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Vol. VII 

JULY, 1907 

No. 1 


NortK Carolina Booklcl: 









North Carolina in the French and Indian War 
By Col. Alfred M. Waddell 

Locke's Fundamental Constitution 
By Junius Davis 

Industrial Life in Colonial Carolina . _ - _ 

By Thomas M. Pittman 

An Address: Our Dearest Neighbor— The Old North State 

By Hon. James A. Cabell 

Biographical Sketches- __--__ 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt and 
Miss Mary H. Hinton 




$1.00 THE YEAR 






The North Carolina Booklet. 

Great Events in North Carolina History. 

The Booklet will be issued quarteri^y by the North Carolina 
Society of the Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1907. Each Booklet will contain three articles and will be published 
in July, October, January and April. Price, $1.00 per year, 35 cents for 
single copy. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


1. North Carolina in the French and Indian War, 

Colonel Alfred Moore Waddell 

2. Colonial Newspapers, .... Dr. Charles Lee Smith 

3. Finances of the North Carolina Colonists, Dr. Charles Lee Raper 

4. Fayetteville Independent I/ight Infantry, Judge James C. MacRae 

5. Schools and Education in Colonial Times, , Mr. Charles L. Coon 

6. Joseph Gales, Mr. Willis G. Briggs 

7. General Robert Howe, .... Hon. John D. Bellamy 

8. The Resolution of April 12, 1776, . Prof. R. D. W. Connor 

9. Our First State Constitution . . . Dr. E. W. Sikes 

10. Permanent Settlement of the Lower Cape Fear, (1725-1735) 

Mr. W. B. McKoy 

11. Colonial Edenton, . ./ Rev. Robert Brent Drane, D.D. 

12. The Quakers of Perquimans, . . Miss Rebecca Albertson 

The Booklet will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 

who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E- E. Moffitt, 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 

biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 
Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for 
Vol. VII, are requested to give notice at once. 

"MiDw^AY Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. VII. JULY, 1907. No. 1 


floRTH CflRoiiiNA Booklet 

"CaroH?ia! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her / 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her. ' ' 

Published by 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editobs. 












« * 









Mes. Spier Whitaker. Mks. T. K. Bruner. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Me. W. J. Peele. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Professor E. P. Moses. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle. Mr. James Spbunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Clark. 

Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, Mrs. E E. Moffitt. 





Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 



' y r honorary REGENT : 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

{Nee Hooper.) 

recording secretary: 

corresponding secretary : 
Mrs. W. H. PACE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 





Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

regent 1902: 
Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

REGENT 1902-1906: 

* Died December 12, 1904. 


Vol. VII JULY, 1907 No. 1 



"The French and Indian War," as it is designated in our 
history, was the American part of the great Seven Years' 
War in Europe in which Frederick the Great made his fame. 
It was the struggle between France and England for supre- 
macy on this continent, or, more accurately speaking, between 
the genius of William Pitt and the enemies of England, for 
the possession and control of what is now recognized to be 
the greatest empire on earth. The years through which it 
continued were from 1754 to 1763, when the final treaty of 
peace was made. Il^othing in the career of Mr. Pitt so won- 
derfully demonstrates his stupendous and all-embracing ge- 
nius as his management of this war. It established his su- 
pi'emacy as a statesman and administrator over ever}' English- 
speaking prime minister that has ever lived. His correspond- 
ence with the Governors and military authorities in the 
colonies, which has recently been published in two volumes 
by the Colonial Dames of America, is so astonishing in its 
comprehensive grasp of the whole field of operations, civil 
and military, and so minute in its detailed knowledge of 
every feature of the situation — from the financial needs of 
each colony and its geographical position and means of de- 
fense, the forces at its command, the most desirable routes 


for military movements, the methods of remedying defective 
quartermaster, commissary and transportation facilities, and 
indeed every other general or detailed matter connected with 
the conduct of a w^ar conducted three thousand miles from his 
office, down to instructions as to how certain boats and wagons 
should be built and hauled, and the like — as to justify the 
assertion that it is without parallel. 

The greater part of the French and Indian War was car- 
ried on far from the borders of North Carolina, the principal 
theatre of it being from the Canada border down to Fort 
DuQuesne (now Pittsburg, Pa.), and the northwestern fron- 
tier of Virginia, but before it ended it was extended along 
the settlements southwardly to Georgia. The French were 
very enterprising in conciliating and making treaties with 
the Indians all the way down to Louisiana. Their first act 
of aggression was as early as 1753, but matters did not be- 
come serious in the way of fighting until 1754. In the lat- 
ter year Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, made an appeal 
to the other Colonies for help to repel French aggression. To 
that appeal North Carolina made characteristic answer by 
voting twelve thousand pounds, and mustering a regiment for 
the service. In regard to this contribution. Governor Din- 
widdle, writing to Mr. Hanbury in London, May 10th, 1754, 
said, "Except North Carolina, not one of the other colonies 
has granted any supplies," and it appears from a letter of 
Governor Dobbs to Pitt, 22d December, 1758, that out of 
66,000 pounds raised in the Province, 38,000 had been given 
to assist the other provinces. 

This expedition of 1754, about which he wrote, was the 
first one in which North Carolina had an opportunity to par- 
ticipate in that war. Fourteen years before that, however, 
she had sent a company (in 1740) on the expedition to Car- 
thagena in the war with Spain, which was commanded by 
Capt. Tames Tunes ; and the same officer, as Colonel, was as- 


signed to the command of the regiment raised for the expe- 
dition of 1754. He was a native of Cannisbay, in Scotland, 
and a resident of New Hanover County, living on his plan- 
tation. Point Pleasant, about nine miles from Wilmington, 
on the northeast branch of the Cape Fear River. 

He was an experienced soldier, having served "in the old 
country," as he expressed it, as well as in the Carthagena ex- 
pedition. In the latter he was associated with General Wash- 
ington's brother Lawrence, and upon his appointment to the 
command of the ISTorth Carolina regiment and all the forces 
in 1754, Washington wrote to Governor Dinwiddle: "I re- 
joice that I am likely to be happy under the command of an 
experienced officer, and man of sense. It is what I have ar- 
dently wished for." Governor Dinwiddle himself wrote to 
Sir Thomas Eobinson in regard to him that he "has been in 
his Majesty's Army, and is of an unblemished character, of 
great reputation for his bravery and conduct." 

And yet when Innes arrived in Virginia with his regiment 
he found a state of things so discouraging, and indeed so des- 
perate, that he was compelled to inform the Governor that 
unless some relief was offered he would have to disband the 
North Carolina regiment, and let them go home, as they were 
in actual danger of starvation. Washington had been con- 
tinually complaining of the miserable mismanagement of the 
expedition and of the want of necessary supplies, and when 
to this management was added a spirit of insurbordination 
among some of the officers who refused to recognize the supe- 
rior rank of Washington and Innes, and among others who 
were offended at the putting of Innes at the head of the ex- 
pedition, the climax was reached. Washington, at the begin- 
ning of the expedition, was Lieutenant-Colonel and had gone 
forward with the first detachment of one hundred and fifty 
men from Alexandria, on the 10th of May, and had arrived 
within seventy-five miles of the place selected for the erec- 


tion of the fort at the forks of the Monongahela when he 
learned that a French force had come down on the company 
engaged in building it and had captured them, whereupon he 
went into camp and awaited reinforcements. Col. Joshua 
Fry had been made Commander-in-Chief of the expedition, 
but he died about the 1st of June, and Washington was pro- 
moted to the Colonelcy of the Virginia regiment in Fry's 
stead. It was at this juncture that Governor Dinwiddle 
wrote the letter to Washington, heretofore referred to, an- 
nouncing the appointment of Innes as Commander-in-Chief, 
and referring to him as '^an old experienced officer," which 
Washington acknowledged in the generous terms already 
quoted. Innes, who was as modest as he was brave, seemed 
to apprehend that his age would be against him, and more- 
over suspected that the Virginians would be dissatisfied with 
his assignment to the chief command — which proved to be 
correct, but Governor Dinwiddle wrote to him in these words : 
''Your age is nothing when you reflect on your regular mode 
of living," and ''as for the expectations of the people here, I 
always have regard to merit, and I know yours and you need 
not mind or fear any reflections." After his arrival, how- 
ever, and upon the discovery of the situation heretofore men- 
tioned, viz, that he could get no supplies and no money to 
sustain his command, and after notifying the Governor of the 
facts, without receiving any assistance, he was compelled to 
disband his force of ISTorth Carolinians and let them go home 
to avoid starvation. 

To aggravate the case, supplies were furnished to other 
troops, some of whom had gone on and joined Washington, 
and, with the command under him, had surrendered after a 
gallant fight against superior numbers at Great Meadows. 
Innes wanted and tried to resign, but was finally persuaded 
to remain on duty, and when Braddock's expedition was or- 
ganized in 1755, to which North Carolina contributed about 


one hundred men under Major Dobbs, son of the Governor, 
although they were not in the disastrous defeat but were in 
the reserve corps under Dunbar — Braddock appointed Innes 
commander of Fort Cumberland, with a title never before or 
since heard of, to-wit, Governor of Fort Cumberland, and it 
was fortunate that he did so, for he rendered invaluable ser- 
vice to Braddock's ruined and fugitive army at that point, 
notwithstanding he was abandoned by Colonel Dunbar, who 
succeeded Braddock, and who "went into winter quarters" 
(in August) at Philadelphia, leaving Innes with 400 sick 
and wounded, and a handful of Provincials to defend the 
frontier. He felt the ill usage accorded to him keenly, and, 
tried again to resign, but was begged by Governor Dinwiddle 
to be patient, and, yielding patriotically to these solicitations, 
he continued to do his dut}^ to his King and country faith- 
fully until the spring of 1756, when he returned to ISTorth 
Carolina on leave of absence, and ended his career as a sol- 
dier. He died September 5th, 1759, at Wilmington. In 
1756 ^STorth Carolina sent three companies under Major 
Dobbs to JSTew York. While these military operations were 
being conducted on the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers, 
and later in the year. Governor Dobbs of North Carolina was 
endeavoring as best he could to provide for the defense of the 
frontier of that province, as the region west of Salisbury was 
called, and, in the prosecution of that purpose two forts were 
built, one of them between Third and Fourth Creeks near 
the present town of Statesville, and the other as is believed, 
in Caldwell County, in or near what is known as the Plappy 
Valley. These forts were built under the direction and com- 
mand of a youth of twenty-one years of age who had been a 
Lieutenant in Innes' expedition, and had been promoted to 
the rank of Captain in Virginia, and who afterwards be- 
came Major, Colonel, and Brigadier-General, and died in 


1773 before reaching the age of 39. His name was Hugh 
Waddell. While erecting these defenses he was engaged in 
negotiating treaties with the Catawba and Cherokee Indians. 
During the year 1756, under the same officer, service was 
rendered at various points in restraining the Indians, and 
again in 1757, under the same officer, a long and wearisome 
march, in the face of hourly danger of ambuscade, was made 
over three of the highest mountain ranges east of the Rockies 
to the relief of Fort Loudon, which was about thirty miles 
from the present city of Knoxville, Tennessee. 

In 1758 the final expedition against Fort Du Quesne was 
organized under the command of General Forbes, and to this 
expedition l^orth Carolina contributed three companies under 
the command of the same officer, who had been promoted to 
the rank of Major. It is to be regretted that, so far as this 
writer knows, no roster of these companies was preserved, but 
tradition says that among their officers were Thomas Brown, 
afterwards known as General Thomas Brown, the hero of the 
battle of Elizabethtown and the "Tory Hole," and Caleb 
Grainger, of Wilmington. 

The battalion was promptly organized, marched at once to 
Virginia, and went thence immediately to the front. They 
were placed in the advance corps of Forbes's Army and were 
employed in scouting, reconnoitering, clearing roads, build- 
ing bridges and boats, and rendering other valuable service. 
They had been engaged in this work for some time before 
Colonel Washington was assigned to the advanced corps, and 
their Commander, according to the testimony of Governor 
Dobbs, '^'had great honor done him, being employed on all 
reconnoitering parties." There is now in the possession of 
the writer of these pages a field return made by him on the 
25th of October, 1758, which is in a good state of preserva- 
tion, and with it is also preserved a piece of wood from a 
table brought by General Forbes from Scotland to Nova 


Scotia in 1739, which was presented to this writer by a rela- 
tive of General Forbes a few years ago, upon learning of the 
existence of the field-return. Forbes's expedition in a short 
while after it began operations, like its predecessors, began 
to be confronted by so many unexpected diflBculties that 
Washington, who had already written to Speaker Robinson 
that "nothing now but a miracle can bring this campaign to a 
happy issue," united with the other officers in a council of 
war, at which the alternative was presented of going into 
winter quarters or abandoning the expedition. At this junc- 
ture, as Sparks, the biographer of Washington, says, "a mere 
accident occurred which brought hope out of despair." In 
reference to this occurrence the following passage is quoted 
from "A Colonial Ofiicer and His Times," where it originally 
appeared : "This mere accident, which all the historians men- 
tion and to which Washington himself alludes as a providen- 
tial occurrence, but without mentioning any names, was the 
capture of an Indian, from whom the true situation of affairs 
at Fort Du Quesne was learned. But although this mere 
accident, or in other words this event of absolutely vital 
importance to the success of this formidable expedition which 
established English supremacy in the South — is carefully re- 
corded, the person who was so fortunate as to accomplish this 
mere accident is as carefully ignored, to-wit. Sergeant John 
Rogers, of the North Carolina forces. It was a little thing 
to do perhaps, but Forbes considered the importance of do- 
ing it so great that he offered a reward of fifty guineas and 
another oflScer offered a reward of four hundred guineas to 
any one who would take an Indian prisoner, so that they 
might get information of the enemy's movements. Rogers 
accomplished it at the hazard of his life, and from the pris- 
oner captured by him it was ascertained that the garrison 
at Fort Du Quesne were only awaiting the appearance of the 
British, when they would withdraw, and thereupon the light 

%J 5 ^ 



















troops made a forced march and the enemy burned and aban- 
doned the fort." 

Poor Rogers was entirely overlooked and never got either 
of the rewards that had been offered, but after he came back 
to North Carolina the Assembly voted him twenty pounds 
for his gallantry, as appears from the Colonial Records of 
JSTorth Carolina, Vol. VI, page 384. 

Among the light troops who made the forced march on the 
fort were the North Carolina companies, and tradition says 
that a large dog belonging to their commander first entered 
the ruins. There were with these troops a number of Chero- 
kee Indians, and perhaps a few Catawbas, and when the 
expedition ended those Indians started on their return home, 
and while passing through western Virginia discovered some 
horses running wild in the woods, and, as they afterwards 
alleged, supposing them to have escaped from the nearest 
settlements and been abandoned, as sometimes happened, they 
captured them and went on their homeward march, but they 
were pursued by the Virginians and a number of them were 
killed. The survivors on their arrival at home told their 
story, which infuriated their kinsmen, and the French, who 
learned of it, added to the flame by telling them that the 
English were only waiting for a good opportunity when they 
intended to kill their warriors and reduce their women and 
children to slavery. They also furnished the Indians with 
arms and ammunition, and promised them active support. 
The consequence was that the fall of Fort Du Quesne, so far 
from affording relief to the people of JSTorth Carolina, only 
serve"d to transfer the war to their own western frontier, and 
a series of outbreaks followed, which lasted for more than 
two years, and kept the settlers insecure until the treaty of 
peace was made between France and England in 1763. The 
first outbreak was directed against Fort Loudon on the Ten- 
nessee river, where there was a garrison of two hundred men 


chiefly from South Carolina, and the fort was cut off from 
supplies and the garrison in danger of starvation. The news 
of this outbreak and of the murder and scalping of many 
inhabitants soon spread and the Governors of North and 
South Carolina organized a considerable force to attack the 
Indians, when the latter, fearing that they would be de- 
stroyed, begged for peace and made a new treaty ; but, as 
was customary with them, they soon broke out again. There- 
upon Waddell, now a Colonel, was ordered to re-garrison the 
fort between Third and Fourth creeks, (Fort Dobbs) and to 
put five hundred militia on duty to protect the frontiers. He 
was attacked at Fort Dobbs by the Cherokees on the night of 
the 2Tth February, 1760, the assault being made by two par- 
ties, but he repulsed them, killing ten or twelve and losing 
one killed and two wounded. He expected an attack the 
next night, but the Indians had enough of it, and did not 
make another attempt. 

Colonel Montgomery and Major Grant invaded the Chero- 
kee country and fought an indecisive battle in the Etchoe set- 
tlement near the present town of Franklin in Macon County, 
on the 27th June, but whether there were any I^orth Caro- 
lina troops in the expedition or not is uncertain. 

The retreat of Montgomery to Fort Prince George caused 
the surrender of Fort Loudon, which was followed by treach- 
ery and murder by the Indians. In the fall of that year 
(1760) Colonel Waddell was ordered to join Colonel Byrd, 
of Virginia, in striking the upper Cherokees, but the latter 
made peace and he discharged his troops. 

And thus, strictly speaking, the part of ISTorth Carolina 
in the "French and Indian War'' ended, although for years 
afterwards ISTorth Carolina pioneers had to fight the Indians 
until they were finally suppressed during and after the Ameri- 
can Revolution. 


This article embraces only the general outlines of the sub- 
ject discussed, and omits much that might be said by way of 
comment upon individual conduct, and particular events in 
the several campaigns, as well as in the civil administrations 
in Virginia and the Carolinas during the war, which, if in- 
cluded, would exceed the limits prescribed for articles in this 

A portrait of General Hugh Waddell may be found in each of the fol- 
lowing works: 

"A Colonial Officer and His Times— 1778," by Alfred Moore Waddell, 
1890. Published by Edwards & Broughton, Raleigh, N. C. 

"Wilmington," by Rt Rev. Joseph B. Cheshire, in " Historic Towns 
of the Southern States." Published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, 3 New 
York City. 

"The Story of the Old North State," by R. D. W. Connor. J. B. Lip- 
pincott Co., Philadelphia. 



He who attempts to write of the earliest events in the his- 
tory of North Carolina with a single aim to the truthfulness 
of his narrative, will find himself painfully embarrassed by 
a want of accurate information. And this is notably true as 
to the story of the first settlers, and the early political history 
of the Province. Where was the first permanent white settle- 
ment in North Carolina — the date of it — the names of the 
settlers- — who knows? Saunders says (1 Col. Rec, Pref. 
IX) : ''The first permanent white settlement in North Caro- 
lina was made, it may be safely said, somewhere to the east- 
ward of the Chowan River, extending in time down to and 
along Albemarle Sound. Neither its date, nor its locality 
may now be fixed with absolute certainty, but it began, doubt- 
less, before 1660, and probably as early as 1650." I believe 
the correct date to be after 1660, but I am unable to fix it 
accurately. It seems to be certain that the first stout hearts, 
who, pushing into the wilderness beyond the touch of civili- 
zation, brought their families and household goods into the 
new land, came from Virginia and probably from Nanse- 
mond County. In July, 1653, the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia (1 Col. Rec, 17), regarding North Carolina as a part 
of that province, granted Ten Thousand Acres of land to the 
100 persons, who should first settle on the Roanoke River, 
and the lands lying south of the Chowan and its branches ; 
and One Thousand Acres to one Roger Green, to be chosen 
by him, ''Plaving regard to those persons having a former 
grant." This proviso, T take it, was merely a saving clause 
tacked on by some cautious representative of the Old Com- 
monwealth, Avho held a riw'hteous recard for the first rights. 


And this grant seems to have been more of an inducement 
held out to prospective settlers, a tentative offer, than an ac- 
tual evidence of an actual settlement. For it is certain that 
Yardley, when he sent out his first expedition into North 
Carolina in September, 1653, and his second early in 1654, 
found no white man in North Carolina, save one lone Span- 
iard, who had pitched his tent with a family of thirty, ''seven 
whereof are negroes," among the Tuscarora Indians. (2 
Hawks, 17.) 

Yardley calls his explorations "an ample discovery of 
South Virginia or Carolina." His first expedition, in Sep- 
tember, 1653, went through the sounds as far as Roanoke 
Island, where the Chief of the Indians ''showed them the 
ruins of Sir Walter Raleigh's Fort." The second, early in 
1654, penetrated into the interior, and during it Yardley 
bought and "paid for three great rivers" (supposed to be the 
Roanoke, Tar and Neuse) "with the surrounding lands, and 
took solemn possession of them, on behalf of the Common- 
wealth of England, by the delivery to them by the Indians of 
a turf of the earth with an arrow shot into it." His party 
neither heard of or met any white man save the Spaniard, 
and he certainly had lost himself, and claimed no allegiance 
to England. No after mention of Yardley, or his purchase, 
is to be found in any of the records. The grant from the 
King of Yeopin, dated March 1st, 1661, (1 Col. Rec, 19), 
to George Durant, was for land l^-ing on Roanoke Sound 
and a river called by the name of "Pearquimans." It began 
at ^"^a marked oak, which divides this land from the land I 
formerly sold to Samuel Pricklove," and is witnessed by two 
men of English names. George Durant probably came from 
Northumberland County, Virginia, for the record of his 
marriage to Ann Moorwood on January 4th, 1659, by Daniel 
Lindsey, a minister of the gospel in Northumberland County, 


is to be found in the court-house at Hertford, N. C. (Hatha- 
way, Vol. 3, page 199.) Durant, who was certainly one of 
the first ^'seators," was a man of ability and substance, des- 
tined to become prominent in the affairs of the province, and 
to be abused and villified by Hawks, without the least reason 
or foundation, as a Quaker and a turbulent promoter of sedi- 
tion and resistance to lawful authority. On September 25th, 
1663, Governor Berkley, of Virginia, issued grants to various 
parties for land in the Albemarle section of North Carolina, 
Seven Hundred and Fifty (750) acres to Thomas Relfe, 
Three Hundred and Fifty (350) to Robert Peele, Six Hun- 
dred (600) and Two Hundred and Fifty (250) to John 
Harvey, Seven Hundred (700) to Captain John Jenkins, and 
to George Catch wood One Thousand Five Hundred (1500). 
Both Harvey and Jenkins were afterwards Governors of the 
Province. These grants all describe the lands by actual metes 
and bounds, and call for the bounds of other lands belonging 
to actual settlers at that date, notably John Battle, Roger 
Williams. Thomas Jervis and others, names well known in 
the history of the State. It may seem strange to some that 
Berkeley, one of the Proprietors, should, as Governor of Vir- 
ginia, be issuing gi'ants for land in the Albemarle section 
gome five or six months after the Great Grant of Charles. 
But the answer is, that the first grant to the Proprietors did 
not include the lands on the Chowan or north of the Roanoke. 
It is well to note right here one most egregious error into 
which the historians of the State, Williamson, Martin, Hawks, 
Wheeler and Moore, have fallen. They all with one voice de- 
clare that the first settlers were Quakers and "religious refu- 
gees" from the Northern colonies '^seeking a haven of rest 
from religious persecution." The utter fallacy of this state- 
ment has been completely proven by Bishop Cheshire, and 
declared bv Colonel Saunders. Indeed it is strange to the 


student of history of this day to see the many errors of these 
historians, notably Hawks, who had the least excuse of any. 

I venture the opinion, that the first settlers acquired their 
lands by purchase or some like concession from the Indians, 
and that many of them afterwards ''made good" by grants 
from the Governor of Virginia. 

On March 24th, 1663, Charles Second, out of that careless 
generosity in which he was wont at times to indulge himself, 
granted to the Lords Pro])rietors the first Great Charter for 
Carolina. The inducement, or, as a lavryer would put it, 
"the consideration," for this truly princely gift, was the 
"laudable and pious zeal for the propagation of the Chris- 
tian faith and the enlargement of our empire and domin- 
ions" — which were burning in the bosoms of these favored 
noblemen. But it was early ascertained that this grant did 
not include the settlements which had already been made in 
the Albemarle section ; and so the Proprietors procured from 
Charles the second charter, dated June 30th, 1665, which 
extended their northern boundary to the line which now di- 
vides jSTorth Carolina and Virginia. It was truly a grand 
and noble estate, which Charles had so lightly and carelessly 
flung to his friends. It extended from Virginia on the 
north to the Spanish possessions in Florida on the south, and 
from the Atlantic Ocean on the east to the Pacific on the 
west ; and included the present States of iSTorth Carolina, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, Indian Territory, New Mexico, 
Arizona and the lower part of California. Over it the Pro- 
prietors were made "the true and absolute Lords," with full 
and plenary powers, even of life and death. There were, 
however, in the charter two very pregnant and portentous 
provisions. One was the excepting and "saving also the right, 
title and interest of all and everv one of our subjects of the 

Locke's fundamental constitutions. 17 ^ Cc) 

English nation, which are now planted within the limits and " q 

bounds aforesaid." The other was the restriction put upon >^ H' 

the power of the Proprietors to enact and publish laws "for ix^ ^ 

the good and happy government" of the province, which re- 
quired these laws to have the assent and approbation of the 
freemen of the said province, or of the greater part of them, 
or of their delegates or deputies, whom for the enacting of 
the said laws, when and as often as need shall require, we 
will that "the Proprietors shall assemble," etc., etc. : ^'Pro- 
vided, nevertheless, That the said laws be consonant to reason, 
and as near as may be conveniently agreeable to the laws and 
customs of our Kingdom of England." It is difficult to con- 
ceive why the Proprietors should have proposed such a re- 
striction as this latter upon their otherwise plenary power. 
I say "proposed" advisedly. The grant cost Charles noth- 
ing, no expenditure of money, no loss of revenue. He was 
simply paying so-called debts of honor by giving something 
which had no value whatever in his eye. He had no love for 
Parliaments or Parliament law, and the judicial murder of 
his father at the command of the Parliament of England was 
then fresh and sore in his memory. He certainly would 
never have proposed such a limitation upon his bounty, and 
so I insist that the draft of the charter was left entirely in 
the hands of their Lordships, and this provision voluntarily 
inserted by them. It undoubtedly emanated from Ashley, 
who throughout his entire political career, was a strenuous 
supporter of the supremacy of the Parliament. If they had 
been endowed with the gift of prophecy, if they could have 
foreseen that rugged independence of their subjects, that 
sturdy resistance against any invasion of their chartered 
rights, which were so soon to follow, these restrictions would 
never have been written into their grant. But these Pro- 
prietors were great ITobles, in high favor with the King, 


arrogant and overbearing toward their inferiors, living in 
the midst of luxury and plenty, and daily accustomed to 
obsequious and servile deference from their tenants and re- 
tainers, and utterly ignorant of the conditions prevailing in 
the province. No dream of trouble from the chance inhabi- 
tants of their newly acquired possessions far across the wide 
waters arose for one moment to disturb their serene and com- 
placent indifference. They simply gave no thought to the 
just rights and welfare of the inhabitants of the land, who 
had long since lost sight and sense of Kings and Nobles, and 
who had, with infinite labor and at vast risks, builded their 
homes in the great wilderness, among the savage Indians, 
where the King's writ ran not, where Sheriffs and Courts 
were unknown, and their own stout hearts and strong right 
arms their only protection. They considered the settlers as 
•'feudal vassals," mere chattels which they had acquired with 
the fief. Not only was there an utter lack of any commu- 
nity or bond of common interest between these non-resident 
landlords and their tenants, but their striking and unneces- 
sary parsimony and greed was to destroy all hope of it in the 
future. The form of government and laws promulgated by 
them in the very outset were grievously unsuitable, unjust, 
irritating and surely calculated to create discontent and ill 

In September, 1663, the Proprietors assumed control and 
sent out their first instructions to Wm. Berkeley, one of their 
number and then Governor of Virginia. He was authorized 
to appoint a Governor, with a grand council of six, who were 
to appoint all civil and military officers, and with the consent 
of the freeholders or their delegates to make laws, which 
should be in force until vetoed by the Proprietors. This 
was not so bad, but the further instnictions as to the parcel- 
ling Qui — not granting — of the lands was a striking exhibi- 
tion of extreme stin2:ine«s and woeful lack of common sense 

Locke's fundamental constitutions. Id 

and common justice. The Governor and Council were in- 
striicted .o grant to each man ''one chayne of land consisting 
of (36 foote in bredth and 100 chaynes from the River into 
the country in lenkth, and the remainder of his land to be 
noe nearer than at the end of 200 chaynes from the River 
* * * by means whereof there will be 200 men armed and 
lodged within each myle and quarter square * * * and 10 
acres, which is the proportions above, will be as much as one 
man can v/ell plant and keepe cleaiie in that growing country." 

Xot only this, but it was expressly enjoined that those 
settlers who had bought land from the Indians must "he pur- 
suaded or compelled to surrender tliem'' and take the small 
measure meted out by the Proprietors. And right here be- 
gan trouble — that trouble, which ever after increasing and 
swelling even at times into revolt, resulted in the downfall of 
the rule of the Proprietors, and, having thus obtained sturdy 
root and Royal encouragement, flowed on in increasing vol- 
ume until it burst into the Revolution and secured perpetual 
freedom from Royal rule. Ten acres indeed ! what content, 
or joy, or happiness, did the promise of ten acres bring to 
those men, who had already acquired hundreds under titles 
expressly protected and secured to them by the gTeat Charter ! 
But this was not all. The settler, who had by great toil, with 
great peril, built him a house and cleared his lands for culti- 
vation, who loved elbow room, and lived happy because his 
nearest neighbor was a mile away, who fairly revelled in the 
glorious possession of broad acres, was to be forced to aban- 
don all these fruits of his labor and make a new home in a 
fo7';ifird village to serve the ca]irice of his overlords. 

Land, the precious soil and the o^vne^ship of it, has ever 
been dear and close to the heart of the Anglo-Saxon from 
time immemorial even down to the present day. This ar- 
dent longing for a freehold was generated in the hearts of 


our ancestors in the days of the feudal system, when the rich 
and the noble and the Church owned all the lands of England, 
and the stout yeomen were only tenants, and came down to us 
by inheritance. Land was beyond their reach, and there- 
fore they coveted it and yearned for it above all things. For 
land even though it was so poor as only to ''feed a hog or 
aiblins twa in a good year," we have always been ready and 
willing to spend our precious dollars and our blood. 

Drummond was the first Governor of Albemarle and he 
assumed authority in October, 1664. In June, 1665, Wood- 
ward, the surveyor for the Province, protested, but with 
appropriate servility, against the restrictions upon the grant- 
ing of lands, that the peoplfe resented the small acreage al- 
lowed, and that new comers were discouraged because of the 
better terms granted in the other colonies. He concludes his 
letter with the statement: "Those that live upon a place are 
best able to judge of that place, therefore the Petition of the 
General Assembly that was here convened will deserve your 
Honor's serious consideration." 

It is important here to note two things, that a Genernl As- 
sembly of the freeholders — the first in the history of the 
State — had been held under the provisions of the great Char- 
ter soon after the appointment of Drummond, and that at 
the very birth of the Province, the deputies of the people 
were at war with their overlords. 

In October, 1667, Samuel Stephens was appointed Gover- 
nor and a new set of instructions, that is Laws, issued to 
him. These were fuller in detail and in some respects more 
liberal ; but still some of the pro^asions were in express vio- 
lation of the reserved rights of the people under the charter. 
On May 1st, 1668, the Proprietors, in tardy response to the 
protest of Woodward and the petition of the General Assem- 
bly, sent out the ''Great Deed of Grant," under which lands 
were to be granted upon the same terms and conditions as 


prevailed in Virginia. This document, of brief extent, was 
considered of such importance "^'that the original was pre- 
served with the most scrupulous care, and sixty-three years 
after its date, was formally brought into the Assembly, and 
ordered into the special custody of its Speaker and its text 
spread upon its minutes." ISTor does this great caution seem 
to have been in anywise unnecessary, for repeated attempts 
were afterwards made by the Proprietors and their Deputies, 
and even by Governor Johnston, under the Royal Govern- 
ment, to declare it revoked and annulled. But the colonists 
clung to it as a sheet anchor, and as late as 1856 it was in- 
voked by our Supreme Court to sustain the validity of a 
grant issued in September, 1716, by the Governor and Coun- 
cil in accordance with its provisions. (See Archibald vs. 
Davis, 4 Jones, 133.) 

This review of the birth and rise of the colony is necessary 
to a clear understanding of the political conditions existing 
at the time of the promulgation of the first set of the Funda- 
mental Constitutions, and of the cause of the antagonism 
and opposition of the colonists to the Proprietors. Thus far 
the Proprietors had not attempted to establish any stable 
form of government, but had been content to dole out their 
laws in the form of changing instruxjtions to each new 

John Locke was a man of great learning and varied attain- 
ments, but an idealist, a profound philosopher and of broad 
religious and political views, but not a statesman, a fascina- 
ting conversationalist, an inimitable raconteur, a delightful 
companion, but not practical and utterly lacking in executive 
ability. He was born at Pensford, in Somersetshire, Eng- 
land, on August 29th, 1632. His father, who was a country 
attorney, was a Parliament man, and upon the breaking out 
of the rebellion against Charles I, entered the army as Cap- 
tain of a troop of horse in the regiment commanded by Colonel 


Popham. Locke's early youth was spent in the midst of war 
and bloodshed, for the storm of battle raged fiercely around 
his home. However, in spite of the absence of his father in 
the army and the fierce strife which was sweeping over the 
country, his education was not neglected. 

In 1646, through the influence of Colonel Popham, lie was 
admitted to Westminster School, where he remained for six 
years. In ISTovember, 1652, he matriculated at Christ Church 
College, Oxford. In 1658 he took his degree as Master, but 
continued with his college as tutor and lecturer. It is curious 
in this age of action and progress to note the range and 
variety of his studies — logic, metaphysics,, philosophy, mathe- 
matics, astronomy, history, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, 
Roman Law, theology, chemistry, medicine, etc., etc. In his 
association here with great scholars of broad and liberal views, 
men learned in the theory of government, but without expe- 
rience in its administration, we can readily see how Locke 
lost all touch with the spirit of Puritanism into which he had 
been born. His father died in February, 1660, leaving him 
a small estate, sufficient, with his studentship at Oxford, to 
afford him a comfortable living. Lord King, his kinsman, 
says he had the choice of three distinct roads to fame and 
fortune, the Church, the practice of medicine, and diplomacy, 
and with equal certainty of success in each. Medicine seems 
to have been his choice and love, and to this study he devoted 
tlie most of his leisure, save for that short dissipation in 
diplomacy, when he went as Secretary with Sir Walter Vane 
on his Embassy to Holland. In spite of his great ability 
and close devotion to his studies, through his neglect of some 
formalities, he failed to get his diploma in medicine. This 
failure would have ended his connection with his college but 
for the intervention of some powerful friends, who had been 
won to him by his charming personality and marked abili- 
ties, and who procured from Charles II a peremptory com- 


mand to the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church to continue 
his studentship with its emoluments. 

About this time he became associated in some way with 
Dr. David Thomas in the practice of medicine^ and it was 
this association that in 1666 accidentally brought him in 
contact with Lord Ashley. Ashley, afterwards better known 
as the Earl of Shaftesbury, was a man of brilliant attain- 
ments and remarkable abilities. He was a masterly and 
unscrupulous politician, and had been Royalist, and Round- 
head, and Royalist again, as the balance of power sliifted. 
Probably no other man of his high rank and position was 
ever the subject of so much scathing abuse and bitter satire. 
Dryden immortalized his memory in caustic verse, and Ma- 
cauley, in equally bitter and brilliant prose. But "during 
his long political career, in an age of general corruption, he 
was ever incorrupt," and he was always a devoted friend and 
staunch advocate of both civil and religious freedom. He 
was by far the ablest of the Proprietors, and his dominating 
personality made him easily the leader in all their confer- 
ences. Appointed Lord Chancellor by Charles II, K^ovem- 
ber lYth, 1672, without even a smattering of the rudiments 
of law, he filled that high office with credit. He was dis- 
missed from office in disgrace in September, 1673, and Lord 
Campbell says that the first act of his successor, Lord I^ot- 
tingham, "was to seal a pardon to his predecessor, which had 
been stipulated for when Shaftesbury took the office, fore- 
seeing that he might do many things for which a pardon might 
be required, and wishing to have the pleasure of sinning with 
an indulgence in his pocket." It is difficult to tell which 
most compels our admiration, the wisdom of the politician or 
the delicious humour of the sinner. 

Ashley was troubled with an abscess in his chest, the result 
of an ugly fall, which threatened to develop into cancer, but 
which was eventually cured under Locke's advice and direc- 


tion. In July, 1666, Ashley, intending to visit Oxford, and 
wishing to try some medicinal waters in that vicinity, wrote 
to Dr. Thomas, who deputized Locke to wait on him. These 
two men, so great each in his different way, so dissimilar in 
character, and socially so far part, were drawn together at 
their meeting into an intimate friendship, and a close asso- 
ciation, that was not to be shaken by either time or fortune. 
As the result, in July, 1667, Locke left Oxford to live with 
Ashley as his Secretary. 

Speaking of the Lords Proprietors, Bourne, in his life of 
Locke, Vol. 1, page 236, says: "Of these patentees Ashley 
was the most active and influential, and thus it happened that 
Locke, being Ashley's principal adviser and assistant, be- 
came in some sort of irregular way the chief secretary or 
manager of the whole company of Lords Proprietors of Caro- 

In their letter of September 8th, 1663, to Grovernor Berke- 
ley, the Proprietors urge the necessity of doing something 
towards the development of their new possessions, "that the 
King may see we sleep not with his grant but are promoting 
his service," etc. And yet, in spite of this, nothing was 
done, but the promulgation of laws, until 1669. In fact, 
while the Proprietors in 1669 spent some £3200 (equal at 
this time to about $75,000 or $80,000), and other sums later, 
towards the settlement of South Carolina, they gave little or 
no financial aid to Albemarle, evidently believing that it was, 
or ought to be, able to support itself. 

But now had come an important need for some settled and 
permanent form of goveinment and laws for the province, and 
hence the Fundamental Constitutions. They are always 
called "Locke's Fundamental Constitutions," and are gener- 
ally reputed to be solely the product of his pen and brain. 
But Bourne, whose life of Locke is by far the best that has 


been written, says: "Wonderful pains were taken to provide 
good government for Carolina, and perhaps no colony was 
ever started with a more elaborate scheme of political, social, 
and religious organization. Locke had a large share in this 
work, though there can hardly be any doubt that it was ini- 
tiated by Lord Ashley, and modified by his fellow Proprie- 
tors." A careful study of all the authorities forces me to the 
conviction that this Utopian scheme was devised by Ashley, 
aided by the suggestions of Locke, and discussed, modified 
and then adopted by the Lords Proprietors. It is incredible 
that a man like Ashley, of such great abilities, of such high 
position and influence, so arbitrary, and dominating, should 
have deputed to his Secretary, even though he was Locke, the 
making of laws, which were evidently intended to be perpetual 
for all time, for such vast possessions. It is certain, I 
think, that the general outlines having been framed by Ash- 
ley, and agreed upon by the Proprietors, it was given to 
Locke to draft, and put them in proper shape. 

It is a fact, not generally known, that first and last there 
were five several sets of these Fundamental Constitutions. 
The first set, dated July 21st, 1669, contained eiglitty-one 
articles; the second, March 1st, 1670, contained one hundred 
and twenty articles; the third, January 12th, 1682, contained 
one hundred and twenty articles; the fourth, August 16th, 
1682, contained one hundred and twenty-one articles; and 
the fifth and last, April 11th, 1698, of forty-one articles. Of 
the first set Bourne says ''there is extant a draft in Locke's 
handwriting, dated the 21st of June, 1669, and which with 
some alterations were issued by the Proprietors on the 1st 
of March, 1670." This set was never oflficially promulgated 
or sent out to Carolina, and but little is known of them. The 
second set, dated March 1st, 1670, which contained 120 ar- 
ticles, is the one generally referred to as "Locke's Funda- 
mental Constitutions," and is published at length in all of 




' * 











- ^ 










Locke's works, in 1 Coll. Rec, 187, and 2 Rev. Statutes of 
North Carolina, page 449. It is this act which I propose to 
discuss in this article, and which for brevity I shall call 
Locke's Constitutions, for while there were three other sets 
adopted and promulgated afterwards, yet neither Locke or 
Shaftesbury had part in them. 

In 1674 Locke's health began to fail, and about November, 
1675, he went to France on this account and remained there 
until the last of April, 1679. Shaftesbury had lost favor with 
the Court, and was dismissed from the Chancellorship in 
September, 1673. From this time on he was alienated from 
the King, was imprisoned in the Tower twice, indicted for 
high treason, and finally, in November, 1682, fled to Hol- 
land, where he died soon after. From the time of his return 
to England in 1679 until November, 1682, Locke was much 
of his time in the country, and Shaftesbury too deep in politi- 
cal plots to devote much care or time to Carolina. Locke's 
connection with the Lords Proprietors certainly ceased when 
Shaftesbury fled to Holland. 

There is some confusion and difference among the histo- 
rians as to which of the first two sets was actually the one 
first adopted, but after careful study I feel assured I have 
named them in their proper sequence. This confusion, as 
Hawks correctly says (Vol. 2, page 184), arose out of the 
difference, which prior to 1752 existed between the civil or 
legal year, which began on the 25th of March, and the histori- 
cal year, which began on the 1st of January. 

I have before endeavored to show the serious differences 
which already existed between the colonists and the Proprie- 
tors, and the conditions which produced them. The Consti- 
tutions were intended as oil upon troubled waters, the deliber- 
ate result of a sincere desire on the part of landlords, utterly 
ignorant of the pulse of their tenants, to allay forever the rest- 

Locke's fundamental constitutions. 27 

less fever of rooted discontent. But the people — the gov- 
erned — were not represented or consulted in their making, 
and by the voice of history they were in their very infancy 
doomed to disastrous failure. For when, since the day of 
Runnymede and Magna Charta, has any set of fundamental 
laws, in the making of which the people had no part, been 
of lasting duration ? 

In the preamble to each and every set of the Constitutions 
the Proprietors declare them to be "for the better settlement 
of the government of the said place, and establishing the in- 
terest of the Lords Proprietors with equality and without 
confusion ; and tliat the government of this Province may be 
made most agreeable to the Monarchy under which we live 
* * * and that we may avoid erecting a numerous democ- 
racy." And in the last clause of each it is solemnly declared 
that, "These fundamental constitutions * * * and every 
part thereof shall he and remain the sacred and unalterable 
form and rule of government of Carolina forever." Here- 
after will be seen the careless and indifferent ease with which 
their Lordships suspended, altered and revoked their ''sacred 
and unalterable pledges" as it suited their pleasure, or their 
interest. Let us now, as briefly as may be, consider this sys- 
tem of law. 

A nobility was created, consisting of Palatines, Landgraves 
and Casiques, in the order of precedence given ; and some 
twenty or more clauses were devoted to defining their estates, 
their dignities, devolution of titles, etc. A noble could only 
be tried for a criminal offense in the Chief Justice's Court, 
and there only by a jury of his peers. The seven chief 
offices, besides that of Palatine, to-wit, Admiral, Chamberlain, 
Chancellor, Constable, Chief Justice, High Steward and 
Treasurer, could only be held by the Proprietors or their 


Then came the courts, of which there were a great number. 
There were eight supreme courts, called the Great Courts or 
Proprietors' Courts. The chief of these, the Palatine's Court, 
was composed of the Palatine and the other seven Proprietors. 
The other seven, each consisted of a Proprietor "with six 
councillors added to him." A queer attachment was tacked on 
to all the courts in the shape of a college of twelve assistants, 
whose sole office was to furnish a body out of which to select 
the Councillors. In order to preserve their proper dignity 
and equality, each of the Proprietors had his own especial 
supreme Court. These Proprietors' Courts had each power to 
mitigate all fines and suspend all executions in criminal cases 
arising in any inferior court. 

The Palatine's Court, "wherein nothing shall be acted with- 
out the presence and consent of the Palatine or his deputy 
and three others of the Proprietors and their deputies," had 
jurisdiction to call the sessions of Parliament, to pardon all 
offences, to elect all officers, to dispose of all public moneys, 
except those set apart by Parliament for some particular pub- 
lic use, and to negative all acts, orders, votes and judgments 
of tlie Grand Council and Parliament. 

Here we find a bold and clear nullification of that most im- 
portant provision of the Great Charter by which the Proprie- 
tors could only make laws with the assent of the Parliament. 

Then came the Chancellors' Court, composed of one of the 
Pro]irietors and six Counsellors, called Vice Chancellors. It 
had jurisdiction of all state matters, treaties with the Indians, 
invasions of the law of liberty of conscience, and of the pub- 
lic peace upon the pretense of religion, and the license of 
printing. The twelve assistants were called Recorders. 

The Chief Justice's Court, consisting of one of the Proprie- 
tors and six counsellors called Justices of the Bench, had 
jurisdiction of all appeals in civil and criminal cases, except 

Locke's fundamental constitutions. 29 

such as were cognizable in the Proprietors' Courts, and the 
regulation of the registries of writings and contracts. The 
assistants were called Masters. 

The Constable's Court, of one Proprietor and six Counsel- 
lors, called Marshals, had charge of all military affairs by 
land, arms, ammunition, land forces, forts, etc., and "what- 
ever belonged unto war." Each of the assistants was a Lieu- 

The Admiral's Court, one Proprietor and six Counsellors, 
called Consuls, was an Admiralty Court, and given authority 
over all ports, navigable streams "as far as the tide flows," 
shipping, and all maritime affairs. The assistants were Pro- 

The Treasurer's Court — a Proprietor and six Counsellors, 
called under Treasurers — had charge of the public revenue 
and treasury. The assistants were called Auditors. 

The High Steward's Court, a Proprietor and six Counsel- 
lors, called Comptrollers, ruled over all foreign and domestic 
trade, public buildings, work-houses, manufactures, highways, 
sewers, bridges, carriers, fairs and markets, all things per- 
taining to the public commerce and health, surveying of lands, 
appointing places for towns to be built on, and prescribing 
their size and figure. The assistants were called Surveyors. 

The Chamberlain's Court was a most remarkable legal ma- 
chine. Of course it consisted of the usual and indispensable 
Proprietor and his six Counsellors, called Vice Chancellors. 
It had cognizance and charge — note well its grave and serious 
duties — "of all ceremonies, precedency, heraldry, reception of 
public messengers, pedigrees, the registry of all births, burials 
and marriages, legitimation and all cases concerning matri- 
mony or arising from it," and ''power to regulate all fashions, 
habits, badges, games and sports." The assistants were called 
Provosts. How gladly would such a tribunal be hailed and 


welcomed in this day of the high tide of Democracy by mem- 
bers of the high and exalted Four Ilnndred, and of certain 
other exclusive societies, whose names I have not the courage 
to mention. But what wot those fustian clad yeomen and 
dames of Albemarle of fashions or habits, of pedigrees or 
heraldry, of ceremonies or precedency, in the gloom of the 
wilderness ! To them there came no patterns of fashion from 
London, or Paris, or even from Philadelphia or New York, 
and her own good taste in the neat fitting of her gown to her 
trim figure, was the only pattern or guide to the good women 
of the Province. 

As each of the Proprietors had his own especial high court, 
and each v/ith equal but ill-defined power, it was vitally neces- 
sary to erect some tribunal to compose the disputes, which 
were certain to arise between them — and hence one reason 
for the Grand Council. 

This was a most important body. It consisted of the Pala- 
tine and the other seven Proprietors and the 42 CounselloTS 
of the seven Proprietors' Courts. One of the Proprietors 
and his deputy and twelve other members, no less, could make 
a quorum. It was given supreme power, to determine any 
controversy arising between any of the Proprietors' Courts 
as to their respective jurisdictions, or method of proceeding — 
to make peace and war, leag-ues and treaties, general com- 
mand over the Constable's and Admiral's Courts for the rais- 
ing, disposing and disbanding of the land and sea forces — 
the judging of all causes and appeals affecting any of the 
Proprietors or the Counsellors of their courts — and the dis- 
position of all monies voted by the Parliament and directed 
bv it to any particular public use. But these, in the opinion 
of the colonists, were but as trifles, compared with the other 
and most vital matters. This court was directed "to prepare 
all matters to be proposed in Parliament. ISTor shall any mat- 
ter whatsoever be proposed in Parliament but what has first 


passed the Grand Council." One might safely presume that 
the Proprietors would be content with this two-fold limita- 
tion upon the power of the Parliament — that having provided 
that only such measures should be considered by it as were 
proposed by their courts, and that then they, sitting in the 
Palatine's Court could nullify any act so passed — they would 
be satisfied that this sickly shadow of authority could in no 
manner be hurtful to their interests. And yet so tender were 
their Lordships as to their prerogatives, so distrustful of their 
o^^m perspicacity, and their deputies, so afraid that they — 
sitting as the Grand Council— might propose some dangerous 
legislation to this bastard Parliament Avhich it might accept, 
that by the 76th article it was declared that ''No act of Par- 
liament shall be of any force unless ratified in open Parlia- 
ment" by the Palatine and three Proprietors, or their depu- 
ties ; and even after such ratification, the act Avas to continue 
in force only until the next Biennial Parliament unless in 
the meantime ratified by the Palatine himself and three other 
Proprietors under their own proper hands and seals. No 
deputies this time "an it please you," Pray, of what avail 
were the reservations of the great charter to the freemen of 
the Province in the face of this unlawful assumption of more 
than kingly power ? How long would the Parliament of Eng- 
land have suffered such extreme and arbitrary measures on 
the part of the King ? 

These were the great departments of the Government and 
the Chief Courts. But besides these there were County 
Courts, Precinct Courts, and a special court for the trial of 
all capital crimes. No cause could ''be tried twice in the 
same court upon any reason or pretence whatever." But ap- 
peals to higher courts could be bought by paying to the Pro- 
prietors prices ranging from £5 to £50 in capital cases. 

All jurors in the Precinct Courts were required to own 50 
acres of freehold ; all grand jurors in the County Courts and 


Assizes 300 acres, and all petty jurors 200 acres; and all 
jurors in the Proprietors' Courts must own 500 acres. A 
very decided change of opinion on the part of the Proprietors 
since 1663, when they gravely proclaimed that 10 acres of 
land was enough for any man to hold "in that growing 

And yet with all this grand array of courts, all this con- 
fused and complicated machinery of law, lawyers were abso- 
lutely banned and proscribed. For by the 70th article it was 
declared, "It shall be a base and vile thing to plead for money 
or reward ; nor shall any, (except he be a near kinsman, nor 
farther off than cousin, germane to the party concerned) be 
permitted to plead another man's cause, till before the Judge 
in open court he hath taken an oath, that he doth not plead 
for money or reward, nor hath nor will receive, nor directly 
nor indirectly bargain with the party whose cause he is 
going to plead, for money or any other reward for pleading 
his cause." This remarkable and unique provision was most 
undoubtedly the work of Locke, and copied by him after the 
Cincia Lex of the Roman Law — "Ne quis ob causam orandam 
pecuniam donumve accipiat." 

The Parliament, or General Assembly as I shall hereafter 
call it, was composed of the four estates — the Proprietors or 
their deputies, landgraves, casiques and freeholders, all sit- 
ting together as one body. Only owners of 500 acres of free- 
hold w^ere eligible to the General Assembly, and every voter 
must own 50 acres. The Assembly was to meet biennially, 
and at the opening the first ceremony "was the reading of the 
Fundamental Constitutions, and its subscription by all the 
members present." For it was declared that no man should 
sit or vote in the Assembly until he had signed the Funda- 
mental Constitutions. Elections for members of Assembly 
were to be held biennially. 


''All manner of comments and expositions on any part of 
these Fundamental Constitutions, or on any part of the com- 
mon or statute laws of Carolina, are absolutely prohibited." 
And so any criticism or discussion of any of these laws were 
"mala prohibita," crimes to be punished at the will of the 

An office was established for the registration of convey- 
ances, and one for births, marriages and deaths. The age of 
every one in the colony was reckoned from the date of the 
registration of his birth. No marriage was lawful until reg- 
istered, and no administration could be had until the death 
of the decedent was registered. So that no man could be 
legally born, legally married, or legally dead until he was so 

All towns were to be governed by a Mayor, twelve (12) 
Aldermen and twenty-four (24) Common Councillors. The 
system so provided was a very cumbrous one for the small vil- 
lages of the Province. This was in 1670; and yet in 1709, 
near forty (40) years later, it was said, (1 Coll. Rec, 715) : 
''Here is no church, though they have begun to build a town 
called Bath. It consists of about twelve (12) houses, being 
the only town in the whole Province." This little town of 
Bath, which forty (40) years after the promulgation of the 
constitutions, only contained twelve (12) houses, was totally 
insufficient to furnish men enough to fill the municipal offices 
required by the above provision. Could there be stronger 
evidence of the total ignorance of the Lords Proprietors of 
the conditions existing in Carolina, and their incapacity to 
foster its growth and prosperity ! 

Port towns were to be established, and no goods or com- 
modities could be lawfully exported or imported under a 
heavy penalty, unless loaded or unloaded at a port town. 

It Avas declared by section 95 that no man could be per- 














mitted to be a freeman of Carolina or have any estate or 
habitation within it unless he acknowledge the divinity of 
God; and by section 101, that no person, man or woman, of 
seventeen (17) years and upwards could have any benefit or 
protection of the law unless he was a registered member of 
some church or religious body. And that in a country in 
which no church was built until many years after the promul- 
gation of these constitutions ! 

Very broad and liberal provisions were made for the free- 
dom of religious convictions and worship, and stringent laws 
against the disturbance of any religious congregation or abuse 
of any church or religion. But at the same time the Church 
of England v/as declared to be the only true and orthodox 
church, and the only one entitled to support from the public 
revenues. Locke, sturdy in his defense of entire religious free- 
doin, bitterly opposed this clause and refused to draft it. 

All persons were given absolute power and authority over 
their negro slaves, even that of life and death. This pro- 
vision needs no comment, save that it never had the sanction 
of law in any Southern State during the days of slavery. 

Xow we come to the 112th Constitution, by which the Pro- 
prietors deliberately proposed the most illegal and deadly 
blow at the very life and being of the colonists. It boldly de- 
clared that no person whatever should hold or claim any land 
in Carolina by purchase or gift or otherwise, from the In- 
dians, or any other way whatsoever, save under and from the 
Proprietors, under pain of forfeiting all his real and personal 
property and of perpetual banishment. This decreed con- 
fiscation and banishment to any man who dared to claim or 
assert the title which he had previously acquired to the little 
estate carved out for himself at so great a sacrifice, and which 
had been expressly saved and guaranteed to him by the very 
words of the Xiua'^ Grant. Thcso title^^ and rights were 
preserved to him not only by the grant, but also by Magna 


Chartii, the greatest of those three great testaments, which, 
Chatham declared, composed "The Bihle of the English Con- 
stitution.'' "Xnllns liber homo eapiatur, vel imprisonetur, 
ant utlagetnr, ant exiileter, ant aliquo modo, destrnatnr, nee 
super enm ibinius, nee super eum mittemus, nisi per legale 
judicium parinm suorum, vel per legem terrae." 

"Xulli vondtmus, nulli negabimus, aut dilferemus rectum 
ant justitian."' 

Xear seven centuries have swept over the world since that 
historic drama on the willow clad banks of the Thames, when 
the great Barons, churchmen and yeomen of England wrung 
with mailed hand from King John this declaration of their 
rights and liberties. Xew kingdoms, new principalities, new 
republics have reared their proud heads among the nations of 
the world, while others, old and new, have crumbled and 
vanished into the gloom of eternal night. V^eak nations have 
grown strong and powerful, while others, once strong and 
powerful, are barely allowed a national existence in the 
jealousy and fear of disturbing the balance of power. Strange 
and u.nex]^ectcd cataclysms liave from time to time violently 
altered and changed the destinies of nations. But through 
all tlie Anglo-Saxon jicople alone, crucified at times by war, 
but purified by revolution, increasing, conquering, broadening 
and expanding, have reached that great eminence, wdiere 
standing together, thej easily dominate the world. And yei 
even though they have separated and divided into tw^o greav 
nations, they have each always jealously and religiously pre- 
served unaltered to themselves and to their children as a 
sacred inheritance, the everlasting shelter and protection of 
Magna Charta. Tf the evil day shall ever come, when this 
great protection from wrong and uj)]n'ession shall be desi roved, 
then will inevitably follow violence, distress, ruin and anar- 
chy. And from this day and this fate may God in His in- 
finite mercy ever preserve our people. 


All inhabitants over seventeen (17) and under sixty (60) 
years of age were bound to serve as soldiers, whenever re- 
quired so to do by the Grand Council. 

A copy of the constitutions was to be kept ''in a great book" 
by the register of every Precinct, and sigTied by every per- 
son, whether male or female, over the age of seventeen (17) 
years; and no such person who had failed to subscribe the 
constitutions could hold any estate or possession in Carolina, 
or have any benefit or protection from the law. Any alien 
could subscribe these constitutions before any Register, and 
ipso facto he was naturalized. And having thus declared the 
laM^s some eleven rules of precedency among the nobility were 

This lengthy abstract of the constitutions is necessary to a 
full and proper understanding of the laws, so solemnly en- 
acted and declared by the Proprietors for the government of 
their subjects. It is to be noted here that no system of taxa- 
tion, of raising revenues for the support of this cumbrous 
government, and no salaries for any of the officer's were pro- 
vided. One would naturally suppose that in drafting laws 
Avhich were intended to be forever unalterable, for the govern- 
ment of their new possessions, the Proprietors would have 
provided some system for the support and maintenance of the 
officers. Why this was done, or was not done, does not ap- 
pear. The Provincial Parliament evidently provided for cer- 
tain of the expenses of the Province. The chief officei*s cer- 
tainly took care of themselves in the handling of the public 

Having thus promu.lgated these solemn declarations of their 
unalterable will, but a few months passed before the Proprie- 
tors declared that ''they were not able to put it fully in prac- 
tice by reason of the want of Landgraves and Cassiques and 
a sufficient number of people." And yet in the very next 
breath, and in the same instructions, they speak of four pre- 



cincts in Albemarle County, and direct the Governor to issue 
writs for the election of five representatives in each precinct 
to the General Assembly. This was fully six years and more 
after their grant. It would seem that the yeomen of Caro- 
lina were not very desirous of being raised into the nobility. 
In fact, while some twenty-five (25) Landgraves and twelve 
(12) Cassiques were created by the Proprietors, only two 
(2) Landgraves and no Cassiques can be credited to this 
State. The Landgraves were De Grafiinreid, and perhaps 
Eden. Even in the bestowal of these titles of nobility the 
Proprietors violated the provisions of the grant which re- 
stricted them to the inhabitants of the Province. John Locke 
was the first Landgrave created, and many of the others were 
never in the Province at all. It would seem that in the be- 
ginning the Proprietors sent out to their Governors blank 
deputations for Landgraves and Cassiques, which were for 
sale to almost any one who would pay the required price ; but 
these were cancelled or ordered to be cancelled by the instruc- 
tions to Governor ISTathaniel Johnson, in June, 1702, (1 
Coll. Pec, page 556.) These facts show what little regard, 
in fact what contempt, the settlers in N^orth Carolina had for 
such empty honors. They felt, and correctly, that if they ac- 
cepted titles of nobility from the Proprietors, that they would 
be in duty bound as vassals to support their rule; but they 
had no intention or idea of surrendering their independence 
for such baubles. From this time on for some years we find 
the Lords Proprietors, in their instructions to the different 
Governors, continually lamenting their inability to put their 
celebrated constitutions in effect and force by reason of the 
lack of material out of which to build Landgraves and Cas- 
siques. In truth, the provisions of the constitutions were 
never enforced in North Carolina. Hawks says, "At last, in 
1698, these fundamental "immortals" were laid aside by the 
Lords Proprietors forever." (2 Vol., 185.) In this, as in 


many other things, he was in error; for in June, 1702, in 
their instructions to Governor jSFathaniel Johnson, the Pro- 
prietors wrote him that "you are to follow such rules as we 
have given in our Fundamental Constitutions," etc. (1 Coll. 
Rec, 555.) And De Graffinreid was created a Landgrave 
August -ith, 1709. It may be curious to note that on the 
day he received the patent as Landgrave, De Graffinreid paid 
£50 to the Proprietors in part of the purchase of the land he 
had bought in Xorth Carolina, and the greater part of it was 
immediately divided among the Proprietors, who each re- 
ceived a little over £5. It would seem from this that they 
were glad to get even so little amount as twenty-five dollars. 

In commenting upon the existing conditions in the Colony 
at the time of the promulgation of these constitutions. Hawks 
most felicitously says, (Vol. 2, page 183) : "Their Lordships 
theorized, the colonists felt: the Proprietors drew pictures, 
but the hardy woodmen of Carolina were grappling with 
stern realities. Titles of nobility, orders of precedence, the 
shows of an empty pageantry, were to them but toys which 
might amuse childhood ; but there was no romance in watch- 
ing the savage, or felling the forest, or planting the corn, or 
gathering the cro]i with the ever-present weapon in reach of 
the laboring hand. In short, 'the day of chivalry' had not 
then da\\med on the widespread forests of Albeuiarle; and we 
may well believe that the rough colonists, in tlie mass, felt a 
sublime contempt alike for Palatine and Landgrave, and 

Governor succeeded Governor in quick succession. Drum- 
mond was succeeded by Stephens in 1667, who, in 1670, was 
succeeded by Carteret. There was some promise of peace 
and content in the Great Deed of Grant, but it was merely 
transient. The conflicting instructions to the different Gover- 
nors, the flagrant violations of the provisions of the Great 


Charter, the attempts to deprive the settlers of their lauds 
acquired hy them prior to the charter, the attempt to deprive 
the General Assembly of an independent part in the making 
of the laws, all combined to produce dissatisfaction and dis- 
content, which at times swelled into disorder and violence. 
A free Parliament, a free hand in the making of the laws by 
which they were to be governed and protected in the posses- 
sion of their lands, were what the people were determined to 
have. Carteret was unable to breast the storm and carry out 
his instructions. He left the Province in disgust late in 
1675 or early in 1676 to carry the. tale of his failure to Eng- 
land, leaving, says Chalmers, "the administration in ill liands 
and worse order. In truth there was no Governor and no 
government in Albemarle for about two years." Two of the 
colonists, Eastchurch, wdio had been Speaker of the General 
Assembly, and one Miller, who had a ''grievance," followed 
Carteret to England and to an audience with the Proprietors. 
Eastchurch, seeming to them "a very proper and able fellow," 
was made Governor in 1676, and Miller Secretary, and Dep- 
uty of Shaftesbury, and also collector of the King's revenue. 
At this time, according to Hawks, the colony of Albemarle 
contained some 2,500 to 3,000 people, of course not including 
tribal Indians. Twenty-five hundred people, and no man 
yearning for a patent of nobility ! 

