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Full text of "The North Carolina booklet : great events in North Carolina history"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/northcarolinaboo1909nort 



Vol. IX JULY, 1909 No. 1 



lohe 

floRTH GflHOIilNfl BoOKIiET 



Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherisli, protect and defend Iter.'' 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editobs. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 
Mrs. Spiee Whitaker. Me. R. D. W. Connor. 

Professor D. H. Hill. Dk. E. W. Sikes. 

Me. W. J. Peele. Dk- Richard Uillard. 

Peofessoe E. p. Moses. Mb. James Speunt. 

De. Kekp p. Battle. Judge Waltee Clark. 

Me. INIaeshall DeLancey Haywood. 

EDITORS : 
Miss Mary Hilliaed Hinton, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, 

1906-1908. 

regent : 

mes. e. e. moffitt. 

vice-regent : 

Mrs. WALTER CLARK. 

honorary regent: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

recording SECRETARY: 

Mrs. LEIGH SKINNER. 

corresponding SECRETARY: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 

TREASURER : 

Mrs. FRANI^ SHERWOOD. 

EEGISTEAR : 

Miss MARY HILLIAED HINTON. 

GENEALOGIST : 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 

MPS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

EEGENT 1902: 

Mes. D. H. HILL, Sb.* 

REGENT 1902-1900: 

Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

♦Died December 12, 1904. 



jNlorth Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



Vol. IX JULY. 1909 No. 1 



INDIANS, SLAVES AND TORIES: OUR 18TH 
CENTURY LEGISLATION REGARDING THEM. 

By Clarence H. Poe, 

Editor of The Progressive Farmer, and author of "A Southerner in 

Europe," and "Cotton: Its Cultivation, Marketing, 

Manufacture, Etc." 



I have been very much interested recently in a bnlkj, 
leather-bonnd volume of YOO thick and yellowed pages, with 
old-fashioned f-like s's, an equally old-fashioned style of capi- 
talization, and besprinkled here and there with typographical 
ornaments that have since gone out of use, its title page read- 
ing as follows : 

"Laws of the State of North Carolina, 

Published according to Act of Assembly, by 

James Iredell, 

now one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court 

of the United States. 

Edenton ; 

Printed by Hodge & Willis, printers to the State of North Carolina, 

M, DCC, XCI." 

This book, giving in full the more important "Acts of the 
Assembly" of ITorth Carolina from 1714 to 1791, has, I 
repeat, interested me greatly, and it is, perhaps, not unnatu- 
ral to assume that it would be of interest to other I^orth 
Carolinians. And while there are other copies of the book 
extant, the number is so very small as to make it practically 
out of the question for five Booklet readers in a hundred to 
learn directly from it the nature of our eighteenth century 
statutes. A summary of its more notable features therefore 
may be not wholly without merit. 



4 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

The book, as I have suggested, does not give in full all 
the laws passed from 1714 to 1791 ; this, of course, would be 
impossible in a work of 700 pages. The careful threshing 
of Judge Iredell eliminated nearly all the laws obsolete in 
1791 or repealed before that time, and all the private Acts 
of the Assembly. Of these acts only the titles are given, fol- 
lowed by the word "obsolete" or "private" or the date of 
repeal. It is to this manner of sifting that the elimination 
of many of the laws of the 1714-1715 Assembly is due, or 
as the book has it : 

"Laws of North Carolina. Anno Regni Georgii I, Regis Magnse 
Brittannia;, Franciae and Hibnernise, Secundo. At a General Biennial 
Assembly, held at the house of Captain Richard Sanderson, at Little 
River, begun the 17th day of November, 1714, and continued by several 
adjournments, until the 19th day of January, 1715." 

Among the acts, marked "obsolete" we note the first, "An 
Act Concerning Marriages" ; the fourth, "An Act Prohibiting 
Strangers Trading with the Indians" and the sixth, "An 
Act Exempting JSTew-comers from Paying Levies for One 
Year." Chapter 7, "An Act for the Better Observing the 
Lord's Day, Called Sunday, the 30th of January, the 29th 
of May, and the 22d of September; and also for the Sup- 
pressing Prophaneness, Immorality and Divers Other Vicious 
and Enormous Sins," was repealed in 1741, and only the. 
title is here given ; this is also true of chapter 8, "An Act 
for Establishing the Church, and Appointing Select Ves- 
tries." It is also interesting to note that the ninth act was 
one "for Liberty of Conscience" and for accepting the afiir- 
mation of Quakers, and that the tenth, "An Act Kelating to 
the Biennial and other Assemblies ; and regulating Elections 
and Members," was "repealed by His Majesty's order." 

But of course we can not go through the book in this hap- 
hazard fashion, noting on page after page the things that 
most impress us. Instead let us take up some of the sub- 



INDIANS^ SLAVES AND TORIES. 5 

Jects most likely to interest the reader. For my part I have 
searched out with especial zest all the legislation bearing on 
those three extinct classes of our population — slaves, Indians 
and Tories — and it is of the legislation affecting these that 
the editors of the Booklet have kindly asked me to write. 
It will, perhaps, be just as well to consider first the statutes 
regarding slaves and slavery. 

I. — Legislation Eegaeding Slaves and Servants. 

The first statute regarding servants and slaves that I have 
noticed is chapter 24 of the Acts of the Assembly of 1Y41, 
which met at Edenton. The first section of this act declares 
that "no person whatsoever, being a Christian or of Chris- 
tion parentage * * * imported or brought into this 
Province, shall be deemed a servant for any term of years" 
unless by indenture or agreement. This is followed by other 
regulations regarding "Christian servants." If disobedient 
or unruly, they might be carried before a justice of the peace 
and sentenced to not more than 21 lashes; if they ran away 
and were recaptured, they were to serve double the time so 
lost. This law also provided that if any person should "pre- 
sume to whip a Christian servant naked," without an order 
from a magistrate, such person should forfeit 40 shillings, 
proclamation money, to the party injured. Servants might 
carry complaints to magistrates who might bind masters or 
mistresses "to answer complaint at the next county court." 
If any master discharged a servant while sick, before the 
servant's term of service expired, the county court was to 
levy on the master for enough to enable the church wardens 
of the parish to care for the sick servant until death or re- 
covery. If he recovered, the servant was free. Free per- 
sons, for minor offenses, were punished by fine, servants by 
whipping, not exceeding 39 lashes. Free persons trading 
with slaves were fined "treble the value traded for," or if 



to THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

unable to pay this, themselves sold as servants. Any free 
person brought over as a slave could recover twice his value 
and compel his abductor to return him to his own country. 

Runaway slaves, acknowledging no owner, were committed 
to jail and advertised for two months; then, if the owner did 
not appear, hired out by the authorities. An iron collar was 
put about the necks of all slaves so sold. 

Masters could designate one slave on each plantation to 
carry a gun. 'No other slave was permitted to carry any 
kind of weapon. Only slaves wearing liveries were per- 
mitted to leave the plantations without passes. IsTo slave was 
allowed, "on any pretense whatsoever to raise any horses, 
cattle or hogs." Runaway slaves could be outlawed. 

l^egroes, mulattoes or Indians, giving false testimony in 

courts, were severely punished : 

"Every such offender * * * shall have one ear nailed to the 
pillory, and there stand for the space of one hour, and the said ear to 
be cut off, and thereafter the other ear nailed in like manner, and cut 
off at the expiration of one other hour." 

The offender might also be sentenced to "thirty-nine lashes, 
well laid on, on his or her bare back, at the common whipping 
post." 

No slave could be set free except for meritorious service, 
"judged and allowed by the county court." Any "negro, 
mulatto or Indian slave, otherwise set free" could be taken 
up and sold by the Church wardens, and the money applied 
to the use of the parish. (Speaking of Indian slaves, it 
would be interesting to know how many of this class there 
were. ) 

During the Revolutionary War it was asserted that Tories 
liberated slaves and turned them loose for the purpose of dis- 
turbing the peace, so that in this period emancipation was 
made more difficult than before. No one could free slaves 
except for meritorious service and by express permission of 



IJ!^DIANS^ SLAVES AND TOEIES. 7 

the county court. Slaves otherwise emancipated were turned 
over to the sheriff and sold to the highest bidder, the person 
delivering them to the sheriff getting one-fifth of the selling 
price. The 1777 statute says that "the evil and pernicious 
practice of freeing slaves in this State ought at this critical 
and alarming time to be guarded against by every friend and 
well-wisher to his country." 

The Assembly of 1779 went even further, since many ne- 
groes were "going at large to the terror of the good people 
of the State," and directed that all slaves liberated before the 
passage of the act of 1777 could be taken up and sold in the 
same manner as those liberated after its passage. This law — 
which, by the way, seems to me to savor strongly of the ex 
post facto principle — has this interesting proviso: "Pro- 
vided, that nothing herein contained shall deprive of liberty 
any slave, who having been liberated, and not sold by order 
of any court, has enlisted into the service of this or the 
United States previous to the passing of this act." It may 
surprise some readers to learn of negroes fighting in the 
Revolution, but there are records of pensions paid black 
Revolutionary soldiers yet to be seen in the State Treasury 
Department. 

The General Assembly of 1753, which met at ISTew Bern, 
amended the law of 1741 so as to prohibit any slave carrying 
a gun unless the master gave bond for the slave's good be- 
havior, and even then no slave could carry a gun after the 
housing of the corn crop, and not more than one slave on 
each plantation in crop season. Slaves discovered hunting 
with dogs could be whipped, not exceeding thirty lashes. 

The Assembly of 1774 passed an important statute setting 
forth the penalty for killing slaves. For the first offense, 
the guilty man or woman was to suffer one year's imprison- 
ment ; for the second offense, the death penalty was pre- 
scribed. This act did not apply in the case of outlawed or 



O THE NOETH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

rebellious slaves or slaves "dying under moderate correc- 
tion."* 

A peculiar statute is that of 177Y making it unlawful for 
anv slave in Halifax, N^orthampton, Bute, Granville, Edge- 
combe or Wake, to grow any tobacco for his own use. The 
next session of the Assembly, which first met at ISTew Bern 
and then at Halifax, passed a rigorous law against slave 
stealers. The death penalty was prescribed for all such 
criminals and for all persons carrying free negroes out of 
the State for the purpose of selling them into slavery. 

Chapter 5 of the Laws of 1786 recites that "the importa- 
tion of slaves into this State is productive of evil conse- 
quences, and highly impolitic" ; it, therefore, imposes the fol- 
lowing import duties on all slaves brought into the State 
whether by land or water : 

ISTegroes under 7 and over 40 years of age, 50 shillings; 
between Y and 12, or between 30 and 40, 5 pounds ; between 
12 and 30 years, 10 pounds. Slaves imported directly from 
Africa, whatever their age, were subject to a tax of five 
pounds each. The sixth section of this chapter also provides 
that "every person who shall introduce into this State any 
slave or slaves" from any of the free States should "enter 

*It is interesting to observe, by the way, that this Assembly of 1774 
is the last whose acts are introduced by Latin references to George III. 
Its acts begin: "Anno Regni Georgii III, Regis Magna Brittaniffi, 
Francise, and Hiberniae, Decimo Quarto. At an Assembly begun and 
held at New Bern the 20th day of March in the fourteenth year of the 
reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third, by the grace of God of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc., 
and in the year of our Lord," etc. 

How very differently reads the introduction to the very next section 
of this book: "A Declaration of Rights. At a Congress of Representa- 
tives of the Freemen of the State of North Carolina, assembled at Hali- 
fax the 17th day of December, in the year of our Lord One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Seventy-six, for the purpose of establishing a con- 
stitution or form of government for the said State." 



INDIANS^ SLAVES AND TORIES. \) 

into bond with sufficient surety in the sum of fifty pounds, 
current money, for each slave, for the removing of such slave 
or slaves" to the State from whence they were brought, within 
three months thereafter. 

It is also set forth in chapter 17 of the Acts of 1786 that 
"many persons by cruel treatment of their slaves, cause them 
to commit crimes for which many of the said slaves are exe- 
cuted, whereby a very burdensome debt is unjustly imposed 
on the good citizens of the State; for remedy whereof" all 
former laws providing for reimbursing masters of executed 
slaves at the public expense were repealed. 

The next year (1787) an act was passed making it un- 
lawful for any negro or mulatto to "entertain any slave in 
his or her house during the Sabbath or in the night between 
sunset and sunrise" on penalty of 20 shillings for the first 
oft'ense and 40 for each subsequent offense. 

In 1788 it was found necessary to enact a more stringent 
law against trading with slaves. All free persons trading 
with any slave without written permission from the master 
specifying the articles in question, were to be fined ten 
pounds for each offense. Slaves selling articles without per- 
mission were to be reported to the justice of the peace and 
given not over thirty-nine lashes. 

II. — Legislation Affecting the Indians. 

Let us next take up the laws regarding the Indians. Many 
of these, of course, were obsolete when Judge Iredell made 
his collection of laws, and are, therefore, excluded from the 
book. It is very creditable to our ancestors that the first 
Indian law of special note, that on page 119 (Laws of 1748), 
is "An act for ascertaining the bounds of a certain tract of 
land formerly laid out by treaty to the use of the Tuskarora 
Indians, so long as they or any of them shall occupy and 
live upon the same; and to prevent any person or persons 



10 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

taking up lands, or settling within the said bounds, by pre- 
tense of any purchase or purchases made, or that shall be 
made from the said Indians" — ''it being but just," as the 
preamble says, ''that the ancient inhabitants of this province 
shall have and enjoy a quiet and convenient dwelling place 
in this their native country." 

But the next law regarding Indians, passed in 1760, is 
of very different tenor. It was adopted near the end of the 
great French and Indian War, and is of sufficient importance 
to justify the republication in full of the two most striking 
sections : 

"13. And for the greater encouragement of such persons as shall enlist 
voluntarily to serve the said companies, and other inhabitants of this 
province who shall undertake any expedition against the Cherokees and 
other Indians in alliance with the French; be it further enacted by the 
authority aforesaid, that each of the said Indians who shall be taken a 
captive during the present war by any person as aforesaid, shall, and is 
hereby declared to be a slave, and the absolute right and property of 
who shall be the captor of such Indians. * * * And if any person 
or persons, inhabitant or inhabitants of this province not in actual pay, 
shall kill an enemy Indian or Indians, he or they shall have and receive 
ten pounds for each and every Indian he or they shall so kill, and any 
person or persons who shall be in the actual pay of this province, shall 
have and receive five pounds for every enemy Indian or Indians he or 
they shall so kill, to be paid out of the Treasury, any law, usage, or 
custom to the contrary notwithstanding. 

"14. Provided, always, that any person claiming the said reward, 
before he be allowed or paid the same, shall produce to the Assembly 
the scalp of every Indian so killed, and make oath or otherwise prove 
that he was the person who killed, or was present at the killing, of the 
Indian whose scalp shall be so produced. * * * And as a further 
encouragement, shall also have and keep to his or their own use or uses 
all plunder taken out of the possession of any enemy Indian or Indians, 
or within twenty miles of any of the Cherokee towns, or any Indian 
town at war with any of his Majesty's subjects." 

Two thousand pounds was appropriated for the purchase of 
Indian scalps in the manner indicated in this statute. 

In 1778 it appeared that "divers avaricious and ill-dis- 
posed persons" had been defrauding and abusing the Chero- 



INDIANS;, SLAVES AND TOEIES. 11 

kees and stirring up much bad feeling, and a law was passed 
making it unlawful to trade with this tribe of Indians with- 
out license, or to trespass on their grounds. The penalty for 
violation was a fine of 500 pounds ; failing to pay this, says 
the law, the offender "shall stand in the pillory two hours, and 
receive thirty-nine lashes upon his bare back, and shall stand 
committed to the gaol of the district until such sums shall be 
completely discharged and paid." 

The first law passed at the session of 1786, held at Fay- 
etteville, was one providing defense against Indians for the 
citizens of Davidson County, "frequent acts of hostility ren- 
dering it necessary that some measures be taken for their 
protection." A company of 201 men was to be raised and 
to stay in service two years, unless sooner disbanded by the 
Legislature. I think, however, that this Davidson County 
was in what is now Tennessee, as the Davidson County now 
existing was not formed until 1822. 

III. — How. THE Tories Were Treated. 

And now let us consider some of the Eevolutionary and 
post-Revolutionary laws regarding TorieSj. Immediately 
after framing the Constitution, the Halifax Congress of 1776 
adopted an ordinance requiring all citizens to take the oath of 
allegiance to the State, the "whereas" being as follows : 

"Whereas, divers persons within this State have been in actual arms 
against the liberties of the United States of America, or have adhered 
to the King and Parliament of Great Britain against the same, * * * 
with design to weaken and obstruct the necessary efforts of the said 
States against the wrongs and hostilities of the said King and Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain; and it being hoped that such persons are now 
become sensible of the wickedness and folly of endeavoring to subject 
their country to misery and slavery, and are penitent for the same — " 

free pardon and protection were to be granted all persons 
taking oath to bear true allegiance to the State and to "do 
no act willingly whereby the independence of the said State 
may be destroyed or injured." 



12 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

All persons refusing or neglecting to take this oath within 
ninety days from that date "shall be and are hereby declared 
incapable of bringing any suit or action, real, personal or 
mixed, before any court, judge or magistrate within this 
State; or being sued, plead or make defense; or of prose- 
cuting any indictment ; or of purchasing or transferring any 
lands, tenements, or hereditaments, the same shall be and are 
hereby declared to be forfeited to this State, being first found 
by inquest of a jury." 

]^or was the General Assembly which met at 'New Bern in 
April, 1Y77, in a mood to deal lightly with those who stood 
in the way of American independence. The anti-Tory laws 
were almost Draconian in their severity. "Every inhabitant 
of the State owes and shall pay allegiance to the State of 
IsTorth Carolina." The second section continues, redundant 
words and phrases omitted: 

"And if any person residing within this State * * * shall take 
commission from the King of Great Britain: or knowingly and willingly 
aid or assist any enemies at open war against this State, or against 
the United States of America, by joining their armies, or by enlisting 
or procuring or persuading others to enlist for that purpose, or by 
furnishing such enemies with arms, ammunition, provision, or any other 
article for their aid or comfort, * * * he shall be adjudged guilty 
of high treason, and shall suffer death without the benefit of clergy, and 
his or her estate shall be forfeited to the State. Provided, that the 
judge may appropriate so much of the traitor's estate as may appear 
sufficient for the support of his or her family." 

By the third section of the act, imprisonment during the 
war and confiscation of half his property is prescribed as the 
punishment for any person who "shall convey intelligence to 
the enemies of this State, or speak publicly against our pub- 
lic defense, or excite the people against the government of 
this State, or persuade them to return to a dependence on 
the Crown of Great Britain, or maliciously discourage the 
people from enlisting into the service of the State, or dis- 



INDIANS^ SLAVES AND TORIES. 13 

pose the people to favor the enemy, or endeavor to prevent 
the measures carrying on in support of freedom." 

All late officers of the King, and all persons who had 
"traded immediately to Great Britain or Ireland" were to 
give up J^orth Carolina citizenship or abjure allegiance to 
England. Failing to depart they could be shipped at their 
own expense to Europe or the West Indies, not to return on 
pain of death. 

When the Assembly met again in ISTovember of the same 
year, the ardor of the members had in no wise cooled. They 
divided the counties into districts, in each of which a mag- 
istrate was to administer the oath of allegiance to "all free 
male persons above 16 years of age," Avho had resided for one 
week or longer in that district. ISTames of persons refusing 
to take the oath were to be listed, and they were to be dealt 
with in the manner noted in the last paragraph regarding 
officers and traders refusing to take the oath. 

A few weeks later the Assembly of 1777 took another step 
forward and declared the forfeiture to the State of all prop- 
erty belonging to any person who had left the State or "at- 
tached himself to or aided or abetted the enemies of the 
United States," unless such person should appear before the 
1778 Assembly and be by it restored to citizenship. That 
Assembly, which met in ISTew Bern, proceeded to put into 
effect the act of its predecessors and appointed commission- 
ers to sell the confiscated property. The second chapter of 
the 1779 legislation names a number of those whose estates 
were confiscated in accordance with this act, among the 
names being William Tryon, Josiah Martin, Sir I^athaniel 
Duckinfield, Edmund Fanning, Thomas MacKnight, and 
many others. 

Very naturally these confisaction laws excited the greed 
and strengthened the audacity of the baser sort of Whigs, 
and it is not surprising to find the 1780 Assembly acknowledg- 



14 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

ing that "many acts of violence and barbarity have been lately 
committed under pretense of seizing the property of disaf- 
fected persons, these unwarrantable depredations being car- 
ried so far as to deprive some poor persons of house and 
kitchen utensils and wearing apparel, and many persons have 
unlawfully seized upon and carried away negro slaves, and 
other valuable effects [for] their own use, and slaves * * * 
conveyed to distant parts, or publicly sold in violation of 
law and justice." To remedy this, the Assembly again di- 
rected that while the property of all persons who had then 
or should thereafter join the Royalists, should be confiscated, 
only the sheriff or confiscation commissioner should take 
possession of property by virtue of this act; others seizing 
property should repay the owners three-fold. 

The sixth section of the act also recites that evil-disposed 
persons, under pretense of distressing Royalists, had been 
plundering South Carolinians indiscriminately. The 
sheriff was directed to seize all such property, returning that 
belonging to American sympathizers, and selling all belong- 
ing to Tories. The seventh section, curiously enough, ex- 
empted from taxation for that year all refugees from 
Georgia. 

This Hillsboro Assembly of 1780 also suspended the sale 

of confiscated property, the reason assigned being that the 

nearness of the British army (and the consequent gloomy 

outlook for independence) caused the property to sell at 

much less than its true value. The sales were revived next 

year. 

* * * 

Peace came at last, however, and the Assembly of 1783, 
recognizing the fact that "it is the policy of all wise States, 
on the termination of civil wars, to grant an act of pardon 
and oblivion for past offenses," directed that "all manner of 
treasons, misprision of treasons, felony or misdemeanor com- 
mitted or done since July 4, 1776, by any person or per- 



INDIANS^ SLAVES AND TORIES. 15 

sons whatsoever, be pardoned, released, and put in total 
oblivion." Only officers in the King's army, Tories then out 
of the State, persons who had committed capital crimes, and 
those especially offensive Tories singled out by name — Peter 
JVIallette, David Fanning and Samuel Andrews — were ex- 
cepted from the provisions of this act. Both by the letter of 
its statute and the spirit of its people, ISTorth Carolina re- 
solved to forget the bitterness (but not the heroic deeds) of 
a struggle in which, as in all great wars by men of our blood, 
the main body in each side had fought "for the right as God 
gave them to see the right." 

With that same broad spirit of tolerance, therefore, which 
caused our people in the first chapter of our book to pro- 
vide "for liberty of Conscience," we leave them in this last 
quotation, forgetting and forgiving (even so early as 1783) 
those with whom they had differed in "the late unpleasant- 
ness" and setting to work, all together, for the upbuilding of 
the State. Thus ISTorth Carolina entered upon a long period 
of healthy and untroubled development, while defeated Eng- 
land, with a like tolerance, came to find pride in the heroism 
of the men she had once faced in deadly conflict. Lord Ten- 
nyson speaking both for and to the nation when he wrote: 

"O thou that sendest out the man, 

To rule by land or sea. 
Strong mother of a lion-line, 
Be proud of those strong sons of thine. 

Who wrenched their rights from thee!" 



THOMAS PERSON. * 



By Stephen B. Weeks. 



The Person family represents one unit in that great Eng 
lish voelkerwanderung which began from the older American 
colonies almost before thev were themselves out of swaddling 
clothes and has gained more and more force as newer settle- 
ments grew in strength until it has over-run and conquered 
the American continent for the men of Anglo-Saxon blood. 
Virginia had been planted little more than a generation when 
hardy pioneers pushed out from her settled centers and in 
the wilderness of Carolina carved out new hom.es for them- 
selves, redeeming them from the wilderness and the savage. 
These frontiersmen in their turn sent others to the new 
and fertile lands' of the old Southwest and old ISTorthwest. 
and these have again sent out conquering hosts to the shores 
of the calm Pacific and to the naked plains and savage moun- 
tains of the arid mid-region. Thus it follows that tht^ ran 
P. P. V.'s are found as often in the far West, in tlie old 
Southwest or in Carolina as in Virginia herself. 

The Person family was one of those which thus left Vir- 
ginia with that great migration that swept over her south- 
ern border for a hundred years after the first settling of 
Il^orth Carolina. It had been settled in Brunswick County, 
Va., and had for its neighbors the Mangums, who were soon 
to follow it to ISTorth Carolina. I find in the Quaker rej )rds 
of southeastern Virginia a John Persons, the son of John 
Persons (who spelled his name Passons), marrying Mary 
Patridg on the tenth of the first month, 1691/2. I have no 
records to prove my supposition, but it is possible that these 
two Quakers, father and son, were the immediate ancestoi's 

*Eeprinted by permission of Chas. L. VanNoppen, publislier, from the 
seventh volume of the Biographical History of North Carolina. 



Raleigh 



THOMAS PERSON. iT 

of that William Person who was the head of the family at 
the time of its coming into Halifax County, ]^. C, about 
1740. William Person (born 1700, died ITovember 11, 
1778) took up land in Halifax, but seems to have soon 
passed on into what is now Granville, for on its organization 
as a separate county, in 1746, he became its first sheriff, an 
office which he filled for a number of years. He was often a 
justice of the peace, a county commissioner, a vestryman, and 
in general a man of prominence and a leader in his county. 
Pie married Ann , and his son, Thomas Person, com- 
monly known as General Person, and whose name in his 
own day was indifferently written and pronounced Person, 
Persons, Parson, Parsons, and Passons, was bom January 
19, 1733, probably in Brunswick County, Va. He grew up 
in Granville County, IST. C, and there his life was spent. 
He began life as a surveyor for Lord Granville, was noted 
for the accuracy of his surveys and the faithfulness of his 
work generally, and as his work made him acquainted with 
the best lands, he thus accumulated a handsome estate. In 
1788 he listed for taxation 82,358 acres, lying in Halifax, 
Warren, Franklin, Orange, Caswell, Guilford, Rockingham, 
Anson, and Wake counties, JSI". C, and in Davidson, Siunner 
and Greene counties, Tenn. (State Rec, Vol. XXVI, 
1275). 

The first definite record of his appearance in public life 
is on July 6, 1756, when he was recommended as a justice 
of the peace for Granville (Col. Rec, Vol. V, 592). In 
1762 he was sheriff of that county (ibid., VI, 895). His ap- 
pearance in the Assembly was at the October session, 1764, 
as the representative of Granville, and he won even in this 
his first service sufficient recognition to give him a place on 
the committee to settle the public accounts (VI, 1222). He 
was not again in the Assembly so far as I have been able to 



18 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

learn until ISTovember session, 1768, and October session. 
1769, when he again served on the Committee on Public Ac- 
counts and on that of Privileges and Elections. It was 
during this last session that his connection with the Regu- 
lators began to have its influence on his fortunes. 

The "Regulation" was one of a series of efforts made by 
the people of JSTorth Carolina at various times to secure a re- 
dress of grievances. It began as early as 1759 with the En- 
field riots, which were directed against the land officers of 
Lord Granville. A little later extortion began to grow up 
among the county officers in various sections of the province. 
Because of the lavish expenditure of Tryon's government, 
provincial taxes were high, and, being levied on the poll, bore 
unduly on the poor and thinly settled communities of the 
middle section. In 1765 discontent became acute, and was 
manifest as far east as Pasquotank. It broke into violence in 
the present counties of Granville, Orange, Alamance, Guil- 
ford, Rockingham, Surry, Chatham, Randolph, Rowan, Da- 
vidson, Anson, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg and Iredell. The 
discontented element called themselves "Regulators." Under 
the leadership of Husband, Howell, Hunter, Butler and 
others they published numerous addresses on the condition of 
affairs. The organization gained headway. Its purpose was 
to "regulate" the grievances of which they complained ; these 
were excessive taxes, dishonest sheriffs and extortionate fees. 
Their agreement, or articles of association, show that their 
purpose was peaceful in character and that they were willing 
to pay legal taxes and legal fees. They petitioned the gov- 
ernment often for redress. This was often promised but 
never granted. This failure to receive the redress asked no 
doubt irritated many and led them to conunit indefensible 
acts of license and violence. A rupture was narrowly averted 
in 1768, and in September, 1770, occurred the riots in Hills- 
boro when Fanning, John Williams, Thomas Hart and others 



THOMAS PERSON. 19 

were beaten, property destroyed and the court insulted and 
broken up. 

In the Assembly of 1769 John Ashe, of 'New Hanover, had 
reported that Thomas Person, the member for Granville, was 
frequently charged with perjury (Col. Rec, VIII, 118). 
He was tried at December session, 1770, after the Hillsboro 
riots, for perjury and extorting illegal fees, and there came 
before the Assembly to prosecute that same Richard Hender- 
son whose court had been insulted and broken up. The com- 
mittee of investigation, through John Campbell, its chairman, 
reported that "there is not any one of the charges or allega- 
tions * * * in any manner supported," but that they were 
exhibited "through malice and envy, with design to injure 
the character and reputation of the said Thomas Person," 
and it was ordered that this report be published in the news- 
paper of the day (VIII, 448, 449, 461). Henderson, the 
prosecutor, was thereupon mulcted in the costs (VIII, 467), 
which he failed to pay (IX, 717, 718). Tryon claimed that 
the resolution to put the costs on Henderson was clapped up 
by Person's friends ; at any rate, that resolution was repealed 
at the next session (IX, 196). 

In an anonymous letter printed in the Colonial Records 
(VIII, 643 et seq.) it is said that Person was expelled from 
this session of Assembly : 

"After this the General Assembly of the province was called, and an 
election ensued, at which Herman Husband and Thomas Parsons were 
chosen by the country party as members of the house; their enemy, 
Fanning, was also chosen. When the house met their first step was to 
expel Husband and Parsons from their seats; Husband they sent to jail; 
Parsons, home. They then passed a Riot Act, the substance of which was 
that any person or persons being guilty of any riot, either before or after 
the publication of this act, within the jurisdiction of any court within 
this province, shall and may be indicted, and when so indicted shall 
appear and stand trial before the expiration of sixty days; and in ease 
he, she, or they do not appear, noticed or not noticed, within the term 
aforesaid, they shall and are hereby declared to be outlawed, and shall 
suffer death without benefit of clergy, etc., and his lands, goods and 
chattels confiscated and sold at the end of eight days." 



20 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

This letter was no doubt tlie work of Rednap Howell, one 
of the Regulation leaders, as it is from "a. gentleman in 
iN'orth Carolina to his friend in ISTew Jersey," and Howell 
came from that State to ]*Torth Carolina, The statements 
made in other parts of the letter seem to be essentially cor- 
rect, but I confess that I am unable to reconcile this expulsion 
of Person with the favorable report which was made in his 
behalf to this same Aisembly, and with his appearance again 
as a member of the same Assembly at its session in IN'ovem- 
ber, 1771. 

But the Assembly of 1770-71 did pass a Riot Act which 
anticipated some of the essential features of the "five intoler- 
able acts" of the British Parliament of 1774. It was so 
brutal, so tyrannical and subversive of all liberty of the sub- 
ject that it was condemned even by the English Government 
as "irreconcilable with the principles of the constitution, full 
of danger in its operation and unfit for any part of the Brit- 
ish Empire." But in the meantime this act, more commonly 
known as the Johnston Act, from its author, was put into 
execution against the Regulators, and goaded them to fur- 
ther resistance. Tryon collected an army from the eastern 
counties, although in many sections the spirit of resistance 
was almost as pronounced as in the Regulation country. On 
May 16, 1771, with his army of 1100 men, organized, trained 
and armed, Tryon came up with some 2000 Regulators at 
Alamance Creek, now in Alamance County. The Regulators 
were uinorganized, without officers, untrained and in part 
unarmed. There was much parleying, the Regulators even 
to the last petitioning for redress. Tryon forced a battle, 
defeated the Regulators, took some prisoners, and with more 
than Jeffreys' bloodthirstiness hanged James Few on the 
field. Six others were hanged a month later, after having 
recei\'ed the form of a legal trial. 

Person's service to the Regulation was evidently in the 



THOMAS PEESON. 21 

council, not in the field, for lie was not present at the Ala- 
mance battle, and it does not clearly appear in what form his 
servi(;e was rendered beyond that he was a member of their 
committee to whom the people were to give in their claims 
for overcharges which the officers guilty of extortion, under 
the pressure of popular indignation, had agreed to refund. 
The committee was to have met for this purpose on May 3, 
1771, but it is probable that events were then moving too fast 
for peaceful methods (Col. Eec. VIII, 521, 535 ; Caruthers' 
''Caldwell," 143). But it is certain that Tryon recognized 
Person as a leader in this movement and did him the immor- 
tal honor to include him in the list of those excepted from the 
benefit of pardon. Tryon's exceptions included the four 
leaders who had been outlawed. Husband, Howell, Hunter 
and Butler, the prisoners, the young men who blew up Wad- 
dell's ammunition train, and sixteen others mentioned by 
name, of whom Person is the last (Col. Kec, VIII, 618). 

How Person escaped trial and further punishment for 
treason and how he secured his release do not clearly appear, 
although tradition says it was through the personal friend- 
ship between him and Edmund Fanning (ex rel. Peter M. 
Wilson). Tradition says also that by permission of his 
jailer Person made an all night ride to his home at Goshen 
to see or destroy certain incriminating papers there, and re- 
turned to jail before the break of day. It is said that Tryon's 
troops visited his home looking for plunder as well as papers, 
but found nothing, and this failure may have forced his re- 
lease (Col. Eec, VIII, xxvii). 

It is usually said that the Kegulators were Tories in the 
Revolution. It is certain that few of them were enthusiastic 
supporters of the Whig principles of 1776. But it is hardly 
reasonable to expect this much of them. They were mostly 
simple, honest, ignorant men who had grown restless under 
ofiicial oppression ; they had been defeated and forced to take 



22 THE NOETH CAEOLHSTA BOOKLET. 

an oath to the king by the very men who in 1Y76 sought to 
make them break the oath taken in 1771. In that struggle 
the Regulators for the most part maintained a sullen neutral- 
ity. Unlike their sympathizers of that day, Caldwell and 
Person, they were unable to see that the principles of 1776 
were but those of 1771 writ large ; that official oppression was 
the same, whether exercised by petty despots at their doors 
or by high lords and Parliament over sea ; and that the John- 
ston Act of 1770 was but the prototype of the five intolerable 
acts of the British Parliament of 1774, which set all Amer- 
ica aflame. 

But the Regulators were not allowed to go their way in 
peace, l^umerous efforts were made to win them to the 
cause of independence, and to these efforts Person lent his 
influence. The Hillsboro Convention of 1775 appointed him 
member of a committee to confer with such of the inhabitants 
of the province "who entertain any religious or political scru- 
ples with respect to associating in the common cause of Amer- 
ica, to remove any ill impressions that have been made upon 
them by the artful devices of the enemies of America, and 
to induce them, by argument and persuasion, heartily to unite 
with us for the protection of the constitutional rights and 
privileges thereof" (X, 169). 

Again, the Council of Safety, on August 3, 1776, resolved 
that General Person and Mr. Joseph John Williams "do each 
of them agree ^vith a proper person for the purpose of in- 
structing the inhabitants of Anson County and other the 
western parts of this colony in their duty to Almighty God, 
and for explaining to them the justice and necessity of the 
measures pursued by the United States of America" (X, 
693). 

But that the Provincial Convention of 1775 knew little of 
the character of the Regulators in particular, or of human 
nature in general, is shown by their making Richard Caswell, 



THOMAS PEESOjST. 23 

Maurice Moore and Henry Pattillo members of this commit- 
tee to win them to the American cause. JSTothing shows more 
clearly the greatness of Thomas Person than his participation 
in the Regulation and his subsequent part in the Revolution. 
Other Regulators, bj reason of narrowness of vision, or from 
personal spite, or from littleness, might hang back or even 
join the Tory interests, to which they were invited and urged 
by the successor of tJie brutal Try on, but not Person. As 
Colonel Saunders has well said, the most ardent friend of the 
Regulation might be willing to stake the reputation of the 
cause on the character of Thomas Person, Church of Eng- 
land man though he was, friend of education, wealthy if not 
aristocratic, patriot and democrat of democrats. 

Person Avas again in the Assembly in ISTovember, 1771, in 
January and December, 1773, March, 1774, and April, 1775. 
Although he was a commissioner on public buildings in Hills- 
boro district in 1771, he seems nevertheless to have suffered 
somewhat from his participation in the popular uprising ; but 
as time passed on and efforts were made by Martin to quiet 
the feelings of the Regulators, Person comes more and more 
into prominence, and by sheer weight of character made him- 
self a necessity to the colony. 

As the struggle with Great Britain drew on he became one 
of the foremost advocates of separation. On February 12, 
1776, he writes to his father of the "advocates of liberty" (X, 
450) ; on the 14th, his friend, Penn, a neighbor, citizen of 
the same county, possibly a sympathizer with the Regulators, 
now in the Continental Congress, perhaps in great measure 
through his influence, surveys the situation and writes: 
"Matters are drawing to a crisis. They seem determined to 
persevere and are forming alliances against us. Must we not 
do something of the like nature ? * * * The consequence of 
making alliances is perhaps a total separation from Britain" 
(X, 456). This letter was received, perhaps, about March 



34 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

1st. On the 3d the Provincial Council, of which Person was 
a member, ordered the next session of the Provincial Congress 
to be held at Halifax on April 2d. The delegates met on 
April 4th; on the 8th, Harnett, Allen Jones, Burke, Abner 
Nash, John Kinchen, Person and Thomas Jones were ap- 
pointed a committee to take into consideration "the usurpa- 
tions and violences attempted and committed by the king and 
Parliament of Britain against America, and the further 
measures to be taken for frustrating the same and for the 
better defense of this province" (Col. Rec, X, xvii-xviii, 
504) ; on the 12th, the committee brought in a resolution 
empowering the delegates from I^orth Carolina in the Conti- 
nental Congress "to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring independency, and forming foreign alli- 
ances." 

And thus on April 12, 1776, ISTorth Carolina became the 
first of the colonies to make a formal proposal for a declara- 
tion of independence. 

Was not this proposal as much or more the work of Thomas 
Person than of any other man ? Perhaps we shall never find 
evidence that will settle this point beyond dispute, but no 
student of our history will dare claim that such an honor 
could belong by right of work done to any other man more 
than to Person or that any other citizen of our State was 
more worthy of this great and signal honor. 

Person was a member of all the provincial conventions and 
congresses which took the place of the Assembly and of the 
governor from 1774 to 1776. 

1. Kew Bern, August 25-27, 1774 (C. P., IX, 1042). 

2. E'ew Bern, April 3-7, 1775 (C. R., IX, 1179). 

3. Hillsboro, August 20 to September 10, 1775 (X, 164.) 

4. Halifax, April 4 to May 14, 1776 (X, 499). 

5. Halifax, ITovember 12 to December 23, 1776 (X, 914). 
He served on their important committees and in the last 



THOMAS PERSON. 25 

was on the committees which drafted the Bill of Rights and 
the Constitution. So satisfactory was the latter to the people 
of l!^orth Carolina that it remained in force for fifty-nine 
years without change ; of the Declaration of Rights it is suf- 
ficient to say that of its twelve clauses for the protection of 
individual rights eleven were embodied in the first ten amend- 
ments to the Constitution of the United States (Col. Rec, X, 
xxiii, XXV ). 

He had been chosen a member of the Provincial Council, 
September 9, 1775 (X, 214). This body was the executive 
head of the State and had Samuel Johnston as a member. 
Johnston and Allen Jones represented the more conservative 
element. They favored a strong government, a sort of repre- 
sentative Republicanism, modeled on Great Britain. The 
more progressive or radical wing, led by Willie Jones and 
Person, favored a simpler , government and one more directly 
responsible to the people. The Provincial Council under the 
influence of the conservatives was slow, while the mass of the 
congress was with the radicals. As a result for the Provin- 
cial Council was substituted a Council of Safety, Person still 
a member (X, 581), with no practical change in its functions 
further than in name ; but with the radical Willie Jones as 
the representative of the congress, instead of the conservative 
Johnston who was not a member. 

On April 22, 1776, Person was elected brigadier general 
of the militia of Hillsboro district (X, 530) and was suc- 
ceeded in this office in 1777 by John Butler. This was not 
the time* when to be a militia general meant ease and quiet. 
It meant work, the raising of troops for active service, drill- 
ing, collecting supplies and actual fighting in suppression of 
Tory marauders. It was no sinecure, but Person was never, 
so far as I know, in actual battle. His service to the State, 
like that to the Regulators, was in the cabinet, not on the 
field. 



26 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

He was made by the last Provincial Congress a justice of 
the peace for Granville (XXIII, 993) and a member of the 
Council of State (X, 1013), his fellow-councilors being Wil- 
liam Dry, William Haywood, Edward Starkey, Joseph Leech 
and Thomas Eaton. He was nominated for the same office 
in 1781, but failed of election (XVII, 810, 894), and again 
in 1789, but at the latter period asked to have his name with- 
drawn (XXI, 389, 390, 704). In May, 1782, he was nom- 
inated for the Continental Congress but failed of election 
(XVI, 90; XIX, 57) ; on May 11, 1784, he was elected to 
the Continental Congress, but it was a time when there was 
more expense and labor in being a member of the congress 
than money and honor. Person never took his seat and his 
name nowhere appears in the list of ISTorth Carolina Con- 
gressmen (XVII, 79, 139, 143; XIX, 583). 

In January, 1787, he was elected along with William 
Green and Matthew Locke chief commissioner for receiving 
the certificates of the Board of Commissioners of Army Ac- 
counts (XVIII, 451, 459). It was their duty to receive 
and correct the proceedings of the commissioners appointed 
to settle the accounts of the ISTorth Carolina troops in the 
Continental Line (XX, 630; XXI, 551) and thus bring to 
a final settlement the accounts of Xorth Carolina with the 
United States. It was a delicate duty and one requiring the 
highest degree of honesty. Many frauds had been committed 
in the preparation of these accounts. These were discovered 
and were followed by a long investigation, the trial and pun- 
ishment of the guilty parties (State Rec, XVII and XVIII, 
passim; McRee's "Iredell," II, 155-6). 

One of Person's most important services to the State was 
as a leader of the anti-Federal party in the convention of 
1788 ; but before proceeding to discuss that convention, which 
was called to consider the Federal constitution, it is necessary 
to review briefly the alignment of political parties. From 



THOMAS PEKSOlSr. 27 

1776 there were two clearly defined parties in the State. 
They were a unit as to resistance to the aggressions of Great 
Britain, but in domestic matters the lines of party cleavage 
were sharply defined. One party we may call the Conserva- 
tive ; it was strongest in the east ; was led by Johnston, Ire- 
dell, Hooper, Maclaine. It was aristocratic and wealthy, 
stood for the slaveholding, commercial and mercantile inter- 
ests; it preferred a strong central government and was slow 
to advocate democracy. The other party we may call Kadi- 
cal. It was stronger in the north and west. It was nearer 
the soil and the people. Its leaders were Willie Jones, Per- 
son, the Bloodworths, Spencer, Locke, Sharpe, Rutherford, 
and others. They were ultra-democratic, even radical in 
their tendencies and ardent advocates from the first of an ex- 
tremely democratic government. The struggle began in the 
first Halifax congress, April, 1776, or earlier, and was won 
by the Radicals as is shown by the substitution of the Council 
of Safety for the Provincial Council. The question of the 
new constitution also developed differences and the April 
congress deferred its adoption to a later congress to be elected 
for that particular purpose out of deference to the wishes of 
the minority. Johnston stood as a candidate for this con- 
gress from Chowan County and was defeated (McRee's "Ire- 
dell," I, 238, 281) and this left him sulking in his tent. He 
refused to serve as treasurer and Iredell bitterly resented his 
defeat by writing his "Creed of a Rioter" (McRee, I, 335- 
836) ; Iredell later resigned as attorney-general and Hooper 
left the Continental Congress. But the Radicals were liberal 
and patient and kept many of the Conservatives in office as 
the price of their support (cf. Dodd's "Macon," 30; and 
Saunders, Pref. N'otes, Col. Rec, X). 

In 1780-81, as the tide of war surged into ISTorth Carolina 
and went against her, the Conservatives grew in numbers and 
power; after the war ended they championed the Tory in- 



28 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

terests and continued to grow. Johnston was their perennial 
candidate for governor, but Caswell was agreed on as a sort 
of compromise. When the time for considering the Federal 
constitution drew near each exerted itself to the utmost to win 
control of the convention. The Radicals, whom we may now 
call Anti-Federalists and who became the nucleus of the first 
Republican party, demanded: (1) A free and absolutely in- 
dependent state, for a few years at least; (2) a genuinely 
democratic administration; (3) a general improvement in 
educational advantages for the people. In accord with the 
last of these demands the State actually entered on a plan of 
public improvements which anticipated that urged in the 
State thirty years later by Murphey and in the Union fifty 
years later by Clay (Dodd, 14-90). 

The Anti-Federalists won control of the convention. It 
met in Ilillsboro, July 21, 1788. Person was a member from 
Granville; on his motion Samuel Johnston was made presi- 
dent (XXII, 6). He was himself a member of the commit- 
tee on elections (XXII, 7). It is evident from the journals 
that he took a leading part in the business, but he does not 
seem to have been a frequent speaker. The first trial of 
streng-th came on August 1, when the convention considered 
the report of the Committee of the Whole House on a pro- 
posed Bill of Rights and certain amendments. The preamble 
to the report of the Committee of the Whole reads : 

"Resolved, That a Declaration of Rights, asserting and securing from 
encroachment the great principles of civil and religious liberty, and the 
unalienable rights of the people, together with amendments to the most 
ambiguous and exceptionable parts of the said constitution of govern- 
ment, ought to be laid before Congress and the convention of states that 
shall be called for the purpose of amending the said constitution, for 
their consideration, previous to the ratification of the constitution 
aforesaid, on the part of the State of North Carolina." (XXII, 16.) 

Iredell moved that all of this report be stricken out, that 
the constitution be adopted and that certain amendments be 



THOMAS PERSON. 29 

then proposed. This motion brought out the strength of the 
respective parties: For the motion, 84; against, 184; on 
August 2d, the report of the Committee of the Whole was 
again taken up and concurred with: yeas, 184; nays, 84. 

After the Report of the Committee of the Whole was 
adopted Willie Jones moved : 

"Whereas, this convention has thought proper neither to ratify nor 
reject the constitution proposed for the government of the United States; 
and as Congress will proceed to act under the said constitution, ten 
states having ratified the same, and probably lay an impost on goods 
imported into the said ratifying states: 

"Resolved, That it be recommended to the legislature of this State 
that vphenever Congress shall pass a law for collecting an impost in the 
states aforesaid, this State enact a law for collecting a similar impost 
on goods imported into this State, and appropriate the money arising 
therefrom to the use of Congress." (XXII, 31.) 

This resolution, passed by 143 yeas to 44 nays, the Federal 
leaders voting in the negative, shows as clearly as words can 
show that the desire of Jones, Person and other Anti-Feder- 
alists was for a Federal government of limited powers and 
that their purpose was not to establish an independent re- 
public as has been recently claimed by Professor Dodd (see 
his "Macon," p. 54), but to protect the interests of the states 
against the centralizing tendency which was even then clearly 
visible in the new constitution to those who had eyes to see. 
Davie reports that both Person and Jones were holding out 
the doctrine of opposition for four or five years at least. 
Jones feared the Federal judiciary and Person the Federal 
power to tax (McRee, II, 178, 239). 

It was thus that ISTorth Carolina declined to either ratify 
or reject the Federal Constitution by a decided majority of 
100 votes. Whether it was the wiser policy to adopt first and 
then ask for amendments or wait till the amendments were 
adopted, a child can tell. As to which of these parties could 
read the book of the future aright is equally easy of discern- 
ment. 



30 THE NOETH CAKOLIWA BOOKLET. 

Many public men in the State desired that a second Fed- 
eral convention be called to revise the new constitution in the 
light of the criticisms upon it, and Person, along with John- 
ston, Iredell, Tim Bloodworth, Jos. McDowell, Sr., Dupre, 
Locke, Alfred Moore, Spencer and Allen Jones were chosen 
by the Assembly on ISTovember 24, 1Y88, to attend such a 
convention of the whole United States "should one be called" 
(XX, 538, 544; XXI, 94, 100). Their desire was for a 
constitution more in accord with the will of the Kadicals and 
that a constitution acceptable to Bloodworth and Person 
would have been decentralized there can be no doubt. 

The constitutional convention held in Fayetteville in 'No- 
vember, 1Y89, was a small affair. The government of the 
United States had been organized under the constitution and 
was working well. The Anti-Federalists had received as- 
surances that the substance of the amendments proposed by 
them would be incorporated into the constitution; eleven 
states had accepted the instrument and l^orth Carolina and 
Rhode Island alone remained out. The convention met iN'o- 
vember 16, 1789. Willie Jones failed to be returned by his 
county. Johnston was again made president and Person was 
again on the committee on elections. The convention went 
into a Committee of the Whole to consider the constitution 
and sat three days. The Anti-Federalists moved that its re- 
port be rejected and that certain amendments be proposed. 
These forbade interference with the election of senators and 
representatives, dealt with the levying of direct taxes, the 
redemption of paper money by the states and the introduction 
of foreign troops. But the amendments were defeated by 
187 nays to 82 yeas, Spencer, Caldwell, Bloodworth, Person 
and others voting yea (XXII, 45, 46). The convention then 
proceeded to adopt the constitution, 195 yeas to 77 nays. 
Person, true to his convictions and game to the last, voted 
nay (XXII, 48, 49). 



THOMAS PERSOIN". 31 

On ISTovember 24, 1789, when the Federal constitution had 
been formally adopted, the Assembly proceeded to elect sen- 
ators to Congress. Person was nominated by the house of 
commons, but the Federalists were in power and such radicals 
as Person and Bloodworth went down before Johnston and 
Hawkins (XXI, 253, 614). When his party again came 
into power in 1794-95 Person's race had been run, but he 
had the pleasure of seeing his radical comrades Alexander 
Martin and Timothy Bloodworth succeed Johnston and Haw- 
kins. 

But, after all, Thomas Person's most important and valu- 
able service to I^orth Carolina was not as an Anti-Federalist 
member of the conventions of 1788 and 1789, nor as a mili- 
tary man, nor as a philanthropist, but as a member of the 
General Assembly. There he was always active, generally 
a radical, always an argus-eyed guardian of the rights of the 
people, an advocate, ardent, insistent and constant of the in- 
terests of the masses, and consequently hated and always 
feared by the representatives of the aristocratic, conservative 
interests. 

Person represented Granville County in the Assembly in 
the house of commons almost continuously from 1764 to 
1785 ; he was defeated in 1786 ; was in the senate in 1787 ; 
again in the house in 1788, 1790, 1793, and 1794. (It is 
believed that the Thomas Person in the house in 1795 and 
1797 was his nephew). In all, he represented his county 
some thirty years, a length of service which in itself is a most 
eloquent proof of his usefulness and of the appreciation of 
his people. It does not require a long or an extended exami- 
nation of the legislative journals to show his prominence and 
usefulness. He served on the most important committees: 
public accounts, military matters, privileges and elections, 
propositions and grievances, finance, defence, depredations of 
Tories, location of capital, affairs of ^orth Carolina Line, 



32 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

manufacture of iron, raising regular troops and regulating 
commissary department, on bill of attainder, paper money, 
debts due to and from the public, Indian affairs, land grants, on 
vesting power in Continental Congress to levy duties, claims 
and depreciation, trial of impeachments, revenue, proposed 
revision of the constitution, Virginia boundary, confiscated 
property, etc. He was usually chairman of his committee 
and presented many reports to the house; in 1784 he was 
chairman of the whole ; never seeking the honors of the house, 
he was an active working member, bringing in many bills, 
serving on many special committees, presenting many peti- 
tions and memorials from sections of the State remote from 
his own. It is evident, too, that he was a fighter. No fonn 
of what he thought injustice, illegality or graft could escape 
his quick eye or pass without a protest. Thus in 1782, on 
petition of O'Bryan, Duncan and Pittman, who were being 
held as military deserters by Sumner, he recommended that 
they be discharged from the Continental army (XVI, 137). 
In 1783 he voted against the seating of his political friend, 
Bloodworth, as it seemed to him illegal (XIX, 292). In 
1784 he protested against the cession of Tennessee to the 
Federal Government (XIX, 714), and had his protests been 
heeded the troubles coming from the abortive state of Frank- 
lin would have been avoided. He was particularly vigorous 
in protest against whatever savored of injustice or class legis- 
lation. Thus in 1785 he protested against the salt tax and 
the uniform tax on lands because they placed undue burdens 
on the poor, and against the confiscation act because it was 
illegal, unjust and ex post facto (XVII, 409, 410, 419, 421). 
There is plenty of evidence also that Person was a man 
of strong feeling and made personal enemies. Thus Mac- 
laine writes bitterly of his political methods, which were 
never to produce ''his budget till he is pretty certain he has 
sufficient strength to support it" (XXI, 504) ; and when the 
constitution question was uppermost Thomas Iredell runs to 



THOMAS PERSON. 33 

his brother with a tale that Person had said in substance that 
Washington was a damned rascal and traitor to his country, 
for putting his hand to such an infamous paper as the new 
constitution (McEee, II, 224, 225). 

The feeling of the conservative and aristocratic party to- 
ward him may be seen in a letter of Johnston to Burke, dated 
June 26, 17 Y7: 

"The few good men, or men of understanding and business, who had 
inclination or intend to be either of the legislature or executive depart- 
ments, are by no means sufficient to counterbalance the fools and knaves 
who by their low arts have worked themselves into the good graces of 
the populace. When I tell you that I saw with indignation such men as 
G— th E — d, T — s P— s— n [Griffith Rutherford and Thomas Person], 
and your colleague Penn, with a few others of the same stamp, principal 
leaders in both houses, you will not expect that anything good or great 
should proceed from the counsels of men of such narrow, contracted 
principles, supported by the most contemptible abilities." XI, 504.) 

Even Caswell, with whom he had fought many battles and 
whose personal ambitions he had so often advanced, was not 
always true. He writes to Hawkins, September 29, 1786 : 

"I can not say it gives me great pain to hear my old friend, the 
general, was disappointed in the late election for Granville, or that he is 
much mortified at being left out, as I flatter myself his country will 
derive advantage from his absence from the legislature, which his jeal- 
ousy prevented when present, and kept her from. However, he may yet 
succeed in his favorite scheme of appointing a new governor for the next 
year, as his pernicious opinions and false suggestions are gone forth and 
he very likely will still have effrontery sufficient to endeavor to support 
them when the governor, conscious of the rectitude of his own conduct, 
and his friends, careless about the matter, may take no pains to contra- 
vene his attempt. (XVIII, 751.) 

From these extracts it is not hard to see that Person was 
not one to fawn on those in power or to ask favors of the 
great. It is also evident that his political life had in it 
much of storm and stress and that he was a man who de- 
lighted in the joy of battle. He was a man of wealth, but 
not penurious. During the war his property was at the 
service of the State. We find the State in 1781 repaying 
him for a loan of salt (XVII, 971, 974) and between June, 



34 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

1781, and April 25, 1782, he loaned Governor Burke $50,000 
"to be replaced or paid bj warrant which I did not issue" 
(XVI, 299). He assisted in securing the charter for the 
University of l^orth Carolina in 1789 and was a member of 
its first board of trustees, 1789-95. But this was not all. 
While the University had been chartered no support had been 
provided for it by the State. An effort was being made to 
open its doors to students, but the trustees and faculty had 
no money. Its fortunes were at the lowest ebb. The trus- 
tees could or would do nothing in their private capacity, when 
Person came forward, and on April 20, 1796, gave the infant 
institution £500, and in April, 1797, £25 more. This sum, 
aggregating $1050 in our money, was paid in silver dollars 
at a time when hard money was almost unattainable. The 
gift, for the time and section, a very large one, perhaps saved 
the institution and started it on a career of usefulness. Per- 
son Hall, known after 1837 as "the old chapel" and used in 
more recent years as a chemical laboratory, was named in 
his honor, and until the reopening of the University in 1875 
all its diplomas were dated from Aula Personica. A street 
in Raleigh, another in Fayetteville, and Person County, 
erected in 1791, recall his name and fame. 

General Person married his cousin. Tradition says her 
name was Johanna Philpot, of Granville (b. September 15, 
1739). She died insane and without issue. He had two 
sisters, Martha, who married Major Thomas Taylor, of 
Franklin County, and Mary Ann (b. May 6, 1736), who 
married Major George Little, a son of Chief Justice Little, 
and a Revolutionary patriot of Hertford County. General 
Person adopted his nephew, William Person Little, who was 
a son of this marriage, educated him at Sprig's College, near 
Williamsboro, in Granville County, gave him much of his 
property, and it is in his honor that Littleton is named. He 
also had a brother, William Person (b. ISTovember 30, 1734), 
and a brother, Benjamin (b, February 13, 1737). 



THOMAS PERSON. 35 

Person's family seat was at Goshen in Granville County. 
The sycamore trees planted by him are still standing, but in 
a decayed condition. He died in Franklin County, at the 
home of his sister, Mrs. Taylor, on ISTovember 16, 1800, (not 
1799, as Wheeler says) while on his way from Raleigh to 
Goshen, and is buried at Personton on Hub Quarter Creek in 
Warren County. 

The Raleigh Register for Tuesday, IsFovember 25, 1800, 
has a notice of his death and character. It is reproduced 
here, for it shows the esteem of his own generation. 

"Died. At the house of Major Taylor, in Franklin County, on Sunday, 
the 16th inst., Thomas Person, of Warren, in the sixty-seventh year of 
his age. 

"This gentleman was long a member of the General Assembly of North 
Carolina, as well before as since the Revolution, and at all times con- 
ducted himself in such a manner as to manifest a proper and steady 
regard, not only to the interests of his immediate constituents, but 
likewise to the welfare and happiness of the people of the State at large. 

"He was a member of the first convention and of all the subsequent 
conventions had in this State. * * * 

"He died as he lived, a firm believer and fixed Republican; and al- 
though he left no children, * * * he has raised up for himself a 
name which will neither be forgotten nor cease to be respected. * * *" 

Archibald Henderson, a younger contemporary, congress- 
man, and great lawyer, pronounced Person one of nature's 
noblemen, and Colonel William L. Saunders, a Democrat af- 
ter Person's own heart, says of him: "Wherever devoted, 
intelligent, efficient patriotism was required, Person was 
promptly put on duty. * * * And to-day ISTorth Carolina 
bears in her bosom the bones of no purer patriot than those 
of Thomas Person" (Col. Rec, VIII, xxx). 

