can retire from pubfic life with honor I never had a doubt, 
but I am by no means satisfied that you should. Your State, and in- 
deed all the Southern States, require many singularities and improve- 
ments to render civil government perfect. Few men have the necessary 
abilities and still fewer a proper degree of industry to eff'ect it. Many im- 
provements are also wanting in the plan of Confederation and national 
government. Those characters who have long been in Congress and 
have had their views and ideas enlarged and their minds unfettered from 
local attachments and directed to National policy are the only men fit 
for this undertaking. Unless our governments are rendered more per- 



GOVEBlSrOK THOMAS BURKE. 119 

feet and our Union more complete I fear we shall feel but in a negative 
way the blessings we expected from Independence. Think not there- 
fore of retiring too soon. Private interest has its advantages and do ■ 
mestic ease its charms ; but the glory of establishing a great empire is a 
noble object and worthy of great sacrifices, and that you may think on 
the matter with perfect freedom and independence, I have the pleasure 
to inform you of your exchange." 

Biirke seems to have been approached in regard to remov- 
ing to Georgia, but the plan did not suit him and he declined 
to consider it. There was much criticism of his conduct in 
the State, and, while he still had the confidence and friend- 
ship of men like Davie, Johnston, Hooper, Iredell and Mc- 
Claine, the reproach of others, which he felt to be undeserved 
and ungrateful, rankled. With his capacity for making 
warm friends, he had its usual accompaniment — the capacity 
for making bitter enemies, and these were very active. 
Burke's was a most sensitive nature, and the accusations 
which affected his honor were more than he could bear. He 
seems to have given himself over to dissipation, and died, 
December 2, 1783, at Tyaquin. His body rests in a grave, 
unmarked save for a heap of stones, in a grove on his old 
plantation. 

He had only one child, a daughter, named Mary, who, 
after teaching for many years in Hillsboro, moved to Ala- 
bama, and died there, unmarried, after the close of the Civil 
War. His wife, a few years after his death, married a Major 
Dogherty. Of this marriage there are numerous descendants. 

Taking into consideration all the kno^vn facts of his his- 
tory, Burke is one of the most interesting and certainly the 
most pitiful figure in JSTorth Carolina history. That he made 
a mistake in violating his parole and then assuming the reins 
of government is undeniable, but it cannot be believed that 
his conscience was otherwise than free of guilt in the mat- 
ter. Further than this, it must be believed that he was actu- 
ated by the motives of purest patriotism. 



120 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Burke's personality seems to have been particularly attrac- 
tive. In person he was of middle stature, well formed, with 
his face much marked with smallpox, which had caused the 
loss of his left eye. In spite of this, it is said that his face 
Avas not without charm. His remaining eye was blue and 
very expressive. He was very convivial, a capital i^aconteur, 
sang a good song, and, without effort, wrote verses, of which 
many are preserved, that, while possibly as good as the gener- 
ality, even a partial critic could not adjudge of much merit. 
Most of them are addressed by him to some fair Chloe or 
Phyllis, for he was inclined to be very gallant. But the fol- 
lowing is of a different kind. Two passages — one to Pitt and 
the other to the ladies — are quoted: 

" Triumph America ! Thy patriot voice 
Has made the greatest of mankind rejoice, 
Immortal Pitt, an everglorious name ! 
Far, far unequalled in the Rolls of Fame, 
What Breast (for Virtue is by all approved 
And Freedom even by Asia's slaves beloved ) 
What Breast but glows with Gratitude to Thee, 
Boast of Mankind, great Prop of Liberty." 
********* 

" And you, ye fair, on whom our hopes depend 
Our future Fame and Empire to Extend, 
Whose Fruitful Beds shall dauntless Myriads yield 
To Fight for Freedom in some Future Field 
Resign each dear. 

To-day let gladness beam in every face. 
Soften each Smile and Brighten every Grace, 
While the glad roof with lofty notes resound, 
With Grace Harmonious move the Mazy Round ; 
Make our Hearts feel the long forgetted Fire, 
Wake into Flame each spark of soft Desire ; 
Too long Indignant Tumults and Alarms 
Have made us heedless of your lovely Charms; 
With Freedom blest, our care will be to please. 
Each day the genial pleasure to improve 
And add new Sweetness to Connubial Love." 



GOVEKNOE THOMAS BUKKE. 121 

These qualities, as may be imagined, coupled with a genial 
and franlv manner and great cordiality, won for him numer- 
ous friends. He was of an ardent temperament and was fra- 
quently betrayed into rash acts. Ready to resent any fancied 
insult, he wa.s equally ready to atone for any wrong he might 
commit. He was probably the most versatile of the men of 
his time in North Carolina. 

Mention has already been made of his quarrel with General 
Sullivan. He also became involved in a difficulty with Rich- 
ard Henry Lee, which would probably have resulted in a 
duel but for the intervention of General Wayne, who settled 
the difficulty, which was one of misunderstanding. 

Burke was a Roman Catholic, but there seems to have 
been no question of his right to hold office. His case was 
quoted in the Convention of 1835 as proof that there was no 
intent to bar Roman Catholics from office. 

He was a man of good education, as is shown by his letters. 
The following catalogue of his library, an unusually good 
one for the time, is somewdiat indicative of his tastes : 

Piere Williams' Reports, Atkyns' Reports, Burrows* Re- 
ports, Bro'svn's Abridgment, Raymond's Reports, Carthew^s 
Reports, Gilbert's Reports, Finch's Reports, ISTay's Reports, 
Salmon's Abridgment of State Trials, Shower's Cases in 
Parliament, Treatise on Equity, Dalton's Justice, Dawson's 
Origin of Law, Abridgment of Cases in Equity, Lillie's En- 
tries, Coke's Institutes, Laws of l^orth Carolina (two vol- 
umes), Jacobs' Dictionary, Cases in Chancery, Blackstone's 
Commentaries, Sidney on Government, Abbe DuBois' Criti- 
cal Reflections, Ferguson on Civil Society, Attorneys' Prac- 
tice in Civil Pleas, Law of Devises, etc., Moley's Maritime 
Law, Law of Evidence, B. G., Gilbert's History and Practice 
of Civil Actions, Collection of Statutes, Foster's Law of 
Trade, Bacon's Law Tracts, Law of Errors, Lutwyche's Re- 
ports (Abridged), Law of Trespass, Foster's Crown Law, 
Lord Francis' Principles of Equity, Wilson's Reports, Hub- 



122 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

bart's (sic) Reports, Hale's Pleas of the Crown, Shower's 
Cases in Parliament, Cases in Chancery, Coke's Reports, 
Robertson's Lexicon, Bojer's French and English Dictionary, 
Dormat's Civil Law, Lord Littleton's Works, Political Dis- 
quisitions, Smellger's Midwifery, Gibson's Surveying; 2d, 
.3d and 5th volumes of Pope's Iliad; 1st and 5th of the 
Odyssey, Pope's Essays, Euclid's Elements, Locke's Human 
LTnderstanding, Orrery's Pliny, Littleton's Henry II, Beat- 
tie's Essay on Truth, Robertson's History of Charles V, Ver- 
gil, Horace, Terence, Juvenal, Cicero's Orations, and Ceesar's 
Commentaries. 

As to his ability, it was undoubtedly equal to that of any 
of his contemporaries. His whole course as a public man 
would indicate that, without the testimony of men well quali- 
fied to judge. Samuel Strudwick said he was "''the ablest 
advocate and completest orator our country affords." Abner 
aSTash, his predecessor as Governor, said he was "a gentleman 
of activity, experience and ability and public spirit." Rich- 
ard Henderson wrote Judge John Williams in 1778 regard- 
ing Dr. Burke's conduct of the case of the Transylvania Com- 
pany before the Virginia Assembly: "It is universally given 
up on all hands that Mr. Burke did Justice to the Cause, and, 
for my own part, think we could not have been better served 
on or off the Continent." 

Taking him as he was, with all his faults and mistakes, 
and they were comparatively few, he deserves honor and 
grateful remembrance from jSTorth Carolinians, 

Authorities: State Records, X-XYII, Encyclopaedia of American Biog- 
raphy, The University Magazine, Carruthers, Old North State in 1776, 
McRee, Life and Letters of James Iredell, and certain unpublished re- 
cords of Orange county. 

The writer also wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. Mar- 
shall DeLaucey Haywood's sketch of Governor Burke in the Biographi- 
cal History of North Carolina, and to Mr. Francis Nash for much material 
relating to Burke, and for numerous suggestions in regard to this paper. 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS IN 
THE HALL OF HISTORY. 



BY COL. FEED A. OLDS. 



The development of literary activity in ISTorth Carolina 
during' the past five years has been accompanied by the ripen- 
ing of a taste for historical research and for the collection of 
matter bearing upon the history of ITorth Carolina — not only 
documents, but the more tangible and personal things which 
have gone to form the history of the State, and which, more 
than aught else, put the people of this day and generation 
in touch with those of the olden time. Thus it has come 
about that the "Hall of History" has taken its place very 
firmly as a feature of historical development — one of those 
outward and visible signs which indicate a great movement, 
and which is full of hope and promise of yet greater things 
to come. When the agricultural building was enlarged it 
was decided, at tlie request of this writer, to build a noble 
room especially for the proper display of those objects which 
bear directly upon the history of the State, and on the 15th 
of December, 1902, the work of installation began, the writer 
having been engaged since 1885 in collecting, always hoping 
that such a place for historical objects would be sooner or 
later provided. ISTorth Carolina is yet rich in such objects, 
notably of the Colonial and Revolutionary period ; but until 
thi's collection began, a little over three years ago, nothing 
had been done, except in what may be termed very justly a 
local way, to gather together such objects. By such failure the 
State has suffered enonnous loss, due to the burning of court- 
houses, public buildings, and, most of all, private homes, in 
some of which there were extensive groups of objects, the 
loss of which is irreparable. But at last the gathering to- 



124 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

gether at Raleigh, where by all manner of means the col- 
lection ought to be, has been begam, and the fact that the 
number of objects now exceeds the 4,000 mark shows not 
only zeal in collecting, but also an awakened public interest. 
It must be borne in mind that collecting is no easy matter, 
since, first, there must be obtained knowledge of the exist- 
ence of particular objects ; next, of their location and owner- 
ship ; then coming the work of getting in touch with the 
owners and securing the objects, as loans or gifts — their 
acquisition by either of these methods being desirable at the 
earliest possible moment, since losses by the failure to acquire 
them are occurring all the while. It is felt that the present 
Hall of History is what may truly be termed a stepping-stone 
to higher things ; in other words, that it is but a forerunner 
of a far more noble one, generous as to space, and built on 
the most modern lines as regards the elimination of risk by 
fire. Given such a building, and the writer can undertake 
to secure almost everything in jSTorth Carolina ; only rela- 
tively few persons being unwilling to place objects in such 
safe-keeping. Of course there are a few who hide their treas- 
ures away, "under a bushel," so to speak, instead of letting 
them be set broad and fair before all the world to instruct 
and to stimulate the people of their State who pour through 
the great North Carolina Museum by so many thousands 
every year. 

The task of telling a stoi*}^ about a collection so gTeat and 
with so wide a scope as the one here presents no little diffi- 
culty, since if there be too much detail it is very apt to degen- 
erate into a sort of catalogue ; and so it will be the effort now 
to touch only upon those salient things which stand out and 
which ought to be seen, as taking a place in the State's his- 
tory from the remotest time of which there are white men's 
records. 

In another room will be found the relics of the Indians, 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS. 125 

since it is extremely difficult to locate the period of the lat- 
ter; the making of weapons of war, and the chase, as well 
as various other Indian articles of domestic use, sport, etc., 
having been continued until a comparatively recent period. 
The story, therefore, as told by the objects in the Hall of 
History, begins with the coming of the white men, those 
daring voyagers who, sent out by the great Raleigh, crossed 
the sea and landed on the Isle of Roanoke. The story of this 
landing of the whites themselves, and the Indians, is set be- 
fore the visitor in a wonderful series of pictures, photographic 
reproductions of the engravings on copper in tlie 1590 edition 
of DeBry's book, the first to contain the pictures, from the 
drawings made by John White, the special artist sent over 
with the expedition of 1585. A map in this series of twenty- 
four pictures shows the English vessels and also one of their 
small boats going to the Isle of Roanoke, with an Englishman 
holding up a cross in the bow of the boat, which is nearing 
the island on which is the Indian town, with its palisade or 
stockade of sharpened timbers, this seeming to occupy a spot 
very near that on which the Englishmen built their first fort 
in what is now the United States, this being "Eort Raleigh," 
which is wonderfully preserved, and of which a map, photo- 
graphs and a painting are also shown. Among the objects in 
the cases are ballast brought over by the English vessels and 
thrown out at a point on Roanoke Island yet known as "Bal- 
last Point," and charcoal which was dug up a few years ago 
when the excavation was made for the monument to Virginia 
Dare, which now stands in the center of the venerable earth- 
work, and of which there are also special pictures. When the 
writer was at the fort last January, soundings were made with 
slender steel rods all over the place. The well which the 
colonists used was by this means located. No objects were 
found, and it was discovered that for perhaps much more 
than a century the ground, both within and without the fort. 



126 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

bad been again and again tbe object of curiosity to relic or 
treasure seekers. Gone are tbe tiny cannon wbicb tbe colo- 
nists left tbere wben tbey abandoned tbe fort, and wbicb were 
seen somewbere about 1615, and only a low mound, like a 
star, marks tbe boundary of tbis most interesting of Ameri- 
can fortifications. It is a neglected spot, tbe rude fence and 
ruder gateway baving almost completely decayed. In any 
otber State tban tbis it would be marked in a splendid 
f asbion, and it would be also a place of pilgrimage. 

Tbere is a long skip in wbite life in ISTortb Carolina after 
tbe abandonment of Roanoke, an intermission of almost tbree- 
quarters of a century. Tbe next document bears upon a 
meeting beld in wbat is now Perquimans County in 1684. 
Tben tbere is a will of Jobn Trueblood, of tbe Province of 
Albemarle, dated 1692, and tbis is interesting as sbowing 
tbat tbe style of handwriting bad cbanged bardly at all from 
tbe date of tbe great days of Queen Elizabetb and tbe knigbtly 
Raleigb, tbat fosterer of adventure and promoter of daring 
deeds, to wbom Nortb Carolina owes so mucb. Tbere are 
memorials of tbe oldest towns in jSTortb Carolina, tbe cbief 
one being Batb, wbicb was really founded about 1694, tbougb 
its charter was not granted until eleven years later. Batb, 
as tbe picture sbows, is unique in Nortb Carolina, as being 
tbe one place at least where time has stood quite still. Tbe 
pictures of the oldest church in the State and of tbe oldest 
residence, formerly known as "Government House," the 
chimney of wbicb, tbe largest in the United States, was built 
for use as a fort, a place of refuge and defence, tell tbe story 
of the quaint village far better tban any words. Tbere are 
relics of the historic Blackbeard, or Teach, tbat bloodiest of 
all pirates along this coast, together with his pistol, a button 
from bis coat, a brick from bis bouse at Bath, and part of 
a wine bottle or flagon from wbicb no doubt that roystering 
devil had drank deeply many a time and oft. There is an 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS. 127 

English coin from Bath, taken from a pit near Teach's house, 
in which some three thousand or more were found, this being 
of the reign of William and Mary and dated 1694, and there 
are other strange coins of that time, known as brass farth- 
ings, which were taken from the same hoard. 

Some of the oldest papers are records of the Quakers, who 
got an early footing in eastern North Carolina, particularly 
in Perquimans, where there is yet quite a colony of these 
worthy people. A document of a singular character tells of 
one of the two recorded Spanish invasions of l^orth Carolina, 
if these may be termed invasions — one being an attempt at 
the capture of Beaufort, and another an attempt upon old 
Brunswick, when it was the seat of government, on the Cape 
Fear river, below Wilmington. The document in question 
is a bill for looking after the wounded Spaniards who were 
taken at Beaufort, and part of it is for "physiking and diet- 
ing'" them; the charges including quite a variety of food and 
drink. One of the most thrilling periods of ISTorth Carolina 
history was that of the Tuscarora war, in the days of brave 
old Governor Thomas Pollock, who, to be sure, with all his 
English courage, was well put to it to save his colony from 
what looked like almost sure extermination; and had not 
South Carolina come to his aid with whites and friendly 
Indians in great nimibers, the Tuscaroras must needs have 
gotten the upper hand and have soon killed ten where they 
had slain one of the settlers. There is the treaty of peace 
between the whites on the one hand and the portion of the 
Tuscaroras headed by Tom Blount, who was declared to be 
the king of those most bloodthirsty of all red men in IsTorth 
Carolina. The treaty itself breathes cruelty in every line, 
though cruelty in that day meant safety. The text of the 
treaty is as follows : 



128 THE NORTH CAROLIjSTA BOOKLET. 

"Preliminary articles in order to a Gen'l. Peace, had, made, concluded 
and agreed upon this 25th day of November, Anno Domini, 1712, be- 
tween Tom Blunt, Saroona, Heunthanohnoh, Chounthanmtshoe, Ne- 
woonttootsere, chief men of several of ye Tuskarora Townes for and on 
behalf of themselves and ye Townes of Eukurknornet, Rarookshee, 
Tostohant, Rauroota, Tarhunta, Keuta, Toherooka, Juninits, Conso- 
toba, on ye one part and the Honble. Thos. Pollock, Esq., Presdt., of 
and ye rest of ye Cbuncill for and on behalf of themselves and this 
Government of North Carolina on ye other part, Witnesseth: — 

"Imprimis. The afs'd Great Men doe hereby covenant and agree to 
& with ye said Presdt. and Council that they shall and will with ye 
utmost Expedition and Dilligence make warr ag't. all ye Indyans be- 
longing to ye Townes or Nations of Catachny, Cores, Nuse, Bare River 
and Pamlico and that they shall not nor will not give any Quarter to 
any male Indyan of those Townes or Nations above ye age of fourteen 
yeares and also that they shall and will sell off and dispose of all ye 
males under that age, and that further after they shall have destroyed 
those Townes or soe soon as this Government shall think proper to re- 
quire it, the said Great Men doe hereby promise to join ye English 
with soe many Men as may be thought proper to distroy and cutt off 
all Matchapungo Indyans. 

"2dly'. The afs'd. Great Men doe hereby covenant and agree that if 
in this Warr they shall take any amies which shall be proved to have 
been owned by ye English and taken away in ye late horrid massacre 
such arms shall be delivered to ye right owners thereof. 

"3dly. It is hereby further agreed by said Great Men that they shall 
and will well and truly deliver up to ye English all ye white captives 
and horses that they shall find among ye Indyans. 

"4thly. It is hereby further agreed by ye Great Men afs'd. that these 
Severall Townes of Tostochant, Rauroota, Tarhunta, Keutah, Tohe- 
rooka, Junitis, Caunookehoe, nor any of ye Indyans belonging to them 
or either of them shall not nor will not hunt nor range among ye Eng- 
lish plantations or stocks without leave or then above the number of 
three at one tyme, neither shall they clame any proprty in ye land on 
ye southside of Nuse caled Chatooka River nor below Catachny Creek 
on Neuse nor below Bare Creek at Not- Sha -Hun-Han-Rough on ye 
south side of Pamptico River. 

"5thly. It is mutually agreed by and between all ye said parties to 
these presents that if any injurey shall hereafter be done on either side, 
upon complaints made to such persons as shall hereafter be appointed 
for that purpose, full satisfaction shall be made. 

"6thly. The afs'd. Great Men doe hereby agree that from & after ye 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS. 129 

Eatification of a Gen'l. Peace they shall and will pay into this Govern- 
ment such a yearly Tribute as hereafter shall be agieed upon. 

■"Tthly. The afs'd. Great Men doe hereby further agree that for ye 
full & true perfomiance of all and everj^ ye above articles on their part 
to be performed, ye several Townes of Tostehant, Rauroota, Tarhunta, 
Keuta, Toherooka, Juninits & Caurookehee shall bring in and deliver 
up to this Government at ye Honble. Col. Thos. Pollock's six of ye 
chiefest women and children from each Towne, for Hostages, by ye 
nexte full moons, provided that they doe not disti'oy ye Enemy afs'd. 
by tliat tyme. 

"Sthly. The said President & Councill doe hereby covenant and agree 
with ye Great Men afs'd. that upon the just and true performance of 
these articles the severall hostages afs'd. shall be well and truly deliv- 
ered up againe and a free and open trade shal be had with said Indyans 
as existed formerly. 

"Lastly, the afs'd. Great Men doe hereby agree that they will en- 
deavor to bring in to some of their ToA\Ties alsoe Chauaneckquoekene- 
rook, Enuquner-called Johetaoin shrdluap uapapup called John Pagett, 
Ekehorquest called Lawson, Cbrreuiena, called Barbar, Colsera, called 
Henry, Lyahe Oumskinneree, called Suarehooks, Touhquinanch, Erun- 
vanhyne and Young Yyler, and send two Runners to Mr. Redding's Gar- 
rison, give there three Hoops, then show a white cloth for a signale in 
order to pilott such prsons as we shall think proper to send to see the 
operation done upon ye afs'd. murderers. 

"In ^^^tness hereof the several parties to these presents have inter- 
changeably sett their hands and seals the day and yeare first above 
written. 

"TOM T. B. BLUNT, 

"L P. SAHOONTA, 

"H. HEUNSHAKOHNAH, 

"I. OHAUNTHARUNTSHOE, 

"I. NEWOONTTOOTSERY, 

"SAROONTHA HORUNTTOCKEN, absent. 

There is also a map of the lands which the whites gave to 
Tom Blount in return for his co-operation with them, these 
lying in Bertie County, and to this day being known as the 
"Indian Woods." Surveyors in those days were generous, 
and when in later years it was found necessary to re-survey 
this tract, it was discovered that the area was more than 
thrice as great as originally stated. There are tomahawks, 
4 



130 THE NORTH CxiEOLINA BOOKLET. 

made of iron and evidently obtained from the Indian traders ; 
that is, white men who sold guns, ammunition, tomahawks 
and, worst of all, "fire-water" — that is, whiskey — to the red 
men, and who aided more in debauching them than did the 
very worst Indians. The tomahawks show by their shape 
that they were for no peaceful purpose, far unlike the Eng- 
lish hatchets, and their very lines seem to tell a story of those 
days of horror. 

While DeBry's pictures were the first ever printed about 
ISTorth Carolina (then "Virginia"), it was a great many 
years before the colony printed its o^\ti first book, and this 
did not appear until 1752, being a comj)ilation of the laws 
of the colony, printed by James Davis, the official printer, at 
'New Bern. It was bound in yellow leather, and hence became 
known in common language as the "Yellow Jacket." The 
example of it shown is perfect. New Bern had then become 
a place of importance. It was the east which in those days 
was the real seat of life, progress, culture and development, 
since the colonial to^^ms were necessarily along the streams 
or sounds or broad estuaries — places which could be easily 
reached by vessels from the other side of the ocean. The 
early settlers showed much judgment in their selection of 
sites for their towns, and to this day the site of old Bath will 
strike any person with a practical eye, by reason of its situa- 
tion. Old Bnmswick, Edenton, Hertford, Plymouth, New 
Bern and other points were all well chosen. The collection 
is rich in objects illustrating the colonial life in all of these. 

Edenton remains the most interesting of all the towns in 
the State, from a colonial point of view, and the illustrations 
of it show that it ought to be a place of pilgrimage for the 
Colonial Dames and the Daughters of the Revolution as well, 
since there is a remarkable blending of life of the two periods 
in North Carolina. 

The stately court-house, with a "spring floor" on the upper 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS. 131 

story, built for the special purpose of daucing, was modeled 
after assembly rooms in England, at sucb places as Bath and 
Tunbridge Wells. On this second floor is the Masonic Hall, 
with the chair in which Washington sat when master of the 
lodge of Masons at Alexandria, Va. Very beautiful pictures 
of "Hays," the great estate of the rich and powerful Samuel 
Johnston at Edenton, show this building to be one of the 
most beautiful of all existing country houses in America, and 
photographs which are wonderfully fine reproductions show 
some of the treasures of the library at this house, which has 
come down through a century and a half in such perfect con- 
dition. Of these treasures is the only known copy of the ISTew 
Bern Gazette of June 16, 1YY5, containing the Mecklenburg 
Resolves of May 31, 1775, this paper having been sent to 
Richard Caswell, then a member of the Congress at Phila- 
delphia, by Richard Cogdell, the chairman of the ISTew Bern 
Committee of Safety, this letter saying, in part: "You will 
observe the Mecklenburg Resolves exceed all other commit- 
tees or the Congress itself. I send you the paper in which 
tliey are inserted, and I hope this will soon come to hand.'* 
This letter is dated June 18th. These resolves did not ap- 
pear in the Wilmington Mercury until a week after they had 
appeared in the ISTew Bern Gazette. There are water-colors 
of the House with a Cupola, once the residence of Erancis 
Corbin, Lord G-ranville's agent, and of the house where the 
patriotic women held the "tea party," and there are photo- 
graphs of the former building and of the bronze tea-pot which 
Mr. Julian Wood has placed on the site of the tea-party 
house. 

A pair of pistols of unique and striking form were the 
property of Capt. Hugh Waddell, and were carried by him 
in the expedition against the Erench and Indians in 1758, at 
which time the British troops and militia captured Fort 
DuQuesne, in Pennsylvania, and by the capture really broke 



132 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

tlie French power in the colonies. These weapons are per- 
fectly preserved and have what are known as cannon barrels, 
because of their shape, tapering from breech to muzzle. 

Kecent acquisitions to the collection are portraits of the 
first Lords Proprietors, these being photographs, the gift of 
Mr. James Sprunt, of Wilmington, of the portraits^ in his 
private collection, which are copies made to his order of the 
originals, which are in libraries and private homes in Eng- 
land. They include King Charles and all of the first Pro- 
prietors except Sir John Colleton, whose portrait has never 
been found. There is the Earl of Craven, who gave his 
name to the county of that name; Hyde, who is yet paid a 
similar honor; that Berkeley who was the only one of the 
Lords Proprietors wTio came over to this side and whose stay 
here was marked by death and destruction, mainly the exe- 
cution of Governor Drummond of Virginia and the burning 
of Jamestown, the next place settled after ill-fated Roanoke. 
There is Anthony Ashley Cooper, Sari of Shaftesbury, who 
wrote the Habeas Corpus Act, and for whom Locke wrote 
his "Fundamental Constitutions," which was intended as a 
chart of laws for the government of the colony of Xorth 
Carolina, and who himself made additions to that interesting 
document, which to be sure provided a most impracticable 
mode of government, hard to be even imagined in these latter 
days. There is a deed by the Lords Proprietors to George 
Burrington for the fisheries in l^orth Carolina for the term 
of seven years, this being a striking document, of great size, 
on parchment, and bearing the autographs and seals of the 
gentlemen who then owned ]N"orth Carolina. Later it came 
about that all of the Lords Proprietors except Granville sur- 
rendered their proprietorships. There are interesting docu- 
ments signed by him and by liis agents, one of whom was 
Francis Corbin of Edenton, whose house is yet perfectly pre- 
served and who was visited by the "Regulators" and made to 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS. 133 

give bond that he would be just and true in his financial 
dealings with the people. There are also deeds signed by 
Nisbet, Granville's agent in the up-country, for lands granted 
to the United Brethren, otherwise the Moravians, whose 
headquarters were then and now are at Salem, There are 
royal seals, some weighing a quarter of a pound and of wax; 
bullet-moulds, button-moulds, candle-sticks, snuifers, pewter 
platters and plates, tuning forks and scores of other relics of 
the Colonial times. There are deeds and newspapers bear- 
ing the stamps used in collecting the stamp tax, which pres- 
ently became so odious as to form one of the key-notes of the 
Revolutionary uprising. There are relics of the earliest 
Scotch settlement along the Cape Fear, with its center at 
Fayetteville, including wonderfully fine pictures of "Bonnie 
Prince Charlie" and his savior, the brave though unlucky 
Flora McDonald. 

Very interesting indeed is the collection of maps of the 
State, dating from 1585, the most accurate of the early ones 
being that by Lawson, the Surveyor-General of this colony, 
which was made about 1708. An original edition of Law- 
son's history of the State is on view. This particular copy 
is a gift from President James Madison, to replace a much- 
prized one lost in the fire which destroyed the State capitol 
here in June, 1831. 

Photographs of Edenton include the burial-place of a num- 
ber of notables, among these governors Pollock and Eden, and 
the wife of Governor Edward Moseley, who is truly a lost 
governor, since no amount of search has so far availed to find 
his remains. Capt. Samuel A. Ashe, so well informed about 
all things l*^orth Carolinian, thinks that his grave is at Rocky 
Point, Pender County, and search will probably be made 
there. These remains of notables were gathered at various 
points and interred in this cemeteiy of old St. Paul's Church, 
Edenton. 



134 THE Is^ORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

There are many extremely fine examples of penmanship in 
the collection of colonials, and notable among these are maps 
or plots of lands, some of these going back to the time when 
tlie Roanoke River was known as the Morotoke or Morotuck. 
These maps show the origin of many of the present names. 
One of them shows the location of an Indian town, Taiihunta, 
which was on the Tan river, now known as the Tar. 

Of the Regulators there are a number of relics, chief 
among these, perhaps, being the bell which they used for the 
double purpose of calling themselves together, having no 
drum, and also giving notice of the approach of the British. 
The bell has a very thin and peculiar tone, like a cow- 
bell. There is a pay-roll of the company commanded by 
Captain David Hart, of the Orange Comity Regiment, which 
sensed 70 days in what was then termed the "Insurrection." 
There is also a plan of the battlefield of Alamance, made on 
the spot by an engineer the day after the battle, and showing 
the positions of the militia under Governor Tryon and the 
Regulators. 

But few old taverns yet remain in N^orth Carolina, yet 
fortunately^ there is a very striking example at Hertford, the 
building being of wood, long and rambling, two-storied, with 
double portico its entire length, and this is excellently illus- 
trated by photographs. 

The most noted collection of letters in all ISTorth Carolina 
is unquestionably that of the Iredells, now in the possession 
of Col. Charles Earl Johnson, of Raleigh, this being very 
extensive and containing letters from practically every man 
in high public life in this colony and the others during the 
late colonial period and throughout tlie Revolution. Two 
cases of these documents are shown and there are some strik- 
ing relics among these, one a proclamation by Governor Josiah 
Martin, who used on public documents his private seal in- 
stead of the State seal. There are other special cases, contain- 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS. 135 

ing the documents of tlie Devereux family, which go back to 
the time of Governor Pollock ; documents, rare books, etc., 
collected by Bishop Joseph Blount Cheshire, and the very 
important collection of autograph letters made by Governor 
Swain while in office, this being of documents from the execu- 
tive office, and covering not only the Colonial period but the 
Revolutionary, and coming down to a later date. 

The period during the Revolution, when Xorth Carolina 
was what may be termed an independent commonwealth, is 
illustrated by various articles, but certainly by none more 
striking than the currency issued by authority of congress at 
Halifax, April 2, 17Y6. This money is excellently well 
printed, the plates ha\dng been made on copper, and the 
designs are striking, being in sharp contrast with money 
issued a little later. Very perfect copies of the journals of 
two of the most notable State conventions are on view ; one, 
that held at Hillsboro in 1788, which declined to ratify the 
Federal Constitution; the other, that at Fayetteville the fol- 
lowing year, which ratified that great document. The "Re- 
solves" of the Committee of Safety of Surry County and of 
Tryon County are unique as showing on their face that there 
was gTeat loyalty to the King, while there was the sternest 
opposition to the policy of oppression practiced upon the colo- 
nies by England. The Surry County resolves, exquisitely 
written, bear in graceful design upon the cover the inscrip- 
tion, "Liberty or death. ,God save the King." 