In 1677 Eastchurch sailed from England, stopping in the 
West Indies, where, beguiled by love, he dallied some months 
till he was married. Miller went on to Albemarle, and upon 
his arrival, without the least w^arrant of authority, usurped 
and took to himself the government and control of the affairs 
of the Province. Drunk with his stolen authority, and often, 
the historians say, with liquor, he ruled the Province and 
squeezed the people in the lordly manner of the ancient rob- 
ber Barons of the Rhine. In six short months he gathered to 
himself some five thousand dollars ($5,000) in money and 


thirty-three (33) hogsheads of tobacco from one item alone, 
the export duty on tobacco. Tobacco was virtually the cur- 
rency of the Province, and by this time a very considerable 
and lucrative trade in it between Albemarle and ISTew Eng- 
land settlers had grown up, and this Miller made strenuous 
efforts to break up and divert to England. Out of his op- 
pressions and extortions sprang what is generally called "Cul- 
pepper's Rebellion." The colonists had lived for two years 
and more in peace and content, and without a Governor. 
The breath of freedom was in their nostrils. The Proprie- 
tors had seemingly abandoned or forgotten them ; for here 
was this man, one of themselves, allowed to plunder them 
with impunity and without authority. The inevitable hap- 

"The law protects not us ; then why should we he tender, 
To let an arrogant piece of tiesh threat us.'" 

Vexed and oppressed beyond endurance by the extravagant 
actions of Miller, the people arose in 167Y and seized and 
imprisoned him and the deputies of the Proprietors. Chal- 
mers says, (2 Carroll, 304) : "They seized the royal revenue, 
amounting to £3,000, which they appropriated for supporting 
the revolt ; they established courts of justice ; they appointed 
officers ; they called a Parliament, and for years exercised all 
the authority of an independent State." What nobler and 
bolder stand for their just rights could any people have taken ! 
And this was but the prelude to what followed. For from 
now on, u]3on reading the history of our State as written in 
her records, we will find our ancestors in constant revolt 
against the oppression and injustice of their rulers The in- 
surgents, and among them were the most prominent and 
wealthy men in the Province, including the President of the 
Grand Council, in defense of their action, declared that Mil- 
ler had "positively cheated the country oi t of 130,000 pounds 
of tobacco, raised the taxes, misapp opriated the public 


funds, and denied them a free Parliament." Miller, escap- 
ing from prison, fled to England to spread his complaints in 
every quarter, and with the eager and confident expectation 
of warm approval and armed support from the Proprietors. 
He had before complained and triumphed, but now he met 
only bitter disappointment and humiliation. 

Eastchurch now arrived in the colony with a commission 
as Governor, and authority from the Proprietors that was 
unquestionable. But the colonists were in an ugly mood. 
They had tasted of independence, and it was sweet and gra- 
cious to their taste. They would have none of Eastchurch, 
and he went to Virginia to seek aid and military support to 
establish himself firmly in the enjoyment of his just rights as 
Governor. But, fortunately for the colonists, he died before 
a sufficient number of troops was gathered to him. 

Culpepper boldly followed Miller to England and con- 
fronted him before the Proprietors. Their accusations against 
each other and recriminations brought distress to both. Miller 
was put aside with contumely, and Culpepper indicted for 
treason; but he, that is Culpepper, was defended by Shaftes- 
bury himself and acquitted. Undoubtedly he could have 
only been defended and acquitted upon the ground that Mil- 
ler v;as a mere usurper, with no lawful claim to the authority 
and power which he had exercised over the Province. This 
uprising of the people against oppression was the first armed 
expression in the State of that yearning for freedom and 
independence, which later on was so often and so conspic- 
uously displayed by them. It was a brave and reckless deed 
which the men of Albemarle did, in the very face of the ex- 
treme and bloody punishments which had so recently been in- 
flicted in Virginia by the vindictive Berkeley on the unfortu- 
nate followers of Bacon. But there was this pregnant differ- 
ence in the results of these two uprisings: Virginia was a 


royal Province, and a fleet and soldiers were sent to it to 
crush Bacon and his adherents ; while the Proprietors for- 
gave, even to the verge of approval, the acts done in the Prov- 
ince of ISTorth Carolina, Looking at this event from the 
standpoint of their interests, it is impossible to account for 
their extremely weak and vacillating, indeed almost apolo- 
getic course of action, save upon one ground, their habitual 
aversion to the expending of any money out of their own 
jjockets for the protection of their interests in Albemarle. If 
they had sent a fleet and soldiers to pu.t down the revolt with 
a stern and bloody hand, and had followed this with strong 
government, how for-reacliing may have been the effect! It 
would most probably have secured to them their possessions 
until the revolution ; and even in that struggle might pos- 
sibly have made the States South of Virginia loyal to them 
and their King. And if so, it is certain there would have 
been no King's Mountain, no Guilford Court House, no York- 
town, and no indeiDendence. It is difficult, if not impossible, 
for any impartial student to ascribe this uprising of the 
people to any other cause than that of a just and manly in- 
dignation and resentfulness of an unla^s^'ful invasion and de- 
nial of their rights. And yet Hawks heaps abuse and vil- 
lification with overflowing measure upon Culpepper and his 
followers. To him Miller was ''the champion of order," 
''freedom's martyr," and his opponents, unprincipled, un- 
scrupulous, bad, "a set of vulgar and ignorant insurgents and 
anarchists, * * * acting under the guidance of unscrupu- 
lous, artful and better informed leaders, whose most appro- 
priate elevation would have been, not to the honor of legiti- 
mate office, but to the topmost heights of the gallows tree." 
This was a direct ffing at the Proprietors, who afterwards ap- 
pointed or recognized both John Harvey and Colonel Jen- 
kins, who were both leaders in Culpepper's Rebellion, as 
Governors of the Province. Hawks even went to the extreme 



of abusing Shaftesbury for, that in defending Culpepper, "he 
robbed the gallows of its due." Truly JSToTth Carolina has 
been unfortunate in her historians ! When one of her own 
sons, and he a man of such marked ability, declares false 
judgment against his own people, what better opinion could 
we expect from others. The Lords Proprietors themselves, 
at the time of the occurrence and after full consideration and 
examination into the facts, formed a very different view from 
that which Hawks wrote into the history of his State. Miller, 
repulsed by the Proprietors with contempt, was not content 
to leave the matter so, but carried his complaint to the Com- 
mittee of Trade and Plantations, which as his Majesty's in- 
terest in the revenue was concerned, promptly called on the 
Proprietors for an cx])lanation. The answer of the Proprie- 
tors, under date of N^ovember 20th, 1680, is in many respects 
a remarkable paper, (1 Coll. Rec, 326). It begins, "Mr. 
Thos. Miller, ivithout any legal authority" — the italics are in 
the original- — -"got possession of the government of the County 
of Albemarle in Carolina in the year 1677, and was for a 
tyme quyettely obeyed, but doing many illegal and arbitrary 
things, and drinking often to excess, and putting the people in 
generall, by his threats and actions in great dread of their 
lives and estates, and they, as ive suppose getting some hnowl- 
edge that he had no legal authority, tumultously and disor- 
derly imprisoned him, and suddenly after Mr. Biggs and Mr. 
Nixon for adhering to Mr. Miller and abetting him in some 
of his actions, and revive an accusation against Mr. Miller of 
treasonable words, for which he had been formerly impris- 
oned, but never tryed, and appoynt ]\Ir. Culpepper to receive 
the King's customs, etc." It further states that they had 
appointed Seth Sothell, "a sober, moderate man," who had 
lately become one of the Proprietors, Governor, but that he 
had been ''taken by the Turks and carried into Anglers," 


(sic) ; that on hearing of this they had appointed John Har- 
vey Governor until the arrival of Sothell, and sent his com- 
mission by Robert Holden, who had been appointed by the 
King's commissioners of customs, Collector of his Majesty's 
customs in Albemarle; that Harvey had died and the Grand 
Council had appointed Colonel Jenkins in the place of Gover- 
nor, "ad interim," and that they were sending out Colonel 
Wilkinson temporarily as Governor. This report or explana- 
tion is a complete justification of the action of the colonists, 
evidently so intended, and a repudiation of the acts of Miller 
that whilom, "Cham]~)ion of order" and "freedom's martyr." 
Harvey and Jenkins were both later on Governors of the Prov- 
ince; Holden, Durant, Blount, Willoughby, White, Bruner, 
Slocumb, Calloway, Lillington, Jarvis, and many other of 
the adherents of Culpepper, bore names which have since 
illumined the pages of the history of this State. 

Harvey died very soon and was succeeded by Jenkins. But 
little is known of the short official life of Jenkins, but he 
was evidently ''persona non grata" to the colonists, for he 
was deposed by the people. We are not enlightened by the 
historians as to the cause of his deposition, but as the Pro- 
prietors did not resent it, but seemingly concurred in it, by 
appointing Wilkinson to succeed him, v/e must assume that 
the people had just grounds for their extreme action. Sothell 
v.-as worse than Miller. Hawks says, (Vol. 2, page 486) : 
"His principles v/ould not have disgraced an education in a 
college of thieves, and his morals illustrated the purity of a 
gambling-house. He had purchased the right of Clarendon 
as Proprietor, for no other purpose than to be placed officially 
in a position to plunder ; and it was not long ere he had 
exhibited evideuce that he was capable of almost any crime, 
and equally an adept in all." Hawks was right this time, 
for Sothell well merited all the abuse and opprobrious names 


which Hawks heaped upon him in that vigorous style of 
which he was such a master. The patience and endurance of 
the colonists was finally exhausted, and in 1688, although 
Sothell was one of the Lords Proprietors, one of their lawful 
sovereigns, he was seized h^ them and imprisoned prepara- 
tory to being sent to England for trial. Sothell, however, 
did not want to be sent to England, but. Governor though he 
was, begged that he be tried and judged of by the General 
Assembly of the Province. The General Assembly found 
him guilty on all the charges brought against him, banished 
him from the Province for twelve months and compelled him 
to abjure the government of the Provincs} forever. The Lords 
Proprietors mildly protested against this action of the colo- 
nists as "prejudicial to the prerogative of the Crown and to 
their honor." But they quietly submitted as usual and sent 
out another Governor. It does not concern us, however, to 
follow any further the fortunes of the various Governors sent 
out to Albemarle. A few specimens of them is sufficient. 
Paper says (page 6), that "From 1674 to 1712 the colonists 
knew little of governmental restraints except those of their 
own making, and drove out of office six of their fourteen 
Governors or Deputy Governors." 

A mere cursory review of the Fundamental Constitutions 
makes it plain even to a casual reader, that they were utterly 
unsuited to the times, the situations and the people. There 
were laws in abundance — laws that were good, and others 
that were bad — some that were chimerical, and others most 
sensible — some despotic, others mild and lenient — and some 
Utopian, while others were brutal. Balancing the bad against 
the good, the bad greatly predominated. .And to this was 
added the still greater evil of weak and unprincipled Gover- 
nors. Hence the people refused the constitutions, and they 
were never enforced in Albemarle. Over and over affain did 


the Proprietors in their letters and instrnctions to the Gover- 
nors and Deputy Governors of the Province acknowledge their 
inability to enforce the provisions of the constitutions ; and 
always for the same and entirely erroneous reason that they 
could not find men worthy of nobility. If they had said 
that they could not find men who were ready and willing to 
buy themselves titles of nobility, that would have been nearer 
the truth. The Aveak and vacillating policy of the Proprie- 
tors, their greediness for revenue and stinginess for appropria- 
tions and financial aid, their easy condonation of the insubor- 
dination and revolts of the colonists, the weakness, greed and 
lack of principle and courage of their various Governors and 
Deputy Governors all inspired the people to a system of con- 
stant and persistent resistance against the laws and their 
rulers. Most unfortunately, the records of the proceedings 
and debates in the General Assemblies of that period have 
been lost, and we will never know the people's side of the 
question, the true reason for those acts, which have induced 
historians to denounce the early settlers of Albemarle as refu- 
geps fvcnv. justice, absconding debtors, and law-breakers, reek- 
ing with turbulence and sedition. The truth is, and I am 
cherishing the hope that in the very near future an historian 
will make it plain, that they were a race of sturdy, inde- 
pendent, self-respecting men, always ready to obey cheerfully 
jnst laws and honest rule, but equally ready to resist oppres- 
sion and evil rule. With the injustice of the first laws still 
rankling in their hearts, about the only effect of the<T 
of the constitutions was to knit the people more firmly to- 
gether in their determination to resist all unjust laws. 

And so the Fundamental Constitutions, after a stormy life 
spent in vainly striving to make a home in Albemarle, wore 
shipwrecked and lost. They were never enforced, never ab- 
rogated or repealed, but simply died from inanition. 


As it may interest some of the readers of the Booklet to 
know in what manner and by what mystic words and rites 
nobles were created in the Province, I give below a copy of 
the patent which was granted by the Proprietors to Land- 
grave, Thomas Smith, of Charleston, Sonth Carolina, It is 
in the following words : 

William Lord Craven, Palatine of Carolina, and the rest of 
the Lords Proprietors of the same, to all officers and minis- 
ters, & all the free inhabitants of the Province of Caro- 
lina, Greeting. 

Whereas, his most serene Majesty, Charles 2nd of Great 
Brittain France & Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c of 
his special grace and favor has given and granted to us : to- 
gether with the Province of Carolina power of constituting 
States, Degrees & Titles of Dignities and Honours in the said 
Province & Preferring to the said Degrees men of Merit & 
graceing & adorning such with Titles of Honours. And 
Whereas according to the forms of Government by us Estab- 
lished & which is perpetually to be observed by us and our 
successors : its appointed that there shall be a certain number 
of Landgraves and Cassaques who shall be the Perpetual & 
Hereditary T^obles and Peers of our Province of Carolina. 
And Whereas Thomas Smith a person of singular Merit will 
be very servisable to us by his great Prudence & Industry & 
we being willing to rew^ard a Gentleman that has deserved so 
well of us we have Constituted him a Landgrave 

Know ye therefore that as a lasting Monument both of 
our favor and his Merits we have promoted the said Thomas 
Smith & credited him Landgrave and by these presents do 
prefer to and confer upon the same Thomas Smith the Name, 
State, Degree, Style, Dignitie, Title & Honour of a LAND- 
GEAVE together with four Barronevs each of which shall 


containe Twelve Thousand Acres of Land and Other Privi- 
leges pertaining to the said Dignity, and forever nnseparably 
Annexed to the same, and we have given and granted & by 
these presents in behalf of onrselves our Heirs k Successors, 
do give and grant to the said Thomas Smith his Heirs and 
Successors the Name, State, Degree, Stile, Dignity, Title, and 
Honour of Landgrave together with the four Barroneys En- 
nexed & all & every the rights Preeminencies privileges and 
Immunities belonging to the said Dignity, to hand and to 
hold the same according to the Dignity of our PUNDAMEIST- 
TAL COIsTSTITUTION with and by these presents granting 
that the said Thomas Smith and his Heirs aforesaid shall 
always successively bear the name and enjoy State, Degree, 
Style, Dignity, Title and Honour of Landgrave and possess 
the four Barroneys annexed, and that Every one of them 
should bear, have and possess, and by the name of LAI^D- 
GRAYE be called and named, and that the said Thomas 
Smith & his Heirs aforesaid should be successively held in 
in all things as Landgraves and be treated and Reputed as 
such, and every one of them should be so held, and reputed. 
And that they should forever have hold and possess and each 
of them enjoy the four Barroneys Annoxt paying annually 
for each acre a penny Lawful money of England to us and our 
Heirs, which payment is to commence about the end of the 
year One Thousand Six Hundred and Ninety. And Further- 
more that the said Thomas Smith and his heirs aforesaid, all 
and singular of them should possess and use by the name of 
LANDGRAVE all and every the rights, privileges, preemi- 
nencies and Immunities which in Law & right belong to the 
said State. In wutness whereof we have caused these our 
Letters to be made Pattent under our Great Scale of Caro- 
lina ; given from and under our hands the Thirteenth day of 
Mav Anno. Dom. 1691. 



The document, of which the foregoing is a copy, is very 
ancient, and is now in the possession of Mr. Edw. S. Ten- 
nant, of Spartanbiu'g, South Carolina, whose father, Edward 
Tennant, was a lineal descendant of the Landgrave. The 
signatures have been cut off ; and on the back of it is endorsed 
"The Landgrave Pattent, Englished." So the original was 
probably in Latin, and this is only a translation. 

The four Baronies, 48,000 acres of land, were taken up by 
the Landgrave on the west side of Cape Fear River, in what 
is now Brunswick County, and included the large island at 
the mouth of the Cape Fear River called "Smith's Island," 
which took its name from the Landgrave. 






V " 














If full credit be given the early writers on Carolina, we 
must believe that the men of that period were chiefly con- 
cerned to avoid every form of industry that involved physical 
labor or inconvenience. Lawson says, "Some of the men are 
very laborious and make great improvement in their way, but 
I hardly dare give them that character in general." And 
again, ''The planter sits contented at home whilst his oxen 
thrive and grow fat, and his stocks daily increase ; the fatted 
porkets and poultry are easily raised to his table, and his 
orchard aifords him liquor, so that he eats and drinks away 
the cares of the world, and desires no greater happiness than 
that which he daily enjoys." It is quite possible that Law- 
sou, and Brickell who copied him closely, had in mind the 
attraction of new settlers to Carolina and sought to convey the 
idea that living was easy. Col. Byrd, on the other hand, was 
contemptuous towards Carolina, and most likely fell into ex- 
aggeratio7i from that feeling. He says in the AVestover MSS. : 
"The men for their parts, just like the Indians, impose all 
the work upon the poor women. They make their wives rise 
out of their beds early in the morning, at the same time that 
they lie and snore till the sun has risen one-third of his 
course, and dispersed all the unwholesome damps; then, after 
stretching and yawning for half an hour, they light their 
pipes, aud, uudev the protection of a cloud of smoke, venture 
out into the open air; though if it happen to be never so little 
cold, they quickly return shivering into the chimney corner. 
When the weather is mild, they stand leaning with both arms 
upon the cornfield fence, and gravely consider whether they 
had best go and take a small heat at the hoe; but generally 



find reason to put it ofT 'till another time. Thus they loiter 
away their lives like Solomon's shiggard, with their arms 
across, and at the winding up of the year, scarcely have bread 
to eat.'' 

No such imputations, however, attach to the mothers of 
those early days. They are ever spoken of with high appre- 
ciation. Lawson tells us : ''The women are the most indus- 
trious sex in that place, and, by their good housewifery, make 
a great deal of cloth of their own cotton, wool and flax ; some 
of them keeping their families, though large, very decently ^ 

appartded both vrith linens and woolens, so that they have no '--A' .■■.i^ 

occasion to run into the mercliant's debt, or j)ay their money p O 

out in stores for clothing." Again, "Many of the women ^^ ♦> 

are very handy in canoes and will manage them with great v, ^ - 
dexterity and skill, which they become accustomed to in this ^ ' r~^> 

watery country. They are ready to help their husbands in ,CH Q 

any servile work, as planting, when the season or the weather ;;\ ,-f 

requires expedition; pride seldom banishing good house- ^f 'Z!^ 

wifery. The girls are not bred up to the wheel and sewing 't^ *~^ 
only, but the dairy and the affairs of the house they are very 
well acquainted withal ; so that you shall see them, while very 
young, manage their business with a great deal of conduct 
and alacrity." An incident recorded in George Fox's Jour- 
nal shows that women of even the highest station were skilled 
in the handling of boats. On one occasion he was unable to 
bring his boat to the shore, when the wife of the Secretary of 
the Province, seeing his strait, as he says, "came herself in a 
canoe, her husband being from liome, and brought us to 

As opposed to the suggestion of indolence on the part of 
the men, the proposal of Tymothy Biggs to th-^ Lords Pro- 
prietors in 1679, concerning Albemarle, shows that "Ye In- 
habitants have liven and gott Estates under ye Lord"^ there by 
their owne Industry and brought it to the capacity of a hope- 


fill settlement and ere these had it had yonr Lord"'' smiles 
and assistance but a tenth part of what your Sonthein parts 
have had It would have been a flourishing settlement." 

It must not be supposed that the settlers were entirely de- 
pendent upon the labor of their own hands in the mastery of 
this new land. There were many slaves in the colony — 
white, Indian and negro— to whom fell the greater burden of 
reclaiming the wilderness. The whites consisted of male 
and female convicts who, we are told, were "bought by the 
planters for the terms specified in their respective warrants, 
and worked with the negro slaves, under the lash of an over- 
seer." Many of these, by industry and reformation of life, 
prospered when finally released from bondage, so that one old 
writer tells us that "thousands of them, if we are not misin- 
formed, have by turning their hands to industry and im- 
provement, and, which is best of all, to honesty, became rich, 
substantial planters and merchants, settled large families, and 
been famous in the country ; nay, we have seen many of them 
made magistrates, officers of militia, captains of good ships, 
and masters of good estates." This was written of Virginia, 
but the similarity of conditions in the two colonies makes the 
statement as applicable to one as the other, except that there 
were more of such slaves in Virginia than in Carolina. 

Xaturally the flr^t interest of the settlers was tlie building 
of houses, the clearing of land and the development of agri- 
culture. There was no inn or place of accommodation. Lit- 
erally a place to lay the head had to be created from timbers 
yet standing in the forests. Title to their lands was also de- 
pendent upon such improvements. Their grants contained a 
proviso, that if the grantee, his heirs or assigns "doe not seat 
or plant or cause to be seated or planted upon y*" s'' L?nd 
wMn three years after y® next Insueing j^ then it shall h law- 
ful for any Adventurer or planter to make choice r,rA seat 


thereupon." That agriculture was prosecuted with enter- 
prise and vigor is manifest from the extraordinary statement, 
that aside from the supplies growTi for their own necessities, 
tobacco, the great market crop, was grown to such extent in 
Albemarle, that in 1679, it yielded annual custom duties of at 
least £8,000 sterling — a most remarkable showing when we 
recall that the total white population of all the scattered set- 
tlements in the colony did not equal that of one-third or 
fourth rate town of the State at this time. At an earlier date 
even, the competition of this product with that grown in 
Maryland and Virginia had so embarrassed the trade of those 
colonies that they sought to induce a reduction of the crop. 

The mild winters and fertile lands were so favorable to 
vegetable life that prodigious crops were produced — almost 
beyond credulity. Like favorable conditions furnished an 
opportunity for breeding horses, cattle, sheep and swine to 
great advantage, which the settlers availed of to become rich 
in flocks and herds. Lawson declares that the "beef of Caro- 
lina equals the best that our neighboring colonies afford. 
* * * The veal is very good and white. * * * Mutton is 
generally exceeding fat and of a good relish. * * * The 
horses are well shapen and swift. * * * The pork exceeds 
any in Europe." The writer of this paper has old letters of 
a later period, from which appears a custom of driving hogs 
in great droves to the Virginia markets from ISTorth Carolina. 
These products of the forest, farm and field w^ere so greatly in 
excess of the needs of the people as to support a considerable 
export trade in "beef, pork, tallow, hides, deer skins, furs, 
i)iich, tar, wheat, Indian corn, peas, masts, staves, headiiig 
boards, and all sorts of timber and lumber for Madeira and 
the West Indies, rosin, turpentine and several sorts of gum 
and tears, with some medicinal drugs." Many fish were also 
exported and considerable quantities of butter and cheese of 
good quality. 


Manufactures, in the modern acceptance of that term, can 
scarcely be said to have had an existence in the colony. Yet 
the existence of a lumber trade suggests, and credible histo- 
rians argue, that saw-mills must have existed here at a time 
when mob violence would not tolerate them in England. Good 
brick and tiles were made and worked into buildings still in 
use ; also lime, which was made of oyster shells, the lime- 
stone deposit being too far inland for the convenience of the 
early settlers. 

Buildings were at first of extremely primitive design and 
construction. Col. Byrd's description oi the houses and 
fences will interest the older readers by its close resemblance 
to those of their o^^^l recollection. ''Most of the houses in 
this part of the country are log cabins, covered with pine or 
cy]3ress sliiugles, three feet long and one foot broad. They are 
hung upon laths with pegs, and their doors too turn upon 
wooden hinges, and have wooden locks to secure them, so 
that the building is finished without nails or other iron work." 
The fence : "They also set up their poles without any nails 
at all, and indeed more seenrely than those that are nailed. 
There are three rails mortised into the posts, the lowest of 
which serves as a sill with a groove in the middle, big enough 
to receive the end of the poles; the middle jiart of the pole 
against the inside of the next rail, and the top of it is brought 
forward to the outside of the uppermost. Such wreathing 
of the poles, in and out, makes them stand firm, and miich 
harder to unfix than when nailed in the ordinary way." In 
a little while, however, frame, brick and stone houses came 
into vogue, and were fairly representative of the growing pros- 
perity and ambitions of the people. They also evidence the 
improved facilities for building and the presence of skilled 
artificers and mechanics. Sou'o of th':' houses of the Colonial 
period would make a creditable ap])earance in advanced and 


prosperous communities of the present day. Dr. Rumple 
gives an account of the "Old Stone House" erected in Rowan 
by Michael Braun (Brown) of "native, unhe^vn, but rather 
well-shaped blocks of granite laid in cement so durable that 
it still stands in ridges between the stones." We are without 
the record of any furnace making iron plates in this State 
during the colonial period, but the inscriptions on the plates 
of the fire-box or stove of this house give pretty certain assur- 
ance of their American manufacture and indicate the possi- 
bility of Carolina origin. On one plate the inscription is 

On another- 


1766 " 


It was quite evidently the work of a German- American, but 
whether from Pennsylvania or ISTorth Carolina, does not ap- 

Brickell, whose book was published in 1737, notes that 
"The men are very ingenius in several Handycraft Business, 
and in building their canoes and houses." Describing the 
houses of the period, he says, "The most substantial Planters 
generally use Brick and Lime, which is made of Oyster Shells, 
for there are no stones to be found proper for that purpose, 
but near the mountains; the meaner sort erect with Timber, 
the outside with Clap-Boards, the Roofs pf both sorts of 
houses are made with Shingles, and they generally have Sash 
Windows, and affect large and decent Rooms with great 
Closets, as they do most beautiful Prospect by some noble 
River or Creek." Dr. Hawks adds, ^'The chimneys of the 
better class of houses, as well as ovens, were built of lirick. 
Indeed, a brick chimney was a mark of gentility in its owner." 

IN'aturallv the earlier and more important trades repro- 


sented among the early artisans were those connected with the 
building and related interests, as sawyers, brick, tile and lime 
makers, carpenters, masons, and blacksmith. The services 
of the smith, however, were by no means confined to the build- 
ing interests. He was the metal worker of the community. 
^'We have abundant evidence of his early presence in the 
province, though the iron which he wrought was all, at first, 
brought from abroad. The division of labor which in older 
countries characterized this branch of mechanical art, did not 
obtain in Carolina. The smith who made or repaired the 
implement of husbandry, was equally skilful in mending the 
gun-lock or making a hinge. So valuable was this artisan to 
the neighborhood that we find on the records of the Council, 
during the Indian War of 1711, representations made from a 
neighborhood of the indispensable need of a blacksmith in 
the settlement, and a consequent special order that he should 
be exempt from military duty, that he might not be obliged 
to niarch against the savages, and thus deprive the people of 
his important services." (Hawks.) 

The carpenter, too, was in demand for making the furni- 
ture, implements and vehicles of the period, as well as for 
house building. 

Another gTOup of workers, most important, were those who 
contributed to tlie clothing of the people as tanners, shoe- 
makers, weavers, tailors and hatters. The tanners learned 
from the Indians a mode of tanning deer skins, which con- 
verted them into a soft and pliable material of great toughness 
and endurance. This was extensively used for the ordinary 
dress of woodmen, and was admirably adapted to that pur- 
pose. The abundance of hides and the facilities for tanning 
them at small cost made this a most important industry, so 
that Dr. Hawks doubts ''whether any manufactory in the 
province was more common than that of leather." 


The shoemaker was sometimes tanner, too; and often a 
general worker in leather, making harness and saddles as 
well as shoes. They were reputed more numerous than 
weavers and smiths combined. 

Dr. Rumple describes the towns as "composed of the pub- 
lic buildings, the residences of some of the county officials, a 
store or two, a hatter-shop, a blacksmith shop, a tailor shop, 
and a few inns." 

There were also the trades relating to commerce — coopering 
and ship-building, both of which were considerable indus- 
tries, the preparation of naval stores, the manufacture of 
tar, etc. To these should be added the fishing industry, 
licensed by the Governor. One writer mentions seeing, at 
one time, three New England whalers at Cape Fear. 

The German settlements in the later Colonial period furnish 
probably the most interesting examples of industrial life in 
the history of the period embraced in this paper. Their in- 
different knowledge of the English language cut them off 
largely from participation in the general movements of the 
times. "Hence letting public affairs alone, and attending to 
their home interests, they surrounded themselves with well- 
tilled farms, and adorned their premises with capacious barns 
and threshing-floors. Who has not seen the immense double 
barns, with wide double doors, to admit a four-horse wagon 
with its towering load of hay, or straw or wheat ; and the 
threshing-floor, where the horses tramped out the wheat, and 
the wind-mill blew the chaff into the chaff -house ? And who 
has forgotten the long stables where the cows were yoked to 
the trough, each one knowing her place, while the calves were 
tied to a trough at the other wall." (Rumple.) 

The first Moravian settlers, v;ho founded the village of 
Bathabara, consisted of twelve men, the most complete indus- 
trial group that ever came to the State. There was a minis- 


ter, a warden (the business man), a physician, a tailor, a 
baker, two carpenters, a gardener, a shoemaker and tanner, 
and three farmers. Within the first year they had estab- 
lished and put in operation seven distinct enterprises, as fol- 
lows : Carpenter Shop, Tailor Establishment, Pottery, Black- 
smith Sho]), SJioe Shop, Tannery, Coo])er Shop. A mill was 
under way, but had not then been completed. 

Within three weeks after their arrival six acres of land had 
been cleared and planted in winter wheat. During the first 
year not less than fifty acres were cleared and prepared for 
farming purposes. "In the first summer they gathered wheat, 
corn, flax, millet, barley, oats, buckwheat, turnips, cotton and 
tobacco in addition to the garden vegetables. Fruit trees 
were planted, and various kinds of medicinal herbs." (Cle- 

Many reminders and specimens of the handiwork of the 
early days are preserved in the intensely interesting museum 
at Salem, which the writer of this paper was permitted to 
visit during the fall of 1906, through the courtesy of Judge 
Starbuck, and Mr. Lineback, the custodian. It is a pleasure 
to note that the community planted upon an industrial basis 
so sound and prudent has steadily prospered during its en- 
tire history and stands to-day unsurpassed by any community 
within the State in all the elements of a prosperous, enlight- 
ened and elevated citizenship. 

Note.— The materials for this paper are drawn from Lawson's, Brick- 
ell's and Hawks' Histories of North Carolina, Bernheim's German Settle- 
ments, Reichel's Moravians, Clewell's Wachovia, Rumple's Rowan, The 
Colonial Records, etc. 

An Address at Banquet Given by Newport News Cham- 
ber of Commerce to the League of Virginia Municipali= 
ties and Visiting North Carolinians Preceding the 
Launching of the U. S. Cruiser North Carolina. 


'' Governor Swanson showed good discretion in selecting Hon. James 
Alston Cabell to represent him at the 'JSorth Carolina launching' ban- 
quet. Mr. Cabell's address was scholarly, tactful, generous and eloquent, 
and, with the good taste of a gentleman, he paid tribute to North Caro- 
lina's valor, chivalry and glorious achievement, without giving his re- 
marks the sickly savor of flattery. In an address of this character, by 
a speaker of one State to an audience from another, one is aj ft to be 
either patronizing, or gushing. Mr. Cabell went to neither extreme. His 
praise consisted not in the emptiness of tine phrases, but in the recita- 
tion of the facts of history. It seems to us to have been an admirable 
address for such an occasion and was duly appreciated, we doubt not, 
by our neighbors from the Old North State" — Edrtorial Richvicn.d Tnnes- 
Dispatch. October 7, fgo6 


" Great souls by instinct to each other turn^ 
Demand alliance and in friendship burn.'' 

I suppose it is understood that the GoA^ernor of Vivginia 
was to have responded to this toast, bnt was unable to be 
present. I have been requested bv him to express to you his 
heartfelt regrets. When your accomplished chainuan in- 
formed me of the condition of affairs, and asked me to come 
to you, I thought of a scene in the closing chapter of one of 
Tom Page's stories, ''Mnh Lady," in which the minister, 
standing before the couple about to be married, asks: "Who 
gives this woman to this man ?" and the old darkey said : 
"When he ax dat question and look at me and I think about 
all the sufim' we done been thro', and old Missus and Marse 


Phil all gone, and dere ain't nobody to took up for de poor 
chile, I couldn't help it, so I says, when he ax dat question, 
'Unc. Billy.'" 

So when I tliought of the Governor of Virginia being away, 
especially at this time, jiist as the big crowd has assembled 
here to witness the ceremonies of the marriage of a veritable 
queen, the battleship North Carolina to the king of waters, 
and that there would be no one to speak for the "poor chile," 
lor the Governor of North Carolina will have his hands full 
in speaking for Virginia, I feel like "Unc. Billy," and am 
here to speak all unprepared and unfitted as I feel myself 
to be. 

I do not know that I am wholly unfitted to respond for 
JSTorth Carolina. Some of my ancestors, of whom I am 
proudest, were North Carolinians, and played a prominent 
part in all the eventful epochs of her early history, and I am 
proud to say I am a member of the North Carolina, as well 
as the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati. I know her his- 
tory, and delight to recall her glorious past, rich in lofty and 
heroic examples, and to witness her splendid present, so full 
of courage and industry and wisdom. 

We all must admit that North Carolina had an excellent 
start, because when she began her career she v/as ''Virginia," 
and she has done so amazingly well that we Virginians like 
to remind her of it, and we are proud to know that her first 
permanent settlement was made by Virginians. But she 
goes back of this and tells us that she boasts of the first Eng- 
lish settlement in the new world, and that Virginia Dare, the 
first child of the English race, born on this continent, was 
hers. She was then known as "Virginia." Her first Gover- 
nor, William Drummond, came to her from Virginia, and he 
began from the start to make her a record by becoming a pa- 
triot and martyr. Every boy knows that she boasts of being 


once the home of Daniel Boone, that prince of pioneers, king 
of Indian fighters and pride of Kentucky. Not to speak of 
Flora McDonald, that picturesque and lovely Scotch heroine, 
as well as a number of romantic characters. But when we 
come to call over the names oi her truly great men, and to 
look at her history, so resplendent with great names and great 
deeds, we must admit that no after-dinner speech can do her 

As T stood last April by the grave of Cornelius Harnett, in 
Wilmington, and took part in the laying of the cornerstone of 
the monument to be erected to his memory, and heard the 
long roll-call of North Carolina's immortals, I felt what the 
orator said w^as true, that the very air we breathed was fra- 
grant with the incense of offerings laid on the altars of liberty 
and constitutional government, that that hallowed spot was 
richly red with patriotic blood. That the page of history 
was luminous with the records of deeds of valor done by 
North Carolina's sons. 

But her's is indeed a wonderful history. It is connected 
with mu.cli of the romance of the career of Sir Walter Kaleigh 
and Queen Elizabeth. No less a man than the famous John 
Locke drew up for her the most elaborate and comprehensive 
scheme of government ever devised for any colony. It was 
called the "Fundamental Constitution or (Jnmd Model," 
From, the earliest times she offered a retreat for tlie oppressed 
and unfortunate, and her history has been singularly free 
from the charge of persecution. She has ever lieeu prompt to 
assert her rights and stand up for what she believed to be just. 
The first blood shed in the cause of the Revolution was upon 
her soil, and was that of her sons. First at the battle of the 
Alamance, May 16, 1771, and again at the battle of Mof)re'3 
Creek Bridge, where Caswell defeated the British February 
27, 1776. Henry Alexander White, in his recent History 
of the TTnitcd States, says: "That this was the first clear vie- 


torj won by the Americans in the war of independence. It 
was great in its results. It caused the faihire of the British 
plan to land a large army in North Carolina." In spite of 
Air. Jefferson and Air. Ritchie it appears to be proven that 
she pronounced the first declaration of independence. She 
had her own tea party. Fnlly as patriotic and much more 
delightful to read of than any Boston ever produced. Colonel 
Hunter's ride (with the halter around his neck with which he 
was to have been hung) on Fanning's own stallion, down the 
side of the steep rock to Deep River, put Putnam's little ex- 
phjit, down the steps, out of sight. Her resistance to the 
stamp act was bolder and more effective than that in any of 
the other colonies. The defiance she flung to tyranny, and 
the love and devotion she gave to liberty was second to none. 
King's Mountain and Guilfoi'd Court House changed the tide 
of war and led to Cornwallis's defeat at Yorktown. She has 
always played her part well. Slow to determine but prompt 
to act. She voted against secession, and was the last State to 
leave the Union, but the first bhwd shed for the Confederacy 
was that of one of her sons. She seems to have raised a 
storm by asserting the proud claim to Tirst at Bethel, farth- 
est at Gettysburg, and last at Appcunattox.' I am not going 
to get into hot water by discussing this matter, but will simply 
say that the glory that l^orth Carolina won in the Confederate 
war will endure as long as this country endures, or as men 
I'evere devotion to duty and splendid courage. How well she 
fought is shown by the wonderful record of 127,000 of her 
sons sent to the Confederate armies, 42,000 of these killed or 
wounded. AVhat a story ! What a glorious record ! I wish 
that time ]iermittod me to say nil that T could, and all that I 
would like to say about this gi'and old State. 

jSTo Virginian will knowingly withhold the praise that be- 
lono's to North Carolina. She was once Vira^inia. She was 


Virginia before the three famous ships sailed into this beauti- 
ful harbor, three hundred years ago, whose advent North 
Carolina is going to help us celebrate next year. Her first 
permanent settlement was made by Virginians in 1688. 
When she gave tobacco, potatoes and Indian corn to the world 
she was known as Virginia. It was all then "Virginia." All 
one then, and all one now, if our hearts are to make answer, 
whatever the difference in name. Our destinies have ever 
been, and must ever be the same, bound together as we are by 
a thousand tender memories and a thousand ties of common 
interests. As in the past, so in the future, America will again 
require the leadership of Virginia and Forth Carolina. 

In the past, JSTorth Carolina was singularly careless about 
her history. She was content to do splendid things and let 
others claim the glory. The old books told us her principal 
prodiiets were ''tar, pitch and turpentine," but they said little 
of her great products — her splendid women and her noble 
men. Believe me, she has always had something precious 
and distinctive in manhood and character to contribute to 
American life. She has awakened at last to the importance 
of letting the world know of her great children, and what 
they have done for this country. She is showing a past glit- 
tering with glorious deeds and an ancestry full of lofty and 
heroic examples. The sole object we have in view in recount- 
ing the great deeds of our ancestors and keeping alive their 
memories, is to infuse into the minds of the people a like 
spirit. This, indeed, is the object of all history, and as 
Lord Bolingbroke says : "It should be neither to soothe our 
indolence nor to gratify our vanity." The true and proper 
object is a constant improvement in private and public virtue. 
In this age of money-making, when the lust of wealth is 
threatening the ruin of the country, it is well that the people 
should be reminded by the examples of men who have gone 


before, that they owe something to their motherland. A child- 
like attachment to the native soil has in all ages been the 
strongest and sim-plest basis of patriotism. It has ever been 
the inspired theme of all great seers and poets, and it is to-day 
the stronghold of all nationality. 

Wherever this spirit is appealed to, in the rugged moun- 
tains of Switzerland, on the vine-clad waters of the Rhine, 
on the sacred soil of France, or in the marshes of Holland, 
we see the old worldworn nations becoming children in the 
violence of their passions. 

What better way to foster this spirit, and infuse a love of 
native land and inspire the hearts of the people, than to keep 
before them the great deeds of their ancestors. The citizens 
of Rome placed the images of their ancestors in the vestibule 
of their houses, so that whenever they went in or out, those 
venerable busts met their eyes and recalled the glorious ac- 
tions of the dead to fire the living, to excite them to imitate 
and even to emulate their great forefathers. The success an- 
swered the design. The virtue of one generation was trans- 
fused, by the magic of example, into several ; and the spirit 
of heroism was maintained throughout many ages of that 
commonwealth. Let us continue to keep alive the mem.ory of 
the great men who made these great States wliat they are, 
keeping ever fresh the recollection of the illustrious deeds of 
those great patriots who have gone before us, and by the magic 
of example, let them be infused into this generation. Let 
the people who know who were the men that established Vir- 
ginia and ISTorth Carolina ; that in their veins ran the blood of 
fierce, war-like, liberty-loving ancestors, rendering them in- 
capable of counting the costs of resistance when liberty was at 
stake; let them know that the bold spirit which sustained 
their fathers in the trying hours of the Revolution and the 
Confederacy, has been transmitted to them unimpaired as 
their heritage and birthright. 



Hon. Alfred Moore Waddell, LL.D., wkose valuable article 
on "North. Carolina in the French and Indian War" appears 
in this issue, was born in Hillsboro, IST. C, September 16th, 
1834, educated at Bingham's School, Caldwell Institute, and 
graduated at the University of JSTorth Carolina, class of 
1856. He read law under Chief Justice ISTash, Judge Bailey, 
Judge Battle and Hon, Samuel F. Phillips. Since 1856 he 
has made his home in Wilmington, N. C. He edited the 
Wilmington Herald in 1860; entered the Confederate Army 
in 1861 ; was made Adjutant and advanced to Lieutenant- 
Colonel ; was elected to Congress in 1870 ; was re-elected three 
terms; served from March 4th, 1871, to March 4th, 1879; 
was Chairman of Post-office Committee of the House during 
his last term ; was elected Mayor of Wilmington five times. 
Colonel Waddell is a lawyer of acknowledged ability and 
distinguished for his power and eloquence as a public speaker 
and as a painstaking historian. He has brought to light 
many instances in the history of our State which have been 
generally unknown to the people of the other States. Col. 
Waddell was one of the twelve writers who contributed an 
article for Volume 1st of The Booklet. His article was 
entitled "The Stamp Act on the Cape Fear." This recital 
of events leading to the Revolution is founded on the incon- 
trovertable fact, that the Stamp Act, which was passed by the 
British Parliament March 22, 1765, and the repeal of which 
occurred just one year afterwards, was one of the most potent 
causes of the Revolution of 1776, which resulted in the estab- 






lishment of the government of the United States; that in the 
old Colonial town of Brunswick, sixteen miles below Wil- 
mington, on the Cape Fear River, the first armed resistance 
to British oppression on this continent occurred on the 28th 
of November, 1765. This was ten years before the Revolu- 
tion and nine years before the Boston Tea Party. Colonel 
Waddell asserts "with absolute confidence, that while all the 
other colonies were resolute in their determination to resist 
the Stamp Act, yet in one colo7iy only did they openly, in large 
numbers and with arms in their hands, resist in armed force a 
20-gun sloop of war — in an attempt to land the stamps, and 
this two weeks after they had compelled a stamp master to 
resign his office." 

Col. Waddell, in the article referred to, lias given a full 
recital of the events leading to this armed resistance, not 
only the tradition as handed down to sons and daughters 
of the men who did these things, but the facts which are 
verified by Governor Tryon's letter book, which was discov- 
ered in London in 1848. There were various versions of the 
story before the contemporaneoiis records were brought to 
light, although in regard to the main facts they agi'eed. One 
of these versions confused these events with the "tea parties" 
of Edenton and Boston, which occurred several years after- 

I^Torth Carolina has ever been noted for the liberty-loving 
spirit of her people, and Bancroft, in his first edition, paid 
a nuig-nificent and just tribute to this characteristic as dis- 
played by them in Colonial days; but in editions published 
during the war for Southern Independence the tribute was 
eliminated and no longer appeal's in that standard work. 
Great credit is due Colonel Waddell for espousing the cause 
of the Cape Fear section, a section as historic as any in 
America, not only famous for its resistance to unjust oppres- 
sion, but for the first victory of the American Revolution, 
won at Moore's Creek Bridge on February 2Yth, 1776, which 


has been most ably written up by Prof. M. C. S. ISToble of the 
University of jSTorth Carolina, in March number of Booklet, 

The chief historical Vi'ork written by Colonel Waddell is a 
volume entitled ''A Colonial Officer and His Times" — this 
being a biography of his ancestor, General Hugh AVadclell, 
who figured so conspicuously in the period just preceding the 

Col. Waddell comes of distinguished ancestry. His great 
grandfathers were Gen. Francis Nash (for whom Nash 
County and Nashville, N. C., and Nashville, Tenn., were 
named), mortally wounded at Germantown, Pa., October 
4th, 1777 ; General Waddell (colonial) ; Col. J. Pugh Wil- 
liams (revolutionary), and Alfred Moore, Justice of the 
United States Su])reme Court (1799-1805), for whom he 
was named. His father's mother was the only child of Gen- 
eral Nash. 

Colonel Waddell was married first to Miss Savage, of Wil- 
mington, and secraid to Miss Gabrielle de Rosset, of the same 
city. This genial and gifted gentleman at this writing re- 
sides in Wilmington and is erigagcd in the practice of law. 

Mr. Junius Davis, the autb.or of the article in this number 
of The Booklet, entitled "'Locke's Fnndamental Constitu- 
tions,'' is a prominent lawyer of the Cape Fear section of 
North Carolina, and was born on the 17th of June, 1845. He 
was the son of Hon. Geo. Davis, at one time Attorney-General 
of the Confederate States, who at the time of his death, in 
February, 1896, was called the first citizen of Wilmington; a r>f unsullied character and eminent for his ability, cul- 
ture and public service. The mother of Junius Davis, the 
first wife of his father, was Miss Mary Adelaide Polk, daugh- 
ter of General Thomas G. Polk, of Mecklenburg County, and 
a granddaughter of Colonel William Polk, of the Revolution. 


The subject of this sketch began his education in the pri- 
mary schools of Wilmington, and on reaching his twelfth year 
he became a pupil of the celebrated Bingham School. In 1861, 
after the war began, the family having removed to Charlotte, 
he there studied for a few months, but on reaching the age 
of seventeen he enlisted as a private in Moore's Battery, which 
was Company E of the Tenth ]^orth Carolina Regiment. He 
passed, through the dangers and perils of war, serving faith- 
fully as private and corporal ; was in the engagements at 
Plymouth, New Bern, Drury's Bluff, Bermuda Hundreds, 
battles around Richmond, in the trenches at Petersburg, Battle 
of the Crater, the assault on Fort Harrison, and continued to 
endure the hard experience which fell to the lot of Lee's 
veterans, and had the good fortune of escaping without any 
serious wound. It was with a sad heart, after hearing of the 
surrender of General Lee, that he with some companions pur- 
sued their way towards Bedford City, Va., with the purpose 
of joining Johnston's army; when they reached the vicinity 
of Greensboro they heard of Johnston's surrender, and that 
the last Confederate army had disappeared. Corporal Davis 
came to Greensboro and surrendered himself to the Federal 
provost-marshal at that point and was paroled. He then re- 
turned to his home in Charlotte, obtained employment for a 
time, returning to Wilmington in the fall of 1865 at the age 
of twenty years. In the absence of any other opening he en- 
gaged himself as a clerk in a dry-goods store. Indeed, at 
that time nearly every one was in a similar condition ; young 
men all over the South were ready and willing to do any 
honorable service to earn a livelihood. As a clerk Mr. Davia 
was faithful, rendering efficient service to his employers, and 
passed through that period after the war that tried men'e 
souls, with that resolution which insures success. 

In the year 1867 Junius Davis began the study of law in 
his father's office, and obtained his license to practice in th# 


County Courts ; was associated as a partner with his father 
until the death of that gentleman in 1896. 

Inheriting much of the talent of his father and trained 
by him in the details of professional work, Junius Davis fell 
into the same careful habits of precision and thoroughness 
that were the distinguishing traits of that honored lawyer and 
public-spirited citizen. 

Mr. Davis has attained an honorable position in his pro- 
fession, and his opinions are held in as high esteem as that of 
any other lawyer in the State of North Carolina. He is an 
honorary member of the North Carolina Society of the Cin- 
cinnati and a member of the North Carolina Sons of the 
Revolution, and a member by baptism of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. 

On January 19th, 1874, Mr. Davis was married first to 
Miss Mary Orme Walker, daughter of Thomas D. and Mary 
Vance Walker. Mrs. Davis having died, some years later he 
married Miss Mary Walker Cowan, daughter of Colonel Rob- 
ert H. Cowan, of Wilmington. He has had eleven children, 
of whom nine survive. 

Mr. Davis is of distinguished lineage. Among his ances- 
tors were Roger Moore, Sir John Yeamans, John Baptista 
Ashe, Major Alexander Lillington, Col. Sam Swan, as well 
as from other equally worthy lines of Colonial ancestors, whose 
axes had first rung in the forests of the Cape Fear. With 
such blood in his veins he is a worthy scion of illustrious stock. 

Mr. Davis partakes of his father's literary and historical 
turn of mind, is interested in the local history of the Cape 
Fear, his public addresses though but few, on account of his 
arduous professional labors, have* a genuine literary flavor, 
and his style is strong and forcible. His historical addresses 
show research and familiarity with the history of the State, 
and can be relied upon as thoroughly accurate. 

(The above facts, chiefly condensed from a sketch of Mr. 
Davis in Biographical History of North Carolina by Capt. 
S. A. Ashe.) 



Mr. Thos. M. Pittman, the author of the article in this issue 
entitled "Industrial Life in Colonial Carolina/' is a practicing 
lawyer in the town of Plenderson, IS^orth Carolina, where he 
devotes his time to his profession. He was born in Franklin 
County, jSTorth Carolina, I^ovember 24th, 1857. He was 
the son of Alfred H. Pittman and Elizabeth (l^eathery) Pitt- 
man. His parents died when he w^as about fourteen years 
of age, but up to this period they had given him the best edu- 
cational advantages that w^re attainable in the town where 
they lived. At the age of fourteen he began work at the 
Mecklenburg Iron Works and settled at Charlotte, jS[.C., where 
for four vears he was diligent as a clerk, and won the esteem 
and confidence of his employers. At the age of eighteen he be- 
gan the study of law, and at the age of twenty years received 
his license ; was admitted to practice in the District and Cir- 
cuit Court of the United States in 1878. In the fall of the 
same year, without w^aiting the usual three years, he was almost 
immediately appointed Examiner in Equity in the Circuit 
Court. ]\rr. Pittman, with these exceptional advantages, be- 
sides being an almost omniverous reader, has risen to the top- 
most round of his profession and has won the esteem and 
kindly consideration of his professional brethren, and of his 
countrymen. He has devoted much of his leisure time in 
gathering materials and making studies of ISTorth Carolina 
History, and lias a notable collection of historical material 
hardly to be equalled in the State. 

Mr. Pittman is a writer of ability and has delivered and 
written many addresses on different epochs in our State's his- 
tory. Among the most important — 

"The Great Sanhcdrin of the Jew^s and its Criminal Pro- 

Address on "English Words." 

The Race Question and Socialism. 


The Preparation for Baptist Work in l\orth Carolina. 

The Eevolutionary Congress of North Carolina, and the 
Monograph on John Penn, "the signer," written for the 
JSToETH Carolina Booklet, Vol. IV, September, 1904. 

Address on Nathaniel Macon. 

Address before the Baptist State Convention at Greenville, 
N. C. 

Address at Guilford Battle Ground, July 4, 1902. 

J. S. Carr Prize Essay. 

Lemuel Brickett, A Sketch. 

John Porter and the Gary Rebellion. 

Address to Summer School at A. & M. College, 1903. 

He has written several sketches for the Biographical His- 
tory of North Carolina, 1906-7. 

Mr. Pittman is a prominent member of the Baptist Church, 
and has filled the offices of Deacon, Clerk, Sunday School 
Superintendent, Teacher, Vice-President of the Baptist State 
Convention, and of the American Baptist Historical Society, 
and many other offices that are recorded in tlie annals of this 
progressive denomination. 

Mr. Pittman married Mrs. Harriet Lassiter, formerly 
Thrower, in June, 1884, and they have two children, Eliza- 
beth, a graduate of the Boston Conservatory of Music, and 
Thomas M., Jr., a civil engineer on the Illinois Central Rail- 


The Pittmans are of German extraction, and were settled 
on the Rhine at an early period. They were in England 
prior to the settlement of Virginia. The first of the family 
in this country died at Jamestown within the first ten years of 
that settlement. Later two branches of the family settled in 
America, one in Rhode Island, the other in Virginia. His 
grandfather, Merritt Pittman, came to Halifax County, in 


this State, from Isle of Wight County, Virginia; his father 
was James Pittman, who was settled on the James River. 

Thomas M. Pittman's maternal ancestor was Richard Ben- 
nett, who came to North Carolina from Maryland about 1Y50 
and settled in Halifax, N. C. He was one of three brothers. 
One settled in Marlborough County, S. C, and gave the name 
of Bennettsville to the county town; the other settled in An- 
son and was ancestor to Judge R. T. Bennett and others of 
consideration in that county. He numbers among his ances- 
tors the ]S[eatherys and Lancasters of Revolutionary fame. 

With Mr. Pittman's determined will, noble ambition and 
character, together with a superior intellect, he will continue 
on the road to success, ranking with the best in all his under- 



The Honorable James Alston Cabell, lawyer, legislator, 
writer, was born in Richmond, Virginia. He belongs to an 
English family of undoubted antiquity, which was seated in 
the counties of Devon, Wilts and Somerset. His ancestor 
came to Virginia at a very early period. During the Colonial 
and Revolutionary epochs of our history, the members of his 
family bore a conspicuous part in all public affairs, and ren- 
dered their country useful and distinguished services in war 
as well as in peace, serving in the Colonial wars, the House of 
Burgesses, the Committees of Safety, the Conventions and 
the Army of the Revolution. His father, the late Col. Henry 
Coalter Cabell, was a prominent lawyer, and in the Civil War 
was Chief of the Artillery of the Army of tlie Peninsular, and 
Chief of Artillery of McLaw's Division of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. The mother of the subject of this sketch 


was Jane Alston, daughter of Major James and Catherine 
(Hamilton) Alston, of Abbeville, South Carolina. 

Mr. Cabell is a graduate of Richmond College, and also of 
the University of Virginia, having had three degrees con- 
ferred upon him by the latter institution. While at the Uni- 
versity he was prominent in athletics as well as in his studies ; 
was editor of The Virginia University Magazine, which he 
conducted with marked ability, and won the scholarship in 
the Scientific Department and a thousand dollar prize. He 
was called to a professorship in the Central University of 
Kentucky, which he filled for two years. This position he 
resigned in 1880, and joined his father in the practice of law 
at Richmond. In 1884 he was elected a member of the City 
Council. In 1893 he was elected a member of the General 
Assembly of Virginia. He was re-elected and served until 
1897, when he declined re-election. In 1896 his constituents 
desired him to become a candidate for Congress, but he had 
determined at the close of his legislative duties to devote him- 
self to his profession and literary labors. He has recently 
been conspicuously mentioned as a candidate for Governor of 
Virginia. He married June 12, 1895, Miss Ethel Hoyt 
Scott, of New York City. He served for nine years as Chair- 
man of the Virginia Commission on the Uniformity of Legis- 
lation in the United States. 

Mr. Cabell is a member of the State Bar Association and 
the American Bar Association ; a life member of the Ameri- 
can Historical Association, the Southern Historical Associa- 
tion, and the Virginia Historical Society. He has been a 
member of the Advisory Board of the Association for the 
Preservation of Virginia Antiquities since its organization. 
He re-organized the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati, and 
was elected President of Temporary Organization of the Vir- 
ginia Society in 1890. He is also an hereditary member of 


the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati. He was elected 
President of the Sons of the Revolution in Virginia in 1895 ; 
President of the Alumni Association of Richmond College 
in 1896, and Commander of the Virginia Commaudery of the 
Military Order of Foreign Wars in 1899. He is a graceful 

Mr. Cabell is an active, honorary, or corresponding member 
of a number of literary historical and scientific societies in 
this country and abroad ; is editor of the Virginia Masonic 
Jourjial, and is the author of a number of scientific historical 
and biographical treatises and papers. 

This excellent address, delivered by this popular and tal- 
ented Virginian, at a banquet given by the ISTewport News 
Chamber of Commerce last autumn before the launching of 
the U. S. Cruiser North Carolina, has been republished in 
The Booklet at the suggestion of a prominent North Caro- 
lina laM^yer. 


From the Office of Clerk of .Superior Court of Chowan County, Edentou, N. C. 

Will of Stephen Cabarrus, of Pembroke, Chowan County, 
October 20th, 1807. Sisters Marianna, Cadette and Julia 
Cabarrus, now living at or near Bayonne, $3,000. Brother 
Augustus, now living with nie, nephews Thomas and Augustus 
Cabarrus, nowing living with me; sister-in-law Clarence, wife 
of my brother Bartholemy (Cabarrus, now living at Paris, 
France; my large diamond ring and gold snuff box, formerly 
belonging to my beloved deaceascd wife, Mrs. J. Charrier, 
sister of my beloved wife and wife of Mr. Jean Charrier fils, 
living at Bordeaux, France, all her lister's clothes, her dia- 
mond earrings, diamond Aigrette, our double gold wedding 
ring and a garnate necklace ; my friend. General William 
Richardson Davie, living in S. C, my friend Judge John 
Louis Taylor; Sophia Niel, her sister Polly Niel, children of 
Julia Beaulieu Charrier, wife of Jeon Charrier fils. Samuel 
Tredwell, Judge John Louis Tjiylor, John Roulhac and 
brother Auguste, Exrs. My servants, Louis, Sylvia, Lorient 
and John I desire emancipated and to each $100.00. Test. 
John Otis Freeman, Nat. Bond. From the office of C. S. C. 
Chowan Co., Edenton, IsT. C. Abstract of Will of Stephen 

Abstract of WlUs taken from Secretary of State's Office. 

Will of Elizabeth Anderson, IS^ov. 1732 ; prob. Dec. 1733. 
Son James, son Carolus, daughter Elizabeth Pitman, daugh- 
ter Elizabeth Anderson, Eli/. Pitmnn's son, Wrn. Anderson, 
daughter Sarah Anderson, granddaughter Elizabeth Ander- 
son, granddaughter Sarah Anderson. 

Will of Henry Bonner, Chowan. Son Henry, son Thomas, 
grandson Richard Lewis, daughter Elizabeth Lewis, daughter 


Deborah, daughter Mary, granddaughter Sarah Lewis, grand- 
daughter Deborah Lewis: Sept. 1, 1738. 

Will of James Ansell, Sept. 12—1738; prob. Apr. 1— 
1740. John Ansell, daughter Sarah Roberts, grandson 
James Roberts. 

Will of William Badham, Chowan. Oct. 28—1736; El- 
len, daughter of Martha Dunston, relict of John Dunston, 
born at Edenton, Aug. 1st — 1733, land I Bought of William 
Willson; 250 acres adjoining Orlando Champion to her sis- 
ter Mary, born June 6th — , 1735. 

Wife Martha, Barnaby Stetz Dunston, Richard William 
Dunston, Arthur Laport, son of Jonho Laport. 

Helen DeB. Wills. 




THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Sixth Volume began in July, 1906. 

One Year, One Dollar; Single Copies, Thirty-five Cent's. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Editors, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-office as second class matter. 

Notice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is desired. 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 

Voi. I 

'■ Colonial New Bern," Sarah Beaument Kennedy. 
"Greene's Retreat,'' Prof. Daniel Harvej^ Hill. 

Vol. SI 

*• Our Own Pirates,"' Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

'• Indian Massacre and Tuscar^a-a War," Judge Walter Clark. 

" Moravian Settlement in North Carolina,'" Rev. J. E. Clewell. 

" Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

' The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pjttman. 

" Raleigh and the Old Town of B'oomsbury."' 

'• Historic Homes — Bath. Buneomb Hall, Hays.'" Rodman, Blount 

"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 

" Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 

" Last Days of the War." Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. ill 

•'Trial of James Glasgow." Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

•• Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentr3\ 

•• Historic Hillsboro,"' Mr. Francis Nash 

" Life in Colonial North Carolina," Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 

'■ Was Alamance First Battle of the Revolution ?"' Mrs L. A. McCorklp. 

" Governor Charles Eden," Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

" Colony of Transylvania." Judge Walter Tlark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina'" Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL D. 
" Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776, "" Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
' North Carolina and Georgia Boundary,"" Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

" Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780."" Major Wm. A, Graham. 

•' Quaker Meadows,'' Judge A. C. Aver\-. 

•■ i.^onvention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

" North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence. Jolm Penn 
and Joseph Hewes." by T. M. Pittnian, and E. Walter Sikes. 

" Expedition to Cartagena. 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 

" First English Settlement in America," W. J. Peele. 

''Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

" Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 

"Highland Scotch Settlement in N. c:.," Judge James C. McRae. 
'The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 
" Battle of Guilford Court-House and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 

Vol. v.— (Quarterly). 

" Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

"St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations," Richard 
Dillard, M. D. 

'• N. C. Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II, 
William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

" History of the Capitol," Colonel C harles Earl Johnson, 

" Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

" North Carolina's Poets," Rev. Hight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

" Cornelius Harnett." Mr. R. D. W. Connor, "Edward Moseley," Prof. 
D. H. Hill. 

"Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W, A. 

"Edward Moseley." by Prof. D. H Hill. 

No. 4. 

" Governor Thomas Pollok." Mrs. John W. Hinsdale 

•' Battle of Cowan's Ford,'" Major W. A. Graham. 

"First Settlers in North Carolina not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rer 
Joseph Blount Cheshire. D. D. 

Vol. VI-(Quarterly.) 

"The Indian Tri! es of Eastern North Carolina,'" Richard Dillard, M.D. 
" History Involved in the Names of Counties and Towns in North Car- 
olina," Kemp P. Battle. LL. D. 

" A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear '" (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), Hon. James Sprunt. 

October, No. 2. 

" The Borough Towns of North Carolina," Francis Nash. 

•' Governor Thomas Burke," J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. 

" Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History," Col. Fre d 
A. Olds. 

"The North ''^arolina Society Daughters of the Revolution and its Ob- 

'Biographical Sketches of Dr. Richard Dillard, Francis Nash, J. G. 
de R. Hamilton and Col. Fred. A. Olds." Mrs. E. E Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"State Library Building and Department of Archives and Records," 
R. D. W. Connor. 

"The Battle of Rookfish Creek, 1781," James Owen Carr. 

" Governor Jesse Franklin," J, T. Alderman, 

"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown," Mrs, Lindsay 
Patterson, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

" Biographical Sketches of Mrs. S. B. Kenneday, R. D. W. Connor, 
James Owen Carr, and Prof. J. T. Alderman," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

'•Lock's Fundamental Constitution," Junius Davis. 

" The White Pictures," W. J. Peele. 

" North Carolina's Attitude towards the Revolution," Robert Strong. 

" Biographical Sketches," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

" Genealogical Sketches," Mrs. Helen de B. Wells. 

Index to Vol. VI will be mailed with No. 1 of Vol. VII, 

Vols. I, II, III, IV, 25 Cents Each. Vols. V and VI, 
35 Cents Each. 



