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Vol. XII 

JULY, 1912 

No. 1 


North Carolina Booklet 











Swannanoa -------- 3 

By Calvin H. Wiley 

Union County and the Old Waxhaw Settlement - 6 

J^ By Robert Ney McNeely 

The Masonic Revolutionary Patriots of North Carolina 21 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Diary of George Washington 41 

A Partisan Leader in 1776 53 

By Rebecca Cameron 

Rowan County Wills 59 

By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins 

Biographical and Genealogical Sketch - . . ^3 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 



N ?■ I 3 b 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XII of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1912. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price ?1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Miss Maby Hilliaed Hinton. 


History of Union County, Including the Waxhaw Settlement. 

Mr. Ney McNeely 

The Forest (Poem) Mr. R. F. Jarrett 

Masonic Revolutionary Patriots in North Carolina. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 
Our Forests — What They Have Done, Are Doing, and May Do 

for North Carolina Dr. Collier Cobb 

Some Notable Senatorial Campaigns in North Carolina. 

Judge Robert W. Winston 
Historic Homes, Part VI: Palmyra in the Happy Valley. 

Mrs. Lindsay Patterson 
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele: the Famous Revolutionary Patriot. 

Dr. Archibald Henderson 
Reprint of Washington's Diary, written in North Carolina. 

The Confederacy (Poem) Mr. R. F. Jarrett 

History of the Whig Party in North Carolina. 

North Carolina's Social Life, Ante-bellum Major E. J. Hale 

How "Carolina" Came to be Written Mr. Jaques Busbee 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina's History, will appear 
hereafter in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1800, as sources 
of biography, history and genealogy. Mrs. M. G. McCubbins will 
contribute abstracts of wills and marriage bonds in Rowan County 
to the coming volume. Hon. F. D. Winston will furnish similar 
data from Bertie County. 

Mrs. E. E. Moflatt has consented to edit the Biographical Sketches 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XII are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XI for sale. 

Vol. XII JULY, 1912 No. 1 


floRTH CflROIilHfl BoOKliET 

^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heave^i' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her." 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editor. 


Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 


Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 


vice-regent : 


Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 




Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 






Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 
DeGraffenried Chapter Mrs. Charles Slover Hollister, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

*Died December 12, 1904. 
tDied November 25, 1911. 


Vol. XII JULY, I9I2 No. i 



In North Carolina Reader, 1855. 

Swannanoa, nymph of beauty, 

I would woo thee in my rhyme, 
Wildest, brightest, loveliest river 

Of our sunny Southern clime ! 
Swannanoa, well they named thee, 

In the mellow Indian tongue ; 
Beautiful* thou art, most truly. 

And right worthy to be sung. 

I have stood by many a river. 

Known to story and to song — 
Ashley, Hudson, Susquehanna, 

Fame to which may well belong ;- 
I have camped by the Ohio, 

Trod Scioto's fertile banks, 
Followed far the Juniata, 

In the wildest of her pranks, — 

But thou reignest queen forever. 
Child of Appalachian hills, 

Winning tribute as thou flowest. 
From a thousand mountain rills. 

* Swannanoa, in the Indian tongue (Cherokee) signifies beautiful. 

5* \ U b H 


Tliine is beauty, strength-begotten, 
'Mid the cloud begirded peaks. 

Where the patriarch of the mountains* 
Heav'nward for thy waters seeks. 

Through the laurel and the beeches, 

Bright thy silvery current shines. 
Sleeping now in granite basins. 

Overhung by trailing vines. 
And anon careering onward 

In the maddest frolic mood. 
Waking, with its sea-like voices, 

Fairy echoes in the wood. 

Peaceful sleep thy narrow valleys. 

In the shadow of the hills, 
And thy flower-enameled border. 

All the air with fragrance fills. 
Wild luxuriance, generous tillage. 

Here alternate meet the view. 
Every turn, through all thy windings, 

Still revealing something new. 

Where, O graceful Swannanoa, 

Are the warriors who of old 
Sought thee at thy mountain sources, 

Where thy springs are icy cold — 
Where the dark brow'd Indian maidens, 

Who their limbs were wont to lave 
(Worthy bath for fairer beauty) 

In thy cool and limpid wave ? 

'Black Mountain. 


Gone forever from thy borders, 

But immortal in thy name, 
Are the Eed Men of the forest! 

Be thou keeper of their fame ! 
Paler races dwell beside thee, 

Celt and Saxon till thy lands, 
Wedding use unto thy beauty — 

Linking over thee their hands. 




The territory lying between the Rocky River and the 
Catawba and which now comprises Union County, i^orth 
Carolina, was, prior to the coming of the white settlers, in- 
habited by a tribe of Indians called the "Waxhaws," from 
whom the Waxhaw Settlement took its name. Aside from 
the traditions of the Catawba Indians, a kindred tribe of the 
Waxhaws, of the battles between the Waxhaws and neighbor- 
ing tribes of Indians, the earliest information we have of 
the Waxhaws is the mention made by John Lawson, Sur- 
veyor-General of the Carolinas, who on the last day of the 
year 1699 left Charlestown, South Carolina, and made his 
way up through the Carolinas on a surveying or rather pros- 
pecting tour. He had with him one man, and he tells in his 
diary that when they reached the settlement of the Waxhaw 
Indians the chief of the tribe received them cordially, en- 
tertained them in his wig'wam, and gave them every assist- 
ance that he could ; that the man he had with him married 
one of the Indian girls the first evening they were in the 
Waxhaws, that on the next morning he awoke and found 
that his new Indian wife had secretly abandoned him in the 
night and had carried away with her all of his clothes, valu- 
ables, a pair of moccasins and a red bandana handkerchief, 
and that the chief upon being informed of the loss that the 
groom had suffered ordered some of his men to go in search 
of the young lady, had her brought back and compelled her to 
restore the stolen articles. 

In about the vear 1740 the Waxhaw Indians were attacked 


with an epidemic of smallpox, a disease theretofore unknown 
to this tribe, which killed so many of them as to cause the 
tribe to disband and join the Catawbas and other neighbor- 
ing tribes. The lands covered by the village of the Waxhaws 
were later embraced in the farm of C'apt. Andrew Pickens 
on Waxhaw Creek. Upon this territory becoming abandoned 
by the Indians, the land agents, finding so goodly a land un- 
molested by savages and claimed by no one, immediately 
began an advertising scheme to brino' desirable immigrants 
to it from any and all places where the best class of immi- 
grants could be found. This brought settlers from Germany, 
England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Virginia, Pennsylvania, 
and the already settled portions of i^orth Carolina. The 
Scotch-Irish settlers from Pennsylvania made what has 
always been termed ''The Waxhaw Settlement," which com- 
prises Jackson and Sandy Eidge townships in Union County 
and a portion of Lancaster County across the South Carolina 
line. Vance and Goose Creek townships were settled mostly 
by people from Eowan and Cabarrus counties. IStew Salem, 
Marshville, and Lane's Creek townships were settled by peo- 
ple from Virginia and the settled portions of ]S'^orth Carolina. 
Buford Township was settled by immigrants from Germany, 
and Monroe Township was settled by immigrants from all 
the places hereinbefore named. 

At the time of the coming of the white settlers this terri- 
tory was covered with a massive forest of oak, pine and other 
timber. There was no underbrush, the trees were large, 
rather far apart, high to the limbs and heavy topped — so, 
that, while the rays of the sun could hardly reach the ground 
through the thick tree tops, the view from the ground of the 
surface of the country was unbroken except by the large tree 
trunks which like rustic columns supported the canopy of 


foliage above. For grazing the territory was unsurpassed, 
for the grass grew almost waist high and the country was 
covered with a thick growth of wild pea vines. Here the 
j)ioneer hunter found game in abundance and fish in every 

The territory which is now Union County was until 1749 
included in the boundary of Bladen, after which time until 
1Y63 it was included in the boundary of Anson, and from 
1763 until the county of Union was established in 1842 one- 
half of the territory belonged to Anson and the other half to 
Mecklenburg. So, the best of both Mecklenburg and Anson 
was taken to make Union. 

The Waxhaw Settlement was made in 1751 by the Scotch- 
Irish from Pennsylvania. These people, after the siege of 
Londonderry, had come to Pennsylvania, pushed forward to 
the western frontiers until they found themselves in imme- 
diate contact with the Indians, among whom the French hos- 
tile influence was predominant, and with whom they had 
speedily become involved in quarrels in which the rich but 
peaceable Pennsylvania Quakers refused to give assistance, 
and in the hope of securing both friendlier neighbors and a 
milder climate they had left Pennsylvania and had come 
down, following the foot of the mountains until they reached 
the Waxhaws. Among these immigrant settlers was Andrew 
Pickens, father of General Andrew Pickens of Revolutionary 
fame, who soon organized the men of the settlement into a 
company of militia, and the IS^orth Carolina State Records 
show a copy of a report of "Capt. Andrew Pickens, of Anson, 
in 1755," which gives the names of the men of his company 
as follows : "Lieutenant, Robert Ramsay ; Ensign, John 
Crocket; Sergeant, Thomas Wright; Sergeant, William 
Beard ; Sergeant, William King ; Corporal, Alexander 



Crocket ; Corporal, John Hagans ; Corporal, John Galahen ; 
Corporal, John Martin Clime ; Corporal, William Hood, and 
Privates : 

Archie Crocket 
Andrew Nutt 
Andrew Pickens 
Andrew Curswell 
Andrew McCoune 
Benjamin Thompson 
David Miller 
Phalex Canady 
George Davis 
George Walker 
George Douglass 
Hugh McCain 
Hugh Coffey 
John Davis 
John Nutt 
John Pickens 
John Lynn 
John Arnel Pender 
John Canady 
John Hood 

John Taylor 
John Wall 
John Montgomery 
John Lockhart 
John Taggart 
John Hartley 
James McCorkle 
James Walker 
James Moore 
Joseph Pickens 
Jeremiah Collins 
Joseph Baxter 
Moses Davis 
Patrick Coin 
Philip Walker 
Edward Williams 
Robert Davis 
Robert Crockett 
Robert Nutt 
Roger Smith 

Robert McClelland 
Robert Gait 
Robert Caldwell 
Robert Maheney 
Robert McCorkle 
Robert Montgomery 
Robert Woods 
Robert Day 
Samuel Rogers 
Samuel Burnett 
William Davis 
William Nutt 
William Nutt, Jr. 
William Pickens 
William Arden 
William McKee 
"William King 
William Smith 
William Martin 
William Lynn 

To this settlement also there came from Scotland and Ire- 
land many immigTants directly. Among these were Andrew 
Jackson, Sr. (father of the seventh President), Maj. James 
Crawford, George McCamie, and Messrs. Crow, Latham, and 
Leslie, all of whom were brothers-in-law, having married 
sisters — the Hntchinsons — in Carrickfergns, Ireland. To 
the Waxhaws, too, came Patrick Calhoun, father of South 
Carolina's greatest statesman. About the same time came 
Caj)tain James Wauhab (Walkup), who afterwards led his 
company in the battle of Wauhab's Mill, or as it is locally 
called, "The Battle of the Waxhaws," and it was ^here that 
he met and married Margaret Pickens, one of the sisters of 
General Andrew Pickens. To the Waxhaws came the Rev. 


Alexander Craighead, the Eev. William Richardson, and 
several other Presbyterian preachers, who were profound 
scholars and who devoted the full measure of their ability to 
the educational, religious and political development of the 
l^eople of the settlement. 

The settlers in the Waxhaws built a Presbyterian church — 
now called the Old Waxhaw Church — just over the line in 
South Carolina. The location of this church was at the time 
thought to be in Anson County, X. C, and it was many 
years later when the State line w^as run that it first appeared 
that the church was in South Carolina. The deed given by 
Eev. Pobt. Miller for the church gTounds says that it is 
"lying and being in the county of Anson and State of Xorth 
Carolina," and the deed is recorded in Anson County, IST. C. 
This church was always served by an educated ministry, and 
these ministers not only used the church for religious serv- 
ices on the Sabbath, but for school purposes through the 
week. The people from over a scope of country for fifteen 
miles around attended the religious services at this church. 
The school advantages given by the ministers in this church 
were equal to any schools of the kind in the southern colonies 
before the Revolutionary War. The people here purchased 
good books, well bound in leather, and in the libraries of the 
people in the Waxhaws to this day may be seen many of the 
old books of their pioneer ancestors. 

Before the beginning of the Revolution the entire territory 
which had once been the hunting grounds of the Waxhaw In- 
dians, and which is now Union County, had become partially 
settled throughout. However, except in the Waxhaw Settle- 
ment, churches and schools were still not started, and it was 
after the Revolution that churches and schools were first 
established among these people. So, the religious and educa- 
tional training of these children of the i:)ioneers was left to 
the parents in the homes. 


Among these settlers over the county were John Belk, 
Esquire, from Middlesborough, England; Stephen Billue, 
Thomas Cochran, James Doster, Maj. John Foster, John 
Eord (one of the signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence), Richard Griffin, Henry Hargett, from Ger- 
many ; George Helms and Tilman Helms, from Pennsylvania ; 
James Houston and William Houston, from Virginia ; Aaron 
Howie, John Lemmond, and William Lemmond, from Ire- 
land ; George Laney, from Germany ; William McRee, Hugh 
McCain, George McW^horter, Henry McXeely, John 
Mco^eely, John McCorkle, David Moore, Charles Mont- 
gomery, Capt. Charles Polk, William Pyron, Wm. Osborne, 
James Ross, John Stilwell, Jesse Stilwell, William Simpson, 
Jacob Secrest, Emanuel Stevens, Matthew Stewart, John 
Thompson, John Wentz, and others. 

When the Revolution came these people, with the excep- 
tion of a few who participated in the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion affair, exercised themselves but very little about the 
war until about the time of the battle of Camden. Tarleton's 
massacre of Buford's men some fifteen miles southeast of the 
Waxhaw church over in South Carolina, turned these people 
from an attitude of almost indifference to the struggle to a 
fierce and determined participation in it. In the Waxhaws 
the minister was insulted, his house and books were burnt, 
and the British soldiers declared w^ar against all Bibles which 
contained the Scotch version of the Psalms. It was this con- 
duct that fired the people of this section and refilled Sum- 
ter's ranks and furnished many of the heroes of Hanging- 
Rock, King's Mountain, Cowpens, Wauhab's Mill, or The 
Battle of The Waxhaws, Eutaw Springs, and Blackstocks. 

It was the rising of these people which opened the way for 
Marion's famous partisan warfare from the swamps of the 
Pee Dee and the Santee, which recalled Cornwallis and de- 
layed him in upper South Carolina, and thus preserved 


Washington in the Jerseys from an attack by Comwallis, 
until the French fleet was ready to cooperate with him. 

In the Waxhaws on the banks of Waxhaw Creek, near the 
old home j^lace of Col. William Walknp, was fought the 
battle of The Waxhaws or the battle of AVauhab's Mill. This 
battle was the real battle of the Waxhaws, but it is now the 
common error of almost all historians to speak of the battle 
of the Waxhaws as being the massacre of Buford's men by 
Tarleton at the place locally called "The Buford Battle 
Ground." jSTo marker shows the field whereon the battle of 
the Waxhaws was fought, although it is one of the battle- 
fields of the Revolution, and one in which there were a num- 
ber of killed and wounded, and in which battle Capt. James 
Wauhab and several other American commanders, although 
ultimately defeated, fought for a time bravely and well 
against suj^erior numbers. 

Among the many soldiers of this county in the Revolution 
were Col. William Richardson Davie, Major John Foster, 
CajDt. James Wauhab, Capt. Chas. Polk, Capt. John Cuth- 
bertson, Thomas Ashcraft, John Belk, James Belk, Darling 
Belk, Britton Belk, Jeremiah Clontz, George Carriker, John 
Ewing, Wm. Houston, John Lemmond, William Lemmond, 
David Moore, Wm. McCain, John McCain, James McCain, 
Hugh McCain, Jr., Henry McNeely, John McIsTeely, George 
McWhorter, Jas. Ross, Edward Richardson, William Simp- 
son, Emanuel Stevens, John Thompson, Philip Wolfe and 
numerous others whose names we do not have. ]N^early every 
man in the territory that is now Union County belonged to 
some military company, and nearly all of them went out and 
did service for the American cause, but the names of all who 
did service are not obtainable, the rosters not having been kept, 
and many of them having been too jDatriotic to apply for pay, 
thus failing to get their names on the payrolls. The Britton 
Belk mentioned as having served in the Revolution was killed 


ill that war. He was one of the crowd present at the adoiDtion 
of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. He took 
with him to that meeting his ten-year-old son, James Belk, 
and one hundred years later, at the Centennial Celebration 
of the aforesaid Declaration, this same James Belk, at the 
age of one hundred and ten years, was present, was intro- 
duced to the gi'eat gathering by Governor Z. B. Vance and he 
told the people present his recollection of the affair and how 
the men threw their hats in air when Colonel Polk finished 
reading the paper which declared Mecklenburg folks inde- 

In the early days The Waxhaws seemed to be a sort of 
cradle of genius, for no other section wielded so great an 
influence or furnished so many notable men. Here were the 
Jacksons, the Calhouns, and the Pickenses. Andrew Jackson 
was born here. Patrick Calhoun for a time lived here and 
belonged to the old Waxhaw church. Here General Andrew 
Pickens grew up and here he married Rebecca Calhoun. 
Here in the Waxhaws grew up William Pichardson Davie^ 
the distinguished partisan leader in the War of the Revolu- 
tion, Governor of ^orth Carolina, one of the franiers of the 
Constitution of the United States, Minister to France in the 
time of iSTapoleon and founder of the University of jSTorth 
Carolina. William H. Crawford, the great Georgian, went 
from the Waxhaws. So, from this people went out three of 
the greatest men of their times, Jackson, Calhoun, and Craw- 
ford, men who directed the politics of the nation and whose 
antagonisms became the antagonisms of the nation's people. 
The Waxhaws produced William Smith, a Judge and United 
States Senator in South Carolina. Dr. John Brown, one of 
the early professors in the University of South Carolina, was 
reared in the Waxhaws, was a schoolmate of Jackson and 
with him when they were boys in their teens, rode under 
Davie at Hanging Rock. From the Waxhaws went Stephen 


D. Miller, once Governor of South Carolina, and once a Sen- 
ator of the United States, a man of great power in an age of 
great men. From the Waxhaws, too, went J. Marion Simms, 
a surgeon of world-wide fame, and one who, in his depart- 
ment, has never been surpassed. And many another notable 
man in the early days claimed the Waxhaws for his home. 

In the neighborhood of the Waxhaws were many large 
slave holders, the people had commodious old ante bellum 
homes, and, while they were far removed from the lines of 
traffic and the marts of trade, they were a refined and splendid 
people and exerted considerable influence in both of the Caro- 
linas. When the Xational Military Academy was about to 
be established the community of the Waxhaws was influen- 
tial enough to come within one vote of getting it at the Great 
Falls on Catawba Eiver, instead of West Point. 

After the Revolution, numbers of j^eople — many of them 
persons who had done service in the American army — came 
and made their homes in the territory that is now Union 
County. Among these were John Austin, Bryant Austin, 
Charles Austin, Thomas Ashcraft, Willis Alsobrooks, ISTa- 
thaniel Bivens, Samuel Blythe, Samuel Bickett (great grand- 
father of Attorney-General T. W. Bickett), Kedden Ben- 
nett, James Benton (a first cousin of Senator Thomas H. 
Benton), Eiehard Bass, Willis Bass, John Brewer, James 
Blair, William Brooks, John Broom, Philip Carriker 
(Kiker), William Chainey, Simon Crowell, Peter Crowell, 
Samuel Crowell, Lewis Conder, Charles Dry, Thos. P. Dil- 
lon, Moses Eason, Frederick Ezell, Eobert Fowler, Thomas 
Griffin, Jonathan Gordon, Leonard Green, James Gathings, 
William Howard, Stephen Hasty, Peebles Hasty, Martin 
Harkey, Eiehard Hudson, John Hudson, William Hamilton, 
Dennis Henegan, Samuel Howie, Michael Henegar, James 
Jenkins, William Long, Eev. Jesse Lewellyn. Thomas Lewis, 


Thomas Love, John Lawson, David Moore, Ebenezer Marsh, 
the widow Margaret Miillis, Henry Massey, Dflniel McCol- 
limi, Walter Nance, Richard iSTash, James Ormond, Samuel 
Presson, William Potts, Moses Pierce, Peter Parker, Wil- 
liam Phillips, Jacob Penegar, Richard Pressley, John Press- 
ley, Levy Presslar, Moses Paxton, Henry Rape, Peter Rape, 
Thomas Rogers, Robert Russell, Edward Richardson, John 
Ray, Solomon Rowe, John Shannon, xVbram Smith, John 
Smith, John Stancil, Solomon Simons, Moses Stegall, An- 
drew Stinson, David Starnes, Frederick Starnes, Thomas 
Shelby, Joshua Sikes, Cornelius Sikes, Alexander Scott, 
Thomas Tanner, Moses Tomberlin, John Thomas, Stephen 
Trull, Rev. Joseph Williams, John Walden, Philip Wolfe, 
William Winchester, and others. From the people herein- 
before mentioned are descended most of the people of Union 

When the War of 1812 came the people of this settlement 
responded to the call for soldiers, and among those who 
served in that war from what is now Union County were 
Britton Belk, John Belk, Allen Broom, Henry Clontz, Chas. 
Crowell, John Cuthbertson, Moses Craig, John Crowell, 
Peter Chainey, Thos. S. Cochran, Robert Cochran, John 
Ford, Gideon Freeman, John Funderburk (Yanderberg), 
Joshua Fincher, Samuel Givens, Samuel Holden, William 
Helms, Chas. Helms, Joel Helms, Aaron Howey, Henry Har- 
gett, Jr., William Hargett, David Harkey, John Harkey, 
William Houston, Jesse Ivey, Andrew King, Wm. L. Lem- 
mond, Chas. Laney, John Long, Henry Moser, John 
McCorkle, Thomas Miller, Hugh McCain, Capt. David 
Moore, Matthew McCall, James McCall, Hugh McElroy, 
James Morrison, William Pyron, Moses Purser, John Phil- 
lips, James Rone, Daniel Rich, Samuel Rape, Samuel Ray- 
ner, Jacob Stamps, William Shelby, Alexander Stewart, 


Frederick Starnes, jSTatlianiel Starnes, Elias Stilwell, Moses 
Tomberliu, Groves Vincent, Moses Vick, Jesse Yandle, 
Samuel Yandle, William Yerby (Irby), and others. 

Union County was established by an Act of the General 
Assembly of North Carolina ratified December 19, 1842, 
being formed from about equal portions of territory taken 
from Anson and Mecklenburg counties. 

Within a few years after the county of Union was estab- 
lished the Mexican War began, and Union furnished her 
quota of soldiers for that conflict. The soldiers of Union en- 
listed in Capt. Harrison's company in Mecklenburg, Capt. 
Arey's company in Cabarrus, and in Capt. McManus' com- 
j)any in Lancaster, South Carolina. In the Mecklenburg 
company the Union County soldiers were Robert H. Ewing, 
Cyrus Q. Lemmond, Jackson H. Lemmond, Brown Lem- 
mond, Daniel C. Robinson, William F. Rae, and others. In 
the Cabarrus company the Union County soldiers were John 
Wilson Long, Valentine Smith, and others. And in the 
Lancaster company the Union County soldiers were John 
Irby, John Gay, W. LaFayette Belk, and others. 

In the Civil War Union County furnished twelve com- 
panies, as follows : 

Company B, 15th N. C. Volunteers May, 1861 

Company B, 26th N. C. Volunteers June, 1861 

Company D, 37th N. C. Volunteers September, 1861 

Company P, 35th N. C. Volunteers October, 1861 

Company B, 48th N. C. Volunteers February, 1862 

Company A, 48th N. C. Volunteers March, 1862 

Company E, 48th N. C. Volunteers March, 1862 

Company P, 48th N. C. Volunteers March, 1862 

Company I, 48th N. C. Volunteers March, 1862 

Company I, 53d N. C. Volunteers March, 1862 

Company C, 10th Battalion Artillery March, 1862 

Company F, 71st N. C. Volunteers (2d Regt. Junior Reserves), 

April, 1864 

The soldiers of Union County were always noted for their 
bravery and skill in the fighting business. He was a Union 

North Carolina State Library 


County soldier, William Freezland, who was the first to cross 
the stone wall on Cemetery Ridge at the battle of Gettysburg. 
One of the wealthiest and best of the old Presbyterians in 
the old Waxhaws was Maj. John Foster, one of the bravest 
of Revolutionary soldiers. He was buried on the south side 
of Waxhaw Creek, near where his fine old ante helium home 
once stood. His grave is marked by a granite slab on which 
is this inscription : 

Sacked to the Memory of 


Who Departed This Life January 22, A. D. 1821 

Aged 72 Years 

He immigrated from Ireland A. D. 1765 

He was a Captain of a Troop of Horse in the Revolutionary 

War, in which he distinguished himself in several 

engagements, as an active and brave officer 

Grain hid in the earth 
Repays the peasant's care. 
And evening sun but sets 
To rise more fair. 
He has left his beloved vv^ife to lament his loss. 
The wise, the just, the pious 

And the brave 
Live in their deaths and flourish 

Prom the grave. 

A man's religion is the leading element in his character in 
every act of his life, and so it is with a county of men. In 
the religious life of Union County j)eople, the Baptists, the 
Methodists, and the Presbyterians have always been predom- 
inant. The Scotch-Irish, who made the Waxhaw Settlement, 
built the first Presbyterian church here, soon after the settle- 
ment was made in 1751. The Methodists established 
McWhorter's Camp Ground, which was the first foothold of 
Methodism in the county, in the year 1787. Nearly all of 
the eastern and central parts of Union were originally Bap- 


tists. Among the early preachers of the Baptist faith who 
served these people were Rev. John Bennett, as early aa 
1Y90, Rev. Chas. Cook 1800, Rev. Joseph Williams 1805, 
Rev. Jacob Helms 1815, Rev. Jesse Lewellyn, and Rev. 
William Taylor 1820, Rev. George Little and Rev. Edmund 
Davis 1825, and Rev. Solomon Snyder as early as 1835. 
The county is now covered with splendid churches, all of 
which are served by able ministers. 

Union County has always been free from ambitious poli- 
ticians, but the people of the county have always been in- 
terested in their country's welfare, and have always been 
careful to elect good men to fill the offices. The following 
are the names of the men who have served Union County in 
the capacity of Sheriff, in the order in which they served: 
William Wilson, John Blount, Alexander Richardson, Dar- 
ling Rushing, Joshua Sikes, Henry Long, Culpeper Austin, 
Franklin L. Rogers, John J. Hasty, A. F. Stevens, John W. 
Griffin, John J. Hasty, A. J. Price, J. P. Home, B. A. 
Horne, and John Griffith. 

The following are the names of the men who have served 
LTnion County in the capacity of Clerk of the Superior Court : 
Maj. D. A. Covington, J. T. Draffin, W. E. Doster, Hugh M. 
Houston, John M. Ingram, W. H. Simpson, G. W. Flow, 
Col. Samuel H. Walkup, G. W. Flow, James C. Huey, Geo. 
C. McLarty, Frank H. Wolfe, E. A. Armfield, D. A. Hous- 
ton, and C. E. Houston. 

The following are the names of the men who have served 
Union County in the capacity of Register of Deeds : Thomas 
P. Dillon, J. M. Greene, J. F. McLure, John W. Holm, 
J. O. Griffin, W. J. C. McCauley, C. ^. Simpson, H. J 
Wolfe, F. H. Wolfe, John W. Bivens, P. P. W. Plyler, John 
M. Stewart, and J. E. Stewart. 

The following' are the names of the men who have served 


Union County in the capacity of Treasurer: Plummer 
Stewart, James W. Doster, Lemuel Presson, Albert Marsh, 
Thomas W. Griffin, A. J. Price, Gr. C McLarty, James 
McKeely, Jas. H. Williams, Geo. M. Laney, and J. W. 

The following are the names of the men who have served 
in the State Senate from Union County: Col. Samuel H. 
Walkup, Maj. D. A. Covington, Capt. C. M. T. McCauley, 
Culpeper Austin, Henry B. Adams, J. F. Payne, G. C. 
McLarty, O. M. Sanders, T. J. Jerome, E. F. Beasley, E. B. 
Eedwine, and E. W. Lemmond. 

The following persons have represented Union County in 
the State Legislature: Dr. J. Williams, Darling Eushing, 
Col. T. C. Wilson, Cyrus Q. Lemmond, Culpeper Austin, 
Jonathan Trull, LIugh Downing, Capt. C. M. T. McCauley, 
Lemuel Presson, David A. Covington, Henry B. Adams, 
James Houston, J. F. Payne, Jas. A. Marsh, V. T, Chears, 
T. C. Eubanks, E. L. Stevens, J. N". Price, J. W. Bivens, 
C. N". Simpson, E. C. Williams, E. B. Eedwine, E. W. Lem- 
mond, E. IST. Mcl!^eely, John C. Sikes, and E. V. Houston. 

The first railroad in Union County was built in 1874. The 
first newspaper, the Monroe Enquirer^ was established in 
1873. The first bank established in the county was in 1875. 
The first cotton mill in the county was built in 1891. Today 
Union County has eight banks, five cotton mills, four lum- 
ber factories, two railroads and another in process of con- 
struction, more telephones than any county in the State, 
good rural free delivery, rural telephones, rural gi'aded 
schools and rural graded roads — except that it is just a little 
off in the road business. The county has always been noted 
for the high class of its professional men, and in agriculture 
the farmers of Union County are unsurpassed by any any- 
where. The people of the county are all good people of the 


purest Anglo-Saxon type, with no infusion of foreign bloody 
are descended from worthy ancestors, have been prolific 
enough to have sent immigrants to every State in the south 
and the west without decreasing the population at home, are 
keeping apace with the progress of the times, and are living 
up to the high standard which has been maintained in the 
county since the days of the pioneer settlers. 








On February 22cl (Washington's birthday), 1910, an asso- 
ciation of patriotic Masons was formed for the purpose of 
building in Alexandria, Virginia, a Masonic Temple which 
is to be A Memorial to Washington the Mason. This build- 
ing will also be a storehouse for a collection of Washington 
relics of untold value now kept in the lodge room in Alex- 
andria. In connection with this movement, the authorities 
of xllexandria-Washington Lodge, iSTo. 22, of which Washing- 
ton was the first Worshipful Master, intend to publish a 
volume which will relate chiefly to Washington himself — the 
incidents connected with his life, ancestry, relatives, personal 
associates, etc. — at the same time introducing therein some 
account of Masonic patriots from various States who bore a 
part (either civil, military or naval) in the War for Ameri- 
can Independence. Having been requested to give some 
account of those Masons in I^orth Carolina who participated 
in that glorious contest, I comply most willingly — glad of 
the opportunity of aiding to perpetuate the recollection of 
their deeds, and also wishing to honor the memory of their 
great commander and Masonic brother, as a true l^orth 
Carolinian should. Honors from the Old ISTorth State to 
Washington, both during his lifetime and after his death. 

* An address delivered before the 125th annual communication of the Grand Lodge of 
North Carolina, at Raleigh, January 9, 1912. 


have been many and marked. In 17Y7 the county of Wash- 
ington, in North Carolina, was erected out of a territory 
theretofore known as Washington District, on the western 
frontier. When the State of North Carolina ceded Tennes- 
see to the Union of States, the county of Washington went 
with it. In 1799, a second county of Washington in North 
Carolina was created, so far east that it could not be taken up 
by another new State, unless that State should be located in 
Albemarle Sound or the Atlantic Ocean. Long before the city 
of Washington, in the District of Columbia, was established 
in 1791, the town of Washington, in North Carolina (char- 
tered by the Legislature of 1782) was a proud namesake of 
the victorious leader of our armies in the war then closing. 
In 1815, the State of North Carolina gave an order to the 
world's greatest sculptor of that day, Antonio Canova, for an 
elegant marble statue of Washington (clad as a Roman Con- 
sul) which was completed and delivered in 1821. It was 
later destroyed by fire with the old Capitol at Kaleigh in 
1831, after which our people brooded over their loss for 
about fifteen years, and then consoled themselves by having 
a bronze replica made from Houdon's marble statue of 
Washington in Richmond, said to be the most lifelike repre- 
sentation of the General in existence. 

Several Lodges in North Carolina have been named in 
honor of Washington, including '^American George Lodge," 
chartered in 1789, vdth the heroic Revolutionary veteran 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hardy Murfree as its Worshipful Mas- 
ter. Honors paid to Washington in person without stint 
were the result of his tour through North Carolina in 1791 ; 
and, when he had finished his course on earth, and his mortal 
remains had been laid to rest with Masonic honors, meetings 
were held in various Lodges throughout the State to bear tes- 
timony to his greatness and worth, both as a patriot and a 


Mason. The Grand Lodge of JSTorth Carolina formally noti- 
fied all subordinate Lodges within its jurisdiction of the loss 
which America and Masonry had sustained, and recom- 
mended to the Brethren that they should wear mourning for 
the space of one month. 

To write a complete history of Freemasonry in the Revo- 
lution would be almost equivalent to writing a history of the 
war itself. From the immortal Washing-ton, commander-in- 
chief, and his principal Generals (Arnold alas ! not excepted) 
down to many worthy privates in the regiments under them ; 
from John Paul Jones, the greatest of our fighters on the 
ocean, down to the hardy seamen who manned his gams ; from 
Grand Masters Benjamin Franklin, Peyton Randolph, and 
other great leaders in the Continental Congress, down to less 
famous participants in the councils of the young republic — ■ 
in all grades of civil society, in all ranks of military and 
naval life — a knowdedge of Masonry could be found. And in 
no one of the Thirteen Colonies did the Order number among 
its members more patriotic military and political leaders 
than those who lived in jSTorth Carolina. In colonial days 
the highest Masonic rank attained by any person in the New 
World was that conferred upon Colonel Joseph Montfort, of 
Halifax, IvForth Carolina, when the Duke of Beaufort, Grand 
Master of England, commissioned him "Provincial Grand 
Master of and for America," on January 14, 1771. Mont- 
fort threw the weight of his great influence to the side of the 
Colonies in 1775-'76. Lie was elected a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolina which assembled at New 
Bern, in April, 1775, but was too ill to serve ; and he died on 
March 25, 1776, before the war had well begun. On February 
13, 1911, a massive and beautiful granite monument was 
erected over his remains in front of the old Masonic Hall in 


Halifax (to which spot they had been removed from their 
original resting j^lace), and on this is the following inscrip- 
tion : 



BoRX IN England A. D. 1724 

Died at Halifax, N. C. 