Mention has been made of the Johnson collection, covering 
a number of Iredell documents. A special case in this col- 
lection is devoted to the portraits of Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary celebrities, including Willie (or Wiley) and Allen 
Jones, the former of whom was to exercise a remarkable in- 
fluence upon John Paul Jones, the first admiral of the United 
States ISTavy, the patronage and aft'ection shown by Willie 
Jones having led John Paul to add Jones to his name and to 



136 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

show in nianj other ways his regard for the great and warm- 
hearted North Carolinian who had done so much for him. 
There is in the Swain collection a characteristic note written 
by tlie Chevalier Paul Jones, while in Paris, to a friend, de- 
siring a copy of the Constitution of North Carolina to be 
shown to a gentleman in high favor at the French court. The 
collection of portraits is mostly composed of etchings, and 
upon the borders of some of these Mrs. Robertson, a daughter 
of the late Col. Cadwallader Jones, has painted in colors the 
family arms, she being the official painter to both the Colonial 
Dames and the Daughters of the American Revolution in the 
United States. The collection embraces portraits of the three 
signers of the Federal Declaration of Independence at Phila- 
delphia. — Hooper, Hewes and Penn — and there are various 
other memorials of these worthies. 

The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, claimed 
by some to have been made on the 20th day of May, 1775, 
and by others to have been made (in the shape of what have 
been known as the Resolves) May 31, 1775, is a disputed 
point in JSTorth Carolina. The evidence as to the 31st is be- 
yond any human question. There is a special collection of 
autographs of Hezekiah Alexander and others, whom it is 
asserted signed the Declaration of May 20th. As has already 
been stated, the Resolves of May 31st appear in the New 
Bern Gazette of date sixteen days later, and also in the 
Charleston Gazette, the latter paper having been sent to Eng- 
land, and the most obnoxious of the Resolves having been 
marked by the royal governor, the original of this particular 
paper being in the British archives, but the photographic copy 
being of the precise size and very clear. 

Of the Revolutionary period proper there are over four 
hundred relics, among these some of Richard Caswell, the 
first governor under American rule, being naturally promi- 
nent, including a cup and saucer made in France for him, 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY RELICS. 137 

while there are particularly valuable documents bearing his 
autograph and the State seal of the time. 

As has been stated, it is dijQficult to draw the line between 
the Colonial and the Revolutionary periods, so much do these 
blend in certain respects. Thus there are shown superb 
copies of the Bible and Prayer Book of the Church of Eng- 
land, both royal gifts from King George III. to the vestry 
of Christ Church in the good town of New Bern, when it was 
the capital of the State. These books were in continuous use 
in the church until a comparatively recent period. The 
''Palace" of Governor Tryon, at JSTew Bern, built at what was 
considered a vast expense in those days, is illustrated by a 
very old wood-cut. This building did not a little part to 
fan the flame of unrest of the '^ 'Regulators." They harped 
upon it, and not a few of the colonists objected to paying 
taxes because of the fact that their money was going towards 
paying for this edifice, which provoked both their contempt 
and their hatred. It was the boast of Tryon that the build- 
ing was to be tlie handsomest in the southern colonies if not 
in the whole country. Of it but a wing remains, long used 
as a stable, but now as a private residence. 

There is a ''letter of orders" from the Bishop of London 
(Compton), authorizing the holding of services in the Colony 
by a clergj-man. There is money issued at a number of points 
in the State prior to the Revolution and during that period. 
Some of the colonial currency is what was known as "Procla- 
mation Money," and the enormous depreciation of the revolu- 
tionary currency is shown by the fact that in a bill rendered 
in 1786 iron is quoted at four pounds, English money, the 
pound; sugar 12 pounds, pepper 90 pounds, rum 165 pounds 
a gallon, a glass tumbler 75 pounds. This bill, by the way, 
is for a total of over 1,500 pounds, and two of its entries are 
in these strange words : "By spirits rum drank at my fa- 
ther's funeral, 45 pounds." "A difference of seven pounds; 



16b THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

SO near a balance that a drink of grogg settles it." Of the 
money issued during the Revolution some was emitted at 
Hillsboro, some at New Bern, and some at Smithfield and 
Fayetteville. There is a journal of the Provincial Congress 
at Halifax, April, 1776. Some of the bills issued by the 
Provincial Congress at Hillsboro, August 21, 1775, are signed 
by Richard Caswell and Samuel Johnston. There is a printed 
order, dated at Johnston Court-House, December 24, 1775, 
signed by Cornelius Harnett, the president of the council. 
Another document which shows how stirring were the times is 
a letter from the Wilmington Committee of Safety, or Com- 
mittee of Intelligence, as it was termed, to the New Bern com- 
mittee, signed by Cornelius Harnett and others, dated July 2, 
1775. 

In striking contrast to the bell used by the Regulators, so 
thin in material and in tone as well, is a great hand-bell 
which was used by Governor Tryon at the "Palace" and later 
by the provincial assembly and by Governor Caswell. It is 
deep in tone, rotund and heavy. 

The wearing apparel of the blended periods is shown, and 
from it, certainly as to the shoes, we learn that our grand- 
mothers were addicted to high heels and the most papery of 
slippers, with toes so pointed as to put to blush any modern 
creations. There are buckles of paste and other gewgaws of 
the time, and from these relics of the gay days of old there 
floats out like incense the subtle yet pervasive odor of sandal- 
wood, since my lady of those far-away days must needs have 
a case of this wood in her boudoir, to contain some at least of 
her fripperies. What tales of dancing days, of the stately old 
assemblies, the graceful if slow minuet, of hoops so great as 
to render the curled darlings of the time unapproachable to 
caresses unless they bent over like a tree in a storm ; with 
towering headdresses, tier upon tier, hair and feathers, with 
powder galore, and the faces, fair enough, disfigmred by 



COLONIAL AND EEVOLUTIONAEY KELICS. . 139 

rouge and beauty-spots most cunningly placed. There are 
combs of tortoise-shell most daintily carved, which were a 
fad in those days, and one of these was worn by a lady, her- 
self a member of a great family, who it is said was for a 
nmnber of years engaged to one of the signers of the E^ational 
Declaration of Independence and who yet never became his 
bride. Soon after her death he died, brokenhearted. 

There are more humble articles of domestic use, including 
a foot-warmer, in those days thought to be a necessity for 
those who went abroad in vehicles ; lamps, made in some cases 
by a native blacksmith, to contain lard and twisted wicks of 
cotton; some being in rude imitation of ancient Greek and 
Roman lamps ; flax-hackles, linen cloth, spun and Avoven by 
the good house-keepers of that time, cotton not being in much 
favor then, some of this cloth having been made by Mary 
Slocumb, a revolutionary heroine ; pins made in rudest fash- 
ion, the head being twisted around the shank and rudely 
soldered. 

There are Revolutionary warrants which were issued by 
the State to soldiers as pay, and there are also warrants which 
the State issued for considerable sums, one being for $7,500 ; 
this particular one being endorsed as having been "Rejected 
by the United States in 1791, upon presentation on loan." 
There is the roster of the ISTorth Carolina troops who served 
in the Continental line, some of whom had such hard fortune 
in falling into the hands of the British at the capture of 
Charleston. 

Written school-books are another evidence of the hardships 
of those early days, one being an arithmetic written with 
great skill and at infinite labor and showing large numbers of 
examples under all the various heads. 

The early Moravian life, from the first settlement by the 
United Brethren of the region round about Salem, is illus- 
trated in various ways, and a catechism printed in Germany 
for use by the Brethren in !N^orth Carolina is quite unique. 



140 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

The illustrations of Colonial and Revolutionary architec- 
ture are both numerous and varied. Happily a number of 
the older buildings, which have escaped the usual fate of de- 
struction by fire, have not been tampered with. Some have 
been destroyed by fire and some torn do^vn. There are some 
iconoclasts in !North Carolina, and these do not spare upon 
occasion. Some of the handsome structures on the great 
estates in the eastern counties have been destroyed or so 
changed as to be unrecognizable, while the noble groves around 
others have been cut down and sold. In other ways icono- 
clasts have shown what they can do. The church at Bath is 
a pitiful example. The old windows were recently taken 
out, the antique high pews removed and the tiled floor except 
the aisle ; the lofty pulpit with its shell-shaped sounding- 
board was carted off as rubbish, and now unsightly modern 
benches fill the church, the pulpit is something of the com- 
monest, while the windows are those vari-colored abomina- 
tions which one can see in any cheap new church here and 
there in the little towns and sometimes in the country. Over 
the front of this striking old building is a brown-stone slab 
containing date of erection, etc. This, too, was removed, 
and some relic-hunter took it up to Washington, N. C, where 
luckilv it was found on a hotel counter and ffiven to a ladv 
of the place, who took it to Batli and had it replaced where 
it belonged. This is only one story out of many. The en- 
larged and very striking picture of the church at Bath shows 
it as it is to-day. 

Among the Revolutionary autographs will be found those 
of generals Wayne, Lincoln, Davidson, Greene, ISTash and 
Davie. The fact developed upon inspection of these that 
General Davidson sometimes signed his name simply William 
Davidson and sometimes William L. Davidson. Of Davie, 
who was so eminent in civil life, there are very interesting 
memorials, one of these being his appointment as an envoy 



COLONIAL AND EEVOLUTIONAEY RELICS. 141 

extraordinary to France, his letter of credit issued by that 
countiy, and also a note from Citizen Joseph Bonaparte, ex- 
pressing his appreciation of a call by Davie during the 
Frenchman's illness. 

The Revolutionary battlegrounds are being illustrated. The 
picture-stoi-y of that at Guilford Court-House is very com- 
plete and impressive. It has the honor of being the best 
marked of all the Revolutionary battlegrounds, and this has 
been done to a large extent privately, though the State has 
aided somewhat by an annual appropriation. Pictures are 
to be made of the battlefield at Alamance and the monument 
there, and also of that at Moore's Creek, the latter being a 
battle which had a notable effect in cheering the patriots, 
having been the first success of the American arms in the 
struggle. "^lention has been made of the Regulators and of 
the battle of Alamance. Of them and of this engagement 
there are two views in JSTorth Carolina, one being that the 
affair bore directly upon the Revolution and tended as much 
as anything else to precipitate the latter ; the other view being 
that there was no connection between the two and that the 
Regulator movement was merely what some writer has 
termed "An uprising of peasants." The juster view seems 
to be that the affair did bear upon the Revolution, though in 
a somewhat indirect way, having perhaps as much connection 
with it as did John Brown's raid upon the Civil War — dis- 
connected yet connected. Of King's Mountain, so important 
an engagement of the Revolution, there is not a single relic, 
strange to say, though there are several of these in the State 
and a number in other States, one or two being in the posses- 
sion of the United States government. Of Revolutionary 
uniforms there is not an example, only the gloves of Benjamin 
Cleveland being shown. Of the weapons of the Revolutionary 
period there are a number of examples, including swords, 
pistols, and muskets. The most interesting of these is a 



14:2 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

musket of extremely fine workm.aiiship, for that date, which 
was carried bj a soldier in one of the Scotch regiments which 
was in the army of Lord Comwallis, who fought at Guilford 
Court-house and then marched, or as we may say, retreated, 
to Wilmington. There this particular soldier was on duty 
when Comwallis surrendered at Yorktown, and then he and 
his musket went together into what is now Robeson county 
and settled. The Revolutionary swords of home manufac- 
ture show what the native blacksmiths could do at that day, 
as their construction was not upon lines at all graceful, but 
solely for lethal purposes. The bullet-moulds are of the time 
when the women used to lend their hands and make the bul- 
lets, and when, upon occasion, they could shoot them, too. 

One of the most interesting places in the State during the 
Revolution was Hillsboro, a small town but containing noted 
men and being much visited by those from the low-country, 
being considered much in the west at that time, before the 
mountains became civilized enough for resort. Hillsboro has, 
until recently, preserved a nmnber of its old examples of 
architecture, and its streets, paved with cobblestones, were 
reminders of the days when Cornwallis sojourned there and 
of that yet earlier period when Tryon paid the place visits. 
It is most unfortunate that illustrations were not made years 
ago of such places as Hillsboro, as now but few striking fea- 
tures remain. One of these is the court-house, in the belfry 
of which are a clock and bell, the gifts of King George III., 
who seems to have had much regard for the town, which was 
named in honor of tlie Earl of Hillsboro, while the county 
bears what may be termed a royal name, in honor of that 
Dutch King who came over and saved England at so critical 
a time. There is a picture of the court-house and some other 
views of places of note. There is luckily a picture, the only 
one kno^vn, of the building at Fayetteville, long destroyed, 
Avhere the convention met which ratified the constitution.. 



COLONIAL AND BEVOLUTIONAKY RELICS. 143 

These pictures are found to tell the stories as well as direct 
objects and this process of illustration is to continue until 
every part of the State which is historical is covered. The 
writer last January made the first tour for the express pur- 
pose of gathering historical objects of any and all periods. 
This was in what may be termed in the footsteps of the 
pioneers, embracing Fayetteville, Wilmington, Southport, 
Kew Bern, Washington, Bath, Pljinouth, Hertford, Elizabeth 
City, Edenton and Roanoke Island. It was a resultful tour, 
as no fewer than four hundred objects were collected, in 
addition to more than one hundred photographs, most of the 
latter being originals made by special order. The result is 
that there is to-day more knowledge by the mass of the people 
as to the fine old towns in the early settled parts of the State 
than ever before. There pass through the State Museum 
and the Hall of History each year more than 100,000 visitors, 
representing nearly every county in ISTorth Carolina and a 
large number of other States. The interest in the historical 
collection is not local, not confined to Raleigh or ISTorth Caro- 
lina, but is widespread and some acquisitions to the collection 
come from persons from other States, who thus show their ap- 
preciation of the work of preservation which is being so earn- 
estly pressed. One of the facts which is very plain is the 
influence which !Nrorth Carolina has had upon other parts of 
the country in settlement and othei'^vise, notably in the great 
middle-west. Visitors from that part of the country mani- 
fest the keenest interest in the Colonial and Revolutionary 
objects in view, and there are students of those periods who 
are availing themselves of the Hall of History as a medium 
of information. To show the scope of the collection already, 
it may be stated that books are being illustrated by pictures 
made of the objects therein, notably readers and histories by 
such writers as Capt. Ashe, Prof. D. H. Hill and Prof. R, D. 
W. Connor. The photographs taken are not only of pictures, 



144 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

but of objects in every department. The Colonial Dames 
and the Daughters of the Eevolution are frequent visitors to 
and close students of the exhibits which closely interest them, 
and they have been no small contributors, while their influence 
is regarded as of very high value by the writer. It is felt 
that more ought to be done in regard to the Revolutionary 
jjeriod. The fact tliat articles are equally available as loans 
or gifts should have its weight upon the public mind, and the 
Colonial Dames and the Daughters of the Revolution, so 
closely linked in their work, should see to it that the most 
notable objects in private collections should come here. There 
is in the Raleigh a picture of King George III, which is of 
deej) historical interest. Upon its back these words are 
written with red chalk, ''0, George ! Hide thy face and 
mourn!" General Xathaniel Greene wrote those words him- 
self, having turned the King's face to the wall in a house at 
Salisbury. 

What has been written here is designed merely to show in 
a partial way what has been done in so brief a space, com- 
paratively speaking, in forming !North Carolina's first col- 
lection of historical objects. This much may be added, that 
no collection was ever made at so small an expense, the 
writer's work being solely that of a volunteer, and this very 
fact being an incentive of endeavor to make the collection as 
good and as complete as if it were the work of some paid 
specialist. Surely the people of J^orth Carolina will give 
hearty co-operation, and will see to it, sooner or later, that 
every object which bears upon their colonial and State history 
comes here. 

The oldest documents in N^orth Carolina connected with 
the history of any family now living are those of the de Ros- 
sets at Wilmington, which reach well back into 1500, and 
are mainly commissions issued by the kings of France. 

The writer, it may be said, keeps very closely in touch with 



COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY E£LIOS. 145 

the jSTorth Carolina Historical Commission, which, bj gift 
has placed a number of extremely interesting pictures in the 
Hall of History, and he has had these prepared under the 
auspices of the Commission. There is, of course, also close 
co-operation with the l!^ort.h Carolina Literary and Historical 
Association, as chairman of its Museum Cominittee. The 
co-operation of the ISTorth Carolina Department of Agricul- 
ture has been very thorough and generous; in fact, all the 
surroundings and influences have been such as to very greatly 
aid in facilitating the work. 

It is proposed to make special tours through other portions 
of the State than the east, and to revisit that particular sec- 
tion also. Wherever such visits are made there are confer- 
ences with and addresses made to such bodies as the Colonial 
Dames and the other societies of ladies, and these have proved 
resultful in every case. It is found that the personal equa- 
tion enters very largely into this matter. State pride and 
family pride go well together, and the time is arriving when 
the large hall, already so nearly filled, will be crowded. The 
facilities for caring for documents and any and all objects, 
of whatever material, are of the best, with cases which are 
moth-proof, dust-proof, and are also thoroughly guarded 
against any and all insects. The fact that the collection, of 
which only two departments are here treated of, is so wide in 
its scope is found to add to the general interest in it, since 
something' is afforded for the student of any period. It has 
been a distinct inspiration to teachers, of whom more than 
twelve hundred visited it in a body during the present year. 
It is set before the Legislature as an object-lesson and as the 
very best and most practical way of showing that it is worthy 
of the most complete preservation. 



THE N. C. SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVO- 
LUTION AND ITS OBJECTS. 



BV MRS. E. E. MOFFITT, REGENT. 



The Society ''Daughters of the Revolution" was founded 
bj Mrs. Flora Adams Darling, October 11, 1890. It was 
organized August 20, 1891, and was duly incorporated under 
the laws of the State of ]^ew York as an organization national 
in its work and purpose. 

The occasion of its founding was to provide a society whose 
terms of membership should be based upon direct descent 
from Revolutionary ancestors, in which organization admis- 
sion upon collateral claims woidd he impossihle. This rule, 
clearly stated at time of organization, has been rigidly ob- 
served, and the Society is justly proud of its membership, 
representing as it does the direct descendants of soldiers and 
statesmen of the Revolution. 

The distinctive feature of the government of the Society is 
its system of State Societies and local Chapters ; the officers 
and Board of Managers of the General Society have entire 
superintendence and management of the whole organization, 
while subject to this oversight. State Societies regulate and 
direct their own affairs. A State Society may be organized 
wherever there are at least twenty members residing within 
the State, and a local Chapter may be formed by five mem- 
bers "living in the same locality. The State membership in- 
cludes all members of local Chapters formed in the State. 

The objects of the Society as stated in the Constitution are : 
''To perpetuate the patriotic spirit of the men and women 
who achieved American Independence ; to commemorate prom- 
inent events connected with the War of the Revolution; to 
collect, publish and preserve the rolls, records and historic 
documents relating to that period ; to encourage the study of 



THE SOCIETY AND ITS OBJECTS. 147 

the country's history, and to promote sentiments of friendship 
and common interest among the members of the Society." 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY. 

Founded by Mrs. Spier Whitaker, a lineal descendant of 
Wm. Hooper, a signer of the I*Tational Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, July 4, 1776, a biographical sketch of whose life 
by Mrs. Whitaker was published in the ISToeth Carolina 
Booklet of July, 1905. 

The l^orth Carolina Society was organized in Raleigh, Oct. 
19, 1896, the anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis ; and 
a Constitution and By-Laws adopted on April 6, 1897, its 
declaration upon honor being, that "if admitted to membership 
in this Society, I will endeavor to promote the purposes of 
its institution, and observe the Constitution and By-Laws." 

MEMBERSHIP AND QUALIFICATIONS. 

"Any woman shall be eligible who is above the age of eigh- 
teen years, of good character, and a lineal descendant of an 
ancestor who (1) was a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, a member of the Continental Congress, or a mem- 
ber of the Congress, Legislature or General Court of any of 
the Colonies or States ; or ( 2 ) rendered civil, military or 
naval sendee under the authority of any of the thirteen Colo- 
nies, or of the Continental Congress; or (3) by service ren- 
dered during the War of the Revolution became liable to the 
penalty of treason against the government of Great Britain: 
provided, that such ancestor always remained loyaf to the 
cause of American Independence." 

As will be seen, the watchword of the Society is "Patriot- 
ism." Love of Liberty, Home and Country is a heaven-born 
instinct not bounded by latitude or longitude, nor is it con- 
fined by wealth or position. It is imperative and should be 
absolutely understood in all social and official acts members 



148 THE KORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

should avoid all semblance of sectional feeling, or political or 
religious partisanship. 

That such a society for women was needed is attested by 
its sure growth — ^its patriotic activity in marking. Revolution- 
ary sites, erecting monuments, the finding and preservation of 
records vital to the history of the ISTation and which in many 
instances have been preserved from destruction through the 
efforts of patriotic Societies which had gained a knowledge of 
their value. 

The ISTorth Carolina Society grew in strength of purpose, 
more than numerically. Their meetings were held on im- 
portant amiiversary days — valuable historical papers were 
read by members on the Revolutionary services of their an- 
cestors, all of which are preserved in our archives. 

In December, 1900, it was determined to take up some 
special work. At this meeting a very interesting account of 
tlie "Edenton Tea Party of October 25, 1774," by Dr. Rich- 
ard Dillard of Edenton, was read, and the idea of commemora- 
ting in some tangible way this important event filled the minds 
of all present. It was then determined to erect a memorial 
to the heroism and patriotism of those women of the State who 
by their aid and zeal helped to make this country a free and 
independent N'ation, thereby in a measure setting aside that 
ignorant j)rejudice which has hedged them in with such false 
ideas of tlieir place and power, that tlie history of mothers, 
even of the greatest men, is not easy to obtain. As the eye 
of history is opening to the fact that some credit is due the 
women of the past for the success of the War of the R.3volu- 
tion, a motion then prevailed to erect in this State a memo- 
rial to the brave and patriotic women who organized and 
participated in the aforementioned ''Edenton Tea Party of 
October 25, 1774," who met to endorse the ''Resolves of the 
Provincial Deputies" in New Bern, Augnist 25, 1774, "not to 
drink any more tea or wear any more British cloth" until the 



THE SOCIETY AND ITS OBJECTS. 149 

tax had been removed by Parliament from these foreign com- 
modities. 

On the reception of this news, obedient to the instinct of 
womanhood, ever ready to do her duty, a meeting was called 
to testify and put on record their adherence and co-operation 
in any movement for the peace and happiness of their country. 
Fifty-one ladies signed this document, an act which deserves 
an enduring monument. 

Ways and means for the accomplishment of this purpose 
were discussed, and, on motion of Mrs. Helen Wills, a com- 
mittee of the following ladies was appointed to consider the 
matter: Mrs. Walter Clark, Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Miss 
Martha Haywood, Miss Grace Bates and Mrs. Ivan Proctor. 
The committee reported at tlie next meeting tliat they would 
adopt a sug'gestion of Miss Martha Hay^vood to issue a 
monthly publication on great events in I^orth Carolina his- 
tory. The idea was adopted unanimously, and Miss Martha 
Ha^^'ood and Mrs. Hubert Haywood (nee Emily Benbury) 
volunteered to begin the enterprise. The treasury furnished 
means for issuing circulars, for postage, etc. 

Through the indefatigable efforts and enthusiasm of our 
Regent, Mrs. Whitaker, and her associates, ''The ISTorth 
Carolina Booklet" has become an assured success. The 
first number appeared in May, 1901, and consisted of a mono- 
graph by Maj. Graham Daves on Virginia Dare, she being 
the first English child born in America — "a fitting subject for 
a magazine issued under the auspices of the ISTorth Carolina 
Society 'Daughters of the Revolution,' edited by women, and 
the proceeds to memorialize the patriotism of women." 

After two years of arduous labor freely given to the cause, 
the editors resigned and were succeeded by Miss Mary Hilliard 
Hinton and Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. For the first four years the 
Booklet was published as a monthly, beginning in May each 
year. In 1905 it was decided to issue it quarterly, and the 
first number of Volume V was issued in July of that year. 



150 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

The subscription list continues to justify the publication, 
and the profits therefrom have brought to the treasury of the 
Society a creditable amount. 

Having in bank a sufficient amount for the erection of the 
memorial, the accomplishment of its object has been delayed 
in order to secure historical evidence beyond contradiction, 
that the heroic act of these patriotic women really took place. 
A correct list of the names of those who signed the document 
has been obtained, through the continuous efforts of Mrs. 
Spier Whitaker, who in correspondence with Rev. H. S. Ire- 
dell, of Tunbridge Wells, England, secured a correct list 
from the "Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser of Mon- 
day, January 16, 17Y5" ; and through Mr. R. T. H. Halsey, a 
member of the Grolier Club of New York, and author of a 
late work entitled ''The Boston Port Bill as Pictured by a 
Contemporary Boston Cartoonist." Additional evidence has 
been obtained through Mr. Horner Winston, of Durham, N. 
C, now at Christ's College, Oxford, England, winner of the 
Cecil Rhodes scholarship. The plans are so far perfected as 
to insure the unveiling on the next anniversary. 

The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution 
appeals to the patriotism of all descendants of those who will 
be commemorated, and of North Carolinians all over the 
United States, to co-operate in the work of "rescuing from 
oblivion tlie virtuous actions" of their ancestors, and with 
such encouragement and co-operation the Booklet will con- 
tinue to succeed in its work for other patriotic purposes. 




KICHARU DILLARD. xM.D 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL 
MEMORANDA. 



COLLECTED AND COMPILED BY MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



DR. RICHARD DILLARD. 

There needs no apology for presenting with this article the 
picture of Dr. Richard Dillard, the one who revived that in- 
cident in ISTorth Carolina history of the notable "Edenton 
Tea Party of October 25, 1774." His researches on the 
subject have been exhaustive and scholarly. As nearly all 
of the information regarding that important event has been 
derived directly or indirectly from his original researches, 
he may justly be called the "Eeviver of the Edenton Tea 
Party" incident. 

A monograph which he wrote on the subject in 1892 was 
so well received that it was republished in 1898. It was 
the reading of this article that inspired the "]Srorth Carolina 
Society Daughters of the Revolution" to memorialize in a 
fitting way the heroism and patriotism of representative wo- 
men of the State preceding the stormy days of the Revolu- 
tion. The desire to endorse the proceedings of the Provincial 
Congress took shape in the "Tea Party," and the resolves 
were signed by fifty-one ladies.* 

Dr. Dillard, bachelor, born at "Farmers Delight," l^anse- 
mond County, Va., December 5, 1857, descended from the 
old cavalier stock, which early in our history had settled 
along the shores of the Albemarle; received literary edu- 
cation at University of ]M"orth Carolina, 1875-'77 ; studied 
medicine at University of Virginia ; graduated at Jefferson 
Medical College of Philadelphia, Pa., in 1879 ; since that 
time has been practicing at Edenton, ]^. C. 

Many honors have been bestowed upon him by his State. 

* American Archives, Vol. 1, p. 891. 



152 TH£ north CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Among these, the honorary degree of Master of Arts was con- 
ferred upon him by Rutherford College in 1899. He was 
appointed a member of the first Historical Commission by 
Governor Aycock; has contributed a number of historical 
papers to various magazines ; was a contributor to the old 
Magazine of American History, so ably edited by Mrs. Martha 
J. Lamb, in which magazine appeared his article on the 
^'Edenton Tea Party," and which reappeared in the Booklet 
in August, 1901. The original of the picture of this Tea 
Party was upon glass, and by some misadventure became 
mutilated and broken into several fragments. Dr. Dillard, 
in 1893, had the painting reproduced on canvass, and pre- 
sented it to the State. He was also the owner of the only 
portrait in existence of Martin Ross, the celebrated evangelist, 
called the "St. Paul of jSTorth Carolina," which he presented 
last year through the venerable Dr. Hufham to Wake Forest 
College. 

He is a member of the Xorth Carolina Society ''Sons of 
the Revolution," through the services of Col. John Campbell, 
who was a member of three Provincial Congresses, during 
and prior to the Revolution, to-wit, the one which met at 
ISTew Bern in August, 1774, at Hillsboro in 1775, and at 
Halifax in spring of 1776. Is passionately fond of botany 
and flowers, and contributes to the "^'House and Garden Maga- 
zine." 

He resides at his old home in Edenton, which he has fitted 
up elaborately and named "Beverly Hall," in honor of his 
mother. 

His descent from his Revolutionary ancestor, Col. Camp- 
bell, is contained in the manuscript archives of the iSTorth 
Carolina Societv "Sons of the Revolution." 



BIOGEAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL MEMOEANDA. 153 

FRANCIS NASH. 

I. Francis Xasli, born at Floral College, K". C, 1855. Son 
of Rev. Frederick K. Nash and Annie M. McLean. His 
father Avas a distinguished Presbyterian minister, who died 
in his early career. 

II. Grandson of Chief Justice Frederick I^ash and Mary 
G. Kollock, his wife — Frederick l^ash was bom in Tryon's 
Palace at Xew Bern during his father's incumbency of the 
gubernatorial office, February 19, 1781 ; he graduated from 
Princeton College in 1799 ; admitted to the Bar in 1801 ; 
married Miss Mary G. Pollock, of ISTew Jersey, with whom 
he lived fifty-five years; he died in 1858, distinguished as 
legislator, jurist and orator of high rank, and a Christian 
gentleman. The controlling motive of his conduct through 
life was a sense of accountability to God. 

III. Great grandson of Gov. Abner ]*»[ash, the able and 
active friend to the rights of the people, and a member of the 
Provincial Congress in 1774. Governor 1780 ; member Con- 
tinental Congress 1781-1786; died 1786. 

IV. Great grand nephew of Gen. Francis Nash, of Revo- 
lutionary fame. 

I. Francis Nash, subject of this sketch, and a worthy 
descendant of the above, was left an orphan when a child, 
was reared by his aunts, the Misses Nash, of Hillsboro, edn^ 
cated at the school of Misses Nash and Kollock and the R. H. 
Graves schools. At sixteen he began life for himself as clerk ; 
began study of law at night ; clerk in law office of Judge 
George Howard, of Tarboro; obtained license 1877, and was 
given a partnership by Judge Howard ; by reason of failing 
health resigned. After a year of rest in the country he 
resumed the practice of law in Tarboro ; was elected Mayor ; 
Presiding Justice of Inferior Court of Edgecombe County 
1883 ; again became partner with Judge HoAvard, but his 
health again failing he retired from the practice for ten years. 



154 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Resumed practice in 1894 in Hillsboro; has filled for short 
terms- U. S. Commissioner and Referee in Bankruptcy. He 
is a writer of ability. A series of papers on Judicial Evolu- 
tion, published in Albany Law Journal 1890-1 ; "Belleville," 
1897-8, a story of Reconstruction period; "The Mac Travis 
Sketches" in 1898; "A Lawyer's Mistake" in 1899; and 
"Wiolusing," a sequel to "Belleville," in 1900-1 ; "Hillsboro, 
Colonial and Revolutionary." For the "Biographical His- 
tory," which is being' published by Charles IST. Van J^oppen, 
he has written twenty-three sketches of the worthies of l^orth 
Carolina. He wrote "Historic Hillsboro" for the August 
number of the "Booldet" in 1903. He has written many 
other legal, political and historical articles. 