Published twice each month at Durham, North Carolina, 
under the editorial supervision of Mr. E. C. Brooks, 
assisted by associate editors and numerous contributors. 


Address an^communj^atlo^^ ^^ ^_ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^_ g_ 




Vol. VII. 

OCTOBER, 1907 

No. 2 


North Carolina Booklet 









Ode to North Carolina ------ 

By Pattie Williams Gee 

The Finances of the North Carolina Colonists 

By Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 

Joseph Gales, Editor of Raleigh's First Newspaper 
By Willis G. Briggs 

Our First Constitution, 1 776 - 
By E. W. Sikes 

North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition 
By Mary HilHard Hinton 

Biographical Sketches ------ 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 




$1.00 THE YEAR 






The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History. 

The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North Carolina 
Society of the Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1907. Bach Booklet will contain three articles and will be published 
in July, October, January and April. Price, $1.00 per year, 35 cents for 
single copy. 

Editors: ' 
Miss Mary Milliard Hinton. < Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


1. North Carolina in the French and Indian War, 

Colonel Alfred Moore Waddell 

2. Colonial Newspapers, . -. . . Dr. Charles Lee Smith 

3. Finances of the North Carolina Colonists, Dr. Charles Lee Rapet 

4. Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry, Judge James C. MacRae 

5. Schools and Education in Colonial Times, . Mr. Charles L. Coon 

6. Joseph Gales, . . . . . . Mr. Willis G. Briggs 

7. General Robert Howe, . . . . Hon. John D. Bellamy 

8. The Resolution of April 12, 1776, . Prof. R. D. W. Connor 

9. Our First State Constitution . . . . Dr. E. W. Sikes 

10. Permanent Settlement of the Lower Cape Fear, (1725-1735) 

Mr. W. B. McKoy 

11. Colonial Edenton, . , . Rev. Robert Brent Drane, D.D. 

12. The Quakers of Perquimans, . . Miss Rebecca Albertson 

The Booklet will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 

who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E E. Mofl5tt. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 

biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills, 
Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for 
Vol. VII, are requested to give notice at once. 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N, C. 

Vol. VII. 

OCTOBER, 1907. 

No. 2 



Carolina! Caroliyia ! Heaven's blessbigs attend her ! 
While we live zve zvill cherish^ protect a?id defend her." 

Published by 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Cai'olina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editors. 


Mrs. Spier Whitaker. Mrs. T. K. Bruner. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Ur. E. W. Sikes. 

Professor E. P. Moses. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Dr. Keiip p. Battle. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Clark. 

Miss Maey Hilliaed Hintox, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 




Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 




Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

recording SECRETARY: 



Mrs. W. H. PACE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 





Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

REGENT 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

REGENT 1902-1906: 

*Died December 12, 1904. 


Vol. VII OCTOBER. 1907 No. 2 




By Honor called 

To stay the rocks from heralding the shame 
Long gathering of ohlivion to blame ; 
Of silent tongue 

While one beloved is still untrumpeted, unsung; 
A daughter of the pines would climb Old Bald, 
And from his heaven-ascending Ijrim. 
Down the long slopes which greet the sea's low rim, 
Would gonfalons of song unfold 
(As when Vulcanus rolled 
His rugged gold ; 

Demeter swung her surging plumes. 
All her arms held of primal blooms. 
Of subtle ])eauty and of wild perfumes) 
Far o'er the fruited, fern-robed Wold, 
( A bride the burning Sun 
Doth feast his amorous lips upon) ; 
And over orioled mountain peaks 
Whose sweeping eagles' piercing shrieks 
Die in blue beds of cloud-blown deeps ; 
Till e'en the bitterest wrong 
Which through the sad years yearns and weeps 
Shall from its stream of tears up-leap to strife-dissolving 
song ! 



O, Caroliniaus, lift your eyes ! 

(God-gladdened eyes!) 

And know this well : — 

That 'tis your happy lot to dwell 

Where l^ature walks 

In affluence. 

Beneath a low-hung sky forever slipping 

AVarm kisses on her lips and dewy nectar dripping 

Upon her flowered petticoat 

Oft caught by wandering mists afloat ; 

Whose tunic, jewel-broidered, gleams; 

Whose train is sun-lit, shimmering streams, 

And talks 

With him who owns her influence ! 


Yours the consecrated sod 

Which first the Anglo-Saxon trod 

Of all our hard-won soil ! 

And sanctifying home and toil. 

Yours the Mother on whose breast. 

Smiling in confiding rest. 

Lay the first American ! 

O, Carolinians, know this well, 

And to your children's children tell 

That here our civil rights began ! 

That here a woman stricken sore 

Scorned to spare the sons she bore ! 

That here our proto-martyrs bled ! 

Say no stately rites were said 

O'er these first for freedom dead, — 

These first red drops for freedom shed, 

But tell them, Carolinians, how 

From wounds and bruise of sword and lance. 


From purple pools of Alamance, 
There sprang the flower of Mecklenburg, 
The laurel flower sprang, and how 
Its spreading leaves of liberty 
Wreathed first their Mother's brow ! 


O, blood-blo-wm. Leaves of Liberty, 

So doubly dear, so fair, 

O, blood-blown Leaves of Liberty 

Which stained her glorious hair 

When foes unnumbered sacked her shores 

.vnd left a leprous reptile at her doors, 

A leprous reptile that a woman may not name,- — 

O, blood-blown Leaves of Liberty, men blush at your great 

name ! 
Since ISTero burned imperial Rome, 
His torches flashed beneath her dome, 
Was never scourge like this, — 
This crucifix which weak lips needs must kiss ! 


But who could bear to stir a woman's pain 

When guns, corosive, cold, 

Lie dumb and still ? 

When o'er a wind-swept hill 

Where sleep her valiant slain 

A flawless moon unfolds in sympathy to rise in glory and in 

glory wane ? 
When o'er a silvered plain 
The stars flood melody to light the reign 
Of Love wherein young Hope was born ? — 
Born of the Awakening of unused resources 
Wedded to Vigor of swift water courses * 


From towering summits scurrying cold 
Through miles of cotton blossoms, miles of corn, 
A ISTaiad robed in gold ? — 


Oh that a liAdng lyre might tell 

This patient Mother's virtues ! Dwell 

Upon each deed chivalric of her sons ! 

Oh that an Orpheus might sing 

Of that chill morn whereon there fell 

Such courage courting death 

As merged Purpose into Promise ; flowered incipient life to 

When Victory's voice o'er Moore's lonely dell 
Shook the gray boughs ; forced every woodland bell !^ 
Oh that resounding hymns might ring 
Of Ramseur's Mill and the four hundred under Locke 
Who stilled the booming of a thousand guns ! 
Of Joseph Graham whose twenty score 
Repulsed the madness of four thousand more 
Flung powerless upon a human rock ! 

Of that immortal field in Memory's raptured fabric woven" 
Whereon no foe was lost, no foe uncaptured or uncloven ! 
Of her who won a warrior's crest 
And blazoned Charlotte with The Hornet's Nest — 
The proud escutcheon of the Hornet's IsTest ! 
And of Penelope of old, 
Leading (as chronicles relate) 
The women of quaint Edenton to hold 
High council and protest 
Against coercion by an alien state 
In mad exaction of an alien tax ! 
Of ISTew Bern, Hillsboro, and of Halifax ! 

iThe Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776. 
2The Battle of King's Mountain. 



Oh that a living lyre might tell 

Her virtues ! Dwell 

Upon each deed chivalric of her sons, 

Till from a million throats 

Upon the rushing currents of the years, 

(In tiger-breeding wars through tears) 

There floats 

This shibboleth — The spirit of the Spartan breathes and 

burns ! 
Ah yes, what though her iron days are past 
And though the adamant wherein her fate was cast 
Xo longer binds, — 

The spirit of the Spartan breathes and burns 
And on the shifting winds 
Of Duty seaward turns, — - 


Seaward where torn flags are trailing over crushed and 

crumbled walls. 
Men are sighing, struggling, dying, to be freed from ancient 

And again a righteous Mother, 
Instant to relieve another. 
Instant at her country's call. 
Sends one with this spirit in him 
''To return with Valour's guerdon" — 
(List the Spartan Mother's burden!) 
"Or beneath a soldier's pall !" 
(Oh the pity and the heartache 
And the anguish of it all ! ) 
For Alamance and Bethel's story 
Rings again amid the glory. 
Rings again when at the daybreak, 


With the Southern fire within him, 
With his father's sword without him, 
With the old flag wrapped about him, 
(Oh the triumph and the glory. 
And the rapture of it all ! ) 
For his country's vindication. 
For a friend's amelioration. 
For the healing of his nation 
Gallant Bagley bleeds and falls ! 


Yes, Alamance and Bethel's story 
Heard again amid the glory 
Challenges a nation's praise, 
Challenges the world's amaze ! 

Oh, with this spirit, Carolinians, 

Onward to those pure dominions 

Overspread by angels' pinions. 

By the strong Thought angels' pinions ! 

Through all dreaming with its leaning toward the infinite, 

Through all seeming to God's meaning clear and definite, 

Onward to those pure dominions 

Overspread by angels' pinions. 

Where divine, effulgent light is ! 

Turn not backward where the night is, 

For the broad-orbed sun is risen ; 

Holy Progress calls you: Listen. 


Onward, patriot souls, unfettered. 

Lifting standards, golden-lettered, 

"Esse Quam Viderie" graven. 

Words no coward hands nor craven ! . 


Dare upraise ! The Future calls jou ; 
All her luminous doors uncloses, 
Pelts you with her dew-drenched roses ; 
Subtle Art and Music greet jou ; 
Clear-voiced Learning low entreats you ; 
All the intellects and sages 
Of the lost and buried ages 
Echoing their sublime accl aim : 
Brothers, she who bore you, calls you ; 
Answer her with deathless fame. 



At the mere mention of finance, nnless it be in a sugges- 
tion of a gift to us in the shape of money, most of us at once 
declare our laclv of interest, if not indeed our coniiDlete indif- 
ference. We have become so accustomed to the idea that the 
monetary phase of life is so dry and uninteresting, that the 
consideration of this phase of our life belongs exclusively 
to the economist, the expert historian, or the statesman, that 
most of us, if not indeed all of us, are ignorant of some of 
the most vital and fundamental aspects and problems of our 
common everyday life. 

But, notwithstanding this apparent popular indifference, 
the monetary phase of our common life is really vital to all 
of us — to every man, woman and child among us. We can 
never, even for a single moment, esca23e the question of 
finance, however much we would like to do so. The senti- 
mentalist, who according to his own conceited belief lives 
solely in the realm of the beautiful and the true, — even he is 
most fundamentally dependent upon its forces. Finance is 
not, as many of us have so oftentimes fancied, a subject for- 
eign to our real everyday selves. It is indeed a most vital 
and universal phase of our normal life, of our life as indi- 
viduals and as collective bodies of individuals. It is ever 
present and vital in our consumption of wealth, and in our 
production and distribution of wealth. It is ever a problem, 
and a most serious one, for the state, which of necessity must 
consume wealth for the satiation of all its myriad wants and 
for the performance of all its protective and developmental 
functions. The state must not only satiate all its manifold 



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wants, but also perform its part in the production of wealth 
or the conditions of wealth production. It must do its part 
in creating and maintaining efficient and equitable conditions, 
in which the individual citizen may produce the maximum of 
wealth and the maximum of enjoyment from its production 
or consumption. 

Indeed, the individual must needs have money as a stand- 
ard of his values and a medium of their exchange before it 
is at all possible for him to play an important role in life. 
In fact, money, an efficient and just system, is one of the 
really great achievements of civilized man. For all men who 
live in a stage above that of the most primitive type, who are 
above the exceedingly crude j^hase of the savage hunter, fish- 
erman, and root-grubber, money is both a necessity and an 
efficient instrument of individual and social weath and wel- 
fare. Whenever man has products which he desires to ex- 
change with another man, wherever he may 1)e, and the higher 
his civilization and culture the greater number of such pro- 
ducts does he possess, then must he have money ; then must he 
possess a standard of the values of these products and a 
medium of their exchange. 

And the state, as well as the individual, has vital need of 
money. It, like the individual, must needs have money as a 
standard of values and a medium of their exchange. So 
numerous and varied are the State's wants and functions that 
we can not here give them in detail. It must perform all the 
functions of living, all the functions of protecting itself and 
all its citizens, and all the functions of developing itself and 
the conditions of peace, order, prosperity, and welfare, for all 
its citizens. 

In all these phases of life, wdiether of the individual or of 
the state, money plays the ever vital part of transmitting 
economic forces and values, just as the blood carries to all 
parts of the body the physical forces. It also plays the part 
of supplying a common expression of these forces and values, 


just as language gives to us a common medium of the ex- 
pression of our thoughts and feelings. 

With these convictions ever present in our minds, let us 
now trace and analyze the finances of our ancestors — the 
monetary system, and its forces and problems, of the JSTorth 
Carolina colonists. And we shall treat this vital phase of our 
colonial life under the following heads: Coin, Barter, and 
Paper. ^ 


The first colonists, in jSTorth Carolina as well as elsewhere 
in the American provinces, possessed little, if any, money in 
the shape of coin. They were for the most part poor, and 
the small amount of wealth which they possessed was in other 
forms than metallic money. Their wealth was in their weap- 
ons, tools, implements, seeds, cattle, and horses, and in this 
form it was only very slight. People of much wealth were 
now comparatively few anyivhere in Europe, and life in a 
far-distant and savage land, where at best it w^as very severe, 
could offer little attraction to the wealthy and the contented. 
It was indeed the economic force, or prospect rather, that 
brought men and women from old and comparatively pros- 
perous countries — it was the hope of economic betterment that 
brought our ancestors to this wild and unknown land. The 
provincial government, either in ITorth Carolina or elsewhere, 
was forbidden to coin money in any form or denomination, 
and consequently the colonists could obtain only that coin 
which came to them as a result of their trade with English- 
men, in the motherland, or with foreigners. During the 

iSince every fact upon which this paper is ba>ed can be found in our 
great collection, The Colonial Records of Xorth Carolina, and in the acts 
of the provincial assembl.y — in the first four Revisals of North Carolina 
Statutes or in manuscript now in the office of the Secretary of State — 
we do not deem it necessary to make detailed references to these collec- 
tions. For full details we would, with the reader's permission, refer to 
our North Carolina Study in English Colonial Government (Macmillan's, 
N. Y. ), pp. 125-147. And we shall, in referring to this work, use thia 
abbreviated title: Raper's North Carolina. 


colonial days English coins occasionally came to our ancestors, 
and these were of the denominations of pound, shilling, and 
pence. And at times came Spanish silver coins, called 
Spanish dollars, and Brazilian gold coins. To the North 
Carolina colonists the Spanish coins came rarely. Our colon- 
ial ancestors for many years lived in almost complete isola- 
tion. They carried on little direct trade with the colonists 
of the Spanish islands ; their exchanges with foreigners, even 
with their friends in England, were largely carried on through 
the ISTew England traders. Ships from iSTew England came 
to our shores, exchanged finished products for our surplus 
of raw materials and finished goods, and then transported 
them to the Spanish islands or Europe. The Carolina colo- 
nists sold for foreign or English consumption the surplus 
products of their streams, forests, and farms, but for the most 
part they received in exchange finished goods, not coin. 


The early colonists of ISTorth Carolina, coming into the pos- 
session of little coin by means of their commerce, and being 
forbidden by the government in England to mint such money, 
must needs resort to the use of barter or paper currency. 
And they used barter currency extensively, if not indeed ex- 
clusively, until 1712, w^hen paper money came into existence ; 
and the use of barter continued for many years after this 
time. This currency was, to be sure, no new creation by the 
Carolina colonists. Its use has been universal in certain 
stages of economic development. AVhenever people have sur- 
plus products to exchange with each other and do not possess 
a common standard of the values of these products or common 
media of their exchange, they always resort to barter cur- 
rency. They, by common consent or by legislative enactment, 
declare that a certain one of their products shall serve as a 
standard of all values, and that a number of their commodities 
shall serve as media of exchange; and to these commodities 


they assign certain legal tender valnes, in terms of which all 
their exchanges must take place. The Carolina colonists 
already possessed a standard of values — the English pound, 
sterling. In terms of this standard all their barter commodi- 
ties were given a legal exchange value. 

Exactly when the Carolina colonists resorted to the use 
of barter currency and gave it definite form we are unable to 
find out, though we have many reasons for thinking that it 
w^as early in their provincial life. In 1715-1716 the lords 
proprietors allowed, though unwillingly, an act of the assem- 
bly to go into operation, in which seventeen commodities were 
enumerated and assigned full legal tender values as barter 
currency ; and this act was only a revisal of a former one. 
This act, changed a few years later so as to incorporate a few 
more commodities, was in operation until the middle of the 
eighteenth century, notwithstanding much opposition on the 
part of the lords proprietors or the crown officials (after 
1731). The following is the table of commodities and their 
legal tender exchange ratios in terms of the standard, ster- 
ling, as declared by the act of 1715-1710 : 

Pound. Shilling. Pence. 

iTobacco, per hundred 10 

Indian corn, per bushel 1 8 

Wheat, per bushel 3 6 

Cheese, per pound 4 

Row buck and doe skins, per pound 9 

Dressed buck and doe skins, per pound 2 6 

Tallow, per pound 5 

Leather, per pound 8 

Beaver and otter skins, per pound 2 6 

Wildcat skins, per piece 1 

Butter, per pound 6 

Feathers, per pound 1 4 

Tar, per barrel 10 

Pitch, per barrel 1 

Whale oil, per barrel 1 10 

Beef, per barrel 1 10 

Pork, per barrel 2 5 

This act Avas changed in 1723. Indian corn was now given 
the legal tender ratio of 2 shillings per bushel, in the place of 
1 shilling and 8 pence, as by the act of 1715-171 G, and wheat 

iColonial Records, IV., pp. 201-92. 


was given the value of 4 shillings^ in the place of 3 shillings 
and 6 pence. Hemp, at S pence per pound, rice, at 1 pound 
and 5 shillings per hundred, and turpentine, at 1 pound and 
5 shillings per barrel, were now added to the table of barter 

iis was to be expected, these legal ratios of the barter com- 
modities did not long remain the same as their market ratios. 
Each commodity became more abundant or less abundant as 
compared with the demand for it, and consequently its market 
price must needs vary. Its market price must be either 
higher than the legal price or lower than this price. For 
instance, the market price of deer skins was in 1731 practi- 
cally the same as that fixed by the law of 1715-1716, while 
the prices of tar and pitch in 1731 were from one-third to 
one-fourth of their legal value as fixed in 1716. Since the 
assembly for the most part took the maximum market value 
of the barter commodities and declared this to be the legal 
tender value, not only for that time but also for many years 
afterward, it was most natural that in the case of many of the 
commodities their market value should be much lower than 
their legal value. Exactly what the exchange ratio of these 
barter conmiodities in terms of the standard, sterling, was 
for the Avhole period of their use we can not say. It is, 
however, a well established fact that barter was for practi- 
cally the whole period of its existence a depreciated currency. 
We have specific evidence that the average market ratio of 
these barter commodities in terms of sterling was in 1700, 
1731, and 1733, three to one. So great w^as the depreciation 
of this currency, so much was the market value of many of 
these commodities below that assigned to them by law, that 
the lords proprietors at times refused to receive this cur- 
rency in ])ayment of their quit-rents,' unless this money should 
be offered at a fair market rate.' 

iColonial Record, IV., pp. 292-03. 

20nit-i-ents were the land rents due from the colonists to the lords 

3Eaper's North Carolina, pp. 129-30; Colonial Records, III., p. 185. 


Such a currency, with its many fluctuations and its great 
depreciations, was, to say the least, very inadequate, if not 
indeed disadvantageous. It caused fluctuations in prices 
and wages. It was certainly a most inconvenient medium of 
exchange, hoth to the buyer and the seller, to the payer and 
the payee. It was also a dishonest form of the payment of 
fees to the pro^dncial ofiicers and of quit-rents to the proprie- 
tors, to say nothing of its great inconvenience. These fees 
and quit-rents were flxed in amount upon the basis of barter 
being equal to sterling, and were therefore only in part paid 
when barter money was actually worth from one-third to one- 
fourth sterling. Little wonder is it that we have so many and 
so frequent complaints of such a currency, on the part of the 
provincial officers, the lords proprietors, and the crown. And 
the defects of such a currency became more and more grievous 
as time went on and the economic life of the colonists became 
more extensive. There would be fluctuations and deprecia- 
tions in this currency, even though the assembly at each 
session established new rates of the exchange of these com- 
modities in terms of the standard, sterling ; and this they most 
certainly did not do. Such a currency must be set aside 
entirely or the colonists must, at least, have some other form 
of money to supplement it. They coiild not, because of an 
order from England, mint coin money. They therefore re- 
sorted to the issue of paper currency, to supplement or take 
the place of barter. And the history of this paper money 
is full of disaster and broken faith, if not indeed of dishonor. 


That a demand for this form of currency came early from 
the Carolina colonists, we are most certain. But the lords 
proprietors did not grant such a demand until 1712, and it 
was the pressing need of a financial emergency, that of war, 
which now caused them to yield. The provincial government 
was now burdened with a debt which the Tuscarora war had 
brought upon it. And, though this debt amounted to only 


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about 4,000 pounds, a really small sum, so inadequate was 
the province's machinery of taxation, and so great and funda- 
mental was the colonists' opposition to paying a tax, that it 
was decided by the assembly to borrow this amount by forc- 
ing into circulation 4,000 pounds of bills of credit. These 
bills were given the same legal exchange ratio as barter cur- 
rency ; they were based upon the common standard of values, 
a pound sterling. They were also made full legal tender 
money — that is, they were forced into circulation by the pro- 
vision that the refusal to accept them in payment of a debt 
caused the debt to become null. While theoretically they Avere 
to be redeemed, they were in actual fact irredeemable, at 
least for a time. To be sure, the legislature levied a tax for 
the purpose of their redemption, but this tax was only in 
slight part collected, and very slowly at that. But, notwith- 
standing its inconvertibility, this form of money jDassed for 
a time at its par value ; its volume was small and the demand 
of the colonists for money was comparatively great.^ 

A new form of currency had now been issued by the prov- 
incial assembly, and its use had now been allowed, though 
very unwillingly, by the lords proprietors. When once the 
precedent of issuing irredeemable paper money was estab- 
lished, it was certainly a most difficult thing to resist the 
demand of the colonists for a further use of this kind of 
money. In 1713 this demand was again granted, and 8,000 
pounds of bills of credit were emitted. To these bills, as to 
those of the issue of 1712, full legal tender powers were given, 
and they were forced into circulation among the colonists. 
They, like the bills of the first issue, were theoretically re- 
deemable. For this purpose a tax upon land and polls was 
levied, but this tax, like the one levied in 1712, was only in 
slight part collected, and the bills were in actual fact not re- 
deemed. They, as a matter of course, did not long pass on 

iRaper's North Carolina, pp. 130-1. 




the market at their par value; there were now in circulation 
12,000 pounds ($40,000) of practically irredeemable papor 
money, a supply very large for a population of not more than 
10,000. Soon they had depreciated within the province to 
the extent of forty per cent of their legal value, and outside 
of North Carolina they were all the time practically worth- 

As we have already said, these issues of irredeemable and 
depreciating currency were very unwillingly allowed by the 
lords proprietors. But their opi^osition came not because of 
their conviction that such a currency would bring disturb- 
ances to provincial prices, but because they were keenly aware 
that this money would be an unfair form of jDayment of fees 
to their officers in the province and of quit-rents due to them- 
selves from their land. Their opposition to the issue of such 
a currency was, however, of no avail. The lords proprietors 
lived in England, then an exceedingly great distance — a 
many-days' journey — from Xorth Carolina, and their control 
over the provincial government was at best only slight. 

This kind of currency once being established, and the policy 
of practical independence on the part of the provincial assem- 
bly once being allowed by the lords proprietors, paper money 
continued to be the chief currency of our ancestors for many 
years, in fact until the English parliament in 176-4 forbade 
the issue, by any of the provincial assemblies, of bills of 
credit, and in 1773 of treasury notes. In 1714-1715, though 
the Indian wars were over, and, as time has proved, forever, 
though there was no pressing need for public revenue to the 
provincial government, the assembly again ordered, in spite 
of the opposition of the lords proprietors, an emission of bills 
of credit — 24,000 pounds. This issue was for the purpose 
of retiring the bills which had been emitted in 1712 and 1713, 
now much worn and defaced, and of paying the other debts 
of the provincial government. The taxes which had been 

iRaper's North Carolina, p. 131. 


levied for the redemption of the first two issues had either 
not been collected or the funds accruing from these taxes had 
been expended for other uses than their legal ones — in either 
case a most remarkable comment upon the province's fiscal 
fairness and honesty. And for the redemption of this issue, 
that of 1715, no limit of time was fixed, though theoretically 
a tax was levied for its redemption some time or other. These 
bills were given a legal exchange ratio equal to that of the 
barter currency, which was now 1.5 to 1 sterling. To prevent 
their depreciation, the assembly resorted to a most extraordi- 
nary and foolish plan. The assembly not only gave to these 
bills full legal tender powers, but also established a severe 
penalty for refusal to accept them in payment of debt. For 
refusing to accept them meant, so the law declared, the for- 
feiture of twice the amount of the bills offered. But, not- 
withstanding such a provision, this paper currency did not 
pass on the market at its legal ratio of exchange. Irredeem- 
able paper money rarely, if ever, passes at par value ; the 
conditions of its redemption are too uncertain and vague. 
The very fact that the assembly provided such a penalty for 
refusal to accept clearly enough indicates the weakness of 
such money. The public credit of the provincial government 
was too weak for these bills to pass on the market at their par 
value, regardless of such an extraordinary penalty. By 1731 
they were passing at 2.5 to 1 sterling, though by the law of 
their issue they must be accepted at 1.5 to 1 sterling. And 
now even the lords proprietors refused to accept such depre- 
ciated currency in payment of lands or quit-rents, though 
they were at this time accepting in payment of such claims 
that inconvenient and depreciated currency kno^\Ti as barter.^ 
So inefficiently was the tax which was levied upon land and 
polls for the redemption of these bills of credit of 1715, 
that one-half of the issue — 12,000 pounds — was still out- 
standing in 1722, seven years after their emission. And, 

iRapers North Carolina, pp. 128, 132-3. 


too, it was most evident that the colonists did not seriously 
intend to redeem them, for in 1720 the assembly enacted 
a jDrovision which diminished the rate of the tax, and 
this in spite of a clause in the act of 1714-1715 to the effect 
that the rate should never be diminished as long as any of 
this paper money was in circulation. These bills which were 
in 1722 still unredeemed were worn and defaced, and during 
this year the assembly ordered that they be replaced by new 
bills. This act, together with the fact that one-half of the 
issue of 1715 had been redeemed, it was hoped, would bring 
greater value to the province's paper money. But such a 
desirable result did not come. Bills of credit for practically 
the whole of the next seven years, from 1722 to 1729, passed 
on the market at about 5 to 1 sterling, while by the act of 
their issue they were given a legal exchange ratio of 1.5 to 1 
sterling. And little wonder is it that their depreciation was 
so great. The faith of the provincial government had too 
many times been broken, and during these seven years very 
little was done to bring back public credit to a condition of 
fairness and honesty.^ 

And this was by no means the last of irredeemable and 
depreciating paper money. The colonists were for many 
years yet to be cursed by the excessive use of this kind of 
currency — a curse which came to them while they were ex- 
pecting a blessing. In 1729, just before the crown as- 
sumed administrative control of the province, though after 
the transfer of o^\Tiership of the soil had been made from the 
lords proprietors to the English king, 40,000 pounds of this 
very kind of currency, bills of exchange, were by the pro- 
vincial assembly ordered to be emitted. The lords proprie- 
tors had all the time opposed the issue of inflated and inade- 
quate, unfair and dishonest money, and the English crown 
was soon to advise, specifically and in strong terms, against its 
continued use. But now in the interim, as it really was,. 

iRaper's North Carolina, pp. 133-4. 


in the period between the administration of the lords pro- 
prietors and that of the king, the colonists fairly satiated their 
inordinate desire for such inflated money. They increased 
the paper currency of the province to the extent of 30,000 
pounds of bills of credit. They now, through an order from 
their assembly, issued 40,000 pounds of such paper money; 
10,000 pounds of this to be used for sinking the old bills, 
which were now^ defaced and which had really come down 
from 171-2 and 1713, and 30,000 pounds to be loaned. For 
the redemption of this total issue, 40,000 pounds, a provision 
was made for the loaning of 30,000 at six per cent, interest 
for a period of fifteen years ; the interest accruing from this 
loan would, they thought, bring in sufficient funds with which 
to redeem the whole issue — 40,000 pounds — and leave a bal- 
ance to the credit of the provincial government of 5,000 
pounds. But this plan, if it was not indeed foolish, came to 
a disastrous failure. The security upon which the loans were 
made was, at least in many cases, the most inadequate. To 
these new bills was given the legal exchange ratio of 5.17 
to 1 sterling, which was approximately the market ratio of 
the old bills. But these bills, like all the others, did not long 
pass at their par value. The banking scheme of the assembly, 
by which these bills were to be redeemed, was so inefiiciently 
executed, the securities upon which the 30,000 pounds were 
loaned were so unsound, so long had the faith of the provin- 
cial government been broken, that irredeemable paper money 
could not possibly pass at par. By 1731 the bills of 1729 
were circulating at about S to 1 sterling, though by the act 
of their emission they were given full legal tender powers 
to pass on the market at 5.7 to 1 sterling.^ 

Such was the monetary condition when the English crown 
actually assumed control of the provincial government, such 
was the province's depreciated currency in 1731. And the 

iRaper's North Carolina, pp. 134-5. 


first royal Governor, George Burrington, came with full and 
specific instructions from the oflicials in England not to ac- 
cept such depreciated money in payment of fees and quit- 
rents. But such instructions could not possibly be carried 
out. Only in theory could Burrington and the other crown 
oflicials in the province refuse to accept such currency in 
payment of fees and quit-rents ; the colonists refused to pay 
these obligations unless they were allowed to pay them in 
their own money. And the royal governor was also instructed 
not to allow any further emission of such depreciating and 
dishonest currency. But the conditions which prevailed 
throughout the province, the great powers wdiich the provincial 
assembly had gradually acquired through all the years of 
the proprietary period, and the extreme weakness of the Eng- 
lish control over the Colonists, — all these circumstances stood 
face to face with the royal instructions, and the instructions 
were ignored or set aside. By 1735 not one tenth of the 
money due from the loan of 1729 had been collected, and 
the small amount which had been collected had been used 
for other than the legal purpose of redeeming the bills of 
credit ; the whole issue of 1729 was still in circulation. 
Quit-rents to the King and fees to the crown's ofiicers in the 
province were greatly in arrears. All this created a most 
favornblo ntmosphere for the advocates of inflated currency, 
and they now demanded a further issue of irredeemable paper 
money. And Governor Johnston, notwithstanding his royal 
instructions to the contrary, saw fit to accept an act of the 
assembly by w^hich 40,000 pounds of new bills of credit were 
emitted. These new bills were to sink the issue of 1729 ; 
and it was enacted that the loan of 1729 should be continued 
and that the funds which accrued from it should be reloaned 
until 1744. The colonists again, as in 1729, made a frank 
and open declaration in favor of a permanent use of irredeem- 
able and fluctuating paper money. In all their early issues 


they made theoretical provision for their speedy redemp- 
tion. But now, as in 1729, they provided for a large volume 
of paper money for a period of at least ten years. In the 
past, the use of paper money had been practically permanent, 
though in theory only temporary. Xow it is made perma- 
nent both theoretically and practically.^ 

And this is not all of the monetary legislation of the year 
1Y35. In order to pay certain claims against the provincial 
government, presumably salaries to the members of the legis- 
lature, the assembly made a grant to the crown of 14,150 
pounds. In return for this grant of revenue to the cro'vvn, 
the assembly violated the royal instructions which forbade a 
further issue of bills of credit. They ordered to be issued 
12,500 pounds of new bills, in addition to the 40,000 pounds 
already mentioned, and levied a tax upon 2'>olls and liquors 
for a period of five years." 

With 52,500 pounds of paper money in circulation for a 
population of only 35,000 whites, with very inefficient provis- 
ions for its redemption, and with a continuous record of bro- 
ken public faith since 1712, it is not at all strange that the 
new bills of 1735 should depreciate. Soon they were passing 
at 10 to 1 sterling, while by the act of their issue they were 
given the full legal tender powers of 5.17 to 1 sterling — in 
reality the total volume of the province's actual media of 
exchange was only about 5,000 pounds sterling. All these 
bills should have been fully redeemed by 1745, but in actual 
fact none of them had been redeemed by this time. The 
loans of 1729 and 1735 had proved to be disastrous failures 
and the taxes levied in 1735 had either not been collected at 
all or had been illegally used for other purposes than that 
of redeeming a part of the issue of 1735.' 

The monetary situation from 1745 to 1748, to say the 

iRaper's N- C, pp. 135-6. 
sibid., pp. 135-6. 
3lbid., pp. 136-38. 


least, was very unsatisfactory. To relieve tte depreciated 
currency and to pay fees, quit-rents, and legislators' salaries, 
many attempts were made to emit more bills of credit. In 
the minds of many of the colonists the one panacea for all 
financial ills was the issue by the assembly of bills of credit- 
to inflate and inflate a currency which was already absurdly 
swollen. These attempts were, however, unsuccessful until 
1748, when Governor Johnston, in spite of his royal instruc- 
tions to the contrary, yielded. The province must make de- 
fence against the French and the Spanish. The crown of- 
ficials must have their salaries, which were now greatly in 
arrears. Under the pressure of such conditions. Governor 
Johnston accepted a bill which provided for the issue of 
21,350 pounds of bills of credit, and the whole amount was 
voted to the crown. These new bills were given full legal 
tender powers at the exchange ratio of 1 to 3 sterling and 
1 to 7.5 old bills. They were called "new proclamation" 
money, in distinction to the old bills and barter currency, 
which were called "old proclamation." For their redemption 
a poll tax was levied, to be collected until all of the bills 
should be redeemed — redemption at an indefinite time, per- 
haps never. These bills were to be used for the following 
purposes: 7,000 pounds to sink the whole outstanding paper 
currency, nominally 52,500 pounds, but in terms of sterling 
only 7,000 pounds ; 6,000 pounds for coast defence, and the 
remainder for salaries. 21,350 pounds of paper money was 
not an excessively large amount of currency for a rapidly 
growing population and agricultural development; $71,093 
should not have been an excessive amount of money for a 
population of about 85,000. But still these new bills, this 
"new proclamation" money, depreciated. Its redemption 
was too uncertain. It was based upon a tax which, according 
to the experiences of the past, would not be at all efiiciently 

iRaper's N. C, pp. 138-39. 


For six years the demands for further inflation of the cur- 
rency were resisted. The next issue was in 1754. The 
fourth intercolonial war, popularly known as the French and 
Indian war, was now fast coming on. The province must 
needs defend itself ; it must have forts, soldiers, and provisions 
of war. Matthew Rowan, who as president of tlie council was 
now the crown's chief officer in the province, in the interim 
of Governor Johnston, now dead, and Governor Dobbs, who 
had not yet arrived, gave his assent to a bill of the assembly 
by which 40,000 pounds of bills of credit were emitted. 
These bills, like those of 1748, were "new proclamation" 
money and were given legal tender j)owers of exchange at the 
ratio of 4 to 3 sterling. Provision was, in theory at least, 
made for their redemption. A tax was levied upon polls and 
imported liquors for this purpose, but this, like former taxes, 
was very inefficiently collected, and the bills, like all former 
ones, depreciated.^ 

War continued and the province's burdens increased. 
Governor Dobbs, though desirous of complying with his royal 
instructions which forbade the issue of bills of credit, was 
really forced to assent to a further emission of paper money. 
He gave his assent to an issue, not of bills of credit, but of 
treasury notes; in 1756, 3,400 pounds, in 1757 and 1758, 
25,806 pounds, in all 29,206 pounds of treasury notes. 
These notes were essentially different from the bills of credit 
which had so long and with such disastrous results been 
issued. Unlike these bills, the notes bore interest. They 
were also redeemable within a short time ; a poll and liquor 
tax was levied for their redemption. The bills, as we have 
seen, had been practically irredeemable, though in theory 
some provision had always been made for their redemption. 
And in this instance, that of the treasury notes, the provincial 
officers largely kept the public faith. By 1764 they had paid, 

iRaper's N. C, pp. 139-40. 


in interest and principal, 23,807 pounds on these notes — the 
first really faithful fiscal performance since 1712, when the 
colonists started upon their policy of unsound and wasteful 
l^aper money. Though these issues and their comparatively 
speedy redemption brought much relief to a bad monetary 
situation, still it was expecting too much to hope that they 
would bring in a sound condition of public credit. Public 
faith broken constantly for more than forty years — this was 
a great difficulty to overcome.^ 

While these treasury notes were redeemed, almost according 
to promise, the bills of credit issued in 1718 and 1751 were 
not redeemed, at least rapidly. They were, therefore, depre- 
ciating. By 1759 they were passing on the market at only 
1.9 to 1 sterling, while by the act of their issue they had the 
legal tender ratio of 1.33 to 1 sterling. And this depreciation 
came in the face of a rapidly growing population and con- 
sequently an increasing demand for money.^ 

And still the jDrovince must provide the expenses of war. 
Governor Dobbs, in spite of royal instructions to the contra- 
ry, accepted in 1760 a bill of the assembly by which 12,000 
pounds of bills of credit were ordered to be emitted ; and again 
in 1761, 20,000 pounds. These bills, like those of former is- 
sues, were given full legal tender powers. They were also 
really irredeemable, though in theory at least a tax was levied 
for their redemption. The volume of this kind of currency 
had now become large. The acts of 1748, 1754, 1760, and 
1761 had put into circulation 93,350 pounds of legal tender, 
non-interest bearing, paper money. By 1764 only 25,286 
pounds of this currency had been redeemed. But this was 
really a remarkable showing, since during the first forty years 
of the issue of such bills practically none had been redeemed. 
There were, then, still in circulation 68,064 pounds of bills 
of credit and 6,769 pounds of treasury notes — a total of 

iRaper's N. C, pp. 140-1. 
2lbid., p. 141. 


74,833 pounds of paper money. This was an amount of 
currency not apparently excessive for a population of at least 
200,000. But we must remember that barter was still, to 
an extent, used in the western portions of the province.^ 

We have now come to the end of the issue of bills of credit ; 
the issue of 1761 was the last. The emission of this kind of 
currency had long been contrary to the king's instructions, 
but, as we have seen, these instructions were not infrequently 
set aside. JSTow, in 1764, the English parliament enacted a 
law which forbade its use, and from this time until the down- 
fall of the royal government the demands of the colonists 
for this inflated currency were never granted. But stiii the 
bills w^hich were outstanding, those of 174S, 1754, 1760, and 
1761, did not pass on the market at their par value. In 
1767 they were exchanging at the ratio of 1.82 to 1 sterling, 
and in 1771 at 1.60 to 1, though legally they were to pass 
at the ratio of 1.33 to 1 sterling." 

Why this continued depreciation ? The population was 
rapidly increasing. Business was prosperous. And these 
bills were being redeemed. But now, in 1768, the assembly, 
perhaps for the specific purpose of putting an end to a de- 
crease in the paper currency, ordered that the taxes which 
were levied in 1760 and 1761 for sinking the bills of these 
years, should no longer be collected. In the same year 20,000 
pounds of debenture notes were issued. Bills of credit had 
been forbidden by parliament. Governor Tryon, who needed 
money to pay the expenses of his first campaign against the 
"regulators," and to finish his magnificent palace at l!^ew- 
bern, gave his assent to such an issue. Though these notes 
swelled the paper currency, they were not made legal tender 
— were not forced into circulation by law, — and provision 
was made for their speedy redemption. The issue of these 
notes did not, however, permanently improve the fiscal situa- 

iRaper's N. C, pp. 141-2. 
2lbid., pp. 143, 145. 


tion. By the close of 1771 the provincial government, main- 
ly because of a second campaign against the "regulators," 
was under a floating debt of 60,000 pounds. There were also 
outstanding 42,800 pounds of bills of credit. To provide 
for the floating debt, the assembly passed a bill and Governor 
Martin gave his assent to it, whereby 60,000 pounds of new 
debenture notes were issued. This issue of debenture notes 
made the paper currency at about 100,000 pounds, a volume 
of money not too great for a population of about 250,000. 
But still these bills and notes did not circulate at their par 
value. They were given the legal ratio of 1.33 to 1 sterling, 
but vrere passing on the market at 1.6 to 1. Too long had the 
provincial government broken its promise.^ 

V\ e come now to the end of the issue of paper money by 
the provincial government of IsTorth Carolina. The colonists 
still asked for more inflated paper currency, but from 1771 
to the downfall of the roj-'al government, in 1775, their de- 
mands were not granted. 

And this is the record of the finances of the Carolina colo- 
nists, though presented in its barest outlines and told with 
all too little clearness and interest. Though a record of fail- 
ure and even of unfairness, still many excuses should be of- 
fered for it. Lack of an understanding of the deep forces 
and problems of money, primitive conditions, and hard cir- 
cumstances — these in part furnish an apology for such public 
conduct on the part of our colonial ancestors. And the mone- 
tary record of the other twelve American provinces is no less 
dark. They each have left a record of inefficiency and un- 
fairness in their administration of that most difficult prob- 
lem, money. And, too, the monetary record of the American 
people since they have become an independent and sovereign 
people is far from being all bright, honorable and glorious. 

iRaper's N. C, pp. 144-5. 



Joseph Gales, martyr to freedom of the press in England, 
editor of The Raleigh Register for thirty-four years, champion 
of popular education, advocate of every measure for moral and 
industrial development of the people; his political creed com- 
bined the liberty upheld by Jefi'erson with the progressive 
national policies sustained by Adams, Webster and Clay and 
placed him ever in advance of his time. 

This brief statement of fact is enough to justify our interest 
in the career of one who left an indelible impress for good 
upon this community and State. Joseph Gales was born 
February 4, 1701, in the village of Eckington, Derbyshire, 
England. His great grandfather and his grandfather had 
successively taught the village school and were men of the 
model immortalized in Goldsmith's "Deserted Village.'' 
The father, Thomas Gales, who lived to an advanced age, 
was likewise described as "an Israelite in whom there was no 

Joseph Gales was the eldest son, an unenviable position in 
a crowded humble household. As a child he attended school 
and was proud to occupy a place at his father's side in the 
village choir. He never lost his fondness for music and in 
his latter years was wont to credit this early passion as one 
of the most salutary influences in his life. When a lad of 
thirteen he was bound to a man in Manchester for seven years 
to learn bookbinding and printing. This was a common 
practice even at a much later period until it was superseded 
by the apprentice system of today. The youth was grossly 
abused in the Manchester household and finally determined 
to make his escape. With only half a crown in his pocket 
he trudged fifty miles back to his native village. Many 


years later, touching upon this experience, Gales wrote "In 
a solitary spot on the mountain moors over which I wended 
my way, I bent my knees in prayer to my God, thanking 
Him for my release from a heavy bondage and praying for 
His future guidance and protection." Relatives then ap- 
pealed successfully to the law in his behalf. Later he was 
apprenticed to an excellent man in jSTewark and shared the 
refinements of his home. The youth made the most of his 
opportunities and soon became a master printer and binder. 

While employed at this trade, the young man won the favor 
of Winifred Marshall, youngest daughter of John Marshall, 
of Newark-ujion-Trent. ISTow developing into a strong, 
courageous man, his habits frugal and his character irre- 
proachable, his clear intellect and sympathetic heart fired 
with a passion for peace and justice, he added to these traits 
the inestimable blessing of centering his temporal affections 
in the heart of a worthy and excellent woman. Winifred 
Marshall was related to Lord Melbourne and came from a 
fainily of distinction but no longer wealthy. She was her 
father's pet and constant companion; together they studied 
Shakespeare, ]\rilton, and the political essays of the day on the 
go^'ernmental side, for John Marshall was a staunch Tory. 
Her literary talent was recognized and several of her stories 
and verses published. "Lady Julia Seaton" was the title 
of a romance written when she was seventeen ; thirty years 
later in America she had a granddaughter who bore this very 
name, — a strange coincidence indeed. 

The marriage was solemnized May 4, 1784, in the Epis- 
copal church at l^ewark by the bride's brother, a clergyman. 
After a visit to the Gales family in Eckington, the young 
couple went to Sheffield in Yorkshire, where the groom had 
recently established himself as a printer. The first work 
from his presses was a folio illustrated Bible with annotations 
bv his ffifted wife. 


The Dissenters from the established church were numerous 
in Sheffield and they were practically all Liberals in poli- 
tics. Gales' studious mind had led him to accept Unita- 
rianism as his religious faith. In 1782, at the dawn of the 
political revolution eminent in England, he threw himself, then 
a youth of twenty, full hearted on the side of the great unen- 
franchised class. Reform became his passion but it never 
dimmed his sense of justice. His cultured wife, reared in 
far different surroundings, embraced with zeal the religious 
and political convictions of her husband. In 1787 Gales be- 
gan the publication of The Sheffield Register, a weekly news- 
paper, and ardently championed reform. He warmly wel- 
comed the French revolution. The English ministry, under 
leadership of Pitt, soon resorted to severe measures to repress 
the liberal wave, fearing that it would bring calamity to 
the monarchy. 

The advocates of reform had formed various Constitutional 
Societies and Gales was secretary of the organization in his 
town. Some of these associations may have aimed to em- 
ploy force in correcting existing injustice, but such was cer- 
tainly not the purpose of the Sheffield society. The govern- 
ment was nevertheless alarmed. Holt, a printer in Gales' 
office, was sentenced to four years imprisonment for publish- 
ing a letter by the Duke of Richmond advocating reform. 
The flame was further fanned by the prosecution of Dr. 
Priestly, a Unitarian divine beloved by the Gales family, as 
the alleged author of a circular asking friends of liberty to 
celebrate the fall of the Bastile. Rumors of riots at Birming- 
ham and other points increased the excitement at Sheffield. 

The arrival of Tom Paine with his ^'Rights of Man" fur- 
ther frightened the English ministry. Booksellers were 
vigorously prosecuted for handling the book. In his shop 
Gales found a big demand for ''The Rights of Man." While 
Gales was in London on a businss trip a timely warning giv- 


en by Thomas Diggs, an American visiting in Sheffield, en- 
abled Mrs. Gales to dispose of every copy just before the 
King's officers arrived and instituted a vain search for ''those 
dangerous books," "those wicked, seditious works," which 
George III had condemned and forbidden to his subjects. 
From personal acquaintance Joseph Gales entertained regard 
for Paine, and Mrs. Gales paid him tribute in later years by 
writing of "the simplicity and sweetness of his nature and 
his sprightly wit that charmed the social circle." Paine's 
flight and the King's proclamation would have produced a 
riot at Sheffield had not Josej)h Gales, "who led the poor 
man's cause, advocated equal rej)resentation and treated all 
men as brothers," persuaded the mob to go peaceably to their 

A study of the file of The Sheffield Register of 1794 re- 
veals no policy w^hich the enlightened twentieth century would 
not applaud. Joseph Gales' clear convictions gleam in his 
brief editorials. His sympathy was openly expressed for the 
two hundred wretched debtors confined in Lancaster Castle, 
with accommodation for only eighty persons, two sleeping in a 
bed. When a fifteen-year-old girl was hung for the murder 
of her grandfather the editor grieved because the child had 
been given no chance and was so ignorant and wretched as 
not to know right from wrong. Again he remonstrates on 
the severity of the law when a farmer in March, 1794, was 
sentenced to die for shooting a neighbor's foal. The Shef- 
field editor applauded "the glorious example" of the jury, 
which refused five times to obey the mandates of the court 
and persisted in a verdict of "not guilty" in the case of Rob- 
ert Erpe, charged with speaking libel in that he criticised 
the Pitt ministry. "Twelve gold medals" ought to be pre- 
sented to those jurors, declared Gales. 

Twice at least was the Sheffield editor provoked to sar- 
casm. When Pitt entertained certain church dignitaries at 


a Sunday dinner Gales observed "Th^ conversation of this 
pious company, we are informed, turned upon the profane- 
ness of the French atheists and many holy toasts were given 
for success to throat cutting in defence of our religion." 
When a company for the "Conversion of the Negroes in the 
West Indies to Christianity" was incorporated, he wrote, "If 
we add to these advantages the practical comment we, as a 
Christian nation, are displaying in our continuance of a trade 
in which we annually murder or enslave fifty thousand 
wretched Africans, their brethren in the West Indies will no 
doubt most readily embrace the Christian religion." When a 
minister, a lawyer and three other advocates of reform in 
representation were tried at Edinburg and sentenced to four- 
teen years exile. Gales echoed the sentiment of Charles Fox 
who exclaimed, "God help the people who have such judges." 
Monday, April 7, 1794, was a field day for the "friends 
of justice, of liberty and of humanity" in Shefiield. Hen- 
ry Redhead Yorke, a young man of great promise, a grad- 
uate of Cambridge, a protege of Edmund Burke, had an- 
nounced his allegiance to the Liberal cause after a visit to 
Paris, where he met leaders of the Jacobin clubs. He was 
hailed as an invaluable ally, and the Constitutional Society 
and the Society of the Friends of the People at Shefiield en- 
dorsed the young man for parliament. Twelve thousand re- 
formers on this April day assembled on Castle Hill, listened 
to a stirring speech by Yorke and adopted an address. This 
address, briefly stated, asserted: (1) The people were the 
true source of government ; ( 2 ) freedom of speech is a right 
which cannot be denied; (3) condemnation without trials 
is incompatible with free government; (4) where the people 
have no share in the government taxation is tyrrany; (5) a 
government is free in proportion as the people are equally rep- 
resented. The address "demanded as a right," and no longer 
asked as a favor, "universal representation." It concluded 






>■ ■ 


- - 


« -: 



with a lengthy petiton not only for "abolition of the slave 
trade" but for "emancipation of negro slaves" in the British 
West Indies. The mechanics of Sheffield were wrought to a 
pitch of highest enthusiasm. Horses were unhitched and the 
carriage, containing Yorke, the candidate, and Joseph Gales, 
secretary of the meeting and probably author of the address 
adopted, was drawn in triumph through the town by the 

The principles which Gales enunciated on that occasion 
finally triumphed in England, but the triumph came many 
years later. The Duke of Wellington in 1828 wiped out the 
test oaths; William Cobbett in 1832 made uniform the system 
of representation; Wilberforce in 1833 at last saw the slaves 
emancipated ; Disraeli and Arch in our own day expanded and 
equalized suffrage rights. When these reforms were accom- 
plished then were vindicated the convictions for which Joseph 
Gales had bravely fought and suffered in the preceding cen- 

The Committee of Secrecy, appointed by parliament to 
investigate rumored conspiracies, made a report May 23, 
1794, of such a character that the Pitt ministry immediately 
suspended the habeas corpus act, a course almost without 
precedent in time of peace. The committee found that there 
existed "The Society for Constitutional Information" and 
"The London Corresponding Society" and that these societies 
had by resolution "applauded the publication of a cheap edi- 
tion of 'The Rights of Man,' " and voted addresses to the Ja- 
cobins at Paris and to the ]^ational Convention of France. 
Continuing the report said "The circumstance which first 
came under the observation of your committee containing a 
distinct trace of measures of this description, was a letter 
from a person at Sheffield, by profession a printer (who has 
since absconded), which was thus addressed 'Citizen Hardy, 
Secretary of the London Corresponding Society', which was 


found in the possession of Hardy on the twelfth of May, 
last, when he was taken into custody." The letter was dated 
from Sheffield April 20, 1794, on paper from ''Gales' print- 
ing office" and the objectionable portion of the communication 
was as follows: ''Fellow Citizens: The barefaced aristoc- 
racy of the present administration has made it necessary that 
we must be prepared to act on the defensive against any at- 
tack they may command their newly armed minions to make 
upon us. A plan has been hit upon, and, if encouraged suf- 
ficiently, will, no doubt, have the effect of furnishing a quan- 
tity of pikes to the Patriots, great enough to make them for- 
midable." This was the only reference to resistance or force 
in the letter. With Hardy's paper was also found an account 
of a meeting at Sheffield where a full chorus sang a hymn 
v^'ritten by James Montgomery. 

When the news that the right of habeas corpus had been 
suspended reached Sheffield Gales exclaimed in his paper 
"every wretch who has either through malice or envy a dis- 
like to his neighbor will have now an opportunity of gratify- 
ing his malicious intentions." Warrants were issued for 
Yorke, Gales and others, charged with treasonable and sedi- 
tious practices, and the Sheffield editor knew that the time had 
come when he must either seek safety elsewhere or be de- 
livered to his enemies. 

The Sheffield Register of June 26, 1794, contains the edi- 
tor's farewell. In this address he wrote: "The disagreeable 
predicament in which I stand, from the suspension of the 
Habeas Corpus Act, precludes me the Happiness of staying 
among you, My Friends, unless I would expose myself to 
the Malice, Enmity and Power of an unjust Aristocracy. 
It is in these persecuting days, a sufficient Crime to have 
printed a newspaper which has boldly dared to doubt the in- 
fallibility of ministers, and to investigate the justice and poli- 
cv of their measures. Could my imprisonment, or even 


death, serve the cause which I have espoused — the cause of 
Peace, Liberty and Justice— it would be cowardice to fly 
from it ; but, convinced that ruining my family and distress- 
ing my friends, by risking either, would only gratify the ig- 
norant and the malignant, I shall seek that livelihood in 
another state which I can not peaceably attain in this." He 
reviews his course : "I was a member of the Constitutional 
Society," he admits, "and shall never, I am persuaded, what- 
ever may be the final result, regret it, knowing that the real 
as well as ostensible object of this society, w^as a rational and 
peaceable reform in the representation of the people in par- 
liament. ^ "^ ^ The Secret Committee has imputed to the 
Society intentions of which they had no concejJtions and 
crimes which they abhor. * * * Jt has been insinuated, 
and, I believe, ^^retty generally believed, that I wrote the let- 
ter which is referred to by the Secret Committee, concerning 
the pikes. This charge, in the most unequivocal manner, I 
deny. I neither wrote, dictated or was privy to it. * * * 
It will always be my pride, that I have printed an impartial 
and truly independent newspaper, and that I have done my 
endeavors to rescue my countrymen from the darkness of 
Ignorance and to awaken them to a just sense of their privi- 
leges as human beings, and, as such, of their importance in 
the grand scale of creation." 

Ten years later in America, when a rival accused Gales of 
having been indicted in England, he replied in his paper, 
"If it be deemed a crime to have opposed by means of a 
free press, governmental usurpation on the rights of the peo- 
ple, I plead guilty." 

After he reached the continent the Sheffield Society adopted 
an address wishing "Health, peace and happiness" to "Our 
ever dear friend and brother," and added "Though we regret 
your sufferings, yet, viewed in connection with their cause, 
we behold you dignified with the unfading crown of a mar- 
tyr in the illustrious cause of God and man." 


The Sheffield Register and printing plant were left in 
charge of Josej^h Gales' competent wife and his assistant 
editor James Montgomery, the poet, who had entered the 
employ of Gales when a lad- The political disturbances had 
given rise to frequent riots and the Gales' possessions were 
under constant guard. The mechanics of Sheffield marched 
in a body and volunteered their services to Mrs. Gales, but 
she begged them to go peaceably to their homes. The King's 
messengers came, made a vain search for the absent editor 
and left without molesting the family or injuring the prop- 

The Sheffield Register in 179-1 had attained a circulation of 
2,500 in the Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Nottingham districts 
and the ministry coveted a paper of such influence. Mrs. 
Gales, however, rejected with spirit a flattering offer made 
by an agent for the government and sold the property to their 
devoted friend James Montgomery. He changed the name 
to The Iris. A file of The Iris for several years is in our 
State library. Montgomery remained true to the liberal 
cause, was constantly persecuted and twice imprisoned. Al- 
though separated by the Atlantic, the brotherly affection be- 
tween these two men was never severed. Thirty years later, 
when Montgomery retired from the editorship, a banquet was 
given in his honor and he embraced the occasion to pay glow- 
ing tribute to Joseph Gales, whom he denominated ^'the true 
friend of freedom and humanity" and characterized as "gen- 
erous, upright, disinterested and noble minded."" 

In a letter instructing his wife to join him in Denmark, 
Gales wrote: ''Bring nothing with you, my dear Winifred, 
but what the strictest justice warrants. Let us meet in 
peace, with a clear conscience, and my trust is in God, that He 
will help us. We are young, healthy, and able to struggle 
for a support for our dear children ; and, leaving no one be- 
hind us who can with truth say that we have wronged him, 


fear not but that He ^Yllo feeds the young ravens will feed 

Mrs. Gales crossed the channel with the two children, — 
Joseph, born April 10, 1780, and Sarah, born Mav 12, 
1789, — and the family was soon reunited at Altona. In 
SeiDtember, 1791, they set sail for America. However, the 
harbor was scarcely cleared before the vessel encountered a 
storm, the craft appeared far from sea-worthy, and the cap- 
tain had no control over the crew. Gales forfeited his pas- 
sage and returned with his family to shore on a passing pilot 
boat. The winter was then spent in Altona and proved most 
profitable for Raleigh's future editor. Several years before 
an itinerant short-hand teacher had visited Sheffield and im- 
plored Gales' aid. He had assisted the man in organizing 
a shorthand class and himself became one of the students. 
The months spent in Altona gave him an opportunity to per- 
fect himself in this art, rare indeed in that day, and leisure 
to acquire French and Spanish in addition to his Latin. He 
and his family also formed intimate friendships with numer- 
ous influential French refugees then quartered in that city. 
During the winter a daughter was born and named Altona 
Holstein Gales, in honor of their city of refuge. 

^iSTot until August, 1795, did the Gales family land in Phil- 
adelphia after an eventful voyage. When the vessel was a 
few hundred miles from the American coast it was captured 
by the notorious privateers, Hutchins and Bethel. Incred- 
ible as the story appears, the pirates were overcome by the 
wit and charm of Mrs. Gales and relinquished their prize. 

The English printer was introduced by a friend to Dunlop 
and Claypole, owners and editors of The American Daily 
Advertiser, and was given employment on that paper as a 
compositor. His worth was recognized and he was soon pro- 
moted to bookkeeper. Congress was in session in Philadel- 
phia and The Advertiser's reporter gave dissatisfaction by 


his inaccurate reports of the debates. By mere accident the 
editor discovered that his bookkeeper knew the art of short- 
hand, so Gales was immediately transferred to the position 
of congressional reporter. The young Englishman was not 
a little embarrassed when the editor escorted him to the old 
court house, corner of Sixth and Chestnut streets, and intro- 
duced him to the Speaker of the House, who received him 
with great kindness and arranged a table for his convenience 
in reporting the proceedings for Philadelphia's daily newspa- 
per. A few days later Thomas Pinckney arose and made a 
short but important speech on the then absorbing topic of 
our foreign affairs. Pinckney spoke without notes ; it was 
not a set speech ; hence Congressmen and the public were 
astounded next morning when thev read in The Advertiser a 
verbatim report of his remarks. From that day the reputa- 
tion of Joseph Gales as a reporter was made. 

The uncertainty of our relations with France, the unpop- 
ularity of the Jay treaty with England, the wide difference 
of opinion in interpreting the Constitution of the United 
States, all served to draw a sharp distinction between the 
Federalists, — a school which embraced Washington, Ham- 
ilton, and Adams, and claimed the support of Hooper, Haw- 
kins, Iredell, Johnston, Martin and Davie in iSTorth Caro- 
lina, — and the Eepublicans, led by Jefferson and championed 
in this State by ]Srathaniel Macon, leader of the congressional 
delegation, Jesse Franklin, Willie Jones, Bloodworth, Stokes 
and others. The sympathies of Joseph Gales were with 
France rather than with the Pitt ministry in England and 
his convictions were strongly Democratic. Aside from these 
motives, the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws under the 
Adams administration, — measures which savored strongly of 
the tyrrannical laws from which he had so recently escaped, — 
made Gales of necessity an ardent Republican. He had suc- 
ceeded in business and was now owner and editor of The In- 
dependent Gazetteer, which he had purchased from the 


widow of the Kevolutionarj soldier, Col. John Oswold. He 
enjoyed the acquaintance of the public men of the day. ISTa- 
thaniel Macon soon perceived the worth of this industrious, 
high minded man and made him his friend. Hence when 
Macon and his co-workers recognized the political expediency 
of a Jeilersonian-Republican newspaper, an organ if you 
choose, at the newly established capital of this State, Macon 
no doubt quickly decided that G-ales was the man for this task. 

This was in the summer of 1799 and Mrs. Gales was con- 
valescing after an attack of yellow fever. The state of her 
health was a factor in the decision to leave Philadelphia. 
Otherwise life in that city had been pleasant for the English 
family. Here they had renewed acquaintance with Dr. 
Priestly, the persecuted Unitarian divine, and were among 
the thirteen persons who composed the Unitarian church or- 
ganized in Philadelphia. Jospeh Gales was the first lay 
reader. Gales sold The Independent Gazetteer to Samuel 
Harrison Smith, who followed the national capital to Wash- 
ington and changed the name of the paper to The ISTational 

The trip to Raleigh was broken by a sojourn at Halifax, 
where the Gales visited Willie Jones, a graduate of Oxford, 
father-in-law of John Eppes, an ardent disciple of Jeiferson 
and leader in the Halifax convention of 1780 when the fed- 
eral constitution was rejected. The stay at Halifax no doubt 
gave the prospective editor a clearer conception of the politi- 
cal situation in this State. 

North Carolina, with her 344,807 free white persons, at 
the dawn of the nineteenth century ranked among the four 
most populous States in the Union. This State was then an 
important political factor and Thomas Jefferson proposed to 
leave no stone unturned to gain the support of this common- 
wealth. Nathaniel Macon, close ally of the aspiring Vir- 
ginian, was determined to rout Federalism in North Carolina 

JOSEPH GALES, EDITOE, 117 , t^-j, 

and perceived the need of the press in this work. The popu- ^% 

lation was scattered, there were no cities and few important 
towns, public schools were lacking and printing presses were 
rare. The few newspapers were in the hands of the Fed- P ^ 

eralists and wielded a powerful influence, because any news- 
paper was indeed precious in those days. Abraham Hodge, 
publisher, a native of 'New York, a personal friend of Wash- 
ington and a strong Federalist, had come to North Carolina 
in 1785. The legislature chose him State printer and this 
position he still held. Hodge had followed Washington's 
army with his press and, during the dark winter at Valley 
Forge, his paper cheered the drooping spirits of the soldiers 
with words of encouragement. He now had printing presses 
at Edenton, Halifax, Fayetteville and iSTew Bern and had es- 
tablished three newspapers. In editing the North Carolina 
Minerva at Fayetteville he was ably assisted by his nephew 
William Boylan. While the Federal party was thus support- 
ed in North Carolina, the "mobocrats," ''red Republicans" 
and "Jacobins," as they were repeatedly styled, recognized 
that they must have a newspaper. 