Sources: Private information from representatives of the Person 
family for use in my "Life of Mangum"; the Colonial and State Rec- 
ords, passim, where Person's public life is fully portrayed, with many 
useful suggestions as to the complexion of political parties in that day 
from Saunders' "Prefatory Notes" and Dodd's "Life of Macon." 



SKETCH OF FLORA McDONALD. 



By Mrs. S. G, Ayeb. 



Flora McDonald was the daughter of Kanald, who was the 
son of Angus, youngest son of Milton. She was born in 
Milton in island of Uist, Argyleshire, Scotland, in 1Y26. I 
have never yet learned the exact date. Her earlier years 
were spent in her native Uist, where she could hear the roar 
of Corrievrecken, and see the mountains of Currada and 
Skye rise in solemn grandeur toward heaven; or at her 
brother's home at Corrodale, where she had a commanding 
view of Loch Boisdale and Loch Skipport, which separate 
Uist from the main land and tihe Isle of Skye. Midst 
scenes of grandeur and sublimity, the earlier years of Flora 
passed away; but, her father having died, in a few years 
after Flora's mother married Hugh McDonald of Armadale, 
in the Isle of Skye. 

Skye seems to have been more favored with schools and 
seminaries than other portions of the Highlands at that time 
and Flora having the advantage of the ancient institutions 
was at an early age quite well educated and was deeply 
imbued with a veneration for the system of clanship, and 
loyalty to the house of Stuart. 

In her teens she was sent to Edinburgh to complete her 
studies and to acquire the grace and polish suited to her sta- 
tion in life. That she succeeded most admirably may be 
gathered from the way in which Dr. Johnson in his "Tour of 
the Hebrides" speaks of her, as a "woman of middle stature,, 
soft features, gentle manners and elegant presence." Mr. 
James Banks in his "Life and Character of Flora McDonald'^ 
also says, "years ago I heard Malcomb McKay, who had been 
in early life a Cornet in the British Army, remark, that he 
had seen the Queen of England and many of her attendants,. 



FLORA Mcdonald. 3Y 

but for grace and dignity Elora McDonald excelled all the 
women he ever beheld and that it was worth a day's ride to 
see her graceful manner of sitting or rising from a chair, 
that there was a perfection of ease and grace in that simple 
act that could be felt but not described." This sounds extrava- 
gant to a nineteenth century woman though we are all ready 
to admit Flora a most extraordinary woman. 

Flora McDonald was related to the Clanranald branch of 
the family of that name, and was consequently descended 
from a family of heroes, whose deeds of valor had afforded 
themes for the immortal Ossian and whose prowess nearly 
prevented the removal of the Scottish capital from Dun- 
staff anage (Flora was imprisoned here) the palace of the 
ancient kings of Scotland, whence the chair of Scone was 
brought to crown the royal Bruce, and now forms an append- 
age to the regalia of Britain. 

Perhaps I have said enough of the lineage, personal ap- 
pearance and general characteristics of Flora McDonald. Sir 
Walter Scott speaks beautifully of her in "Waverly." Her 
loyalty to the House of Stuart is represented as the ruling 
passion of her life. Those who have read Waverly remember 
Flora Mclvor. When Prince Charlie landed in Scotland and 
raised the royal standard on the hills of Moidart and called 
the chiefs of McDonald, Lochiel and Glengarry to uphold 
that banner, the young and enthusiastic Flora in her High- 
land home was heard to exclaim: 

"Yes. Up with that banner. 

Let forest winds fan her. 
It has waved o'er the Stuarts ten ages and more; 

In sport we'll attend her, 

In battle defend her, 
With hearts and with hands like our fathers before." 

Ah ! but when that banner was trailed in the dust at Cul- 
loden, and her prince seeking an asylum and a hiding place 
in the glens and mountains, over which his ancestors had so 



38 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

long exercised control, when he was persecuted and hunted 
like a wild animal, hemmed in by the Duke of Cumberland, 
(victor of Culloden) as by a wall of fire on the little Island 
of Uist, sentinels stationed at every possible place of escape, 
patrols were at every ferry and at every pass, even a fleet of 
British cruisers had surrounded the island, false friends had 
deserted him, and the timid ones shrunk away in despair, a 
price was set upon his head, his enemies believed his destruc- 
tion certain, men of iron nerve quailed and were unable to 
effect his escape. jSTow a woman comes to do what brave men 
dare not, she releases Prince Charles Edward from his island 
prison. 

Oh, woman, in our hours of ease 

Uncertain, coy and hard to please; 

When pain and anguish rack the brow, 

A ministering angel thou. 

And truly "a ministering angel" was Flora McDonald to 
the poor, despairing Prince. When she was asked by Cap- 
tain ISTeal and Lady Clanranald to help the Prince to escape 
she said that the McDonald (her step father's), McLeod and 
Campbell militia commanded every pass, the Prince was 
known to be on the island, a price of thirty thousand pounds 
was on his head, Loch Skipport and Loch Boisdale were 
covered with English sails cruising about towards France so 
that a sparrow could not go beyond their lines without their 
knowledge. But with her ready wit she devised a plan. 
She was shown the Prince in a miserable "shieling" on the 
estate of her brother at Corrodale. She was so overcome, to 
see her Prince, his clothes in tatters, half famished, prepar- 
ing his frugal meal, that she knelt before him declaring her 
readiness to die in the attempt to save him. The Prince 
raised her from her kneeling posture and assured her "he 
would always retain a deep sense of so conspicuous a ser- 
vice." On the same day she returned to Milton to make ar- 



FLORA Mcdonald. 39 

rangements to take the Prince from Uist to Skye. The next 
day, June 21, 1746, as she was trying to cross over to Orma- 
clade, the seat of Clanranald, she was taken prisoner, having 
failed to provide herself with a passport. On being arrested 
she refused to answer any questions, and demanded to be 
taken to the officer in command. This she was denied and 
was committed to prison for the night. In the morning she 
was taken before the Commander, who proved to be no less 
a person than her stepfather, Hugh McDonald of Armadale, 
to whose house in Skye she expressed a strong desire to go, 
that she might avoid unpleasant and annoying encounters 
with the soldiers on the island of Uist. Her request seemed 
so natural, that he readily consented to give her a passport 
for herself and ]S[eill McEachin McDonald who acted as her 
servant. (He was the father of Marshal McDonald, Duke 
■•ji Tarentum, one of l^apoleon's ablest generals). Another 
passport was also obtained for "Betty Burke," an Irish girl 
whom she had m(^t on the island, and wished to carry to help 
her mother spin flax and to keep them company while the 
master of the house was absent. So unsuspecting was her 
father that he even wrote to his wife giving reasons for send- 
ing Flora from the island and recommending Betty Burke 
for spinning, and giving leave to hire and employ her till 
his return. After getting the passport Flora sent a mes- 
sage to the Prince telling him that all was well, asking him 
to meet her at Rasimish in Benbicula. In the meantime she 
Avent to Lady Clanranald's and told her her scheme. Lady 
Clanranald complimented her and supplied the necessary 
dress to disguise the Prince as an Irish servant girl. The 
dress consisted of "a. flowered linen govoi, sprigged with blue, 
a light quilted garment, a cap and apron, and a mantle of 
dun colored camlet, made after the Irish fashion with a 
hood." She hired a six-oared boat to take them across to 
Skye, telling the men when and where to meet her. With 



40 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Lady Clanranald and her servant boy MclSTeill she went to 
meet the Prince who had gone by her directions to the wilds 
of Benbicula. They found him preparing his own dinner 
which was of the humblest fare. "At dinner Flora occupied 
a seat on the Prince's right hand and Lady Clanranald on 
his left." After dinner much to the Prince's astonishment 
Flora told him he was to go with her as her servant girl and 
showed him the disguise she had procured for him. The 
Prince appreciated the ingenuity of the plan and, to the 
merriment of the ladies, was soon transformed into a rather 
awkward maid. Scarcely was this done when a messenger 
came to announce that Captain Furgison had quartered at 
Ormaclade, making it positively necessary that Lady Clan- 
ranald should hasten back that any suspicion might be 
averted. She took an affectionate farewell of the Prince and 
left her brave kinswoman alone and comparatively unaided 
to work out the escape of their dearly loved Prince. It must 
have been most trying, indeed, to one so young, but she 
seemed equal to the emergency. When Captain O'Neill, who 
had up to this time been the inseparable companion of the 
Prince, refused now to be separated from him, she stood firm 
and told him if he did go all was indeed lost as she had pass- 
ports for only three. Both O'Keil and the Prince were obliged 
to yield and took a most affectionate leave, embracing each 
other. That evening when they reached the seashore, wet 
and weary, imagine their distress at not finding the boat 
which they expected. They were obliged to pass the night on 
the rock anxiously waiting, but as it did not come they ven- 
tured to kindle a fire to dry their dripping clothes and warm 
themselves, l^o sooner had they begun to feel somewhat 
comfortable than "four wherries filled with armed men were 
seen approaching," this obliged them to put out the fire and 
look for shelter among "the bonnie blooming heather." For- 
tunately they did not land or make any search, but, in a 



FLORA Mcdonald. 4]^ 

short time, the wherries tacked and passed within gunshot 
of the place where they were concealed. All of the next day 
they were obliged to seek shelter, these three, among the 
mountains of that "rock-girt sea," but in the evening their 
boat came, and immediately set sail for Skye. The evening 
was "calm, clear and serene" and a gentle favorable breeze 
rippled over the water, but soon the sky began to lower, the 
wind rose, the billows rolled mountain high and threatened 
to engulf their little boat. The even temper of the Prince 
seems not to have been ruffled by any reverse of fortune; it 
is related of him that "he was superior to the elements, and 
to cheer and animate the sailors he narrated incidents of 
naval valor, and sung songs of the British Isle." Flora feel- 
ing that her watchful care was not then necessary to her 
Prince, closed her eyes and restored tired nature, and pre- 
pared for the next day's trials. "While she slept the Prince 
kept watch that she might rest undisturbed. Judge of their 
anxiety, when day dawned, no land was in sight, and not 
having a compass they could not tell where they were, or 
which way to steer. "There is a Divinity that shapes our 
ends rough hew them as we may." The seamen steered at 
random, and in a short time were cheered by seeing the head- 
lands of Skye, in the dim distance. What must have been 
their feeling! When at Waterwish they were fired upon by 
McLeod's militia. As the bullets fell thickly around them, 
the Prince tried to persuade Flora to get in the bottom of 
the boat. She refused to do so but insisted that he should do 
so. Seeing that she was determined, the matter was compro- 
mised by both taking shelter in the bottom of the boat until 
they had gone beyond danger. About the middle of the next 
day the boat entered a little creek near Moydhstat in Skye, 
the seat of Sir Alex. McDonald who was at that time with 
the Duke of Cumberland at Fort Augustus making plans for 
the capture of the fugitive Prince, who was on his way to 



42 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

Lady Margaret McDonald's, Sir Alexander's wife ; she being 
a strong Jacobite was anxious for the Prince to escape. She 
was a daughter of the celebrated Susana, Countess of Alin- 
ton, whom Dr. Johnson has immortalized as a beauty and a 
wit and to whom Allan Ramsey dedicated his pastoral, says : 
"When Flora reached the castle with the Prince she was 
surprised to find Captain McLeod quartered there fully em- 
powered to examine and arrest all suspected persons. She 
intuitively discovered that he suspected her, so instead of 
avoiding a meeting with him she sought his society and by her 
easy, pleasant manners so won him that he escorted her to 
dinner and paid her much attention." As soon as the "Moun- 
tain Dew" (I wish I could recollect the formula of this 
famous drink ; Mrs. Furgison gave it to me but with other 
papers was lost in the fire) was brought on Lady McDonald 
and Flora retired leaving the gentleman to their "cup." 
They went immediately to the private apartments of Lady 
McDonald where the Prince was waiting for them. While 
they were discussing means for his escape. Captain McLeod 
knocked at the door. Flora sent the maid "Betty Burke" to 
open the door, which she did and slowly retired from sight. 
This little ruse disarmed the Captain of any suspicion he 
may have entertained, and apologizing for the intrusion re- 
turned to the hall. Lady McDonald called to their counsel 
her husband's factor, Alex. McDonald of Kingsboro (after- 
wards Flora's father-in-law). He asked that the Prince might 
pass the night with him, at his home fourteen miles away. 
To this they readily consented. While Kingsboro (Alex. 
McD.) was getting the Prince away. Flora took leave of her 
mother publicly and her manner was so self-possessed that 
all of Captain McLeod's suspicion was allayed. They 
walked from Moydhstat to Kingsboro in the pouring rain. 
The mountain streams were full to overflowing and the Prince 
came near betraying himself by the awkward way in which 



FLORA Mcdonald. 43 

lie managed his skirts, but after a good many narrow escapes 
they reached the hospitable mansion of Kingsboro about mid- 
night. The lady of the house was very much alarmed. She 
feared that Flora had been imprudent in letting the boat 
which brought them to Skye return to TJist, nor were her 
fears long in being realized. The men on their arrival at Uist 
told their suspicions and royal troops set out immediately in 
purusit. The Prince at a late hour retired and enjoyed the 
first refreshing sleep he had had for months past. In the 
morning the lady asked for a lock of his hair as a memento 
that he had passed a night under her roof; the Prince con- 
sented and Flora at his request cut a lock which she divided 
between Mrs. McDonald and herself. On another occasion 
the Prince came near being discovered but Flora's self-pos- 
session and ready wit saved him. Turning towards him she 
commanded "Betty Burke" to put on the kettle, "Betty" 
went to do as bidden and so escaped again, but Flora was 
afraid to venture to hide him again in her mother's house 
so determined to put off female attire and disguise him as 
a farmer. This she did and he made his escape into the 
country of the Laird of Eaasay, who was then outlawed, and 
in his mountain home bid defiance to the troops of Hanover. 
The McLeods of Raasay met Flora, the Prince and J^eill 
McEachin at Portree and carried them into their own terri- 
tory, not only at the risk of their lives, but knowing that 
their daring act would operate as an excuse for the confisca- 
tion of their entire estates. On July 1, 1746, the Prince 
bade Flora "a tender and affecting farewell, ardently thanked 
her for her protection during the past ten days, and for hav- 
ing enabled him to escape from the wall of fire by which she 
had found him environed, and which he could never have 
passed without her aid and intrepidity. In affecting tones 
he told her that he yet hoped to meet her at the Court of St. 
James, when he would be able to reward her heroic devotion 



44 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

to her unfortunate Prince Charles Edward. History tells 
us though he was denied this privilege he never mentioned 
her name except in the highest terms of respect. 

The Prince escaped from Raasaj to France and Flora re- 
turned to her brother's home in Uist. Soon after reaching 
there she was called to appear before McLeod at Tallisker, 
and answer to the charge of helping the Prince to escape. 
Her friends entreated her to hide herself for awhile, but she 
refused to do so and started unprotected and alone to answer 
the summons. On her way to Tallisker she was met and 
arrested, not being allowed to take leave of her friends, was 
carried on board the sloop ''Furnace," Captain Furgison com- 
manding. Three weeks later under an escort of soldiers she 
was allowed, to bid her mother adieu, and was much hurt to 
learn from her that her stepfather was implicated in her 
offense, and that the people generally believed that he knew 
when he gave his daughter the passport for "Betty Burke" 
it was intended for the Prince. Flora bravely denied this 
charge on her stepfather, saying that she only was to blame. 
At her earnest request Kate McDonald was allowed to go with 
her as her maid. She was again taken on board the Fur- 
nace, but was soon considered a state prisoner of so much 
importance that she was exchanged to a vessel commanded 
by Commodore Smith, who was kind-hearted and very much 
sympathized with his fair captive in her distress. By his 
position and influence he was enabled to have her temporarily 
transferred as a prisoner to Dunstaffage Castle. In Sep- 
tember, she was again put on shipboard and carried to Leith 
Roads, where she was tossed in one of England's naval pal- 
aces until some time in ISTovember. During this time her 
name had become famous, as the lass who helped Prince 
Charles Edward to evade his foes and hundreds came from 
Edinburgh to see and talk with its Scottish heroine. Among 
the number were Bishop Forbes, Lady Bruce, Lady Cochran 



FLORA Mcdonald. 45 

and Lady Clarke, tlie latter of whom was so eager to do her 
honor that she was "willing to wipe her shoes." On the 
27th of ]^ovember, having been kept in captivity in Scotland 
four months, she was placed on board the "Royal Sovereign" 
and taken to London to await her trial on charge of treason. 
Government discovering that the people so deeply sympa- 
thized with her, that it was thought best not to put her in a 
common prison or in the tower, but determined to place her 
in the care of friends, who would be responsible for her ap- 
pearance, and yet allow government an oversight and knowl- 
edge of her correspondence and actions. "In this mitigated 
imprisonment Flora remained a State prisoner in London 
about twelve months" until in 1747 an act of indemnity was' 
passed, which set her free, and permitted her to return to her 
"native Highland home." It is said that during her long 
imprisonment, she was ever cheerful, her address easy, ele- 
gant and winning, while "a subdued and modest gravity deep- 
ened the interest excited by her simple, artless character." 
Upon one occasion, Frederick, Prince of Wales, demanded 
of her how she dared to aid a rebel against his father's 
throne ? With great simplicity she replied that she would 
have done the same for him had she found him in like dis- 
tress. The answer conquered his resentment and made him 
a lifelong friend. 

After her liberation she was a guest of Lady Primrose, and 
crowds of the nobility came to pay respects to the heroine. 
Her picture was painted for Commodore Smith and copies 
were soon scattered throughout the kingdom. One of these 
copies I have often seen and handled, it being the property 
of the old lady before referred to — Mrs. Cathrine Furgison ; 
since her death copies have been made from it (she most 
positively refused to have any copies made during her life) 
and I now have one of my own which I prize highly. 



46 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Flora soon tired of the attentions shown her in London 
and longed foT the quiet of her own home and the mother's 
love which she knew was waiting her there. In after life 
'NeiW McDonald (the same for whom she got the passport 
as her servant) was accustomed to say that he went to Lon- 
don to be hanged, but, instead was honored by being sent 
home with Flora McDonald in a coach and four. 

In 1750 in the thirtieth year of her age she was married 
to Alexander McDonald of Kingsboro, son of Kingsboro who 
had helped in the Prince's escape. We learn from Boswell 
that Flora's husband "was completely the figure of a gallant 
highlander, exhibiting the graceful mien, and manly looks, 
which our popular Scotch songs have justly attributed to that 
character. He had his tartan plaid thrown around him, a 
large blue bonnet with a knot of black ribbon like a cockade, 
a brown short coat, a tartan waistcoat with gold buttons, and 
gold button holes, a bluish philibeg and tartan hose. He had 
jet black hair tied behind, and was a large stately man, with 
a steady sensible countenance." Soon after her marriage her 
husband's father died and they moved to the Kingsboro 
estate, the home where she had found one night's rest for 
the Prince, and here they entertained Dr. Johnson and his 
friend Boswell. Writing to Mrs. Thrale, Dr. Johnson says : 
"Flora told me she felt honored by my visit, and I am sure 
whatever regard she bestowed on me, was liberally repaid. 
If thou likest her opinion thou wilt praise her virtues." He 
slept in the same room and on the same bed which the Prince 
had occupied on that memorable night in 1746. In the morn- 
ing he (Johnson) left a strip of paper with these words 
written with a pencil : '"Quaniatum cedat virtutihus aurum." 
Boswell translated it: "With virtue weighed, what worth- 
less trash is gold." Kingsboro's estate was in an embarrassed 
condition, which during his father's lifetime had suffered in 
consequence of his exertions in the cause of the Prince, having 



FLORA Mcdonald. 47 

lost his position as Factor in the management of his chief's 
estate. As is the custom in the ^^old country" Flora had a 
marriage contract which gave her all of her maiden property 
beyond her husband's control ; Sir Walter Scott had this doc- 
ument in his possession at the time of his death. She sacri- 
ficed her rights hoping to help her husband to repair his 
losses, and he thinking to better do so decided to try his for- 
tune in the "l!^ew World." Accordingly in 1114:, they sailed 
from Cambleton, Kintire, for Wilmington, ITorth Carolina, 
on board the ship "Baliol." 

The fame of Flora had crossed the water in advance of the 
heroine and when she arrived at Wilmington a ball was given 
in her honor, which she attended and ''took much pleasure in 
the attention paid her eldest daughter, Anne, who was just 
then blushing into young womanhood, and bore a striking 
resemblance to her mother." 

When she came to Cross Creek her old neighbors and 
kinsfolk who had preceded her a few years gave her a truly 
Highland welcome. "The strains of Pibroch and the martial 
airs of her native land greeted her on her approach to the 
capital of the Scotch settlement. "In this village she re- 
mained some time, visiting and receiving visits from friends, 
while her husband went to the western part of Cumberland, 
looking for land." One day she went to Mrs. Rutherford's, 
after Mrs. Mc Austin, (she occupied the house at that time 
known as the Stuart place just north of the Presbyterian 
church) and while there she saw a picture of "Anne of Jura" 
assisting the Prince to escape. Looking at it she said to her 
hostess : "Turn it to the wa, turn it to the wa, never let it 
see the light again, it is na true. Anne of Jura was na 
there and did na help the bonnie Prince." She lived on 
Cameron's Hill in Cumberland for a short while, and attended 
"preaching" at Longstreet and Barbecue, two Presbyterian 
churches. The minister at that time was Rev. Mr. McLeod. 



48 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Her daughter Anne married Alex. McLeod of Glendale, 
Moore County, in 1775. He afterwards distinguished himself 
in European wars and rose to the rank of Major-General in 
the British service. She died in Stein, Scotland. In the 
year 1775-76, Governor Martin, of ISTorth Carolina, deter- 
mined to raise a body of men from among the Scotch High- 
landers to be sent to Boston and mustered into the "Royal 
Highland Emigrant Regiment" to help General Gage to 
break down all opposition there. He accordingly selected 
Flora's husband and granted him the commission of Briga- 
dier-General. In order to assemble the Scotch, balls were 
given in different parts of the settlement. Flora attended 
some, accompanied by her daughter Anne (now Mrs. Mc- 
Leod) and a younger daughter Fanny. "Upon these occa- 
sions Anne and Fanny reig-ned supreme and bore off all the 
honors of the ball." January, 1776, "Kingsboro" McDonald 
bought a piece of land from Caleb Tuchstone on the borders 
of Richmond and Montgomery counties, and named it "Kil- 
liegray." Here two of Flora's children died and were buried. 
The road runs near the gTaves, which now are enclosed 
by a plain rail fence, by the present owner, a Mr. McLeod. 
I visited the spot during the winter of 1886 and was im- 
pressed by the surroundings. They did not befit the last 
resting place of Flora's children — simply a rail fence (true in 
good condition and probably the best Mr. McLeod could 
afford) around them, all overgrown with brush and weeds; 
not even the name or date could be deciphered on the de- 
cayed headboard. I felt had I the means how I should love 
to put some mark there by which future generations might 
know whose dust lay there, if it were nothing more than 
this. "These are the children of Flora McDonald, the Flora 
whom all admirers of feminine courage love to honor, she who 
risked life, fortune and that which every woman holds most 
sacred, reputation, to save her Prince, the unfortunate Charles 



FLORA Mcdonald. 49 

Edward." These words inscribed on a marble slab would cost 
so little and yet would be sufficient to tell to all wbo read it, 
whose graves they were. In the field a short distance from 
the graves the remnant of what seemed to have been a neat 
four-roomed cottage, my friend told me it had been the home 
of Flora. I did not see any of the family, they having gone 
to attend "the meeting" so the neighbors told us. In this I 
was disappointed hoping to have gathered some information 
from them in regard to the date of the children's death, their 
names, etc. I hoped too to get the date of the transfer of 
the property from the McDonalds to the McLeods, having 
been told that the present owner was a descendant of the Mc- 
Leod who bought the property from the McDonalds, and, ah ! 
flattering hope whispered perhaps they treasured the old 
deeds and I might see them too. 

"When the royal banner was unfurled at Cross Creek in 
1Y76, and the loyalist army marched towards Brunswick, 
under the command of Brigadier-General Donald McDonald, 
an officer sent by General Gage, who ranked Kingsboro 
(Flora's husband,) she, with the true devotion of a wife, fol- 
lowed her husband, and encamped one night on the brow of 
Haymount, near the site of the U. S. Arsenal. In the morn- 
ing when the army took up its line of march, midst banners 
streaming in the breeze and martial music floating on the 
air. Flora embraced her husband, and tears dimmed her eyes 
as she breathed a fervent prayer for his safe and speedy re- 
turn to their new home at Killiegray. In company with Mal- 
com McKay (then sixteen years of age) she retraced her 
steps home, and spent the first night with McKay's mother 
at Longstreet." After the defeat of the loyalists at Moore's 
Creek, and the capture of her husband Flora's health seems 
to have broken. Her husband was kept a prisoner in Hali- 
fax, ]Sr. C, jail and she was not allowed to visit him at all, 



50 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

SO at his earnest request she decided to return to their home 
in Scotland. She remained a year or two at Killiegray, 
making frequent visits to Cross Creek where a hearty wel- 
come always awaited her. After many difficulties with the 
Whig scouts, she succeeded in getting a pass from Captain 
Ingram (a Whig) in 1779. This enabled her to reach Fay- 
etteville, l!T. C, and Wilmington, 'N. C, from which place she 
made her way to Charleston, S. C. From there she sailed to 
her native land. "On the passage the vessel was attacked by a 
French cruiser; during the engagement Flora refused to go 
below, and remained on deck urging the men to deeds of 
daring. Her arm was broken in the fight, and she was ac- 
customed to say she had fought for the House of Stuart and 
for the House of Hanover, but had been worsted each time." 
Her three sons, Charles, James and John, were in the Brit- 
ish army, and Eanald and Sandy were in the naval service 
of England. Fanny was the only child with her and she 
seems to have been too young to give her mother the sym- 
pathy and comfort she so much needed at this trying time. 

Two letters written by Flora McDonald, one in 1780, the 
other in 1782, were published in the "Jacobite Memoirs," 
and have since been republished, I think, in BlachwelV s 
Magazine, some time during the forties of the last century. 

After peace was restored, her husband was liberated and 
returned from ISTorth Carolina to Skye, where he lived with 
his family till his death and was buried in Kingsboro bury- 
ing ground. On the 5th of March, 1790, Flora died and was 
buried in the church yard of Kilmuir in Skye "within a 
square piece of brick wall, which encloses the tombs of the 
McDonalds of Kingsboro," at the age of seventy (70) years. 
It is said that at least four thousand persons attended the 
funeral. "A great number of pipers assembled and simulta- 
neously played the usual lament for departed greatness. 



FLORA MCDONALD. 51 

Three hundred gallons of the purest ^mountain dew' was 
served out to the assembled multitude." 

Her son, Colonel McDonald, provided a marble slab with 
a suitable inscription, but it was broken when being carried 
to the cemetery and every piece of it has been taken away 
by tourists, anxious to possess some relic of the heroic woman. 

Up to seventy years ago there was not even a simple mar- 
ble stone to mark her grave. 

In 1898 one of the Scottish towns, (I do not remember 
which) elected to have a monument to Flora McDonald. It 
was a woman in Highland dress. When the statue was 
brought to the city, the woman was barefoot and the people 
were so indignant that they refused to accept it. The last 
accounts it still had not been unveiled. 

Flora, by request, when buried was wrapped in the sheet 
on which the Prince slept when at Kingsboro that memorable 
night in 1Y46. It had twice passed through Wilmington and 
Fayetteville, ^. C, as she never allowed it out of her posses- 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL 
MEMORANDA. 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY MRS. E, E. MOFFITT. 



CLARENCE H. POE. 

The following sketcli of Mr. Clarence Hamilton Poe, of 
Raleigh, 'N. C, the author of the article on ''Indians, Slaves 
and Tories: our early Legislation regarding them," is re- 
vised from the 1908-09 edition of "Who's Who in America": 

"Clarence Hamilton Poe; journalist; author; born in 
Chatham County, iN'orth Carolina, January 10, 1881; son 
of William B. and Susan (Dismukes) Poe; educated in the 
public schools, and at home (his mother having been a 
teacher) till 16 years of age when he began newspaper work. 
Editor-in-chief of the Progressive Farmer since 1899 ; he is 
now president of the Agricultural Publishing Company; 
secretary-treasurer of the Mutual Publishing Company; 
president of the Southern Farm Gazette Company ; secretary- 
treasurer State Literary and Historical Association; chair- 
man of the ]Sr. C. State Anti-Saloon League; acting chair- 
man IsT. C. Child Labor Committee. Baptist. Democrat^ 
unmarried. Author: (in collaboration) "Cotton; Its Culti- 
vation, Marketing and Manufacture," published by Double- 
day, Page & Co., 1906, "A Southerner in Europe," Mutual 
Publishing Co., 1908. Contributor to World's Worh, Re- 
view of Revieivs, North American Review, Atlantic Monthly^ 
and other magazines." 

Mr. Poe has two marked qualities that hardly ever fail to- 
make a man worth much to himself and his country : first, he 
is a persistent and systematic worker; second, he has the 
analytical faculty which enables him to see the real signifi- 
cance of things and to grasp the essentials. He thinks easily 
and rapidly, and his energy enables him to carry his thoughts, 
into execution. 'No man is doing more to advance the in- 
terests of the South than he, especially in the line of Agri- 



BIOGEAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL. 53 

culture. Endowed with tremendous industry, genuine pa- 
triotism, and lofty ideals, in time to come he will be widely 
known as one of the rebuilders of the South. He has so en- 
larged his activities that his editorial range stretches from 
Maryland to Texas. His two papers, the Progressive Far- 
mer, of Ealeigh, ]^. C, and the Southern Farm Gazette, of 
Starkville, Mississippi, have a combined circulation of 
about Y0,000, weekly, and these lists are increasing at a 
great rate. 

He is not only a remarkable editor but a man of fine busi- 
ness capacity. He is a man of unusual talent and has to his 
credit many successful magazine articles. He is devoted to 
the history of ISTorth Carolina and serves as Secretary and 
Treasurer of the State Literary and Historical Association, 
the purpose of which is "the collection, preservation, produc- 
tion and dissemination of our State literature and history; 
the encouragement of public and school libraries ; the incul- 
cation of a literary spirit among our people; and the engen- 
dering of an intelligent, healthy State pride in the rising gen- 
eration." 

Mr. Poe is a man of versatile talents, methodical and 
painstaking, and withal an excellent citizen. Reared on a 
farm in the country he sees the need of educating the masses 
in the best modes of agriculture. He has inherited the 
patriotism of a patriotic father who was a Confederate sol- 
dier and served his country faithfully. He has inherited 
those traits from an ambitious mother that have made him 
progressive and painstaking in whatever he undertakes. 

That he merits the confidence of his fellow-citizens is at- 
tested by the numerous places of honor and trust that he 
fills. 



STEPHEN B. WEEKS. 

Stephen Beauregard Weeks, the author of the article on 
General Thomas Person, belongs to the new school of histori- 



54: THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

cal writers who came to the front at the close of the last 
century. It is composed of the younger men who have been 
trained in the science of historical investigation. To-day 
Dr. Weeks stands among the foremost of II^Torth Carolina 
historians. 

The Weeks family was of Devonshire, England, and ap- 
peared in ISTorth Carolina in 1727, when Thomas Weeks set- 
tled in Pasquotank County, 'N. C. The subject of this 
sketch is of the fifth generation. Dr. Weeks's mother was 
Mary Louise Mullen (formerly MouUin), of Huguenot an- 
cestry from Virginia. He was left an orphan at the age 
of three years and was reared by an aunt, Mrs. Robertson 
Jackson, of Pasquotank County, who taught him habits of 
industry, economy and sobriety. He attended the country 
school and prepared for entering the T. J. Horner School at 
Henderson at the age of fifteen years. Prom Dr. Horner 
he received his first real intellectual impulse. 

In the year 1886 he entered the University of North 
Carolina, where he took the degre of A.B. During two 
years of post-graduate work there in English language, litera- 
ture, German and Latin he took A.M. in 1887 and Ph.D. in 
1888. The three following years, 1888-91, were spent as 
honorary Hopkins scholar at Johns Hopkins University in 
the study of history, political science and political economy, 
and by what he called "invincible attraction" he turned to 
history and has made that his life work. 

In June, 1888, he was united in marriage with Miss Mary 
Lee Martin, daughter of the Reverend Joseph B. Martin, of 
the JSTorth Carolina Methodist Conference. Mrsi. Weeks 
died in 1891, leaving two children. 

Dr. Weeks's second marriage was with Miss Sallie Man- 
gum Leach in June, 1893. She is granddaughter of Hon- 
orable Wiley P. Mangum, who was Representative and Sena- 
tor from ISTorth Carolina in the Congress of the United 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL. 55 

States, and from 1842-1845 President of the United States 
Senate. His career was highly distinguished and altogether 
honorable to the State. 

Dr. Weeks has held many important positions. He was 
Professor of History at Trinity College; established the 
Trinity College Historical Society at Durham, N. C. ; was 
Fellow by Courtesy in Johns Hopkins University; and has 
spent much time in original investigations along historical 
lines. He was appointed by the Philanthropic Society of 
the University of ISTorth Carolina to edit its register of mem- 
bers. This gave him acquaintance with the great men of 
the University, and he branched out from this into his life 
work. He has the most complete collection of books on 
JN'orth Carolina history, and the largest collection of auto- 
graphs, pamphlets, and original letters bearing on our State 
history from the Lords Proprietors to the present time. He 
is an untiring collector of everything pertaining to I^orth 
Carolina. He has contributed to the public many mono- 
graphs on historical matters based on undoubted facts. In 
July, 1894, Dr. Weeks accepted a position with the United 
States Bureau of Education, which opened to him a broader 
field for his chosen profession. He was one of the organizers 
of the Southern History Association, which has issued ten 
volumes of high historical value. 

In the fall of 1899, his health requiring a change of cli- 
mate, he obtained a transfer to the Indian service of the 
ISTational Government, and was stationed at Sante Fe, l^ew 
Mexico, as principal teacher in an Indian school. Later he 
served as Superintendent of the San Carlos Agency School 
in that Reservation. Though far removed from his native 
State, his interest has not abated, but he was diligent in the 
use of his spare time in giving the service of his pen for 
the forward advancement of history. 



56 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

In 1902 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by 
Wake Forest College. 

After a few years in the far West, his health becoming 
restored, he returned to ISTorth Carolina. He resides at 
Trinity, in Randolph County, and is engaged in the prepa- 
ration of an Index to the Census Records for 1Y90, an Index 
to the Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, a 
Bibliography of ITorth Carolina, a History of Education in 
the Southern States during the Civil War, and other mat- 
ters of history. Dr. Weeks's service to ISTorth Carolina is 
invaluable — and while yet in the prime of life no one can 
foresee what this active student of our history may yet search 
out and spread before his fellows. 

Facts for the above were obtained from T. M. Pittman's 
sketch of Dr. Weeks in the Biographical History of IsTorth 
Carolina, Vol. VII. 

MRS. S. G. AYER. 
Mrs. ' S. G. Ayer, daughter of Captain Charles Betts Cook 
and Mary Langdon O'Hanlon, his wife, was born in Fayette- 
ville, 'N. C, just as the war cloud burst on the fair South- 
land. The first recorded act of her childhood was knitting 
a pair of socks for a Confederate soldier at the early age of 
four and a half years. James Gee, who fought with General 
Marion in South Carolina, was her great-grandfather. Mary 
Gee, his wife, by her wit and coolness, saved the lives of two 
patriots during the Revolution. Mrs. Ayer served as chair- 
man for Cumberland County in 1907, an appointment be- 
stowed by the Jamesto^^m Historical Committee of ISTorth 
Carolina, She rendered most efficient aid and collected 
many valuable and interesting relics for the l^orth Carolina 
historical exhibit at the Jamestown Exposition. She mar- 
ried in 1883 Samuel Gee Ayer. She is President of the 
Liberty Point Monument Association, Fayetteville, N. C. 
She inherits the spirit of her heroic Revolutionary ancestors. 



ABSTRACTS OF WILLS PREVIOUS TO 1760. 



FROM SECRETAKY OF STATE'S OFFICE. 



Will of Peter Shrouck, Jidy 15, 1750, July 10, 1751; 
brothers Michael and George Capehart; brother John Cape- 
hart ; father George Capehart, Executor. Test : Edy Citer, 
John Cricket (Bertie). 



Will of Stephen Stevens, Currituck, Apr. 20, 1748, Oct. 
Court, 1748. Son Michael O'Neal, daughter Thomazin 
Taylor, Sarah Eanshaw, son John Stevens, daughter Mary 
Stevens, all my children. Thomas and John Stevens, Execu- 
tors. Test: Thomas Taylor, Gilbert Portwood, James 
Mercer. 



Will of William Stevens, Beaufort, Feb. 22, 1750, March 
Court, 1750. Sons James and William, John Barrow and 
wife Penelope, Executors. Test: Ezekiel Dickenson, Sala- 
thiel Mixon. 



Will of Joseph Sanderson, Currituck, January 13, 1743. 
Oct. Court, 1746. Wife Julia, sons Kowland and Thomas, 
sons Samuel, William, Joshua, Benjamin and Joseph. John 
Lurry (Leary?) Executor. Test: John Woodhouse, Wil- 
liam Bagley, Samuel Jarvis. 



Will of James Shirley, Cape Fear, Feb. 10th, 1837-8. 
Son Desminiere, daughters Susannah and Ann. Wife Ann, 
Exrx. Test: Dan Campbell, Armand D'Eossett, M.D., 
Roger Rolfe. 



58 ABSTRACTS OF WILLS. 

Will of Charles Stevenson, ISTorthampton, July 4tli, 1748. 
l^OY. Court, 1751. Sons Benjamin, William, George and 
Jesse, wife Mary, daughters Elizabeth, Martha, Susannah 
and Olive. Test: John Dawson, Abram Hood, Edward 
Streeter. 



Will of John Sharee, Craven Co., Oct. 25th, 1730. Dec. 
Court, 1730. John Thomas, Thomas Blake, Thomas Flybas, 
Mehitable Kutledge, also my Exrs. Test : Jacob Hover, R. 
Atkins. 



Will of Eobert Shearer, Bertie, Oct. 22, 1727. Sons Rob- 
ert, Arthur, John and William, wife Elizabeth, daughters 
Prudence and Susannah. Wife, John Dew and Arthur Wil- 
liams, Exrs. Test: Henry Gray, Joseph Boon. 



Will of Daniel Shine, Craven, March 9th, 1757. August 
Court, 1757. Sons John, Thomas and William, daughter 
Elizabeth Vaughn. Son James, Tamer Shine and John 
Oliver, Exrs. Test : Fumifold Green, Charles Williamson, 
Charles Shine Wolf. 



Will of Thomas Smithson, Pasquotank, ^ov. 2d, 1742. 
Jan. Court, 1743. Son Joshua, daughter Marian, sons 
Joseph and John, daughter Dorcas, daughters Mary Murden 
and Tamer Morris. Wife Ann and son John, Exrs. Test : 
Richard Pritchard, Edmund Jackson. 



Will of William Sitgreaves, Beaufort, July 5th, 1741, 
March Court, 1742. Stephen Ford and my aunt Mary Lin- 
gard, of Philadelphia, Exrs. Test: Michael Paquinet, 
Michel Paquinet, Mary Paquinet. 

Mks. Helen DeB. Wills, 

Oenalogical Department. 



Kriwards & Broughton Printing Co., Raleigh. N. C. 



INFORMATION 

Concerning the Patriotic Society 

**Daug'hters of the Revolution" 



The General Society was founded October 11, 1890, — and organized 
August 20, 1891, — under the name of "Daughters of the American 
Revolution"; was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York 
as an organization national in its work and purpose. Some of the mem- 
bers of this organization becoming dissatisfied with the terms of en- 
trance, withdrew from it and, in 1891, formed under the slightly differ- 
ing name "Daughters of the Revolution," eligibility to which from the 
moment of its existence has been lineal descent from an ancestor who 
rendered patriotic service during the War of Independence. 



"^e North Carolina Society" 

a subdivision of the General Society, was organized in October, 1896, 
and has continued to promote the purposes of its institution and to 
observe the Constitution and By-Laws. 



Membership and Qualifications 

Any woman shall be eligible who is above the age of eighteen years, 
of good character, and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who (1) was 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, Legislature or General Court, of any of the Colonies 
or States; or (2) rendered civil, military or naval service under the 
authority of any of the thirteen Colonies, or of the Continental Con- 
gress; or (3) by service rendered during the War of the Revolution 
became liable to the penalty of treason against the government of Great 
Britain: Provided, that such ancestor always remained loyal to the 
cause of American Independence. 

The chief work of the North Carolina Society for the past eight years 
has been the publication of the "North Carolina Booklet," a quarterly 
publication on great events in North Carolina history — Colonial and 
Revolutionary. $1.00 per year. It will continue to extend its work and 
to spread the knowledge of its History and Biography in other States. 

This Society has its headquarters in Raleigh, N. C, Room 411, Caro- 
lina Trust Company Building, 232 Fayetteville Street. 



Some Booklets for Sale 



Vol. I 

"Greene's Retreat," Prof. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vol. I! 

"Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

"Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. Clewell. 

"Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

"The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

"Raleigh and the Old Town of Bloomsbury." 

"Historic Homes — Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hayes," Rodman, Blount, 

Dillard. 
"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 
"Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 
"Last Days of the War," Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

"Trial of James Glasgow," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

"Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

"Historic Hillsboro," Mr. Francis Nash. 

"Colony of Transylvania," Judg« Walter Clark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL.D. 
"Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
"North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

"Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm. A. Graham. 

"Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

"Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

"North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 
and Joseph Hewes," by T. M. Pittman and E. Walter Sikes. 

"Expedition to Cartagena, 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

"Changes in Carolina Coast Sine* 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 

"Highland Scotch Settlement in N, C," Judge James C. McRae. 

"The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 

"Battle of Guilford Court-house and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 

"Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

1 



Vol. v.— (Quarterly). 
No.1. 

"St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations," Eiehard 

Dillard, M.D. 
"N. C. Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II, 

William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

"History of the Capitol," Colonel Charles Earl Johnson. 

"Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

Grimes. 
"North Carolina's Poets," Rev. Hight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

"Cornelius Harnett," Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

"Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W. A. 

Graham. 
"Edward Moseley," by Prof. D. H. Hill. 

No. 4. 

"Governor Thomas Pollok," Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 
"Battle of Cowan's Ford," Major W. A. Graham. 

"First Settlers in North Carolina Not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rer. 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, D.D. 

Vol. Vl-(Quarterly.) 
No. 1. 

"The Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina," Richard Dillard, M.D. 

"History Involved in the Names of Counties and Towns in North Caro- 
lina," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

"A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear" (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), Hon. James Sprunt. 

"Biographical Sketches: Introduction; Maj. Graham Daves." By Mrs. 
E. E. Moffitt. 

October, No. 2. 

"The Borough Towns of North Carolina," Francis Nash. 

"Governor Thomas Burke," J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. 

"Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History," Col. Fred. 
A. Olds. 

"The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution and its 
Objects." 

"Biographical Sketches: Dr. Richard Dillard, Francis Nash, J. Q. 
de R. Hamilton and Col. Fred A. Olds," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"State Library Building and Department of Archives and Records," 

R. D. W. Connor. 
"The Battle of Rockfish Creek, 1781," James Owen Carr. 
"Governor Jesse Frankklin," J. T. Alderman. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown," Mrs. Lindsay 

Patterson, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

2 



"Biographical Sketches: Mrs. S. B. Kenneday, R. D. W. Connor, 
James Owen Carr and Prof. J. T. Alderman," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"Lock's Fundamental Constitution," Junius Davis. 

"The White Pictures," W. J. Peele. 

"North Carolina's Attitude Toward the Revolution," Robert Strong. 

Biographical Sketches: Richard Renbury Creecy, the D. R. Society 

and Its Objects, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Genealogical Sketches: Abstracts of Wills; Scolley, Sprott and Hunter, 

Mrs. Helen de B. Wells. 

Vol. VII. (Quarterly.) 
July, No. 1. 

" North Carolina in the French and Indian War," Col. A. M. Waddell. 
" Locke's Fundamental Constitutions," Mr. Junius Davis. 
" Industrial Life in Colonial Carolina," Mr. Thomas M. Pittman. 
Address: "Our Dearest Neighbor — The Old North State," Hon. James 

Alston Cabell. 
Biographical Sketches: Col. A. M. Waddell, Junius Davis, Thomas M. 

Pittman, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt; Hon. Jas. Alston Cabell, by Mary 

Hilliard Hinton. 
Abstracts of Wills. Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

October, No. 2. 

" Ode to North Carolina," Pattie Williams Gee. 

"The Finances of the North Carolina Colonists," Dr. Charles Lee 

Raper. 
" Joseph Gales, Editor," Mr. Willis G. Briggs. 
" Our First Constitution, 1776," Dr. E. W. Sikes. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition," Mary 

Hilliard Hinton. 
Biographical Sketches: Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Dr. Charles Lee Raper, 

Willis Grandy Briggs, Pattie Williams Gee. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

" General Robert Howe," Hon. John D. Bellamy. 

" Early Relations of North Carolina and the West," Dr. William K. 
Boyd. 

" Incidents of the Early and Permanent Settlement of the Cape Fear," 
Mr. W. B. McKoy. 

Biographical Sketches: John Dillard Bellamy, William K. Boyd, Wil- 
liam B. McKoy. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"St. James's Churchyard" (Poem), Mrs. L. C. Markham. 

"The Expedition Against the Row Galley 'General Arnold' — ^A Side 

Light on Colonial Edenton," Rev. Robt. B. Drane, D.D. 
" The Quakers of Perquimans," Miss Julia S. White. 
" Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry," Judge James C. MacRae. 
Biographical Sketches: Mrs. L. C. Markham, Rev. R. B. Drane, Miss 

Julia S. White, Judge James C. MacRae. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

3 



Vol. Vm .-(Quarterly ) 

July, No. 1. 

"John Harvey," Mr. E. D. W. Connor. 

"Military Organizations of North Carolina During the American Revo- 
lution," Clyde L. King, A.M. 

"A Sermon by Rev. George Micklejohn," edited by Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: R. D. W. Connor, Clyde L. 
King, Marshall DeLancey Haywood, by Mrs. E. E. MoflStt. 

"Abstracts of Wills," Mrs. Helen DeB. Wells. 
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Vol. IX. 



OCTOBER, 1909 



No. 2 



U/?e 



North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS oFtHe REVOLUTION 



CONTENTS 



Page 

61 



Gen. Joseph Graham, . . 

By Mrs. Walter Clark 

State Rights in North Carolina Through Half a Century, 

By H. M. Wagstaff 

The Nag's Head Picture of Theodosia Burr, 
By Bettie Freshwater Pool 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda, . . . 
By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 

Abstracts of Wills 107 

By Mrs. H. DeB. Wills 



79 



98 



105 



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The North Carolina Booklet, 



Great Events in North Carolina History. 



Volume IX of the Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1909. 
Each Booklet will contain three articles and will be published in July, 
October, January and April. Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single 
copy. 

Editors : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



VOLUME IX. 

General Joseph Graham Mrs. Walter Clark. 

Indians, Slaves, and Tories : Our Early Legislation Regarding Them, 

Mr. Clarence H. Poe. 

General Thomas Person Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

History of Lincoln County Mr. Alfred Nixon, 

History of States Rights in North Carolina Down to 1840, 

Professor H. M. Wagstaff. 

George Durant Captain 8. A. Ashe. 

Historic Duels of North Carolina Mr. F. M. Harper. 

The Early History of Medicine in North Carolina, 

Dr. Hubert Royster. 
Der North Carolina Laud und Colonic Etablissement, 

Miss Adelaide Fries. 
Our Colonial Historians: Hakluyt, Lawson, Brickie, Williamson, 

Right Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, D.D. 



This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in future be a special 
feature of the Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue will be devoted 
to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 
who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 
biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to the Booklet for 
Vol. IX, are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to VIII for sale. 

Thk North Carolina Booklet, 

Address 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 




Gen. Joseph Graham. 



Vol. IX OCTOBER, 1909 No. 2 



■She 



floRTH CflROliINfl BoOKIiET 



Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live v;e will cherish, protect and defeyid her.' 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editobs* 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 

Mrs. Spier Wiiitaker. Mr. R. D. W. Connos. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Dr. E. VV. Sikes. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. Richard Dillabd. 

Dr. KEt:p P. Hattle. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Claek. 

EDITORS : 
Miss Maky Milliard Hinton, Mrs. E E Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, 

1906-1908. 

REGENT : 

Mrs. E. E. moffitt. 

vice-regent: 

Mrs. WALTER CLARK. 

honorary regent: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

RECOUniNO SECRETARY: 

Mrs. LEIGH SKINNER. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 

TREASURER: 

Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR: 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 

GENEALOGIST: 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MPS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

REGENT 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

REGENT 1902-1900: 

Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

♦Died Decenaber 12, 1904. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



Vol. IX OCTOBEK. 1909 No. 2 

GENERAL JOSEPH GRAHAM. 

BY MES. WALTER CLARK. 

If, as Pope declares, "the proper study of mankind is 
man," where can be found more ennobling and inspiring 
subjects for this study than our Revolutionary patriots? 
Where can the youth of the present day find characters more 
worthy of emulation, or a greater stimulus to bravery, honor 
and loyalty than in the lives of those who, like the subject 
of this sketch, risked their all in defense of their country, 
gave her their best services in peace, and laid the foundation 
of our present liberty ? 

Joseph Graham was born in Berks County, Pennsylvania, 
October 13, 1759. His father, James Graham, was of Scotch- 
Irish descent, and came from near Carlingford Bay, County 
Down, on the eastern shore of Ireland. The tide of emi- 
gration was at its flood in 1729, and the years immediately 
following, as many as 6,000 coming in one year from Ire- 
land alone. Many of these settled in Pennsylvania, and 
we can well understand how an adventurous youth of nineteen 
would be led to cast in his lot with them, to try his fortunes 
in this new world. 

He was twice married, the first wife leaving six children. 
The second wife was a vsddow, Mrs. Mary McConnell Bar- 
ber, who became the mother of five children, Joseph, the 
subject of this sketch, being the youngest. At the time of 
James Graham's death, in 1763, affairs had become very 
unsettled in Pennsylvania, political dissensions had arisen, 
and general dissatisfaction existed. The "Land of Brotherly 



62 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Love" was proving an unpleasant abiding place. The cli- 
mate, too, was severe, and the Indians still aggressive. All 
these causes combined to induce the sturdy Scotch-Irish to 
seek again to better their condition. From about the year 
1745 there had been a tide of emigration from that section 
to the South, and reports of a milder climate and more fertile 
lands and the hope of better political conditions had led many 
to follow. Soon after James Graham's death a party of 
these emigrants came to the Carolinas, and the plucky little 
widow with her fatherless children accompanied them, and 
came to try her fortune in this Southern country, as her 
husband had done, leaving the Old World for the New, thirty 
years before. As we picture in our imagination this emi- 
grant train, and follow it on its toilsome journey, as it winds 
its slow way along, over hills, through valleys, fpllowing the 
rough and often almost impassable trail, through Virginia 
and North Carolina to its ultimate destination in Lancaster 
County, S. C, we can form some idea of the feelings of 
Mary Graham as she left the old home and the old life be- 
hind and with five children, the oldest not more than fourteen 
years of age, journeyed many hundreds of miles to seek a 
home in a new and untried country. And the little Joseph, 
what impressions must have been made upon his childish 
mind, and how vsdld and strange it must all have seemed to 
the child, as the shadows lengthened and, weary with the 
long, rough journey of the day, they gathered around the 
camp-fire in the wilderness and prepared the evening meal, 
keeping a vigilant watch, both for the wild animals of the 
forest and the cruel savage whose blood-curdling war-whoop 
was the incarnation of all that was evil and horrible. 

At last their destination was reached, but not to find a 
permanent abiding place, for in a few years Mary Graham 
removed to Mecklenburg County, N. C, and purchased a 



JOSEPH GRAHAM. . 63 

home about four miles from Charlotte. Here she rested at 
last, and continued to reside until her death. 

Small of stature, modest and unassuming, she must yet 
have possessed many of the sterling traits which form the 
character of the ideal woman. Widowed and alone in a 
strange country, except for the few friends and perhaps rela- 
tives who had accompanied her in the removal to the South, 
she had soon succeeded in purchasing a home where she 
gathered her little flock around her, and with her indomitable 
spirit still unbroken, devoted herself to training them for 
lives of usefulness. She instilled in them habits of industry, 
endurance and self-control, with strict adherence to duty 
and a love and reverence for religion. She gave them the 
best education the times afforded, fortunately having the ad- 
vantage of being near one of the best schools in the State, 
located at Charlotte and called Queen's College. The name 
was afterwards changed to Liberty Hall, as being more con- 
sonant with Revolutionary ideas. The diploma of John, the 
oldest son, at this college is still preserved, and is perhaps 
the only one now in existence. It is a worthy ambition to 
strive that the world may be better because we have lived 
in it, and nobly in her narrow sphere did Mary Graham 
fulfill this ambition. Her contribution to its betterment and 
progress was the lives of these children, and well was she re- 
warded for her loving care. Her daughters became women 
of fine character and honored heads of families. Each of 
her three sons served his country well, holding offices of trust 
and responsibility and enlisting under her banner in time of 
war. John, the oldest, studied medicine under Dr. Rush, 
of Philadelphia, and was a surgeon in the Revolutionary 
army, and George bore an active part in the Continental line, 
and participated in many engagements until debarred by 
a severe attack of illness. He was present at Charlotte, 
Cowan's Ford, Hanging Rock, etc. He was Sheriff of Meek- 



64 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

lenburg County for many years, and afterwards Clerk of 
the Superior Court till forced by ill health to resign. 

Joseph grew to manhood living on his mother's farm and 
attending school in Charlotte, where he "was distinguished 
among his fellow-students for talents, industry and a most 
manly and conciliatory deportment." "He took part in the 
manly sports of the day, was an expert swordsman, a man 
of much nerve and considerable surgical knowledge, which 
on many occasions he used for the benefit of those in need. 
He had also a practical knowledge of civil engineering and 
surveying. His interest in learning was great, and when 
grown to manhood he was ever ready to aid the boy of lim- 
ited means in obtaining an education. He took great delight 
in reading history, especially, which he perused always with 
a geography and dictionary at hand, saying that 'every 
reader should know just what the writer said and where he 
was.' " 

While still a youth he was eye-witness to a momentous 
event which marked an epoch in his life. He was a youth of 
thoughtful habits and alert mind, and took a keen, active 
interest in the political situation, which became more and 
more alarming as events succeeded each other. Two or more 
meetings of indignation and protest had been held during 
the spring of that year in the county of Mecklenburg, but 
it was not until the 20th of May, 1775, after news of the 
battle of Lexington was received, that affairs reached a 
climax. On the 19th of May a committee, composed of two 
men from each militia company in the county, met in the 
court-house at Charlotte, and after a session lasting far into 
the early hours of the 20th formally renounced allegiance 
to the British Crown. 

Resolutions were passed declaring: 

"That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby 
dissolve the political bonds which have connected us with the 



JOSEPH GRAHAM. 65 

mother country, and absolve ourselves from all allegiance 
to the British Crown; abjuring all political connection with 
a nation that has wantonly trampled on our rights and lib- 
erties, and inhumanly shed the innocent blood of Americans 
at Lexington." These resolves were six in number, one de- 
claring that "The Crown of Great Britain can not be con- 
sidered hereafter as holding any rights or privileges or im- 
munities among us," etc., all breathing a spirit of defiance 
and determination to be free and independent. This was 
the first absolute declaration of independence in America, 
and all honor to the brave men who dared to throw down 
the gauntlet in the struggle for freedom ! 

Joseph Graham was present, an intensely interested spec- 
tator, and the event made so deep and ineffaceable an im- 
pression that he was able many years later to write a full 
and detailed account of the transaction at the request of his 
friend J. Seawell Jones, who was then preparing a history 
of the State. It was through the instrumentality of Joseph 
Graham, about the year 1816, that this great historic event 
was rescued from oblivion. Among the papers of an aged 
German neighbor, whose will he was requested to write, he 
found an old contemporary newspaper, the Cape Fear Mer- 
cury, containing the proclamation of the royal Governor, Mar- 
tin, August 8, 1775, denouncing "a set of resolutions purport- 
ing to be a Declaration of Independence by Mecklenburg 
County." This discovery of Joseph Graham was the only 
copy of Governor Martin's proclamation then known to exist, 
and to Joseph Graham alone belongs the honor of rescuing 
from oblivion this long past occurrence. 

On May 20, 1835, a notable celebration was held in 
Charlotte, and a newspaper arjcount says, "General Gra- 
ham gave an interesting historical sketch in response to the 
sentiment ^Our honored guest.' " In 1832 at the close of 
Joseph Graham's personal recapitulation of his military 



bo THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

services, made under oath when applying for a pension, he 
states: "Was present in Charlotte on the 20th day of May, 
1775, when the committee of the county of Mecklenburg 
made their celebrated Declaration of Independence of the 
British cro-vvn, upwards of a year before the Congress of 
the United States did at Philadelphia." Is it surprising 
that those who believe in the truth and honor of Joseph 
Graham, who was eye-witness to what he describes, should 
believe also in the Declaration of Independence of May 20, 
1715 f Like other claims made by North Carolina to 
precedence in things military and historic, many years had 
elapsed before this was formally set up. But does any 
true North Carolinian believe the less in "First at Bethel, 
Farthest at Gettysburg, Last at Appomattox" because years 
had elapsed, many of the participants had passed into the 
Great Beyond, and crops of waving grain had covered the 
erstwhile battle-fields, for many an autumn before the claim 
was formally made. It has been said that "North Carolina 
has been too busy making history to write it," and it seems 
that these sons of Mecklenburg resumed their daily avoca- 
tions when once they had boldly made their "Resolves" and 
dispatched them by a trusted messenger to the representatives 
in Philadelphia who, blind, it would seem, to their true value 
and deeming them premature, gave them scant recognition. 
But soon the time came to prove these words by deeds, and 
then right nobly did they come up to the mark. 

Before appending the interesting enumeration of Joseph 
Graham's services given by R. H. Morrison it may not be 
amiss to say a word as to the military regulations of that day. 
Among the N. C. troops much of the service was largely volun- 
tary. Their term of enlistment and mode of support were 
unique, and differed greatly from that of soldiers of the line 
to-day. Though enrolled for a certain term of months, the 
agreement was that when not in active service they should re- 



JOSEPH GRAHAM. 67 

turn to their homes, ready for an instant response to the call to 
arms. Thus it was with Joseph Graham and his fellow- 
patriots, and thus were his military services performed. Mod- 
estly retiring to his farm and occupations there when his ser- 
vices were no longer needed in the field, he bravely went forth 
again at the call of duty, on more than one occasion when en- 
feebled by recent severe illness, or partial recovery from dan- 
gerous wounds, or, as at the battle of Charlotte Cross Eoads, 
when by the terms of enlistment his services could not legally 
be required, he rallied around him his friends and neighbors, 
and when their homes and loved ones were threatened by a 
hostile invasion led them in the resistance which they made 
so bravely and persistently as to earn for that section the 
soubriquet of "Hornets' Nest," as they, a little handful of 
determined men, annoyed, harassed and delayed the British 
army on its march through the State. Again at Cowan's 
Ford he had scarcely recovered from almost fatal wounds, 
when he raised a company of cavalry and took a prominent 
part in this engagement. 