In 18Y9 he married Miss Jessie P. Baker, of Tarboro, N. 
C, who died 1896, leaving two daughters — one a teacher of 
English in Goldsboro High School, the other of Mathematics 
in the Lucy Cobb Institute, Athens, Georgia. 



J. G. de ROULHAC HAMILTON, Ph.D. 

J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, the author of this sketch, was 
born in Hillsboro, I^. C, August 6, 1878. Was educated at 
the University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn., 1896-1900. 
Instructor at the celebrated Horner Military School, iST. C, 
1901-'02, student of Columbia University 1903-'04, Ph.D. 
1906, Principal of Wilmington, Is^. c.. High School 1904-'06, 
and now Associate Professor of History, L^niversity of !N". C. 
Member of the American Historical Association, Southern 
History Association, ]S[. C. Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion. 

I. Son of Daniel Hey ward Hamilton (Major of 13th !N". 
C, C. S. A., later Adjutant 1st South Carolina) ; married 
Frances Gray Roulhac, on maternal side a granddaughter of 
Chief Justice RufBn. 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL MEMORANDA. 155 

II. Grandson of Daniel Heyward Hamilton, of S. C. ; 
member of S. C. Convention of 1851 ; Colonel 1st S. C. 
Regiment, C. S. A, ; married Rebecca Middleton, a descend- 
ant of Mrs. Rebecca Motte, of Revolutionary fame, and rela- 
tive of Arthur Middleton, the signer of the Declaration of 
Independence 

III. Great grandson of James Hamilton; soldier of 1812 ; 
member S. C. Legislature; member of Congress; Governor of 
S. C. ; President of ^Nullification Convention ; Ambassador to 
the Court of St. James from the Republic of Texas ; Senator- 
elect from Texas at death ; married Elizabeth Heyward, a 
grand-daughter of Thos. Heyward, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. 

IV. Great, great grandson of James Hamilton; Major in 
Continental line on Washington's staff; married Elizabeth 
Lynch, a sister of Thomas Lynch, Jr., the signer of the Declar- 
ation, and a daughter of Thos. Lynch, a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress of 1776. 



COL. FRED. A. OLDS. 

Col. F. A. Olds began newspaper work in 1877 in Raleigh, 
and has been continuously in this profession ever since, hav- 
ing in 1886 become the correspondent of out-of-towai papers 
and devoting himself to this line of work, writing consider- 
ably for magazines. For tw^enty years he has been collecting 
historical objects, and since December, 1902, has given much 
time, labor and study to the Hall of History. He is the 
Chairman of the Museum Committee of the JSTorth Carolina 
Literary and Historical Association and the Director of the 
Hall of History, and he also co-operates very heartily and 
extensively with the IST. C. Historical Commission. He has 
written many historical articles and stories, which have been 
in most cases illustrated, and he edited a new edition of 
Lawson's History of INorth Carolina, which was published by 
the Charlotte Observer, and has prepared for publication a 



156 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

new edition of De Bry's edition of Hariot's narrative of the 
discovery of Roanoke Island. Last January Colonel Olds 
made a tour, which was extremely successful, of the older 
towns in Eastern jSTorth Carolina, in the interest of the his- 
torical collection, and will later visit other sections. By the 
co-operation of the citizens of I^orth Carolina, Colonel Olds 
would be greatly aided in the work he has undertaken of 
collecting relics and documents vital to the interest of the 
State's history — besides making a place of general interest 
to the students of our city, and in fact to all visitors to the 
Hall of History. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



A QUARTERLY PUBLICATION ISSUED UNDER 
THE AUSPICES OF THE 

"NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION" 

THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Sixth Volume began in July, 1906. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
One Year^ One Dollar; Single Copies^ Thirty-five Cents. 



Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Editors, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-oflSce as second class matter. 

Notice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is desired. 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 



Some Booklets for Sale 



Vol. I 

" Colonial New Bern," Sarah Beaument Kennedy. 
" Greene's Retreat," Prof. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vo!. II 

" Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

" Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. Clewell. 

" Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

"The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

" Raleigh and the Old Town of B'oomsbury." 

" Historic Homes — Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hays," Rodman, Blount, 
Dillard. 

"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 

" Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 

" Last Days of the War." Dr. Henry T. Bahcson. 

Vol. Ill 

" Trial of James Glasgow," Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

" Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

" Historic Hillsboro," Mr. Francis Nash. 

" Life in Colonial North Carolina," Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 

" Was Alamance First Battle of the Revolution ?" Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 

" Governor Charles Eden," Marshall DeLancey Haywood, 

" Colony of Transylvania," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 
HoUaday, LL D. 

" Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 

" North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

" Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm. A. Graham. 

" Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

" Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

" North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 

and Joseph Hewes," by T. M. Pittman, and E. Walter Sikes. 
" Expedition to Cartagena, 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 
" First English Settlement in America," W. J. Peele. 
" Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 
" Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 



''Highland Scotch Settlement in N. C," Judge James C. McRae. 

"The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 

" Battle of Guilford Court-House and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 

Vol. v.— (Quarterly). 

No.1. 

'' Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
" St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations," Richard 
Dillard, M. D. 

'• N. C. Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II' 
William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

'* History of the Capitol," Colonel Charles Earl Johnson. 

" Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

Grimes. 
"North Carolina's Poets," Rev. Hight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

"Cornelius Harnett," Mr. R. D. W. Connor, "Edward Moseley," Prof. 
D. H. Hill. 

"Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W. A. 
Graham. 

No. 4. 

'' Governor Thomas Pollok." Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 
'' Battle of Cowan's Ford," Major W. A. Graham. 

'' First Settlers in North Carolina not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rev. 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D. 



Vols. I, II, III, IV, Single Booklets, 25 Cents Each. 
Vols. V and VI, Single Booklets, 35 Cents Each. 



NOW IS THE TIME TO 
SUBSCRIBE TO THE 

NORTH CAROLINA JOURNAL OF EDOCATION 

Published twice each month at Durham, North Carolina, 
under the editorial supervision of Mr. E. C. Brooks, 
assisted by associate editors and numerous contributors. 

SUBSCRIPTION, ONE DOLLAR A YEAR 

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Genealogical Department 

floRTH GflROLiNfl Society 

CflUGHTERS OF THE REVOUUTIOH 
YOUR ANCESTRY CAN BE CAREFULLY TRACED 

The Colonial Records of North Carolina, Records of different States 
and Counties, family papers, State histories and biogra- 
phies will be diligently examined for parties de- 
siring to have their ancestry traced. 

Fee for Such Researches, 85.20 for 
each Line Traced. 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mrs, Helen DeBerniere Wills. 
(Genealogist for N. C. D. R. and Raleigh Circle Colonial Dames.) 

Raleigh, North Carolina. 



COAT S-OF- AR M S 

PAINTED 



Coats-of-Arms painted, decorated with helmet, lambrequin, etc.. 

and enclosed in passe partout --. _ $13 00 

Same style and size, but unf ramed 10 00 

A painted Coat-of-Arms, without helmet, lambrequin, etc., un- 
f ramed .5.00 

India Ink Drawing of Arms _ 5.00 

Searches for Coats-of-Arm^, including (if found) a small sketch 

of the arms -.- S.OO 

Arms burned on wood . .5.00 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

"Midway Plantation," 
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Vol. VI. 



APRIL, 1907 



No. 4 



'U/?e 



NortK Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS oFtRe REVOLUTION 

CONTENTS 

Page 

North CaroKna's Attitude to the Revolution - - - 2 1 7 
By Robert C. Strong 

John Lawson - - - - - - - -227 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Some Overlooked North Carolina History - - - 238 
By J. T. Alderman 

The White Pictures 243 

By W. J. Peele 

Biographical Sketches - - - - - -251 

By Mr». E. E. Moffitt 



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The North Carolina Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History. 



The BooKr,ET will be issued quartERI<y by the North Carolina 
Society of the Daughters of the Revoi^ution, beginning July, 
1907. Each BooKi^ET will contain three articles and will be published 
in July, October, January and April. Price, |i.oo per year, 35 cents for 
single copy. 

Editors: 
Miss Mary Hii,i,iard Hinton. Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



VOLUME VIL 

1. North Carolina in the French and Indian War, 

Colonel Alfred Moore Waddell 

2. Colonial Newspapers Dr. Charles Lee Smith 

3. Finances of the North Carolina Colonists, Dr. Charles Lee Raper 

4. Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry, Judge James C. MacRae 

5. Schools and Education in Colonial Times, . Mr. Charles L. Coon 

6. Joseph Gales Mr. Willis G. Briggs 

7. General Robert Howe, .... Hon. John D. Bellamy 

8. The Resolution of April 12, 1776, . Prof. R. D. W. Connor 

9. Our First State Constitution . . . . Dr. E. W. Sikes 
10. Permanent Settlement of the Lower Cape Fear, (1725-1735) 

Mr. W. B. McKay 
XI. Colonial Edenton, . . Rev. Robert Brent Drane, D.D. 

12. The Quakers of Perquimans, . . Miss Rebecca Albertson 



The BooKi^ET will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 

who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

The Book:i,ET will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 

biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 
Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booki,et for 
Vol. VII, are requested to give notice at once. 
Address 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 
"Midway Pi,antation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 



Vol. VI. APRIL, 1907. No. 4 



13he 



floRTfl CflROIiirifl BoOKIiET 



^''Carolina! Carolina! Heaven'' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.^^ 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editobs. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker. Mrs. T. K. Bruner. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Professor E. P. Moses. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Clark. 

EDITORS : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, 

1906-1908. 

regent : 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

vice-regent : 

Mrs. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENT: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 
(Nee Hooper.) 

RECORDING SECRETARY: 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY : 

Mrs. W. H. PACE. 

TREASURER : 

Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 

; REGISTRAR : 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 

GENEALOGIST : 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
Mrs. SPIER WHITAKER. 

REGENT 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

REGENT 1902-1906: 
Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 



*Died December 12, 1904. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



Vol. VI APRIL, 1907 No. 4 



NORTH CAROLINA'S ATTITUDE TO THE 
REVOLUTION. 



BY ROBERT C. STRONG. 



An attitude is a relative quality. Surrounding circum- 
stances and conditions combine with and are a part of it. 
These were of a threefold character in North Carolina during 
the revolutionary period of her history: First, our colony 
had to neutralize the effect of the War of Regulation; second, 
she had to deal with the disaffected Cumberland district, and, 
third, she had to overcome opposition to her movements for 
indejiendence by leaders whom she had theretofore followed. 
Her success in meeting these great difficulties was a national 
triumph. 

The district of the trouble which caused the War of Regu- 
lation comprised the counties of Guilford, Orange and parts 
of Rowan and Granville. The culmination of this trouble 
was the battle of Alamance, of 1771, only a few years before 
the Declaration of Independence. The feeling of hostility 
arising from this source was such that the Convention of 
Hillsborough could not totally alleviate. Organized opposi- 
tion in the Cumberland section to the national cause and the 
steps taken by the State therein, culminated in the battle of 
Moore's Creek on February 37, 1776; but resistance did not 
cease during the war. This disaffected district reached up 
from South Carolina and lay in I*^orth Carolina between the 
far divisions of Bladen and Rowan counties. Taking this in 



218 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

connection with tlie section of the Regulators, it made a broad 
section of disaffected country sweeping up from South Caro- 
lina around to the west of the center of our State and back 
again, reaching upward nearly to the Virginia line. The 
British naturally considered ^STorth Carolina an easy mark, 
and in consequence laid their plans to operate through the 
port of Charleston ; recruit their anny by marching around 
and to the south of the Cumberland district, thence north- 
ward, to fall upon us from the west. 

Our Representatives at the Continental Congress feared 
this more than they should have done. They used all 
methods they thought would be effective in calling upon the 
patriotic sentiment of the western counties, and it was not 
until they were present at the Convention at Hillsborough 
did they recognize their mistake. 

This Convention met on August 20, 1775, and especially 
to be noticed in the full representation of the counties w^as 
that from the western counties, concerning which such use- 
less fears had been expended. Saunders, in his Prefatory 
Notes, says : "Time proves all things, and it needed not 
much time after the struggle for freedom and for independ- 
ence began to show what was the w^orth and what was the 
temper of the people of the center and west. How patriotic 
the feeling among them was, and how thoroughly united they 
were is apparent from the fact that, in spite of all the threats 
and all the inducements held out to them, 'not more than a 
hundred people of the county' could be enlisted under the 
King's banner in February, 1776, the rest being 'Highland- 
ers,' new-comers, not yet incorporated into the body politic^ 
in sentiment, at least, of North Carolina." 

These changes of condition were not brought about by im- 
pulsive enthusiasm or domination of the majority voice in 
the Convention. The cause was not sought to be compro- 



NORTH Carolina's attitude to the revolution. 219 

mised, but their faith in its rectitude caused them to give 
time for more careful thought to those holding the minority 
view. The six months' adjournment of the Convention to 
Halifax thus put the reins of a temporary government, so 
vitally essential, more firmly in their hands. 

The early months of the year 1776 found Continental Con- 
gress in a state of indecision as to the final acts of separation, 
delaying necessary and unavoidable measures upon various 
pretexts. England had refused the jSTorth Carolina colony 
the right to issue currency. It was found that making certain 
commodities a medium of exchange did not meet the exi- 
gencies of the situation, and debenture bonds had to be issued 
redeemable at certain dates from taxes to be collected. They 
were only good among the colonists and were to meet the 
emergency of paying off a debt incurred in an Indian war. 
Abroad they had no value. Financial emergencies had to be 
provided for and perplexing financial situations faced. We 
can therefore appreciate the fear expressed in a letter written 
by Mr. Penn, our Continental delegate, to Mr. Person, a 
member of our Provincial Council, of February 14, 1776 : 

Matters are drawing to a crisis. They seem determined to persevere, 
and are forming alliances against us. Must we not do something of 
the like nature? Can we hope to carry on a war without having trade 
or commerce somewhere? Can we ever pay taxes without it? Will our 
paper money depreciate if we go on emitting? These are serious things, 
and require your consideration. The consequences of making alliances 
is, perhaps, a total separation with Britain, and without something of 
the sort we may not be able to procure what is necessary for our de- 
fense. * * * 

Soon after receiving this momentous communication, the 
third of the following March, the Provincial Council ordered 
an assembling of our Congress to be held at Halifax on April 
2, 1776. On the fourth the Provincial delegates met. On 
the eighth a committee of seven was appointed to draft ap- 
propriate measures ; and on the twelfth their recommendation 



220 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

by resolution was unanimously adopted. This resolution, 
thus formed with that deliberate haste which can only be 
accorded to the disposition of the truly great, has given us 
the revered date of "12th April, 1776," for our State flag: 

Resolved, That the delegates for our colony in the Continental Con- 
gress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other colonies 
in declaring Independence, and forming foreign alliances, reserving to 
this colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a constitution and 
laws for this colony, and for appointing delegates from time to time 
(under the direction of a general representation thereof) to meet the 
delegates of the other colonies for such purposes as shall be hereafter 
pointed out. 

This authoritative expression preceded by more than a 
month that of any other of the colonies. It was decisive 
upon the questions of independence and the forming of for- 
eign alliances, and its reservation was not only consistent with 
the spirit of those times, but is indicative of the opposition 
of our people to-day to any encroachment upon the rights 
of this State and to centralization of power at Washington. 

While at this Convention a constitution could have been 
adopted as well as later, yet, in the spirit of forbearance and 
for the purpose of creating harmony, such action was again 
postponed. On December the 18th, 1776, the colony de- 
clared her independence of British rule. There was a full 
representation, conservative, considerate of the small minority 
views, but resolute in the face of opposition from those who 
had been wont to lead. It was a movement of the people, 
and not of their leaders, though leaders of their own views 
arose to the occasion. They wei'e strengthened by the wise 
course which they had pursued at the Convention at Hills- 
borough, and the "Declaration of Eights," with the Consti- 
tution incorporating it, proclaim their framers as men of 
moral and intellectual force and of great culture. Yet Mr. 
Johnston, in one of his letters, says of them: "Every one 



NORTH Carolina's attitude to the revolution. 221 

who has the least pretentions to be a gentleman is suspected 
and borne down per ignohile vulgus — a set of men without 
reading, experience or principle to govern them." Notwith- 
standing, eleven of the twelve of these declarations of the bill 
were adopted in the Federal Bill of Rights, and the matters 
of the Constitution then adopted are for the greater part 
familiar to us in our own constitutional government of to-day. 
The Representatives of the colony in the Continental Con- 
gress misunderstood her people, as we have seen, and learned 
them aright in Hillsborough. Her agents in England like- 
wise undervalued their disposition. Destiny pointed in but 
one direction, working through an inflexible human agency, 
and human acts were impotent to change it. The people of 
the colony were astonished, outraged and indignant when 
they heard that the colony was not included in the act of the 
British Parliament of April, 1775, cutting off the trade of 
her sister colonies with Great Britain and the West Indies. 
On the date this act was to be operative, the 20th of July, 
1775, the Committee at Wilmington, in the language of 
Saunders' Prefatory ISTotes, "formally and unanimously re- 
solved that the exception of this colony out of the said act 
was a base and mean artifice to seduce them into a desertion 
of the common cause of America, and that !N'orth Carolina, 
refusing to accept advantages so insidiously thrown out, 
would continue to adhere strictly to the plans of the Conti- 
nental Congress, and thus keep up a perfect unanimity with 
her sister colonies." It was afterwards that it was learned 
that the agents in England had substituted for the petition 
sent them "a memorial in more decent terms." Thus we 
glance backward from December 18, 1776, to July 20, 1775, 
for another view of the position that the colony assumed to- 
wards the common cause, and find the people unyielding in 
their consistency and uprightness. Through internal strife, 



222 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Indian troubles and dangers, financial straits, political dis- 
agreements of her people and sectional strategic difficulties, 
J^orth Carolina, considered the weakest colony for attack, 
was prompt in maintaining her rights under the Stamp Act, 
in the town of Wilmington, and the foremost to throw over- 
board the vessel the tea upon which this tax was imposed, in 
the town of Edenton. This assertive spirit breathed through 
her people, and found expression, more or less formal, in 
many places, the most formal being that of Mecklenburg in 
May, 1775. 

Despite the powerful opposition of leading citizens, looking 
forward from the time of the establishment of the temporary 
government at Hillsborough, we find a concert of deliberate 
and effective action. To this temporary government is greatly 
due the gallant aid given to repulse the British at Charles- 
ton on June 28, 1776. Quoting again from Saunders' Pref- 
atory ]^otes: 

And so we have another instance of the efficiency of the temporary 
government established at Hillsborough. In a short twelve months it 
sent troops to the help of Virginia, and twice to that of South Car- 
olina, fought the battle of Moore's Creek, and sent some three thousand 
men against the Cherokees. Within the year it put near ten thousand 
men into service in the field, certainly a very large proportion of its 
fighting population in so short a time. 

For the history of North Carolina's part in the War of the 
Revolution, from the beginning of the year 1777 to the ter- 
mination thereof, reference is made tO' the History of North 
Carolina, by Moore, beginning at chapter 12. 

General Washington had but seven thousand men under 
his command when he took the field in the spring of 1777, 
almost too weak to oppose the British ; but the defeat of Sir 
Peter Parker and Lord Comwallis at Charleston, in June, 
1776, left the way open for ISTorth Carolina to send him 
six batallions, numbering four thousand muskets. The first 



NORTH CAKOLINa's ATTITUDE TO THE KEVOLUTION. 223 

and second batallions were of experience, and all were of great 
courage. In the battles of Princeton and Brandywine they 
won honor, and honor greater still at Germantown. At home, 
in the year 1778, the Tories could not make organized opposi- 
tion, and so they formed a regiment at St. Augustine, Florida. 
The Legislature was busy with pressing affairs of govern- 
ment, among other things, gravely concerning the finances of 
the colony. 

Having won distinction at the battle of Monmouth Court- 
house in the engagement of June 28, 1778, and there being 
more need for their active service in the army of the South, 
five batallions of ISTorth Carolina troops were sent with Gen- 
eral Lincoln to Charleston. In the beginning of the year 
1779 two thousand !North Carolina militia were sent to South 
Carolina. In Georgia defeat overtook the Continental forces, 
but of the character which enhanced their courage and de- 
termination. Let our attention revert to the l^orth. At 
Stony Point, on the 19th day of July, our troops not only 
shared in the glory achieved by the N^orthern army, but 
occupied the post of honor and peril ; and then, being needed 
in the South, were sent to Charleston. 

The inevitable fall of Charleston on April 9, 1780, caused 
us the loss of our veteran troops, and gave occasion to the 
rise of Lord Cornwallis, and Tarleton, a partizan Loyalist, 
his "right arm." Tarleton surprised the Virginia troops at 
Waxhaw on May 29, 1780, as they were on their way to the 
relief of Charleston. In his opposition he was daring and 
formidable, and he and his Tory troops were a source of con- 
tinuous menace. Had it not been for our successful issue at 
the battle of Moore's Creek, and the wise course taken at the 
Convention at Hillsborough, our history might have been 
written differently. As it was, great concern was felt for the 
unprotected condition of South Carolina and the loss of our 



224 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

veteran troops at Charleston. Cornwallis was commanding 
four thousand British regulars, to oppose which there was 
only available a troop of cavalry and two companies of 
mounted infantry. Our resources were well-nigh drained, 
and the maintenance of armies was a very grave difficulty. 
Under these conditions it was cheering to our people to win 
over the Loyalists of ISTorth Carolina the small but important 
battle of Ramsour's Mill, fought in June, 1780. At this 
time Lord Cornwallis was with his army at Camden, South 
Carolina, awaiting supplies. General Gates, lacking in the 
forethought and consideration for the ideas of others that 
characterized our people, met with his disastrous defeat there, 
and fled to the town of Charlotte without providing for the 
safety of the men under his command. On the 8th day of 
September, 1780, Tarleton, having surprised and defeated 
Sumter's command, Cornwallis, counting upon reinforce- 
ments from the Tories of the State, moved forward to sub- 
jugate ISTorth Carolina with much assurance. Just before 
this time the fighting at Hanging Rock had taken place, and, 
following this, transpired the decisive battle of King's Moun- 
tain and the strategic movements of Morgan to intercept the 
reinforcements of Royalists for Cornwallis' army. Then fol- 
lowed the famous retreat of Morgan before the British, his 
uniting with Greene, and the further retreat to Guilford 
Court-house, where Cornwallis was defeated in his plans by 
his more than doubtful victory. Then began the retreat of 
the British army, which ended in its surrender to General 
Washington. 

Conciliatory and forbearing, our colony achieved a victory 
over those who theretofore had been the leaders of thought 
and action within her borders, and when the occasion de- 
manded, with more than heroic courage, she subjugated those 
of her people who would interfere in her fight for independ- 



NOKTH Carolina's attitude to the revolution. 225 

ence. She neutralized the effect of her foreign disaffected 
element as much as possible, and successfully met force with 
fore© upon occasions of vital importance to the entire Conti- 
nental cause. Duty and devotion could call successfully upon 
her every resource, and especial privileges and bounties 
brought very poor results. So liberal v^^as her contribution 
to the common cause, and so self-sacrificing was she of her 
strength, that on September 13, 1781, her Governor, while 
at Hillsborough with his suite and other prominent military 
and civil officers, fell into the hands of the Loyalists. The 
attempt to re-capture at Lindley's Mill, on Cane Creek in 
Chatham County, was brilliant but unavailing. 

There yet remains to complete the thought contained in 
these pages the consideration of the principles which actuated 
such brilliant achievements. Like all great principles, they 
are of a simple nature. 

The following extracts are from the Mecklenburg Petition 
for the Repeal of the Vestry and Marriage Acts, 1Y69. 

In the Great Charter, His Majesty confirms to his subjects removing 
from Great Britain into this province, and their descendants, all the 
rights, privileges and immunities to which His Majesty's subjects in 
Great Britain, to-wit, England and Scotland, are entitled. * * * We 
assure your excellency. Your Honours of the Council, the Honourable 
Speaker, and Gentlemen of the House of Burgesses, that we shall ever 
be more ready to support that Government under which we find the most 
liberty. 

In speaking of the necessity of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence James Iredell, in a letter to Joseph Hewes, written 
from Edenton June 9, 1776, said: 

I do not view the subject as a matter of ambition; in my opinion 
it is criminal and impolitic to consider it in that light; but as a matter 
of necessity; and in that case, in spite of every consequence (and very 
bad ones may be dreaded) I should not hesitate for an instant in 
acceding to it. 



226 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

It is gratifying to know that Judge Iredell was one of our 
first judges, and that he afterwards acquired a national repu- 
tation. Also, that Mr. Johnston was placed in positions of 
trust by our people after the eventsi of the Revolutionary War. 

From the above quoted expressions we may judge the spirit 
of the times. The people had their rights under the Royal 
Charter, and, later, under the Great Deed or Grant from the 
Lords Proprietors. These rights were clear and unmistak- 
able. They would live up to those rights, and enforce them 
when necessary. Feeling secure in them, they did not follow 
South Carolina in 1719 when she threw oif the government 
of the Lords Proprietors. The third Royal Governor wrote 
home to England that he and the written instructions of the 
King were set at defiance, for that the people openly de- 
clared "that their charter still subsisted." Indeed, the peo- 
ple appeared to pay little heed to any arrangement that was 
made between King and Lords respecting them and their 
property. They appreciated charter rights by inheritance, 
and when necessary would enforce them without counting the 
cost. They were "ready to support that government under 
which they found the most Liberty" when in keeping with 
their Rights. This they Did, not as matters of Ambition, 
but those of Necessity. 

This same spirit reaches upward into the disposition of 
our people of to-day, and presents an ever conservative but 
undaunted front. In more recent years it has been as splen- 
did in its defeat as it was then exalted in its victory. To-day 
the wealth of the East and of the West are alike. The people 
of all sections are as one people, and Prosperity is their con- 
stant visitor. The United States are at Peace with, them- 
selves and with the World. 

Note. — Biographical Sketch of above writer will appear in July num- 
ber of Vol. VII. 



JOHN LAWSON. 



BY MARSHALL DeLANCEY HAYWOOD. 



The writing of history has never met with much encourage- 
ment in N^orth Carolina. Our first historian is said to have 
been burned alive. Should another, in this day and gener- 
ation, adopt historical work as the sole means of gaining a 
livelihood, he might meet death in a no less miserable man- 
ner — by starvation. But, notwithstanding these trivial ob- 
stacles, the work goes forward. As we glance backward to 
find the forerunner of historians in our State (or Colony, as 
it then was), we must pass over ilichard Hakluyt and other 
early writers who gave accounts of the settlements which were 
made under the patronage of Sir Walter Raleigh. These set- 
tlements never rose to the dignity of a province, were finally 
abandoned, and it was many years later before the name of 
Carolina appeared on the map as a British possession in 
America. Hence, the first historian of our State, and some- 
time Colony, was a sturdy adventurer and writer of no mean 
order, who made his first appearance in America in the Sum- 
mer of 1700. 

John Lawson, or "John Lawson, Gentleman," as he pre- 
ferred to style himself, tells us, in his narrative, how he 
reached the purpose of coming to America, in these words : 
"In the year 1700, when people flocked fi'oni all parts of the 
christian world to see the solemnity of the grand jubilee at 
Rome, my intention at that time being to travel, I accidentally 
met with a gentleman who had been abroad and was very 
well acquainted with the ways of living in both Indies; of 
whom, having made inquiry concerning them, he assured me 
that Carolina was the best country I could go to ; and that 
there then lay a ship in the Thames in which I might have my 



228 THE NOKTIi CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

passage. I laid hold on this opportunity, and was not long 
on board before we fell do^^^l the river and sailed to Cowes; 
where, having taken in some passengers, we proceeded on our 
voyage." 

After springing a leak, the vessel on which Lawson sailed 
was forced to put into port on one of the islands of Scilly, 
where the voyagers were hospitably entertained by the in- 
habitants during a stay of ten days. Setting sail once more 
on the 1st of May, the ship was thrown out of its course by 
adverse winds, and it was not until the latter part of July 
that Sandy Hook, in the Colony of ]S[ew York, was reached. 
After remaining a fortnight in ISTew York, Lawson's journey 
by sea was resumed ; and, fourteen days later, he found him- 
self in Charleston (or Charles Town, as it was then called), 
the capital and chief city of South Carolina. This colonial 
metropolis he highly praises, adding that South Carolina was 
as prosperous in condition as any English colony in America ; 
and was a source of more revenue to the Crown than any of 
the more northern '^'plantations," except Virginia and Mary- 
land. 

It was on the 28th of December 1700, that Lawson left 
Charleston and began his journey through the wilderness to 
I^orth Carolina. In his party were six Englishmen, three 
male Indians and a squaw — the la^^t mentioned being wife of 
one of the three Indians. To tell how this band of explorers 
beat through swamps, forded creeks, went by canoe up and 
rloAvn rivers, camped in the forest by mountain and stream, 
held intercourse with the natives, were alarmed by wUd beasts, 
and feasted on by mosquitoes, would make a narrative but 
little shorter than the journal in which Lawson recorded his 
''thousand miles traveled through several nations of Indians." 

Erom the time of his first arrival on American soil, in 
1700, Lawson remained eight years, returning to Europe late 



JOHN LAWSON. 229 

iu the Summer of 1708. In that year he was appointed Sur- 
veyor-General of the Colony. The first edition of his history 
made its appearance in 1709, being published in London. 
This was the only issue which came out during the lifetime 
of its author, though quite a number of posthumous editions 
have since been printed. Of the character and merits of this 
work later mention will be made. 

During Mr. Lawson's stay in England he was engaged to 
assist Baron Christopher DeGraffenried in bringing his 
Swiss and German colonists to North Carolina. The place 
of their settlement was at the junction of the ]S[euse and 
Trent rivers. It was called New Bern, after Bern, in Switz- 
erland, the Baron's native country. The site of New Bern 
had formerly been occupied by an Indian town knovni as 
Chatawka. From this town is said to be derived the name of 
the lake and settlement of Chatauqua in New York. To 
New York went a great majority of Tuscaroras under the 
leadership of Chief Hen-cock (or Hancock) a year or two 
later, thereby transferring to that colony many Indian names 
from North Carolina. It will be remembered that, prior to 
this migration northward of the Tuscaroras, the Indian con- 
federacy in New York was known as the Five Nations — ■ 
later becoming the Six Nations by the acquisition of the 
North Carolina tribe. 