Raleigh had been laid out for the State capital, and, at 
the sagacious Macon's solicitation, Joseph Gales was making 
his w^ay to the village capital to launch a newspaper to do 
battle for Republican principles. His task did not appear 
easy. The Federalists had made decided gains in the North 
Carolina election of 1798 and had partially recovered the 
ground they lost in 1796. Instead of one, the Federalists 
now had four of the ten congressmen from this State. The 
State senate had passed a resolution by a vote of five to one 
approving the Alien and Sedition laws but the resolution 
failed in the house of commons, in which the Republicans 
had a slender majority. However, these Adams measures 
were not popular with many North Carolina Federalists, 
who otherwise approved the Adams national administration, 


and Jesse Franklin was elected United States senator to suc- 
ceed Alexander Martin, who had voted for the Alien and Sedi- 
tion laws. The mixed situation in jSTorth Carolina puzzled 
the politicians, for, in the summer of 1800, Jefferson wrote 
that the condition of the public mind in Xorth Carolina wa3 
mysterious to him. 

Under these political conditions Joseph Gales issued the 
first copy of The Raleigh Begister, October 22, 1799. The 
paper was indeed The Sheffield Begister resurrected, without 
a single change in principles for which the editor stood. 
Tlie Baleigh Begister had for its heading a budding staff, 
surmounted by the cap of liberty, with a scroll bearing the 
word ''Libertas" and the motto : 

"Ovir's are the plans of fair, delightful Peace, 
'"Unwarped by Party Piage to live like Brothers." 

The Begister began immediately to arouse public senti- 
ment against the Adams administration by printing the prose- 
cutions under the Sedition law, characterized the encamp- 
ment of the Sixth United States Regiment here as a threat, 
and published, without editorial approval, however, Jeffer- 
son's famous Kentucky resolutions, which met inglorious de- 
feat in jSTorth Carolina. The paper soon became a power 
and copies were being sent by Gales to every county in the 
U^'. The Begister held the Raleigh field undisputed only a few 

. - , months before William Bovlan moved his Minerva from Fay- 
,v^' qf' etteville to Raleigh and sought to combat The Begister. Elec- 
\ ^> tors in this State were then chosen by districts, and in the 
' * 1800 election the Republicans captured six and the Federal- 

/ 5 ists four of ISTorth Carolina's districts. The legislature was 

\ ,5 -^ ,,,t' Republican, and Joseph Gales succeeded Hodge as State 
.;, {^A^ V ' printer, a position which ten years later paid only $1,400 
4 "V ' \ / gross per annum, and The Begister s rival then offered to 
nt^f'^- - ' take the job for $900. The Begister was paid less than $80 
^ a year for publishing acts of congress. 



The Minerva was backed bj the ablest Federalists, and in 
1802 such men as Duncan Cameron, General Davie, Archi- 
bald Henderson, Colonel Ashe of Wilmington, and others 
were striving to extend The Minerva's circulation bj some- 
thing on the order of the club plan. 

The Minerva denounced Jefferson as a demagogue, who 
cheats his neighbors and blasphemes his Saviour. The Regis- 
ter championed the President and his administration. It is 
not surprising that such irreconcilable opinions led to a per- 
sonal clash. Both papers, be it said to their credit, de- 
nounced the then prevalent practice of the duel. The two 
editors met one morning on Hillsboro street and fought out 
their differences. Gales claimed that Boylan assaulted him 
and he brought a civil suit for damages. The trial was 
moved to Hillsboro, where a jurv awarded the plaintiff 
100 pounds. Gales paid his attorneys' fees out of this sum 
and donated the remainder to the Raleigh Academy. He 
was one of the first trustees of the academy and felt the keen- 
est interest in the school. 

Indeed Joseph Gales threw himself with enthusiasm into 
the life of this community. Dr. Stephen Weeks, in his little 
pamphlet on the press in jSTorth Carolina, says of him: ''He 
was a man of untiring energy ; besides editing The Register, 
he kept all his accounts, made out his bills, gave receipts, con- 
ducted a bookstore, managed a book printing establishment. 
He was director in a bank and secretary of nearly every 
benevolent society in the city. He was never idle. The Reg- 
ister was always on the side of law, order and good morals. 
It did not teem wdth editorials, but when it spoke it was with 
such fullness, discretion and powTr that the whole country 
was moved and impressed". 

Gales and Macon were in thorough accord in their opposi- 
tion to the Federalists' Alien and Sedition laws ; both believed 
in full suffrage and fair representation, but, aside from these 


issues, the union of their political convictions apparently 
ended, though their mutual regard was never severed. The 
Macon school believed that people least governed were best 
governed, that taxes should be endured in merely sufficient 
amount to operate the simplest possible government machin- 
ery ; an army and navy, internal improvements or the devel- 
opment of industries or resources by governmental encourage- 
ment vv'-ere extremely objectionable; that the States were sov- 
ereign and the Union but a weak confederacy with little 
power save for defense from invasion. Gales believed just 
as devoutly in the fullest liberty for the citizen, but he did 
not conceive that men must remain primitive or rustics in 
order to retain their freedom. He believed that a republican 
form of government was devised not simply to prevent men 
from cutting each other's throats, but to u])lift and improve 
the condition of society; that the Union of States should not 
be a mere badge of defense but a force for righteousness and 

The files of Tlie Register from 1800 to 1810 show that 
Joseph Gales during that decade advocated a State bank, 
after calling attention repeatedly to the fact that ISTorth Caro- 
lina v.-as then the only one of the original States without 
such an institution ; he urged a government banking system 
which would bring about specie payments ; he sought to en- 
courage home industries by offering prizes for the best cloth 
made in North Carolina, and recommended that the people 
wear no imported goods ; the embargo he upheld ; he urged 
in vain that the citizens subscribe $20,000 to build a cotton 
factory in Raleigh, and presented arguments that the enter- 
prise would pay ; he pointed out the benefit of organizing 
the proposed iSTorth Carolina Insurance Company with three 
hundred thousand dollars capital, and was its most persistent 
champion ; and at this early date favored public improve- 
ments. He was strong in his contention that dueling should 


be prohibited, imprisonment for debt abolished, the existing 
harsh penal code modified, and above all a State penitentiary 
should be established. The slave trade, which South Caro- 
lina still fostered, should be ended immediately, for on this 
question, Gales wrote, in 1806: "We tremble when we 
reflect that this cloud (slavery) may one day burst and bury 
so many thousands in irretrievable ruin." 

These convictions, enunciated prior to 1810, he expanded 
and perfected but never violated. Gales had warmly sup- 
ported Madison's administration in the War of 1812, and 
viewed with pity and concern the disaffection then prevalent 
in New England. Before 1820 The Beglster was known as 
a defender of both a State and a E^ational bank. When the 
enemies of the State bank were preparing for an attack on 
that infant institution in 1813 Gales, on the eve of the ses- 
sion of that Legislature, wrote: "We presume that it will be 
a difficult matter to persuade the citizens of this State, who 
before the State Bank went into operation, were in the habit 
of losing 5 to 10 per cent on New Bern and Cape Fear notes, 
to return to a similar state of things, by again putting afloat 
our ragged currency." He applauded in 1810 the first sym- 
pathetic expression, voiced by Henry Clay, for every people 
struggling to attain liberty and free government. 

Perhaps Nathaniel Macon represented the prevalent opin- 
ion in this agricultural State when he declared: "Whilst the 
present Constitution remains to the United States it is utterly 
impossible for the United States to become a manufacturing 
nation," still Joseph Gales was no less positive in his declara- 
tion, "^We are in favor of supporting American industries," 
and again "Protect the great staples of our country and 
articles fabricated from them." Later, when the North Caro- 
lina Legislature of 1820, by resolution, instructed our sena- 
tors and requested our representatives in Congress "to use 
their best efforts to prevent any increase in the tariff to 


protect manufactures," the editor of the Register, then State 
Printer, deiied the sentiment of the Legislature and wished 
that "our people would use a little common sense" on the 
subject. In this editorial Gales regretted the passage of the 
resolution and added : ''We are of the opinion that this 
CM3untry will never get clear of its embarrassment until a 
stand is made in favor of Home Manufactures ; until the 
amount of our imports shall not exceed that of our ex23orts." 
Indeed he had set the examj)le bj locating a paper mill here 
and, begimiing with the issue of September 29, 1808, Tlie 
Beglster was printed on 2)aper manufactured at Raleigh. 

As editor and as a member of the State Board of Internal 
Improvements he labored for the upbuilding of the State, the 
improvement of highways and navigable streams, welcomed 
Fulton on his visit to Raleigh and encouraged the establish- 
ment of steamboats on our waters. He was anxious for the 
government to maintain a great highway from Washington 
through Raleigh to Xew Orleans. ISTearly a century ago 
he urged that the nation connect the Atlantic and Pacific by 
canal. Before 1830 many leaders of the dominant political 
party here, in their extreme adherence to State rights, denied 
the power of the nation to make river and harbor and kin- 
dred improvements. In the face of such contention, Tlie 
Ealeigh Register boldly asserted, "If the Union is dismem- 
bered it will be by the States trenching upon the rights of the 
general government." 

While The Register contended for principles which have 
since prevailed and have been thoroughly vindicated, yet the 
editor did not represent the popular view in oSI'orth Carolina 
at that time. He was not a statesman to side with every 
faction, or a politician whose supreme aim was to be on the 
winning side; Joseph Gales disdained not to stand with a 
small minority in city, county and State. At the close of 
Monroe's second term. The Register supported William L. 


Crawford of Georgia, then Secretary of the Treasury, as 
logical successor to the presidency. However, when the elec- 
tion, for the second time in the history of the government, 
was thrown into the national House of Representatives and 
the choice lay between Jackson and Adams, Gales declared in 
his paper: "We assuredly prefer Mr. John Quincy Adams 
to General Jackson." He took this position notwithstanding 
the fact that Jackson in the recent election had swept ISTorth 
Carolina, carried Wake County by an almost unprecedented 
majority, and won in the City of Raleigh by a vote of more 
than two to one. Old-line Federalists, like AVilliam Boylan 
and Colonel Polk, who had carried Wake County over Gales' 
strenuous opposition in 1812, were now supporters of Andrew 
Jackson and remained in the majority. 

Though Gales' policies were not accepted at home, still he 
had the full confidence of his neighbors. From 1813 to 1833, 
with one exception, he appears to have been annually elected 
by the people as Intendant of Police of the City of Raleigh. 
The one exception was in 1826, when Col. John Bell, editor 
of The Star, was chosen Intendant, but the next year the 
office was restored to Joseph Gales. A ten-dollar fine was, 
in those days, imposed upon the citizen who declined a muni- 
cipal office here. Gales served on the" city patrol, organized 
the first fire company here, and brought a fire engine to 
Raleigh prior to 1820. He retained the position of State 
printer until the Jackson party in the legislature gave the 
printing to his rival, The Star, 

The Register strongly approved the Adams administration 
(1825-'29), and, when the presidential election of 1828 came. 
Gales was urging the re-election of President Adams, an 
attitude not popular in the South. A convention or caucus 
was held in Raleigh to name an Adams electoral ticket; 
Gales was secretary of that meeting and was made chairman 
of the Adams Vigilance Committee for the campaign. The 


Adams ticket made a pitiful showing in the election ; Jackson 
swept the State. Gales was too strong a man to be deterred 
in his policies by lack of popular support. However, he was 
not alone. During the decade ending 1830 his advocacy of 
policies which would uplift and improve conditions had 
brought him into more or less distinct political accord with 
the rising 3'oung Willie P. Mangum, Judge Gaston, a former 
Federalist, Wm. A. GrahaiX and others, who became leaders 
of the Whig party in the thirties. In 1825 The Register had 
supported Mangum for congress from this district ; he waa 
elected by only 58 majority; his opponent. Rev. Josiah Cru- 
dup, a Baptist preacher, — who was denied a seat in the State 
Senate from Wake the previous year under the constitutional 
provision debarring ministers from the legislature, — carried 
Wake by the then almost unprecedented majority of 961 out 
of a total vote of less than 1,200. 

AVhile Gales in 1830 was consistently opposing a reduction 
of tariff duties, he at least had the satisfaction of seeing the 
legislature of ISTorth Carolina, almost unanimously and with- 
out regard to party, emphatically repudiate South Carolina's 
nullification doctrine, — a course more timid slave States had 
hesitated to take. In 1832 Gales was again bitterly opposed 
to Jackson, but for a third time the General easily carried 
North Carolina. 

The time was now at hand for Joseph Gales to lay aside 
editorial work, and his mantle was to fall upon the worthy 
shoulders of his son, Weston R. Gales. William W. Seaton, 
a brilliant young editor, came from Halifax to Raleigh and 
formed a business partnership with Joseph Gales in January, 
1809. March 31, 1809, he married Sarah Gales. Joseph 
Gales, after coming to Raleigh, had purchased an interest in 
The National Intelligencer at Washington for his son Joseph 
Gales, Jr., and in 1807 the young man, who had been care- 
fully trained by his father and was an expert at shorthand, 


went to Washington as congressional reporter on that paper. 
He became sole OAvner in 1810. Two years later William W. 
Seatou moved to Washington and joined his brother-in-law in 
owning and editing The National Intelligencer imder the 'p,- .. 

name of Gales and Seaton. Joseph Gales, Jr., married in ""j.^ 

December, 1813, Jnlia Lee, of Mestmoreland, Va., and this P 

cultured woman often acted as reporter for her husband and c" 

posterity is indebted to her for preserving the famous debate 
between Webster and Hayne. Altona Holstein Gales, the 
second daughter, married Kev. Anthony Foster, a Presby- 5 

terian divine who afterwards became a Unitarian. He lived ,p. 

only a few years later, and his widow died here IsTovember 16, ^'5' 

1827. Anna Eliza Gales died here September 22, 1822. *t^' 

aged 25 years, in an epidemic of fever which was accompanied 
by gTeat fatality in Raleigh. Caroline Matilda, the youngest 
daughter, married Major Thomas L. West, of Bertie, on 
March 25, 1818. There were two other sons: Thomas Gales, 
who studied law, located in Louisiana, served on the staff of 
General Jackson in the War of 1812 and with his own hand 
hauled down the LTnion Jack at Pensacola, Fla. 

Weston Raleigh Gales was born April 20, 1802, and died 
July 23, 1848. In January, 1822, he became associated 
with his father in publishing The Register under the firm 
name of Joseph Gales & Son. From 1823 to 1830 the paper 
was issued as a semi-weekly. In the fall of 1833 Joseph 
Gales announced that he would retire from business, leaving 
The Register in the hands of his son, Weston R. Gales, and 
spend his remaining years with his children in Washington 
City. This was just as his political party was at last coming 
into power in jSTorth Carolina ; Mangum was now in the 
United States Senate, and in 1834 a revolution in sentiment 
gave the opponents of Van Buren, Jackson's candidate, the 
State Senate, while Wm. H. Haywood, of Wake, a Jackson 
man, was elected Speaker of the House by only four majority. 


The retirement of Joseph Gales called forth universal re- 
gret in Raleigh. The citizens gave a public dinner in his 
honor; Governor Swain presided; Chief Justice John Mar- 
shall, Judge Gaston and other distinguished men attended. 
The beloved Rev. William McPheeters, who came to Raleigh 
in 1810 as "Principal of the Raleigh Academy and Pastor 
of the City," paid tribute to his devoted friend and the reso- 
lutions he offered thanked Joseph Gales for his "long-con- 
tinued, efficient and faithful services as corresponding and 
recording secretary of the Xorth Carolina Bible Society." 

Joseph Gales lagged in no worthy cause. For years he was 
secretary of the Peace Society, which sought to end dueling 
and promote peace between individuals and nations. His un- 
tiring efforts he devoted to the Colonization Society, which 
purposed to gradually end slavery by transporting to Africa 
negroes, as they were freed. The last few years of his life 
spent in Washington were occupied with work as secretary of 
this society. Slavery he abhorred but recognized that the 
institution was thrust upon the South. The Register in 
1825 made the prophetic statement that slavery was "a great 
evil but we can not believe it irremediable, hopeless and 
perpetual." When the legislature passed a very pro-slavery 
act in 1831, The Register boldly declared: "A string may 
be stretched till it breaks. It is admitted that slavery is a 
curse to the Southern States. Would it not be better to think 
of some means of getting rid of it, rather than fly in the face 
of humanity and the Constitution." 

With l^athaniel Macon he considered the custom of treat- 
ing at elections one of the worst evils of the day, but more 
than a decade passed after he directed public attention to the 
curse before it was prohibited by law. Gales advocated in 
1805 "guardians for drunkards, lunatics and idiots." When 
whiskey was being sold freely in almost every store at 40 
cents a gallon and temperance societies had not been formed 


here, The Register, in 1820, declared: "We heartily wish 
there were no grog shops in this country." Ten years later 
the same paper repeated that "to lessen the drink evil no 
experiment should be left untried." 

Dr. McPheeters had a zealous worker for Sunday schools 
in Joseph Gales. The Register in 1820 hoped ere long to 
see ''a good Sunday school in every neighborhood." An edi- 
torial in 1829 gave this information: "It is gratifying to 
find that the governors of our State are lending the influence 
of their examj)le to the cause of good morals. Our late gov- 
ernor (Iredell), the successor of the venerable Macon in the 
Ignited States Senate, would not permit card parties in the 
governor's palace. * * * Our present governor (Owen) has 
accepted an invitation to visit the Sabbath school in the Pres- 
byterian church, which is chiefly comijosed of children of 
Baptist and Presbyterian parents." In 1829 he called atten- 
tion to the fact that a canvas in Wake County showed 49 out 
of 111 families without a copy of the Scriptures, and he 
urged support for the Bible Society to enable it to place a 
Bible in every home. One of the few controversies into which 
The Register was drawn was when the honored and beloved 
Bishop Ravenscroft, a highchurchman, in a sjjecial sermon 
here in 1821 expressed misgivings about the free dissemina- 
tion of the Bible among the people, without interpretation 
and church rites, and feared that the Bible Society would do 
harm rather than good. Joseph Gales was so deeply inter- 
ested in the Bible Society, of which he was secretary, that he 
wrote an editorial in reply, in which he said : 

•'We have always believed that the Scriptures contained many 
things hard to understand, yet there is sufficient in them, which 
is plain and intelligent to the meanest capacity, to produce the 
best effects on the life and character; and sufficient even without 
a guide to teach men their duty to God and to their fellow-men. 
Nor do we conceive the diversity of opinion among men on the 
subject of religion as an evil to be lamented. All that is neces- 
sary to produce happiness under such circimistances is that 
men should think charitablv of each other, and agree to differ. 


believing that every one who pi'ofesses himself to be guided by 
the principles of the Gospel, and leads a good life, is sincere in 
his profession and will hereafter be approved by his Maker." 

Bishop English, of the Roman Catholic Church, came to 
Raleigh about this time and delivered a series of religious 
lectures in the Presbyterian church. Gales formed a high 
opinion of the Bishop and thej became fast friends. 

No victory gave Editor Gales keener joy than when the 
legislature of x^orth Carolina in 1820 declared against im- 
prisonment for debt, and thus set ''a glorious example" to the 
other States and to the nation. If Gales could have seen a 
penitentiary established while he was in the editorial chair 
and the severity of the penal code mitigated, his cup of joy 
would have been almost full. As foreman of the grand jury 
in Wake County he aroused public attention to the fact that 
the jails were then hot-houses of filth and disease, with no 
sanitation, heating or proper ventilation, and at his insistence 
a sewerage system was planned for the jail here. There were 
only two crimes, he believed, for which the death penalty 
should be inflicted, although the list in North Carolina was 
then much longer and included horse stealing and bigamy. 
Executions were always public, multitudes, including women, 
attended ; drunkenness was prevalent. The Register ever pro- 
tested and declared that when the State took human life it 
should be done in private. He expressed agreement with 
the first movement, in 1825, which finally culminated in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1835, when the clause disfran- 
chising Jews and Catholics, — a clause not enforced, however, 
(which The Register declared in 1826 "it will be expunged 
whenever an opportunity occurs for so doing") — was ex- 
punged and our constitution vastly improved. 

An earnest champion of good schools, he repeatedly asserted 
that education should be the primary matter before the legis- 
lature. "The framers of our constitution," he wrote when 
the legislature met in 1825, "directed such schools to be 


established, and it is time that direction was being obeyed." 
At a non-political public dinner given John C. Calhoun here 
in 1825, JosejDh Gales gave this characteristic toast: "In- 
dustry, frugal habits and a good system of general education, 
the surest means of promoting and securing individual and 
national pros^Dcrity and happiness." As a publisher, "Ma- 
tilda Berkley," probably the first novel published in the State, 
came from his presses ; also numerous publications on agricul- 
ture and law, besides annually Gales' Almanac with weather 
prognostications by the famous Beasley of Wake. A study 
of the census of 1820 led Gales to begin advocating a school 
for the deaf and a hospital for the insane. In 1827 Gales, 
Dr. McPheeters and Dr. Caldwell led in a convention held 
here to urge the legislature to establish a school for the deaf. 

After spending six years in Washington with his children, 
the old man returned to Raleigh. ISTearly fifty years ago 
one who had known him well thus wrote: "In Raleigh there 
was no figure that, as it passed, was greeted so much by the 
signs of a peculiar veneration as that great, stalwart one of 
his, with a sort of nobleness in its very simplicity, an inborn 
goodness and courtesy in all its roughness of frame, — a coun- 
tenance mild, commanding yet pleasant, betokening a bosom 
no low thought had ever entered. You had in him, indeed, 
the highest image of that staunch old order from which he 
was sprung." 

Two years after the death of his dear companion, who had 
indeed been his comfort and helpmeet and charmed the social 
circle here, he died of paralysis in this city. In the City 
Cemetery a granite stone bears this simple inscription : 




an Englishman by birth, but for a period of nearly forty years 

a citizen of Raleigh. 

Born February 4, 1761, 

Died August 24, 1S41. 

Authorities consulted. — Files of Sheffield Register, Raleigh Register, 
Minerva and Star ; Dr. Dodd's invaluable Life of Macon, Dr. Weeks on 
the press in N. C, Dr. Bassett on suffrage in N. C, addresses by Dr. K. 
P. Battle and Gov. Swain; lives of Pitt, Jefferson, Adams and Jackson; 
I am specially indebted to Mr. Charles Root, a descendant of Joseph 
Gales, for Life of Wm. W. Seaton and extracts from memoirs of Mrs. 
Gales.— W. G. B. 



The last representative of the English government in 
i*^orth Carolina was not driven from the colony, but on April 
24, 1775, he deemed it wise to leave IsTew Bern and go to 
Fort Johnston on the Cape Fear River. This flight of Gov- 
ernor Martin marks the failnre of the English governirient 
in this province. Martin little thonght when he spent the 
night with his good Scotch friend, Farquard Campbell, on his 
flight, that it was his last night as governor of this province. 

Martin had seen the danger threatening in tiie iwo pro- 
vincial congresses that had met in August and April under 
the very shadow of his palace at ISTew Bern, but when he saw 
from his palace window the citizens removing the cannons 
from the palace la^\ii, he thought it high time to seek safety 
in flight. 

Samuel Johnston soon called the provincial congress to 
meet for the third time in August at Hillsboro. This body 
declared that whereas the governor had "abdicated," it was 
now necessary to establish some temporary form of govern- 
ment. With this brief declaration the English government 
was dismissed. The tem.porary government consisted of a 
provincial council of thirteen members. Six district com- 
mittees of safety of twelve members each, and the county 
and town committees. 

These vigorous committees were able to meet the Scotch 
Highlanders and defeat them at Moore's Creek in February, 
1776. The sceptre that fell from the nerveless grasp of 
Governor Martin was picked up by vigorous committees. In 
April the provincial congress met at Halifax. Public senti- 
ment in the State, or at least among the revolutionists, was 


now erystalized. The victory at Moore's Creek in February 
made them feel that independence was in easy grasp. A few 
days after the meeting the congress instructed its delegates in 
the Continental Congress to vote for independence. Samuel 
Johnston wrote Iredell that "they are all up for independ- 
ence." On April 12 these instructions were given to the dele- 
gates ; on the next day a committee was appointed to pre- 
pare a temporary civil constitution. 

This was no easy task. These men could declaim about 
political rights ; they knew how to justify their rebellion, but 
to construct a form of government was a new and untried task. 
They had no models before them save the old English charters. 
These were of very little service. After much labor, on 
April 25th, the committee reported the outline of a form of 
a government. Briefly the plan was that the executive should 
consist of a president and six councillors always in session ; 
the legislature was to consist of an upper house composed of 
one member from each county and a lower house chosen from 
among the people. Justices of the county courts were to be 
. elected by poj^ular vote. For the upper house only freehold- 
ers might vote ; for the lower house a household qualification 
was necessary. All officials were to be elected annually. 
Thomas Jones wrote that the executive council was to be 
always in session for "receiving foreign ambassadors" and 
other such purposes. 

These outlines were reported to the congress on the 27th, 
and were discussed with much division of judgment. On 
May 2d, Samuel Johnston wrote that ''affairs have taken a 
turn within a few days past. All ideas of forming a perma- 
nent constitution are at this time laid aside." 

Whatever may have been the cause of this turn of affairs — 
whether the threatened invasion of the British or the diver- 
gence of opinion — the matter was postponed and a temporary 
government by committees constituted. 


The question of a constitution, a form of government, had 
now arisen. Men began to think on the matter and to work 
out their plans. The discussion had gone just far enough 
to show that the revolutionary party, though united on the 
question of independence, was divided as to the form of gov- 
ernment that should be adopted. 

On August 9, 1776, the State Council of Safety issued a 
call to elect delegates to a new provincial congress, whose 
chief duty it would be to form a civil government. In the 
call emphasis was placed on the great importance of the 

The campaign that followed this announcement was very 
bitter. The danger of an invasion had passed, so the pent-up 
feelings broke forth in this campaign. It was conservative 
against radical. The conservatives had little fault to find 
with the principles of the English government. They were 
in revolt l)ecause these principles had been transgressed. On 
the other hand, the radicals had little love for anvthing Eng- 
lish. They wished to change things "root and branch." Sam- 
uel Johnston was the outspoken leader of the conservatives. 
He had not hesitated to condemn openly the outline that had 
been proposed. Patriot that he was, he desj^ised the tempest 
and turmoil of a popular democracy. The leader of the 
radicals was probably Willie Jones. He was well educated, 
a large slave owner, but in politics an extreme radical for that 
day. Johnston was defeated. His opponents rejoiced greatly 
and burned him in effigy, elones was elected. 

The congress assembled at Halifax on ISTovember 12, 1776. 
On the next day a committee was appointed to lay before the 
body a bill of rights and a form of government. Among the 
members of this committee were Richard Caswell, who had 
come into great popularity since the battle of ]\Ioore's Creek ; 
General Pearson, the wealthy lando^vner of Regulator fame ; 
"Willie Jones, the radical "who could draw a bill in better 





















language than any other man of his day," and Thomas Jones, 
an astute lawyer and friend of Samuel Johnston. The credit 
of authorship of the constitution rests probably among these 
men. Judge Toomer reported a tradition that Caswell was 
its author. Samuel Johnston called it (Thomas) '"Jones' 
Constitution," and others divide the honor between Thomas 
and Willie Jones. 

The political theory of this time is found in the Bill of 
Rights. The years of quarrels with Colonial governors and 
their ex^^erience in local self-government separated them from 
English political theory. In this Bill of Rights they declare 
that all governments originate from the consent of the people 
and that all representative power vests in them. These men 
had 2,'otten a STeat deal from Eneiand, but thev had also out- 
groT\ui much that they had received. These brief statements 
of the Bill of Rights are commonplaces with us now, but they 
were revolutionary in 1776. Taxation without representa- 
tion was the practice in England. The colonists raised the 
question and claimed it as a constitutional right. In this 
they were clearly wrong. In the end they fell back not on 
constitutional rights but on inalienable rights — rights not 
found in parchments but in nature and given man by the 
Creator of nature. 

But it was possible for men to agree on the fundamental 
principles of liberty and yet disagree as to what form of gov- 
ernment best secures that liberty to the individual citizen. 

It is surprising to one of the twentieth century to find so 
many restrictions as are found in the Constitution of 1776. 
Despite all the democratic maxims of the Bill of Rights, the 
constitution proper contains many aristocratic principles. 
True, hereditary succession, hereditary privileges and entails 
were forbidden, but political power was vested in a few only. 
The 'Tathers" found no inconsistency in proclaiming that 
"all government rests on the consent of the governed" and 
then restricting political privileges to a few. 


The prevalent belief in America in 1776 was that the man 
withont property ought not to vote. Franklin said that '"al- 
lowing them to vote for legislators is an impropriety." Land- 
holding, or at least some property qualification, was required 
in all of these first constitutions. In the Constitution of 
1770 only those owning fifty acres of land could vote for 
State senator, while the payment of public taxes was a re- 
quirement of an elector for the House of Commons. 

Office-holding was also limited to the property holding class. 
The governor was required to 0A\m a freehold valued at one 
thousand pounds. This was not peculiar to ISTorth Carolina. 
Maryland required five thousand and South Carolina ten 
thousand. A State senator was required to own three hun- 
dred acres and a commoner one hundred. 

The result of this legislation was the disfranchisement in 
some cases of one-half of the adult males, while the office 
holding class was composed of a much smaller per cent of the 

The "Fathers" Avere jealous of any kind of government. 
They feared tyranny. They were willing to sacrifice effilci- 
ency of administration to escape the danger of oppression or 
a hereditary ruling class. Consequently the term of office 
was short. The governor was elected annually, as was the 
General Assembly. In this way the officeholder was directly 
answerable to the people. Every year he had to give an 
account of his stewardship. John Adams declared that "v/here 
annual elections end, there slavery begins." Macon quoted 
this with approval. This clause pleased conservative Samuel 
Johnston, who said that in this way the people could repudi- 
ate the designing demagogue who had avou their vote. 

The governor was still further restricted by the clause that 
he could serve only three years out of six. Many of them 
served the three years limit. In practice it was the policy to 
re-elect the governors. Only the judges and the secretary of 
state were elected for a longer term than one year. 


Tiiese 'Tather8" feared the executive j)ower and hemmed 
it about on every side, but the legislative power they trusted. 
All the State officers were elected by the General Assembly 
and for one year only, save the secretary, who was elected 
triennially, and the judges, who were elected for life. Prac- 
tically no power was given to the governor, William Hooper 
declared that he was given just enough power to receipt for 
his salary, and even his salary was left in the hands of the 
General Assembly. While the judges were elected for life, 
still their salaries were determined by the assembly.. 

The constitution did not establish a.nj judicial system. 
This was left to the legislature. Though the Bill of Rights 
declared in favor of the separation of the three department? 
of government, the idea was not carried out in making the 
form of government. 

Freedom of religious worship was recognized ; all sects 
were tolerated ; no church was established. JSTevertheless, a 
belief in these principles did not deter these men from re- 
quiring a religious test of officeholders. All officeholders were 
required to be Protestants. Thus were both Jews and Cath- 
olics and disbelievers disqualified. This law was not strictly 
enforced against the Catholics, for the third governor — Burke 
— was a Catholic, as was also the distinguished judge, William 
Gaston. This requirement was not peculiar to JvTorth Caro- 
lina. Xew Hampshire, ISTew Jersey, South Carolina, Geor- 
gia, Maryland and Massachusetts had similar restrictions, 
while Pennsylvania and Delaware required belief in God, 
in future rewards and punishments, and in inspiration of 

Another restriction was that no clergyman while he con- 
tinued active "in the exercise of the pastoral function should 
be senator, commoner, or councillor of State." In this way 
it was hoped that both the State and religion would be helped. 
Such men were not precluded from executive or judicial 


offices, but it was deemed unwise to entrust them with the 
making of laws. This law was enforced, and John Culpep- 
per and Josiah Grudup were unseated from the General 
Assembly on this ground. 

There were various other clauses that excited much com- 
ment. It was at one time proposed to elect the justices of 
the county courts by a popular vote. Samuel Johnston 
thought that this was a most dangerous feature, and prevailed 
upon them to change, so that the governor commissioned 
them for life upon the recommendation of the General Assem- 
bly. Even the assembly was forbidden to remove them save 
for misbehaviour, absence, or inability. 

Debtors could not be imprisoned after the delivery of his 
estate ; schools were to be established ; county officers were 
to be chosen, and there w^ere other matters of minor import- 

Popular democracy had not yet come ; in fact, representa- 
tive democracy was not w^ell understood. In the composition 
of the General Assembly the people were not represented, but 
the counties were. In the Senate every county had one repre- 
sentative, and in the House of Commons two. It mattered 
not whether the county was large or small, rich or poor, popu- 
lous or not, the political power was the same. 

Altogether, the first constitution of ISTorth Carolina was 
typical of the times. It differs not much from those of other 
States. It is probable that copies of the constitutions of 
other States were before the l)ody. There were certain politi- 
cal ideas that had become common property in the colonies, 
and these find expression with some modifications in these 
early forms of government. This constitution was destined 
to withstand every effort to change till 1835, when it under- 
went a general revision. 


(Member of Jamestown Historical Commission.) 

It is indeed gratifyiug to know that the Old Xorth State 
is creditably represented at this most interesting Exposition 
of the centnry, where history is given a place that never before 
has been accorded in the annals of America. Each of the 
thirteen colonies, realizing the importance of encouraging a 
thirst for research and knowledge in this essential branch of 
learning, has assisted in rendering the exhibition in the 
History Building a success. Connecticut proves the sole ex- 
ception. This splendid edifice cost $130,000 and months of 
careful labor. It is perfectly fire-proof and burglar-proof. 
Upon the collecting and installing of the exhibits thousands 
of dollars were expended in addition to the arduous work, 
wearing anxiety and ceaseless responsibility given by the 
learned, patriotic men and women from the various sections 
of this broad land. The results are a compensation to all. 
From the outset it was intended to be the center of attraction 
among all the other departments in the numerous buildings. 
Its work is to be educational. Here the slumbering talent 
of the ignorant is to be awakened and he is to learn what 
America has done, can and will do, while the student is to 
grow wise and the scholar can refresh his treasured acquisi- 

As fashion and history repeat themselves, so again the 
daughters of Carolina have taken the lead and done their 
duty in placing her historically where she justly belongs — in 
the front rank. Too much ]U'aise can not be given Mrs. 
Lindsay Patterson, Vice-President General of the Daughters 



of the American Revolution, who first planned and arranged 
this exhibit. As chairman of the Jamestown Historical 
Commission she i^roved herself a genuine leader. The James- 
town Commission for liorth Carolina appropriated as much 
money as could be spared for this purpose, which was not a 
large "sum. Mrs. Patterson was assisted by Miss Rebecca 
Schenck, of Greensboro, an<l Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, of 
Raleigh, who have given months of arduous toil to this patri- 
otic cause. JSTorth Carolina is the only State in which women 
have sole charge of the historical exhibit. 

The relics are chronologically arranged save whenever the 
artistic can not be sacrificed. With a desire to start with the 
beginning of our State history, instead of an ambition to 
antedate the first permanent settlement at Jamestown by 
twenty-two years, the story of the "Lost Colony" is given 
by paintings and photographs. First on the post hangs the 
coat-of-ai'ms of Sir \y alter Raleigh ; next, forming a frieze 
running along the top of the two partitions, which are the 
side walls of our space, are placed the White pictures — 18 in 
number. In 1587 Queen Elizabeth sent John White to 
Roanoke Island to make paintings of the aboriginals. White 
remained a year minus five days and made a number of 
sketches from life. They represent the Indian features ; their 
modes of prayer, dancing, fishing, cooking and eating; the 
styles of dress adopted by their chiefs, religious men, war- 
riors, their women and children ; views of their villages and 
tombs. The originals are in the British ]\Iuseum. Colonel 
Bennehan Cameron gave an order for these paintings to be exe^ 
cuted for exhibition, permission having been granted bj the 
government, in the I^orth Carolina space in the History Build- 
ing. Afterwards they are to hang in the Hall of History at 
Raleigh. A more generous gift from a more patriotic citizen 
can not be found here. 


Next are arranged the thirteen fine oil paintings of different 
scenes on the Eoanoke Island of to-day, by Mr. Jaqnes Bus- 
bee, who was appointed by the State Historical Commission 
to undertake this task. Ballast Point, where Raleigh's colony 
first landed; Fort Raleigh, with its intrenchments plainly 
visible ; the monument to Virginia Dare and the views of 
water, woods, sand dunes and sky, make one feel he is gazing 
in reality ujoon this sacred spot where was enacted the saddest 
tragedy of American history. 

King Charles II. and his lords proprietors hang in the 
order of their rank : Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon ; 
George Monck, Duke of Albemarle ; William, Earl of Craven ; 
John, Lord Berkely ; Anthony, Lord Ashley ; Sir George Car- 
teret, Sir William Berkely. These photographs — symphon- 
ies in bro\ATi — are taken from the oil portraits in possession 
of Mr. James Sprunt, British vice-consul at Wilmington, the 
only collection of the kind in existence. John Locke, who 
drafted the fundamental constitution under their rule, has not 
been forgotten, but an engraving of him looks calmly down 
from an elevated position on the passing throng. As the 
beautiful Theodosia Burr, daughter of Aaron Burr, and wife 
of Governor Alston of South Carolina, met a horrible fate at 
the hands of pirates on the coast of Carolina, her portrait 
hangs with this collection. This was washed ashore at ISTag's 
Head in the winter of 1812-13, and was picked up by a 
banker. It is loaned by Mrs. Overman, of Elizabeth City. 

The group of oil portraits, while not large, represents our 
leading statesmen whose lives were spent in the service of the 
State and some assisted in making our country great. The 
three signers — William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and John 
Penn — are placed side by side. Mrs. Beale's picturesque paint- 
ing of Charles I. is given a prominent position. Historians 

NORTH Carolina's exhibit at jamestown. 141 

can not agree as to the origin of the name of the Carolinas, 
claiming it is named in honor of either Charles I., Charles II. 
of England, or Charles IX. of France. It is most probable 
it was called for the Martyr King. Chief Justices Iredell 
and Alfred Moore hang on each side of the excellent portrait 
of the brilliant Judge Gaston. The portraits of Dr. James 
j^orcom, skilled surgeon in the AVar of 1812, recommended by 
Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia and appointed by Na- 
thaniel Macon of jSTorth Carolina, and that of Mrs. Winifred 
Hoskins, secretary of the "Edenton Tea Party," are master- 
pieces — among the gems of the hall. These are the property 
of Miss Penelope jSTorcom, of Hertford. The Secretary of 
the Fourth Provincial Congress, George Green, and Martha 
Cogsdell, his wife, are loaned by Mrs. George Green, of jSIew 
Bern. The splendid likeness of Governor William A. Gra- 
ham, one of the greatest men our State has produced, adorns 
the middle column, also that of General Joseph Graham, his 
father. Many photographs, etchings and watercolors of our 
great men and women, notable events and historic places 
cover the walls — but lack of space forbids even a cursory 
mention here. 

Of the tAvelve cases, that devoted to the silver is the hand- 
somest and most showy. It tells of the aristocracy of the 
colony and oifers an opportunity for the study of the armorial 
bearings of some of our early prominent families. The Colon- 
ial service of the Cameron family, bearing the arms of that 
Clan, loaned by Col. Benehan Cameron, is beautiful in its 
simplicity and a fine specimen of the style of silver of that 
period. The elegant service, also Colonial, but not so old and 
a trifle more ornamented, once in possession of Governor 
Samuel Johnston of '^Hayes," is loaned by members of the 
Wood family. A portion — four pieces — of the silver pre- 
sented by Prince Charles Edward Stuart to the dauntless 
Flora McDonald can be seen. Spoons ownd by William 


Hooper, the signer, George Green, secretary of the Fourth 
Provincial Congress, the DnBrutz family, and a ladle of 
John Harvey, bearing the respective crests, are arranged to 
advantage. The paten and chalice presented by "Col. Ed- 
ward Mosely'' to St. Paul's church, Edenton, in 1725, has 
been loaned by the vestry and rector of that historic old parish. 
This disproves the exaggerated statements of Colonel Byrd 
concerning the religious condition of that borough in 1728. 
The silver coffee pot and cream pitcher, with the Eden crest, 
and cruets with the Paget arms engraved thereon, have been 
secured through the courtesy of Mrs. and Miss Drane, of 
Edenton. The connnunion set of pewter, used by the First 
German Reform church, comes from Alamance. Another 
relic of interest is the green and gold plate, with festive 
scene in center, in a red velvet frame, which was one of a set 
of thirty pieces made to order for a coronation gift for Xapo- 
leon to present to Joseph Bonaparte when the Emperor cre- 
ated the latter King of Spain. This was brought to Borden- 
town and sold to General Patterson, from whom it was in- 
herited by Mrs. Patterson. The plate owned by George Du- 
rant, whose treaty with the Indians deserves the reputation of 
that of William Penn, but is little known beyond our borders, 
comes from a descendant. 

The quaint styles of the dress of long ago are revealed by 
a display of clothing that fills a case and a half. 

The MSS. occupy another case and a half, while others are 
scattered here and there as chronological order demands. 
There are documents with the signatures of Generals William 
R. Davie, LaFayette, Anthony Wayne, Greene, Joseph Gra- 
ham, Governors Caswell and Samuel Johnston, William 
Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn, Colonel John Hinton, 
Major John Hinton, and many other distinguished Carolin- 
ians, subscribed. The gem of the collection is the court 
martial made out in the handwriting of John Paul Jones, 
from the librarv at "Haves." 

NORTH Carolina's exhibit at jamestown. 143 

The treasures handed down in the Blount and Harvey 
families were tastefully arranged and loaned by Miss Lida 
Rodman, of Washington, filling a case and a half. They 
comprise many valuable historic heirlooms. 

Army officers and martial spirits pause indefinitely before 
the battle case, studying the curious old guns and swords 
stored there. Relics that did service at Alamance, Moore's 
Creek Bridge, Guilford Court-House and King's Mountain 
are grouped effectively. The bell that was rung, in lieu of 
beating the drum, to gather together the bands of Regulators 
on that fatal day in May, 1771, is one of the chief objects — ■ 
as is also Cornwallis' pistol. The shaving case — indeed, a 
handsome one when presented by General x^Tathaniel Greene 
to the famous Peter Francisco for courage — is loaned by his 
descendants, the Pescuds of Raleigh. The velvet-lined tray 
contained originally a razor for each day of the week, with the 
name engraved thereon. On the top is an inscription in the 
handwriting of General Greene, scratched with a sharp- 
pointed instrument. 

The '''Edenton Tea Party,'' so dear to the hearts of the 
Daughters of the Revolution, who have labored long and 
patiently to raise funds, by publishing the Xoeth Carolina 
Booklet, to erect a suitable memorial to those fifty-one 
patriotic women, is well told in relics. The most uiiiqiie of 
our treasures is the dainty little model, an exact reproduction 
of the "Tea Party House," the residence of Mrs. Elizabeth 
King, in which the resolutions were signed October 25, 1774. 
This is a gift from that versatile writer and historian. Dr. 
Richard Dillard, of Edenton. Above hangs the painting of 
that historic gathering, also presented by the same patriotic 
gentleman to the State Library. Another of his gracious 
acts has been placing in the exhibit for distribution a number 
of pamphlets, containing his article, revised, which appeared 
in the Booklet, August, 1901. It is well illustrated. A 


photograph of the stately Penelope Barker, president of the 
Tea Party, the portrait of Winifred Hoskins, already men- 
tioned, the cut-glass dish, rare china plate and Prayer Book of 
Elizabeth Horniblower, the china plate of Mrs. Hoskins and 
the candlestand that came down from the Valentine family — 
all bring those fascinating dames of the Revolutionary days 
very close to us and we can feel their very presence, hear their 
voices in a conglomeration of discussion, and are inspired by 
their patriotism and zeal. They were true, noble, refined 
women, who fulfilled the duty of the home yet forgot not their 
country. Can the daughters of to-day act unwisely in follov/- 
ing such examples ? 

The exhibit of the AVachovia Historical Society reveals the 
life of the people — their industries, household utensils and 
implements. The Moravians have an excellent display in the 
Pennsylvania exhibit and this completes theirs. The entire 
history of these thrifty, peace-abiding citizens — that have ever 
remained a distinct colony — affords unusual opportunity for 
the student. Kever before has the Society allowed the whole 
collection to leave Salem. On this occasion consent was not 
obtained for the removal until a custodian was permitted 
to accompany and install it. The maps, covering a goodly 
portion of the wall, are considered of great worth. A century 
of lights shows a remarkable series of candlesticks (with 
quaint methods of manufacturing candles), lanterns, lard and 
oil lamps. A century of music presents instruments of equal 
interest, such as a harpsichord played when Washington vis- 
ited Salem and a horn also used on that notable occasion, 
with the music, ''God save great Washington," by its side. 
Here can be seen the first printing press in the State, which 
was seized by Lord Cornwallis at Hillsboro and used by him 
for printing his proclamations. The fire engine, one of the 
first in this country, is indeed curious. It could be of ser- 
vice should anything so impossible as a fire occur in this abso- 

NORTH Carolina's exhibit at jamestown. 145 

liitely fire-proof structure. Four cases are crowded with all 
kinds of curios. Wachovia has done well for her State at the 
Exposition. To Mr. J. A. Lineback, who installed this splen- 
did exhibit, many thanks are due. 

Numerous pieces of furniture were offered, but could not 
be taken for lack of room. The following, however, were 
accepted : A chair owned by Washington ; a chair from 
"Buncombe Hall" ; one that Coriiwallis sat in; two loaned by 
Colonel Cameron — one came from ''Sweet Hall" and has 
an interesting history attached, the other was the property of 
Richard Bennehan of "StagTille," and has held some of North 
Carolina's most notable sons ; the card table, a beautiful bit 
of mahogany that belonged to President Jackson. North 
C^arolina gave three Presidents to the Union — Jackson, Polk 
and Johnson — and one "first lady in the land" — Dolly Madi- 
son. Pictures of these statesmen and their homes with posses- 
sions of the last named (loaned by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt) en- 
lighten many who did not heretofore know these incidents in 
our history. , 

A limited space forbids a fuller account of this engrossing 
work, which it is hoped will greatly aid in developing the 
historical awakening that now exists within our borders. 
More visitors seek the jSTorth Carolina exhibit than any other 
in the History Building, while numbers come just for a 
glimpse at that alone. No description can convey a correct 
idea of its worth or artistic effect — one must see to under- 
stand — then enjoy. To the generous men and women of Caro- 
lina who have made this exhibition a possibility by the loan 
of their priceless heirlooms and untiring assistance, to the 
custodians of other States who by their courtesy and encour- 
agement rendered the installation an easier task — there are 
obligations existing w^hich can never be repaid. Again, North 
Carolina has done right nobly. 




To Kemp Plummer Battle, the erudite scholar and assid- 
uous student of K^orth Carolina history, the Booklet owes 
a debt of gratitude. In no better way can it show its appre- 
ciation than by recounting the headings of the monographs 
which he has contributed from time to time and which has 
enriched its columns. 

(1) In Vol. I, January, 1902, he wrote: ''A ITorth Caro- 
lina Xaval Hero and His Daughter," showing the career of 
Captain Johnston Blakeley, the brilliant Commander of the 
American sloop. Wasp, and captor of the English brig-sloop, 
Beindeer, during the War of 1812. 

(2) Vol. II, November, 1902: ''Raleigh and the Old 
Town of Bloomsbury," the name given by Tryon to Wake 
Court House, the site of the city of Raleigh. 

(3) Vol. Ill, May, 1903: ''Trial of James Glasgow and 
the Supreme Court," showing how^ our higher Court was 
evolved from the special tribunal organized for the investi- 
gation of the frauds committed by Secretary of State Glas- 
gow and others. 

(4) Vol. IV, May, 1901: "The Lords Proprietors of the 
Province of Xorth Carolina," giving a succinct history of 
each of the eight Lords Proprietors and their successors, in- 
cluding their service to the Stuarts, which earned the grant 
of the imperial territory of Carolina. 

(5) Vol. VI, July, 1906: ^'Glimpses of History in IsTames 
of Counties in iSTorth Carolina," showing how these counties 
derived their names : some named in honor of favored Eng- 



lisli lords, of statesmen officially connected witli the colonies, 
of champions of civil liberty, and of Indian tribes; and of 
educators, governors, and navigators who have lived within 
the limits of ISTorth Carolina. 

The following sketch of Dr. Battle by Edward L. Stewart, 
of the University, and which appeared in a recent issue of 
the News and Observer, is herewith reproduced by permis- 
sion of the editor of that paper : 

"Kemp Plummer Battle was born in Franklin County, 
I^orth Carolina, December 19, 1831. His father, William 
Horn Battle, of the class of 1820, a great grandson of Elisha 
Battle, of the Constitutional Convention of 1776, was for 
years a Suj^reme Court Judge of the State. His mother, 
Lucy Martin Plummer, a granddaughter of Colonel ISTicholas 
Long, of Revolutionary fame, was a daughter of Kemp Plum- 
mer, State Senator from Warren County, who was known 
as the 'honest lawyer.' 

''He entered the University in 1815 and graduated four 
years later at the age of seventeen. The j)rize oration, the 
valedictory address, was drawn for by the three first honor 
men of the class, and Dr. Battle was the successful one of 
those who drew for the prize. 

"In his senior year, as President of the Dialectic Society, 
he, in company with Hon. James Mebane, Pirst President 
of the society and ex-Speaker of the House of Commons, pre- 
sided at the dedicatory services of the then new Dialectic 
Hall, which is now known as the History Room, in the Old 
West Building. 

"After graduation he was elected tutor of mathematics, in 
which capacity he served for four years, during which time 
he studied law under his father, receiving his license in 1854, 
and at once began a remunerative practice in copartnership 
with Quentin Busbee, of the Raleigh Bar. 

"In 1855 he married Miss Martha A. Battle, a distant rela- 


tive, who is still living, the joy of his life. They have been 
blessed with seven children, five of whom reached maturity. 
His daughter, i^ellie, wife of Dr. Richard H. Lewis, of Ra- 
leigh, ]Sr. C, died in 1889. His four living children are 
Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Jr., of Raleigh, ^. C. ; Thomas H. Bat- 
tle, of Rocky Mount, :^^. C. ; Herbert B. Battle, Ph.D., of 
Montgomery, Ala., and W. J. Battle, Ph.D., Professor of 
Greek of the University of Texas. 

''In 1860, he was one of the Whig candidates for the House 
of Commons in Wake County, and, although himself defeated, 
he aided in changing a Democratic majority of over five hun- 
dred to a Whig majority of two hundred. In this campaign 
he prejoared a pamj^hlet on "Ad Valorem Taxation Explained 
by Questions and Answers," which was so highly valued by 
his party that one hundred thousand copies were printed and 
distributed among the people of the State. During the Presi- 
dential campaign of 1860 he was President of the Wake 
County Union Club and actively opposed both Lincoln and 
Breckenridge, but when the great Civil War broke out he 
embraced the cause of the South with equal zeal and enthu- 
siasm, and was elected a member of the Secession Convention, 
in which he, foreseeing that the Confederacy would need 
fuel for its navy and for its factories, successfully advocated 
the building of a railroad to the coal fields of Chatham, 
which later became a part of the Raleigh and Augusta Air 
Line of the present Seaboard Air Line system. At the re- 
quest of Governor Worth, he was a successful candidate be- 
fore the Legislature for State Treasurer in 1865, and in 
1867 was re-elected practically unanimously, to be turned out 
of office by the operation of the Reconstruction Acts in 1868. 

"In 1862 he was made a Trustee of the LTni versify, and soon 
thereafter he was placed on the Executive Committee, in 
which position his love for his alma mater at once began to 
assert itself constructively. 




'^In 1867 the University entered the darkest period of its j:i' 

history, its funds were running low, and its professors were ^ 

fast resigning. Dr. Battle, as Chairman of a Committee of 
Trustees, of which Solicitor-General Samuel F. Phillips and 
ex-Governor William A. Graham were of the other members, O^- 

wrote an elaborate report recommending a reorganization c^ 

along the lines of the present system. The report was 
adopted almost unanimously, but our dear old University in 
a short time passed into hands that failed to keep its doors 
open to the youth of the State. 

"In 1874 the University, which had for eight years been 
but a pathetic reminder of better days in JSTorth Carolina, 
v\'as reached after by the strong arm of the State and, by 
Constitutional Amendment, was given back into the glad 
hands of its old-time friends. Dr. Battle, one of the new 
Trustees, was elected Secretary and Treasurer, and, on his 
recommendation, successful application was made to the Gen- 
eral Assembly for $7,500 a year, interest on the Land Grant. 
With this amount as a beginning and, relying on the Univer- 
sity sentiment in North Carolina, he began a movement to re- 
open the doors of our ancient seat of learning.. But, its 
buildings were decaying, its beautiful campus was growing 
up in weeds, wreck and ruin were on every hand, and money 
must be had to put glass in the windows, stop the many leaks 
in the various roofs, and cut down the weeds in the campus. 
Confident that the generous heart of ISTorth Carolina still beat 
with love for the University, Dr. Battle appealed to its 
friends, who gladly answ^ered his call for help, and gave him 
$18,000 with which to make the needed repairs. 

"'In September, 1875, the doors of the institution were once 
more thrown open ; sixty -nine students were enrolled ; and 
the University, with face uplifted toward the coming of bet- 
ter days, began its present career of service to the State. 

"'After the first year it was seen that a President was needed 


and Dr. Battle, upon urgent solicitation, abandoned a lucra- 
tive practice and reluctantly but loyally accepted the respon- 
sible post of labor and honor. His Presidency was most suc- 
cessful. Under his wise direction and co-operation the num- 
ber of students steadily increased, the instruction in all the 
departments was widened and deepened, the departments of 
law, medicine, natural history and electrical engineering were 
added, the number of laboratories was increased from three to 
five, a gymnasium and memorial hall were built, several liter- 
ary and scientific societies were organized, the University 
Railroad was completed, and many other needed improve- 
ments were made from time to time. Urom 18Y7 to 1885 he 
conducted the first Summer Xormal School in connection 
with a university or college, which gave a strong impetus to 
the establishment of graded schools. He also procured from 
the General Assembly the first annual appropriation ever 
granted the University, largely increased since. 

''In 1891 he resigned as President arid was at once unani- 
mously elected Alumni Professor of History, which position 
he has ever since most acceptably filled. His efficiency as 
President and Professor has been due not merely to his schol- 
arly instincts and vast fund of knowledge, but also to his 
large and varied experience in the business world, where, in 
addition to the offices already referred to, he held the follow- 
ing: Director of the Insane Asylum, President of a success- 
ful life insurance company. President of the State Agricul- 
tural Society, one of the three founders of the Oakwood 
Cemetery in Raleigh, IST. C, Director and one of the founders 
of the Citizens l^ational Bank, Raleigh, 'N. C, Alderman of 
the city of Raleigh, and Chairman of the Committee of Alder- 
men which put the city finances in order after the confusion 
of 1868-'9, and President of the Chatham Railroad during 
the Civil War, which, as has been mentioned, was built for 
the purpose of getting coal for the Confederacy. 


"As an author Dr. Battle has written many valuable histori- 
cal papers, pamphlets, and addresses, among which may be 
mentioned the following: History of the Supreme Court of 
^STorth Carolina, Trials and Judicial Proceedings of the Xew 
Testament, Life of General Jethro Sumner, Old Schools and 
Teachers of ISTorth Carolina, Otway Burns — Privateer and 
Legislator, etc. 

"Every friend of the University and especially those stu- 
dents who have matriculated since the reorganization in 
1875, will read with interest this short sketch of Dr. Battle's 
long and successful service for iSTorth Carolina. As a Trus- 
tee he has been ever faithful to the University ; as President 
he successfully rescued it from ruin and decay, and brought 
it back to a life of wider usefulness and deeper scholarship 
than it had ever kno^\ai before ; and now in the seventy-fifth 
year of his age, buoyant as a youth, both mentally and phy- 
sically, with a heart beating proudly with love for his native 
State, and an indomitable energy ever bent towards finding 
out the truth of history and exi")loiting the achievements of 
the fathers in State and iSTation, studious, painstaking, and 
indefatigable, year after year he has enthusiastically led the 
flower of our youth to the most authentic sources of historic 
lore where opinions may be formed without the bias of senti- 
ment or the blindness of prejudice. May many more years 
of honorable, useful and sympathetic service to his State and 
people be spared to him." 

(Dr. Battle has recently resigned as active Professor of 
History in the University of ]Srorth Carolina and has been 
chosen Emeritus Professor. He is one of the few college 
professors in the South who have been placed on the list of the 
Carnegie Pension Endowment. Dr. Battle is now busy read- 
ing the proof of his new book, the "History of the University 
of ISTorth Carolina, 1789-1868," and as soon as that comes from 
the press and Vol. 2, 1868, to the present, is finished, he will 


begin the Social and Political History of ISTorth Carolina 
from 1830, for which he has gathered material during his 
long and busy life. Nothing ever comes from his pen that 
is not wholesome, reliable and good.) 


The sketch in this number of the Xorth Carolina Book- 
Let, on the "Finances of ISTorth Carolina Colonists," by 
Charles Lee Raper, will be read by historians and financiers 
of the State, especially by the latter, with genuine interest. 
The author has taken great care in the collection of facts 
relating to the financial and commercial system as used by 
the colonists, and he has brought into small compass this his- 
tory during a hundred years. 

Professor Paper was born in High Point, X. C, March 
10, 1870. He was graduated from Trinity College, T^. C, in 
1902, with the degree of A.B. At this institution he won 
the prize for three successive years for highest standing in 

He received the degree of Ph.D. from Columbia Univer- 
sity in 1901-'02, was elected instructor of Greek and Latin 
in Trinity College, 1902-'03 ; was elected Professor of Latin 
in Greensboro Female College, N. C, lS93-'98; received the 
Columbia LTiiiversity scholarship, 1898-'99 ; was Fellow in 
Columbia I^niversity, 1899-1900; was lecturer in European 
and American history in the Barnard College of Columbia 
University, 1900-'01. 

Professor Paper has been head of the Department of Eco- 
nomics in the LTniversity of Is^orth Carolina since 1901 ; has 
created and developed the department, which now offers five 
courses (10 hours per week) running through the year, and 
has 175 Juniors and Seniors electino- them ; has collected for 


the University a good working library in economics, a branch 
of education so necessary to success. 

Professor Kaper was Associate Professor of History in the 
University of jSTorth Carolina, 1901-06. He has been the 
chief instrument in collecting the great ^'Ethel Carr Peacock 
Collection of ]N'orth Carolina History." He takes great in- 
terest in the history of his native State, and has been an im- 
portant member of the State Historical Commission since 

He has received two small grants from the Carnegie Insti- 
tution for research in the economic history of iSTorth Carolina. 

The following is a list of his published works : 

(a) The Church and Private Schools for Xorth Carolina. 

(b) jSTorth Carolina, a Royal Province: pp. 71. 1901; 
N. C. University Press. 

(c) I^orth Carolina, a study in English Government ; pp. 
260, 1904; Macmillan. This study was received with great 
favor in this country and in Europe. 

(d) The Principles of Wealth and Welfare; pp. 336, 
1906 ; Macmillan. This is being introduced as a text by the 
high schools, normals, and smaller colleges, in many places. 

(e) The South and the Manufacture of Cotton, 1905 ; a 
paper in the South Atlantic Quarterly. 

(f) Why ISTorth Carolina at first Refused to Ratify the 
Federal Constitution, 1906 ; a paper in the American Histori- 
cal Association Reports. 

(g) The economic Future of the Negro, 1906 ; a discussion, 
in the American Economic Association Publications. 

Professor Raper is a versatile writer and has contributed 
a number of short papers to the local newspapers ; has written 
a number of book reviews ; has frequently been asked for lists 
of books and for opinions on economic questions, by students 
in the schools and colleges and by men of affairs in many of 


the Southern States ; has given a number of popular lectures 
on economic problems before the Southern schools and col- 

Professor Raper's travels in Europe and in the eastern part 
of the United States have so enlarged his observations on 
economic and social conditions that he is considered an ex- 
cellent authority in this line of education. 

The article written l)y him for the !N"orth Carolina Book- 
let (September, 1903), on "Social Life in Colonial North 
Carolina" throws much light on that period of our history, 
laying a foundation for a fuller account for the future his- 
torian who may rescue from old documents and other sources 
not yet attainable but which, through the Xorth Carolina 
Historical Commission, will doubtless be found in the private 
letters and records of the old families of the State. The pos- 
sessors of such documents should co-operate with the Commis- 
sion in its efforts to preserve and render available such ma- 

Professor Paper's literary and historical work so far is an 
augury to his future usefulness and reputation. 


AVillis Grandy Briggs, writer of the article on '^Joseph 
Gales, Raleigh's First Editor," in this issue of The Booklet, 
is the postmaster at Paleigh, IST. C. 

Mr. Briggs was born October 9, 1875, and comes from the 
family of Hunters and J^orwoods, pioneer settlers in Wake 
county. His great grandfather, John Joyner Briggs, helped 
clear the forest for this fair city, built some of the first houses 
in Raleigh and died here at the advanced age of ninety-six 
years. He was one of the founders of the Baptist church 
here, an officer in the first local temperance society and a man 
of great piety. Together he and Joseph Gales served on the 


city patrol, — for the white males were then divided into 
squads of five for this duty. 

His younger son, Thomas Henry Briggs, a building con- 
tractor and merchant, was successful in business and left a 
name the synonym of honesty. When his death occurred, 
August 4, 1886, the citizens held a mass meeting in the city 
hall and paid tribute to his memory. Though a modest quiet 
man, he was loved as has been given to few men to be loved 
here. His eldest son, Thomas Henry Briggs, second, father 
of the contributor to The Booklet, is one of Raleigh's best cit- 
izens, successful in business and a leader in Christian work. 

Mr. Briggs' mother was formerly Miss Sarah Grandy, 
daughter of the late AVillis Sawyer Grandy, who served in 
the Confederate army. She is a descendant of Caleb Grandy, 
Revolutionary soldier and first representative from Camden 
County ; Colonel Peter Dauge, who was granted a large tract 
of land in 1794 "pursuant to an act of the General Assembly 
entitled an act for the relief of the officers and soldiers of 
the Continental line and in consideration of the signal brav- 
ery and personal zeal of Peter Dauge, a lieutenant colonel in 
said line;" William Ferebee, (1722-1783) of Currituck; 
Colonel Samuel Ferebee (1761-1815), of the War of 1812, 
last survivor of Fayetteville convention, 1789, which ratified 
for ISTorth Carolina the Constitution of the United States, and 
Dr. Enoch D. Ferebee, who lived in the old brick home on 
Lynhaven Bay. Dr. Ferebee (1797-1876) offered his ne- 
groes their freedom, which they declined, many years before 
the Civil War. His sons were in the Confederate army. 