March 25, A. D. 1776 

Appointed Provincial Grand Master of and for 
America on Jan. 14, A. L. 5771 (A. D. 1771) 


Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, A. P. and A. M. 

First Clerk of the Court of Halifax County 

Treasurer of the Province of North Carolina 

Colonel of Colonial Troops 

Member Provincial Congress 

orator - statesman^ - patriot - soldier 

The Highest Masonic Official Ever Reigning 

ON This Continent 



The claim made for the primacy of Montfort over other 
Provincial Grand Masters of America (of whom there were 
several) lies in the fact that the commissions of the others 
limited their powers to those parts of the Continent where 
no other Provincial Grand Master exercised jurisdiction, 
while Montfort was given absolute authority without this 

Enclosing the grave, over which lies the above mentioned 
monument, is an iron fence, on the locked gate of which is a 
bronze tablet inscribed as follows : 


This gate swings only by order 

of the Worshipful Master of 

Royal White Hart Lodge 

to admit a Pilgrim Mason. 


The erection of this monument, which was dedicated with 
imposing ceremonies amid a great gathering of Masons from 
J^orth Carolina and elsewhere, was the preliminary step to- 
ward erecting a Masonic Hall at Halifax as a memorial to 
Montfort, by the Joseph Moutfort Memorial Association, an 
organization which chiefly owes its existence to the energy 
and devotion of Harry W. Gowen, of Royal White Hart 
Lodge. This lodge owns many priceless relics and records 
of the Colonial and Revolutionary periods, including a Mas- 
ter's chair, led up to by three steps, which are a part of the 
chair itself (the same which was used in Colonial days by 
Montfort), a Bible presented to the lodge by Montfort, Mont- 
fort's commission from Grand Master the Duke of Beaufort, 
and the original charter of Royal White Hart Lodge from the 
same English source, together with minute books and other 
manuscript records which tell the history of the lodge from 
176-i down to the present time, with a few omissions. It is 
sincerely to be hoped that the Masonic fraternity will see 
that the Hall at Halifax is built. Aside from the precious 
records and relics which it will house, it is a memorial which 
the memory of Montfort fully deserves ; for he was no figure- 
head, but a live, energetic, active Grand Master who paid 
frequent personal visits to the lodges over which he had juris- 
diction, as shown by the only extant Colonial minute books 
in ISTorth Carolina, which are now at Halifax, Isew Bern, 
Edenton, and Warrenton. 

Cornelius Harnett was Deputy Provincial Grand Master 
under Montfort, at the outbreak of the Revolution, and the 
name of a greater patriot has never adorned the annals of his 
native State. Harnett filled many positions of perilous 
prominence under the new government, being President of 
the Provincial Council of ISTorth Carolina, a member of the 
Continental Congress of the United Colonies, etc. So great 
was his activity in the cause of liberty, and so obnoxious was 


lie to the British, that Sir Henry Clinton excepted him by 
name, together with Robert Howe (another Mason), from the 
operation of a general jDroclamation of amnesty by means of 
which he hoped to eifect a reconciliation between Great 
Britain and her rebellious colonies in America during the 
year 1776. Later on in the war, Harnett was captured, and 
he died a prisoner in Wilmington, after being subjected to 
inhuman treatment by his captors. AVhen the news of his 
death reached Unanimity Lodge, in Edenton, June 27, 1781, 
"it was agreed by the brethren that they shall immediately 
go into mourning for the Right Worshipful Cornelius Har- 
nett, Esquire, late Grand Master of the State of North Car- 
olina." Before the Revolution, as already noted, Harnett 
had been Deputy Provincial Grand Master of America under 
Montfort, his office being vacated by Montfort's death in 
1776, and the above quoted action by Unanimity Lodge gives 
rise to an interesting question as to whether Harnett received 
another commission later on from some other source, consti- 
tuting him Provincial Grand Master of iSTorth Carolina. In 
1906 the Society of Colonial Dames of America erected in 
Wilmington a handsome monument to the memory of Har- 
nett and other colonists and patriots of the Caj)e Fear. 

There is a tradition that the Committees of Safety, in the 
early stages of the Revolution, were composed almost ex- 
clusively of Masons, and that the committee meetings (often 
being in secret) were usually held in the lodge rooms. The 
leaders of those committees and of the State Congresses in 
l^orth Carolina were certainly Masons, as the records show. 
After active hostilities had begTin at Lexington, Massachu- 
setts, and the news of that battle flew to the southward, it was 
sent through ISTorth Carolina to the patriots of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia by such well-known Masons as Richard Cog- 
dell and Joseph Leach, of the committee in ISTew Bern, Cor- 
nelius Harnett, of the committee in Wilmington, and Robert 


Howe, of the committee in Brunswick. From that time up 
to the adoption of the State Constitution, three Provincial 
Congresses met in l^orth Carolina and were presided over as 
follows : the Provincial Congress at Hillsborough, in August, 
1775, Samuel Johnston, President, who was the first Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of ^orth Carolina after the war ; 
the Provincial Congress at Halifax, in April, 1776, Samuel 
Johnston again President ; and the Provincial Congress at 
Halifax, in jSTovember, 1776, Pichard Caswell, President, 
who succeeded Johnston as Grand Master after the Revolu- 
tion. When these CongTesses were not in session the suj^reme 
legislative body of the State was a Provincial Council, pre- 
sided over by Cornelius Harnett, to whose high rank in Ma- 
sonry we have already referred. After independence was 
declared, Pichard Caswell was elected the first Governor of 
the State. 

To the bitter warfare between Whig and Tory, which de- 
vastated ^orth Carolina, is probably due the loss of practi- 
cally all Masonic records of the Colonial and Revolutionary 
periods except those owned by Royal White Hart Lodge, now 
No. 2, at Halifax ; Johnston-Caswell Lodge, ISTo. 10, at War- 
renton (these being the records of Blandford or Blandford- 
Bute Lodge, the former name of Johnston-Caswell) ; St. 
John's Lodge, now 'No. 3, at New Bern, and Unanimity 
Lodge, now No. 7, at Edenton. The records of Royal White 
Hart Lodge, Halifax, begin on November 1, 1764, and run 
through most of the Colonial period, but omit the Revolution, 
later beginning again ; those of Blandford, or Blandford- 
Bute, Lodge (now called Johnston-Caswell), Warrenton, be- 
gin on April 29, 1766, end on June 24, 1768, and begin again 
on April 6, 1782 ; those of St. John's Lodge, New Bern, begin 
on January 9, 1772, and break off on June 24, 1773, starting 
up again on the same page of the minute hooh (showing that 
nothing has been torn out) on March 16, 1787, without a 


word of explanation as to omission, though the lodge was then 
probably dormant ; and the records of Unanimity Lodge, 
Edenton, begin on jS!^ovember 8, 1775, running through the 
Revolution, the lodge afterwards becoming dormant for two 
or three years, though it was revived in 1787. The Colonial 
and Revolutionary records of all of the other lodges of the 
j)eriod before the formation of the Grand Lodge in 1787 are 
lost or destroyed. These, so far as we know, were St. John's 
Lodge, now 'No. 1, of Wilmington; St. John's Lodge, now 
No. 4, of Kinston ; Royal Edwin Lodge (name changed to 
Charity Lodge), now Xo. 5, of Windsor; Royal William 
Lodge (now extinct), jSTo. 6 of Winton; and Phoenix Lodge 
(name formerly LTnion Lodge), now oSTo. 8, of Eayetteville. 
In Warren County, a part of the old county of Bute, was a 
lodge called Dornoch Lodge, of w^hose origin we know noth- 
ing and whose records are lost. As it had a Scotch name it 
may have worked under authority of the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland. It sent representatives to the convention of 1787, 
which organized the Grand Lodge of jSTorth Carolina. This 
convention held that Dornoch Lodge was not legally consti- 
tuted, but that its delegates were lawfully made Masons. 
Rlandford Lodge, its neighbor, had, however, affiliated with 
it before that time, Dornoch Lodge passed out of existence, 
and most of its members went into Johnston-Caswell Lodge, 
No. 10, which was formerly Blandford Lodge. Another 
lodge known to have existed in North Carolina before the 
Revolution was called ''The Eirst Lodge in Pitt County." It 
was chartered by the Grand Lodge at Boston on December 
30, 1767, and became extinct in a few years. As to the 
sources of the charters of the other lodges mentioned above, 
St. John's Lodge, in Wilmington, was chartered in 1755 by 
the Grand Lodge of England ; Royal White Hart Lodge, in 
Halifax, was first chartered "by virtue of a letter of authority 
obtained from Cornelius Harnett, Grand Master of the Lodge 


in Wilmington," in 1764, but it received a new charter from 
the Grand Lodge of England, in 1767. Blandford Lodge, or 
Blandford-Biite Lodge (for it was written both ways) seems 
to have been without a name of any kind at iirst, as its ear- 
liest record, April 29, 1766, speaks of it simply as "a lodge 
held at Buffaloe" — Buffaloe Creek being a stream which ran 
by the court-house of Bute County, about eight miles south- 
west of the present town of Warrenton. Blandford Lodge 
received its authority from the Grand Lodge of Virginia, as 
we find from a resolution passed at the close of the Revolu- 
tion, May 18, 1782, referring to a ^'deputation" from the 
Grand Lodge of Virginia, December 23, 1766. As has 
already been stated it worked some months earlier than that 
date, viz., April 29, 1766 — possibly without authority of any 
kind. St. John's Lodge, in New Bern, was chartered by 
Grand Master Montfort, in 1772, and now owns its original 
charter ; St. John's Lodge, in Kinston, was probably char- 
tered by Grand Master Montfort just before the Revolution, 
between 1772 and 1775, and the same is no doubt true of 
Royal Edwin Lodge in Windsor and Royal William Lodge 
in Winton, as the Grand Lodge of 1791, in settling prece- 
dence, gave these three lodges places between St. John's 
Lodge of ^STew Bern, chartered in 1772 by Grand Master 
Montfort, and Unanimity Lodge, in Edenton, whose records 
show that it was chartered in 1775 by Grand Master Mont- 
fort ; the next lodge on the list. Phoenix Lodge, of Fayette- 
ville, stated in a>^ protest as to precedence, which it sent to the 
Grand Lodge of 1855, that it had at first worked under a 
dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Scotland under the 
name of LTnion Lodge and had surrendered that dispensation 
to take a charter under the name of Phoenix Lodge, from the 
Grand Lodge of ISTorth Carolina after the organization of 
the latter body. The first lodge chartered by the Grand 
Lodge after its organization in 1787, was Old Cone Lodge,_ 


'No. 9, in Salisbury, the charter of which was issued on No- 
vember 20, 1788. This lodge is now extinct. In 1779, dur- 
ing the War of the Revolution, while so many JSTorth Caro- 
lina troops were stationed in the vicinity of Philadelphia, the 
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania ("Ancients") chartered an 
Army Lodge, Charter or Warrant No. 20, among these JSTorth 
Carolinians, but the charter was later revoked and no record 
of the workings of that lodge has been preserved. Whether 
any other military lodges existed among the North Carolina 
trooi^s we are unable to say. About eight miles from Wil- 
mington is a place still kno^vn as Masonborough, which 
McRee, in his Life and C orrespo7idence of Jmnes Iredell, 
(Vol. I., p. 393) tells us "was so called because a number of 
zealous Masons built originally there, so closely together as 
to create a straggling village or hamlet." The lodge at Ma- 
sonborough, according to tradition was called Hanover 
Lodge. All of its records are lost, which is greatly to be re- 
gretted, as it is said to have numbered among its members 
such renowned patriots as Major-General Robert Howe, the 
highest ranking officer from North Carolina in the Conti- 
nental service, and William Hooper, a signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, besides others of scarcely less note. 
Of the old lodge building at Masonborough, which was made 
of hewn i)ine logs and roofed with heavy cypress shingles, 
Chief of Police John J. Fowler, of Wilmington, under date 
of November 25, 1911, writes: "That this was the original 
Masonic Lodge there can be no doubt. Often, in my earliest 
days, I heard many of the oldest inhabitants so denominate 
it. For over fifty years this was my family's summer home. 
The building was destroyed by fire in 1896. After the fire 
it was discovered that beneath the floor of the lodge room was 
an empty brick vault in which the Masonic archives were 
probably preserved." Hanover Lodge passed out of exist- 
ence before 1787, when the Grand Lodge was organized. 


As we have spoken of Hooper, we may also mention the 
fact that Joseph Hewes and John Penn, the other two sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence from J^orth Carolina, 
were likewise Masons. Hewes is recorded as a "visiting 
brother" at a meeting of Unanimity Lodge, in Edenton, on 
St. John the Evangelist's Day, December 27, 1776, just after 
his return from the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. 
He was probably made a Mason in the latter city. As to 
Penn, the late Colonel William L. Taylor, of Granville 
County (a zealous Mason, as his father was l>efore him) de- 
clared that his father and Penn had attended lodges together, 
as his father had often remarked, but he could not recall the 
name of Penn's own lodge. 

ISTot only on the rolls of those lodges whose Kevolutionary 
records are preserved, but also in the archives of those which 
were formed soon after the war, we can find the names of 
many noted patriots of ISTorth Carolina. There were Gov- 
ernors Alexander Martin, JSTathaniel Alexander, and Mont- 
fort Stokes, officers of the Grand Lodge, all of whom had 
served in the war — Martin as a Colonel of Continentals, 
Alexander as a Surgeon, and Stokes as a seaman, the last 
named becoming a Major-General of LTnited States Volun- 
teers in the War of 1812-'15. Captain Benjamin Williams, 
of the Second ]^orth Carolina Continental Regiment, a mem- 
ber of Royal White Hart Lodge, ISTo. 2, at Halifax, also be- 
came Governor, as did others who will be mentioned later on. 
Among the "Heroes of King's Mountain" we find Colonel 
Joseph McDowell, of Rising Sun Lodge, ISTo. 38, in Morgan- 
ton ; Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Hambright, of Orange 
Lodge, 'No. 4:1, in Lincoln County ; Captain William Lenoir, 
Worshipful Master of liberty Lodge, l^o. 4,5, in Wilkes 
County, and Colonel John Sevier, Governor of Tennessee, of 
Tennessee Lodge, No. 41, in that State when the "Grand 
Lodge of ISTorth Carolina and Tennessee" was a single juris- 


diction. Xor should we fail to mention such sterling patriots 
as Brigade-Chaplain Adam Bojd and Surgeon Solomon 
Hailing, of St. John's Lodge, ISFo. 1, in Wilmington (Hailing 
formerly of St. John's Lodge, ^o. 3, in !New Bern), both 
zealous clergymen in the Episcopal Church after the war. 
Another jDatriotic Mason of the same faith was the Eeverend 
Charles Edward Taylor, a priest of the Church of England, 
who had come to America in 1771, who was Chairman of 
the Committee of Safety of Northampton County and Chap- 
lain of the Provincial Congress at Hillsborough August, 
1775. Taylor became Worshipful Master successively of 
Unanimity Lodge in Edenton, and Eoyal White Hart Lodge, 
in Halifax, in which latter place he died at the end of the 
year 1784. The Eeverend Charles Cupples, who also held 
holy orders in the Church of England, was a member of 
Blandford Lodge, in Warren (formerly Bute) County, and 
had officiated as Chaplain of the Revolutionary Assemblies 
at Smithfield and at Xew Bern. 

In addition to the officers already mentioned there were 
such worthy veterans of the ISForth Carolina Continental Line 
as Major John Walker, Caj^tain John Kingsbury, and Pay- 
master William Lord, of St. John's Lodge, Xo. 1, in Wil- 
mington; Major John J^elson, Major Thomas Llogg, Captain 
Thomas Evans, Captain Gee Bradley, Ca]3tain Howell 
Tatum, Captain Joseph Montfort,"^ Captain Jesse Reid, Cap- 
tain John Ingles, Lieutenant William Bush, Lieutenant 
Thomas Pasteur, Lieutenant John Tillery, Lieutenant James 
Tatum, Lieutenant Robert Hays, Ensign John Ford, Sur- 
geon Joseph Blythe, and Matthew Cary Whitaker, a youth- 
ful private (later Worshipful Master), all of Royal White 
Hart Lodge, jSTo. 2, at Halifax ; Brigadier-Greneral Jethro 

* Captain Joseph Montfort, of the Continental Line (not to be confused with Grand 
Master Joseph Montfort ) was First Lieutenant, Third North Carolina Continentals, 
May, 1776; Captain-Lieutenant, February, 1777; Captain, January, 1779; taken prisoner 
at Charleston, May, 1780; served till close of war; Captain First United States Infantry, 
June, 1790; killed, April 17, 1792, by Indians, at Fort Jefferson, Ohio. 


Sumner and Lieutenant Dixon Marshall, of Blandford 
Lodge, in Warren County; Colonel the Marquis de Britig- 
ney, Captain John Daves (wounded at Stony Point), Sur- 
geon William McClure, and Surgeon and Paymaster Isaac 
Guion, of St. John's Lodge, 'No. 3, of New Bern ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Hardy Murfree, Worshipful Master of Royal 
William Lodge, No. 5, in Winton ; Colonel Edward Bun- 
combe (mortally wounded at Germantown), Colonel Gideon 
Lamb, Colonel John Patten, Colonel Xieholas Long, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Lott Brewster, Captain Clement Hall, Cap- 
tain Cosmo de Medici, and Lieutenant Joseph Worth, of 
Unanimity Lodge, No. 7, in Edenton ; Lieutenant Lehansius 
de Keyser, of Phoenix Lodge, No. 8, in Fayetteville ; Deputy 
Adjutant General John Armstrong, who was wounded at 
Germantown, and Capt. John Stokes, whose right hand was 
cut off by a sabre stroke at Waxhaw (the latter's service in 
Virginia Continentals), of Old Cone Lodge, No. 9, in 
Salisbury ; Captain John Macon, of Dornoch Lodge, in War- 
ren County ; Lieutenant Curtis Ivey, of St. John's Lodge, 
No. 13, Duplin County; Captain William Shepperd, Captain 
Absalom Tatum, and Captain William Lytle, all of Eagle 
Lodge, No. 19 (now No. 71) in Hillsborough; and Captain 
Simon Bright, Captain John Craddock, and Lieutenant Ab- 
ner Lamb, whose lodges are not known to the present writer, 
though they are duly recorded as visiting brethren in some of 
the old minute books. Among the militia officers of the Revo- 
lution who were Masons may be mentioned Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Isaac Gregory, recorded as present in the Grand Lodge 
and as a visiting brother in LTnanimity Lodge, No. 7, Eden- 
ton, though his own Lodge is not mentioned ; Brigadier-Gen- 
eral William Bryan, of St. John's Lodge, No. 3, in New 
Bern ; Brigadier-General John Simpson, of the "First Lodge 
in Pitt County," heretofore mentioned ; and Brigadier-Gen- 
erali Thomas Benbury, Worshipful Master of LTnanimity 



Lodge, iSTo. 7, in Edenton. The list of militia officers further 
shows, among others, Colonel John Geddy, Colonel Guilford 
Dudley, Lieutenant-Colonel John Branch, and Major Egbert 
Haywood, of Eoyal White Hart Lodge, JSTo. 2, in Halifax; 
Colonel Benjamin Seawell, of Blandford Lodge, in Bute 
County ; Colonel Richard Cogdell and Colonel Joseph Leech, 
of St. John's Lodge, No. 3, in ISTew Bern ; Colonel Thomas 
Brown, of Phoenix Lodge, Ko. 8, in Eayetteville ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Alexander Dobbins, of Old Cone Lodge, iSTo. 9, 
in Salisbury ; Colonel James Kenan, Worshipful Master of 
St. John's Lodge, ]^o. 13, in Duplin County; Major John 
Hinton, Junior, of Democratic Lodge, !N^o. 21, in Raleigh; 
Quartermaster-General Robert Burton, of Hiram Lodge, ISTo. 
24, in Williamsborough ; Colonel Adlai Osborne, Worshipful 
Master of Mount Moriah Lodge, ISTo. 27, in Iredell County ; 
Captain William Houston, of Stokes Lodge, No. 32, in Ca- 
barrus County ; Colonel Martin Armstrong, of Unanimity 
Lodge, No. 34, in Surry County ; Colonel Waightstill Avery, 
Worshipful Master of Rising Sun Lodge, No. 38, in Morgan- 
ton, and Surgeon Robert Williams, of Federal Lodge, No. 
42, in Pitt County. The gentleman last mentioned should 
not be confused with Robert Willams, of Surry County, for 
many years Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, and Grand 
Master from 1811 till 1814. 

The above mentioned Lodges were not always the only 
ones to which the gentlemen spoken of belonged, for transfers 
by dimit were as common then as now, and the present writer 
knows of four lodges to which Governor Montfort Stokes and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hardy Murfree belonged. In fact, dual 
membership seems to have been allowed then, for some per- 
sons are recorded on the rolls of two or more lodges at the 
same time. 

The Grand Lodge of North Carolina was organized in 
1787 ; and, for many years thereafter, no one was elected 


Grand Master except from among those who had borne a 
prominent part in the War of the Revolution, in either civil 
or military capacities. The first Grand Master was Samuel 
Johnston, Governor of North Carolina, the first United 
States Senator to represent North Carolina, and a member of 
the Continental Congress, being elected President of the 
latter body, which high ofiice he declined. The successor of 
Johnston, as Grand Master, was Richard Caswell, first Gov- 
ernor of ISTorth Carolina after independence was declared, a 
Major General of State Troops in the Army of the Revolu- 
tion, and a member of the Continental Congress. After 
Caswell's death in ofiice, Johnston again became Grand Mas- 
ter, served three terms, and was succeeded by William Rich- 
ardson Davie, an active and enterprising cavalry ofiicer in 
the Revolution, later Governor of North Carolina, "Father 
of the University," and Special Envoy to France when Na- 
poleon was First Consul. After Davie retired from the office 
of Grand Master, the Grand Lodge elected as his successor 
Colonel William Polk, a battle-scarred survivor of the Revo- 
lution, who had received a shot through the face and tongTie 
while serving under General Francis Nash when that officer 
fell mortally wounded at Germantown, in Pennsylvania ; and 
he was also riding by the side of General William Lee David- 
son when the latter was slain at Cowan's Ford, on the Ca- 
tawba River, in North Carolina. Polk served as Grand Mas- 
ter for three terms, and next came successively Chief Justice 
John Louis Taylor and Associate Justice John Hall, of the 
North Carolina Supreme Court, both of whom grew to man- 
hood after the Revolution — Taylor being a native of Eng- 
land. When Grand Master Hall's term had expired he was 
succeeded by Governor Benjamin Smith, the last Revolu- 
tionary patriot who ever held the post of Grand Master, and 
who went out of office in 1811. 

Many of the above mentioned patriots were Masons before 


the Revolution, some entered the Order during the war, and 
some of the younger ones came in after the return of peace. 
To the last named class belonged a tousel-haired country boy 
of thirteen who (together with his brother two years older) 
guided the command of Major Davie, afterwards Grand 
Master, when that officer attacked the British outpost at 
Hanging Rock in 1780. This lad, after reaching manhood, 
became an enthusiastic Mason, was elected Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, eventually becoming Presi- 
dent of the United States — Andrew Jackson, himself the 
hero of many fierce battles, who said late in life that Davie 
was the best soldier he had ever known and the one from 
whom he had learned some of his most valuable lessons in the 
art of war. Parton, the biographer of Jackson, declares : 
"So far as any man was General Jackson's model soldier, 
William Richardson Davie, of l^orth Carolina, was the indi- 

Mica j ah Bullock, of Granville County, was a veteran of 
the Revolution who belonged to Hiram Lodge, Iso. 24, in 
the old town of Williamsborough, not long after the war, 
though we are unable to ascertain when he first became a 
Mason. He had been Commissary in a regiment of IS^orth 
Carolina militia commanded by Colonel Ebenezer Folsom, 
whose very name was a terror to the Tories of the State. 
When Bullock came home he brought with him a battle-flag 
which had been carried by the North Carolina troops at 
Guilford Court House and in other actions. It was of a 
peculiar design, patterned very much like the present LTnited 
States flag, but with the difference that it had red and blue 
stripes (instead of red and white), and thirteen blue stars on 
a white field instead of white stars on a blue field, as now. 
Li 1854, Edward Bullock, a son of the aforementioned Mi- 
ca j ah Bullock, placed it in the hall of Mount Energy Lodge, 
'No. 140, at Tranquillity, in Granville County, for safekeep- 


iiig, and it remained there until 1905, when it was removed 
and dej)osited in Creedmoor Lodge, I^o. 499, in the same 
county of Granville. When the new Masonic Temple, built 
in Ealeigh by the Grand Lodge, was completed, the descend- 
ants of Mica j ah Bullock formally presented the flag to the 
Grand Lodge, January 13, 1909, and it is still a treasured 
possession of that body. On account of its having been car- 
ried in the Battle of Guilford Court House, the IsTorth Caro- 
lina Society of the Sons of the Revolution had a reproduction 
of it made, which was presented by that organization to the 
Guilford Battle Ground Company on July 4, 1911. The 
original is the only flag of its kind known to exist, and there 
is no other Revolutionary battle-flag of any kind now in 
^orth Carolina. 

Very few men of consequence among the Masons of ISTorth 
Carolina were Loyalists in the Revolution. Of these the most 
prominent were Provincial Grand Secretary William Brim- 
age, and Chief Justice Martin Howard, the latter being Past 
Master of St. John's Lodge, now ISTo. 3, of ISTew Bern. 
Andrew Miller and Alexander Telfair, of Royal White Hart 
Lodge, now 'No. 2, in Halifax, were also Loyalists. The 
property of Miller and Telfair in ISTorth Carolina was confis- 
cated, and Brimage and Howard also suffered heavy losses in 
consequence of their loyalty to King George. All four were 
highly esteemed in their respective communities before the 
politics of the day caused differences with their neighbors. 

As has just been stated, there were very few Masons among 
the citizens of ISTorth Carolina who adhered to the Royal 
cause, but there were many members of the Order among the 
officers (some of the highest rank) in the British regiments 
which were sent over for the purpose of subjugating the Col- 
onies. Though they came on a hostile errand, the American 
Masons never forgot that they were brethren, and always re- 
turned the paraphernalia of an Army Lodge when captured. 


An English periodical, quoted in the interesting volume en- 
titled Washington and His Masonic Compeers, by Sidney 
Hayden, records an incident of this character. Referring to 
one of the English Army Lodges, it says : 

During the Revolution, its lodge-chest fell into the hands of the 
Americans. They reported the circumstances to General Washing- 
ton, who embraced the opportunity of testifying his estimation of 
Masonry in the most marked and gratifying manner, by directing 
that a guard of honor, under a distinguished officer, should take 
charge of the chest, with many articles of value, and return them 
to the regiment. The surprise, the feeling of both officers and men 
may be imagined when they perceived the flag of truce that an- 
nounced this elegant compliment from their noble opponent but still 
more noble brother. The guard of honor, with their flutes playing a 
sacred march, the chest containing the constitution and implements 
of the craft borne aloft like another Ark of the Covenant equally 
by Englishmen and Americans who were lately engaged in the strife 
of war, now marched through the enfiladed ranks of the gallant 
regiment that with presented arms and colours hailed the glorious 
act by cheers. 

It must not for a moment be supposed that the list given 
in this sketch contains the names of all IS^orth Carolina Ma- 
sons who bore a part in the Revolution. Scores of worthy 
names have doubtless been omitted, but those mentioned will 
serve to show the Order's patriotism in a most trying time. 
It would far exceed the limits of this paper to tell, even in 
part, of the prowess in battle displayed by these men ; of 
their toilsome marches, with days and nights 'of exposure to 
the extremes of heat and cold ; of the military prisons where 
hunger and pestilence made life a burden and death a wel- 
come visitor ; and of the final triumph of the cause for which 
so many sacrifices had been made. The bare mention of 
many of the names of the patriots enumerated above calls to 
mind some of the most brilliant achievements of the Revolu- 
tion — of Howe hastening with his Continentals to the aid of 
a sister colony when Lord Dunmore invaded Virginia, and 


afterwards rising to the highest rank under Washington ; of 
Caswell and his compatriots winning the first great victory of 
the Revolution when a force of warlike Highlanders, out- 
numbering them nearly two to one, was overwhelmingly 
defeated at the battle of Moore's Creek bridge, with the loss 
of but one man on the American side ; of Buncombe, Polk, 
and Armstrong watering the soil of Pennsylvania with their 
blood ; of Murfree leading a column of AVayne's forces in the 
storming" of Stony Point ; of John Stokes losing his right 
hand while fighting Tarleton's dragoons ; of stout old Gen- 
eral Gregory vainly striving to rally the Americans at Cam- 
den and remaining on the field until his horse had been killed 
and its rider pierced with two bayonet wounds ; of Sumner 
and his heroic brigade in the bloody charge at Eutaw 
Springs ; of Benbury and his brigade of militia defending the 
Virginia-Carolina boundary ; of Sevier, McDowell, Ham- 
bright, Lenoir, and other courageous frontiersmen subduing 
the hostile savages on the western border and annihilating 
the trained troops of Ferguson at King's Mountain ; of Davie 
and his fleet troopers hanging on the rear of the army of 
Cornwallis as the British commander pursued his toilsome 
march through l^orth Carolina ; and of Colonel Lamb and 
Lieutenant Worth, who survived the dangers of the field 
only to fall victims to sickness brought on by their long serv- 
ice in the army. After being shot down and captured at the 
battle of Germantown, Colonel Buncombe, of Unanimity 
Lodge, in Edenton, a courageous soldier and hospitable gen- 
tleman, had closed his days at the end of seven months of 
suffering from an unhealed wound, while a paroled prisoner 
in Philadelphia ; and a few years later, the equally brave 
statesman, Cornelius Harnett, Past Deputy Provincial Grand 
Master of America, had died a prisoner in Wilmington after 
being dragged from a sick bed to a stockade without a roof or 
covering of any kind. Among the Continental officers who 


passed a weary existence in the military prisons of Charles- 
ton, after valiantly defending that city when beleagured by 
Sir Henry Clinton, were Colonel Patten, Majors E^elson and 
Hogg, Captains Montfort, Daves, Bradley, Evans, Reed, 
Ingles, Craddock, and Howell Tatum, Lieutenants James 
Tatuni, Marshall, Pasteur, Hays, and Ford, Surgeons Blythe 
and McClure, and doubtless others. 

As much has been said of the prowess in battle and forti- 
tude in affliction displayed by the patriots of the Eevolution, 
it would also be a grateful task to tell of the charitable work- 
ings of Masonry in that war — deeds of kindness unknown to 
the world at large — but our limits in this brief paper pre- 
clude a recital, even in i^art, of the numerous cases of relief 
afforded, though the old minute books abound with the men- 
tion of such instances. In an oration at l^ew Bern on the 
Feast of St. John the Evangelist, 1789, Doctor Solomon 
Hailing, who had been an efficient surgeon in the Revolution 
and afterwards entered the sacred ministry, said : ^'Let us 
reflect, while we enjoy the bounties of indulgent heaven, 'on 
how many bare, unsheltered heads the rude storms of howl- 
ing winter beat pitiless.' What numbers solicit charity ? The 
poor, the aged parents of a numerous offspring, stretch out 
their palsied hands for relief. The helpless widow, with her 
infant train, requests some small pittance. The war-worn 
soldier, whose mangled form bears honorable scars, testi- 
monials of his patriotism and good will to his fellow-men, 
expects some recompence from our beneficence — the sick, the 
maimed and the blind desire to partake of our bounty." 

Thus ends the imperfect narrative wherein I have endeav- 
ored to tell of the Masonic Revolutionary Patriots of ISTorth 
Carolina. In life they were the brave defenders of North 
Carolina and her sister States ; and their passing away dis- 
solved the "goodliest fellowship of famous knights whereof 
this world holds record." 



Copied with Literal Exactness from the Original, Vol. XXXIV- 
Part II, Pages 2390-7. 

[Lossing imprint in MSS. Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. ] 

1791. Saturday, April 16th. 

* * * At this place (/. e. Hallifax) I arrived about six 
o'clock, after crossing the Roanoke ; on the South bank of 
which it stands. 

This Eiver is crossed in flat Boats which take in a Car- 
riage & four horses at once. — At this time, being low, the 
water was not rapid but at times it must be much so, as it 
frequently overflows its banks which appear to be at least 25 
ft. perpendicular height. 

The lands upon the River appear rich, & the low grounds 
of considerable width — but those which lay between the dif- 
ferent Rivers — namely Appamattox, IS^ottaway, Meherrin 
and Roanoke are all alike flat, poor & covered principally 
with pine timber. 

It has already been observed that before the Rain fell, I 
was travelling in a continued cloud of dust — but after it had 
rained some time, the Scene was reversed, and my passage 
was through water ; so level are the Roads, 

From Petersburg to Hallifax (in sight of the Road) are but 
few good Houses, with small appearance of wealth. — The 
lands are cultivated in Tobacco — Corn, — Wheat & Oats, but 
Tobacco and the raising of Porke for market, seems to be the 
principal dependence of the Inhabitants ; especially towards 
the Roanoke. — Cotton & Flax are also raised but not ex- 

Hallifax is the first town I came to after passing the line 
between the two States, and is about 20 miles from it. — To 
this place vessels by the aid of Oars and Setting poles are 


brought for the produce which comes to this place, and others 

along the River ; and may be carried 8 or 10 miles higher to 

the falls which are neither great nor of much extent ; — above 

these (which are called the great falls) there are others; but 

none but what may with a little improvement be passed. 

This town stands ujDon high ground ; and it is the reason 

given for not placing it at the head of the navigation there 

being none but low ground between it and the falls — It seems 

to be in a decline & does not it is said contain a thousand 


Sunday, 17th. 

Col°. Ashe^"" the Eepresentative of the district in which 

this town stands, and several other Gentlemen called upon, 

and invited me to partake of a dinner which the Inhabitants 

were desirous of seeing me at & excepting it dined with them 


MoxDAY, 18th. 

Set out by six o'clock — dined at a small house kept by one 
Slaughter, 22 miles from Hallifax and lodged at Tarborough 
14 miles further. 

This place is less than Hallifax, but more lively and 
thriving ; — it is situated on Tar River which goes into Pamp- 
lico Sound and is crossed at the Town by means of a bridge a 
great height from the water, and notwithstanding the freshes 
rise sometimes nearly to the arch. — Corn, Porke, and some 
Tar are the exports from it. — We were reed, at this place 
by as good a salute as could be given by one piece of artil- 

Tuesday, 19th. 