At a meeting held in London by the Lords Proprietors 
in iVugiist, 1709, Mr. Lawson was allowed the sum of twenty 
pounds for several maps made by him of the colonies of North 
Carolina arid South Carolina. During the same year he was 
appointed, together with Edward Moseley, a commissioner to 
represent the Lords Proprietors in settling the uncertain 
boundary between North Carolina and the colony of Virginia. 
These commissioners entered upon their duties in 1710, but 
did not reach an agreement with the Commissioners of Vir- 



230 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

ginia (Philip Ludwell and Nathaniel Harrison), and the 
line was not settled definitely until about twenty years later. 
In September, 1711, being then at New Bern, Lawson 
proposed to Baron DeGraffenried to go on an exploring ex- 
pedition up the ISTeuse River, to- see how far that stream was 
navigable, and also to ascertain if a more direct overland road 
to Virginia could be laid out in that direction. Major 
Christopher Gale (afterwards Chief Justice) was to have 
accompanied this party; but, being advised of the illness of 
his wife and brother at the town of Bath, he abandoned his 
purpose in order to go to them. Lawson and DeGraffenried, 
however, set out on their journey, accompanied by two negroes 
to row the boats, and by two Indian guides. One of these 
Indians understood English and acted as interpreter for the 
party. After they had traveled some miles and were ap- 
proaching the Indian village of Catechna, the voyagers were 
commanded by the natives to proceed no further. Fearing 
to disregard this order, the boats were pulled up at a spring 
on the river bank and preparations made to encamp for the 
night. DeGraffenried appreciated the danger of delay, and 
counseled immediate return without going into camp, when 
Lawson, who viewed the matter less seriously, laughed at 
his fears. But, to use the Baron's own words, ''laughter, in 
a twinkle, expired on his lips" when tliey found themselves 
surrounded by scores of armed Indians, some springing from 
bush and thicket, while others swam from the opposite side 
of the river to join their tribesmen. For Lawson and his 
party to resist would mean instant death, so they at once 
yielded to the Indians, who started at a breakneck speed 
through the woods, compelling their prisoners to run with 
them. Toward m^orning they reached Catechna, the Indian 
town where King Hen-cock was in council with his warriors, 
who were even then, mayhap, planning the great massacre 



JOHN LAWSON. 231 

which was to be visited upon ]^ew Bern shortly thereafter. 
While the above council continued its session, forty other 
'*kings" or chiefs came with their followers. Among these 
savage dignitaries was "Core Tom," chief of the village of 
Core. On being arraigned before the council of forty chiefs, 
or "Assembly of the Great," as it was called, Lawson and 
DeGraffenried explained that they were on a friendly excur- 
sion, wishing to gather grapes, explore the river, and open 
up better trade relations with their Indian neighbors. By 
dint of much persuasion the captives seem to have succeeded 
in justifying themselves, and it was promised by the Indians 
that they should be set free the next day. But, unfortunately 
for the prisoners, two more chiefs arrived and desired to 
know the reasons for the prospective liberation of the ex- 
plorers. This brought on another examination, when Lawson 
lost control of his temper and entered into a violent quarrel 
with Core Tom, the above-mentioned chief of the village of 
Core. After this, it was decided that all the party should be 
put to death. Lawson and DeGraffenried were first pounced 
upon by the Indians, who robbed them of all their belongings 
and dashed their hats and periwigs into the fire. Then they 
were carried out for execution. DeGraffenried, who survived 
the tragedy, has left behind him a graphic account of prepa- 
rations for the slaughter, with descriptions of the wild caper- 
ings of the Indians, and the grave ceremonials of their High 
Priest, who was to officiate at the slaughter. "The priests," 
says DeGraffenried, "are generally magicians, and even 
conjure up the Devil." When the above gruesome ceremonies 
were drawing to an end, and the Indians seemed ready to 
proceed with their butchery, DeGraffenried gained the ear of 
one of the savages who understood English and gave him to 
understand that the great and powerful Queen of England, 
by whose orders he had brought his Swiss colonists to Caro- 
2 



232 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

lina, would be sure to avenge kis blood ; furthermore, he made 
promises of advantages which would accrue to the Indians 
should he be liberated. At length it was decided that the 
Baron's life should be spared, but that Lawson should be put 
to death. In telling of the separation of himself from his 
fellow-prisoner, it is said by DeGraifenried in his narrative: 
"Poor Lawson, being always left in the same place, I could 
understand that all was over with him, and that he would not 
be pardoned. He accordingly took leave from me, and told 
me to say farewell, in his name, to his friends. Alas! it 
grieved me much to see him in such danger, not being able 
to speak with him, nor to give him any consolation; so I 
tried to show him my compassion by a few signs." DeGraf- 
fenried states that nothing certain was ever known as to the 
manner of Lawson's execution, for the Indians would not tell 
how it was brought about. Some accounts said that he was 
burned alive, some that he was hanged, and others that his 
throat was cut with a razor taken from his own pocket. An- 
other version, as mentioned in a letter from Major Christo- 
pher Gale, was to the effect that the Indians "stuck him full 
of fine small splinters of torchwood, like hogs' bristles, and 
BO set them gradually on fire." 

From the last mentioned version of how Lawson was 
killed it would appear that he met his death in a manner simi- 
lar to that described by himself at an earlier period, when 
his history was written. In that work, while treating of the 
conduct of Indians toward their prisoners, he says: "They 
strive to invent the most inhuman butcheries for them that 
the devils themselves could invent or hammer out of hell ; 
they esteeming deatli no punishment, but rather an advantage 
to him that is exported out of this into another world. There- 
fore they inflict on them torments wherein they prolong life 
in that miserable state as long as they can, and never miss 



JOHN LAWSON. 233 

skulping [scalping] of tliem, as they call it, which is to cut 
off the skin from the temples, and taking the whole head of 
hair with it, as if it was a night-cap. Sometimes they take 
the top of the skull along with it; all which they preserve 
and carefully keep by them for a trophy of their conquest 
over their enemies. Others keep their enemies' teeth, which 
are taken in war, whilst others split the pitch-pine into splint- 
ers and stick them into the prisoner's body yet alive. Thus 
they light them, which burn like so many torches ; and in this 
manner they make him dance round a great fire, every one 
buffeting and deriding him till he expires, when every one 
strives to get a bone or some relic of this unfortunate cap- 
tive." 

It ^vas some days after the death of Lawson before DeGraf- 
fenried was set at liberty. During his captivity a proclama- 
tion (dated October 8, 1711), was dispatched to the Indians 
by Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia, stating that 
upon advices received that they held captive the Baron De- 
Graffenried, he had thought proper to warn them that should 
any harm come to their prisoner the forces of Virginia would 
be called out to lay waste their towns, and no quarter would 
be given to man, woman or child. 

When, at length, DeGraffenried did get back to New Bern, 
a woeful sight met his eyes. He was greeted by the survivors 
of his colony, who for many days had mourned him as dead ; 
and from them he learned of the awful tragedy which had 
been enacted in his absence. On September 22, 1711, one 
hundred and thirty men, women and children had been in- 
humanly butchered by the red men; and those colonists who 
had escaped the tomahawk and scalping-knife were anxiously 
awaiting the military forces which were soon to come from 
South Carolina under Colonel John Barnwell. Major Gale, 
who went to solicit aid from Charleston, reported there that 



234 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

the Baron DeGraffenried bad also been murdered, for it was 
not then known that he had escaped. 

In the second volume of the Biographical History of North 
Carolina is a sketch of Lawson, by Dr. Stephen B. Weeks^ 
in which are recounted the various editions through which 
Lawson's History has gone. Dr. Weeks says: "His histori- 
cal and descriptive work was possibly compiled for John 
Stevens' 'Collections of Voyages and Travels/ which was be- 
gun in 1708 and finished in 17 10-' 11. The second of the 
series, printed in 1709, is Lawson's 'ISTew Voyage to Caro- 
lina.' It appeared in 1711 as a part of the edition of 
Stevens published that year, with the same title page. In 
1714 and 1718 it was re^published under the title 'The His- 
tory of Carolina' (London). There was a German edition 
in 1712, 'Alleneuster Beschreibung der Provintz Carolina' 
(Hamburg), and another in 1722. These were doubtless 
issued to encourage immigration, and perhaps in the interests 
of DeGraffenried's Palatine colony. The 1714 edition was 
re-printed in Raleigh in 1860, and again at Charlotte in 1903 
by Colonel P. A. Olds. Both of the North Carolina editions 
are very poorly done." 

To the above comments by Dr. Weeks it may be added that 
the volume published at Charlotte contains matter which 
Lawson did not write, including some of the papers of Col- 
onel William Byrd, of Westover, in Virginia. This edition 
is also relieved of some plain language which would hardly 
pass for polite literature in our generation. Some language 
found in Lawson's work (the unexpurgated editions at least) 
is not gauged by the modern standards of chaste expression. 
To teH, in delicate terms of the various things which passed 
under his observation while sojourning among the Indians, 
might have been considered by the old historian too difficult 
a task. He was an observant traveler, who saw and heard 



JOHN LAWSON. 235 

much ; and, what he did see and hear, was told in words which 
would be highly embarrassing if read aloud in a drawing- 
room of the present day. 

When Lawson deals with natural history and animal life, 
the terms he employs are quite amusing. Under the head of 
insects he includes alligators, rattlesnakes and about twenty 
other kinds of snakes, terrapins, frogs, etc. Among the 
snakes he mentions "brimstone snakes." As to what a "brim- 
stone snake" is, the present writer must confess ignorance, 
but it is evidently a pretty hot insect. In referring to frogs, 
he says: ''The most famous is the bullfrog, so called because 
he lows exactly like that beast, which makes strangers wonder 
(when by the side of a marsh) what is the matter, for they 
hear the frogs low and can see no cattle." Lawson also tells 
of a disease which can be easily cured by baking a toad and 
grinding up his ashes with orris root, this to be taken intern- 
ally. I am afraid this remedy would hardly find much favor 
in the present day. 

It is not generally known that a trial for witchcraft once 
took place in IS^orth Carolina, which resulted in the conviction 
and execution (probably by burning) of the accused. Law- 
son states that, though ]S[orth Carolina had been settled for 
upwards of sixty years, the only executions which had ever 
occurred were those where a Turk had been convicted of mur- 
der, and an old woman had been condemned for witchcraft. 
Alluding to the witchcraft trial, Lawson adds that it took 
place many years before he came to the colony, but adds: 
"I wish it had been undone to this day, although they give 
a great many arguments to justify the deed which I had 
rather they should have had a hand ir than myself; seeing 
I could never approve of taking life away upon such accusa- 
tions, the justice whereof I could never yet understand." 

In 1737, some years after Lawson's death. Dr. John 



236 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Brickell published a JSTatural History of IsTortli Carolina. It 
has often been charged that this was a plagiarism, almost 
verbatim, from Lawson; and Brickell did get much of his 
material from the earlier historian. In the above quoted 
sketch by Dr. Weeks, however, it is intelligently argued that 
Brickell was not a mere copyist. Referring to the charges 
of plagiarism. Dr. Weeks observes: "These statements do 
a grave injustice to Brickell. He tells us that his work is a 
^compendious collection.' He took the work of Lawson, re- 
worked it in his own fashion, extended or curtailed and 
brought it down to his own time. His work is more than 
twice as large as that of Lawson's ; his professional training 
is everywhere patent, and there is much in it relating to the 
social condition of the colony. Brickell's work is fuller, more 
systematic and more like the work of a professional student; 
Lawson's seems more like that of a traveler and observer." 

In 1Y05 Mr. Lawson joined Joel Martin in securing a 
charter to incorporate the town of Bath. This historic 
borough, or what at present remains of it, is the oldest incor- 
porated town in the State. The land on which it was built 
belonged to Lawson and Martin ; and the former, being a sur- 
veyor by profession, was doubtless the one who laid out its 
streets. As Lawson aided Baron DeGraffenried in founding 
Kew Bern, he probably laid out the streets of that place also, 
and possibly of Edenton. 

Since the days of John Lawson no writer has ever at- 
tempted to treat of the history of l^orth Carolina without 
building in some measure upon the literary labors of others, 
or upon the records of former generations. The book of na- 
ture was the only volume to- which Lawson could turn for in- 
formation. Amid the wilds of a new continent he lived, 
labored, wrote, explored, blazed paths through the trackless 
wilderness, made measurements of our seacoasts, laid out vil- 



JOHN LAWSON. 237 

lages and promoted colonization. To wrest the soil from a 
fierce and warlike race of savages required men of supreme 
courage — men who could be killed but never cowed — and 
who would fearlessly bear privations and face death when so 
doing would advance the great purposes they sought to ac- 
complish. 

Forceful is the figure of speech voiced by some writer who 
says that the pyramids of Egypt, doting with age, have for- 
gotten the names of their founders. Immeasurably more 
mighty than the pyramids, and not doting with age either, 
is the great American continent, whose settlement was begun 
by our colonial progenitors ; and succeeding generations should 
see to it that the names and deeds of these "founders" are 
held in grateful and everlasting remembrance. 



SOME OVERLOOKED NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY. 



BY J. T. ALDERMAN. 



Old books are sometimes quite interesting. For a num- 
ber of years Wain's Life of Lafayette, published in 1826, 
has been in my library unread. Recently my attention was 
attracted to it, and I found it very entertaining. Among 
other things I came across something which was news to ma 

In his account of the siege of Yorktown, the fact comes 
out that Lord Cornwallis, when about to be hemmed in by 
the American and French troops, began to look about for 
some way to extricate himself from their toils. On the arri- 
val of the French fleet in the Bay Cornwallis determined to 
leave Yorktown and by forced marches, cross I^orth Carolina 
and join the British forces near Charleston, S. C. 

Wain says: "The most positive intelligence was soon re- 
ceived by Lafayette that Lord Cornwallis intended to pene- 
trate with his army from Yorktown to South Carolina by 
land. He was moving from York to James River, and was 
getting hits boats across from Queen's creek to College land- 
ing to go from thence to Jamestown, then cross the James 
River to Cobham's to proceed from thence to South Caro- 
lina." 

''Upon the first intelligence of this movement of Corn- 
wallis, the most animated measures were adopted by Gov-' 
ernor Burke to cooperate with Muhlenburg. Every boat on 
the Roanoke, l^euse and Meherin rivers was secured under 
guard or destroyed ; every crossing was placed under guard 
and crossed by abatis ; and the militia were ordered out en 
masse. The whole State of North Carolina, from the Dan 
River to the sea-coast appears to have been set in motion 
by this active Governor. 



SOME OVERLOOKED NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 239 

"Comwallis had prepared a number of light pontoons on 
wagons, and was ready for the march. The arrival of the 
French fleet under Count De Grasse had been the cause of 
this movement; the departure of the French fleet to engage 
the British under Admiral Greaves delayed it. Below him 
he saw the whole country in arms to oppose his retreat, while 
Green waited in the South to receive him on the point of the 
bayonette," etc. 

After reading the above it occurred to me that the Colonial 
Records ought to throw some light upon this subject. Inves- 
tigation brings out plenty of evidence of the proposed inva- 
sion, and of the determination of the people of North Caro- 
lina to dispute his passage through the State to South Car- 
olina. 

The following extracts are from the State Eecords, Vol. 
XV., and are interesting, especially as they throw light on 
this matter. 

Page 626. The following is a letter from Lafayette to 
Gen. Allen Jones. Dated. Rufiins, August 2Y, 1781: 

DbarSir : — From the intelligencies lately received I am almost satisfied 
that the enemy mean to attempt a retreat through North Carolina, and 
as it is of the highest importance every obstruction should be thrown in 
their way, I request you will be particular in having every boat on the 
Roanoke collected and destroyed. I would not wish it delayed as they 
may fall into the enemy's hands, and it would furnish them with the 
means of crossing and render your opposition more diflScult. I wish 
you to collect, without loss of time, a sufficient number of militia to ren- 
der these attempts ineflTectual. * * * * 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

Lafayette. 

. Page 629. Letter of Col. H. Murfree to Governor Burke; 

Muefree's Landing, September 1, 1781. 
Sir: — I received your excellency's favor of the 31st August, and ob- 
served its contents. I will lose no time in securing the boats, etc. * *" 
I am yours, etc., H. Murfree 



240 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

Page 630. Letter from Col. J. S. Wells to General Jones. 

Camp Cowper's Mills, September 1, 1781. 

Deak Genekal : — I have the pleasure to inform you that the long ex- 
pected French fleet has at last arrived in our Bay. * * * * in con- 
sequence of the said fleet's arrival, Lord Cornwallis is about moving from 
York to Jamestown and is getting his boats across from Queen's Creek 
to the College Landing, from thence to Jamestown and there to cross 
James River to Cobham, from that place to South Carohna. General 
Wayne and General Muhlenberg are on this side James River and I ex- 
pect some of the French Frigates will go up the river in order to pre- 
vent his Lordship's crossing. But should he cross you may expect to 
see us in your quarter of the country. His Lordship must never be suf- 
fered to cross Roanoke. * * * * 
Your most obedient servant, 

John Sck. Wells, Collo. 

Gen. W. Caswell to Governor Burke. 

Under dates of September 4th, again on Sth, again on 
September 14tli, Caswell wrote to Governor Burke that every 
provision was being made to fortify the country and put a 
large army in the field to dispute the march of Cornwallis 
should he attempt to cross the State. 

The records show that the Militia was being collected and 
equipped in the whole Stat© east of the Piedmont section. 
The people at that time were encouraged ; they had gained 
considerable confidence in tlieir power to resist the invading 
armies. Many of them had seen service during the campaigns 
in South Carolina and with Greene in west North Carolina, 
The ofiicers knew better how to collect and maintain an army. 

THE NORTH CAROLINA MILITIA OF REVOLUTIONARY TIMES. 

Unjust criticisms have been heaped upon the North Caro 
olina Militia during Revolutionary times. The youth of our 
country should know that historians were unjust to the men 
who served well their country at a time when valiant ser- 
vices were most needed. 'No doubt there were individuals in 
the ranks of the militia who were not brave soldiers. 



SOME OVERLOOKED NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 241 

An investigation of tlie services of the militia during those 
stormy years would give some idea of the valuable services 
rendered to the Cause of Liberty by the North Carolina 
Militia. 

The first decided victory on the field of battle for Inde- 
dependence was gained by the l^orth Carolina militia 
at Moore's Creek. Ramsour's Mill, Kings Mountain, Guil- 
ford Court House, and a hundred encounters with the Tories 
and British bore testimony to their bravery and courage. 
After the battle of Kings Mountain Cornwallis precipitately 
retreated from Charlotte to escape the l^orth Carolina mi- 
litia. A large number of the State Militia joined General 
Mogan's forces and helped to win the great victory at the 
Cowpens. The Tories were held in check through fear of 
the Militia in the disaffected sections of the State. A large 
number of the Militia went from the State to help the peo- 
ple of South Carolina. 

At the battle of Camden Dixon's Brigade of North Caro- 
lina Militia was the last to leave the field. In the State 
Records, Vol. XV, page 384, is an interesting account of the 
bravery of this brigade of North Carolina Militia. 

In that unfortunate battle General Gates had unadvisedly 
rushed his men into the battle unprepared for the conflict. 
Without proper precaution he had attempted to make a 
night attack on the British. The British were making the 
same kind of move during the night when they met in the 
darkness. The disastrous result is well known. The writer 
in the page named says : 

"General Gates attempted to arrange the American troops 
in the darkness. 

"At length the army was arranged in line of battle in the 
following order: General Gist's brigade on the right, the 
North Carolina Militia in close order, two deep, in the cen- 



242 THE NOETH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

ter, and the Virginia Militia in like order with another 
corps on the left; the other troops were arranged in other 
parts of the field. * * * The enemy attacked and drove 
in our light party in front, and after the first fire charged 
the Militia with bayonets, whereupon the whole gave way, 
except Colonel Dixon's regiment of North Carolina Militia; 
the British cavalry continuing to harass the rear such was 
the panic diffused through the whole that utmost and unre- 
mitting exertions of the Generals to rally them proved inef- 
fectual. They ran like a torrent and bore all before them. 
This shameful desertion of the Militia gave the enemy an 
opportunity of bending their whole force against the Mary- 
land troops and Dixon's North Carolina Militia. The con- 
flict was obstinate and bloody, and lasted fifteen minutes. 
Dixon's Militia standing firm with the regulars of the Mary- 
land line, and pushing bayonets to the last. They were then 
furiously charged by British horse whom they completely 
vanquished, allowing only two of the British to escape. These 
brave militiamen suffered greatly, having lost half of their 
number, and to their immortal honor made their retreat 
good. * * * After this defeat the yeomanry of North 
Carolina immediately turned out unsolicited. An army was 
collected which consisted of between 4,000 and 5,000 men." 
With such experiences with the North Carolina Militia, it 
is not surprising that Cornwallis hesitated to make another 
attempt to pass through the State. - 

Note. — Biographical Sketch of Prof. J. T. Alderman appeared in No. 3 
Vol. VI, January, 1907. 



THE WHITE PICTURES. 



BY W. J. PEELE. 



The pictures of John White purport to have been painted 
on Roanoke Island, and if this did not appear from inspec- 
tion, the execution of them there would have been presumed 
from their character and fidelity. 

Any one who visits the Island now can still recognize the 
scenes, the ground plans, on which the pictures are laid. The 
Sounds, the Banks, the sand hills, the inlets and the Island 
itself with its outline and configuration, are unmistakable. 
Then, too, White was selected by Queen Elizabeth and sent 
there to paint what he saw, and had ample opportunity to do 
it, for he remained a year lacking five days. How well he 
executed his conmiission may be gathered from the fact that 
two years later he was sent over to our shores as the gov- 
ernor of ''Virginia" — perhaps the only artist who ever held 
that office. The "lost colony" seems to have been a sufficient 
argument against the repetition of the experiment. 

The originals are still in the British Museum, and fairly 
executed copies preserving the colors are in the Smithsonian 
Institute. These copies were made, I think, in 1845. 

The copies before me are those reproduced in DeBry's edi- 
tion of 1590, cut, as he says, in copper with great pains, and 
printed in Germany, with their descriptions subjoined, which 
appear to have been written by White himself. DeBry's 
book with the descriptions in four languages (or rather his 
four books, for he got out an English, Latin, Trench and 
German edition), was the joint product of several minds, 
among them Raleigh's, Hariot's, and Hakluyt's. 

The title of DeBry's book (in modern spelling) is "The 
true pictures and fashions of the people of that part of Amer- 



244 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

ica now called Virginia, discovered by Englishmen, sent 
thither in the year of our Lord 1585, at the special charge 
and direction of the Honorable Sir Walter Raleigh, Knight, 
Lord Warden of the Slannaries in the Duchies of Cornwall 
and Oxford, who therein hath been favored and autorified by 
her Majesty and her letters patent, translated into English by 
Richard Hakluyt, diligently collected and draAvn by John 
White, who was sent thither specially for the same purpose 
by the said Sir Walter Raleigh, the year 1585 and also the 
year 1588, now cut in copper and first published by Theodore 
de Bry at his own charges." 

There is no other record that White came over here in 
1588. The writer probably meant 1587. The other date 
mentioned, 1585, if it referred to the discovery by Amidas 
and Barlowe, should be 1584; Lane's exploration in 1585 and 
1586 were much more extensive, but they were not the first 
made by the English in eastern North Carolina. 

The matter is set in a clearer light by giving the most 
uiaterial parts of De Bry's preface : "To the Gentle Reader." 

"* * * I was very willing to offer unto you the true pic- 
tures of those people which by the help of Master Richard 
Hakluyt, of Oxford, minister of God's Word, wdio first en- 
couraged me to publish the work, I carved out of the very 
original matter of Master John White, an English painter 
who was sent into the country by the Queen's Majesty only 
to draw the topography of the place and to describe in a 
manner true to life the forms of the inhabitants, their appa- 
rel, manner of living and their fashions, at the special charges 
of the worthy Knight, Sir Walter Raleigh, who bestowed no 
small sum of money in the search and discovery of that 
country from the year 1584 to the end of the year 1588. 
* * * I carved them * * at London, and brought them 
hither to Frankfort, where I and my sons have taken earnest 



THE WHITE PICTURES. 245 

pains in graving the pictures thereof in copper, seeing it ia 
a matter of no small importance, * * * I have caused 
it (the descriptions of the paintings) to be rendered into 
very good French and Latin by the aid of a very v^orshipful 
friend of mine. [Probably Hariot.] 

"Finally, I heartily request thee [the reader] that if any 
seek to counterfeit them, my books, for in these days many 
are so malicious as that they seek to gain by other men's 
labors, thou would give no credit unto such counterfeited 
draught. For divers secret marks lie hidden in my pictures 
which will breed confusion unless they be well observed." 

De Bry's book contains twenty-three engravings. The first 
is Harlot's map of Lane's explorations, showing the Albe- 
marle and Pamlico and Currituck Sounds, with their tribu- 
taries and islands, the Banks and their inlets. This is omit- 
ted in the copy in the State Library. 

The ground plan of the second engraving, which serves also 
as a map, though its title ''the arrival of the Englishmen in 
Virginia" indicates what it was intended to portray, centers 
around a boat load of pioneers approaching the village of 
Roanoke near the north end of the Island; or perhaps, the 
village itself is intended to be the central point. Behind the 
approaching pioneers is the inlet. Trinity Harbor, through 
which they have sailed, on either side of which two ships 
are riding at anchor in the ocean. Toward the village in 
front of them, one sitting in the prow of the boat is holding 
out a cross to indicate the pious purpose of their coming. 
Beyond what is now called Croatan Sound, some four or 
five miles from the Island, appears the village of Dassamon- 
guepuek. On the north bank of what is now the Albemarle 
Sound, appears the village of Pasquenoke, of which the 
name Pasquotank may be a corruption. The entire view 
is less than thirty miles in any direction, and could be cov- 



246 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

ered with a field glass on a fair day from a tower in Manteo. 
The miniature villages are surrounded by com patches, and, 
when magnified show the surprising degree of skill with 
which they were sketched on so small a scale. 

The description of the landing contains very suggestive 
material for the artist who will one day immortalize himself 
by working it into a great painting of the scene. 

* * * ''Sailing further we came to a good big Island, 
the inhabitants thereof as soon as they saw us, began to make 
a great and horrible cry as people which had never before seen 
men apparelled like us, and ran away making outcries like 
wild beasts or men out of their wits. But being gently called 
back we offered them our wares, such as glass beads, knives, 
dolls, and other trifles which we thought they delighted in. 
So they stood still and perceiving our good will and courtesy 
came fawning upon us and bade us welcome. Then they 
brought us to their village in the Island called Roanoke and 
unto their Weroance or Prince, who entertained us with reas- 
onable courtesy, although they were amazed at the first sight 
of us. 

"Such was our arrival into the part of the world which we 
call Virginia, the statue of body of which people, their attire 
and manner of living, their feasts and banquets, I will partic- 
ularly declare unto you." 

I should add in conclusion that the White paintings should 
be elaborately discussed by one capable of judging them from 
an artist's standpoint. Recently Mr. Albert Sterner, under 
the auspices of the Historical Commission, visited Roanoke 
Island after first examining De Bry. How he was impressed 
is told in an article recently published in the News and 
Observer, which it may not be improper here to reproduce. 



THE WHITE PICTURES. 247 

THE SCENE OF A GREAT PAINTING THE HISTORICAL COMMIS- 
SION SENDS MR. ALBERT STERNER TO ROANOKE ISLAND. 

1 had long thought it ought to be painted. It looked like 
a picture when I saw it in 1902 — I mean the place where 
Amidas and Barlowe landed in 1584. 

The little island was sleeping the sleep of centuries embow- 
ered in evergreens very much as it was when the English 
knelt there to thank God for the new possession. The long 
yellow banks glistened in the sunlight. The blue Atlantic 
rolled beyond. Some two or three hundred yards from Fort 
Raleigh is a little cove on the island shore filled in by the 
waters of Roanoke Sound. It is almost opposite the fort, and 
with the water a little deeper, as it may well have been then, 
it was almost an ideal place for the landing. IsTorth Carolina 
has made no memorial of this first great step in the trans^- 
continental march of the Anglo-Saxon race. Centuries have 
gone by and the spread of the all-conquering race is arrested 
only by the Pacific. Monuments and memorials have been 
erected along the lines of its progress, but it has forgotten its 
cradle on the shores of the Old North State. 

In a few months many tens of thousands of Americans 
will return to a spot in Virginia a little more than a hundred 
miles away to do honor to the memories which rightly cluster 
about it, and ISTorth Carolina has stretched tO' her sister 
across her border a generous hand of congratulation. Shall 
she do any thing for herself ? 

Framed by the banks of "Hatorask" on the east and the 
land of Dassamonguepuek on the west, and set an emerald in 
the golden waters of its four sounds, the island is as perfect 
a picture as it was when Queen Elizabeth sent John White to 
paint it. And he did paint it in a little picture nine by six 
inches which escaped the great London fire of 1666 and is 



248 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

still preserved in the British Museum. The reproduction of 
this picture "The Coming of the English into Virginia" — 
North Carolina — on a great canvas by an artist of national 
and international fame is one of the debts which the State 
owes to herself — owes to her sister States — to the race which 
begun its new home here — its last and greatest home — owes 
to posterity — owes to the world whose representative peoples 
are about to assemble near our shores. 

In December Mr. Albert Sterner, of New York, who illus- 
trates for the great Northern periodicals, visited the island 
at the request of the Historical Commission. The people did 
not know he was coming and the regular boat was out of re- 
pair so there was nothing but a gas freight boat to take him 
from Elizabeth City to Manteo. 

Nothing daunted, however, he went accompanied by his 
wife, herself an artist in temperament and enthusiasm. 
There was some natural hesitation at the acommodations or 
rather the lack of them, but the London historian, Mr. With- 
ington, whom he had along with him and who had been 
everywhere and seen everything was delighted at the prospect 
of a terra incognita. Soon the little freight boat was gliding 
down the chocolate colored waters of the Pasquotank River. 
The sun, near its setting, struggled hard with the mists up 
the sound until finally, no bigger than a bull's eye, it was 
snuffed out. Light breezes were behind us and I suppose they 
bore pleasant odors witli them, but we were sitting over an 
oil stove and fumes of this emphasized by those of the gaso- 
line in front of us were quite sufficient to swallow up any 
faint aromas from the woods. In six hours we were at Man- 
teo. Thawed out we chartered a boat for our return — the 
freight boat was to start back at five o'clock a. m. 

A noise like that of a dozen freight trains loaded with 
bass drums was echoing up into the sky. It was the Atlantic 



THE WHITE PICTUKES. 24© 

growling down the banks toward Hatteras in token of wind 
the next day. This we got in due season according to prom- 
ise and some of our much traveled party got sea-sick on the 
Albemarle Sound. 

, The sun rose fine the next morning' for those of us who got 
up with it. Our historian and his wife rose considerably before 
it, aiid he escaped from his exploration wet to his knees. This 
did not disturb him at all, however, for in a few minutes he 
was whizzing along through the frosty air on the road to 
Fort Raleigh. The sub-tropical evergreens — live oak, the 
yupon and the holly — brightened our way. We had sent the 
boat round to meet us toward the north end of the island 
near where the colonists landed. Out of the vehicles we made 
our way from the fort some two or three hundred yards to 
the shore of Roanoke Sound, and this was the place we had 
brought the great artist all the way from New York to see. 
Up the shore a few straggling pines, relics of the primeval 
forests, sentinelled the outskirts of the woods and marked the 
undulations of the shore. The little cove where probably the 
first boat load of colonists drew ashore curved gracefully in- 
land. The quick eye of the artist caught the scene, and his 
bosom swelled with enthusiasm as he saw for the first time 
how well nature had framed "the cradle of the Anglo- Amer- 
ican race." Behind him were the woods bedecked with ever- 
gTeen. In front of him the yellow waters of Roanoke Sound 
brightened in the sunshine. Beyond stretched the banks, 
down which a flock of wild geese were proceeding in their 
orderly flight. 

"The picture is worthy of the event," were almost the first 
words that escaped him. And this was always what I ex- 
pected. He spoke little, but his enthusiasm was contagious 
as he strode up and down the sands of that historic spot. The 
scene which White painted on the island in his "true pic- 



250 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

tures" of more than three centuries ago arose before him. 
He saw the coming boat freighted with the pioneers of the 
nation which is called "time's noblest off-spring and the 
last." He saw the Indians who first fled with ^'horrible 
cries" and then came fawning back upon their conquerors. 
He saw the village of Roanoke with its rude houses of bark. 
"They have robbed you of your birthright," exclaimed his 
wife — and she never knew it till she saw the paintings and 
the picture before her which verified them. But have they 
done it? We shall see. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



COMPILBD AND EDITED BY MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



RICHARD BENBURY CREECY. 