Mr. Briggs graduated with honors in a class of thirty-one 
at Wake Forest College in 1896. He was awarded the senior 
oratorical medal given by Thomas Dixon, the author. In 
that year, before he was of age, he aligned himself with the 
Republican party because of his opposition to "free silver." 
When a newspaper was established here in January, 1897, 
to aid in the re-election of Senator J. C. Pritchard, he ac- 


cepted the position of city editor and retired from the business 
in which he had begun. The same year he was made United 
States Jury Commissioner, the youngest man, it is said, ap- 
pointed to this position. He was connected with Raleigh 
papers and correspondent at the State capital for outside 
dailies until ajDpointed postmaster by President Koosevelt 
Sept. 1, 1906. 

He has made a number of contributions to the press on 
historical subjects. His sketch of Joseph Gales is written 
with appreciation of this great editor's work and cannot fail 
to be read with interest. 

One among the many contributions to the press, published 
in The Raleigh Times of July 27, 1901, entitled ''The Guar- 
dians of the Peace," was a comprehensive review of the early 
government of the city of Raleigh from 1792 to 1901, with 
biographical sketches of many who helped to frame the laws 
for the peace, security, prosperity and happiness of this com- 
munity. This paper was of unusual local interest and great 
historical value. 

When Postmaster C. T. Bailey retired from office, in 1906, 
Mr. Briggs was tendered the place by the President, which 
position lie has filled with credit to himself and to the satis- 
faction of the public ; and more than this, he is the youngest 
man that has risen in this city to this most responsible posi- 
tion. Mr. Briggs is now in the prime of vigorous manhood, 
and with such character and qualifications as to command the 
regard and respect of the citizenship of his native city. 

Miss Pattie Williams Gee, the author of the ''Ode to North 
Carolina," which enriches this number of The Booklet, is a 
native of ISTorth Carolina, born in Halifax County March 10, 
1867. On the death of her mother and grandmother, at the 
age of five years she was transferred to the home of her ma- 


ternal aunt, Mrs. Ricliard C. Badger, of Raleigh, N. C, imde* 
whose care she grew to womanhood. She was educated in a 
private school and at St. Mary's School in Raleigh. Early 
in life, feeling the necessity of earning her own living, she 
went to ISTew York and studied at Packard's Business College, 
receiving a diploma in a partial course. Thereafter she was 
employed in various lines of clerical work. She reported the 
proceedings of a three days' session of the North Carolina 
Senate Committee with reference to a railroad commission. 
She worked for the Winston-Salem Land Improvement Co. ; 
was employed by the Democratic State Executive Committee 
of North Carolina ; worked for the Mercantile Association of 
the Carolinas at Wilmington, IST. C. ; for Samuel J. Tilden 
(nephew of the late Governor Tilden, of New York) in con- 
nection with his pharmaceutical factory at New Lebanon, 
N. Y. ; for Orlando M. Harper, a commission merchant 
of New York ; for the United States Book Company, and 
many affiliated companies then in the hands of a common 
receiver ; for the law firm of Armoux, Ritch & Woodford, 
of 18 Wall Street; for Bowers & Sands (one of the oldest and 
best known law firms in New York City), and finally was 
private secretary for Mr. B. Aymar Sands, a member of the 
above firm. In 1905 she resigned this position and is now 
living at a cottage at Harsbrouck Heights, New Jersey. Hav- 
ing run the gamut of lucrative endeavor she has found her 
work, she has struck the keynote in unison with a poetic na- 
ture, and here in her own little cottage she is enjoying a well 
earned competency, pursuing the vocation of student, poete&s 
and genealogist. 

Her pen is ever busy ''still pursuing, still achieving" thus 
giving the exceptionable promise of even more exquisite 

In 1905 she issued a small volume of forty poems entitled 
"'The Palace of the Heart," which attracted the attention of 


lovers of genuine poetry. It was critically noticed by many 
papers. Below is the appraisement of two which are worthy 
of reproduction. The Boston Transcript said: ''The verses 
in this volume are largely of spiritual import reflecting a hope- 
ful look upon life and revealing a depth of thought and a 
command of literary technique not usually found in collec- 
tions of modern poetry." 

The New York Times Saturday Review of Books, said: 
^'The Palace of the Heart" is conspicuous chiefly for the 
strong, religious feeling, simple and fervent in its expression, 
that inspires the greater number of poems. An air of devo- 
tion suggesting Fra Angelica, or even Cimabue gives the arch- 
aic forms of such songs as these, 'The Sinner and the Vio- 
lets,' 'Orate pro Me,' and 'Mother Love in After Years,' a 
grace of spirit altogether lovely." A Newark paper has 
this to say of another of her poems : "Unquestionably the 
finest poem in the volume is 'Mater Mea Carolina,' wherein 
the part played by North Carolina men in the Civil War is 
commemorated. Miss Gee is a native of that State and her 
poem is evidently inspired by a deep and abiding love for 
it. Her father fought in the Confederate army and her 
uncle, Major Sterling Gee, lost his life before Richmond. It 
is natural that she should write with feeling. She sings 
of the 'hundred thousand men and twenty thousand beardless 
boys' that Carolina sent forth to the fray, and her verse rings 
with exultant pride to be followed by a note of mourning. 
'Mater Mea Carolina' is true ]wetry and whenever Miss 
Gee's subject inspires her as in this, her verse rises to real ex- 
cellence. Elsewhere she needs the diligent practice in the 
technicalities of her art. But the thought is always sweet, 
and wholesome and winning." 

Since she has given up clerical work she will overcome the 
slight faults in her verse and no doubt will win laurels fitting 
for a victor's crown. 


jVIiss Gee is secretary to the Genealogical Mss. Company, 
150 West Forty-sixth Street, iSTew York, and is the inventor 
of the Medallion Genealogical Register which has been pat- 
ented both in America and Europe. 


Pattie Williams Gee is the daughter of Dr. Charles James 
Gee and Tempie Williams (Austin) Gee his wife, of Halifax 
County, N. C. Dr. Gee was educated at the University of 
Virginia, was a graduate of Jeiferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia, and member of the Secession Convention of 1861. 
Served as surgeon in the Army of Xortliern Virginia of First 
Xorth Carolina State troops. 

Miss Gee is a granddaughter of Sterliug Harwell Gee and 
Mary Temperance (Williams) his wife. She is a great 
granddaughter of IvTevil Gee and wife Elizabeth (Harwell) 
Gee, and she is great-great-granddaughter of Charles Gee, of 
Virginia, who was a descendant of Thomas Gee, of Boston, 

Miss Gee is ninth in descent from Richard Warren of the 
Mayflower ; eighth in descent from Richard Warren II. ; 
seventh in descent from Anne Warren and Dr. Thomas Little ; 
sixth in descent from Bethia Little (sister of William Little, 
Colonial Chief Justice of Xorth Carolina) and Thomas Bar- 
ker. (The Barkers and Littles Avere old families from Mas- 
sachusetts. They came to Xorth Carolina in 1713. The 
Barker family have been traced back to the year 1200.) 
I'afth in descent from Thomas Barker 11. , who married first 
Ferebee (Savage) Pugh, widow of Colonel Francis Pugh, 
of the Revolution, and second the distinguished Mrs. Penelope 
(Pagett) Craven, president of the famous ''Edenton Tea 
Party of 1774." There were no children by this second mar- 
riage. Mr. Barker was a lawyer of considerable distinction, 
was one of the committee ap])ointed to revise the laws in force 
iu the colony for adoption by the newly formed State. 


Miss Gee's descent from Thomas Barker and his first wife 
Ferebe (Savage) Piigh is interesting as she is connected by 
marriage to Penelope Barker the second wife of Thomas and 
the lady so famous as head of the Anti-Tea Drinking Society 
of Edenton, to which reference is made in this article. It 
may be of interest to the readers of The Booklet to know that 
Miss Susan Barker Willard, a descendant of the Barkers, 
lives at Hingham, Massachusetts. This lady has in her pos- 
session many letters from Penelope Barker dated July 22, 
1788, Edenton, IST. C. Pertinent to the above is the intention 
of the North Carolina Society Daughters of the Pevolution 
to place a tablet at the capitol of North Carolina at an early 
day, in honor of those patriotic women. V\ hen all factb re- 
lating to that event will be fully brought forth and these valu- 
able letters may be loaned for the occasion. 


Miss Gee is sixth in descent from Samuel ^Villiams and 
Elizabeth (Alston) his wife (see will of W, W., first, dated 
1704, ;'Secretary of State's office, Raleigh, IST. C.) mar- 
ried about 1725 to 1728. Eifth descent from Colonel Wil- 
liam Williams and Mrs. Elizabeth (Whitmel) Blount his 
wife; married 1746. Fourth descent from General VViliiam 
Williams and Elizabeth Williams (second wife), daughter of 
Capt. -Solomon and Tempie (Boddie) Williams. Third de- 
scent from Tempie Williams and Colonel Andrew Joyner, 
Lieutenant Colonel First Regiment of North Carolina, or- 
ganized August, 1814. Second descent from Martha V^/ii- 
liams Joyner who married first Archibald Alexander Austin, 
and second to Colonel Frank P. Haywood. First in descent 
from Tempie Williams (Austin) and Dr. Charles James 
Gee. Miss Gee is also descended from John Haywood 
Colonial Treasurer, etc. ( — 1757) and his wife Mary Lovat. 


She is also descended from Rev. Thomas Burges, a clergy- 
man and a pioneer of the Church of England in the colony. 

She is also descended from Archibald Alexander Austin 
and Martha Williams ( Joyiier) his wife. 

A rather interesting descent is that from Robert Alexander 
who belonged to the clan of McAlexander or McAlister, 
which is the same. He was a graduate of the University of 
Dublin and taught the first classical school west of the moun- 
tains of Virginia of which the present Washington and Lee 
University is the lineal descendant. Dr. Archibald Alexan- 
der, the first professor of theology at Princeton and the author 
of many religious works, was a descendant of his brother. 
This family has been noted for its scholarly attainments for 
many generations. 



THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Sixth Volume began in July, 1906. 

One Year^ One Dollar ; Single Copies, TKirty-fivc Cents. 

Miss Mary Milliard Hinton. Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Editors, 
Raleigh, Nortii t aroliua. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-office as second class matter. 

Notice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is desired, 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantati'^n, Raleigh, N. C 


Vol. VII. 

JANUARY, 1908 

No. 3 


North Carolina Booklet 









General Robert Howe - - - - 

By Hon. John D. Bellamy 

Early Relations of North Carolina and the West 

By William K. Boyd 




Incidents of the Early and Permanent Settlement of the 

Cape Fear - - - - - *■ -210 
By W. B. McKoy 

Biographical Sketches 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 



$1.00 THE YEAR 




The North Carolina Booklet. 

Great Events in North Carolina History. 

The BooKi,ET will be issued QUARXERiyY by the North Carolina 
Society op the Daughters of the Revoi,ution, beginning July, 
1907. Each BoOKi^ET will contain three articles and will be published 
in July, October, January and April, Price, |i.oo per year, 35 cents for 
single copy. 

Miss Mary Hii<i<iard Hinton. Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


1. North Carolina in the French and Indian War, 

Colonel Alfred Moore Waddell 

2. Colonial Newspapers Dr. Charles Lee Smith 

3. Finances of the North Carolina Colonists, Dr. Charles Lee Raper 

4. Payetteville Independent Light Infantry, Judge James C. MacRae 

5. Schools and Education in Colonial Times, . Mr. Charles L. Coon 

6. Joseph Gales, Mr. Willis G. Briggs 

7. General Robert Howe Hon. John D. Bellamy 

8. The Resolution of April 12, 1776, . Prof. R. D. W. Connor 

9. Our First State Constitution .... Dr. E. W. Sikes 

10. Permanent Settlement of the Lower Cape Fear, (1725-1735) 

Mr. W. B. McKoy 

11. Colonial Edenton, . . Rev. Robert Brent Drane, D.D. 

12. The Quakers of Perquimans, . . Miss Rebecca Albertson 

The BooKi,ET will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 

who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. Mofl5tt. 

The BooKi<ET will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 

biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 
Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booki,et for 
Vol. VII, are requested to give notice at once. 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. VII. JANUARY, 1908. No. 3 


Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings atte^id her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.'' 

Published by 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editobs. 

ORTH bllROIilflfl bOOf^UET s 






Mrs. Spier Whitaker. Mrs. T. K. Brunee. 

Professor D. H. Hill. JiIr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Professor E. P. Moses. Dr. Richard Dillaed. 

Db. Kemp P. Battle. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Me. ]VIaeshall DeLancey Hay^vood. Judge Walter Claek. 

Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, Mrs. E E Moffitt. 





Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 



honorary REGENT: 


recording SECRETARY: 


corresponding SECRETARY: 

Mrs. W. H. PACE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 





Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

REGENT 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

REGENT 1902-1906: 

*Died December ]2. 1904. 


Vol. Vil JANUARY, 1908 No. 3 



Mr. Speaker and gentlemen of the House of Representa- 
tives: — During the present session of tiiis Congress I intro- 
duced a bill (H. E. 17356) for the erection of an equestrian 
statue at Wilmington, IST. C, to the memory of Maj. Gen. 
Robert Howe, of the American Revolution. I can not expect, 
in the closing hours of this session, when the congested state 
of the Calendar will preclude the consideration of many im- 
portant measures, which are entitled to precedence, to secure 
the adoption of this resolution, but I do hope to bring to the 
attention of the country many of the incidents of the life and 
character of this remarkable man, in the hope that the next 
Congress will be possessed of sufficient patriotism to pass it. 

In this centennial era, when we are commemorating the 
important events which have made this Government a great 
and powerful nation and enabled it to attain a century's 
growth, we should not alone seek to celebrate its material 
advancement, but should at least endeavor to perpetuate in 
some enduring form the memories of the great men whose 
wisdom and valor contributed so powerfully toward making 
the American Revolution successful, and thereby establish- 
ing the first great representative government that has ever 
been vouchsafed to mankind. 

*Th1s Address was delivered by Mr. Bellamy before the 57th Congress. 


Carlyle has truly said that hero worship exists forever and 
everywhere ; not loyalty alone ; it extends from divine admi- 
ration to the lowest practical regions of life, and yet hero wor- 
ship has never been a salient feature in the character of the 
average American citizen. A government whose basic prin- 
ciples are liberty and equality, and whose powers are not de- 
rived by divine inheritance and centered in a single individ- 
ual, but emanate from the free consent of the people governed, 
has in it dogmas which tend to lessen reverence, yet it can 
never suppress the natural and spontaneous feeling of venera- 
tion for that which is truly great, for the true hero, be he 
philosopher, poet, priest, man of letters, warrior, or ruler. 

There has always existed among all people and in all ages 
a special admiration for the warrior whose deeds of daring 
have worked good for his people, and the American peojdc 
form no exception to this universal rule. The fame of Wash- 
ington, the general, embalmed forever in the hearts of his 
countrymen, has been further per23etuated in statues of bronze 
and marble, that future generations may emulate his virtues 
and be inspired by his patriotic example. But few indeed 
of the great generals who aided Washington by their counsel, 
who shared his confidence, and who won glory and renown 
on many of the fields of battle which secured our indepen- 
dence, have been honored by their countrymen. Major-Gen- 
erals Howe, Baron Steuben, Lincoln, Schuyler, and others 
performed their part in the great struggle equally with Wasli- 
ington, and achieved renown and fame excelled only by their 
leader. Some of them were leaders in the movement originat- 
ing and precipitating the Revolution, and all prominent in 
consummating it with their sword and their talent. The Gov- 
ernment, then an experiment, has become a Government re- 
spected and honored as the equal of the oldest and most per- 
manent and stable governments of the Avorld. 


It is but just and proper then that these great generals 
should at least be remembered by a posterity which has reaped 
untold blessings from their patriotic efforts. It is with the 
view of rescuing from the oblivion into which it has fallen 
the life and services of one who possessed more eminently, 
if possible, the confidence of General Washington than any of 
his comj)eers that your speaker has offered this resolution 
to have Congress erect a monument to his memory in the 
city of Wilmington, near which he was born and lies buried. 

Among the brilliant men of the Revolutionary period 
who have not been awarded the praise to which their patriotic 
services entitle them stands Maj. Gen. Robert Howe, of 
Brunswick, N. C. Of his early history little is preserved 
save that which is handed down by tradition in the vicinity 
of his birth. He was born in the precinct of Clarendon in 
the year 1732 in the present limits of Brunswick County, 
N. (\ He was the son of Job Howe, a well-educated, influen- 
tial, and wealthy rice planter, who resided at his palatial home 
on the Cape Fear River and spent his summers on the coast 
near the city of Wilmington. Like the Southern gentleman 
of that day, and for generations afterwards, this home was the 
seat of hospitality and refinement, and in this atmosphere 
of culture Robert Howe was partially reared. His grand- 
father had come over to America with the Yeamans colony in 
1665, which was planted first on Old To^\ti Creek, but after- 
wards moved to Charleston, S. C. His father, Job Howe, 
came to the Cape Fear region from Charleston with Col. 
Maurice Moore, his kinsman, who assumed charge of the 
lands of Sir John Yeamans abandoned in 1690. 

Robert Howe was connected by blood and marriage with 
the best families in ISTortli and South Carolina. He was the 
lineal descendant of Sir John Yeamans, and was the grand- 
son of Mary Moore, the daughter of James Moore, the gov- 


ernor of the two Carolinas in 1670. At an early age, as was 
the custom in those days among gentlemen of wealth, Robert 
was sent by his father to England, and there had the advan- 
tage of the social life of the best London circles, and received 
the benefits of a solid and refined English education. He 
spent a good number of years in Europe, and did not return 
until a short time previous to his father's death, which oc- 
curred at his summer home on the coast in the year 1748. It 
appears from the v/ill of his father, recorded in New Hanover 
County, that Robert had two brothers and two sisters, and 
although they lived in that vicinity, on fine plantations devised 
to each, yet in the early part of this century the name of 
Howe became entirely extinct, and is no longer found except 
occasionally among a few old family servants, negroes, who 
to-day alone retain the name. 
(P^ In 1763 we find Robert Howe settled on his rice plantation 

(^ 4 . at the mouth of Old Town Creek, the site of the first English 
. /j,* . ^ ... 

.1- .. settlement under Sir John Yeamans. He lived, like his fa- 

o/*'*''*' J ..^^ ther, in affluence, with his broad acres around him, his slaves, 
n f ^' his library well stored with the best books of the day, which 

Mf**^ J ^^ * was always an indispensable requisite to the well-furnished 
J^ ■'^^ ^ home of the southern country gentleman. At that day the 
^xl^t ^_|^ English Government had a well-fortified fort at the mouth 

""^T . ^ M of the Cape Fear River, known then and ever afterwards as 

^^i^ Fort Johnston. Robert had an ambition to lead a military 

\^ life. The royal Governor Tryon had partaken of his hospi- 

^ tality and had formed an attachment for him. A vacancy oc- 
curring in the position of commandant of the fort, he was ap- 
pointed to it by the governor. In a letter dated July 29, 
1766, at Old Brunswick, addressed to the Right Hon. Lord 
Burrington, secretary of war, Governor Tryon says : 

"Capt. John Dalrymple, commandant of Fort Johnston, 
in this province, died the 13th instant in said fort. As the 



above command was from His Majesty, I have issued a new 
one to Robert Howe, a gentleman of this province, to succeed 
him." * * * 

This is the first act of a public nature recorded of Robert 
Howe, and it was doubtless this appointment and the exercise 
of its duties that gave him a taste for the military life he was 
afterwards to lead. He held the position for a few years and 
was succeeded by John Abraham Collett. It was about this 
time that Robert met, wooed, and won the heart and hand of 
Sarah Grange, the daughter of Thomas Grange, a respectable 
planter on the Upper Cape Fear River, and they were after- 
wards married ; and although they lived happily together for 
a number of years, they became, for some reason, eventually 
estranged and were afterwards peaceably separated, as ap- 
pears from a deed providing for her support, recorded in the 
year 1772. They were never reunited. 

In January, 1772, Robert Howe entered political life. He 
offered himself as a candidate from Brunswick County for 
the general assembly of the province, which was to meet that 
year in November, and was duly elected by the people. Josiah 
Martin was then governor of the province, having about two 
years previously succeeded Governor Tryon. Governor Mar- 
tin v/as not so suave as Tryon, and was not generally popular.. 
He was a man of a firm and obstinate disposition, and by his 
indomitable will doubtless widened the breach and precipi- 
tated the conflict which was soon to follow between the people 
and the Crown. The royal governors in colonial times were 
invested with the most absolute and arbitrary powers. They 
had entire control over nearly all appointments to office and 
almost as much power in the regulation of the elections them- 
selves, and had also the right to convene, prorogue, and dis- 
solve the assemblies at pleasure. Soon after the assembly met 
and organized Robert Howe introduced a resolution to regu- 


late the elections and to have triennial meetings of the legis- 
lature. This bill was aimed at the curtailment of the gov- 
ernor's prerogatives, and was defeated through the instru- 
mentality of the governor and his council, and a short time 
afterwards the governor dissolved the assembly. But by the 
resolution itself was exhibited a bold and fearless spirit in its 
author, which characterized him through life and was a fac- 
ulty so necessary to fit him for the important part he was soon 
to play in the history of that momentous period. 

A like spirit of opposition to the encroachments of the 
Crown and its officers had begun to prevail in the other colo- 
nies. Josiah Quincy, of Massachusetts, was prominent as a 
leader in the movement. He set out for a voyage through 
the Southern colonies for the purpose of having a conference 
with the Whig leaders. While on this expedition, on the 
29th of March, 1773, Quincy paid a visit to Cornelius Har- 
nett at Hilton, in the old mansion formerly standing there. 
Of this visit tradition informs us with some details. It is 
said that Mr. Quincy had no previous acquaintance with Har- 
nett. On arriving at Harnett's residence he asked to be ac- 
commodated with a night's lodging, which was cordially 
granted him by his hospitable host. After supper, thinking 
Harnett might be a Tory, and it would be unsafe to advert 
to any political topic, Quincy specially avoided it, but in the 
course of the conversation, Harnett ascertaining in some way 
the cause of Quincy's appearance in the South, immediately 
began to express his views very positively and boldly concern- 
ing the tyrranical and oppressive course of the King toward 
his colonies. It is said that Quincy was so greatly surprised 
at finding Harnett so much in accord with his own views that 
he could not withstand embracing him upon discovering such 
a kindred spirit. 

The whole night was spent in conversation, and the next 


morning, upon Harnett saying to Quincy — which Quincy al- 
ready knew — that in the immdeiate vicinity was a bold, in- 
telligent, and determined man in full sympathy with their 
own views, Robert Howe, he was sent for and repaired thither 
without delay ; and then and there, at Hilton, on the Cape 
Fear River, these three men, closeted together in the deepest 
of deliberation, concocted and agreed upon the scheme for the 
American Revolution. While on this journey Mr. Quincy 
kept a diary of the events of the day, and it is quite interest- 
ing to note the estimate of Howe by this sagacious and dis- 
cerning patriot and of the incidents of this visit. In Quincy's 
Memoirs he records : 

"March 26, 1773. — Spent most of the day in public and 
private conversation with Col. Robert Howe, a leader and 
active member of the general assembly. Fine natural parts, 
great feeling, pure and elegant diction, with much persuasive 
eloquence, a Crown officer with a lucrative post, a staunch 
Whig and colonist. I received much information in provin- 
cial politics and great pleasure from his relation. Zealous in 
the cause of America, he relished the proposed Continental 
correspondence, promised to promote it, and write to me by 
the first opportunity. 

^'^ March 28. — Yesterday was a most delightful day. Fort 
Johnston is as delightful a situation. The commander. Col, 
Robert Howe, is a happy compound of the man of sense and 
sentiment with the man of the world, the sword, and the 

''March 30. — Spent the night at Mr. Harnett's. Robert 
Howe, Harnett, and myself made the social triumvirate of the 
evening. The plan of Continental correspondence highly rel- 
ished, much wished for, and resolved upon as proper to be 

Well might Hilton be termed the birthplace and cradle of 


American liberty, as it was so termed by Vice-President Hen- 
ry Wilson, in a speech from the portico of this building, de- 
livered in 1872. On departing from the Cape Fear region, 
Quincy bade his friend Howe adieu, each hoping to meet 
again and pledging each other to urge on the cause of inde- 
pendence, Caj^tain Howe giving to Mr. Quincy a letter of in- 
troduction to Governor Tryon, who had then become governor 
of New York. 

The legistlature of 1772 was dissolved by Governor Martin 
in the early spring, as he desired to have members elected 
who would support his administration. But, notwithstand- 
ing the opposition fomented by the governor against him, 
Robert Howe was again returned to the assembly, which met 
the same year at JSTew Bern on December 4th. At this ses- 
sion the speaker of the House of Commons laid before that 
body letters from several provinces requesting the appoint- 
ment of a committee to inquire into the encroachments of 
England upon the liberties of the American people. The 
house passed a resolution — 

"That such example was worthy of imitation by which 
means communication and concert would be established among 
the colonies, and that they will at all times be ready to exert 
their efforts to preserve and defend their rights." 

The committee was appointed, and after the Speaker's 
name, as chairman, stands next in order the names of Robert 
Howe and Cornelius Harnett. It was chiefly through the 
influence and exertion of these two men that this committee 
was chosen, and thus was recorded the first act of a legislative 
character that led to the revolution. 

During this session the House had passed an act prohibit- 
ing the sheriffs from collecting that portion of the poll tax de- 
voted to the payment of the public debt. The governor com- 
manded the sheriffs to enforce the collection, and a direct 


clash arose between the legislative and executive branches of 
the Government. The judicial branch was silent, as the 
courts were closed. The governor forbade the further meet- 
ing of the assembly. Whereupon among the Whig leaders 
it was decided to call a general congress to meet at New Bern 
August 20, 1774. 

The governor called upon the council to concert measures 
to prevent the election of members as delegates to this meet- 
ing of the congress, but the people were thoroughly excited, 
and in spite of the governor's strenuous efforts to the con- 
trary the congress assembled at iSTew Bern on the 25th of 
August, pursuant to the call. Among the delegates sent was 
Robert Howe, of Brunswick County, and his learning and elo- 
quence were felt in this body. Among the many important 
resolutions passed were those claiming the right of a citizen 
to trial by a jury of his vicinage, and denounced the sending 
of Americans to England for trial in criminal cases, and that 
no subject should be taxed without representation. They 
approved of the conduct of the people of Massachusetts, and 
resolved not to import tea or any British manufacture, or ex- 
port their own products to Great Britain unless their griev- 
ances were redressed. On the 11th of February, 1775, 
Colonel Harvey called another congress to meet at New Bern 
on the 3d of April. As a delegate to this congress and also 
to the general assembly, which was to meet at the same time, 
Robert Howe was again elected from Brunswick County. 

Governor Martin issued his proclamation against the as- 
sembling of this congress, and finding his voice unheeded, on 
the morning of the meeting of the assembly he issued another 
proclamation commanding them to desist from the proposed 
convention. But men determined on the attainment of the 
liberty for which they were striving would brook no opposi- 
tion, and the convention was held in the very face of the gov- 


ernor. Governor Martin still persevered in his course. On 

the meeting of the assembly he went before that body and 
addressed them at length. He told them that he looked with 
horror on the proceedings of some of the colonies ; that the 
meetings and committees had injured the rights of the Crown 
and insulted its officers ; that they were in duty bound to pre- 
vent the meeting of the congress ; that it should be the care 
of the assembly to lead back the people to their allegiance; 
that Parliament was at that very time deliberating for the 
good of America, and they should await the result. 

The assembly did not like the tone of the governor's ad- 
dress and immediately proceeded to the appointment of a 
eommnttee to reply to it. Robert Howe, for his peculiar fit- 
ness, was selected as its chairman. On the 7th of April 
Robert Howe wrote and reported an address which, as a justi- 
fication for the action of his people, as well as a refutation 
of the charges of the governor, stamps him as a clear, forcible 
and logical writer, than whom the colonies had no superior. 
Captain Howe said : 

That they contemplated with horror the condition of 
America, involved in difficulties and distressed by invasions 
of ancient rights and immunities. In this way the colonies 
had been driven to measures wdiich, however extraordinary, 
were still warranted by necessity. The aj^pointment of com- 
mittees in counties and towns had been adopted to resist un- 
constitutional encroachments, and the assembly was convinced 
that no step had been taken in that direction which was not 
salutary and proper. It was not to be controverted that all 
British subjects had the right of assembling and petitioning 
for a redress of grievances, and any attempt to deny or abridge 
this privilege was in direct conflict with the constitution. It 
was the least of their desires to prevent the objects and ses- 
sion of the provincial congress, then in session, or to join his 
excellency in his injurious epithets in its disparagement. 


They further stated : 

That thej would gladly aid in the establishment of a 
proper court system, but declined any provisions for Fort 

This reply was so very distasteful to the governor that the 
next day he dissolved the assembly, and this was the last held 
under royal auspices in ISTorth Carolina. 

Captain Howe returned to his home, and as the clouds of 
war were gathering thick and lowering over his country he 
immediately began to prepare for action. Having no trained 
soldiers he employed himself drilling the people and training 
them to arms. While thus engaged the governor issued a vio- 
lent proclamation at Fort Johnston on the 16th June, 1775, 
against the people of the colony. A meeting of the district 
committee of safety was held at the court-house in Wilming- 
ton on the 20th June, with delegates present from Brunswick, 
Bladen, Onslow, Duplin, and New Hanover counties. Robert 
Howe appeared as a member from Brunswick. 

Immediately a committee was appointed, with Robert Howe 
as chairman, to answer the proclamation which was ordered to 
be published. Captain Howe prepared the address, which, 
like his former addresses, was a masterly production. Ho said 
among other things : 

"In order to prevent the pernicious influence of the said 
proclamation, we do unanimously resolve, that in our opinion 
his excellency Josiah Martin, Esq., hath by the said proclnma- 
tion, and by the whole tenor of his conduct since these un- 
happy disputes between Great Britain and the colonies, dis- 
covered himself to be an enemy to the happiness of this col- 
ony in particular, and to the freedom, rights, and privileges 
of America in general. And in reply to Lord North's resolu- 
tion, introduced into Parliament, concerning America, which 
his excellency alluded to, 'Resolved, That this was a low, base, 
flagitious, and wicked attempt to entrap America into slavery, 



and which they ought to reject with contempt which it de- 
serves.' " 

News of the battle of Lexington and Bunker Hill had now 
reached the Cape Fear, and the people began to prepare with 
increased exertions for the emergency. It became apparent 
that as Fort Johnston was the key to the entire Cape Fear 
country it must be held by the colonies, and on the 18th of 
May, after due preparation, Col. John Ashe, in command of 
a body of troops, among whom was Captain Howe, attacked, 
set fire to, and partially burned Fort Johnston, right under 
the English fleet then in the harbor. 

About this time, also, another meeting of congress was 
called for August 21, 1775, at Hillsboro. Thither Robert 
Howe again went as the chosen delegate from Brunswick 
County. The meeting of this congress was alike denounced 
by Governor Martin from his place of refuge on a British 
man-of-war. But the congress, to his denunciation, voted to 
bear their part of the expense of a Continental army, and 
organized one of their own by providing for the immediate 
formation of two regiments of 500 men each, and appointed 
James Moore as colonel of the first and Robert Howe as colo- 
nel of the second regiment. By this same congress, on Sep- 
tember 8, Colonel Howe was also appointed one of a commit- 
tee, with William Hooper as chairman, to prepare an address 
to the people of the British Empire, declaring the views of the 
body as to the existing state of affairs. This was the last act 
of a civil nature in which Colonel Howe was engaged until 
the close of that great struggle which was to terminate in the 
establishment of the greatest constitutional republic the world 
has ever seen. 

Colonel Howe, as we have seen, was prominent in every step 
which led to the Revolution. He was ever ready, with his 
broad and liberal views, to advance the cause of his country. 
He had with his pen, by liis persuasive eloquence on the hustr 


ings, and his debates in the legislative halls, as well as his 
votes, shown himself a true statesman, born as it were for the 
occasion. But it is not for us to regard him alone as a states- 
man, for he was great as a soldier. 'No sooner had the Hills- 
boro congress adjourned than Colonel Howe began to form his 
regiment, and continued training his soldiers. In this he was 
engaged when he was informed of the efforts of Lord Dun- 
more to raise an army at Norfolk, and of his emissaries to 
incite an insurrection amons^ the slaves in the Albemarle re- 
gion of ISTorth Carolina. He immediately, in December, 1775, 
proceeded with his regiment to iSTorfolk to engage the British 
and to rescue his people from the threatened insurrection. 
He arrived at ISTorfolk on the 11th of December, two days 
after the skirmish between Lord Dunmore and the Virginia 
troops at Great Bridge, but found that Lord Dunmore had 
only withdrawn to Norfolk and was then in possession of the 
town. Colonel Howe, being the officer of highest rank, as- 
sumed command of the American troops, and, an engagement 
ensuing, drove Lord Dunmore and his entire force from the 
country, and on the 14th of December took possession of the 

Lord Dunmore on retreating betook himself to the British 
fleet, and on January 1, 1776, attempted to recapture the city. 
He opened a severe bombardment on the town from the fleet, 
and with such terrible results that nine-tenths of all the houses 
were reduced to ashes, and the fire raged for several weeks. 
But Colonel Howe successfully repelled the assault, and Lord 
Dunmore retired from the country. 

At this point Colonel Howe remained until after the 1st of 
March, when, for his gallantry and good conduct, he was pro- 
moted by the Continental Congress to the rank of brigadier- 
general in the Continental Army and ordered to the Southern 
Department, under Major-General Charles Lee. 


On May 4, 1776, the State Congress, through its president, 
addressed General Howe, and returned to him a vote of thanka 
''for his nianlj, generous, and war-like conduct in these un- 
happy times, and more especially for the reputation our troopa 
acquired under his command." General Howe thus endeared 
himself to his own countrymen, but had become exceedingly 
obnoxious to the British. 

So great was this aversion that on the 5th day of May, 
1776, Sir Henry Clinton, then in command, issued a procla- 
mation against committees and congresses, and invited the 
peoj)le to return to the royal standard, and offered and prom- 
ised pardon to all the peoiole of North Carolina who would 
submit, "except Robert Howe and Cornelius Harnett." On 
the 12th of the same month Cornwallis, sent by Sir Henry 
Clinton, with 900 men ravaged and burned General Howe's 
plantation at Old Town Creek and took away a few bullocks 
and a number of slaves. Major-General Charles Lee was 
now on his way to take charge of the military affairs in the 
South. While in Xorth Carolina he w^as joined by General 
Howe and the two jSTorth Carolina regiments under Col. 
James Moore and Alex. Martin, the latter appointed to suc- 
ceed General Howe, promoted. 

These two regiments arrived at Charleston on June 11, 
1776, and these, under the command of General Howe, par- 
ticipated in the brilliant victories of Forts Sullivan and Moul- 
trie, which occurred on the 28th of June. At this battle the 
Americans had only one-tenth as many guns as were brought 
to bear on them, and yet they won the day. Of the soldiers 
General Lee said : "JSTo men ever behaved better or ever 
could behave better." Here the North Carolina troops fought 
v/ith conspicuous bravery and added new laurels to their own 
fame and that of their commander. 

General Lee, in a report of the battle made to Edmond 
Pendleton, of the Virginia convention, said: 


"I know not which trooj)s I have the greatest reason to be 
pleased with, Mulilenberg's Virginians, or the North Caro- 
lina troops. They are both eeiually alert, zealous, and 

During the month of July, General Lee, with General O 

Howe and Colonel Moultrie, left Charleston for an expedition 'f^^ 

against Florida, but when they arrived at Savannah General ^ 

Lee was recalled by General Washington, and in October fol- ^ 

lowing Llowe was placed in command of the southern depart- 
ment, with headquarters at Charleston. In retaliation for 
incursions from Florida, General Howe, at the head of 2,000 
Americans, militia from Xortli Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Georgia, attempted the capture of St. Augustine. He met 
with little opposition before he reached the St. Mary's River, 
where the British had erected a fort called Tonyn, in com- 
pliment to the governor of the province. On the approach 
of Howe they destroyed the fort and, after some slight skirm- 
ishing, retreated towarel St. Augustine. But the Americans 
were driven back from Florida by a plague of fever which 
swept away nearly one-fourth of their number and rendered 
their retreat absolutely necessary. 

It was while at Charleston that occurred the dispute be- 
tween Colonel Gadsden and General Llowe, which led to the 
duel between them on the 20th of August, 1778. As the 
duel was an episode in his life of so remarkable a character 
and our historians have been so inaccurate in their references 
to it, I deem it of so much interest as to here give a detailed 
statement of it, taken from an account of the duel in The 
South Carolinian and Amoican Gazette^ dated September 3, 
1778, three or four days after its occurrence : 

The dispute aro;e out of a conflict of authority between the 
States and the Continental Congress — a question of conflict 
of authority which agitateel and seriously affected the Con- 


federacy in the late civil war, and which was never clearly 
and iDermancntlj settled in the United States between the 
States and the General Government until the adoption of the 
Constitution : 

*'0n the 29th October, 1776, General Howe published in 
his orders the promotion of Colonels Gadsden and Moultrie, 
and assigned them to their respective commands. 

''On the 23d of August, 1777, General Gadsden resigned 
his command into the hands of General Howe. General 
Howe sent the resignation to Congress with a letter explain- 
ing it, and Congress, accepting it without comment, wounded 
Colonel Gadsden's feelings. To this letter Colonel Gadsden 
replied in an open letter to Congress. This letter was the 
cause of the duel. General Howe says that about four months 
before the date of his letter, that is, about the 1st of May, 
after he had been about six months in undisputed command of 
the post, General Gadsden desired to know by what right he 
commanded, and claimed that he himself was the natural com- 
mander in South Carolina. General Howe explained to him 
his right, and showed the error into which General Gadsden 
had fallen respecting claims of right. General Howe re- 
plied that as he had no doubt respecting his own right he 
would express none, but if the other desired it he would 
communicate those doubts to Congress as his, and this was 
assented to. 

"At a subsequent interview a few days afterwards General 
Howe was led to believe that General Gadsden was now satis- 
fied as to his right, and the letter was not written. One day 
in August they met at the house of President Lowndes, and 
General Gadsden inquired whether the letter had been writ- 
ten as agreed, and on General Howe replying in the negative, 
and giving his reasons for not having done so, General Gads- 
den said the matter should be brought before the South Caro- 


Una assembly. Shortly afterwards a motion was made by 
William Henry Drayton inquiring into the nature of General 
Howe's command in that State. This motion was promptly 
rejected, and General Gadsden immediately resigned his com- 
mission into General Howe's hands. General Gadsden gave 
an explanation of the matter and says : 

'' 'On the 11th of August I received by the General's aid-de 
camp a long expostulatory letter, with a demand for satisfac- 
tion at the close unless I made him reparation for the expres- 
sions I had made use of relative to him in my letter of the 
4th of July. I wrote for an answer next morning that I was 
ready to give him any satisfaction he thought proper, when 
and where he pleased ; that I thought him the aggressor in 
having wrjte such an unnecessary detail of that matter in it, 
omitting my principal objection, and especially for not letting 
me, whom it so nearly concerned, have a copy of it ; and that 
he had nobody to blame but himself; that I never saw his de- 
tail, which had such immediate effect, for ten months after the 
date of it. 

" 'Three letters from him and two from me passed before 
the matter came to a point. In his he gave me assurance that 
he did not mean in anytliing he said to reflect upon or injure 
me, and as to the breach of promise I accused him of he de- 
clared he really understood me as he had set forth ; so that if 
there was a fault, his understanding and not his integrity was 
to blame ; and had he imagined I wished to see his letter he 
should most cheerfully have sent it to me ; that he had not the 
least wish to conceal it from me. My friends, Colonels El- 
liott and Horry, who were the only ones who had the least 
hint of the affair from me, seemed to think this a great oc- 
casion, and required some notice or apology on my side, and 
our friend, Colonel Pinckney, who was the General's second, 
appeared to be of the same opinion. But I, looking upon it 


onlj as personal and private to me, and whereas the expres- 
sions of me he particularly referred to related to the manner 
of a public act, I determined to make no concessions, but to 
meet him in any manner he jjleased.' 

"Accordingly on the 30th of August the hostile meeting 
took place, and the following account given of it : 'After the 
generals met and ourteously saluted eah other, General Howe 
desired his second to acquaint his friends, in case he should 
fall, that it was his earnest request that they should not prose- 
cute General Gadsden beyond the formality of a trial, and 
General Gadsden desired both the seconds to acquaint his 
friend in case he should fall, that he entirely forgave General 
Howe and earnestly begged them not to prosecute him, and 
he particularly enjoined Colonel Pinckney to charge his son 
not to intermeddle in the affair at all. General Howe's 
second then stepped off the distance then fixed upon by him 
and Colonel Elliott — IS short paces — and the generals being- 
placed. Colonel Elliott said : 

" 'Gentlemen, we have marked out your distance, leaving 
you to act as you please, not doubting but that, as this is an 
affair of honor, you will act consequently with the strictest 
rules of honor.' General Howe then said to General Gads- 
den, Tire, sir.' General Gadsden said, 'Do you fire first ?' 
General Howe replied, 'We will both fire together.' General 
Gadsden made no answer, but both presented. There was a 
pause for a few seconds, and General Howe said with a smile, 
'Why will not you fire. General Gadsden ?' General Gadsden 
replied, 'You brought me out, General Howe, to this ball play 
and ought to begin the entertainment.' General Howe fired 
and missed. General Gadsden after a short interval fired his 
pistol over his left arm, about at right angles from Genernl 
Howe, and then called out to General Howe to fire again. 
General Howe smiled, and at the same time dropping his 


hands with his pistol in it said, 'iSJ^o, General Gadsden^ I can 
not after this.' 

''General Gadsden's second said he was glad to see so niucls 
honor in the generals ; that he did not think General Gadsden 
could have made a handsomer apology or General Howe have 
shown a higher sense of honor than in acting as he had done. 
Then General Gadsden went up to him and said, 'Now, Gen- 
eral Howe, I will mention to you what I conld not before, as 
mj letter was a public one, and the words contained in it 
seemed to me proper, and as yours was a private one, the parts 
in it which, in the opinion of my friends, left an opening for 
an apology I could not take notice of ; but I told my friends 
in the carriage before I came on the ground that I intended 
to receive your fire, and though I may, perhaps, talk this mat- 
ter over again, I assure you I shall never in future make use 
of any harsh expressions concerning you.' General Howe 
said that it was very agreeable to him that the matter termin- 
ated in this way, and that he was happy that he had missed 
him. General Gadsden's second said he hoped that the differ- 
ence that had caused this duel might now subside and be left 
on that spot. The generals, then, in token of this reconcilia- 
tion shook hands and parted." 

We rarely see such chivalry displayed in the duel ; and al- 
though it is intended for the healing of wounded honor among 
gentlemen, yet as a practice to be condemned, if it must be re- 
sorted to, no finer examj^le could be given of what ought to 
be observed as the rules of the code. General Gadsden was 
wrong in this matter, but, as it is said, ''he was gloriously 
wrong," and General Howe was completely vindicated. 

The unfortunate, but gifted Major Andre, of the British 
army, who was afterwards executed as a spy, wrote a humor- 
ous account of this duel in eighteen stanzas, set to the tune 
of Yankee Doodle, which was published as one of the humors 
of that day. It is thus a-ivcn : 


"on the affair between the rebel generals HOWE AND 


"Cliarleston, S. C, September 1, 1778. 

"We are favored with the following authentic account of 

the affair of honor which hapj)ened on the 13th of August, 

1778. Eleven o'clock was the hour appointed for Generals 

H. and G. to meet. Accordingly, about ten minutes before 

eleven — but hold ! It is too good a story to be told in simple 


It was on Mr. Percy's land, 

At Squire Eugeley's corner. 
Great H. and G. met, sword in hand, 
Uj)on a point of honor. 

Chorus : Yankee doodle, doodle doo, etc. 

G. went before with Colonel E., 

Together in a carriage; 
On horseback followed H. and P. 

As if to steal a marriage. 

On chosen ground they now alight. 

For battle duly harnessed; 
A shady place, and out of sight, 

It shew'd they were in earnest. 

They met, and in the usual way 

With hat in hand saluted ; 
Which was, no doubt, to show how they 

Like gentlemen disputed. 

And then they both together made 

This honest declaration, 
That they came there, by lionor led. 

And not by inclination. 

That if they fought, 'twas not because 

Of rancour, spite, or passion; 
But only to obey the laws 

Of custom and the fashion. 

The pistols then, before their eyes 

Were fairly primed and loaded; 
H. wished, and so did G. likewise, 

The customs were exploded. 

But as they now had gone so far 

In siich a bloody business, 
For action straight they both prepare 

With mutual forgiveness. 


But lest theii' courage should exceed 

The bounds of moderation, 
Between the seconds 'twas agreed 

To fix them each a station. 

The distance stepp'd by Colonel P. 

Was only eight short spaces; 
"Now, gentlemen," says Colonel E., 

"Be sure to keep your places." 

Quoth H. to G., "Sir, please to fire"; 

Quoth G., "No, pray begin, sir"; 
And truly we must needs admire 

The temper they were in, sir. 

"We'll fire both at once," said H. ; 

And so they both presented; 
No answer was returned by G., 

But silence, sir, consented. 

They paused awhile, these gallant foes, 

By turns politely grinning: 
'Till, after many cons and pros, 

H. made a brisk beginning. 

H. missed his mark, but not his aim; 

The shot was well directed. 
It saved them both from hurt and shame j 

What more could be expected? 

Then G., to show he meant no harm, 

But hated jars and jangles, 
His pistol fired across his arm 

From H., almost at angles. 

H. now was called upon by G. 

To fire another shot, sir; 
He smiled and, "After that," quoth he, 

"No, truly I can not, sir." 

Such honor did they both display 

They highly were commended ; 
And thus, in short, this gallant fray 

Without mischance was ended. 

No fresh dispute, we may suppose. 

Will e'er by them be started; 
And now the chiefs, no longer foes, 

Shook hands, and so they parted. 

Chorus: Yankee doodle, doodle doo, etc. 

After this encounter and toward the close of December, 
lYTS, we find General Howe at Savannah, Ga., sent by Gen- 
eral Washington to command the defenses around that town, 


to prevent the threatened attack of the British. On arriving 
he immediately bestowed as much labor on the fortification 
as he could command men and means to give. But Governor 
Houston, of Georgia, denied his right to command at that 
post, as the governor himself claimed to be commander-in- 
chief and entitled to precedence of rank on Georgia soil. But 
General Howe as commander of the continental forces under 
Washington could not concede this to the State authorities. 
He deemed it his duty to point out to the legislature of Geor- 
gia and to the governor, in the strongest expressions of which 
he was master, the want of proper defenses, and asked for 
men to throw up the fortifications. 

But owing to this friction between Governor Houston and 
General Howe over the precedence to command the legislature 
refused to take any action whatever. Governor Houston still 
continued to dispute his right to command ; and when the 
British forces sailed in the river Savannah was without means 
of defense. General Howe, having under him only about 900 
men, mthout fortifications, w^as unable to prevent the landing 
of the British force, nearly four times as large, with heavy 
guns and ammunition, and consisting of thirty-five hundred 
men, under Colonel Campbell, from New York, and a like 
number under General Prevost, from St. Augustine, among 
whom was the regiment of royalists, chiefly from liorth Car- 
olina, under the command of Col. John Hamilton, of Halifax. 

The ISTorth Carolina Continentals here fought face to face 
against their brothers, the Loyalists. A battle took place, with 
great loss of life, the Continental troops being attacked both 
in the flank and front by so great an excess in numbers that, 
notwithstanding the bravery and gallantry with which the 
Continentals fought, they were driven from their position, 
and the British carried the day. The valor and patriotism of 
the Americans could not prevail over the immense number of 


the British, General Howe incurred here the resentment of 
Governor Houston over this dispute as to whether the State 
or Continental authorities had the rig'ht to control and direct 
the raanagement of the affairs of war, but this disaster showed 
how necessary it was to concede this power to the Continental 
Congress, as it was through the want of the cooperation of 
Governor Houston, or, rather, his opposition, coupled with 
the paucity of numbers of the Americans, that led to the de- 
feat at Savannah. But the whole conduct of the battle showed 
in General Howe the highest marks of generalship. 

After this, at the instance of Governor Houston, a court- 
martial, presided over by Maj. Gen. Baron Steuben as presi- 
dent, with Brigadier-Generals Knox and others, to investigate 
the conduct of General Howe on the charges of having sacri- 
ficed the Georgia troops and leaving the country exposed, 
but the court held him not guilty, and, in the language of 
the Court, "We do acquit him of both charges with the highest 
honor." In the early part of the year 1779, General Howe 
was transferred to the North, and on the 15th of July was 
ordered against Verplanck's Point, subsequently to Ridge- 
field. He also cooperated with General Wayne in his attack 
on Stony Point on the Hudson. 

About this time the city of New York was evacuated by 
the Americans, and the British under Sir Henry Clinton 
took possession. The American Army withdrew into the 
interior of the State. The position of West Point, on the 
Hudson, was considered by General Washington as the key 
to the Army's position. And so great was Washington's con- 
fidence in the military ability and courage of General Howe 
that to him was intrusted the command of that department, 
and on the 15th of May, 1780, he was instructed by Wash- 
ington to increase his ranlv and file to 2,500 men, if not now 
that large, from General Clinton's New York ]\[ilitia. Gen- 


eral Clinton was then Governor of that State and commander- 
in-chief of the militia. Howe was soon joined by part of 
Clinton's brigade and latterly by a division of the Connecti- 
cut troops, when he was ordered by General Washington to 
dismiss the militia, having then 2,500 Continental troops. 

General Clinton doubtless took offense at the dismissal of 
his State's militia, and immediately began with Benedict 
Arnold and others to plot for the removal of General Howe. 
General Arnold made immediate application for the position, 
whether then with a treasonable design we can only con- 
jecture, but he alleged "that his wound would not allow him 
to remain in the field," and that was his ostensible reason 
for seeking the appointment. Arnold secured the influence 
of Mr. Robert E. Livingston, then a member of Congress 
from ISTew York, to assist him. Mr. Livingston wrote to Gen- 
eral Washington on the 22d day of June, 1Y80, and stated 
that General Howe (probably on account of his dismissal of 
the 'New York militia), would not inspire the confidence in 
them essential for engaging their efficient service, and said : 
"If I might presume so far, I should beg leave to submit to 
Your Excellency whether this post might not be safely con- 
fided to General Arnold, who is the favorite of the militia, 
and who will agree perfectly with our governor." 

On the 30th of June, General Arnold visited the camp at 
West Point. General Howe wrote that day to General Wash- 
ington, "I have taken General Arnold round our works, and 
he has my opinion of them and of many other matters. I 
have long wished to give it to you, but I could not convey 
it by letter." General Howe had always, to a most extra- 
ordinary degree, enjoyed General Washington's esteem and 
confidence, and upon the solicitation for the appointment of 
Arnold he refused to make it, except that General Howe might 
prefer to resume his position in the line of the army. Gen- 


era! Howe signifying his preference, General Washington 
acceded to the importunities of Arnold's friends, and on the 
third day of August, 1780, Major General Arnold was or- 
dered to take command of West Point and its dependencies. 
And scarcely a month passed before Arnold was guilty of his 
base treachery and Major Andre was captured. The result 
is well known. He was tried by a court-martial, of which 
General Howe was a conspicuous member, and was convicted 
and hung. 

General Howe was then placed in command of a division 
on the east side of the Hudson, where he remained until 
January 10, 1781. At this time a mutiny broke out among 
the Pennsylvania troops, and by order of General Washington 
he was sent with five battalions to quell the disturbance. A 
similar occurrence took place in the liew Jersey line on the 
22d, and General Washington dispatched General Howe to 
Ringwood, in that State, to quell the mutiny there. Both 
of these missions were performed with great promptness, and 
a few of the leaders having been so speedily and fairly tried, 
condemned, and executed that a vote of thanks was returned 
by General Washington, in behalf of the country, to General 
Howe and his troops, and Congress likewise passed resolu- 
tions thanking him for these services. 

On the 21st of July, 1781, while still in New York, he 
was ordered to reconnoiter the enemy's position at King's 
Bridge, which task was performed entirely to the satisfaction 
of General Washington. The long struggle of America for 
freedom was now drawing to a close. Lord Cornwallis, find- 
ing it impossible longer to withstand the aggressive movement 
of the Americans, surrendered his sword to Washington on 
the 19th of October, 1781, at Yorktown. And on the 18th 
of the following month, Major Craig and his forces left the 
Cape Fear, and with him disappeared the last vestige of 


British dominion in North Carolina. General Howe still 
remained in the service of the Government. The Continental 
Congress was in session in Philadelphia in June, 1783. Ow- 
ing to the failnre of Congress to levy revenue, which was due 
to the want of power, a defect in the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, the Congress, while in session, was attacked bv a clamor- 
ous mob and compelled to disperse. 

For their protection, General Howe was sent with five bat- 
talions to suppress the mob. This was successfully accom- 
plished, and was the last act performed by him of importance 
while in the Army. Soon afterwards he was mustered out 
of the service, holding then the rank of major-general of the 
Continental Army. On September 23, 1783, Congress passed 
a resolution of thanks to General Howe and the officers and 
soldiers of his command. Before retiring from the Army 
he took an active interest in forming the Order of the Cin- 
cinnati, and was one of the general officers designated at the 
Cantonment of the American Army June 19, 1783, to estab- 
lish that society, and he was the first officer of the ISTorth 
Carolina Chapter which he afterward formed. 

He had given six years' continued service to his country, 
and during all that time he never asked or accepted one 
moment's recess. To use his own language : 'Tor this ser- 
vice I have sacrificed all other considerations, however inter- 
esting, endearing, or heartfelt they might have been." In the 
spring of 1785, he returned to his home on the Cape Fear, 
rij)e with honors and the gratitude of his country. At 
Fayetteville he was received with public ovation, and the 
l^opular homage extended him was unparalleled in that day, 
except in the single instance of that given to George Washing- 
ton. He immediately applied himself to his former occupa- 
tion of tilling the soil, but was not long allowed to remain 
quiet at his home. During the summer of the year 1785 he 


was elected by his people to represent them in the legislature, 
where he took his seat at New Bern on the 10th of November. 

On the 17th of March, 1786, he was sent to select a site 
for a lighthouse on the Cape Fear River, and, with Mr. Benja- 
min Smith and the commissioners of pilotage, fixed the loca- 
tion at Baldhead. Again during this year he was a candidate 
for the legislature from Brunswick. At this time in i\ orth 
Carolina the judiciary was in great disrepute. At Wilming- 
ton a court was being held by Judges Spencer, Ashe, and Wil- 
liams. In the words of Mr. Archibald McLean, a brilliant 
lawyer of that day "the most shameful partiality disgraced 
the bench." The question of the extent of pardon which 
should be granted to the Loyalists, who had lately been in 
arms against the Continentals, or adhering to the British, giv- 
ing them aid and comfort, was greatly agitated among the 
people, especially in reference to the confiscation acts. Gen- 
eral Howe, being a. man of broad and liberal culture, favored 
magnanimity and advocated the restoration of the Loyalists 
to their property rights and granting general amnesty. He 
warred against proscription, which filled the air. He met 
with violent opposition at the polls from the narrow-minded 
and illiberal. 

In a letter written by Archibald McLean to James Iredell 
on the 3d August, 1786, he says : 

"General Howe will, I believe, be returned from Bruns- 
wick, though opposed with great assiduity. He openly avov/s 
the most liberal principles and execrates the judges and other 

Notwithstanding the opposition he was triumphantly 
elected, thus establishing the fact that the conservative spirit 
existed and was in the ascendancy among the ]3eople of North 
Carolina even in that day, and for which they have ever been 
and are still justly renowned. 

The legislature was to convene at Fayetteville on the 18th 


ISTovember, 1786. General Howe set out for the capital, and 
on bis way was taken sick. He stopped at the residence of 
General Thomas Clark, his old friend and comrade in arms, 
on the Cape Fear Eiver. He became ill, and there continued 
in declining health until he died. On the 14th December, 
1786, Judge Alfred Moore, one of the associate justices of 
the Supreme Court of the United States, wrote to James 
Iredell that "General Howe is at the very verge of the grave ; 
it is supposed that he will die in a few days ; he has only got 
as far as General Clark's." A few days afterwards he ex- 
pired, at the age of 56 years, and was buried on Grange Farm, 
now a portion of Columbus County, IT, C. 

i^ot even a stone marks his last resting place, and nothing 
but a small hillock exists to show that even a grave was ever 
there. What a commentary upon the gratitude of his coun- 
try-men ! 4j^> 

Thus ended the career of one who did more to bring about 
the crisis which caused the Revolution than any one man in 
ISTorth Carolina. 

He was possessed of versatile talents. He was the life of 
social gatherings. On these occasions it is said of him that 
his imagination fascinated, his repartee overpowered, and his 
conversation was enlivened by strains of exquisite raillery. 

He was of noble impulses and liberal views. He was an 
eloquent speaker and logical debater. He was a power in 
politics and was great as a soldier, and having attained the 
higliest rank in the American army, he is easily distinguished 
as the greatest man North Carolina furnished to the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and one of the most aggressive leaders for 
liberty and independence in all the colonies, in the preserva- 
tion of whose fame every American citizen should take a just 
pride, and the American Congi^ess should cheerfully erect 
a monument to make the name of Robert Howe immortal, 
that his example may be emulated by all future generations. 

"K-^--t MC'O— i-<u.-^ ^ cu-vTr-v.-i^-<U-^ ' \y 



There are two well defined typos of political and social 
develoj)ment in our colonial history. In one the predominant 
influences were European ; the thirteen colonies were founded 
by Euopeans, the institutions and customs of the seventeenth 
century were, to a large extent, those of the old w^orld, and 
even the physical features of their populations reminded care- 
ful observers of their kinsmen across the seas. In the eigh- 
teenth century, however, a new type appeared ; the founders of 
twelve colonies had passed away and their places were taken 
by men of native birth ; untrammeled by recollections of 
Europe, a new generation faced and solved the problems of 
life on this continent in w^ays distinctively its own, and thus 
created an American heritage for modern Americans. The 
place of ISTorth Carolina in the first of these types has been 
made familiar by many incidents, some of which have been 
descr*ibed in the Booklet. Its relation to the second is not so 
often emphasized ; but no movement in all the colonies better 
illustrates the nascent Americanism of the eighteenth century 
than the migration of groups of men and women from [N^orth 
Carolina to the country beyond the Alleghany mountains, and 
the political experiments and social conditions established 
there. In this movement are revealed all the features of that 
continuous American expansion by which new country has 
been converted into territories and States, and of that spirit of 
democracy which, in the Jacksonian era, revolutionized Am- 
erican politics. 

Toward the middle of the eighteenth century the colonies 


of the Atlantic seaboard were well advanced. While there were 
some strips of unoccupied territory between the various set- 
tlements, the land itself had become almost completely 
disposed of in numerous grants to individuals or corporations. 
The next wave of colonization must therefore cross the Al- 
leghanies and possess the country between the mountains and 
the Mississippi. The British authorities were well aware of 
this problem. In 1748, the Board of Trade reported "that 
the settlement of the country lying to the westward of the 
great mountains would be lor liis Majesty's interest and the 
advantage and security of Virginia and the neighboring 
colonies ;" in 1756, Sir Thomas Pownall wrote that "the Eng- 
lish settlements as they are at present circumstances, are ab- 
solutely at a standstill ; they are settled up to the mountains 
and in the mountains there is nowhere together land sufficient 
for a settlement large enough to subsist by itself and to defend 
itself and preserve a communication with the present settle- 
ments ;" consequently in the negotiations which resulted in 
the Treaty of Paris of 1763, England took the western coun- 
try as spoils of the war wuth France in preference to Guada- 
loupe and Canada, the alternative choice offered by the 

But how should the new territory be colonized ? There are 
two very suggestive answers. In the same year that the 
treaty was signed, the British authorities forbade the colonial 
governments to make any new settlements beyond the western 
frontiers of the colonies, and by a series of treaties with the 
Indians south of the Ohio jDrepared the way for a peaceable 
occupation of the new country. Evidently the occupation was 
to be made by the initiative of British rather than colonial au- 
thorities. This is confirmed by some interesting evidence. 
Several applications for land grants in the new country were 
filed. Most significant of these was that of the Vandalia 


Company, whose agent was Benjamin Franklin. It asked for 
400,000 acres of land which would include all of present 
West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky. This vast territory 
was to have a proprietary government, with some features 
similar to the government of Massachusetts. In 1775, a 
charter corresponding to these terms was drawn up and passed 
through the preliminary legal processes and was ready for the 
royal seal, but the ei^ents which preceded the Revolution pre- 
vented its completion. Evidently it was the purpose of the 
British government to colonize through proprietary grants 
and had Franklin applied a few years earlier, fourteen in- 
stead of thirteen colonies might have participated in the 

In the meantime the Americans, especially those in the 
western part of the Southern colonies, had taken into their 
o^^^l hands the problem of expansion. Without the permis- 
sion of either British or colonial authorities they began to 
cross the mountains by individuals, families, and groups of 
families. The movement was spontaneous and seems to have 
been the result of discontent with the political and social con- 
ditions in the colonies as well as the land hunger common to 
all Americans of the eighteenth century. Since the days of 
Bacon's Kebellion the people in Western Virginia had shown 
discontent with the tidewater region, and this was re-enforced 
by the advent of the Scotch-Irish toward the middle of the 
eighteenth century ; in upper South Carolina there was simi- 
lar discontent which found expression in local associations 
for the enforcement of order and justice independent of the 
colonial authorities; and in Western !N^orth Carolina the War 
of the Ivegi.ilators was the culmination of social and political 
discontent. In contrast to the ills at home were the rude 
plenty, the freedom, and the charms of adventure in an un- 


known land; by hundreds the choice was quickly made and 
the migration resulted in the States of Tennessee and Ken- 

The territory first settled was the broad valley between the 
Cumberland Mountains on the west and the Great Smoky 
and Uuaka ranges on the east. Through it flow the Holston, 
the Watauga, the ISTolachucky, the Clinch and the French 
Broad rivers, which finally combine to form the Tennessee. 
The earliest settlements were made by Virginians at Wolf 
Hills, on the Holston River, the present site of Abingdon, Va. 
Gradually the settlers extended southward into the valley of 
the Watauga, but here they were gradually outnumbered by 
emigrants from the Carolinas, especially from North Caro- 

The beginnings of the North Carolina migration to Wa- 
tauga are veiled in obscurity. The first recorded expedition 
was late in 1768 or early in 1Y69 ; one of its leaders was 
Daniel Boone, who was then living on the Yadkin Biver, but 
his aim was to reach the farther western country and his re- 
lation to Watauga does not extend beyond this exploration ; 
shortly after a company of Virginians and North Carolmians 
crossed the mountains and brought back good reports, and in 
1770, the most important figure in the early history of Wa- 
tauga appears. This was James Robertson, a native of Vir- 
ginia, but a resident of Wake County, North Carolina. He 
was a man of unusual native ability ; "he had a sound mind, 
a healthy constitution, a robust frame, a love of virtue, an 
intrepid soul and an emulous desire for honest fame." He 
was born in Brunswick County, Virginia, in 1742. Eight 
years later he removed to North Carolina. He seems to 
have had friends among Regulators, at least he was well ac- 
quainted with the conditions in the western counties and was 
probably seeking a refuge from them. His wife was a wo- 


man of some education and from her Robertson learned his 
first lessons in books. His first journey to Watauga was 
made alone ; there he met a settler named Honeycutt, made 
a crop, and then started back for his wife and child. On the 
journey he lost his way ; he was forced to abandon his horse ; 
his provisions were exhausted and he could not secure game 
because his powder was ruined by rain. Tradition says that 
he wandered fourteen days in this condition ; at last on the 
point of starvation he was relieved by meeting two hunters. 
These adventures did not discourage him. Soon after his re- 
turn he again went to the Watauga Valley, this time with his 
wife, family, and sixteen others, all of whom made homes 
there. This was in the spring of 1771, whether before or 
after the battle of Alamance is not certain. The following 
year the second prominent man in the early history appeared, 
John Sevier, of Virginia, who later was so prominent in 
forming the State of Franklin. 