At 6 O'clock I left Tarborough accompanied by some of 
the most respectable people of the place for a few miles — 

M5 John B. Ashe, a soldier of the Revolution under Gen. Greene, a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress in 1787, a representative in the Federal Congress from 1790 to 1793, and 
afterwards elected governor of the State. He died before entering upon the duties of the 


dined at a trifling place called Greenville 25 miles distant — 
and lodged at one Allan's 14: miles further a very indifferent 
house without stabling which for the first time since I com- 
menced my Journey were obliged to stand without a cover. 

Greenville is on Tar Eiver and the exports the same as 
from Tarborough with a greater proportion of Tar — for the 
lower down the greater number of Tar makers are there — 
This article is contrary to all ideas one would entertain on the 
subject, rolled as Tobacco by an axis which goes through 
both heads — one horse draws two barrels in this manner. 

Wednesday^ 20th. 

Left Allan's before breakfast, & under a misapprehension 
went to a Col°. Allan's, supposing it to be public house ; where 
we were very kindly & well entertained without knowing it 
was at his expence, until it was too late to rectify the mis- 
take. — After breakfasting, & feeding our horses here, we 
proceeded on & crossing the River Xuse 11 miles further, 
arrived in J^ewbern to dinner. 

At this ferry which is 10 miles from ISTewbern, we were 
met by a small party of Horse ; the district Judge (M"". Sit- 
greave)"'*' and many of the principal Inhabitants of !N"ew- 
bern, who conducted us into town to exceeding good lodg- 
ings — It ought to have been mentioned that another small 
party of horse under one Simpson met us at Greenville, and 
in spite of every endeavor which could comport with decent 
civility, to excuse myself from it, they would attend me to 
IsTewbem. — Col°. Allan did the same. 

This town is situated at the confluence of the Rivers IsTuse 
& Trent, and though low is pleasant. Vessels drawing more 
than 9 feet water cannot get up loaded. — It stands on a good 

iM John Sitgreaves was resident of Newbern, and had been an officer in the war for 
Independence. He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1784, of his State Legis- 
lature in 1787, and was made United State District Judge. 


deal of gTound, but the buildings are sparce and altogether 
of Wood ; — some of which are large & look well — The mim- 
ber of Souls are about 2000. — Its exports consist of Corn, 
Tobacco, Pork, — but principally of I^aval Stores & lumber. 

Thursday, 21st. 

Dined with the Citizens at a public dinner given by them ; 
and went to a dancing assembly in the evening — both of 
which was at what they call the Pallace — formerly the Gov- 
ernment House & a good brick building but now hastening 
to Euins."'" — The Company at both was numerouse at the 
latter there were abt. 70 ladies. 

This town by Water is about TO miles from the Sea — but 
in a direct line to the entrance of the River not over 35 — and 
to the nearest Seaboard not more than 20, or 25. — Upon the 
River !N^use, & 80 miles above JSTewbern, the Convention of 
the State that adopted the federal Constitution made choice 
of a spot, or rather district within which to fix their Seat of 
Government ; but it being lower than the back Members (of 
the Assembly) who hitherto have been most numerous in- 
clined to have it they have found means to obstruct the meas- 
ure — but since the Cession of their Western territory it is 
supposed that the matter will be revived to good effect. 

Friday, 2 2d. 

Under an Escort of horse, and many of the principal Gen- 
tlemen of ISTewbern I recommenced my journey — dined at a 
place called Trenton which is the head of the boat navigation 

i" This building was erected for Governor Tryon in 1769; and his demand upon the 
Assembly for twenty-five thousand dollars for the purpose of buildinfr a palace "suitable 
for the residence of the royal governor," was one of the causes of strong popular indig- 
nation against the governor. His wife and sister, both beautiful and accomplished women, 
used every blandishment to induce compliance on the part of the representatives of the 
people. Mrs. Tryon gave them princely dinners and balls. Human nature then, as now, 
was weak, and Tryon not only secured the first appropriation of $25,000, but a further sum 
of S50,000. 

A drawing of the building, with a full account of it, may be found in Lossing's Pictorial 
Field Book of the Revolution, II, 364, second edition. 


of the River Trent, wch. is crossed at this place on a bridge — 
and lodged at one Shrine's 10 m. farther — both indifferent 

Satukday, 23d. 

Breakfasted at one Everets 12 miles bated at a Mr. Foy's 
12 miles farther and lodged at one Sage's 20 miles bey*^. it — ■ 
all indifferent Honses. 

Sunday, 24th. 

Breakfasted at an indifferent House about 13 miles from 
Sage's — and three miles further met a party of Light Horse 
from Wilmington ; and after these a Comm^^. & other Gentle- 
men of the Town ; who came out to escort me into it, and at 
which I arrived under a federal salute at very good lodgings 
prepared for me, about two o'clock — at these I dined with 
the Commee, whose company I asked. 

The whole Road from Xewbern to Wilmington (except in 
a few places of small extent) passes through the most barren 
country I ever beheld ; esiDecially in the parts nearest the lat- 
ter; which is no other than a bed of white sand. — In places, 
however, before we came to these, if the ideas of poverty 
could be separated from the Sand, the appearances of it are 
agreeable, resembling a lawn well covered with evergreens, 
and a good verdure below from a broom or course grass which 
having sprung since the burning of the Woods had a neat 
and handsome look especially as there were parts entirely 
open — and others with ponds of water, which contributed 
not a little to the beauty of the scene. 

Wilmington is situated on the Cape Fear River, about 30 
miles hy water from its mouth, but much less by land — It has 
some good houses pretty compactly built. — The whole und''. 
a hill ; which is formed entirely of sand. — The number of 
Souls in it amount by the enumeration to about 1000, but 


it is agreed on all hands that the Census in this State has 
been very inaccurately & Shamefully taken by the Marshall's 
deputies ; who, instead of going to Peoples houses, & there, 
on the spot, ascertaining the Nos. ; have advertised a meeting 
of them at certain places, by which means those who did not 
attend (and it seems many purposely avoided doing it, some 
from an api^rehension of its being introductory of a tax, & 
others from religious scruples) have gone with their fam- 
ilies, unnumbered — In other instances, it is said these depu- 
ties have taken their information from the Captains of 
Militia Companies ; not only as to the men on their Muster 
Eolls, but of the Souls, in their respective f amiles ; which at 
best, must in a variety of cases, be mere conjecture whilst all 
those who are not on their lists — Widows and their families 
&c^. pass unnoticed. 

Wilmington, unfortunately for it, has a Mud bank, — 
miles below, over which not more than 10 feet water can be 
brought at common tides, yet it is said vessels of 250 Tons 
have come up. — The q*''. of Shipping, which load here annu- 
ally, amounts to about 1200 Tons. — The exports consist 
chiefly of jSTaval Stores and lumber. — Some Tobacco, Corn, 
Rice, & flax seed with Porke. — It is at the head of the tide 
navigation, but inland navigation may be extended 115 miles 
farther to and above Payettesville which is from Wilmington 
90 miles by land, &: 115 by Water as above. — Fayettesville is 

a thriving place containing near Souls — 6000 Hhds. of 

Tobacco, & 3000 Hhds. of Flax Seed have been reed, at it in 
the course of the year. 

Monday, 25th. 

Dined with the Citizens of the place at a public dinner 
given by them — Went to a Ball in the evening at which there 
were 62 ladies — illuminations. Bonfires, &c. 

diaey of george washington. 4:7 

Tuesday, 26th. 

Plaving sent my Carriage across the day before, I left 
Wilmington abont 6 o'clock, accompanied by most of the Gen- 
tlemen of the Town, and breakfasting at M'". Ben. Smith's 
lodged at one Russ' 25 miles from Wilmington. — An indif- 
ferent House. 

Wednesday, 27th. 

Breakfasted at WilP. Gause's a little out of the direct 
Road 14 miles — crossed the boundary line between No. & 
South Carolina abt. half after 12 o'clock which is 10 miles 
from Gause's- — * * * 

The Diary of George Washington,* from 1789 to 1791; embracing 
the opening of the pirst congress, and his tours through 
New England, Long Island, and the Southern States. To- 

Edited by Benson J. Lossing, Richmond, 1861. Press of the 
Historical Society. 

(Southern Tour.) 

Wednesday, May 25, 1791. 

Set out at -4 o'clock for Camden — -(the foundered horse 
being led slowly on) — breakfasted at an indifferent house 22 
miles from the town, (the first we came to) and reached Cam- 
den about two o'clock, 14 miles further, when an address was 
reed. & answered. — Dined (late) with a number of Gentle- 
men and Ladies at a public dinner. — The Road from Colum- 
bia to Camden, excepting a mile or two at each place, goes 
over the most miserable pine barren I ever saw, being quite a 
white sand, & very hilly.- — On the Wateree within a mile & 
half of which the town stands the lands are very good, — they 
Culture Corn, Tobacco & Indigo. — Vessels carrying 50 or 60 
Hhds. of Tobo. come up to the Ferry at this place at' which 
there is a Tobacco Wharehouse. 

* This part of the Diary relating to Washington's tour tlirough North CaroHna, was 
copied from a volume in the Library of Jolins Hopkins University. The Editor. 


Thuesdat, 26th. 

After viewing the british works about Camden I set out 
for Charlotte — on iny way — two miles from Town — I ex- 
amined the gTound on weh. Genl. Green & Lord Eawdon had 
their action,^ — The gTound had but just been taken by the 
former — was well chosen — but he not well established in it 
before he was attacked ; which by capturing a Videt was, in 
some measure by surprise — Six miles further on I came to 
the ground where Genl. Gates & Lord Coruwallis had their 
Engagement wch. terminated so unfavourably for the 
former." — As this was a night meeting of both Armies on 
their march, & altogether unexpected each formed on the 
ground they met without any advantage in it on either side 
it being level & open. — Had Genl, Gates been ^ a mile fur- 
ther advanced, an impenetrable Swamp would have prevented 
the attack which was made on him by the British Army, and 
afforded him time to have formed his own jDlans ; but having 
no information of Lord Cornwallis's designs, and perhaps 
not being apprised of this advantage it was not seized by him. 

Camden is a small place with appearances of some new 
buildings. — It was much injured by the British whilst in 
their possession.^ 

After halting at one Sutton's 14 m. from Camden I lodged 
at James IngTams 12 miles father. 

Feiday, 27th. 

Left Ingrams about 4 o'clock, and breakfasting at one 
Barr's 18 miles distant lodged at Ma jr. Crawford's 8 miles 
farther — About 2 luiles from this place I came to the Corner 
where the 'No. Carolina line comes to the Rd. — from whence 

1 On Hobkirk's Hill, April 25, 1781. 

2 On the north side of Sanders's Creek, August 16, 17S0. The two generals were ap- 
proaching each other in the night, along a road filled with deep sand; and neither of them 
had any knowledge of the fact, until their advanced guards came in contact. The battle 
occured early in the morning. 

3 Lord Rawdon, the British commander there, alarmed for the safety of his forts in the 
lower country, set fire to Camden on the 10th of May, 1781, and retreated down the Santee. 


the Road is the boundary for 12 miles more. — At Ma jr. 
Crawfords I was met by some of the chiefs of the Catawba 
nation who seemed to be under apprehension that some at- 
tempts were making, or would be made to deprive them of 
the 40,000 Acres wch. was secured to them by Treaty and 
wch. is bounded by this Road.^ 

Saturday, 28th. 

Sett off from Crawfords by 4 o'clock and breakfasting at 
one Harrison's 18 miles from it got into Charlotte 13 miles 
further, before 3 o'clock, — dined with Genl. Polk and a small 
party invited by him, at a Table prepared for the purpose." 

It was not, until I had got near Barrs that I had quit the 
Piney & Sandy lands — nor until I had got to Crawfords be- 
fore the lands took quite a different complexion — here they 
began to assume a very rich look, 

Charlotte is a trifling place, though the Court of Mecklen- 
burg is held in it — There is a School (called a College) in it 
at which, at times there has been 50 or 60 boys.^ 

Sunday, 29th. 

Left Charlotte about 7 o'clock, dined at Colo. Smiths 15 
miles off, and lodged at Ma jr. Fifers 7 miles farther. 

iThis is yet a reservation for the Catawba Indians, near the southeast corner of York- 
ville district in South Carolina. It was originally larger than now. They were once a 
powerful tribe, but are dwindled to the most insignificant remnant. Their chief village 
was on the Catawba river, about twenty-five miles from Yorkville. The following eloquent 
petition of Peter Harris, a Catawba warrior during the Revolution, is preserved among 
the Colonial records at Columbia, South Carolina. It is dated, 1822: 

"I am one of the lingering survivors of an almost extinguished race. Our graves will 
soon be our only habitations. I am one of the few stalks that still remain in the field where 
the tempest of the Revolution has passed. I fought against the British for your sake. The 
British have disappeared, and you are free; yet from me have the British took nothing; 
nor have I gained anything by their defeat. I pursued the deer for subsistence; the deer 
are disappearing, and I must starve. God ordained me for the forest, and my ambition 
is the shade. But the strength of my arm decays, and my feet fail me in the chase. The 
hand which fought for your liberties is now open for your relief. In my youth I bled in 
battle, that you might be independent; let not my heart in my old age bleed for the want 
of your commiseration." 

2 General Thomas Polk, who was Colonel of the militia of Mecklenburg County, North 
Carolina, at the opening of the war of Independence. It was in Charlotte, and partially 
under the influence and through the exertions of General Polk, that a convention of del- 
egates, selected by the people of Mecklenburg County, passed resolutions at the close of 
May, 1775, which virtually declared the people represented free and independent of the 
British crown. 

'This was called, previous to the Revolution, Queen's Museum or College. There the 
republicans of that section of North Carolina met to discuss the exciting questions of the 
day. It was the Faneuil Hall of Western Carolina. 


50 the north carolina booklet. 

Monday, 30th. 

At 4 o'clock I was out from Majr. Fifers ;^ and in about 
10 miles at the line which divides Mecklenburgh from Rowan 
Counties ; I met a party of horse belonging to the latter, who 
came from Salisbury to escort me on — (It ought to have been 
mentioned also that upon mj entering the State of 'Ro. Caro- 
lina I was met by a Party of the Mecklenburgh horse — but 
these being near their homes I dismissed them) — I was also 
met 5 miles from Salisbury by the Mayor of, the Corpora- 
tion, Judge Mc.Koy, & many others ; — Mr. Steel, Represent- 
ative for the district,^ was so polite as to come all the way to 
Charlotte to meet me. — We arrived at Salisbury about 8 
o'clock, to breakfast, — 20 miles from Captn. Fifers. — The 
lands between Charlotte & Salisbury are very fine, of a red- 
dish cast and well timbered, with but very little underwood — 
Between these two places are the first meadows I have seen 
on the Road since I left Virga. & here also we appear to be 
getting into a Wheat Country. 

This day I foundered another of my horses. 

Dined at a public dinner givn. by the Citizens of Salis- 
bury ; & in the afternoon drank Tea at the same place with 
about 20 ladies, who had been assembled for the occasion. 

Salisbury is but a small place altho' it is the County town, 
and the district Court is held in it ; — nor does it appear to be 
much on the increase, — there is about three hundred souls in 
it and tradesmen of different kinds. 

iSon of John Phifer, one of the leading patriots of Mecklenburg County, who died early 
in the Revolution. His remains were buried at the Red Hills, three miles west of Concord, 
in Cabarrus County, North Carolina. I saw over his grave in 1848, a rough mutilated 
memorial slab, upon which, tradition averred, a fire was built by British soldiers, when 
on their march from Charlotte to Salisbury, in contempt for the patriot's memory. He 
was one of the signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. 

' General John Steele, who was a representative in Congress for four years. He was a 
native of Sali-sbury, and first appeared in public life as a member of the North Carolina 
House of Commons, in 1787. He was appointed by President Washington, controller of 
the United States Treasury, and was continued in office by President Adams. He died 
in 1815. 

diaky of george washington. 51 

Tuesday, 31st. 

Left Salisbury about 4 o'clock ; at 5 miles crossed the Yad- 
kin/ the principal stream of the Pedee, and breakfasted on 
the ISTo. Bank (while my Carriages & horses were crossing) 
at a Mr. Youngs' fed my horses 10 miles farther, at one 
Eeeds — and about 3 o'clock (after another halt) arrived at 
Salem, one of the Moravian towns 20 miles farther — In all 
35 from Salisbury. 

The Road between Salisbury & Salem passes over very lit- 
tle good land, and much that is different ; being a good deal 
mixed with Pine, but not sand. 

Salem is a small but neat village ; & like all the rest of the 
Moravian settlements, is governed by an excellent police — 
having within itself all kinds of artizans — The number of 
Souls does not exceed 200." 

Wednesday, June 1st. 

Having received information that Governor Martin was on 
his way to meet me ; and would be at Salem this evening, I 
resolved to await his arrival at this place instead of halting a 
day at Guilford as I had intended ; 

Spent the forenoon in visiting the Shops of the different 
Tradesmen — The houses of accommodation for the single 
men & Sisters of the Fraternity — & their place of worship. — 

lAt the Trading Ford, probably, where Greene with Morgan and his light troops crossed, 
with Cornwallis in pursuit. There is now a great bridge over the Yadkin, on the Salisbury 
road, about a mile and a half above the Trading Ford. 

^There is still a very flourishing settlement of Moravians, or United Brethren, at Salem, 
where the church was first planted in 1766. The log-house in which the first Moravian 
settlers were at first lodged, was yet standing in 1857. 

Washington's visit as recorded in his Diary, is duly noted in the records of the Moravian 
Society at Salem, and copies of the addresses delivered on that occasion are preserved. 

The following is the address of the Moravians to the President: — 

To the President of the United States. 

The Humble Address op the United Brethren in Wachovia. . 

Happy in sharing the Honour of a Visit from the Illustrious President of the Union 
to the Southern States, the United Brethren in Wachovia humbly beg Leave, upon this 
joyfull Occasion to express their highest Esteem Duty and Affection for the great Patriot 
of this Country. 

Deeply impressed as we are with Gratitude to the great Author of our Being for his 
unbounded Mercies, we can not but particularly acknowledge his gracious Providence 


Invited six of their principal people to dine with me — and in 
the evening went to hear them sing, — perform on a variety 
of instrnments Church music. 

In the Afternoon Governor Martin as was expected (with 
his Secretary) arrived.^ 

over the temporal and political Prosperity of the Country, in the Peace whereof we do 
find Peace, and wherein none can take a warmer Interest than ourselves, in particular when 
we consider that the same Lord who preserved Your precious Person in so many imminent 
Dangers, has made You in a conspicuous Manner an Instrument in His Hands to forward 
that happy Constitution, — together with those Improvements, whereby our United States 
Isegin to flourish, over which You preside with the Applause of a thankfuU Nation. 

Whenever therefore we sollicit the Protection of the Father of all Mercies over this fa- 
voured Country, we can not but fervently implore His Kindness for Your Preservation 
which is so intimately connected therewith. 

May this gracious Lord vouchsafe to prolong Your valuable Life as a further Blessing 
and an Ornament of the Constitution, that by Yom- worthy Example the Regard for Re- 
ligion be encreased, and the Improvements of Civil Society encouraged. 

The Settlements of the L^nited Brethren though small, will always make it their Study 
to contribute as much as in them layeth, to the Peace and Improvement of the United 
States and all the particular Parts they live in, joining their ardent prayers to the best 
Wishes of this whole Continent, that Your Personal as well as Domestic Happiness may 
abound, and a Series of Success may crown Your Labours, for the Prosperity of our Times, 
and an Example to future Ages, untill the glorious Reward of a faithfull Servant shall be 
Your Portion. 

signed in Behalf of the United Brethren in Wachovia by 
Frederick William Marshall, 

Salem the first of June 1791. 

John Daniel Koehler, 
Christian Lewis Benzien. 

To the United Brethren of Wachovia, 

I am greatly indebted to your respectful and affectionate expressions of personal regard, 
and I am not less obliged by the patriotic sentiments contained in your address. 

From a Society, whose governing principles are industry and the love of order, much 
may be expected towards the improvement and prosperity of the country, in which their 
Settlements are formed — and experience authorises the belief that much will be obtained. 

Thanking you with grateful sincerity for your prayers in my behalf, I desire to assure 
you of my best wishes for your social and individual happiness. 

Go Washington. 

1 This entry closes this volume of the Diary. The President reached Mount Vernon on 
the 12th of June, having made a most satisfactory journey of more than seventeen hundred 
miles, from his seat on the Potomac, in sixty-six days, with the same team of horses. "My 
return to this place is sooner than I expected," he wrote to Hamilton, "owing to the un- of my journey by sickness, from bad weather, or accidents of any kind 
whatsoever," for which he had made an allowance of eight days. 




Colonel William Shepperd, of Long Meadows, near Hills- 
boro, Kortli Carolina, was an officer of the ISTorth Carolina 
line during the War of the Eevolution of 177 G, and a terror 
to the Tories in the middle part of the State. 

Many are the stories of his prowess still kept alive in the 
farm houses of Orange, those treasuries of local tradition, but 
this one was told me by his gTand-nephew, Dr. William 
Strudwick, and therefore may be received as authentic. 

No man is search of a hero would have given Colonel Shep- 
perd a second thought. He was a very short, sparebuilt man, 
of jDlain, insignificant appearance, blind in one eye, with a 
thin, high, piping voice, long, lank, black hair that he gen- 
erally kept out of his way by tying a red bandanna handker- 
chief around his head. 

A democrat of intensest degree, he affected the roughest 
costume ; and in an age when gentlemen wore nothing but 
"purple and fine linen" he clothed himself in homespun 
woven on his own plantation and shoes made by his ovni 

Yet that spare frame was knit together with joints and 
muscles like bands of fine tempered steel ; and from that soli- 
tary dark eye looked forth a spirit so intrepid that no danger 
could appal it ; no adverse fortune dismay or subdue ; and that 
thin, high voice had the irresistible ringing command of a 
bom master of men in its piping tones. He had organized a 
partisan force of Minute Men some four or five hundred 
strong; men who dwelt peaceably enough at home, until a 
runner notified them that Shepperd had work for them to do, 
when at the appointed place of rendezvous would gather a 


band of rough and resolute men, ready to execute any plan, 
however daring and hazardous, of their idolized chief. 

An English officer, Colonel Patton, was then raiding 
through Orange and the adjoining counties, carrying terror 
and devastation with him. Born a gentleman, educated as a 
soldier, and a man of superb ]3hysical development, he 
mocked at fear ; and, utterly devoid of conscience, staunch 
in his loyalty to the King, and with an utter scorn of the 
American rebels, he showed no quarter ; rapine, violence, 
and murder marked every step of his onward progress and 
none were able to stay his course. 

Colonel Shepperd and his troopers, returning home after 
the disastrous battle of Briar Creek (March 3, 1779), found 
Patton devastating the country, and riding roughshod over 
the people. Plan after plan to capture him was devised, but 
Patton, who was as capable and wary as a soldier as he was 
brutal as a man, slipped through Shepperd's toils again and 
again, and laughed him to scorn. Finally Colonel Shepperd 
was ordered on some expedition that withdrew his forces from 
the neighborhood, and Patton getting wind of it, came down 
into the lion's den, quartered at Long Meadows for the night 
and a day, and, although treating Mrs. Shepperd with ex- 
treme courtesy (for while absolutely without humanity to 
women as women, he never failed to treat a lady of his own 
social rank with the most finished courtesy of manner) he 
appropriated the Colonel's stock, provender and plantation 
supplies like the freebooter that he was. 

Colonel Shepperd, returning one night to visit his wife, to 
whom he was passionately devoted, discovered that Patton 
was in the neighborhood, and laid a j)lan to capture him. 
Summoning his immediate bodyguard of trusty, picked men, 
he stationed thirteen of them in an old deserted schoolhouse 
to lie in wait while he and the others reconnoitred. Return- 
ing to the schoolhouse what was his anger and astonishment 


to find it empty and a card taclied up by Colonel Patton to 
tell the reason why. 

Patton had also been out scouting, and came to the school- 
house, where a pack of cards and jug of whiskey were help- 
ing the ambuscaders to forget their duty. 

All the muskets were piled near the door, and their owners, 
sitting crosslegged on the floor, were deep in the mysteries of 
a game, while the sentry lifted the jug to his head a time or 
so too often. 

Stepping lightly to the open door, Colonel Patton seized 
one of their own muskets and leveling it at the absorbed 
group of card players cried out : "Surrender to Colonel Pat- 
ton of His Majesty's forces, or I will shoot every man of 

Plalf drunk, wholly surprised, and with the instinctive 
obedience of the common soldier to the born commander, 
they at once surrendered. 

Still holding his musket at point blank range, Patton made 
one of the men advance and hand him the muskets, one by 
one, butts foremost, and then he was required to tie his com- 
rades, each man with his own halter-rein ; the horses in turn 
were secured to their masters, and thus yoked together man 
and beast, the crestfallen thirteen men marched ahead of 
their solitary captor to the British camp. 

A fiery, passionate man, Shepperd's rage and mortification 
knew no bounds. His desire to capture Patton became a per- 
fect frenzy and he bent every energy to its accomplishment. 
If a man luill, he generally can, and Shepperd's hour came at 

l^ot very long after the disgi'aceful capture of Shepperd's 
men there was to be a sale in the neighborhood. People had 
submitted if they were not subdued, and Patton rode or 
walked through the land a veritable Lord Paramount, and 
none dared resist or gainsay. He was going to attend the 


sale, not as a bidder nor a buyer, but to take, vi et armis, 
wbatever he saw fit. 

Colonel Shepperd had either heard or suspected that Pat- 
ton would be at the sale, so he stationed some of his men 
above and below the point of attack he had selected, and early 
on the morning of the day, dressed like a common farmer as 
he always was, and with a loose halter over his arm, he 
mounted his horse and took a bridle path through the woods 
that would bring him out on the road that Patton must travel 
to reach the sale. A house occupied by a farmer named Smith 
was on the left of the road above Shepperd's lower ambuscade. 
After a while, down the road came Patton, riding a superb 
black mare ; dressed in full British uniform and presenting a 
very brilliant and s]Dlendid appearance. He was tall, large, 
and superbly handsome ; and in courage and high soldierly 
qualities fully Shepperd's equal. 

As he rode gallantly on in all the pride of conscious beauty 
and power, out of a bridle-path to his right rode a small, 
badly dressed, ill favored man, who, saluting him awkwardly 
as he rode alongside, said : ^'I bought some colts not long ago 
from a man named Smith who lives somewhere hereabouts, 
and they have strayed away, and I reckon they have gone 
back to their old home, so I am looking for them. Can you 
tell me where Smith lives ?" 

"Oh, yes," said Patton, carelessly raising his right arm 
and pointing across the road, '^he lives across the road in that 
house yonder." 

He had turned his face in the direction indicated as he 
spoke, and in that instant a pair of wiry arms were clasped 
'round him like a vise, and a small piping voice cried out : 
"Colonel Patton, you are my prisoner, sir." 

Patton was a stammerer in his speech, and he stuttered out 
angrily : "It's a damned lie sir ; I am no man's prisoner," 
struggling desperately to release himself as he spoke. He 

A partisajS" leader. 57 

Lad not reckoned on the immense strength hidden away in the 
small body of his captor, and his efforts were unavailing. 
Drawing his sword with his left hand he essayed to cut him- 
self loose, but Shepperd was so small and so close to him that 
the slashes did not touch him. 

Patton shortened his sword and stabbed mercilessly at the 
arm around him until it was gashed and stabbed in a dozen 
placed, but the resolute little Colonel never loosened his hold 
nor flinched. 

This, though long in the telling, occupied only a moment 
of time, and the horses, feeling loose bridles on their necks, 
broke and ran, as country horses generally do, and landed 
both riders in the road. 

Patton, being the heavier, fell underneath, and when Shep- 
perd's troopers, attracted by the riderless horses passing 
them, for everybody knew Patton's black mare, a superb Eng- 
lish thoroughbred, came hurrying up, they found the stub- 
born little Colonel holding his prostrate foe in an embrace 
that seemed like riveted bands of steel. 

The arrival of reinforcements made the contest hopeless 
for Patton, who had been badly hurt by his heavy fall, and 
he said: ''I surrender, and claim the usages of war as an 
officer and a gentleman." Shepperd at once unloosed his 
clasp, and when Patton was helped to his feet he held out his 
sword, saying: "To whom do I surrender?" "To Colonel 
William Shepherd, sir," answered the Colonel, with a ring 
of triumph in his voice. 

"Colonel Shepperd !" exclaimed Patton, in the utmost sur- 
prise and chagTin, as he looked at the small, insignificant 

"Yes, sir; Colonel William Shepperd, of the ISTorth Caro- 
lina line, who has promised to hang Colonel Patton whenever 
he caught him," said Shepperd, drawing from his pocket a 
pair of handcuffs that he had carried for months for the 


purpose of braceleting Patton if ever captured. With a 
spring like a tiger Patton shook himself free from the troop- 
ers who surrounded him, and catching up the limb of a fallen 
tree, he put his back against a large oak and exclaimed : 
' 'Colonel Shepperd, you shall never subject me to the dis- 
grace of handcuffs ; I will die first. I claim the usages of 
war, to be treated like an officer and a gentleman. I will 
never submit to be handcuffed." 

"You have forfeited all the consideration due a soldier, 
sir. You are a robber and a murderer," said Shepperd bit- 

''I wear the uniform of a British ofiicer, sir, and I de- 
mand to be treated like an officer of His Majesty's army. I 
give you my word of honor to make no effort to escape. I 
will go alone with you or with any one else to headquarters. 
I will consider myself your prisoner and deport myself ac- 
cordingly, without constraint, but I will not submit to per- 
sonal indignity and no man shall handcuff me alive." 

Shepperd was no fool. He saw plainly enough that Pat- 
ton would make a desperate resistance in which he would 
have to be killed outright or else so badly hurt that traveling 
would be impossible, so he abandoned the idea of handcuffs 
and accepting Patton's parole both men mounted their horses 
that had been caught and brought back to them by Shep- 
perd's men, and set off alone for Gates' headquarters, near 
Asheville, riding, eating, and sleeping together like brothers 
until they reached the American camp, where Shepperd 
turned his prisoner over to the authorities, and he was tried 
by drumhead court-martial, condemned and executed. 

Colonel Shepperd died in Hillsboro in a house now used as 
a part of Mr. ISTathan Brown's store on Churton street. 



Contributed by Mrs. M. G. McCUBBINS. 

Samuel Hall (Book E, page 127), February 20, 1793. 
Wife : Elizabeth. Sons : George and Abraham. Ex. : Sons, 
George and Abraham. Test: Isaac Eaton, Jese( ?) Will- 
cockson, and John Alexander. 

Samuel Luckie (Book E, page 132), May 31, 1797. 
Wife: Anne. Sons: Samuel (the youngest) and Robert. 
Granddaughter : Peggy. Ex. : Sons, Samuel and Robert. 
Test: John Hall, William Luckie, Jr., and Robert Luckie. 

Thomas Lyall (Book E, page 133), February 19, 1781. 
Wife : Mary. '^Children." Daughter : Margaret (land on 
south fork of Yadkin River) and Elizabeth (the home place). 
Ex. : Wife, Mary, Samuel Young and Thomas McKay. A 
codicil speaks of step-daughter Susannah Cowan. Test. : Jas. 
Brandon, Jas. Graham, and William Mackey. 

John Lowasser (Book E, page 135), April 24, 1794. 
Wife: Elizabeth. Children. Daughter: Catharine. Ex.: 
Wife, Elizabeth and friend, Jacob Fisher. Test. : Philip 
Lamly, Conrad Beicher, and Conrad Franck. 

Samuel Luckey (Book E, page 136), January 4, 1801. 
Son: John (land west of Hunting Creek). Daughters: Elea- 
nor McQuire, Ann Luckey, and Mary Luckey. Grand- 
daughter: Anne Ronshaw. Ex.: Son, Samuel and son-in- 
law, James McGuire. Test. : John Evans, Thomas Bea- 
voe( ?), and Samuel MclSTeely. 

Jacob Link (Book E, page 137), December 18, 1800. 
Wife : Nancy. Children. Ex. : Thomas Pinkston and Wil- 
liam Link. Test : George Robison, Christopher Figen- 
binder, and James Ghon. 

Elijah Lyon (Book E, page 138), December 7, 1800. 


Wife: Nancy. Sons: Nathan, Richard, and Elijah. Daugh- 
ters : Rebecca Dickey, Esther Eoas Bosidos, Mary, JSTooly 
Bosidos, and Elizabeth. (There may be other children.) 
Ex.: Wife, Mary, and son Richard. Test: John Evan, Jr., 
and David Maxwell. 

Daniel Lewis (Book E, page 141), March 19, 1801. 
Wife: Hannah (the honieplace). Daughters: Sarah Hen- 
dricks Cunningham and Hannah. Son : Daniel (to get home- 
place after his mother's death). Ex.: Wife, Hannah, and 
son, Daniel. Test: Elijah Renshaw, Jr., and John Eox. 

Peter Lewis, yeoman (Book E, page 143), September 20, 
1803. Daughters: Jane, Wallis, and Elleanor Wally. Sons: 
James, Simon, and Peter. Others mentioned : Charles Smith 
and William Bird. Ex. : Son, Peter. Test: John Culberston 
and Elijah Martin. 