The subject of this sketch was one of the first contributors 
to the Booklet. In volume 1st, No. 5, he wrote a sketch 
of that heroic maiden, Betsy Dowdy, of Currituck Beach, 
who made the famous midnight ride to carry news of the 
probable invasion of the Albemarle section by the British 
troops under Lord Dunmore. Col. Creecy has given a 
graphic account of this incident introduced by these memor- 
able lines : 

" Oh woman timid as a child 

When skies are bright, serene and mild: 

Let evil come with angry brow, 

A lion-hearted hero thou." 

This is but another recorded instance that N^orth Caro- 
lina had her heroines as well as her heroes; tho' history has 
usually been silent concerning them. 

Col. Creecy, one of the ablest editors in our State, was 
born December 19, 1813, on Drummond's Point, the oldest 
settlement in l^orth Carolina on Albemarle Sound. 

He is descended from Job Creecy, a Huguenot emigrant 
from France, a representative of that branch of Christians 
noted in general for their austere virtues and the singular 
purity of their lives. 

He is also descended from General Thomas Benbury, one 
of the leading statesmen of the Revolution, a member of 
the Provincial Congress of August 25, 1774, also member 
of the Edenton District Committee of Safety ; paymast-er 
of the 5th Regiment, who fought at the battle of Great 
Bridge, which engagement was so successful for the Ameri- 
cans that the British troops were forced to retreat. 

Col. Creecy is also descended from William Skinner, who 
was Brigadier-General of State troops ; Treasurer of the 



252 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Eastern District under Governor Caswell, and rendered in 
other ways important service during the Revolutionary War. 
With such sturdy and patriotic ancestors it is no wonder 
that the subject of this sketch holds on so tenaciously to life — 
a life filled with service for his State and country. 

Col. Creecy was educated in the best schools that the State 
afforded, was graduated from the State University in 1835, 
studied law and obtained his license in 1842. After three 
years he abandoned the practice of law and devoted himself 
to agricultural pursuits. In 1870, finding that his tastes 
were inclined to journalism and other lines of literary work, 
he founded the ''Elizabeth City Economist," a paper which 
he has continued to publish to the present time, and which 
has a large circulation in Eastern North Carolina. His 
productions are considered of such literary merit, wit and 
humor and philosophy combined, as to enlist the attention 
of a reader from start to finish. 

His article on the history of the Albemarle section has 
made the characters of the Revolution such living actors that 
their names have become household words with later gener- 
ations. Would that every section of our beloved State had a 
historian like he — one to write a ''Grandfather's Tales" for 
the children from the mountains to the sea. 

Col. Creecy has never sought political preferment, which in 
many instances "blunts the edge of husbandry;" his line of 
work has been in the path of duty. Imbued with a generous 
ambition and a passionate love for his State and its honorable 
history, he has rescued from oblivion many facts that sub- 
stantiate the claim that North Carolina stands foremost in 
the great struggle for liberty. 

Col. Creecy has written many reminiscences that are keys 
to the book of history, opening the way to diligent research. 
His productions embrace a diversity of subjects, including 
history, biography, legends and poetry. One of his books, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 253 

called "Grandfather's Tales of North Carolina History," is 
widely read and highly recommended. The dedication, is its 
keynote. "To the youth of North Carolina I dedicate this 
volume, with the earnest hope that they will learn from its 
pages some lessons of patriotism, and will be strengthened 
in their love for their native State by these memorials of the 
past that I have sought to perpetuate for their benefit." 

In ISTovember, 1844, Col. Creecy was married to Miss 
Mary B. Perkins, whose ancestors figured conspicuously in 
the Revolutionary War in defense of their country, Numer- 
ous descendants live to do him honor. 

Capt. Ashe, in his biographical sketch, says : "Being asked 
for some suggestion that might be helpful to young people 
Col. Creecy suggests 'honesty, integrity, friendliness, timeli- 
ness, godliness, benevolence, cheerfulness, firmness in the 
right, modest assurance, and a careful study of great speeches 
by great men.' " 

In conclusion we quote the following from a recent issue of 
Leslie's Weekly : 

"One of the most interesting characters in the country, 
especially in the view of newspaper men, is Colonel R. B. 
Creecy, editor of the Economist, published at Elizabeth City, 
N. C, who bears the distinction of being the oldest editor in 
active work in the United States. Colonel Creecy is in his 
ninety-second year and still wields the editorial pen. He 
claims four longevities, being also the oldest living graduate 
of the University of North Carolina, and according to a lead- 
ing Boston publication, an authority on the subject, the 
oldest long-seine fisherman in the world, having in early life 
established the Greenfield fishery on Albemarle Sound, which 
is still in existence. He studied and mastered stenography at 
the age of seventeen, and thus holds that thetre can be no 
older stenographer living than he." 



254 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

WILLIAM JOSEPH PEELE. 

William J. Peele, the subject of this sketch, was Iwm in 
Northampton County, North Carolina. Was graduated from 
the University of North Carolina in 1879. Settled in Ra- 
leigh. In 1880 he studied law under Hon. George V. Strong, 
in which year he was granted license to practice. 

In entering on his career as a citizen of his native State 
he made its advancement a matter of study. The needs of 
an Agricultural and Mechanical College for the State was 
among the first things that claimed his attention, and was 
pressed by Mr. Peele and others to a successful realization, 
and, to-day, with its fine equipment and its long roll of stu- 
dents, attests its growing influence and stands as a monument 
to the promoters of the scheme. When the corner-stone of 
this great State institution was laid, on August the 22d, 1888, 
Mr. Peele delivered the historical address, which was a mas- 
terly effort, breathing such love of State as to inspire his 
hearers to greater individual effort to advance its interests. 
When the college was re-organized and Dr. George T. Wins- 
ton was elected President, Mr. Peele was a member of the 
board of trustees, and took a most active interest in the plans 
for its enlargement. 

Mr. Peele, with his keen sense of obser\^ation, foreseeing 
the possibilities that lay in waiting for active workers, was 
instrumental in the establishment of the State Literary and 
Historical Association, and was for several years chairman 
of its executive committee. Its chief purposes were : 

First. To promote the reading habit among the people of 
North Carolina. 

Second. To stimulate the production of literature in our 
State. 

Third. To collect and preserve historical material. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 255 

In carrying out these purposes the Association had in mind 
"the improvement of the public schools, in the establishment 
of public libraries, in the formation of literary clubs, in the 
collection and re-publication of North Carolina literature 
worthy to be preserved and now rapidly passing away, in 
the publication of an annual record or biography of North 
Carolina literary productions, in the collection of historical 
material and the foundation of an historical museum, and in 
the correction of slanders, misrepresentations and other in- 
justice done the State." 

Mr. Peele was one of the prime factors in this movement, 
the results of which are apparent, one of the most important 
being the establishment of libraries in the public schools. 

Mr. Peele has written much on the settlement of Roanoke 
Island, emphasizing the fact that Sir Walter Raleigh is the 
central figure in the English colonization of America; that 
on North Carolina shores was the first landing and settle- 
ment of Sir Walter Raleigh's colonies on Roanoke Island, 
the birthplace of Virginia Dare, the first Anglo-American 
and the cradle of American civilization. Through this ap- 
parent failure of Raleigh to colonize America, by his repeated 
efforts he became the inspiration of the Jamestown expedi- 
tion, and now, while the great exposition at Jamestown is 
attracting the attention of the world, North Carolina is com- 
ing forward to do her part to make the celebration worthy of 
the man and of the events he inspired. 

Mr. Peele compiled a chronological compendium of the 
principal events in the life of Sir Walter Raleigh, from 1552 
to 1618, which shows beyond controversy that 8ir Walter 
Raleigh was the statesman who wrested our continent from 
Spain, the pioneer who first planted the seeds of law and 
liberty and Anglo-Saxon civilization in America. 

In the year 1898 Mr. Peele published in permanent form a 



256 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

work entitled ''Lives of Distinguished North Carolinians," 
a handsome volume of 605 pages, printed in excellent taste — 
an ornament to the men whose virtues it illustrates. This 
introduction is intended to embrace that period in which 
were cast the lives and labors of the subjects of the book, and 
showing how history is being miswritten to the prejudice of 
the South, and has been for a century. This book is the 
product of twenty-four minds, and among them the brightest 
the State has afforded. The lives and the best labors of 
these men are brought together and edited by Mr. Peele — 
had he done no other literary work than this, sufficient to say, 
he is entitled tO' the plaudits of the whole citizenship of 
the State. 

Mr. Peele is now chairman of the Historical Commission, 
which was established by the Legislature in 1903. This 
Commission consists of five members, who are appointed by 
the Governor of the State. It is hoped that he may assist 
in adding other publications to the permanent history and 
literature of the State. 

The Booklet is indebted to Mr. Peele for an article pub- 
lished two years ago, entitled "The First English Settlement 
in America,"a study in location, he showed that Amedas 
and Barlow came through an inlet north of Roanoke Island, 
and fixed their landing place at the north end of the island, 
thus preserving the historical value of John White's pictures 
and laying the foundation for a great painting, which will 
ultimately be made by an artist worthy of the undertaking. 



GENERAL SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE 
REVOLUTION. 



THE SOCIETY AND ITS OBJECTS. 

The Society Daughters of the Revolution was organized 
August 20, 1891, and was incorporated the following Sep- 
tember as a society national in its character and purposes. 
The terms of membership of this Society are based upon 
direct descent from Revolutionary ancestors. 

The objects of the Society as stated in the Constitution 
are: — "to perpetuate the patriotic spirit of the men and 
women who achieved American Independence ; to commemor- 
ate prominent events connected with the War of the Revolu- 
tion; to collect, publish and preserve the rolls, records and 
historic documents relating to that period; to encourage the 
study of the country's history, and to promote sentiments of 
friendship and common interest among the members of the 
Society." 

ELIGIBILITY TO MEMBERSHIP. 

Any woman shall be eligible tO' membership in the Daugh- 
ters of the Revolution who is above the age of 18 years, of 
good character, and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who — 

(1) was signer of the Declaration of Independence, a mem- 

ber of the Continental Congress, or a member of the 
Congress, Legislature, or General Court of any of 
the Colonies or States; or — 

(2) rendered civil, military or naval service under the 

authority of any of the thirteen Colonies, or of the 
Continental Congress; or — ■ 

(3) by service rendered during the War of the Revolution 

became liable to the penalty of treason against the 

government of Great Britain: — 
provided that such ancestor always remained loyal to the 
cause of American Independence. 



258 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

Every application for membership in this Society must 
be made in duplicate upon a form furnished by the Board 
of Managers, must be signed by the applicant and acknowl- 
edged before a notary. The endorsement of two members 
of the Society, or of two persons of acknowledged standing 
in the community in which the applicant resides, is also re- 
quired. Such applications should be presented to the Secre- 
tary of the Society of the State in which the applicant re- 
sides ; where no State Society exists, applications may be 
addressed to the Recording Secretary-General. The names 
and addresses of State secretaries will be furnished upon ap- 
plication to the Corresponding Secretary-General. 

In filling out application blanks candidates are kindly re- 
quested to observe the following directions: 

1. See that the line of descent is clearly stated, give the 
maiden names of all female ancestors, and also furnish dates 
of birth and death where possible. It is not necessary to 
show the pedigree any farther back than the ancestor from 
whom eligibility is derived. 

2. If the applicant is married, give own maiden name and 
also full name, title and address of husband. 

3. Write all proper names legibly ; this is especially neces- 
sary with family name since there are often differences in 
old-time and modern spelling of such. 

4. The record of the ancestors' service should be given 
fully but concisely. Give exact title of all books of refer- 
ence, naming page and paragraph ; where possible send a cer- 
tified copy of State or pension records. This will be returned 
after the application has been accepted. 

The Society does not accept Encyclopedias, Genealogical 
Works, or Town and County Histories, except such as con- 
tain Rosters, as authorities for proofs of service. 



DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION. 259 

Reference to authorities in manuscript must be accompa- 
nied by certified copies, and authentic family records must 
be submitted, if required. 

5. Send the initiation fee of $2.00 and the first year's dues 
with the application paper. Should the application not be 
accepted both will be returned. 

When an applicant claims descent from more than one 
Revolutionary ancestor, then "Supplemental" applications 
must be made in duplicate for each ancestor ; these are treated 
in form and procedure precisely as original applications. A 
fee of one dollar is charged for each supplemental paper filed. 

PROOFS OF SERVICE. 

In seeking proofs of service, the applicant must first know 
from which of the Thirteen Original States the ancestor 
served ; and, if possible, the town and county. When writing 

officials simply ask for "the military service of 

of . ., said to have been a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War," and they will inform you precisely what rank, 
length of service, etc., the records show. If the applicant 
has reason to believe an ancestor drew a pension under the 
acts of Congress of 1818 or 1832 the record of military ser- 
vice may be obtained by writing to Commissioner of Pensions, 
Washington, D. C. 

Heitman's Historical Register contains the names, rank 
and service of the Officers of the Continental Army, and is 
accepted as an official record. 

Applicants are referred to the following officials and rec- 
ords for certificates of military service: 

Massachusetts. — The State has published nine volumes 
of the names of Revolutionary soldiers. These volumes are 
in the Library of the General Society, and may be found in 
all large reference libraries throughout the country. For 
names not contained in these volumes, applications may be 



260 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

made to the Secretary of State, Boston, Mass. A fee is 
charged for this service. 

Vermont. — Gen. T. S. Peck, Adjutant-General, Montpe- 
Her. 

New Hampshire. — Secretary of State, Concord. 

Rhode Island. — Secretary of State, Providence. 

North Carolina. — Mrs. Helen deB. Wills, Raleigh. 

A fee of one to three dollars is charged by State officials for 
looking up records and furnishing a certificate of service. 

initiation fees and dues. 

The initiation fee is two dollars and the annual dues for 
members at large are three dollars, payable to the Treasurer- 
General on or before the first day of April in each year. 
Applicants who enter through State Societies pay their an- 
nual dues to the State Society in which their names are en- 
rolled. The fiscal year for all members begins on the first 
day of April and closes on the thirty-first day of March in 
each calendar year. 

insignia, etc. 

The insig-nia of the Society is a badge of gold and blue 
enamel suspended from a gold bar by a ribbon of buff edged 
with blue. This may be obtained on receipt of check or 
money order for ten dollars, payable to Miss Mary A. Kent, 
Treasurer-General. Miniature badge, one dollar; stationery 
stamped with the seal of the Society, sixty and seventy-five 
cents per box, may be obtained at the office of the Society. 
Engrossed certificate of membership, three dollars. 

The office of the General Society is Room 901, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, 'New York, and is open daily except Sunday, from 
10 to 4 o'clock. 

Communications concerning the Society and inquiries may 
be addressed to Mrs. John A. Heath, Corresponding Secre- 
tary-General. 



ABSTRACTS OF WILLS. 



From Secretary of State's Office, North Carolina. (Historical and Geneologieal 

Register.) 

Samuel Scolley, Bertie county, Feb. 18th, 1752, Mrs. 
Marj Fullington, alias Davis, spouse of Robert Davis, de- 
ceased ; brother, Jerman, Robert Scolley of Lerwick, friend 
Dr. William Cathcart; Robert Todd, of Norfolk, Va., be- 
loved sons-in-law Cullen and Thomas Pollock. I give unto 
Tully Williams his father's sword. 

Elizabeth Scolley,* Bertie ; Dec Ist, 1766, sons, Thomas 
and Cullen Pollock ; children of Richard Sanderson, children 
of Tully Williams, Frances Lenox, wife of Dr. Robert Lenox, 
John Scolley, of Boston, Peggy and Fanny Cathcart; Sarah 
Black, daughter of Joseph, Thomas Black, son of Joseph, 
Sophia Rasor, daughter of Edward ; former husband Thomas 
Pollock; Thomas Pollock, Dr. Robert Lexon, Richard San- 
derson and Joseph Blount,Exeoutors. Test Henry Hardi- 
son, Fred'k Hardison, . 

Thomas Sprott; Anson, January 5th, 1757 — Son John 
Clark, daughters Mary Barnett; Ann Barnett, Susannah 
Polk and Martha Sprott; son Thomas, wife, Andrew Sprott 
and Thomas Polk, executors. Test. William Barnett, James 
Sprott, James Campbell. 

Isaac Hunter, of Chowan, April I7th, 1752. April Court, 
1753 ; sons Elisha, Jesse, Isaac and Daniel, daughter Allee 
Perry daughter Elizabeth Perry, daughter Hannah Riddick, 
daughter Rachel Walton, daughter Sarah Hunter; grand- 
children, son and daughter of my daughter Jane, namely, 
Jesse Phillips, and Mary Perry and Sarah Fields. Zilpha 
Parker, daughter of Jonathan Parker. 

Mrs. H. DeB. Wills, 

Genealogist. 

• First husband was John Crisp; second, Thomas Pollock; third, Samuel Scolley, 
formerly of Boston. Tully Williams' wife was sister of Mrs. Scolley. Frances Lennox 
was daughter of Cullen Pollock. Peggy and Frances Cathcart were daughters of Di- 
William Cathcart, and second wife Prudence West. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



VOLUME VI. 

PAGE. 

The Indian Tribes of Eastern Carolina 3-26 

By Richard Dillard, M. D. 

Glimpses of History in the Names of Our Counties 26-48 

By Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear 49-75 

By James Sprunt, British Vice-Consul at Wilmington, N. C. 

Biographical Sketches : Major Graham Daves, A. B 76-79 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Illustrations : 

Indian Gallows, Bertie County. 

Virginia Dare. 

The Dance of the Carolina Indians as represented by John 

White in 1585. 
Admiral Sir Thomas Frankland. 

The Borough Towns of North Carolina 83-102 

By Mr. Francis Nash. 

Governor Thomas Burke 103-122 

By J. G. de Eoulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. 

Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History 123-145 

The N. C. Society D. R. and its Objects 146-150 

Biographical and Genealogical Sketches : Dr. Dillard, Mr. Francis 

Nash, Dr. Hamilton, Colonel Olds 151-156 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Illustrations : 

Ruins of St Philip's Church, Brunswick, N. C. 
Richard Dillard, M. D. 

A State Library Building and Department of Archives and 

Records 159-176 

By Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

The Battle of Rockfish Creek 177-184 

By Mr. J. O. Carr. 
Governor Jesse Franklin 185-203 

By Prof. J. T. Alderman. 



264 TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

North Carolina Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition 204-205 

By Mrs. Lindsay Patterson. 
Biographical Sketches : Mr. R. D. W. Connor, Mr. James O. Carr, 

Prof. J. T. Alderman, Mrs. Sara Beaumont Kennedy 206-213 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Illustrations : 

La Fayette Examining Canova's Statue of Washington in 

the Rotunda of the State House, 1825. 
The Ruins of Canova's Statue of Washington, now in Hall 

of History at Raleigh. 
Home of Alexander Lillington. 
Rockfish Creek Bridge. 
Autograph of General Lillington. 
Map of Battle of Rockfish. 
Autograph of Colonel James Kenan. 

North Carolina's Attitude to the Revolution 217-226 

By Mr. Robert C. Strong. 
John Lawson 227-2-37 

By Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
Some Overlooked North Carolina History 238-242 

By Prof. J. T. Alderman. 
The White Pictures 243-250 

By Mr. W. J. Peele. 

Biographical Sketches : Colonel R. B. Creecy, Mr. W. J. Peele... 

General Society Daughters of the Revolution 257-260 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Abstracts of Wills 261 

By Mrs. Helen DeB. Wells. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



A QUARTERLY PUBLICATION ISSUED UNDER 
THE AUSPICES OF THE 



"NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION" 



X~y 



THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Sixth Volume began in July, 1906. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
One Year, One Dollar; Single Copies, Thirty-five Cents. 



Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E. E. MoflStt, Editors, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-oflSce as second-class matter. 

Notice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is desired, 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 




Vol. I 

" Colonial New Bern," Sarah Beaument Kennedy. 
" Greene's Retreat," Prof. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vol. II 

" Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

" Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

" Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. Clewell. 

" Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

" The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

" Raleigh and the Old Town of Bloomsbury." 

"Historic Homes — Bath. Buncomb Hall, Hays," Rodman, Blount 

Dillard. 
"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 
" Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 
" Last Days of the War." Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

"Trial of James Glasgow " Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

" Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

" Historic Hillsboro," Mr. Francis Nash. 

^' Life in Colonial North Carolina," Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 

" Was Alamance First Battle of the Revolution ?" Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 

"" Governor Charles Eden." Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

" Colony of Transylvania," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL D. 
" Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
" North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

" Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm, A. Graham, 

" Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

" Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

" North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 

and Joseph Hewes," by T. M. Pittman, and E. Walter Sikes. 
" Expedition to Cartagena, 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 
•' First English Settlement in America," W. J. Peele. 
"Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 
" Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 



"Highland Scotch Settlement in N. C," Judge James C. McRae. 

'•The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 

" Battle of Guilford Court-House and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 

Vol. v.— (Quarterly). 

No.1. 

" Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
"St. Paul's Church. Edenton, N. C. , and its Associations," Richard 
Dillard, M. D. 

'•N. (^ Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II, 
William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

" History of the Capitol," Colonel Charles Earl Johnson. 

'• Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

Grimes. 
" North Carolina's Poets," Rev. Hight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

"Cornelius Harnett." Mr. R. D. W. Connor, "Edward Moseley," Prof. 
D. H. Hill. 

"Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W. A. 
Graham. 

" Edward Moseley," by Prof. D. H. Hill. 

No. 4. 

'' Governor Thomas PoUok." Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 

" Battle of Cowan's Ford," Major W. A. Graham, 

" First Settlers in North Carolina not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rev 
Joseph nlount Cheshire, D. D. 

Vol. V|-(Quarterly.) 

"The Indian Trii es of Eastern North Carolina," Richard Dillard, M.D. 
" History Involved in the Names of Counties and Towns in North Car- 
olina." Kemp P. Battle. LL. D 

" A Colonial Admiral of the Ca()e Fear " (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), Hon. James Sprunt. 

October, No. 2. 

" The Borough Towns of North ( arolina " Francis Nash 

•' Governor Thomas Burke," J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. 

" Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History," Col. Fred. 

A Olds. 
" The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution and its Ob- 

jecii^." 
" Biographical Sketches of Dr. Kiohard Dillard, Francis Nash, J. G. 

de R. Hamilton and Col. Fred. A. Olds," Mrs. E.E Moffitt . 



January, No. 3. 

"State Library Building and Department of Archives and Records," 
R. D. W. Connor. 

" The Battle of Rockfish Creek, 1781," James Owen Carr. 

" Governor Jesse Franklin," J. T. Alderman. 

'• North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown," Mrs. Lindsay- 
Patterson, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

" Biographical Sketches of Mrs. S. B. Kenneday, R. D. W. Connor, 
James Owen Carr, and Prof. J. T Alderman," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

'•Lock's Fundamental Constitution," Junius Davis. 

" The White Pictures," W. J. Peele 

" North Carolina's Attitude towards the Revolution," Robert Strong. 

" Biographical Sketches," Mrs E. E. Moffitt. 

"Genealogical Sketches." Mrs, Helen de B. Wells, 



Index to Vol. VI will be mailed with No 1 of Vol. VII 



Vols. I, II, III, IV, 25 Cents Each. Vols. V and VI, 
35 Cents Each. 



NOW IS THE TIME TO 
SUBSCRIBE TO THE 



NORT 



Published twice each month at Durhau), North Carolina, 
under the editorial supervision of Mr. E. C. Brooks, 
assisted by associate editors and numerous contributors. 

SUBSCRIPTION, ONE DOLLAR A YEAR 

Address an^commuojc^att^^^^^^ ^_ ^_ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ p^ 



Genealogical Department 

floRTH Carolina Society 

DAUGHTERS Op THE REVOliUTION 
YOUR ANCESTRY CAN BE CAREFULLY TRACED 

The Colonial Records of North Carolina, Records of different States 
and Counties, family papers. State histories and biogra- 
phies will be diligently examined for parties de- 
siring to have their ancestry traced. 

Fee for Such Researches, S5.20 for 
each Line Traced. 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mrs. Helen DeBerniere Wills, 
(Genealogist for N. C. D. R. and Raleigh Circle Colonial Dames.) 

Raleigh, North Carolina. 



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of the arms... 8.00 

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Write for particulars, enclosing stamp. 

Miss Mary Hilltard Hinton. 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 



John C. Drewry, Prest. B. S. Jerman, Treas. George Allen, Sec'y. 

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MEMBERS 

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R. D. W. CONNOR, Secretary, . . Raleigh, N. C. 

J. BRYAN GRIMES, Raleigh, N. C. 

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r'//E Commission wishes to be inform,ed of the 
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but if these cannot be secured, arra^igements will 
be made to have certified copies made withotit cost 
to the owners. The possessors of such documents 
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Firth's Stories of Old Greece. 

Brown's Alice and Tom. 

Stone & Fickett's Days and Deeds of a Hundred Years Ago. 

Starr's Strange Peoples. 

Starr's American Indians. 

Fairbank's The Western U. S. 

Heath's Home and School Classics (39 Vols, of the finest litera- 
ture for young people in the world). 

Eckstorms' Bird Book ( a natural history of birds ) . 



These or any other publications from our large and valuable list 
may be secured from your local book seller or from 

D. C. HEATH e COMPANY 

225 Fourth Avenue 
NEW YORK 




SAM^L A. ASHE, Editor-in-Chief CHAS. L. VAN NOPPEN, Publisher 

GREENSBORO, N. C. 

The publisher desires to say without fear of contradic- 
tion that there has never been anywhere in the United 
States any other State Biographical venture equalling 
the Biographical History of North Carolina in scope, 
selectness of subjects, excellence of literary and his- 
torical matter and general mechanical and artistic 
book-making. 

The Biographical History will cover the entire history of the 
State and will contain sketches signed by authoritative writers of 

All the Governors. 

All the Chief-Justices. 

All the United States Senators. 

All the Federal Judges. 

All those who have held Cabinet and Diplomatic 
positions. 

Nearly all those distinguished in the Confederate service. 

Nearly all the Supreme Court Justices. 

Many of the Superior Court Judges. 

Distinguished Generals, Military Men and Naval officers. 

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Authors, Doctors, Lawyers, Agriculturists and Politicians. 

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workers. 
The most distinguished women. 

In a word, as complete a publication as possible of all 
those who have adorned the annals of North Carolina. 

Write for Booklet of Reviews and Testimonials. 

CHAS. L. VAN NOPPEN, Publisher, 

GREENSBORO, North Carolina 



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Vol. VI. 



JANUARY, 1907 



No. 3 



U/}e 



North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS 



IN 



NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS oftHe REVOLUTION 

CONTENTS 

Page 

A Stale Library Building and Department of Archives 

and Records 159 

By R. D. W. Connor 

The Battle of Rockfish Creek - - - - - 1 77 
By J. O. Carr 

Governor Jesse Franklin -- - - - -185 

By J. T. Alderman 
North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown ELxposition 204 
Biographical Sketches ------ 206 

By Mrs. E. E. MoflBtt 

(ILLUSTRATED) 



SINGLE NUMBERS 35 CENTS 



$L00 THE YEAR 



m 



^ 



m 



i 



* 



itX< ^^ «A> ^^ iX( ^^ tR< 4^* iXf tA« ^%i ^^ ^%f 'X* i^i ^%^ <X* iXi i9€/ Sit -Xi iffj tK* i#C( <9\i tSCt JPC 'Sit iK« (n> 'Si* 'X* «X; iS\*ff^"i 



ENTERED IN THE POST-OFFICE AT RALEIGH, N. C, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History. 



VOLUME VI. 



Glimpses of History in the Names of our Counties, 

Kemp. P. Battle, LL. D. 
A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear (Admiral Sir' Thomas Frank- 
land), Mr. James Sprunt. 

The Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina, Richard Dillard, M. D. 
Gov. Thomas Burke, . . . Mr. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton. 
Some North Carolina Histories and their Authors, 

Professor Edward P. Moses. 
The Borough Towns of North Carolina, . . Mr. Francis Nash. 
The John White Pictures, , . . . . Mr. W.J.Peele. 

Gov. Jesse Franklin, .... Professor J. T. Aldertnan. 

Industrial I^ife in Early North Carolina, . . Mr. T. M. Pitiman. 
Colonial and Revolutionary Costumes in North Carolina, 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 
North Carolina's Attitude to the Revolution, Mr. Robert Cowan Strong. 
The Fundamental Constitutions and the Effects on the Colony, 

Mr. Junius Davis. 

The Booklet will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 
who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

The BooKivET will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 
biography, history and genealogy. 



The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North Carolina 
Society of the Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1906. Each Booklet will contain three articles and will be published 
in July, October, January and April. Price, Jgi.oo per year, 35 cents for 
single copy. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for 
Vol. VI, are requested to notify at once. 

Address, 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 
"Midway Plantation," 
Editors: Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 




LaFayette Examining Canova's Statue of Washington in the Rotunda 
OK the State House. 1825. 



Vol. VI. JANUARY, 1907. No. 3 



IShe 



floRTH CflROlilflil BoOKIiET 



^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defe7id her.''^ 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editobs. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 

Mrs. Spiee Whitaker. Mrs. T. K. Beunee. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Professor E. P. Moses. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle. Mr. James Spbunt. 

Me. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Clark. 

EDITORS : 
Miss Maey.Hilliakd Hinton, Mrs. E E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, 

1906-1908. 

regent : 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

vice-regent : 
Mrs. WALTER CLARK. 

honorary REGENT: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. . 

{Nee Hooper.) 

RECORDING SECRETARY: 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY: 

Mrs. W. H. PACE. 

TREASURER : 

Mrs. FRANIv SHERWOOD. 

registrar : 

Miss MARY HILLIAR© HINTON. 

genealogist : 
Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 



Founder of the North Caeolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
Mes. SPIER WHITAKER. 

regent 1902: 
Mes. D. H. HILL, Se.* 

eegent 1902-190G: 
Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

*Died December 12, 1904. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Vol. VI JANUARY, 1907 No. 3 

A STATE LIBRARY BUILDING AND DEPART- 
MENT OF ARCHIVES AND RECORDS. 



BY E. D. W. CONNOR. 



^'The roots of the Present lie deep in the Past, and the 
Past is not dead to him who would understand how the 
Present came to be what it is." 

A people who will constantly bear this great truth in 
mind will come to regard their history as something more 
than a fascinating story with which to beguile a winter's 
evening; they will think of their Past as something better 
than merely a subject for Fourth-of-July orations ; they will 
study the careers of their great men with higher and nobler 
purposes than as stepping stones for membership into the 
"Sons" of this or the "Daughters" of that patriotic organi- 
zation. jSTot that the romance of history, or the eloquence 
of the orator, or the formation of patriotic societies, are to 
be put aside as unworthy of serious consideration. But the 
study of history does have another and more important side 
to it, and a side too that often escapes the notice of those 
most in need of a knowledge of their Past. It is this : no 
men can safely be entrusted with the control of the Present 
who are ignorant of the Past; and no people who are in- 
different to their Past need hope to make their Puture great. 