The rate of settlement and the population of AVatauga in 
these early days are not kno'\\m, but in 1776 one hundred and 
thirteen names were sigTied to the petition for annexation to 
ISTorth Carolina. The people were mostly of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent ; except for the more reckless and daring individuals, the 
settlements were made in groups. A fort or stockade was 
erected with surounding cabins ; here all assembled in times 
of danger, while in times of peace the cabins or farm houses 
on the plantations were inhabited. The life was simple ; 
each farmer made his o^vn tools and harness ; the neighbor- 
hood co-operated in corn husking, house building, and log 
rollings. Gradually the wilderness was reclaimed, homes 
were filled with rude plenty and settlements extended to the 
Nolachucky and Carter's Creek. The landmarks of these 
early Watauga settlements are chiefly in the vicinity of Eliza- 
bethton, Tennessee. 


Two problems soon presented themselves that tested the 
good sense and character of the people. First of these was 
that of government. They went into the new country be- 
lieving that it belonged to Virginia, but in 1771 a surveyor, 
Anthony Bledsoe, discovered that the Watauga region was 
south of the Virginia line and within the limits of North 
Carolina. As many of the people had come to Watauga seek- 
ing refuge from conditions in jSTorth Carolina, they did not 
care to apj^eal to the parent colony for protection, but decided 
to look to themselves for laws and organs of government. 
JSTo contemporary records of their action have been preserved, 
but according to tradition and later accounts the people of 
Watauga and the neighboring communities met in a conven- 
tion at the home of Robertson. They chose thirteen repre- 
sentatives, probably one for each of the groups of settlers. 
These representatives then chose a court of five commissioners 
to whom was entrusted the administration of affairs. These 
five men performed practically all the functions of govern- 
ment, they recorded wills, issued marriage licenses, made 
treaties with the Indians, decided cases at law according to the 
laws of Virginia, punished criminals, and even supervised 
the morals of the community. Justice, especially criminal 
justice, was speedy ; once a horse thief was arrested on Mon- 
day, tried on Wednesday, and executed on Friday, and cer- 
tainly some unruly citizens committed the unpardonable 
crime of fleeing to the Indians rather than submit to AVatauga 

This Watauga Association, as it was called, was the first 
government established west of the iVlleghanies ; it was also 
the first oro;anization for government created bv native-born 
Americans. Its characteristics are therefore suggestive of 
the political ideals of the eighteenth century. Suffrage, which 
seems to have been universal, unrestricted by property quali- 


fications, the absence of religious tests, the convention of the 
peo]3le, the -representative body, and the powers delegated to 
the executive, all these seem to forecast the kind of govern- 
ment which became universal after independence from Eng- 
land v/as secured. This political activity, however, was not 
the result of any self-conscious political theory, but of political 
ex23erience in the colonies, for the peoj)le of Western Virginia, 
Western North Carolina and upper South Carolina had been 
accustomed to taking the administration of law into their own 
hands ; discontented with the inefficient colonial administra- 
tion, they frequently formed associations for regulating their 
affairs, especially for the suppression of petty crimes and 
misdemeanors. From such associations the Regulator move- 
ment in North Carolina derived its name. So the people 
of Watauga were simply applying more extensively methods 
and principles that had been in use for some time. This 
habit of self-help, the solution of problems without refer- 
ence to the legally constituted bodies, is of vast significance ; 
it followed the expansion of the nation in its various stages 
from the borderland of the original colonies to the far west, 
and applied to national affairs, it gave rise to a political 
theory, the doctrine of squatter sovereignty, which had so im- 
portant an influence in the slavery controversy. 

The second immediate problem before the Watauga people 
was that of relations with the Indians. In 1772, a treaty was 
made between Virginia and the Cherokees by which the line 
36° 30' was made the dividing line between the western white 
settlements and the Indians. Alexander Cameron, the Indian 
agent, thereupon ordered the Watauga settlers to remove, as 
they were occupying country which the treaty reserved to the 
Indians ; they promptly defied him, but conciliated the In- 
dians by purchasing an eighty years' lease to all lands on the 
Watauga River. In this negotiation Robertson seems to have 


been the leading spirit. In celebration of the contract a day 
of sports was set apart ; whites and Indians engaged in races, 
wrestling matches, and games. But the good will of the oc- 
casion was broken in the evening by some lawless whites from 
the Holston settlements. Lurking on the outskirts of the 
festivities, they killed a straggling Indian and the Cherokees 
departed in wrath. Again Robertson came to the front. 
While Sevier superintended preparations for defense, Robert- 
son, alone, took the trail to the Cherokee villages fifty miles 
away, and convinced the Indians that the Watauga people 
were not responsible for the murder and thus prevented war. 

In the meantime the mother colonies had drifted into the 
Revolution. The policy of Watauga and the other settle- 
ments beyond the mountains was of vast importance ; if they 
should espouse the British cause, they would not only threaten 
the seaboard settlements but they would save the country be- 
yond the mountains for the English crown. As most of the 
settlers had left their former homes on account of grievances 
which they attributed to the British administration in the 
colonies, they cast in their lot with the Revolution. The 
method by which this choice was made is interesting, sugges- 
tive of the political ideals and methods of American democ- 
racy. "Alarmed by the reports of the present unhappy differ- 
ences between Great Britain and America on which report 
(taking the now united colonies for our guide) we proceeded 
to choose a committee, which was done unanimously by con- 
sent of the people. This committee (willing to become a 
party to the present unhappy contest) resolved (which is now 
on our records) to adhere strictly to the rules and orders of 
the Continental Congress, and in open committee acknowl- 
edged themselves indebted to tlie united colonies their full pro- 
portion of the continental expense." 

The first result of the Revolution was to bring Watauga 



into closer relations with ISTorth Carolina. The exigencies of 
war made cooperation necessary and in 1776 the Watauga 
Association ajDplied for annexation. This was granted by the 
Provincial Council and delegates from Washington District, 
Watauga Settlement, were admitted to the Provincial Con- 
gress at Halifax. The next year Washington District be- 
came Washington County, a land office was opened, and a 
system of land grants similar to that of North Carolina was 
instituted; yet there was no idea of a permanent imion, for 
the North Carolina Declaration of Rights, in defining the 
limits of the State as extending from sea to sea, distinctly says 
that this shall not be so contrued as to prevent the establish- 
ment of one or more governments westward of this State, by 
consent of the legislature. The country developed so much 
in a few years that two new counties were erected from Wash- 
ington, Sullivan in 1779 and Greene in 1783, and in 1779 
Jonesboro was founded, named for Willie Jones, of North 
Carolina. It became the county seat of Washington County. 
Here, as in the eastern colonies, the Revolution was also a 
civil war; but the nature of the opposition was a contrast to 
that in the seaboard settlements. There the royalists were 
recruited from the property holders, the conservative and edu- 
cated classes, but in Watauga the royalists seem to have been 
more extensively members of the disorderly and undesirable 
class of citizens. Government was severe and drastic. As 
the newly established North Carolina administration was un- 
able to preserve order, the old self-regulative system was re- 
sorted to. Committees were appointed and military com- 
panies were organized; these arrested all suspicious persons; 
the mere fact of arrest was considered proof of gi^ilt; the 
prisoner who failed to give security was shot, hanged or 
whipped, branded or drowned. The forger was branded, the 
murderer was whipped, and the horse thief was hanged. 


Sometimes the regularly constituted authorities tried the 
prisoner ; one indictment is against the defendant for toryism, 
the sentence that he he kept prisoner during the war, and that 
one-half of his property be confiscated. 

The first military problem of the Revolution in the western 
country was the Indian question. The British administra- 
tion instructed the Indian agents to make alliances with the 
leading southern tribes, the Creeks, the Choctaws, Cherokees, 
and Chickasaws, and turn them against the whites. Such an 
alliance was only natural for the Americans were constantly 
encroaching on the homes and hunting grounds of the red 
men, while the aim of the Indian agent was usually peace 
and trade. But the British policy was fatal ; it aroused great 
hatred for England among the pioneers and led many to 
adopt the patriot cause who would otherwise have remained 
faithful to the king. In 1776 the Cherokees along the Caro- 
lina and Georgia frontier were persuaded to make war ; tliey 
attacked the Americans in two simultaneous movements, one 
against the Holston, the other against the Watauga settle- 
ment. In both they were repulsed by the mountaineers while 
retaliatory operations against the Cherokees by troops from 
North Carolina under General Rutherford has already been 
told in this series. 

The most noted service of the Watauga people to the Revo- 
lution, however, was their victory over the British and Tories 
at Kings Moimtain. That, also, has been planned for a future 
article ; a service equally important, often obscured by the 
more dramatic military events, was their part in furthering 
the westward expansion of the American people, in the con- 
quest of the wilderness which lay beyond. In this work the in- 
terests of North Carolinians were closely concerned. Richard 
Henderson was, like many of his contemporaries, affected 
with the fever for western lands. Probably as early as 


1763, he interested Daniel Boone in the exploration of the 
west, but not until 1774 were his plans matured. Then he 
organized at Hillsborough the Louisa Company, later called 
the Transylvania Company, and in 1775, at Sycamore Shoals 
on the Watauga River, he bought from the Cherokee Indians 
a vast tract of land now included in western Tennessee and 
Kentucky. ISTeither the British nor the colonial authorities 
would recognize that the treaty gave rights to the soil, and 
indeed the claim of the Cherokees to convey title were not so 
strong as usual, for the country in question was really a battle 
ground between rival hostile tribes. But migration at once 
began, from which the first settlements in western Tennessee 
and Kentucky have their origin. Among the first immigrants 
was James Robertson, of Watauga. In 1779, he crossed the 
hills through the Cumberland Gap and established a small 
colony on the Cumberland River at French Lick, an old In- 
dian trading station. The next year he was joined by John 
Donelson, of Virginia. They built a block-house on a high 
bluff, which they named Nashborough, in honor of Abner 
Nash, who was made Governor of North Carolina in 1780. 
Four years later JSTashborough became Nashville. 

The early history of the Cumberland settlements resembles 
that of Watauga. The first year's crop was a failure, the 
Indians became hostile and the supply of ammunition ran 
low. Many wished to abandon the settlement and return to 
their former homes, but Robertson rallied their courage and 
alone made a dangerous journey to settlements in Kentucky 
for ammunition, and on the evening of his return, January 
15, 1781, through his natural vigilance, saved the fort from 
surprise by the Indians. Government also suggests condi- 
tions on the Watauga. On May 1, 1780, representatives from 
various communities met and framed a constitution similar 
to the Watauga Association. The administration of justice 


was vested in a court of "Judges, Triers, or General Arbitra- 
tors," elected by the votes of all men who were twenty-one 
years of age, and "as often as the people in general are dissat- 
isfied with the doings of the Judges andTriers — they may call 
a newe election at any of the said stations, and elect others in 
their stead." These articles were not only an expression of 
the popular will, they were also a contract between Hender- 
son and the people, for it was written that "the said Richard 
Henderson on his part does hereby agree." It was not in- 
tended, however, that the Cumberland Association should be 
a permanent, independent government but a temporary ar- 
rangement imtil a county under North Carolina could be or- 
ganized. This was done in 1783, when the Cumberland Asso- 
ciation became Davidson County, jSTorth Carolina, and James 
Robertson, chosen as delegate to negotiate the formal union 
with the State, became the county's first representative in 
the General Assembly. Two years later the General Assem- 
bly authorized Rev. Thomas Craighead and others to organize 
Davidson Academy, which survives today as the University 
of ISTashville. 

ISTo review of the causes and character of the early west- 
ward migration and of its relation to IlTorth Carolina would 
be complete without some account of the separation of the 
parent colony and the frontier communities, of how the State 
lost its sovereignty over the vast region that it had helped to 
colonize. For this there are a number of reasons. First of 
all, the remoteness of the new settlements from the State pre- 
vented the growth of sympathy and understanding between 
them. The westerners claimed that ISTorth Carolina would 
not pay the Indians for the lands they vacated, that the 
administration of justice by the l^orth Carolina courts in the 
western counties was inefficient, and that the tax rate for 
lands on the frontier should not be the same as that for lands 



in more thickly settled regions. On the other hand there 
was a feeling in North Carolina that the problem of the wes- 
tern country was too large for the State, and also a social 
cleavage which often exists between frontier communities and 
older settled regions. Above all was the interest of the nation, 
the necessity of ceding the western lands as a prelude to that 
more lasting union about to be established under the Federal jy. 

Constitution. Therefore, in 1784 North Carolina ceded her J?^ 

claims to the lands beyond the mountains; the members in Rj 

the Assembly from the western country voted for the cession "^ 

and one of the representatives from the older counties of f^ 

the State remarked that ''the inhabitants of the western coun- j!!; 

try are the offscourings of the earth, fugitives from justice, ^ 

and we will be rid of them at any rate." ^ 

The act of cession provided that Congress should not take ^ 

possession for two years and that in the meantime the western ^ 

settlements should remain under the jurisdiction of North ^ 

Carolina. But the people felt that something should be done ^ 

for the better preservation of order and in preparation for q 

Statehood in the new Union soon to be formed also, while the •? 

mountaineers had no great love for North Carolina, they were 
offended at being separated without their advice and consent. 
Committees from the captains companies of Washington, Sul- 
livan and Greene Counties therefore called a meeting of dele- 
gates from the counties at Jonesboro in August, 1784. This 
body decided to form an independent government, to petition 
Congress to accept the cession by North Carolina, and called 
a constitutional convention. The convention met in Novem- 
ber of that year but accomplished nothing, for those who 
favored immediate separation from North Carolina were di- 
vided as to methods of procedure while the opposition found 
strength in two acts of the North Carolina Assembly, one 
repealing the cession of the western lands, the other estab- 


lishing a special Supreme Court and a brigadier generalship 
of militia for the western counties. Several influential men 
who had been in favor of the Statehood movement now op- 
posed separation ; among these was John Sevier himself. But 
its advocates seem to have gained strength by the action of 
North Carolina ; they secured a majority in a third convention 
which met in December, 1784, and accomplished their pur- 
pose. A constitution was framed whose principal features 
were taken from that of North Carolina, the name Frank- 
land was given to the new State, soon changed to Franklin, 
and the first legislature met early in 1785, and in November, 
a convention of the people approved the work of the consti- 
tutional convention, probably with a few alterations in its 
Constitution. Thus "the new society or State called Frank- 
land has already put off its infant habit. Here the genuine 
Republican ; here the real Whig will find a safe asylum, a 
comfortable retreat among those modern Franks, the hardy 
mountain men." 

There were three questions on which the future of the State 
of Franklin depended — its relation to the national move- 
ment, to otlicr frontier communities, and to North Carolina. 

The western country favored the establishment of a strong 
national government because of the protection it might afford 
against the Indians and the Spanish in the southwest. 
Among the acts of the State of Franklin was the reservation 
of lands surrendered by the Indians as a contribution toward 
the national debt ; and delegates were also sent to a convention 
of western settlers to j^rovide for the opening of the Missis- 
sippi to navigation. One of the first acts was to appoint 
William Cocke a delegate 'to the Federal Congress to lay be- 
fore that body the interests of the State of Franklin. But 
his mission was without result; no official recognition could 
be secured and Benjamin Franklin, for whom the common- 


wealth had been named, advised that separation from North 
Carolina should not be pressed. 

But the co-operation of other frontier communities and 
the enlargement of territory might prove a means of securing 
recognition in national affairs and permanent independence. 
This seemed possible in two directions : first, in western Vir- 
ginia there was discontent with the State government similar 
to that in the western counties of ISTorth Carolina. Colonel 
Arthur Campbell, an officer of Washington County, Virginia, 
declared that the people would take up arms rather than sub- 
mit to continued unjust taxation and two petitions were sent 
to the Virginia Legislature asking that a new State be created 
in the west, whose boundaries should include the State of 
Franklin. But the Legislature had no sympathy with the 
movement; in 1785 it declared any attempt to form an inde- 
pendent government within the limits of the State without 
the consent of the Virginia government to be high treason. 
In the meantime expansion southward was prepared for by 
negotiations with the Indians. Treaties were made with some 
of the Cherokee chiefs v\'hic]i were ineffective, as all the chiefs 
would not agi"ee and their lands had been guaranteed to them 
by I^orth Carolina ; an expedition was then sent to the bend 
of the Tennessee Kiver, at Mussel Shoals, to make occupation 
under titles from Georgia and negotiations were opened with 
that State to begin war on the Greeks. All of these meas- 
ures failed, for the Indians became hostile and also the Fed- 
eral Government appointed three commissioners, one from 
each of the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Georgia to settle Indian affairs on the frontier. 

So the State of Franklin was left to face the North Caro- 
lina authorities alone. The Constitution of 1776 had looked 
forward to the establishment of two or more governments west 
of the mountains ; both Governor Martin and Governor Cas- 


well were willing for a legal separation but the people of 
Franklin had acted independently, without the consent of the 
North Carolina authorities. Moreover, in 1784 the Assem- 
bly, dissatisfied with the negotiations for a federal union, 
repealed the cession of western lands. Governor Martin 
thereupon issued a manifesto, in which threats were made 
against the new government if the people did not return to 
their allegiance to North Carolina. Governor Caswell, his 
successor, was more conciliatory, but there was no hope for 
recognition, for the Assembly in 1786 decided to reassert its 
sovereignty over the country. North Carolina officials were 
sent into the western counties and pardon was offered to all 
who would return to allegiance. Conflict of jurisdiction be- 
tween two sets of officials followed and the political issue 
threatened to widen into civil war, for John Sevier, after 
at first opposing separation from North Carolina, had been 
drawn into the movement and became Governor of the State 
of Franklin, while John Tipton, his personal rival, adopted 
the North Carolina cause. The extent of disorder is un- 
known ; in one conflict twelve men were killed. But the dan- 
ger of war w^as averted by the conciliatory policy of Gov- 
ernor Caswell. In 1787 he sent Evan Shelby to Franklin to 
open negotiations for a return to allegiance. Sevier was per- 
suaded to sign articles of agreement in March, which prom- 
ised a reference of all matters to the North Carolina Assem- 
bly. The following month he repudiated the agreement and 
declared that he would maintain the independence of the 
State of Franklin. This seems to have been due to distrust 
of the Assembly. War between the parent State and the 
colony seemed imminent, for Shelby urged sending troops to 
force submission ; but Governor Caswell, in a broad-minded 
address, urged all parties to submit and unite against possible 
Indian hostilities and promised eventual separation. This 


seems to have won the day. The Franklin Legislature au- 
thorized the election of representatives to the North Carolina 
Assembly; Sevier's term as Governor expired in 1788 and no 
successor was chosen; after his retirement he promised to 
do all he could for an amicable readjustment. Thus the 
State of Franklin collapsed. North Carolina's sovereignty 
was recognised until her claims to the western country were 
ceded to the Federal Government in 1789. 

Bibliography: Roosevelt, Winning of the West; Hay- 
wood, Civil and Political History of Tennessee, written by 
John Haywood, of North Carolina, who went to Tennessee 
in 1810; he collected many traditions and facts from the pio- 
neers. Ramsay, Annals of Tennessee, has many documents; 
Phelan, History of Tennessee, the standard State history; 
Turner, Western State Making During the Revolution, in 
American Historical Review, Vol. I., is very suggestive. 
Alden, The State of FranUin, Amer. Ibid. Vol. VIII.; 
State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXIL, has interesting- 
documents relating to the State of Franklin. 



Tlie study of history turns up many obscure and buried 
facts, but with them grow up the tares and weeds of fancy 
and imagination, and all must be reaped and winnowed to 
separate the true grain. Therefore, it is well to continue the 
good work, and the results that follow may be of use. 

It is not generally admitted that the first explorers of the 
Cape Fear were the French. In 1624, however, Giovanni da 
Verrazauo^, a Florentine, left Diej)pe in France under di- 
rection of Francis I of France to find a passage to Cathay. 
On January 24 he sailed westward from Madeira with one 
ship, the Dolphin, and says : ''On the 10th of March we 
reached a new country that has never before been seen by 
any one within ancient or modern times." He described the 
shores as "covered with fine sand about fifteen feet thick, ris- 
ing in the form of little hills about fifty paces broad, several 
arms of the sea which made through inlets washing the shores 
on both sides as the coast runs. An outstretched country 
appeared at a little distance, rising somewhat above the sandy 
shore in beautiful fields and broad plains covered with im- 
mense forests of trees more or less dense, too varied in color 
and too delightful and charming to be described. They are 
adorned with palms, laurels, cypresses and other varieties un- 
known to Europe, that send forth the sweetest fragrance to a 
great distance." He entered the Cape Fear and sailed up 
as far as the present site of Wilmington. Although Cabot 
had, in 1497, found the continent, he only sailed south aa 
far as 38 degrees north latitude, and though Sir Humphrey 


Gilbert came near being wrecked off Cape Fear, he did not 
enter the harbor, and all the five attempts of Raleigh to colo- 
nize Virginia were north of this place. In the grant of this 
country to Sir Eobert Heath by Charles I, October 30, 1629, 
he called the country "this our ITew Carolina." Notwith- 
standing that this g-rant was forfeited by their failure to set- 
tie the country, still a number of New Englanders settled on 
the point now called Federal Point, in 1G60, to raise cattle, 
but soon abandoned the place, and only a post with a notice 
on it warning adventurers against the country, marked the 

In the first charter of King Charles II to the Lords Pro- 
prietors, March 20, 1G63, and which, by the way, was the 
most jjrincely gift ever conferred on subjects by a monarch, 
the name Carolina was retained as the name of a conquered 
province, named for Charles IX of France. The proprietors 
divided the province into North and South Carolina, mak- 
ing the Cape Fear River the boundary line. They gave to 
the counties north of the Cape Fear their own names of Al- 
bemarle, Bath and Clarendon to South Carolina. Settlers 
had already come into Albemarle from Virginia, but the 
first venture of the Proprietors was to form a colony at 
Cape Fear in Clarendon. The New Englanders had aban- 
doned the point of land on the Cape, but still claimed the 
right to settle and maintain a colony there. On AugTist 25, 
1663, the Proprietors made a proposal" to settle the first colo- 
ny on the Clarendon or Charles River near Cape Fear, and 
John Vassal and others, in behalf of the New Englanders and 
the people of London, petitioned for the privilege and set up 
their previous occupancy and right of possession. At the 
same time Col. Madyford, with several people of the Barba- 
does, petitioned for the privilege of settling there. 


In a letter to Sir William Berkley^, tlie Proprietors, in 
September, 1663, mention the proposal of the New England- 
ers but hoj)e to find "more fasselP people who may settle upon 
better terms for us," yet he was not to deter the planting of 
the colony there. On Monday, Oct. 12, 1663, the Barba- 
does Commissioners came to anchor in Cape Fear Koads to 
spy out the land, took the meridian, altitude of the sun, and 
were in latitude 33 degrees 43 minutes. Their description 
and report reads as if it were a fairy land, and indeed it must 
have appeared so to them. The "scandalous* writing" left 
by the ISTew Englanders appears to us now in a new light, 
it apparently having been their intention to keep others off. 
Capt. Hilton and Long found the cattle still there, and the 
Indians brought them very good fat beef, also fat and very 
large swine. Yet, in ISTovember, 1764, John Vassal, who, by 
the way, claimed the country through Samuel Vassal as as- 
signee of the Robert Heath^ Patent, obtained the appointment 
for his cousin Henry° Vassal as agent, and he was made Sur- 
veyor GeneraF of the Cape Fear in the county of Clarendon. 
They carried a colony there, and settled^ at Charles Town 
at the upper side of the mouth of Town Creek on the Charles 
River, under license from Governor Berkley of Virginia. 

In January, 1665, the Proprietors entered into the articles 
of agreement with the Barbadoes explorers and appointed Sir 
John Yeamans governor. These colonists arrived at Cape 
Fear ISTovember, 1665, and found there a colony "newly be- 
gun'^ to be peopled," and Caj)tain Edward^° Stanyon with a 
vessel on his way to Barbadoes. The ISTew Englanders craved 
the use of the sloop to visit the ISTorthern settlements, which 
was refused. Yeamans returned to Barbadoes and left the 
colonists under Robert Sanford ; they planted the lands along 
Town Creek, and it has not yet become a notable fact that 
they were the first to cultivate cotton in l^orth America. ^^ 


In June, 1666, Robert Sanford, with Capt. Stanyon's fri- 
gate, which had returned from Barbadoes, set out to find a 
more favorable place for settlement, as the I^ew Englanders 
and the Barbadians did not live together in harmony, and lat- 
er Sanford removed with part of the colony to Port Royal/^ 
Clarendon at that time consisted of eight hundred^^ souls. 
Later that year, Henry^* Vassal, who signed himself sole 
agent at Cape Fear, complained that one Sir John Yeamans 
had been preferred to him, yet hopes to retain the colonists 
at Cape Fear. 

October, 1667, John^^ Vassal bewails the breaking up of 
the colony, though they had two years provision of corn on 
hand. After the abandonment of the settlement by Vassal 
and the New Englanders, the river was infested with pirates 
who became a menace to the other settlements. 

Lawson, Surveyor General of both Carolinas, traveled 
through this country in 1700, and found whites all along 
the route trading with the Indians. He tells us that Sapona 
is the Indian name of the Northwest Cape Fear. Thomas 
Smith, one of the Landgraves^*' of Carolina, received from 
the Proprietors a gTant of land on the Cape Fear including 
the Cape Island at the mouth of the river. In his will, 
proved 30th of August, 1738, he wrote, "I give my four sons 
my Cedar Island (which is called now Smith's Island), at 
the mouth of the Cape Fear River, containing 800 acres, also 
the remainder of the Cape Fear lands." Other grants were 
issued for land along the south side of the Cape Fear River 
by South Carolina. In the fall of 1711, John Lawson, Sur- 
veyor General, was burned to death in a most horrible manner 
by the Tuscarora Indians, and then followed a bloody mas- 
sacre of whites. Col. John Barnwell crossed the Cape Fear 
at the point where the town of Brunswick was afterwards 
established, quelled the insurrection and returned the same 


way in July, 1712. In tlie fall of 1712, James Moore, 
Jr.,^'^ with a party crossed the Cape Fear and defeated the 
Indians at Taw River Avith great slaughter. The notorious 
pirates, Steed Bonnett and Richard Whorley, blockaded the 
port of Charleston and broke up their commerce, and in Sep- 
tember, 1718, Col. Wm. Rhett sailed for Cape Fear, entered 
the harbor, boarded the pirate and captured the sloop ; carried 
Steed Bonnett, with his crew, to Charleston, where he and 
thirty others were hanged. We may observe from the above 
that the ever drifting sand dunes on the restless shores of the 
main are permanent memorials of our first explorers' report; 
that the name Carolina is handed down through Charles I 
who claimed to be by the Grace of God, King of England, 
France, etc., and we yet cling to it instead of our English 
name Virginia. We find the names of the counties which the 
Proprietors attached still with us as a proof of our lineage ; 
though Clarendon and Charleston drifted southward with 
the Barbadians, Cape Fear and Old ToAvn are here memo- 
rials of the New England settlers. The cotton-wooP^ liere 
first cultivated was a distinct species. This was the beginning 
of the Sea Island, Barbadoesian, or black-seeded cotton, bear- 
ing a pure yellow blossom with a reddish purple spot in the 
base, and is the longest staple in the world, called "Gossypium 
barbadenses" by Linnaeus. We observe in the settlement of 
this country two classes of people who preceded the cultivators 
of the soil or permanent settlers, traders or adventurers and 
cattlemen who chose the wild, uncultivated life with the 
natives, traded and raised their stock on chosen spots far from 
the settlements. Those who accompanied Barnwell, Moore 
and Rhett on their several expeditions sounded the praises 
of the fertile lands of the Cape Fear and particularly their 
adaptability for the cultivation of rice on the lowlands of 
the river. 


In 1720, tlie Proprietors, wlio felt the heavy loss by reason 
of the Indian war, became more exacting and imposed a heavy 
tax for the increased expense of the government, which was 
resented^'' by the people. A revolution had taken place in 
South Carolina and the people had declared their indepen- 
dence from the proprietory government, and attempted to set 
up a royal government under the Crown, and the Proprie- 
tors' tenure became a matter of serious concern. North Caro- 
lina had had no regular appointed governor for several years 
but was under the rule of the Presidents of the Council, when, 
in 1724, George Burrington, Esq.,"° of the county of Devon,"^ 
who had been appointed Governor, opened his commission on 
Jan, 15. He immediately set about developing new settle^ 
ments ; he observed the approach of settlers on the Cape Fear 
from the South. Maurice Moore, a deputy of one of the 
Lords Proprietors, who had come from the southern colony 
in 1719 and had settled in Chowan, knowing the advantages 
of the Cape Fear, had induced his brothers and friends to 
make a settlement there as early as 1722,"" and from the 
South came Roger and JSTathaniel Moore, William Dry, 
Eliezer Allen, Thomas Clifford, Job Howe, Henry and Ed- 
ward Hyrne,"^ John Moore's widow"* and many others, bring- 
ing their families"^, slaves and cattle, and means to cultivate 
the land, and became permanently settled there. Burring- 
ton seeing the advantage of having the Cape Fear within 
the" northern colony"^ undertook to develop this section; he 
purchased an old grant issued in 1711, for a tract in Onslow 
County^® at ISTew River, and formed a colony of about 100 
poor people upon the land, and offered as inducements large 
grants of land to settlers on the Cape Fear. In 1725, the 
town of Brunswick was laid out by Maurice Moore. John 
Porter" was granted, July 14, 1725, a tract of 640 acres ad- 
joining Maurice Moore below Brunswick, and in 1726 con- 


veyed it to Geo. Burrington. This is called Sturgeon Point 
or Governor's'® Point on the old charts. Burrington,^^ in 
1733, in speaking of his labors to develop the Cape Fear sec- 
tion said : "It cost me a great sum of money and infinite 
trouble." The first winter he went there he endured all the 
hardships that could happen to a man destitute of a house to 
live in, above a hundred miles from a neighbor, obliged to 
have all provisions brought by sea at great charges to sup- 
port the number of men he carried there, whom he paid and 
maintained at his own expense; he sounded the inlets, bars 
and rivers, discovered and made known the channels of the 
CajDe Fear Piver, Port Beaufort and Topsail Inlet. How- 
ever, in 1725, Burring-ton was succeeded by Sir Pichard 
Everard as Governor, and retired to the Cape Fear to improve 
his estates. He returned^" to England about 1730. We have 
many grants from Everard for lands on both sides of the Cape 
Fear, even as far south as Waccamaw River and Lockwood's 
Folly^^ and the impetus to build up this section was in no 
way impeded. On October 22, 1728, Pleasant Oaks was 
gTanted to Justina Moore,^" widow of John Moore. 

In July 1729, the Governor and Council made a new pre- 
cinct of Bath County, which they named New Hanover,^^ but 
the representatives were not admitted to sit, nor was the Act 
creating the county ever legally passed. 

In 1729, the Act of Surrender^* enabled^*' the Proprietors^" 
to transfer to the Crown seven-eights of Carolina on Septem- 
ber 29th,'' for 17,500 pounds and the colony became a Royal 
Province.^* This change of government became of great 
benefit to the colonists. The reform of the tariff system, the 
removal of export duties on manufactured goods and import 
duties on raw material encouraged an extensive trafiic.^^ Af- 
ter 1730, rice was exported to southern Europe ; a bounty was 
allowed on naval stores, tar, pitch and turpentine, and the 


duty on lumber, staves and shingles was removed. The 
colonists were even permitted to ship other goods and pro- 
ducts to England, place them in bond and pay the tax when 
sold or to re-ship without tax ; rice, cotton and indigo culture 
was greatly developed; saw mills were on every tributary 
stream, and the forests of pine appeared inexhaustible. The 
live oak was found to be far superior for ship-building to 
the English oak ; ship-building being one of the early enter- 
prises on the river. Just below Newton, Michael Dyer had, 
near the Oaks, a ship-yard and a grist mill, and at the foot 
of Church Street^^ in Wilmington, Joshua Grainger, Jr.'s 
ship^-yard is still used. Grainger did an extensive business 
and brought out from Philadelphia Ebenezer Bunting, John 
Hands, Richard Hands and others. Archibald Corbett built 
a vessel here for Beard & Walker,^*' of Glasgow. James 
Wimble, Master of the brigantine Penelope also was a ship- 
builder and surveyor. 

Governor Johnston'*^ informed us that during the year end- 
ing December 12, 1734, forty-two ships went out of the Cape 
Fear loaded, and in 1754, Governor Dobbs said: ''Above 
one hundred*" vessels annually enter this river and their num- 
ber is increasing ; there were sixteen in the river when I went 
down." Small craft came into the Sound at Cabbage Inlet, 
near the head of Topsail Sound from the northward, and con- 
veyed the goods over the narrow strip of land opposite the 
town of Brunswick called the upper and lower haul-over. 
This land in 1736, was owned by Col. Thomas Merrick,''^ who 
bought it of Landgrave Thomas Smith. Topsail derived its 
name from the fact that the Spanish Privateers sailing along 
the coast would observe the masts of the small craft over the 
banks and w^ould land to pillage them. The trade of the 
colonies extended to Spain, Portugal and ISTew England, as 
well as England. Before this, Virginia imposed an import 


tax on ISTorth Carolina tobacco. Trade later, was extended 
to Jamaica, St. Thomas, Barbadoes, Leeward Islands and 
Madeira, but was more frequent with the northern colonies. 
Labor" was high, carpenters demanded twenty to thirty shil- 
lings, and ordinary laborers twelve to fifteen shillings. 

In 1Y33, a large colony*^ of Irish were settled in the upper 
part of South Carolina and spread along the coast northward 
towards Cape Fear. C-k". 3 L..-2^^- 

Burrington, in 1732, said: "A multitude of people have 
come into this county to settle last winter. Some have very 
great American fortunes. I now think there are men here to 
make up a creditable council." In Burrington's instructions, 
he is recommended to encourage the purchase of negro slaves. 

George Burrington, who had been Governor under the 
Proprietors, was appointed by George II, first Royal Gov- 
ernor 29th of April, 1730, and sent over on Lebruary 25th, 
1731. He was a man very violent in his temjDer, true and 
loyal to his cause. He was by no means popular, in fact 
historians have given him a very bad character, but when we 
read what has been said of the men of those times in the 
colony, we must either take them all as a sad lot, if we accept 
the severe charges made about them in our records, or treat 
their writings as villifications of men who were fighting in 
opposing factions. Can we believe all that has been said 
about Governor Eden and Everard, Moseley and Porter, 
Harnett, Maurice, James, and Roger Moore ? They all had 
their share of abuse in letters of opponents. In a dispatch 
to the Colonial ofiice in 1731, Burrington said: "About 
twenty**' men are settled on the Cape Fear from South Caro- 
lina, among them are three brothers of a noted family whose 
name is Moore. These people were always troublesome 
where they came from and will doubtless be so here." We ob- 


serve that immediately upon entering into office Burrington 
again became interested in the Cape Fear settlement, and 
determined to make it a part of the northern colony and de- 
voted his personal attention to this project. He and his as- 
sociates prevailed*" upon the settlers*^ from the south to see 
the advantage of his claim. He directed Edward Moseley to 
make a survey** and map of the coast, the Cape Fear and 
Waccamaw River, and agreed not*® to disturb grants already 
made by the Southern province. He demonstrated that it was 
to their private interest to be near the seat of government. 
Moseley made a chart and hydrographic survey of the Cape 
Fear and gave the depth of water on the main bar as eighteen 
feet, and James Wimble's map in 1738, makes it twenty-one 
feet. What was called New Inlet later, was opened by a 
storm in 17G1. Early maps show that a small inlet had pre- 
viously opened there and closed again. In several of Bur- 
rington's letters, w^e observe that there was little money in 
the country, and that the people barter and trade ; he stated 
that fresh pork was one and one-half pence to one shilling per 
pound. Less than twenty shillings of goods bought in England 
sold for fourteen pounds fourteen shillings. A bushel of wheat 
sold for six pence worth of English goods. Burrington*" 
appeared before the Board of Trade with Sir Robert John- 
ston in the matter of the boundary line and secured the bound- 
ary at a distance of thirty miles south of Cape Fear, and ex- 
hibited to them Moseley's map. Adherents of the once pow- 
erful Puritan party in England in 1625, had come to America 
to avoid persecutions under the reign of Charles I, and 
planted seeds of discord that have yielded a vast harvest in 
America. The attempt of Charles I, through Sir Fernando 
Gorges and Mason, to counteract their influence and power 
in ISTew England fanned the flames of rivalry between Sepa- 
ratists and Churchmen. The prejudices of a persecuted peo- 


pie become in their offspring, race distinctions that in later 
generations have become more pronounced. 

This province was peculiarly independent and difficult to 
restrain; here the people revolted against ancient laws and 
customs if they conflicted with their ideas of liberty of con- 
science or freedom of action. Here occurred the first revolu- 
tion in 1719, against the government of the Proprietors, and 
here in 1765, on the Cape Fear, was the first armed resist- 
ance to the Stamp Act. Neither Churchmen, Separatists nor 
Quakers could prevail or enforce their views upon a people 
Tvho chose to reason for themselves. Here force met resist- 
ance, persecution engendered hatred, which gave them ad- 
vanced ideas of their constitutional rights in the revolution 
against England. 

The most thickly settled part of Clarendon County was 
along Old Town Creek, and we find settled there William and 
Joseph Watters, John Dalrymple, John and Nathaniel Rice, 
John Lewis, William Lewis, Thomas Hill, Thomas Asope, 
Patrick Doran, Jerry Bigford, John Jean, in 1744 Collector 
of His Majesty's Customs. Between 1722 and 1730, there 
came quite a number of persons from the Albemarle section, 
Eobert Halton, Provost Marshal of Bath County;'^'* Col. 
James Innes, Martin Holt and wife, Mary Holt,^^ of Beaufort 
County; Cornelius Harnett, Sr., who had been bred a mer- 
chant in Dublin, Ireland,^" and had married Mary, daughter 
of Martin Holt ; his second wife was an Adams, of Bladen 
County ; William Smith, Chief Justice ; John Baptista Ashe, 
John and Nathaniel Rice, John Porter, John Maultsby, Ed- 
ward Moseley, Surveyor General, and others, and received 
grants for large tracts of land from Governors Everard and 
Burrington. We have a tradition that bad blood was aroused 
between these new comers and the southern settlers in their 
eagerness to settle the most desirable locations. Burrington 


entered Stag Park and Hawfields; C. Harnett, Sr., settled 
near Hilton and established a ferry there but later kept the 
ferry at Brunswick. In the neighborhood of Wilmington 
settled also Robert Halton and John Maultsby on the jN^orth- 
east River. William Smith, Chief Justice, back of the pres- 
ent site of Wilmington. Martin Holt went to Brunswick, 
where he kept the ferry and a tavern ; Maurice Moore and 
Roger at Orton ; jSTathaniel Moore at York, just below Bruns- 
wick ; Allen at Lilliput, and Ashe on Town Creek. 

In Burrington's instructions, we observe that public schools 
were provided for, but they direct that no schoolmaster^* be 
permitted without license from the Bishop of London, and 
teachers in the province to be licensed by the Governor. Wil- 
liam Wright was teacher in Brunswick. Education in the 
South^^ was of a higher type^" than in the more northern set- 
tlements. The planters' sons w^ere trained in the English 
schools and universities ; were admitted to the English bar 
and were gentlemen in retirement, and imparted their man- 
ners and bearing to those about them. We find as early as 
1712, a school teacher named Masliburn was in Albemarle. In 
1Y50 George Vaughan,^'' an Irishman, writes from Lisburu, 
in Ireland, and offers to establish in the province at his own 
expense a seminary of learning. In 1756, the Assembly ap- 
propriated six thousand pounds for public schools but this 
fund was used in the French War^® though refunded in 1760. 
In 1764, the public school committee appointed by the As- 
sembly were Starkey, McGuire, Johnston and Harnett. 

Burrington^^ remained in ISTorth Carolina until the arrival 
of his successor. Governor Gabriel Johnston,^" at Cape Fear, 
October 27, 1734.^" Governor Johnston was sworn in ISTovem- 
ber 2, 1734, at the court-house in Brunswick. He was a 
Scotchman, a graduate of the University of St. Andrews and 
formerly professor there of Oriental languages, later a physi- 


cian, and had received his appointment as Governor through 
Spencer Compton, Earl, of Wilmington, the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, with whom he lived while in London on 
intimate terms. He was received with delight by the people 
and great inducements were offered to have him make his 
residence in the northern part of the colony, which he at first 
acceded to. He married and settled at Salmon Creek, but 
subsequently returned to Cape Fear, where most of the Coun- 
cil resided, and attempted to make Wilmington the seat of 
^i., /' September 22, 1736, Governor*^" Johnston, in a speech he- 
|> fore the legislature, both houses, called attention to the lack 
^ of Divine worship in many parts of the pi evince; he deemed 
,^ it essential that all rational creatures should pay due homage 
!^ to the Supreme Author of their being*'^ and that it is always 
K; regarded as a matter of the greatest consequence to peace and 
yi happiness to polish the minds of our young people with some 
N^ degree of learning, and to early instill in them the principles 

1^ of virtue and religion ; that the legislature had not taken care 

3 to erect schools that deserve the name in this country was a 

S misfortune. He proposed the use of the powder money®^ for 

- ^ the pui-pose but this was opposed. In Johnston's admini- 

}^ stration, this settlement rapidly developed, enterprising set- 

^ tiers came from many parts with retainers and slaves ; they 

Md acquired extensive tracts of land and such as were best adapted 

to agriculture ; and with fertile soils, abundant slave labor, 
they were easy and comfortable, with leisure to cultivate their 
mental faculties. They were eager students of history, litera- 
ture, and the science of government, many were educated in 
England and broadened by foreign travel. They acquired 
a refinement of manners, which induced them to gather libra- 
ries and other comforts of home life ; ease and abundance in- 
vited hospitality and social pleasures. Their daughters, 


gentle in tlieir manners, shone with natural graces which de- 
veloped docility with independence. The restlessness of the 
face, the hurried gait, the quick voice and business air were 
wanting in their manners. It was not their part to fight in 
the holy cause of temperance of mankind, reformation of 
religion, labor or suffrage rights of women, but on the con- 
trary their lot was that of devoted, honoring wives and 
mothers, filled with the spirit of the Lord, devoting their 
highest thoughts to the moral upbuilding of their offspring. 
Men yielded to them with pride and delight their prerogatives 
and privileges, but their rights were never considered or 
dreamed of; and though human nature through all ages has 
been stamj)ed with vices, sin and passion, these people main- 
tained a high ideal of woman which permeated through all 
classes, and with jealous care they guarded their wives and 
daughters until the restraint under which they were held from 
public intercourse became the palladium of their virtue and 
engendered a respect and honor from men which became a 
benison to the race. The wives of the wealthy planters, as 
well as the poorer classes had ample cares to occuj^y both their 
time and their thoughts ; not only the household duties but the 
providing for their slaves in sickness and in health, and the 
preparing of their clothing and the distribution of food fell 
upon them. 

As early as 1734, there were fine brick houses at Orton, 
Kendall, Blue Banks and Brunswick. The dwellings of the 
planters were not large but commodious, and had a remarka- 
ble capacity for having room to spare for the passing stranger 
and in them they entertained on occasions many friends and 
visitors. Many houses had the overhanging Dutch roof and 
were shingled both on roof and sides ; ample open fire places 
extended across the end of the rooms, large enough to sit 
within, fire dogs holding the logs of wood. The fire filled 


the room with warmth, and a glow of light more cheerful and 
comfortable than our modern method of lighting a house. 
Massive mahogany furniture, waxed and polished, but in- 
nocent of varnish, pewter and brass, chests of drawers, tables 
and chairs were imported from England. Their kitchen 
chimneys were hung with spits and chains for hangers, tram- 
mels and pot hooks, spiders and ovens where bread was baked 
for each meal ; a modern cook might marvel how the^ savory 
meats and sweet breads were made. The dusky blacks toil- 
ing in the fields were dressed in bright dyed cotton clothes, 
women with red bandanas served about the houses, and at 
night they assembled about their cabin fires chanting weird 
and plaintive songs that called to the mind the pathetic lays 
of the daughters of Israel. Slaves were made mechanics, and 
there was little room for free labor. 

Among early merchants we note Kichard Quince & Sons, of 
Ramsgate, England, who owned several large ships ; John An- 
crum, from Hill House, near Erome in Somerset, England, 
secretary of the council, who purchased Old Town Planta- 
tion of Maurice Moore and resided there ; Eichard Morecraft 
and Thomas Merrick, from the Isle of St. Michael ; William 
Dry, of Goose Creek, South Carolina ; Eush Watts, of Lisbon, 
Portugal ; Thomas Clark, a Captain of a Regiment of Foot in 

Here in Brunswick, lived Matthew Higginbotham, the 
surveyor ; Dr. Fergus, surgeon from a British Man of War, 
whose lot adjoined the town; Andrew Stewart, printer, who 
moved to Wilmington ; Dr. Samuel Green, educated at Edin- 
burg University, and Jonathan Ogden, the cordwainer. We 
note in deeds, the chair-maker, the block-maker, the baker, 
the tailor, carpenters and brick-makers, ship carpenters, 
tavern keepers, vintners, weavers, and periwig makers. There 
were settled on the river many whose names are hardly re- 


membered; they came from many parts and were active in 
developing the settlement. Isaac Kilpatrick, of Londonerry ; 
Thomas Carson and Michael Sampson, of Lisburn, and Wad- 
dell, of Connty Down, Ireland ; Robert Walker, of ISTew York ; 
Joshua Gabourell, of the Isle of Jersey; James Murray, of 
London; Jehu, John and William Davis and William Hill, 
from Massachusetts ; Dunbibiu, Monk, Hogg and DuBois, of 
New York ; John Watson, whose father had early established 
a botanic garden in Charleston ; Mills, LeGeere, James Small- 
wood and Laspeyre, of South Carolina ; DeRosset, from 
Lyme, England ; William Bartram, the botanist ; Dr. Roger 
Rolfe and wife, Ann, who owned the Rock Spring lot and St. 
James Square in Newton; Lord George Anson, for whom 
Anson County was named, the friend of Governor Johnston, 
v/ho circumnavigated the world and was stationed a long while 
here in the man of war Scarborough. Here came James 
Hasell with his wife and son, a Yorkshire gentleman, who 
first settled in Philadelphia and came here in 1735, bring- 
ing into the colony thirty-five persons and for these he re- 
ceived grants for 1,750 acres. He purchased a tract on Town 
Creek and one of his grants was a tract on the coast at Cab- 
bage Inlet about opposite the town of Brunswick. He Avas 
for forty years in public office in the colony, justice of the 
inferior court, chief justice, member of the council, president 
of the council, and several times acted as governor. "All 
these were there, and many others more, whose names and 
nations were too long to tell." 

Before the arrival of Johnston the raftsmen on the Cape 
Fear refused to carry their tar, timber and naval stores down 
to the town of Brunswick, because of the open and exposed 
waters in front of that town, and as early as 1729, stopped 
at a place called the Dram Tree, where the merchants came 
up to trade ; and many plantations up the river had their own 


wharves where vessels were loaded. Finally a settlement was 
made and a tavern erected for their accommodation and a 
town laid out by James Wimble, John Watson, Joshua Grain- 
ger, Michael Dyer and others. This place was known by 
several names : New Town, ISTewton, Carthage, IS^ew Liver- 
pool and finally through the influence of Governor Johnston 
incorporated under the name of Wilmington, in honor of his 
patron. We find the names of many forgotten streets on rec- 
ord of this old town, Nancy Street, King Street, Middle 
Market Street, Middle Street, Hannah Street, Coney Street. 
Finally by the removal of the Custom House, Court-house 
and Jail the town of Brunswick saw its downfall impending, 
and a hard fight was made at each move. The Governor 
called a council meeting there, and on May 18, 1735, or- 
ganized the first Court of Exchequer*^^ in the province, which 
he directed to be held at ISTewton, October 2, 1736, an act was 
passed making the to^vn of ISTewton a township*'*' to be called 
Wilmington, and the Assembly met there in 1741. Wil- 
mington can not be called an offspring of Brunswick, but a 
rival settlement which finally absorbed the old to^vn. The 
fight continued until February 25, 1740, when in the council, 
Allen, Nathaniel Rice, Edward Moseley and Roger Moore op- 
posed*''^ the Wilmington bill claiming that by the Act of 1729 
Brunswick was made a township and empowered to build a 
court-house, jail and church; good houses had been built there 
by several people before Newton was established ; that the cus- 
tom house was too far up the river ; while Robert Halton, Mat- 
thew Rowan and James Murray and William Smith contended 
that Brunswick was unhealthy, surrounded by ponds, and the 
people would not live there. The tie was broken by Chief 
Justice Smitli*'^ casting the second vote as chairman. Decem- 
ber 17th, of that year, the Governor wrote that he hoped to get 
all public business done there. However, it is to Brunswick 
that our earlier traditions cling though it was never destined 


to be a large town and only contained about forty families and 
in 1754, twenty families, while Wilmington then had 
seventy families. 

The town of Brunswick was laid out on a tract of 320 acre-^ 
granted to Maurice Moore and incorporated in 1729, and was 
divided into blocks with lots 86 feet front of a half acre each, 
about sixty lots fronting the river. The first street near the 
river with wharves in front was called Bay Street, the next 
in the rear Second Street, transverse streets were referred to 
as the streets where some person lived. In the town, the 
courts were held, merchants had their store houses and places 
of business, but they resided on plantations. The first minis- 
ter*"' of the established church who resided in Brunswick 
w^as Rev. John LaPierre;*'" he came from Charleston in 1729, 
and remained nearly four years. His plaintive appeal to 
the Bishop of London, October 9, 1733, tells us of the sad 
plight of a missionary minister. He had no church, no provi- 
sion made for salary, neither glebe nor house but was main- 
tained by the contributions of a few. He speaks of a Mr. 
Chubb's'" writings which leads his flock astray. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Richard Marsden,'^^ both minister and mer- 
chant, who supported himself by trade, made voyages to Lis- 
bon and England, owned a vessel and preached without pay. 
He was there till July 7, 1735, having been there in the 
colony '^^ near seven years. Rev. James Moir came next in 
1742, and March 26, 1745, tells us he lodges in a garret a 
little house which serves as a chapel Sundays and a school 
house during the week. He eats at the tavern among a rough 
set and his slave cooks his own food out of doors in all 
weather. Mr. Moir left Brunswick^^ in 1746. Rev. Mr. 
Bevis arrived in 1746, and was there two years ; preached 
at the court-house ; had much to suffer, neither a home pro- 
vided nor parish laws observed. Then came Rev. Mr, Cramp 



and Rev. John McDowell, The latter, in his will, directs'^^ 
that he be buried^'* at the east end of the church near the 
grave of his wife, Sarah, and leaves his infant son to the care 
of the Governor and his uncle, John Grange, and requests 
that he be brought up under Mr. Eichard Quince and his 
sons as a merchant. 

The church at Brunswick was erected in 1751, and its 
walls still remain in very good condition. Cedar trees have 
sprung up within with spreading boughs which call to mind 
the arches of some gothic temple over which is spread a leafy 
canopy. Standing within the walls, one can well exclaim 
with the prophet : "Yea, the sparrow hath found an house, and 
the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young, 
even thine altars, O Lord of hosts, my King and my God," for 
here it is verily true. 

The church appears to have been built due north and south 
by an accurate astronomical observation. The building is 
seventy-six feet long by fifty-four feet and three inches wide, 
windows fifteen feet high by seven feet wide, walls two feet 
and nine inches thick, and the height thereof is twenty-four 
feet and four inclies. There are eleven windows and three 
doors, and the floor was a tesselated pavement made of square 
Dutch tiles. ISTotwithstanding that there is a graveyard 
around the church, most of the dead are buried at the planta- 
tions, for the Act of 1741 required the owners of every planta- 
tion to set apart a piece of land for burial of dead Christians, 
free and bond. 

In 1760, an Act called the Lottery Act was passed to raise 
funds to furnish the churches at Brunswick and Wilmington, 
and appropriated the proceeds of the sale of the pirates into 
slavery, and their personal effects captured in 1748, for the 
same purpose. 

The minister and his family now resided in the town. On 
Sundays, court days, or holidays, the planters and their wives 


and families came to town either for religious service or social 
pleasures, business or friendly intercourse with neighbors. 
Sunday laws were read in the churches twice a year by the 
minister, clerk or reader, under a penalty for neglect of 
twenty shillings for the benefit of the parish. Among the 
tombs near old St. Philip's we still find some worthy of notice 
for they will eventually crumble into dust like their inmates. 
The Hon. William Dry, Jr., who moved here from Goose 
Creek, South Carolina, in 1736, was collector of the port and a 
member of the council, died June 3, 1795. Rebecca Mc- 
Guire, daughter of William Dry, Jr., and wife of Thomas Mc- 
Guire, Attorney-General. Jane Quince, wife of John Quince, 
died in 1765. John Lord, a native of the town of Brunswick, 
died August 2S, 1831, aged GQ years. William Hill died 
August 23, 1783, and his wife, Margaret, died ISTovember 
3, 1788. John Guerard,'^ ''for many years an inhabitant of 
Cape Fear, snatched by a sudden stroke of fate from life 
April 25, 1789." Elizabeth Guerard died June 30, 1775, 
aged 18 years. Elizabeth Eagen died June, 1785, aged 60 
years. Benjamin Smith, "of Belvidere, once Governor of 
North Carolina, died January 10, 1826." Mary Jane Dry, 
wife of William Dr}^, Jr., born January 21, 1729, died April 
3, 1795. Mary Quince, wife of Bichard Quince, died 1762. 
Elizabeth Lord died February 26, 1847. Mary Bacot died 
August 29, 1838, aged 75 years. Peter Maxwell, of Glas- 
gow, died at Wilmington September 23, 1812, aged 59 years, 
and wife, Rebecca Maxwell, died February 12, 1810. 

In 1736 and 1746, vessels with Scotch Highlanders came 
but w^ere advised to move to the up country where land was 
cheaper and better. It is said that their queer costumes, braw 
manners and shrill pipes unsettled the nerves of our Wilming- 
ton people. 

In 1740, war was formally declared between England and 
Spain. Governor Johnston was active in raising troops to 


invade the Spanish colonies. Even as early as Jnne, 1739, 
letters of mark and reprisal were issued to privateers, l^ovem- 
ber 5, 1740, transports left Brunswick with four companies 
of troops for Florida, and early the following year they ar- 
rived at Jamaica, joined Admiral Vernon and sailed for 
Carthagena, but we have scant reports of their fate. We 
know that Col. James Innes, Robert Halton and Lieut. 
Benjamin Heron were on the expedition and that the latter 
returned home by way of England. We also find numerous 
deeds of assigTiment of prize money during the following 
years, among them Isaac Lewis, Owen Jones, James Small, 
Eobert Page, George Chapman, Gideon Stubbs, James 
Hardy, John Brown, William Purdie and other mariners. 

In 1743, South Carolina asked the assistance of troops to 
meet the Spanish invasion from Cuba, and a thousand men 
were promised on condition that they should be commanded 
by an officer of this province, and Colonel Maurice Moore was 
chosen to command. 

October, 1745, a squadron^'' from Havana entered the Cape 
Fear and burned the town of Brunswick. 

In July, 1747, the Council directed" a fort to be built, 
and the Island^^ north of Oak Island was selected, and in 
September South Carolina offered'^" them ten pieces of ord- 
nance, nine and twelve pounders and ammunition. 

In 1745, an Act was passed to encourage the rebuilding of 
the town of Brunswick, also an Act which recites®" that in 
view of the well known depth of water of the Cape Fear and 
its defenceless condition, a fort was ordered to be built to be 
called Fort Johnston to contain at least twenty-four cannon, 
and Governor Johnston, jSTathaniel Bice, Eobert Halton, 
Eliezer Allen, Matthew Rowan, Major John Swann and 
George Moore were appointed commissioners to erect the same. 

September 17, 1747, John Ellis®^ in an affidavit at Bruns- 
wick stated that he sailed in June on the brigantine John 


Williams, Thomas Corbett Master, and that they were cap- 
tured by the Spanish privateer, St. Gabriel the Conqueror, 
and sent to Hispaniola but retaken and sent to St. Simons ; 
that the brigantine belonged to Kev. Richard Marsden. 

November 8, 1748,^" two pirate ships came up the Cape 
Fear, trained their gTins upon the tovm. of Brunswick and 
threatened to sack the town unless a ransom was paid. The 
inhabitants, without means of defense, were demoralized 
and fled to the woods, but the town was saved by the explosion 
of the magazine in one of the vessels, and the people taking 
courage boarded*^ the other vessel and captured it. The 
prisoners were sold into slavery and with the proceeds of the 
sale of their personal property there was realized a fund 
which by an Act was afterwards applied to finish the churches 
of St. Philip and of St. James. An "Ecce Homo"'* still 
hangs in the vestry room of St. James Church, at Wilming- 
ton, taken from this pirate ship, supposed to have been from 
the plunder of some Spanish church. 

From stray leaves of records of the old Court of Common 
Pleas of the town of Brunswick, 1738, we observe that the 
court was presided over by JSTathaniel Pice, Matthew Rowan, 
Eliezer Allen, Robert Halton, James Innes and Cornelius 
Harnett and others. Deeds were proved before the court and 
among them a power of attorney from George Burrington to 
his wife, Mary. JSTicholas Fox produced a license to practice 
as attorney in the province from the governor. Complaint 
is made of citizens obstructing public docks and landings 
with lumber in front of the town ; beef brought to market 
without exhibiting ear marks and brands complained of ; keep- 
ing hogs and swine in town was forbidden. Several persons 
warned against selling liquor in the town and county at ex- 
orbitant price to the great damage of artificers and laboring- 
men. Tax levied to build court-house and jail. C. Harnett 
made sheriff. Rev. Mr. Marsden ordered to appear before 


the court for building his cellar in the street, and erecting 
an oven in the street, fails to appear and sends certificate 
from Dr. Eoger Rolfe, of Wilmington, that he is ill. 

Governor Johnston died July 17, 1752. JSTathaniel Rice, 
the president of the council, succeeded hut died January 25, 
1753, and Matthew Rowan succeeded till the appointment of 
Governor Arthur Dohbs, who was sworn in at New Bern, 
October 15, 1754. He was an Irishman and formerly a 
member of the Irish Parliment and a man of education. He 
fitted out a galley^^ sent to discover the northwest passage. 
He was a correspondent of the Geographical Society and of 
Rev. William Wetstein,^'*" chaplain of his R. H., the Prince 
of Wales, and wrote several letters upon the course of the 
Gulf stream. 

"O, what an endless work I have in hand," as well count 
the sea's abundant progeny as continue longer on this theme. 
More could be told of John Dalrymple, commander of Fort 
Johnston, Governor Dobbs and Governor Tryon, the Stamp 
Act, Governor Martin, formerly Lieutenant Colonel 86th^'^ 
Regiment of Foot; the proclamation of George II, as King at 
Brunswick, of Cornwallis and Clinton, Harnett and Ancrum, 
of Howe, Ashe, Waddell and Moore, of the remains of the old 
houses, ruins of St. Philip's Church, the tombs and marble 
slabs with inscriptions that not only bespeak the memory of 
the dead but their intelligence and refinement, and may the 
inscription on the gi-ave of young Rebecca McGuire "'quisquis 
hoc marmor sustulerit ultimus suorum moriatur" adjure us 
to guard these ancient ruins and the traditions and memories 
of all who lived there as monuments of our race. 



1 World's Discoverers, by Wm. H. Johnson, with Verrazano's map, 
p. 185. 

2 Col. Rec, N. C, Vol. I, p. 43. Proposal of Lords Proprietors. 

3 Col. Rec, I, p. 53. 

4 Term used by Barbadoes Explorers, 1G63. 

5 Col. Rec, I, p. 35. Samuel Vassal, Assignee. 

6 Col. Rec, I, p. 161. 

7 Col. Rec, I, p. 73. John Vassal, Surveyor-Gen. Cape Fear. 

8 Col. Rec, 1, p. 50. Landed at Old Town (Charlestown) 29th May, 

9 Col. Rec, L pp. 119 and 116. Sanford, etc 

10 Col. Rec, L p. 120. 

"Col. Rec, I, p. 154. Cotton, etc 

12 professor Rivers some time ago earnestly denied this, but we have 
not agVeed with him. 

13 Col. Rec, I, p. 165. Souls. 

14 Col. Rec, I, p. 145. 

15 Thomas Wentworth Higginson, in allusion to the monument of a 
Madam Ann Vassal, widow of John Vassal, at Cambridge, says: 

"At her feet and at her head 
Lies a slave to attend the dead." 

Another of these adventurers has left a record. In SufTolk, Mass., 
Probate Records, Vol. I, p. 536, is a will of George Davis, dated Decem- 
ber 7, 1604, proved September, 1667; says he is bound for Cape Fear, 
mentioned his sons Benjamin and Joseph, his five daughters, when they 
come of age, his wife and brother, Wm. Clark of Linn. Probate records 
give inventory of goods of George Davis, lately deceased at Cape Fear. 

16 New Hanover Co. Records, C, p. 74. Smith grant mentioned. 

i'^ This family of Moores are said to be descended from Roger Moore, 
leader of the Irish Rebellion in 1641. James Moore came to America, 
settled in Charleston, and was Governor of South Carolina in 1700. 