John Luckbee (Book E, page 142), no date. Wife: Bar- 
bara. Son : George. Children. Others mentioned : Daniel 
Lents. Ex. : John Cope and David Luckbee. Test : John 

Henry Leonard (Book E, page 145), October 12, 1803. 
Wife : Elizabeth. Sons : Charles and Jacob. ''Daughters" 
(not named). Children. Ex.: Friends, Jacob Hoults- 
houser and John Linn. Witnesses: T. Ross(?) and Peter 


In the name of God amen, I William Lee Davidson, of the 
state of North Carolina and county of Rowan being in health 
of body and of i^erfect mind and memory thanks be given to 
God, calling to mind the mortality of my Body and knowing 
that it is appointed for all men once to die do make and ordain 
this my Last Will & Testament, that is to say principally and 
first of all I give and recommend my soul into the hands of 
almighty God that give it, and my Body I recommend to the 


earth to be buried in a decent and Christian manner at the 
discretion of my executors ; I^othing doubting but at the gen- 
eral resurrection I shall receive the same again, by the mighty 
power of God, and as touching such Worldly Estate where- 
with it has pleased God to bless me in this, I give, demise and 
dispose of the same in the following manner & form Im- 
primis, It is my will & I do order that in the first place, all 
my just Debts & funeral Charges be paid & Satisfyed.J\.''\J' 

Item, I do give & Bequeath unto my well beloved Wife, 
Mary Davidson one — blooded Sorrel Mare together with a 
Saddle & Bridle besides her thirds and likewise the use of the 
plantation on which I now live untill my son George comes 
of age, for which she is to take proper care of the children and 
gave them proper Learning or as much Learning as she thinks 
is necessary she is also to have the Discretionary use of the 
pay arising from my services in the army during her Widow- 
hood for the use of the family 

Item I do give and bequeath unto my beloved sons George 
Davidson, John Alexander Davidson & Ephriam Brevard 
Davidson the Tract of land I now live on, my three Lots in 
the Town of Charlotte in Mecklenburg — County IST". Carolina 
together with all the lands that may be confirmed to me or 
my officers as a reward for my services to the United States 
of America to be divided into three proportions of as equal 
value as posihle by my Executors and each of my sons above 
mentioned to have one share which the Executors are to de- 
termine to them severally according as their Circomstances 
may make it prudent or fit at the time of the Division which 
is left to the discretion of my Executors 

My Wegroes all the remainder of my land goods Chattels 
&C. (except a tract of land Containing four Hundred Acres 
lieing on rich land Mountain in Burk County and a tract of 
land entered by James Davidson in my behalf at the old 
Camping ground on a fork of Broad Eiver in Burk County 


to be Divided into four equal parts one of which, is to be given 
at the Discretion of my Executors to my three sons above 

Item I do give & Bequeath unto my well Beloved Daughters 
Jean Davidson, Namela Davidson and Marjeret Davidson 
and the child with which my wife is now pregnant the re- 
maining part of my Estate, including the two tracts above to 
be Equally Divided amongst them, should the last be a 
Daughter, But if a Son he is to have the land mentioned on 
Richland Mountain & Broad River and the Remainder to be 
equally Distributed by my Executors to my three Daughters 

I do constitute and appoint John Brevard, Esq"" John 
Dickey & William Sharp, Esq"" to be my whole executors of 
this my last Will & Testament and do hereby utterly revoke 
& Disanull all & every other former Testaments, Wills, Leg- 
acies & Executors by me in any wise before named Willed or 
Bequeathed, Ratifying and Confirming this and no other to 
be my last Will and Testament in Witness Whereof I have 
hereunto set my hand & Seal this seaventeenth of Day of 
Decem"" in the year of our Lord one thousand seven Hundred 

and Eighty 

W" L. Davidson (Seal) 
Signed, Sealed, Published, pronounced 
and Declared by the said Willm 
Davidson as bis last Will and Testament 
in the presence of us, who in bis pres- 
ents and in the presents of each other 
have hereunto subscribed our names. 

Robert Wilson. 
Jas. Crawford. 
David Shelton. 



By Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Robert ^ej McJSTeely, the author of the sketch of "Union 
County" in this issue of the Booklet, was born on a farm 
near Waxhaw, ISTorth Carolina, JN'ovember 12, 1883. He is 
the son of Robert and Henrietta (Belk) MclSTeely, names 
closely linked with this section of the State, and numbered 
among the best and most respected of the old families of the 

Mr. MclSTeely was named by his father after Marshal Key 
of France. His father was led to believe, as many others 
were, that the French Marshal and the "Ney" who taught 
school in ISTorth Carolina were one and the same man. Ex- 
cept that some of the pupils of the iN^orth Carolina teacher 
lived in this county and firmly believed that their teacher was 
the French Marshal there is no other proof than what has 
already been written that the North Carolina teacher was a 
Marshal of France. Mr. MclSTeely was prepared for college 
at the College Hill and the Waxhaw schools, taught school a 
couple of years and then entered the University of jSTorth 
Carolina, where he graduated with the degree of LL.B. At 
the University he won the Bryan Sheppard prize of $25 in 
gold, for the best thesis on a legal subject. He studied law 
under Judge James C. MacRae, admitted to the bar at Mon- 
roe in 1907 and has practiced here ever since. He was elected 
to the State Legislature in 1909, and was at one time called 
to the chair by the SjDeaker and asked to preside over the 
House for a while. Fond of the law and devoted to the pro- 
fession, he has met with encouraging and growing success. 
It is quite apparent after reading the sketch of Union County 
that Mr. Mci^eely is well read in American history and an 


unquestioned authority upon the local history and traditions 
of Western North Carolina. From the energy and force thus 
far displayed by him his fellow citizens have reason to look 
forward with growing interest to further and greater develop- 

A biograjDhical and genealogical sketch of Mr. Marshall 
DeLancey Haywood, who writes of the "Masonic Revolu- 
tionary Patriots in ]Srorth Carolina" in this number of the 
Booklet, appeared in Vol. VIII, 1. 




Vol. XII 

OCTOBER, 1912 

No. 2 


NortK Carolina Booklel: 


IN , 









Elizabeth Maxwell Steel: Patriot 68 

By Archibald Henderson 

Palmyra in the Happy Valley - - - - - 104 

By Mrs. Lindsay Patterson 

The Forest 135 

By R. F. Jarrett 

The Forests of North Carolina 136 

By Collier Cobb 

Marriage Bonds of Rowan County . . . . 158 

By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda - - 162 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 


Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh, N. C, July 15, 1905, under the act of 
Congress of March 3, 1879. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XII of The Booklet v/ill be issued quarterly by the Nortli 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1912. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price ?1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 


History of Union County, Including the Waxhaw Settlement. 

Mr. Ney McNeely 

The Forest (Poem) Mr. R. F. Jarrett 

Masonic Revolutionary Patriots in North Carolina. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 
Our Forests — What They Have Done, Are Doing, and May Do 

for North Carolina Dr. Collier Cobb 

Some Notable Senatorial Campaigns in North Carolina. 

Judge Robert W. Winston 
Historic Homes, Part VI: Palmyra in the Happy Valley. 

Mrs. Lindsay Patterson 
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele: the Famous Revolutionary Patriot. 

Dr. Archibald Henderson 
Reprint of Washington's Diary, written in North Carolina. 

The Confederacy (Poem) Mr. R. F. Jarrett 

History of the Whig Party in North Carolina. 

North Carolina's Social Life, Ante-bellum Major E. J. Hale 

How "Carolina" Came to be Written Mr. Jaques Busbee 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina's History, will appear 
hereafter in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1800, as sources 
of biography, history and genealogy. Mrs. M. G. McCubbins will 
contribute abstracts of wills and marriage bonds in Rowan County 
to the coming volume. Hon. P. D. Winston will furnish similar 
data from Bertie County. 

Mrs. E. E. MofQtt has consented to edit the Biographical Sketches 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XII are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XI for sale. 

Mrs. Steel presenting two bags of specie to General Greene. 

(From painting by Alonzo Chappel.) 

Vol. XII OCTOBER, 1912 No. 2 



'^Carolifta! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings atteyid her ! 
While we live we will cherish^ protect and defend her." 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. EiDitob. 


Mes. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillakd. 

Mrs. E. B. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mb. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Pries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 






honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 




Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 




Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 
DeGraffenried Chapter Mrs. Charles Sloveb Hollisteb, Regent, 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Se.* 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

♦Died December 12, 1904. 
tDied November 25, 1911. 


Vol, XII OCTOBER, I9I2 No. 2 




Commanding the approach to the majestic State Capitol 
building at Columbia, S. C, has but recently been erected 
a noble specimen of the sculptor's art. In a chair of 
state, suggestive of Imperial Roman grandeur, is seated 
a matron as noble in appearance, as stately in bearing, as the 
most celebrated matron of classic Roman history. Pressing 
forward to fling their floral offerings at her feet are two lovely 
cherubs ; and Fame, supremely proud in the glad fulfillment 
of her vocation, is about to crown the matron, all unconscious 
of the sublime decoration, with a wreath of laurel. In the 
expression upon the face of the matron, whose striking head 
in its facial features represents a composite of Southern 
traits, are mingled pride — for the heroism of the South ; con- 
templation — in recollection of the trials of her people ; and 
ineffable sadness — for the spent lives and frustrated hopes of 
a gallant army whelmed under the might of numbers. From 
the pediment of that monument speak out these chiseled 
words : 

When reverses followed victories, when want displaced plenty, 
when mourning for the flower of Southern manhood darkened count- 
less homes, when government tottered and chaos threatened, the 
women were steadfast and unafraid. They were unchanged in 
their devotion, unshaken in their patriotism, unwearied in minis- 
trations, uncomplaining in sacrifices, splendid in fortitude; they 
strove while they wept.* 

*The inaoription, a portion of which is quoted here, was written by Wm. E. Gonzales , 


The inspiration to celebrate the loyalty, patriotism, and 
self-sacrifice of the women of the Sonth in the War between 
the States, has filled today the heart of the New South. Along 
with this quickened inspiration, which has touched the spirit 
of the younger generation, goes the impulse to celebrate the 
patriotic women of an earlier day, the fostering mothers of 
the infancy of the Republic. The numerous patriotic socie- 
ties, now devoting their zealous efforts towards memorializ- 
ing the heroism of Revolutionary and Colonial days, have 
caught the true spirit of Fronde, "who said that "history is a 
voice forever sounding across the centuries the laws of right 
and wrong." Not all of history is writ in the blood of "war 
and war's alarms." The courage and endurance of the gentler 
sex, their unselfish devotion to their country, the uplifting 
moral force of their fidelity to principle and loyalty to a 
cause, the high example of their generosity in lavish expendi- 
ture of optimism and ready contribution of personal earn- 
ings, inspiring the soldiery to renewed efforts of energy and 
sturdier martial exploits — these were contributions of in- 
calculable moment in firing and keeping alight the flame of 
Revolutionary patriotism. Such influences — of hope, in- 
spiration, faith, generosity — as well as the victories of shot 
and shell, of musket and cutlass, now at last are beginning 
to win the outspoken and tangible gratitude of a loyal people. 


It is the comment of the stranger within North Carolina's 
borders, even of the New Englander, that nowhere is local 
history so completely bone and sinew of the historical curric- 
ulum of the child's education as in North Carolina. Not even 
in New England, that paradise of the historian, the anti- 
quarian, and of the average citizen informed with minute 
knowledge of and active pride in his section's past, is the 
accent in the historical education of the child so thrown upon 


the local contribution, as in this State. With good reason 
may the patriotic societies insist that, hereafter, the local 
contributions of the patriotic women in the Revolutionary 
period assume their just value in the perspective of our 

1^0 American colony, one ventures to say, surpassed Xorth 
Carolina in the number and variety of instrumentalities by 
which women aided the American patriots and fostered the 
spirit of opposition to the unjust legislation of a misguided 
Parliament and the fatuous blindness of a recalcitrant King. 
For bravery and endurance, ISTorth Carolina can point to 
Betsy Dowdy and her famous ride ; for the display of physi- 
cal courage in opj)osing the enemies of her country, to Eachel 
Caldwell ; for unshaken moral courage, and for wit, as exas- 
perating as it was ready, to Mary Slocumb and Mrs. Ashe ; 
for supreme patriotism — the one in offering a husband and 
seven sons to her country's service, the other in giving ''eight 
sons to the rebel army," — to Mrs. AVilson and Mrs. Brevard; 
for generosity instinct with self-sacrifice, to Elizabeth Max- 
well Steel. This is but a first division in the long roll of 

For feminine naivete and charm, as well as for loyalty of 
a delightfully unexpected variety, the action of the ladies of 
Mecklenburg and Rowan is unparalleled — the voluntarily 
uniting in an association "not to receive the addresses of any 
young, gentlemen — (except the brave volunteers who served 
in the expedition to South Carolina, and assisted in subduing 
the Scovilite insurgents), the ladies being of opinion that 
such persons as stay loitering at home, when the important 
calls of their country demand their military services abroad, 
must certainly be destitute of that nobleness of sentiment, 
that brave, manly spirit, which would qualify them to be the 
defenders and 2,'uardians of the fair sex."* Is it anv wonder 

*South Carolina and American General Gazette, February 9, 1776. 


that the Committee of Safety of Rowan County, in response 
to the request of the ladies for approbation of their resolu- 
tions, forthwith resolved with mingled mirth and pride, "that 
this committee present their cordial thanks to the said young- 
ladies for so spirited a performance ; look upon the resolu- 
tions to be sensible and polite ; that they merit the honor, and 
are worthy the imitation of every young lady in America."* 
Equally inspired by patriotic sentiment, and, furthermore, 
IDCCuliarly noteworthy for their practical defiance of British 
injustice, were the resolutions of the famous and interna- 
tionally historic Edenton Tea Party, inspired by the action 
of the Provincial deputies of North Carolina, "not to drink 
any more tea, nor wear any more British cloth, etc." The 
ladies declare that they can not be indifferent on any occasion 
that appears nearly to affect the peace and happiness of their 
country; pronounce their action a "duty which we owe, not 
only to our near and dear connections, who have concurred. in 
them, but to ourselves, who are essentially interested in their 
welfare" ; and proceed to give to America this "memorable 
proof of their patriotism."! 


On October 11, 1911, was unveiled at Salisbury, JST. C, 
by the Daughters of the American Revolution, a bronze 
memorial tablet to Elizabeth Maxwell Steel, doubtless the 
most famous, nationally, of all ITorth Carolina's patriotic 
women of the Revolution. The tablet, one and one-half by 
two feet in size, bears the following inscription : 

♦Records, Salisbury, N. C, May 8, 1776. 

^Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, January 16, 1775. 


Tablet at Salisbury, N. C, set up on the site of Elizabeth Maxwell 
Steel's Tavern. 


D. A. R. 

This Tablet 

Is Erected to the Memory of 




Elizabeth Maxwell Steele Chapter 

Daughters of the American Revolution 


The tablet was erected upon the very spot which witnessed 
the patriotic action of this fine and generous spirit — being 
set into the granite column, at the Smith Drug Company's 
shop, facing on Main Street and situated near the corner of 
Main and Council streets.* After prayer by the Eev. Byron 
Clark of the First Presbyterian Church of Salisbury, Mrs. 
J. P. Moore, Pegent of the local chapter, to whose efforts 
the event was in such large measure due, spoke as follows : 

"Friends having placed this tablet to mark an historic spot and 
to commemorate the deed of the illustrious Revolutionary patriot, 
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele, we come with reverence to finish that 
which we have begun. We hope by our example and precept to 
uplift the youth of our State to perpetuate our history and to pro- 
mote patriotism. We, therefore, in the name of the Elizabeth Max- 
well Steele Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, unveil 
this marker for the love of the Old North State and our country." 

Mrs. William N. Reynolds, of Winston-Salem, State 
Regent, then spoke the following dedicatory words : 

"It is our very great pleasure and privilege to gather together to 
do honor to one who so nobly served her day and generation that 
she was an honor to the land she loved so well. In the words of 
Holy Writ, she 'stretched forth her hands to the poor and needy, 
and in her tongue was the law of kindness.' And because of that, 
she, being dead, yet speaketh, and her works do follow her. 

"It is with tender pride that the Daughters of the American 
Revolution come to crown with immortelles that gracious daughter 

The tablet, hid from view by a large United States flag, was unveiled by Misses Mary 
Henderson and Janet Quinn, of Salisbury, and wreathed by Miss Elizabeth Steele Clary, 
of Greensboro, and Master Richard Henderson, Jr., of Salisbury. The orator of the occa- 
sion, whose address was published in full in the Salisbury Evening Post, October 12, 1911, 
was the Hon. Theo. F. Kluttz, of Salisbury. Benediction was pronounced by Dr. J. F. 
Mallett, rector of St. Luke's Episcopal Church. 


of Rowan, who, in the darkest hour of her country's need, gave of 
her abundance and sent the soldier hero on his way, cheered and 
strengthened, to fight his country's battles. Those battles were 
won, not by might, not by power, but by the blessing of Almighty 
God; and thirteen weak, struggling colonies became one of the great 
nations of the earth. 

"Great with granaries that feed the world; great with a mate- 
rial prosperity that seemingly has no limit; great with a growth 
so stupendous that no man may foresee the end. All are hers. 
And yet, the true, the only real greatness, that of a nation whose 
God is the Lord, must be made and kept by the womanhood of that 
nation. It was given us by women like Elizabeth Maxwell Steele. 
It must be kept a sacred trust by those of us who today hold in 
our hands that priceless inheritance. It is our great and high 
mission as Daughters of the American Revolution to pass it on, 
great and glorious and untainted, to those who shall come after, 
and we are helping to do this when we honor the memory of one 
of whom it may be said — as it was of one of England's greatest 
queens — 'Those about her from her shall learn the perfect ways of 
honor.' " 

''We do well to honor her memory," said the orator on 
that occasion, Hon. Theo. F. Klnttz, "and to keep alive the 
remembrance of her womanly contribution to the cause of 
liberty and independence." That she may live in historic 
memory, and that the details and message of her life may not 
be lost to posterity, the present writer has undertaken this 
historical monograph. The recent discovery, in Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, of a number of autograph letters of Mrs. 
Steel, written to her brother in-law, Ephraim Steel, during 
the Eevolutionary period, appreciably adds, to this impres- 
sion of her life and character, the thrill and vitality of con- 
temi^oraneous human interest. 


In the second quarter of the eighteenth century, the 
Maxwell family emigrated to Eowan County, Xorth Caro- 
lina, from Pennsylvania. They were borne southward in 
that migTation of the peoples — Pennsylvania Germans, Eng- 


lish, Scotch-Irish, and Highland Scotch — from Maryland, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, which carried the 
Robertsons to Guilford, the Seviers and Shelbys to Watauga, 
the Hendersons to Granville, the Harts to Orange, the 
Boones and Bryans to Rowan. When the Maxwell family 
reached Salisbury they found that the place had already been 
settled by emigrants who had followed thither the course 
of the old Trading Path. The family — the parents and 
two children, a boy and a girl — settled in the west- 
ern part of Rowan County. Elizabeth was born in 1733, 
and was. Rumple says, a native of west Rowan. Her 
brother, James Maxwell, a man of rare culture and 
refinement, enjoyed the privilege of studying medi- 
cine under the greatest Scotch physicians of the day in 
Edinburgh. In time, he became dissatisfied with the 
location of the family in Rowan, and returned to Pennsyl- 
vania, presumably after the marriage of his sister, Eliza- 
beth, to Mr. Robert Gillespie. 

In 175(3, or shortly before, Robert Gillespie settled in 
Salisbury. In partnership with Thomas Bashford he pur- 
chased a large number of lots there in 1757.* One of these 
lots was the one upon which they built and conducted the 
tavern, inn, or ''ordinary,'' as an inn was often called in those 
days, which stood near the corner of Main (formerly Corbin) 
and Council streets. The license to conduct this inn was 
granted to ''Bashford & Gillespie" in 1756.f The "tariff" 
of liquors sold at these inns in Salisbury, fixed by the County 
Court, reminds one, because of the number and variety of 
potable refreshments ever on tap, of those English taverns 
on which Charles Dickens, in the language of the late la- 
mented ''Professor" Thomas Dunston, loved to "dilate, pre- 

*In 1757 they purchased lots Nos. 3, 11 and 12 in the great "East Square," from Carter 
and Foster, Trustees of the Township of Salisbury. These lotseontained 144 square poles 
each, and on one of them they established their inn. Cf. Rumple's Rowan County, chap- 
ters VI and VII. 

fRscords of the Inferior Court, Salisbury, dating from 1753. 


varicate, and divulge." The tariff for supplies and accom- 
modations at this period (1755) is as follows: 

Rum, Whiskey and Spirituous Liquors & so in Propor- 
tion p Gal 6 — 

Loaf sugar Punch p Quart with % point of Liquor in it — 10 

Brown sugar Ditto p Ditto — 8 

Wine p Quart 1— 6 

Stewed Spirits p Quart & so in proportion 2 — 6 

Good Home Brewed Ale p Quart — 4 

English Beer p Quart 1 — 

For dinner of roast or boiled flesh 1 shilling 

For supper and breakfast, each 6 pence 

For lodging over night, good bed 2 pence 

For stablage (24 hours) with good hay or fodder.... 6 pence 

For pasturage, first 24 hours 4 pence 

For pasturage, every 24 hours after 2 pence 

For Indian corn or other grain, p quart 2 pence 

In May, 1756, Mr. Chief Justice Henley held a confer- 
ence in Salisbury, at the house of Mr. Peter Arrand, with 
King Hagler of the Catawba Nation, fifteen of his principal 
warriors and some thirty of his young men, painted and 
armed after their fashion in time of war. The Indians were 
entertained at the expense of the colony, provisions being 
supplied them by the licensed ordinaries of Gillespie & Bash- 
ford, John Lewis Beard, Peter Arrand, and by various indi- 
viduals.* Robert Gillespie was evidently a man of consid- 
erable means, for on June 2, 1758, he sold to William Har- 
rison and James Stewart four and one-half lots in the town 
of Salisbury — "ISTo. one in the West Square, No. two in 
said Square, and No. two in the South Square, and No. four 
in the South Square, also one Moiety or half-part of a lot, No. 
nine, in the East Square"—, together with four other tracts 
of lands, totalling fourteen hundred and seven acres. f 

* In the Reports of the Committee of Public Claims, Edenton, November 27, 1758 
appears the following entry: "Robert Gillespie of Rowan County was allowed his claim 
of Eight pounds eight shillings for provision for the Indians, as by acct rendered. Col. 
Rec, V, 981. 

t Records for the Inferior Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, Salisbury, Rowan 
County, held for said County on the third Tuesday in April, 1762. The numbered lots 
within the town limits may be identified by means of the town plat, still preserved. 


To Robert Gillespie and his wife, Elizabeth, who ably 
assisted him in managing the inn, were born two chil- 
dren, 'a son Robert, who became an officer in the American 
army, and a daughter, Margaret, who, on July 2, 1776, was 
united in marriage to a young Presbyterian preacher, Samuel 
Eusebius McCorkle, afterwards famous as scholar and di- 
vine.* The happiness brought by the two children was 
rudely interrupted in 1760, when, in one of the skirmishes 
which Col. Hugh Waddell, Commander at Fort Dobbs, had 
with the Indians in defense of the settlements, Robert Gil- 
lespie, Sr., was scalped by the Indians, and died from the 
effects of his wounds. f Elizabeth Gillespie, for her proven 
business capacity, was appointed administrator of her hus- 
band's estate, as evidenced by the following entry in the Rec- 
ords of the Inferior Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 
Salisbury, third Tuesday in October, 1762 : "Elizabeth 
Gillespie, Adm. of Robert Gillespie Came into Open Court 
and [made] a final Settlement and there App*^ that there Re- 
mains Forty Shillings proc. Mon. in her Hands, which Sum 
was allowed her for her Trouble and Expences in and about 
the S"^ Estate, &c." 

Some years after the death of her husband (in 1763, to be 
precise), Elizabeth Maxwell Gillespie was married a second 
time — on this occasion to a gentleman of Scotch-Irish strain, 
an emigTant from Pennsylvania, William Steel. i He was 
one of a family of eight sons and one daughter, whose parents 
were Samuel and Mary (Stevenson) Steel. Six of the broth- 

* In his Sketches of North Carolina, p. 354, Foote incorrectly states that the Rev. S. E. 
McCorkle married Miss Steele, instead of Miss Gillespie. For an elaborate sketch of Dr. 
McCorkle, cf. Foote, ch. XXVI. 

t For an account of one of these engagements with the Indians, cf. CoZ. ffec, VI, 230. 
Robert Campbell, who was scalped in this skirmish, subsequently recovered from his wounds 
and was recompensed by the colony in the sum of £20. {Col. Rec, VI, 422.) 

I The family in this generation spelled the name without the final e. Autograph sig" 
natures of both William Steel and Elizabeth, his wife, shown in the present monograph' 
demonstrate this. The family so spelled the name in all probability to distinguish them- 
selves from the other family of Steeles living in Pennsylvania. The next and all succeeding 
generations of both the North Carolina and Pennsylvania branches of William Steel's 
family spelled the name Steele. 


ers, John, Thomas, William, Joseph, Samuel, and Ephraim, 
came to America from their home in Ireland ; while of the 
other members of the family remaining in Ireland, Ninian, 
who was educated at Dublin University, became an eminent 
preacher, James a prosperous farmer, and "Jinny" married 
a man named George Hogg, bore him four or five children, 
and died while yet a young woman.* John, William, 
Thomas, and Joseph came to America soon after reaching 
man's estate, and "engaged in the afl^airs of their adopted 
land with commendable energy." Joseph, who fixed his res- 
idence at Hilton Head, S. C, was a man of means, engaged 
chiefiy in importing merchandise from the West Indies, 
xlfter the fall of Charleston, in May, 1780, all trace of him 
was lost by his relations. John settled permanently at Car- 
lisle, Pennsylvania ; and William and Joseph, before their 
settlement in the South, doubtless spent some time in Penn- 
sylvania. Thomas, who was of a roving disposition, enjoyed 
the wild, free life of the frontier, and as late as 1786 was 
living near the road to Fort Pitt. He remained unmarried, 
enlisted in the Continental army, and died about 1790. 

The picturesque tavern kejDt by William and Elizabeth 
Steel was a microcosm of the life of the period. Here, in 
miniature, w^ere caught the vivid impressions of the moving 
events and poignant passions of the hour. Here assembled 
the Regulators to mature their plans against those vultures 
of the courts, Frohock and Fanning.f Here dined Waight- 
still Avery, then novice in the law, the courtly William 
Hooper, and "other gentlemen of the bar" with the new 
Justice of the Superior Court, Richard Henderson. Here, 
too, doubtless, Richard Henderson planned with Daniel 
Boone, John Findlay, and John Stuart that long and ex- 
tensive scouting expedition to the wilderness of Kentucky in 

* Cf. The Steele Family in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania: The Genealogical Pub- 
lishing Co., Chicago. Also The Steele Family, by D. S. Durrie: Albany, 1859. 
]N. C. Col. Rec, Vin,521. 


search of rich lands, which subsequently led to the famous 
Colony of Transylvania and the first permanent colonization 
of the West. Here the gay barristers, Waightstill Avery, 
John Williams, Alexander Martin, Adlali Osborne, John 
Dunn, Samuel Spencer, and William Hooper sipped their 
sugared whiskey and nutmeg sangaree, and occasionally here, 
no doubt, as at Hillsborough, "narrowly escaped being in- 
toxicated" (Avery's Diary — 1769). Still in a perfect state 
of preservation are account books of the Steel Tavern, cov- 
ering a considerable number of years.* 


On Wednesday, August 7, 1771, pursuant to an act of the 
Assembly (IvTewbern, 1770), William Steel took the oath and 
qualified as Commissioner of the Borough of Salisbury. 
The other Commissioners were Matthew Troy, Daniel Little, 
John Lewis Beard, Peter Ribe, William Temple Coles, 
James Kerr, Maxwell Chambers, Alexander Martin, and 
John Dunnf. 

William Steel died on November 1, 1773, at the age of 
thirty-nine, leaving only one son, who was born on November 
16, 17644 This was John Steele, known in history as Gen- 
eral Steele, one of the most eminent men in the history of the 

* I have recently examined these old account books, now in the possession of Captain 
Richard Henderson (U. S. Navy, retired), great-grandson of Elizabeth Maxwell Steel. I 
append one entry: 

April l^th., 1773. 

Waightstill Avery To Sangaree. 

2 s. 
t Records of the Inferior Court, Rowan County, Salisbury, N. C. 

t William Steel's will, dated September 9, 1773, probated May 7, 1774, contains one clause 
willing certain property, contingently, to the four children of his brother, John Steel. 


State.* His tombstone, in the old family graveyard at the 
Steele homestead, now "Steeleworth," just within the limits 
of the town of Salisbury, at present the home of the family 
of Capt. Richard Henderson, bears this striking inscrip- 
tion : 

Consecrated by Conjugal 


Filial Affection. 
An Enlightened Statesman, 

A Vigilant Patriot, 
An Accomplished Gentleman. 
The Archives of His Country Testify 
the Services of His Short but Useful 
Life. Long Will That Country Deplore 
His Loss. But When Will This Se- 
questered Spot Cease to Witness the 
Sacred Sorrow of His Family 
and Friends? 


On a wild wintry night in the early hours of the first of 
February, 1781, a lonely horseman sits his weary steed anx- 
iously awaiting news of the day's campaign. The rain is 
slowly falling upon this solitary figure — a man of fine pres- 
ence, manly beauty, erect and commanding bearing, vig- 
orous and well proportioned frame. As evening darkens 
into night and the leaden-footed hours creep by, this sol- 
dierly figure continues to maintain his station at the rallying 
point of the militia, seven miles below Torrence's Tavern, 
on the road to Salisbury. This young man of only thirty- 
nine, in such gloomy dejection awaiting news of the day's 
conflict, whose fair and florid complexion has not entirely 

* Of his life there is no occasion to speak here. Ample materials for his biography 
are now in the possession of the North Carolina Historical Commission, the archives of the 
University of North Carolina, and the present writer. Suffice it to say that he died at the 
early age of fifty (August 14, 1815), having served as Member of Congress, Member and 
Speaker of the House of Commons, Commissioner on the N. C.-S. C. Boundary Line, Gen- 
eral of Militia, first Comptroller of the Treasury during the administrations of Vl'ashington, 
who was his intimate friend, and Adams, and invited to serve in the same capacity by 
Jefferson, his political opposite. For brief accounts of his life, cf. the Sprunt Historical 
Monograph, No. S (with original letters); Wheeler's History of North Carolina, under 
"Rowan County"; and Rumple's Rowan County. 

A copy of Charles Willson'Peale's portrait of General Nathaniel 
Greene. Owned by his great-granddaughter, Mrs. Wm. Brenton 
Greene, Jr. 


yielded to the exposures of five campaigns, is the most bril- 
liant soldier, leader, and strategist, bar Washington, on the 
American continent — the 'Tabins of America," General 
ISTathaniel Greene. 

It is the crucial hour of that remarkable strategic move- 
ment, the retreat of the Americans before the hotly pursuing 
Cornwallis. The very fate of the South, and perhaps of the 
American colonies, hangs in the balance. Anxiety lies heavy 
upon Greene, for his resources are at the very lowest ebb. 
Only by bringing out the militia can he venture to oppose 
the unresting pursuit of Cornwallis ; and for that he needs 
ready money to distribute among the soldiers, and a fresh 
store of hope and enthusiasm with which to fire his jaded 
soldiers to renewed eft'orts. On the preceding day he has sent 
Morgan forward post-haste towards the Yadkin, while he re- 
mains behind to make one more desperate effort to collect and 
embody the militia. 

Midnight is some time past when the anxious watcher, 
alert on his lonely vigil, hears the splashing plod of a horse's 
hoofs upon the sodden road. The jaded messenger, drenched 
with rain, brings the news that gives despair : "General 
Davidson is killed, the militia scattered ; Cornwallis has ef- 
fected the passage of the Catawba, and Huger is being hotly 
pressed by the British." In profound dejection over the de- 
pressing news, which seems to shatter his last hope of resist- 
ing the advance of Cornwallis and of successfully evading 
disaster, Greene disconsolately turns his horse's head and 
begins the long, weary ride to Salisbury. Money for his un- 
paid troops, inspiration for fresh efforts to enable Huger and 
Morgan once more to unite forces and present an unbroken 
front to the enemy — these are sorely needed now. Where 
are they to come from ? This lonely ride, in the blackest 
hours of this wild night, is symbolic of the lowest ebb in the 


fortunes of the campaign in the South. It is the darkest 
hour just before the dawn. 

After Morgan, who is stationed on the east bank of the 
Catawba, learns of the crossing of Cornwallis, at Cowan's 
Ford, he begins his retreat on February 1st towards the Yad- 
kin along the Beattie's Ford, or Sherrill's Ford, Road to 
Salisbury. That afternoon the American troops march hila- 
riously through the town, as they go occasionally punching 
out a window pane here and there with their bayonets. They 
encamp about half a mile east of town, on the Yadkin Koad, 
in a beautiful groA^e with convenient springs and abundance 
of fuel ready to hand.* The surgeon of Morgan's army, Dr. 
Joseph Eead, Vith the hospital stores and a number of 
wounded and disabled British officers who are prisoners, has 
reached Salisbury some time in advance of the main body of 
Morgan's command. Dr. Read at once establishes his head- 
quarters at Steeks Tavern, facing on the main street of the 
town. While busily engaged here in writing paroles for such 
British officers as are unable from sickness and debility to 
proceed further, he glances through the window of his apart- 
ment overlooking the street and, in the dimness of the early 
dawn, observes approaching a solitary horseman enveloped 
in a long military cloak, A closer glance and he recognizes 
in the man riding up to the door, unaccompanied by his aides 
or a single individual, the leader of the American forces, 
General Greene. "It was impossible not to perceive in the 
deranged state of his dress and the stiffness of his limbs," 
says Dr. Read himself, "some symptoms of his late rapid 
movements and exposure to the weather.''f 

"How do you find yourself. General ?'' anxiously inquires 
the doctor. 

To this inquiry Greene replies with the utmost dejection: 

* In this grove is now located the residence of Hon. John Steele Henderson, 
t Johnson's Life of Greene, Vol. I, ch. X, p. 417. 


"Wretched beyond measure — fatigued, hungry, alone, pen- 
niless, and without a friend." 

Mrs. Steel, who has come to the door on hearing the sound 
of voices, now steps forward, benevolence beaming from her 
countenance, and interjects with alacrity: 

'^That I deny" — and then, with an access of positiveness 
in her tone — "that I most particularly deny. In me. Gen- 
eral, you and the American cause have a devoted friend. 
And this gentleman will not, I am certain, suffer you to be 
without a companion, as soon as the humane business about 
which he is employed, is finished. Only come in and rest 
and dry yourself, and in a very short time a hot breakfast 
shall cheer and refresh you." 

The General, after his disagreeable ride of more than 
thirty miles in the rain, darkened by thoughts of the two dis- 
astrous skirmishes of the preceding day, at once enters the 
tavern, and disconsolately throws himself down into the 
nearest chair. 