This is a lesson which those states of the Union that enjoy 
the greatest historical and literary reputation learned many 
years ago; it is a lesson which our own state needs to take 
seriously to heart. I am happy in thinking that our people 
are learning it and that they realize to-day more than ever 



160 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

before tlie value of the steadying ballast which an accurate 
knowledge of the Past gives to the Present. But it is a 
lesson which, though fully appreciated, will be of little value 
unless the material is preserved which is necessary to make 
the Past intelligent to the Present and the Future. To this 
feature of the lesson I desire your closest attention. 

We North Carolinians are very proud of our history and 
indulge ourselves in the pleasure of a great deal of boasting 
about it. But frequently when this indulgence, like an 
opiate, begins to soothe our spirits and we doze away in 
blissful contemplation of the greatness of our Past, it comes 
like a cold-water shock to find that the World, instead of 
gazing in admiring astonishment, is either whirling along 
in densest ignorance, or vigorously disputing our most cher- 
ished claims. Then we wake up, begin to say harsh things 
about our traducers, and clamor loudly about envy and 
jealousy. But the critical World, searching the pages of the 
great historians of our country and finding no mention of 
those "cherished claims," naturally asks for proof; and lo! 
we look, and the proof, which we believe would settle our 
claims beyond all dispute, has been lost, destroyed, burned, 
or stolen by envious partisans. Whom can we blame but 
ourselves, for who else should take care to preserve this 
proof ? Surely it is an anomaly in our character as a people 
and as a state that we should be so proud of our history and 
so careless in the preservation of the records that would 
establish our claims forever. It may be doubted if any 
other of the thirteen original states has suffered more in this 
respect than ISTorth Carolina, or is now taking so little care 
for the preservation of the evidences of her greatness. Sure- 
ly this is modesty run in the groimd ! 

Even this very carelessness illustrates the influence of the 
Past upon the Present, and the value of a study of the Past 
if for no other purpose than to avoid its blunders. Our 



A STATE LIBRARY BUILDING. 161 

carelessness in tlie preservation of our historical sources 
seems to have come down to iis as an unwelcomed legacy 
from the Past. As long ago as 1748 Governor Gabriel 
Johnston in a letter to the Lords of the Board of Trade 
wrote : 

''The Publick Records lye in a miserable condition, one 
part of them at Edenton near the Virginia Line in a place 
without Lock or Key ; a great part of them in the Secretarys 
Llouse at Cape Fear above Two Hundred Miles Distance 
from the other ; Some few of 'em at the Clerk of the Coun- 
cil's House at JSTewbern, so that in whatever part of the 
Colony a man happens to be, if he wants to consult any 
paper or record he must send some Hundred of Miles before 
he can come at it."* 

It seems that our ancestors had no more regard for their 
valuable documents than their posterity have. 

'No better illustration of the effect of this almost criminal 
negligence in caring for our historical sources can be found 
than the history of the documents relating to the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Independence. The people of ISTorth 
Carolina are so firmly convinced that their story of this 
interesting event is correct that they swear by it spite of lost 
documents ; they have placed on the flag of their state the 
date, "May 20th, 1Y75," in the face of all Thomas Jeffer- 
son's disbelieving sarcasm ; they even lose patience with 
anybody who hints that the event might have taken place 
on May 31. And yet not one of the leading historians of 
the United States, from Bancroft to Woodrow Wilson, has 
accepted our version. ^Vhy ? Whose the fault ? The fol- 
lowing facts will answer these very natural questions. Dr. 
George Graham, whose work on the "Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence" is the fullest and best treatment in 
existence, quotes the following paragraph from Martin's His- 
tory of ISTorth Carolina : 

*Colonial Eecords of North Carolina, Vol. IV., p. 1165. 



162 THE NOE.TH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

''These resolutions [of May 20, 1775] were unanimously 
adopted and subscribed by tbe delegates. James Jack, then 
of Charlotte, but now residing in the State of Georgia, was 
engaged to be the bearer of the resolutions to the President of 
Congress, and directed to deliver copies of them to the dele- 
gates in Congress from ISTorth Carolina. The President re- 
turned a polite answer to the address which accompanied the 
resolutions, in which he highly approved of the measures 
adopted by the delegates of Mecklenburg, but deemed the 
subject of the resolutions premature to be laid before Con- 
gress. Messrs. Caswell, Hooper and Hewes forwarded a 
joint letter, in which they complimented the people of Meck- 
lenburg for their zeal in the common cause." 

What has become of these two letters — these very im- 
portant letters, either of which would settle the dispute for- 
ever ? In all the years of controversy over the Mecklenburg 
Declaration, no one has produced them, or copies of them. 
Is it not strange that documents so valuable should not have 
been carefully preserved ? But even this is not all. Dr. 
Graham continues : 

"At the meeting of the delegates in Charlotte, John 
McKnitt Alexander was chosen secretary, and thus became 
custodian of the records. In April, 1800, twenty-five years 
after this meeting, these records, including the Mecklenburg 
Declaration, were burned in Alexander's house. In the 
meantime, however, the old secretary, as he is called, had 
transcribed not less than five copies of the original resolu- 
tions There is abundant evidence to prove that 

at least seven authentic copies of these resolutions were in 
existence before the proceedings of the convention were 
burned in 1800. Of these seven transcripts, four, at the 
direction of the delegates, were transmitted to Congress at 
Philadelphia by John McKnitt Alexander, shortly after the 



A STATE LIBRARY BUILDING. 163 

meeting at Charlotte adjourned. One to the President, and 
one copy each to the three members from ISTorth Carolina. 
A fifth copy appeared in the Cape Fear Mercury in June, 
1775, within thirty days after the declaration was adopted. 
A sixth copy was presented by Alexander to Dr. Hugh Wil- 
liamson, who was then writing a history of the State. . . . 
And a seventh copy of the declaration, which the author says 
was obtained before 1800, the year the records were burned, 
is preserved in Martin's History of iJ^orth Carolina." 

These facts show that at one time there certainly was 
plenty of evidence in existence to settle beyond controversy 
what took place in Charlotte in May, 1775. What became 
of it ? This was an event generally regarded as the proudest 
in a proud history. Is it possible that a people proud of 
their history and proud that they are proud of it, would 
complacently permit every one of these valuable documents 
to be destroyed without making one single effort to preserve 
them ? And yet read the story as told in Tompkins' History 
of Mecklenburg County. He says : 

''The official papers [of the 20th of May meeting] were 
burned in the fire which destroyed John McKnitt Alex- 
ander's house in 1800." 

"A copy of the original was sent before the burning of the 
house to the historian, Williamson, in ISTew York, and it, 
together with the other sources or his history, were (sic) 
destroyed by a fire in that city." 

"The Martin copy is so called from its publication in 
Martin's History of ISTorth Carolina. . . . As to this 
particular document of the Mecklenburg Declaration, Mar- 
tin . . . obtained it in the western j)art of the State 
prior to the year 1800. . . . The papers from which 
Martin compiled his history were sent to France and have 
disappeared." 



164 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

"A third copy, called the Garden copy, was published in 
1828 by Alexander Garden of Lee's Legion, and this is 
almost exactly identical with the Martin copy, which is re- 
garded as the authentic copy." After showing that Garden 
could not have obtained his copy from Martin, Tompkins 
says: "The data for Garden's anecdotes has (sic) been lost." 

But what about the Cape Fear Mercury of June, 1775 ? 
''TSTo copy of the Cape Fear Mercury of June, 1775," says 
Tompkins, "has ever come to light except the copy which 
Gov. Martin sent to London and which Mr. Stevenson, of 
Virginia, borrowed and did not return." 

The letter of the President of Congress gone; the joint 
letter of the delegates gone ; Alexander's copy burned ; Wil- 
liamson's copy burned ; Martin's copy lost ; Garden's copy 
lost; the Cape Fear Mercury stolen- — is it any wonder that 
Jefferson characterized the Declaration as "a very unjusti- 
fiable quiz," saying that for proof it appeals to "an original 
book, which is burnt, to Mr. Alexander, who is dead, to a 
joint letter from Caswell, Hughes (sic), and Hooper, all 
dead, to a copy sent to the dead Caswell, and another sent to 
Doctor Williamson, now probably dead." 

These facts tell us why the historians do not accept our 
story, and they place the responsibility on our shoulders, 
where it belongs. 

Another illustration of this point is found in the burning 
of the State-house at Raleigh in the morning of June 21, 
1831. The Raleigh Register of June 23 contained the fol- 
lowing account : 

"It is our painful and melancholy duty to announce to 
the public another appalling instance of loss by fire, which 
will be deeply felt and lamented by every individual in the 
State. It is nothing less than the total destruction of the 
capitol of our State located in this city. . . . The State 




The Ruins of Canova's Statue of Washington. 

NOW IN THE hall OF HISTORY AT RALEIGH 



A STATE LIBRARY BUILDING. 166 

Library is also consumed, and the statue of Washington, 
that proud monument of national gratitude, which was our 
pride and glorj^, is so mutilated and defaced, that none can 
behold it but with mournful feelings, and the conviction 
involuntarily forces itself upon their (sic) minds, that the 
loss is one that cannot be repaired. The most active exer- 
tions were made to rescue this chef d'oeuvre of Canova from 
the ravages of the devouring element, nor were they desisted 
from until the danger became imminent." 

The same paper of June 30 adds this information: 

"JSTothing was saved from the Library, nor could any 
attempt for that purpose be made by reason of the suffo- 
cating smoke which filled the room. It was in its infancy 
and the loss can easily be repaired with one or two excep- 
tions. We allude to the collection of our old Legislative 
Journals, brought down in almost unbroken succession from 
1715 to the present day. Lawson's history of the State, 
valuable only however for its antiquity, was also burnt." 

The Raleigh Star of June 23 tells the story in the fol- 
lowing words : 

"G-reat concern was manifested for the preservation of the 
statue of Washington, which stood in the center of the 
rotunda, and an effort was made to save it; but it was vain 
and fruitless ; and this monument, reared by the grateful 
and patriotic citizens of ISTorth Carolina, in honor of the 
father of our country, at an expense of about $30,000, and 
which was said to be the finest piece of sculpture in the 
world, was abandoned in despair to share the fate of the 
superstructure which it had so long graced." 

Unfortunate as was the destruction of this splendid work, 
its loss was not the worst feature of the incident; the very 
worst feature was the fact that the statue could have been 
Baved but for the short-sightedness and parsimony of the 



166 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

legislature. A noble statue of the greatest of Americans, 
costing $30,000, a monument no less to the wisdom, patriot- 
ism and liberality of our forefathers than to the genius of 
the great Italian sculptor, was destroyed because a few poli- 
ticians, without courage, mthout the generous fire of patri- 
otic impulse, thinking to incur the favor of the populace, 
refused to appropriate the sum of $1,200 to secure its safety. 
The wretched story is told in the following paragraph from 
the Cape Fear Recorder, which, after lamenting the loss 
of the statue, says : 

"Alfred Moore, Esq., one of the members from Brunswick 
County, made a motion in the first session of the G-eneral 
Assembly, after the statue was conveyed to Raleigh, that 
it should be placed on rollers, and that the doors of the capi- 
tol should be enlarged, so as to render it practicable to move 
it from the edifice in the event of a fire. The expense was 
estimated at $1,200. The motion of Mr. Moore was renewed 
at the following session and was grounded on his observation 
of the carelessness and negligence of the menials and work- 
men employed about the capitol, and on these facts he pre- 
dicted the event which now aifects so extensively and so 
deeply the inhabitants of the State; and he rung and re- 
rung this prediction in the ears of his colleagues — that the 
capitol u'ould he hurnedl The warning was unheeded; and 
we naturally enquire, on what defensible ground was it? 
Is it not to be imputed to those narrow views of economy, 
which are not only opposed to the counsels of liberal patriot- 
ism, in instances such as this, but also too often shed a blight- 
ing influence on the lasting interests and prosperitv of the 
public ?"* 

* Of this great work of Canova, the Countess Albrizzi in "The Works 
of Antonio Canova," illustrated by Henry Moses the great English en- 
graver, says: 

"In this line composition Canova has not only maintained the dignity 
of his subject, but (warmed by admiration of the amiable qualities of 



A STATE LIBKAEY BUILDING. 167 

A third illustration of our carelessness with our records 
occurring in our own time was related to me recently by 
Colonel Fred A. Olds, the enthusiastic and zealous director 
of the Hall of History. In the basement of the court-house 
in Cumberland County a few years ago, as he was informed, 
were stored hundreds of records and other documents run- 
ning back to the first settlement of Cross Creek. Dust and 
cobwebs of course covered them, and this fact, which rather 
added value to them in the eyes of the historian and the 
antiquary, led the county board of health to condemn the lot 
as breeders of germs. At their orders these precious docu- 
ments were dumped in the street and reduced to ashes ! 

this illustrious man) has also infused into the statue an expression of 
the gentleness and benevolence which attempered his severer virtues. 

"The hero is sitting with an air of elegant simplicity on an elegant 
seat, raised on a double square base. Nothing can surpass the dignity 
of the attitude or the living air of meditation which it breathes; and 
the grandeur of the style, the force and freedom of the execution, the 
close and animated resemblance to the original, all conspire to place 
the statue in the highest rank of art. The fine tunic which he wears 
is seen only at the knee, being covered by an ample ornamental cuirass; 
above which is a magnificent mantle fastened by a clasp on the right 
shoulder, and flowing down behind in majestic folds. Beneath his right 
foot, which is extended forward, is a parazonium sheathed, and a sceptre, 
signifying that the successful termination of the war, had rendered them 
now useless. 

"The hero is in the act of writing on a tablet held in his left hand, and 
resting on the thigh, which is slightly raised for its support. From the 
following words already inscribed on it, we learn the subject which 
occupies his mind — 'George Washington to the people of the United 
States — Friends and Fellow-citizens' In his right hand he holds the 
pen with a suspended air. as if anxiously meditating on the laws fitted 
to promote the happiness of his countrjTiien ; a border of the mantle, 
raised to the tablet by the hand which supports it, gives a fine effect to 
this graceful and decorous action. In his noble countenance the sculptor 
has finely portrayed all his great and amiable qualities, inspiring the 
beholder with mingled sensations of affection and veneration. This 
statue is only in a slight degree larger than life; his robust form cor- 
responding with his active and vigorous mind. 

"If to this great man a Avorthy cause was not wanting, or the means 
of acquiring the truest and most lasting glory, neither has he been less 
fortunate after death, when, by the genius of so sublime an artist, he 
appears again among his admiring countrymen in this dear and venerable 
form; not as a soldier, though not inferior to the greatest generals, but 
in his loftier and more benevolent character of the virtuous citizen and 
enlightened lawgiver." 



168 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

With the ascending smoke vanished forever a mine of his- 
torical sources which, had it been opened, would have told 
the story of one of the most inspiring events in the history 
of ]S[orth Carolina. 

Many other instances of the destruction of valuable his- 
torical sources through carelessness, negligence, indifference 
and ignorance might easily be cited, but they would add no 
new force to those already given. The important question 
is, What shall we learn from these facts ? 

First of all, we ought to learn that ''those narrow views 
of economy, which are not only opposed to the counsels of 
liberal patriotism, . . . but also too often shed a blight- 
ing influence on the lasting interests and prosperity of the 
public," can be defended on the groimd neither of economy 
nor of patriotism. Was it economy to refuse the appropri- 
ation of $1,200 to insure the safety of a work which cost 
$30,000 ? Putting it merely on a material basis, how 
many times $1,200 would the state have made during all 
these years from the visitors who would have come to our 
capital city to see this noble work of art ! Who can estimate 
the thousands spent annually by visitors to Dresden who go 
from the four corners of the earth to see the great Sistine 
Madonna ? Was it patriotic — that is to say, was it a faith- 
ful fulfilment of the trust imposed in them by their con- 
stituents, for the members of the legislature to refuse the 
appropriation of $1,200 for the preservation of an object 
that would have been a source of inspiration to generations 
of their sons and daughters ? It was neither economical nor 
patriotic ; nor did the refusal to make the appropriation 
come from an honest desire to be either ; it sprang from a 
w^ant of trust in the good sense and patriotism of the people. 

So it is neither economical nor patriotic to permit our 
present State Library, Supreme Court Library and the col- 



A STATE LIBRARY BUILDING. 169 

lection in the Hall of History to remain day after day in 
constant danger of destruction by fire for the lack of a 
suitable building. We have a State Library creditable to 
ISTorth Carolina. It contains 40,000 volumes exclusive of 
the pamphlets and bound newspapers in which the history 
of the state is written. "The destruction of this library 
would be a calamity to ISTorth Carolina from which there 
would be no recovery — thousands of books that could never 
be replaced ; hundreds of newspapers nowhere else to be 
found ; hundreds of pamphlets that could not be bought with 
gold. A very conservative estimate of the money-value of 
this library would place it from $150,000 to $200,000. In 
addition to the State Library, the same unprotected building 
holds the Supreme Court Library, one of the best state law 
libraries in our country, containing 17,000 volumes, worth 
at the lowest estimate $75,000. Adjoining this building is 
the Hall of History, a large hall at one end of the State 
Museum. Through the enthusiastic efforts of Colonel Fred 
A. Olds, who deserves the thanks of all patriotic citizens for 
his unselfish labors, more than 4,000 historic relics, docu- 
ments, papers and pictures have been collected there illus- 
trating every period and almost every phase of the life of 
the state. It is doubtful if any other state in the Union 
has a more valuable or more instructive collection of historic 
relics. In an interesting story of the Hall of History, Col- 
onel Olds says:* 

"ISTorth Carolina is yet rich in such objects, notably of the 
Colonial and Revolutionary periods ; but until this collection 
began, a little over three years ago, nothing had been done, 
except in what may be termed very justly a local way, to 
gather together such objects. By such failure the State has 
suffered enormous loss, due to the burning of court-houses, 
public buildings, and, most of all, private homes, in some of 

*North Carolina Booklet, October, 1906. 



lYO THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

which there were extensive groups of objects, the loss of 
which is irreparable. But at last the gathering together at 
Raleigh, where bj all manner of means the collection ought 
to be, has been begun, and the fact that the number of 
objects now exceeds the 4,000 mark shows not only zeal 
in collecting, but also an awakened public interest. . . . 
It is felt that the present Hall of History is what may truly 
be termed a stepping-stone to higher things ; in other words, 
that it is but the forerunner of a far more noble one, gener- 
ous as to space, and built on the most modern lines as re- 
gards the elimination of risk by fire. Given such a building, 
and the writer can undertake to secure almost an}i;hing in 
ISTorth Carolina." 

It is impossible to place anything like a money-value on 
these three collections — the State Library, the Supreme 
Court Library, and the Hall of History. They represent 
thousands of dollars and years of patriotic labor. They are 
beyond all price, and yet year after year they are left in 
buildings inadequate in size and arrangement, hardly credit- 
able to a great state in appearance, and totally unprotected 
from fire. A fire once started in either would sweep like a 
hurricane through both and reduce the whole to smoke and 
ashes in spite of all human effort. Is it economy to leave 
these public treasures thus exposed to destruction ? Is it 
patriotic ? Does not the destruction of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration papers teach us a useful lesson ? Has the burn- 
ing of the capitol no warning for us, the loss of the library, 
the destruction of the great statue of Washington ? And 
shall we let these warnings go unheeded ? Is it possible that 
the people of ISTorth Carolina care so little for their great 
Past, for the development of an interest in their history, 
for the cultivation of literature and art among their children, 
that they would fro\NTi down an appropriation from their 



A STATE LIBRARY BUILDING. iTl 

public money for the erection of a fire-proof building in 
which these treasures would be safe ? The very question is 
almost a slander on the good name of the state. 

The state is amply able to erect such a building — a build- 
ing absolutely fire-proof, stately in architectural design, and 
ample for the purposes to which it shall be devoted. It 
would be much more than a library building. Patriotic 
societies would have rooms there for their meetings and 
records ; the State Literary and Historical Association would 
have offices and record rooms set apart for its work; there 
too would be ofiices and archive rooms for a State Commis- 
sioner of Records and Archives ; a spacious hall would be 
dedicated as a Hall of History which would be the instructor 
of thousands in the history of IsTorth Carolina : — in a word 
it would be the headquarters for all the historical and liter- 
ary activities of future generations of ISTorth Carolinians. 
The hallways would be lined with statues, the walls with 
portraits, preserving the forms and features of the great 
men and women who have served the state and nation. On 
the walls, too, would hang paintings executed by native ar- 
tists of the great events in our history — the landing of the 
first Englishmen on Eoanoke ; the famous May-day scene 
of '75 at Charlotte; the gTcater event at Halifax in April 
of '76 ; the mad charges up the sides of King's Mountain ; 
the steady resistance at Guilford Court House; Davie and 
his fellows resting under the old poplar on a balmy October 
day dreaming of a great university; James C. Dobbin in 
the halls of legislation pleading with a power surpassing 
eloquence for those who could not plead for themselves; the 
long gray line sweeping up the slopes of Gettysburg — all 
these and many more such historic scenes would be there to 
inspire hundreds of ITorth Carolina boys and girls with a 
desire to "serve so good a state and so great a people." And 



1Y2 THE WORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

there, too, would come students to search its treasures who 
would do for North Carolina and the South all that Bryant 
and Lowell and Longfellow and Holmes and Emerson and 
Bancroft and Fiske and a host of other great names have 
done for Massachusetts and 'New England. Visited every 
year by thousands, such a building, like a great beacon-light 
on a hill, would shed an inspiring light on the historical, 
literary and educational life of the state that would be worth 
a hundred times over all the money expended in its con- 
struction. It is not possible that the people of ISTorth Caro- 
lina would regard with disfavor an appropriation for such 
a purpose ; sensible and patriotic people will applaud the 
legislature that takes this great forward step. 

A second lesson equally valuable and equally necessary 
which the illustrations I have given ought to impress on us 
is the importance of collecting, copying, editing and publish- 
ing the historical sources now in existence while they are 
yet in existence. I have shown how hundreds of invaluable 
documents and other sources have been lost or destroyed 
through the carelessness, indifference and ignorance of their 
o^vners. Those are hopelessly gone, and with them a mass 
of historical wealth that can never be regained. But thou- 
sands of others remain which shovild be preserved. I have 
in mind now a collection of the papers of one, of ISTorth Caro- 
lina's greatest sons containing dozens of most valuable let- 
ters, never published, from nearly all of his great contem- 
poraries in the state and many in the nation : letters from 
Swain, Badger, Graham, Ruffin; from John Randolph of 
Roanoke, Webster, Marshall, Story, Hamilton, Kent and 
many more. There is no more valuable collection of private 
papers in the state and yet for the lack of such a building as 
I have described and the absence of a means of making use 
of them, they will doubtless soon be lost to ITorth Carolina. 



A STATE LIBRARY BUILDING. 173 

The owner, who lives in a distant state, has already ex- 
pressed her intention of presenting them to the Library of 
Congress at Washington, and I must reluctantly confess that 
under present conditions I could not urge her to present 
them to ISTorth Carolina, although I know they properly be- 
long here. 

There are many other such collections in and out of the 
state, stuffed away in dark corners, and dusty archives, in 
pigeon holes, vaults, desks, attics and cellars, containing 
thousands of records, public and private letters, and other 
manuscripts of great value. Yet as matters now stand they 
are as absolutely useless to their o^vners or to the state as 
the miser's gold to the miser; but if collected, edited and 
published, would be a source of mental and moral wealth to 
ISTorth Carolina beyond that which the gold of all the misers 
could buy. Many of the owners of these collections would 
willingly part with them if the state had a safe place for 
their preservation and would provide for their publication. 

What then can the state do? The state can follow the 
example of Alabama, Mississippi, JSTew York, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and all the ISTew Eng- 
land states, and make appropriations for their preservation 
and publication. The states of Alabama and Mississippi 
are doing more than any other Southern states for the eluci- 
dation of their history and present the best examples for our 
own state to follow. Each of these states has created a 
State Department of Archives and Records with a commis- 
sioner in charge whose duty it is to care for their historical 
sources. Let us follow their examples. Such a department, 
with a commissioner appointed by the Historical Commis- 
sion, would not cost over $4,000 or $5,000 a year — a trifling 
sum in comparison with its value to the state. The Ala- 
bama act recites the duty of the Alabama commissioner as 
follows : 
2 



174 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

"He shall have control and direction of the work and 
operations of the department, he shall preserve its collections, 
•care for the official archives that may come into its custody, 
collect as far as possible all materials bearing on the history 
of the state and of the territory included therein from the 
earliest times, prepare the biennial register hereinafter pro- 
vided, diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and re- 
sources of the state ; and he is charged with the particular 
duty of gathering data concerning Alabama soldiers in the 
war between the states." 

The biennial register mentioned must contain: "(1) Brief 
sketches of the several state officials, the members of Con- 
gress from Alabama, the supreme court judges, the members 
of the senate and house of representatives of the State of 
Alabama; (2) rosters of all state and county officials; (3) 
lists of all state institutions, with officials ; (4) state and 
county population and election statistics, and (5) miscella- 
neous statistics." 

We cannot do better in ISTorth Carolina than follow the 
example of the state of Alabama. All patriotic citizens 
would aid the commissioner in his work. Those who possess 
documents of historical value would gladly place them at his 
disposal. Thousands of originals or certified copies of church 
and court records, letters, maps, old newspapers, portraits, 
manuscripts of all kinds, and other material of value to the 
student of history, would be entrusted to him for the benefit 
of the public and a safe repository would be provided for 
their preservation. All material which cannot be parted 
with permanently would be returned to the owners after 
copies were made; and provision would be made for copying 
such documents as the owners are unwilling to part with 
at all. The expenses of the work would of course be met 
by the department. The material after being carefully 



A STATE LIBRAKY BUILDIISTG. 1Y6 

edited would be published at the expense of the state and 
due acknowledgment would be made to all who aided in the 
work. The great value of such work to the state is splen- 
didly illustrated by the monumental work of Colonel Wil- 
liam L. Saunders and Chief Justice Walter Clark in the 
editing and publication of the Colonial and State Records 
prior to the year 1790. Until these volumes revealed the 
true story of the first century and a half of the state's his- 
tory, it was fashionable among historians to pass it over with 
slurs and sneers or to ignore it altogether. But such an 
attitude now would very justly condemn any author to de- 
served oblivion. What citizen of ISTorth Carolina is there 
who is not gratified and proud of the rescue by these two 
loyal sons of the good name of their mother ? 

But as great as this work is, the complete history of E'orth 
Carolina can never be written until a similar work is done 
for every decade subsequent to 1Y90. It is a work that 
cannot be accomplished except through the medium of the 
state. It is a work that cannot be accomplished within a 
year, nor within two years, but is rather the work of a 
generation. Let us earnestly hope that the intelligent 
patriotism of the state will demand that it shall be done and 
thoroughly done at the public expense through a State De- 
partment of Records and Archives. 

^eed any one urge upon intelligent men the necessity for 
such work ? Says Judge Johnson in his "Life of ISTathanael 
Greene" : "There is and perhaps ought to be a clannish spirit 
in the states of the Union, which will ever dispose the 
writers they produce to blazon with peculiar zeal the virtues 
and talents of the eminent men of their respective states. 
. . . It will probably happen in future times, that the 
states that have produced the ablest writers will enjoy the 
reputation of having produced the ablest statesmen, generals 



176 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

and orators." Just so it happens that the World knows by 
heart the story of Samuel Adams, but even his own people 
have forgotten the equally great services of Cornelius Har- 
nett; the praise of Richard Henry Lee is on every tongue, 
but no tongue speaks the name of William R. Davie; the 
services of John Jay have been justly commemorated, but 
the more brilliant judicial career of James Iredell is un- 
known among his own people. Had the story of Virginia 
Dare occurred in Massachusetts, can it be supposed that no 
Longfellow would have been found to wrap it up in immortal 
verse ? Consider for a moment how barren is the story of 
Evangeline when compared to that of the little heroine of 
the Lost Colony; yet the pen of the poet has brought tears 
to the eye^ of the royal descendant of him in whose name 
the cruel deed was done. The friendship of an Indian chief 
probably saved our colony from annihilation, while the hos- 
tility of King Phillip came near to destroying the settlement 
of the Puritan; but no Irving has told the story of Tom 
Blunt. All the World knows by heart the story of the mid- 
night ride of Paul Revere because a great poet commanded, 

"Listen, my children, and you shall hear 
Of the midnight ride of Paul Eevere." 

But no poet has commanded the World to harken to the 
thrilling midnight ride of Mary Slocum. 

And there will be no Bancroft, no Fiske, no McMaster 
to tell our story; no Longfellow and no Irving to write our 
literature until the work of preserving and preparing for 
use the sources of our history has been done. So long as we 
neglect it we need not be surprised, nor will it be manly to 
complain, if the "scorner shall snear at and the witling de- 
fame us." 



THE BATTLE OF ROCKFISH CREEK IN DUPLIN 

COUNTY. 



BY J. O. CARR. 



A period of one liundred and twenty-five years has elapsed 
since the battle of Rockfish Creek was fought in Duplin 
County on the 2d of August, 1781 ; but not one line has ever 
been ^^Titten to commemorate this event, and few historians 
know of its occurrence. 

In order that the reader may better understand the subject 
of this sketch, it is well to give an account of the relative 
miovements of the American and British armies in jSTorth 
Carolina at that time. 

About the first of February, 1781, Maj. James H. Craig, 
a British military officer of repute, entered the Cape Fear 
River with several hundred soldiers prepared to take and hold 
Wilmington, He had been sent from Charleston by Lord 
Cornwallis with instructions to seize the to^vn and make it 
a place of refuge for the Tories and a place of retreat for the 
British army in case of any disaster, while Cornwallis him- 
self proceeded to the Piedmont section of the state with the 
hope of completing the conquest of ISTorth Carolina. 

On the very day that Craig entered Wilmington the battle 
of Cowan's Ford was fought, in which the brilliant and gal- 
lant William L. Davidson was killed, and Cornwallis and 
Gen. ISTathaniel Greene were engaged in the famous cam- 
paign of 1781. Craig immediately issued a proclamation 
urging the people of ISTorth 'Carolina to renew their allegiance 
to the Toyal government, and the Tories throughout the State 
were rallying around the standard of the enemy — some be- 
cause of their loyalty to the English government, and others 
because they saw no hope in further resistance; but there 



178 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

were yet many who were willing to die in the cause they had 
espoused. It is said that twelve out of fifteen companies of 
militia in Bladen County were at heart favorably disposed to 
the Crown, though still enlisted in the American cause. To 
some extent a similar condition existed in Duplin and IvTew 
Hanover Counties, and in June, 1781, out of a draft of 70 
in Duplin for the Continental army only 24 appeared (^), 




HOME OF ALEXANDER LILLINGTON. 

Immediately after arriving in Wilmington, Maj. Craig 
began depredations in the county and sent a party up the 
ISTorth East River to the "great bridge," which spanned the 
river about twelve miles north of Wilmington, where it was 
crossed by the Duplin road. The bridge was demolished and 
some American store-ships, which lay concealed there for 
safety, were burned. It was not easy to understand why the 
bridge was destroyed unless it be that Craig feared an at- 
tack from the Militia of the adjoining counties. This was 
the main crossing into the northern part of New Hanover and 
Duplin, and continual vigilance was kept at this post by the 
opposing forces. The Militia of 'New Hanover, Bladen and 
Duplin, consisting of about seven hundred men, took position 
here to prevent incursions into the country. Temporary 

(1) Colonial Records, vol. XV, p. 490. 