Dr. Morrison says: 

"He enlisted in the Continental army in May, 1778, at 
the age of eighteen years. He joined the 4th Kegiment of 
North Carolina regular troops under Col. Archld. Lytle, 
acting as an officer in Captain Gooden's company. They 
were ordered to rendezvous in Maryland, but just at this 
time occurred the battle of Monmouth ; the British retreated 
to New York, and the services of these troops were not 
needed, so they returned to their homes on furlough. He 
was again called into service on November 5, 1778, in the 
command of General Rutherford, was with the troops under 
General Lincoln in the trying and painful struggles against 
General Prevost, and took part in the battle of Stono, June 
20, 1779. During this campaign he acted as quartermaster. 
In July, 1779, he had a severe and dangerous attack of 



68 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

fever, and after an illness of two months was compelled to 
accept a temporary discharge. 

''While at his home he received intelligence of the sur- 
render of Charleston and the defeat of Colonel Buford at 
the Waxhaw, and feeling that his services were needed he 
at once rejoined the army, and was appointed adjutant of 
the regiment from Mecklenburg, which was engaged in op- 
posing the British troops under Lord Rawdon. 

"When it was understood that the British were marching 
to Charlotte he was commanded by General Davidson to 
repair to that place, take command of the American force 
which should collect there, and join Colonel Davie, which 
he immediately did. The British army entered Charlotte 
on the 26th of September, 1780. Joseph Graham was as- 
signed to the command of those troops which sustained the 
retreat of GeneraV Davie, and harassed and opposed Tarle- 
ton's cavalry and a regiment of infantry for four miles on 
the road leading to Salisbury. Finding his numbers inade- 
quate to oppose their progress he withdrew his men and, 
forming again on an adjacent farm, made another gallant 
but ineffectual attack on the advancing enemy. Again at 
Sugar Creek another bold stand was made, on a hill just 
above the stream, but all in vain as reinforcements joined the 
already far superior British forces, and the Americans were 
compelled to retreat. Col. Francis Locke, of Eowan County, 
was killed just beyond this point, and Joseph Graham soon 
after was cut down and severely wounded. He received nine 
wounds, six with the saber, and three with lead. Four of 
these were deep saber cuts over his head, one in the side, and 
three balls were afterwards removed from his body; a large 
stock buckle, which broke the violence of the stroke on his 
neck, alone saved his life. Being much exhausted with loss 
of blood he was left for dead on the field, but afterwards, 
reviving during the night, crawled with infinite difficulty 



JOSEPH GRAHAM. K)^ 

and suffering to the house of Mrs. Susannah Alexander, 
where he received every attention, and when somewhat im- 
proved was taken to the hospital. 

"Thus, at the age of twenty-one, we see this gallant officer 
leading a band of as brave men as ever faced a foe to guard 
the ground first consecrated by the Declaration of American 
Independence, and when the foot of tyranny was treading 
it, and resistance proved unsuccessful, leaving his blood as 
the best memorial of a righteous cause and of true heroism 
in its defense. 

"Thus, while the whole country was in distress, its prop- 
erty pillaged, its houses forsaken and its defenseless inhabi- 
tants flying from the shock of arms, a few noble sons of Meck- 
lenburg compelled Lord Cornwallis to designate Charlotte as 
the Hornets' !N'est of America. 

"As soon as his wounds were healed he again entered the 
service of his country. Having raised a company of fifty-five 
men in two weeks, he was placed in command by General 
Davidson. It showed not only his energy of purpose but 
his great influence, that in this difficult and hazardous period 
of defeat and depression he could accomplish this. This 
company was composed of mounted riflemen, armed also 
with swords and pistols. They furnished their own horses 
and equipments, and entered the field with every prospect of 
hard fighting and little compensation. 

"At this time the plan of opposing Lord Cornwallis in 
crossing the Catawba River was arranged by General Greene, 
and its execution assigned to General Davidson. Feints of 
passing were made at different places but the real attempt 
was made at Cowan's Ford. The company commanded by 
Joseph Graham was the first to commence the attack on the 
British as they advanced through the river, but in spite of 
such brave opposition they as bravely advanced, gained the 
opposite bank, and returned a galling fire upon the Ameri- 



70 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

cans. Two of Graham's men were killed. General David- 
son had fallen at the beginning of the action as he was stand- 
ing sword in hand cheering on his handful of brave men, so 
valiantly opposing the advance of the enemy. The North 
Carolina troops under General Pickens continued to pursue 
the British as they advanced toward Virginia. Joseph 
Graham with his company and some troops from Rowan 
County surprised and captured a guard at Hart's Mill, one 
and a half miles from Hillsborough, where the British army 
then lay, and the same day joined Colonel Lee's forces. The 
next day they were in an engagement with Colonel Pyles in 
command of 350 Tories on their way to join Tarleton. 
Shortly after Graham's company took part in the battle of 
Clapp's Mill, on the Alamance, and within a few days also 
in that of Whitsell's Mill, under the command of Colonel 
Washington. 

''During the summer of 1781 but little military service 
was performed in North Carolina, as the British had retired 
to Wilmington. In September General Rutherford, who 
had been a prisoner, was released and immediately gave 
orders to Joseph Graham, in whose military prowess and 
great influence he had unbounded confidence, to raise a troop 
of cavalry in Mecklenburg County. The legion being raised, 
Robert Smith was appointed colonel and Joseph Graham 
major, and at once set out for Wilmington, the present head- 
quarters of the British. South of Fayetteville an attack 
was made near McFall's Mill on a body of Tories who were 
signally defeated and dispersed, though headed by four col- 
onels opposed to the youthful major. Next a band of Tories 
on Mr. Alfred Moore's plantation opposite to Wilmington 
was surprised and defeated. On the next day he with his 
troops made a resolute attack on the British garrison near 
the same place, and soon afterwards commanded the party 



JOSEPH GRAHAM. 71 

which defeated the celebrated Colonel Gainey near Lake 
Waccamaw. 

"This campaign closed Joseph Graham's services in the 
Revolutionary War, as it v^as soon terminated by the sur- 
render of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

"He had commanded in fifteen engagements, with a de- 
gree of courage, wisdom, calmness and success surpassed 
perhaps by no officer of the same rank. Hundreds who served 
under him have delighted in testifying to the upright, faith- 
ful, prudent and undaunted manner in which he performed 
the duties of his trying and responsible station. Never was 
he known to shrink from any toil however painful, or quail 
before any danger, however threatening, or stand back from 
any privations or sacrifices which might serve his country. 
To secure her liberties he spent many toilsome days and 
sleepless nights ; for her he endured much sickness, fatigue 
and suffering without a murmur ; for her his body was cov- 
ered with wounds ; to her welfare he consecrated his time 
and treasure and influence during a long, unblemished life." 

At the close of the Eevolutionary War Joseph Graham re- 
turned to life on the farm with his mother, and resided there 
until his marriage, in 1787, to Isabella, daughter of John 
Davidson, one of the signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence. She also was of Scotch-Irish lineage, her 
ancestors settling first in Pennsylvania, and then removing 
to North Carolina in 1740. They came first to Rowan 
County and afterwards to Mecklenburg, where the old home- 
stead is still in the hands of descendants. After Joseph 
Graham's marriage he removed to what was then known as 
the Red House, near the Catawba River, and lived there for 
four years. He then engaged in the manufacture of iron 
with his brother and father-in-law in Lincoln County, where 
Vesuvius Furnace was erected, and his residence built near 
by. This was the family homestead where his children were 



72 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

reared. It was located near the main line of road, and he 
had many visitors, men of letters with whom he delighted 
to converse, and others. The situation was very attractive 
at the head of three terraces, and approached through an ave- 
nue of cedars. 

His marriage was most fortunate. His wife possessed 
not only great beauty of person but loveliness of character, 
and was a devoted wife and mother. Her true kindness of 
heart was shown in the motherly care and consideration she 
gave to the orphaned son of Gen. Wm. Lee Davidson, who 
married her sister, and fell at the battle of Cowan's Ford. 
The characteristics which had made Joseph Graham the 
stay and comfort of the brave little mother as years advanced 
upon her, made him now the excellent husband and father. 
Tradition says that when her useful life was nearly spent, 
and she became too feeble to walk, he would lift her in his 
strong arms and tenderly place her out on the old-fashioned 
"settle" (as the wooden bench or lounge of that day was 
called) under the shade of the trees where she loved to lie 
during the long summer days. 

Joseph Graham's wife died in 1807, leaving a large fam- 
ily of children: Mary, who afterwards became the wife of 
Rev. E. H. Morrison, D.D., and William, only three years 
old, being the youngest. To them especially he was both 
father and mother, and showed the greatest tenderness and 
care. When he left home to command the brigade against 
the Creek Indians little William rode with him on his horse 
as far as a certain rock which is still pointed out. Here 
the motherless child bade him adieu and gave him up to the 
uncertain fortunes of war. This war was unexpectedly 
ended, however, and the father's absence was not long pro- 
tracted. This was in 1814. The Creek Indians in Ala- 
bama had become so aggressive that more troops were needed, 
and President Madison made a requisition on the Governors 



JOSEPH GKAHAM. Y3 

These 

formed a brigade to the command of which Joseph Graham 
was appointed bj Governor Hawkins, with the rank of 
brigadier-general. By exasperating delays of the War De- 
partment in furnishing supplies this brigade did not reach 
the seat of war until the battle of Horse Shoe had forced the 
Indians into submission, and after this there were only a 
few skirmishes and the final surrender of these hostile In- 
dians. This was his last military service. He served sev- 
eral terms as major-general of the State militia. At that 
period these officers were elected by the Legislature for a 
term of three years. Joseph Graham led an active life, in- 
terested in all public questions, always a patriot, with the 
welfare of his country at heart in peace as in war. He was 
Sheriff of Mecklenburg County after the war and several 
times a member of the Court of Common Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions, which was composed of five members elected by 
the justices of the peace. He was a member of the first con- 
vention of the State to consider the proposed Constitution 
of the United States, which met at Hillsboro July 21, 1778. 
In November of that year we find him a member of the 
State Senate which met at Fayetteville. This was the last 
Legislature in which the members wore their hats', the 
Speaker alone being uncovered, and they laying aside their 
hats only while addressing the Chair. He served several 
terms in the Legislature and was much interested in all 
bills in favor of internal improvements and general educa- 
tion. He voted for the establishment of the State University 
in 1788-9, and was made a member of the first board of 
trustees of this great State institution, as he had been of the 
first academy established in Lincoln County. At the re- 
quest of a mass-meeting of the citizens of Morganton he 
presented a memorial urging the establishment of a military 
academy in the State and proposing a plan therefor which 



74 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

was favorably received and complimentary resolutions 
passed, but no final action taken. 

His contributions to literature were mainly on military 
matters, many of them written at the request of Judge 
Murphey. The correspondence between them, which is re- 
produced in "Joseph Graham and his Revolutionary papers," 
is full of interest. Judge Murphey, about the year 1820, 
decided to write a history of North Carolina, and with that 
intention, corresponded with those he thought competent to 
furnish information. His first intention seems to have been 
to cover only the Eevolutionary period, and to correct mis- 
takes concerning North Carolina troops. But on Joseph 
Graham's suggestion that he make it a complete history of 
the State he changed his plan. He had collected much ma- 
terial for this purpose, but died before completing the work. 
Murphey wrote him : "I have been kindly aided by a few of 
the officers and soldiers of the North Carolina line, but by 
none so liberally as yourself." In 1827 Joseph Graham 
writes a correction of various misstatements which had found 
a place in history regarding North Carolina troops. Major 
W. A. Graham says : "The fact that the troops which gained 
such distinction under the command of General Pickens were 
from North Carolina, and mainly from Mecklenburg and 
the adjoining counties in North Carolina, had until recently 
like the Mecklenburg declaration escaped the attention of 
our best informed writers. For the preservation of this 
and other interesting events in our Revolutionary history 
we are indebted entirely to the careful pen of General 
Graham." 

If the testimony of Joseph Graham is to be accepted on all 
these points of history which he was requested to settle, 
mainly from his own personal knowledge and recollection 
after the lapse of many years, and if his decision was re- 
ceived as the ultimatum by Judge Murphey and other stu- 



JOSEPH GRAHAM. 75 

dents of history of acumen and discrimination where dates, 
figures and numbers of troops engaged were in question, 
then why should the testimony of the same witness be dis- 
credited when the Mecklenburg Declaration of the 20th of 
May is the point in question ? Why should it be imagined 
he would "mix" the dates of the 20th and 31st of May 
more than those of the days on which the battles of King's 
Mountain, Pyle's Massacre or Moore's Creek occurred? 
Why one "style" of reckoning for them and another for the 
20th of May just before ? Is it credible that he could not 
discriminate between two separate and distinct events of 
such different tenor, occurring on such different dates as 
the 20th and 31st of May ? 

Joseph Graham's writings comprise, first, a chronology 
of military events beginning with the battle of Ramseur's 
Mill, 20th June 1780 (as he was too young to have partici- 
pated in any campaign previous to that time) ; second, 
Hanging Rock; third, expedition against the Tories in the 
forks of the Yadkin; fourth, affair at Colson's Mill; fifth, 
engagement at Rocky Mount ; sixth, engagement at Char- 
lotte Cross Roads and events preceding and following; 
seventh, Mclntyre's farm ; eighth, Royal Governor Martin's 
proclamation; ninth, retreat of Cornwallis to Winnsboro; 
tenth, Cowan's Ford; eleventh, Shallow Ford; twelfth, 
Hart's Mill; thirteenth, Pyle's massacre; fourteenth, 
Dickey's farm ; fifteenth, Clapp's Mill ; sixteenth, Whitsell's 
Mill ; seventeenth, closing scenes of the Revolution in North 
Carolina. Many of these were accompanied by maps drawn 
by himself from personal observations made at the time, as 
in the battle of Cowan's Ford and others; or by careful 
measurements under the supervision and direction of actors 
in the scene, as in that of King's Mountain, from which 
he was absent on account of severe and almost fatal wounds 



76 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

recently received. Like the Confederate veteran of to-day 
his greatest joy vi^as in recalling the deeds of the past, and 
this literary v^^ork was to him a great pleasure. 

In the year 1834, as age advanced upon him, he gave up 
to his two sons the business of manufacturing iron in which 
he had been engaged for many years, and which had proved 
very lucrative, and built a residence on an adjacent farm 
about a mile distant. His daughters were by this time all 
married, and he resided here with his unmarried son James, 
who for several years represented this district in Congress 
until his death, November 10, 1836. This place is now the 
family homestead of Maj. W. A. Graham, and called "Forest 
Home." The original house was burned some years ago 
and has been replaced by a modern and commodious struc- 
ture. Joseph Graham is buried in the cemetery of Mach- 
pelah Church, which he and others of the family like Abra- 
ham of old "purchased for a possession of a burying place" 
soon after his removal to Lincoln County. 

In closing I can give no better summary of his character 
than that made by one who had known him long and inti- 
mately, Eev. Robert Hall Morrison, D.D., himself a man 
of most exalted character. In the obituary printed immedi- 
ately after Joseph Graham's death he thus describes him: 

"His intercourse with others was marked by great dignity 
of deportment, delicacy of feeling, cheerfulness of spirit, 
and equability of temper. Men of learning and high stand- 
ing have often expressed much gratification of his company 
and surprise at the extent and accuracy of his knowledge. 
In the circle of private friendship his excellencies were 
strikingly displayed. He was far — very far — removed from 
all those feelings of selfishness, vanity, suspicion or envy 
which unfit men for the duties and joys of social life. His 
eye was always open to the virtues of his friends ; his heart 
was always ready to reciprocate their kindness, to sympa- 



JOSEPH GKAHAM. 77 

thize with their sorrows and overlook their infirmities. His 
hand, his time, his counsel and his influence were all at the 
command of those who shared his confidence and deserved 
his affection. 

"But there was another circle nearer to his heart in which 
he was still better prepared to shine and in which true ex- 
cellency displayed is a brighter and surer evidence of worth. 
Justice could not be done to his character without being 
known in the family circle. As a husband, a father and a 
master those alone who were the objects of his attachment, 
forbearance and tenderness could duly appreciate his con- 
duct and demeanor. 

"His life was a bright pattern of those virtues which are 
essential to the purity and peace of society. He possessed 
a lofty and delicate sense of personal honor and virtuous 
feeling. His presence was always a rebuke to the arts and 
abominations of evil speaking, profanity and defamation. 
If he could not speak well of his fellow-men he was wise 
and firm enough to say nothing. He regarded the reputa- 
tion of others as a sacred treasure, and would never stoop 
to meddle with the private history or detract from the good 
name of those around him. He felt that the sources of his 
enjoyment and the causes of his elevation were not to be 
found in the calamities of his fellow-men, and hence his 
lips were closed to the tales of slander and his bosom a 
stranger to the wiles of calumny. Did all men act on the 
principle which governed him in this respect a hideous train 
of evils which mar the purity and disturb the peace of 
society would cease to exist. 

"But General Graham did not believe when he had served 
his country, his family and his friends, his work on earth 
was finished. With an unwavering conviction of the truth 
and importance of religion, he professed to serve God and 
to seek for salvation by faith in Christ. For a long period 



78 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

of time he was a member of the Presbyterian church, and 
for ten or twelve years previous to his death he was a Ruling 
Elder of Unity under the pastoral care of Rev. Mr. Adams. 
He cherished a most profound respect for the ordinances 
and duties of Christianity, and attended with deep interest 
and uniform punctuality upon the means of grace. He 
delighted much in reading the word of God and in hearken- 
ing to the instructions of ministers of the gospel, for whom 
he always manifested the greatest regard. In selecting his 
library he proved how high an estimate he placed upon 
Christian instruction, and in his most unreserved intercourse 
with pious friends his deep and pervading concern for true 
and undefiled religion was apparent. No circumstances 
would deter him from manifesting the most decided con- 
tempt for the groveling spirit of infidelity and irreligion. 

"By a life of temperance and regular exercise, with the 
blessing of God, he enjoyed remarkable health and vigor of 
constitution. On the 13th of October, 1836, he made the 
following minute in his day-book, 'This day I am seventy- 
seven years of age and in good health, Dei Gratia/ 

"As the disease which terminated his life was apoplexy, 
its paralyzing stroke was sudden and unexpected. He rode 
from Lincolnton on the 10th of November, and on the even- 
ing of the 12th closed his eyes upon the cares and trials of 
a long, useful and honorable life."* 

* It gives me pleasure to acknowledge here the invaluable assistance I 
have found, in the preparation of this sketch, in "The Life and Revo- 
lutionary Papers of Gen. Joseph Graham," by Maj. W. A. Graham; and 
also in the excellent obituary by the Rev. R. H. Morrison, D. D. 



STATE RIGHTS IN NORTH CAROLINA THROUGH 
HALF A CENTURY. 

BY H. M. WAGSTAFF. 



JSTorth Carolina emerged from the Revolution with two 
distinct factions in her Whig party, factions that had been 
held in partial harmony during the war by the necessity 
of presenting a solid front to the British and Tories. One 
of these factions was led by Willie Jones, and may be known 
as the popular, democratic, or radical party. It had sought 
to enthrone democracy in the State Constitution in 1776. 
It emphasized State individualism and stressed the principle 
of decentralization in the relation of the States to the gov- 
ernment of the Confederacy. The other faction was directed 
by Samuel Johnston, and showed a tendency toward class 
government in State politics. It was duly appreciative of 
the benefits arising from common action between the States 
and desired proper deference from the States to the authority 
of the Confederate government. With the pressure of war 
and Toryism removed, these factions became separate parties, 
animated by strongly opposed sentiments. 

The first issue of large interest between them was the 
treatment to be accorded the defeated Loyalists, this, by its 
nature, leading to the larger question of the amount of au- 
thority the Congress of the loosely- jointed Confederacy was 
to be allowed to exercise. Congress's peace treaty with Eng- 
land had provided for the rights of return to Loyalists and 
the restitution of their confiscated property. Jones and his 
followers held that Congress had exceeded its authority in 
incurring such an obligation and on this account it need not 
be respected. 

On the other hand the party under Johnston was suffi- 



80 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

cientlj imbued with ideas of international honor to demand 
the execution of the treaty. The party was now in the 
minority, however, despite the fact that in its ranks were 
found Johnston, James Iredell, Alexander Maclaine, Wm. 
R. Davie and Wm. Hooper, the men most state prominent 
during the Eevolution. All these deprecated the tendency 
to individualize the State and place its interests paramount 
to those of the Confederacy. It was this party, therefore, 
that in 1786 eagerly supported the movement to reform the 
Articles of Confederation. A demand was growing strong 
throughout the Confederacy for a closer union of the states 
as a means of ending the confusion into which the whole 
country was falling. 

But in North Carolina the movement for creating a more 
effective union gathered force slowly. Despite the chaos 
in finance, in justice, in interstate commercial relations, and 
a general failure to realize the blessings that independence 
had seemed to promise, the majority party in North Carolina 
by no means despaired of the state or showed signs of a 
loss of faith in independent state democracy. State politics 
absorbed all its interests. Delegates were chosen to Congress 
but their seats for the most part remained vacant,^ the State 
being totally unrepresented a number of times between 1783 
and 1786. 

Nevertheless, despite the indifference manifested by the 
majority party in North Carolina and other of her sister 
states, the American Confederation was now on the eve of 
a radical political change, a change the more significant in 
that it was not generally demanded by the thirteen inde- 
pendent sovereignties affected. The action which proved 
to be the first step in the reorganization of the Confederation 
was the call by Virginia of a trade convention to meet at 

1 Chairman of Congress to Governor Caswell. N. C. Colonial Records, 
XVIII, 515, 659, et sea. 



STATE RIGHTS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 81 

Annapolis in September, 1786. Though public opinion in 
North Carolina appeared indifferent Governor Richard Cas- 
well, standing midway in state politics between the radicals 
and conservatives, appointed five delegates to represent the 
state at Annapolis. Only one of the number, Hugh Wil- 
liamson, made an effort to attend, he reaching the Maryland 
capital on the day the convention adjourned. But before 
adjournment the body had recommended to Congress the 
call of a constitutional convention for the purpose of amend- 
ing the Articles of Confederation in the interest of more per- 
fect union. Congress, already convinced of the imperfections 
of the Constitution and its own impotency, acted upon the 
suggestion within the same month. 

The North Carolina General Assembly responded to the 
call by the appointment of a delegation of five, consisting of 
Governor Caswell, Willie Jones, Alexander Martin, Richard 
Dobbs Spaight and Wm. R. Davie. It was understood^ that 
three of these, Caswell, Jones and Martin, were state rights 
men. Davie and Spaight were avowedly favorable to the 
idea of greatly strengthening the Federal government.^ The 
preamble to the act* of appointment, however, embodied the 
sentiment of the conservatives and seems to have been due 
to their exertions. It was perhaps as much on this account 
as for his lack of sympathy with the whole movement that 
Jones at once declined to serve. The Governor, so empow- 
ered by the act, filled the vacancy by the appointment of 
Hugh Williamson, and also named William Blount in his 
own stead. Both these classed as advocates of stronger 
union, hence the political complexion of the delegation was 
entirely changed. Only one radical, ex-Governor Martin, 
remained in the delegation. 

2 McRee's Life of James Iredell, II, 151. Iredell to Mrs. Iredell, Sept. 
30, 1786. 

3/6t(?., II, 168. Spaight to Iredell. 
* Public Acts of N. C, 1786, 412. 



82 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

The delegation as completed was in full attendance upon 
the Philadelphia convention soon after its organization in 
May, 1787. Martin showed himself pliable. Practical 
harmony prevailed among them and the delegation bore its 
proportionate part in making the great instrument of gov- 
ernment that was produced. The views of the North Caro- 
lina delegates as to the nature of the government in process 
of formation are clearly indicated in their attitude upon the 
various compromises that were found necessary between 
conflicting interests in the convention. In advocating the 
choice of senators by the state Legislatures Mr. Davie said 
that the government forming was partly federal, partly 
national : 'Tt ought in some respects to operate upon the 
States, in others upon the people." "^ Alexander Martin 
said: "United America must have one general interest to 
be a nation, at the same time preserving the particular inter- 
ests of the States." ^ The delegation stoutly supported the 
southern demand that at least three-fifths of the slaves should 
be counted in apportioning representatives to the states, 
Davie saying, in the debate, that "If the Eastern States 
mean to exclude them altogether then the business (of con- 
federation) is at an end." ^ As to the continuation of the 
slave trade the delegation was lukewarm, but finally voted 
with South Carolina and Georgia, apparently from a fear 
that those states would reject the Constitution if the trade 
was abolished at once. 

When the Constitution was completed only three members 
signed for Worth Carolina, Davie and Martin having re- 

5 N. C. State Records, XX, 637, 683. 

6 Madison Papers, Supplementary to Elliot's Debates on the Federal 
Constitution, V, 265. 

7 N. C. Records, XX, 753. Martin to Governor Caswell. With Mar- 
tin, however, the political pendulum had swung so far away from par- 
ticularism that events were soon to prove he had lost the confidence of 
his party. 

8 Madison Papers, Sup. Elliot's Debates, V, 303. 



STATE RIGHTS IN NOETH CAKOLINA. 83 

turned home near the end of the convention to meet business 
engagements. Both, however, would very probably have 
signed had they been present. 

The great struggle in North Carolina, as in a number of 
the other states, was yet to come over the question of ratifi- 
cation. Apparently the trend of public opinion in the latter 
part of 1787 was toward a sanction of the new Constitution. 
This was due to the effective campaign carried on by John- 
ston's party followers, now calling themselves federal men, 
or federalists. The party was determined to win a majority 
in the General Assembly, to elect their party chief as Gov- 
ernor, and call a state convention to pass upon the Consti- 
tution. The program was carried out. The new Legislature 
on joint ballot was able to elect Johnston and call a state 
convention to meet at Hillsboro in July of the following 
year (1788). 

But the battle was not yet half won. Early in 1788 Jones, 
aided by such able lieutenants as Timothy Bloodworth, David 
Caldwell, Judge Samuel Spencer and Maj. Joseph Mc- 
Donnell, of King's Mountain fame, began to marshal the 
forces of the opposition. E'orth Carolina has probably pro- 
duced no abler party strategist than Jones. The party cue 
was given by him at Halifax,® The federal judiciary, he 
said, would play havoc with the authority of the state's 
courts ; the poor were to be ruined by money collections and 
federal taxation; there was no provision for freedom of 
conscience, the states were to be absorbed by the central gov- 
ernment. These ideas and others of like tenor were potent 
arguments to the average ISTorth Carolinian against sur- 
rendering his dearly-bought liberties to an untried form of 
government. The anti-federalist propaganda rapidly began 
to have effect. The State judiciary was practically unani- 

sMcEee, II, 217. Davie to Iredell, outlining Jones's position. Davie 
was neighbor to Jones at Halifax. 



84: THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

mous^" in its opposition to the Constitution. Party lines 
were closely drawn in the election of delegates to Hillsboro. 
On account of his compliant attitude at Philadelphia, Alex- 
ander Martin was now rejected by his former constituents 
for a seat in the convention. The eastern counties, where 
most of the federalist leaders resided, were closely contested, 
the Cape Fear country was generally favorable, and the 
western country decidedly opposed to the Constitution. The 
elections were very exciting in many places in the east, but 
took place generally without fraud or violence, scoring a 
heavy victory for the antis or state rights party. 

So clear a verdict from the voters at first decided the anti- 
federal leaders to reject the Constitution absolutely and 
finally. But before the Hillsboro convention met, July 21, 
1788, ten states, among them influential Virginia, had rati- 
fied. This had a certain weight with the opponents of the 
Constitution in North Carolina. Jones, therefore, an- 
nounced" his purpose of procuring rejection in order to 
give weight to the amendments which the states generally 
were preparing as they ratified. This program was altered 
slightly toward the end of the convention under pressure 
from the strong array of federalist leaders who found seats 
in the convention. But the utmost concession the anti- 
federal majority would make was non-adoption instead of 
direct rejection. To the final resolution,^" referring the 
question to a possible later convention, was appended a dec- 
laration of rights and a list of twenty-six amendments'^ to 
be laid before Congress at its first session. The first of these 
guaranteed the reserved rights of the states; the remainder 
were for the most part restrictions upon the federal executive 

1^0 Ibid., II, 183. Maclaine to Iredell. 

11 McRee, II, 230. Davie to Iredell, July 9, 1788. 

le Elliot's Debates, IV, 242. 

13 Elliot's Debates, IV, 244. 



STATE EIGHTS IN NORTH CAKOLINA. 85 

and judiciary and an enlargement of the powers of Congress 
at the expense of the other two branches. The decisive vote 
showed the opponents of adoption an even hundred in the 
majority. The convention adjourned sine die on August 4. 

But the example of the other states began at once to 
work like leaven. News of ISTew York's ratification came im- 
mediately after the adjournment at Hillsboro. This left only 
Rhode Island and North Carolina without the federal pale. 
Public opinion grew uncertain. The federalist leaders re- 
newed their activity, determined to secure a majority in the 
new Assembly that would meet in November. Governor 
Johnston also aroused the friends of the Constitution every- 
where to prepare petitions^* to lay before the Assembly for 
a new- convention. 

The swing of the political pendulum was now toward 
federalism. Jones exerted all his powers to stay its momen- 
tum, but the opposition made large gains everywhere except 
in his own district. When the Assembly met, its membership 
was found to be almost evenly divided between the parties. 
The petitions came in in large numbers. It was evident 
that public opinion now demanded that the Constitution 
should be considered anew. North Carolina, completely 
out of relation with the other states, evidently felt lonely. 
Moreover, she feared trade discrimination by the new-formed 
Union. A convention bill was, therefore, prepared and 
passed ; but the anti-federalists were strong enough to fix 
its date of meeting six months later than that upon which 
the first Congress of the new Union was to convene. 

When the first Congress met, in April, 1789, there was 
some disposition manifested to treat North Carolina and 
Rhode Island as actual foreign States. Impost and tonnage 
bills introduced early in the session contained proposals to 

1* These petitions are in manuscript in the N. C. Archives, office of 
Secretary of State, Raleigh. 



86 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

lay discriminatory duties upon their trade with the Union. 
Hugh Williamson, accredited agent of North Carolina to the 
government of the Union, memorialized Congress against 
such a course and urged forbearance.^^ Only a little time, 
he said, was needed to bring his state into the Union. The 
proposed hostile clauses, however, were never pressed, the 
attitude of the Union toward the states outside being one of 
courteous invitation. Some of the states already in per- 
haps felt as did the fox in the fable: having lost their own 
tails they wished others to dispense with brushy adornment. 
Already southern public men had begun to recognize a 
"southern interest" as opposed to northern interests and 
now devoutly wished for the accession of North Carolina as 
a means of preserving the balance of power. ^^ 

The second North Carolina convention called to consider 
the federal Constitution met November 16, 1789, and five 
days later passed an ordinance of ratification by a majority 
of 118 votes. The journaP^ of the six days session contains 
the bare outline of the proceedings, hence it is impossible 
to determine the spirit of the debates unless extant corre- 
spondence of federalists be accepted. Governor Johnston 
wrote that the opposition was "still violent and virulent," 
and Davie upon the first day was doubtful whether ratifica- 
tion could be effected.^^ But Davie had signally failed to 
correctly estimate the rapidity with which sentiment for 
union had ripened since the adjournment at Hillsboro, now 
more than a year past. Moreover, the position the federalist 
leaders themselves had taken in defense of the Constitution 
had labeled them as thorough State rights men provided they 
had the state once inside the Union. Their speeches in the 

15 Williamson to Congress. Ms. State Archives. 

i« Pierce Butler, of S. C, to James Iredell. McRee, II, 263. 

17 Journal of the Fayetteville Convention, 1789, in N. C. State Rec- 
ords, XXII, 36-53. 

18 McRee, II, 271. Davie to Iredell. 



STATE RIGHTS IN NOKTH CAROLINA. 87 

Hillsboro convention, the propaganda they had industriously 
circulated after the convention, and their general attitude 
toward union conclusively shows that they regarded the Con- 
stitution as a mere federal compact and the general govern- 
ment as but the agents of the states creating it. With this 
view held persistently before the anti-federalists, enough of 
them bowed their heads to enable the state to give sanction 
to the Constitution. 

Whatever form of government the logic of subsequent 
events may have shown the Constitution to have created, no 
one could become familiar with the spirit prevalent in both 
parties in N'orth Carolina in 1789 without reaching the con- 
clusion that adoption there was based on a belief that it 
created a governmental compact with powers given superior 
to the old Articles of Confederation only for the purpose 
of efficient administration. Though North Carolina entered 
the Union only after hesitancy and mature deliberation, yet 
her subsequent history conclusively proved her loyalty to it 
as long as its government represented her original interpre- 
tation of the Constitution. 

Ratification in North Carolina had been effected during 
a surface reaction from the tendencies toward state indi- 
vidualism represented by Willie Jones. It was inevitable 
that a moderate reaction in the opposite direction should 
now occur. Adjustment to the new order of things could 
not be without certain jars and friction between federal 
and state authority. The anti-federalists soon formed them- 
selves into the Republican party and assumed the role of 
critic. When excitement arose in the last months of 1790 
over Alexander Hamilton's scheme for federal assumption 
of state debts, the popular branch of the North Carolina 
General Assembly, much opposed to assumption, refused^® 
by a vote of 55 to 26 to take the oath to support the 

i» Journal of the House. N. C. State Records, XXI, 1021. 



88 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Constitution prescribed bj Congress for such state offi- 
cers as governors, members of legislatures and others. A 
second incident concerned the adjustment of the federal 
judiciary. A writ of certiorari was issued from the federal 
district court of J^orth Carolina by direction of three of the 
United States Supreme Court Judges (Blair, Eutledge and 
Wilson), directed to the Court of Equity in North Carolina, 
for bringing up an equity case.^'^ The state judges denied 
the Supreme Court's authority in the cas6 and refused obedi- 
ence to the writ. The General Assembly at once passed a 
vote of thanks to the judges for their defiance. The case 
was allowed to rest by the federal authorities and with the 
early reform of the judiciary was thrown out. 

The General Assembly passed strong resolutions"^ against 
the assumption and funding measures of Hamilton and per- 
emtorily instructed the state's senators, Samuel Johnston 
and Benjamin Hawkins, to oppose any excise or direct tax 
by the federal government. It so happened that North Caro- 
lina's delegation to Congress, arriving late, was found to 
hold the balance of power relative to these measures. Hence 
the assumption program was laid aside for the time. Later 
it was brought forward and yoked with the question of a 
site for the federal capital, the well-known compromise 
resulting. 

The federal excise laws of 1791, from which the assump- 
tionists purposed to derive the funds to carry out their 
measures, occasioned great ferment in all the frontier regions 
of the United States. The greatest storm center was western 
Pennsylvania, the trouble there culminating in 1794 in the 
"Whiskey Eebellion." In western North Carolina, if re- 
sistance to the excise laws was less organized, it was none 
the less effective ; federal collectors were powerless and dis- 

20 Dallas, U. S. Supreme Court Reports, II, 412. 

21 N. C. State Records, XXI, 1054. 



STATE EIGHTS IN NOKTH CAROLINA. 89 

creetly remained out of the excited localities.^" The spirit 
of resistance spread also to the eastern counties^^ and the 
ferment did not abate until the excise laws were amended. 

A general discontent with the measures Congress had 
deemed necessary for adjustment of the new regime now 
developed in N^orth Carolina. The first political victim of 
the reaction was Samuel Johnston, who, regarded as the 
most uncompromising advocate of strong national powers, 
failed to secure reelection to the United States senate when 
his term expired in March, 1792. Alexander Martin, again 
in the confidence of the Republican party, was chosen as John- 
ston's successor. In the congressional elections of 1793 this 
party was successful in every district save one, the Scotch 
district in the Cape Fear region. With Johnston retired 
to private life the remaining federalist leaders now quietly 
supported the same state rights principles as the Republican 
party. James Iredell, whom Washington had appointed to 
the Supreme Court bench, set them the example in his dis- 
senting opinion in the case of Chisholm v. Georgia. 

This famous case sharply brought the states to consider 
anew the question of just what powers they had given up to 
the federal government. The issue involved, the right of 
suit of a state by a citizen of another state, was decided 
aflSrmatively, only one justice, James Iredell, dissenting. 
In his cogently reasoned opinion^* Iredell argued that the 
individual states were successors to the sovereignty wrenched 
from the British crown. Upon this premise he built up 
his theory of divided and delegated sovereignty, holding that 
every state in the Union, in every instance where its sov- 
ereignty had not been delegated to the United States, was 
as completely sovereign as were the United States in respect 

22McRee, II, 330, 335. Davie to Iredell, Aug. 2, 1791. 

23 Johnston to Iredell, April 15, 1791. 

24 Dallas, U. S. Supreme Court Reports, II, 419-480, 



90 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

to the powers conferred upon them by the federal compact. 
A state, therefore, remaining sovereign, could not be sued. 
Georgia acted upon Iredell's theory and defied the federal 
authority. The judgment remained unenforced until the 
eleventh amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1798, 
removed such questions from the cognizance of the court, 
thus sanctioning Iredell's view. 

The Republican party throughout the country had re- 
ceived Iredell's argument as an exposition of its own theory 
of a definite line of demarcation between the rights reserved 
by the states and those delegated to the federal government. 
The opinion is the more interesting in this connection be- 
cause of Iredell's influence upon the ratification of the Con- 
stitution by North Carolina. His interpretation of the Con- 
stitution in the Chisliolm v. Georgia case was in the same 
state rights spirit with which he had defended it in 1788-89. 

The Alien and Sedition acts, passed by Congress in June 
and July, 1798, gave the Eepublicans their next opportunity 
to raise the state rights issue. Virginia and Kentucky pro- 
tested vigorously in legislative resolutions characterizing the 
acts as a usurpation of power on the part of the federal gov- 
ernment and therefore void. Wm. R. Davie, a federalist 
with mild state rights proclivities, was Governor of North 
Carolina at the date of reception of the Virginia and Ken- 
tucky resolutions. His zeal for the safety of the Union 
caused him to take the ground that at this juncture the 
Union's existence was in more danger than the rights of the 
states. ^^ He therefore threw all his influence against any 
legislative cooperation with Virginia and Kentucky. Feeling 
ran high throughout the state. In a sharp party fight in the 
lower branch of the state legislature Davie's followers were 
successful in preventing action.^*' But the attitude of ISTorth 

25 McRee, II. Davie to Iredell, June 17, 1799. 

26 Journal of the N. C. House of Commons, 1798, p. 78. 



STATE EIGHTS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 91 

Carolina toward the '^doctrine of 1798" was one of friendli- 
ness. Her non-action was due to disinclination on the part 
of the state administration to encourage dissension at a 
time of such high party feeling. 

The federalist party in North Carolina practically ex- 
pended the last of its strength in the presidential election of 
1800. General apprehension for the safety of the Union 
aroused by the Jay treaty, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and 
the "Resolutions of '98" enabled them to carry four electoral 
districts, but after this election the party became disorgan- 
ized and had no leaders of note. The Republican party now 
had practically uncontested control of the state with indi- 
cations predicting a long tenure of power. Nathaniel Macon, 
a worthy disciple of Willie Jones and with even more ultra- 
democratic principles than his preceptor, became the party 
chief. His position in national politics as speaker of the 
House of Representatives from 1801 to 1806 did not lessen 
his interest in state party affairs. Through the decade of 
national humiliation at the hands of England and France he 
held the state in firm support of the Republican administra- 
tion. When the New England federalists met at Hartford 
in 1814 and threatened to secede as a protest against the 
war with England, North Carolina republicanism, mindful 
of its cardinal doctrine, state rights, conceded their right 
to speak. But the concession was coupled with the demand 
that they should speak through their legislatures and at a 
time when all were not endangered by a public enemy; in 
short, that "they should speak like Americans." ^^ 

From 1815 to 1820 North Carolina, in common with the 
rest of the Union, enjoyed a period of political quiet. The 
Union, now that it had stood the test of a foreign war, became 

27 Raleigh Register, Dec. 8, 1814, and Jan. 27, 1815. This paper was 
the official organ of the Republican party in N. C. 



92 THE NORTH CAEOLIISrA BOOKLET. 

a fixture in the political conceptions of the people. Senti- 
ment, as well as political wisdom and experience, was begin- 
ning to form a bulwark for its protection.^^ 

The period of calm was soon broken, however, by the de- 
velopment of a serious political contest between the North 
and the South over slavery extension. The issue was joined 
over the admission of Missouri as a slave state, ending in the 
well-known Missouri Compromise. Though the North Caro- 
lina legislature gave no official utterance to the state's senti- 
ment upon the question, the newspapers earnestly thrashed 
the matter over and thus we are able to learn the general 
state of public opinion. The Raleigh Register, official mouth- 
piece of the Republican state organization, decidedly op- 
posed as unconstitutional any restrictions upon Missouri.^® 
The Minerva, claiming no party affiliations but representing 
the known sentiment of certain detached groups,^" and un- 
doubtedly a respectable minority, assumed a very different 
attitude. It said, January 28, 1820: "We doubt whether 
it be possible to answer Mr. King's speech of the last session 
against granting to this new State (Missouri) the privilege 
of holding our fellow-men in bondage. Yet our Northern 
brethren will generously remember that it is not always pos- 
sible for the most honest to be just." A month later the 
same paper asserted the constitutionality of restriction,'^ 
and added: "It is equally certain that true policy forbids 
the extension^, as it submits to the toleration of slavery." 
Two weeks later the Minerva declared an open and definite 

28 17 Nile's Register, 31, has a very interesting account at this date 
of a fervent prayer for the preservation of the Union, uttered by a 
North Carolina Eevolutionary patriot upon his death bed. 

29 Raleigh Register, March 3, 1820, et seq. 

30 These groups were the Quaker counties — Guilford, Randolph, and 
Chatham; the Moravian center at Salem, and much of the mountain 
country. 

31 Minerva, Feb. 11, 1820. 



STATE EIGHTS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 93 

hostility to slavery extension and began to advocate^' some 
form of gradual emancipation in the states. 

Such sentiment, however, was unorganized and ineffectual 
and by no means represented the controlling forces within 
the state. ISTathaniel Macon, now in the United States sen- 
ate, represented as always the state rights republicanism 
of the eastern North Carolina slaveholder. He opposed to 
the end the whole plan of the compromise on the ground that 
it would mean an admission on the part of the South that 
Congress could set metes and bounds to slavery. 

During the tariff and nullification controversy of 1828-33 
North Carolina pursued the course she felt best fitted to 
secure a repeal of the obnoxious tariff and at the same time 
preserve her original attitude toward state rights, without 
endorsing the radical activity of South Carolina. Just after 
the tariff bill of 1827 so nearly became a law. Governor Ire- 
dell, anticipating that the protectionists would again bring 
forward their measure at the next session of CongTess, rec- 
ommended^^ to the JSTorth Carolina General Assembly to put 
on record some form of protest. Accordingly at this time a 
resolution^* was passed which declared that any increase of 
import duties by Congress was inexpedient and unwise. That 
this simple resolution might the more effectively gain the 
ear of Congress a preamble was attached which admitted the 
constitutionality of such duties but declared nevertheless that 
"interest, either pecuniary or political, is the great point of 
union from the smallest association up to the Confederacy of 
American States : that whenever a system is adopted by the 
general government which does not equally conserve the in- 
terests of all the states, then the right rests with any state 

32 IhicL, Feb. 25, 1820. 

33 Message, Nov. 29, 1827, Executive Letter-book. Governor Iredell 
was the son of Judge James Iredell, of the U. S. Supreme Court. The 
father had died in 1799. 

34 Journal of N. C. Gen. Assy., 1827-28, p. 101. 



94 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

or States to question whether the benefits of the Union are 
not more than counterbalanced by its evils." This had the 
ring of Hartford convention doctrine, but v^as unavailing, 
Congress passing the ''tariff of abominations" one month 
later. 

A storm of protest was raised at once throughout the South. 
But with Adams's defeat by Jackson in November, 1828, 
the belief became current in North Carolina that the tariff 
would be repealed almost immediately.^^ Events drifted, 
however, and nothing was done. The Hayne-Webster debate 
occurred in January, 1830, and intensified interest in the 
strained situation. Though not yet quite ready for action, 
the course South Carolina would pursue was a foregone con- 
clusion. The question before the Union, therefore, was how 
far that state would be supported by the other southern 
states. 

For North Carolina this question was answered directly 
by the people on Independence Day, 1830. Fourth of July 
celebrations were held in nearly every county in the state 
and were made the occasion of a plebiscite on the South 
Carolina doctrine. At Asheboro the following theme in- 
spired the orator of the day and evoked the applause of the 
people : "The union of the States — united we stand, divided 
we fall ! He who wantonly engenders a feeling of hostility 
between the States instead of soothing it to harmony is a 
traitor to his country. Let no such man be trusted." At 
Hillsboro: "State Rights and Federal Powers — if the line 
of demarcation between them, as drawn by the framers of 
the Constitution, be preserved unobscured by the refinements 
of construction, our Union will stand throughout time as the 
proud monument of a free people to govern themselves." 
At Fayetteville : "Our Sister State — South Carolina. We 

35 This view was expressed by the newspapers, and in Governor Owen's 
message to Assembly, Nov. 19, 1829. Ms. Letter-book. 



STATE EIGHTS IN NORTH CAEOLINA. 95 

esteem her worth but deprecate her example. We therefore 
hold her in union a friend, in disunion an enemy to our 
political institutions." ^^ Speaker vied with speaker every- 
where in expression of dissent from South Carolina's doctrine 
of nullification, though at the same time care was taken to 
soundly rap the tariff. Calhoun's reasoning might be 
without a flaw, but just now the blessings of union seemed 
dearer to North Carolina than statesmen's logic. 

When the annual Assembly met in ISTovember it was ex- 
pected to register officially the will of the people upon the 
subject of nullification. Accordingly resolutions^^ in the 
following form were introduced by Jonathan Worth, a 
Quaker member, and, after heated debate and slight amend- 
ment, passed the lower branch by a vote of 87 to 27 : "Re- 
solved, by the General Assembly of North Carolina: That 
although the Tariff Laws as they now exist are in the opinion 
of this Legislature unwise, unequal in their operation, and 
oppressive to the Southern States, yet this Legislature does 
not recognize as constitutional the right of an individual 
state to nullify a law of the United States." The twenty- 
seven members who opposed this resolution were extreme 
state rights men and were actuated by a fear that the repu- 
diation of nullification might mean the first successful as- 
sault upon particularism. They therefore preferred to make 
no concession, even as to the questionable doctrine of nulli- 
fication. The senate agreed with the house minority and 
refused to commit itself. The larger freehold qualifications 
required for membership in the senate made this branch of 
the legislature less responsive than the house to popular 
sentiment, therefore, more representative of the old par- 
se These toasts are chosen as typical of a great many reported by the 
press throughout the State. See Raleigh Register and Carolina Watch- 
man of July 12, 1830. 

37 House Journal, Dec. 31, 1830, p. 257. 



96 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

ticularism of the east. The senate favored resolutions which 
emphasized the reserved rights of the states and condemned 
the tariff as a usurpation of power by the Federal govern- 
ment.^* But it was not prepared to antagonize the popular 
branch and public sentiment further than to remain silent. 

The famous Nullification Ordinance of South Carolina, 
the result of a state convention in 1832, brought the contro- 
versy to a crisis. The North Carolina legislature was in 
session when the ordinance was received. The senate could 
no loEger stay the tide of dissent. The pressure for anti- 
nullification resolutions was too strong to be resisted. Some 
attempt was made by the senate to link the tariif with the 
question of internal improvements and make the two to- 
gether a cause for requesting all the states to meet in a 
federal convention for the purpose of giving an authoritative 
interpretation of all the constitutional questions in dispute. 
This plan failed, however, and the two houses then came to 
an agreement and passed anti-nullification resolutions.^" 
These resolutions contained both the declaration that the 
tariff was unconstitutional and that nullification was revolu- 
tionary and subversive of the Constitution. They were thus 
a compromise between the senate and the house, between the 
old state rights dogma and the new sentiment. 

But the repudiation of the doctrine of nullification by 
North Carolina can in no sense be interpreted as a repu- 
diation of the doctrine of state rights as held at the time of 
the formation of the Union. Numerous mass-meetings in 
the counties attest the people's endorsement of the legisla- 
ture's final action, but only one has been discovered by the 
writer in which the sentiment was expressed that the United 
States constituted one great political society and the govern- 

38 The Senate favored the "Sawyer Resolutions." These were of a 
strong state rights tone. See N. C. House Journal, 1830, 175. 

39 N. C. Senate Journal, 1832-33, 99; and House Journal, 1832-33, 
224-225. 



STATE RIGHTS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 97 

ment thereof essentially a national government.*** On the 
other hand, there was abundant evidence in mass-meetings, 
in the press, in the correspondence of public men, and in the 
Legislature which shows a spirit anxious to find a way to 
repudiate nullification and at the same time save the original 
state rights doctrine. A letter to a party friend from the 
aged Nathaniel Macon, now in voluntary political retire- 
ment, probably expresses as accurately as could be done the 
attitude of the thinking public. He said: "I have never 
believed a State could nullify and stay in the Union, but 
have always believed that a State might secede when she 
pleased, provided she would pay her proportion of the na- 
tional debt; and this right I have considered the best safe- 
guard to public liberty and public justice that could be re- 
quired."*^ It was in consistency with this theory and under 
its impulsion that North Carolina left the Union in 1861. 

40 Such resolutions were passed in the town of Wilmington, which, 
strange to say, was later the strongest secession center in the State. 
For resolutions see Raleigh Register, Jan. 4, 1833. 

■*! Dodd. Life of Nathaniel Macon, 385. Macon to Samuel P, Carson, 
Feb. 9, 1833. 



THE NAG'S HEAD PICTURE OF THEODOSIA 
BURR.* 



BY BETTIE FRESHWATER POOL. 

The sand dunes of North Carolina have long been famous 
as the scene of marine tragedies. The bleaching ribs of 
some of the stateliest craft that ever plowed the deep bear 
testimony to the ravages of old ocean. The English mer- 
chantman, the Portuguese galleon, the Dutch brigantine, the 
Spanish treasure ship, the Trench corvette, the Norwegian 
barque, representatives of every maritime nation on the 
globe, are scattered over the beach, from Hatteras to Cape 
Fear, their grisly skeletons protruding from the sands like 
antediluvian monsters in some geological bed. 

This narrow strip of sand winding like a yellow ribbon 
between the inland sounds and the sea, presents a curious 
study to the geologist. For years it has been gradually 
sinking, and at the same time becoming narrower, until now 
its average width is not more than a mile, and the libertine 
waters of the great sea not seldom rush across the frail bar- 
rier to embrace those of the Albemarle. 

The slender divide has not always been able to withstand 
the matchless flood, which has, in times of unusual commo- 
tion, literally cut a pathway through the yielding sands. 
These form inlets, of which Oregon, Hatteras and New 
are the most important. Through the first Burnside's fleet 
of warships defiled on its way to the bombardment of 
Roanoke Island. The channels are constantly changing, 
and skillful pilots are required to guide vessels safely over 
the bar. 

*This article from "The Eyrie and Other Southern Stories," by Bettie 
Freshwater Pool, is published by permission of the author. 




Supposed Portrait of Theodosia Burr Alston. 



nag's iikad picture of theodosia bueb. 99 

The ornithologist may here find much to interest him, and 
the conchologist revel in a paradise of shells. But the nau- 
tilus, pale and pearly, and the delicate blush of the sea conch, 
have small influence on the rude nature of the native "bank- 
er." Isolated from the world on his barren waste of shift- 
ing sand the "banker" of a hundred years ago was almost a 
barbarian. His savage instincts not only made him con- 
sider all flotsam and jetsam his lawful property, but in- 
duced him to use every means to lure vessels ashore for the 
purposes of plunder. And when a wreck occurred, the 
wreckers held high carnival. The sparse population turned 
out en masse, and with demoniac yells, murdered without re- 
morse the hapless victims who escaped the raging surf. I^ag's 
Head, a favorite summer resort along the coast, was named 
from a habit the "bankers" had of hobbling a horse, suspend- 
ing a lantern from its neck and walking it up and down the 
beach on stormy nights, impressing the mariner with the be- 
lief that a vessel was riding safely at anchor. Through this 
device many a good ship has gone down and much valuable 
booty secured to the land pirates. 

The "bankers" of to-day are different beings from their 
ancestors of a century ago. Fellowship with enlightened 
people has had a humanizing influence, and they are now 
good and useful citizens. The North Carolina coast is pro- 
vided with three first-class lighthouses — Hatteras, Whale's 
Head, and Body's Island. Body's Island is no longer an 
island, Nag's Head Inlet, which formed its northern 
boundary, having been completely closed up by the encroach- 
ing sands. 

The dunes, for most part barren of vegetation, have in 
some places a stunted growth of forest trees, and in others 
large marshes covered with a rank growth of coarse grass, on 
which herds of wild cattle and "banks ponies" graze. 



100 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

In the winter of 1812 there drifted ashore at Kitty Hawk, 
a few miles below ISTag's Head, a small pilot boat with all 
sails set and the rudder lashed. There was no sign of vio- 
lence or bloodshed; the boat was in perfect condition, but 
entirely deserted. The small table in the cabin had been 
spread for some repast, which remained undisturbed. There 
were several handsome silk dresses, a case of wax flowers with 
a glass covering, a nautilus shell beautifully carved, and 
hanging on the wall of the cabin was the portrait of a young 
and beautiful woman. This picture was an oil painting on 
polished mahogany, twenty inches in length and enclosed in 
a frame richly gilded. The face was patrician and refined : 
the expression of the dark eyes proud and haughty ; the hair 
dark auburn, curling and abundant. A white bodice, cut low 
in the neck and richly adorned with lace, revealed a glimpse 
of the drooping shoulders, and the snowy bust, unconfined by 
corset. 

Those who boarded the boat possessed themselves of 
everything of value on board. The picture, wax flowers, nau- 
tilus shell and silk dresses fell into the possession of an illit- 
erate banker woman, who attached no especial value to them. 

This picture, which has since attracted so much attention, 
hung on the wall of a rude cabin among the North Carolina 
hills for fifty-seven years. In the year 1869 it fell into the 
possession of the late Dr. William G. Pool, a prominent 
North Carolina physician. Dr. Pool was a man of marked 
individuality. He had the tastes of an antiquarian, was 
literary, cultured, and noted for his remarkable conversa- 
tional gifts. While summering at Nag's Head, he was called 
upon to visit professionally the old banker woman referred 
to above. He was successful in his treatment of the case, 
and knowing the circumstances of his patient, would accept 
no payment for his services. In her gratitude for his kind- 
ness, the old woman insisted upon his accepting, "as a gift," 



nag's head picture of theodosia bure. 101 

the portrait hanging on the wall of her cabin. When ques- 
tioned concerning its history, she related the facts above men- 
tioned. This she did with apparent reluctance, possibly sup- 
pressing many interesting details that might have thrown 
more light upon the subject. Her husband had been one of 
the wreckers who boarded the pilot boat, and the picture and 
other articles referred to had been his share of the spoils. 
Her story was that the wreckers supposed the boat to have 
been boarded by pirates and that passengers and crew had 
been made to "walk the plank." The picture and its strange 
history became a subject of much interest and conjecture to 
Dr. Pool. Artists pronounced it a masterpiece, and the 
unmistakable portrait of some woman of patrician birth. 

Chancing one day to pick up an old magazine in which 
appeared a picture of Aaron Burr, Dr. Pool was forcibly 
struck by the strong resemblance between it and the portrait 
in question. Like a flash it occurred to him that this might 
be a likeness of Theodosia, the ill-fated daughter of Aaron 
Burr. Eagerly he compared dates and facts until he be- 
came thoroughly convinced that he had found a clue to that 
mysterious disappearance, which is one of the most awful 
tragedies of history. A brief account of this discovery was 
published in the New York Sun, and immediately letters 
innumerable were received by him asking for more par- 
ticulars. 

Photographs of the portrait were sent to the numerous 
members of the Burr and Edwards families, and almost 
without exception the likeness was pronounced to be that of 
Theodosia Burr. Charles Burr Todd, the author, and Mrs. 
Stella Drake Knappin, descendants respectively of the Burr 
and Edwards families, visited Dr. Pool's residence on Pas- 
quotank River for the purpose of examining the portrait. 
They were both convinced that it was a likeness of Theo- 
dosia Burr. 



102 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

The wife of Colonel Wheeler, of Washington, D. C, who is 
a daughter of Sully, the famous portrait painter, and is her- 
self an artist, compared a photo of the ISFag's Head picture 
with a likeness of Theodosia Burr in her possession. She at 
once perceived that both features and expression were 
identical. 

There was probably no woman in America at the time of 
Theodosia Burr's death more universally known and ad- 
mired than she. Her high social rank, her beauty, her 
genius, her accomplishments, as well as her heroic devotion 
to her father in the dark days of his disgTace and banishment, 
had made her a prominent figure and had won for her the 
admiration of thousands. 

When Aaron Burr, upon his return from exile, sent for his 
daughter to visit him in ISTew York, she decided to make the 
voyage by sea. Her health had been almost completely 
wrecked by grief over her father's disgrace, and the recent 
death of her only child, Aaron Burr Alston. It was thought 
that a sea voyage might prove beneficial. She accordingly 
set sail from Georgetown, S. C, in the Patriot, a small pilot 
boat, December 30, 1812. Days and weeks passed, but 
Aaron Burr waited in vain for the arrival of his daughter. 
Months and years rolled away and still no tidings came. 
The Patriot and all on board had completely vanished from 
the face of the earth, and the mystery of its disappearance 
remained unsolved for more than half a century. 

Governor Alston did not long survive the loss of his beloved 
wife, and Aaron Burr, in speaking, years afterwards of his 
daughter's mysterious fate, said that this event had separated 
him from the human race. 

Let us now compare dates and facts: A pilot boat drifts 
ashore during the winter of 1812 at Kitty Hawk, a few miles 
below ITag's Head. There were silk dresses in the cabin 



NAG S HEAD PICTUEE OF TIIEODOSIA BURK. 103 

and other indications that some lady of wealth and refinement 
has been on board. There is a portrait on the wall of the 
cabin that has been pronounced by artists and members of 
her family to be a likeness of Theodosia Burr. 