Mrs. Steel now busies herself in preparing refreshment 
for the tired traveler. In a short time a bountiful repast is 
spread before the distinguished guest, while a cheerful fire 
crackles on the hearth and sheds its genial warmth through- 
out the room. The hospitable greeting of Mrs. Steel, the 
comforting influences of the environment and the gratifying 
repast set before him, go far to restore the spirits of the dis- 
heartened general. When General Greene rode up to the 
door Mrs. Steel's quick ear had caught the general's plaint 
that he was penniless ; and now, as he sits by the table, his 
head bowed upon his hand, she enters the room, carefully 
closes the door, and cautiously looks around to make sure 
they are not observed. Approaching General Greene and 
reminding him of the despondent words she had heard him 
utter on his arrival, Mrs. Steel once more assures him of her 


sympathy and frieudsbip. Drawing from under her apron 
two bags of sj^ecie, gold and silver coins, the savings of years 
which she has carefully boarded in these precarious times, 
she presents them to him eagerly, with these simple, but mem- 
orable words: 

'•'Take them ; for you will need them, and I can do with- 
out them." 

Though history does not record the exact words of the 
grateful General, his biographer says that "a7i acquisition 
so important even to the ijublic service, was not to be de- 
clined from excess of delicacy." We may well imagine that 
General Greene expressed his gratitude in some such way as 

"May Heaven bless you for your kind words and gener- 
ous act ! These two bags of specie now represent the treas- 
ure chest of the American army. They will put shoes on 
barefoot soldiers, feed hungry men, and further the cause of 
liberty. I accept your generous gift most gratefully in be- 
half of the public service, since it is given so generously. 
'Tis by such patriotic actions as this that revolutions are 

Doubtless Mrs. Steely as Rumple says, could have filled 
General Greene's pockets with "proclamation money," then 
worth less than were Confederate notes in the beginning of 
the year 1865. But silver and gold coins were incredibly 
scarce in Revolutionary days, and no American officer or 
gentleman could fail to be sensible of the value of such a 

* For the best accounts of the episode upon which the present recital is based, cf. John- 
son's Z/i'/eo/ Greene, vol. I, oh. X, p. 417; JethroRumple'si/istorj/o//Jou>ara County, ch. XVII; 
Foote's Sketches of North Carolina, ch. XXVI, pp. 354-5; Mrs. E. F. Ellet's Women of the 
Revolution (.Jacobs, Phila., 1900), vol. I, ch. XXIII; Irving's Life of Washington , vol. Ill, 
p. 345; Wheeler's History of North Carolina, under "Rowan County." The episode has found 
its way into fiction also, notably in the novel of Cyrus Townsend Brady: When Blades are 
Out and Love's Afield (Lippincott, Phila., 1901). 

t The Cyclopaedia of American Biographies, vol. IV, p. 4, says: "Elizabeth Maxwell 
Steele gave all her savings to General Greene on his retreat, thus enabling him to feed his 
troops and cross the Yadkin before its swollen waters impeded the pursuit of Cornwallis." 
Two circumstances may serve to demon.strate the value which specie possessed in those days, 
both intrinsically and in the popular mind. It is now universally recognized by historians 


In a letter to Washington during this very retreat, Greene 
writes : "The miserable situation of the troops for want of 
clothing has rendered the march the most painful imaginable, 
many hundreds of the soldiers marking the ground with 
their bloody feet. — / have not a shilling to obtain intelli- 
gence ivith."^ It was fortunate for General Greene that he 
visited Steel's Tavern when he did^ i. e., on February 2, be- 
fore Mrs. Steel had been despoiled of her property by the 
British. During their stay in Salisbury of two days, im- 
mediately following Greene's departure, the British levied 
upon the inhabitants for whatever they wanted. Says Mrs. 
Steel : "I was plundered of all my horses, dry cattle, horse 
forage, liquors and family provisions * * *." 


Just before his departure from Salisbury, General 
Greene left at Steel's Tavern a memorial of very striking and 
unique character. While sitting in the dining room Greene's 
eye caught sight of the portraits of King George III and 
Queen Charlotte hanging on the wall, bearing record to a 
time long past when Americans loved the mother country 
and revered their sovereigns. These beautiful colored en- 
gravings had been presented to Mrs. Steel by her brother, 
James Maxwell, to whom they had been given, when he was 
a member of an embassy to England, by one of his friends, 
an official at the Court of St. James. The sight of the pic- 
ture of George III filled General Greene's mind with mourn- 
ful reflections over the sufferings which his countrymen were 
at that moment enduring, fleeing almost naked and with 
bare, bloody feet before the relentless pursuit of Cornwallis ; 
and of the bloodshed in the struggle to throw off the shackles 

that one of the strongly contributory causes of the peasant revolt known as the Regulation 
was the scarcity of specie. After the Revolution, even, Thomas Person won great reputation 
as a philanthropist, a building at the University of North Carolina being named in his honor 
and still bearing his name, because his benefaction, though only 81,050, was paid in "hard 
money" — shining silver dollars. 
* Greene Mas. 


of slavery which Parliament and the English king were try- 
ing to fasten upon the colonies. With the generous gift of 
Mrs. Steel lying on the table before him, these sentiments 
returned to the General, mingled with a feeling of elation 
and confidence that now, succored in the hour of his need, 
he could once more fling defiance to British power and give 
King George full reason to regret his war upon the colonies. 
Taking a piece of charcoal from the fire-place he walked up 
to the picture of George III and wrote upon the back of it : 


Then, turning the face of the British king to the wall, Gen- 
eral Greene bade good-bye to his hospitable and patriotic 
hostess, and, mounting his horse, hurriedly rode away, with 
light heart to superintend and direct the retreat of his little 
army and provide for their transportation across the Yadkin. 
For as his biogTapher and descendant says : ''Never did re- 
lief come at a more propitious moment ; nor would it be 
straining conjecture to suppose that he resumed his journey 
with his sjDirits cheered and lightened by this touching proof 
of woman's devotion to the cause of her country."* 

In addition to its intrinsic value, Mrs. Steel's gift en- 
couraged Greene and heartened his jaded soldiery for that 
last burst of extra energy which seemed almost beyond hu- 
man power. It gave him the spirit to direct that masterly 
retreat which, as Botta said, "would have done honor to the 
most celebrated captains of that, or any former epoch," 
Overtaking Morgan, Greene crossed the Yadkin with his 
forces, the militia, newly aroused, harassing the British at 
every turn — and, rescued as if providentially by the sudden 
rise of the river, soon effected a junction with Huger on the 
seventh of February. In the retreat that followed oc- 
curred the almost unprecedented spectacle: the Americans 

■ George Washington Greene's Life of Greene, N. Y., 1871. 


under Col. Otho Williams covering Greene's rear, the British 
under the lead of Cornwallis himself, marching for many 
miles parallel with, and in sight of, each other — without 
firing a shot. Finally, on February 14, Greene was enabled 
to cross the Dan — thereby concluding that remarkable retreat 
of more than two hundred miles of which Washington wrote 
to Greene : "Your retreat before Cornwallis is highly ap- 
plauded by all ranks." 

One month later, on March 15, at Guilford Court House, 
Greene forced conclusions with Cornwallis on ground as- 
tutely chosen by the former on February 10th preceding, and, 
after a stubborn struggle, yielded a bloody field and, super- 
ficially, a victory to Cornwallis.* 

The victory was a barren one for the British arms, and 
left Cornwallis in a truly desperate plight. "My situation 
here," writes Cornwallis to Phillips from Wilmington, "is 
very distressing. Greene took advantage of my being obliged 
to come to this place, and has marched to South Carolina." 

In a letter (Salisbury, April 19, 1781) to her brother-in- 
law, Ephraim Steel, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Mrs. Steel 
in one illuminating paragraph depicts the advantageous re- 
sults for the country, wrought by the Battle of Guilford 
Court House : 

"It comforts me to think that the enemy will probably 
never return. His Lordship soon after the 15th of March 
moved to Wilmington, and General Greene, by a masterly 
stroke, has turned rapidly towards Camden, in his rear, 
which I hope will fall into his hands before Cornwallis can 

* As contemporary evidence of the presumption that this battle was regarded by the 
American military leaders as a virtual victory for Greene, it is pertinent to cite a passage 
from a letter of Washington to Jefferson ("Ileadquarters New Windsor, April 18. 1781"), 
which has only recently been brought to light :'' I am glad to learn from the Letter of General 
Greene, a copy of which Your Excellency did me the honor to enclose on "the 28th. Ult. 
that the Action of the 15th. had been severely felt by the Enemy, that their retreat bore 
evident marks of distress, and that our Army in good spirits were advancing upon them." 
The reference, "the Action of the 1.5th.," is to the Battle of Guilford Court House. In his 
letter of March 16 to Governor Jefferson, Major Charles Magill writes from "Camp at the 
Iron Works, Gilford County": — "Never was ground contested for with greater obstinacy, 
and never were Troops drawn off in better order. Such another dear bot day, must effect- 
ually ruin the British army ..." Calendar of Virginia State Papers, \o\.l, p. 57i. 


■ / 



reinforce the place. At least it will take the war out of this 
State. And leave his Lordship not one step further than be- 
fore Gates' defeat." 

Out of the apparent defeat at Guilford Court House, that 
pivotal battle of the Revolution, was thus wrought the most 
conclusive victory, foreshadowing and making possible the 
ultimate triumph of American Independence only seven 
months later at Yorktown, on October 19, 1781. 

Surely it is no exaggeration to assert that, in the darkest 
hour of Greene's career, when his fortunes were at their 
lowest ebb and his own dauntless mettle failed him, the gift 
of Elizabeth Maxwell Steel, loftilj' patriotic in its sentiment, 
providential in its timeliness, by its moral and inspiring 
effect, contributed in some appreciable measure to the ulti- 
mate achievement of American Independence. 


The colored lithographs of King George III and Queen 
Charlotte, which are still carefully preserved, have had such 
curious and chequered careers that the story of their wan- 
derings amply deserves recording. The following letter, for 
a copy of which I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. W. J. 
Andrews, Raleigh, N. C, is self-explanatory. The original 
is among the Swain Mss., in the archives of the University 

of IsTorth Carolina : January 14, 1846. 

Hon. David L. Swain: 

I have been thus long delayed in performing the agreeable duty 
assigned my by your kind letter by a long and painful illness of 
Mrs. M'Ginn, which has confined her to her chamber and her bed 
for several weeks. 

At the earliest moment which made the application proper I spoke 
to her in regard to the subject of your communication. The ac- 
knowledgements of the Historical Society I expressed as you re- 
quested and solicited the interesting relic which has been so long 
preserved in her family. It is, I am happy to say, cheerfully given. 
The Society will not however be indebted for it to Mrs. McGinn. 
The engraving which, as you will observe, is executed in a superior 


style of workmanship was highly prized by Mrs. Steel, the grand- 
mother of Mrs. McGinn, and was cherished during her life with 
great veneration. At her death it was given to her granddaughter, 
Elizabeth Steele, a sister of Mrs. M':Ginn, who was the wife of the 
Revd. James Bowman of Tennessee. Mrs. Bowman gave the en- 
graving to a daughter of Mrs. McGinn, who bears her own name, a 
young lady not yet grown — who not only prizes it as a historical 
relic of interesting general associations but connected with a near 
and deceased relation. It was yielded therefore only from that 
sense of duty which the daughter of Dr. McCorkle has endeavored 
to faithfully impress on her own descendants. As to the autograph 
it no doubt is that of General Greene. The words express the feel- 
ings of the illustrious hero as to the character of George 3d, his 
conduct towards the colonies, and the effect of the war on the 
possessions of the British Government. They are greatly injured 
by time but in a favorable position you may distinguish each word 
if not each letter. "O George hide thy face and mourn" is the 
entire passage. The engraving, as I am informed by Mrs. McGinn, 
was procured while in England by a brother of her grandmother 
whose name was James Maxwell. He was from Pennsylvania, the 
residence of the family prior to their migration and settlement in 
our State. He had been educated in Edinburg where he studied 
the profession of medicine. He returned to Pennsylvania and af- 
terwards visited England in some public capacity which is not now 
remembered. While there he obtained the Engraving of George 
the third — and engravings of other members of the royal family 
some of which are in a state of excellent preservation and which 
in style of execution will compare with the best specimens of the 
art under all the advantages of modern ingenuity. James Maxwell 
died at an early age, leaving to his sister the pictures to which I 
have referred and the memory of fine intellectual endowments and 
an exemplary life. I regret that no opportunity now occurs to 
transmit the engraving to its destined repository. It is somewhat 
impaired by time and it will require care to deliver it safely. The 
inscription by General Greene however which gives to it its value 
cannot be effaced by any accident likely to occur. I shall see to its 
preservation until some opportunity offers for its safe transmission 
to you. * * * I hope that you will be assured that it will afford 
me great pleasure to aid the Historical Society by any means in 
my power in collecting materials pertinent to its elevated object 
among the people of this revolutionary region. 
I am, with great respect. 
To the Truly yours, 

Hon. David L. Swain, James W. Osbokne. 

Chapel Hill, No. Carolina. 


The Mrs. McGinn referred to in the above letter was a 
daughter of the Rev. Samuel Eusebius McCorkle and his 
wife, Margaret Gillespie, daughter of Robert Gillespie and 
his wife, Elizabeth Maxwell. I am indebted to Mr. R. D. W. 
Connor for permission to use the following letter which I 
recently discovered in the collections of the North Carolina 
Historical Commission : 

Paris, Tenn., Mar. 2, 1859. 
Hon. David L. Swain. 

Dear Sir: — The University of North Carolina was presented some 
years ago, by my Mother, with a portrait of George III. of England, 
that had formerly been the property of my great grand Mother, 
Elizabeth Steel. 

As a Revolutionary relic the value of this portrait is enhanced 
by having on the back of it, in the hand writing of Gen. Green, the 
following, "King (sic) George, hide thy face and mourn." This 
portrait and that of Charlotte, his Queen, for many years hung side 
by side in the house of Mrs. Steel, and afterwards for more than 
a third of a century at Dr. McCorkle's, and then at my Mother's 
until they were separated by the king's being sent to Chapel Hill. 

The Queen is now in my possession, and the object of this com- 
munication is to inform you, that I desire the old couple to be 
again united, and I therefore offer for your acceptance the portrait 
of the Queen. And if you can suggest any means by which it can 
be forwarded to Chapel Hill, I will cheerfully send it. If you will 
accept the gift, please address me at your earliest convenience, as 
I expect to change my location in a few months. 

Respectfully yours, J. B. McGinn. 

P. S. My address is, Rev. J. B. McGinn, Paris, Tenn. 

The two pictures eventually reached Governor Swain 
safely. The picture of George III, doubtless because of its 
remarkable historic interest, was permitted by Mrs. McGinn 
to be displayed for a time in the court-house in Charlotte. 
The mention of this circumstance occurs in Foote's Sketches 
of North Carolina (p. 355), which was published in 1846. 
After the death of Governor Swain it was discovered that the 
relics of the l^orth Carolina Historical Society were inextric- 
ably mixed with the personal effects of Governor Swain. 


When the effects of Governor Swain's widow were sold in 
Raleigh on July 6, 1883, these pictures were bought by a 
young schoolboy. The story is so unusual, and the obligation 
towards him for preserving these pictures is so great that at 
my request he has given me the true history of his acquisition 
of the historic pictures.* The historian Wheeler says of the 
presentation by Mrs. Steel of the two bags of specie to Gen- 
eral Greene : "This scene has been made the subject of both 
painting and sculpture. "f The original painting of the 
scene was made by the artist Alonzo Chappel ; and an en- 
graving from the original painting, entitled ''Female 
Patriotism — Mrs. Steel and General Greene/' is to be 
found in J. A. Spencer's History of the United States, i^ew 
York, 1874-1876, vol. 2, facing p. 121. For this informa- 
tion I am indebted to the Director of the Prints Division, 
Library of Congress. The whereabouts of the original paint- 
ing I have been unable to discover. For the illustration ac- 
companying this article (frontispiece) I am indebted to 
descendants of Mrs. Steel, Mrs. Eliza S. Lynch, and Mrs, 
E. E. McQueen, of Columbia, S. C, and to a descendant of 

*"In the year 1882," says Mr. William J. Andrews, of Raleigh, N. C, "I was a pupil 
at the Lovejoy School House, then called the Raleigh Male Academy, Messrs. Fray and 
Morson, Principals. The N. C. History class recited in Mr. Morson's room, and the book 
used was the second edition of Moore's School History. I was not old enough to be in the 
class; but picking up a copy of the book belonging to one of the boys, which lay on my 
desk, I found this foot-note on the subject of the picture (I may not quote with perfect 
accuracy from memory): 'This picture with the writing still visible is in the possession of 
Governor Swain.' Knowing that Mrs. Swain lived in Raleigh and that my cousin. Miss 
Sallie Haywood, was a friend of hers, I asked Cousin Sallie to take me to see Mrs. Swain, 
so I could ask her to show me the picture. Being a small boy, and my request not seeming of 
much importance, I was put off from time to time until Mrs. Swain's death. The day before 
the sale. Cousin Sallie took me over the house with 'Old Aunt Thenie, ' 72 years old, one of 
the old colored servants in the White family (Mrs. Swain was a Miss White). I finally found 
the pictures of George and Charlotte in the attic. Instinctively, I felt that here was the 
end of my quest, and on turning George around, I found the inscription in chalk as I had 
been told of it by my great grandmother Harris who had seen the picture when she was 
a young lady. This I learned at the aee of four or five, while on a visit to my grandparents, 
Col. and Mrs. William Johnston, of Charlotte, N. C. 

' ' Here now was I, a twelve-year old boy, with a chance to become the owner of a picture 
which I had longed merely to see. So I told Aunt Thenie that there were two old pictures 
in the attic that I wanted to buy next day at the sale. 'AH right, honey,' she said, 'I'll 
take a rag up and wipe them clean and put them in the dining room.' The next day at the 
sale I waited until the auctioneer cried the pictures; and started them at five cents each. 
Some one bid ten, and I promptly raised to fifteen. The two pictures, Cieorge III and Queen 
Charlotte, were knocked down to me at thirty cents — every cent I had in my pocket. 

"I knew and appreciated the value of my new possesssion. I consider that day spent 
at the Swain sale one of the red-letter days of my life." 

Cf. also Program of Exercises for N. C. Day, Friday, Dec. 18, 1908, compiled by Mr. 
R. D. W. Connor. 

t Reminiscences of North Carolina, Vol. II, p. 397. 


General Greene, Miss Mary Ward Greene, of Newport, R. I. 
It is, examination has shown, a photographic copy of a 
wood cut of the original painting by Chappel. The picture 
possesses one remarkable feature, the head of Mrs. Steel, ac- 
cording to the testimonj^ of Mrs. Lynch, having been copied 
from a miniature of her, and so represents her accurately as 
she really was. 

jSTo sculpture of the scene has ever come to my notice ; nor 
have the eiforts of the authorities in the Library of Congress 
been able to throw any light on the point. The plaque shown 
in the illustration accompanying this monograph was among 
the Swain effects. Through ignorance, and chiefly because 
it was partially mutilated, the plaque was thrown away as 
valueless. The aged servant, ''Aunt Thenie" rescued it from 
the trash pile, and after gluing on the broken piece, gave or 
sold it to the present owner, Miss Sallie Haywood.* 

The photograph of General Greene, accompanying the 
present monograph, was made from the famous portrait by 
Charles Willson Peale. For this photograph I am indebted 
to the kindness of the owner of the portrait, Mrs. William 
Brenton Greene, Jr., of Princeton, JST. J. For permission 
to reproduce the pictures of King George and Queen Char- 
lotte, I am indebted to Mr. W. J. Andrews, who also placed 
at my disposal the photograph of the plaque here shown. f 

* At the top upon the scroll, may be distinguished the words "Gen. Greene" and "Mrs. 
Steel," above the heads of General Greene and Mrs. Steel, respectively. The artist who 
designed the plaque clearly copied the painting of Chappel. 

t The inscription in Greene's handwriting on the back of King George's picture, now 
framed behind glass, is still perfectly legible, though now quite faint. A tracing in white 
paint on the glass cover, immediately above the inscription, makes it stand out, in the bold 
handwriting of Greene with startling distinctness. It is peculiarly interesting to observe 
that Greene seems first to have turned the picture upside down and begun to write — but 
realizing that the inscription would then appear upside down as the picture hung on the 
wall, with back to the front, he reversed the picture and wrote the inscription right side up. 
The photograph shows that he had already written ' ' O G — ," before he discovered his mis- 

In some quarters it was the habit of patriotic Americans to turn upside down, and leave 
hanging on the wall in this humiliating posture, pictures of CTCorge III. Pertinent to the 
incident of the present sketch is the following entry in the Diary of John Adams, II, 434: 

Baltimore, February, 1777. 

16. Sunday. Last evening I supped with my friends. Dr. Rush and Mr. Sargeant, at 
Mrs. Page's, over the bridge. The two Colonel Lees, Dr. Witherspoon, Mr. Adams, Mr. 
Gerry, Dr. Brownson, made the company. They have a fashion, in this town of reversing 
the picture of King George III in such families as have it. One of these topsy-turvy kings 



The episodes with which the present monogTaph deals 
have been made the subject of an interesting poem, by Grace 
Duffie Boylan, which appeared some years ago in the Chicago 
Journal. Mrs. Steel was a very religious and devout woman, 
properly indicated by the poem ; the obituary notice, given 
later in this monograph, speaks for itself. The detail of her 
"hard, toil-roughened hand" must be granted to that excuse 
for inaccuracy euphemistically defined as "poetic license." 
Mrs. Steel assuredly left the polishing of her pans and the 
sanding of her floors to her servants. The poem, bearing 
these manifest inaccuracies, appears below : 


Elizabeth Steele of Salisbury Town 

Polished her pans and sanded her floor, 

And sat to read in the sacred book 

Of the times when war shall be no more. 

She had heard the boom of British guns 
As mothers hear who have sons to mourn; 

Whose e'er the shot, and where'er its home. 
The heart in her kerchiefed breast was torn. 

Elizabeth Steele had heard the news 

"King's Mountain's won and the red coats flee!" 

But she only asked: "Goodsire, my boys — 
Is't well with them? Do they ride to me?" 

But who can stop to count one, count two. 
When lives go out like a candle's flame? 

What courier halts on his way to tell 
The price we pay for a battle's game? 

was hung up in the room where we supped, and under it were written these lines, by Mr. 
Throop, as we are told: 

Behold the man, who had it in his power 

To make a kingdom tremble and adore. 

Intoxicate with folly. See his head 

Placed where the meanest of his subjects tread. 

Like Lucifer, the giddy tyrant fell; 

He lifts his heel to Heaven, but points his head to Hell. 


She had heard how Morgan crossed the flood 
That rose a bar to the English breast. 

And she whispered low: "Were any drowned?" 
And dreamed of two on the torrent's crest. 

But who can stop for a woman's cry? 

The post must ride, be it woe or weal; 
He struck his spurs, and he galloped by — 

And what could a mother do but kneel? 

Hers was only to watch and wait. 
And hers was only to weep and pray; 

Her part had been but to rear good sons 
And send them out to the guns that day. 

She scoured, she sanded, she kept her peace. 
She spun her flax by the open door; 

Then sat to read in the holy word 

Of the times when war shall be no more. 

Nathaniel Greene, below Cowan's Ford, 

Had fought, had won, and had lost the field, 

And his minute men with one accord 
Had vowed it better to run than yield. 

Ragged and hungry and weary and cold. 
Penniless, friendless, and sick with defeat, 

They came to the edge of Salisb'ry town. 
The bitter way of that great retreat. 

Elizabeth saw the famished horde; 

She took them food and she gave them cheer. 
She warmed and fed and comforted 

The sons some mothers were holding dear. 

She gave her purse to the General's keep; 

" 'Tis all I have, but 'tis yours," she said. 
And above her hard, toil-roughened hand 

Nathaniel Greene bent reverent head. 

He raised his eye and his eagle glance 

Swept to the face of King George the Third, 

That hung on the wall. He strode across 
And turned it around, with a trooper's word. 


And scribed with a piece of clialk, like tliis — 

'Tis plain to see on the canvas worn, 
Bold was his hand with the pen or sword: 

"Oh George! Oh King! Hide thy face and mourn." 

Elizabeth then their knapsacks filled; 

She pressed each hand and she touched each head. 
As she would have wished those mothers far 

To have blessed her lads — perhaps now dead! 

But hark! A shout! A trample! A halt! 

One cry — and a pris'ner bound and fast, 
Elizabeth laughed in precious chains — 

The arms of her own brave boys at last. 

This is the tale of Elizabeth Steele, 
Who fed Greene's host, and who won renown; 

And I sing this song o'er a hundred years, 
In praise of the dame o' Salisbury town.* 


William Steel's brother, Epbraim, settled in Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, some time shortly prior to 17G9 ; and resided 
there for about forty-five years. He was a man of means 
and prominence in his community and his section. He en- 
joyed an extended political acquaintance, and persons in 
high authority consulted him on State and jSTational affairs. 
Through his habit of preserving letters have come down to 
us today letters of Elizabeth Maxwell Steel, ranging over 
the period from 1778 to 1786. These letters, copies of 
which accomjDany the present monograph, are now in the 
possession of Misses Margaret A. and Martha J. Steele, of 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, granddaughters of Ephraim Steel. 
For the copies and the photographic facsimile accompany- 
ing the present monograph, the writer is indebted to the 
courtesy of the Misses Steele, to Hon. John Steele "Hender- 
son, of Salisbury, IST. C, who discovered the existence of the 

* For copies of this poem, I am indebted to the kindness of Mrs. B. B. Taylor, of Macon, 
Ga., and Mrs. Clark Waring, of Columbia, S. C. 


letters, and to Mr. J. Zeamer, the antiquarian, who pre- 
pared the elaborate sketch of the Steele family, in the vol- 
ume entitled Biograyhical Annals of Cumberland County, 
Pennsijlvania (Genealogical Publishing Co., Chicago, 1905). 
In one of her letters Mrs. Steel says: "You know I am a 
great politician." Indeed, these letters few in number 
though they be, contain most pertinent comments on contem- 
poraneous events of vital interest during the most moving 
period in our Eevolutionary histor3\ For the most part, as 
was to be expected, they deal with family affairs, incidentally 
clearing up matters in which historians have either blun- 
dered or revealed ignorance. They show Mrs. Steel to have 
been a woman of deep piety, sound intelligence, and good 
judgment, and withal practical and patriotic. It is the hope 
of the writer that the Misses Steele will present the original 
letters of Mrs. Steel to the State of l^orth Carolina. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel. 

Dear Brother: Salisbury, 15th May, 1778. 

Since your departure I have received two letters from you, of 
March 22 & April 6th and I thank you for them both. Your own 
feelings may suggest the pleasure, or an idea of the pleasure I enjoy 
with them at present, for letters are the meeting and talking of 
absent friends. It gave me great pleasure to hear of your safe ar- 
rival and the welfare of your family, especially Little Billy who it 
seems is likely to outgrow his father — surely he will soon be a little 
giant. I'm sorry to hear of sister Nancy's illness. I hope her dis- 
order will not hold her long. Your kindness in riding so far to see 
my son calls for thanks both from him and me. I hope he has not 
been ungrateful, and I now present you my heartfelt thanks on that 
account. I should be heartily rejoiced to see him quit the army, 
and betake himself to some business for life.* I present you my 

* It appears that Mrs. Steel's son, John Steele, although only fourteen in 1778, had 
already joined the Continental army. Clearly Mrs. Steel is not referring here to her other 
son, Robert Gillespie, for in a letter of October 17, 1778, she informs her brother Ephraim 
that her son Robert has "gone into the army," whereas in the pre.sent letter, written five 
months earlier, she is expressing the wish that her son (obviously not Robert) would ' ' quit 
the army." It is not mentioned by any biographer of John Steele, nor was it even known 
until the discovery of these letters, that he had ever served in the Continental army. Sub- 
sequent to this date (1778), John Steele studied under the Rev. James Hall at Clio's Nursery, 
or "The Academy of the Sciences," on Snow Creek. {Foote's Sketches of North Carolina, 
ch. XXXIV, pp. Z'^Oetseq.) The copy of Virgil, with numerous signatures of "John Steele," 
which he used at this famous school, is still preserved. 


thanks for the crisis No. 5, it gave me great pleasure by serving to 
brace our minds, long relaxed by the inaction of the armies thro 
the winter season. We hope, however, the spring and summer will 
produce some important event and pray you to pass no opportunity 
of giving us the news. My family, through the kindness of Provi- 
dence, is well. My kindest regards to sister Nancy and all friends 
and be always assured that I am and shall continue 
Your loving and affectionate sister, 

Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to "My Son" (Presumably Johx Steele). 

Salisbuey, 7th July, 1778. 
My Dear Son: 

It is now a long time since I have had a letter from you, the cause 
I know not, but I can assure you that I have wrote two or three 
times since I received any account from you. Pray write me 
by the first opportunity. 

Since you have chosen that manner of life, it would give me the 
greatest pleasure to hear of your acquitting yourself with honor 
and faithfulness to your country and yourself, and to hear of the 
contrary would give me much uneasiness. 

I hope that you will not forget to apply to that power and wisdom 
which can enable and direct us to discharge the duties of every sta- 
tion. Many are the advices of this kind I have given you. I must 
take every opportunity to repeat them. Pray let them not be in 
vain. I should be glad to hear from you. Write me by the first 
opportunity. Friends here all are well. I am 

Your affectionate mother, Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel. 

Salisbury, July 30, 1778. 
Deae Brother: 

Yours of June 26th I have received not long since. My son 
is not yet come home, but I have heard that he is on the way, in 
company with Capt. Cootes, who left him I suppose with you. 

Mr. Beard, I believe, returned thro Yorktown and arrived some 
time ago in company with Mrs. Beard, which has changed her citi- 
zenship — Salisbury for Lancaster.* I am very sorry to hear of 
brother Thomas' misfortune and should be glad to be informed about 
the issue of his affair. I suppose it will reduce him to great diffi- 
culty and loss if he be forced to serve out his enlistment. However 

* The "Mr. Beard" here mentioned is doubtless Valentine Beard, a continental soldier 
in the Revolution, who fought under Washington, notably at the battles of the Brandywine 
and Germantown. He married a Miss Margaret Marquedant. 


for his sake, if obliged to serve for my own and my country's sake, 
I hope the war will not long continue. Providence seems to be 
directing it to a final issue, at least on the continent, tho' perhaps 
the British government may not acknowledge our Independence till 
the end of the present war with France, which their political 
phrenzy may continue for two or three years to come till they be 
reduced to the last extremity. Please to give us the fate of New 
York. We hear it is to be attacked by the French fleet and Ameri- 
can army, and we should be glad to have a more distinct account of 
the affair of the 28th. My little family is well. No remarkable 
alteration lately. I hope soon to sustain the very respectable and 
important character of GRANDMOTHER. 

I am your affectionate 

Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel.* 

Salisbuey, 15th Aug., 1778. 
Dear Brother: 

Inclosed you will find some letters which lately came to hand; I 
wrote you a few days ago. Nothing more since, only that I have 
got a little grand-Daughter, this morning about 3 o'clock. Mother 
and child well for the time. All well. 

Your sister, 

Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel. 

Salisbury, Oct. 17, 1778. 
Dear Brother: 

Tho I have wrote since I have received any letters from you, yet 
I take this opportunity to inform you that I am well with the rest 
of my little family, without any other alterations in it than those 
you have heard, unless it be that my son Robert has gone into the 
army,-f and I have heard designed to be enrolled with Major Davi- 

* For its clearness of delineation and its brevity, this letter, in photographic facsimile, 
is reproduced in the present monograph. 

t Robert Gillespie was an efBcient and daring soldier. Col. Alexander Martin, writing 
from Salisbury to Gov. Thomas Burke, August 10, 1781, says: "Inclosed your Excellency 
hath the Resignation of Captain .James Sheppard's Commission in the State Regiment, in 
favor of Mr. Robert Gillespie of this Place, who was formerly a Continental Lieutenant, 

and serving with reputation ." (Col. Rec. XXII; 555, 558.) Says Rumple, "He was 

of a peculiarly bold and defiant spirit, and when the British entered Salisbury, he rode in 
sight of them in a menacing manner. .\s he had but one companion, 'Blind Daniel,' so 
called from having lost one eye, a kind of hanger-on in Salisbury, of course he did not remain 
to carry out his menaces." (Roivan County.) He received his commission as Captain of 
State Militia, and he and his company were subsequently paid £2157-8-8 by the State for 
their services in defence of their country. (Report of Auditor of Salisbury District, Col. 
Rec, XXII, 1014.) 


son in Carlisle. It he has been with you I desire you to inform 
me, as I have not heard from him, since he left Halifax on the 
borders of Virginia. 

His conduct in entering into the service has given me no small un- 
easiness; not that I disapprove the cause of liberty, but I thought 
him too young to launch out into the world. But I must resign 
him up to the conduct of Providence and endeavor myself to be 
resigned to the matter. 

I have lately received a letter from brother Joseph which informs 
me of his wife's death, but for your satisfaction I'll send you his 
letter inclosed, especially as I am at a loss to guess his designs in 
leaving that state, or the continent, unless he be so unhappy as to 
disapprove our public measures. Give my compliments to brother 
Thomas, and please to inform me where he resides, that my future 
letters may find him. If you desire to write to brother Joseph, write 
immediately and I will forward your letter. 

I am yours, etc., Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel. 

Salisbury, 19th Oct., 1779. 
Dear Brother: 

I embrace the present opportunity to make you some return for 
your favor by the bearer, Mr. May. Your letters arrived before Mr. 
McCorkle, who was detained longer than his own or our expectation 
but arrived safe about the middle of September. I was very sorry 
to hear of the death of your worthy minister Mr. Steele.* His death 
is much to be lamented, especially at this time when the number of 
clergymen is small and smaller still the prospect of others succeed- 
ing. You must however attempt, and I pray you may succeed in 
the obtaining another. 

My little family is all with me, and well. Robert returned in the 
spring from his northern tour. The last accounts from Savannah 
mention that on the 9th instant a general attack was made on the 
enemy's lines in which we were repulsed with the loss of 150 killed 
and wounded. Verbal accounts also mention an express from the 
Spanish West India fleet, to (?) the French from our coasts to join 
them. Also the retreat of our army to Lewisburg. My little grand 
daughter walks and runs and dances and sings and talks — Hebrew 
for aught I know. Mr. and Mrs. M^Corkle's compliments to you 
and Mr. Heap. 

I am your loving and affectionate sister, 

Eliz. Steel. 

No relative, so far as known, of Ephraim Steel. 



P. S. Oct. 25. — We hear that the French fleet are only gone out 
to (?) with design to take the New York reinforcement, and that 
their army and ours still invest the British at Savannah. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephkaim Steel. 