THE BATTLE OF ROCKFISH CREEK. 179 

fortifications were made and after some skirmishing across 

the river Craig's men returned to Wilmington, and the 

^^ /?<^ y Militia under com- 

^^"^^^^-Z^^^ ander Lillington con- 

^'""^ ^"^O tinued to hold the 

post until the army of Cornwallis entered Wilmington in 
April, 1781. Realizing the impossibility of holding the place 
longer, Gen. Lillington ordered a hasty retreat to Kinston, 
where he disbanded the Militia, except one company, on the 
28th of April, 1781, at which time Cornwallis had proceeded 
to the center of Duplin, where he was carrying consternation 
to the hearts of the people. Checkmated and outgeneraled 
by Greene in his marvelous retreat through the State, Corn- 
wallis was wreaking vengeance on the inhabitants and was 
leaving behind him desolation and ruin. He left Craig still 
in charge at Wilmington for the purpose of rallying the 
Tories and keeping the Whigs subdued in the surrounding 
country, and there did not remain a semblance of an Ameri- 
can army in ISTorth Carolina. However, Craig's repeated ex- 
peditions into ISTew Hanover, Duplin and Onslow made it 
necessary to reorganize the Militia, and four hundred men 
were collected in Duplin under Col. Kenan, and quite a num- 
ber in Bladen under Col. Bro^m. 

After the departure of Cornwallis, Craig's forces first pro- 
ceeded toward iN'ew Berne with the purpose of subduing all 
the country east of the ISTorth East River, and on June 28th, 
1781, Gen. Lillington sent a dispatch from Richlands, Ons- 
low County, to Major Abraham Molton in Duplin, informing 
him that the British with about eight hundred Tories and 
regulars were advancing from Rutherfords Mill (^) towards 

(1) Rutherford's Mill was east of the Northeast River, between Wil- 
mington and Richlands. 



180 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Richlands, and instructing liim to^ muster all the forces he 
could without delay (^). Molton immediately informed Gov. 
Burke of the situation and proceeded to raise a levy of troops 
in Duplin. It seems that Col. Kenan was otherwise engaged 
at this time, probahly guarding the crossing at Rockfish Creek. 
On Jidy 6th, Col. Kenan wrote Gov. Burke that one hun- 
dred Duplin men had marched to join Gen. Lillington at 
Eichlands Chapel and fifty others were ready to go. Again 
on July 9th, he wrote the Governor that the enemy, which 
was moving toward Richlands, had returned to Rutherford's 
Mill, and that he had ordered a draft of two hundred men to 
be made from Duplin immediately, but that he had no pow- 
der nor lead — 7iot one round — and urged the Governor to 
supply them with ammunition, as they could not take the 
field until supplied. And again on July 15th, he wrote the 
Governor that the enemy had moved out of Wibnington and 
were rebuilding the "long bridge"; that it was their inten- 
tion to give no more paroles, but would sell every man's 
property who would not join them ; that they had one hundred 
light horse, well equipped, and four hundred and seventy 
foot ; and that he was informed that they were determined to 
be at Duplin County House the next Monday. (') He further 
stated that they had no ammunition and could get none, and 
rene^ved his request to be supplied. On July 24th, Gen. 
Alexander Lillington wrote the Governor that a part of Cas- 
well's army had reached Rockfish, in Duplin County, which 
was then held by Col. Kenan, and that Col. Kenan had 
informed him by letter that he had no ammunition. (^) It is 
apparent from all these communications that Kenan, Caswell 
and Lilling-ton regarded the situation as serious, and thought 



(1) Colonial Records, vol. XV, pp. 496 .and 499. 

(2) Colonial Records, vol. XV, p. 535. 

(3) Colonial Records, vol. XV, p. 567. 



THE BATTLE OF EOCKFISH CREEK. 



181 



it very important that Craig's army should be checked in its 
march through the State. The importance of this resistance 
is readily seen when we consider the fact that Cornwallis had 
traversed the State and had just passed into Virginia with- 
out serious damage to his o^vn army; for, while he had won 
no decisive victory, yet he had, in effect, subdued the State 




Thi Battle Geound. 



and had left it with no organized army ; and Craig's expedi- 
tions were intended to give courage to the Tories, who were 
ready to support the enemy at any time. 



182 . THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Kockfish Creek, now the dividing line between Duplin and 
Pender Counties, was then the boundary between Duplin and 
New Hanover. The old Duplin road leading from Wilming- 
ton, along which Cornwallis had marched, crossed the creek 
about a half mile east of the Wilmington and Weldon Eail 
Eoad, and passed a few yards west of where the present 
county bridge now stands. This was the most convenient 
place for an army to make its passage, but it was hoped, and 
without much reason, that the Militia would be able to entrap 
the British here and mn a signal victory, and likely such 
would have been the result had our troops been supplied with 
ammunition. Col. Kenan, who was chief in command at this 
time, and who had planned the attack, fortified himself on 
Rockfish Creek, at the crossing above described, by throwing 
up dirt-works just north of the ford, slight traces of which 
can now be seen, and waited the approach of the enemy. The 
fortifications were well planned so as to give the Militia every 
possible advantage as the enemy was crossing the creek, for 
their only hope was to make an attack while a crossing was 
being attempted. Craig had light artillery, some cavalry and 
over four hundred footmen, all well equipped, and was more 
than prepared to resist any force that the Whigs could put 
in the field. On the 2d of August, 1781, he attempted to 
cross the creek and was vigorously attacked by the brave 
Militiamen under Col. Kenan, though without ammunition 
sufficient to even give hope of success. Craig used his entire 
force, including his artillery, and the inevitable result was 
the defeat of our troops, outnumbered and unequipped as they 
were. There is now in existence an old cannon ball, about 
three inches in diameter, which was left at the place of battle 
by the British army ; and while it is insignificant as com- 
pared with modern instruments of warfare, yet it was much 
superior to anything used by the Duplin Militia. 

The accounts of this battle have only been preserved by 



THE BATTLE OF KOCKFISH CREEK. 183 

two eye-witnesses, and these are not as complete as we would 
like to have them ; however, they throw some light on the 
matter, and without them we would have nothing reliable. 

Col. Kenan on the same day wrote the Governor as fol- 
lows : ( ' ) 

Duplin, August 2d, 1781. 
SiK: — I imbodied all the Militia I Could in this County to the Amount 
of about 150 men and was reinforced by Gen'l Caswell with about 180 
and took post at a place Called rockfish. The British this day Came 
against me and the Militia again after a few rounds Broak and it was 
out of my power and all my Officers to rally them. They have all 
Dispersed. Before the men Broak we lost none, But the light horse 
pursued and I am afraid have taken 20 or 30 men. I Cannot Give You 
a full acct., but the Bearer, Capt. James, who was in the Action, Can 
inform your Excellency of any Particular. He acted with Becoming 
Bravery during the whole action. I am now Convinced this County 
with Several others will be Overrun by the British and Tories. Your 
Excellency will Excuse as I cannot Give a more full accot. 
I am Sir Your very humbl St. 



^^^/^^<^ 




On the 30th of JSTovember, 1784, "William Dickson, who 
participated in the fight, wrote a letter to his cousin in Ire- 
land, which contained the following reference to the battle: 

"Col. Kenan's Militia had not made a stand more than ten 
days when Maj. Craig marched his main force, with field 
pieces, defeated and drove us out of our works, and made 
some of our men prisoners (here I narrowly escaped being 
taken or cut down by the dragoons). The enemy stayed 
several days in Duplin County (this being the first week in 
August, 1781). The Koyalists gathered together very fast, 
and we were nov/ reduced again to the uttermost extremity. 

(1) Colonial Records, vol. XV, p. 593. 



184 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET, 

The enemy were now more cruel to the distressed inhabitants 
than Cornwallis' army had been before. Some men collected 
and formed a little flying camp and moved near the enemy's 
lines and made frequent sallies on their rear flanks, while 
others fled from their homes and kept out of the enemy's 
reach. Maj. Craig marched from Duplin to l^ewbern, plun- 
dered the town, destroyed the public stores, and then im- 
mediately marched back to Wilmington to secure the garri- 
son."(^) 

The battle of Rockfish is not one of the important battles 
of the Revolution, and its result, whatever it might have been, 
could in no way have affected the ultimate issue of the war. 
However, it throws some light on the history of the times and 
shows us what the brave home guard of the Revolution had 
to contend with, and how important a part of the great army 
it was. Without the '^'Militia," life would have been intoler- 
able in Duplin during the great struggle, and Toryism would 
have deterred the people from giving support and aid to the 
far-away soldier, who was doing battle for our freedom. 
After the defeat of the "Duplin Militia" at Rockfish, Craig 
laid his cruel hand upon the inliabitants of Duplin, robbed 
them of their property, and inflicted upon them every indig- 
nity and outrage known to merciless warfare. 

Note. — Sir James Henry Craig was born in Gibralter in the year 1749. 
He entered the English Army at the age of fourteen and was Avell trained 
in the art of soldiery. He came to America in the year 1774 and was 
in service here from the battle of Bunker Hill until the evacuation of 
Charleston in 1781. He was thirty-two years of age when he took pos- 
session of Wilmington and began his work of devastation in the sur- 
rounding counties. In 1807 he was made Governor-General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of Canada. He was a soldier of fair ability, but as a 
civil officer was a petty tyrant and oppressor. His administration as 
Governor of Canada was a failure, and he returned to England in 1811, 
where he died the following year, 

(1) Dickson Letters., p. 17. 



GOVERNOR JESSE FRANKLIN. 



BY J. T. ALDERMAN. 



The name Franklin suggests an ancestry worthy of noble 
sons. The name may have eome down from an illustrious 
family of l^orman nobles which established itself in Britain 
after the ISTorman Conquest. It may have originated from 
an expression signifying "free-man." We leave a discussion 
of this to the antiquarian and the philologist. 

True nobility will assert itself even among the hills and 
forests of frontier life. When home and country call for 
men to face the oppressor and break away the tyrant's yoke, 
noble sj^irits and brave hearts lead the way. He who vali- 
antly wields his sword in a cause that is just, yielding to 
neither difficulties nor discouragements, reveals a s|)irit that 
is noble born. 

It was during the dark period of the Revolution, when 
home and liberty were in jeopardy from foreigTi foe and 
internecine strife that Jesse Franklin appeared in the full 
strengih of young manhood. He was born on March 24th, 
1Y60. His parents Avere Bernard and Mary Franklin, who 
at the beginning of the Revolutionary war lived in Orange 
County, Virginia. He was the third of seven sons. Owing 
to the turbulence of the times his educational opportunities 
were very limited. He, however, acquired the rudiments of 
a practical education. 

When he was about seventeen years old, during the year 
1777, he volunteered in the Continental service and held a 
lieutenant's commission in Washington's army. It is not 
known how long he remained with the army or where his 
service took him. Wlien his term of enlistment had expired 
he returned to his father's home. 



186 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Attracted by the excellent range and fertile valleys of 
Piedmont North Carolina, a large number of good people 
had, before the Revolution, left their Virginia homes and 
moved to occupy the unbroken forests. Among them was 
Col. Benjamin Cleveland, a brother of Jesse Franklin's mo- 
ther. Before the breaking out of the Revolution, Bernard 
Franklin had determined to go to North Carolina, as so 
many of his neighbors and friends had done. In the summer 
of 17Y8 he sent Jesse, who was then at home from the army, 
to select lands suitable for the settlement and to erect build- 
ings for the accommodation of the family when they should 
arrive in the fall. The fact that the father trusted such 
responsibilities to his eighteen-year-old son is an earnest of 
the confidence he placed in him. The young shoulders which 
were destined to bear in after years the burdens of state 
and nation were thus early put in training by duties and 
cares in sharing the responsibilities of his father's family. 
His father was not disappointed. Jesse selected for their 
future home a beautiful valley near the head-waters of 
Mitchell's River, and provided for the coming of the family. 
The two older brothers, Bernard and Jeremiah, remained in 
Virginia. In the fall of 1778 Jesse's parents, with four 
sons and two daughters, the oldest of the children being under 
fifteen years of age, moved to their new home in Surry Coun- 
ty, North Carolina. This homestead was to become the seat 
of patriotism and honor, culture and refinement. 

The American people were not united in the desire for 
separation from the mother country. The division of senti- 
ment was sharp and in many communities was a source of 
extreme bitterness and strife. Loyalists and Tories were 
found in all the colonies. Virginia, Maryland, and New 
England were perhaps less infested than any other sections 
of the continent. John Adams said: "New York, Pennsvl- 



GOVERNOK JESSE FRANKLIN. 18Y 

vania, and JSTorth Carolina were about evenly divided between 
Whig and Tory sentiment; in South. Carolina there were 
more Tories than Whigs, and Georgia virtually swung back 
at one time to the crown as a royal province." As to the 
number of Tories in the Carolinas, the estimate of Mr. 
Adams is no doubt too large. 

While all who were opposed to the American cause were 
classed as Tories, there was a difference between the Loyalist 
and the characteristic Tory. Many of those who adhered to 
the crown were people of excellent character and most valu- 
able citizens — ^men who were above the piratical practices of 
the ordinary Tory. Many of the Scotch Highlanders in the 
Cape Fear section were Loyalists, but were men of high 
moral worth. They had but recently, after the battle of 
Culloden, sworn allegiance to the crown and were unwilling 
to violate that oath. There were other notable exceptions. 
But what excuse can be made for the predatory bands of 
plundering Tories roving the country, burning houses, mur- 
dering the best men in the communities, and creating con- 
sternation and misery among helpless women and children ! 
They destroyed the growing crops of defenseless citizens and 
appropriated to their own use the farm supplies and what- 
ever valuables could be found in the dwellings. 

They were mainly irresponsible men, in whose breasts there 
existed no thrill of patriotism, whose only ambition was to 
gratify some personal grudge, and tO' satisfy their necessi- 
ties by plundering and robbing. Their heredity has come 
down through the decades of our national history. When 
our southland was in arms for the defense of home and lib- 
erty, the sons of these men were "bush-whackers" and de- 
serters. They now run illicit distilleries and debauch their 
communities ; they object to civic and educational advance- 
ment. Tap their veins and you find Tory blood. During 



188 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

the war the Tories in some sections became so aggressive 
and bold in their depradations that the Whig families were 
forced to build forts for protection. One of these was near 
the present to^\Ti of Mocks ville ;^ another was near Wilkesboro. 

Fortunately there were men in most sections of the State 
whose names struck terror to the hearts of the Tories. Among 
them was Col. Benjamin Cleveland. As a partisan leader 
he had but few equals. He knew no fear and seemed ubiqui- 
tous to friend and foe. Colonel Cleveland's services in 
checking organized Toryism in that part of the State have 
never been fully recognized. 

When about eighteen years of age Jesse Franklin joined 
his uncle's forces and for two years assisted in maintaining 
order in Piedmont iSTorth Carolina. He served with him 
in many skirmishes with the Tories and gained the confi- 
dence of his uncle as a bold and fearless patriot. 

At the close of the summer of 1780, the British had ovei> 
run the whole of South Carolina. Cornwallis had for inonth3 
been arranging to invade ISTorth Carolina and take vengeance 
upon the men of Mecklenburg and other Whigs of the State. 
He sent Major Ferguson with a large body of British troops 
to overawe the Whigs and enroll the Tories in the western 
counties. The appearance of the British among the hills 
of ISForth Carolina had an unexpected effect. Those daunt- 
less patriots who knew no fear rallied to the standard of 
Liberty with a determination which had never seized them 
before. Led by the brave Colonels Shelby, Sevier, Camp- 
bell, and General McDowell, they rushed down the moimtain 

1 Some of the timbers of which this fort was constructed were moved 
to Mocksville about forty years ago by Col. A. M. Booe and used by him 
in building a tobacco factory, which is still standing. Colonel Booe 
ornamented this factory with a brass weather vane brought from 
Heidleburg by some German Lutherans who settled on the banks of 
Dutchman's Creek and placed it upon a church, which they built in 1765. 



GOVEENOK JESSE FRANKLIN, 189 

like a torrent maddened by the opposing elements. They 
were joined by the men from Surry and Wilkes under the 
intrepid Colonel Cleveland, with Jesse Eranklin as his aid. 
IsTowhere in Revolutionary times could be found a more 
heroic band. With incredible swiftness this little army of 
militia and volunteers rushed over creeks and rivers, ridges 
and forests, covering a distance of about seventy miles in 
twenty-four hours. Halting for a council of war, they se- 
lected nine hundred of the best equipped men and rushed 
forward to meet the foe. Eerguson had selected the top of 
the ridge known as King's Mountain for the encounter, from 
which, he said, ^'God Himself could not drive him." The 
patriots surrounded the mountain before FergT.ison was aware 
of their presence and attacked him from all sides at once. 
As the British and Tories charged from one side of the moun- 
tain the American lines wavered, only to rush forward with 
redoubled fury. The British were hurled back, only to be 
met by the rifles and shouts of the men on the opposite side 
of the hill. A cloud of smoke encompassed the mountain 
shutting off the British army from sight. Jesse Franklin 
rode forward through the smoke, and finding the British in 
confusion and shooting above the heads of the Patriots, he 
called to his men to charge, assuring them of victory. ' They 
advanced till within range and fired. Colonel Ferguson fell 
and confusion overwhelmed the enemy. Captain Depeyster, 
the linking officer, assumed command but was unable to re- 
store order. Captain Ry arson's efforts were alike futile. He 
surrendered, and handed his sword to Jesse Franklin, saying 
to him : "Take it, you deserve it, sir." ^ The sword was 
in the Franldin family many years, but a party of gentlemen 

2 Accounts of the battle of King's Mountain vary. This sketch fol- 
lows the statement of Judge J. F. Graves, who received it from John 
Boyd, a soldier of the Revolution, and an eye-witness to this incident, 

3 



190 TPIE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

on one occasion, in testing the temper of the mettle, broke 
it into fragments. The hilt was in possession of Mr. Am- 
brose Johnson, of Wilkes Conntj, in 1854. 

The victory at King's Monntain was complete. Xine hun- 
dred inexperienced militia had vanquished a superior force 
of regular British and Tory troops, consisting of 1125 men. 
With the loss of twenty-eight killed and sixty wounded, they 
had killed, wounded, or captured the entire British force. 
The effect was electrical. The Tory s23irit was crushed, and 
hope stirred the hearts of the patriots. The prisoners were 
hurried to a place of safety. Cornwallis immediately left 
Charlotte and retired to his protected camps in South Caro- 
lina. 

A record of the many daring adventures and marvelous 
escapes of Jesse Eranklin during those years of ceaseless 
vigilance would make a thrilling narrative. A few only 
have been rescued from oblivion. The plundering Tories 
feared him and trembled for their lives when it was kno^vn 
that Franklin was in the community. They well knew that 
swift vengeance would be dealt to those guilty of murder 
and that all if taken would be punished according to their 
crimes. They determined to destroy him, but they realized 
that he was more than a match for them in any bold move- 
ment on their part. Bands were often in hiding along the 
approaches to his father's house. One evening he was at- 
tempting to reach his home by a circuitous route when sud- 
denly he was surrounded by a strong band of Tories. Re- 
sistance in the face of a dozen rifles was futile. They tied 
his hands behind his back, and using his bridle as a halter, 
they made ready to hang him to an overhanging limb. When 
all was ready they commanded him to take the oath of allegi- 
ance. He refused and they swung him up. One of the men 
struck the horse to make him move from under Franklin; 



GOVERNOR JESSE FRANKLIN. 191 

just as lie did so the halter broke and Franklin fell into his 
saddle as the horse dashed away. The rifle halls whizzed 
by his head. His escape was miraculous and Franklin in 
after life often referred to it as an intervention of a Kind 
Providence. 

Three months after the battle of King's Mountain, Morgan 
gained another glorious victory over the British at the Cow- 
pens. Cornwallis was stung by his defeat and the loss of 
so large a part of his army and hastened to cany the war 
into ^orth Carolina. Greneral Morgan knew that Cornwallis 
would endeavor to recapture the prisoners and immediately 
hurried them off toward Virginia. Thus began the race of 
Cornwallis and the Americans across the state of ITorth 
Carolina. General Green joined Morgan near Salisbury and 
assumed command of the army. The details of this retreat 
across the State are facts common in all our histories. 

Cornwallis reluctantly gave up the chase of Greene and 
turned aside to Hillsboro. Greene, having received reinforce- 
ments from Virginia and some militia from the eastern por- 
tion of Xorth Carolina, recrossed the Dan River, thus showing 
a determination to meet the British in battle. Cornwallis said 
that he was greatly disappointed at the failure of the Tories 
in not rallying to the British standard and enlisting as sol- 
diers in his army. The most of the Tories who did attempt 
to reach him were cut off and destroyed by scouting parties 
of Whigs sent out by General Greene to intercept their move- 
ments. The most notable of these encounters was perhaps 
the destruction of Colonel Pyle and his band of Tories near 
the present town of Graham. Cornwallis immediately moved 
west across the Haw River to succor those who should come. 

Greene sent William Washington, Lee, and Williams to in- 
tercept the marauding parties of British and Tories. Capt. 



192 THE NOKTJI CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

Jesse Fraiiklm was at the head of one of these skirmish 
lines near Hillshoro on February 25th. 

General Greene was near the state line about 25 miles north 
of Hillsboro and began a westerly movement toward the little 
town of Martinsville^ then the county seat of Guilford, which 
he had before selected as a suitable ground for the inevitable 
battle. He arranged his forces with skill and awaited the 
approach of the enemy. Cornwallis accepted the challenge 
and on the evening of March 15th the battle took place. 
Greene withdrew and Cornwallis held the ground, but his 
doubtful victory was the final undoing of the British in 
ISTorth Carolina. 

In this battle Jesse Franklin was a conspicuous actor. He 
led a band of mountaineers who did good service, and was 
among the last to leave the grounds when General Greene 
ordered a retreat. The horses of his men had been tied in 
the woods and as they were mounting to retire some British 
cavalrymen killed a part of his men before they could mount 
and get away. Franklin escaped, but soon returned and se- 
cured the horse and arms of one of his neighbors, a Mr. 
Taliafero, and carried them to the family of his friend. 
Cornwallis retreated to Wilmington and soon left the State, 
to be captured at Yorktown. Greene was now on the aggres- 
sive, but gave up the pursuit and went to South Carolina. 

While history has not been lavish in recounting the move- 
ments of Jesse Franlvlin, enoiigh has been recorded to give 
us an idea of the military career of the youthful hero. 
Franklin was at this time under 21 years of age. America 
had gained its independence. 

Hostilities had ceased, but the relationship of the former 
Whig and Tory elements were extremely trying in many 
sections. Bitter animosities and recollections rendered al- 
most impossible the return of friendly intercourse. Tories 



GOVERNOR JESSE FRAISTKLIN. 193 

had committed outrages and murder. The Whigs had found 
it necessary to retaliate in order to check their unbridled 
ravages. Some sections had been almost depopulated ; in 
others a spirit of lawlessness was prevalent. It was a task 
perhaps gToater than the Revolution itself to bring order out 
of chaos and construct a nation, and people grew restless 
under suspense and delay. The Whigs had been under a 
supreme tension from the beginning of the war, and when 
that tension was removed it was natural for a reaction to 
follow. Lethargy and untimely contentment might lose for 
them the vantage ground which had been secured at so dear 
a price. Schools and churches were in many places still 
closed and the moral senses seemed blunted. Under such 
conditions as these there was need of the best and most patri- 
otic men to guide in public affairs. The experienced and 
wary, like Caswell ; the vigorous and hopeful, like Franklin, 
were immediately summoned to the councils of the legislative 
halls. 

After the close of the war, Jesse Franklin settled in 
Wilkes County. In 1784, at the age of 24, he was elected 
to the Legislature from Wilkes County, and, with the excep- 
tion of 1788, he was re-elected successively every year until 
1793, when he changed his place of residence to Surry Coun- 
ty. The people of Surry knowing his value as a public citi- 
zen immediately elected him to the Legislature for the year 
1793, and returned him in 1794. In 1795 he was elected 
member of CongTess and served two years. In 1797 and 
1798 we again find him in the Legislature. The Legislature 
of 1799 elected him United States Senator for the full term 
ending in 1805. In 1806 and 1807 he was a member of 
the State Senate and was, at the close of his term, again 
elected United States Senator for the term to expire in 1813. 

As a legislator Jesse Franklin was universally trusted. 



194 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Although he was one of the youngest of the members of the 
Legislature, he was placed at the head of important com- 
mittees. He made but few speeches; these were mainly 
short, pointed and forceful. In February, 1795, one Jere- 
miah Early jDetitioned the Legislature for a premium or 
bounty to help and protect him in the manufacture of steel. 
Franklin was chairman of a committee appointed to investi- 
gate the merits of the petition and made the following re- 
port: ''After due consideration it is our opinion that it is 
not expedient for the State to grant premiums or bounties for 
the manufacture of steel, being well assured that any person 
manufacturing that article will be amply compensated by the 
sale thereof." 

As early as 1785 we find Franldin publicly advocating 
more opportunities for educating the people. He was a close 
student and acquired a broad fund of general information. 
He married Miss Meeky Perkins, of Rockbridge County, 
Virginia. The date of his marriage has not come to the 
writer, but it was some time before 1790, as collateral cir- 
cumstances indicate. His home life was beautiful and in- 
spiring, shedding a wholesome influence for culture and re- 
finement in the circle of his friends and associates. 

In 1784 he received grants of land in Wilkes County. The 
Federal census of 1790 shows that he was then a citizen of 
Wilkes County. As has been stated, he moved to Surry 
County in 1793. 

Franklin was a Democrat in his feelings and mode of life. 
He was one of the people and on all occasions manifested 
his devotion to them in wdiatever might appeal to their sensi- 
bilities or prejudices. 

While the Legislature was in session in Llillsboro he was 
in need of some shirts. The seamstress had made them 
with ruffles, according to the fashion of the times. "When 



GOVERNOR JESSE FRANKLIN. 195 

he came to put them on, he thought the frills did not become 
the representative of so plain a people as his constituents, and 
so he cut them all off with his pen knife before wearing 
the shirts." 

In personal appearance Franklin was erect and command- 
ing, somewhat above medium height, and, in his latter years, 
weighed over two hundred pounds. He was a man of strong 
personality, of few words, of unusual discretion and sound 
judgTQent. He was easily provoked to deeds of charity and 
unselfish service to those less fortunate than himself. His 
sympathy for the distressed widow and orphan was easily 
touched ; even in his younger years his strong, manly courage 
brought comfort and hope to those in distress around him. 
Moore, the historian, says of him: '^' Jesse Franklin, like 
ISTathaniel Macon, was dear to the i^eople because he typified 
their best qualities. He did not shine in debate like Davie, 
or out-wit his competitors like Alexander Martin, but he was 
strong in the simplicity and directness of his character. He 
loved truth, peace and justice, and they shone in his life and 
made him a beacon and an assurance to all who knew him." 
His uniform and well recognized integrity, the soundness of 
his judgment on the great questions which so deeply agitated 
the public mind, his purity of life and exalted patriotism 
made him a trusted leader of men. 

In 1795, when Jesse Franklin was elected to the jN'ational 
Congress, the young Republic was feeling its way toward a 
safe adjustment of internal organizations and at the same 
time striving to avoid external complications until it should 
realize a firm place in the hearts and confidence of the 
American people and gain respectability among the great 
family of nations. It had so recently set up business for 
itself that there was much and most important legislation to 
be made. Consequent upon the devastations of a long war, 



196 THE K^OETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

there was a spirit of unrest in every quarter. Families were 
breaking up and moving to the western frontiers ; resistance 
to taxation embarrassed the local authorities, and there were 
those who seemed to prefer the flesh-pots of their former 
conditions to the uncertain experiment as an independent 
nation. Sections were jealous of supposed encroachments 
upon their local interests. I^ew England was ready at the 
slightest provocation to withdraw from the Union. The 
South was guarding suspiciously against any attempt to med- 
dle in her affairs. Many of those who had been Loyalists 
and Tories, having lost their standing in their communities, 
were forced to seek other places to make their homes ; some 
went to the West Indies, some to the British possessions, but 
the greater number went west and settled among the moun- 
tains of East Tennessee and Kentucky, where generations 
later their descendants arrayed themselves against the armies 
of the South. Many of the brave Continental soldiers re- 
ceived the pay for their long services in grants of land be- 
yond the Ohio, and the states were poorer by the loss of 
these brave men. State and national debts were hanging 
ominous over the treasuries, for the magic hand of Hamilton 
had not yet given stability to the country's finances, convert- 
ing a national debt into a national blessing. 

Internal trafiic was hampered for want of an acceptable 
circulating medium. Commerce on the high seas was at the 
mercy of the piratical practices of every nation. The same 
conditions which existed in IsTorth Carolina prevailed 
throughout the country. French customs and vices had per- 
meated the social and moral fabric. French skepticism, re- 
enforced by Tom Payne's "Age of Reason," was undermining 
the church and the sanctity of religion. Harvard, William 
and Mary, Princeton, and Yale colleges were sending out 
a limited number of scholars, but for two decades and more 



GOVERNOK JESSE FRANKLIN. 197 

the halls of learning had been almost deserted. There were 
no public schools, and the parochial and private schools had 
been forgotten in the common struggle for material existence. 
Conditions afforded but little time for social intercourse or 
intellectual development except among the more favored few. 
The masses were illiterate and appeared satisfied to remain 
so. There were but few newspapers or publications of any 
kind. There were but few who aspired to become authors. 
Books were rare. It was a period of relaxation and intel- 
lectual depression. J^orth Carolina was the first to break the 
spell and establish a State University; others followed. 

Jesse Franklin was a product of the times, but like others 
who were born to co-operate in shaping the destinies of the 
nation his horizon was broad, his conception of a government 
for the masses was clear and his good judgment gave him 
power in the State and national assemblies. His astute 
statesmanship won the admiration of his peers. For thirty 
consecutive years he represented his people and was a con- 
spicuous figure in the State and national capitals. 

It has been the custom of the historian to pass rapidly over 
this period. The records were meager and many of them are 
not accessible to the reading public. In our times it is diffi- 
cult to discover what questions were of paramount interest 
to the men who served in the ISTational Congress or how they 
disposed of them. There were great problems with which 
our representatives must grapple. England and France had 
continuously shown indignities to the American flag. It was 
a matter of great concern to protect our merchant marine; 
foreign emissaries were endeavoring to engender strife among 
the states and weaken the national unity. It required the 
patriotism and statesmanship of great men to save the young 
nation from universal disaster. Jefferson and Adams and 
their adherents were alike patriotic; they had staked all for 



198 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

American institutions. Adams was a devout Federalist and 
espoused the policy of a strong centralized government. Jesse 
rranklin, like Jefferson, the great leader of popular rights, 
was as thoroughly convinced that the ideal form of govern- 
ment was that in which all national authority should origi- 
nate with the people who were to he governed, and that those 
in authority were amenable directly to the people. While 
in Congress he served on a large number of important com- 
mittees. 

During his first term as United States Senator, Congress 
held its last session in the Quaker City. In 1800 the public 
ofiices and records were transferred from Philadelphia to the 
new Federal capital on the Potomac. 