The Patriot was lost during the winter of 1812. On the 
voyage from Georgetown, S. C, to New York it would pass 
the North Carolina coast. The sea at this time was infested 
by pirates. A band of these bold buccaneers may have 
boarded the little vessel and compelled passengers and crew 
to "walk the plank." Becoming alarmed at the appearance 
of some government cruiser, they may, from motives of pru- 
dence, have abandoned their prize. 

This theory is not mere conjecture. Years ago two 
criminals executed in Norfolk, Va., are reported as having 
testified that they had belonged to a piratical crew who 
boarded the Patriot and compelled every soul on board to 
"walk the plank." The same confession was made years sub- 
sequently by a mendicant dying in a Michigan almshouse. 
This man said he would never forget the beautiful face of 
Theodosia Burr as it sank beneath the waves, nor how elo- 
quently she pleaded for her life, promising the pirates pardon 
and a liberal reward if they would spare her. But they were 
relentless, and she went to her doom with so dauntless and 
calm a spirit that even the most hardened pirates were 
touched. 

I can not vouch for the truth of these confessions which 
have appeared from time to time in print. I only introduce 
them as collateral evidence in support of the banker woman's 
story. The Patriot was supposed to have been wrecked off 
the coast of Hatteras during a terrific storm which occurred 
soon after it set sail. This, however, was mere conjecture 
which has never been substantiated by the slightest proof. 

It is not improbable that the Patriot during a night of 



104 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

storm was lured ashore by the decoy light at Nag's Head, 
and that passengers and crew fell into the hands of the land 
pirates in waiting, who possessed themselves of the boat and 
everything of value it contained. This also, of course, is 
mere conjecture, but the all-important fact remains that a 
pilot boat went ashore at Kitty Hawk during the winter of 
1812, and that in the cabin of this boat was a portrait of 
Theodosia Burr. 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL 
MEMORANDA. 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY MKS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

The sketch of General Joseph Graham is written by his 
granddaughter, Mrs. Susan Graham Clark, who is the wife 
of Chief Justice Clark, one of the foremost historians of our 
State. She is the only daughter of the late Honorable Wil- 
liam Alexander Graham, the learned lawyer and ripe scholar, 
who filled so many positions of honor and trust, notable 
among them being that of United States Senator in 1840, 
Governor in 1845, and Confederate States Senator in 1864. 
Mrs. Clark was born in Washington, D. C, while her father 
was Secretary of the ISTavy during the administration of Presi- 
dent Fillmore. A suggestion made by Governor Graham to fit 
out an expedition to Japan resulted in one of the greatest 
events of the nineteenth century — the opening of the ports of 
that country to the world. Had he done nothing else, this 
alone would place him on the highest roll of fame. 

Mrs. Clark received her primary education at the Misses 
Nash and Miss Kollock's School in Hillsboro, IST. C, and 
afterwards at Mile. Eostand's in New York City. She lived 
in Hillsboro, N. C, until her marriage in 1874, since which 
time she has resided in Raleigh, where she exerts a potent in- 
fluence in her church and in other associations. 

Mrs. Clark is Vice-Regent of the North Carolina Society 
of the Daughters of the Revolution, filling the place most 
acceptably, holding the meetings in the absence of the Regent, 
conducting and furthering with zest and conservatism such 
movements as are made for the preservation of our State his- 
tory or the commemoration of important events. 

Mrs. Clark has been repeatedly called to the office of Re- 
gent, the highest office within the gift of the Society, but a 
frail constitution forbade such active work as this position 



106 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

would entail. Mrs. Clark belongs to such organizations as 
the Associated Charities, the Civic Department of the 
Woman's Club, and the Rescue Circle of King's Daughters. 

"True to the kindred points of Heaven and Home," Mrs. 
Clark's daily life is an exponent of her character. She claims 
as her jewels five sons and two daughters. 



HENRY McGILFERT WAGSTAFF. 

Author of "State Rights in ISorth Carolina Through Half a Century." 

Born at Olive Hill, Person County, North Carolina, Jan- 
uary 27, 1876. 

Attended the public schools ; was prepared for college at 
Roxboro Academy and by private instruction. Entered the 
University of North Carolina in 1895, and graduated 1899. 

Taught three years (1899-1902) in high schools of the 
State. 

Entered Johns Hopkins University in 1903 for graduate 
work in History. In 1905-6 was fellow in History at the 
Hopkins and received PhD. degree in latter year. 1906-7 
was Acting Professor of History in Allegheny College, Penn- 
sylvania. 1907-9 was Associate Professor of History in 
University of North Carolina, and in 1909 became Professor 
of History in this institution. 

Professor Wagstaff has always taken a lively interest in all 
history, but has made an especial study of the history of 
North Carolina from a love for his native State. His ability 
and industry in this line entitle him to be grouped with those 
historians of the past and present who have made and are 
making "God and their country's right their battle cry." 



MISS BETTIE FRESHWATER POOL. 

Author of Article on "Nags Head Picture" Biographical Sketch. 

Biographical sketch may be found in No. 4 of Vol. VIII, 
page 334. 



ABSTRACT OF WILLS PREVIOUS TO 1760. 



FROM SECRETARY OF STATE S OFFICE. 

Will of Lawrence Arnold, Dec. 14, 1690. Son John, wife, 
Lawrence Godfrey. 



Will of Richard Ashell; executed Sept. 15, 1695. Wife, 
daughter Mary, child i)i esse, all my children, Wm. Privett 
and Wm. Charlton. (IS'ote — Chowan names.) 



Will of Peter Avelin, March 14, 1710 ; probated ^^ov. 1, 
171t^. vSons Henry, Peter and John, daughter Anne. 



Will of Abraham Adams; Dec. 18, 1734. Son James 
Adams, son Joseph, daughter Sarah, wife Anne. 



Will of James Adams; Feb. 17, 1733; probated July, 
1734. Son Abraham, son James, son Emanuel, son John, 
son Thomas, daughter Martha, daughter Rachel, daughter 
Mary, child of Rachel. 



Will of Abraham Adams; March 27, 1734. Son Abra- 
ham, son Richard, son William, son Willoby, wife Barthia. 

Will of John Battle of Bertie County ; probated May Court, 
1740; son William, son Jesse, daughters Priscilla and Sarah, 
brother William Battle, wife Sarah Battle, John Brown, 
brother to my wife. 



108 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

Will of James Burns, Bertie County ; January 8, 1733 ; 
probated March 31, 1Y35. Wife Elizabeth, son-in-law John 
Wynn, grandson George Augustus AVynn, son-in-law CuUi- 
ner Sessoms, daughter Mary Wynn, daughter Elizabeth 
Early, grandson James Early, James Burke, William Burke, 



V/iil of William Boge; Dec. 20, 1720; probated April 11, 
1721. Sons William and Josiah, wife EUendor, daughter 
Elizabeth Hill, daughter Jane Boge, daughter Miriam Boge, 
daughter Eachel Boge, grandson William Hill, son Kobert; 
Wm. Boge and Janet Hill, executors. 



Will of John Bennett, of Currituck ; Dec. 10, 1710. Sons 
Joseph and Benjamin, cousin Wm. Jones, of Northampton- 
shire, wife's grandfather Richard Nescut of South Pedecton 
in Somersetshire, adopted son Sampson Goddard, wife Mary 
executrix. 



By Mrs. Helen deB. Wills, 
Genealogist for N. C. Daughters of the Revolution. 



INFORMATION 

Concerning the Patriotic Society 

''Daughters of the Revolution" 



The General Society was founded October 11, 1890, — and organized 
August 20, 1891, — under the name of "Daughters of the American 
Revolution"; was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York 
as an organization national in its work and purpose. Some of the mem- 
bers of this organization becoming dissatisfied with the terms of en- 
trance, withdrew from it and, in 1891, formed under the slightly differ- 
ing name "Daughters of the Revolution," eligibility to which from the 
moment of its existence has been lineal descent from an ancestor who 
rendered patriotic service during the War of Independence. 



" ^e North Carolina Society " 

a subdivision of the General Society, was organized in October, 1896, 
and has continued to promote the purposes of its institution and to 
observe the Constitution and By-Laws. 



Membership and Qualifications 

Any woman shall be eligible who is above the age of eighteen years, 
of good character, and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who (1) waa 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, Legislature or General Court, of any of the Colonies 
or States; or (2) rendered civil, military or naval service under the 
authority of any of the thirteen Colonies, or of the Continental Con- 
gress; or (3) by service rendered during the War of the Revolution 
became liable to the penalty of treason against the government of Great 
Britain: Provided, that such ancestor always remained loyal to the 
cause of American Independence. 

The chief work of the North Carolina Society for the past eight years 
has been the publication of the "North Carolina Booklet," a quarterly 
publication on great events in North Carolina history — Colonial and 
Revolutionary. $1.00 per year. It will continue to extend its work and 
to spread the knowledge of its History and Biography in other States. 

This Society has its headquarters in Raleigh, N. C, Room 411, Caro- 
lina Trust Company Building, 232 Fayetteville Street. 



^^^^^^^^^^a^^^s^^agy 



Some Booklets for Sale 



Vol. I 

'Greene's Retreat," Dr. Daniel Harvey Hill, 



Vol. II 

"Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

"Indian Massacre and Ttiscarora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. CleweU. 

"Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

"The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

"Raleigh and the Old Town of Bloomsbury," Dr. K. P. Battle. 

"Historic Homes — Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hayes," Rodman, Blount, 

Dillard. 
"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 
"Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 
"Last Days of the War," Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

"Trial of James Glasgow," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

"Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

"Historic Hillsboro," Mr. Francis Nash. 

"Colony of Transylvania," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL.D. 
"Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
"North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Mr. Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

"Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm. A. Graham. 

"Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

"Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

"North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 
and Joseph Hewes," by Mr. T. M. Pittman and Dr. E. Walter Sikes. 

"Expedition to Cartagena, 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

"Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 

"Highland Scotch Settlement in N. C," Judge James C. McRae. 

"The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 

"Battle of Guilford Court-house and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge 0. H. Allen. 

"Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

1 



Vol. v.— (Quarterly). 

No.1. 

"St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations," Richard 

Dillard, M.D. 
"N. C. Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II, 

William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

"History of the Capitol," Colonel Charles Earl Johnson. 

"Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

Grimes. 
"North Carolina's Poets," Rev. Eight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

"Cornelius Harnett," Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

"Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W. A. 

Graham. 
"Edward Moseley," by Dr. D. H. Hill. 

No. 4. 

"Governor Thomas Pollok," Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 
"Battle of Cowan's Ford," Major W. A. Graham. 

"First Settlers in North Carolina Not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rev. 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, D.D. 

Vol. V|-(Quarteply.) 
No. 1. 

"The Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina," Richard Dillard, M.D. 

"History Involved in the Names of Counties and Towns in North Caro- 
lina," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

"A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear" (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), Hon. James Sprunt. 

"Biographical Sketches: Introduction; Maj. Graham Daves." By Mrs. 
E. E. Moffitt. 

October, No. 2. 

"The Borough Towns of North Carolina," Mr. Francis Nash. 

"Governor Thomas Burke," J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. 

"Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History," Col. Fred. 
A. Olds. 

"The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution and its 
Objects." 

"Biographical Sketches: Dr. Richard Dillard, Mr. Francis Nash, Dr. 
J. G. de R. Hamilton and Col. Fred A. Olds," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"State Library Building and Department of Archives and Records," 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 
"The Battle of Rockfish Creek, 1781," Mr. James Owen Carr. 
"Governor Jesse Franklin," Prof. J. T. Alderman. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown," Mrs. Lindsay 

Patterson, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 



"Biographical Sketches: Mrs. S. B. Kenneday, R. D. W. Connor, 
James Owen Carr and Prof. J. T. Alderman," Mrs. E. E, Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"Lock's Fundamental Constitution," Mr. Junius Davis. 

"The White Pictures," Mr. W. J. Peele. 

"North Carolina's Attitude Toward the Revolution," Mr. Robert Strong. 

Biographical Sketches: Richard Benbury Creecy, the D. R. Society 

and Its Objects, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Genealogical Sketches: Abstracts of Wills; ScoUey, Sprott and Hunter, 

Mrs. Helen de B. Wells. 

Vol. VII. (Quarterly.) 
July. No. 1. 

" North Carolina in the French and Indian War," Col. A. M. Waddell. 
" Locke's Fundamental Constitutions," Mr. Junius Davis. 
" Industrial Life in Colonial Carolina," Mr. Thomas M. Pittman. 
Address: "Our Dearest Neighbor — The Old North State," Hon. James 

Alston Cabell. 
Biographical Sketches: Col. A. M. Waddell, Junius Davis, Thomas M. 

Pittman, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt; Hon. Jas. Alston Cabell, by Mary 

Hilliard Hinton. 
Abstracts of Wills. Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

October, No. 2. 

"Ode to North Carolina," Miss Pattie Williams Gee. 

"The Finances of the North Carolina Colonists," Dr. Charles Lee 

Raper. 
" Joseph Gales, Editor," Mr. Willis G. Briggs. 
"Our First Constitution, 1776," Dr. E. W. Sikes. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition," Miss 

Mary Hilliard Hinton. 
Biographical Sketches: Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Dr. Charles Lee Raper, 

Willis Grandy Briggs, Pattie Williams Gee. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

" General Robert Howe," Hon. John D. Bellamy. 

" Early Relations of North Carolina and the W^est," Dr. William K. 
Boyd. 

" Incidents of the Early and Permanent Settlement of the Cape Fear," 
Mr. W. B. McKoy. 

Biographical Sketches: John Dillard Bellamy, William K. Boyd, Wil- 
liam B. McKoy. By Mrs. E. E, Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"St. James's Churchyard" (Poem), Mrs. L. C. Markham. 

"The Expedition Against the Row Galley 'General Arnold' — ^A Side 

Light on Colonial Edenton," Rev. Robt. B. Drane, D.D. 
"The Quakers of Perquimans," Miss Julia S. White. 
" Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry," Judge James C. MacRae. 
Biographical Sketches: Mrs. L. C. Markham, Rev. R. B. Drane, Miss 

Julia S. White, Judge James C. MacRae. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

3 



Vol. VIII.-(QuarterIy ) 
July. No. 1. 

"John Harvey," Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

"Military Organizations of North Carolina During the American Revo- 
lution," Clyde L. King, A.M. 

"A Sermon by Rev. George Mieklejohn," edited by Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: R. D. VV. Connor, Clyde L. 
King, Marshall DeLancey Haywood, by Mrs. E. E. MofStt. 

"Abstracts of Wills," Mrs. Helen DeB. Wells. 
October, No 2. 

"Convention of 1835," Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

"The Life and Services of Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner," Kemp 
P. Battle, LL.D. 

"The Significance of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," 
Prof. Bruce Craven. 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Judge Henry G. Connor, 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., Prof. Bruce Craven," by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," Mr. A. S. Salley, Jr. 

"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," Prof. Bruce Craven. 

"Mr, Salley's Reply." 

"Mr. Craven's Rejoinder." 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Prof. Bruce Craven, Mr. 

Alexander, S. Salley, Jr.," by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
"Patriotic Objects." 
"Information Concerning the Patriotic Society D. R." 

April, No. 4. 

"Unveiling Ceremonies." 

"Carolina," by Miss Bettie Freshwater Pool. 

"The Battle of King's Mountain," by Dr. William K. Boyd. 

"Schools and Education in Colonial Times," by Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

"North Carolina Heroines of the Revolution," by Richard Dillard, M.D. 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Bettie Freshwater Pool, Wil- 
liam K. Boyd, Charles Lee Smith, Richard Dillard," by Mrs. E. E. 
Moffitt. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



A QUARTERLY PUBLICATION ISSUED UNDER 
THE AUSPICES OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION' 



THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Ninth Volume begins in July, 1909. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
One lear^ One Dollar; Single Copies^ TKirty-five Cents. 



Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Editors, 
Raleigh, North I arolina. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-office as second class matter. 

No' ice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is cesired. 

Send all orders for back numbers to Mrs. E. E. Mofpitt, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantati-^n, Raleigh, N. C. 



Genealogical Department 

I^ORTH CflRoiiiNA Society 

DROOHTERS OF THE REVOIiUTION 
YOUR ANCESTRY CAN BE CAREFULLY TRACED 

The Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, Pay-rolls of Revo- 
lutionary Soldiers filed in State Auditor's Office, County 
Records, Family Records, State Histories and 
Biographies will be diligently 
examined. 

Fee for Such Researches, $7.00 to $10.00, 

according to Difficulty of Research (not 

less than $7.00 paid with order). 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mrs. Helen DeBerniere Wills, 
(Genealogist for N. C. D. R. and Saleigh Circle Colonial Dames.) 

Raleigh, North Carolina. 

COATS-OF-AHMS 

PAINTED 



Coats-of-Arms painted, decorated with helmet, lambrequin, etc., 

and enclosed in passe partout $12 00 

Same style and size, but unframed 10.00 

A painted Coat-of-Arms, without helmet lambrequin, etc., un- 
framed 5.00 

India Ink Drawing of Arms 5.00 

Searches for Coats-of-Arms including (if found) a small sketch 

of the arms - 8.00 

Arms burned on wood 5.00 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp. 

Miss Mary Hilltard Htnton. 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 



The Science of Accounts 

SINGLE AND DOUBLE ENTRY 

Book-keeping 

A TEXT BOOK FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

The Gradpd School Edition. 65 pages, 25 lessons; cloth. Price, 65 cents. Will be 
ready August 1st. 

The Hiffh School Edition. 130 page--. 50 lessons, and supplement; cloth bound. 
Price. SI 00. >eni prepaid. This edition will be ready September 1st. 

A 32-pasre Booklet with lO "Sample Lessons will be sent free to any subscriber 
to the N. C. Booklet wbo applies lor it. 
Address 

GEORGE ALLEX, Raleigrh, X. C. 

Smith S Old Rook Stores biiOonNo^rthCilroliua'and*'south- 

VJllllUll O \JiyU l^yjVjrV \JLV^1C gj-n history. 25 years ill business. 

„,., wi ry jr»"i JT7 All kinds of books and relics 

Raleigh, N. C. and Richmond, Va. bought and sold. 



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and mention theN. C. Booklet, 
we w ill send you 

THREE FREE SAMPLE COPIES OF THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER. 

The Progressive Farmer should be read by every North Carolina man or woman who 

owns or operates a farm, and every farm owner should see that all his tenants read It 

** In increased production and valuation of farm and stock. The Progressive 

Earmer has made me -SlOO to every $1 I have paid for it," 

says J. M. Harris, Jackson County, N. C". 

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Is a wide-awake monthly devoted to every phase of education 
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Address, W. F. MARSHALL, Publisher, 108 W. Mariin Street. Raleigh, N. C. 

7 



THE NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORICAL COMMISSION 

ESTABLISHED BY CHAPTER 767,PUBLIC LAWS OF 1 903 
AMENDED BY CHAPTER 714, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1907. 

MEMBERS 

J. BRYAN GRIMES, Chairman Raleigh, N. C. 

W. J I'EELE RALEIGH, N. C. 

THOS. W. BLOUNT liopER, N. C. 

M. C. S. NOBLE Chapel Hill, N. C. 

D. H. HILL Raleigh, N. C. 

SECRETARY. 
R. D. W. CONNOR - - - - Raleigh, N. C. 



PURPOSES. 

1. "To have collected from the files < f <>ld newspapers, court records, 
church retv>rds, private i-olleciio is, and e sewbere, iiisioricai <lata periain- 
iiif? to ihe history "f Morth OaroUiiu aud the territory lucluded therein 
from the earliest times " 

2. "To have such material properly t-ditPd, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the diiectiun of the 
Commission." 

3 "T>care for the proper marking and preservation of battleflelds, 
houses and ot her places celebrated in the history of the Slate. ' 

4. "To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources of 
North Carolina." 

5. "To encourage the study of North Carolina history in theschools of 
the State, and to stiiiulate and encourage historical investis;aiion and 
resear-h among the people of the State." Section 2, Chapter 714, Public 
Laws of 1907. 



The Secretary wishes to correspond with any person who is willing 
to assist the Commiss'on, by gifts or loansor manuscripts, in- 
formation of the whereabouts of such documents, or 
otherwise in carrying out the above purposes. 



jRddnss all Communkations to ih^ Secretary 



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A. A. THOMPSON, Vice-President. E. B. CROW, Asst. Cashier. 

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12 



ro^fo'Sir "A SOUTHERNER IN EUROPE" 

By CLARENCE H. POE. 

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13 



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Publisbed at tbe Capital eity 



JOSEPHUS DANIELS 

EDITOR 



Growth of Circulation 



1894, 

1895, 
1896, 

1897, 
1898, 



1,800 subscribers 

2,400 subscribers 

3,100 subscribers 

4,200 subscribers 

4,880 subscribers 



1899, 5,200 subscribers 

1900, 5,700 subscribers 



14 



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1907, 12, 



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15 



JOHN T. PULLE>^, President N. W. WEST, Vice-President 

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General admission 50 cents, children .5 cents. For prize listaud information, address 
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CORNELIUS H ARNETT An Essay in North Carolina 
History. By R. D. W. Connor, Secretary of the North Caro- 
hna Historical Commission, 

"I have just tinished reading Harnett. . . . You have made an 
interesting story of a most significant and interesting man." — Edwabd 
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"I have read with pleasure and pride Mr. Connor's forthcoming 
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Professor of the English Language, University of North Carolina; 
Author of "Our Debt to Cornelius Harnett." 

Edwards & Broughton Printing Co., Raleigh, N. C. 

Price, $1.60 






Vol. IX. 



JANUARY. 1910 



No. 3 



B/?e 



North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

BY 

THE NORTH CAkOLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS oFmE REVOLUTION 

RALEIGH. N. C. 



CONTENTS 

The History of Lincoln County, .... 
By Alfred Nixon 

Our State Motto and Its Origin, 

By Chief Justice Walter Clark 

The Work Done by the D. R. in Pasquotank County, 
By C. F. S. A. 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda, . 
By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 

Abstracts of Wills, 

By Mrs. H. DeB. Wills 



Page 
111 

179 
183 
185 
194 



SINGLE NUMBERS 35 CENTS 



$1.00 THE YEAR 



^•X" ^ " ^ "X"^"^"X"»'^"^"X"X"X"X"^"X"X- & i^gi^!g^^"^-& 



ENTERED IN THE POST-OFFICE AT RALEIGH, N. C, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 



The V )rth Carolina Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History. 



Volume IX of the Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution, Raleigh, N. C, beginning 
July, 1909. Each Booklet will contain three articles and will be pub- 
lished in July, October, January and April. Price $1.00 per year, 35 
cents for single copy. 

Editors : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. Mrs. E. E. Moi-fitt. 



VOLUME IX. 

General Joseph Grraham Mrs. Walter Clark. 

Indians, Slaves, and Tories: Our Early Legislation Regarding Them, 

Mr. Clarence H. Poe. 

General Thomas Person .Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

History of Lincoln County Mr. Alfred Nixon. 

History of States Rights in North Carolina Down to 1840, 

Professor H. M. Wagstaff. 

George Durant Captain B. A. Ashe. 

Historic Duels of North Carolina Mr. F. M. Harper. 

The Early History of Medicine in North Carolina, 

Dr. Hubert Boyster. 
Der North Carolina Laud und Colonie Etablissement, 

Miss Adelaide Fries. 
Our Colonial Historians: Hakluyt, Lawson, Brickie, Williamson, 

Right Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, D.D. 



This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in future be a special 
feature of the Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue will be devoted 
to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will contain short biographical sketches of the writers 
who have contributed to this publication, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1760, as sources of 
biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to the Booklet for 
Vol. IX, are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to VIII for sale. 

Thk North Caroi^ina Booki^kt, 
Address 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 
"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 




HON. WALTER CLARK 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 



Vol. IX JANUARY, 1910 No. 3 



^he 



floHTH CflROIilflfl BoOKIiET 



'Carolina! Carolina! Heave?i' s blessi7igs attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish^ protect and defe7id her.' 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editors. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker. Me. R. D. W. Connob. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Dr. E. W. Sikes. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Dr. Richard Dillabd. 

Dr. Keiip p. Battle. Mr. James Spkunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. Judge Walter Clark. 

EDITORS : 
Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, Mrs. E E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, 

1906-1908. 

regent : 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

VICE-REGENT : 

Mrs. WALTER CLARK, j 

HONORARY REGENT: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

RECORDING SECRETARY: 

Mrs. LEIGH SKINNER. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY : 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 

TREASURER : 

Mrs. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

Miss MARY BILLIARD HINTON. 

GENEALOGIST : 

Mrs. HELEN De BERNIERE WILLS. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 

Mfs. spier WHITAKER. 

REGENT 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. hill, Sr.* 

REGENT 1902-1906: 
Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

*Died December 12, 1904. fDied December 10, 1909. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



Vol. IX JANUARY, 1910 No. 3 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 



BY ALFRED NIXON. 



THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 

Lincoln County was born mid the throes of the American 
llevolution, and christened for a patriot soldier, then battling 
for independence. Prior to that time, while Carolina was a 
Province of Great Britain, in the bestowal of names there was 
manifest a desire to please royalty : ISTew Hanover was called 
for the House of Hanover ; Bladen, in honor of Martin Bla- 
den, one of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Planta- 
tions ; Anson, set up in 1Y49 from Bladen, derived its name 
from Admiral Anson, of the English ISTavy, who in 1761 was 
charged with the mission of bringing to her marriage with 
George the Third, Charlotte of Mecklenburg. So, when the 
western part of Anson was set up into a county in 1762, it 
was called Mecklenburg, with county seat the Queen City of 
Charlotte, in compliment to the wife of His Majesty, George 
the Thil-d. As the settlements extended westward from the 
Atlantic seaboard new counties were formed to meet the con- 
venience of the inhabitants. In 1768, Mecklenburg was 
divided "by a line beginning at Earl Granville's line where 
it crosses the Catawba Biver and the said river to be the line 
to the South Carolina line, and all that part of the county 
lying to the westward of the said dividing line shall be one 
other distinct county and parish, and remain by the name of 
Tryon County and Saint Thomas Parish." The name Tryon 
was given in honor of His Excellency, William Tryon, Royal 
Governor of the Province. 



112 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

William Try on, an officer in the regular army of Great 
Britain, landed at Cape Fear October the 10th, 1764, with 
a commission as Lieutenant-Governor of the Province. His 
administration as Governor of JSTorth Carolina lasted from 
the death of Governor Dobbs, 28th March, 1765, to the 30th 
day of June, 1771, when he was appointed Governor of ISTew 
York. In the rupture with Great Britain he was a Major- 
General in command of American Loyalists, vainly endeav- 
oring to re-establish Royal Rule. He remained nominally 
Governor of 'New York until March 22, 1780. The name of 
Governor Tryon appears at the head of the list of names 
enumerated in the confiscation acts of both ISTorth Caro- 
lina and New York, and the county of Tryon in each of 
these States was enpunged from the map. Tryon Mountain 
and Tryon City in the county of Polk, and one of the princi- 
pal streets in the city of Charlotte yet preserve his name. 
Shortly after relinquishing the government of ISTew York, he 
failed for England, where he rose to the rank of Lieutenant- 
General. He died in London, the 27th of January, 1788, 
aged 58 years. 

The War of the Revolution rages. The patriots are bat- 
tling for independence. Opj)ressions of the Royal Governor 
have made his name odious. "The large extent of the county 
of Tryon renders the attendance of the inhabitants on the 
extreme parts of the said county to do public duties extremely 
difiicult and expensive. For remedy whereof," the General 
Assembly in 1779, instead of setting the western part off 
into a new county, as had been its custom, blotted the name 
of Tryon from the list of counties and divided its territory 
into two counties, "by a line beginning at the south line near 
Broad River, thence along the dividing ridge between Buf- 
falo Creek and Little Broad River to the line of Burke 
County" ; and to the two counties thus formed were given 
the names of two patriotic soldiers. The western portion was 



THE HISTORY OF LUSrCOLN COUNTY. 113 

named Rutherford in honor of Griffith Rutherford, of Rowan 
County, a Brigadier-General in the Revolution ; and the 
eastern portion Lincoln, in compliment to Ma j .-Gen. Benja- 
min Lincoln, of Rhode Island, commander of the Southern 
armies. 

Benjamin Lincoln was born January 23d, 1733, at Hing- 
ham, about thirteen miles from Boston. In February, 1777, 
he was appointed Major-General in the Revolutionary Army 
and served with gallantry throughout the struggle. At the 
i-equest of the delegation in Congress from South Carolina, 
he was assigned to command the Army in the South. In 
1780 General Lincoln was forced to surrender to the superior 
force of the British at Charleston. When exchanged he 
resumed the service, and was at the surrender of Cornwallis 
at Yorktown, where the generous Washington designated him 
to receive the conquered arms of the British. He was ap- 
pointed Secretary of War in 1781, with permission to retain 
his rank in the army. He died in the house of his birth 9th 
of May, 1810. 

When Tryon was divided the Tryon court-house fell in 
Lincoln County, and the courts of Lincoln were held there 
until April, 1783, and the Tryon records are still in Lincoln- 
ton. The pioneers came into what is now Lincoln County 
between the years 1745 and 1749, when it was Bladen 
County; they continued to come until the American Revolu- 
tion. So the pioneer history of Lincoln County is covered 
by Bladen, Anson, Mecklenburg and Tryon counties. The 
Tryon records cover ten years of the Colonial history of Lin- 
coln County, 1769 to 1779. When Tryon was formed, the 
first settlers had not been here more than a score of years. 
The Tryon records contain many quaint things, mingled with 
matters of grave public concern, and a glance at them is of 
interest to the student of Lincoln County history. 



114 THE JSrORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

TRYON COUNTY. 

In a letter of Governor Tryon of date December 12th, 1768, 
he describes Tryon County as "forty-five miles in breadth due 
north and south and eighty miles due east and west it having 
been found to be that distance from the Catawba River to 
the western frontier line which was run last year between the 
Cherokee hunting grounds and this Province." The site for 
the public buildings was not fixed until 1774. As there was 
no court-house the courts during this time were held at pri- 
vate residences that happened to be convenient and suitable 
for the purpose. 

The Tryon records begin with these words : ''North Caro- 
lina, Tryon County. Pursuant to Act of Assembly of the 
Province aforesaid bearing date the fifth of December, 1768, 
in the ninth year of his Majesty's reign, for dividing Meck- 
lenburg into two distinct counties by the name of Mecklen- 
burg County and Tryon County and for other purposes in 
the said Act mentioned." His Majesty's commission under 
the great seal of the Province appointing certain justices 
to keep the peace for the county of Tryon is read. Ezekiel 
Polk, Clerk, John Tagert, Sheriff, and Alexander Martiji, 
Attorney for the Crown, produce commissions and take oaths 
of office. Waightstill Avery produces license of attorney and 
takes oath of office. 

The court records, beginning at April Sessions, 1769, are 
in the handwriting of Ezekiel Polk, the first clerk, who lived 
near King's Mountain. Ezekiel Polk removed to Mecklen- 
burg County, and afterwards became famous through his 
grandson, James K. Polk, president of the United States. 

The Tryon Courts were styled the "County Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions." In this court deeds and wills were 
probated, estates settled, land entries recorded, guardians ap- 
pointed, orphans apprenticed, highways opened, overseers 
appointed, and many other matters attended to. There 
were grand and petit juries and an "attorney for the crown." 



THE HISTORY OF Li:^COLiSr COUXTY. 115 

These courts convened quarterly and continued without ma- 
terial change until the adoption of the constitution of 1868. 

The courts of Oyer and Terminer, corresponding to our 
Superior Courts, were District Courts, several counties com- 
prising one district, Tryon County was in the Salisbury 
District, and each County Court appointed its quota of jurors 
to attend the Salisbury Court. In 1782 the Salisbury Dis- 
trict was divided, and Lincoln and other western counties 
were declared a separate district by the name of Morgan, 
where the Judges of the Superior Courts shall sit twice every 
year and hold a Superior Court of law. Lincoln County re- 
mained in the Morgan District, the courts being held at Mor- 
gan Town, until 1806, when a Superior Court was estab- 
lished in each county of the State to be held twice every year. 

The Tryon Court was organized at Charles McLean's, and 
the Quarter Sessions for the years 1769, 1770, and 1771, 
were held at his house. He lived in the southern part of 
what is now Gaston County, on the headwaters of Crowder's 
Creek, near Crowder's Mountain. Charles McLean was an 
early, active, and zealous friend of liberty. At January 
Sessions 1770 he produced his Excellency's commission ap- 
pointing him captain in the Tryon Regiment of Loot, and 
took the oath of office. In 1774 he was one of his Majesty's 
justices, and chairman of the committee appointed to select 
a permanent site for the court-house of Tryon County. He 
was a delegate from Tryon County to the Provincial Congress 
at Halifax, 4th April, 1776 ; also representing Tryon County 
in Assembly during the years 1777 and 1778. Between 
sessions, as colonel of the Tryon Regiment, he was actively 
engaged against western Tories. 

The criminal docket of Tryon is marked "Crown Docket," 
and the indictments are brought in the name of the "King" 
or "Rex," as we now use "State." The minutes of a few 
cases tried at the first term will serve to show the administra- 
tion of justice: "The King v. John Doe. Petty Larceny. 



116 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Jury empaneled finds the defendant guilty of the charge 
against him. Judgment by the Court that the defendant be 
detained in the Sheriff's custody till the costs of this prosecu- 
tion be paid, and that at the hour of one o'clock of this day 
the said defendant on his bare back at the public whipping 
post receive thirty-nine lashes well laid on. "Rex. v. Thomas 
Pullham. Profane swearing. Submitted and fined five 
shillings." ''The King v. John Case. Sabbath breaking. 
Defendant pleads guilty, fined ten shillings and the cost." 
"The King v. John Carson. IsTeglect of the King's High- 
way. Submitted and fined one shilling and sixpence." Let- 
ters testamentary granted ISTicholas Welsh on the estate of 
John Welsh, deceased. William Wilson, appointed overseer 
of the road from the South Fork to Charles Town in that 
part between King's Mountain and Ezekiel Polk's; Charles 
McLean in that part between Ezekiel Polk's and the head of 
Fishing Creek. The road orders extend to the "temporary 
line between So. and ISTo. Carolina." At October Sessions 
the claims against Try on County for the year 1769, include 
a charter, twenty pounds expenses in sending for charter, 
eight pounds ; Charles McLean, to two courts held at his 
house, five pounds ; other items swell the amount to seventy- 
one pounds, sixteen shillings, and ten pence; and a tax of 
three shillings and two pence was levied on each of the 1221 
taxable persons in Tryon County to meet the same. 

At July Term, lYYO, "Thomas Camel came into court 
and proved that the lower part of his ear was bit off in a fight 
with Steven Jones, and was not taken off by sentence of law ; 
certified to whom it may concern." At a later term, "James 
Kelly comes into open court of his own free will and in the 
presence of said court did acknowledge that in a quarrel be- 
tween him and a certain Leonard Sailor on the evening of 
the 2d day of June, 1773, he did bite off the upper part of 
the left ear of him, the said Leonard Sailor, who prays that 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 117 

the same be recorded in the minutes of the said court." This 
confession gave James Kelly such standing in the esteem of 
his Majesty's Justices that at the same term it was "Or- 
dered by the Court that James Kelly serve as constable in the 
room of George Trout and that he swear in before Thomas 
Espy, Esq." From the court entries biting off ears was a 
popular way of fighting, but whole ears were at least an out- 
ward sign of honesty. 

An old parchment, yellowed with age, labeled "Charter of 
Tryon County," encased in a frame, with great wax seal 
appended hangs on the court-house walls. It is addressed 
in the name of his Majesty, "George the Third by the Grace 
of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King Defender 
of the Faith, and so forth, To All and Singular our Faithful 
Subjects, Greeting," and is officially attested by "our trusty 
and well-beloved William Tryon, our Captain-General, Gov- 
ernor and Commander-in-Chief," at Wilmington, 26th June, 
1Y69. It authorized Tryon County to elect and send two 
representatives to sit and vote in the House of Assembly. 

The Quarter Sessions of 1772 were held at Christian Eein- 
hardt's. The site of his house is now in the northern cor- 
porate limits of the town of Lincolnton, on the Ramsour Bat- 
tle Ground. The Tories were encamped around his house, 
and after the battle it was used as a hospital. His house was 
built of heavy hewn logs, with a basement and stone founda- 
tion, that served some of the purposes of a fort both during 
Indian troubles and the Eevolution. Some evidence of its 
strength is furnished by this item from the record of July 
Sessions, 1783 : "Ordered by the Court that Christian Rein- 
hardt's loft be the public gaol of said county until the end of 
next Court, October Term, 1783." 

The courts of 1773 and 1774 were held at Christopher 
Carpenter's. He lived in the Beaver Dam section. There 
were some half-dozen Carpenters among the pioneers. Their 



118 THE JSrOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET, 

signatures to all early deeds and wills are written in the Ger- 
man, Zimmerman. 

The commissioners appointed by Act of Assembly to se- 
lect the place whereon to erect and build the court-house, 
prison and stocks of Try on County, on 26th July, 1774, re- 
ported their selection of the place "called the cross-roads on 
Christopher Mauney's land, between the heads of Long 
Creek, Muddy Creek, and Beaver Dam Creek in the county 
aforesaid as most central and convenient for the purpose 
aforesaid." The county court adjourned to meet at the 
"house of Christy Mauney or the cross-roads in his land." 
The site of the old Tryon court-house is eight miles south- 
west of Lincolnton, in Gaston County. October Sessions, 
1774, were held at the house of Christian Mauney, and a 
room in his dwelling was used as a jail. 

The old county of Lincoln, with its fine farms and beau- 
tiful homes, dotted with towns and villages, and musical with 
the hum of machinery, the pioneers found a wild, luxuriant 
with native flora, the habitat of the red man and wild ani- 
mals. There were herds of fleet-footed deer; there were 
clumsy brown bears and fierce wild cats and panthers ; there 
were droves of buffalo, and countless beavers building their 
dams on the creeks. The early settlers waged a relentless 
war on these animals and set a bounty on many of their 
scalps. The scalps on which a price was set were the wolf, 
panther, wild cat, and such other as preyed on domestic ani- 
mals. For killing a gro^vn Avolf the price was one pound ; a 
young wolf ten shillings ; a wild cat five shillings. The 
claims filed in court were for "scalp tickets." As late as 
October Sessions, 1774, there were audited in favor of vari- 
ous individuals forty-nine "wolf scalp tickets." We still 
retain Indian, Beaver Dam, and Buffalo Creeks, Bear Ford, 
Wolf Gulch, and Buffalo Mountain, Buffalo Shoals, and the 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 119 

Indian names Catawba and Tnckaseegee, memorials of these 
primeval days. 

In Trjon County there were many loyal subjects of the 
king, and there was likewise a gallant band of patriots who 
as early as August, 1775, adopted and signed the following 
bold declaration: 

"The unprecedented, barbarous and bloody actions com- 
mitted by British troops on our American brethren near 
Boston, on 19th April and 20th of May last, together with 
the hostile operations and treacherous designs now carrying 
on, by the tools of ministerial vengeance, for the subjuga- 
tion of all British America, suggest to us the painful neces- 
sity of having recourse to arms in defense of our iTational 
freedom and constitutional rights, against all invasions ; 
and at the same time do solemnly engage to take up arms 
and risk our lives and our fortunes in maintaining the free- 
dom of our country whenever the wisdom and counsel of the 
Continental Congress . or our Provincial Convention shall 
declare it necessary ; and this engagement we will continue 
in for the preservation of those rights and liberties which the 
principles of our Constitution and the laws of God, nature 
and nations have made it our duty to defend. We there- 
fore, the subscribers, freeholders and inhabitants of Tryon 
County, do hereby faithfully unite ourselves under the most 
solemn ties of religion, honor and love to our country, firmly 
to resist force by force, and hold sacred till a reconciliation 
shall take place between Great Britain and America on Con- 
stitutional principles, which we most ardently desire, and 
do firmly agree to hold all such persons as inimical to the 
liberties of America who shall refuse to sign this associa- 
tion. (Signed) John Walker, Charles McLean, Andrew 
N^eel, Thomas Beatty, James Coburn, Frederick Ham- 
bright, Andrew Hampton, Benjamin Hardin, George Paris, 
William Graham, Robt. Alexander, David Jenkins, Thomas 



120 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Espey, Perrygreen Mackness, James McAfee, William 
Thompson, Jacob Forney, Davis Whiteside, John. Beeman, 
John Morris, Joseph Harden, John Robison, James Mcln- 
tyre, Valentine Manney, George Black, Jas. Logan, Jas. 
Baird, Christian Carpenter, Abel Beatty, Joab Turner, Jon- 
athan Price, Jas. Miller, John Dellinger, Peter Sides, Wil- 
liam Whiteside, Geo. Dellinger, Samuel Carpenter, Jacob 
Moony, Jun., John Wells, Jacob Costner, Robert Hulclip, 
James Buchanan, Moses Moore, Joseph Kuykendall, Adam 
Simms, Richard Waffer, Samuel Smith, Joseph ISTeel, Sam- 
uel Loftin. 

In 1777 an act was passed establishing State courts, pro- 
viding that all suits and indictments instituted and fines im- 
posed "in the name or the use of the King of Great Britain, 
when this territory was under his government, and owed 
allegiance to him, and all breaches on penal statutes di- 
rected to be prosecuted in the name of the king shall be 
prosecuted and proceeded in the name of the State." This 
act terminated the "Crown Docket," and the King or Rex 
as prosecutor. The "State Docket" begins at October Ses- 
sions, 1777. 

The change of government from royal to state in Tryon 
County was consummated without a jar. The last Tryon 
court was held in January, 1779. During this year Tryon 
is blotted from the list of counties and the War of the Revo- 
lution is in progress. Lincoln County became the scene of 
many thrilling Revolutionary events. 

THE BATTLE OF RAMSOUR's MILL. 

The Tories were embodied at Ramsour's Mill through the 
efforts of Lieut.-Col. John Moore and Maj. IsFicholas Welch. 
These officers left the victorious British on the march from 
Charleston and arrived at their homes early in June, 1780. 
Moses Moore, the father of Colonel Moore, was a native of 



THE HISTOEY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 121 

Carlyle, England, married a Miss Winston, near Jamestown, 
Virginia, and came to this section with the pioneers. Esther, 
a sister of Colonel Moore, married Joshua Roberts, a patriot 
soldier. The late Capt. John H. Roberts, a grandson, lived 
on the Moore homestead. It is situate on Indian Creek, 
eight miles southwest of Eamsour's Mill. Colonel Moore 
was an active partisan throughout the Revolution. Major 
Welch was a son of John Welch, and was reared next neigh- 
bor to Colonel Moore on Indian Creek. He was of Scottish 
descent, of great fluency of speech and fine persuasive power. 
Thej bore English commissions, were arrayed in splendid 
official equipments, and made lavish display of British gold. 
By the twentieth of June, these zealous loyalists collected at 
Eamsour's Mill a force of 1,300 Tories, and were actively en- 
gaged in their organization and drill preparatory to march- 
ing them to unite with the British in South Carolina. They 
occupied a well-chosen and advantageous position for offense 
and defense. It was on a high ridge that slopes three hun- 
dred yards to the mill and Clarke's Creek on the west, 
and the same distance to a branch on the east. 

Col. Francis Locke collected a force of Rowan and Meck- 
lenburg militia to engage the Tories. His detachments met 
at Mountain Creek, sixteen miles from Ramsour's, on Mon- 
day, the 19th, and when united amounted to four himdred 
men. They marched at once to the assault of the Tory posi- 
tion. At dawn of day on the morning of the 20th, in two 
miles of Ramsour's, they were met by Adam Reep, a noted 
scout, with a few picked men from the vicinity of the camp, 
who detailed to Colonel Locke the position of the enemy, and 
the plan of attack was formed. The mounted men under 
Captains McDowell, Brandon and Falls, marching slowly, 
were to follow the road due west to the camp, and not attack 
until the footmen under Colonel Locke could detour to the 
south, and reach the foot of the hill along the Tuckaseegee 



122 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

road, and make a simultaneous assault. They proceeded 
without other organization or order, it being left to the offi- 
cers to be governed by circumstances when they reached the 
enemy. 

The mounted men came upon the Tory picket some dis- 
tance from the camp, were fired upon, charged the Tory 
camp, but recoiled from their deadly fire. The firing hur- 
ried Colonel Locke into action, a like volley felled many of 
his men, and they likewise retired. The Tories, seeing the 
effect of their fire, came down the hill and were in fair view. 
The Whigs renewed the action, which soon became general 
and obstinate on both sides. In about an hour the Tories 
began to fall back to their original position on the ridge, and 
a little beyond its summit, to shield a part of their bodies 
from the destructive fire of the Whigs, who were fairly ex- 
posed to their fire. In this situation the Tory fire became 
so effective the Whigs fell back to the bushes near the branch ; 
and the Tories, leaving their safe position, pursued half way 
down the hill. At this moment Captain Hardin led a com- 
pany of Whigs into the field from the south and poured a 
galling fire into the right flank of the Tories. Some of the 
Whigs obliqued to the right, and turned the left flank of the 
Tories ; while Captain Sharpe led a few men beyond the 
crest of the ridge, and, advancing from tree to tree, with 
unerring aim picked off the enemy's officers and men, and 
hastened the termination of the conflict. The action now 
became close and warm. The combatants mixed to- 
gether, and having no bayonets, struck at each other with the 
butts of their guns. When the Whigs reached the summit 
they saw the Tories collected beyond the creek, with a white 
flag flying. Fifty Tories, unable to make the bridge, were 
taken prisoners. Those beyond soon dispersed and made 
their escape. One-fourth of the Tories were unarmed, and 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 123 

thej with a few others retired at the commencemeiit of the 
battle. 

Seventy men, including five Whig and four Tory captains, 
lay dead on the field, and more than two hundred were 
wounded, the loss on each side being about equal. In this 
contest, armed with the deadly rifle, blood relatives and 
familiar acquaintances and near neighbors fought in the 
opposing ranks, and as the smoke of battle occasionally 
cleared away recognized each other in the conflict. 

Moore's defeat destroyed Toryism in this section. When 
Lord Cornwallis marched through the county the following 
January, and encamped at Eamsour's Mill, he lost more 
men by desertion than he gained by recruits. 

THE BATTLE OF KINg's MOUNTAIN. 

Col. Patrick Ferguson pitched his camp on the summit of 
King's Mountain, the 6th of October, 1780. So well pleased 
was he with his position that he gave vent to the impious 
boast that God Almighty could not drive him from it. In 
his army were eleven hundred men, brave and well disci- 
plined, every one of whom knew what actual flghting meant. 
The patriot army aggTegated a like number of eleven hun- 
dred men. Their only weapon was the long-barreled rifle in 
whose use they were experts. FergTison had out foraging 
parties, and some of the patriots on foot could not keep up 
with the march, so it is probable the combatants on each 
side numbered nine hundred men. 

To Colonel Shelby is due the inception of the campaign 
and much of the mobilization of the patriot army. To its 
successful culmination the little band of Lincoln men, sixty 
in number, contributed their full share. They united with 
the mountain men in pursuit of Ferguson at the Cowpens 
about sunset on October the 6th. Between 8 and 9 o'clock 
of the same evening the army set out toward King's Moun- 



124 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

tain in quest of Ferguson. Enock Gilmer, an advance scout^ 
dined at noon of the Yth with a Tory family. From them he 
learned that Ferguson's camp was only three miles distant, 
on a ridge between two creeks, where some deer hunters had 
a camp the previous fall. Major Chronicle and Captain 
Mattocks stated that the camp was theirs and that they well 
knew the ground on which Ferguson was encamped ; where- 
upon it was agreed that they should plan the battle. They 
rode a short distance by themselves, and reported that it was 
an excellent place to surround Ferguson's army; that the 
shooting would all be uphill with no danger of destroying 
each other. The officers instantly agTeed to the plan, and 
without stopping began to arrange their men, assigning to 
each officer the part he was to take in surrounding the moun- 
tain. To the north side were assigned Shelby, Williams, 
Lacey and Cleveland, and on the south side Campbell, Sevier, 
McDowell and Winston, while the Lincoln men, under Lieut.- 
Col. Frederick Hambright, were to attack the northeast end 
of the mountain. It was three o'clock in the afternoon 
when the patriots reached their position, and Campbell's 
men were first to fire into the enemy. His column was 
charged by Ferguson's men with fixed bayonets, and driven 
down the mountain side. Shelby was advancing in quick 
time from the other side, so the enemy found it necessary to 
give attention to Shelby's assault, when Campbell's men re- 
turned to the fight, and Shelby and his men were forced to re- 
treat before the dashing charge of Ferguson's bayonets. 
Thus back and forth, Campbell, Sevier, McDowell and Win- 
ston on the one side, Shelby, Williams, Lacey and Cleveland 
on the other, charged up the mountain and were driven back, 
only to renew the charge, until the mountain was enveloped 
in flame and smoke, and the rattle of musketry sounded like 
thunder. 

The South Fork boys marched to their position with quick 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 125 

step, Major Chronicle ten paces in advance, and heading the 
column were Enock Gilmer, Hugh Ewin, Adam Barry and 
Kobert Henry. Arriving at the end of the mountain, Major 
Chronicle cried, "Face to the hill!" The words were 
scarcely uttered when they were fired upon by the enemy's 
sharp-shooters, and Major Chronicle and William Eabb fell 
dead. But they pressed up the hill under the leadership of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hambright, Maj. Jos. Dixon, Capts. 
James Johnston, Samuel Espey, Samuel Martin, and James 
White. Before they reached the crest, the enemy charged 
bayonets, first, however, discharging their guns, killing Cap- 
tain Mattocks and John Boyd and wounding William Gilmer 
and John Chittim. As Robert Henry, a lad of sixteen, 
raised his gun to fire, a bayonet glanced along the barrel, 
through his hand and into his thigh. Henry discharged his 
gun, killing the Briton and both fell to the gi'ound. Henry 
observed that many of his comrades were not more than a 
gun's length in front of the bayonets and the farthest not 
more than twenty feet. Reaching the foot of the hill, they 
reloaded, and fired with deadly effect upon their pursuers, in 
turn chasing their enemies up the mountain. William Cald- 
well, seeing Henry's condition, pulled the bayonet out of his 
thigh, kicked his hand from the bloody instrument and 
passed on. Thus the battle raged on all sides. E'o regiment, 
no man failed to do his duty. The unerring aim of the 
mountain men from behind every tree and every rock was 
rapidly diminishing the brave fighters under Ferguson, who 
began to despair. At the end of an hour Ferguson was 
killed, and a white flag was hoisted in token of surrender. 
Three hundred of his men were dead and wounded, and six 
hundred prisoners. The Americans suffered a loss of twenty- 
eight killed and seventy-four wounded. 

Thus was fought one of the decisive battles of the Revolu- 



126 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

tion. It was the enemy's first serious disaster and turned 
the tide of war. Ferguson and his army were wiped out of 
existence. Its immediate result was to check the enemy's 
progress until the patriots could muster strength for his final 
overthrow. 

The Lincoln County men, considering their small number, 
suffered considerably in the engagement: Maj. William 
Chronicle, Capt. John Mattocks, William Kabb, John Boyd 
and Arthur Patterson were killed ; Moses Henry died soon 
thereafter in the hospital at Charlotte of the wound he re- 
ceived in the battle; Capt. Samuel Espey, Eobert Henry, 
William Gilmer, John Chittim, and William Bradley were 
wounded. The Tories, shooting down the steep mountain 
side, much of their aim was too high. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hambright's hat was perforated with three bullet holes, and 
he received a shot through the thigh, his boot filled and ran 
over with blood, but he remained in the fight till the end, 
gallantly encouraging his men. 

CORNWALLIS IN PURSUIT OF MORGAN. 

Morgan defeated Colonel Tarleton in a signal victory at 
the Cowpens, South Carolina, 17th January, 1781. In less 
than an hour five hundred of Tarletoii's Legion were prison- 
ers, the remainder slain and scattered, and he scampering in 
mad haste to Cornwallis, then but twenty-five miles distant. 
General Morgan, anxious to hold every one of his prisoners 
to exchange for the Continental line of ]!^orth Carolina cap- 
tured at Charleston, and then langTiishing on British prison 
ships, immediately began his famous retreat toward Vir- 
ginia, while Cornwallis, in command of 4,000 well-equipped 
veterans, gave pursuit. Colonel Washington's cavalry, with 
the prisoners, safely crossed the Catawba at the Island Ford ; 
the prisoners were sent on, while Washington rejoined Gen- 
eral Morgan, who had crossed with the main army eight or 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 127 

nine miles farther down at Sherrill's Ford, where they tar- 
ried awhile on the eastern bank. 

The British came by way of the old Tryon court-house. 
Cornwallis says "I therefore assembled the army on the 25th 
at Eamsour's Mill on the south fork of the Catawba, and as 
the loss of my light troops could only be remedied by the ac- 
tivity of the whole corps, I employed a halt of two days in col- 
lecting some flour, and destroying superfluous baggage, and 
all my wagons except those loaded with hospital stores, and 
four reserved in readiness for sick and wounded." Stead- 
man says that Lord Cornwallis, "by first reducing the size 
and quantity of his own, set an example which was cheer- 
fully followed by all the ojfficers in his command, although 
by so doing they sustained a considerable loss. No wagons 
were reserved except those loaded with hospital stores, salt 
and ammunition, and four empty ones for the accommodation 
of the sick and wounded. And such was the ardour, both of 
officers and soldiers, and their willingness to submit to any 
hardship for the promotion of the service, that this arrange- 
ment, which deprived them of all future prospect of spiritu- 
ous liquors, and even hazarded a regular supply of provisions, 
was acquiesced in without a murmur." 

Cornwallis crossed the South Fork Eiver at the Keep Ford, 
one mile from Eamsour's Mill, and pitched his marquee on 
the Eamsour battle-gTound ; O'Hara remained on the west 
bank of the river at the Eeep place; Webster occupied !;he 
hill west of the Eamsour Mill; while Tarleton, who had 
crossed the river three miles lower down, between the Labora- 
tory and the present railway bridge, in rejoining his chief, 
camjDed on the hill south of Cornwallis. Foraging parties 
were sent out in different directions to collect grain, and 
Eamsour's Mill was kept running day and night converting 
the grain into flour to replenish his Lordship's commissary. 

In the destruction of baggage, Cornwallis first ordered his 



128 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

splendid camp chest burned. His mahogany tea chest with 
the remainder of his tea, and six solid silver spoons, he sent 
to Mrs. Barbara Reinhardt, wife of Christian Reinhardt, 
with a note requesting that she accept them. These presents 
were treasured and carefully preserved. At the breaking out 
of the Civil War they belonged to a granddaughter, whose 
sons were Confederate volunteers. Believing an old saying 
that whoever carries anything in war that was carried in an- 
other war by a person that was not killed, v^U likewise be 
unharmed, she gave each of her sons one of the silver spoons, 
and the others to neighbor boys, and in this way the spoons 
were lost and Federal bullets shattered faith in their charm. 
The chest is yet preserved. After the conflagration many 
irons were tumbled in the mill-pond while others left on the 
ground were picked up by citizens. The milldam was taken 
down the next summer and much iron valuable to the farmers 
taken out. A few defective muskets were found ; also one 
piece of artillery, so damaged it was not removed from the 
mud. Where the whiskey and rum bottles were broken the 
fragments lay in heaps for years. These were afterwards 
gathered up and sold to the potters for glazing purposes. 

To this destruction of his whole material train and neces- 
sary outfit for a winter campaign Judge Schenck attributes 
the final discomfiture of Cornwallis at Gruilford Court House. 
The supplies he burned could not be replaced short of Wil- 
ming'ton, and thither he was compelled to go when a reverse 
met his arms. 

While here Cornwallis requested Christian Reinhardt to 
point out Colonel Moore's position, and describe the battle of 
Ramsour's Mill. At the conclusion his only observation 
was that Colonel Moore had a fine position, but did not have 
the tact to defend it ; that he ought not to have risked a bat- 
tle but should have fallen back to Ferguson. 

Early on the morning of the 28th the British broke camp 



THE HISTOKY OF LI]SrCOLN COUNTY. 129 

and marched toward Beattie's Ford, a distance of twelve 
miles, to Jacob Forney's. The moving Britons, in scarlet 
uniforms, with glittering muskets, made an impressive sight, 
and tradition still preserves their route. Jacob Forney was 
a thrifty farmer and well-known Whig. Here they en- 
camped three days, consuming his entire stock of cattle, 
hogs, sheep and poultry, and taking his horses and forty gal- 
lons of brandy. Some state that Cornwallis approached the 
Catawba on the evening of the 28th, and found it consider- 
ably swollen and impassable for his infantry and this caused 
him to fall back to Jacob Forney's plantation. 

THE BATTLE OF COWAN^S FOKD. 

The tardiness of Cornwallis was not altogether due to the 
flushed condition of the Catawba, however much the swollen 
waters of the Yadkin and the Dan may have later impeded 
his pursuit. The prime cause of delay was the vigilance of 
the Whigs in guarding the several fords. On the approach 
of the British, Gen. William Davidson placed guards at the 
Tuckaseegee, Tool's and Cowan's fords ; with his gTeatest 
force and Capt. Joseph Graham's cavalry troops, he took 
position himself at Beattie's Ford; while Morgan and Wash- 
ington were at Sherrill's Ford. Cornwallis kept posted on 
these dispositions. Cowan's was a private ford, guarded only 
by Lieut. Thomas Davidson with twenty-five men. After 
getting the best information he could obtain, C:rnwallis re- 
solved to attempt the passage at Cowan's Ford. Each army 
was keeping close watch on the movements of the other. On 
the 30th Captain Graham's cavalry was dispatched across 
Beattie's Ford and ascertained that the British were en- 
camped within four miles, and in two miles they discovered 
one hundred of the enemy's cavalry, who followed them to 
the river but kept at a respectful distance, evincing fear of 
an ambuscade. Green, Morgan and Washington came to 



130 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Davidson's headquarters at Beattie's Ford on the afternoon of 
the 31st and held a consultation. The British vanguard of 
ioar or five hundred men appeared on the opposite hill be- 
yond the river and viewed the American position. After 
Oeneral Green's departure, leaving a portion of his force at 
Beattie's Ford, under Colonel Farmer, General Davidson, 
with 250 men and the cavalry, marched dovni the river four 
miles to Cowan's Ford, where he arrived after dark. 

The river at Cowan's Ford is one-fourth of a mile wide. 
The wagon ford went directly across the river. The horse 
ford, entering at the same place, obliqued down the river, 
through an island, and came out on the Mecklenburg side a 
quarter of a mile lower down. The latter was the shallower 
and most used, and the one the British were expected to 
follow, so General- Davidson took position on the hill over- 
looking this ford. Above the coming-out place of the wagon 
ford was a narrow strip of level bottom, and then an abrupt 
hill. Lieutenant Davidson's picket remained at +heir post 
on this level strip, fifty steps above the landing and ne:ir 
the water's edge. 