Salisbuby, 29th April, 1780. 
Deae Beothek: 

I desire you to believe that all my letters are the efforts of friend- 
ship and affection, for you can't ruppose them to be letters of busi- 
ness, as I have no occasion to write on those subjects. The happi- 
ness of all my friends is what I most sincerely desire, and therefore 
wish to hear frequently from you. I am sorry that I can't (knowing 
you to be a good Whig) make you happy with some good news from 
Charleston. I can only inform you that there have been several 
skirmishes before Charleston with various success. That the ship- 
ping has passed Fort Moultrie with considerable loss, and that we 
every day expect to hear of a general storm on, or the continued 
blockade of Charleston, 6 or 7 thousand we conjecture on each side. 
Charleston is nearly invested on all sides, and what will be the 
event time must determine.* 

My little family are in their usual health. Little 'Nancy M. grows 
apace, and begins to chatter. Mr. and Mrs. McCorkle join in send- 
ing compliments to yourself and Master Billy and be assured that I 
am with great respect, Dear Brother, 

Yours affectionately, 

Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to Epheaim Steel. 

Salisbuey, July 13th, 1780. 
Deae Beothee: 

This will inform you that my little family are well but suffering 
with others the calamity of the times. You have had your time and 
now comes ours. We have been surrounded by Tory Insurrections, 
one party in the Forks of Catawba have been defeated with consid- 
erable loss.t Another from the forks of the Yadkin have been pur- 
sued but not overtaken. At present the state is uninvaded, but 
about five hundred are at the Waxaws.$ The Tories are flocking 
in. South Carolina and Georgia are in the Enemies' hands. Our 

• Charleston capitulated on May 12, 1780. 

t Battle of Ramseur's Mill, June 20, 1780. 

X Following the Battle of Ramseur's Mill, General Rutherford despatched Davie 
with his cavalry to Waxhaw Creek to watch the British, while he himself set off immediately 
in pursuit of Col. Bryan, who had succeeded in embodying a considerable force of Tories 
in the forks of the Yadkin, at the north end of Rowan, near Surry. By rapid marches, 
Bryan ultimately succeeded in escaping Rutherford, and in effecting a junction with a 
British force under Major McArthur. 


army is advancing near Cheraw and I hope before this year be done 
the British and Tories will all be cooped up in Charleston. Pray 
give us the news with a paper or two from the North. My compli- 
ments to sister Nancy, Mr. Heap and family and all friends, Mr. 
Billy by name. I am your affectionate sister, 

Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel. 
Dear Brother: Salisbury, Oct. 25, 1780. 

With the utmost satisfaction I can acquaint you with the sudden 
and favorable turn of our public affairs.* A few days ago destruc- 
tion hung over our heads. Cornwallis with at least 1500 British 
and Tories waited at Charlotte for the reinforcement of 1000 from 
Broad River, which reinforcement has been entirely cut off, 130 
killed and the remainder captured. 

Cornwallis immediately retreated, and is now on his way toward 
Charleston, with a part of our army in his rear, commanded by 
General Smalwood. The remainder are expected soon to march 
from Hillsjorough under the command of Gen. Gates. 

I should thank you for a line. It Is a long time since I received 
one. Please to give us the northern intelligence. You know I am 
a great politician. Compliments to sister Nancy and children. 
Mister Heap and family, and Master Billy and be assured that I am 
with great respect. Dear Brother, Yours, 

Eliz. Steel. 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel. 
Dear Brother: Salisbury, 19th April, 1781. 

Your obliging letter by Mr. Beard has come to hand. I most sin- 
cerely congratulate you on your matrimonial connections. May 
your lives be long and happy. I beg you to mention me most affec- 
tionately to Mrs. Steel, tho' unacquainted with her person or family. 
Please to mention me also to Master Billy. 

In Feb. last the British were so kind as to pay us a visit, at a 
time when my little family were ill with the small pox, in which 
my little youngest granddaughter died, the rest have all happily re- 
covered. f 

*"The sudden and favorable turn of affairs" was created by the engagement here 
spoken of, which is none other than the famous Battle of King's Mountain, fouaht on Oc- 
tober 7, 1780. Of Ferguson's force, 300 were killed or wounded; 100 regulars and 700 Loyal- 
ists were captured. The loss of the American "mountain men" was slight. The report 
of the victory was hailed as "great and glorious news." (General Gates to Thomas Jef- 
ferson, Gov. of Virginia.) 

t For a full account of Cornwallis's stay in Salisbury, lasting from Saturday, February 
3d, tothe following Monday night or Tuesday morning, of. Rumple's Rowan County, ch. 


I was plundered of all my horses, dry cattle, horse forage, liquors 
and family provisions, and thought I escaped well with my house 
furniture and milch cattle. Some in this country were stripped of 
all these things. 

It comforts me to think that the enemy will probably never 
return. His Lordship soon after the 15th of March* moved to 
Wilmington, and Gen. Greene, by a masterly stroke, has turned rap- 
idly towards Camden in his rear which I hope will fall into his hands 
before Cornwallis can reinforce the place. At least it will take the 
war out of this state, and leave his Lordship not one step further 
than before Gates' defeat. t 

Please to remember me in the most affectionate manner to sister 
Nancy. I have never been able to hear from our brother since the 
fall of Charleston, nor have I any way of writing to him — . I am 
with great respect your affectionate sister, Eliz Steex 

Elizabeth Steel to Ephraim Steel. 

Salisbury, March 17, 1786. 
Dear Brother: 

I was very happy to receive a long letter from you, and especially 
as it gave me an account of your own, and the happiness of your 
little family. If an opportunity had immediately offered I could 
have wrote you the happiness of mine. About the date of your 
letter my children were all alive and all married. My son John 
living with me and practising merchandise. He is still living — 
has a little daughter Nancy — and is doing well. You have heard I 
suppose of his marriage, in Cross Creek, to a Miss Dolly Nessfield, 
daughter-in-law to a Mr. Cochran Merchant there. | 

But Robin, O my poor Robin! He is no more. He was married 
to a very worthy lady near Georgetown in So. Carolina, in the be- 
ginning of July, and died there in the latter end of September. He 
was taken with a putrid fever and died in a few days illness. You 
can hardly conceive of my distress. It was aggravated by the ex- 
pectation of seeing him and his wife at the very time when came 
the dreadful news of his death. However, it was a little lessening 
of my grief to hear that he had altered the manner of his life, and 
had sometime before his death become serious and thoughtful. So 
that I have the comforting hope of meeting with him where friends 
shall never part.lf 

* The date of the Battlp of Guilford Court House, 
t Battle of Camden, August 16, 1780. 

t John Steele was married to Mary Nesfield on February 9, 1783. 

H Both Wheeler and Rumple fall into the comprehensible error of stating that Robert 
Gillespie, here affectionately termed "Robin" by his sorrowing mother, died unmarried. 


Mr. M^Corkle and family are well. They have 3 children living, 
a son and two daughters, the eldest of which is mostly with me at 
the English school in town. I have no late accounts from brother 
Joseph, since the fall of Charleston, and can not tell whether he be 
living or dead, tho' I have made all the inquiry I could. Remember 
me most affectionately to your good lady — Master Billy — and Miss 
Dolly — give her on my account half a dozen kisses, tell all your and 
my friends that they are dear to me, and be assured that I am with 
greatest affection Your sister 

Eliz. Steel. 


There can be no more fitting- close to a monograph on Eliz- 
beth Maxwell Steel than the obituary notice, inserted at the 
request of her son-in-law, Dr. Samuel Eusebius McCorkle, 
in the North Carolina Chronicle, or Fayetteville Gazette, 
January 3, 1791. 

"Died, on Monday the 22nd of November, in Salisbury, of a linger- 
ing and painful illness, Mrs. Elizabeth Steele, relict of Mr. William 
Steele, — mother of the hon. John Steele, and Margaret MacCorkle, 
wife of the reverend Samuel MacCorkle. 

"Her name and character are well known, but best by her most 
intimate friends. She was a devout worshipper of God; she was 
distinguished during the war as a friend to her country; twice sup- 
ported with dignity the character of wife and widow — she was a 
most tender and affectionate parent, an obliging neighbor, frugal, 
industrious, and charitable to the poor. 

"Her character will be better understood by the following letter, 
found among her choice papers since her death, than by anything 
that can be said of her. The letter is believed and appears to be 
her own diction, and is published exactly as it was found. It may 
be a useful lesson to all parents, and to all children, as well as her 
own. It bears the date February 5, 1783, when her other son 
Robert Gillespie was living and begins thus: 

My dear children: — 

If I die before any of you, I wish that this letter may fall 
into your hands after I am dead and gone, that you maj^ see 
how much affection I have for you, and, that what I have 
often said when alive may be remembered by you when I am 
in eternity. 

If the Almighty would suffer me to return to talk to you, 


I think now I would take a pleasure to do it every day; if 
this can not be allowed me, I think it would be some satis- 
faction to see you, especially when you are reading this 
letter which I leave you as a legacy, to see what effect it will 
have on you, and whether it will make you think of what I 
have often told you. 

I have many a time told you to remember your Maker, 
and ask him to guide you: it is a good old saying, "they 
are well guided whom He guides, and He leaves them that 
don't ask Him, to their own ways." I want you to keep out 
of bad company — it has ruined many young people. I want 
you to keep company with sober good people, and to learn 
their ways, — to keep the sabbath — to be charitable to the 
poor — to be industrious and frugal — just to all men, and 
above all to love one another. 

Believe me, my children, if anything could disturb me in 
the grave, it would be to know that you did not live as a 
brother and sister ought to live: nothing could be worse 
except that you would not all follow me to heaven. Oh, 
my dear children, I have had a great deal of trouble and 
sorrow in raising you! If I should feel after death as I do 
now, I could never endure to see any of you without an 
interest in Jesus at the great day, and forced away, never 
more to meet again. Parting here with your parents you 
know had almost taken my life, when I had hope to see 
them again; but I am now sure I could not live to see any 
of you cursed by your Maker, and driven away to dwell 
forever with the Devil and his angels. 

While I lived, you know that it was my great desire to 
have you all around me and near me here; but my great 
desire has been to have you in the world to come. Believe 
me, nothing could make me so happy as to have my three 
dear children there; — yes, and your children, and all your 
connections. I would wish to take you all to heaven. 
Then, think of the vanity of this world — think of Jesus, 
the Saviour, — death, — judgment — , and eternity; and don't 
forget the living and dying desire of your most affectionate 
mother till death and after death, 

Elizabeth Steel. 

"Folded in the foregoing letter was also found, in her own hand- 
writing, the following prayer, which must please every pious mind: 

O Lord, my God, thou great Three-One! I give myself to 
thee this day, to be thine, to be guided by thee and not by 
another; and I desire to take God for my God, Jesus Christ 
to be my Saviour, the Holy Ghost to be my sanctifier and 


leader. Lord, thou has promised that all that will come 
unto thee thou wilt in no wise cast out. All I beg in the 
name and for the sake of Jesus Christ, my Lord. 

To this I set my hand, Elizabeth Steel. 

"The date of the above was either not affixed or torn away from 
the paper. 

"It can not be disagreeable to the serious mind to add that she 
was remarkably fond of the following hymn, and in her Bible, 
where it was found since her death, in the handwriting of her 
granddaughter, who had transcribed it for her: 

The hour of my departure's come, 
I hear a voice that calls me home; 
At last, O Lord, let trouble cease, 
And let thy servant die in peace. 

The race appointed I have run, 
^ The combat o'er, the prize is won, 

And now my witness is on high, 
And now my record's in the sky. 

Not in mine innocence I trust, 
I bow before thee in the dust, 
And thro' my Saviour's blood alone, 
I look for mercy at thy throne. 

I leave the world without a tear, 
Save for the friends I hold so dear; 
To heal their sorrows, Lord, descend, 
And to the friendless prove a friend. 

I come! I come! at thy command, 
I give my spirit to thy hand; 
Stretch forth thine everlasting arms 
And shield me in the last alarms. 

"It would be a severe and ill-natured reflection on the religious 
taste of the present age to be making apologies for publishing the 
above memoirs, and therefore no apology is made. It is a debt due 
to an amiable character, and may not be without its use to the 




"Read the rede of this old roof tree; 
Here be trust fast; opinion free; 
I^nightly right hand; Christian knee; 
Truth in all things; wit in some; 
Laughter open, slander dumb. 

* * * * :>L * 

Read the rede of this old roof tree." 

These fragmentary lines are all that can now be recalled 
of an inscription in the hall of an English manor house be- 
longing (I think) to Lord Lytton. We fortunate ones who 
knew Palmyra feel that it would have been equally appro- 
priate for the old home with the four front doors that for a 
century were open to greet generation after generation, not 
only of kith and kin, but the stranger within the gates, doubly 
welcome were he penniless and friendless. Through those 
doors entered the sick to be nursed back to health ; the weary 
and discouraged to be cheered and strengthened ; the brides 
to be welcomed into the family; the babies to be properly ad- 
mired ; the aged to renew their youth ; the young to frolic ; 
and when the end came, out of them passed the blessed dead, 
to be tenderly carried to the little memorial Chapel of Rest at 
the top of the hill, for their long sleep in that quiet God's 
acre where the members of the family lie. Such was Pal- 
myra in the Happy Valley, with the Yadkin River flowing 
through the meadows and the mountains round about her even 
as the Lord was round about Jerusalem. 

* * * 

No regular plan seems to have been adhered to in building 
the house. Dark passages and unexpected stairways led 
nowhere in particular ; there were cubby holes and a secret 

'(^^■SmZii/i/'r .^i;i':z-^!^V//'C:f,'-A^i<i,i7.i,(! VM AWXUi- 


closet, not with the traditional family skeleton, but an equally 
traditional and far more cheerful cask of old peach brandy 
hidden during war times and never since discovered by any 
amateur Christopher Columbus, though the search never 
flagged and the searchers never grew weary. 

In the great square parlor were the twin tables with over- 
hanging mirrors ; the stiff old family portraits and stiffer old 
mahogany furniture looking as if all had been in the same 
place, as they probably had, save for sweeping and dusting, 
for well nigh a century, for it was one of the unwritten laws 
of Palmyra that nothing was ever to be changed. In the 
parlor, too, was the curious built-in bookcase filled with ab- 
sorbingly interesting old volumes, the most interesting ones, 
of course, being on the top shelf that just could be reached 
by placing a footstool on top of a chair and then standing on 
tiptoe ; and the number of times I have risked my valuable 
neck rummaging through those books, and the number of 
shirt waists I have ruined, ripping out the arm seams, while 
stretching for the volumes in the back corner, are both sim- 
ply past count. But the hours of pure joy that have been 
mine while reading those books, and the amount of delightful 
misinformation on every known subject that I've acquired, 
will cheer me on a weary pilgrimage through this vale of 
tears. There in an old medical book of 1688 I found the 
formulas for the "^vulnerary potion" with which Rebecca 
dosed Ivanhoe when he was wounded. 

A number are given, but probably the most efficacious was 
this one : ''Compound of the roots of alcohol, dittany^ cinq- 
foil, gentian, orrice, Solomon's seal, valerian, the leaves of 
agrimony, bramble tops, plantain, red cabbage, daisies, gold- 
en rod, hart's tongue, herb trinity, sage, saxifrage, tansy, the 
flowers of clover, jilly flowers, lily, rose. To these add cloves, 
mace, mummy, cinnamon, lentisk wood, sassafras, river crabs, 
spermaceti, viper's flesh, prepared steel, vitriol of mars and 


crabs eyes levigated. Add red wine, boil, strain, and dulcify 
with white sugar." 

One is now ready to believe any and all the statements of 
Sir Walter as to the instantaneous and startling effect of this 
vulnerary potion on the ''Disinherited Knight." 

There were the precious books of etiquette ; sermons printed 
if not practiced, by Benjamin Franklin; ancient histories 
and novels and grammars and books of travel. On the second 
shelf was Jedediah, More's delightful ''Geography of the 
Kno^vn World" when the Mississippi River was the boundary 
between Louisiana, New Spain and California on the West, 
and the United States on the East ; when trappers and hunt- 
ers, making the perilous trip down the Ohio, left civilization 
at Fort Pitt, passing no great states to the north of them, 
not even named lands, but "7 Ranges" "Army Lands" "Do- 
nation Grants from Virginia," "Ohio Company," "General 
Clarke's Grant, 150,000 acres," "Wabash Company," "Army 
Lands," etc. i!^orth Carolina reached from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the Mississippi with the "country of Frank- 
land" (not "Franklin" as it is called now) in the cen- 
ter. The Blue Ridge was then the great "Laurel Ridge." In 
ISTorth Carolina, Salisbury, the Moravian Settlement, Tar- 
borough, jS'ew Bern, Bath, Guilford, Fayetteville, Hillsburg, 
and Edenton, are the only towns with the exception of IsTash- 
ville and the "Cumberland Settlement." The news items 
are intensely interesting. "The River Yadkin where it passes 
Salisbury is almost 400 yards broad and then narrows to the 
width of 80 or 100 feet. In this narrow part in the Spring 
of the year, shad are caught by hoop nets in the eddies as 
fast as the strongest men are able to throw them out. Perhaps 
there is not in the United States a more eligible situation for 
a large manufacturing town. The late war put a stop to the 
iron works though there is one each in Guilford, Surry, 
Wilkes — all on the Yadkin — and one in Lincoln." * * * 


''The Moravians have several flourishing settlements in 
this State. These people, by their industry and attention to 
various manufactories, are very useful to the country around 
there. The inhabitants of Wilmington, Edenton, ISTew Bern, 
and Halifax districts once professed themselves of the Episco- 
pal Church, but the Clergy, at the commencement of the late 
war, having declared themselves in favor of Great Britain, 
had to emigrate. The inhabitants of the above mentioned 
districts seem now to be making the experiment whether 
Christianity can exist in a country where there is no visible 
church. Temperance and industry are not to be reckoned 
among the virtues of l^orth Carolinians. The time they 
waste in drinking and gambling, cock fighting and horse rac- 
ing, leaves them very little opportunity to improve their plan- 
tations or their minds. The general topic of conversation 
among the men, when cards, the bottle, and occurrences of 
the day do not intervene, are negroes, the prices of indigo, 
rice, tobacco, etc. They appear to have little taste for the 

On these shelves, too, were the account books with names 
of the slaves and the clothes issued to them semi-annually ; 
herb remedies for various diseases of man and beast ; espe- 
cially for wounds of which there seem to be a never-ending 
variety ; there also the files of Blum's Almanac beginning 
with the very first one ; catalogues, beginning with 1830 of 
the faculty and students of the University and numberless 
pamphlets containing the addresses to the student body by 
William Hooper, Walker Anderson, Dr. John Hill, Hugh 
McQueen, Robert Strange, William Gaston, William Mercer 
Green, George E. Badger and countless others, ending curi- 
ously enough, in 1860 with the baccalaureate sermon in 
Gerrard Hall by the Most Rev. Archbishop Hughes of New 
York on ''The Christian Law of Charity" which, patience 


knows, just about that time, was rather celebrated bj its 
breach than its observance. 

Of mnch earlier date if having none of the homely charm 
of familiarity, were the political pamphlets. "The Political 
Jesuitism of James Madison, President of the United States, 
by an observant citizen of the District of Columbia 1812." 
''Speech of the Hon. John Marshall delivered in the House 
of Representatives on the Resolutions of the Hon. Edward 
Livingston, printed at the office of the True American, 
1800." ''Letters from an Irish Emigrant, 1798," "First 
Principles of Government, delivered at the Tribune of the 
French Convention, July 7, 1795" by Thomas Paine, author 
of the "Rights of Man" "Common Sense" etc., etc., "Causes 
of the Present War with France, by Hon. Thomas Eshill," 
"Messages of the Presidents of the L^nited States," "Reports 
of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of 
Color, 1833," yearly reports of iSTational affairs from Sena- 
tors at Washington, sermons innumerable, files of old news- 
papers, English Classics of that day, European Magazines, 
Dublin Review, Histories, sacred and profane. The variety 
and extent is astonishing when one considers what transporta- 
tion facilities were during the early years of 1800. Cer- 
tainly people who read then must have read more and better 
books than in this good year of grace. 

* * * 

At the end of the porch, way off from the rest of the house 
was the blessed "East Room" with its big four-poster bed 
where Macbeth himself could have slept, and so far forgotten 
the deep damnation of Duncan's taking off, that by morning 
he too would have been ready to join in the search for that 
elusive cask of old peach. Can't you shut your eyes now and 
see Mary making the fire and hear the flames crackle in the 
big fireplace, while she told you in that pleasant voice of 
hers, all the Palmyra news, and you wondered how long it 


would be possible to stay cuddled up in the soft featherbed 
and still not be late for that hickory smoked broiled ham ; 
at least not later than the master of the household who was 
sure to be late enough to save the face of the most sleepy- 
headed visitor ? 

In the dining room with its big mahogany sideboard and 
side tables, was a young room of a china closet, with demi- 
johns of homemade apple vinegar, g-rape wine, blackberry 
cordial, and cherry bounce, while the top shelf held the 
quaint silver tea set, the old cut glass goblets and decanters 
and wine glasses, and the lower shelves, the gold band china 
set, the remnants of the still older plain white ones and the 
odds and ends of china and glass that had accumulated dur- 
ing all the years; and just outside the dining room was the 
closet with jars of brandy peaches and spiced pears and 
watermelon pickles, and jelly and preserves and canned fruits 
and vegetables, bej'ond count. And there was the upstairs 
back bed room, with another young room of a closet where 
the quilts and coverlets were kept. Was there ever such an 
assortment of handmade bed coverings, embroidered and 
pieced and appliqued and tufted and woven and knitted ? 
Surely the women of Palmyra had for a pattern the wise 
woman of Proverbs who looked well to the ways of her house- 
hold and ate not the bread of idleness, who laid her hands to 
the spindle, and whose hands held the distaff. Certainly they 
stretched forth their hands to the poor and needy and in 
their tongues was the law of kindness. 

And don't you remember the great circular driveway bor- 
dered with blooming things from early spring until frost ; 
and the garden — almost a farm in itself — with five rows of 
beans and a row of china asters ; five rows of peas and a 
bed of roses, beets and zinnias, tomatoes and marigolds, 
potatoes and nasturtiums, corn and petunias, balsams and 
okra, and right by the gate the clump of lemon verbena? 


I who S23ent so many happy days among the flowers can 
bring in return only this little sprig of rosemary for re- 

And there never was such a treasure trove as the attic, 
the final resting place of everything and anything that out- 
lived its usefulness below stairs. Nothing at Palmyra was 
destroyed. Broken down mahogany tables and rickety chairs, 
candle moulds, spinning wheels and cradles were sent to 
the attic ; while chests, hair trunks and barrels were packed 
with letters, deeds and papers, samplers, bonnets, laces, pin- 
cushions, wedding dresses, embroidery, fans, daguerreotypes, 
slippers, baby clothes, scent bottles, homespuns, quilts, carpet 
rags, yarns, cottons, the flotsam and jetsam of the long house- 
keeping years. 

* * * 

The inevitable changes of death have brought the letters 
and papers to the attic at Bramlette, where they fill boxes 
and boxes, so reading them is an interminable job, albeit a 
most fascinating one, beginning as they do about 1799, and 
running continuously down to 1908. The family connection 
was very large, scattered throughout Virginia, the Carolinas, 
Alabama, and Tennessee, and men, women, and children, and 
I am almost tempted to add the babe in its mother's arms, 
were most voluminous correspondents. The men's letters 
were largely of business matters, politics, crops, with pass- 
ing mention of wife and babies. The women wrote of every- 
thing: the Indians, baby teething, new clothes, their daugh- 
ters' beaux, neighboring gossip, parties, camp meetings, hus- 
bands and children. Yet throughout the century with new 
generations taking the place of the old, the ruling character- 
istics remain the same ; an intense family affection, clannish- 
ness to the remotest kin by blood, an abounding hospitality, 
cheerful kindliness, and more particularly in the women, a 
deeply religious strain. 

General Edmund Jones, Who Built Palmyra. 


The earliest letters are addressed to Colonel Edmund Jones, 
Fort Defiance, Wilkes County. Later the title rises to the 
dignity of General and Brigadier General. Fort Defiance, 
built during the Revolutionary War, was the home of General 
William Lenoir, and is still owned by his descendants. Roose- 
velt in ^'Winning the West" quotes largely from the old 
hero's account of the battle of King's Mountain, speaking of 
him as a fine type of French Huguenot. He seems to have 
been one of the earliest settlers in Happy Valley, and 
no one knows how much land he "'entered" there. Boxes 
of letters, his sword, wearing apparel and a letter from 
Washington are still treasured at ''The Fort," as it is gen- 
erally called. His daughter Ann, in 1798, married Edmund 
Jones, of Orange County, Virginia. 

The first mention of Palmyra that I have been able to 
find is in a letter from Mrs. Israel Pickens (Martha Lenoir) 
whose husband had moved to Alabama where he became 
governor. She and Mrs. Edmund Jones were sisters. The 
letter is from Washington and dated January 10, 1815: "I 
hope when we return in March to find you comfortably 
situated in your new home in the midst of your cheerful 
little family." Letters from various relatives give other de 
tails. General Lenoir gave the tract of land on which Pal- 
myra was built to his daughter, Ann, for a wedding gift. 
The home built by General Jones was a square building of 
red brick with small porch in front. 

I have found but one letter from Mrs. Edmund Jones. 
It was written to General Jones, and it is easy to read be- 
tween the lines, that the "heart of her husband safely trusted 
in her, and her children rose up and called her blessed" 
as she went about bravely bearing the burdens of that great 
plantation, his as well as her own, during his many absences 
in Raleigh as a member of the State Legislature. Then, as 
a century later, Palmyra was filled with company, evidently 


from the way in which they are mentioned, most welcome, 

but she adds: "The company of my beloved companion 

would be to me the (most agreeable in all this world." All 

details are given of business matters on the farm — the slaves, 

the cattle, the crops, the children, the neighborhood, deaths, 

births, and marriages. Yet all are forgotten while she closes 

her letter with: "Should I live to see you again, there will 

be one glad person if no more. Most affectionately yours, 

Ann Jones." 

* * -x- 

Boxes of letters to General Jones from all classes and 
conditions of men from one end of the State to the other, 
and on all sorts of subjects, tell of his wide activity and 
patriotic labors for his State during his almost continuous 
service in the Legislature from 1798 until 1838. He died 
in 1844, his wife, a few years earlier. These letters give 
such a clear picture of the man to whom they were written, 
as well as of the times and of the writers, many of whose 
descendants read The Booklet^ that some are herewith re- 

They begin in 1799 with a notice from James W. Henry, 
of the War Department, that Mr. Larkin Jones, of Wilkes 
County, is appointed a Second Lieutenant in the Sixth Regi- 
ment of Infantry. Larkin was a younger brother of Edmund. 
On ISTovember 29, 1805, "John Haywood offers his respects 
to Mr. Jones and requests the favor of his company at dinner 
on Saturday next." The writing is beautiful with flourishes 
most carefully made. 

John Haywood, of Halifax, was a judge of the Superior 
Court, in 1794, and author of "Manual of the Laws of North 
Carolina," "Haywood's Justice," and later, after his re- 
moval to that State, a "History of Tennessee." Chief Jus- 
tice Henderson said of him that he "disparaged neither the 
living nor the dead when he said that an abler man than 


John Haywood never appeared at the bar or sat on the 
bench of North Carolina." 

But styles are changing and Governor Hawkins is send- 
ing out very impressive printed invitations encircled by a 
fancy wreath. He ^'presents his respects to General Edmund 
Jones and requests he will do him the pleasure to dine with 
him on Saturday next, at 2 o'clock. Raleigh 10, December, 
1812." Oddly enough, the invitations, instead of having 
the Ealeigh address of General Jones (there as a member 
of the Legislature) are invariably written, ''General Edmund 
Jones of Wilkes." Of another tenor is the next note. "Gen- 
eral Smith presents his respects to Colonel Jones with 
whom he wishes to have an interview as quickly as possible." 
There is no date. Evidently General Smith was in too big 
a hurry to bother with dates, but wouldn't you like to know 
which General Smith, and what the flurry was about? 
Even the writing after all these years has never quieted down 
but gives the impression of worry and impatience. Waight- 
still Avery^ whose writing in ISTovember, 1805, is none of 
the best, is one of the strictly few who stick to business 
and to business only, though he does take time to sign him- 
self "Dear Sir, believe me to be with great respect, your 
very obedient servant." Robt. W. Williams asks that "that 
militia bill be called up this morning, December 14, 1805," 
and writes again on Sept. 1, 1802: 

I congratulate you in your election again to become one of the 
legislators of our State. * * * it has been some time since you 
thought proper to come into the Legislature. * * * Much alarm 
has excited the minds of the people relative to the claims and suits 
brought by Lord Granville to recover all this country. But I take 
it, Sir, he can never recover. * * * 

In case Mr. Blake Baker resigns this office of Attorney General, 
permit me to inform you, Sir, that I shall be a candidate for that 
appointment; any assistance which you may think proper to give 



me In the business, shall as a favor ever be remembered and grate- 
fully acknowledged by, my dear Sir, 

Your friend and well wisher, 

RoBT. Williams. 
My respects if you please to Genl. Lenoir. 

There were two Robert Williams — both distinguished men 
— General Robert Williams, of Surrj, and Dr. Robert Wil- 
liams, of Pitt. 

The next letter is so beautifully written and with such 
ornamental flourishes that it deserves to be on parchment. 
It is dated Surrj, 3d November 1807, and is from "Jo. 
Williams." I fancy it must be Joseph Williams, one of the 
Surry delegates to the convention at Hillsboro in 1775 and 
a colonel of the militia during the Revolution. 

Sir: — I've observed Mr. Gales has announced the death of Mr. 
John Hunt, late a clerk to the House of Commons. * * * in 
Consequence of which my son Williams intends offering his services, 
and which he would not presume to do had it not been for the death 
of Mr. Hunt. He is a tolerable good penman and I flatter myself 
would be adequate to the duties of that appointment. Should you 
also think so and can find a freedom in giving him your influence, 
the favor will ever be thankfully acknowledged by him and also by 
your most obedient Jo. Williams. 

Sept. 12, 1806, a note from S. Erwin. "I do hereby sig- 
nify to you my resignation of the commission of Captain of 
the Horse for Burke County and request you to accept the 
same." In 1807 William Norwood, of Hillsborough, after 
giving all the family news, asks General Jones when he next 
comes to Raleigh to bring him two bushels of the "new kind 
of grass called Egyptian oats." 

The Hon. Jesse Franklin, of Surry, U. S. Senator from 
1807-1813 and governor in 1820, writes under date of 28th 
December 1812: 

I am happy that the Legislature has put off the election for mem- 
bers of the Thirteenth Congress until August next leaving a Demo- 
cratic House with the Governor. * ♦ * With, respects to my 


successor, I hope he will turn out well. He is a man of talents. 
* * * You have no doubt seen in the Public Prints the disastrous 
Issue of the several attempts upon Canada. The papers contain all 
the information in our possession upon the subject. The last affair 
under General Smythe seems to have let him down in the eyes of 
his best friends. However when we consider the total want of dis- 
cipline and the spirit of insubordination that exists among such 
hosts of the militia suddenly brought together, disaster in the exe- 
cution of their plans of operation is not be wondered at. Upon the 
water we have been more successful. Our Navy has, whenever they 
have come in contact with the British upon anything like equal 
terms proved victorious. Congress have passed a law for building 
four shipes of 74 gunes each and six frigates of 44 guns each. * * * 
You will have seen that the pay of non commissioned officers and 
privates has been raised by a law of this session; privates to 8 dol- 
lars and the other about in the same proportion. * * * j shall 
be Happy to hear from you at any time, when time and opportunity 
may serve your convenience. 

Your obt. Servant, J. Franklin. 

Quite a different point of view is given in the next letter 
from the seat of war. It is written from 

Camp Neae Buffalo, Niagara River. 

Right Wing Northern Army, 

20th Nov., 1814. 
Dear Sir: 

You will excuse my not writing to you, as I had nothing inter- 
esting to communicate relative to the division of the army to which 
I am attached. In August last and some time previous the right 
wing or first division of the Northern army was stationed at Chazy 
and Champlain — near the line of Debarcation, and within six miles 
of the enemies' headquarter — the two armies continued in that 
situation or position several weeks, without fighting except Piquet 
fighting and shooting sentinels on post — a barbarous and unjustifi- 
able mode of warfare — but the enemy commenced it (not us). For- 
syth's brave rifle corps at length broke up the enemies inhuman 
traffic. * * * 

On the 29th the army took up its line of march from Champlain 
for Buffalo, (sic) hundred miles to the west — and on the 12th Oct. 
the army arrived at Black Rock, having marched over mountains, 
through deserts, and swamps where the D — 1 himself would do well 
not to enter. On the 13th the army crossed the Niagara and 
pitched their tents on his majesty's soil, made immediate prepara- 


tions to move down the Niagara meet the enemy and beat him. 
On the 14th the army was organized in the following order. 1st 
General Smiths Brigade composed of the 4th, 10th, 12th and seven- 
teenth regiments to move in column of (?) preceded by four piece 
light artillery, one mortar — 2 companies or troops cavalry flanked 
by six light companies and one rifle battalion, next in order, Genl. 
Bissel's Brigade advanced in rear in column or regts. flanked by 
six companies light troops one compr. Cavalry with the heavy artil- 
lery and one battalion . Genl. Brown's division, the brave 

heroes of Chippewa Bridgewater and Port Erie advanced one mile 
in rear, in order of battle, then in order the American army moved 
down the Niagara to Chippewa plains. On the 14th at 4 o'clock p. m. 
Smith's Brigade approached the enemy's advanced post, or advanced 
guard, they gave us a distant flre and retired from their works. 
On the 15th the army arrived on Chippewa plains, and discovered 
the enemy formed in order of battle, his left resting on the Niagara, 
and his right extending across the plains — our columns advanced 
until they gained an advantageous position, deployed and formed 
the line with the utmost coolness and anxiety for battle, the right 
of east brigade resting on the Niagara and the left extending across 

the plain — the brave Capt. Towson and reed, orders to 

commence the action by advancing with 4 pieces artillery and one 
mortar; the enemy opened a fire from his whole line, but a well 
directed fire from our piece — our left troop and riflemen gaining his 
right flank and commencing a sharp fire, together with a number 
of shells bursting about their ears, caused the enemy to retreat to 
his works across the Chippewa. They fled a second time, the 
boasted Wellington troops, now commanded by Lieut. Genl. Drum- 
mond the Earl of Tweedsdale and Genl. Brigham, said to be six or 
eight thousand strong exclusive of Boltigeurs and Canadian militia. 
On the 15th our army advanced within six hundred yards of the 
enemy's batteries on the Chippewa. The right of each division 
resting on the Niagara and the left extended up the Chippewa 
river. The appearance of the American line was grand. An army 
of ten or twelve thousand well organized troops, arranged in order 
of battle at 1 o'clock P. M. The whole of our artillery and morters 
were ordered to advance within three hundred yards of the enemy's 
batteries on the open plain. The enemy commenced a fire from 
5 batteries and immediately after our 18 prs. began to roar which 
caused a number of his majesty's fugitive banditties to retreat 
from behind their works but not before several shells bursted 
among them. At 2 P. M. two of the enemy's batteries were si- 
lenced and one piece dismounted. Dr. Sir, Never before did I feel 
such anxiety for battle — the delightful roar of the American 


artillery, the tremendous roar of the Niagara falls in full view, 
together with viewing the immense and increasing spray ascending 
from the falls, conspired to enliven the imagination and render the 
scene sublime. At 3 their batteries were silenced, the roar of our 
pieces ceased not — at 4 he recommenced a fire from one of his bat- 
teries but was soon silenced. We had but four killed and a few 
wounded, most of his shot passed over us. 