18 Col. Rec, I, p. 154. Also mentioned by Lawson, p. 269, who said: 
"We have clothes of our own manufacture of cotton, wool, hemp and 
flax of our own growth." Hon W. B. Seabrook, in an address before 
the South Carolina Agricultural Society, December, 1843, mentions this 
as the first recorded evidence of its cultivation in America. We also 
find that M. Le Page Du Pratz, 1758, in his History of Louisiana, p. 323, 
refers to the cotton raised in that country as the Siam or Turkey cotton, 
which is a green-seeded cotton, and this also was attempted in Virginia, 
but with indifferent success. 

19 Acts 1711 and 1715, to raise money by duties on liquors and other 

20 Col. Rec, II, pp. 480 and 481. 

21 Col. Rec, n, p. 596. 

22 Col. Rec, XL p. 128. Gents. Magazine, 1756. 

23 Col. Rec, Records A, p. 102, New Hanover County. 

24 Rec New Hanover Co., A, p. 93. 

25 Col. Rec, XI, p. 128. 

26 Col. Rec, II, p. 596. 

27 Records New Hanover Co., D, pp. 512 and 403; Col. Rec, IIL p. 63. 


28 aee Wimble's Map. 

29 Col. Rec, III, p. 436. 

so Col. Rec, III, pp. 63 and 30. 

31 Everard to John Bell, N. H. Co., p. 172; Lockwood's Folly and A, 
p. 93. 

32 I am of the opinion that she was the Widow Moore for which 
Moore's Creek was named. She was Justina Moore, sixth child of 
Landgrave Thomas Smith 2nd, and who married John Moore, seventh 
son of the first Governor Jas. Moore. 

33 Col. Rec, III, p. 575, Acts Assembly 1736, chapter S. 

34 Revised Stats. N. C, Vol. II, p. 21. 

35 Rev. Stats. N. C, II, p. 466. 
sfi Gentleman's Magazine, 1756. 
ST Acts 1729, 34 Geo. II. 

S8 A valuable table of exports and imports of Carolina from 1663 to 
1773 will be found in the American Museum, Nov. 1789, pp. 400, 401. 
88 New Hanover Co., A, p. 342. 

40 New Hanover Co., D, p. 403. 

41 Col. Rec, IV, p. 6. 

42 Col. Rec, V, p. 158. 

43 New Hanover Co., A, p. 313, and Col. Rec, XI, p 

44 Gents. Magazine, 1756. 

45 Col. Rec, XI, p 

40 ool. Rec, XI, pp. 128 and 148. 

47 Col. Rec, XI, p. IS, and Col. Rec, III, p. 137 and 147. 

48 See 47. 

49 From two deeds of lease and release in New Hanover Co., dated 
10th and 11th April, 1754, "Geo. Burrington, late Governor, etc., now 
residing in the Parish of St. Margaret Westminster, in the County of 
Middlesex," conveyed to Samuel Strudwick his lands on Northeast 
Cape Fear, called "Stag Park," of 10,000 acres, and lands on the North- 
west Cape Fear called "Hawol Fields" (Hawfields) of 30,000 acres. 
This deed mentions that by letters patent dated 29th April, 1730, he 
had been appointed Governor with a salary of 700 pounds per annum, 
to be paid quarterly by John Hammerton, Esq., Receiver-General; that 
he was still in arrearage 3,325 pounds, and in consideration of advance- 
ment by Edw. Strudwick, the father of Samuel Strudwick, of Mortimer 
street, in the Parish of St. Mary Le Bow, in said County of Middlesex, 
he makes that conveyance. It is acknowledged before the Lord Mayor 
in the Mansion Hovise, April 11, 1754. His wife was Mary Burrington, 
and proved a deed in Brunswick County. Moseley speaks well of Bur- 
rington. Col. Rec, III, p. 137. 

50 Since March 25, 1739, called Sheriff. Acts 1738, chap. 3. 

51 Her will (New Hanover Co., C, p. 328,) mentions her grandson, 
C. Harnett, Jr. 

52 J H. Wheeler in South Atlantic, 1879. 


54 Col. Rec, V, p. 1137. 

55 Encyc. Brit., 9th Ed., under United States, p. 177. 

56 Other references as to Education may be found in Col. Rec, V, 
pp. 288, 289, 298, 280, 281, 1160, 1225, and Col. Rec, VI, p. 477. 

57 Col. Rec, V, pp. 144b and 306. 

58 Col. Rec, VI, p. 477. 

59 Col. Rec, III, pp. 642, 633 and 626. 

60 Gents. Mag., 1733, and Col. Rec, III, p. 630. 


61 Col. Rec, IV, p. 375 — Thomas Clifford, receiver of powder money 
at Brunswick. 

62 Col. Rec, IV, pp. 226 and 271. 

63 First Masonic Lodge at Brunswick, 1733, No. 113, called "King 
Solomon Lodge." 

64 Col. Rec, IV, p. 338. 

65 Col. Rec, IV, p. 44, Wilmington. 

66 Col. Rec, IV, p. 235. See Acts 1736. 
6T Col. Rec, IV, p. 456. 

68 Col. Rec, IV, pp. 424 and 415. 

69 Col. Rec, III, pp. 350 and 391. 

TO At that time a prominent deist in England. 

71 Col. Rec, III, pp. 350 and 391; New Hanover Co., C, p. 62. 

72 Col. Rec, IV, p. 10. 

73 Col. Rec, IV, p. 875, and Vol. IIL pp. 391 and 350; New Hanover, 
C, p. 62. 

74 Col. Rec, IV, pp. 755, 605, 606, 608. 

75 Col. Rec, I, p. 242 ; a Normandy family. 

76 Moore's Hist. N. C, Vol. I, p. 41, Vol. 4. p. 1306. 

77 Col. Rec, IV, p. 700. 

78 Col. Rec, IV, p. 702. 

79 Col. Rec, V, p. 38. 

80 Acts 1745, chap. 6. 

81 New Hanover Co., C, p. 133. 

82 Col. Rec. V, pp. 38 and 72. 

82 Col. Rec, V, pp. 38 and 72. Also Gents. Mag., 1749, in an account 
of this attack says one vessel escaped, and that 60 were blown up, 20 
killed, 37 taken prisoners. One American — a pilot — missing. 

83 Col. Rec, IV, pp. 991, 1284, 922, 1300, 1306. 

84 See History of St. James Church. 

85 Gents. Mag., 1749, June. 

86 Gents. Mag., Dec, 1749. 

87 London Mag., 1764. 




Born in Wilmington, March 24, 1854 ; graduated at David- 
son College, ]Sr. C, 1873 ; B.L. ; University of Virginia, 
1875; married December 6, 1876, Emma M. Hargrove. He 
served as City Attorney of Wilmington, 1881 ; was a mem- 
ber of the State Senate, 1891 ; delegate to I^^Tational Conven- 
tion of the Democratic party, 1892 ; member of Congress, 
1879-1903, Sixth K'orth Carolina District. 

Mr. Bellamy's painstaking elaboration of the life and ser- 
vices of Gen. Robert Howe will be read with interest, as the 
life and sacrifices of the distinguished man have not received 
heretofore the just amount of notice that should have been 
accorded him. Since the great revival in historic interest 
and research, many important facts have been secured from 
musty documents, old letters, and other data. ISTorth Caro- 
lina is awaking to her duty. The ignorance that has pre- 
vailed as to the facts of our colonial settlements is being dis- 
pelled by our educators. A l^orth Carolina Day has been 
established by act of General Assembly, and for the last six 
years an appropriate program has been arranged, treating of 
some especial section; its settlement, and brief histories of 
the distinguished men of the period. This pamphlet was 
compiled with great care by the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction and sent out to the public schools with the hope 
of inspiring the children with a new pride in their State and 
a new enthusiasm for the study of her history. The subjects 
treated followed the chronological order of the State's history. 
The ISJ'oETH Carolina Booklet, from its first inception in 


1901 has had in view the emphasizing and putting into con- 
venient form great events in the State's history. It is 
acknowledged that this publication is doing as much for the 
education of the public in a historical way as any magazine 
in the State. The financial support of the public is solicited. 
In addition to the above, and in this connection, I must 
not fail to mention the activities of the State Literary and 
Historical Association, which is doing such steady and effi- 
cient work collecting and preserving our State literature and 
history. Its object is the encouragement of public and school 
libraries ; the establishment of a historical museum ; the in- 
culcation of a literary spirit among our people ; the correc- 
tion of printed misrepresentations concerning ISTorth Caro- 
lina ; and the engendering of an intelligent, healthy State 
pride in the rising generation. Under the control of an 
active, intelligent, painstaking Board of Managers, this Asso- 
ciation is advocating the establishment of a State Archives 
and Hall of Records. 


William Kenneth Boyd, author of ''Early Relations of 
l»[orth Carolina and the West," was born in the State of 
Missouri in 1879, the son of Rev. H. M. Boyd (Presbyte- 
rian) and Mary Black Boyd. In 1888 his family removed 
to Western ISTorth Carolina, in search of a better climate, and 
located at Weaverville. His preparatory education was se- 
cured at Weaverville College, and in 1897 he graduated from 
Trinity College with the degree of A.B., and received his 
A.M. degree in 1898. He was then Master in History and 
Latin in the Trinity Park High School for the first two 
years of its existence (1898-1900). In 1900 he entered 
Columbia University as Scholar in History; in 1902-'03 he 
was Fellow in European History, in 1903-'01: Fellow by 


Courtesy, and in 1906 received the degree of Doctor of 
Philosoj)liy, 111 1904-'05 Mr. Boyd was a member of the 
editorial staff of the Encyclopedia Britannica (Tenth Edi- 
tion), in 1905-'06 he was Instructor in History in Dartmouth 
College, and in 1906 he accepted the Chair of History in 
Trinity College, where he had formerly, for one year (1901- 
1902), been Adjunct Professor of History. 

Besides the present article, Mr. Boyd has contributed the 
following studies in North Carolina history and biography: 
''John S. Cairns, Ornithologist," "Dennis Heartt," "William 
W. Holden," "K'athaniel Macon in E^ational Legislation," 
"Advalorem Slave Taxation," "Letters of Bedford Brown." 

All of these have appeared in the Papers of the Trinity 
College Historical Society (Series I- VI). He will also con- 
tribute the sketch of William Gaston to the forthcoming 
Library of Southern Literature, with which Prof. C. Alj)honso 
Smith is connected as associate editor. He has promised a 
study of the Battle of Kings Mountain for a future number 
of The Booklet. 

Besides these JSTorth Carolina studies, Mr. Boyd has pub- 
lished a monograph, "Ecclesiastical Edicts of the Theodosian 
Code," (Columbia University Studies in History, Economics 
and Public Law, 1906), and has contributed the following 
articles to The South Atlantic Quarterly : "Alfred the Great 
as Legislator," Vol. I, ]^o. 1 ; "Southern History in Ameri- 
can LTniversities," Vol. I, 'No. 2; "Christian Persecutions 
and Roman Jurisprudence," Vol. II, No. 1 ; "Theodore 
Mommsen : His Place in Modern Scholarship," Vol. Ill, ISTo. 
3 ; "Dunning's History of Reconstruction," Vol. VI, No. 4. 

Mr. Boyd, though not a native of iSTorth Carolina, has 
imbibed that spirit of research which is now pervading this 
section of the South. The day has passed when men are 
more ready to handle the sword than to wield the pen ; con- 


ditions have changed, the hand of the educator has grappled 
the pen, old dusty manuscripts are being brought to light, the 
many stories of traditional lore of her unparalleled record are 
being corroborated by documentary evidence, and simple truth 
will be thus enthroned, which is the highest ambition of 
patriotic ISTorth Carolinians. 


Author of the article, "Incidents in the Early Settlement 
of the Cape Fear." 

Wm. B. McKoy was born in Wilmington, IsT. C, December * 
24, 1852; went to school in Wilmington; graduated at the'==*N.. 'JT-.tS^f^ 
College of 'New Jersey (Princeton) in 1876; studied law /^ k— 
under Hon. Geo. V. Strong in Raleigh, IST. C. ; licensed to ,^^ 'X 

practice law in 1879; sworn in as a member of the bar at (J,^ Q_^j^,,i£(. g,^ ,„ 
Rockingham, Richmond County, IsT. C, same year ; since-+c- ^ -r^ 

practiced law in Wilmington. He is from a long line otJ_ 
ancestors loyal and patriotic. His paternal ancestor in Amer- ' "t.>t-c^/ 
ica was John McKay (now McKoy), who was sent out of U 

Scotland after 1746 as an active adherent of Prince Charlie ; 
settled in Bladen County ; moved thence to Iredell County. 
On his maternal side his earliest ancestor in America was 
Col. Wm. Rhett, of Charleston, S. C. He is also a descend- 
ant of James Hasell and Charles Berry, two Chief Justices 
of the Province of ISTorth Carolina. 

Mr. McKoy is Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge 
of Free Masons, a place he fills with great ability. 

Mr. McKoy having been a life-long resident of Wilmington, 
the chief town of the Cape Fear, he is familiar with its his- 
tory and traditions. IsTo more patriotic people ever lived 
than those of this section, and this patriotism has descended 
from generation to generation, dating from the first perma- 
nent settlements made in 1663. Mr. McKoy, like many 


others of this present day of educational awakening, is dis- 
charging a conscientious and patriotic duty to his State by 
publishing an article additional to what has heretofore been 
published concerning the history of this section. 

The long struggle of this American colony on the shores of 
l^orth Carolina, dating from 1554 to 17Y5, is hardly equaled 
by any other; but those days were not without their good 
results. It was the formative period in moulding the char- 
acter of the people, and to-day there is no State that can boast 
of a purer Anglo-Saxon race (having the smallest percentage 
of foreign born citizens of any State in the Union), and a 
people more devoted to their State and its history. Though 
long in asserting her rightful place as one of the leaders in 
colonization and in achieving independence, her great citi- 
zenship is now awake to the importance of writing her history. 
This great renewal of interest in ISTorth Carolina history may 
be attributed to the jjublication of the Colonial Records, that 
admirable work ordered by the State and undertaken by Col. 
William L. Saunders. 

Colonel Saunders, as Secretary of State, saw too plainly 
the necessity of collecting and preserving full and complete 
records of ISTorth Carolina, therefore he took upon himself 
this self-imposed task from love for his native State. 

At a period somewhat prior to his death in 1891, these 
Records, reaching from the beginnings of the Province, 1662, 
down to and inclusive of the year 17'76, filling ten large folio 
volumes, were suspended. In 1893 the Trustees of the State 
Library invited Judge Walter Clark to assume the continua- 
tion of the work. This he has done, beginning from the 
year 177Q, completing the period to 1781, as authorized by 
The Code, and continuing under the title of State Records, 
filling sixteen large folio volumes, including the laws of the 
the Province and State from 1663 to 1791, and also an index. 


To Colonel Saunders and Judge Clark the State owes a debt 
of gratitude beyond estimation. These Records are of im- 
measurable value to the student of history and a capital 
source of stimulation to the young. The Booklet has a 
promise of an article on this gigantic work. 

Even the women of this Commonwealth, through their his- 
torical organizations, are awaking to the duty of impressing 
upon the youth of our land the part they must perform in 
order to perpetuate our history. It was a noble work of the 
Colonial Dames of !N'orth Carolina in erecting, in 1907, on a 
public square in Wilmington, a monument to "Cornelius Har- 
nett and the Colonial Heroes of the Cape Fear." In Vol. V, 
No. 3, of The Booklet, may be found an interesting sketch 
of Cornelius Harnett, the pride of the Cape Fear, who was 
styled "the Samuel Adams of ISTorth Carolina," written by 
R. W. D. Connor. It is well to mention here that The Book- 
let contains other articles of great historical value relating to 
this part of ISTorth Carolina, Colonial and Revolutionary, as 
follows: Vol. I, 'No. 3, "Stamp Act on the Cape Fear," by 
Hon. A. M. Waddell ; Vol. II, No. 10, "County of Claren- 
don," by John Spencer Bassett; Vol. Ill, No. 11, "Battle of 
Moore's Creek Bridge," by Prof. M. C. S. IToble; Vol. VI, 
ISTo. 1, "A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear," by James 
Sprunt. All of which can be obtained from the publishers 
except ]^o. 3, of Vol. I, which is out of print. 

The North Carolina 




THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Sixth A^olume began in July, 1906. 

One lear^ One Dollar; Single Copies, Thirty-five Cents. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Editors, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-office as second class matter. 

Notice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is desired. 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 


Vol. VII. 

APRIL, 1908 

No. 4 

NortrK Carolina Dooklef: 










St. James's Churchyard (A Poem) - - - - 245 

By Mrs. Lula Clark Marlcham 

The Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry - - 248 

By James C. MacRae 

The Expedition Against the Row Galley, "General Arnold" 

— A Side-light on Colonial Edenton - - - 267 

By Rev. Robert Brent Drane, D.D. 

The Quakers of Perquimans - - - - - 278 

By Julia S. While 

An Early Peace Society in North Carolina - - 290 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Biographical auid Geneological Memoranda - - 30 1 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 

Abstracts of Wills Previous to 1 760 - - - 310 

By Mrs. H. DeB. Wills 


$1.00 THE YEAR 






The North Carolina Booklet. 

Great Events in North Carolina History, 

The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North Carolina Society 
Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1908. Each Booklet will 
contain three articles and will be published in July, October, January, 
and April. Price, $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editors : 
Miss Maby Hilliard Hinton. Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


1. John Hai-vey Mr. B. D. W. Connor. 

2. An Early North Carolina Peace Movement, 1819-1823. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Hayioood. 

3. The Historical Movement in North Carolina. 

4. North Carolina Women of the Revolution Dr. Richard Dillard. 

5. Battle of Kings Mountain Dr. William K. Boyd. 

6. Convention of 1835 Judge Henry G. Connor. 

7. General Thomas Person Dr. J. G. de Boulhac Hamilton. 

8. Schools and Education in Colonial Times, Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

9. Reprint of Reverend George Micklejohn's Sermon before Tryon's 

Army — May, 1771. 

10. General Jethro Sumner Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

11. Historic Duels of North Carolina Mr. F. M. Harper. 

12.' Our Colonial Historians: Hakluyt, Lawson, Brickie, Williamson 

jB*. Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, D.D. 

The Booklet wiU contain short biographical sketches of the writers 
who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 
biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet for 
Vol. VIII, are requested to give notice at once. 



"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 


V^ol. VII. APRIL, 1908. No. 4 



Published by 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editors. 


*'' Carolina! Carolina! Heaven'' s blessings attend her ! ^ 

While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her." "v 



Mrs. Spier Whitaker. Mrs. T. K. Brunee. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Professor E. P. Moses. Dr. PaciiARo Dillard. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle. Mr. James Spkunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Clark. 

Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, Mrs. E E. Moffitt. 





Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 




Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 




Mrs. W. H. PACE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 





Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
Mrs. spier WHITAIiER. 

regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

regent 1902-1906: 


*Dled December 12, 1904. 


Vol. VII APRIL, 1908 No. 4 



A bit of ancient England dropped adown 

Amid these alien streets, 

Where 'neath the soft, blue. Southern sky, there beats 

The throbbing life-tide of the crude J^ew World; ^ 

The old gray church keeps guard, o'erblown p 

By winds of many winters ; here have been unfurled ^ 

The sunset banners of an hundred years ; ^ 

On these old, leveled, grass-grown graves the tears fc 

Were dried a long, long century ago. ^: 




With stately step and slow, t-j 

O'er the smooth velvet of this grassy aisle, . U 

Perchance the proud Cornwallis walked, the while 

Pondering his lofty dreams of power and fame 

And thinking of the waters, vast and gray, ^ 

Which stretched their stormy leagues between Ig; 

This untamed land and his loved island, fair and green; 

It may be that a grim 
Foreboding came of sore defeat and shame 
To cloud his haughty l}row, an augury 
Of dire disaster Avaiting him 

At Yorktown far away. 

Past these gray walls the Eedcoats marched one day 
With measured step and glittering swords aglow. 
Unwitting that for them the end was nigh 
Of weary warfare ; that they marched to meet 
In one last test their scorned, provincial foe. 
To lay their proud swords at those ragged feet. 


And here to-day one lies 
Wrapped in bis garb of glory for a sbroud. 
Tbe careless, bubble-seeking crowd 
Goes idly by, and recks not that tbe eyes 
Here closed in sleep once flasbed witb ardor bright 
To lead the blind young nation to the light : 
The lofty brow that long has turned to dust 
Wrought in its fervid brain the daring dream 
Of liberty triumphant in a proud, august, 
Great nation born of great souls like his own. 
He w^as the White Knight of undimmed renown ; 
Patriot, soldier, statesman, not a gleam 
Of wealth or fame allured him, and he swerved 
'Not from his chosen path although it led 
Through sacrifice and loss, through doubt and dread. 
Content if but his country's cause were served. 

We can not tell to wdiat far distant stars 

His bark of life was steered so long ago ; . 

On what high embassies he has been sent, what holy wars 

For truth and right aw^aited him ; we know 

That here each flower, each crystal drop of dew 

Is a wdiite message from the heart of him. 

Each buoyant breeze that sweeps in from the sea 

Is whispering of his golden dreams come true. 

Each radiant star that lights the evening's blue 

Forever keeps his name from growing dim. 

And while yon marble finger silently 

Points to the heaven which claimed him for its own, 

While one leal. Southern heart holds on its throne 

The love of country and of right, 

The fearless scorn of tyrrany and might, 

Cornelius Harnett lives and can not die. 


And so, year after year, till ages have gone by. 
These ancient graves will wait the mighty word, 
When with his trumpet blast, the Angel of the Lord, 
With one foot on the sea and one upon the shore. 
Proclaims "Time was, time is, but time shall be no more!" 
And those who sleep below so tranquilly 
Through their hushed hearts will feel the thrill of birth 
Which wakes to find new heavens and new earth. 


BY JAMES c. Macrae, 
(Dean of Law School, University of North Carolina.) 

"He that hath, no stomach for this tight let him depart." 

The last decade of the Eighteenth Century was a time of 
trouble and perplexity to the young Republic which had so 
recently achieved its independence and taken place among 
the ]S[ations. 

Indeed, from the peace of 1783 to the defeat of Packen- 
ham, some thirty years later, the permanent existence of the 
United States was an unsolved problem. Threatened on the 
one side by the ill-concealed enmity of its former sovereign, 
and urged, on the other, by the officious efforts of its former 
friend and ally to embroil it in foreign wars. With no stand- 
ing army, a long and unprotected coast line, and a small, 
though gallant, naval armament, its hope and reliance was 
upon its citizen soldiery. 

ISTorth Carolina was, at the end of the century, one of the 
strongest States in the Union, with all the elements of future 
prosperity. It had no cities nor large towns in its borders, 
but it had a populati<.ui filled with the spirit of liberty. It 
was in those early days when the life of the Republic seemed 
threatened with foreign wars that the town of Fayetteville 
on the twenty-third of August, 1798, called its young men 
together to organize a volunteer military company. 

Robert Adam, a young Scotch merchant, was elected Cap- 
tain, John Winslow, Lieutenant, and Robert Cochran, En- 
sign. These were leading citizens of Fayetteville in their 
day, and up to the present time their successors have been 
the worthiest representatives of their community. 


This sketch is largely made from an address delivered on 
the occasion of the Centennial of the Company, with such 
addenda as may embrace some reference to the very impor- 
tant public services rendered by the Company since the close 
of its first century. A history of the organization would 
require much larger space than has been allotted to this pa- 
per, but the archives of the command contain full records 
and rosters, and one may find in several instances five genera- 
tions of Fayetteville men upon its rolls. 

The characteristic of this organization from its inception 
may be summed up in the word, duty. Its leaders and pro- 
moters were men of intelligence and position. 

It was not formed for the simple purpose of giving grace 
to holiday pageants, but for the defense of the people in 
their rights and liberties. 

It realized the true conception of a citizen soldiery ; for 
its members were citizens as well as soldiers. 

The same spirit which induced them to submit to discip- 
line, that they might become efficient soldiers, led them also 
to take up the responsibilities incident to citizenship, without 
the bearing of which there can be no real enjoyment of the 
benefits of good government. 

So, they were the upholders of law and order, and in times 
of agitation were ever ready to preserve the peace. 

The strength and value of a military organization in a 
community, under the direction of cool and intrepid men 
(for with any other leaders they become a firebrand and a 
source of anxiety and of danger), can only be fully appre- 
ciated by those whose business it has been to execute the laws. 

In times of excitement, when there is danger of some out- 
break of popular violence, the advantage of an organized body 
of disciplined men, under proper officers, to be called out in 
the last resort, is simply incalculable. 

The community whose foremost men constitute such a 
body is comparatively safe from intestine trouble. 


The machinery of the civil law is ordinarily all-sufficient 
in itself. 

A very large majority of the people are obedient to law, and 
it is an easy matter, when public sentiment is rightly direct- 
ed, to administer the same for the welfare of all concerned. 

But men, taken collectively, are sometimes, like the indi- 
vidual, overborne by passion ; and while under its impulse 
they may break down the barriers which ages of exertion and 
sacrifice have built up around their liberties. 

It is on occasions of such temporary bursts of lawlessness 
which are liable to occur in human society that it becomes 
necessary, under our system, to call in the citizen soldiers 
to assist the civil arm. 

The great efficiency of the State Guard of jSTorth Carolina 
to-day is attested by the fact that it is so seldom necessary to 
bring them into actual aid of the civil authority. 

So potent is their influence that the bare knowledge that 
such an organization is in existence and ready for action at 
a moment's warning, is sufficient in general to prevent any 
serious outbreak. Such has been the happy case of this 
community for all these hundred years. 

For most of this period there have been other military 
coinpanies here just as good and just as true, wdiich, in the 
mutations of time, have risen and flourished and passed away, 
but this old company has lived through every change. 

With the exception of those occasions when it was absent 
in active service, and when, in the overpowering calamity 
which fell upon us all, we were deprived of our arms, it has 
ever been the bulwark of these people's safety and the nucleus 
around which they might rally for defence. 

It was organized in those unsettled times when the States 
of the American Union, having just emerged from the seven 
years struggle for freedom, each found itself face to face 
with the great problems of government which, pending the 


conflict, had been held in abeyance ; political feeling ran 
high ; the spirit of peace had not yet calmed the passions of 
the recent combatants ; and it seemed that the new and scarce 
formed nation was about to face as enemies those who had 
been its recent friends and allies. The first apparent neces- 
sity was the establishment of an armed militia for protection 
against all foes, both foreign and domestic. 

It was then, before the laws which were soon after passed 
for its organization, that this company was bronght into ex- 

And on July 23, 1807, when a second war with England 
was imminent and the President had warned the militia to 
be in readiness for an emergency, this company tendered him 
its services in the following resolution which was commnni- 
cated to the President : 

Eesolved unanimously, That we very much admire, and highly ap- 
prove of the dignified, manly and independent sentiments contained in 
the proclamation of the President of the United States: and having 
observed that he has ordered the raising of 100,000 militia, to hold 
themselves in readiness to march at a moment's warning, and it is his 
pleasure to accept Volunteers to compose a part thereof. 

Resolved unanimously. That the Fayetteville Independent Light Infan- 
try Company, officers and soldiers voluntarily tender their services, with 
this declaration that although as citizens, they highly appreciate the 
blessings of peace, yet, as citizen soldiers, they are ever ready to avenge 
an insult offered to their country by any nation whatever, and pledge 
themselves to be ready, whenever called upon, for the defense of such 
measures as may be adopted by the Government. 

In acknowledgment of this tender Mr. Jefferson, nnder 
his own hand, wrote as follows : 

To Captain John McMillan and the 

Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Cotnpany: 
The oft'er of your services in support of the rights of your country 
merits the highest praise. And whenever the moment arrives in which 
these rights nuist appeal to the public arm for support, the spirit from 
which your offer flows, that which animates our nation, will be their 
sufficient safeguard. 



To the legislature wil be rendered a faithful account of the events 
which have so justly excited the sensibilities of our country, of the 
measures taken to obtain reparation and of their result ; and to their 
wisdom will belong the course to be ultimately pursued. 

In the meantime it is our duty to pursue that prescribed by the 
existing laws, toward which should your services be requisite, this offer 
of them wil be remembered. 

I tender for your country the thanks you so justly deserve. 

Thomas Jefferson. 

Washia'gtox, July 31, 1807. 

In 1813, wlien the enemy threatened to make a landing 
on onr coast, it promptly marched to AVilmington, and there 
was the special bodyguard of Governor Hawkins, the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the North Carolina forces. Upon the 
conclnsion of its tonr of service it was relieved from dnty in 
the following commnnication : 
To Lieutenant Wm. Barry Grove. 

Sis: — I am commanded by his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief 
of the state of, North Carolina, to express through you to the officers 
and privates of your company, the very high approbation which they 
merit, and which they have met with, for their prompt and soldier- 
like march to one of the vulnerable points of our state when it was in- 
vaded. And to his Excellency it is a high gratification that all com- 
posing your company have done all that could be expected from officers 
and soldiers. Stimulated by this laudable example, it is confidently 
hoped the militia of the state of North Carolina will derive much 

On your arrival in the town of Fayetteville you will dismiss from 
duty the members composing your company. I am, with much regard, 
Your obedient servant, F. N. W. Burton, Aid. 

In 1825, it attended LaFayette npon his visit to Fayette- 
ville, the name of this town having been changed in 1784 
from Cross Creek to honor the distinguished soldier who had 
done so mnch to achieve for ns our liberty. 

In 1846, when i^Torth Carolina was called upon to send a 
regiment to Mexico, while it was, of course, impracticable 
that this company, composed as it was of the leading business 
and professional men of the town should go on foreign ser- 


vice, it sent out a noncommissioned officer, Sergeant W. E. 
Kirkpatrick, to take command of the Cumberland Company, 
F, of the North Carolina Regiment, as its Captain, advanced 
him to the same rank in its own company, and at the close of 
the Mexican war received him with distinguished honors. 

In those peaceful days which followed, it continued to be 
the pride and glory of the town, ready in every emergency ; 
foremost on every festive occasion — making casual visits to 
its brother commands in other towns, and keeping up its 
own esprit dii corps by a generous rivalry with the other com- 
panies of the town. 

On the 15th of April, 1861, after the Confederate States 
had been formed by the resumption of the sovereignty of the 
State of South Carolina and those to the south of her, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued his proclamation calling upon the States 
for 75,000 trooj)s ''to put down these combinations," and this 
was the declaration which brought about the war between the 

Immediately upon the publication in Fayetteville of this 
proclamation, on the 17th day of April, the Independent 
Company unanimously tendered itself to the Governor of 
North Carolina to serve in opposition to the coercion policy 
of the Federal Government of which North Carolina was still 
a part. 

Its tender was accepted, and its first service, in conjunc- 
tion wnth the other companies of the town and county, was 
the taking possession of the United States Arsenal at Fayette- 
ville, where it remained as guard until May 7, w^hen, being 
relieved, it went into camp on Harrington Hill, and on the 
morning of the 9th of May, 108 strong it went to Raleigh, 
whither it had been preceded by the LaFayette Light Infan- 
tr\% a magnificent company, with which it was at once em- 
bodied into the First Regiment of North Carolina Volun- 
teers; and on the 20th of Mav, 1861, when the ordinance of 


secession was adopted by the people of North Carolina in 
convention at Raleigh, it was already tasting the never-to-be- 
forgotten hospitality of the people of Richmond in camp at 
Howard's Grove in that famous city. 

Though it had offered itself for ten years or the war, it 
had been mustered in for six months. It served its term on 
the Peninsula ; its regiment, having taken a leading part in 
the engagement at Big Bethel, received the name of the Bethel 
Regiment, which was retained by its successor, the 11th 
ISTorth Carolina Troops. 

Upon the return of the company home at the end of six 
months, while its organization was retained, its members, 
many of them having been fitted for command by their ser- 
vice in the ranks, became officers in other companies and 
regiments and on the general staff". 

Many entered the ranks of other commands and there illus- 
trated the effect of the fine discipline to which they had been 
subjected under the tutelage of their old Regimental Com- 
mander, D. H. Hill. 

A remnant remained at home and kept up the organiza- 
tion. Too few to form a separate company in the field, they 
performed a tour of duty at and near Fort Fisher, as part 
of the Clarendon Guards. For a few years after the close 
of the war they were not permitted to bear arms, but they 
kept their organization, meeting each year upon their anni- 
sary for that purpose. It was not long, however, before the 
federal troops were withdrawn, and the days of reconstruc- 
tion were over, and at once they were re-ecpiipped and armed. 

In 1876 this company with its distinguished guests to-day, 
the Washington Light Infantry of Charleston, S. C, was 
part of the Centennial Legion, and assisted in the opening of 
the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, and before its 
return visited Boston by special invitation, where its officers 
and men were treated with marked consideration. 


For some years it constituted the first company of the 
Second Regiment of the State Guard and attended the annual 
encampments, but upon the adoption by the Guard of a dis- 
tinctive uniform for all its members, this company having 
been allowed by special legislation to select its own uniform 
and preferring to retain that which it wears to-day, became 
by order of the Commander-in-Chief, the late Governor 
Fowle, an unattached company of the Xorth Carolina Troops. 

State of North Carolina, General Headquarters, 

Adjutant-General's Office, 

Raleigh, May 3, 1890. 
General Order No. 6. 

Company A, Second Regiment North Carolina State Guard, is allowed 
to withdraw from the State Guard and is restored to its former status 
as an independent Company, to be designated as the Fayetteville Light 
Infantry Company, under the Act of the General Assembly of 1819. It 
Avill be subject only to orders from the Commander-in-Chief. 

It will retain the arms and equipment now in its possession, but the 
overcoats heretofore issued to it whilst a member of the State Guard 
will be returned to Col. F. A. Olds, Quartermaster General, who, upon 
receipt of the same will deliver to said Companj^ the bond executed by 
said Company for said overcoats. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief. 

James D. Glenn, 


Recently it became again a company of the State Guard, 
and the question has arisen as to its right to wear the Con- 
federate gTay and is still unsettled. 

Xo wonder, then, that with its record of long and faithful 
service, this ancient and honorable corps has become well 
known in ]Srorth Carolina and beyond its borders. ISTo won- 
der that it has been the recipient of marks of special regard 
from time to time at the hands of the Legislature. 

In 1819 a joint resolution was passed by the General Assem- 
bly giving to its commanders the rank of Major and to its 
Lieutenants that of Captain "so long as the corps shall con- 
tinue to hold itself armed and equipped agreeably to the tenor 


of its rules and regulations." As I had occasion to say in an 
address to this company on its 81st anniversary, in the 
year 1859 an act was passed to encourage this company, by 
the terms of which its officers and men were exemj)ted from 
the performance of jury duty; but this favor was unani- 
mously declined upon the g-round that its duty as soldiers 
did not and ought not to relieve its members from any of the 
duties incident to citizenship. 

Thus was evinced the high spirit of the corps and the de- 
votion of its members to the performance of duty. 

Could I recount to j^ou the pleasant traditions and some 
of the peculiar customs pertaining to this company it might 
afford you some amusement, but they are already perpetuated 
in successive addresses which have been delivered on the for- 
mer anniversaries. 

Some day, and it is to be hoped at no great distance, your 
historian will gather them into a book and hand them down 
the line, that those who come after you may, like you, par- 
take of the spirit of the fathers. 

The last public act performed by this company was a few 
weeks ago in Raleigh, when it followed the remains of the 
great man who had been the President of the Confederate 
States, as they passed to their place at Hollywood, testifying 
the respect of its members for his memory, and seeking par- 
ticipation in whatever may be awarded of praise or blame 
to him who was the embodiment of all that was left of their 
common cause. 

If by any strange mischance the career of this company 
was closed with its century of service, what an honorable end 
it would have reached before giving up its arms and passing 
into history, that its last act should have been to follow the 
bier of Jefferson Davis as it bore him to his eternal rest. 

Organized, as this company was, a few years after the 
adoption of the Constitution of the United States by the 


State Convention assembled in this town, of the circum- 
stances of which adoption, the fierce and bitter contest, the 
thorough discussion, and the guarantees of personal freedom 
and State autonomy required before final action, we have 
all been made quite familiar by the recent celebration in this 
place of its centennial, and the splendid oration there pro- 
nounced by Senator M. W. Eansom, and the impromptu 
speech of great merit by Senator Vance, the officers and men 
were thoroughly imbued with the first principles of loyalty 
to the State, which was its sovereign, except as to certain 
powers and jurisdictions for special purposes granted to the 
general government. They have ever been true to these tra- 
ditions, and, recognizing certain changes tending to strength- 
en and perpetuate the union of sovereign States brought about 
by the submission of the question in dispute to the ultimate 
arbitrament of arms, they are, as ever, true and steadfast in 
their devotion to North Carolina and the Constitutional 
Union of which she now forms an independent and inde- 
structible part. 

ISTo call has ever been made by the State authorities which 
this company has not obeyed with alacrity. 

Distinguished among, and not above, its comrade com- 
panies by reason of its great age and repeated services ; the 
last public relic of the hallowed past, except the venerable 
University which is its senior in years but is perennial in its 
strength and in the renewal of its youth ; surviving the old 
Constitution, the best ever made for a free people ; surviving 
the old judiciary system and the executive and legislative de- 
partments, for they all gave place in 1868 to the new ideas 
and forms of government begotten of the last revolution, it 
ought to have some mark by which it may be known among 
its fellows. 

It might, under the special laws which govern it, have 
chosen to be recognized by the old uniform of blue and buff 


which it wore for many years. But when it came to take 
up its arms again after an enforced suspension, it was thought 
it might be well to cling to that garb which typified its great- 
est service to the commonwealth ; it was thought that it might 
serv^e to teach the coming generations to revere the memory 
of the fathers who wore the gray; to know that there rests 
no stain of treason upon those who, clad in the Confederate 
colors, lost all but honor on the field of battle. 

It was thought that it might further illustrate for those 
who shall see it march wherever duty calls in future years, 
that they who took the parole of honor to bear faitliful alle- 
giance to the United States were none the worse for the 
struggle they had made to comiDass the freedom of the State ; 
that their patriotism was in no way weakened, and that the 
old comjDany could be as instant in discharge of duty to con- 
stituted authority in this year of grace, 1893, as they were in 
the days of '61 ; that it might serve to bind to the grand 
future of a united and prosperous nation in the 20th Century 
the traditions of the no less glorious Confederacy, when the 
gray-clad soldier marched with Robert Lee and rode in the 
column where Wade Hampton led. 

And so, at the sacrifice of much that was pleasant and com- 
panionable and profitable, this company, in no spirit of in- 
subordination, but simply in the exercise of a discretion 
granted years ago by those who made the laws which govern 
us, has chosen to retain the gray uniform as an object lesson 
in the teaching of those things which will serve to lead en- 
thusiastic youth to honor virtue and heroism, whether its 
reward is victory, or its issue death. 

We arc honored by the presence at our festival of comrades 
from Virginia and South Carolina whose splendid companies 
vie with ours in age and which, like ours, have renewed their 
youth and yet preserved the traditions of the early days of 
the Republic. 



Each of them, like our own, has been the pride of its State 
and the honor of its community. Hj 

We have already welcomed them to the freedom of the 3 
city. We thank them for the soldierly distinction with which HJ 
they have come to join us in the celebration of our natal day. *~* 

The Richmond Light Infantry Blues celebrated its centen- hi 
nial in May ; it shares with us the honor of having tendered F^ 
its services to the President in 1807, and taken part in the ^ 
war of 1812, and its record in the late war has covered it with ^ 
glory. And in this connection there is a tender episode in ^ 
its history which binds it fast in our affections. It was in ^ 
a gallant defense of the soil of our own State at Roanoke Is- ^ 
land on the 9th day of February, 1862, that its peerless ^ 
3'oung commander fell pierced with the messenger of death. ^ 

His last words made the battle cry of the command until SSli 

the scene closed upon the remnant left at Appomattox : 
"Fight on, fight on, keep cool." 

Of all the lifeblood poured out for years on Southern soil 
there was none that welled from kuightlier heart than that 
of Jennings Wise. 

Our kindred and friends, the Washington Light Infantry, 
from the sister Carolina, have come to us from the citadel of 
liberty, the city <fi Charleston. 

They, too, have traced their lineage from those early days 
of our country's history, have added to the glory of South 
Carolina in all her struggles for constitutional freedom, and 
we are bound to them by all the ties of a common cause and a 
common fate. Their record in the war of 1812 and that be- 
tween the States was worthy of the reputation of their State 
and city. 

To add to the interest of the occasion, they bear with them 
the crimson flag of the Cowpens and of Eutaw, the banner 
under which Virginia and the twin Carolinas rushed to vic- 



tory. Long may this sacred standard remain in the keeping 
of the brave and gallant men who hold it now. 

May the friendships formed between the two commands 
in 1876 ripen now into more intimate knowledge of each 
other as distance has been so shortened by the new lines of 
communication between Charleston and our town, 

]^othing could have been more appropriate than the partici- 
pation of these representatives of our neighbor States in the 
celebration of our centennial. 

When each of these commands was formed there was a 
fresh memory of the heroic campaigns of 1780-81, when the 
patriot troops of Virginia and the Carolinas dealt the blow 
to FergTison at Kings Mountain, which turned the tide that 
had overborne the State of South Carolina and was intended 
to crush out liberty in North Carolina and Virginia. With 
the Maryland Line and Washington's Light Horse they 
gained a victory at the Cowpens, under Morgan. 

And after Cornwallis had been forced at Guilford to turn 
his course to the sea and abandon his idea of conquest, again 
they struck at Eutaw such a blow as resulted in the retreat 
of the invader to the coast, and the virtual redemption of 
South Carolina. 

In all these desperate encounters the men of the three 
States stood together and the Maryland Line, the Delaware 
Contingent (the blue hen's chickens) and the Georgia troops. 
Light Horse Harry Lee and Swamp Fox Marion and Sum- 
ter, and old Ben Cleveland and Shelby and Graham and 
Campbell and Washington raised such a storm as swept the 
land of the invader and drove Cornwallis to his fate at 

How fitting it is that we should meet here on common 
ground and recount the exploits of the fathers, keep alive 
their grand traditions and resolve that we shall ever stand 
together, in war and in peace, as soldiers and as citizens. 


The founders of this company have long since gone to 
their rest. 

Fifty years ago there was a day of brave rejoicing. An 
address was delivered by Ed. Lee Winslow, Esq., an old 
member of the company which was in itself a complete his- 
tory of its first half century. 

In 1850 on this day you were addressed by Hon. Robert 
Strange who had been the Major Commandant, a Senator 
and a Judge. His elegant oration has been printed with 
Mr. Winslow's and is preserved in the archives. 

In 1873, a distinguished South Carolinian, though a na- 
tive of Fayetteville, Hon. W. S. Mullins, came to join with 
us in the celebration of the eightieth anniversary and address 
his former comrades. 

Time fails me to call over the list of the honored officers 
and members of this corps who have passed away. 

God rest them in the land of Peace. 

It is easier to speak of the olden times, the first years of 
the organization, because we never knew the actors in those 
stirring scenes, they were already in the halls of history when 
we were born. 

But when we come to read the names of those who, in 
the vigor of manhood, took part in tlie festivities of the semi- 
centennial, or when we recall the names of those who have 
since been its members and have gone, we are brought into 
the visible presence of our fathers and our brethren and the 
ground is hallowed where we stand in the show of our own 

It was an established custom in the olden time that on the 
1st of May the company should appear in garments of immac- 
ulate white and act as escort of the fair young Queen of the 
May to the scene of her coronation, and for that day of all 
the year its fealty belonged to her majesty alone. 

In later times, for one day in the year, it is under the 
orders of the Ladies' Memorial Association in the celebration 


of the solemn rites which they have instituted over the graves 
of the Confederate dead. 

And for the small service it has rendered her she returns 
a tenfold devotion. No sacrifice has been too great for her 
to make in the past for the benefit of this company. Its 
silken banners are always the workmanship of her fair hands. 
Its festive board is garnished with her exquisite taste. 

But how can I recount the many tokens of her favor ? She 
is here to-day in all her loveliness to grace the festival. If 
I could express a wish that would include all good to the 
members of this old company it should be that each one shall 
be truly worthy of the tender love of one of these fair women. 

For the members of the Veteran Corps and those of the 
dispersed abroad, who are here to join in this most interest- 
ing occasion, we have the heartiest welcome. They will re- 
joice to see that at the entrance of the old company upon its 
second century it has laid the foundations of an elegant ar- 
mory, under whose temporary roof we assemble to-day, and 
wdiich it expects from time to time to enlarge and beautify 
and embellish until it shall be in itself a history of the corps. 

God speed the young men in this undertaking. May they 
realize that there is something of responsibility in taking up 
the escutcheon which bears the insignia of the F. I. L, I. 
upon it. 

" He that hath no stomach to this fight, let him depart." 

May they live and flourish and uphold the ancient reputa- 
tion of the Corps and hand it down the iSTew Century with 
undimned lustre and renown. 

So passed into history the first century of the existence of 
this command and the years rolled quickly on. 

The controversy concerning the right of the Company to 
select and wear its own uniform under the resolution of 1819 
was revived and became sharp and decisive. 

An order from Governor Carr to the Company in 1893 had 


required the return of the arms and other public property in 
its possession and had dropped the Company from the State 
Guard for failure to parade for inspection dressed in the regu- 
lation uniform, although it had been expressly invited by a 
former administration to resume its place in the State Guard 
as an unattached company subject to orders direct from the 
Commander-in-Chief. The order was resented by the Com- 
pany and itself set right in a long correspondence and after 
a long- report by a committee of leading members of the Com- 
pany to whom it was referred. This report is spread at 
length upon the records and reserves forever as a complete 
vindication of the action of the command under rather trying 

But the order of the Governor was promptly obeyed, the 
arms and other property of the State returned, and the Com- 
pany as promptly armed and accoutred itself and tendered its 
services to the Governor as an independent volunteer organi- 
zation of the North Carolina Militia under the law of 1819. 

Then came a time of great festivity. The Company was 
immensely popular, especially with the ladies, on account of 
its distinctive uniform. 

In May, 1894, it had the post of honor on the occasion of 
the unveiling of the Confederate Monument on Capitol 
Square in Raleigh, and was treated with distinguished consid- 

In the month of January, 1898, there was a great mid- 
winter fair under its auspices in Fayetteville, which was at- 
tended by several of the visiting military companies, and 
there seemed to be for the community and for the country at 
large an era of lasting peace and prosperity. 

The large and convenient armory was completed, the arch- 
ives were kept therein, and the walls were adorned with tho 
beautiful banners it had borne in its various service, and with 
the portraits of its worthy members and commanders. 


To appropriate the words of one of its most devoted mem- 
bers and sons, the late Col. John D. Cameron, of Asheville : 

The organization was formed of the best blood of Fayetteville ; it was 
the pride of the sons to succeed the fathers, and such has been religiously 
observed. Service in such a company has always been esteemed an 
honor; and, for nearly a century, joining the Independent Company has 
been almost an essential to the young man of Fayetteville, as a formal 
declaration of manhood, as the assumption of the toga virilis hy the 
youth of Rome. 

Lawyers, physicians, merchants, mechanics, all have taken their turn 
in the ranks, and in their turn have succeeded to command; the course 
of promotion is uniform and inflexible; the lowest corporal, if he serves 
long enough, will in time rise to the rank of INIajor, but can only do 
so when those above him have passed through the same course by the 
rise and withdrawal of those who have attained the highest rank. 

By this time the old town, itself scarred all over by fires of 
war, had begun to look up again ; the old landmarks were 
being removed by the march of progress. 

"Camp Adam" on Haymount, named for its first com- 
mander, where the beautiful May festivals used to be held, 
is now ceasing to be a memory. And the old shooting ground 
on Cross Creek where, after the target firing on the 23rd of 
August, the long tables groaned with the weight of the feast, 
and the shady grove resounded with eloquent periods, as the 
rippling waters made cool the summer air, and the "Forest- 
ers Spring" afforded purest beverage, either straight or 
mixed, according to the taste of the drinker. And historic 
"Cool Spring" higher up the creek where on wdiose banks 
for a century the company was accustomed to halt for re- 
freshments and fire its memorial volley over the grave of old 
Isaac Hammond, the colored fifer, whose last wish it was to 
be laid where he might hear the music of the fife and the 
drum ; are not all these things written in the rich chronicles of 
the old Independent Company ? 

Even now some of the quaint customs of the grandfathers 
are preserved. The young member of this company, be it 


officer or man, who takes unto himself a wife, must sure as 
fate meet the ordeal for every new-made benedict in the rank 
and file, a free ride around the company, thrice repeated, on 
the arms of his comrades at the next regular muster. 

But the new century, so full of peaceful promise, had not 
gone far before in the clear sky rang out the call to arms, and 
of course the reveille sounded at the armory, and the citizen 
soldiers without a moment's hesitation took up their duty 
and responded to the summons, and young husbands and 
fathers and younger boys, whose furthest thoughts on yes- 
terday had been of battles, were putting on their armor and 
off to the wars as their fathers had gone before them. 

It was an easy matter now to settle the question of uni- 
forms. This comp'any was mustcn-ed into service of the 
United States as company A, Second Regiment, N. C. Volun- 
teers for the Spanish war. 

Perhaps because of its being unattached to one of the regi- 
ments of the State Guard, or by some other strange mis- 
chance, its natural place at the head of the first regiment v/as 
filled by others, but it was supposed that ISTorth Carolina's 
two regiments, so promptly tendered and accepted would 
have been among the first at the front. 

The first regiment reached Havana, and the second, de- 
layed by the work of preparation on the part of the govern- 
ment, was held in Raleigh for some weeks and then distribu- 
ted along the coast awaiting transportation, when by reason of 
the total destruction of the Spanish ISTavy and the overpower- 
ing rush of the first American troops who reached the field, 
the war was brought to a sudden determination. And soon 
the men were at home again engaged in their ordinary avoca- 
tions. The organization is kept up ; the company is now a 
part of the State Guard of North Carolina and a beautiful 
arrangement has been made, well-pleasing to all concerned. 

There is a battalion, the Gray and the Blue. 


For all special occasions the company musters in the colors 
of the I^orth Carolina State Guard, whatever it may be, blue 
now, but soon to be turned into some invisible khaki color, 
possibly gray. 

But when the anniversary comes, or Washington's or Lee's 
birthday, or the first of May, then it is the Gray Company, 
the old Independent, its commander a major, and all its lieu- 
tenants captains. 

The armory has been disposed of to the United States, its 
site is to be occupied by a public building; a newer and a 
finer armory will soon be provided and the progressive city of 
Fayetteville will take as much pride in the future of this 
ancient and honorable corps as the fathers and mothers did in 
the old company, whose history, like a golden thread, runs 
through the annals of the municipality and of the State. 




(Rector of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C.) 


111 the year 1781, the American colonies were yet in the 
life and death struggle for political freedom from England 
and the southern portion of them was the scene of many im- 
portant actions. The incident herein treated is not given in 
the histories, but the fact and its importance to the Edentoni- 
ans are witnessed to in "The Life and Correspondence of ^ 

James Iredell," and in certain papers of Josiali Collins, Esq., 
heretofore unpublished. 

Writing in that vear to James Iredell, Samuel Johnston, A? 

" . . . S 

says: "All Europe have their eyes on America, and particu- ^', 

larly the Southern States. Much will depend on our exer- 
tions and success. The great and sudden fall of the old con- 
tinental money has occasioned very great convulsions and dis- 
satisfaction in this city and has reduced all paper currency 
to a very doubtful state, very many refusing to have any- 
thing to do with it." And again, "We shall suffer much in 
this campaign, it will be very bloody, but I hope it will be the 
last. * * * ^ly hopes and expectations of a favorable 
issue to our troubles are very sanguine." 

Such was the spirit of the leading men of Edenton in the 
face of the invasion of their region by Cornwallis, both by 
land and water. 

In those days and for long afterward the port of Edenton 
was much more important than we of today know it, since the 
development of Norfolk and the railroads has given trade 
greater facilities than through our shallow sounds. As the 
''Port of Roanoke" Edenton was entered by many vessels of 




the foreign trade, and this suggested to the British invader 
an avenue of distress to the Americans, which they entered. 

At the time above indicated and for the cause here speci- 
fied, many Edentonians sought safety in flight across the 
sound, particularly to Bei'tie County ; and AVindsor was 
crowded with fugitives, especially w^omen and children, who 
seem to have made the best of the situation. Familiar letters 
of those days anticipate for us the scenes of Refugee Life in 
our "Sixties." Good humour and old fashioned hospitality 
prevailed. NeV'S from the front was continually conveyed 
by the gentlemen in person, passing and repassing, and 
through the letters sent by "'expresses," or messengers, to 
their loved ones and their business correspondents. * 

Under date of 2Sth May, 1781, Charles Johnson writing 
from Edenton to James Iredell gives some particulars relative 
to one of the most formidable of the British predatory boats 
in Albemarle Sound, the Row Galley ''General Arnold." t 

-I *Tlie following subscription paper illustrates this aspect of the life 

;. of that day: 

. "We, the subscribers, being willing and desirous of establishing a 

4 Post between this Town [Edenton] and that of Suffolk, in Virginia, 

^'^ for the purpose of receiving the earliest News and Intelligence in the 

Present Critical times, do agree to pay the several sums affixed against 
our Respective Names, the same to be paid into the hands of Robt. 
Smith, Esq., for the purpose of Employing a Eider once a fortnight. 
i,i^ Given under our hands this 6th of May, 1775." 

Signed for five shillings each by J. Charlton, John Pearson, Charles 
Bondfield, Arch'd Corrie, George Gray, S. Dickinson, Thos. Benbury, 
Wm. Hoskins, Roger Pye, Wm. Boyd, Wm. Littlejohn, Geo. Russell, 
Arch'd Campbell, Jno. Green, Jno. Horniblow, Chas. .Johnson, Robt. 
Patterson (K. Williams?): 

and for ten shillings each bj' Jos. Blount, Thos. Jones, Rob. Smith, 
Michael Payne, Quintin Miller, Jos. Montford, Andw. Little, James 
Blount, Jas. Iredell, Sam'l Johnston. 

t In J. E,. B. Hathaway's Hisfl. and Gen'l. Register, Vol. 3, No. 2, 
page 299, it is made probable that the infamous Benedict Arnold visited 
Edenton in 1774. 


"We last night returned from a cruise, unfortunately not 
having taken the galley, our principal object; but as we were 
so ha2)py as to retake Mr. Smith's schooner, in which his 
whole property was embarked, it gives, as you may conceive, 
every person concerned in the expedition the most heartfelt 
satisfaction. Ten of her hands [the Galley's] were taken by 
about the same number of ours in j\Ir. Johnston's canoe, after 
a smart fire on both sides, in which, however, nobody was 
wounded. We pushed them so close that they were obliged 
to set fire to Mr. Little John's schooner and, under favor of the 
night, made their escape. We are now fully employed in fit- 
ting out three or four armed boats to go in pursuit, Nelson's 
brig proving improper for the service, as the Galley can 
always get in shoal water, where a large vessel can not follow 
her. If she does not immediately leave the sound, or is not 
reinforced, which the prisoners seem to expect, I have not the 
least doubt of our people taking her. The inhabitants, in 
general, and sailors have, and do, turn out unanimously. I 
never sav/, nor could hope to see, so much public spirit, per- 
sonal courage and intrepid resolution — it would please you to 
see it. I am convinced that was the measure adopted of fit- 
ting out one or two armed vessels, we might laugh at all at- 
tempts of the enemies' plundering banditti. 

"I feel for Mrs. Dawson's exposed and unprotected situa- 
tion. I'm apprehensive this is but a prelude to what we 
must expect upon return of the enemies' boats from the plun- 
der of James Kiver, but thanks to Providence for the forma- 
tion of our natural fortifications, which will hinder their 
small craft being supported by their large ships." 

Robert Smith, owner of schooner above happily retaken, a 
considerable merchant of Edenton, w^riting to Iredell from 
Eden House, in Bertie County, says : "I am just going over 
to town to know the worst. They have o-iven me a pretty 
little switching, but it might have been worse; they have 


ruined poor Littlejohn and would have left me nothing had 
thev not have taken fright. * * * j apprehend this visit 
is only a prelude to many such we are to expect." 

Another glimpse of the situation is seen from Mrs. Blair's 
letter to Iredell: "I think it Avill be very wrong for my 
sister to stay below any longer, for though these boats come 
up to cut out vessels, it is, T think, more than probable they 
will call at plantations, and those in particular where they 
see good houses, for there they will expect rich plunder. I 
believe they seldom want information where the most is to be 
had. I should think it would be better for Mrs. T3awson also 
to get out of the way, if it was only on account of the con- 
tinual dread and uneasiness she will continue to be under." 

Judge Iredell, writing to his wife, under date Edenton, 
30th May, 1781, adds something: ''The boats went yester- 
day, four of them, under the respective commands of Captain 
Gale, Captain Bateman, Captain Addison, and Captain 
Finch, all together having about fifty men, or perhaps more. 
They are Mr. Johnston's canoe, Mr. Pollok's, the Caswell's 
barge, and Bonitz's boat, and each, I believe, has a swivel, 
besides muskets. The men are well chosen, and went with 
excellent spirits, without any kind of riot or disorder. The 
Galley, when the last account came, was in the marshes. Two 
other boats were to go from Perquimans, and two, it was ex- 
pected, would be fitted out by the Bankers below.* * * * 
Mr. Smith has lost several of his papers, though not the most 
valuable, his table and other linen and clothes, and vei*y near 
seven hhds. of rum. 

Littlejohn has lost little, I am told, except his schooner. 
Two of his negroes are returned." 

While such was the agitation in and a1x)ut Edenton and 
Mrs. Johnston's friends were advising her to vacate "Hayes," 
the family seat, just out of town, to follow her friends to 
Bertie County for safety, her husband, Samuel Johnston, in 


attendance on the sessions of the Continental Congress at 
Philadelphia (whence we heard from him, in the opening of 
this paper) wrote his friend James Iredell: "I am sorry 
people were in such haste to remove themselves and property 
from Edenton. I rather conld have wished they had thought 
of defending it, which would have been attended wath less risk 
and expense, in my opinion, for till the concpiest of Virginia 
is effected, which I Hatter myself will not speedily take place, 
I scarcely think you will be molested wdth any considerable 
invasion, and if the plundering parties meet with opposition 
they will grow sick of the business. 

''However, every one will, and has a right to, judge for him- 
self on these occasions.'"^ * * Should a few fortunate 
events cast up in our favor, I hope there Avill be no more of it 
after this summer, — if otherwise, God knows where it will 
end, for America con never submit." 

The above quotations from letters and the documents to 
follow, (now printed for the first time) show us something of 
the people, — who they were and how they felt, and what they 
did ; that they were not disposed to be "like dumb driven cat- 
tle." There is an absence of heroics which saves the situation 
from being comical ; in view of the one row cjalley of the 
British, a shallow draught boat, which might have been 
floated in the barrels and hogsheads of rum listed as captured 
by her and as provided for sustaining the courage of the 
various crew^s of sloop, galley, and dispatch boat fitted out 
against her. We may suppose that the lack of information 
concerning her whereabouts and purposes tended to exaggerate 
the gravity of the situation. For, since the days of Taci- 
tus, "omne ignofum pro magnifico." 

At any rate the Edentonians were not going to take any 
chances on a duel-like encounter with the "General Arnold.'' 
They believed in "team play," and they did not scorn the sug- 
gestion of auxiliaries from Perquimans, nor even from the 


distant Bankers whose familiarity with the shoal waters of 
Currituck and Eoanoke should well qualify them to cope with 
a row galley which affected the marshes. 

Fifty-nine men, leading citizens, subscribed £74,500, or 
$186,250 in their accounts. Lest they should seem to us ex- 
travagant in their preparations to give the enemy's row galley 
a proper reception, let us recall the expense which our govern- 
ment has just now incurred for the war-vessel, North Caro- 
lina, $7,000,000, in much better money, too. 

The following are transcribed from papers in the hand- 
v/riting, mostly, of Josiah Collins. There are many interest- 
ing autograph signatures : 


Where as the Navigation of this state will be rendered dangerous 
unless a stop is put to the depredation of the Enemy by the capture 
of their Galley now in Albemarle Sound — 

For the encouragement of those who are willing to turn out for the 
purpose, we the subscribers in behalf of themselves and the State in 
general, which will doubtless reimburse them for all sums they may 
Advance for a measure of such publick utility, do promise and engage 
that should they be so fortunate as to make prize of the galley called 
the General Arnold or any other of the enemies' armed Vessels, the 
whole of such Vessel or Vessels shall be divided in Just propportions 
amongst them, and shou'd they retake any Vessels made prize of by the 
enemy they shall be entitled to the whole of such part as the Law 
allows in such cases, without any deduction whatever on account of the 
Boats or Vessels they gain, which Boats or Vessels shall not be entitled 
to draw any part of such prizes — 

It is further agreed that shou'd any person receive A Wound that 
may disable him shall be entitled to receive three shares over and 
above as aforesaid and shou'd any person be so unfortunate as to lose 
his life, his wife and family (if he have any) shall receive four shares, 
over and above, as aforesaid. 

The subscribers promise and agree to the sum of One Hund'd pounds 
per day for each man who shall engage in this enterprise untill such 
time as the Cruise is finished, besides being sufficiently provid'd for in 
provision. Rum, &c., &c. 