Cornwallis broke camp at one in the morning of the first 
of February, and detached Lieutenant-Colonel Webster with 
that part of the army and all the baggage to Beattie's Ford, 
where General Davidson was supposed to be posted, with 
direction to make every possible demonstration by cannon- 
ading and otherwise of an intention of forcing a passage, 
while he marched to Cowan's Ford, arriving at the bank of 
the river as day began to break. The command of the front 
was given to Colonel Hall of the Guards. Under the guid- 
ance of Frederick Hager, a Tory living on the west bank, 
employed by Cornwallis on account of his familiarity with 
the ford, the bold Britons plunged into the river, with the 
firm determination of encountering the small band of Amer- 
icans on the eastern bank. When one hundred yards in the 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 131 

river they were discovered and fired upon by Lieutenant 
Davidson's picket which aroused the guard, who kept up the 
fire, but the enemy continued to advance. 'No sooner did 
the guide who attended the light infantry to show them the 
ford, hear the report of the sentinel's musket than he turned 
around and left them. This, at first seemed to portend much 
mischief but in the end proved fortunate for the British. 
Colonel Hall, forsaken by his guide, and not knowing the 
true direction of the ford, led his column directly across the 
river to the nearest point of the opposite bank. The picket 
fire alarmed Davidson's camp, who paraded at the horse ford, 
then Graham's cavalry was ordered to the assistance of the 
picket. By the time the cavalry were in position on the high 
bank, and ready for action the British were within fifty 
yards of the Mecklenburg shore. The cavalry poured a de- 
structive fire into the advancing columns. The British did 
not fire a gTin while in the water ; as they landed they loaded 
their guns and fired up the bank. The firing was kept up 
some minutes, but the Whigs soon retreated from the unequal 
contest. 

By the time his Lordship crossed the river Webster had his 
force in array on the face of the hill fronting Beattie's Ford, 
and was making demonstrations of attempting a passage. 
His front lines were firing by platoons, a company went into 
the water fifty steps and fired ; while four cannon were boom- 
ing for half an hour, the flying balls cutting off the limbs of 
trees and tearing up the opposite bank, the sound rolling 
down the river like peals of thunder. All this, however, was 
only a feint. Colonel Farmer, being notified by an aide of 
General Davidson, that the enemy had crossed at Cowan's 
Ford, retired. The pickets at other points were notified and 
all united at John McKnitt Alexander's that afternoon, eight 
miles from Charlotte ; while Cornwallis united his forces two 
miles from Beattie's Ford at Given's farm. 



132 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

In this action, the Americans lost General Davidson, a 
gallant, brave and generous officer, and three others. Of the 
British, Colonel Hall and another officer and tv^enty-nine 
privates were killed and thirty-five were wounded. The 
horse of Cornwallis was shot and fell dead as he ascended the 
bank. Lord Cornwallis on the 2d of February returns his 
thanks "to the Brigade of Guards for their cool and deter- 
mined bravery in the passage of the Catawba, while rushing 
through that long and difficult ford under a galling fire." 

IMPOBTAKCE OF THESE ENGAGEMENTS. 

On the 18th June, 1780, General Eutherford, in command 
of the Mecklenburg and Eowan militia, marched to attack 
the Tories at Eamsour's Mill. At the Catawba, Col. William 
Graham, with the . Lincoln County Eegiment, united with 
General Eutherford, swelling his command to twelve hun- 
dred. He encamped at Col. Joseph Dickson's, three miles 
from the Tuckaseegee, twenty miles from Eamsour's, and 
about the same distance from Colonel Locke on Mountain 
Creek. General Eutherford dispatched a message directing 
Colonel Locke to join him at the Dickson place on the even- 
ing of the 19th or the morning of the 20th. Colonel Locke 
likewise dispatched James Johnston to inform General 
Eutherford of his intention to give the Tories battle on the 
morning of the 20th. However, no junction was formed 
and after a hard and well-fought battle Colonel Locke de- 
feated the Tories. General Eutherford followed the Tucka- 
seegee road and arrived at Eamsour's Mill two hours after the 
battle. The dead and most of the wounded were lying where 
they fell. General Eutherford remained here two days send- 
ing Davie's Cavalry and other troops in pursuit of the To- 
ries, thus accenting the victory and making the defeat crush- 
ing and complete, subduing the loyalist spirit, with conse- 
quent encouragement of the patriots. 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 133 

Three days after the battle Allaire, who was with Fergu- 
son, referring to the battle of Kamsour's Mill, recorded in 
his dairy: ''Friday, 23d. Lay in the field at ISTinety-six. 
Some friends came in. Four were wounded. The militia 
had embodied at Tuckaseegee, on the South Fork of the Ca- 
tawba River. Were attacked by a party of rebels, under 
command of General Rutherford. The militia were scant 
of ammunition, which obliged them to retreat. They were 
obliged to swim the river at the milldam. The Rebels fired 
on them and killed thirty." Col. John Moore with thirty 
men reached Cornwallis at Camden, where he was threatened 
with a trial by court-martial for hastening organization in 
advance of Ferguson. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill was fraught with important 
results. It was fought at a gloomy period of the Revolution, 
when the cause of liberty seemed prostrate and hopeless in 
the South. The victorious British considered South Caro- 
lina and Georgia restored to English rule and were planning 
the invasion of ISTorth Carolina. It marks the turning 
point in the war. But for this battle Moore and Welch could 
have reinforced Ferguson with an army of 1,500 or 2,000 
men, and there might have been no King's Mountain, or 
King's Mountain with a different result. But instead of 
aid to Ferguson, the Lincoln Regiment with the South Caro- 
linians under Hill and Lacey were again encamped on the 
Catawba, and when Colonel Williams crossed the Tucka- 
seegee, and united with these troops, the entire force encoun- 
tering no opposition, followed the Tuckaseegee road, via Ram- 
sour's Mill, the Flint Hill road to Cherry Mountain, later 
uniting with the mountain men at the Cowpens, the next day 
helping to destroy Ferguson, and gain the glorious victory, 
that makes the name of King's Mountain famous in our 
country's history, of which the Battle of Cowpens, Guilford 
Court House and the surrender of Cornwallis at Torktown 
were the direct consequences. 



134 THE NORTH CAHOLINA BOOKLET. 

LINCOLN COUNTY PENSION ROLL. 

On the pension roll as late as 1834, more than fifty years 
after the Revolution, the following is the Lincoln County list 
of soldiers yet living and drav^^ing pensions: Robert Aber- 
nethy, Vincent Allen, Christian Arney, Matthew Armstrong, 
Robert Berry, Jonas Bradshaw, Caspar Bolick, Alexander 
Brevard, Samuel Caldwell, William Carroll, John Chittim, 
Michal Cline, Samuel Collins, Martin Coulter, Thomas Cost- 
ner, George Dameron, Joseph Dixon, Peter Eddlemon, Wil- 
liam Elmore, Samuel Espey, James Farewell, Abraham For- 
ney, Robinson Goodwin, Joseph Graham, William Gregory, 
I»[athan Gwaltney, Mcholas Hafner, Simon Hager, John 
Harman, John Helm, James Henry, James Hill, John Kidd, 
John Kincaid, Robert Knox, Shadrack Lefcy, Tapley Ma- 
hannas, Marmaduke Maples, Samuel Martin, Thomas Ma- 
son, William Mayes, William McCarthy, William McLean, 
N'athan Mendenhall, Alexander Moore, John Moore, William 
Moore, Jeremiah Mundy, Humphrey Parker, Hiram Pen- 
dleton, Jacob Plonk, William Potter, William Rankin, 
Charlie Regan, Adam Reep, Michael Reep, Joshua Roberts, 
James Robinson, Henry Rumfeldt, Peter Scrum, John 
Stamey, Bartholomew Thompson, Charles Thompson, Phillip 
Tillman, Conrad Tippong, Robert Tucker, John TurbyfiU, 
Charles Whit, John Wilfong, Joseph Willis, James Wilkin- 
son, and Elisha Withers. 

LINCOLNTON AND LINCOLN COUNTY. 

When Tryon County was divided the Tryon Court-house 
fell in Lincoln County, but too near its western border for 
public convenience. The courts for part of the years 1783 
and 1784 were held at the house of Capt. Nicholas Friday. 
His residence stood on the east side of the river, seven miles 
south of Lincolnton. The courts of July and October ses- 
sions, 1784, were held at the house of Henry Bellinger, and 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLlSr COUNTY. 135 

his spring house was designated as the "gaol." This spring 
house was a two-story affair, the lower stone, the upper logs ; 
the upper story was used as the public jail. Some of the 
prisoners escaping, the sheriff was ordered "to make use of a 
room in Henry Dellinger's house to be strengthened for the 
purposes of a common gaol." The sheriffs, for protection 
against the escape of prisoners from these very odd jails, 
always had entered on the court record their "protest against 
the sufficiency of said gaol." The site of Henry Dellinger's 
home is Magnolia, six miles southeast of Lincolnton, where 
the late John B. Smith lived. 

While the location of the county seat remained an open 
question, the map of the county changed. In 1753, the 
western portion of the Granville domain was set up into the 
county of Eowan. Rowan in 1777, was divided by a line 
beginning on the Catawba Eiver at the Tryon and Mecklen- 
burg corner, thence up the meanders of the said river to 
the north end of an island, known as "the Three Cornered 
Island," etc., and the territory west and south of said line 
erected into a new county, by the name of Burke, and the 
county seat, Morganton, located fifty miles from the south- 
east part of the county on the Catawba. It being repre- 
sented to the General Assembly that "certain of the inhabi- 
tants of Burke labor under great hardships in attending on 
courts and other public meetings from their remote situation 
from the court-house," in 1782 it enacted that all that part 
of Burke from Sherrill's Ford to the Fish Dam Ford of the 
South Fork, "and from thence a southwest course to Earl 
Granville's old line," be taken from Burke and added to Lin- 
coln County. In 1784 a gTeater slice of Burke was added 
to Lincoln. The line separating the counties began at the 
Horse Ford on the Catawba and ended at the same point in 
the Granville line. This is now a noted point, known as 
the "Three County Corner," the corner of Lincoln, Burke 



136 THE NORTH CAHOLINA BOOKLET, 

and Cleveland, and is the only established point in the old 
Granville line west of the Catawba River. 

The act of 1784 appointed Joseph Dickson, John Carruth, 
John Wilson, Joseph Steele and Nicholas Friday, commis- 
sioners to locate the county toMm, which they did by entering 
for the purpose three hundred acres of "vacant and unappro- 
priated land, lying between the lines of Christian Eeinhardt 
and Phillip Cansler in our county of Lincoln on both sides 
of the wagon road leading from the Tuckaseegee Ford to 
Eamsour's Mill and including the forks of the road leading 
to Cansler's sawmill." The grant for same was made De- 
cember 14th, 1785, to "Joseph Dickson in trust for the citi- 
zens of Lincoln County." The General Assembly, in 1786, 
granted a charter for Lincolnton, reciting that the place is 
"a healthy and pleasant situation and well watered." The 
same year the town was laid off into lots. At the intersec- 
tion of Main and Aspin streets, the two principal streets of 
the town, was left a public square on which the court-house 
was erected. The first hundred lots laid off the commission- 
ers disposed of by a tov^ni lottery, the draft of which and the 
papers connected therewith are yet on file. Chances were 
taken by the prominent men of that day and also by many 
ladies. A specimen ticket reads : "This ticket entitles 
the bearer to whatever number is drawn against it in the 
Lincoln Lottery, 'No. 86, Jo. Dickson." The corporate lim- 
its have been tv^ce extended in the last decade, and the 
western boundary now rests on Clarke's Creek and the South 
Fork Eiver. 

In the history of Lincolnton and Lincoln County the 
name of Joseph Dickson stands conspicuous. The site of his 
homestead is two miles northwest of Mount Holly, on the 
line of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad. General Ruther- 
ford, en route to attack the Tories at Ramsour's Mill, en- 
camped at Dickson's the night before the battle. He accom- 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 137 

panied General Rutherford next day, passing over the ground 
then vacant land, where five years later, the grant was made 
to him as proprietor in trust for the citizens of Lincoln 
County. He was one of the immortal heroes of King's 
Mountain. With the rank of major he was one of the ofiicers 
that led the South Fork boys up the rugged northeast end of 
the mountain, facing with undaunted spirit the lead and the 
charge of the enemy's bayonet. In 1Y81 he opposed the Brit- 
ish invasion of IS^orth Carolina, serving with the rank of 
colonel. During this year he was elected county court clerk, 
which office he held the next ten years. He was chairman 
of the committee that selected the site of Lincolnton, and 
the grant for the land on which the town was built was made 
to him. The grantor to all the original purchasers of lots 
is, "Joseph Dickson, Esq., proprietor in trust for the commis- 
sioners appointed to lay off a town in the county of Lincoln 
by the name of Lincolnton." He was chosen Senator from 
Lincoln County in 1788, and continuously succeeded himself 
until 1795. In 1789 he was one of the forty great men of 
the State selected by the General Assembly to constitute the 
first trustees of the University of ISTorth Carolina. He then 
served as a general in the militia. From 1799 to 1801 he 
was a member of Congress. December 27th, 1803, he sold 
his plantation of twelve hundred acres, and removed to 
Rutherford County, Tennessee, where he died, April 24th, 
1825, aged eighty years, and was buried with military and 
Masonic honors. 

Lincolnton is situate 869 feet above sea level in the hill 
country of the great Piedmont belt. In the county are Reece, 
Clubbs, Daily, Rush and Buffalo Mountains; they are small 
peaks not larger than Hog Hill in the northern part of the 
county. From Lincolnton mountains are visible in almost 
every direction. On the northeast is Anderson's Mountain ; 
in the southwest looms up King's Mountain, on whose his- 



138 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

toric heights was fought the memorable battle that broke the 
power of the British crown; in line with King's Mountain 
to the south can be seen Spencer, Crowder, and Pasour Moun- 
tains; in the north and northwest are Baker's Mountain, 
Carpenter and Ben's Knobs, and numerous peaks of the 
South Mountains; while in the distance in solemn grandeur 
lies the upturned face of the Grandfather; and yet still 
farther away rise the far-distant peaks of the great Blue 
Eidge. The Carolina and ]^orthwestern Railway comes in 
from Chester, South Carolina, and runs northwesterly into 
the heart of the mountains of ITorth Carolina ; while from 
the east comes in the Seaboard Air Line, and extends west- 
wardly to Rutherfordton. 

Lincoln thus remained a large county until 1841, when 
the first slice was- taken to form, with a portion of Ruther- 
ford, the county of Cleveland. In 1842, Catawba was set 
up from Lincoln by an east and west line passing one and a 
half miles north of Lincolnton. In 1846, the southern part 
was set off into the county of Gaston, by a line to pass four 
and a half miles south of Lincolnton, and four miles of 
Catawba ceded back to Lincoln. The formation of these 
new counties reduced Lincoln to a narrow strip, ten miles 
in width with an average length of thirty miles, and it is with 
this strip that the remainder of this narrative will deal. 
Lincoln County is bounded on the north by Catawba County ; 
on the east by the Catawba River, which separates it from 
Iredell and Mecklenburg; on the south by Gaston; on the 
west by Cleveland, and one-fourth mile of Burke. 

FIKST SUPERIOR COURT CLERK. 

Lawson Henderson was long an influential citizen, filling 
the offices of county surveyor, sheriff, and clerk of the county 
and Superior Courts. He was a son of James Henderson, 
a pioneer settler, and was appointed Superior Court clerk 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 139 

for life under the Act of Assembly of 1806 establishing a 
Superior Court in each county of the State. He served from 
April term, 1807, to Fall term, 1835, when he resigned. At 
Fall term, 1833, John D. Hoke applied for the clerk's office, 
having been elected pursuant to act of 1832. Then followed 
the suit of "Hoke vs. Henderson," in which Mr. Henderson 
was the winner. This was a famous case. It decided that 
an office is property, and was not reversed until 1903, and 
then by a majority opinion, two justices dissenting. 

PLEASANT RETREAT ACADEMY. 

This school occupied four acres in the northern part of 
Lincolnton. From its institution it bore the attractive name 
of Pleasant Retreat Academy. The older students delighted 
to speak of its refreshing shades — the oak and the hickory 
interspersed with the chestnut and the chinquepin — and the 
spring at the foot of the hill. It was chartered by the Gen- 
eral Assembly, 10th December, 1813, with the following trus- 
tees : Rev. Philip Henkle, Rev. Humphrey Hunter, Lawson 
Henderson, Joseph Graham, John Fullenwider, John Hoke, 
Peter Forney, Robert Williamson, Daniel Hoke, J. Rein- 
hardt, Vardry McBee, David Ramsour, Peter Hoyle, Henry 
Y. Webb, George Carruth, William McLean, Robert Burton, 
John Reid, and David Reinhardt. In this school were 
trained a long roll of men whose names adorn their county's 
history. Of its students — 

James Pinkey Henderson, son of Maj. Lawson Hender- 
son, sought the broad area of the "Lone Star State" for the 
full development of his giant intellect and won fortune and 
fame. An eminent lawyer, Attorney-General of the Repub- 
lic of Texas, its minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extra- 
ordinary to France, England and the United St:ites, Major- 
General of the United States Army in the War with Mexico, 
Governor of Texas, and at the time of hi? death United 



140 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

States Senator, he adorned the positions hi< courage and 
talents won. 

William Lander, brilliant, impetuous and chivalric, was 
one of the foremost advocates of the bar and member of the 
convention from Lincoln County that passed the Ordinance 
of Secession. Afterwards his splendid eloquence found con- 
genial fellowship amid the fiery spirits of the Confederate 
CongTess. Lawyer, solicitor, legislator and member of the 
Confederate Congress, he has a monument of love and affec- 
tion in the hearts of those who knew him best. His brother, 
Rev. Samuel Lander, was a man of broad scholarship, an edu- 
cator of note, and a preacher of wide repute. 

Thomas Dews, when a mere lad, entered the State Uni- 
versity, graduated in the class of 1824, taught awhile in 
Pleasant Retreat, , and began the practice of law. He was 
drowned in Second Broad River, August 4th, 1838, aged 30 
years, 2 months and 25 days. His remains lie in honor 
beneath a marble shaft, the tribute of a noble-hearted woman 
to the man who adored her while he lived, and marks the 
spot where rests her lover and her love. Judge William H. 
Battle knew Mr. Dews at Chapel Hill and often spoke of 
his talents and his genius. Toward the close of an address 
before the literary societies at the commencement of 1865, 
growing reminiscent, Judge Battle said: "I will occupy a few 
more moments of your time in recalling from the dim recollec- 
tions of the past the names of a few men, each of whom was 
regarded as a college genius of the day, and who with well- 
directed energies, and a longer life might have left a name 
the world would not willingly let die. In the year 1824 
Thomas Dews, a young man from the county of Lincoln, took 
his degTee of Bachelor of Arts, dividing with Prof. Sims, 
Judge Manly and ex-Governor Graham the highest honor of 
the class. His parents were poor, and it is said resorted to 
the humble occupation of selling cakes for the purpose of 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 141 

procuring means for the education of their promising boy. 
After graduation, he studied law and commenced the practice 
with every prospect of eminent success, when unhappily, a 
morbid sensitiveness of temperament drove him to habits of 
intemperance, during one of the fits of which he came to an 
untimely end. His name, which ought to have gone down 
to posterity on account of great deeds achieved by extraordi- 
nary talents, will probably be remembered only in connection 
with a happily-turned impromptu epitaph." Yet it has 
gone down in history immortalized by his neighbor and 
friend. Col. James E. Dodge, a distinguished practitioner for 
many years at the Lincolnton bar. Colonel Dodge was a 
son of Gen. Eichard Dodge and Sarah Ann Dodge, his 
mother being a sister of Washingtnn Irving, of ISTew York. 
Those acquainted with the playful writings of Washington 
Irving will not be surprised at the spontaneous retort of 
his nephew. But one residence separated the Dews home 
from that of Colonel Dodge in Lincolnton. At April term, 
1832, of Eutherford Superior Court, David L. Swain, after- 
wards Governor, was on the bench and in the bar were Samuel 
Hillman, Tom Dews and Mr. Dodge. While Mr. Dodge was 
addressing the jury. Judge Swain recalled a punning epitaph 
on a man named Dodge, wrote it on a piece of paper, and 
passed it around to the merriment of the bar; and when 
Colonel Dodge had finished his speech, he found lying on 
his table: 

"epitaph of JAMES E. DODGE, ESQ., ATTORNET-AT-LAW. 

"Here lies a Dodge, who dodged all good. 
And dodged a deal of evil. 
Who after dodging all he could, 
He could not dodge the Devil." 

Mr. Dodge read the paper, turned it over and wrote on the 
other side: 



142 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

"epitaph of three attorneys. 

"Here lies a Hillman and a Swain, 
Whose lot let no man choose; 
They lived in sin and died m pain. 
And the Devil got his Dews" [dues]. 

Among the post-bellum students are Hoke Siuith, lawyer, 
journalist, Secretary of the Interior, and Governor of Geor- 
gia; William Alexander Hoke, Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court of ISTorth Carolina ; William E. Shipp, Lieu- 
tenant Tenth United States Cavalry, killed on San Juan 
Hill, Battle of Santiago, July 1st, 1898 ; T. H. Cobb, Beverly 
C. Cobb, David W. Robinson, Charles E. Childs, Charles C. 
Cobb, and Lemuel B. Wetmore, lawyers ; Silas McBee, Editor 
of the Churchman; Rev. William L. Sherrill of the West- 
ern ISTorth Carolina Conference; William E. Grigg, banker; 
Blair and Hugh Jenkins, Charles and Henry Robinson, mer- 
chants ; William W. Motz, architect and builder ; William A. 
Costner, Thomas J. Ramsour, Charles M. Sumner, farmers, 
and a long list of others. 

The Pleasant Retreat Academy property has been trans- 
ferred to the Daughters of the Confederacy for a Memorial 
Hall. In this there is eminent fitness, for among its students 
were William A. Graham, Confederate States Senator ; Wil- 
liam Lander, member of the Confederate Congress ; Ma j .- 
Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur; Maj.-Gen. Robert F. Hoke; Col. 
John E. Hoke; Col. William J. Hoke; Maj. Frank Schenck; 
Capts. James F. Johnston, Joseph W. Alexander, George W. 
Seagie, George L. Phifer, James D. Wells, and others, mak- 
ing an honor roll of more than a hundred Confederate sol- 
diers. 

Lincolnton Female Academy was chartered by the General 
Assembly December 21st, 1821, with James Bivings, Vardry 
McBee, David Hoke, John Mushatt, Joseph E. Bell, and 
Joseph Morris, trustees. Four acres on the south side of 



THE HISTORY OF LIISTCOLN COUNTY. 143 

the town were conveyed to the trustees for school purposes, 
and the two school properties were connected by Academy 
street. The Female Academy likewise had a long and useful 
career. It is now the site of the Lincolnton graded school. 

EAKLY SETTLERS AND CHURCHES. 

The early settlers of Lincoln were of Scotch-Irish and Ger- 
man origin. There were but few of other nationalities. 
They came in swarms, by "hundreds of wagons from the 
northwards." About the year 1750, the Scotch-Irish settle- 
ment covered both banks of the Catawba, so the eastern por- 
tion of Lincoln was populated by this race, while the South 
Fork and its tributaries — the remainder of the county — 
were contemporaneously settled by Germans. 

The Scotch-Irish are stern and virile, noted for hatred of 
sham, hypocrisy and oppression. The Germans are hardy 
and thrifty, characterized by love of home and country, tena- 
cious of custom and slow to change. Both were a liberty- 
loving. God-fearing people, among whom labor was dignified 
and honorable. A charm about these pioneers is, that their 
heads were not turned by ancestral distinction. They were 
self-reliant and mastered the primeval forest, with its hard- 
ships and disadvantages. They became adepts in handicraft 
and combated the foes of husbandry in an unsettled region. 
They were the silent heroes who shaped destiny and im- 
bued unborn generations with strength of character and force 
of will. The early Scotch-Irish preachers taught the creed 
of Calvin and Knox, and the first place of worship on the 
east side was Presbyterian. The pioneer Germans were fol- 
lowers of the great central figure of the Reformation, Martin 
Luther, and the Swiss Reformer, Ulrick Zwingle, and the 
oldest place of worship on the west side is Lutheran and 
Reformed. To-day the county is dotted with churches which, 
according to numerical strength, rank in the following order : 



144 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist Protes- 
tant, Presbyterian, Keformed and Protestant Episcopal. 

When churches were few camp meetings were held by the 
Presbyterians, Baptists, Reformed, Protestants a ad Meth- 
odists. They have all been discontinued except one, the 
celebrated Pock Springs Camp Meeting of the Methodists 
in east Lincoln. There a great arbor is surrounded by three 
hundred tents, and the meeting has been held annually since 
1830. It is incorporated after the style of a town, and gov- 
erned much the same way. It is held on forty-five acres of 
ground, conveyed 7th August, 1830, by Joseph M. Mundy 
to Freeman Shelton, Richard Proctor and James Bivings, 
trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Lincoln circuit. 
The estate an owner has in a lot is conditional, and ceases 
upon failure to keep and maintain a tent on it. The meet- 
ing continues one week and embraces the second Sunday in 
August. It is attended by all denominations from the sur- 
rounding counties by from ten thousand to fifteen thousand 
people. Deep religious interest is manifest and many date 
their conversion from these meetings. Viewed from a social 
standpoint this is also a great occasion. The old camp ground 
combines the best elements of social life in the country, city 
and summer resort. Rock Springs is the successor of an 
older camp ground called Robey's, which was situate near 
the Catawba Springs. 

The memory of the old people runs back to the time when 
the printing press had not filled the churches with hymn 
books, when there were no church organs, nor organists to 
lead the choir. In those days the congregations sung, being 
led by a precentor called the clerk, a man of importance, and 
the minister lined out the hymn. Pour young men from 
Lincolnton attended a camp meeting. When the minister 
lined out a couplet of a familiar hymn, the congregation fol- 
lowed the clerk, sung the couplet and paused for the next 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 145 

The four boys, filled with the spirit of John Barleycorn, 
paused not, but in well-trained musical voice, carrying the 
several parts finished the stanza; then the second and the 
entire hymn to the dismay of the minister, the clerk, and 
dumbfounding of the congregation. A charge of disturbing 
public worship was preferred in the courts, conviction fol- 
lowed and the offenders sentenced to sit one hour in the 
stocks. 

Most of the people in l^orth Brook, the western township in 
the county, are Methodist Protestants, and they have one 
church, Fairfield, near the Catawba River on the eastern side 
of the county. 

Long Creek was the first Baptist church established in 
Lincoln County, either in 1772 or 1777. It is on Long 
Creek, one mile from Dallas. Hebron was organized at 
Abernethy's Ferry on the Catawba about 1792. Six miles 
from Beattie's Ford was Earhardt's church, constituted in 
the 18th century. Abraham Earhardt, upon whose land the 
church was located, was an ordained minister and preached 
at his church and elsewhere. He married Catharine Forney, 
sister of Peter, Abram and Jacob Forney, and owned more 
than a thousand acres of land, on which he operated a fiouring 
mill, tan yard, blacksmith shop and a distillery. The 
Earhardt place is now the home of Maj. W. A. Graham. 
To-day the Baptists have churches in every section of the 
county. 

The act of the Provincial Assembly in 1768, erecting that 
portion of Mecklenburg County west of the Catawba into a 
separate county by the name of Try on, also created Saint 
Thomas Parish ; and, according to the custom of that day, 
county and parish were coterminous. While nominally under 
a church establishment, no clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land exercised any pastoral care in colonial days. In 1785 
Robert Johnston Miller, afterwards known as Parson Miller, 



146 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

came to Lincoln, and became the religious teacher, lay reader, 
and catechist of the Episcopalians he found in the county. 
While avowing himself an Episcopalian, he received Lutheran 
ordination. In 1806 he resigned his Lincoln charge to David 
Henkel, a Lutheran licentiate, and removed to Burke. From 
1785 to 1823, Parson Miller was almost the only Episcopal 
minister in this region. In 1823 John Stark Eavenscroft 
was elected Bishop, Parson Miller, being in the chair. The 
Bishop visited Lincoln County in 1824, and in the three 
parishes of Smyrna, White Haven and St. Peter's confirmed 
forty-one persons. In 1828 he again visited Catawba Springs 
and endeavored to collect the remains of the three old parishes 
in that neighborhood, but found it a hopeless task. While at 
the Springs he preached at Beattie's Ford and "on Sunday 
in the public room at the Springs to such of the company as 
a very rainy day detained from visiting a camp meeting in 
the vicinity." In the year 1835 Dr. Moses A. Curtis, the 
noted botanist, was stationed at Lincolnton. The year 1837 
found him in another field. On the 2d of March, 1842, 
Col. John Hoke conveyed to "E. M. Forbes, Jeremiah W. 
Murphy, T. 'N. Herndon, Michael Hoke, Leonard E. Thomp- 
son and Haywood W. Guion, vestry and trustees of the 
Saint Luke's church in Lincolnton, the lot on which Saint 
Luke's church yet stands. Its rectors have been Rev. E. M. 
Forbes, Rev. A. F. Olmstead, Rev. J. C. Huske, Rev. T. S. 
W. Mott, Rev. H. H. Hewitt, Rev. C. T. Bland, Rev. G. M. 
Everhart, and Rev. Dr. W. R. Wetmore for forty years — 
from 1862 mitil his death. 

Rev. Robert Johnston Miller was born in Scotland July 
11th, 1758. His parents designed him for the ministry, 
and sent him to the Dundee classical school. Before he en- 
tered the ministry he migTated to America, arriving in 
Charlestown, Massachusetts, A. D. 1774. Soon after the colo- 
nies declared their independence and young Miller at once 



THE HISTORY OF LHSTCOLjST COUNTY. 147 

espoused the cause of liberty, and when General Greene 
passed through Boston, he enlisted as a Revolutionary soldier. 
He participated in the battles of Long Island, where he was 
wounded in the face, of Brandywine, White Plains, and the 
siege of Valley Forge. With the army he traveled south, 
where he remained after peace was restored and the army 
disbanded. He began his work as a licentiate of the Episco- 
pal Church without authority to administer the sacraments. 
His people of White Haven church, in Lincoln County, sent 
a petition to the Lutheran pastors of Cabarrus and Rowan, 
with high recommendations, praying that he might be or- 
dained by them, which was accordingly done at St. John's 
church, Cabarrus County, on the 20th of May, 1794. His 
ordination certificate reads : "To all to whom it may concern. 
Greeting: Whereas, A great number of Christian people in 
Lincoln County have formed themselves into a society by the 
name of White Haven church, and also have formed a 
vestry : We the subscribers having been urged by the pressing 
call from the said church to ordain a minister for the good 
of their children, and for the enjoyment of y^ gospel ordi- 
nances among them, from us, the ministers of the Lutheran 
Church in ISTorth Carolina, have solemnly ordained," etc., 
* * * "according to y^ infallible word of God, administer 
ye sacraments, and to have y® care of souls ; he always being 
obliged to obey y^ rules, ordinances and customs of ye Chris- 
tian Society, called y^ Protestant Episcopal Church in Amer- 
ica," etc. This White Haven was situated near the Catawba, 
on the opposite side of the great highway from Castanea 
Presbyterian church. The Lutherans subsequently built a 
White Haven three miles north on the same highway. Rev. 
Miller attended the Episcopal Convention, held in Raleigh, 
April 28th, 1821. His object was to connect himself fully 
with the Episcopal Church, to which he really belonged. As 
there was no Episcopal diocese at the time of his ordination 



148 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

in the State, he felt it his duty to form a temporary connec- 
tion with the Lutheran Church, was admitted a member of 
the Lutheran ISTorth Carolina Synod at its organization in 
1803, and labored for her welfare twenty-seven years, until 
1821, when he severed that connection, and was ordained to 
deacon's and priest's orders in the Episcopal ministry. Mr. 
Miller likewise attended the Lutheran ISTorth Carolina Synod 
in 1821, and from its minutes the following is quoted: "The 
president now reported that the Eev. R. J. Miller, who had 
labored for many years as one of our ministers had been or- 
dained by the Bishop of the Episcopal Church as a priest 
at a convention of that church ; that he had always regarded 
himself as belonging to that church, but because the Epis- 
copal Church had no existence at that time in this State, 
he had himself ordained by our ministry, with the under- 
standing that he still belonged to the Episcopal Church. 
But as the said church had now reorganized itself (in this 
State) he has united himself with it, and thus disconnected 
himself from our Synod, as was allowed him at his ordi- 
nation by our ministers. Eev. Miller then made a short 
address before Synod and the congregation then assembled, 
in which he distinctly explained his position, so that no 
one should be able to say that he had apostatized from our 
Synod, since he had been ordained by our Ministerium as a 
minister of the Episcopal Church. He then promised that 
he would still aid and stand by us as much as lay in his 
power. With this explanation the whole matter was well 
understood by the entire assembly, and was deemed perfectly 
satisfactory. Whereupon it was resolved that the president 
tender to Rev. Miller our sincere thanks, in the name of the 
Synod, for the faithful services he had hitherto rendered our 
church. This was immediately done in a feeling manner." 
Mr, Miller died in 1833. One of the last acts of his minis- 
try was to marry in that year Col. Michael Hoke and Miss 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 149 

Frances Burton, daughter of Judge Robert H. Burton. The 
marriage took place at Beattie's Ford. A carriage was sent 
to bring Mr. Miller from Burke to solemnize it. Some time 
after marriage Colonel and Mrs. Hoke were confirmed. One 
of their sons is the distinguished Confederate General, 
Eobert F. Hoke. 

Col. W. L. Saunders, eminent authority, pays the State a 
tribute (Col. Records, IV, Pref. jSTotes), that applies to Lin- 
coln County : ''Remembering the route that General Lee took 
when he went into Pennsylvania on the memorable Gettys- 
burg campaigTi, it will be seen that very many of the JSTorth 
Carolina boys, both of German and Scotch-Irish descent, in 
following their great leader, visited the homes of their an- 
cestors, and went thither by the very route by which they 
came away. To Lancaster and York counties in Pennsyl- 
vania, ISTorth Carolina owes more of her population than to 
any other part of the known world, and surely there was 
never a better population than they and their descendants — 
never better citizens, and certainly never better soldiers." 

As the waters of the Catawba, that lave its eastern border, 
and the South Fork, that flows through its center, united as 
they left old Lincoln in their onward sweep to form the 
Great Catawba, so have the settlers on the Catawba and the 
South Fork merged into a Scotch-Irish-German people, pre- 
serving the virtues, and mayhap the weaknesses, of a noble 
ancestry. These settlements will be noticed separately. 

THE SCOTCH-IRISH SIDE. 

Early in the eighteenth century the Scotch-Irish emi- 
grated to Pennsylvania, and from thence some came direct, 
while others, and their descendants settled in Virginia before 
coming to this section. A few of these settlers may have 
been of other nationalities, but a careful writer has referred- 
to this part of the country as "one of the areas of iJ^orth Caro- 



150 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

lina, dominated hj the sturdy Scotch-Irish strain ; where the 
thistle and the shamrock were planted toward the close of 
the eighteenth century; where they throve and flourished, 
and unaided produced results marvelous for the place and 
time. The Scotch gumption and Irish ardor, finely blended, 
was the patrimony of this section." 

On the early maps the Great Catawba marked the tribal 
division between the Catawbas and the Cherokees. East of 
the river dwelt the Catawbas, once a numerous and powerful 
people. This nation "writ its name in water," the Catawba 
embahns it and it will be perpetuated while its majestic 
waters flow 

"To where the Atlantic lifts her voice to pour 
A song of praise upon the sounding shore." 

As the white settlements extended, the Cherokees receded 
toward the setting sun, and occupied the peaks of the Blue 
Ridge. Roving bands raided the settlements. One of the 
Beattys went into the range in search of his cattle. He was 
discovered and pursued by the Indians. When within a 
mile of home he concealed himself in the hollow of a large 
chestnut tree. The bark of his little dog disclosed his hiding 
place and cost him his scalp and his life. The old chestnut 
disappeared long since, but the place where it stood is yet 
well known. 

Jacob Forney and two of his neighbors were attacked by a 
band of Cherokees. One of them, Richards, was wounded 
and scalped. Forney, though shot at many times by the 
Indians, reached his log fort in safety. The neighbors buried 
poor Richards where he fell. 

"No useless coffin enclosed his breast, 
Nor in sheet nor in shroud they wound him." 

The site of his lone grave in the depth of the wildwood is yet 
pointed out, situate near the old log fort where Jacob Forney 
first settled. 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 151 

Among the settlers on this side occur the names, Allen, 
Anderson, Armstrong, Baldridge, Ballard, Barkley, Barnett, 
Beal, Bell, Beatty, Black, Bradshaw, Brevard, Bryant, 
Cherry, Childers, Cooper, Cox, Daily, Davis, Derr, Duncan, 
Edwards, Graham, Hunter, Hutchinson, Jetton, Johnston, 
Kelly, Kincaid, King, Knox, Little, Long, Lowe, Luckey, 
Lynch, McAlister, McCaul, McCombs, McConnell, McCor- 
mick, Mcintosh, McLean, McMinn, IsFixon, Proctor, Regan, 
Reid, Robinson, Shelton, Stacy, Thompson, Wilkinson, Win- 
gate, and Womack; while in the western part, are found, 
Alexander, Baxter, Blackburn, Cobb, Goodson, Henderson, 
Hill, McBee, McCaslin, Potts, Ramsey, Williamson, Wilson, 
and others. 

The first pale-face to set foot on the soil of Lincoln was 
the bold pioneer, John Beatty. One of his land grants bears 
date July I7th, 1749. He settled on the west bank of the 
Catawba. The shoal at this point, over which the river tum- 
bles with a gentle murmur, forms a splendid ford. It was 
at this ford John Beatty crossed, and it yet bears his name, 
Beattie's Ford. As the soil of Lincoln at Beattie's Ford felt 
the primal tread of Anglo-Saxon, Beattie's Ford deservedly 
figTires largely in the recital. 

The old pioneer, John Beatty, located his home above the 
ford, in the shade of the hillside, overlooking the beautiful 
Catawba. IsTear by gurgled a limpid spring, its waters trick- 
ling off in a sparkling brooklet to the river. John Beatty 
had two sons, Thomas and Abel, and one daughter, Mary, the 
wife of Matthew Armstrong. It is always interesting to 
hear the last words of the departed. John Beatty's will bears 
date 5th January, 1774. In this he gives to Margaret Beatty 
certain items of personalty and his homestead to William 
Beatty. These were his grandchildren, the children of 
Thomas Beatty. Marked traits of his character are apparent 
in this document. A short quotation will exhibit his love 



152 THE NOE.TH CAKOLIKA BOOKLET. 

for rectitude and obedience, and desire to keep his homestead 
in the line of his o^vn blood : "And if j" above named Mar- 
garet or William Beatty or either of them does misbehave or 
be disobedient when come to j"" years of maturity, either 
going against their parents will in the contract of marriage 
or any way remarkable otherwise, that legatee is liable to y^ 
loss of his part of this legacy, and to be given to y^ other, the 
offending person entirely cut off at their parents discretion, 
or those that it may please to have the guardian and care 
over the above-mentioned persons William and Margaret 
Beatty. And further I do not allow the said lands that is 
left to y*" above named William Beatty to be ever sold or dis- 
posed of by any means or person whatsoever, but to firmly 
remain and continue in the line and lawful heirs of the above 
named William Beatty's body and to continue in that name 
as long as there is a male heir on the face of the earth, and 
after for the lack of a male heir to y*^ nighest female heir." 
Thomas Beatty died in 1787, leaving three sons, John, 
Thomas, and William. The inventory of his estate exhibits 
in minute detail the entire possessions of a well-to-do man 
of the pioneer period. A few items ranging between his 
broad acres and a fine-toothed comb will indicate the extent 
and variety of his possessions : "944 acres of land, ten negroes, 
seventeen horses, sixty-six cattle, eighteen hogs, thirteen 
sheep, thirty-four geese, five ducks, lot poultry, five pewter 
dishes, sixteen pewter plates, twenty-four pewter spoons, one 
pewter basin, one pewter tankard, one crook and two pot 
hooks, one dutch oven, and griddle and frying pan, one dough 
trough, one chest, two spinning wheels, and one big wheel, 
three pair cards, cotton, wool, and tow, one .check reel, one 
weaving loom, twenty-three spools, for spooling cotton, five 
reeds for weaving, nine sickles, one foot adze, one thorn 
hack, one hackel, two iron wedges, two bleeding lances, one 
hair sifter, two riddles, three gimlets, thirteen bushels flax 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 153 

seed, six bushels buckwheat, one slide, two bells and collars, 
750 clapboard nails, four pair half worn horse shoes, one 
redding comb, one fine-toothed comb, three coats and one 
great coat, two jackets, one pair buckskin breeches, one pair 
trousers, three hats and two linen shirts," constitute about 
one-fourth of the articles enumerated. 

In the pioneer stage every man was his own carpenter, 
and the women knew how to card, spin, weave, and sew. The 
men wore linen shirts and buckskin breeches; the women, 
arrayed in their own handiwork, were beautiful in the eyes 
of the forester. The patrimony of the son was broad acres ; 
the dowry of the daughter was a horse and saddle, cow and 
calf, a spinning wheel and check reel. The young men were 
gallant, and the young maids charming. The young men 
learned the art of horsemanship not only in the chase, but 
by the constant habit of traveling on horseback, and every 
woman was an expert horse-rider. The horse sometimes 
served as a tandem, the man riding in front, the woman be- 
hind; and, if trustworthy tradition is given credence the 
young men sometimes augTQented the pleasure of this sys- 
tem of equestrianism by making their steeds caper, thereby 
frightening their innocent companions into a firm embrace 
to retain their positions. 

Most of the early Scotch-Irish were Presbyterians, and 
the religious center was Seattle's meeting house. This place 
of worship was established by the pioneer, John Beatty, one 
mile west of Beattie's Ford. The meeting house stood on a 
level plat of ground in a beautiful grove of oak and hickory 
near a spring. Beattie's meeting house was built of logs. 
In 1808, it was decided to erect a more commodious edifice, 
and a plat of several acres was conveyed for the purpose by 
James Little to "James Connor, Alexander Brevard, John 
Eeid and Joseph Graham, trustees." The kirk is named in 
the deed, Unity. In 1883 another church was erected and 



154 THE NOE.TH CAE-OLINA BOOKLET. 

additions to the former church lands made by conveyances 
from Kobert H. Burton, W. S. Simonton, and Mary King to 
"John D. Graham, D. M. Eorney, and John Knox, trustees." 
This is the conventional structure of that period with its gal- 
lery and large pulpit. 

From the first settlement this was a place of worship. The 
headstones date back to 1776. Dr. Humphrey Hunter, a 
native of Ireland, and soldier in the Revolution, was pastor 
from 1796 to 1804. Next came Rev. Henry K. Pharr. He 
was succeeded by Patrick Sparrow. Mr. Sparrow's father 
was a potter in Vesuvius furnace. When lads the future 
Governor Graham was hard put to it to keep pace with Pat- 
rick, and the members of the Governor's family ascribed 
some of his success to this auspicious rivalry in the old-field 
schools. General Graham, thus having the lad's aptitude 
brought to his attention, interested others with him in giving 
Patrick an education. AVhen he became pastor of Unity an 
old negro servant of General Graham's expressed her sur- 
prise at his rise of fortune, by exclaiming that the boy who 
ate ash cakes with her children had become her master's 
preacher. Mr. Sparrow was the first professor of lang-uages 
at Davidson College, and afterwards President of Hampden- 
Sidney. The present pastor is Rev. C. H. Little, descended 
from a pioneer family. 

About the year 1790 Maj. John Davidson, with his sons- 
in-law, Maj. Joseph Graham and Capt. Alexander Brevard, 
crossed from the Mecklenburg side into Lincoln, and with 
Gen. Peter Forney engaged in the manufacture of iron. 
These were all Revolutionary soldiers. The beginning of 
the nineteenth century witnessed civilization progress with 
leaps and bounds. Then followed years of plenty. The 
virgin soil brought forth bountifully. Herds of cattle and 
droves of swine ranged at large unrestrained by any stock 
law. Deer, turkey, wild geese and duck abounded. The 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 155 

Catawba was filled with shad, trout and red horse. A track- 
less wilderness had been transformed into a moving, popu- 
lous community. Instead of the wigwam, was the home- 
stead dwelling. Instead of the Indian war-whoop, was to be 
heard the furnace blast breathing forth actual and potential 
energy, and the stroke of the gTeat trip hammer at the 
mighty forge as it beat the heart throbs of commercial activ- 
ity. They were years of peace and growth, of marriage and 
home-building, of quiet domestic happiness. 

The different grants to the Beattys approximate three 
thousand acres. William and John Beatty sold to John 
FuUenwider, an early iron master; and Thomas Beatty to 
Alfred M. Burton. Mr. FuUenwider divided his purchase 
between his sons-in-law, Alfred M. and Kobert H. Burton; 
they settled on their splendid estates and became potent influ- 
ences in the community. Alfred Burton settled above the 
ford, the old John Beatty house constituting one wing of the 
residence he erected. Robert H. built a spacious mansion be- 
low the ford. They were learned lawyers and elegant gen- 
tlemen. Their dust reposes in Unity graveyard, beside that 
of their kinsman, Hutchings Gr. Burton, once Governor of the 
State. Robert H. Burton filled the ofiice of Superior Court 
Judge. After Judge Burton's death his homestead was pur- 
chased by Col. John H. Wheeler, the genial historian. 
Colonel Wheeler filled the ofiice of State Treasurer and many 
positions of trust, but is best known for his great work, 
"Wheeler's History of l^orth Carolina." This he compiled 
at Beattie's Ford, devoting to it about ten years' time. The 
preface bears date, "Ellangowan, Beattie's Ford, N". C, 1st 
July, 1851." 

Thi'ee brothers — Charles, James and Henry Connor — 
from Antrim, Ireland, settled near Beattie's Ford. James 
was a captain in the Revolution. Henry, the youngest, a 
patriot soldier, located near Cowan's Ford. Colonel Wheeler 



156 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

sold out at Beatty's Ford to Maj. Henry W. Connor, the son 
of Charles. Major Connor derived his title for service under 
General Graham in the campaign against the Creek Indians. 
He was a man of great popularity and represented his dis- 
trict in Congress twenty-three years. His homestead was 
identical with Judge Burton's. 

Skilled physicians of sweet memory are William B. Mc- 
Lean and Eobert A. McLean, father and son. The elder 
was a son of Dr. William McLean, a continental surgeon, 
resident in the forks of the Catawba. 

Jacob Forney first settled on the creek near the present 
town of Denver, the scene of his Indian troubles. This farm 
passed to his son, Capt. Abraham Forney, a soldier of the 
Revolution, and yet belongs to his descendants. Gen, Peter 
Forney, son of the pioneer, was a patriot soldier, member of 
the House, Senate and Congress. As presidential elector, 
he voted for Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, and Jackson. He 
erected a forge at his home and Madison furnace on Leeper's 
Creek, that was afterwards evened by J. W. Derr. He ob- 
tained possession of valuable ore beds, and commenced build- 
ing his iron works in 1Y87, and. recorded that he produced 
hammered iron in his forge 26th August, 1788. 

Maj. Daniel M. Forney, eldest son of Gen. Peter Forney, 
received his title in the war of 1812, also served as Senator 
from Lincoln County, and member of Congress. He erected 
a palatial residence, modeled after a house at the national 
capital. The site chosen is an eminence between, two creeks, 
where Jacob Forney lived when the British quartered on 
him. This picturesque old mansion, with its long white col- 
umns, surrounded by a grove of original oaks, yet retains the 
charms of its ancient architecture. Major Forney sold to 
Alexander F. Gaston, a son of Judge Gaston. It next passed 
to James Anderson, and is now owned by Mrs. W. E. Hall. 
Henry Y. Webb, Bartlett Shipp, William Johnston, C. L. 



THE HISTOfty OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 157 

Hunter, and Christian Keinhardt, married daughters of Gen. 
Peter Forney. Henry Y. Webb was a lawyer and repre- 
sented Lincoln County in the House of Commons. Bartlett 
Shipp was a lawyer, a member of the Legislature, and of the 
constitutional convention of 1835. His son, William M. 
Shipp, was a member of the House of Commons, Senator, 
Superior Court Judge, and Atttorney-General of the State. 
W, P. Bynuni married Eliza, daughter of Bartlett Shipp, 
and settled on the Henry Y. Webb homestead. He was an 
eminent lawyer. Colonel in the Confederate Army, Solicitor 
of his district, and Justice of the Supreme Court. His son, 
William S. Bynum, was a Confederate soldier, lawyer and 
Episcopal clergyman. 

William Johnston, a physician, married ISTancy Forney, 
and located at Mt. Welcome, General Forney's homestead. 
His five sons were gallant Confederate soldiers. William 
H., Eobert D., and James F. entered the service in the 
Beatty's Ford Rifles, which was mustered into service as 
Company K, 23d Regiment ; William H. and James F. won 
captains' commissions; while Robert D., by promotion be- 
came a distinguished Brigadier General; Joseph F., late 
Governor of Alabama and now United States Senator from 
that State, was Captain of Company A, 12th Regiment; 
Bartlett S. Johnston served in the Confederate States ISTavy. 
Dr. William Johnston was a son of Col. James Johnston, a 
soldier of the Revolution, one of the heroes of King's Moun- 
tain, the first Senator from Lincoln, and elder at Unity. 
When Gaston County was set up from Lincoln, Colonel John- 
ston's homestead on the Catawba fell in Gaston County. Dr. 
C. L. Hunter was a scientist and historian. He was the son 
of Rev. Humphrey Hunter, a soldier in the Revolution. 
Mary, daughter of Gen. Peter Forney, married Christian 
Reinhardt, a planter, and they migrated west. 

4 



158 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Joseph Graham attained the rank of major in the Revolu- 
tion and his title as general in 1814, when commissioned 
Brigadier-General and sent in command of North Carolina 
troops to aid General Jackson in the Creek War. To his 
narratives of the battles of Ramsour's Mill, King's Mountain 
and Cowan's Ford is largely due the preservation of the 
Revolutionary history of this section. John D. Graham, his 
eldest son, retiring from Vesuvius furnace, erected a brick 
residence on the Catawba below Beattie's Ford, now the home 
of his son. Clay Graham. James was a lawyer and politi- 
cian, representing his district in Congress sixteen years. 
William A., the general's youngest son, read law and located 
at Hillsboro for the practice of his profession. He was twice 
Governor, United States Secretary of the I^avy, and Con- 
federate States Senator, and candidate for Vice-President on 
the Scott ticket. Pure and spotless in private life, a learned 
lawyer, a ripe scholar, a statesman of ability and clear judg- 
ment, he is esteemed by many as the greatest man produced 
by the State of iSTorth Carolina. William A. Graham, son 
of the Governor, Major and Assistant Adjutant-General, his- 
torian and author, the present Commissioner of Agriculture, 
resides at Forest Home, the ancestral homestead. 

Robert Hall Morrison, D.D., the first President of David- 
son College, an eminent divine, was the honored pastor of 
Unity for forty years. He married Mary, daughter of Gen 
eral Graham. Cottage Home, his homestead, is intimately 
associated with the Confederacy, for it was there that J. P. 
Irwin, Lieut.-Gen. D. H. Hill, Lieut.-Gen. Stonewall Jack- 
son, Brig. -Gen. Rufus Barringer, Maj. A. C. Avery, and 
Col. John E. Brown, respectively married Harriet, Isabella, 
Anna, Eugenia, Susan, and Laura, daughters of Dr. Morri- 
son. His sons were Maj. William W. Morrison, Joseph G. 
Morrison, A.D.C., on General Jackson's staff, Robert. H. 
Morrison, A.D.C. to General Barringer and General Hill. 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 159 

His youngest son, Alfred J. Morrison, was a lawyer, politi- 
cian, and Presbyterian minister. 

Alexander Brevard early received a captain's commission 
in the Continental Army. He built Mount Tirzah and Reho- 
both furnaces. Captain Brevard's homestead passed to his 
son Robert A. Brevard, then to his grandson, Alexander F. 
Brevard, and upon his death to Brevard McDowell, a great- 
grandson. Captain Brevard and General Graham were hon- 
ored elders at Unity, but were buried in a private cemetery 
of their selection where Macpelah Church was afterwards 
built. Vesuvius furnace passed into the hands of J. M. 
Smith, a man who by his own initiative and endeavor rose to 
position and influence and left a name distinguished for 
good sense, kindness of heart, and business tact. He built 
Stonewall furnace, on Anderson Creek. 

On the post road between Beattie's Ford and Vesuvius fur- 
nace are the Catawba Springs, a famous resort in ante-bellum 
days. This was formerly Reed's Springs, owned by Capt. 
John Reed, a soldier of the Revolution and Senator from Lin- 
coln County. Valuable factors of this community are the 
Asburys and Mundys, descendants of Rev. Daniel Asbury 
and Rev. Jeremiah Mundy, pioneer Methodist ministers. 
Rev. Daniel Asbury, when a youth, was taken by a band (/f 
Shawnee Indians, carried to the far northwest and held in 
captivity five years. In 1791 he established in Lincoln 
County the first Methodist church west of the Catawba 
River. Rev. Jeremiah Mundy was a native of Virginia and 
located in Lincoln County in 1799. He was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War three years and a minister for thirty-five 
years. 

As one thinks of the old country 'squire who sott]ed dis- 
putes between his neighbors, of the kind-hearted physician, 
and the "lords of the manor," it seems "there were giants in 
those days." But life was not all serious; it had its great 



160 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

sunsiiiny side. They were apt at repartee, fond of the inno- 
cent joke, and in social intercourse, peals of laughter went 
the merry round ; for, has not the wisest of men said, "there 
is a time to laugh" ? And, alas, in those halycon days, they 
loved not the flagon to excess, but indulged a morning horn 
to ward off the rising vapors, and the invitation to sample 
the liquid contents of the sideboard was a mark of hospital- 
ity. The sweet women, the embodiment of all that is true, 
charming and good, raised high the standard of social purity. 
The blushing bride became the uncrowned queen of the 
home, around which the husband entwined the noblest affec- 
tions of his heart. In this genial clime the pioneers found 
a fertile land, undulating with hills and vales, chequered 
with creeks and rills, and bountifully supplied with springs. 
One mile west of Seattle's Ford, and flowing for some dis- 
tance parallel with the river, is a large branch. On this 
they found a maritime city, with streets of water through 
meadows green, the habitation of the beaver. This animal 
had felled trees, builded a great dam, ponding the waters 
over many acres, so it was called Beaver Dam Branch. The 
Burton mill was situate on the site of the old beaver dam. 
The water from the pond was conducted through a race to 
the great overshot wheel, the motive power of the mill. On 
the ridge between the Ford and Beaver Dam Branch three 
highways came together. At their convergence was situate 
the village of Beattie's Ford with its mercantile establish- 
ments. One of these roads was the great stage line via Lin- 
colnton and Salisbury connecting far distant points. The 
post-office of Beattie's Ford supplied a wide extent of country. 
The approach of the stage was announced by winding blasts 
from the long tin horn of the driver. 

Exhaustless iron beds were discovered in other sections in 
connection with limitless coal veins, and the fires of the 
charcoal furnace were quenched, and the furnace blast and 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 161 

forge hammer were heard no more. Some of the leading 
spirits opposed the entrance of railroads, and their tracks 
were laid over other routes. Trade centers sprang up on 
their lines, and the stores at Beattie's Ford were closed. The 
long interregnum of peace came to an end. The noise of 
war was again heard in the land, and this section suffered in 
blood and treasure and shattered homes. 

THE DUTCH SIDE. 

The German settlers came from Pennsylvania. Their 
ancestors and some of them came from Germany. Their 
settlement covers the whole of the county, except the eastern 
portion bordering on the Catawba, and in this portion among 
the Scotch-Irish were the German families of Cloninger, 
Earnhardt, Forney, Hager, Lockman, Keever, Killian, 
ISTantz, Silford and others. The names of the German pio- 
neers deserve special mention, and many follow: Aderholdt, 
Anthony, Arndt, Bangel, Benick, Beisaner, Beam, Bolinger, 
Boyles, Botz, Coulter, Dellinger, Better, DeVepaugh, Dietz, 
Eddlemon, Finger, Freytag, Gantzler, Gross, Haas, Hafner, 
Helderman, Hallman, Hartzoge, Houser, Heedick, Heil, 
Heltebrand, Henkel, Hoke, Huber, Hull, Jared, Jonas, Jundt, 
Keener, Kizer, Kistler, Klein, Kneip, Krauss, Kuhn, Lantz, 
Leeper, Lehnhardt, Leonard, Lingerfelt, Link, Lohr, Loretz, 
Lorentz, Lutz, Michal, Miller, Mosteller, Plonk, Propst, 
Quickel, Ramsauer, Rein, Reinhardt, Rieb, Rinck, Rudisill, 
Sain, Scheidel, Schenck, Schufordt, Scronce, Seigel, Shrum, 
Seitz, Shoup, Shull, Siginon, Speigel, Strutt, Summerrow, 
Troutman, Tutherow, Warlick, Weber, Weckesser, Wehunt, 
Weiand, Weiss, Wetzstein, Wisenhunt, Workman, Yoder, 
Zimmerman. 

Many of the American names have been anglicised, and the 
spelling changed. To be a Zimmerman when one could be 
a Carpenter was too unprogressive. Likewise Weber be- 



162 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

came Weaver, Kruss, Grouse ; Huber, Hoover ; Freytag, Fri- 
day ; Gantzler, Cansler ; Heil, Hoyle ; Jundt, Yount ; Kulin, 
Coon; Klein, Cline; Eieb, Keep; Weiss, Wise; Wetzstein, 
Whetstone ; and so with many others. 

They selected the finest lands and settled along the streams. 
Their first dwellings were log cabins, then followed the red- 
painted mansion. A few of the old red-painted houses, built 
near the spring, yet stand, monuments of a bygone age. They 
have always built large barns. Sweet memories of the pio- 
neers, and many valuable papers linger among their descend- 
ants. To give some illustration of pioneer times and condi- 
tions a few notes of one family will be made. 