Give my best respects to Genl. Wm. Lenoir. I reverence the 
names of the patriots of 76. I love them wherever they are. 
Whilste I continue to have an existence the names of those that 
fought for my freedom and delivered their country from tyranny 
and oppression shall be dear to me. I subscribe myself yours with 
the highest consideration of respect and esteem. 

A. E. McKiNziE, 
Lieut. 10th Infty. 

The last word is said by Hon. Meshack Franklin, a mem- 
ber of Congress from Surry, 1807-15, who writes from Wash- 
ington, January 6th, 1814: 

This day a message from the President was laid before Congress 
communicating the dispatch brought by flag of truce from the 
British government. Its contents are a proposition to open nego- 
tiations for a peace. Distinct from the Russian Mediations, to be 
negotiated at either Gothenburg in Sweden or at London. The 
proposition has been accepted on the part of this government and 
Gothenburg will be the place where the agents of the respective 
governments meet for the transaction of their business. We hope 
that it may lead to an honorable peace. With what sincerity, this 
proposition has been made, it is impossible to say, but if peace be 
the object, there is not doubt of a speedy arrangement of all the 

points in controversy, but whether it be serious or no 

reduction ought to be made in the necessary preparations for the 
prosecution of the war. 

Respectfully, your Obt. Servt., 

M. Fbanklin. 

Hon. Lewis Williams, ''Father of the House" for many 
years, gives voluminous details of the year's work in Wash- 

In the annual message of the President, we were informed that 
the balance in the treasury on the 1st of January, 1828, was up- 
wards of five millions of dollars; 


The defensive establishments of the country, appear to be on a 
very respectable footing. The army consists of about six thousand 
men including officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians and 
privates. It is said to be organized according to the best plan, and 
is divided into seven regiments of infantry, and four regiments of 
artillery, distributed through the country at such points as will be 
most likely to render them serviceable. The aggregate militia force 
of the United States, including officers and men, is one million one 
hundred and sixty-eight thousand four hundred and nineteen. 

The navy consists of seven ships of the line carrying seventy- 
four guns each, seven frigates of the first class, and four of the 
second class, sixteen sloops of war, and seven schooners. In addi- 
tion to which, there are now building at different places in the 
United States, five ships of the line and six frigates. When these 
shall have been completed, our navy will be quite formidable for 
all the purposes of defence, that being the only object for which it 
should be maintained. For no one ever imagined the navy ought to 
be so large, as to stimulate us to engage in foreign wars, or to 
commit aggressions upon the rights of others. 

In the year of 1792 there were 195 post offices, a revenue of $67,444, 
and 5,642 miles of post roads. In 1828 the number of post offices 
was 7,651, the amount of revenue $1,598,134, and 114,536 miles of 
post roads. It will be perceived that the increase in this establish- 
ment has been very great; but I would be willing to see it further 
extended, 'till every neighborhood, nay almost every citizen should 
be accommodated with a post office at his door, if he should think 
proper to have it so. 

It has been again proposed to establish a post, and form a settle- 
ment at the mouth of Columbia river, on the Pacific Ocean. In my 
former communications to you, I have frequently had occasion, to 
notice this measure, and to state my objections to it. It seems to 
me impolitic to plant a colony at so great a distance from the set- 
tlements on the Atlantic and Mississippi. The people who might 
inhabit that region could never have a community of interest and 
feeling with us who live on this side of the Rocky Mountains; and 
the extension of settlements to that quarter would only lead to a 
dismemberment of the empire, whenever they should be able to 
protect themselves. 

Another territorial government is proposed to be established in 
the North West, to be called "the government of Huron." The 
progress made in the creation of states and territories is evidence 
of the felicitous nature of our political system, and its capacity for 
extension over a much wider space than is now embraced by it. 
From thirteen states we have increased to twenty-four, and there 




will be four territories, if the government of Huron should be 
established. When these are admitted into the union, the number 
of states will be twenty-eight. 

On the 11th of this month the votes for President were counted 
in presence of both Houses of Congress, and General Andrew Jackson 
declared to be duly elected President of the United States, for four 
years from and after the 4th of March next. — Whatever difference 
of opinion has existed among us in relation to this choice, we all 
must wish that the administration of General Jackson may be wise 
and virtuous :^if his measures are good they should be supported, 
but if bad they ought to be opposed. 

As my term of service will expire on the 4th of March, you will 
be called on at the ensuing election to choose a Representative in 
the next congress of the United States. Permit me again to offer 
myself as a candidate for your suffrages, and to say that if elected, 
I will do the best I can to serve you faithfully and beneficially. 
Your friend and fellow citizen, 

Washington, Feb. 18th, 1829. Lewis Williams. 

* * * 

After the death of General and Mrs. Joney, Palmyra wa» 
inherited by Edmund, tlie youngest and only surviving sou, 
who had married his cousin, Sophia Davenport, and built 
"Clover Hill." General Jones' Daughter, Mrs. Samuel Pat- 
terson (Phoebe Caroline) who then was living in Wilkesborc 
inherited from her father's estate, lands in Mississippi. 
Brother and sister were devoted to each other, and in order 
to live near together, Edmund gave his sister Palmyra, tak- 
ing in exchange the lands in Mississippi. Others say the 
place was bought outright by General Patterson because his 
wife wanted her old home. A letter says: "In 1851-52 
General ^nd Mrs. Patterson remodeled and enlarged the old 
home, adding the East and West wing, the dining room with 
its pantries, and the large room above with its closets. The 
large staircase was built in the hall between parlor and dining 
room, and a small staircase run up for private use from the 
'dark room' in the center of the house. These improvements 
were made in contemplation of the marriage of the eldest 
son, Rufus, to Marie Louise, 4th daughter of Governor and 


Mrs. Morehead. The room over the dining room was built 
especially for the bed room of the bridal couple." 

Family tradition tells a pretty story of the landscape 
gardening, which was planned on moonlight nights while 
Samuel and Phoebe Caroline wandered through the grounds 
with their arms around each other, locating drives and walks 
and gardens. After her death in the middle sixties, family 
tradition again comes to tell that he died of a broken heart, 
after she, his best beloved, was taken. 

* * * 

Of the charm Palmyra exercised upon all who came within 
its borders the countless letters bear ample testimony. One 
dealing especially with the old home as it was during the 
lifetime of General and Mrs. Patterson is such a perfect pen 
picture that I cannot do better than give it in its entirety. 
It is written by the only surviving granddaughter, Mrs. 
Albert Coble, of Statesville. 

"Our history (Mama's children) is especially connected with Pal- 
myra from the fact that we not only as children, spent every sum- 
mer there, but that after our mother's death. Grandma came for us, 
and took us all home with her, and gave us the most devoted love 
and care for three years, until we moved back to Salem, and Louie, 
you know, always made his home there (I think our parents first 
moved to Salem in 1855). 

"In giving the history of Palmyra, it seems to me that the prin- 
cipal thing to do would be to reproduce, if possible, the atmosphere 
of the place, — that feeling of hominess and happiness and good 
cheer which filled every one who came within its circle. There 
was Grandpa with his stately, noble bearing, always dignified, yet 
always affable; Grandma, gracious to strangers, cordial to friends, 
and affectionate to all the large circle of relatives. They kept open 
heart and open house where the young people loved to gather for 
their pleasure, where all summer long the relatives filled the house, 
and in the evenings the strains of music floated out upon the lawn, 
and the waltz was danced within the parlor and upon the long 
veranda, where often the house servants gathered in groups outside 
to see the fun. This home became especially during the war, the 
Mecca for the widow and the orphan. Refugees from the more 


Southern states came and remained for months. All were made 
welcome. The home was conducted like the old southern plantation. 
There were some 60 or 70 slaves. There were the blacksmith and 
carpenter shop, a shoe shop, a loom room, where those pretty 
spreads and counterpanes were made; there were spinners, garden- 
ers, dairy maids, house servants, cooks and nurses, besides the 
coachmen, two hostlers, cow-herds, sheep tenders, the regular field 
hands, and about 20 little darkies who were called on to rake up 
leaves, play with the little white children, hold the ponies to feed 
on the grass, and one or two detailed to wave the peacock fly-brush 
and keep the flies off the table at meals. Generally, there was one 
too, to run backwards and forwards to and from the kitchen at 
breakfast and supper to bring the hot cakes. 

"The life of the master and mistress was a very busy one. They 
rose early to look after the household, the servants, the stock etc. 
Grandpa made the round of the barns and stables early every morn- 
ing to set each hand to his task, to see that the stock was well 
tended etc. There was a large number of horses and 12 cows were 
always milked. Grandma was up hours before her guests, seeing 
that the house was put in order, the breakfast properly under way, 
fresh flowers gathered for the table etc. 

"Her lawn, flower-beds and garden took much of her attention. 
At the time the house was remodeled, the front lawn, circle and 
drive-way and flower-beds (as we knew them) were made, and al- 
most every known flower and shrub of that day was secured and 
planted there, from the spruce pine of the mountains to the cypress 
of the coast, and from the mountain rhododendron to the tender 
crepe myrtle and yellow jessamine. I heard of Mrs. Folk's saying 
that Grandma knew more about trees and plants and just where 
and how to plant them than any one she ever saw. Besides this. 
Grandma was a beautiful seamstress (doing the most perfect darn- 
ing I ever saw) ; She played well on the piano, guitar, and zither; 
she painted exceedingly well and wrote some beautiful poetry. 
Grandpa was particularly well informed in many lines; was exceed- 
ingly particular in writing and spelling, as well as in grammar and 
in the use of just the right word for the occasion, and used very 
fine English, although he went to work at 15 years and never 
returned to school. 

"Of course, my most vivid recollections of Palmyra are of my 
happy childhood years there, and although a terrible war was raging 
about us, we were shielded from all harm and suffering. My father, 
who foresaw a long struggle, laid up many supplies in large quanti- 
ties, beforehand, so that we never suffered the privations that many 
did. It always seemed to me that my grandmother's arms were the 


refuge from all trouble and sorrow. Cousin Laura Norwood voices 
the feelings of many when she says: 'When I first remember Pal- 
myra the new house was complete in all its beauty, and to me, 
was the loveliest place on earth, pervaded by the very spirit of 
kindness and hospitality.' 

"I see I have said nothing of the religious life at Palmyra, which 
pervaded everything. Grandpa and Grandma were two of the most 
devout people I have ever known. They carried their religion into 
their every day life, and its influence was felt by every one, from 
the most exalted visitor to the home, to the humblest slave. They 
were daily and loving readers of the Bible; they lived and taught 
the Golden Rule, and all, without any cant or sanctimoniousness. 
Grandpa held family prayers every night, and on Sundays, when 
there were not church services, he assembled the family and guests 
and read the morning service from the Prayer Book. The house 
servants also, were often present. All inmates were taught obe- 
dience and love to our kind Heavenly Father. Grandpa was brought 
up a Presbyterian, but not having joined the church before mar- 
riage, he went with Grandma and became a devoted Episcopalian." 

The Biographical History of North Carolina says of Gen- 
eral Samuel Finley Patterson, that "he was born in Rock- 
bridge County, Virginia, on March 11, 1799 and at the age of 
fifteen was induced by his uncle, Major John Finley, to 
remove to Wilkesboro, North Carolina, where he was em- 
ployed as a clerk in the store of Waugh & Finley until he 
attained his majority in 1821. 

"In 1828 and 1829 he was Junior Grand Warden of the 
Grand Lodge of Masons of the State, and in 1830 and 1831 
Deputy Grand Master; in 1833 and 1834 he was Grand 
Master, and no one in the State was more highly esteemed 
by his fellow Masons. His career had been one of unvaried 
success and good fortune. His association with the public 
men who during the fifteen years of his connection with the 
Legislature had been members of the General Assembly had 
won for him their confidence and esteem, and his promptness, 
fidelity and integrity had made a most favorable impression 
throughout the State. Having begun business on his own 


account upon leaving the employment of his uncle, he had 
so successfully managed his affairs that he enjoyed the repu- 
tation of being an excellent financier and business man. At 
the General Assembly of 1835, although he was a strong 
opponent of the policies of General Jackson, and the Legisla- 
ture was largely composed of the friends of General Jackson, 
he was elected public treasurer of the State, succeeding 
William S. Mhoon. He held this position for two years, a 
part of the same time likewise discharging the duties of 
president of the Bank of the State, and adding to his repu- 
tation as one of the best financiers of North Carolina. But 
in 1837 he retired from office and returned to his business 
in Wilkesboro. 

"In 1840, three days in June had been devoted to festivities 
celebrating the completion of the Capitol and of the Raleigh 
and Gaston Railroad, and in that year Mr. Patterson, who 
was an early promotor of internal improvements and an able 
financier, was elected president of that, the first railroad com- 
pleted in the State, and he moved to Raleigh so as to dis- 
charge the duties of that office. In 1845, however, his 
father-in-law. General Jones, died, and Mr. Patterson re- 
signed his position as president of the Railroad Company 
and returned to the Yadkin Valley, intending to devote the 
remainder of his life to his farming interests. Largely 
through his influence, in 1841, Caldwell County had been 
erected out of portions of Burke and Wilkes, and Mr. Pat- 
terson's home, known as "Palmyra," was in the new county. 
Immediately on his return to Caldwell County he was elected 
chairman of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, having 
the management of all the internal affairs of the county, 
and he held this office until the old system of county, courts 
was abolished by the constitution of 1868. 

"The next year, 1846, he was chosen to represent his 
county in the Senate, and was again elected in 1848. 


^'At that time the affairs of the Raleigh and Gaston Rail- 
road had become hopelessly embarrassed. There was not busi- 
ness enough or sufficient earnings to pay the running expenses 
Governor Graliam, Mr. Patterson and the other friends of 
internal improvements were greatly discouraged, and recog- 
nized that some great effort should be made to sustain the 
Raleigh and Gaston Railroad by constructing an interior 
line that would serve as a feeder to it and give it a greater 
volume of business, while at the same time affording needed 
facilities to other parts of the State. Mr. Patterson, who 
was among the foremost of those who advocated internal 
improvements, was Chairman of the Committee on Internal 
Improvements, and drew a bill proposing to charter a road 
from Raleigh to Salisbury, and giving some State aid to it. 
This measure, however, did not receive sufficient favor to 
secure its passage. The friends of internal improvements, 
then the most important matter in the public mind, were 
almost in despair. Mr. William S. Ashe, Senator from 
ISTew Hanover, and a Democrat who differed with his party 
friends on this particular subject, was appealed to to pre- 
pare another bill. He did so, proposing to incorporate a 
road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and appropriating $2,000,- 
000 as State aid. At first the magnitude of this work and 
the great amount of money appropriated staggered even the 
most ardent of the advocates of internal improvements ; but 
eventually that bill was substituted for the one proposed by 
the Committee on Internal Improvements and was passed by 
the casting vote of the speaker of the Senate. As Mr. 
Dudley was the leader of internal improvements in the east, 
so in like manner is the west indebted to Mr. Patterson 
for his efforts to promote the interests of the western part 
of the State in that respect. 

"In 1854 he again served his people in the Legislature, 
being a member of the House of Commons, and during the 


War, 1864, he was for a third time elected to the Senate. 
After the restoration of peace, a convention was elected in 
October, 1865, and in 1866, there being a vacancy in that 
body from Caldwell County, he was elected a delegate to 
that convention. In the same year he attended what was 
known as the Philadelphia Peace Convention as one of the 
delegates from ISTorth Carolina, the object in view being to 
establish fraternal relations between the sections of the Union 
and to restore harmony and good will among the people. 
This convention was presided over by Reverdy Johnson, of 
Maryland, and was largely attended by delegates from the 
N^ew England States ; and while it had some effect in staying 
the hands of the irreconcilables in Congress for a time, it 
did not entirely defeat their will and purposes, and the next 
year the Reconstruction Acts, destroying the State govern- 
ments at the South and establishing new State governments 
on the fundamental basis of negro suffrage, were passed. 

"In 1868 General Patterson was nominated on the State 
ticket by the Conservative Party for the office of superintend- 
ent of public works, a new position established by the con- 
stitution of 1868. But he and his party at that election went 
down in hopeless defeat, the first, such as it was, that he 
ever met before the people. Among the less important places 
that Mr. Patterson held during his long career of public 
activity was that of clerk of the Superior Court and clerk 
and master in equity; in 1839 he was Indian commissioner; 
he was also elected by the Legislature Brigadier-General and 
afterward Major-General of the State militia, and he thus 
became entitled to he known as General Patterson. 

"For many years he was a Justice of the Peace, and a 
Trustee of the State University for a third of a century. 

"General Patterson was a member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, and for many years was vestryman, warden 
and lay reader of his parish church ; and in 171 he was one of 


the lay delegates from the diocesan convention of this State 
to the general convention held in Baltimore. 

"Such is the succinct record of his public life. 

"Beginning as a clerk in the Legislature of 1821, there 
was not a year for a half a century in which he was not 
honored by the State of his adoption until, after fifty years 
of continuous service, he fitly closed his career by represent- 
ing her in the grand council of the church he loved. What 
man in the State has ever lived a busier, more useful, purer 
life ? Who, having so many and great trusts confided in 
him, has fulfilled them more worthily ? He never sought 
any civil office which would withdraw him from North Caro- 
lina. His history, together with the history of a few of 
his peers and associates, was for many years the history of 
the State. Such men, so strong in mind and body, so pure 
in heart and hand, so steady, so resolute and so wise, during 
half a century of usefulness, influenced insensibly to them- 
selves thousands whom they met and thousands more who 
honored them because of their acts. The study of his career 
and the character of men like him, who controlled the destiny 
of North Carolina in times past, will show something of 
the reason why the State has been so little known abroad, 
so loved and reverenced at home. 

"They were like those Romans, spoken of by Sallust, who 
lived in the nobler days of the Republic, who would rather 
do great deeds than write about them — a people among 
whom the wisest were also the busiest citizens, and who, 
disdaining to cultivate their minds at the expense of their 
bodies, so used both to accomplish the greatest good to the 
commonwealth. General Patterson, although he held so 
many and various offices, and gave so much time and atten- 
tion to public affairs, was for the last thirty years of his life 
properly a farmer. By this pursuit he supported himself 
while he served the people. His farm was a model of neat- 


ness and thrift; he was zealous in introducing new seeds, 
improved implements and better methods of cultivation ; 
he was a constant reader and frequent contributor to the 
columns of agricultural journals, and was justly regarded 
as an authority in matters pertaining to husbandry. His 
domestic life was as even, as useful and as pure as his 
public life. 

"His home was attractive, and in the company of his wife 
and two sons, Rufus L. Patterson and Samuel L. Patterson, 
he was entirely happy ; but being given to hospitality, he 
rejoiced at the presence of many guests. No one who was 
ever a guest at 'Palmyra' can forget the stately figure 
which welcomed him or bade good-by with such kindly, 
heartfelt courtesy. N^or was his generosity confined to his 
own premises ; many a poor neighbor, both white and black, 
lamented the death of the dear friend who never forgot 
either their necessity or their self-respect, and gave as deli- 
cately as wisely. 

"He died at his home, January 20, 1874, as peacefully as 

he had lived." 

* * * 

Mrs. Samuel Finley Patterson was such a many sided 
woman that it is difficult to write of her. Judging from 
the silk gowns, bonnets, laces, embroideries, crepe shawls, 
fans, high heeled satin slippers, lace handkerchiefs, ribbons, 
scent bottles, (of which she had a wonderful collection) one 
would think that personal adornment was her ruling passion. 
Yet, looking over the great clothes chests and closets filled 
to overflowing with her handiwork — woven coverlets and 
blankets, quilts of every description, bureau and table covers, 
a mass of most intricate embroidery and lace, pincushions 
and bags, and embroidered collars and underwear, chair 
seats, and cross stitch pictures, one would come to the con- 
clusion that needle work, and that alone, occupied her entire 


time. Then in wandering through the rooms admiring the 
quaintly beautiful china and cut glass, and silver, the beauti- 
ful old mahogany furniture that filled the house from attic 
to cellar, and reading the letters from guests who crowded 
the house to overflowing for so many years, one feels that 
she could have had time and taste for housekeeping and 
for that only. Her neatly kept account books with names 
of each slave, number of garments and shoes furnished 
each one, clothing purchased, contents of smoke houses, orders 
made for table linen, china and furniture — all show the 
business woman. She was a skilled musician, and the 
exquisitely painted landscapes on the wall proclaim her 
an artist. Her public spirit is shown in the letters and 
memorandum of her efforts in collecting funds to aid in 
purchasing Mt. Vernon from the Washington family. The 
work she did for that must have been very great, as the 
list is a long one of those who contributed, as well as of 
the meetings she held and people she visited to rouse interest 
in saving Washington's home from decay. In utter bewilder- 
ment, one turns to her letters as a court of last resort — 
and there are many of them — to father, brother, sisters, 
sons, husband, nieces, cousins, every relation is represented, 
and in each, she is the same ; wise in counsel, most tender 
and loving, strong and capable. Her one thought seems to 
have been the happiness and well-being of her loved ones, 
and all her strength of mind and heart and body were given 
to making Palmyra the home to which their hearts turned. 
Nor did her interest end with kith and kin ; friend and 
stranger received the same gracious help, if help were need- 
ed, the same comfort in sorrow, the still rarer sympathy 
in joy. 

I once asked the late Mrs. Folk to tell me about her, 
and the reply was : "Mrs. Patterson and Mrs. Polk were 
the greatest women I have ever known, and of the two, Mrs. 


Patterson was the greater. It was worth a trip to Palmyra 
to see her and General Patterson preside over a table full 
of guests ; he so handsome and dignified and kindly ; she 
so gracious and sweet to each one. I never knew a woman 
who understood so well the artistic arrangement of flowers 
and shrubs and trees. She was a born landscape gardener." 

The orphans and motherless members of the family came 
to her as a matter of course ; so did the sick babies and 
invalids, to be nursed to health and strength. It was also 
a matter of course for relatives from far and near to come 
with their families and servants to spend the summer. To be 
sure those were the days of trained slaves, and with Harriet, 
the meat cook, Myra the pastry cook, Cindy and Sarah, both 
good general cooks, and Ann and Margaret, the young cooks, 
not to mention trained butler and waitresses and house 
servants, the burdens of a housekeeper were very different 
from what they would be now, yet burdens there must have 
been. Beef and mutton had to be slaughtered and looked 
after; sixty hogs were killed every autumn for the year's 
supply, not to mention turkeys, ducks, geese, guineas and 
chickens innumerable. The slaves must be clothed from the 
cotton, flax and wool raised on the place, and spun and 
woven and made into garments. The mistress of Palmyra 
had no time to eat the bread of idleness even if she had 
wished. It is little wonder that it was said of her husband 
"after his wife's death, he never lifted up his head." It was 
in fulfillment of her wish that her youngest son, Samuel 
Legerwood Patterson, built the Chapel of Rest near Palmyra, 
and there she and her beloved lie, sleeping their last sleep 
in the Happy Valley they so loved, and where their memory 
lingers, a gracious benediction. 

The best picture of General Patterson was given me by 
"Aunt Till" — one of the few survivina: old slaves: "Old 


Marse, he were good. I never seed no sech a good man, 
and he Avore Sunday clothes every day. Come some biggoty 
nigger misses up from South Carolina one summer, en dey 
craned dey necks and dey say 'I ain't never seed your old 
Marse wear no ever-day close yit, ain't he got none?' and 
I say 'No he ain't — all his close is Sunday close and he 
don't never war no other kind.' An' ole Marse, he were 
good. Every Sunday he gathered all the little niggers to- 
gether and teached us the Bible and the Catechism. I 

done members it yit." 

* * * 

General Patterson died January 20, 1874, his beloved 
wife two years earlier. Of their two sons, one, Rufus Lenoir 
Patterson, (of whom it was said: "He was a Saul among 
men, physically as well as mentally") had engaged in busi- 
ness in Salem and made his home there. Palmyra became 
the home of the younger son, Samuel Legerwood Patterson, 
who in 1873 had married Mary Senseman, of Salem, a 
daughter of Rt. Rev. E. T. Senseman, a Moravian minister, 
of Indiana. 

What has been said of General and Mrs. Patterson and 
their life at Palmyra, could be repeated almost verbatim of 
their son and his wife. The same nobility of character, 
the same spotless integrity, patriotism and devotion to duty; 
the same kindness and open-handed hospitality were their 
distinguishing characteristics, even though war with its dis- 
astrous aftermath, had swept away the greater part of the 
income from the plantations. The courteous welcome, the 
loving sympathy, the peace and beauty of the place, still 
made it one in a thousand. Relatives and friends, old and 
young, rich and poor, sick and well, thronged to Palmyra, 
remaining for days, months, or years, as best pleased them. 
As his forebears had done, Mr. Patterson gave his best wis- 
dom and energy to the upbuilding of the State, becoming 


Commissioner of Agriculture and living in Raleigh the last 
years of his life. Even when smitten with the disease which 
he knew to be fatal, he worked bravely on until the end 
came in September 1908. In his will he bequeathed Pal- 
myra to the Episcopal Church to be used as an industrial 
school for boys. His devoted wife did not long survive him, 
dying February 23d, 1909 at Bramlette, the home of her 
nephew in Winston-Salem. 

A friend who lived with her for many years, pays this 
tribute to her memory : 

"And what of the mistress of the old home who came as a young 
bride and ruled it for 35 years? It was not just the life either Mr. or 
Mrs. Patterson would have chosen; their social instincts would have 
inclined them to city life, but she loved it with all the warmth of a 
singularly loving and loyal nature. So great was this latter feeling 
that she hesitated to make the improvements her judgment sug- 
gested. Her only child, dying at the age of six months, left her 
motherly heart free to welcome all the many boys and girls who 
today look back with love and gratitude to the many happy days 
spent at Palmyra. Mrs. Patterson's beautiful nature and deep sym- 
pathy with youth, made her delight to have a circle of happy young 
faces around her ample dining table, and boyish laughter was never 
too loud for her nerves. 

"Perhaps her most excellent feature was the perfection to which 
she carried her work. 'What her hands found to do, she did with 
all her might,' and they found very much to do, for her capacity to 
accomplish was little short of marvelous. In many a family the 
work of her hands will be cherished as heirlooms. 

"Mrs. Patterson's father was a Moravian minister. After her 
marriage, she became a member of her husband's church, and made 
the care of the Chapel, the music and the Sunday school her 
especial care and delight. Christmas was a festival after her own 
heart. For weeks before, her nimble white fingers fairly flew in 
forming dainty gifts for relations and friends. The Sunday school 
tree absorbed her best attention and energy. She dearly loved to 
gather the mountain children around her and impart to them her 
music-loving spirit. 

"Her success in pantry and garden might have caused envy had 
her hospitality been less boundless. 

"If her life had been differently conditioned, I think her eager 
energy, her thoroughness and capacity would have made her a 


successful business woman. Of a singularly clinging, womanly 
nature, she seemed unfitted to stand alone, but under stress of duty 
or sorrow, her calmness and bravery were most admirable." 

* * * 

As memories come of the sainted dead who in their time 
made Palmyra what it was for a century of happy years, 
the words of the Psalmist take on new meaning: "Except 
the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it." 
Surely His was the guiding hand that built Palmyra in the 

Happy Valley. 

* * * 


The interest of the family in, and affection for, the State 
University began with its beginning and has grown with 
its growth. In Dr. Kemp P. Battle's most interesting his- 
tory of the University he says: "In December 1789, the 
charter of the University under the powerful advocacy of 
Davie, was granted by the General Assembly, The trustees 
under the charter comprised the great men of the State, the 
good men of the State, the trusted leaders of the people. 
The first named and chairman was Samuel Johnston. There 
were James Iredell, Alfred Moore, Col. John Stokes, Hugh 
Williams, William Richardson Davie * * * Col. Wil- 
liam Lenoir * * * The second meeting of the trustees 
was in Fayetteville (as well as the first) and was held on 
Nov. 15th, 1790. Col. William Lenoir, the speaker of the 
Senate on the nomination of the Speaker of the House, 
Stephen Cabarrus, was made President of the Board." It is 
interesting to see how that interest has passed on down 
from father to son from uncle to nephew, as student first 
and later as trustee of their beloved Alma Mater. 

The list as given by Dr. Battle in his history, is a long 
one and comprises men in every walk of life. 

1790-'92, First President of the Board of Trustees; 1789- 


1804, William Lenoir, Trustee; 1835-1868, Samuel Finley 
Patterson, Trustee; 1858-18G8, Kufus Lenoir Patterson, 
Trustee; 1869-1870, Calvin C. Jones, Trustee; 1875, Rufus 
L. Patterson, (still in office at death in 1879) Trustee; 1883, 
Walter W. Lenoir, (died before term expired) ; 1898-1908, 
Lindsay Patterson. 


1. Edmund Walter Jones, Wilkes County, A. B., 1833. 

2. John T. Jones, Wilkes County, 1832-36. 

3. William Davenport Jones, Caldwell County, 1858-59, 
Capt. C. S. A. 

4. John Thomas Jones, Caldwell County, A. B. 1861, 
Lt. C. S. A. ■ 

5. Edmund Jones, Caldwell, 1865-68, C. S. A., General 

6. Thomas I. Lenoir, Wilkes County, 1838-39, Capt. C. 
S. A. 

7. Walter Waightstill Lenoir, Wilkes County, A. B. 1843, 
Capt. C. S. A. 

8. Rufus T. Lenoir, Caldwell County 1844-45. 

9. Thomas Ballard Lenoir, Caldwell County, 1880-82. 

10. Walter James Lenoir, Caldwell County, 1880-82. 

11. Rufus Lenoir Patterson, Caldwell County, A. B., 
1851, Member Convention 1861 and 1865. Manufacturer, 
merchant, born 1830, died 1879, in Salem. 

12. Samuel Legerwood Patterson, Caldwell County, 1867- 
68, born 1850, Planter. (Afterwards State Commissioner 
of Agriculture.) 

13. Jesse Lindsay Patterson, Salem, 1878-79, Lawyer. 

14. Louis Morehead Patterson, Salem, 1878-81, Teacher. 
Died 1886. 

15. Frank Fries Patterson, Salem, 1882-85. Newspaper 


16. Andrew Henry Patterson, Salem, 1887-90, Teacher. 

17. Rufiis Lenoir Patterson, Salem, Manufacturer. 

18. John Legerwood Patterson, Salem, Manufacturer. 

19. Edmund Vogler Patterson, Salem. 




The last tree has been leveled, 
That once stood upon yon hill, 

And the stream is almost dried up 
That once turned the little mill. 

Great forests towering heavenward. 

Once covered all its side, 
'Till the woodsman came among us, 

Cut and carved 'till it died. 

Once a brook as clear as crystal 

That was our greatest pride, 
Swiftly flowed from out the forest 

Watering woodland with its tide. 

Once I wandered through this woodland, 

Waded deep the little brook. 
Caught the trout from out its current, 

With my rod and line and hook. 

Now the trout are gone forever, 
And the hill is brown and bare, 

Not a bird or squin-el or pheasant. 
Can be sighted anywhere. 

For the woodsman came among us, 
Cut and wasted trees and stream. 

That had brought us greatest pleasure. 
That had been a happy dream. 

Now the woodsman, stream and forest 

Are a thing to us unknown, 
They have come and gone forever, 

Nothing left but the hills of stone. 



By collier COBB. 

That the Daughters of the Eevolution, a society founded 
upon ancestry and interested in historic homes, studying the 
past that it may understand the present and find guidance 
for the future, should be interested in forest problems seems 
eminently fitting; for the history of mankind has been much 
affected by the forest covering of the earth, and man himself 
has derived many of his most salient characteristics from a 
long line of ancestors who had the tree-dwelling habit. 

It has already been pointed out that "his slender, agile 
body, and his delicately constructed, flexible hand owe their 
essential features to the arboreal habit of his ancestors." 
That the forest habit has also left its impress on man's mind 
seems equally certain, if we consider for a moment that the 
tree-dwelling species of mammals are generally more social 
and sympathetic, quicker-witted and of superior cunning in 
comparison with most of those that dwell upon the surface 
of the land. The tropical woods, where man began his ex- 
istence, afforded an abundance and variety of food, and the 
trees furnished a safe and ready shelter from beasts of prey. 

The earliest known mammals, little pouched marsupials, 
closely akin to our 'possums, though but little larger than 
rats, lived upon the earth at a time when land and sea were 
possessed by huge reptiles; but our forests were then just be- 
ginning to take on their modern aspect, and their branches 
gave a great vantage ground to little creatures compelled to 
fly from clumsier enemies and to live by their wits. And 
the forest afforded these early kindred of ours nuts and fruits 
and a great variety of insects which resorted there. And 
these little creatures bore the thread of existence through a 


critical period in the ongoing of life, and rendered possible 
all that is best as exemplified in the higher life of man. 

But man himself did not long lodge in tree-tops. His pro- 
gressive desires soon brought him out of his ancestral woods, 
and the beginnings of agriculture led him to look upon the 
forest as an obstinate foe to his advance, a foe that he must 
rid himself of at any cost. Hence he became a cave-dweller 
and a hunter, a ground-liver and an agriculturist, and his 
home to this day is hardly more than a modified cave. 