In 1801 Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr received the 
same number of votes for president. In accord "with the pro- 
vision of the constitution, it devolved upon the Lower House 
of Congress to name the President. Jefferson was chosen 
and Burr became Vice-President. In 1805 Jefferson was re- 
elected President, Avith George Clinton as Vice-President. 
Burr allowed the sting of defeat to lead him astray. He 
entered into schemes for dismembering the western settle- 
ments and organizing a new republic. The story of his trial 
in Richmond is an old one. In 1807 John Smith, an ac- 
complice of Burr in his adventure, was Senator from the 
state of Ohio. Jesse Franklin had been appointed chairman 
of a committee to investigate the matter, and on l^ovember 
13, 1807, made the following report: "It is the opinion of 
the committee that it is not compatible with the dignity of 
the Senate of the United States for elohn Smith to occupy a 
seat in the Senate." The trial before the Senate Avas a long 
and memorable one. The greatest orators of the times were 
engaged on one side or the other. The speeches were re- 
ported in full and are models of eloquence and power. Smith 



GOVERNOR JESSE FRANKLIN. 199 

was acquitted by one vote, but Franklin's masterly manage- 
ment of the trial had convinced the public that Smith was 
guilty. Smith immediately resigned and left Washington. 

Another imi^ortant historic fact is brought out by the ser- 
vices of Franklin. After the Declaration of Independence 
the Articles of Confederation were adopted as the supreme 
law of the land and were in force till the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution in 1789. The old Congress under the 
Articles of Confederation was in session on July 11, 1787, 
in jSTew York, and adopted a form of government for the 
territoiy north and west of the Ohio River. The sixth arti- 
cle of this ordinance provided for the exclusion of slavery 
and involuntary servitude except as punishment for crime. 
At the same time this Congress was in session a great conven- 
tion was in session in Philadelphia framing the Constitution 
which soon superseded the "Articles of Confederation." The 
ordinance of the Congress of 1787 was disregarded by the 
Constitution. In 1805 a number of exiled Cubans desired 
to settle with their slaves in the rich plains north of the Ohio. 
A conflict was about to arise and the Congress at Washington 
appointed a committee to report on the matter. Franklin as 
chairman of the committee reported : "Resolved, That it is 
not expedient at this time to suspend the sixth Article of the 
Ordinance of 1787 for the government of the said territory." 

Franklin was a strong advocate of the war of 1812 and 
urged Congress to grant permission to individuals to fit out 
vessels for privateering and destroying British commerce. 

It is an interesting coincidence that while Jesse Franklin 
was presiding as president pro tempore in the Senate, JSTa- 
thaniel Macon was Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
It was a red-letter day for North Carolina. 

These references will serve to show the confidence the na- 
tion placed in Jesse Franklin during his term of service at 
the national capital. 



200 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

He declined a re-election to the Senate in 1813 and retired 
to liis home. In 1816 President Monroe appointed Franklin, 
Andrew Jackson and General Meriwether conunissioners to 
treat with the Chickasaw Indians. The treaty was made near 
the bluffs of the Mississippi where the city of Memphis now 
stands. 

In 1820 he was elected governor of ISTorth Carolina. After 
serving one term he declined a re-election. His message to 
the Legislature is dated jS^ovember 20, 1821. It is still 
preserved in the files of the old Raleigh Register. It shows 
that he was a strong writer and a statesman of no ordinary 
powers. 

He calls attention to the necessity of reforming the State 
court system ; more efficiency in the militia. He says : "All 
nations have military force of some kind ; the militia is the 
one preferred by our State. It behooves us then to encourage 
its efficiency and make it strong in order to render a standing 
army unneccessary ; for precisely in the same degree that the 
one is neglected you create the necessity for the other." He 
encourages internal improvements. He mentions the survey- 
ing of the lines between IS^orth Carolina and Georgia; also 
the line between ISTorth Carolina and Tennessee, and a num- 
ber of other matters for the consideration of the Legislature. 

When his term of office was out he again returned to the 
quiet of his beautiful mountain section. He was not per- 
mitted to enjoy the pleasures of his home long, for death came 
to him September 29, 1823. 

The following letter from Miss Isabel Graves, a great 

grand-daughter of Governor Franklin, will be found full of 

interest, and is inserted by her permission : 

Nov. 28, 1906. 
Dear Sir: — I cannot add much to the sketch written by my father for 
Caruthers' Old North State Series. Governor Franklin would not have 
any portrait made of himself. He said he preferred to be remembered 
by what he had done and not by how he looked. 



GOVEENOE JESSE FEANKLIN. 201 

In looking over the old records I find that Meeky Perkins was born in 
1765, and died February 20, 1834. I have not been able to find the date 
of her marriage to Jesse Franklin, but from other dates given it vras 
probably sometime before 1790. He had been prominent as a brave 
soldier during the Revolution, and it is quite probable that he was sent 
on missions of importance to Philadelphia before the adoption of the 
Constitution in 1789. 

Notwithstanding Jesse Franklin was a Democrat and took great pride 
in the wearing apparel made at home, his daughters indulged in silk 
dresses made in Philadelphia on occasions requiring such dress. One of 
these dresses is preserved in the family. 

Governor Franklin, while not a member, was inclined to the Baptist 
church. His wife was a member of the Methodist church. He did not 
care for hunting and other sports, but was a great student and reader, 
and his leisure from public duties and private business was devoted 
chiefly to reading. His correspondence was extensive for that time, and 
one of his daughters usually assisted as his secretary. 

He was noted for his kindness to his neighbors and consideration for 
people less fortunate than he. He restrained his children from jokes at 
the expense of other people's feelings. The story of "Dicky Snow of 
Fish River Scenes" he never allowed a member of his family to tell, and 
it only became known when Dicky Snow told it on himself. 

My father used to tell us stories of his grandparents which always 
interested us. He said that Hardin Perkins was a well-connected and 
iofluential farmer of Rockbridge County, Virginia. Jesse Franklin in 
passing to and from Philadelphia on horseback with his wardrobe in his 
saddle-bags, happened to stop over at Mr. Perkins' and saw the daughter, 
Miss Meeky, a tall, graceful, black-haired and black-eyed maid, very 
handsome and accomplished for that period. He fell in love with her, 
and after the usual courtship, married her. There were very limited 
modes of conveyance then, indeed much of the country did not have even 
so much as a wagon road. After the marriage, which was celebrated 
with a wedding feast, a Presbyterian minister officiating, Jesse Franklin 
and his bride rode on horseback by way of Lynchburg to his home in 
North Carolina. On the way they were given receptions at the resi- 
dences of several of the relatives of the bride, the Redds and the Pan- 
nills, and the uncle of the groom. The baggage came later in a sort of 
two-horse wagon. 

Mrs. Franklin was occasionally in Washington with her husband, but 
not often. The journey from her mountain home to Washington was a 
long and tiresome one, the meager pay of the members of Congress, at 
that time not more than five dollars per day, would not well support two 



202 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

in good style. She became a noted housekeeper. Her home-made cotton 
dresses for herself and daughters were always of the neatest make and 
finest shades of coloring. The home-made jeans and linsey were the 
best, her linen the finest and whitest made in the country from flax 
grown on the farm and spun with her own hand. My father had often 
seen his grandmother's old flax-wheel at the homestead, of his Uncle 
Hardin Franklin on Fish River, where she died. She was a most ele- 
gant hostess and entertained her friends and her husband's friends in 
the best style possible. She had several daughters and sons, and they 
had much company. 

Governor Franklin lived in an isolated neighborhood; about four 
families made up the community — Jesse Franlvlin, Micajah Oglesby, 
Meshack Franklin, and Mr. Edwards, and they were all intelligent and 
well to do. They kept up the most cordial social relations; they 
visited and had parties and dances, to which their friends from a dis- 
tance were invited. From all the concurrent traditions there was never 
anywhere a happier community during the lifetime of Governor Frank 
lin. His wife was the leader and chief spirit among the ladies. 

There are other traditions, but these will serve to give a picture of the 
times. 

Yours truly, 

Isabel Gra\^s. 

Gov. Jesse Franklin was Snrrj County's greatest son. He 
reflected honor upon tlie whole State. It has not been the 
purpose of the writer to idealize him, but it is right that the 
noble heroes who risked their lives for American liberty, 
and whose long period of public service did so much to estab- 
lish our national greatness, should have a proper setting in 
the records of the nation. It is a distinct loss to the State 
that so little is known of those men who so greatly honored 
our State in the early period of its history. 

The remains of Governor Franklin have recently been re- 
moved to the ISTational Park at the Guilford Battle Ground. 
This is right. To a great extent the lives of those great and 
strong men constitute our State's history. They served well 
the State and we should accord to their memory that honor- 
able fame they so richly deserve. 



GOVERNOR JESSE FRANKLIN. 203 j 

Note. — The following authorities have been consulted: i 

Wheeler's History of North Carolina; ^ ' ^ 
Wheeler's Eeminiscences ; 

Caruthers' Old North State Series; i; 

Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution; !{ 

King's Mountain and Its Heroes; j 

Judge Schenek's Guilford Battle Ground; ,] 

Moore's History of North Carolina; : 

Constitution and Rules of United States Senate; i, 

Journals of U. S. House and Senate; j 

Journals of Legislature of North Carolina; ' 

Files of Raleigh Register; i 

Colonial Records of North Carolina. ] 



NORTH CAROLINA'S HISTORICAL EXHIBIT AT 
JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION. 



The Jamestown Exposition in 1907 is to be pre-eminently 
an historical exposition. All the states, and especially the 
original thirteen, are concentrating their energies on a display 
that will show to the world what share each has had in the 
settlement and development of the country, and later in that 
momentous struggle with England wdiich transformed weak 
colonies into a great nation. That each claims the lion's share 
in that transformation, goes without saying. What is of more 
consequence, each state is planning to prove its faith by its 
works, and prove its works by its exhibit at Jamestown. 
Pennsylvania has already spent thousands of dollars, and will 
spend thousands more; Virginia says that she can't compete 
with J^orth Carolina, either agriculturally or in manufac- 
tures, but in her historical collection she will lead the coun- 
try. So the story goes, with but one exception— *'the good 
old !N^orth State, heaven's blessings attend her," and she is 
sitting down peacefully wdth her knitting, wondering plaint- 
ively wdiy other states know so little of her past and that 
little to her discredit. For the first time in her existence an 
opportunity has come to her to set right once and for all 
time the mistakes and sneers of ignorance. Her state pride 
as well as "a decent regard to the opinions of mankind," 
should make her send such a display that her brave, faithful, 
modest past, shall be the glory of her future, and that here- 
after men shall not come to ISTorth Carolina to teach, but to 
learn. The Daughters of the American Eevolution and the 
Daughters of the Eevolution are making an effort to gather 
together a great historic exhibit, but it is not for their organ- 
izations they are working; it is for their state, and thev ask 



EXHIBIT AT JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION. 205 

all patriotic orders — tlie Colonial Dames, the Cincinnati, the 
Sons of the Revolution, all patriotic men and women — to 
join with them in this labor of love. They cannot do the 
work alone; they would be ashamed to do it if they could, 
for it would be an admission that patriotism was sleeping or 
dead. That they are leading in the matter is a mere hap- 
pening, and they would be just as proud to follow, for they 
are ]l*^orth Carolinians first and Daughters afterwards. 

The ladies ask the loan of anything that will illustrate 
the history of the State — and particularly the life of Colonial 
and Revolutionary days — letters, manuscripts, school books, 
furniture, portraits, clothing, maps, silver, china, etc. All 
articles will be sent to Raleigh and placed in the care of 
an experienced person, who will see to their packing and 
shipping; their arrangements is locked cases at Jamestown; 
be with them during the exposition and then repack them 
afterwards. They will, of course, while there be in a fire- 
proof building. The amount allowed the ladies for getting 
up this exhibit is so small that they fear the success of their 
efforts will be hampered by the necessity for strict economy, 
but they will try to make the wisest possible expenditure of 
the funds at their disposal. Their plans are not yet fully 
matured. When they are, all details will be given in the 
State papers. The ladies in charge feel that an appeal to the 
patriotism of the State cannot be in vain. 

Mes. Lindsay PattersoN;, 

Chairman Jamestown Historical Committee. 

Miss IIaky Hilliabd Hinton^ 

Chairman Committee for Eastern North Carolina. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY MBS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



ROBERT DIGGS WIMBERLY CONNOR 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor, whose address on the urgent need 
of a fire-proof state library building, delivered before the 
State Literary and Historical Association at its last session, 
and published in this number of "The Booklet," was born in 
the town of Wilson, September 26, 1878. He is the fourth 
child and the third son of Judge Henry G., and Kate Whit- 
field, Connor. 

Mr. Connor was prepared for college in the public schools 
of his native toT^m and entered the University of l^orth 
Carolina in the fall of 1895. At the University he was a 
member of the Philanthropic Literary Society, the SigTtia 
Alpha Epsilon fraternity, and The Gorgon's Head, a junior 
class organization. He was one of the representative speak- 
ers of his society at the commencement of 1898, and in 1899 
was the winner of the debater's medal in his society. At the 
commencement of 1899 he was selected as one of the senior 
speakers. He w^as editor, and then editor-in-chief of The 
Tar Heel, the college weekly, editor and business manager 
of the Hellenian, the college annual, and editor of the Maga- 
zine. In his senior year he won the John Sprunt Hill His- 
tory Prize, offered for the best original essay dealing with 
ISTorth Carolina history. His subject was a study of the 
Ku Klux Klan in l^orth Carolina. Mr. Connor was gTad- 
uated in 1899. 

After leaving the University Mr. Connor was elected a 
teachei' in the Public High School of the city of Winston. In 
February, 1902, he resigned his work there to become super- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 207 

intendent of the Public Schools of Oxford, "but remained 
there only a few months, resigning in the summer of 1902 
to accept the principalship of the Public High School of the 
city of Wilming-ton. After two years' work there he ac- 
cepted work in the office of the State Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction, where he has charge of the Loan Fund for 
building school houses, and is secretary of the Education 
Campaign Committee, composed of the late Dr. Charles D. 
Mclver, Hon. J. Y. Joyner, Hon. Charles B. Aycock and 
Governor R. B. Glenn. He is also secretary of the [N^orth 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly, and is now serving his second 
term. 

When the General Assembly of 1903 created the ISTorth 
Carolina Historical Commission, Governor Aycock appointed 
Mr. Connor one of the commissioners. He was elected sec- 
retary of the Commission. He was reappointed by Governor 
Glenn in 1905. Mr. Connor has done a little work in the 
history of J^orth Carolina. To The BooTdet he has con- 
tributed a sketch of Cornelius Harnett; to the Biographical 
History of ^orth Carolina he has contributed sketches of 
Cornelius Harnett, John Harvey, Calvin H. Wiley, James 
C. Dobbin, Thomas J. Hadley, Richard H. Speight and John 
P. Bruton. More elaborate sketches of Harnett and Harvey 
by Mr. Connor have appeared in the Sunday editions of the 
Charlotte Ohserver. Mr. Connor is a member of the JSTorth 
Carolina Literary and Historical Association and of the 
Southern History Association. 

On December 23, 1902, he was married to Miss Sadie 
Hanes, of Mocksville, ^t, c. 

Mr. Connor is gifted with the energy to explore through 
the by-paths of our State's history and his researches, should 
he live to continue them, will prove of great value to future 
historians. ISTorth Carolina has a history to be proud of and 



208 THE NOKTH CAROLIjSTA BOOKLET. 

at the present time more general interest is being shown than 
in any former period. In the mass of authentic material 
that has been collected in the past twenty-five years, and 
especially in the last decade, and with the impetus that is 
being given to the youth of our state by the Captains of Edu- 
cation — by the strong, decisive stand taken by the Press — 
by the efforts of the Literary and Historical Society, the 
Sons of the Eevolution, the Daughters of the Eevolution and 
other like organizations, there is hope that a great historian 
will develop who will secure for i^orth Carolina the place 
that rightfully belongs to her in the galaxy of States, showing 
that she had not lagged behind the other colonies in the asser- 
tion of her rights. 



JAMES OWEN CARR. 
J. O. Carr was born in Duplin Coimty, ISTorth Carolina, 
near Kenansville. He was prepared for college by S. W. 
Clement at Wallace, N^. C, and entered the University of 
ISTorth Carolina in September, 1891, graduating cum laude 
in the class of 1895 with the degree of Ph. B. In 1896 re- 
turned to the University where he studied law under the late 
Dr. John Manning and Judge James E. Shepherd. He 
received his license before the Supreme Court in September, 
1896, and returned to his native county, Duplin, and began 
the practice of law at Kenansville. In 1898 he was elected 
as a member of the lower house of the General Assembly 
from Duplin County and served in this capacity in the Legis- 
lature of 1899. In the following April he moved to Wilming- 
ton, where he continued his practice as a member of the law 
firm of Roimtree and Carr, which relation still exists. He 
has taken considerable interest in historical matters pertain- 
ing to the State. Inheriting the spirit of his forefathers, who 
were true to tlie principles of liberty, he is a descendant of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 209 

the Dicksons and Carrs who played a distinguished part be- 
fore and during the Eevolutionary war and one of whom 
was a signer to the Oath of Allegiance and Ahjurgation pass- 
ed at ISTew Bern the 15th of E'ovember, 177T. The original 
document is now on file in the clerk's office of Duplin County, 
thus preserving the names of those patriots who were true 
to their country, their homes and their God. Mr. Carr is 
a writer of ability and thus early in his career has made an 
enviable reputation as a literateur. He is the author of the 
'^Dickson" letters, consisting of a series of letters ^vritten 
immediately after the Revolution and of much historical 
value. He is a member of the Sons of the Revolution and 
his descent is contained in the manuscript archives of the 
jSTorth Carolina Society. 



PROF. J. T. ALDERMAN. 

The Booklet for this month is enriched by an admirable 
sketch of Governor Franklin. The paper is from the pen 
of Prof. J. T. Alderman, the able and successful superin- 
tendent of graded schools in Henderson, IST. C. Writing of 
Professor Alderman and his work. Rev. J. D. Hufham, D.D., 
long a leading minister of the Baptist church, says : "Profes- 
sor Alderman has devoted his life and all his splendid 
powers to the cause of education, mainly in JSTorth Carolina, 
and has no small share in the educational restoration of the 
commonwealth. Some particulars of his life and work seem 
to be called for as a contribution to the history of the period. 

"The Aldermans, as their name indicates, are of Anglo- 
Saxon stock; of property and social standing in England. 
Members of the family were among the early settlers in this 
country. John Camden Hotten, of London, in his "original 
list of Persons of Qualitie emigrated to America," includes 
"Grace Alderman," who came "in the ship Paula, July, 



210 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

1635." In 1715, Daniel Alderman, son of John, was born 
in London. In 1740 he married Abigail Harris and in 1750 
removed to 'New Jersey, whither others of the Aldermans 
had preceded them. In 1755 Daniel and his wife came to 
ISTorth Carolina and settled on Black River in Pender Coun- 
ty.- Three sons, John, Daniel and David, were bom to them. 
Of these sons, Daniel was the ancestor of the eminent head 
of the University of Virginia. From David have come the 
Aldermans of Greensboro. John married Mary Cashwell. 
They had among other children a son, John, who married 
Anna JSTewton, and among their children was Amariah Biggs, 
father of the subject of this sketch. He was a student at 
Wake Forest College 1845-'4:6-'4:7, and afterwards devoted 
his life to the Baptist ministry. He married Penelope How- 
ard. Among her ancestors was Fleete Cooper, a prominent 
and active patriot during the Revolution and afterwards a 
preacher of renown among the Baptists. Another ancestor 
was Minson Howard, a soldier of the Revolution. Still an- 
other was Capt. John Williams, an officer in the American 
army during the Revolution ; a fearless and active soldier 
and a terror to the Tories. These facts indicate with suffi- 
cient clearness the sort of people through whom the life has 
come down to Professor Alderman. In the old world and 
the new, they have been quiet, thoughtful, brave and earnest 
men, commanding the confidence of the public and achieving 
success. In North Carolina five of them have been preachers, 
many of them have been teachers and all of them advocates 
and supporters of education. 

"Professor Alderman was born June 26th, 1853. His fa- 
ther's home lay in the line of Sherman's march, not far from 
the battlefield of Bentonville, and after that struggle the 
family had to begin life anew. To educate themselves with- 
out neglecting the labor needful to the home was not easy, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 211 

but the boys all achieved it. Professor Alderman graduated 
at Wake Forest College 1880, and at once gave himself with 
singleness of heart to the business of teaching, from which 
he has never turned aside. In his native county, Sampson, 
and in Da^^e County, he taught with singular success. He 
was superintendent of the schools at Reidsville, 1891-'94. 
He was assistant superintendent of city schools of Columbus, 
Ga., the finest system of schools in the South, and also prin- 
cipal of the high school in that city. In all these positions 
he had given entire satisfaction and had shown his capacity 
for even greater things. In 1899 the call came which brought 
him back to his native State and to the largest work of his 
life — to lay the foundations and construct a system of graded 
schools for the town of Henderson. It was a great under- 
taking, but success has cro'vvned every step of it and it may 
be doubted whether there is in any part of the State a system 
of schools superior to this, whether we consider buildings 
and equipment, spirit or management. It is Professor Al- 
derman's greatest work, but he is still in the fulness of 
manly vigor and there may be even greater things for him 
to do in the years to come. He is profoundly interested in 
the histoiy of North Carolina, and the teaching of it holds 
an important place in his schools. He also keeps in touch 
with the work of education in the State. He is an enthusi- 
astic Mason and is held in high honor by the members of 
the Fraternity of every degree. 

"In 1894 he married Miss Lillian Watson, of Warrenton, 
]^. C, a gifted and accomplished woman, who is interested 
in every department of his labor and finds her chief joy in 
his success." 



SARAH BEAUMONT KENNEDY. 



COLLECTED AND COMPILED BY MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



Tlie Booklet is indebted to Mrs. Kennedy for that very 
interesting monograph, on "Colonial I^ew Berne," which was 
published in jN^o. 2 of volume first, which edition was so 
popular that it is now out of print. She wrote a beautiful 
story of that heroic and long-suffering people, the Palati- 
nates,* who inliabited that picturesque portion of Germany 
situated on both sides of the Rhine. These Protestants who 
were no longer able to endure the persecutions which fol- 
lowed the revocation of the Edict of ISTantes, fled from their 
country, a large proportion joining De G-raffienried's colony 
of Swiss in 1710, to America, and founded jSTew Berne; 
calling their new settlement after the Swiss capital in the 
far-away Alps. 

Sara Beaumont Kennedy's parents were both jSTorth Caro- 
linians, her father having been Dr. Robert H. Cannon, of 
Raleigh, and her mother Nora Devereux, daughter of Thomas 
PoUok Devereux, so widely known through the South. 
Through her maternal grandfather she is a direct descendant 
of Jonathan Edwards, whose daughter Eunice married Gov. 
Thomas PoUok, and was the grandmother of Thomas Pol- 
lok Devereux. (Gov. Thomas PoUok was twice appointed 
governor.) Through her maternal grandmother, who was 
Catherine Johnson, of Stratford, Conn., she is a lineal de- 
scendant of William Samuel Johnson, who, as one of the 
most talented and forceful members of the Constitutional 
Convention, helped to frame the l^ational Constitution. On 
this same line Mrs. Kennedy is descended from the Living- 

*A further account of this settlement is given in the •'Booklet," of 
April, 1905, by Judge Oliver P. Allen. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 213 

stons, one member of which, family was a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, and another played a star part 
in the purchase of Louisiana. The line goes back, without 
a break, to the Briices, of Scotland. On her father's side 
Mrs. Kennedy inherits French Huguenot blood, an early 
ancestor of that faith and nationality having settled in ]N^orth 
Carolina, where his three daughters married respectively 
a Hill, a Cannon and a Battle. 

Mrs. Kennedy was born in Somerville, Tenn., but her 
father having died, her mother returned to the Devereux 
homestead in Carolina. There and at St. Mary's, Raleigh, 
most of her childhood was spent, she having graduated from 
the above named school at the age of sixteen. Mrs. Cannon 
again removed to Tennessee and Sara, after teaching awhile, 
was married, in 1888, to Mr. "Walker Kennedy, editor and 
novelist. Almost all of their married life has been spent 
in Memphis, Tenn., where Mr. Kennedy is editor-in-chief of 
the leading newspaper. Mrs. Kennedy began her literary 
career with "A Jamestown Romance," the first story that 
had as a heroine one of the tobacco-bought wives of the early 
colony. This ran as a serial in a magazine. Then shifting 
her scene, she wrote a series of short Colonial stories, with 
ISTew Berne and Hillsboro, IST. C, as the backgrounds. Her 
two novels are "Jocelyn Cheshire" and "The Wooing of 
Judith," both of which have won high praise from the critics. 
She writes a great deal of verse, but has never collected this 
class of her work into book form. As a reader she is ranked 
with the best on the professional stage, although she appears 
only as an amateur, reading her own stories and poems. 
During the past year she has done very little with her pen 
because of serious trouble with her eyes. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



A QUARTERLY PUBLICATION ISSUED UNDER 
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"NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION" 



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THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Sixth Volume began in July, 1906. 



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Vol. I 

" Colonial New Bern," Sarah Beaument Kennedy. 
"Greene's Retreat," Prof. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vol. II 

" Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

" Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. Clewell. 

" Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

"The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

" Raleigh and the Old Town of Bloomsbury." 

" Historic Homes — Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hays," Rodman, Blount, 
Dillard. 

"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 

" Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 

" Last Days of the War," Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

" Trial of James Glasgow." Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

" Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

"Historic Hillsboro," Mr. Francis Nash. 

" Life in Colonial North Carolina," Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 

"Was Alamance First Battle of the Revolution ? " Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 

" Governor Charles Eden," Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

" Colony of Transylvania." Judge Walter Clark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL D. 
" Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
"North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

"Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm. A. Graham, 

" Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

" Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

" North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 

and Joseph Hewes,'' by T. M. Pittman, and E. Walter Sikes. 
" Expedition to Cartagena, 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 
" First English Settlement in America," W. J, Peele. 
"Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 
" Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 



,' Highland Scotch Settlement in N. C," Judge James C. McRae. 
"The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 
" Battle of Guilford Court-House and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 

Vol. v.— (Quarterly). 
No.1. 

" Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

"St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations," Richard 
Dillard, M. D. 

" N. C. Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II, 
William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

" History of the Capitol," Colonel Charles Earl Johnson. 

" Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

Grimes. 
"North Carolina's Poets," Rev. Hight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

"Cornelius Harnett," Mr. R. D. W. Connor, "Edward Moseley," Prof. 
D. H. Hill. 

" Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W. A. 
Graham. 

No. 4. 

t' Governor Thomas Pollok." Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 

" Battle of Cowan's Ford," Major W. A. Graham. 

" First Settlers in North Carolina not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rev, 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D. 



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]^orth Carolina 

Historical 

Commission 



ESTABLISHED 

BY 

LAWS OF 

1903 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



MEMBERS 



W. J. PEELE, Chairman, . 
R. D. W. CONNOR, Secretary, 
J. BRYAN GRIMES, 
CHARLES L. RARER, 
THOMAS W. BLOUNT, 



Raleigh, N. C. 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Roper, N. C. 



r'//B Commission wishes to be informed of the 
location of any unpublished mamiscripts , let- 
ters, documents or records, public and private, 
relating to the history of North Carolina. The 
Commissio7i is authorized to collect a7id publish such 
material. The original documents are preferred, 
but if these can^iot be secured, arrangements will 
be made to have certified copies made without cost 
to the owners. The possessors of such documents 
are urged to co-operate with the Commission in 
their efforts to preserve and render available the 
sources of the history of our State. 



All cotnmunieations should be addressed to 
the Secretary, 



6 



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A personal investigation will convince anyone that KING'S is 
absolutely the Largest, Best Equipped and Most Successful 
College of Business, Shorthand, Typewriting, Penmanship and 
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are making. Strong financial backing. 

Reference : Every Bank and Leading Business Concern in Raleigh 

or Charlotte. 
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Address KlUg'S BUSmBSS College, ^^i^r'^haHot^, K. C. 

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Thk Keystonk 

A Southern "Woman's Journal, Published Monthly 
by Southern "Women. Now in its 7th year. 

OflEicial Organ for the Clubwomen and Daughters of the Confederacy in 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida and Mississippi. 

SUBSCRIPTION, 50c. PER YEAR 

North Carolina Booklet, $1.00 per year — The Keystone and the North 
Carohna Booklet for $1.10 per year. 

Address 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

Editor N. C. Booklet, 
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White's Beginner's History of the 
United States 

By Henry Alexander White, of Col- 
umbia, S. C. 

In this interesting narrative, which 
is written on the biographical plan, 
special attention is paid to the acts 
of heroism and devotion of the men 
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Lee Readers 

The best literature and the best 
thought of the South, prepared by 
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The Rose Primer 

Contains a small vocabulary, with 
carefully selected and graded mat- 
ter and frequent reviews. 

Spencer's Practical Writing 

Teaches a plain practical hand, 
moderate in slant, and free from or- 
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ingless lines. 



Steps in English 



Meet modern conditions in every 
respect, and teach the child how to 
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Milne's Arithmetics 



Give the pupil an unusually 
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Natural Geographies 



The most widely used series ex- 
tant. This subject is developed na- 
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his environment as the main theme. 



Bruce's United States History 

Written by a Southern author for 
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tractive, and profusely illustrated. 

New Century Physiologies 



Represents the latest scientiflc re- 
search and study, with the best 
methods of iusiruction in right 
living. 



Peterman's Civil Government 



Gives a good knowledge of politi- 
cal institutions, commencing with 
the family government. Special 
edition for North Carolina. 



Webster's Dictionaries 



The standard authority followed 
In all leading school books. Thor- 
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DESIRABLE BOOKS 

That Should be on the Shelves of the 
Libraries of Every North Carolina Home 



Lutie Andrews McCorkle's Old-Time Stories of the Old North. 
State. 

Warren's Stories from English History. 

Pratt's America's Story for America's Children. Five Vols. 

Katherine B. Massey's Story of Georgia. 

Stone & Fickitt's Every Day Life in the Colonies. 

Bass' Stories of Pioneer Life. 

Horton's The Frozen North. 

Kufifer's Stories of Long Ago. 

Hyde's Favorite Greek Myths. 

Firth's Stories of Old Greece. 

Brown's Alice and Tom. 

Stone & Pickett's Days and Deeds of a Hundred Years Ago, 

Starr's Strange Peoples. 

Starr's American Indians. 

Fairbank's The Western U. S. 

Heath's Home and School Classics ( 39 Vols, of the finest litera- 
ture for young people in the world ) . 

Eckstorms' Bird Book (a natural history of birds). 



These or any other publications from our large and valuable list 
may be secured from your local book seller or from 

D. C. HEATH & COMPANY 

225 Fourth Avenue 
NEW YORK 



iiilil isif i ill Mm 



11 



SAM'L A. ASHE, Editor-in-Chief CHAS. L. VAN NOPPEN, Publisher 

GREENSBORO, N. C. 

The publisher desires to say without fear of contradic- 
tion that there has never been anywhere in the United 
States any other State Biographical venture equalling 
the Biographical History of North Carolina in scope, 
selectness of subjects, excellence of literary and his- 
torical matter and general mechanical and artistic 
book-making. 

The Biographical History will cover the entire history of the 
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All the Governors. 

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In a word, as complete a publication as possible of all 
those who have adorned the annals of North Carolina. 

Write for Booklet of Reviews and Testimonials. 

GHAS. L. VAN NOPPEN, Publisher, 

GREENSBORO, North Catolina 



Norrh Carolina Stare Library 
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TRENT'S SOUTHERN WRITERS _^ 

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^HE IVICMILLAN COMPANY 

4th National Bank Building, ATLANTA, GA. 

Send for descriptive circular or call and examine the books at our Summer School 
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Miss Dixie Washington Leach 

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Access to State Library where copies can be made on Minia- 
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