Derrick Ramsour came with the pioneers about 1750. He 
erected a mill on Clark's Creek, near its junction with the 
South Fork River,' that was a noted industry and place in 
colonial days. The subjects of the king often divided their 
estates to prevent the oldest son becoming sole heir under the 
English law of primogeniture. In April, 17Y2, impelled by 
natural love and affection, he conveyed his property to his 
two surviving sons, Jacob and David; first, however, re- 
quiring them to enter into a bond in the sum of one thousand 
pounds proclamation money for his support, conditioned that 
they pay unto him every year during his natural life, ^'fifteen 
pounds proclamation money, twenty-five bushels clean, sound 
wheat, twenty-five bushels Indian corn, fifty-two pounds of 
good butter, four hundredweight of good wholesome beef, 
one-sixth of the net profits of the fruit trees, thirty pounds 
sugar, three pounds Bohea tea, two pounds coffee, twelve gal- 
lons of whiskey, four bushels of malt, one bushel of salt." 
They also engaged to erect "a commodious and convenient 
residence for him, the said Derrick Ramsour, in order to live 
retired with a sufficient store and store room, and furnish the 
same with the necessary furniture sufficient for his accom- 
modation which building is to be erected on such a part of 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 163 

the premises as he, the said Derrick Eamsour, pitches upon." 
Also to find for him "one good feather bed and decent and 
necessary furniture, and find and provide for him sufficient 
firewood, ready hauled to his dwelling, to be cut a foot length 
as often as occasion or necessity shall require ; and also to 
supply him with a gentle riding horse, saddle, and bridle to 
carry him wheresoever he may require to go, together with a 
sufficient and necessary stock of wearing apparel both woolen 
and linen, warm and decent, and becoming one of his cir- 
cumstances to w^ar, together with the proper food and wash- 
ing during his natural life." 

Then by bill of sale he conveys to his sons Jacob and 
David his "whole stock of black or neat cattle running on 
the said lands whereon I now live, or to be found in the woods 
or range, whether in my own proper mark, or the mark of 
those from whom I might heretofore have purchased; also 
all and singular my horses, mares, colts, yearlings, etc., which 
of right doth or ought to belong to me, whether at this time 
in my actual possession, or running their range at large, also 
all my stock of hogs and sheep, be the same more or less in 
number, wherever to be found, together with my wagons, 
gears, plows, harness, still and vessels, plantation and car- 
penter tools of every kind whatsoever." 

To Jacob he conveys the plantation situate in the forks of 
the South Fork Eiver and Clark's Creek and adjoining 
tracts, in all 960 acres, including the mill. This tract ad- 
joins the western limits of Lincolnton. The residence erected 
for Derrick stood beside that of Jacob on the slope of the hill 
a few hundred feet to the west of the mill that was destined 
to become historic during the Revolution. The South Fork 
River, in a great bend, forms its junction with Clark's Creek. 
In this bend are three hundred acres of fertile bottom. Jacob 
Ramsour died in 1787, and was buried in a private burying 
ground, on the highest part of the ridge west of his house. 



164 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

To David Eamsour he conveyed six hundred acres lying 
three miles farther np the river. This tract is likewise situ- 
ate in a great bend of the river including a broad sweep of 
level bottom. On this farm to-day is the one-story cabin, 
built of immense hewn logs, erected by David Ramsour, a 
relic of pioneer days and architecture. The great stone chim- 
ney is built entirely inside the house with fireplace seven feet 
across, over which is the mantel nine feet long hewn out of a 
log. In the chimney are cross bars from which the pot-hooks 
were suspended to hold the cooking utensils in position over 
the fire. This cabin occupies a knoll, commanding a fine 
view with picturesque surroundings. It slopes toward the 
south forty yards to the river. IvTear by is the rock-walled 
spring, with stone steps leading down to its cool waters, 
shaded by giant white oaks. Next stands the old red-painted 
mansion characteristic of the early Dutch, built by his son, 
John Hamsour, every part of which is put together with hand 
forged nails. A little way out in the bottom is the brick 
mansion of Jacob Eamsour, son of John. These, with the 
modern residence of Thomas J. Ramsour, in view of each 
other, standing in a radius of half a mile, represent four 
generations of the Eamsour family. On a gentle knoll in the 
great bottom is the family burying ground, where rests Jacob 
Eamsour, who died in 1785, and many of his descendants. 

The Germans encountered many hardships incident to the 
settlement of a new country, but one of their most trying 
ordeals was the change of their language from their native 
German to English. They called themselves Dutch and their 
language Dutch, and so are called to this day both by them- 
selves and others. The pioneer Germans were Lutherans 
and Eeformed, and they usually occupied the same house of 
worship, where on alternate Sabbaths they worshiped, and 
this is still the case in a number of churches. Four miles 
northwest of Lincolnton the pioneers established a place of 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 165 

worship and a schoolhoiise called Daniel's, on a tract of fifty 
acres, but did not take a gi'ant. In 1767 a grant was issued 
to Matthew Floyd for the tract of fifty acres including a 
"schoolhouse." In 1768 it was purchased by E'icholas War- 
lick, Frederick Wise, Urban Ashehanner, Peter Statler, 
Peter Summey and Deter Hafner, who conveyed it to the 
'*'two united Congregations of Lutherans and Calvinists." 
The services were in German, and the records written in 
German script until 1827. On this tract each has a brick 
church and by them stands the brick schoolhouse. Eleven 
miles east of Lincolnton, on the great highway is the site of 
the "Old Dutch Meeting House," The deed is from Adam 
Cloninger to the "German Congregation of Killian's Settle- 
ment." The first church lot in Lincolnton was conveyed 
June 10th, 1788, to Christian Eeinhardt and Andrew Hed- 
ick, trustees for the "societies of Dutch Presbyterians and 
Dutch Lutherans" of the town and vicinity, "for the intent 
and purpose of building thereon a meeting house for public 
worship, schoolhouses, both Dutch and English, and a place 
for the burial of the dead." This was called the old White 
church and occupied the site of the present Lutheran church. 
The reference in title deeds to "Calvinists," and "Dutch 
Presbyterians" is to the German Reformed or, as now known, 
the Eeformed Church. 

The pioneers brought with them Luther's German trans- 
lation of the Bible. No dust was allowed to gather on this 
precious volume. These have been handed down from gene- 
ration to generation, and in almost every family to-day can be 
found the Dutch Bible of the pioneers printed in a language 
now considered foreign, yet justly esteemed precious heir- 
looms. 

Rev. Johann Gottfried Arndt came from Germany as a 
school-teacher in 1773, and was ordained into the Lutheran 
ministry in 1775. He died in 1807 and was buried beneath 
the old White church in Lincolnton, The inscription on his 



166 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

tombstone is in German, above it an eagle and thirteen stars, 
and the motto of the new republic, E plurihus unum. The 
Keformed preacher of this time was Rev. Andrew Loretz, a 
native of Switzerland. He died in 1812 and was buried at 
Daniel's. On the gable of his mansion, outlined in colored 
brick, are the initials of his name and the date, A. L. 1793. 
Only the German v/as used during their pastorates. Living 
in the same county, and preaching in the same churches, 
these godly men were devoted friends, and engaged that 
whichever died first should be buried by the survivor. The 
Lutheran pastor at Daniel's is Rev. Luther L. Lohr, and in 
Lincolnton Rev. Robert A. Yoder, D.D., descendants of the 
Dutch settlers. While Rev. William Ramsour Minter, pas- 
tor of the Presbyterian church in Lincolnton, is a grandson 
of Jacob Ramsour,' and great-grandson of David Ramsour, 
both elders in that church; David Ramsour was a son of 
Jacob Ramsour, owner of the historic Ramsour's Mill. 

The ISTorth Carolina Synod held an historic meeting in 
the ''old White church" in May, 1820. Then occurred the 
first rupture in the Lutheran Church in the iN evv- World. The 
president maintained his position in a long discourse in the 
German, the secretary followed in a longer one in English. 
This church and others withdrew and, July 17th, organized 
the Tennessee Synod. At its first meeting German was made 
the business language and all its transactions were to be pub- 
lished in German. In 1825 the minutes were published in 
both German and English. In 1826 David Henkle was ap- 
pointed interpreter for the members who did not understand 
the German, and it was ordered that "the business of Synod 
shall be transacted in the German language during the first 
three days, afterwards the English shall be used." 

But perhaps the greatest hindrance was in the State. The 
English was the dominant language. The laws were writ- 
ten and expounded in English, and all public affairs con- 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 167 

ducted in that language, and this prevented many from active 
participation in public affairs. The change was gradual, but 
was perhaps most marked between the years 1820 and 1830. 
The entire German population outgrew the use of the Ger- 
man tongue. In their pulpits no longer is it heard, nor have 
they German schools. ISTow the Pennsylvania Dutch is 
seldom ever heard, and even the accent and idiom remain on 
but few tongues; yet it is sometimes observed in the use of 
the letters v and w, b and p, t and d. This is seen in some 
of the family names; Bangel and Pangie are the same name; 
likewise Boovey and Poovey, Tarr and Darr; David Darr 
was called Tavy Tarr. A venerable elder of fragrant mem- 
ory, when the preacher ascended the pulpit to begin ser- 
vice, was accustomed to step to the door and proclaim to 
those outside, "De beobles will now come in, te breaching is 
reaty." 

The Pennsylvania Dutchman had his humorous side, for 

"A little nonsense now and then 
Is relished by the best of men." 

They had their sports and amusements, their holidays and 
gala days, their Easter fun and Kriss Kringle frolics. Many 
of their sports and amusements partook more of skill and 
labor than dissipation and debauchery, such as corn- 
shuckings, choppings, log-rollings, house-raisings, spinning- 
matches, quiltings and the like, tending to manly vigor and 
modest womanhood, and brightening the links of friendship 
and brotherly love. By hunting deer and turkey, the squir- 
rel and other game they became expert riflemen. In the fall 
of the year shooting-matches were common, the usual prize 
a quarter of beef or a turkey. A witness at court, when 
asked to fix the date of a certain transaction, replied "at 
shooting-match time." They were gTcat fanciers of fine 
stock, and the old Dutch farmer never felt more lordly than 



168 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

when hauling great loads with his sleek team of horses. The 
race track also had its devotees. Two prominent Germans 
were once called to the bar of the church for some cause re- 
sulting from a noted race run on the Warlick path. The 
one who lost expressed proper contrition. The other was 
incorrigible. Proud of his horse, the stakes, and exulting 
in the plaudits of the community, he promptly responded 
'*I not sorry. I von. Mr. H. werry sorry, he loss." 

On the Dutch side are many signs and folk lore of in- 
terest. The Dutch farmer is a close observer and is often 
governed by signs. The moon is a powerful potentate. Its 
phases are closely watched, and there is a time to plant every 
seed, cut timber and do many things. A champion turnip 
grower used an incantation of virtue in casting the seed, re- 
sulting in a fourfold quantity. Each time he threw the seed 
with his hand he repeated a line of the following: 

"Some for the pug, 
Some for tlie fly, 
Some for the Debil, 
And in comes I." 

Michael Schenck, in 1813, erected the first cotton factory, 
rim by water power, south of the Potomac, It was a small 
affair located on a branch, one mile east of Lincolnton, but 
proving profitable, attracted Col. John Hoke and Dr. James 
Bivins, and they became partners of Michael Schenck. The 
firm in 1819 erected the Lincoln Cotton Mills, with three 
thousand spindles, on the South Fork, the beginning of the 
cotton mill industry in this section. This mill was burned 
in 1863. 

There are situate in Lincolnton and within four miles along 
the South Fork, thirteen cotton mills controlled by descend- 
ants of the Dutch. The only cotton mill in the county at the 
close of the war was the Elm Grove, owned by John F. Phifer, 
now operated by Kobert S. Reinhardt. The Confederate 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 169 

States government, about 1864, erected a laboratory for the 
manufacture of medicines on the site of the old Lincoln fac- 
tory. In 1887, J. A. Abernethy and D, E. Ehyne erected 
the Laboratory Cotton Mills on the site of the Confederate 
laboratory, E. E. Costner, J. A. Anthony, L. J, Dellinger, 
John M. Ehodes, and W. A. Eudisill are mill men. Daniel 
E. Ehyne is proprietor of three of these mills. Other suc- 
cessful mill men are J. A. Abernethy, Edgar Love, and J. 
M. Eoberts. The late Capt. Joseph G. Morrison erected the 
Mariposa Mills, at the old Forney forge on Leeper's Creek. 
Paper mills were operated for many years on the South Fork. 
Among the noted manufacturers of paper were William and 
Eufus Tiddy. 

One of the noted pioneers was Daniel Warlick. His en- 
tries approximate three thousand acres. In 1769 he made 
division of it among his five sons and four daughters. The 
oldest enterprise in the county to-day is the mill he established 
on a branch five miles west of Eamsour's. It was once de- 
stroyed by the Cherokees. This property has passed from 
father to son, and is to-day owned by Jacob E. Warlick, a 
great grandson. It is now a modern roller-mill, the motive 
power a waterfall of sixty-two feet. 

The old highway from Eamsour's Mill to Warlick's Mill 
crossed the South Fork Eiver at Eeep's Ford, just below the 
present Eamsour bridge. Here lived Adam Eeep and his 
brothers, Adolph and Michael, all Whig soldiers. Just to 
the west, in a private burying ground, rests Nicholas Heamer, 
a patriot soldier and one of the last survivors of the Battle of 
Eamsour's Mill. 

The subject of dress properly occupies large space in 
woman's thought. In the olden time there were no stores 
near with heavily laden shelves from which to select, but 
they knew how to color, then combine the colors in beautiful 
fabrics, and were experts in fine weaving. They perhaps 



170 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

were not bothered with gores and biases, frills and puffs, yet 
they had their trouble in cutting, fitting, and arranging the 
trimming as do those of the present with the latest magazine 
and fashion plate. It is certain that in the vigor and strength 
of perfect development they were fair to look upon, equally at 
home, in the parlor or in the kitchen alive to the wants of 
humanity and duty to God. Much of this inspiriting record 
is due the examples, counsels and prayers of pious mothers ; 
and while the songs of the nursery mingle with lessons of 
peace and love, and tender hearts are impressed with re- 
ligious truth the result will be men and women of high type. 

As the century waned the German citizens were becoming 
prominent in public affairs. In 1797, John Eamsour repre- 
sented Lincoln County in the House of Commons and twice 
afterwards. Th6n follows John Eeinhardt in 1799, Peter 
Forney in 1800. Peter Hoyle was elected in 1802 and four- 
teen times afterwards; Henry Hoke in 1803 ; David Shuford 
in 1806. Then follows Loretz, Killian, Cansler and others, 

Henry Cansler was long an influential citizen. He filled 
the offices of county surveyor, sheriff, clerk of the court and 
member of the General Assembly. His father and grand- 
father each wrote his name in the German, Philip Gantzler. 

Jacob Costner was one of the first justices of Tryon 
County, sheriff of Tryon 1774 and 1775, major of the Tryon 
Regiment in 1776, died in 1777. Ambrose Costner, his 
great-grandson, planter and financier, was often the popular 
representative of Lincoln County in the House and Senate. 

John F. Eeinhardt, Confederate soldier, planter, com- 
moner and senator, is a gi'eat-grandson of Christian Rein- 
hardt, "agent of the Dutch Presbyterians." He owns the 
Bartlett Shipp homestead. His father, Franklin M. Rein- 
hardt, operated the Rehobeth furnace. 

Andrew Hedick, a great-gi-andson of Andrew Hedick, 



THE HISTORY OF LIlS^COLN COUNTY. 171 

homestead. He lost his right arm in the fearful struggle 
at Chancellors ville. After the war he attended Pleasant 
Ketreat, and prepared himself for school teaching. For 
many years he filled the office of county treasurer and is one 
of the county's honored citizens. Andrew Hedick is likewise 
the survivor of the usually mortal wound of a musket ball 
passing entirely through his body, as are also Abel Seagle and 
David Keever. 

David Schenck, grandson of Michael Sehenck, was a 
gi-eat advocate and lawyer, a judge of the Superior Court and 
historian. He removed to Greensboro in 1882 and has a 
monument in the Guilford Battle-gi'ound. 

John F. Hoke, son of Col. John Hoke, won a captain's 
commission in the Mexican War, and commanded his com- 
pany with gallantry in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Tolema 
and JSTational Bridge. He was adjutant-general in j^orth 
Carolina, and colonel in the Civil War. He was an able law- 
yer and often the representative of Lincoln County in the 
General Assembly. His son, William A. Hoke, as citizen, 
lawyer, legislator, judge of the Superior Courts, and now 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, occupies a large 
space in public esteem. 

Michael Hoke, son of Col. John Hoke, was an eminent 
lawyer and an accomplished orator, whose brilliant career 
added luster to his county and Commonwealth. The cam- 
paign of 1844 justly ranks among the famous in the history 
of the State. There were many causes contributing to its 
intensity. It was a presidential election. Henry Clay, the 
Whig nominee, a matchless orator and the idol of his party, 
made a speech in Ealeigh on the 12th day of June of that 
year. James K. Polk, of Tennessee, a native of Mecklen- 
burg and gTaduate of our State University, was the nominee 
of the Democrats, and his party hoped to carry the State. 



172 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

The Eepiiblic of Texas was seeking annexation to the United 
States, and this was a burning issue. Each political party 
was on its mettle, and marshaling its forces for a battle royal. 
Standard bearers must be selected with care and the very 
best. Each party named a son of Lincoln County as its 
candidate for Governor, The Democrats nominated Michael 
Hoke, a gentleman of fine person, fine address, of long legis- 
lative exjjerience and high position at the bar, whose ease of 
manner and brilliancy of oratory won for him troops of 
friends. The Whigs were equallj^ fortunate in the selection 
of William A. Graham, a man of exalted character and 
ability ; and, like his competitor, the fairness of his conduct, 
his open, generous temper, and elevated mode of argument 
met the highest expectation of his most ardent admirers. 
Never in any campaign were two political antagonists more 
evenly matched. Both were in the prime of life. Hoke 
was only thirty-four, and Graham forty years of age. Both 
were strikingly handsome men, tall, well-formed and grace- 
ful, of polished manner and placid temper, pure of character 
and free from guile. While possessing all these amiable 
qualities when it came to the advocacy of the principles of 
their respective parties, or assaulting those of the other, they 
exhibited the courage of a Washington and the aggressiveness 
of a Jackson. The dignified and majestic presence of Gra- 
ham was formidably rivaled by the matchless manner and 
ready humor of Hoke. Their joint canvass was a battle of 
giants. Graham was elected Governor, Clay carried the 
State and Polk was elected President. Hoke scarce sur- 
vived the campaigTi. He died September 9, 1844, at the 
youthful age of 34 years, 4 months and 7 days. 

Among the record of baptisms at Daniel's is this, "George 
Kuhn, und desen frau ihr sohn George Gebohren den 31 ten 
December, 1809, Taufzeugen sind Johnannes Rudisill und 
desen frau," which being translated reads, "George Coon and 



THE HISTORY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 173 

his wife, their son George was born the 31st December, 1809, 
sponsors John Endisill ard his wife." The infant George 
grew into a man full of years and honor. An old French- 
man in Lincolnton, Lorenzo Ferrer, often bought farm prod- 
ucts from Mr. Coon, and so admired his perfect integTitj, 
and "full measure of potatoes," that one of his bequests was : 
"I will and bestow to honest George Koon one hundred dol- 
lars." 

Lorenzo Ferrer, having been introduced, shall have place in 
this history. He was a native of Lyons, France, but spent 
his long life from early manhood in Lincolnton. He died 
August 16th, 1875, aged ninety-six years. He had his cof- 
fin made to order and gave directions concerning his grave. 
It is marked by a recumbent slab, supported on marble col- 
umns. The first paragraph of his will is in these words : 

"I, Lorenzo Ferrer, here write my last will and testament 
whilst I am in possession of my faculties, as I have shortly to 
appear at the tribunal of St. Peter at the gate of eternity; 
when St. Peter is to pronounce according to my merits or 
demerits : for our Lord Jesus Christ entrusted the key of 
Heaven to St. Peter and enjoined him to admit the deserving 
to enter into Heaven and enjoy an eternal happiness, but to 
condemn the undeserving defrauders to the everlasting sul- 
phurious flames in the Devil's abode. Therefore, I am en- 
deavoring to comfort myself in such a manner in order to 
merit an eternal happiness in the presence of God, and his 
angels, and in company with St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Titus 
and the other saints. For I am anxious to converse with 
those happy martyred saints and rejoice with them at the 
firmness, patience, and willingness they endured at their 
martyrdom for the sake of our Lord Jesus Christ. I am 
also in hope to see and embrace my kind friends Michael 
Hoke, William Lander, and other good and honest friends 
with whom I hope to enjoy an eternal felicity," etc. 
5 



174 THE ]SrORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Adam Sj)rings approached the dark river with no such 
beatific vision. In the confident possession of a sound mind 
and good judgment he likewise wrote his own will, the first 
part of which follows: "ISTorth Carolina, Lincoln County, — 
Know all men by these presents, that I, Adam A. Springs, 
believing himself of sufficient judgment of mind do now set 
about making my will in hopes that my surviving fellow- 
citizens will aid me in the disposal of my wish. If it should 
lack form, I call upon our Constitution. Then I ordain this 
my last will and testament as follows: As to my soul or 
finer part, whatever it may be, I surrender it to its author 
without any impertinent and intrusive requests against the 
immutable laws of Deity. In the first place, I will to be 
buried alongside of James Henderson on the hill on the east 
of the shoals formerly called Henderson's Shoals," etc. 

Mr. Springs was one of the first students at the State Uni- 
versity, a graduate in the Class of 1798, a large real estate 
owner, including among his possession the Henderson Shoals 
on the South I'ork, afterwards known as the Spring Shoals, 
now McAdensville, where his dust reposes beside James 
Henderson. The paper-writing was propounded for pro- 
bate, a caveat entered, the issue, devisavit vel 7ion, submitted, 
the will established, and executed by his surviving fellow- 
citizens according to the true intent and meaning thereof. 

A will of marked conciseness and brevity, and the shortest 
in the county is that of the late Y. A. McBee. Mr. McBee 

was a University graduate, lawyer, three times clerk of the 
Superior Court, and left a considerable estate in North and 
South Carolina. His entire will with date and signature 
contains but twenty-three words : "I will all my estate, real 
and personal to my wife, Mary Elizabeth McBee, this 31st 
day of March, 1888. V. A. McBee." 

Bobert F. Hoke and Stephen D. Ramseur, twin soldiers 
of destiny, became distinguished Major-Generals in the 



THE HISTORY OF LIlSTCOLlSr COUNTY. 1Y5 

armies of the Confederacy. Their gallant deeds and noble 
services added luster to their home and country. The one 
survives, honored and loved; the soil of Virginia drank the 
precious blood of the other. 

The laudable principles, liberty of conscience, health of 
state, and purity of morals, the Dutch hold in sacred esteem ; 
the great virtues of the home and the common duties of the 
good citizens have ever charmed most their ambitions. Of 
persistent energy, high purpose, and sturdy inclination, they 
have made and are making indestructible footprints of nobly 
performed deeds in the varied sands of life that will remain 
a memorial to them for all time. 

THE CIVIL WAR. 

The men of Lincoln County bore an honorable part in the 
American Eevolution, and were in evidence in the second 
bout with the mother country ; they helped to win Texan inde- 
pendence and fought in the Mexican War ; at the outbreak of 
the great Civil War, they presented a solid front in defense of 
their Southland. 

Stephen D. Eamseur, a graduate of West Point, and a 
lieutenant in the United States Army, resigned his commis- 
sion, tendered his service to the Confederacy and was ap- 
pointed captain of artillery ; by promotion he passed through 
the grades to the rank of Major-General, and met the death of 
a hero at Cedar Creek, on the 19th of October, 1864. 

Alvin DeLane was a soldier in the United States ]!^avy, 
whose flag was endeared to him by many years service. 
When the war clouds gathered a decision was to be made. He 
hesitated not ; the battle-cry of the South expressed his senti- 
ment and his resolve : 

"In Dixie land I'll take my stand, 
And live and die for Dixie." 



1Y6 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET, 

In the darkness of the night he scaled the walls of Fort 
Sumter with a ladder, which served him many hours as a 
float on the briny deep, was rescued, became the hero of 
Charleston, and for the next four years a gallant Confederate. 

William S. Bynum, the soldier boy, September 25th, 1862, 
at the age of fourteen years, enlisted in Company K, 42d 
Kegiment, and was a gallant Confederate until the surrender. 

Lincoln County furnished the Confederacy eight full com- 
panies: (1) The Southern Stars, Company K, Bethel Regi- 
ment, William J. Hoke, Captain; (2) Company I, 11th Reg- 
iment, A. S. Haynes, Captain; (3) Company K, 23d Regi- 
ment, Robert D. Johnston, Captain; (4) Company E, 34th 
Regiment, John F. Hill, Captain; (5) Company K, 49th 
Regiment, Peter Z. Baxter, Captain; (6) Company G, 52d 
Regiment, Joseph B. Shelton, Captain; (7) Company H, 
52d Regiment, Eric Erson, Captain; (8) Company G, 57th 
Regiment, John F. Speck, Captain ; besides members of 
other companies. 

Many of the Bethel soldiers won commissions of honor. 
Capt. William J. Hoke became Colonel of the 38th Regi- 
ment ; Second Lieutenant Robert F. Hoke was promoted 
through the grades to the rank of Major-General; Eric Er- 
son was Lieutenant-Colonel of the 52d Regiment; William 
R. Edwards, Sidney Haynes, John F. Speck, Benjamin F. 
Grigg, Peter M. Mull, Lauson A. Dellinger, and James D. 
Wells won captains' commissions ; while David A. Coon, 
Ed. D. Sumner, W. A. Summerow, and George M. Hoke 
were first lieutenants, and Lemuel J. Hoyle, Charles Elmer, 
Josephus Houser and Oliver A. Ramsour, second lieutenants. 

John F. Hoke was Brigadier-General and Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the State. Through him the volunteer regiments 
were organized. He was the first Colonel of the 23d Regi- 
ment, and at the surrender was Colonel of the 73d Regiment. 



THE HISTORY OF LljSrCOLN COTJISTTT. 177 

William Preston Bynnm entered the service as first lieu- 
tenant of the Beattie's Ford Eifles ; this company was mus- 
tered in as Company K, 23d Eegiment; he was promoted 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and Colonel of the 2d Regiment. 

Robert D. Johnston, second lieutenant of the Beattie's 
Ford Rifles, rose by promotion for gallantry to the rank of 
brigadier-general. He was wounded at Seven Pines, Gettys- 
burg and on the Catawba River. 

Other commissioned ofiicers: Colonel — Samuel D. Lowe. 
Lieutenant-Colonels — Hiram W. Abernethy and Charles J. 
Hammarskold. Majors— Sidney M. Finger and William 
A. Graham. Captains — James T. Adams, Phillip W. Car- 
penter, A. H. Houston, G. W. Hunter, James F. Johnston, 
William H. Johnston, Joseph F. Johnston, James M. Kin- 
caid, Milton Lowe, Joseph G. Morrison, George L. Phifer, 
Benjamin H. Sumner, Woodberry Wheeler, and C. C. Wren- 
shall. First Lieutenants — Peter S. Beal, John H. Boyd, 
John P. Cansler, William H. Hill, Wallace M. Reinhardt, 
Daniel Reinhardt, and Thomas L. Seagle. Second Lieu- 
tenants — Thomas Abernethy, William Arndt, William H. 
Hill, Wallace M. Reinhardt, Daniel Asbury, George W. 
Beam, Caleb Bisaner, John Caldwell, Eli Crowell, Henry 
Eaton, Henry FuUenwider, John F. Goodson, Emanuel 
Houser, Bruce Houston, Lee Johnston, Thomas Lindsey, 
William M. Monday, John Rendleman, Samuel Rendleman, 
David Rhodes, Alfred Robinson, Samuel Thompson, W. A. 
Thompson, Henry Wells and Rufus Warlick. Chaplains — 
Robert B. Anderson and Eugene W. Thompson. 

Summary — Two major-generals, one brigadier-general, 
four colonels, three lieutenant-colonels, two majors, two 
chaplains, twenty-eight captains, sixteen first lieutenants, 
thirty-three second lieutenants and 1,219 non-commissioned 
officers and privates, a gTand total of 1,311 Confederate 
soldiers. 



178 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Authorities: — Counties of North Carolina, by K. P. Battle; Gov- 
ernor William Tryon, by Marshall DeLancey Haywood; Colonial Rec- 
ords of North Carolina; State Records of North Carolina; Public Laws 
of North Carolina; Public Records of Tryon County, N. C. ; Public 
Records of Lincoln County, N. C; General Joseph Graham and His 
Revolutionary Papers, by W. A. Graham; History of North Carolina, 
by John H. Wheeler; Reminiscences and Memoirs, by John H. Wheeler; 
Sketches of Western North Carolina, by C. L. Hunter; Manuscript of 
Wallace M. Reinhardt; King's Mountain and Its Heroes, by L. C. 
Draper; Narratives of the Battle of King's Mountain, by David Vance 
and Robert Henry; North Carolina, 1780-81, by David Schenck; Ger- 
man Settlements in North and South Carolina, by G. D. Bernheim; 
History of the Reformed Church; South Fork Association, by W. A. 
Graham; The Broad Axe and the Forge, by Brevard McDowell; Old 
Lincoln Homes, by Brevard Nixon; Roster of Confederate Soldiers of 
Lincoln County, by A. Nixon. 



OUR STATE MOTTO AND ITS ORIGIN. 



BY CHIEF JUSTICE WALTER CLARK. 



The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the 
words "Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed 
that these words with the date "20 May, 1775," should be 
placed with onr Coat of Arms upon the great seal of the 
State. 

The words "Esse Qioam Yideri" mean "to he rather than to 
seem" and are a suitable recognition of the honest, sturdy, 
unpretending character of our people. Beside the motto of 
the Union, "E Pluribus Ununi," nearly every State has 
adopted a motto. With few exceptions these mottoes are in 
Latin. The reason for their being in Latin and not in Eng- 
lish is not far to seek. Owing to the Latin tongue expressing 
the different forms of the verb and of the noun by a mere 
change in termination, and not, as in English, by the addi- 
tion of particles and prepositions, it is far more condensed 
and terse. The three words, "Esse Quam Videri" require 
the use of at least six English words to express the same 
idea. For this reason mottoes are most usually in Latin. 

Cu.riosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State 
motto. It is found in Cicero in his Essay on Friendship 
(Cicero de Amicitia, chap. 26) though it is not there used in 
the same sense now ordinarily attached to it. He says, 
"Virtute enim ipsa non tarn multi prediti esse quam videri/' 
i. e. "Virtue is a quality which not so many desire to possess 
as desire to seem to possess," or, translated literally, "For 
indeed not so many wish to he endowed with virtue as wish to 
seem to he." 

But in reality the phrase can be traced much farther back. 
It was used by the Greek poet Eschylus in the famous tragedy 



180 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

"The Seven against Thebes." In line 592 of that play, it is 
said (not nsing the Greek letters for want of proper type) 
"ou gar dokein aristos, alV einai ihelei." Truly this is the 
identical sentiment of "Esse Quam Videri." Plutarch, in 
his Life of Aristides, chap. 3, says that when this line was 
pronounced in the theater all eyes were turned upon Aristides 
"the Just," who was present. 

Socrates expressed nearly the same idea in his Apologia, 
36 E, where he says that the victor of Olympia "makes you 
seem to be happy, but I make you so." 

The phrase is a striking one and Cicero's version of it has 
been caught up and often used as a motto. In that best col- 
lection of mottoes extant, the "Coats of Arms of the British 
Peerage" no less than three noble houses have adopted it, to 
wit : the Earl of Winterton, Earl Brownlow and Lord Lur- 
gan. 

It has been adopted by many associations, especially lit- 
erary societies. In this State it is the motto of Wilson Col- 
legiate Institute and, with some modifications, of one of the 
societies at Wake Forest College. 

The sentiment and its expression are good enough. It is 
appropriate to ISTorth Carolina, and her sons will make it 
memorable and distinguished. Among our sister States it 
can proudly take its place between the "Sic Semper Tyranr 
nis" of Virginia and the "Animis, Opihusque Parati" of 
South Carolina. 

The figures on our State Coat of Arms are Liberty and 
Plenty. It has been objected that the motto has no refer- 
ence or application to the figures on the Coat of Arms. It is 
very rarely that such is the case. The national motto, "E 
Plurihus Unum/^ has no reference to the Eagle and Shield 
and the Thunderbolts on the national Coat of Arms. Il^or has 
the "Excelsior" of New York, the "Dirigo" of Maine, the 
"Qui Transtvlet, Sustinet" of Connecticut any application 



OUR STATE MOTTO AND ITS ORIGIN. 181 

to the figures above them. Indeed Virginia's ''Sic Semper 
Tyrannis" is one of the very fev^ instances in which the motto 
hears snch reference. But, in fact, is our motto so entirely 
without reference to the Coat of Arms as is usually the case ? 
The figures are, as just stated, Liberty and Plenty. Is it in- 
appropriate to say we prefer to he free and prosperous than 
seem to he so ? There have been States that had all the ap- 
pearance of liberty and prosperity, when in truth having lost 
the reality of both, they were tottering to their fall. 

Indeed, as the learned and accomplished president of one 
of our State colleges has observed, "The motto has a deep 
philosophical meanii]g; one might evolve a whole system of 
metaphysics from the two basal ideas in it, that of being 
{esse) and that of phenomenality {vlderi) on which two 
poles the whole of modern theories of knowledge have hung." 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the sover- 
eign State of Korth Carolina had no motto since its declara- 
tion of independence. It was one of the very few States 
which did not have a motto, and the only one of the original 
thirteen without it. It is very appropriate too that simul- 
taneously with the adoption of the State motto, there was also 
placed on the State Seal and Coat of Arms, the date of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence — the earliest of 
all American Declarations — the ever-memorable 20 May, 
1775. 

It may be noted that up to the time it became a "sovereign 
and independent State" the Colony or Province of ISTorth 
Carolina bore on its great seal ''Quae sera tamen respexit." 
This was taken from the first Eclogue of Virgil (line 27) and, 
referring to the figure of Liberty, meant "Which, tho late, 
looked upon me" — the full line in Virgil being "Liberty, 
which tho late looked upon me indolent." ISTo wonder that this 
was dropped by the new State. jSTothing could possibly have 



182 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

been more inappropriate. Liberty came not to her late, but 
the first of all the American States. And it came not to a 
people inert or nnseeking her rewards. To such, liberty 
never comes. But she came to l^orth Carolina, to a people 
energetic, earnest, devoted, seeking her smiles as a lover 
wooing a beauteous maiden, and in the pursuit tireless, as a 
sleuth hound seeking its quarry. Here first she came. As 
Burns said of Summer, on the banks of bonnie Doon, Liberty 

"Here first unfolds her robe, 
And here may she longest tarry." 

It may be mentioned, to prevent any misunderstanding as 
to the scope of the Act of 1893 (now Revisal, sec. 5320) that 
it does not apply to County Seals. Each county is author- 
ized to adopt its own seal, Eevisal, sec. 1318 (24). Many 
counties now have on their county seals the appropriate 
phrase, ''Leges Juraque Yindicamus." Some have adopted 
the State motto. But this is a matter left to the discretion 
of the county commissioners in each county. 

It might be well to go further and, following the example 
of many States, adopt a State tree and flower. As appropri- 
ate to our State the writer, with diffidence, suggests the 
adoption of the White Oalc as emblematic of the sturdy vigor 
of the manhood of J^orth Carolina and the Violet as typical 
of the beauty, modesty and sweetness of its women. 

Note by the Editors. — The bill which was passed in 1893 to adopt 
our State motto was introduced by Senator Jacob Battle, of Nash, 
afterwards Judge of the Superior Court. We have before us a letter 
from him in which he states that the motto was selected by Judge — 
since Chief Justice — Walter Clark, who also drew the bill and requested 
him to present it. He adds that the words "20 May, 1775," secured the 
heartj^ cooperation of Senator Brevard McDowell, of Mecklenburg, and 
by their joint efforts the bill passed by the unanimous vote of both 
hovises of the General Assembly and without amendment. 



THE WORK DONE BY THE D. R. IN PASQUO= 
TANK COUNTY. 



The Sir Walter Ealeigh Chapter of the Daughters of the 
Revolution was organized in Elizabeth City a little over two 
years ago. Since then the members of the Chapter have been 
working quietly, and faithfully, studying the Colonial and 
Revolutionary history of the Albemarle section and locating 
points of historic interest in this and adjoining counties, 
with the purpose of some day having their sites marked with 
suitable tablets. 

Pasquotank County is rich in such landmarks. E'ear 
ISTixonton at Hall's Creek Church, there still stands the stump 
of an old oak, under whose branches there met on February 
6, 1666, 244 years ago, the first law-making assembly ever 
convened in our State. At this spot the Daughters of the 
Revolution hope to place a handsome gTanite tablet, com- 
memorating the event, early in the spring. 

Through the efforts of the Chapter the following interest- 
ing places have been located, and with the help of the patri- 
otic citizens of Pasquotank County the ladies hope to pre- 
serve these landmarks from oblivion. 

The first school in the State was in Pasquotank County, 
near Salem. This school was taught by Mr. C. Griffin in 
1705. The first house of worship, a Quaker meeting house, 
was built in Pasquotank on Symond's Creek in 1706. 

The first court held in the State was held under an old 
tree, which is standing near Flatty Creek. Winslow's farm, 
called in Colonial days Winfield or Enfield, was the scene of 
the historic "Culpepper's Rebellion," and in one of the rooms 
still in good condition, Governor Miller was confined by the 
brave revolutionists. 

On the banks of the Pasquotank at Brick House Point, 
stood Elmwood, the old Swann home, in which, as our Sec- 
retary of State, Hon. Bryan Grimes, stated in his speech 



184 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

before the State Literary and Historical Association last 
year, more distingnished men lived than ever occupied 
one residence in JSForth Carolina. At Elmwood lived and 
with it were identified two speakers of the Assembly, five 
Congi-essmen, one United States Senator, a candidate for 
Governor, and a President of the University. Farther up 
the river is another old brick house reported to have been 
one of the homes of Teach, the pirate. Pasquotank County 
furnished two regiments to the Revolutionary army and two 
of its bravest generals, Gen. Isaac Gregory and Gen. Peter 
Doughe. The former was distinguished by his brave stand 
at the disastrous battle of Camden and later, at the close of 
the war, drove the Tories out of the State. Gen. Peter 
Doughe distinguished himself and did his country noble 
service at the battle of Great Bridge in Virginia. The 
graves of these two heroes have been located, as has also been 
the resting place of John Harvey, "The Father of the Revolu- 
tion," and over these now unmarked graves the Daughters 
of the Revolution have determined to place suitable stones. 

Through the instrumentality of this patriotic organiza- 
tion a ISTorth Carolina History Society of twenty members 
has been organized among the ladies of the town, and this 
society has agTeed to cooperate with the Chapter in its work 
of preserving our landmarks. The Chapter has also organ- 
ized among the children of the Primary, Grammar and High 
Schools a Carolina Memorial Association, the members of 
which have agreed to contribute a small sum each year to be 
used in placing these tablets at suitable spots throughout the 
county. The Regent of the Chapter hopes to interest the 
teachers in the county schools in this work also, and to have 
all the school children in Pasquotank help in this patriotic 
task. The Chapter numbers only eight members so far, 
but hopes to add more names to its roll before the close of 
the year 1909. C. F. S. A. 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL 
MEMORANDA. 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



ALFRED NIXON. 

Alfred Nixon, the author of the "Sketch of Lincoln 
County, jSTorth Carolina, is the son of Kobert i^ixon and 
Millie (Womack) iSTixon. He was born at his father's 
farm on the 28th day of May, 1856. He is of Scotch-Irish 
and German descent ; was reared on his father's farm in Lin- 
coln County. His earliest education was acquired in the 
public schools ; attended Rock Spring Seminary and prepared 
for the University of ISTorth Carolina, where he graduated 
in the class of 1881. After returning to his county he filled 
many important positions — county surveyor, sheriff, super- 
intendent of public instruction, and at the present writing is 
clerk of the Superior Court of Lincoln County. Living in 
an old historic county, a student of history by taste and cul- 
tivation, these 230sitions have afforded him extensive opportu- 
nities, not only for acquaintance with the people of every 
part of the county but with its past. The following esti- 
mate of Mr. ISTixon is given by a j^i'ominent judge of his 
county : "Some time after leaving the University he served 
as sheriff of his county, to which he was elected several terms, 
and no doubt could have continued to hold it if he had so de- 
sired. He made a most excellent ofl&cer, kindly in manner, 
merciful in disposition, but throughout firm and efficient. 
He was elected clerk of the Superior Court and has been con- 
tinued in that office, and has filled this important place most 
acceptably, showing good judgment, diligence and capacity. 
As a man and citizen he holds and deserves to hold the esteem 
and confidence of all of his neighbors and fellow-citizens." 



186 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

GENEALOGY. 

Alfred ISTixon, son of Eobert JSTixon and Millie (Womack) 
I*Tixon. Grandson of Robert Nixon and Catherin© (Lnckey) 
J^ixon. Catherine Luckey was the daughter of Robert 
Luckey and Dorcas (Armstrong) Luckey. He is the great- 
grandson of William ISTixon and Elizabeth (Black) ISTixon. 
William l^ixon came to Lincoln County from Charlotte 
County, Va., in 1780. His ancestors came from Ireland to 
ISTew Jersey and from thence to Virginia ; descendants of an 
old English family whose history runs back to the thirteenth 
century. An early member of which was Sir William ISTyk- 
son, who was granted a coat of arms in 1416. 

Womack: Millie (Womack) ISTixon, the mother of Alfred 
ISTixon, was the daughter of Archibald Womack and Sallie 
(Huger) Womack, who emigrated from near Richmond, Va., 
and from where he inherited valuable property. 

Huge7\- Sallie (Huger) Womack, the grandmother of 
Alfred ]!^ixon was the daughter of John Huger and Sallie 
(Stacey) Huger. The Hugers came to Lincoln County 
prior to and during the American Revolution ; are of Hugue- 
not descent, a noble sect of whom Mr. Winthrop said "has 
furnished to our land blood every way worthy of being 
mingled with the best that ever flowed in the veins of either 
Southern Cavaliers or Northern Puritans." 

Mxon, Womack, Luckey, Armstrong and Black came to 
Lincoln County from Virginia soon after the Revolutionary 
War, and many of their descendants reside in this and other 
States. 



WALTER CLARK. 



Walter Clark, the distinguished Chief Justice of the State, 
the author of the article on the "Grreat Seal of North Caro- 



BIOGRAPHICAL, AND GENEALOGICAL. 187 

lina," was born in Halifax County, ISForth Carolina, on Au- 
gust 19, 1846, and since 1873 lias been a resident of Kaleigh, 
]Sr. C. The first of the name Colin Clark came to JSTorth 
Carolina from Fifeshire, Scotland. His son, David Clark, 
was a prominent man of Halifax County ; one of the 
board of internal improvements, one of the originators and a 
director of the Roanoke ISTavigation Company, which was 
such an important factor in the trade of Roanoke River be- 
fore the era of railroads. He had a son named for himself, 
David Clark, who was the father of the subject of this sketch. 
David Clark, though a man of fine education, entered neither 
professional nor public life. He was one of the wealthiest 
planters on the Roanoke, a man of wide reading, and with 
a great landed interest ; he found ample occupation in super- 
intending his estates and among the books in his large private 
library. During the war between the States he was commis- 
sioned by the State of jSTorth Carolina as a brigadier-general, 
and in January, 1862, was assigned to the command of the 
defenses of Roanoke River. Other important military ap- 
pointments were assigned him on account of his capabilities, 
his superior intelligence and his influence over the militia- 
men of that section. General David Clark married Miss 
Anna M. Thome, of Halifax County, who became the mother 
of the subject of this sketch, and through the Thornes Judge 
Clark is connected with the well-known families of Hilliard, 
Davis, Alston and Williams, and through the Thornes is also 
related to General Warren, the distinguished corps com- 
mander of the United States Army. Through the Clarks, 
Judge Clark is descended from the Blounts, Grays, IsTor- 
fleets, McKenzies and other prominent families of northeast- 
ern North Carolina, and the Bryans of Southampton, Va. ; 
the same family as that from whom William Jennings Bryan 
is descended. 



188 ■ THE NOKTH CAHOLIKA BOOKLET. 

Through the Williams Judge Clark is descended from 
Gilbert Johnston, a brother of Governor Gabriel Johnston. 

At an early age Walter Clark became a student, first, under 
Prof. Ralph H. Graves, in Granville County, and in 1860 at 
Colonel Tew's Military Academy near Hillsboro, E". C. In 
the spring of 1861, before he not yet fifteen years of age, being 
proficient in the drill, he was among the cadets of that insti- 
tution who, on recommendation of its ofiicers, were appointed 
by the governor to drill the troops assembled at Camp Ellis 
near Ealeigh. Upon the organization of the Twenty-second 
ISTorth Carolina Regiment in July, he was assigned to duty 
as drill-master for that regiment, commanded by Col. J. 
Johnston Pettigrew, and proceeded with it to Virginia. He 
continued to act in that capacity in its camp at Evansport^ 
on the Potomac, until J^ovember, when he returned to Camp 
Mangum, at Raleigh, where the Thirty-fifth iSTorth Carolina 
was being organized. In February, 1862, resigning, he re- 
turned to the military academy and resumed his studies. On 
August 1, 1862, he was appointed, upon the solicitation of its 
ofiicers, who had known him at the camp of instruction, first 
lieutenant and adjutant of the Thirty-fifth IS^orth Carolina, 
of which Matthew W. Ransom had then become the colonel, 
and joining his regiment he participated in the first Mary- 
land and Fredericksburg campaigns, and was wounded at 
Sharpsburg (Antietam). In the latter battle his brigade held 
Marye's Heights and drove back, among others, Meagher's 
Irish brigade. 

Being then just sixteen years of age and rather small, in 
spite of this he performed his duties with great acceptability, 
and became a general favorite, enjoying the esteem and re- 
spect of both ofiicers and men. He behaved in the battle of 
Fredericksburg with coolness and distinguished intrepidity. 

In February, 1863, the regiment having returned to ISTorth 
Carolina to recruit, there seeming to be no early prospect of 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL. 189 

further active service, Adjutant Clark resigned with the pur- 
pose of completing his education, and entered as a student at 
Chapel Hill, where he gi-aduated with first distinction on 
June 2, 1864. The day after he gTaduated he was elected 
major of the Sixth Battalion of Junior Reserves, then or- 
ganized for active service by Lieutenant-General Holmes, 
and under his command the battalion did service at Golds- 
boro, Weldon and at Gaston, protecting the railroad bridge 
from a threatened cavalry raid. 

On July 4th his battalion and the First were consolidated 
into a regiment that became the Seventieth ISTorth Carolina 
Regiment of State troops, and in the election of officers Major 
Clark was elected lieutenant-colonel, 

Lieutenant-Colonel Clark was then seventeen years of age, 
and the youngest officer of his rank in either army. At the 
request of his colonel later he relinquished this position tem- 
porarily (which eventually failed of its purpose) and he was 
elected major, in which position he contined to serve during 
the remainder of the war. In October this regiment was 
ordered to Boykin's Depot, Va., and to the defense of Ply- 
mouth, and to Hamilton to guard the approaches to Martin, 
Edgecombe and Pitt counties whence large supplies were 
drawn for the support of Lee's army. 

Early in IsTovember he with four companies were dis- 
patched to Williamston where Major Clark took command of 
the post, embracing cavalry and infantry as well as artillery. 
For one so young this was an important command, but Major 
Clark bore himself so well as to justify the confidence re- 
posed in him at that time. Captain Moore, speaking of him 
at that time, says, "he had the bearing and command of a 
born soldier and displayed the executive talent which he has 
since shovsm." 

On Dec. 25, 1864, the regiment was at the repulse of the 



190 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

gunboats at Poplar Point and in other minor encounters. 
About the middle of Feb., 1865, it was ordered to 
Kinston, IST. C, where it engaged in battle on March Sth and 
from thence to Smithfield, IST. C, to join General Johnston^ 
and from thence to Bentonsville where it engaged the ad- 
vance corps of Sherman's armj, which was held in check 
three days — the 19th, 20th and 21st of March — during 
which time the skirmish line of Major Clark gallantly held 
its position the entire period. 'No brigade made a finer ap- 
pearance on that field than the Junior Reserves, and it bore 
itself with such bravery as to win the highest encomiums 
from General Hoke and all the veterans on that field of battle. 

While Sherman v/as resting at Goldsboro, General John- 
ston remained at Smithfield, but on April 10th began to re- 
tire before Sherman's advancing army. On the 12th the 
Seventieth Regiment passed through Raleigh and then to 
High Point in Randolph County where, on the afternoon of 
May 2d, Major Clark, with his associates in arm.s, were 
paroled ; and then they dispersed to their respective homes. 

As soon as order was restored, Major Clark, who had 
studied law under Judge William H. Battle, while a student 
at the University, becam.e a student in a law office in Wall 
street, New York. Later, completing his course at the Co- 
lumbian Law School in Washington, D. C, he obtained 
license to practice in January, 1867. He located at Scot- 
land !N"eck, but subsequently removed to Llalifax, where he 
entered into partnership with Hon. J. M. Mullen, and soon 
established a lucrative business. He removed to Raleigh in 
1873, where larger opportunities would be opened to him pro- 
fessionally, and became one of the leading influences in the 
Democratic party. 

In April, 1885, was appointed by Governor Scales judge 
of the Superior Court for the metropolitan district and was 
elected by the people to succeed himself the next year. 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAI^ 191 

In ^NTovember, 1889, he was transferred to the Supreme 
Court bench and subsequently elected to that position in 1890. 
Tn 1896, while still on the Supreme Court bench, he was 
virtually tendered the nomination of governor, but did not 
accept it, preferring at that time to remain on the bench. 

In 1896 his name was presented by the North Carolina 
delegation to the National Democratic Convention for the 
vice-presidency. In 1902 he was nominated for the office of 
chief justice and was elected to that position. His opinions 
to date appear in forty-eight volumes of North Carolina Su- 
preme Court Reports, beginning with 104 N. C. 

Judge Clark is an indefatigable worker, and his contribu- 
tions to literature have been numerous and notable. Be- 
sides the preparation of his judicial opinions he has anno- 
tated and edited one hundred and fifteen volumes North 
Carolina Supreme Court Reports, He is the author of 
numerous other works of national importance. Many of his 
articles are of historical character, relating to espisodes in 
North Carolina history; his chief work in this line has been 
the preparation of the "State Records," a continuation of the 
valuable publication begun by Col. Wm. L. Saunders, the 
"Colonial Records," running through sixteen quarto vol- 
umes, which entailed on him vast labor and is of the highest 
historical value. Another great work of still higher interest 
is that known as the "Regimental Histories" embraced in 
five volumes, in which is preserved the record of each North 
Carolina regiment, battalion and division during the war 
between the States. To Judge Clark is due the conception 
as well as the compilation of this memorial of the courage 
and patriotic service of the soldiers of North Carolina in that 
great war. The method employed in executing the design is 
admirable, recording the story of each organization, while the 
articles prepared by some competent member of each regiment 
are themselves of unusual merit. In accomplishing the pub- 



192 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

lication of these two great works of the State, Judge Clark 
has rendered a most important service to the State and to 
posterity. Both of these works have been executed by him 
as a labor of love without any pecuniary compensation what- 
ever. 

During his whole career he has been astute to place the 
State on a high plane and promote such action as would re- 
duund to the credit of l^orth Carolina. Indeed there has 
been no man of more versatile gifts and unremitting labor 
than Judge Clark, nor has any other of North Carolina's 
sons done more to preserve the memorials of her people and 
to peipetuate a remembrance of the glorious deeds that have 
''adorned them by his learning, virtues and character." 

In all the positions which have been tendered him he has 
adorned them by his learning, virtues and character. 

On January 28, 1874, he had the good fortune to marry 
Miss Susan Washington Graham, the only daughter of Hon. 
William A. Graham, of Hillsboro, N. C, and they have reared 
a most interesting family of five sons and two daughters. 
His family is as follows : Mrs. J. Ernest Erwin, of Morgan- 
ton ; Capt. David Clark, of Charlotte ; W. A. Graham Clark, 
special agent of the Department of Commerce and Labor of 
the United States government ; Walter Clark, Jr., City Attor- 
ney of Ealeigh; John W. Clark, of Concord; Thome M. 
Clark, of Halifax County, and Eugenea G. Clark. 

To the N^ORTH Carolina Booklet Judge Clark has been 
an unfailing friend, not only by his contributed articles of 
historic value but by his continued interest in this work un- 
dertaken by the "North Carolina Society of the Daughters of 
the Revolution." He contributed an article on the "Indian 
Massacre and Tuscarora War" in No. 3 of Vol. II. "Colony 
of Transylvania," No. 9, of Vol. III. "Expedition to Car- 
tagena in 1740," No. 6, Vol. IV, and the "History of State 
Seal," in this number, Vol. IX, No. 3, Jan., 1910. 



BIOGRAPHICAL AISTD GENEALOGICAL. 193 

The writer is indebted to Capt. Samuel A. Ashe for the 
facts of the above sketch, taken from his article on Judge 
Clark in Vol. VII of the ' 'Biographical History of ISTorth 
Carolina" (1908). There is no doubt of the authenticity of 
these facts since they were obtained from Captain Samuel 
A'Court Ashe, a "citizen" of commanding individuality and 
one of the best equipped editors and historians of the South 
in the last thirty-five vears. 



WILLS FROM THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 
OF STATE, RALEIGH, N. C. 



Will of John Clarkj of Perquimans. Wife Anne, sons 
Jolin and Thomas ; in case of their death property to go to 
Simos and Thomas Trumbell. Sarah Trumbell. Sept. 6th, 
1716; Nov. 14, 1717. 



Richard Evans, of Perquimans ; Sept. 7th, 1692 ; Oct, 2, 
1693. Wife Elizabeth, four children, Jonathan, Richard, 
Rebecca and Ann Evans. Wife and Alexander Lillington, 
Exrs. 



Will of John Fendall, of Perquimans; Dec. 17, 1695, 
April 8th, 1696. Brother Robert Fendall, wife Elizabeth, 
father-in-law Alex. Lillington. 



Robert Fendall. Nov. 30, 1711; Isaac Wilson; Thomas 
Levy Exor. 



George Fort, May 15, 1719 ; prob. October 20, 1719. Son 
Eli as Fort, son George Fort, sons John and Samuel Fort ; 
daughter Phillis Fibath, daughter Catherine Fort. Wife 
Elizabeth ; Elias Fort Exr. 



John Fort, AugTist 6, 1745 ; March Court, 1745-6. Sons 
John and Moses, daughter Ternshaw's son, Denby, Arthur 
Fort. 



John Gorbe, I7th, 6th mo., 1693. Wife, son John, daugh- 
ter Sarah; cousins Samuel and Joseph Nicholson Exrs. 
Test. Rich'd. Dorman. 



WILLS FROM SECRETARY STATE. 195 

Adam Gambell, of Grlasgow, Scotland. Nov. 14tli, 1694. 
John Land living in London ; Adam Hill in London ; John 
Argy in France; Robert, Thomas and John West, sons-in- 
law of Thomas Pollock; John Hunt, brother James Gambell 
of Glasgow. Thomas Pollock and John Hunt Exrs. Test. 
Henel Gregory, Elizabeth Hunt, W. Lynch. 



Will of Joshua Grainger of Wilmington, June 1741 ; wife 
Elizabeth, daughter Ann, son Joshua, grandson Wilmington, 
son of Joshua ; son Caleb. 



Caleb Grainger, I^ew Hanover; October 5, 1765, (main 
body of will dated 1763), probated October 31st, 1765. Wife 
Mary, daughter Mary Grainger, son Caleb, son Cornelius 
Harnett Grainger, son William, child in esse, Maurice 
Moore, Cornelius Harnett, Samuel Ashe, Alexander Dun- 
can, Exrs. Test. Mary Granger, Margaret Douglass, Ed- 
ward Trogerin, Samuel Gidden, Anthony Ward, Joseph 
Stockley. 



John Hill, of Bath; March 27, 1731. Sons Joshua and 
John ; friend Thomas Tison, my children. Wife and Ed- 
ward Peads Exrs. Test. Thomas Tison, Harmon Hill, 
William ITicholls. 



John Hill, IsTorthampton, June 15, 1747. Sons I^^athaniel, 
.Daniel Lewis and Peter. Sons ISFathaniel and Daniel Exrs. 
Test. William Floaryday, Hosea Tapsley. 



William Hill, Chowan, 10th, 1st mo., 1750-51. Grand- 
son Aaron, son of Moses Hill ; my father-in-law, Thomas 
Spivey; son Moses, grandson Robert Hill, son of Aaron, 
daughter Rachel Hill, son William, daughter Sarah Barrow, 
wife of Joseph; wife Mary, daughter Mary IsTicholson, daugh- 



196 NOKTPI CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

ters Susannah White, Leah Moore, and Ruth Davis. Son 
Aaron and son-in-law Thomas ISTicholson Exrs. Test. James 
Griffin, Jethro Rabej, Ann Peters. 



Harman Hill, Beaufort, Dec. 4, 1752 ; Mch. Court, 1Y55. 
Wife Sarah, son Harman, daughter Elizabeth Hancock, her 
children James and William; Sarah Eice, daughter Ann 
Slade, her husband Joseph Slade, daughters Mary Smit and 
Eachel Hill. Wife, Joseph Slade and John Barrow Exrs. 
Test. Edmund Pierce, Griffith Howell, Joshua Pierce. 

(Signed) Mrs. Heleist deB. Wills. 



Edwards & Broughton Printing Company, Raleign, N. 0. 



INFORMATION 

Concerning' the Patriotic Society 

''Daughters of the Revolution*' 



The General Society was founded October 11, 1890, — and organized 
August 20, 1891, — under the name of "Daughters of the American 
Revolution" ; was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York 
as an organization national in its work and purpose. Some of the mem- 
bers of this organization becoming dissatisfied with the terms of en- 
trance, withdrew from it and, in 1891, formed under the slightly differ- 
ing name "Daughters of the Revolution," eligibility to which from the 
moment of its existence has been lineal descent from an ancestor who 
rendered patriotic service during the War of Independence. 



**^e North Carolina Society" 

a subdivision of the General Society, was organized in October, 1896, 
and has continued to promote the purposes of its institution and to 
observe the Constitution and By-Laws. 



Membership and Qualifications 

Any woman shall be eligible who is above the age of eighteen years, 
of good character, and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who (1) was 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, Legislature or General Court, of any of the Colonies 
or States; or (2) rendered civil, military or naval service under the 
authority of any of the thirteen Colonies, or of the Continental Con- 
gress; or (3) by service rendered during the War of the Revolution 
became liable to the penalty of treason against the government of Great 
Britain: Provided, that such ancestor always remained loyal to the 
cause of American Independence. 