1. Thos. Benbury. 28. Geo. Gray. 

2. Janie3 Neilson. 29. John Blackburn as for as 

3. Robt. Hardy. £1,000. 

4. Nath'l. Allen. 30. Stephen Cabarrus. 

5. Chas. Johnson. 31. Wm. Bonitz. 

6 Mich 1. Payne. 32. William Gumming. 

7. Wm. Littlejohn. 33. Alex'r. Black. 

8. Joseph Smith. Xehemiah Bateman. 

9. S. Dickinson. 34. Jas. Whedbee as far as £1,000. 

10. Sam'l Cooley. 35. Gavin Hamilton. 

11. Josiah Collins. 36. Wm. Scott. 

12. Areh'd. Bell. 37. Jno. Horniblow. 

13. Jos. Blount. 38. J. Mare. 

14. Wm. Bennett. 39. John Etheridge. 

15. Nath'l Allen for Robt. Smith. 40. Pamburse. 

16. Wm. Boyd. " 41. Enoch Sawyer. 

17. Will'm Skinner. 42. David Meredith. 

18. T. Barker. 43. Thos. Ming, £1,000. 

19. Chas. Pettigrew. 44. John Bennett. 
Jas. Lutin. 45. James Webb, junr. 

20. Wm. Savage. 46. Ditto for Willis Langley. 

21. B'n. Bryor. 47. Joseph Underbill. 

22. Ed. Blount. 48. Samuel Black. 

23. Wm. McDonald. 49. Chris'r. Clark. 

24. Henry O'Neil. 50. Nich's. Long. 

25. Wm. Roberts. . 52. David Lawrence. 
W"m. Gardner. 53. Michael" Levy. 

26. Robt. Egan. 54. John Baptist Beasley. 
Thos. Bonner. 55. John Anderson. 

27. Fine & Scott. 


1. Thomas Barker, W. B £1,500 

2. Thomas Benbury, pd. J. C. & B 1,500 

3. James Nelson, pd. W. B 1,500 

4. NathT Allen, pd. J. C 1,500 

5. William Sawj^er, J. B 1,500 

6. Genl. Skinner, W. B 1,500 

7. Robert Smith, pd. J. C 1,500 

8. John Horniblow, pd. J. C 1,000 

9. Joseph Underbill, pd. J. C 1,000 

10. John Baptist Beasley, W. B 1,000 

11. Mich'l. Payne, W. B 1,000 

12. Charles Pettigrew, pd. J. C 1,000 

13. Gavin Hamilton, J. B 1,000 


14. William Bonitz, W. B 1,500 

15. Robert Hardy, J. S 1,500 

16. Joseph Smith, J. S 1,500 

17. Willis Langley, J. B 1,.500 

18. James Webb, W. B 1,000 

19. Samuel Dickinson, W. B 1,500 

20. Enoch Sawyer, J. C 1,000 

21. Jno. Blackburn, £1,000 pd. J. C 1,000 

22. Thos. Ming, £1,000 pd. J. C 1,000 

23. Roullack, W. B 1,000 

24. David Lawrence, pd. J. C 1,000 

25. Fine & Scott, W. B 3,000 

2G. Henry ONeil, W. B 1,000 

27. Robert Eagan, J. B 1,000 

28. Josiah Collins 1,500 

29. Geo. Gray, pd. J. C 1,000 

30. Will'm McDonald, J. S 1,000 

31. Benjn. Bryce, J. B 1,000 

32. Sani'l. Cooley, J. B 1,000 

33. Arch'd. Bell & Co., J. B 1,500 

34. Alex. Black, pd. J. C 1,-500 

35. Chas. Johnson, pd. J. C 1,500 

36. Sam'l. Johnston, pd. J. C... 1,500 

37. Joseph Whidbee, J. C. 1,000 

38. William Littlejohn, J. B 1,500 

39. Joseph Blount, J. B 1,500 

40. Thomas Bonner, J. B 1.000 

41. William Bennett, pd. W. B 1,500 

42. Christ'r. Clark, pd. J. C 1,500 

43. Nehemiah Long, pd. J. C 1,000 

44. William Scott, J. S 1,500 

45. William Armstrong. J. S 1,500 

46. John Mare, J. B 1,000 

47. John Etheridge, J. S 1,000 

48. Dominique Pamburse, J. B 1,000 

49. Samuel Black, J. S 1,000 

50. John Stewart, J. S 1.000 

51. Edmund Blount, J. S 1,500 

52. Rich'd. Blow, by Wm. Bennett, Esq'r 1,500 

53. David Meredith, W. B 1,000 

54. Stephen Cabarruce, J. S 1,000 

55. Levy, J. S 1,000 

56. Nehemiah Bateman, J. S 1.000 

57. Geo. Wynns, pd. J. C 1,500 

58. William Boyd, pr. W. B 1,500 

59. William Roberts, J. B 1,000 


A List of Seamen and Marines on board of the Galley Tartar, viz: 

William Proby, Cap 1 *MichaeI Young 15 

tValentine Nohell, 1st Lu 2 *Jolin Gucy 16 

tJacob Butler, 2nd ditto 3 *George Jackson 17 

tJames Luten, Cap. of Mareins.. 4 *Frederick Morris 18 

*Malvin Moore, Cap. of the Tho. Mann, pilate 19 

Ward Boat 5 *Jeremiah Johnson 20 

*Cap. Cannon Master 6 *Emamiel Spaniard 21 

*William Heaker 7 *Marino Spaniard 22 

*Henry Flury 8 *John Moore 23 

*Thos. Gates, Steward 9 *John Fife 24 

*Thos. Gaskins 10 *Henderson Lviten, Sr 26 

*David McKinsey 11 *Henry Roads 27 

*Abraham Clark 12 *Daniel Leonard 28 

*Moses Gregory 14 Samuel Twine 29 

6 Days Wages on board of the Galley Tartar 29 

• : 6 

Dollars 174 

To Sundry Expenses 7 

Dollars 181 

To Sundries pr. acct 12% 


Amt. brot. over 193% 

Capt. Proby for his trouble over and above his daily paj' 6 

£52.14 199% 

3. 2 


Received Edenton, August 12, 1782, of Josiah Collins One Hundred 
Ninety-Nine and five-eighths Spanish Milled Dollars, being in full for 
the within account. W. Proby." 

The Subscribers to the Expedition against the Row Galley, General 
Arnold, to Joseph Smith, William Bennett, Joseph Blount, and Josiah 
Collins, Commissioners appointed by the said subscribers. 
1781. Dr. 

June 7. To 40% galls. Rum @ £240 £9,640 

1 Barrel Pork 2,000 

264 lbs. Bread 80d 1,056 

t These lines have pen line drawn through names, but numbers remain. 



Bags for ditto 480 

40 lbs. Sugar, £24 960 

20 lbs. Coffee, £30 600 

8 lbs. Pork for hands to go over the Sound 

to fetch Mr. Pollock's Canoe 80 

8 lbs. Bread for do. do 32 

Negro hire for do. do 60 

12 lbs. Muskett Balls 360 


9 days hire of 40 men, £40 36,000 

Cash paid the Captains for Sundry ex- 
penses while on the Cruises 2,162 

5 lbs. Nails 180 

14 Swivell Balls 140 

Amt. Messrs. Sam'l Cooley & Co., acct 485 

2 Sadies and 2 Worms. 8d 640 

2 gin cases. 

Error in Cash paid Capt. N. Bateman 362 

Cash paid Negro hire going over the Sound 

with M. Pollock's Canoe 100 

Mr. Geo. Gray for Liquor for Sailors 200 

Thos. Ming, amt. of his acct 1,920 

6 pr. Handcuffs, £320 1,920 

The Sloop commanded by Capt. Cross. 

The Galley commanded by Capt. Simons. 

The Dispatch Boat, Capt. Yeomans. 

1782. To JosiAH Collins, Dr. 
July 30th— 

To 10 gallons rum, 14d £7. 

To 100 lbs. salted Pork, 8d 3. 6. 8. 

To 104 lbs. Ship Bread, 5d 2. 3. 4. 

To 10 lbs. Beacon, 8d — 6. 8. 

To 2 Tinn Potts, 12d 1. 4. — 

To IVa lbs. Tallow — 1. 6. 

To IVs lbs. Nails, % 5. — 

To Cash paid 28 Hands for 2 days Hire each at 8d 22. 8. — 

To do. pd. Capt. Yeomans for boat hire 1. 4. — 

£37.19. 2. 

The effect of all this upon the hostile "row galley" does not 
appear, so far as this writer has been able to discover. 

Lord Cornwallis's surrender to General Washington at 
Yorktown on the 19th of October, 1781, practically ended the 


war. The date of the last account above given, 1782, Julj 
30, may suggest a continuance of the expedition much longer 
than the original subscribers bargained for. The treaty of 
peace was finally signed at Paris, September 3, 1783. While 
we are guessing, possibly there was a parallel here with the 
Americans' victory in the battle of ISTew Orleans, in the later 
war of 1812, won after the treaty of peace had been signed, of 
which they knew not. At the least, let us be sure that the 
event of this expedition justified the means adopted by the 
people of Edenton and their neighbors to rid their sound and 
America of such a pest as the Row Galley General Arnold, 



To write of the Quakers of Perquimans County involves 
almost the complete history of the Friends' Church in North 
Carolina for the first seventy-five years of its existence. It 
also involves the beginning of all jSTorth Carolina church his- 
tory ; for, so far as known, the first religious gathering in the 
State was a Quaker meeting. Says the Rt. Rev. Joseph 
Blount Cheshire in the jSForth Carolina Booklet of April, 
1906, page 261: ''Quakerism was the only organized form 
of religion in the colony, with no rival worship among the 
people for the rest of the seventeenth century (1672). * * * 
It drew to itself a number of the intelligent and well-disposed 
inhabitants, especially of Perquimans and Pasquotank. * * 
These zealous and self-sacrificing men deserve to be held in 
honorable memory, who at the expense of so much time, labor, 
and bodily suffering, cultivated the spiritual harvest in that 
distant and unattractive field. Quakerism did not begin the 
work of settlement, and of reclaiming the wilderness for civi- 
lization, but it has the greater honor of having brought some 
organized form of Christianity to the infant colony, and of 
having cared for those wandering sheep whom others neg- 

The first Quaker in Xorth Carolina was one Henry Phil- 
lips, who had been a member of that church in x^ew England 
previous to his coming to Carolina in 1665; though William 
Edmundson, an Irish Quaker preacher, was the real instiga- 
tor of Quakerism among the settlers. This "traveling 
Friend" after much hardship reached a place probably not far 
distant from where the town of Hertford now stands, and in 
a three days stay held two religious services. One of these 
two was at the home of Henry Phillips, who, with his family, 


had wept for joj at the coming of Edniundson, not having 
seen a Quaker for seven years. The second of these services 
was at the home and bj the invitation of one Francis Toms, a 
justice of the peace, who with his wife had at the first meet- 
ing "received the truth with gladness." Edmundson was 
followed in a few months by George Fox himself, the founder 
of the church. Fox's carefully kept diary gives much in- 
sight into the methods and route of travel as well as the con- 
ditions, social and religious, in the infant settlement. Xo 
doubt his coming had much to do in fostering and establish- 
ing the church, especially by instigating his letters of advice 
written after his return to England. 

Four years later Edmundson returns to Carolina and says, 
'"Friends were finely settled and I left things well among 
them." All of this occurred in what is now Perquimans 
County; and from that day to this (1672-1908), a term of 
two hundred and thirty-six years, Friends have been promi- 
nent citizens of that county. 

Friends (this term is far preferable to Quaker, though the 
latter has no longer the opprobrium of its origin) until very 
recent years included in their church organization four dis- 
tinct assemblies, viz : the Preparative, the Monthly, the 
Quarterly, and the Yearly Meeting. The first has now been 
done away with and all yearly meetings which have adopted 
what is known as the Uniform Discipline are no longer a 
court of final appeal or distinct within theinselves as in early 
days, but are subject to the action of the Five- Years Meet- 
ing, or rather the consensus of opinion of all the Friends on 
the American continent. 

Of the transactions of their various meetings for business 
the Friends have been unusually careful to preserve a record, 
and these manuscripts are now invaluable to the student, giv- 
ing not only an insight into the social condition of the time, 
but also the methods of church discipline and authority and 


the doings of its members. The faithful records of the mar- 
riage certificates with the signatures of the witnesses, the 
chronicling of births and deaths, all give the genealogist a 
mine yielding rich returns. 

The oldest record preserved by the Quakers of ISTorth Caro- 
line is a marriage certificate of Christopher Nicholson and 
Ann Attwood, both of Perquimans, and dating 1682, which 
it will be noted, is just ten years after the visits of Edmund- 
son and Fox. The regular minutes of the business meetings 
do not begin till later, and these are rather fragmentary as 
they were not properly collected till 1728. 

The first organization of Friends in Perquimans County 
was known as Perquimans Monthly Meeting. After 1764 it 
was called Wells.' This meeting finally set off Sutton's 
Creek Monthly Meeting and transferred itself to Piney 
Woods Monthly Meeting in 1794. Piney Woods Monthly 
Meeting is the only monthly meeting in that county at the 
present time, and is, as shown, the direct outgrowth of the 
first organization of Quakers in the State. The Wells' 
meeting house stood not far from the present town of Win- 
fall, just across the road from the Jessup homestead. A 
rather interesting episode occurs in the annals of this meeting. 
It seems that one Jonathan Pearson had for some reason 
filled up the spring to which Friends of this meeting had had 
access. He was "churched" in regard to the same and so the 
spring was opened again. 

Almost coequal with the growth and development of Qua- 
kerism in Perquimans County was that in Pasquotank 
County, and the two monthly meetings joined in constituting 
a superior, or quarterly meeting known as Eastern Quarter. 
This was done in 1681, and in 1698 the yearly meeting was 
established, embracing only the one quarter and the two 
monthly meetings. For nearly three-quarters of a century 
(till 1757) this was the condition of the church. 


Perquimans County continued to be the radiating center 
for Quakerism for the first century of the State's history; 
that is, until the great migratory wave of Quakers from Nan- 
tucket, JSTew England, Pennsylvania, and other points north 
had swept into our borders and organized themselves and as- 
serted their powers. Then the Quakers of Perquimans 
shared their power and a new quarterly meeting was estab- 
lished in the section near where Guilford College now stands, 
which by way of distinction was called Western Quarter. 
The migratory spirit was in the air and the old Teutonic 
blood which had made our sturdy forefathers first cross the 
Virginia border now impelled many of them to move from 
the lowlands to the Piedmont section of the State. But for 
eighty-eight years (till 1786) the yearly meeting of iSForth 
Carolina (that is the highest authority in the church) was 
held either at Perquimans or Old I^eck or Little Piver — all 
in Perquimans County. Then there was a series of years 
(1787-1812) in which the yearly meeting alternated between 
Perquimans and Guilford Counties, with four exceptions 
when Pasquotank claimed the honor. So that it is only in 
recent years, 1812-date, that Perquimans County has not been 
a rallying point for the Quakerism of the whole State. 

As to what part of the population the Quakers were, there 
is no means of determining; but this fact is assured, that 
prior to 1700 the Quakers had things much their own way in 
church and state and that this "golden age" of ^North Carolina 
Quakerism culminated in the appointment of a Quaker gov- 
ernor, John Archdale, who, though giving his time and energy 
to South Carolina, left an impress and gained much prestige 
and recognition for his co-religionists in North Carolina. 

Early in the eighteenth century the Quakers began to need 
all the metal which was in them in order to breast the tide of 
opposition and to remain true to what they believed right. 
Governor Walker aroused the Church of England in such 


words as these addressed to the Bishop of London: "My 
Lord, we have been settled near this fifty years in this place, 
and I may justly say most part of twenty-one years, on my 
own knowledge, without priest or altar, and before that time, 
according to all that appears to me, much worse, George Fox 
some years ago came into these parts and by strange infatua- 
tions, did infuse the Quakers' principles into some small 
number of the people; which did and hath continued to grow 
ever since very numerous, by reason of their yearly sending 
in men to encourage and exhort them to their wicked princi- 
ples ; and here was none to dispute nor to oppose them in car- 
rying on their pernicious principles for many years, until 
God, of his infinite goodness was pleased to inspire the Rev. 
Dr. Bray * * * to send in some lx)oks * * * of the expla- 
nation of the church catechism, etc." * * * 

"My Lord, I humbly beg leave to inform you, that we have 
an assembly to sit the 3rd of November next, and there is 
above half of the burgesses that are chosen are Quakers, and 
have declared their designs of making void the act for estab- 
lishing the church ; if your lordship, out of his good and pious 
care for us, doth not put a stop to this growth, we shall the 
most part, especially the children born here, become 

This quotation, lengthy as it is, is yet of great intrinsic 
value. It shows a great antagonism on the part of the writer 
for the Quakers, and incidentally their origin, growth and 
present power. That one-hal£ the burgesses were of the 
Quaker faith is about the nearest approximation we can se- 
cure as to relative numbers in their community, and this was 
in their years of waning power too. 

But more than all, it shows us the beginnings of a long 
struggle between church and state, and the beginning of a 
protest on the part of the Quakers which has eventually result- 
ed in the existence of many of the civil and religious privi- 


leges of today ; notable among them is the privilege of affir- 
mation by any individual and in any court of justice, rather 
than the taking of the legal oath. 

That a vigorous effort was made and much legislation se- 
cured toward making the Church of England the church of 
the Carolinas is easily shown by a study of the legal enact- 
ments of the time. That the Quakers were for a long time 
the only organized body of Dissenters must necessitate credit- 
ing them with trying to stem in its beginning the current 
which was about to sweep from us religious tolerance and in- 
dividual liberty. To be sure in later years (from 1750- ) 
the Presbyterians were much more potent in this struggle, 
but the Quakers held the fort until that time. As to taking 
the oath (and the laws of our State have on the face of them 
seemed lenient toward Quakers), it will hardly be claiming 
too much to say that the universal privilege of affirmation in 
any court of justice in our State is an outgrowth of Quaker 
influence. It must not be overlooked, however, that it was 
just this matter of taking an oath which first put the Quakers 
out of politics and which eventually made it a disownable 
offense for any members of the Friends' Church to hold of- 
fice under the government. It is only in recent years, very 
recent years, that Friends have awakened to the fact that 
they may without being untrue to the tenets of their faith 
hold office. We are glad to realize that they are again making 
themselves a part of civic life and doing their part politi- 
cany, as well as socially, in the great civic awakening which is 
spreading over our country. 

Another point in which the Quakers figure largely in the 
early law annals of our State and in which the Quakers of Per- 
quimans must have been prime movers, as it occurred in the 
years when they were the leaders of Quakerism in the State, is 
in regard to taking up arms. They paid gladly their militia 
fines which were thrice the usual tax on property ; and while 


these taxes were heavy at times, and long imposed, i. e., till 
1783, the Quakers then were even more so than now, it seems, 
extremely careful to meet all financial obligations, so that 
there was credence in the old adage, ''A Quaker's word is as 
good as his bond." While today the man who would vouch 
for the genuineness of an article of production must call it 
"Quaker Oats," "Quaker Gelatine," etc. 

That the Quakers were a large majority of the inhabitants 
of Perquimans in 1723 can be almost assured from the fol- 
lowing data. At that time the law of 1715 was in force 
which provided "that no Quaker or reputed Quaker shall by 
virtue of this act (that is of affirming instead of taking the 
oath) be qualified or permitted to give evidence in any crimi- 
nal causes or to serve on any jury, or bear any office or place 
of profit or trust in the government." Now we have a list of 
jurymen in the various precincts for the year 1723, and while 
Pasquotank and Chowan have 156 and 142, respectively, 
Perquimans has only 54, and Perquimans was just as old a 
province as either of the other two. Furthermore, in this 
list the surnames so familiar in Quaker records are conspic- 
uously absent. Despite all this, in the formative days of the 
civil and ecclesiastical history 'of the Old ISTorth State, the 
Quaker was a very influential individual ; and shall we not 
claim that this wide influence of what Weeks calls the "flower 
of Puritanism," was the great influence which preserved our 
State from any dark pages of history, pages which mar the 
annals of Virginia and Massachusetts, and place us along 
with Pennsylvania in matters of justice to the Indian and 
opposition to Vv'ar ? 

So much for the Quakers of Perquimans and their relation 
to the State. It now remains to be told of their workings 
among themselves. Their records show many points of in- 
terest and much which seems to us like an infringement of 
personal liberty and that the church was overstepping its 


With the special privilege granted the Quaker in regard to 
the marriage rite, it is matter of much pride to the church 
that it exercised so much care in this regard. Upon every 
occasion careful inquiry is made in regard to the life and 
conversation of the parties wishing to marry, and especially 
in regard to their freedom from marriage relations ; and then 
the church has its representatives present at the wedding and 
they must be responsible and rejiort on the good order main- 
tained at the ceremony and produce to the meeting the mar- 
riage certificate ahvays very carefully and explicitly written, 
with the names of many witnesses to the ceremony affixed 
thereto. The whole thing with the signatures is properly re- 
corded in the church books provided for that purpose. 

It might be said on passing that these records which the 
Friends have always been so careful to keep are one of the 
fruitful sources for genealogical study before mentioned. 

"Marrying out," that is, marrying some one not in mem- 
bership with the Friends, was a disownable offense ; and it 
was thus that the Quakers lost many members. The cburch 
would not grant its permission to a marriage request some- 
times, and such a thing as a man's not having paid his debts 
would hinder no less than grosser evils if such were detected. 

Indeed, it has always been a care of the Quakers to keep 
their outward aft'airs in proper condition, and in the early 
days of the Perquimans records, where boundary lines were 
not marked with sufficient definiteness, one of the principal 
matters of church record is the settlement hy the church of 
such differences as may arise in regard to land tenure. The 
manner in which these differences were settled is something 
like this : the two contesting parties would each name an 
equal number of individuals to act as arbitrators, and the 
church would appoint one; and generally such a committee 
reached a satisfactory conclusion. Should either party ap- 
peal to the courts for justice, he was immediately "churched," 


and if no acknowledgement was made, he was disowned. 
"Brotiier goeth to war with brother and that before the un- 
believer/' had a very vivid meaning to the Quaker fathers. 

The Perquimans records show time and again that its mem- 
bers were under surveillance if they were not prompt and 
exact in the payment of their debts. In 1769 a party is dis- 
owned for bankruptcy. This is the actmil wording of the in- 
quiry which was made at least once a year, and generally 
oftener, for nearly two hundred years in the Quaker church : 
"Do you maintain strict integrity in all transactions in trade 
and in your outward concerns ; and are you careful not to de- 
fraud the public revenue ?" or something in substance the 

Other matters which concerned the Quakers of Perqui- 
mans in the pioneer days seem trivial only as they give an in- 
sight into the social customs of the time and also what the 
Quakers regarded as right. Por example, one Friend asked 
the church for the privilege of wearing a wig, and the request 
was not granted; but some years later another request came up 
and the ])rivi]ege iras granted, with the advice ''to wear a 
plain one." 

So soon as a member was known to be "drinking to excess" 
or "using bad language," he was at once "churched ;" and 
twice the records of Perquimans show where individuals were 
up before the church for "striking or whipping their wives," 
and once a Friend is reputed to be keeping a tavern. The 
committee of investigation is appointed and the tavern keeper, 
by forsaking his chosen business, is restored into good fellow- 

But these are of the early days. At the present time there 
are two hundred and ninety-six Friends in Perquimans and 
Chowan Counties (the latter has only about thirty-five). 
These all belong to Piney Woods Monthly Meeting, which is 
composed of Piney Woods and Up Piver meetings for wor- 


Quakerism in Perquimans has long- been on the wane. 
The peremptory way in which Friends have disowned its 
members make us ahnost w^onder that any at all are left. 
But it was not disownment any more than migration which 
brought about the present condition. The Teutonic spirit 
which made the people first migrate into the State was the 
same which, working in their descendants, caused them to 
move further South or over West, seeking new lands and new 
environment. For there was a decided exodus from Per- 
quimans to points South and also to points in central Caro- 
lina. As the Quakers were very careful to take their church 
credentials with them, it is easy to follow them from place to 
place as they moved. 

The Quaker protest against slavery and war, when he 
found he could not remove the one from our midst much as he 
succeeded in getting it out of his church, and when he would 
not take part in the other — the Quaker's protest, I say, was a 
very quiet one, that of leaving the State ; and the Quakers of 
Perquimans were among those who so largely settled the free 
States of Ohio and Indiana. It was this migration which 
left the Quakers on their original site not a weak body, but 
shorn of much of its strength. 

What the Quakers have been to the county and the com- 
munity is best shown by stating a few facts. For seventy- 
two years the Quakers of Perquimans have maintained an 
academy at Belvidere which has always stood for high grade 
work and has been, and still is, recognized as one of the most 
worthy institutions for secondary education in the State. 
This institution now enrolls about one hundred and thirty 
pupils per year who are here prepared for any of the leading 
colleges of our State. 

The Total Abstinence Society of Perquimans and Chowan 
Counties, which claims to be the second oldest temperance 
organization in the State, dating back to the early part of the 


nineteenth century, while by no means an exclusively Quaker 
organization, had as its founders men of Quaker faith and 
such have always been its ardent supporters, working shoulder 
to shoulder with the Baptists. This fact is worthy of men- 
tion at this time ; for in the recent election in Edenton the 
temperance forces at work there felt and acknowledged the 
fruits of the work of this pioneer organization. 

Shakespeare says, ^'What's in a name ? That which we call 
a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet ;" and on the 
naming of their places of worship, the Friends had no ear 
for the artistic or euphonious, but were purely local. This 
strict adherence to facts is full of hints to the research stu- 
dent, and the hallowed associations are just as sweet as if we 
had not such names to bring them up as those named below. 
All of the Friends' meetings, that is, all of the places in 
which church services have been held in Perquimans County, 
aside from the private houses first used, are as follows : Per- 
quimans, Wells', Suttons' Creek, Old Neck, Little Eiver, 
Boice's, Beech Spring, Piney Woods and Up River. 

As to the people, the surnames which appear in the Quaker 
records of these meetings are names still to be found in Per- 
quimans and adjoining counties or are among those trans- 
planted to central Carolina and the middle West, l^otable 
among them are Nicholson, Albertson, White, Winslow, New- 
by, Toms, Bagley, Elliott, Blanchard, Nixon, Cannon and 
others equally as important, but the list is already too long. 
I mention the last for it is not a matter of conjecture, but a 
matter of history that the present Speaker of the House, 
Joseph G. Cannon, is not only of Quaker extraction through 
his mother, but also on his father's side ; and that were the 
Cannons of Guilford County traced back a few generations, 
Perquimans might come in for a share of the honor, if such 
there be, attaching to our countryman. 


While Quakerism in Perquimans has much to be proud of 
in its past history and can pride itself in the worthy citizens 
which it has produced, we believe none in the past can sur- 
pass some of the standard-bearers of the present day, and 
though the outlook in that county might be more hopeful, the 
outlook for Quakerism in the State was never more encourag- 
ing; and we know that much of the brain and sinew of the 
Perquimans Quakers are only transferred and are now work- 
ing in other and more aggressive portions of our State, look- 
ing steadily to the future, but .never unmindful of the past. 

CAROLINA 1819=1822.* 


Ladies and Gentlemen: 

In these days of The Hague Tribunal, Carnegie peace en- 
dowments, and general efforts to substitute arbitration for 
force of arms in settling the disputes of nations, we of the 
present time are inclined to claim for our own generation 
credit for a movement which has gone on, in one form or 
another, through ages past. Thoughtful men in all times 
have labored to avert wars or lessen their horrors, and yet 
some of the bloodiest and most desolating conflicts recorded 
in history have been carried on in the name of religion. IvTot 
only in the Crusades, where Christian fought infidel, has such 
warfare raged ; but even more bloody and bitter still have 
been the turmoils when princes of the earth really thought 
they did God an acceptable service by slaying and burning 
those who differed from them only in a doctrinal way, while 
fellow-worshippers of Jesus Christ. The altar of military 
glory and popular applause has had devotees from time im- 
memorial, and will so continue to have until the changing 
natures of men shall bring forth that brighter day when the 
nations shall learn war no more. 

David Low Dodge, of IS^ew York, is generally regarded 
as the father of the organized peace movement in America. 
He published, in 1(S09, a tract called The Mediator s King- 
dom not of this World. In 1812 he first proposed the forma- 
tion of a peace society, and the ISTew York Peace Society was 
organized at his home in August, 1815. Similar organiza- 

*An address delivered before a Conference on Arbitration and Arma- 
ment in the hall of the House of Representatives at Raleigh, N. C. 
March 23, 1908. 


tions soon sprang up in other States, including North Caro- 
lint, where the Raleigh Peace Society was formed in 1819. 

It was on April 21, 1819, that the Raleigh Peace Society 
proceeded to organize. We are fortunate in hnding in The 
Star and North Carolina State Gazette, a Raleigh paper of 
April 30th following, an account of the first meeting, when 
"a number of respectable gentlemen of the town and its 
vicinity" met and elected oificers, also adopting a constitu- 
tion, which is given in the same newspaper. The meeting 
was presided over by William Shaw, as Chairman pro tem- 
pore; and Jeremiah Battle, M.D., acted as Secretary. The 
officers elected were William Peck, President; Richard Fen- 
ner, M.D., Vice-President; Kimbrough Jones, Recording 
Secretary; Jeremiah Battle, M.D., Corresponding Secretary; 
and Sterling Wheaton, M.D,, Treasurer. The preamble and 
constitution of the Society were as follows : 

^'We, the subscribers, impressed with the belief that the 
Gospel is designed to produce peace on earth ; and that it is 
the duty of all good men to cultivate, and, as far as they have 
power, to diffuse a spirit of kindness, do agree to form our- 
selves into a society for the purpose of disseminating the 
general principles of peace, and to use all proper means, 
within the sphere of our influence, to promote universal har- 
mony and good will among men. 

"Article 1st. This Society shall be called the Raleigh 
Peace Society. 

"Article 2d. The officers of this Society shall be a Presi- 
dent, Vice-President, Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 
and Treasurer. 

"Article 3d. Any person subscribing this constitution 
and paying one dollar annually shall be a member of this 
Society; or, by the payment of ten dollars, on subscribing, 
shall be considered a member for life. 


"Article 4tli. It shall be the duty of the President, or, in 
his absence, the Vice-President, to preside at all meetings, 
and to call a meeting at the request of any three members. 
The Secretary shall record the proceedings; and the Corre- 
sponding Secretary shall conduct the correspondence under 
the direction of the President and Society. The Treasurer 
shall collect subscriptions, receive donations, and hold all 
moneys subject to the disposal of the Society. 

"Article 5th. The annual meeting of the Society, which 
shall be the stated meeting for choosing officers and transact- 
ing business, shall be holden on the first Monday after the 
fourth of July. 

"Article 6th. This constitution shall not be altered ex- 
cept at an annual meeting, and by a vote of two-thirds of the 
members present." 

The above-quoted newspaper, in its issue of May 21, 1819, 
gave a copy of a letter addressed to a peace society in England 
by the Czar of Russia, who was then, as his successor is now, 
crying "peace, peace," when there was no peace — especially 
in his own dominions. 

Another old paper. The Raleigh Register, throws consider- 
able light on the peace movement at that time in North Caro- 
lina. It happened that the Society's first anniversary fell 
on Monday, July 5, 1819 ; and, as the day preceding was the 
nation's birthday and fell on Sunday, the usual Fourth of 
July festivities had to be postponed till the 5th day of July, 
both occasions falling on the same day. In a religious way 
the Raleigh Peace Society observed Sunday, July 4th, and 
held its business meeting on Monday. The Raleigh Register, 
of July 2, 1819, contained this notice: "To afford an oppor- 
tunity to the citizens to hear both sermons on Sunday, the 
Rev. Dr. McPheeters will preach the Independence Anni- 
versary Sermon at the Presbyterian Church at 10 o'clock, 
and the Rev. Mr. Charlton will preach the Anniversary Ser- 


mon of the Peace Society at the Methodist Church at 12 
o'clock. The Peace Society will meet at the State House on 
Monday at 5 o'clock p. m. for the election of officers for the 
ensuing year, and for the transaction of other business." 

The above services by the Peverend William McPheeters 
and the Reverend G. W. Charlton were held at the appointed 
time, Mr. Charlton's sermon being from the text, "Blessed 
are the peacemakers." On the next day the Peace Society 
held its regular meeting and elected the following officers : 
William Peck, President; William Shaw, Vice-President; 
Daniel DuPre, Recording Secretary ; Jeremiah Battle, M.D., 
Corresponding Secretary; and Sterling Wheaton, M.D., 
Treasurer, In the proceedings published in The Raleigh 
Register, of July lOth, we learn that a memorial was drawn 
up to be forwarded to the President and Congress, asking 
that international treaties should be made to prohibit priva- 
teers from operating in naval warfare, and citing a treaty of 
this nature made through Benjamin Franklin with Prussia. 
On this point, at least — the desire to abolish privateering — 
the wishes of the Society were gratified eventually, but not 
until many of its members had passed to the realm above, 
where the Prince of Peace reigns supreme. Says the above 
account: "It was gratifying to see at this anniversary all par- 
ties, professions, and conditions of men unite for the holy 
purpose of diffusing and cherishing the pure Gospel prin- 
ciples of j)eace and general benevolence. Men who fill high 
stations in the civil and military departments of our govern- 
ment, ministers of three different denominations of Chris- 
tians, and those who were opposed in politics at a time when 
parties existed amongst us, all cordially joined hands in +his 
work, and enrolled their names as members of the Society." 

Some Korth Carolinians, it would seem, had fears that 
their right to answer a call to arms in time of war, even to 
repel invasion, would be curtailed by the Peace Society ; and. 


to quiet tliese misgivings, the armouncement was made: "It 
may be proper to notice an error which some few uninformed 
persons have fallen into respecting this Society, They have 
suj)posed its principles were those of passive submission and 
non-resistance. Far from it. No man, by becoming a mem- 
ber of this Society, surrenders his independence of thinking 
and acting, and many of them distinctly avow their determi- 
nation to take up arms to defend their country whenever the 
occasion requires. But they all unite in the endeavor to do 
away with the necessity of wars, and hope to do so by means 
first suggested and attempted by the great and good Henry 
the Fourth, of France, in an age not sufficiently enlightened 
and humanized for plans of such extended beneficence." 
From the extract, just quoted, it will be seen that the tenets 
of the Raleigh Peace Society were identical with those now 
advocated by those who favor arbitration and armament — 
peace if possible, but war if necessity should require it. 

The Raleigh Peace Society recommended as reading mat- 
ter, for the instruction of the public, a series of pamphlets 
entitled The Friend of Peace. 

In the year 1820, the annual meeting of the Raleigh Peace 
Society was announced for July 10th by The Raleigh Regis- 
ter of July 7th. It was also stated that the Reverend Wil- 
liam Hooper, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, would preach the annual sermon in the Methodist 
Church on Sunday, July 9th. This meeting, together with 
the religious services, no doubt took place, though the later 
newspapers fail to enlighten us as to this. 

In 1821, it was expected that the anniversary sermon be- 
fore the Society would be delivered by the Reverend Mr. 
Crocker in the Baptist Church on Sunday, July 8th, but the 
Reverend Dr. McPheeters preached on that day, as, for some 
reason, Mr. Crocker did not deliver his promised discourse. 
Mr. DuPre, the Recording Secretary, published a report of 


some length in The Raleigh Register of July 20th, and this 
expresses regret over the small gains in membership during 
the preceding year. Yet at that time there were thirty-eight 
members of the Raleigh Peace Society, and about thirty-five 
similar organizations throughout the United States, contain- 
ing an aggregate membership of over sixteen hundred. The 
Society in Raleigh kept up a fraternal correspondence with 
peace societies in several distant States, the newspapers men- 
tioning among these one in ISTew Lebanon, Ohio, another in 
Richmond, Indiana, and also one in Great Britain. At or 
near Cincinnati, Ohio, was a peace society made up exclu- 
sively of women. 

Though the Raleigh Peace Society in 1821 had a balance 
of only ten dollars in its treasury, it had — since its formation 
in 1819 — purchased six hundred and sixty-six pamphlets, 
periodicals, etc., advocating the cause of peace, and had two 
hundred and fifty-two undistributed copies on hand. 

So far as I can learn, the last public announcement by the 
Raleigh Peace Society was under date of July 3, 1822, when 
the statement was made that the annivarsary sermon would 
be preached in the Methodist Church on Sunday, July 14th, 
by the Reverend George M. Anderson, and that a business 
meeting would occur on July 15th. This meeting was prob- 
ably the Society's expiring effort, for the faith of its mem- 
bers was tried by failure. Yet faith they had, and strong 
faith too, in the ultimate success of the cause they advocated. 
One of their last public declarations — made while the Society 
was declining in power — said : "The cause we advocate is the 
happiness of our species. We know of whom it is said, 'he 
maketh wars to cease unto the ends of the earth.' We know 
also who hath said, 'the nations shall learn war no more' — 
and we know him who hath called the peace-makers 'blessed'. 
With a knowledge so rich, so animating, how can we despair 
of ultimate success ? Though our march may be slow, it will 


be sure; and must end in universal peace on earth and good 
will among men." 

Before closing the above account of the old Raleigh Peace 
Society, a word or two concerning its officers may not be alto- 
gether devoid of interest ; and so we shall give, in a very 
brief way, some account of each one. 

William Shaw, who presided over the first meeting and 
was later Vice-President of the organization, was a Scotch- 
man, born in Ayrshire about the year 1763, and died in Ra- 
leigh on December 27, 1827. He came to America early in 
life and lived for more than thirty years in Raleigh, of which 
town he was postmaster for a considerable length of time. 
He was a merchant ; and, besides his possessions in Raleigh, 
he owned lands in Scotland, and at Cape May, IsTew Jersey, 
bequeathing the former to his nephew. He was married, but 
left no children, yet had relatives in ISTorth Carolina. He 
was a zealous Christian, and an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church. In his will he bequeathed $150 to the Bible So- 
ciety of ISTorth Carolina, $150 to the Foreign Missionary 
Society, $150 to the Presbyterian Missionary Society, and 
$50 to the Raleigh Female Tract Society. 

William Peck, who was President of the Peace Society 
upon its organization, was born in l^orfolk, Virginia, April 
1, 1772 ; was carried to Petersburg, in the same State, when 
a child, and came to Raleigh in February, 1798. He spent 
the remainder of his life in Raleigh, and died there on June 
21, 1851. In his religious affiliations he was a Baptist. In 
recording his death, Seaton Gales, editor of The Raleigh Reg- 
ister, wrote as follows : 'Tor more than fifty years he has 
been actively engaged in business ; and, in the midst of its 
fluctuations, he pursued the even tenor of his way, neither 
elated by prosperity nor depressed by adversity. He learned 
in early life to rely on himself for success rather than on the 
favors of friendship, and thereby acquired an independence 


of character which elevated him above the reverses of fortune 
and secured the confidence of his fellow-citizens in all his 
business transactions. He was not only an honest man, but 
a good man and a Christian. He delighted in doing good to 
the bodies and souls of men." Mr. Peck had two sons, Wil- 
lis and Lewis W. Peck. The latter lived until recent years, 
doing business in the same little shop formerly occupied by 
his father, just east of the southeast corner of the Capitol 

RiCHAED Fennee, M.D., who was Vice-President of the 
Peace Society at the time of its organization (but who was 
later succeeded in that office by Mr. Shaw), knew what war 
was by personal experience, having fought for America's 
cause in the Revolution and languished for more than a year 
in the military prison at Charleston, South Carolina. Dr. 
Fenner lived in early life at ISTew Bern, later in Franklin 
County, for a while in Raleigh, and eventually went to Jack- 
son, Madison County, Tennessee, where he died at an ad- 
vanced age in May, 1828. Both personally and in his chosen 
profession — the practice of medicine — he was highly es- 
teemed, being described as "a. kind-hearted friend and neigh- 
bor, and an active and useful member of society." In re- 
ligion he was an Episcopalian, having originally been con- 
nected with the old colonial parish under the Church of Eng- 
land at JsTew Bern. In the Revolution his career began as 
Paymaster of the Second North Carolina Continental Regi- 
ment, on June 1, 1778 ; he was commissioned Ensign, Jan- 
uary 10, 1780 ; was captured when General Benjamin Lin- 
coln surrendered the city of Charleston to Sir Henry Clinton 
on May 12, 1780, and remained in prison till exchanged, on 
June 14, 1781; was made a Lieutenant on May 12, 1781, 
(just before his exchange), and served till the end of the war. 
In 1783 he was one of the Continental officers who founded 
the ISTorth Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, at Llillsbor- 


KiMBROUGH Jones, Kecording Secretary, was born on the 
26tli of April, 1783, and died on the 30th of March, 1866. 
He was a planter of large interests, and came of a family 
which had long been prominently identified with the affairs 
of Wake County. He was a son of Nathaniel Jones, of Crab- 
tree, whose father (also named Nathaniel) was a brother of 
Attorney-General Robert Jones, Jr., better known as ''Robin" 
Jones, an eminent lawyer in the days of royal rule. Kim- 
brough Jones represented Wake County at five sessions of the 
North Carolina House of Commons, and in the Constitutional 
Convention of 1835, his colleague in the latter body being 
Judge Henry Seawell. In religion Mr. Jones was a Metho- 
dist. The plantation where he lived — about three miles north 
of Raleigh on the Louisburg road, just beyond Crabtree Creek 
— is now owned by his son and namesake. All of the sons 
of Mr. Jones, who were living at the time of the war, went 
into the Confederate Army, the eldest, William Hogan Jones, 
being a Major in the Forty-eighth North Carolina Regiment, 
and Henry W. and Kimbrough, Jr., serving in the Third 
Cavalry or Forty-first Regiment, Company I. Ex-Hnited 
States Senator James Kimbrough Jones, of Arkansas, is of 
this family, his father having been born on the upper waters 
of Crabtree Creek. 

Daniel DuPre, who succeeded Mr. Jones as Recording 
Secretary, was a bank officer and planter. As an expert ac- 
countant he had few equals in the State. For more than 
forty years he resided in or near Raleigh, and was a con- 
sistent member of the Baptist Church. Not long before his 
death, he went to Wilmington, but did not remain there per- 
manently. He died in Raleigh on April 9, 1858, at the age 
of eighty. "From childhood he had led a pure, unsullied and 
upright life," says an account written at the time of his death. 

Jeeeml^h Battle, M.D., Corresponding Secretary, was a 
physician by profession, whose latter years were spent in Ra- 


leigh, where he died on the 28th of February, 1825. He be- 
longed to a noted family, at that time chiefly residing in 
Edgecombe County, of which he was a native. His father, 
Elisha Battle, Jr., was the son of Elisha Battle, a Revolu- 
tionary statesman. Dr. Battle was a capable physician, "uni- 
versally respected for his liberality and kind and benevolent 
deportment." He died unmarried, and was a Baptist in 
religion. He was author of a treatise of a statistical and 
historical nature relating to Edgecombe County in 1810. This 
was originally delivered as an address before an agricultural 
society. It was first published in a newspaper, afterwards 
in The North Carolina University Magaz'uie, April, 1861, 
and later still in Our Living and Our Dead, October, 1874. 

Sterling Wiieaton, M.D., Treasurer, was another l)hysi- 
cian who practiced in Raleigh at that time. As early as 
1802 he aided in organizing the ISTorth Carolina Medical 
Society. That society passed out of existence in a few years, 
and the present ISrorth Carolina Medical Society was not or- 
ganized until 1849, some years after the death of Dr. 
Wheaton, which occurred in the summer of 1832. What his 
church aliiliations were I am unable to say, yet his last will 
and testament (now filed in the records of Wake County) 
breathes a deeply religious spirit. In it he says: "I die in 
the full faith of that religion I have professed, and in the 
humble hope that I shall, by the mercy of my God, through 
the merits of my Redeemer, be raised up and accepted at the 
last day, when all shall be called to render an account of the 
deeds done in the flesh." 

Thus I have given some account of the short-lived Peace 
Society of Raleigh, with a few remarks concerning its offi- 
cers. Who its thirty-eight members were I am unable to say ; 
for, so far as can be learned, its membership list has not been 
preserved. The religious affiliations of the above officers are 


given, to show that the movement was inter-denominational in 
its character. 

It must be acknowledged that the Society in Raleigh appa- 
rently accomplished nothing in its day. It may be, however, 
that during the brief period of its existence, it encouraged 
other local societies, of like nature, to keep alive until greater 
and more effective measures could take shape. If this be 
true, the influence of these early jSTorth Carolina peace- 
workers is still felt, even though they may have accomplished 
no noticeable results in their day. And the same influence 
may be felt more strongly in the years to come, for the move- 
ment is steadily gaining favor with civilized nations through- 
out the world. So the old worthies, who labored and lost 
in the earlier stages of the efforts for peace on earth, well 
might say : 

" 'Tis not in mortals to command success, 
But we'll do more, Sempronius — we'll deserve it." 




Mrs. Lula Clark Markham was born in Christian County, 
Kentucky. She is descended from distinguished ISTorth Caro- 
lina families, her ancestors belonging to the Phillips family 
of Rowan County. 

She is classed among the most promising of the younger 
writers of her native State, and has long been a contributor 
to the poetry columns of the leading magazines. 

Her home at present is at historic Wilmington, where she 
is engaged in literary work along the line of JSTorth Carolina 

Judge James C. MacRae, the author of the article on "The 
Fayetteville Light Infantry," comes from ancestors numbered 
among the old and distinguished families of the State. He 
was born in Fayetteville, ISTorth Carolina, October 6, 1838; 
son of John MacRae and Mary (Shackelford) MacRae, the lat- 
ter a native of Marion, South Carolina. Judge MacRae grad- 

*The writer desires to say that this method has been adopted in order 
to give to our present readers and to posterity some account of those 
useful citizens who have the history of North Carolina at heart, and 
who from true and accepted historical records, original manuscripts, 
wills and other authentic sources have made valuable contributions to 
this publication. 

To these writers The Booklet owes its prosperity and continuance in 
the work projected by it of developing and preserving North Carolina 
history. All profits from this publication will be devoted to securing 
tablets and other memorials to commemorate important events in the 
history of our commonwealth. Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


uated from Donaldson Academy at Fayetteville. At the age 
of fifteen taught school for a short time, then secured a posi- 
tion as clerk and continued in that occupation for several 
years, when he again turned his attention to teaching. Ambi- 
tious to become a lawyer, he studied with this aim while teach- 
ing in Brunswick, jSTorth Carolina, and Horry District, South 

In August, 1859, he was licensed to practice law, and in 
June, 1860, he located in Fayetteville to practice his chosen 
profession. During the Civil War he enlisted as a private in 
Company H, First jSTorth Carolina Volunteers, and was sub- 
sequently promoted to iVdjutant of the Fifth JSTorth Carolina 
State Troops. He commanded a battalion in Western IN'orth 
Carolina as ]\Iajor, and was Assistant Adjutant-General for 
General Baker in the Eastern District of the State until the 
end of the struggle. After the war he resumed his practice 
and succeeded in securing a large clientele. In 1874 was 
elected a member of the Legislature. July, 1882, he was 
appointed Judge of the Superior Court to fill an unexpired 
term, and during same year was elected Judge of the Fourth, 
afterwards the Seventh Judicial District. 

Subsequently he w^as appointed a Justice of the Supreme 
Bench of ISTorth Carolina, by Governor Holt, to fill the unex- 
pired term of Justice Davis, and w^as subsequently elected to 
the position. After leaving the bench he returned to the 
practice of law and became a member of the legal firm of 
MacEae & Day, with offices in Raleigh. 

Judge MacRae, as attorney for the Seaboard Air Line Sys- 
tem, executed his duty mth commendable ability. While 
practicing in the Federal and State courts he was considered 
an able lawyer and steadily and closely applied himself to the 
performance of every duty devolving upon him, and to-day 
holds a position in the front ranks of ISTorth Carolina's emi- 
nent lawyers. At the bar he has ever disdained the small 


arts of the pettifogger, and upon the bench he ever held the 
scales of justice with an even hand, treating with impartiality 
the poor and the rich, the innocent and the guilty. The de- 
gree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the University of 
North Carolina. He has also served as Chancellor of the 
Episcopal Diocese of Eastern Carolina. 

On October 31, 1S67, he married Miss Fanny Hinsdale, 
of Fayetteville, and the union has been blessed with nine 

Judge MacRae was, on August 19, 1899, elected Dean of the 
Law School of the State University, one of the highest honors 
that can come to a laAvyer. He is editor of North Carolina 
Journal of Law, and has published several addresses. His 
sketch of the '^Highland Scotch Settlements," which he con- 
tributed to the columns of Tpie ISTokth Carolina Booklet, 
February, 1905, was a concise and interesting account of this 
strong and exuberant race, principally from which the Ameri- 
can Colonies were peopled. In this sketch may be found 
information heretofore wanting in historical libraries, in- 
teresting not only to the present generation but to those who 
shall come after them. 

During the last month, in the presence of a distinguished 
array of counsel from the Seventh District and of a number 
of friends from the Raleigh Bar, ex-Chief Justice James E. 
Shepherd presented to the Supreme Court a handsome oil 
portrait of ex-Justice MacRae, a former Associate Justice of 
this high tribunal. 

The remarks of Judge Shepherd consisted of a brief out- 
line of the life and service of Justice MacRae more potent 
than any eulog-y that, as he said, the modesty of his subject 
forbade. Fie spoke, however, at the request of the court — 
in part as follows : 

"It is meet, therefore, that a few words be said of one, 
who, though still living, began his career in that crucial 


period in the historj^ of his State which reflects his greatest 
civic and military glories — a time, indeed, when 'None was 
for the party and all were for the State' — when men bared 
their breasts to the iron hail of battle, not for conquest or 
glory, but in defense of their homes and firesides." 

Accepting the portrait for the Court, Chief Justice Clark 
said, '^'The Court is gratified to receive this portrait and to 
add it to those of the other learned and able men who look 
down upon us from these walls, and w^hose lives and labors 
reflect credit upon this court and the State. 

"It can not be said that Judge MacRae has ceased to be a 
member of this court. The sitting members are only a part 
of that greater court which takes part, and whose views are 
potent in the decision of controversies. The opinions of our 
predecessors are daily^ quoted to us at the bar as controlling. 
The long rows of volumes before us are the repository of their 
views. In our deliberations and decisions, they descend as 
it were from their frames, sit at our counsels, throw light 
upon the path we should go and point the way. They are 
^the dead but acepted sovereigns, whose spirits rule us from 
their urns.' 

"In the illustrious company of our predecessors, the re- 
corded opinions of Mr. Justice MacRae, who is yet spared 
to us, make him still a part of the court. His services were 
long enough to establish his fame, but too short for the full 
measure of the service he might have rendered the profession. 
Yet it may be doubted if in his present position he is not 
rendering greater service still and more enduring, through 
his influence upon the future Bar and Judges of ISTorth 

"To those who sat with him here the memory of his uni- 
form courtesy, his great learning and indefatigable labors is 
a benediction." 

Judge MacRae continues as Teacher of Law at the Univer- 


sity, beloved bj Faculty and students. He is a genial and 

courteous gentleman, possessing that quiet dignity and 
strength of character worthy of emulation. 


Rev. Robert Brent Drane, D.D., was born in Wilmington, 
jST. C, December 5, 1851. His father, the Rev. Robert Brent 
Drane, D.D., came from Maryland and was Rector of St. 
James's Parish, Wilmington, jST. C, for twenty-five years. 

His mother's maiden name was Catherine Caroline Parker. 
Her early home was Tarboro, JST. C. 

He was ordained to the Priesthood in 1876, and, through 
Bishop Atkinson's advice, accej)ted the Rectorship of St. 
Paul's Parish, Edenton, of which he is yet in charge. 

Dr. Drane's article, in this number of The Booklet, on 
"Historic Edenton," will be of value to students of ISTorth 
Carolina historj^ Since becoming a resident of this historic 
place. Dr. Drane's interest in its past has been unabated. He 
found here a town "rich with the spoils of time" and a most 
inviting field for one fond of legendary and historical lore. 
One of the many important movements made by him was 
having the Records of St. Paul's Church copied by the young 

Note — The Booklet takes this method of calling the attention of the 
patriotic citizens of North Carolina to a matter that if more widely known 
many names no doubt, would be added to its list of stockholders. Dr. 
Drane is desirous of getting more subscribers and thereby increase per- 
sonal and popular interest and money resources. 

This Association held its annual meeting in Edenton on April 27th 
in commemoration of the sailing of Amadas and Barlowe from the west 
of England April 2'7th, 1584, O. S. which resulted in the discovery and 
occupation of Roanoke Island in July 1584. 

A review and memoranda of what the Association has accomplished 
will be given in a future number of the North Carolina Booklet. 

It remains for a generous and patrotic public to uphold the hands of 
Dr. Drane and the other officers of this Association who are going their 
time and zeal for the love of their section and their State. 


men of the town, in order that the originals might be filed 
away and saved from destruction bj frequent handling. These 
precious records, dating back to 1701, are carefully preserved 
in the archives of the church and are greatly valued by the 
vestry and citizens of the Parish. 

Another notable movement projected by him was the re- 
moval from abandoned graveyards to St. Paul's church-yard 
the remains of people distinguished in Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary times — a work that his parishioners entered into with 
zest and interest. 

Dr. Drane, through maternal connection with Col. William 
Haywood, of Revolutionary fame, became a member of the 
North Carolina Society Sons of the Revolution, and is Chap- 
lain of this Society. His wife, Maria Louisa Warren, is a 
daughter of a brave Confederate soldier, Maj. Tristram Low- 
ther Skinner, wdio fell in the Battle of Mechanicsville. 

She traces her lineage back to some of the best of old Eden- 
ton's good people, the Edens, Lowthers, Blounts, Johnstons 
and Harveys. 

Dr. Drane is the President and a most active member of 
the ^'Roanoke Colony Memorial Association," with headquar- 
ters at Edenton, jST. C. This corporation was organized for 
the benevolent and patriotic purpose of reclaiming, preserv- 
ing and adorning Old Fort Raleigh, built in 1585, by the 
first English settlers on Roanoke Island, the birthplace of 
Virginia Dare, the first white child born in America; and 
also to erect monuments and suitable memorials to commem- 
orate these and other historic events in ISTorth Carolina. 

Dr. Drane's long rectorship in the Parish of St. Paul's 
argues well for the popularity and usefulness of this golden- 
hearted Christian gentleman. To him and others of his class 
for services in the cause of Christianity and unfaltering in- 
terest in the material things around, both church and state 
owe a debt of gratitude. 



Miss White's article, in this nuinbev of The Booklet, on 
the Quakers of Perquimans County, will enlighten many 
who are not familiar with the tenets of this sect of Christians 
whose distinguishing doctrine is that of the "light of Christ 

Miss White was born in Perquimans County, X. C, in 
the year 1866. She is the daughter of Jephtha and Anna 
M. White, and granddaughter of Joseph and Charlotte (Mc- 
Adanis) White, natives of Scotland. She is a descendant of 
the Whites, Jordans, and Mc Adams, of Eastern Virginia, 
also connected w^ith the Scotts, for whom she is named. Her 
maternal ancestors have been "Friends" for many generations, 
but her paternal ancestors for only two. Her father adopted 
the faith of his father, and was a prominent and useful mem- 
ber of the Friends' organization, and died in the faith, leav- 
ing an honored name to his posterity. 
5^. Miss W^hite's parents dying in her infancy, she made her 
home with a sister, Mrs. Josiah Nicholson, at Belvidere, 
^N". C, which she yet retains as her home. It was here that 
she received her early education, afterw^ards graduating at 
Westtown, Pennsylvania. 

Adopting teaching as a profession, she was elected Prin- 
cipal of the Graded School in Southampton, Virginia, in 
1884-1887; Teacher and Governess at Guilford College, N. 
C, 1887-1892 ; was awarded the B. S. degree at this college 
in 1891 ; was graduate student of Bryn Mawr College, Pa., 
1892-1894; Teacher in Mathematics in Nolb Female College, 
Louisville, Ky., 1894-1896 ; Teacher of Mathematics at Pa- 
cific College, Oregon, 1896-1900. 

Miss Wliite's talents for painstaking accuracy well fitted 
her for the position to which she was called as Librarian of 
Guilford College, one of the best and most complete in the 


State until the recent disaster, which occurred in January, 
1908, when about 8,000 volumes were burned. This was a 
great loss to the college and one most keenly felt by its care- 
ful custodian, whose familiarity with these books and records 
kindled a love like of that unto a brother. Her task, though 
arduous, in collecting and arranging for another library, will 
be one of love and interest, and she will heartily welcome the 
gift of suitable books from a generous public. 

Miss White has done considerable editorial work for news- 
papers and magazines. Among her most recent articles in 
The American Friend (the national organ of the Friends of 
America) are the following: 

(1) "Dolly Payne Madison," giving the records pre- 
served at Guilford College, showing that she was a "birth- 
right" member of l^ew Garden Monthly Meeting of Friends 
in ISTorth Carolina. 

Dolly Madison came of pious stock. While presiding 
genius of the White House, during the administration of her 
husband, James Madison, she commanded the respect of the 
nation, and for thirteen years succeeding his death, she main- 
tained a conspicuous and respected position in society at 
Washington, never forsaking the early and careful teachings 
received in her youth. 

(2) "Friends in South Carolina," particularly the Bush 
River settlements. 

II. In The Guilford Collegian, the College Magazine: 

(1) "Matthew W. Ransom," the distinguished soldier, 
statesman, scholar, and orator. This article was well received 
and highly commended by his relatives as a true and just 
eulogy of the merits and public services of this great IsTorth 

(2) "Guilford — ^What's in a JSTame," was a carefully com- 
piled study of the origin of the name and how and why it was 
transplanted to America. 


Miss White, though not a native of Guilford County, loves 
its people and its traditions. 

It was in this county that the ''Battle of Guilford Court 
House" was fought, March 15, 1781 — the battle that led to 
the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. The site of this 
noted battle was secured through the services of that dutiful 
and distinguished son of IvTorth Carolina, the late Judge 
David Schenck, and the formation of the "Guilford Battle 
Ground Company," which has cleared up, adorned, and 
placed there many monuments to distinguished men of the 
Colonial and Revolutionary period. Since the death of 
Judge Schenck, Maj. Joseph M. Morehead has been the un- 
tiring, zealous and devoted President, under whose guiding 
hand the work goes on, making this the historic rallying 
ground of the Piedmont section of JSTorth Carolina. 

A biographical sketch of Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood will appear 
in the next Booklet. In future issues will be given sketches of those 
who contributed articles previous to Vol. VI. 


By Mrs. H. DeB. Wills, Genealogist and Historian, N. C D. R. 

Will of George Deane, Sr., of Chowan; 1700; Son George, 
daughter Christian, Wife Elizabeth. 

Will of William Benbury ; July 1709 ; Wife Jane Son-in- 
law James Watch ; sons William and John ; daughters Mar- 
tha and Hannah. Test. Henry Bonner, Ann Moseley and 
Edward Moseley. 

Will of James Fewox, Tyrrell; May 5th, 1711; son Eob- 
ert, John Lawson, Mary Lawson, Jr., grandson Samuel 
Hardy, son of William Hardy, (brother of John and Jacob 
Hardy of Bertie), wife Anne, Mary Lawson, wife of ]^a- 
thaniel Lawson. 

Will of Farnifold Green of Bath, 1711 ; sons Thomas, 
John, Farnifold, and James Green ; wife Hannah, daughters 
Elizabeth and Jane Green; daughter-in-law Ann Smithwick; 
wife Hannah Exx. 

William Duckenfield, of Cheshire, Eng., Feb. 1721 ; 
brother John, Cousin Charles Barbour, Cousin Nathaniel 
Duckenfield, son of my brother Sir Robert Duckenfield, 
Mary, Anne, Susanna, Jane, Katherine, and Judith, sisters 
of I^athaniel. 

William Barry, 1722 ; Marian, brother David Barry, Theo' 
Morris, Mary Meads, daughter of John Meads of Little 

Will of Gov. Charles Eden; prob. 1722; dear niece Mrs. 
Margaret Rough, youngest daughter of Robert Rough, de- 
ceased; dear friends John Holloway, Daniel Richardson, 
James Henderson, John Lovick; John Lovick, Ex. 

Will of Thomas Hoskins, 1733-'34; daughter Sarah Charl- 
ton, son William, daughter Mary, William Hoskins and John 
Benbury, executors. (He had other children, among them 


son Thomas ; who can furnish the full list. — N. C. Hist, and 
Geril Register. 

Will of Christopher Gale, Chief Justice of the Colony 
1734; b. at York, G. B., 54 years old; wife Sarah Catherine, 
brother Edmund, debts due from the estate of my wife's for- 
mer husband, John Ismay, son Miles Gale, daughter Pene- 
lope Little, Mary, daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth Clayton, gr. 
daughter Sarah Clayton, JSTephew and godson Edmund Gale, 
Granddaughter Penelope Little. Note, Wife Sarah was 
Widow of Gov. Thomas Harvey, nee Laker (dau. of Benj. 
Laker). William Little married his daughter Penelope. 

Will of John Baptista Ashe ; * * * prob. 1740 ; son Lemuel, 
son John, daughter Mary, brother Samuel Swann. 

Will of Richard Hill of Bath, Granddaughter Elizabeth 
Hill, brother Francis Hill, son-in-law Evan Jones, daughter 
Ann Jones, Craven Precinct 1723-4. 

Will of Samuel Johnston of Onslow Co., Prob. Jan. 3 — 
1759; daughters Jean, Penelope, Isabel, Ann and Hannah; 
sons Samuel and John. Test Cary Godbie, Wm. Williams, 
John Milton, 

Will of Gov. Gabriel Johnston of Eden House, Bertie Co., 
prob. April 10th, 1753 ; Wife Frances, daughter Penelope, 
* * * brother Samuel's children my books to Wm. Cathcart, 
sister Elizabeth Sinclair of Fife K. B. 



No. 1— July, 1907. 

North Carolina in the French and Indian War 3-12 

By Colonel Alfred Moore Waddell. 

Locke's Fundamental Constitutions 13-49 

By Mr. Junius Davis. 

Industrial Life in Colonial Carolina 50-58 

By Mr. Thomas M. Pittman. 

An Address: Our Dearest Neighbor— The Old North State 59-G4 

By Hon. James Alston Cabell. 

Biographical Sketches: Colonel Alfred M. Waddell, Mr. Junius 

Davis, Mr. Thomas M. Pittman 65-72 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Hon. James Alston Cabell 72-74 

By Mary Hilliard Hinton. 
Abstracts of Wills 75-76 

By Mrs. Helen De Berniere Wills. 

No. 2 — October, 1907. 

Ode to North Carolina 79-85 

By Pattie Williams Gee. 

The Finances of the North Carolina Colonists 84-104 

By Charles Lee Raper, Ph.D. 

Joseph Gales, Editor of Raleigh's First Newspaper 105-130 

By Mr. Willis G. Briggs. 

Our First Constitution, 1770 131-137 

By Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition.. 138-145 
By Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

Biographical Sketches: Kemp Plummer Battle, LL.D., Charles 

Lee Raper, Ph.D., Willis Grandy Briggs, Pattie Williams Gee, 146-161 
By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Illustrations: Six cuts of Colonial Currency, viz: Eight Pence, 
One-Sixth of Dollar, Thirty Dollars, Four Pence, One-Third of 
Dollar, Four Dollars. 

Dr. Kemp Plummer Battle. 

No. 3— January, 1908. 

General Robert Howe 165-192 

By Hon. John D. Bellamy. 

Early Relations of North Carolina and the West 193-209 

By Dr. William K. Boyd. 
Incidents of the Early and Permanent Settlement of the Cape 

Fear 210-235 

By Mr. W. B. McKoy. 


Biographical Sketches : John Dillard Bellamy, William Kenneth 

Boyd, William B. McKoy 236-241 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

No. 4 — April, 1908. 

Poem : St. James's Churchyard 24,5-247 

By Mrs. Loula Clark Markham. 
Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry 248-266 

By Judge James C. MacRae. 
The Expedition Against the Row Galley "General Arnold" — A 

Side Light on Colonial Edenton 2G6-277 

By Rev. Robert B. Drane, D.D. 
The Quakers of Perquimans 278-289 

By Miss Julia S. White. 

An Early Peace Society in North Carolina, 1819-1822 290-300 

Abstracts of Wills Previous to 1760 310-311 

Biographical Sketches: Mrs. L. C. Markham, Rev. Robert B. 

Drane, D.D., Miss Julia S. White, Judge James C. MacRae 301-309 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 




MAY 2 'I