The chief work of the North Carolina Society for the past eight years 
has been the publication of the "North Carolina Booklet," a quarterly 
publication on great events in North Carolina history — Colonial and 
Revolutionary. $1.00 per year. It will continue to extend its work and 
to spread the knowledge of its History and Biography in other States. 

This Society has its headquarters in Raleigh, N. C, Room 411, Caro- 
lina Trust Company Building, 232 Fayetteville Street. 



Some North Carolina Booklets for Sale 

Address, EDITOR, Raleigh, N. C. 



Vol. I 

'Greene's Eetreat," Dr. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vol. II 

'Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

'Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

'Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. Clewell. 

'Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

'The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

'Raleigh and the Old Town of Bloomsbury," Dr. K. P. Battle. 

'Historic Homes — Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hayes," Rodman, Blount, 

Dillard. 
'County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 
'Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 
'Last Days of the War," Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

'Trial of James Glasgow," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

'Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

'Historic Hillsboro," Mr. Francis Nash. 

'Colony of Transylvania," Judge Walter Clark. 

'Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL.D. 
'Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
'North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Mr. Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

'Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm. A. Graham. 

'Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

'Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

'North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 
and Joseph Hewes," by Mr. T. M. Pittman and Dr. E. Walter Sikes. 

'Expedition to Cartagena, 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 

'Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

'Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 

'Highland Scotch Settlement in N. C," Judge James C. McRae. 

'The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A, J. McKelway. 

■'Battle of Guilford Court-house and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 

■'Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 



Vol. v.— (Quarterly). 
No.1. 

"St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations," Richard 

Dillard, M.D. 
"N. C. Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II, 

William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

"History of the Capitol," Colonel Charles Earl Johnson. 

"Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

Grimes. 
"North Carolina's Poets," Eev. Hight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

"Cornelius Harnett," Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

"Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W. A. 

Graham. 
"Edward Moseley," by Dr. D. H. Hill. 

No. 4. 

"Governor Thomas Pollok," Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 
"Battle of Cowan's Ford," Major W. A. Graham. 

"First Settlers in North Carolina Not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rev. 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, D.D. 

Vol. VI-(Quarterly.) 
No. 1. 

"The Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina,' Richard Dillard, M.D. 

"History Involved in the Names of Counties and Towns in North Caro- 
lina," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

"A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear" (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), Hon. James Sprunt. 

"Biographical Sketches: Introduction; Maj. Graham Daves." By Mrs. 
E. E. Moffitt. 

October, No. 2. 

"The Borough Towns of North Carolina," Mr. Francis Nash. 

"Governor Thomas Burke," J. G. de Eoulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. 

"Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History," Col. Fred. 
A. Olds. 

"The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution and its 
Objects." 

"Biographical Sketches: Dr. Richard Dillard, Mr. Francis Nash, Dr. 
J. G. de R. Hamilton and Col. Fred A. Olds," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"State Library Building and Department of Archives and Records," 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 
"The Battle of Rockfish Creek, 1781," Mr. James Owen Carr. 
"Governor Jesse Franklin," Prof. J. T. Alderman. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown," Mrs. Lindsay 

Patterson, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

2 



"Biographical Sketches: Mrs. S. B. Kenneday, R. D. W. Connor, 
James Owen Carr and Prof. J. T. Alderman," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"Lock's Fundamental Constitution," Mr. Junius Davis. 

"The White Pictures," Mr. W. J. Peele. 

"North Carolina's Attitude Toward the Revolution," Mr. Robert Strong. 

Biographical Sketches: Richard Benbury Creecy, the D. R. Society 

and Its Objects, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Genealogical Sketches: Abstracts of Wills; Seolley, Sprott and Hunter, 

Mrs. Helen de B. Wells. 

Vol. VI!. (Quarterly.) 
July, No. 1. 

" North Carolina in the French and Indian War," Col. A. M. Waddell. 
" Locke's Fundamental Constitutions," Mr. Junius Davis. 
" Industrial Life in Colonial Carolina," Mr. Thomas M. Pittman. 
Address: "Our Dearest Neighbor — The Old North State," Hon. James 

Alston Cabell. 
Biographical Sketches: Col. A. M. Waddell, Junius Davis, Thomas M. 

Pittman, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt; Hon. Jas. Alston Cabell, by Mary 

Hilliard Hinton. 
Abstracts of Wills. Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

October, No. 2. 

"Ode to North Carolina," Miss Pattie Williams Gee. 

" The Finances of the North Carolina Colonists," Dr. Charles Lee 

Raper. 
" Joseph Gales, Editor," Mr. Willis G. Briggs. 
" Our First Constitution, 1776," Dr. E. W. Sikes. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition," Miss 

Mary Hilliard Hinton. 
Biographical Sketches: Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Dr. Charles Lee Raper, 

Willis Grandy Briggs, Pattie Williams Gee. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

" General Robert Howe," Hon. John D. Bellamy. 

" Early Relations of North Carolina and the West," Dr. William K. 
Boyd. 

" Incidents of the Early and Permanent Settlement of the Cape Fear," 
Mr. W. B. McKoy. 

Biographical Sketches: John Dillard Bellamy, William K. Boyd, Wil- 
liam B. McKoy. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"St. James's Churchyard" (Poem), Mrs. L. C. Markham. 

"The Expedition Against the Row Galley 'General Arnold' — A Side 

Light on Colonial Edenton," Rev. Robt. B. Drane, D.D. 
" The Quakers of Perquimans," Miss Julia S. White. 
" Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry," Judge James C. MacRae. 
Biographical Sketches: Mrs. L. C. Markham, Rev. R. B. Drane, Miss 

Julia S. White, Judge James C. MacRae. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



Vol. VIII.— (Quarteriy ) 
July, No. 1. 

"John Harvey," Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

"Military Organizations of North Carolina During the American Revo- 
lution," Clyde L. King, A.M. 

"A Sermon by Rev. George Micklejohn," edited by Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: R. D. W. Connor, Clyde L. 
King, Marshall DeLancey Haywood, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

"Abstracts of Wills," Mrs. Helen DeB. Wells. 
October, No. 2. 

"Convention of 1835," Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

"The Life and Services of Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner," Kemp 
P. Battle, LL.D. 

"The Significance of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," 
Prof. Bruce Craven. 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Judge Henry G. Connor, 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., Prof. Bruce Craven," by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," Mr. A. S. Salley, Jr. 

"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," Prof. Bruce Craven. 

"Mr. Salley's Reply." 

"Mr. Craven's Rejoinder." 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Prof. Bruce Craven, Mr. 

Alexander, S. Salley, Jr.," by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
"Patriotic Objects." 
"Information Concerning the Patriotic Society D. R." 

April, No. 4. 

"Unveiling Ceremonies." 

"Carolina," by Miss Bettie Freshwater Pool. 

"The Battle of King's Mountain," by Dr. William K. Boyd. 

"Schools and Education in Colonial Times," by Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

"North Carolina Heroines of the Revolution," by Richard Dillard, M.D. 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Bettie Freshwater Pool, Wil- 
liam K. Boyd, Charles Lee Smith, Richard Dillard," by Mrs. E. E. 
Moffitt. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



A QUARTERLY PUBLICATION ISSUED UNDER 
THE AUSPICES OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTiOr 



THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina History, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Ninth Volume begins in July, 1909. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
One Year, One Dollar; Single Copies, Thirty-five Cents. 



Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Editors, 
Raleigh, North Cai'olina. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-office as second class matter. 

Notice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is c'esired 

Send all orders for back numbers to Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 



Genealogical Department 

I^ORTH CflRoiiiNA Society 

DflDOHTERS OF THE REVOliUTIOfl 
YOUR ANCESTRY CAN BE CAREFULLY TRACED 

The Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, Pay-rolls of Revo- 
lutionary Soldiers filed in State Auditor's Office, County 
Records, Family Records, State Histories and 
Biographies will be diligently 
examined. 

Fee for Such Researches, S7.00 to SlO.OO, 

according to Difficulty of Research (not 

less than $7.00 paid with order). 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mrs. Helen DeBerniere Wills. 
Kindly remit by money order. (^Genealogist for N. C. D, R.) 

Raleigh, North Carolina. 

COAT S-OF-ARM S 

PAINTED 



Coats-of-Arms painted, decorated with helmet, lambrequin, etc., 

and enclosed in passe partout $12 00 

Same style and size, but unf ramed 10 00 

A painted Coat-of-Arms, without helmet lambrequin, etc., un- 

framed 5.00 

India Ink Drawing of Arms 5.00 

Searches for Coats-of-Arnn, including (if found) a small sketch 

of the arms - 8.00 

Arms burned on wood 5.00 

Book plat s designed. 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp. 

Miss Mary Hilliakd Hinton. 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 



The Science of Accounts 

SINGLE AND DOUBLE ENTRY 

Book-- keeping 

A TEXT BOOK FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

The Graded School Edition. 65 pages, 25 lessons; cloth. Price, 65 cents. Will be 
ready August 1st. 

The Hig-h School Edition. 130 pages, 50 lessons, and supplement; cloth bound. 
Price, $1.00, sent prepaid. This edition will be ready September 1st. 

A 32-pag-e Booklet with 10 Sample Lessons will be sent free to any subscriber 
to the N. C. Booklet who applies for it. 
Address 

GEORGE ALLEN^, Ealei&h, N. C. 



Smith's Old Book Store oooonNorthSinfand^s^^^ 

VJllULll CJ \7l\A. L^\j\Jii. W4.V/x^ ern history. 25 years in business. 

„,.,.,„ J TT < J T7 All kinds of books and relics 

Raleigh, N. C. and Richmond, ¥a. bought and sold. 



IF YOU WILL SEND US A POSTAL 

and mention theN. C. Booklet, 
we will send you 

THREE FREE SAMPLE COPIES OF THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER. 

The Progressive Farmer should be read by every North Carolina man or woman who 
owns or operates a farm, and every farm owner should see that all his tenants read it 

" In increased production and valuation of farm and stock. The Progressive 

Farmer has made me $100 to every $1 I have paid for it," 

says J. M. Parris, Jackson County, N. C. 

THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER, RALEIGH. N. C. 



North Carolina Eiducation 

(Formerly N. C. Educational at Durham, I^. C.) 

Is a wide-awake monthly devoted to every phase of education 
in North Carolina. If you are interested in any phase of it, then 
KortlH Carolina liiclucat^oii should interest you. 

One Dollar a Year is the Price 

Edited by E. C. Brooks, Chair of Education in Trinity College, 
Durham, N. C, and W. F. Marshall, President Mutual Pub- 
lishing Co., Raleigh, N. C. 

Address, W. F. MARSHALL, Publisher, 108 W. Mariin Street, Raleigh, N. G. 




ESTABLISHED BY CHAPTER 767, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1 803 

AMENDED BY CHAPTER 714, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1907. 

MEMBERS 

J. BRYAN GRIMES, Chairman Raleigh, N. C. 

W. J. PEELE Raleigh, N. C 

THOS. W. BLOUNT Ropee, N. C. 

M. C. S. NOBLE Chapel Hill, N. C. 

D. H. HILL Raleigh, N. C. 

SECRETARY. 
R. D. W. CONNOR - - - - Raleigh, N. C. 



PURPOSES. 

1. " To have collected from the files of old newspapers, court records, 
church records, private collections, and elsewhere, historical data pertain- 
ing to the history of North Carolina and the territory included therein 
from the earliest times." 

2. "To have such material properly edited, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the direction of the 
Commission." 

8. "To care for the proper marking and preservation of battleflelds, 
houses and other places celebrated in the history of the State." 

4. " To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources of 
North Carolina." 

5. " To encourage the study of North Carolina history in the schools of 
the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical investigation and 
research among the people of the State."— Section 2, Chapter 714, Public 
Laws of 1907. 



The Secretary wishes to correspond with any person who is willing 
to assist the Commission, by gifts or loans or manuscripts, in- 
formation of the whereabouts of such documents, or 
otherwise in carrying out the above purposes. 



jRddress all Communications to tbc Secretary 



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Vol. IX. APRIL, 1910 No. 4 

North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS oftHe REVOLUTION 

RALEIGH, N, C. 

CONTENTS 

Page 

Der North Carolina Land und Colonic Etablissement, . 1 99 

By Miss Adelaide L. Fries 

5,'4!leorge Durant, 215 

By Capt. S. A. Ashe 

Hatorask, 223 

By Jaques Busbee 

The Truth About Jackson's Birthplace, . . 232 

By Prof. Bruce Craven 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda, . . 236 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 



SINGLE NUMBERS 35 CENTS $1.00 THE YEAR 



SECOND CL.4S.S M.\TTKK. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History 



Volume X of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Kevolution, beginning July, 1910, 
Each Booklet will contain three articles, and will be published in July, 
October, January and April. Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single 
copy. 

Editor: 
Miss Maky Hilliard Hinton. 



VOLUME X. 

The Chase ( Poem ) Mr. James Sprunt 

Colonel Polk's Rebellion Captain S. A. Ashe 

Francis Locke Mr. George MoCorkle 

The Art of Painting as a Handmaid to History Mr. Jaques Bushee 

The Croatans Mr. Hamilton McMillan 

Glimpses of Historic Yorktown Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills 

History of Orange County Mr. Francis Nash 

Governor Ricliard Caswell Dr. E. C. Brooks 

History of Internal Improvements in North Carolina Prior to 1860, 

Mr. J. A. Morgan 

Governor Samuel Johnston Hon. Francis D. Winston 

History of Craven County Prof. 8. M. Brinson 



This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in future be a special 
feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue will be 
devoted to a paper on one county. 

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biography, history and genealogy, by Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

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Address 

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wm. 



i 




Vol. IX APRIL, 1910 No. 4 



lohe 



floRTH CflROIilflfl BoOKIiET 



^Carolina! Carolina! Heaven^ s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her. 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of the Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication will 
be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editor. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
BOOKLET. 

Mbs. Hubert Haywood. Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Mr. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mb. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 

1910-1912. 

REGENT : 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 

VICE-REGENT: 

Miss CATHERINE FAUNTLEROY SEYTON ALBERTSON. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

recording secretary: 
Mrs. J. LEIGH SKINNER. 
corresponding secretary : 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 

treasurer : 

Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 

REGISTF.AR: 

Miss ELIZA HARWOOD DRANE. 

genealogist and historian: 

Mrs. HELEN DeBERNIERE WILLS. 

CUSTODIAN OF RELICS: 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 



CHAPTER REGENTS. 

Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter. Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter Mrs. Walker Waller Joynes, Regent. 

DeGraffenried Chapter Mrs. Charles Slover Hollister, Regent. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 

Mrs. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 



Died December 12, 1904. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Vol. IX APRIL, 1910 No 4 



DER NORTH CAROLINA LAND UND COLONIE 
ETABLISSEMENT. 

BY ADELAIDE L. FRIES. 



How could the Moravian Church, small in numbers, and 
at a time of great financial stress, purchase 98,985 acres of 
land in Xorth Carolina, and successfully colonize and de- 
velop it ? 

American historians of the present day are searching 
European archives for information concerning more or less 
obscure events in American history, and it was natural to 
expect that the collection of papers in Herrnhut, Germany, 
would contain much of interest relating to the Moravian 
settlement in North Carolina, since Herrnhut was the center 
from which Moravian activity in the Eighteenth Century 
radiated. A visit of some weeks last summer enabled the 
writer to spend many an hour in the little Arbeit Zimmer, 
set apart for the convenience of those making researches in 
the Herrnhut "Archiv Haus," and the following sketch pre- 
sents such part of the information gained as relates to the 
"Etablissement." 

Perhaps the simplest way to begin is with Jonas Paulus 
Weiss's account of the circumstances surrounding Der N'orth 
Carolina Land und Colonic Etablissement — that is, "The 
Worth Carolina Land and Colony Enterprise" (commonly 
called Wachovia), — in the days when the purchase and devel- 
opment of the property were made possible by the formation of 
the "Xorth Carolina Societaet," or Society. Weiss was a mer- 
chant of I^uremberg, who had joined the Moravian Brethren, 



200 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

had contributed most generously to their various undertak- 
ings, and at this time was one of their financial leaders. He 
was the man of all others to whom the success of the IS^orth 
Carolina Societaet was due, and the account of it which he 
wrote in the spring of 1758 is full of interest. 

On March 25, 1752, Count Zinzendorf signed a contract 
with Earl Granville, in which, as "Lord Advocate, Chancel- 
lor and Agent of the Unitas Fratrum," he agTeed to purchase 
from Granville 100,000 acres of land in ISTorth Carolina, "in 
behalf of the Unitas Fratrum." The land was to be selected 
by Zinzendorf's agents in that section of the State which had 
been retained by Earl Granville when the seven other "Lords 
Proprietors" sold their shares to the Crown in 1744 ; and in 
the fall of 1752, August Gottlieb Spangenberg and several 
companions, including one of Granville's surveyors, made a 
long and at times dangerous tour of Northern Carolina, seek- 
ing land suited to the Moravian purpose. Ten tracts here 
and there were selected and plotted, and at last the party 
reached "Gargales Creek," where they first surveyed fourteen 
tracts, which, with the ten already chosen, would make up 
the desired 100,000 acres, and then surveyed five more, ad- 
joining the fourteen, so that if it proved desirable, the Breth- 
ren could have all their purchase in one block. With the 
maps and all the information he had gathered, Spangenberg 
returned to England and made full report to Zinzendorf and 
other leading Brethren there. It was, however, a time of 
great financial stress in the German and English Moravian 
Church, and it appeared simply impossible to raise the money 
for the purchase, and for necessary expenses in developing 
the land. Moreover, the pieces of good land lay widely 
scattered, and it was estimated that the large tract was "one- 
third poor land." The Brethren, therefore, decided to aban- 
don the project, and asked Granville to release them from 
the contract. Granville refused, but made the conditions 
easier, and a new contract was prepared, and signed by the 



DEE N. C. LAND UND COLONIE ETABLISSEMENT. 201 

Earl, and James Hutton, ''Secretary of the Unitas Fratrum," 
in the presence of Arthur Dobbs, next Governor of North 
Carolina, and of Benjamin Wheatlej. It was decided that 
the Brethren should take the contiguous tracts of land (Nos. 
I to XIX on accompanying map), as it was thought best to 
have the property all together, even if some of it was not 
fertile. On account of the expense of having nineteen deeds 
prepared, the Brethren suggested that it be all included in 
one deed, but their attorney advised against this, for if at 
any time they failed in their payment of quitrents, and Lord 
Granville was forced to take back part of the land, it could be 
more easily arranged if there were a number of smaller tracts, 
of which some could be surrendered without disturbing the 
rest. To-day this seems a useless precaution, but it looked 
otherwise to men who were facing a financial crisis in their 
affairs, and now in addition must arrange to pay £193 Ster- 
ling for having the deeds prepared, £223 more for expenses 
of the survey, £500 purchase-money, and £148 :9 :2l/^ annual 
quitrent, plus all that might be needed for establishing a set- 
tlement on the frontier of civilization. 

Several plans were suggested for raising the necessary 
funds, and that proposed by Weiss was adopted. It was 
neither more nor less than a land company, in which each 
shareholder was to pay a definite proportion of these initial 
expenses and the annual quitrent, and was to receive 2,000 
acres of land in the "Etablissement" in return. A tempo- 
rary loan was obtained from a Swiss gentleman, Rudolph 
Oehs by name, to cover immediate needs, and then plans for 
the land company were energetically pushed, Spangenberg 
and Cornelius van Laer were elected directors of the Society, 
the former as corresponding secretary and the latter as treas- 
urer. Formal instructions were drawn up, and full powers 
of attorney for both were signed in London, December 18, 
1753, by Count Zinzendorf, Count Henry 28th Reuss, James 



202 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

Hutton, and Weiss. Spangenberg wished to have Weiss also 
as a director, but he declined "for good reasons, and because 
he could serve the cause and the shareholders better" in other 
ways. An office was opened in Zeist, Holland, with Weiss 
in charge, and members and friends of the Unitas Fratrum 
were asked to subscribe. 

The first response came from Johann Christoph Sack, of 
Koenigsberg, who, with hearty approval of the plans, took the 
first share, and sent his £68. Others followed, until twenty-six 
shares had been sold, and by the end of 1757 the purchase- 
price and other initial expenses had all been paid, and cer- 
tain sums advanced by the Unity or borrowed in 1754 had 
been covered by gifts from generous members of the Unity. 

As each share was taken two papers were issued — a "Con- 
tract" and a "Certificate." The wording was not always 
identical, but so similar that a translation of ISTo. 1 of each 
will serve to represent all. 

CONTEACT JSTo. 1. 

"I, the undersigned, request that a lot of 2,000 acres may 
be granted to me in the settlement which the Unity of Breth- 
ren has undertaken in North Carolina. I promise to pay 
my yearly contingent thereto. I will moreover comply with 
any regulations which may at any time be made regarding 
it. To this end I have hereunto set my hand and seal, and 

have also sent Sterling to be entered to my credit. 

Koenigsberg, Nov. 13, 1753. 

"Johann Christoph Sack." 

Certificate ISTo. 1. 
"Herr Johann Christoph Sack, in Koenigsberg. Whereas, 
he, in due form, has taken a share of one lot in the Brethren's 
settlement in North Carolina in America, and has paid his 
promised quota — 



DEE N. C. LAKD TXD COLONIE ETABLISSEMEN T. 203 

For purchase-mouej £18: 

For the expenses of selecting and surveying 

the tracts, and preparing the general deeds 15 : 

For first expenses in developing 30: 

For quitrent for the first year to Michael- 
mas, 1754 5: 

a total of Sixty-eight Pounds Sterling, to Herr Cornelius 
van Laer in Amsterdam, authorized agent of the Society ; 
therefore, to him above mentioned, in consideration of this 
and future regular payments, in order that he may be enti- 
tled to one lot of Tv^o Thousand Acres belonging to the 
Brethren in ISTorth Carolina, this Certificate is issued and 
delivered in the name of the Society. 
London and Amsterdam, 

J. SPANGEiVBEEG,* mpp. KoKlSrELIS VAN LaEe/^ 

Eegistered Book A, page 13. 
Jonas Paulus Weiss. 

In 1755 each shareholder's proportion of expense for de- 
velopment was £30 ; in 1756, £25 ; in 1757, £25. In addi- 
tion, there was an annual payment of £5 toward the quitrent 
for Lord Granville, but as this was more than the actual 
amount due from each 2,000 acres, it was, iu 1765, reduced 
to £3 per annum for each lot. 

Strangely enough, almost all the contracts and certificates 
issued by the Society are preserved in the Herrnhut Archives, 
and after the lapse of more than a century it is possible to 
compile a complete list of the original shareholders, to note 
their places of residence, and the order in which they sub- 
scribed : 

1. 1753. Johann Christoph Sack, Koenigsberg, Ger- 
many. 

*August Gottlieb Spangenberg frequently used the name "Joseph" — 
why, is uncertain. 



204 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

2. 1753. Keinhold Grerhard Georgi, Koenigsberg, Ger- 
many. 
*3/l. 1754. Georg Gottfried Gambs, Strassburg, France. 

3/2. 1754. Johann Leonard Roederer, Strassburg. 
France. 

4. 1754. Hans Ernst von Zezschwiz, Herrnhut, Saxony. 

5. 1754. Johann Steinhauer, Riga, Russia. 
6/1, 1754. Traugott Bagge, Gottenberg, Sweden. 
6/2. 1754. Benjamin Bagge, Gottenberg, Sweden. 

7. 1754. Cornelius van Laer, Zeist, Holland. 

8. 1754. Abraham Duerninger & Co., Herrnhut, Sax- 

ony. 

9. 1754. Johaima Sophia von Schweinitz, Herrnhut, 

Saxony. 

10. 1754. Johann Caspar Rosenbaum, Dantzig, Prussia. 

11. 1754, Heinrich Giller, Herrnhut, Saxony. 

12. 1754, Madtz Jensen Klein, Drammen, Norway. 

13. 1754. Johann Steinhauer, Riga, Russia. 

14. 1754. C. F. Martens (for Single Brethren's Diac- 

onies), Herrnhut, Saxony, 

15. 1754, Johann Hartmann, Hirschberg, Silesia, 

16. 1754. Jean Jacque de Schwarz, Coire, Switzerland. 

17. 1754, Christian Schmidt, Stettin, Prussia. 

18. 1754. Jean Henri de Planta de Wildenberg, Coire, 

Switzerland. 
19/1. 1754, Michael Zellich, Riga, Russia. 
19/2. 1754, Johannes Andreas Schmutz, Strassburg, 

France. 

20. 1754. Friedrich von AYiedebach, Herrnhut, Saxony. 

21. 1754. Gottfried Clemens, Barby, Saxony. 

22. 1754. Johann Christoph Sack, Koenigsberg, Ger- 

many. 

23. 1754. Johann Erhardt Dehio, Herrnhut, Saxony. 

* 1,000 acres— K lot. 



DEE IV. C. LAND UND COLO^^^IE ETABLISSEMENT. 205 

24. 1754. Friedrich Justin von Bruiningk, Livonia, 
Russia. 

25/1. 1754. Hans Hermann von Damnitz, Guettau, Sax- 
ony. 

25/2. 1755. Johami Gustav Frey, Errestfer, Russia. 

26. 1759. Fredrick Heinricli von Bibra, Modlau, Si- 
lesia. 

A map of Der Xorth Carolina Land und Colonie Etab- 
lissement, dated 1754, shows the Wachovia Tract as divided 
into "^'Societaets Land" and ''Unitaets Land." The former 
consists of thirty-two long, narrow lots, running east and 
west, arranged in three sections, six across the north end of 
the tract, fifteen on the east side, and eleven on the west. A 
strip across the south, up the middle, and out to the west 
border was reserved for the Lenity, and included the sites of 
Bethabara ("Old Town"), Bethania, and Salem. That this 
Lenity land was reserved with a definite purpose appears from 
a letter written by Peter Boehler in March, 1752, before 
Spangenberg started on his surveying tour: "In picking 
out a 100,000 acres of land they should lay it out four 
square ; * * * in the center also, the town or Ort 
Gemein could be built. And so the inhabitants of the farth- 
est limits of that land would not be above two hours' moderate 
walk, and one hour's moderate ride from the Ort Gemein." 
For the time being it was considered that each certificate 
carried with it the lot bearing the corresponding number, 
though an actual award of the lots was not made until 1767, 
as will appear later. 

Cornelius van Laer resigned his office as director of the 
Society in the fall of 1763, his formal release bearing date 
of October 3d ; and Spangenberg, who had many other duties 
and responsibilities, felt that he could not properly attend 
to the matter alone, so tendered his resignation also as di- 
rector. This caused a thorough discussion of Wachovia af- 



206 THE iSrORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET. 

fairs in the Directorial Conference, a board created by the 
Synod of 1756 to care for the temporal affairs of the entire 
Unitas Fratrum. It was decided, July, 1763, to drop the 
organization of the jSTorth Carolina Societaet, as such, and to 
let the management of the ISTorth Carolina settlement revert 
to the Directorial Conference. Jonas Paulus Weiss, who 
was a member of the Conference, was put in full charge of 
the office, being already familiar with its details through his 
service as bookkeeper. Weiss w^as directed to notify the 
shareholders of this change, and to inform them that Fred- 
erick William von Marshall had been appointed agent for the 
Unity in North Carolina, and that on arrival there he would 
look into the question of the proper plotting of the Society 
lots, with the intention of their being soon transferred into 
the possession of the shareholders. The map of 1754 had 
been pronounced unsatisfactory, on account of the odd shape 
of the lots, already described; a newer map, 1759, showed 
the lots more or less square, and seemed far better. After 
further deliberation it was noticed that the lines of the lots 
did not coincide with those of the nineteen surveys, and in 
view of the ever-present danger that failure to pay quitrents 
might work the forfeiture of part of the land, it was deemed 
wise to have another map drawn, with due attention to this 
point. This third map bears date of February 19, 1765, and 
was like the one finally accepted, except that there were only 
twenty-two lots, the numbering was different, and there were 
no lots on the west, but three additional ones on the east, 
which were later dropjDed to give more free ground for the 
central town, Salem, the site for which had been selected 
just five days before this map was drawn. The Conference 
minutes of 1765 state that the value of land in North Caro- 
lina at that time was £10 to £15 Proclamation money, or 
£5 to £7:10 Sterling per 100 acres; that is, from 25 cents 
to 371/4 cents per acre. Further, that it was very difficult 
to lease or rent land, for industrious men wished to own their 



DEE N. C. LAND TJISTD COLONIE ETABLISSEMENT. 207 

farms, and had no trouble in getting them, and those who 
were content to rent were apt to be poor pay. In this year, 
also, it was decided to put the owners of the Societaet lots 
into actual possession, but the distribution was postponed 
until Marshall, who was then in America, could come to 
Europe and give them the benefit of his personal observations 
there. The Unity did not wish to run any risk of the lot 
ovraers letting their property pass into strange and possibly 
unfriendly hands, so it was resolved that in case any man 
wished to sell, the Unity should have the refusal of the lot, 
at such price as the o^vner might be able to secure from 
others. 

By this time various changes had occurred in the ownership 
of the shares. Six had been given up entirely, for various 
reasons; Gambs (3/1) had died in 1756, and, according to 
his previously expressed desire, his share was returned to the 
Unity. This share was reissued to Peter Drews and Johann 
JSTuescke, of Stettin, in 1758, but the latter died, and the 
former found it difficult to keep up the payments, so in 1763 
it was for a second time returned. Zezschwiz (4) gave up 
his because of the death of the son for whose benefit he had 
subscribed. Van Laer seems to have dropped his lot (7) 
because his son was not interested. Kosenbaum (9) returned 
his in 1755, but after his death Johann Heinrich Koeber took 
it up again for the benefit of the family. Clemens (21) sold 
half to Johann Leonard Weinel, Herrnhut, but both found 
the payments too heavy, and surrendered the shares. Dam- 
nitz (25/1) became dissatisfied, and gave up his. Only in 
the last-named case was there any claim for the money 
already paid in, which had ranged from £21 to £193. Sack 
(1 and 22) arranged with the Conference that his lots should 
be held for the benefit of Mrs. Schiffert and her children, 
the shares thereafter being entered as "Sack and Schiifert." 
Georgi's share (2) had passed by will to his two sons-in-law, 
Bujak and Hojer. The former had died, but his widow 



208 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

and son inherited his half. Zellich's lot (19/1) had 
to his widow, and Schwarz's (16) to his partner, Conradin 
von Perini. Mrs. von Schweinitz had also died, and one- 
half of her share (10) was held bj her heirs, and one-quarter 
each by Rennekampf and Walther. Dehio (23) had sold 
one-half to George Kandler in 1761. Giller (11) had pre- 
sented his share to ISTathaniel and Anna Johanna Seidel, who 
had given it to the congregation of Bethlehem, Pa., which 
had sold it to John Leinbach, who took possession of his lot, 
built a house, and moved into it, June 27, 1765. In Febru- 
ary, 1767, Benjamin Bagge and his wife transferred their 
half share (6/2) to Traugott Bagge, who was going to Salem 
to live. 

At last, on June 30, 1767, the actual distribution of the 
lots took place, and July 17th, a circular letter was sent out 
to the shareholders. It explains that the somewhat lengthy 
delay had been caused by war, and by the death of Count 
Zinzendorf, and other circumstances affecting the Unity. 
Hearty thanks are expressed to the "Interessenten" for their 
aid in promoting this good work, and for their patience 
through all difficulties and delays. The establishment of 
the central town, Salem, and the erection of the first houses 
there, is noted with pleasure. The map of the Societaet lots 
(see cut, ISTos. 1 to 32,) is explained in detail, and also the 
method by which the lots had been apportioned, so that no 
question of partiality could be raised. The annual quitrent 
for 2,000 acres is fixed at £3 ; and option reserved to the 
Unity, in case any lot owners wish to sell. The advantage 
of going in person to settle the lots, or inducing others to go, 
is set forth ; but if any can not do this, the services of Fred- 
erick William von Marshall — who is about to return to 
America and settle in Wachovia as the representative of the 
Unity — are offered, and it is suggested that owners write 
direct to him, authorizing him to sell or rent their land as 
occasion may offer. The circular is dated from Hermhut, 



DEE ^'. C. LAJfD U2^D COLOjSTIE ETABLISSEMENT. 209 

and signed bj the Unitaets Vorsteher Collegium" (Board 
of Wardens), which had succeeded the Directorial Confer- 
ence in the management of the Unity's financial affairs. 

Marshall returned to Wachovia in 1769, and many of the 
lot owners authorized him to sell their land on the most 
favorable terms he could secure. At first this was no easy 
matter. From letters he sent home to the "Collegium" it 
appears that there was no great demand for land, and that 
prices were low. j^or could he do anything toward pushing 
one or another lot whose owners were pressing for sale, for 
newcomers wished to be near friends and acquaintances, or 
near a mill, or a schoolhouse, and he must of necessity sell 
what and where they wished to buy. Gradually the growth 
of population produced increased demand and increased value 
of land, and whereas £20, i!^orth Carolina currency, per 100 
acres was deemed high in 1768, he was able to secure £32, 
I^^orth Carolina currency, per 100 acres in 1772. In the 
Salem archives there is a small, brown, leather-covered memo- 
randum book, in which Marshall noted various things which 
he wished to have convenient for reference. There are plots 
of small tracts bought and sold ; items concerning the water 
supply in Salem; the wages paid surveyors, etc., etc.; but 
especially pertinent to this sketch is the rate of exchange be- 
tween the various kinds of currency then in use. This varied 
from time to time, but in 1772 

£— : 15:1 Sterling = £1 :6:9 Proclamation, or, 
£11 :5 :6^ Sterling = £20 :— :— Proclamation. 
An elaborate table of comparative values is not dated, but 
other entries show that it was written in 1774. By that 
time Proclamation money, or I^orth Carolina currency, had 
fallen off a little : 

50 hard dollars or pieces of eight = 

£18:15: — Pennsylvania currency = 

£20: — : — ^orth Carolina currency = 

£11:5:— Sterling. 



210 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

According to this table, tlie price of land had increased 
from $50 to $80 per hundred acres, in four years. 

As opportunity offered, Marshall sold land belonging to the 
Unity or to the Societaet; while in Germany the U. V. C. 
bought lots from those Societaet members who did not care to 
hold for Marshall's disposal to actual settlers. As the books 
of the Societaet are not at hand, it is not always possible to 
tell whether land was sold through the Unity or to the Unity, 
but the following list gives the names of those who. received 
lots in the distribution of 1767, the number of the correspond- 
ing stock certificates, and as accurate a statement of the 
final disposition of the lots as it has been possible to procure. 
For the sake of convenience the price, where known, is given 
in dollars. 'Not all the lots plotted were required for dis- 
tribution, and numbers not assigned are here omitted. 



DER N. C. LAND UND COLONIE^ ETABLISSEMENT. 



211 



d 
1 




Name. 




I 


11 

6 
18 

2 

16 

1 
9 

13 

15 

20 
5 

ii 

17 

19/1 
19^ 
8 
12 
14 

22 
24 
23 


John Leinbach 


Deeded to five of his sons, four parts in 1770 one 


2 
3 


Baron F. H. von Bibra 

Traugott Bagge 


in 1771. 
Purchased by "Unitaets-Vorsteher-Collegium." 
Deeded to Bagge in 1770. 


5 
6 

8 


Jean Henri Planta de Wil- 
denberg. 

Mrs. Bujak and Son; Dan- 
iel Heinrich Hojer 

Conradin von Perini 


Purchased by U. V. C. 1774, for $1022. 22. 

The latter transferred his half interest to Mrs. 

Schiffert in May 1768. Entire lot sold to U. 

V. C. 1772, for $900. 00. 
Sold to Jac. Ulr. Albertini, and by him to U. V. 

C. 1774, for S773.32. 
Sold to U. V. C. 1772, for S900.00. 


10 
12 

13 

14 
15 


Von Schweinitz heirs H; Mrs. 
Rennekampf, M; Walther H 
Johann Steinhauer... 

Johann Hartmann 

Friedrich von Wiedebach 

Johann Steinhauer 


Purchased by U. V. C. 

Passed by will to his son Daniel. 41 IJ^ acrea 
sold to Frederick Miller, 1774; balance to 
Magdalene Rigelmann, of Riga, 1788. She 
sold to the U. V. C, 1789, for $1125. 

Given to the U. V. C. in 1768. In 1769 sold by 
Marshall for the Broadbay settlement. 

Passed to heirs. Sold to U. V. C. 1774. 

More than half sold for his heirs Remainder 


16 
18 


Johann Roederer— J/^ 

John Gustav Frey, ^ 

Christian Schmidt 


purchased by U. V. C, in 1789. 
Roederer sold his half interest to U. V. C. in 

1773, for 8430.92. Frey's half also bought by 
Unity. 
Passed to his heirs. Sold for them by Marshall 




Zellich's widow— J^ . 


1772, for $1600. 00. 


22 


Johann A. Schmutz ^ 

Abraham Duerninger & Co . 
M. J. Klein 


Sold to Traugott Bagge, Sept., 1774. 
Purchased by U. V. C. 


25 
26 


C. F. Martens (for single 
Bretliren's Diaconies) 

Sack and Schiffert .. 


Part sold on their account; balance bought by 
U. V. C. in 1812. 

Sold to U. V. C. 1772, for $900. 00. 


27 
30 


F. J. von Bruiningk 

Johann E. Dehio H 

George KandlerJ^ 
ueorge me /2 


Purchased by U. V. C. 
Purchased by U. V. C. 









It will be noted that Traugott Bagge was the only one of 
the original shareholders who took a deed to his lot, and 
himself conducted its sale. Having settled permanently in 
Salem, he became one of the leading citizens of that central 
town, and the competency which he gradually gained was 
doubtless founded on the 2,000-acre lot which he took in the 
Society, and the additional 2,000 acres he bought from Abra- 
ham Duerninger. John Leinbach was the only man in the 
176Y list who built a house on his lot and actually settled 
there. 

Marshall's memorandum book states that the money ex- 



212 THE NOKTH CAKOLIJSTA BOOKLET. 

pended bj each Societaet lot owner to Michaelmas, 1772, 
amounted to £244 Sterling — $1,085.50. It is, therefore, 
evident that few if any of the lot owners received the equiva- 
lent of the sum invested, and had the Societaet been organized 
as a speculative scheme the shareholders would have had 
good cause to feel disappointed. It is quite certain, however, 
that most of the men and women interested cared more for the 
cause than for their pocketbooks. And "Der jSTorth Carolina 
Land und Colonie Etablissement" was unquestionably a suc- 
cess. Made possible by the generous subscriptions of these 
friends, borne loyally on their shoulders through the early 
dijfficult years, liberally endowed with the lands which they 
allowed to slip back into its hands as it was able to receive 
them, the enterprise, at the beginning of the Revolutionary 
War, was becoming so prosperous as to awaken the jealousy 
of less successful neighbors. 

Marshall was called to Europe in 1775 to attend a General 
Synod of the Moravian Church, and the war which broke out 
between England and the Colonies prevented his return for 
four years. Of the trials and difficulties of those years for 
the Moravian settlers in Wachovia no mention need here be 
made. Under all circumstances they were wonderfully pre- 
served, and they emerged from those trying times but little 
the worse for their experiences. The most serious danger 
came at the close of the war, when, under the Confiscation 
Act, many claimed that the Moravian title to Wachovia had 
been forfeited because it was vested in James Hutton, an 
Englishman, and therefore an alien. By order of U. V. C, 
Hutton transferred his title, by deed of lease and release, to 
Marshall, October 28, 1778, but the validity of the transfer 
was questioned on account of the date, although Marshall had 
become a naturalized citizen of IN'orth Carolina during his 
residence in Salem. 

Marshall returned to Wachovia in the fall of 1779, and 



DEE N. G. LAND UND COLONIE ETABLISSEMENT. 213 

the matter was brouglit before the General Assembly of 
]^orth Carolina in 1782. There it was argued that Hutton 
held title only ''in trust for the Unitas Fratrum," that title 
had been transferred to Marshall subject to the same trust, 
and that peaceful Moravians who had been living in Wachovia 
since before the war ought to be protected in their property 
rights. To this view the General Assembly agreed, and an 
act was passed, bearing date of April 13th, which confirmed 
to Marshall the title to Wachovia and certain other lands in 
ISTorth Carolina "in trust as aforesaid." 

The custom of vesting title in an individual for the benefit 
of the Church continued for many years, as the Church was 
not an incorporated body. Each ''proprietor" was required 
to make a will, whereby at his death the estate would pass 
to another Moravian, selected by the U. V. C. Sometimes 
the estates were transferred by deed, when the ruling Board 
thought the best interests of Wachovia required it. There 
were eight Proprietors of Wachovia between August 7, 1753, 
and December 1, 1877: James Hutton, London; Frederick 
William von Marshall, Salem; Christian Lewis Benzien, 
Salem ; John Gebhard Cunow, Bethlehem ; Lewis David von 
Schweinitz, Bethlehem; William Henry Van Vleck, l^ew 
York City ; Charles F. Kluge, Salem ; Emil A. de Schweinitz, 
Salem. On December 1, 1877, the last named deeded to "The 
Board of Provincial Elders of the Southern Province of the 
Moravian Church," all the property remaining unsold in his 
hands, this Board having been incorporated, and therefore 
being able to take over the title, the land having been bought 
by the Southern Province from the Unity at large. To-day 
scarcely fifty acres of all the tract remains unsold. 

And how great the change in one hundred and fifty-seven 
years ! From the "Etablissement" with its LTnitaet and So- 
cietaet lots, its few scattered settlers and three small villages, 
2 



214 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

to Forsyth County, with its townships, the bustling Twin 
City of Winston-Salem, the railways, macadam roads, thriv- 
ing villages, well-tilled farms, and comfortable country 
homes. Surely the fathers planned more wisely than they 
knew, for the old ''Etablissement" has become one of the 
centers of prosperity in the Old l^orth State. 



GEORGE DURANT. 



CAPTAIN S. A. ASHE. 



The events of the distant past in the forests of Virginia 
and Carolina are largely veiled in obscurity. In June, 1635, 
a grant was issued to Richard Bennett for land in ISTansemond 
County, "due for the importation of forty persons," among 
the names of whom was that of William Durant. The actual 
settlement may have preceded the grant some years. 

In 1644 a new law was passed in Virginia, requiring all 
persons officiating in any church service to use the Book of 
Common Prayer, and this led to the removal of Bennett and 
many of his colony to Providence, near Annapolis, in Mary- 
land. Apparently Durant was of the number, although the 
name was sometimes erroneously written Durand, and Duren. 
At Providence he was a landowner, an "elder" and a "leading 
man." About 1656 the settlement of Independents at Provi- 
dence was broken up, and the use of the Book of Common 
Prayer in any church being at that time prohibited by law 
in Virginia, many of Bennett's followers returned to that 
province. 

- The entry in George Durant' s Bible is that he was born 
October 1, 1632 ; and it is surmised that he was a son of 
William Durant, and born in Nansemond County, Virginia ; 
and that his youth was passed there and in Maryland. On 
January 4, 1659, being then 26 years of age, he married x\nn 
Marwood, in Northumberland County, where the Potomac 
comes into Chesapeake Bay.- The service was performed by 
Reverend David Lindsey; but whether Parson Lindsey was 
of the Church of England or not is now unknown. 

Just about the time of this marriage — 1659 — a number of 
adventurous spirits settled On the great Sound of Carolina, 
buying their lands from the Indians. Among these first set- 



216 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

tiers were John Battle, Dr. Thomas Relfe, Roger Williams, 
Thomas Jarvis, Captain John Jenkins and Samuel Pricklove. 
George Durant accompanied them, but did not at once locate. 
He spent two years in exploring the country and examining 
locations, and then bought from the Indian king a tract at 
the mouth of the Perquimans River, that has since been 
known as Durant's 'Neck, his deed bearing date March 1, 
1661. -. He then purchased an adjoining tract for George 
Catchmaid, Gent., of Ipswich, who brought into the colony 
thirty dependents. Others brought in nearly as many ; John 
Harvey seventeen. Dr. Relfe fifteen, Captain Jarvis four- 
teen — and so on. 

Within a year after Durant had located, Governor Berkley, 
of Virginia, went to England to pay his court to the restored 
monarch ; and while there he received instructions to require 
the settlers on Carolina Sound, who had purchased their land 
from the Indians, to take out grants from Virginia, although 
that region was in the territory granted many years earlier 
to Sir Robert Heath, under the name of Carolina. 

Catchmaid, being in Virginia, became aware of this order, 
and promised Durant, while getting a grant for himself, also 
to get one for him. Instead, however, he took out a single 
grant in his own name for the two adjoining tracts which 
Durant had bought from the Indian king, but agreed with 
Durant to make him title for his part at some convenient 
season. 

In the meantime Durant had built a home for his family 
on his new possessions, and thither had come Mrs. Durant 
and her children, for on December 24, 1659, she had borne 
to her husband a son, George, and on February 15, 1661, a 
daughter, Elizabeth. These first children were certainly born 
in Virginia, but perhaps their third child, John, bom Decem- 
ber 26, 1662, and the subsequent children, were native Caro- 
linians. And also a home was built on Durant's ISTeck for 



GEOEGE DUEANT. 217 

Catchmaid, Gentleman, who lived there with his wife, the 
nearest neighbors of the Durants. Being a man of great 
consequence, Catchmaid was at once chosen Speaker of the 
Assembly, and he had much business on hand ; so much that 
he never settled his matters with Durant, and they were un- 
settled when he died. However, as he was Speaker and a 
leader, he may have been suddenly killed in an Indian war 
that broke out in 1666. At any rate, at his death there were 
accounts to be settled between his estate and Durant, and title 
to Durant's home passed to the heirs of Catchmaid. There 
being no children, his widow took possession of Catchmaid's 
estate, but soon married Timothy Biggs, who made up the 
account, and agreed to make the title to Durant, but likewise 
died without doing so. Many years afterwards, when Durant 
himself was dead, Edward Catchmaid, of London, claimed 
the property as nephew and heir of Catchmaid, and Durant's 
sons brought a suit in chancery to enjoin him. The evidence 
in this suit is preserved ; and from it some of the above facts 
have been gleaned. 

The historian John Lawson, who was in Albemarle forty 
years after the settlement, says that "the first who came found 
the winters mild and the soil fertile beyond expectation; 
that everything came by nature, and the husbandman lived 
almost void of care and free from the fatigues of providing 
necessaries ; that they were men of substance, each attended 
by a considerable retinue of servants." "* As Durant quickly 
built his 0T\Ti house and appears to have been a man of sub- 
stance when his family moved to Carolina, they had such 
comforts as an abode in the forest could afford. And as the 
settlement grew, his residence became one of the houses where 
the courts were held, and where the inhabitants met on 
public occasions. Although in the wilderness of a new coun- 
try, he was by no means isolated, but enjoyed the association 
of congenial neighbors. ^ 



218 THE JSrOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

From the first the settlers were prosperous, and made good 
crops of tobacco, which found a ready market in Virginia and 
l^ew England, yielding in return cloths and household goods 
and ample domestic supplies. Indeed, there was both a busi- 
ness and social connection with ]^ew England, as well as 
Virginia, some of the settlers coming from Massachusetts; 
and there was much trade between the two colonies. But 
this trade was in contravention of the English navigation 
laws passed to promote the commercial interests of the mother 
country. One of these laws forbade the importation of any 
manufactures except through the merchants of London, and 
another laid a tax on tobacco imported into England, for the 
private purse of the king; and another, passed in 1672, 
levied a tax on tobacco shipped from one colony to another. 
The first effort to enforce these laws in Albemarle was made 
in 1675. It raised a great commotion among the planters, as 
it lessened the value of their tobacco and interfered with 
their obtaining the manufactured articles they were supplied 
with by the Massachusetts traders. Durant himself was 
largely interested in tobacco, and the people, aroused by him 
and other leaders, were ready to rebel against the enforce- 
ment of these laws. Just then also a war broke out with the 
Meherrin Indians; and Captain Zack Gilliam brought his 
vessel, "Carolina," into Albemarle, well supplied with ammu- 
nition and firearms, at the very moment when needed. 

The people first marched against the Indians and subdued 
them, and then they forced the Governor to let up somewhat 
in the enforcement of the navigation laws. Being "in arms, 
they were persuaded by George Durant, Valentine Bird, the 
collector, and one White, with others, to force the Governor 
to remit to the ISTew England men three farthings per lb. 
The said Durant having then a considerable quantity of to- 
bacco to receive, which he was to ship to 'New England." 

Later, the Assembly deposed the Governor, and established 
a government after "their own model," and Durant was one 



GEOEGE DURANT. 219 

of the leaders in the matter. The next year, Speaker East- 
church, being in England, the Lords Proprietors appointed 
him Governor, but Durant was himself in London* later, 
and declared to some of the Proprietors that Eastchurch 
should not be Governor, and threatened to revolt. (C. R. I., 
287-8.) Captain Gilliam v^as also in Londan, and Durant 
returned on his vessel, then well armed. Whatever were the 
objections to Eastchurch, Durant was as determined as he 
was bold. He knew his people and had confidence that they 
would follow where he led. His purpose to revolt soon be- 
came known in Albemarle. On the first day of December, 
1677, the "Carolina" again came into port, with Durant on 
board. A "ISTew England Ambassador" had also been among 
the people, stirring them up on this very matter of the tobacco 
tax and the restrictive trade legislation that bore so hard on 
the colonists. 

Eastchurch not having arrived, acting Governor Miller, 
aware of Durant's purpose to revolt, went on board the 
"Carolina," and putting a pistol to Durant's head, arrested 
him ; but the revolutionists did not dally. All of the officers 
who did not fall in with them were speedily taken, and con- 
fined in log houses, ten feet square, specially built for their 
accommodation. Durant, Culpeper and their associates, 
having found the great seal of the colony, now carried on 
govermnent in Albemarle in a regular and orderly adminis- 
tration, electing assemblies and establishing courts and mak- 

* It is said that George Durant had a brother, John Durant, living in 
London. In D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature there is this statement: 
"There was a most bloody-minded 'maker of working balls,' as one John 
Durant is described, appointed a Lecturer by the House of Commons — 
the Long Parliament — who always left out of the Lord's Prayer, 'as 
we forgive them that trespass against us,' and substituted, 'Lord, since 
Thou has now drawn Thy sword, let it not be sheathed again till it be 
glutted in the blood of the malignants,' the malignants being the cava- 
liers." This person, or chaplain of the House of Commons, may have 
belonged to the same connection. As the name is found sometijiaes 
written "Duren," the emphasis would seem to have been on the first 
syllable. 



220 THj: NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

ing laws as if thej had the sanction of the Lords Proprietors. 
When at length Governor Eastchurch reached Virginia, a 
force was raised by Durant to oppose his entering into Albe- 
marle, but the Governor unexpectedly died with fever, and 
the peace of the colony was not further disturbed. 
v' In 1672, William Edmundson, a follower of George Fox, 
had visited Albemarle and found one Quaker there, Henry 
Phillips, but that faith then took root, and when these dis- 
turbances began there was quite a number of Friends, who 
refused to aid the revolutionists, and sympathized with Biggs, 
the tax collector, who was himself a Quaker. These com- 
plained bitterly of the treatment Durant gave them, and some 
of them fled to Virginia because of Durant's oppressions, as 
they alleged ; and they sent a strong petition and remon- 
strance to the Proprietors against D'urant's oppression and 
persecution. 

In view of these facts, now well established by contempo- 
raneous documents, it seems odd to read in some histories that 
Albemarle was originally settled by Quakers, and by others 
fleeing from Virginia to escape religious intolerance and 
oppression, and that Durant himself was a Quaker. The 
settlement, says Lawson, was by wealthy planters ; but one 
Quaker was in Albemarle in 1672, and later Durant was 
regarded by the Friends as their persecutor and oppressor. 

Eventually this revolt against Miller and Eastchurch was 
legalized by the Lords Proprietors, and Jenkins, who had 
cooperated with Durant and the other leaders, was appointed 
Governor, and Durant Attorney-General. But the Proprie- 
tors could not give immunity against the navigation laws, and 
the English government was too strong to be resisted; so it 
soon came about that the navigation laws and tobacco taxes 
were submitted to, although doubtless there were constant 
evasions. It was not until a century later, and then by a 
u^ed continent, that the power of Parliament to tax America 
vras definitely determined by force of arms. What was 
patriotism in 1776 would have been treason in 1676. 



GEORGE DURANT. 221 

During the succeeding administrations, Durant doubtless 
exerted the influence that was inseparable from his character, 
talents and means. His residence was still a meeting place for 
the inhabitants, and there the court of "Berkeley Precinct" 
was held. By the commission of Governor Harvey, in 1679, 
"Georjius Durant vel Alexandras, Lillington," — justice, was 
to inquire into all offences, etc. ; and Durant held the Court of 
Berkeley, afterwards Perquimans, precinct. 

After some years, Seth Sothell, one of the Proprietors who 
had been appointed Governor, reached Albemarle, and soon 
began a course of oppression, seeking wealth at the expense 
of the people. Among other allegations made against Sothell 
was this : Richard Humphrey died, leaving a will in which 
Thomas Pollock was named executor. Sothell would not 
allow the will to be proved, but took Humphrey's property 
into his own hands. Pollock prepared to go to England to 
complain, and Sothell threw him into prison. 

Another allegation was that he imprisoned George Durant 
upon pretense that Durant had said something reflecting on 
him, and then compelled him to give a bond while in durance, 
and afterwards, on pretense of the bond, seized on Durant's 
estate and converted it to his own use. 

These high-handed outrages were more than the people 
would stand, and in the subsequent j^roceedings Durant cer- 
tainly played a part with the spirit of his younger days. It 
was about the time of "the glorious revolution of 1688" in 
England, when the people modified their constitution, called 
in William to supplant James II, and limited the descent of 
the crown. In Albemarle, they were equally resolute. They 
seized the Governor, and, following the precedent of 1676, 
incarcerated him in a ten-foot log house, and proposed to 
send him to England for trial. Sothell, however, entreated 
them not to deport him to England, but, instead, to try him 
themselves, promising that he would submit to the judgment 
of the Assembly. The election was held, the Assembly rafet. 



222 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET. 

and ou the trial he was found guilty on the above and other 
charges, and the Assembly gave judgment disqualifying him 
from ever holding the office of Governor, and banishing him 
from Albemarle for twelve months. 

In this episode, as Durant was involved personally, he, as 
well as Pollock, doubtless was a chief actor, and the manage- 
ment and outcome of it are creditable not merely to his de- 
termined spirit, but to his wisdom and moderation. If there 
was an excess of turbulence ten years earlier, now the pro- 
ceedings seem to have been conducted with decorum, as well 
as with energy and force. While the details have not been 
preserved, there must, first, have been an association, and a 
directory with power to manage, and an administration pro- 
vided for. And it was this directory or administration that 
imprisoned the Governor and proposed to send him a pris- 
oner to England ; and it was this same body that entered into 
the agreement with Sothell to have the new General Assembly 
try him for his offenses. The preliminary steps, the conduct 
of the affair, the trial and the judgment, constitute an his- 
torical episode illustrative of the high capacity of the inhabi- 
tants of Albemarle to govern themselves, and with decorum 
and orderly administration to arrest oppression and main- 
tain their liberties; and as Durant was necessarily a con- 
trolling spirit in the affair, the moderation of the proceedings 
reflect great credit on him for wisdom and prudence as well 
as for spirit and patriotism. 

While Durant does not seem to have been employed by the 
Lords Proprietors in their government after this period, yet 
doubtless he continued to exert a personal influence during 
the remainder of his life. He died earlier than July, 1693, 
and his will was admitted to probate on February 6, 1694. 
He left descendants who have in every generation been among 
the most respectable and influential citizens of I^orth 
Carolina. 



HATORASK. 



BY JAQUES BUSBEE. 



As that mighty ocean river, the Gulf Stream, rushes hot 
from the straits of Florida around the corner of the continent, 
it meets full in the face the cold waters of the l!^orth Atlantic 
as the J roll in an unbroken sweep from the frozen rim of the 
world. 

With impact primordial the sands, swept along by the cur- 
rents, shift, swirl and precipitate more slowly but not less 
surely than the vast cumulations of vapor forever hanging 
above the Diamond Shoals, and glorious as a vision of Wal- 
hallah. The three-mile stretch of flat beach forming the cape 
pushes twenty miles further to sea beneath the flood — a fringe 
of hori'or surrounding smiling, semi-tropical forests and 
sedges, like a necklace of scalps and skulls around some 
savage maiden. Yesterday, to-day and forever the quick- 
sands of the Diamond demand their toll; human courage is 
unavailing, modern science is powerless to oppose it. A rag- 
ged end of the world in flux, to the cockle shells of commerce 
venturing within its dynamic circle, it is and ever will be 
'Hhe graveyard of the American merchant marine." 

In the year of grace, 1584, two barques, bearing the first 
English adventurers to set foot on the American continent, 
borne north on the current of the Gulf Stream, sighted land 
across the flashing breakers of the Diamond Shoals. A low- 
lying line of blue behind ramparts of sinuous golden sand 
hills, it seemed a strange and mysterious world to these Eng- 
lish after two months of hardship and hope. 

But no chance of landing presented itself. "The second of 
July we found shoal water, where we smelled so sweet and 
so strong a smell as if we had been in the midst of some deli- 
cate garden abounding with all kinds of odoriferous flowers, 



224 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

by which we were assured that the land could not be far dis- 
tant; and keeping good watch and by bearing slack sail, the 
fourth of the same month we arrived upon the coast, which 
we supposed to be a continent and firm land, and we sailed 
along the same a hundred and twenty English miles before we 
could find any entrance or river issuing into the sea." So 
writes Captain Barlowe. Six years later Hatorask is again 
the setting of the fifth and final act of Sir Walter Raleigh's 
tragedy of the first attempt to colonize America by English- 
men. 

The story of Roanoke Island has been thrashed and re- 
thrashed by historians till nothing remains to tell except 
the sphinx-like closing of the last chapter — the Lost Colony — 
and this remains an enigma to all, historian and poet alike. 
It is properly a part of Hatorask history also. Croatan, 
that mystic land and vanishing point of the Lost Colony is 
generally considered to be the mainland across Croatan Sound 
from Roanoke Island, but such is not the case — and John 
Lawson is responsible for the error. Let us see. 

John White writes most vividly of his return to Roanoke 
and the desolation he found there. "* * * We let fall 
OUT grapnel near the shore and sounded with a trumpet call, 
and afterwards many familiar English tunes of songs, and 
called to them friendly, but we had no answer, -J^- * * 
and as we entered up the sandy bank, upon a tree in the very 
brow thereof were curiously carved these fair Roman letters, 
C R 0, which letters presently we knew to signify the 
place where I should find the planters seated, according to a 
secret token agreed upon between them and me at my last 
departure from them | * * * therefore at my departure 
from them in A. N". 1587, I willed them, that if they should 
happen to be distressed in any of those places, that then they 
should carve over the letters or name a cross X in this form ; 
but we found no such sign of distress. And having well con- 



HATORASK. 225 

sidered this we passed toward the place where they were left 
in sundry houses, but we found the houses taken down, and 
the place very strongly enclosed with a high palisado of great 
trees with curtains and flankers very fort like; and one of 
the chief trees or posts at the right side of the entrance had 
the bark taken off, and five feet from the ground in fair 
capital letters was graven C R O A T A IST, without any cross 
or sign of distress." 

Then he goes on to describe the dismantled and deserted 
wreck of the fort, with rusted iron fowlers and lockershot 
scattered and overgrown with grass; and at length he comes 
upon his chests, buried and dug up, and you see the man's 
selfishness ; "* * * where we found five chests that had 
been carefully hidden by the planters, and of the same chests 
three were my own, and about the place many of my things 
spoiled and broken, and my books torn from the covers, the 
frames of some of my pictures and maps rotten and spoiled 
with rain, and my armor almost eaten through with rust ; this 
could be no other than the deed of the savages, * * * 
but although it gTieved me to see such spoil of my goods, yet 
on the other side I greatly joyed that I had safely found a 
certain token of their safe being at Croatan, which is the 
place where Manteo was born, and the savages of the Island 
our friends." 

So with more rough weather and the loss of all but one 
anchor and some water casks, White suggests that they leave 
the colonists (his daughter and grandchild among them) to 
the savage friends at Croatan and winter in the West Indies, 
"with hope to make two rich voyages in one" and capture 
golden galleons. 

So much for White — we have evidence of the colony at 
Croatan — but where was Croatan ? 

John Lawson was the first to set down as Croatan on his 
map the mainland across from Roanoke Island, and he no 



226 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

doubt reasoned that as thej had agreed to move fifty miles 
''into the main" before White departed for England, and as 
they left the word "Croatan" carved on a tree as their desti- 
nation, that they had sought the nearest point on the conti- 
nent, and that was of course Croatan. 

But White did not so understand. To him the mainland 
across from Koanoke Island was Desamonquepenk and Seco- 
tan, the Island of Croatan lying some sixty odd miles to the 
south, for he had proposed to sail to it on the open sea. On 
White's own map, published by DeBry, he gives the name 
of Croatan to the banks from Cape Hatorask all the way down 
to Ocracoke Inlet (Wokoken next adjoining). 

Hatorask was the home of Manteo's people, the friendly 
tribe to which he led the colony when supplies and help failed 
and treacherous Wanchese with his following pressed hard. 

When White returned to England it was agreed that the 
colony was to move "fifty miles into the main," but when 
supplies ran short and no help came, what was the vdsdom of 
going further away from possible aid ? It would be madness ! 

The natural and sensible move would be to the banks, with 
the hope of sighting some English ship. Sir Erancis Drake 
had sailed up the coast, and the first news of his arrival came 
to Ralph Lane from the man whom he had stationed seaward 
for the expected supply ships. To send a man to the Croatan 
of Lawson's map would be ridiculous, for the ocean can not 
be seen from there even with a modern field glass. 

Drake had relieved and carried back to England the former 
colony under Lane when reduced to the last extremity. So 
the Lost Colony doubtless took their only chance, and let 
Manteo lead them to his own friendly people on Hatteras 
banks, where the opportunity of sighting some vessel was 
greatest. There lived the only friendly tribe, the only place 
of comparative safely in a wild and savage country. Eurth- 
ermore, the inlets by which vessels entered the sounds lay on 



HATORASK. 227 

either side of these banks. It was the point of vantage, the 
outlook where it would be impossible for a vessel to slip by 
without being seen. In Sir Richard Grenville's report of 
the diurnal of his voyage are these items: "The 26th we 
came to anchor at Wokoken. The 6th July * * * Cap- 
tain Aubry and Captain Boniton, the same day were sent to 
Croatan where they found two of our men left there, with 
thirty others by Captain Raymond some twenty days before. 
The 8th, Captain Aubry and Captain Boniton returned with 
two of our men foimd by them to us at Wokoken. * * * 
The 21st, our fleet anchoring at Wokoken we weighed anchor 
for Hatorask (the present 'New Inlet), the 27th our fleet 
anchored at Hatorask and there we rested." Knowing the 
country, the time it would take sail or row-boats to make these 
trips, the dates given are most significant. 

There is more land at Hatorask than at any other point 
along the banks, the forests covering some fifty square miles, 
to this day teeming with game. And it was undeniably here 
that the colony merged into the Indian tribe (the nursing 
mother of the Croatans), which afterwards, in accordance 
with Indian customs, moved farther south, and reaching the 
narrow and shallow waters of Core Sound, crossed over to 
the main land. 

Hatorask is the vanishing point of the Lost Colony. They 
went there in 1587 or 1588, and a little more than a hundred 
years after, Lawson writes of them, in 1709 : "A further 
confirmation of this we have from the Hatteras Indians (note 
that he calls them Hatteras Indians) , who either then lived on 
Roanoke Island or much frequented it. These tell us that 
several of their ancestors were white people and could talk 
in a book as we do ; the truth of which is confirmed by gray 
eyes being found frequently amongst these Indians and no 
others. They value themselves extremely for their affinity 
to the English, and are ready to do them all friendly offices. 



228 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

It is f)robable that this settlement miscarried for want of 
timely supplies from England; or through the treachery of 
the natives, for we may reasonably suppose that the English 
were forced to cohabit with them for relief and conversation ; 
and that in process of time they conformed themselves to 
the manners of their Indian relatives ; and thus we see how 
apt human nature is to degenerate." 

On Hatteras banks to-day are disconnected scraps of evi- 
dence to lend color to this belief. Traversing the sandy 
roads, hedged with youpon and holly, palm and pine, with 
houses flamboyantly painted and prosperous with lightning 
rods, people pass with swarthy skins, high cheek bones, 
straight black hair, and with that peculiar modeling of nose 
and mouth distinctly Indian. 

And if one should stop to talk with these friendly, hospita- 
ble people, the use of many old obsolete words and phrases of 
Chaucer's time would be noted; quaint turns of expression, 
words used with a significance they had long ago, but now 
spoken with a modern meaning. 

Most houses are set in a clearing sufiicient for a yard, but 
little attempt at beautifying is made. A garden is a rarity. 
Fishing, hunting, oystering — and a man lives well. 

There is little land on the banks with a clear title. The 
best titles are possession. At Trent where some families 
lived who were known as "Red Men," but who strenuously 
objected to being called Indians, are examples of the punch- 
eon fence — simply an Indian stockade made by driving down 
stakes close together. 

All this is but indirect evidence, yet it forces belief and is 
probable. Still you go back to the thought that here on 
Hatteras, though the evidence is slight and circumstantial, 
the Lost Colony merged and blended with the Indian tribe 
that saved them from slaughter. 



HATOEASK. 229 

In the hook of the cape, leaning desperately away from the 
wind, in an attitude of hopelessly arrested flight, stands a 
giant live oak, with a copper spike driven deep into its dead 
trunk some four feet from the ground. 

It is Teach's Oak; and back in the forest, on the summit 
of a high sand hill, defended by well-nigh impenetrable 
jungles, are three deep pits where ever-credulous cupidity 
has dug for buried treasure. Legend says that it was found, 
but by whom is still a mystery. Teach, whose stamping 
ground w^as Hatteras, lurked in the calm hook of the cape 
for vessels distressed by a northeast gale and the current of 
the Gulf Stream, unable to double the cape till the wind 
should shift. Many are the tales and traditions he has left 
on the banks, and to this day, in wild weather, his phantom 
ship is seen sailing safely over the mad waters of the Diamond 
Shoals, to send to everlasting doom some crew in dire dis- 
tress. Who knows how many corpses he has added to the 
multitudinous drowned of many lands and times, who shriek 
with the wind at the horror of that moving, shifting sand, 
that lies in wait beneath the waves but never shows its hydra 
head! 

Teache was finally captured and killed further down the 
banks, at Ocracoke Inlet, and his head, nailed to the mast of 
Lieutenant Maynard's boat, was carried in triumph to Bath 
Town and presented to his reputed friend. Governor Eden. 
Yet a guilty thrill of admiration rises in the heart (since 
Teache is at the safe distance of two hundred years) for a 
man of such strong personality, strength and initiative, and 
this ISTorth Carolina pirate will always be mentioned with 
deprecatory pride. 

From cape to inlet, Hatteras is ten miles long, a series of 

high sand hills, densely wooded and combed with parallel 

sedges, running from east to west the entire length of the 

island. The woods disappear at Trent and the western end 

3 



230 THE jNTORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

is low and wet, the marsh dividing almost equally with the 
beachj which encroaches year by year — fifty years ago trees 
waving two miles to sea where now porpoise play. Houses 
are perched on any dry ground that remains, nestling among 
scrubby, stunted live oaks and water bushes and alive with 
mocking birds. Where beach and marsh converge to a bare 
point of sand at the inlet, are traces of Forts Clark and 
Hatteras. They were sand redoubts held in place by turf 
from the adjoining marshes, and pitifully inadequate to the 
attacking squadron of Butler's thirteen men-of-war. The 
force in Fort Hatteras was 718 men; the action lasted three 
hours and twenty minutes. Over three thousand shells were 
fired by the bombarding fleet during that time, twenty-eight 
in a minute falling within the fort. 

The Confederate guns, old style smooth-bore pieces, were 
entirely out of range, and after a futile attempt, ceased 
firing altogether. This action occurred on Augiist 29, 1861, 
and was the first naval victory, or victory of any sort for that 
matter, won by the Federals (if the pounding into destruc- 
tion of a well-nigh helpless fort could be called a victory). 
This caueed great rejoicing at the Xorth, for it put the entire 
eastern section of the State at the mercy of the Federals. 

One beautiful October day, tropically warm, we drove a 
shaggy little sun-burned beach pony and two-wheeled cart 
up to Trent to see the sand hills fantastically piled up by the 
wind, and changing shape more slowly but not less surely 
than the clouds of heaven, smothering the woods steadily and 
stealthily as they blow inland. The sea before us was oil- 
slick — only an undulation of white on the beach showed its 
breathing. We strolled over the wind-swept wastes of Trent, 
looked at tombs overturned, and bones exposed by the moving 
sands, and I picked up two teeth filled with gold. 

''I can remember when these people were buried," said my 
friend ; "thej have not been dead over forty years ; but when 



HATOEASK. 231 

I was a boy a skeleton blew out at King's Point that was 
over six feet long, and it had strips of metal all over the upper 
part of the body. 'No — it was not a coffin. It must have 
been armor. We boys sold it for junk. It was copper." 

And uprises a vision of the Lost Colony, blended with 
Manteo's people, living on these banks, hunting among these 
forests the deer and game that still abound ; fishing in the 
shallow waters of Pamlico Sound ; and the old free life of 
man, before civilization threw her restraining arms around 
him, surging back through his blood, blended with the Indian, 
that made the call of the wild irresistible. You behold the 
old people, crushed by hope abandoned of ever sighting some 
English ship, and nursing memories of home forever lost, 
as they see their children growing up more Indian than Eng- 
lish; of the bitter tears that fall upon their comrades in 
adventure and misfortune as they lay them down in the 
armor so long and bravely worn, in a hole scraped in the sand. 



THE TRUTH ABOUT JACKSON'S BIRTHPLACE. 



BY BRUCE CRAVEN. 

"Living, Homer begged for bread; 
A dozen cities begged for Homer, dead." 

This quaint and true saying is apt in connection with the 
dispute regarding the birthplace of Andrew Jackson. Liv- 
ing, the seventh President was not partial to, nor loved by, 
either of the Carolinas. He was the bitter enemy of South 
Carolina's greatest statesman, and as President defied the 
Carolinas and Georgia in the Cherokee Indian land troubles 
when, in answer to a Supreme Court decision in favor of the 
States, he said: "John Marshall has made his decision, now 
let him enforce it." These things account for the fact that 
there was no discussion or investigation of the location of 
the birthplace during Jackson's life, and consequently he 
died with the false belief that South Carolina was his "native 
State," as he often said. 

That he believed he was born in South Carolina is without 
doubt, and there is no dispute in the whole story except as to 
one detail. In 1Y65, six sisters, with their husbands and 
families, landed in Charleston from the old world, and set- 
tled in the "Waxhaws," an undefined section between the 
present towns of Monroe, IsT. C, and Lancaster, S. C. These 
sisters, whose maiden name was Hutchison, were related to 
many others of their own name who had settled in the same 
section, and their husbands were Andrew Jackson, Sr., who 
settled near the site now known as the old Pleasant Grove 
camp-ground, nine miles inside ISTorth Carolina ; James Craw- 
ford, who settled on Waxhaw Creek, about a mile inside 
South Carolina ; George McKemey, near the Crawford home, 
but in ISTorth Carolina ; John Leslie, Samuel Leslie, and 
James Crow. 



THE TEUTH ABOUT JACKSON's BIKTHPLACE. 233 

In February of 1767, Andrew Jackson, Sr., died, leaving 
his widow and two children. His body was buried in the old 
Waxhaw cemetery, in Lancaster County, though there is 
nothing by which his grave can be identified, and no evidence 
to prove he was buried there except the settled traditions of 
the neighborhood, which seem to be specific and reliable. 
Soon after his death, his widow, with her two sons, left their 
!N'orth Carolina home to go to make their home with the 
Crawfords, who were the wealthiest of all the families men- 
tioned. The road they traveled passed in sight of the Mc- 
Kemey home, where lived her sister Margaret. 

To this point there is no dispute, but right here is the 
dividing line. 

THE NORTH CAEOLINA CLAIM. 

Mrs. Jackson stopped to visit her sister Margaret, and 
there, in the night of March 15, 1767, Andrew Jackson was 
born. Three weeks later they located at the Crawford home 
in South Carolina, where Jackson lived until groAvn, then 
studied law in Salisbury, and located in the western part of 
]^orth Carolina, which was later made into the new State of 
Tennessee. 

This statement of the case rests upon three pieces of evi- 
dence : First is the settled traditions of the families above 
mentioned, some living in one State and some in the other. 
Colonel S. H. Walkup gathered their testimony and published 
it in the Wadeshoro Argus of September 23, 1858. There 
were fourteen statements, representing all the families, and all 
agreeing that Jackson was born in the McKemey house, and 
that there were present in the house at the time Mrs. Eliza- 
beth McWhorter, Mrs. Sarah Leslie, Mrs. Sarah Lathen, 
Mrs. Covsar, and Mr. and Mrs. McKemey. All of these 
people died before 1800, and their accounts of the incident 
were given by their children and grandchildren, who remem- 
bered well the oft-repeated story. There was no discrep- 
ancy in any of the many accounts. 



234 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

There is no denial of the Walkup evidence, and all that is 
said in rebuttal is that Colonel Walkup led his witnesses by 
leading questions to say just what he wanted them to say. 
The character of the witnesses, however, is proven, and this, 
with the fact that some of them were South Carolinians, is 
sufficient reply to the charge. The original publication is 
in my possession, and was well and carefully prepared. At 
the time of the publication there was some doubt as to whether 
or not the McKemey home was in IsTorth Carolina, and this 
was not finally settled until recent years, when the land 
records in Register's books 11 and 14, in the Mecklenburg 
court-house were investigated and the records found proving 
completely that the McKemey tract of land was deeded to him 
in 1766, and deeded by him to Thomas Crawford in 1792, 
and in each case the residence of McKemey was given as 
Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. 

The other point in the evidence is the statement of Jackson 
that he was born in the McKemey house, though believing at 
the time that the house was in South Carolina. 

SOUTH Carolina's contention. 
For the South Carolina side of the case, there has never 
been but one solitary bit of evidence, and that is that Jackson 
himself ' thought he was born in South Carolina. Various 
biographers, etc., are cited to prove the claim, but in each 
case it is plain that they relied solely upon Jackson's erroneous 
belief, and nothing has ever been cited that was not founded 
on that error. Nothing could more conclusively show the 
utter worthlessness of the claim than the dependence put in 
a map of that section, made by J. Boykin in 1820. A cross 
mark on the map is made to designate the birthplace of. Jack- 
son, on the testimony, of course, of Jackson's own statement ; 
but in the same map the Waxhaw Creek is made to rise in 
South Carolina, though, as any one can find out for himself, it 



THE TllUTH ABOUT JACKSOJv^'s BIRTHPLACE. 235 

rises three miles inside of North Carolina. If J. Boykin 
was not accurate as to the location of a considerable creek, 
the location of which was a certainty, how could he locate the 
birthplace, about which he knew nothing ? 

So there is no evidence whatever except Jackson's. He 
believed he was "'& native of South Carolina," but his testi- 
mony, without any proof, would be worthless when opposed 
to the real evidence above set forth. Jackson, himself, knew 
he was born in McKemey's cabin, and said so to James Faulk- 
ner, when both were spending the night in the cabin. (See 
Parton's BiogTaphy, volume 1, page 55.) This leaves his 
own testimony, which is all South Carolina has, as being his 
belief that he was bom "in the McKemey cabin in South 
Carolina." He said one time that he was born "on the Craw- 
ford place," and the McKemey place was a part of the Craw- 
ford place and was naturally so considered, as Crawford was 
prosperous and McKemey was not ; and the place was sold 
by McKemey to a Crawford, so at the time Jackson made 
the statement, it was the Crawford place. He never said he 
was born in the Crawford home, in which he was raised, and 
his only definite statement as to his birthplace was that he 
was born in the McKemey cabin. That specific declaration 
outweighs all his various statements that he was born in 
South Carolina, for he believed the McKemey cabin was in 
South Carolina. 

COXCLUSIOX. 

This is the plain statement of the whole dispute about the 
much-discussed question. The Xorth Carolina claim is based 
on documentary facts. The South Carolina claim is based 
solely on the unsupported opinion of Jackson, Avhose opinion 
alone would leave the presumption in favor of JSTorth Caro- 
lina. All else that has been written or will be written on the 
subject is vain repetition and "words, words, words." 



BIOGRAPHICAL, GENEALOGICAL AND 
HISTORICAL MEMORANDA. 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY MKS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



ADELAIDE L. FRIES. 

Miss Adelaide Fries, the author of "Der North Carolina 
Land und Colonie Etablissement," in this number of The 
Booklet, was born in Salem, that quiet, quaint and charm- 
ing old Moravian town in l^orth Carolina, settled in 1765. 

She is the daughter of John William Fries (1846) and 
Agues S. de Schweinitz, daughter of Bishop Emil de Schwei- 
nitz, of the Moravian Church. She is the granddaughter of 
Francis Fries (1812-1863) and Lizzette (Vogler) Fries, 
daughter of John Yogler, Sr. 

She is the great-granddaughter of William Fries (1775-), 
who emigrated from Germany to ISTorth Carolina in 1809 and 
here married Elizabeth ISTissen. She is also a descendant on 
the maternal side of Count Zinzendorf, of Germany. 

The Fries family is of German descent, and trace their 
lineage from the middle of the seventeenth century. They 
were distinguished types of the church of the "Unity of 
Brethren," the official name of which was "LTnitas Fratrum," 
a body of earnest men who agreed to accept the Bible as their 
only standard of faith and practice, and established a strict 
discipline which should keep their lives in the simplicity, 
purity and brotherly love of the early apostolic church. 

Miss Fries is a graduate of Salem Academy, is President 
of the Salem Alumnse Association, and Chairman of the 
Literature Department. She has made extensive investiga- 
tions in Moravian archives in America and Europe, and is 
well prepared to give with accuracy and fidelity the history 
of the Moravian Church in America, and the broader history 



BIOGEAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL. 237 

of our country, which it touches on every side. She has 
written extensively on the subject, and has published "His- 
tory of Forsyth County" ; "The Moravians in Georgia, 1735- 
1740"; "The Funeral Chorals of the Moravian Church"; 
"Salem Academy" ; "Brief History of Moravian Church," 
and has been a faithful contributor to the Wachovia Histori- 
cal Society. This cultivated and useful woman is a fine type 
of the German element that has been a blessing to every 
community in which it settled. 

Miss Fries is a worthy descendant of a noble ancestry, and 
fully sustains the reputation won by them. She continues a 
close student of history and literature, and will fix her place 
securely among the historical writers of our time. 



SAMUEL A'COURT ASHE. 

The Booklet is indebted to Captain Ashe for the article 
on George Durant, which is given in his usual readable and 
charming style. It goes without saying that Captain Ashe, 
the subject of this sketch, is an historical genius and one in 
line with the foremost writers in ivTorth Carolina. He was 
born at Wrightsville Sound, eight miles from Wilmington, 
IST. C, on the 13th of September, 1840. He was the son of 
William Shepperd Ashe, of the Rocky Point family of that 
name, and his wife Sarah Ann Green, who in the maternal 
line was a Grange. 

Captain Ashe is connected lineally and collaterally with 
the old families who settled the Cape Fear country — the 
Porters, Swanns, Moseleys and Lillingtons. At the age of 
nine years, this young and promising boy was placed at 
school in Macon, Ga. Afterwards, until the age of fifteen, 
he attended schools at Georgetown, D. C. ; Rugby Academy, 
Washington, D. C. ; Oxford Academy, Maryland ; where he 
received such education as to enable him to enter the Naval 



238 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

Academy at Annapolis. Here he was called one of the ''star' 
members of his class until he resigned and returned to his 
father's home, at Rocky Point, where he devoted himself to 
the study of history and literature bearing on the profession 
of law, reading "Reeve's History of the Common Law," 
Sharon Turner's "x\ngio-Saxons," Robertson's "Charles V," 
"Hallam's Middle Ages," and "Constitutional History," and 
such other works. From such a course of reading he was well 
l^repared to take up a careful study of the law under Mr. 
William Ruffin, a man well endowed with great faculties and 
of a superior legal mind. About this time the Civil War 
broke out, and Mr. Ashe, like the other spirited young men, 
the flower of the South, laid aside his law books and re- 
sponded to the call of his country. His first service was 
under General Whiting, at Wilmington. He was appointed 
lieutenant and assigned to duty at Fort Caswell. This fort, 
at that time, was entirely defenseless, and entailed upon 
young Ashe an immense amount of responsibility ; but under 
the direction of Captain F. L. Childs, he was largely instru- 
mental in putting it in condition for defense. He filled 
several other positions, serving with fidelity and valor any 
place to which he was assigned. In June, 1861, he accepted 
the appointment as captain and adjutant-general on the staff 
of General Pender. Later he enlisted as a private in Co. I 
of the regiment then known as the Eighth, but later the 
Eighteenth ISTorth Carolina Troops. Captain Ashe served 
the whole term of the war, with credit to himself and an honor 
to the cause. His life as a soldier has been fully written by 
his comrades in arms ; therefore this writer will dwell prin- 
cipally on his career as student, lawyer, legislator, editor, 
historian, and citizen. 

It was at Rocky Point that Captain Ashe spent his early 
childhood. This was formerly the home of Edward Moseley, 
that man among men ; a defender of the people's rights, and 



BIOGEAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL. 239 

*'who espoused the cause of religious freedom against the 
bigotry and narrowness of his age and country." Might it 
not be said that here Captain Ashe imbibed the spirit of 
Edward Moseley i For it can not be doubted that material 
surroundings ofttimes impart influences that have their effect 
for good or bad, as the case may be. 

It was here at Rocky Point, far from "the crowds of mad- 
ding strife," that the foundation strong and sure was laid by 
Captain Ashe, fitting him for the exigencies of life. The 
knowledge of military tactics, acquired in four years of serv- 
ice as a soldier; his intimate knowledge of law, his experi- 
ence as a public official ; his monumental work as an editor, 
and his innate love for the history of his native State, havo 
been, and are, of incalculable advantage to him whose services 
are so often called into requisition. As a public official, his 
acts are recorded in the archives of State. As an editor, 
his name will descend to generations as one whose forecast, 
ability, judgment and discretion were of the best. By his 
editorials he led the party of the people from victory to 
victory. During the critical period after the war he directed 
his best efforts to save the State from vicious and dangerous 
rule. 

Captain Ashe has given much time to the study of North 
Carolina history, and is looked upon and appealed to as au- 
thority on any disputed point. He was a valuable aid to 
Colonel William L. Saunders in the preparation of that 
gigantic work, the Colonial Records ; and to Judge Walter 
Clark in the preparation of the State Records. He has pre- 
pared a school history of the State, which has not yet beon 
published. He has made many valuable public addresses bear- 
ing on State literature and history. His last most valuable 
contribution is his "History of North Carolina from 1584 to 
1783." Only Volume I has been published. The first vol- 
ume has been characterized thus by an acknowledged critic: 



240 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 

"The greatest event that N'orth Carolina has known was the 
publication of Captain Ashe's history." Every library in 
the State should have a copy of this book. It contains about 
725 pages, and is full of interest from cover to cover. He 
states in the preface that the work is based almost exclusively 
on the State publications ; nearly every statement relating to 
ISTorth Carolina has for its support contemporaneous docu- 
ments. It is dedicated to Thomas Jordan Jarvis and Colonel 
William Laurence Saunders, and closes with this paragraph: 

"I dedicate this volume to you and to the memory of my 
departed friend, it being an early fruitage of his important 
State publications, the preparation of which was made possi- 
ble by your own cordial concurrance: and I inscribe your 
name on this page in recognition of your great service to the 
people of North Carolina and in token of my friendship. 

"S. A. Ashe." 

Captain Ashe has contributed several articles of historic 
value to The N^oeth Carolina Booklet, In Vol. II his 
article on ''Our Own Pirates" is a story of those desperate 
robbers who infested the coast of Carolina in the early 
Colonial period. 

In Vol. IV "Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians" 
is told in a most interesting way and treated more fully than 
is done by any other writer. 

In addition to many historical and biog-raphical essays 
which he has written, he has frequently made literary ad- 
dresses of great merit and popularity. The address made 
on General Lee in 1906, under the auspices of the Johnston 
Pettigrew Chapter, Daughters of the Confederacy, received 
the highest commendations from those who heard it. This 
address was printed in pamphlet form and distributed by the 
Daughters as a means of enlightening the young generation 
and keeping fresh in their minds the greatness of Lee. 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND GENEALOGICAL. 241 

The ability and success with which Captain Ashe has 
wielded his pen proves the verity of the assertion that "the 
pen is mightier than the sword." 

Captain Ashe married, in 1871, Miss Hannah Emerson 
Willard, of Ealeigh, whom he survives, and has eight children. 



Note. — Credit is due to Dr. T. B. Kingsbury for facts contained in 
the above sketch, the Biographical History of North Carolina, and other 
sources. — Editor. 



BRUCE CRAVEN. 
Mr. Bruce Craven, author of "The Truth About Jackson's 
Birthplace," has previously contributed to The Booklet two 
articles on the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence ; 
and a sketch of his life appeared in The Booklet for Janu- 
ary, 1909. Mr. Craven is Superintendent of the City Schools 
of Kinston, and besides his high standing in educational 
circles, is a lawyer and public speaker of ability, has had 
experience in newspaper work, and is a frequent contributor 
to leading newspapers and magazines. His writings are 
characterized by conciseness and precision. 



242 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT TO THE MEMORY 

OF MRS. SUSAN GRAHAM CLARK, WHO 

DIED DECEMBER 10, 1909. 



IN MEMORIAM. 

Whereas, God in His infinite love and wisdom, has seen 
fit to remove from earth to heaven our loyal member, our 
beloved Vice-Eegent, Mrs. Susan Graham Clark : 

Therefore he it resolved, That the J^orth Carolina Society, 
Daughters of the Revolution, deplore the great loss they have 
sustained in her death. 

That they are thankful for the influence and inspiration 
of her noble life, and feel that they have lost a faithful and 
highly esteemed member, beloved of all other members, ever 
devoted to the work of the Society and ready to contribute to 
the success of all its undertakings. 

That they mourn the absence of her personal charm, and 
will ever lament the loss of her wise counsel. 

That we tender to the afflicted husband and family our 
heartfelt sympathy in this great bereavement. 

That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the 
Society and a copy sent to the family. 

Mrs. John E. Ray, 
Mrs. Leigh Skinner, 

Comrmttee. 



IX MEMOEIAM. 243 

TRIBUTE FROM A FRIEND. 



In Memoriam Mrs. Susan Graham Clark. 

The ISTorth Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, 
has sustained a loss in the removal to a higher, brighter life 
of one of her most prominent officers and loyal members, 
which will be felt not only in the present but through the 
coming years. Our beloved Vice-Regent was ever wise in 
counsel, true to the Society, just to her co-workers, and faith- 
ful to every duty that was hers, always anxious to assume 
even more than was her share. Those who were so fortunate 
as to have known her through this organization, feel that in 
knowing her they were amply compensated aside from other 
advantages. 

Mrs. Susan Graham Clark was the only daughter of the 
late Honorable William Alexander . Graham and Susan 
Washington, his wife. Her father was one of the greatest 
men of his time, and he lived in an age in which intel- 
lectual giants were not exceptions. Of noble lineage, 
reared amid an uplifting environment, where lofty ideals 
and brilliant intellects were guides to the moulding of a 
grand character, she maintained the standards established by 
her progenitors in this and other lands. She was ever the 
unconscious leader of every circle honored by her presence. 
To few it has been given the privilege to dwell under the 
influence of greatness which she keenly appreciated as well 
as inspired. 

The gift of intellectuality is to be prized and admired, but 
nobility of heart is to be cherished even more. With both 
Mrs. Clark was richly endowed. Her sympathy and kind- 
ness to those in sorrow knew no bounds. 

Another bright star has passed beyond our horizon, though 
the radiance will linger, a sweet reminder of the precious 
friend whose place will ever remain an empty void that can 
not be filled. 



INFORMATION 

Concerning the Patriotic Society 

"Daughters of the Revolution" 



The General Society was founded October 11, 1890, — and organized 
August 20, 1891, — under the name of "Daughters of the American 
Revolution"; was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York 
as an organization national in its work and purpose. Some of the mem- 
bers of this organization becoming dissatisfied with the terms of en- 
trance, withdrew from it and, in 1891, formed under the slightly differ- 
ing name "Daughters of the Revolution," eligibility to which from the 
moment of its existence has been lineal descent from an ancestor who 
rendered patriotic service during the War of Independence. 



" ^e North Carolina Society " 

a subdivision of the General Society, was organized in October, 1896, 
and has continued to promote the purposes of its institution and to 
observe the Constitution and By-Laws. 



Membership and Qualifications 

Any woman shall be eligible who is above the age of eighteen years, 
of good character, and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who (1) was 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, Legislature or General Court, of any of the Colonies 
or States; or (2) rendered civil, military or naval service under the 
authority of any of the thirteen Colonies, or of the Continental Con- 
gress; or (3) by service rendered during the War of the Revolution 
became liable to the penalty of treason against the government of Great 
Britain: Provided, that such ancestor always remained loyal to the 
cause of American Independence. 

The chief work of the North Carolina Society for the past eight years 
has been the publication of the "North Carolina Booklet," a quarterly 
publication on great events in North Carolina history — Colonial and 
Revolutionary. $1.00 per year. It will continue to extend its work and 
to spread the knowledge of its History and Biography in other States. 

This Society has its headquarters in Raleigh, N. C, Room 411, Caro- 
lina Trust Company Building, 232 Fayetteville Street. 



Some North Carolina Booklets for Sale 

Address, EDITOR, Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. 

"Greene's Eetreat," Dr. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vol. II 

"Our Own Pirates,"' Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

"Indian Massacre and Tusearora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Eev. J. E. Clewell. 

"Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

"The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

"Raleigh and the Old Town of Bloomsbury," Dr. K, P. Battle. 

"Historic Homes — Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hayes," Rodman, Blount, 

Dillard. 
"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 
"Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 
"Last Days of the War," Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

"Trial of James Glasgow," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

"Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry. 

"Historic Hillsboro," Mr. Francis Nash. 

"Colony of Transylvania," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 

Holladay, LL.D. 
"Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
"North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Mr. Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

"Battle Ramseur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm. A. Graham. 

"Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 

"Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 

"North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 
and Joseph Hewes," by Mr. T. M. Pittman and Dr. E. Walter Sikes. 

"Expedition to Cartagena, 1740," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

"Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 

"Highland Scotch Settlement in N. C," Judge James C. McRae. 

"The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 

"Battle of Guilford Court-house and German Palatines in North Caro- 
lina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge 0. H. Allen. 

"Genesis of Wake County," Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

4 1 



Vol. v.— (Quarterly.) 

No.1. 

"St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, and its Associations," Richard 

Dillard, M.D. 
"N. C. Signers of the National Declaration of Independence, Part II, 

William Hooper," Mrs. Spier Whitaker. 

No. 2. 

"History of the Capitol," Colonel Charles Earl Johnson. 

"Some Notes on Colonial North Carolina, 1700-1750," Colonel J. Bryan 

Grimes. 
"North Carolina's Poets," Rev. Hight C. Moore. 

No. 3. 

"Cornelius Harnett," Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

"Celebration of the Anniversary of May 20, 1775," Major W. A. 

Graham. 
"Edward Moseley," by Dr. D. H. Hill. 

No. 4. 

"Governor Thomas Pollok," Mrs. John W. Hinsdale. 
"Battle of Cowan's Ford," Major W. A. Graham. 

"First Settlers in North Carolina Not Religious Refugees," Rt. Rer. 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, D.D. 

Vol. VI-(Quarterly.) 
No. 1. 

"The Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina," Richard Dillard, M.D. 

"History Involved in the Names of Counties and Towns in North Caro- 
lina," Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

"A Colonial Admiral of the Cape Fear" (Admiral Sir Thomas Frank- 
land), Hon. James Sprunt. 

"Biographical Sketches: Introduction; Maj. Graham Daves." By Mrs. 
E. E. Moffitt. 

October, No. 2. 

"The Borough Towns of North Carolina," Mr. Francis Nash. 

"Governor Thomas Burke," J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Ph.D. 

"Colonial and Revolutionary Relics in the Hall of History," Col. Fred. 
A. Olds. 

"The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution and its 
Objects." 

"Biographical Sketches: Dr. Richard Dillard, Mr. Francis Nash, Dr. 
J. G. de R. Hamilton and Col. Fred A. Olds," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"State Library Building and Department of Archives and Records," 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 
"The Battle of Rockfish Creek, 1781," Mr. James Owen Carr. 
"Governor Jesse Franklin," Prof. J. T. Alderman. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown," Mrs. Lindsay 

Patterson, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

2 



"Biographical Sketches: Mrs. S. B. Kenneday, R. D. W. Connor, 
James Owen Carr and Prof. J. T. Alderman," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"Lock's Fundamental Constitution," Mr. Junius Davis. 

"The White Pictures," Mr. W. J. Peele. 

"North Carolina's Attitude Toward the Revolution," Mr. Robert Strong. 

Biographical Sketches: Richard Benbury Creecy, the D. R. Society 

and Its Objects, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Genealogical Sketches: Abstracts of Wills; ScoUey, Sprott and Hunter, 

Mrs. Helen de B. Wells. 

Vol. VII. (Quarterly.) 
July, No. 1. 

" North Carolina in the French and Indian War," Col. A. M. Waddell. 
" Locke's Fundamental Constitutions," Mr. Junius Davis. 
" Industrial Life in Colonial Carolina," Mr. Thomas M. Pittman. 
Address: "Our Dearest Neighbor — The Old North State," Hon. James 

Alston Cabell. 
Biographical Sketches: Col. A. M. Waddell, Junius Davis, Thomas M. 

Pittman, by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt; Hon. Jas. Alston Cabell, by Mary 

Hilliard Hinton. 
Abstracts of Wills. Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

October, No. 2. 

"Ode to North Carolina," Miss Pattie Williams Gee. 

" The Finances of the North Carolina Colonists," Dr. Charles Lee 

Raper. 
" Joseph Gales, Editor," Mr. Willis G. Briggs. 
" Our First Constitution, 1776," Dr. E. W. Sikes. 
"North Carolina's Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition," Miss 

Mary Hilliard Hinton. 
Biographical Sketches: Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Dr. Charles Lee Raper, 

Willis Grandy Briggs, Pattie Williams Gee. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

" General Robert Howe," Hon. John D. Bellamy. 

" Early Relations of North Carolina and the West," Dr. William K. 
Boyd. 

" Incidents of the Early and Permanent Settlement of the Cape Fear," 
Mr. W. B. McKoy. 

Biographical Sketches: John Dillard Bellamy, William K. Boyd, Wil- 
liam B. McKoy. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

"St. James's Churchyard" (Poem), Mrs. L. C. Markham. 

"The Expedition Against the Row Galley 'General Arnold' — A Side 

Light on Colonial Edenton," Rev. Robt. B. Drane, D.D. 
" The Quakers of Perquimans," Miss Julia S. White. 
" Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry," Judge James C. MacRae. 
Biographical Sketches: Mrs. L. C. Markham, Rev. R. B. Drane, Miss 

Julia S. White, Judge James C. MacRae. By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



Vol. VIII.-(Quapteply ) 
July, No. 1. 

"John Harvey," Mr. E. D. W. Connor. 

"Military Organizations of North Carolina During the American Revo- 
lution,' Clyde L. King, A.M. 

"A Sermon by Rev. George Micklejohn," edited by Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 
. Biographical and Genealogical Sketches : R. D. W. Connor, Clyde L. 
King, Marshall DeLancey Haywood, by Mrs. E. E. Moflfitt. 

"Abstracts of Wills," Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 
October, No. 2. 

"Convention of 1835," Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

"The Life and Services of Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner," Kemp 
P. Battle, LL.D. 

"The Significance of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," 
Prof. Bruce Craven. 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Judge Henry G. Connor, 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., Prof. Bruce Craven," by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

January, No. 3. 

"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," Mr. A. S. Salley, Jr. 

"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," Prof. Bruce Craven. 

"Mr. Salley's Reply." 

"Mr. Craven's Rejoinder." 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Prof. Bruce Craven, Mr. 

Alexander, S. Salley, Jr.," by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
"Patriotic Objects." 
"Information Concerning the Patriotic Society D. R." 

»TT T r^ ■ '. April, No. 4. 

Unveilmg Ceremonies. 

"Carolina," by Miss Bettie Freshwater Pool. 

"The Battle of King's Mountain," by Dr. William K. Boyd. 

"Schools and Education in Colonial Times," by Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

"North Carolina Heroines of the Revolution," by Richard Diliard, M.D. 

"Biographical and Genealogical Sketches: Bettie Freshwater Pool, Wil- 
liam K. Boyd, Charles Lee Smith, Richard Diliard," by Mrs. E. E. 
Moffitt. 

Vol. IX.-(Quarterly.) 
July, No. 1. 

"Indians, Slaves and Tories: Our 18th Century Legislation Regarding 
Them," Clarence H. Poe. 

"Thomas Person," Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

"Sketch of Flora McDonald," Mrs. S. G. Ayr. 

"Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda: Clarence H. Poe, Dr. 
Stephen B. Weeks, Mrs. S. G. Ayr," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

"Abstracts of Wills: Shrouck, Stevens, Sanderson, Shirley, Stevenson, 
Sharee, Shearer, Shine, Smithson, Sitgreaves," Mrs. Helen DeB. 
Wills. 

4 



October, No. 2. 

"General Joseph Grraham," Mrs. Walter Clark. 

"State Rights in North Carolina Through Half a Century," Dr. H. M. 

Wagstaflf. 
"The Nag's Head Portrait of Theodosia Burr," Miss Bettie Freshwater 

Pool. 
"Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda: Mrs. Walter Clark, H. M. 

Wagstaff," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
"Abstracts of Wills: Arnold, Ashell, Avelin, Adams, Battle, Burns, 

Boge, Bennett," Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

January, No. 3. 

"History of Lincoln County," Mr. Alfred Nixon. 
"Our State Motto and Its Origin," Chief Justice Walter Clark. 
"Work Done by the D. R. in Pasquotank County," C. F. S. A. 
"Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda: Alfred Nixon, Walter 

Clark," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
"Abstracts of Wills: Clark, Evans, Fendall, Fort, Gorbe, Gambell, 

Grainger, Hill, White," Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 

April, No. 4. 

"Der North Carolina Land und Colonie Etablissement," Miss Adelaide 

L. Fries. 
"George Durant," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 
"Hatorask," Mr. Jaques Busbee. 
"The Truth about Jackson's Birthplace," Prof. Bruce Craven. 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda : Miss Fries, Captain Ashe, 
Professor Craven," Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



Vols. I, II, III, IV, 25 cents each number. 
Vols. V, VI, VI, VIII, IX, 35 cents each number. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



VOLUME IX. 



PAGE 



Indians, Slaves and Tories: Our 18th Century Legislation 

Regarding Them By Clarence H. Poe. 3-15 

Thomas Person By Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 16-35 

Sketch of Flora McDonald By Mrs. S. G. Ayr. 36-51 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda: Clarence H. 
Poe, Stephen B. Weeks, Mrs. S. G. Ayr, 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffltt. 52-56 
Abstracts of Wills previous to 1760: Shrouck, Stevens, 
Sanderson, Shirley, Stevenson, Sharee, Shearer, Shine, 

Smithson, Sitgreaves By Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 57-58 

General Joseph Graham By Mrs. Walter Clark. 61-78 

State Rights in North Carolina Through Half a Century, 

By Dr. H. M. Wagstaff. 79-97 
The Nag's Head Picture of Theodosia Burr, 

Miss Bettie Freshwater Pool. 98-104 
Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda: Mrs. Walter 

Clark, H. M. Wagstaff By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 105-106 

Abstracts of Wills previous to 1760: Arnold, Ashell, Avelin, 
Adams, Battle, Burns, Boge, Bennett, 

By Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 107-108 
Illustrations : 

General Joseph Graham. 

Supposed Portrait of Theodosia Burr Alston. 

History of Lincoln County By Mr. Alfred Nixon. 111-178 

Our State Motto and Its Origin, By Chief Justice Walter Clark. 179-182 
The Work Done by the D. R. in Pasquotank County, 

By C. F. S. A. 183-184 
Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda: Alfred Nixon, 

Walter Clark By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 185-193 

Abstracts of Wills previous to 1760: Clark, Evans, Fendall, 
Fort, Gorbe, Gambell, Grainger, Hill, White, 

Mrs. Helen DeB. Wills. 194-196 
Der North Carolina Land und Colonic Etablissement, 

By Miss Adelaide L. Fries. 199-214 

George Durant By Captain S. A. Ashe. 215-222 

Hatorask By Mr. Jaques Busbee. 223-231 

The Truth About Jackson's Birthplace, By Prof. Bruce Craven. 232-235 
Biographical and Geneological Memoranda: Miss Fries, 

Captain Ashe, Prof. Craven By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 236-241 

Illustrations: 

Map of Part of Forsyth County. 
Hatteras— "The Golgotha of the Sea." 



The North Carolina Booklet 



A QUARTERLY PUBLICATION ISSUED UKDER 
THE AUSPICES OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION" 



THIS PUBLICATION treats of important 
events in North Carolina Historj^, such 
as may throw light upon the political, social 
or religious life of the people of this State 
during the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods, in the form of monographs written 
and contributed by as reliable and pains- 
taking historians as our State can produce. 
The Ninth Volume begins in Julv, 1909. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
One Year, One Dollar; Single Copies, Thirty-five Cents. 



Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Editors, 
Raleigh, North C arolina. 

Registered at Raleigh Post-office as second class matter. 

Not,ice should be given if the subscription is to be discon- 
tinued. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the sub- 
scription is desired 

Send all orders for back numbers to Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

All communications relating to subscriptions should be 
sent to 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Midway Plantati'~'n, Raleigh, N. C. 



Genealogical Department 

[loRTH Caroiiina Society 

DBOOHTERS OF THE REVOUUTIOU 
YOUR ANCESTRY CAN BE CAREFULLY TRACED 

The Colonial and State Records of North Carolina, Pay-rolls of Revo- 
lutionary Soldiers filed in State Auditor's Office, County 
Records, Family Records, State Histories and 
Biographies will be diligently 
examined. 

Fee for Such Researches, ST.OOto $10.00, 

according to Difficulty of Research (not 

less than S7.00 paid with order). 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mes. Helen DeBernieee Wills, 
Kindly remit by money order. (Genealogist for N. C. D. R.) 

Raleigh, North Carolina. 

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and enclosed in passe partout . - - - . .$12.00 

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Write for particulars, enclosing stamp. 

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Raleigh, North Carolina. 

8 



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AMENDED BY CHAPTER 714, PyOLlC LAWS OF 1907. 

MEMBERS 

J. BEYAN GRIMES, Chairman Raleigh, N. C. 

VV. J. PEELE Raleigh, N. C 

THOS. W. BLOUNT Roper, N. C. 

M. C. S. NOBLE Chapel Hill, N. C. 

D. H. HILL Raleigh, N. C. 

SECRETARY 

R. D. W. CONNOR - - - - Raleigh, N. C. 



PURPOSES. 

1. " To have collected from the files of old newspapers, court records, 
church records, private coUectious, and elsewhere, historical data pertain- 
ing to the history of North Carolina aad the territory included therein 
from the earliest times." 

2. " To have such material properly edited, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the direction of the 
Commission." 

8. " To care for the proper marking and preservation of battlefields 
houses and other places celebrated in the history of the State." 

4. "To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources of 
North Carolina." 

5. " To encourage the study of North Carolina history in the schools of 
the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical investigation and 
research among the people of the State."— Section 2, Chapter 714, Public 
Laws of 1907. 



The Secretary wishes to correspond with any person who is willing 
to assist the Commission, by p:ifts or loans or manuscripts, in- 
formation of the whereabouts of such documents, or 
otherwise in carrying out the above purposes. 



Jlddnss all Communkathns to tl}e Secretary 

10 



dbe Btlantk f\n Unsurance 
Company 

IRaUidb, iRortb Carolina. 

SOLICITS YOUR PATRONAGE 



CASH CAPITAL $125,000 

A HOME COMPANY, OWNED AND OPERATED 
BY HOME PEOPLE. 



CHAS. E JOHNSON, President H. W. JACKSON, Treasurer. 

J. G. BROWN, Vice-President. G. H. DORTCH, Secretary, 



CAPITAL $100,000.00 SURPLUS $100,000.0 

Tre 

Commercial IRational Banii 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



The policy of this bank is to conduct its business along 
the most conservative lines; to restrict its opera- 
tions to legitimate enterprises; to elimi- 
nate all speculative ventures. 



OFFICERS 

B. S. JERMAN, President. H. W. JACKSON, Cashier. 

A. A. THOMPSON, Vice-President. E. B. CROW, Asst. Cashier. 

J. J. THOMAS, Chairman of Board. 

11 



CITIZENS NATIONAL "BANK, 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Our customers are guaranteed every accommodation their 
business, balances and responsibility warrant. 

THE OLDEST BANK— LARGEST BANK— AND 
ONLY NATIONAL BANK IN RALEIGH. 

JOS. G. BROWN, President. HENRY E. LITCHFORD, Cashier 

DIRECTORS: 

JOSEPH G. BROWN. A. B. ANDREWS. 

R. H. BATTLE. DR. A. B. HAWKINS. 

DR. RICHARD H. LEWIS. WM. .L ANDREWS. 

IVEN M. PROCTOR. JOHN C. DREWRY. 

S. C. VANN. 

Thk Keystonk 

A Southern "Woman's Journal, Published Monthly 
by Southern Women. Now in its 7th year. 

Official Organ for the Clubwomen and Daughters of the Confederacy in 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida and Mississippi. 

SUBSCRIPTION, 50c. PER YEAR 

North Carolina Booklet, |1.00 per year— The Keystone and the North 
Carolina Booklet for |1.10 per year. 
Address 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

Editor N. C. Booklet, 
Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 




DURilBLY AND 
BEAUTIFULLY BOUND 



ARTISTIC m^(^Sm LOWEST 
PRINTING it^^M PRICES 



Club Programs and Embossed Stationery 

ESTIMATES ON APPLICATION 



12 



ircumstances Alter Cases 



f ircun 

^^^_^But Not our Cases. They are Always the 
same. Guaranteed whether Filled or Gold. 



Jolly-Wynne Jewelry Co. 

RALEIGH, = = = - NORTH CAROLINA. 



iisyoiSM 



Raleigh, North Carolina 






THE BIG 

Hardware Men 

PAINTS 
MAJESTIC RANGES 



Thomas A. Partin Co. 

131 Fayetteville Street RALEIGH, W. C 

Dry Goods 

Ladies' Furnishings 

and Novelties 

Prompt attention given to local and mail 
orders. 

Darnell d Thomas 

118 Fayetteville St. Raleigh, N. C. 

Pianos, Organs 
Sheet Music :: 

The Soul Stirring " DIXIE " 
a Specialty 

J. R. FERRALL & CO. 

Grocers 

222 FAYETTEVILLE ST. 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Raleidb £bri$tian Jidvocate 

establisbed 185$. 



Organ of the North Carolina Conference, 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

Reaches weekly over 9,000 Subscribers. 

13 



f^^t^e^:.^l^ 



CAPITAL STOCK 
$30,000. 



A personal investigation will convince any one that KING'S is abso- 
lutely the Largest, Best Equipped and Most Successful College of Busi- 
ness, Shorthand, Typewriting, Penmanship and English in the Caro- 
linas, regardless of any claims the small fry are making. Strong, 
financial backing. 

Reference: Every Bank and Leading Btisiness Concern in 

Raleigh or Charlotte. 
College Jorirnal and Special Offers FREE. 
We also teach Bookkeepifig, Shorthand and Pemnanship 

by mail. 



King's Business College, 



Kaleigrh, N, C, oi 
Charlotte, N. C. 



'It's -worth the difference' 



RALEIGH, N. C. 

Workers in Artistic Photography 

Negatives on file of most all N. C. Famous Men 



North Carolina State Flags 

State Flag Post Cards 

State Flag Buttons, 6c. 

All sizes and prices of State Flags 
on hand, from the smallest 1-cent 
Muslin, to the largest Bunting. 

Send for price-list. 

PINCK. C. ENNISS. 

RALEIGH. N. C. 




14 



IS-^Tfo^Tr" "A SOUTHERNER IN EUROPE" 

By CLARENCE H. POE. 

is now on the press — (the first edition having 

been quickly exhausted) — in larger type, 

handsomer binding and better paper 

than the first. Price: cloth $1.00; 

heavy paper 60 cents. Order 

to-day from 

THE MUTUAL PUBLISHING CO.. RALEIGH, N. C. 

Chief Justice TValter Clart of North Carolina: "Mr. Poe's are the best traves 
etters I have ever seen from any European tourist." 

Birmingrham (Ala.) Ag-e-Herald: " 'A Southerner in Europe' is all right— not like 
the ordinary book of travels, but charming letters — different and pleasing." 

Dr. Chas. R. Henderson, University of Chicagro : " Mr. Poe certainly travels 
with his eyes open and knows how to interpret what he finds for the advantage of our 
country." 

Columbia State, Columbia, S. C. : "A collection of charming letters of travel, full 
of interesting observations. . . . This volume will prove delightful to every class of 
readers." 

President Geo. II. Denny, "Washington and Lee University. Lexingrton, 
Va. : "Mr. Poe is to be congratulated upon 'A Southerner in Europe.' I have read it 
with genuine interest and satisfaction, and it will do a great deal of good." 

President H. N. Snyder, "WoflFord Collegre, Spartanburg-, S. C: " 'A South- 
erner in Europe' has brought me much pleasure and profit both from the author's charm 
of manner and the freshness of his point of view." 

Zach McGhee, author "The Dark Corner," "Washingrton, D. C: "Entertain- 
ing and inspiring, I wish every Southerner in our land could read it. Mr. Poe has drawn 
lessons no one else has drawn, and has presented them in truly charming style." 

Dr. JSdwin Mims, author of "The Life of Sidney Lanier": "Not the con- 
ventional book of travel, but the impression of an alert, open-minded, progressive South- 
erner with insight and discrimination, a constructive leader in the development of the 
South." 

Presbyterian Standard, Charlotte, N. C. ; "There are no dull places. The en- 
tertainment is pronounced throughout. If anybody, who would know more of the wide 
world, and love his country better, has never read this little book, let him sit down and 
order a copy at once." 

Ex-Governor Charles B. Aycock of North Carolina: "I read the last chapter 
the other night, having for the first time found the opportunity to look into it. Having 
read the last chapter I turned back and took the book up from the beginning, and nearly 
completed it before laying it down. It is in every way most delightful and instructive." 
^Nashville Christian Advocate, Nashville. Tenn : "The man who knows how to 
pToduce so sprightly a paper as he edits, and whose contributions on Southern industrial 
conditions are welcomed by the best magazines, naturally knows what to look for in Eu- 
rope and how to tell the story when he has seen it. Mr. Poe has made a capital httle 
book." 

R. E, Borden, Strasburgr, Va: "I'm just reveling with the greatest delightiln 
reading 'A Southerner in Europe.' It is charmingly written and holds one's interest easily 
to the end. My only complaint is, it isentirelv too brief, and I wish the author had toured 
every country of Europe, and part of Asia and Africa." 

Jeffersonian Magrazine, Atlanta. Ga. : "It was time for a new book of travels in 
Europe. All of the works of that kind that are on our bookshelves are out of date. 
What we wanted was a volume which would picture to us the condition of things now. 
Mr. Poe has supplied this demand. Without the waste of a page he has furnished a view 
of the European world which enables one to see the town and farm of to-day, and the 
manner of life, the diversity of work and the trend of things as they are at this very time." 

15 



J. M. BROUGHTON 



T. B. MOSELEY 



J. M. Broughton ^ Co. 

f^cal Estate and Insurance 

City and country property bought and sold on commission. 
Rents collected and satisfaction guaranteed. 
Oldest Real Estate concern in the city. 



OFFICE: 12 West Martin St. 



RALEIGH, ^. C. 




LADIES 

Why not carry a $1,000 Policy in the 

Jefferson Standard Life Ins. Go. 

for the benefit of your children? The Jef- 
ferson Standard is the strongest 
in the South. 



te.- 


^S^L^^ Kome Office, Raleigh, N. C. 






Ihe 

news and Observer 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Published at tbe gat^ttal gity 




JOSEPHUS DANIELS 

EDITOR 






Growth of Circulation 

1894, 1,800 subscribers 1901, 6,500 

1895, 2,400 subscribers 1902, 7,054 

1896, 3,100 subscribers 1903, 8,201 

1897, 4,200 subscribers 1904, 9,111 

1898, 4,880 subscribers 1905, 10,000 

1899, 5,200 subscribers 1906, 11,000 

1900, 5,700 subscribers 1907, 12,000 





16 



THE J. G. BALL COMPANY 

WHOLESALE 
GROCERS 

131 AND 133 South Wilmington Steeet 

RALEIGH, N. C. 
Solicit the Trade of Merchants Only 

try(apudine 

for COLDS and GRIPP 

relie ves the feverishness and aching and restores normal conditions 
Take a dose as soon as you are exposed and feel the cold coming on and. 
it will generally prevent it. Taken afterwards will relieve the ailment. 

SOLD AT ALL DRUG STORES 

LET THE 

iV\eQl\ai\ic5 £aVii\g5 ^ai\k 

TAKE CARE OF YOUR 

SAVINGS 

WE PAY FOUR PER CENT INTEREST 
ON DEPOSITS 

Dobbin-Ferrall Company 

123-125 Fayetteville Street 
RALEIGH, N. C. 

North Carolina's Largest and Leading 
Retail Dry Goods Establishment 

Greatest attention is given to Eeady-to-wear Garments for Ladies and 
Misses. Costumes, Coat Suits, Skirts, Waists, Top Coats and Wraps. 
Alterations are made free of charge by competent tailoresses and 
promptly. We carry the largest stocks in these lines to be found in 
North Carolina. 

17 



CHARLES ROOT, Cashier 

RALEIGH SAVINGS BANK 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

RESERVED INTEREST . . . . 15,000.00 

CAPITAL 115,000.00 

SURPLUS 150,000.00 

DEPOSITS OVER . . . . . 1750,000.00 

FOUR PER CENT INTEREST PAID ON DEPOSITS 

BOYLAN-PEARCE CO. 

Dry Goods Leaders in the Capital City 
A Store With a State -wide Reputation 

Staple and Fancy Dress Goods, Silks and Cotton 
Fabrics, White Goods in Immense Variety, Coat 
Suits, Waists and Skirts, Swellest Millinery, Laces, 
Embroideries, Parasols, Fans, Gloves and Hand- 
kerchiefs, Blankets, Comforts, Toweling, Sheeting 
and Pillow Cases, Lace and Net Curtains, and 
Scrims, Damask Napkins and Towels, Carpets, Art 
Squares, Rugs, Linoleums and Oil Cloths. 

Samples submitted and contracts taken for public buildings, churches 
libraries and private residences. 

BOYLAN-PEARCE COMPANY 

206-208 Fayetteville Street RALEIGH. N. C. 



ANTICEPHALALGINE 

THE WONDERFUL REMEDY FOR 

HEADACHE AND NEURALGIA 



For Sale by All Druggists 




RALEIGH 


25 


AND 50 Cents per Bottle 
18 




North Carolina 




North CarolsF^a 


State 


Ltbr^:^ 



Raleiah 




Mlffi iS[ S CO. 

109 Fayetteville Street 
RALEIGH, N. C. 

The Place 

THAT STANDS FOE 

Correct Styles 
in Millinery 

Two Stores in One 



Heller Bros. 

SHOES AND TRUNKS 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Carolina Electrical Co. 

RALEIGI[, N. C. 

Engineers Contractors 
Supplies 

Electric Light, Telephone and Annuncia- 
tor Installation. 



Weathers 6 Perry 

Fayetteville Street 
RALEIGH, N. C. 

China and Art Store and 
Interior Decorators 

J. C. Ellington 

Pictures, Artists' Materials 
Wall-papers 
and Window-shades 

Embroideru Silks Wools and Zephurs 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



FIFTIETH ANNUAL 

N. G. STATE FAIR, RALEIGH, OCT. 1910. 

Four full days. 112.000 offered in prizes. Grand display of live stock, agricultural 
and horticultural products, machinery and fine arts. Fastest trotting and pacing races, 
special stage and musical attractions and specialties. Biggest midway in the South. 
General admission 50 cents, children 25 cents. For prize list and information, address 
Joseph E. Pogue, Secretary, Raleigh, N. C. 

CORNELIUS HARNETT. An Essay in North Carolina 
History. By R. D. W. Connor, Secretary of the North Caro- 
lina Historical Commission. 

"I have just finished reading Harnett. . . . You have made an 
interesting story of a most significant and interesting man." — Edward 
K. Graham, Professor of English Literature, University of North 
Carolina. 

"I have read with pleasure and pride Mr. Connor's forthcoming 
sketch of Cornelius Harnett. It is an interesting and scholarly piece 
of work and should have a wide circulation." — C. ALPnoNSo Smith, 
Professor of the English Language, University of North Carolina; 
Author of "Our Debt to Cornelius Harnett." 

Edwards & Broughton Printing Co., Raleigh, N. C. 

Price, $1.50 



^1