Man's enmity for the forest is only just now, and but 
slowly, passing away. He is coming to realize that a forest 
cover is essential to the maintenance of conditions upon 
which his own welfare depends, conditions of soil and cli- 
mate and timber supply, influencing the fertility of the land, 
the distribution of rainfall, and the steady flow of streams — 
all fundamental factors of any healthy existence today. 
While man's advance in knowledge and skill may bring him 
to the use of solar energy to compensate for the loss of fuel 
when our coal shall have been used up and our forests de- 
stroyed, he can never find a substitute for the soil covering 
of the earth's surface, the least enduring and the least re- 
placeable of any of those features on which the life of the 
earth depends. "It is the harvest of the past ; and once lost, 
it can not be supplied save by the slow process of the ages." 

The solid rocks of the earth's crust rot, through the ages, 
into various kinds of soil ; but a brief examination with a 
magnifying glass will show that the soil grains are merely 
stony matter in various stages of decay. In fact, it is often' 
possible to distinguish in this way the component minerals 
in a bit of soil, and, by this means trace it to its parent rock. 
But soil is not simply disintegrated rock, or even -decayed 
rock ; it is essentially disintegrating and decaying rock, ma- 
terial in which chemical change is continually taking place 
and in which minute organisms are constantly working. 


A common experiment in my laboratory at Chapel Hill is 
to place in several flower pots crushed granite, the same 
crushed rock with organic matter added, the same material 
prepared the previous year and used for growing plants, and 
a bit of soil derived from the granite through the weathering 
action of the ages and taken from a field or forest many feet 
above the parent rock. All of these display marked differ- 
ences in fertility, even when they show no difference in their 
chemical and mineralogical characters; and plants thrive 
only in those mixtures in which chemical reaction is taking 
place and the rock is rotting through the action of bacteria. 

One comes to see, then, that it is only by a combination of 
moisture, oxygen, carbon-dioxide and other gases with stony 
matter, and the action of the microscopic bacteria, that a 
portion of the soil is brought to such a state that its plant 
foods may pass into solution to feed the roots of the hungry 

But this mantle of soil, forming a surface covering to more 
solid rocks, tends to move from its place of origin slowly but 
continuously down the slopes of the land towards the sea. 
If its original bedding place was upon a mountain side, it 
moves rather quickly towards the streams and leaves its 
parent rock exposed and bare. If the slope is gentle, the 
journey downward is slow ; and where the land is covered 
with a thick mat of vegetation, "the soil moves downwards 
so slowly that before its materials come to the banks of the 
streams and are washed away as silt to the sea, nearly all the 
plant food is taken from the waste and fed to vegetation." 

The quotations are from Professor Shaler, who used to say 
that "All soil may be regarded as rock matter on it? way to 
the sea." He was one of our earliest students of soils and of 
forests, and our first conservationist ; and I wish to acknowl- 
edge here my indebtedness to him for whatever of good this 
paper may contain, and this debt was incurred nearly three 


decades ago, before forestry had become a fad, and conseva- 
tion of our natural resources the watchword of constructive 

Seventy-six per cent of western North Carolina is still 
under forest cover, or a little more than three million acres 
of forest land is found in our sixteen mountain counties. Of 
the total area of the state something like sixty-eight per cent 
is still under forest ; but this is true by virtue of the heavy 
forest growth in the swamp lands of the East as well as in 
the mountain counties of the west, for in middle North Caro- 
lina far less than half the land area retains its forests. 

Many men now living recall that from thirty to forty years 
ago Eoanoke Eiver was navigable to Weldon, Tar River to 
Tarboro, the Neuse to old Waynesboro, and the Cape Fear 
had boats running on a regular schedule to Fayetteville. Now 
boats rarely reach these points on account of sand bars that 
are regularly forming in the streams. The water is usually 
low in these rivers except when they are overflowing their 
banks at the time of our February and August rains. The 
level of the groundwater over the whole area has sunk in two 
score years to such an extent that it lies for the most part 
below the stream channels, and we are all familiar with the 
deepening of wells to get an adequate water supply. 

In my youth I often crossed Crabtree Creek, near Morris- 
ville, on the road from Chapel Hill to Ealeigh. On those 
journeys I never saw the stream dry, nor did I ever see its 
waters beyond its banks. In the score of years just past I 
have frequently observed the channel without flowing water, 
the stream bed being merely a succession of stagnant polls. 
And I have sometimes seen it a raging torrent cutting into 
the land. These changes have all been brought about by the 
cutting of the forests in the middle portion of the State, and 
by bad farming on the cleared lands. The "clearing of hill- 
tops, excessive thinning of wooded hillsides, followed by the 


burning of litter, underbrush, and joung growth, and the 
compacting of soil by the tramping of animals, induces rapid 
surface drainage, and this causes erosion, gullying, and wash- 
ing away of the soil." 

"The surface water running unimpeded over bare slopes 
and compacted soil washes away the soil, cuts gullies in 
fields on hillsides, and washes down silt, sand, and gravel, 
and spreads them over fields and meadows ; thus the fertile 
portions of the farm are injured by encroachment from the 
unfertile" and the streams are filled with sand. 

Our Forest Service, then the Division of Forestry of the 
United States Department of AgTiculture, showed at the At- 
lanta Exposition in 1895 three models designed to bring 
graphically before the visitor the evil effects of the erosive 
action of water, the methods by which the farmer may re- 
gain his lost ground, and the way the farm should look when 
forest, pasture and field are properly located and treated. It 
is from the description accompanying the first of these 
models that I have made the above quotation. 

The second model of the series shows how the farm is re- 

"To prevent erosion, gullying, and washing, keep hilltops and 
steep hillsides under forest; change surface drainage into under- 
ground drainage; check the rush of water by means of brush and 
stone dams, terracing, contour plowing, and ditching; renew organic 
matter in the soil by means of green manuring and mulching, and 
give thorough cultivation. 

"The rush of water must be checked by means of dense forest 
growth on the tops and steepest sides of the hills — places where 
floods acquire their momentum. At such points gullies should be 
filled with brush and stone work, runs filled up with brush, and the 
soil so treated that it will permit the water to pass through it and 
flow off underground." 

The third model illustrates the best method of retaining 
the farm in proper condition. 


"On the ideal farm there is no waste land, every foot of ground 
being used for the purpose for which it is best adapted. The farm is 
divided into cultivated fields, pasture, and woodland, a proper pro- 
portion of ground being devoted to each; roads are made with a view 
to convenience and grade, and stock is fenced into the pasture — not 
out of the fields. Damage caused by water is to be repaired at once. 

"Hilltops, steep hillsides, and rocky places are to be kept under 
forest. A fringe of wood stretches along river banks, and long 
slopes are broken up with small groves or timber belts. Wood is cut 
systematically and judiciously, so that it will reproduce. Where 
natural reproduction fails, replanting is resorted to. The pasture is 
located on a gentle slope where the soil is too thin for field crops." 

The first of these models reminded me in a striking way 
of the washed fields of middle and western North Carolina — 
more specifically, of fields around Chapel Hill and of in- 
cluded areas within the great Pisgali Forest, which Mr. 
George W. Vanderbilt had purchased but three years previ- 
ously. That forest had formerly belonged to the University 
of North Carolina. I even strongly suspected that Dr. Chas. 
W. Dabney, then Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, had di- 
rected Professor Fernow's attention to this field. But models 
two and three seemed to express the forester's hope or ideal, 
having no chance whatever of realization or accomplishment. 

The years that have passed since the purchase of the Bilt- 
more estate have, however, seen all of these things, and more, 
accomplished. Mr. Gifford Pinchot, fresh from his studies 
of forestry in Europe, was employed by Mr. Vanderbilt to 
investigate the possibilities of scientific forestry on the prop- 
erty, and to suggest a system of management. There was 
no place in this country where a young man could get proper 
instruction in the management of forests, and Mr. Pinchot 
had with him at Biltmore as a pupil Mr. Overton W. Price, 
who was afterwards associated with him in thq Forest 

After this preliminary work had been done. Dr. Carl 
Alwyn Schenck, oberforster of the Grand Duchy of Hesse- 


Darmstadt and lieutenant of horse artillery in the German 
Army, was engaged to devote his entire time to the forest 
problems of the property. Dr. Schenck, who had had con- 
siderable experience in Europe, "put into operation with 
great energy the first scientific and practical private forest 
management in this country." 

The heavily culled lands of this estate have been greatly 
improved, the cut-over lands have been reforested, the poorer 
part of the forest lying next to Asheville has furnished fire- 
wood for that city. About 2,500 cords a year have been cut 
from the poor trees, and marketed in Asheville at a good 
margin of profit, besides improving the stand. This was 
made possible by the construction of a network of thoroughly 
good roads over this part of the estate. 

The eroded and gullied fields, areas included in the forest 
but not of the original purchase, have been treated after the 
manner suggested in the models and planted in trees, until 
now no bare spot is visible from the heights of Biltmore 
House, and all the lost land of the area has been regained, 
and is now retained at a profit. This was accomplished by 
experimenting with a great variety of trees, until pines 
proved to be the most satisfactory tree for the purpose. 

The greater part of the Biltmore estate, however, is tlie 
great Pisgah Forest, lying in the mountains along the west- 
ern border of Buncombe, Henderson, and Transylvania 
counties, to the east and south of the Pisgah Range. It com- 
prises more than 80,000 acres of comparatively rough forest 
land, with elevations varying from 2,600 to 6,000 feet. Here 
we have a primeval forest of yellow poplar, hickory, maple, 
linn, chestnut, chestnut oak, white oak, black oak, locust, 
etc., practically all of the trees common to the central and 
northern forests of this continent, and in the southeastern 
corner of the area occur many of the forms characteristic of 
the southern forests. 


"This part of the estate has been managed as a timber forest, the 
object being to produce saw timber of the greatest value. Looking 
toward returns from a rise in timber values rather than to increase 
in growth, practically all sound and thrifty trees over two feet in 
diameter have been saved. Though little lumbering is being done, 
improvement cuttings have been going on all the time. By the sale 
of 1,500 cords tanning extract wood and 1,000 cords of tan bark 
annually, the removal of much old and decaying chestnut timber 
and mature and slow growing chestnut oak is accomplished, to make 
room for the young and thrifty specimens of these, or even more 
valuable species. 

"Roads and trails have been constructed in every direction. A 
total of 37 miles of main roads, 43 miles of byroads, and 198 miles 
of trails make this one of the most readily accessible, as it is one 
of the most beautiful and attractive mountain forest properties in 
the United States. 

"Every effort has been made to protect these forests from fire. 
Rangers have been employed to patrol the woods winter and sum- 
mer. Not only this, but every one living on or near the property 
has been encouraged not only to report but to assist in extinguish- 
ing any fires that may occur. Altogether, this estate is one of the 
hest examples of the application of practical forestry to be found 
in this country." — J. 8. Holmes. 

As I send this to the printer I see in the daily papers that 
Mr. Vanderbilt has sold to Louis Carr the stumpage of 
60,000 acres of this forest, all hut about 50,000 acres of the 
timbered land of the estate. Mr. Carr, who will begin ope- 
rations at once, has twenty years to remove the timber, and 
it must be done without injury to the young trees. Thus the 
forest will be used as heretofore, but not destroyed. 

There are other large forests in North Carolina under sci- 
entific management, and if all our forest land could be owned 
in large bodies the problem of forest utilization and forest 
conservation would be easily solved. But this seems to be 
impossible under present conditions ; and already much of 
our mountain land is passing under Federal control in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the Weeks bill establishing 
the Appalachian National Forest. 

Land suited to agriculture should by no means be kept in 


forest, and land that will pay best as pasture should by all 
means be used as pasture ; but both farming and pasturing 
should be done in such a way as to save the soil, and with 
proper conservation of the soil stream regulation will take 
care of itself. 

There is no need for keeping in forest any but our absolute 
forest land, by which term the forester means lands potentially 
more valuable for forest growth than for anything else. The 
seventy-six per cent of the area of our sixteen mountain coun- 
ties now under forest cover is absolute forest land, the whole 
region being essentially a timber producing region. When 
the timber is removed, the thin layer of soil on the steep 
slopes serves the farmer's purposes for very few years, being 
soon washed away. Let the forest remain and serve for the 
production of timber, the prevention of erosion, and the 
regulation of water-supply. 

The forests of our high mountains should then be pro- 
tected for all time, since they are already becoming the chief 
source of hardwood in this country and furnish the material 
on which the wood-working interests of our own and neigh- 
boring states depend ; also regulating the flow of streams, 
they render a service of inestimable value to the manufactur- 
ing interests of a very wide area. The wood for the cars 
that run on the railway from Naples to Rome came out of 
the Pisgah Forest, was made ready for the use of the builder 
in Wilmington, Delaware, and hardly more than put to- 
gether and finished in Italy. The postal cards we use in 
this country are made from hemlock that grows in the For- 
est of Sunburst, this being made into wood pulp at Canton, 
North Carolina, and manufactured into postal cards for the 
United States government at Hamilton, Ohio. 

Dr. George T. Winston said to me several years ago in 
Asheville that the material resources of western North Caro- 
lina were a blue sky, pure air, and fresh water. These at- 


tract to our mountains every year thousands of tourists, who 
constitute that region's chief source of revenue. Cut down 
our forests and that will all be quickly changed. 

Similarly, in our lowlands of the east, there are large 
areas that should never be denuded of their forests and 
drained for agTicultural purposes, simply for the reason 
that their timber-value is potentially greater than their agri- 
cultural value. I recall one such area in Hyde County, 
which, cleared of its forest and drained, showed a heavy peat 
soil, though not very thick, resting upon pure siliceous sand. 
The peat never made a satisfactory soil, in a very dry sea- 
son much of it was burned off, and today the sands are drift- 
ing before the ever-changing winds. In many cases the peat 
is far too thick for anything but forests to grow upon the 
land and bring continued profit to the owner. 

One reason urged for the drainage of swamps is that they 
are a serious menace to health, so many people regarding 
them as sources of malaria ; and one frequently hears the 
statement made that swamps are pestilential. All geogra- 
phers know, however, that in our southern States alluvial lands 
are as a rule wooded, the Everglades and a few wet prairies 
near the coast forming an exception to this rule, as pointed 
out by Dr. Roland M. Harper. The alluvial swamps are 
common in calcareous regions. In the non-calcareous re- 
gions, where the climate is not too hot or too dry, we find the 
great non-alluvial swamps. These are higher than the sur- 
rounding country, are filled with sphagnum moss or its 
product, peat, and covered with valuable timber-trees. The 
great Dismal Swamp is an example of this kind. 

Now it is well known that lumbermen and shingle split- 
ters working in Dismal Swamp enjoy excellent health, and 
it is a matter of history that the water of the Dismal Swamp 
is preferred by sailors going out of Norfolk on long voyages, 



because it keeps fresh longer than any other water, owing to 
the small amount of vegetable acids it holds in solution. No 
better antiseptic is known than the peat from which it gets 
its color of scuppernong wine. And many towns near to 
swamps, formerly full of malaria, are now enjoying health 
and prosperity because the women's clubs have cleaned them 
up, removed to a distance tin cans containing water and 
breeding mosquitoes, and induced the men to bore artesian 
wells for a pure water supply. 

But along with all this comes a statement from Dr. John 
B. Smith, of New Jersey, one of the foremost mosquito ex- 
perts of this country, who says that, "Any open swamp area, 
choked with grasses, so as to form pools to which fish have 
not free access, will serve to breed both culex and anopheles; 
but woodland swamps that are dark, where the water is 
cold, and where they are choked with bushes, do not develop 
mosquito larvae." I have frequently had the same testimony 
from men engaged in splitting cypress shingles in several of 
our North Carolina swamps, the men of one lumber camp 
maintaining that they often suffered from rheumatism as 
well as malaria when at home outside of the swamp, but 
always recovered as soon as they returned to their work 
within the swamp. 

Whether or not forests influence the annual amount of 
precipitation in any region, it is easy to see that they make 
for an even seasonal distribution. There is a vast difference 
between the evaporation from field soil and from forest soil, 
the leaf litter on the ground having a marked influence on 
this. It has been estimated that the evaporation from forest 
soil is only sixteen per cent of the evaporation from field soil. 
On the other hand, the evaporation from the crowns of the 
trees is enormous, and it has been found in the Russian 
steppes that the level of groundwater is lower beneath for- 
ests than in the open country surrounding them. 


Few efforts have been made to study experimentally the 
influence of forest cover on the flow of springs and the dis- 
charge of rivers. The chief difiiculty is to obtain two areas 
presenting essentially the same factors. The drainage basins 
studied should be situated near together, run upon the same 
geological formations, receive the same amount of rainfall, 
and have the same rate of descent. One of the basins should 
be deforested, and the other should have its forest growth 
preserved intact. 

A near approach to such parallel factors was found by the 
Biltmore state, on the one hand in the portion of Pisgah 
forest drained by Davidson's River in Transylvania County, 
and on the other hand, in the upper drainage basin of Tucka- 
seegee River, in Jackson County, North Carolina. The two 
areas drained are geologically of the same age and structure ; 
their headwaters are found within the same range of moun- 
tains ; the rainfall of the two areas is the same ; the steep- 
ness of the slope is about the same on the two watersheds. 

But a marked difference is found in the treatment to which 
the two areas have been subjected by man. The headwaters 
of Davidson's River have had their woods protected from 
fires, from heavy lumbering, from reckless farming, and 
from erosion on the hillsides since 1895. The headwaters 
of the Tuckaseegee, on the other hand, have had their wood- 
lands burnt over, farmed, pastured, and logged ; in fact, the 
area has been so inconsiderately used, that, in many cases, 
the original litter of the forest floor has been entirely de- 

N^ow the Biltmore estate, with the help of the Hydro- 
graphic Branch of the United States Geological Survey, has 
been carrying on a study of these two areas. The Tucka- 
seegee, though it is the larger river, shows greater fluctua- 
tions in its discharge than does Davidson's River. In other 
words the discharge of Davidson's River is more uniform and 


even than that of the Tuckaseegee. Davidson's is practi- 
cally free from sediment ; Tuckaseegee, at its flood-time, 
bears an abundance of gravel and sand which it spreads out 
over fertile farm lands. 

The forester most interested in the problem* reports that 
the following factors tend to influence the rapidity of flow, if 
not the amount of water running from the forest-clad water- 
shed : 

1. The greater porosity of the forest soil increases its per- 
meability ; the water precipitated from the clouds sinks into 
forest soil more easily than into field soil. 

2. The litter on the ground in the forest checks the super- 
ficial run-off of water. 

3. The litter and the dehris on the ground act as a sponge. 

4. The melting of the snow is retarded under a dense 
forest cover. If the forest soil is frozen before snowfall, 
and if there has been accumulated in the forest on such 
frozen soil a large quantity of snow, then, indeed, this re- 
tardation of the melting process may become disastrous at a 
time in spring when the south wind causes the snow to melt 

5. The evaporation from forest soil in summer is re- 

You are doubtless by this time asking yourselves, "Why 
have we such a magnificent body of hardwoods in our moun- 
tains ? Why do our sandhills and coastal plains produce 
such fine lumber as we find in 'the pine-barrens' ? What is 
the reason for the cypress, cedar, gum, white oak, and other 
valuable timber trees in our swamps ? What are the prin- 
cipal factors determining forest growth ?" 

I have frequently asked this last question of lumbermen 
in different parts of the country. They are apt to answer, 
"Climate, determining the water supply, and geology, influ- 

•Dr. C. A. Schenck. 


encing the character of the soil," — better answers than one 
gets from the average man of science. The jSTew England 
botanists are inclined to think altitude the determining fac- 
tor in forest distribution ; those of the great plains are apt 
to emphasize the water-content of the soil. But plant geog- 
raphers and geologists who are students of the soil are 
coming to see that, next to favorable temperature and an 
abundance of rainfall in the growing season, the physical 
and chemical nature of the soil and subsoil, along with its 
mineralogical composition, is the most potent factor in de- 
termining the forest gTowth of any region. In other words 
they are beginning to recognize that geological history, as it 
influences the composition of the soil and its relation to air 
and water, is almost, if not altogether, the most potent fac- 
tor determining the character of forest growth. 

But where diverse and seemingly opposed opinions are 
held tenaciously by thinking men, it is safe to consider that 
each and every one of them has a large element of truth ; or, 
in other words, that all are right. 

If you will examine a good map of our country showing 
the distribution of forests, and compare it with a weather 
bureau map giving the distribution and amount of precipi- 
tation, you will be impressed with the fact that the distribu- 
tion and density of forests accord very closely with the dis- 
tribution and amount of rainfall. The Pacific ISTorthwest, 
the Southern Appalachians, a portion of the Gulf coast, and 
that part of ITorth Carolina which extends out into the At- 
lantic Ocean for about a hundred miles beyond the normal 
trend of the coast, are all regions of heavy rainfall and of 
dense forest growth. 

ISText, examine a good geological map of ISTorth Carolina, 
and note that the line of demarkation between the coastal 
plain deposits and the older rocks is the dividing line be- 
tween two broadly contrasted regions of forest growth which 


we have always recognized, the pine-belt and the upland 
region of oaks — between a region of narrow-leaved ever- 
green conifers, and a region of broadleaved decidious trees 
that is, trees that shed their leaves every year. Not all the 
trees in the pine-belt are coniferous, however, nor are all the 
trees in the oak-belt deciduous. 

Observation from the car window as you travel over the 
State will show you also that not only are these two great 
forest types strongly identified with broad geological con- 
ditions, but that the distribution of many species within the 
same class is similarly limited. Even the dip or slope of the 
bedding planes or other lines of structure in the rocks, as it 
helps or hinders drainage, may determine the species grow- 
ing in a given forest. 

The Triassic Sandstones, resting in a trough of ancient 
crystallines, produce almost exclusively a limited variety of 
lowly pines. The moister soils of this belt produce loblolly 
pines large enough for saw logs, and medium-sized white and 
Spanish oaks. On the drier soils are found smaller pine 
trees of the short-leaved varieties, and post oaks and small- 
sized white- oaks. These forests are what are often called 
two-storied forest, the upper story here consisting of pines 
from 50 to 70 feet in height, with a lower story of hard- 
woods little more than half as high ; but even pure stands of 
pine are of frequent occurrence. The soils of this section 
are easily eroded, and those that are finer-grained, contain- 
ing some clay, bake and cake in the dry weather following a 
rainy season. Consequently these lands need a large meas- 
ure of protection. 

In the peneplain to the westward, which we designate the 
upland region of oaks, the forest cover varies in density and 
in species as we pass from formation to formation. The 
slate-belt, with its sheared volcanic rocks and talcose slates, 
lacks an adequate supply of proper plant food. These rock? 


make a yellow loam, close and stiff and usually lacking 
depth. They do not support dense forests, but woods of scat- 
tering pines and of small deciduous trees, for these soils are 
poorly drained. Under other conditions the forests fre- 
quently resemble the best woods of the Triassic pine belt, 
with rather larger examples of the hardwood timber trees 
than are found there. 

On this same peneplain the granite and gneiss areas of the 
northeast, including Franklin, Warren, Vance, and the 
greater part of Wake, have a gently rolling surface and gen- 
erally grayish and loose top soils, deep, and often very 
porous. Their forests are formed of post oak, black oak, 
white oak, and Spanish oak, with a considerable intermix- 
ture of white, small nut, and pigTiut hickories. There is, of 
course, a little short-leaf pine throughout the region, and 
along the watercourses, in the hollows, and on the cooler 
slopes, are red oak and yellow poplar, red maple and some 
ash. The larger forest pines, which were never numerous, 
have been removed for lumber. 

To the west of the slate belt we have red clay soils de- 
rived from the decay of granites and syenites and some horn- 
blende rocks, arranged more or less in bands alternating 
with loose gray loams. The forests of the red clay lands are 
black and white oaks, white and small nut hickories, with 
post oak on the thinner soil along the crests of the ridges ; 
but low in the valleys and on the steep north slopes are the 
northern forms common in similar situations on the rest of 
the oak belt. 

Lying to the west of the compact red and gi'ay loams are 
fine-grained sandy loams, red or reddish in color, and having 
a thin surface soil. The forests of this division are of pine 
mixed with hardwood, of which the scarlet oak is most 

Of our mountain forests little more need be said than was 


said earlier in my talk about the abundance and variety of 
species of deciduous trees, except to add that black spruce is 
the characteristic tree of the mountain heights, where it is 
generally associated with Carolina balsam, whose lower limit 
is about three hundred feet above that of the black spruce. 
These forests of dark evergreens (hemlocks) lie along the 
summits of our highest mountains, and are seldom found on 
peaks less than 5,500 feet above sea level. 

There is a marked difference to be noted in the character 
of the forests on the sunny southeast slopes and the cool and 
damp northeast slopes of our mountain ranges. Along the 
northern slopes and in the hollows we find hemlock, birch, 
maple, beech, chestnut, red oak, white oak, great laurel, yel- 
low poplar, white ash, cucumber, and buckeye. On the 
southern slopes and along the gravelly crests of the hills the 
growth is less varied, being composed largely of chestnut, 
white oak, red oak, black oak, and chestnut oak. The forest 
on the southern slopes is less dense and the trees are smaller. 

In the lower mountain districts we have another region of 
conifers in which Ashe has recognized three distinct divi- 
sions: (1) that in which the Table Mountain and pitch pine 
are the dominant resinous trees; (2) that in which the short- 
leaf, pitch, and scrub pines are dominant; (3) that in which 
the white pine is the dominant tree. 

The forests of the coastal plain region consist very largely 
of pines on the uplands, but the maritime forests lying im- 
mediately along the coast and extending for a short distance 
inland, and the narrow strip of transitional forest lying 
along the western border of the region have characteristics 
all their own. 

The transitional forests along the western border of the 
coastal plain show a mingling of the coniferous forests of 
the pine belt with the oaks and hickories of the broad-leaved 
forest of the oak uplands. The forests of the pine belt con- 


sist almost entirely of long-leaf, loblolly, the pond, and in 
some places the short-leaf pine. This is the region noted a 
generation ago for its production of naval stores, tar, pitch, 
and turpentine ; and from this district, now known as "the 
pine barrens," the Carolina pine, yellow pine, hard pine of 
commerce has been cut for a generation. Though the long- 
leaf pine is rapidly disappearing from the State, our supply 
of Carolina pine is by no means exhausted. In some of our 
eastern counties, fields abandoned during the War Between 
the States have grown up in loblolly pines that are now ready 
for the woodsman's axe. 

The forests of the lowlands have their oak-flats, in which 
numerous broad-leaved trees, chiefly oaks, constitute the 
greater part of the growth, their gum and cypress swamps, 
their white cedar swamps, and their pond pine pocosins, all 
of which now furnish to commerce timber valuable in a va- 
riety of industries. The magnolias and palmettoes of the 
sandy swamps of the southeastern part of this region have 
no value as timber trees. 

An adequate treatment of the whole subject of forestry is 
beyond the range of this paper, and should in any event be 
left to the professional forester ; but I can do you no greater 
service just now than to refer you to the admirable papers by 
Gifford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe on the Timber Trees and 
Forests of North Carolina, published in 1897 as Bulletin 
ISTo. 6 of the North Carolina Geological Survey. That bul- 
letin has, since its publication, been my constant companion 
on field trips to different parts of the State, where I have 
for more than a score of years been noting the close relation- 
ship between geology and the plant covering of the earth. 

There are several interesting features of geological con- 
trol that it may be of interest to mention here. One of my 
clients a number of years ago had a car-load of white oak 
and hickory rejected by a wagon maker in Louisville be- 


cause the wood lacked the strength and elasticity required; 
but the same white oak proved to be thoroughly satisfactory 
in the hands of a Cincinnati furniture maker, for it had just 
the qualities that made it capable of receiving a high polish. 
It was found that the timber had been cut from the ridges, 
where the soil was thin ; while that which grew in the rich 
mountain coves or upon bottom lands whose soils were de- 
rived from the Brevard schist had just those qualities the 
wagon maker sought in his wood. Now in the case of coni- 
fers these conditions are just reversed, the slow-growing 
pine having strength and elasticity. 

The external appearance of trees is profoundly affected 
by the conditions of their growth. Cypress, which in the 
swamp has a spreading top and puts up knees through the 
water to aid in aerating its roots, has a tall spindle-shaped 
crown and does not show any knees above the soil if it grows 
on the sand hill instead of in the swamp. 

Hilgard has already pointed out the differences in the 
form and development of trees on soils derived from differ- 
ent geological formations. On loam uplands, sandy ridges, 
flatwoods, and black prairie, for example, all near together 
within the State of Mississippi the post oak presented four 
very distinct forms, varying from a mere shrub on the sandy 
ridges to a tree 70 feet in height on the prairie lands. The 
black-jack oak presented a similar variation, presenting 
characters which a botanist unfamiliar with local conditions 
would pronounce specific. 

Normally large forest trees found out of their usual hab- 
itat present an extraordinary and interesting aspect. The 
chestnut tree, the persimmon, the sorrel tree, the common 
sour gum, the chestnut oak, and the holly, all trees forty, 
fifty, and sixty feet in height, under normal conditions, are 
found on King's and Crowder's Mountains as dwarf tree- 
shrubs, ranging in height from three to six feet. Neverthe- 


less these trees all produce an abundance of fruit in their 
unhomelike homes. 

Similarly, on our sandy coastal plain, we have turkey oak, 
black-jack, scrub oak, willow oak, running oak, all growing 
as mere shrubs and bearing an abundance of acorns, which 
wild turkeys and razor-backed hogs eat directly from the 
limbs ; and yet we have seen some of these trees growing on 
the rich clay loams of the up-country or in some of the fertile 
mountain valleys where they attained a height of more than 
fifty feet. 

On the French Broad River just below Paint Rock is a 
small area of typical pine barrens. In this and other iso- 
lated areas of pine barrens, which cover sandy river bottoms 
and the sunny lower slopes of our mountains, are found 
many plants typical of the coastal plain. 

The dwarf tree-shrubs are absent from Mount Mitchell 
and Roan Mountain, but they are found at the top of Grand- 
father Mountain. A limited space on Grandfather Moun- 
tain is bare and presents an alpine aspect, being clothed 
with lichens and mosses, and many of our high mountains 
known as "balds" stand above the tree line as mere grassy 

All of our forest trees show different rates of growth under 
different conditions of soil and climate. The loblolly pine 
attains a diameter of eight inches in twenty-four years on 
the poor land of the University forest at Chapel Hill. The 
same tree on Hatteras Island has a diameter of twenty-two 
inches after twenty-four years growth. On Hatteras minute 
fungi attached to its roots are believed to aid in some way the 
growth of the tree, just as locusts, and some other trees, have 
the aid of nitrifying bacteria to aid them. 

In North Carolina we have all the great forest types 
known to North America except the Rocky Mountain and 
the Pacific forests. The mountains of North Carolina are 


the oldest forest land on the continent, and botanists and 
plant geographers are agreed that the deciduous forests of 
eastern North America have been derived from that forest 
which reaches its greatest development in the mountainous 
region of western J^orth Carolina. 

While the hardwoods of the northern United States have 
migrated from the mountains of North Carolina since the 
last glacial period, it seems equally certain that the conifer- 
ous growth on the Balsams and other high mountains were 
forced south at the time of the greatest extension of the 
ice sheet, and are able to survive now only in the cooler 
atmosphere of our high mountains. 

Similarly, on the tops of some of the monadnocks, or resi- 
dual elevations, particularly those rising above the piedmont 
peneplain, we find assemblages of plants whose next of kin 
must be sought among fossil forms of the Cretaceous and 
early Tertiary times. These have evidently remained over 
in such isolated spots while the country all around them was 
suffering heavy erosion. 

Looking out over the Balsam range of mountains, and 
noting the maturity of their topography, with its roof-like 
slopes and clear-cut divides, it is hard to see how just such 
erosion-forms could result from denudation under forest 
cover; and I am forced to believe that most of the erosion 
took place before any vast amount of vegetation had gained 
a hold upon that land. The topographic forms are exactly 
similar to those of the deforested areas of the western part 
of the province of Chi-li, China, now so well known through 
the work of AVillis for the Carnegie Institution. 

There is no likelihood that our forests will soon if ever 
disappear, for man has already learned that their destruction 
is greatly to his disadvantage, and that even in his own life- 
time. Such a campaign of education has been conducted, 
and his own experiences have been such that it seems hardly 


likelj that he will now deliberately destroy the forests, 

even for present profit, whether we have private ownership, 

State control, or government ownership in National Forests. 

University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 



By Mrs. M. G. McCUBBINS. 

Matthias Barringer to Mary Boger. September 13, 1794. 
Matthias Barringer and Daniel Boger (in Dutch?). 

James Brackin to Sally Jeffreys. September 30, 1794. 
James Brackinne( ?) and Samuel (his X mark) Brackin. 
(I. Troy, D. C.) 

Christian Brown to Barbara Troutman. October 7, 
1794. Christian Brown (in Dutch?) and Adam (his X 
mark) Troutman. (I. Troy, D. C.) 

John Bullin to Catharine Shireman. November 25, 
1794. John (his X mark) Bullin and Conrad Bullen (in 

William Bates to Esther Kern, February 5, 1795. Wil- 
liam Bates and Daniel Karn. (I. Troy.) 

John Bustle to Mary Bella. August 16, 1795. John 
Bussell and Daniel Brown. (Cun™. Harris for C. Caldwell, 
D. C.) 

Zachariah Booth to (no name). August 22, 1795. Zach- 
ariah Booth and Matt: Troy. (Matt: Troy.) 

James Bell to (no name). (Xo date), 1795. James Bell 
and Richard Gillespie. 

Joseph Baker to Jane McCulloch. January 7, 1796. 
Joseph Baker and Xath'. Johnston. (I. Troy.) 

William Bracket (Brachin on front of bond) to Mary 
Boo. March 12, 1796. William (his X mark) Brackin and 
James Brackit (or Brackin?). (I. Troy.) 

John Brown and Margaret Josie. April 9, 1796. John 
Brown and John Josie? (in Dutch?) (Tibby [torn].) 

Benjamin Brookshire to Milly Bingham. July 18, 1796. 
Benjamin (his X mark) Brookshire and Boyd Wilson. (I. 


Charles Berryer to Elizabeth Hagey. August 5, 1796. 
Charles Berryer (in Dutch?) and Henry (his X mark) 
Hagey. (Jno. Rogers.) 

Conrad Bullen to Molly Traeksler. September 18(14?), 

1796. Conrad Bullen (in Dutch?) and John Weant (or 
Wuant?). (Jno. Rogers.) 

John Buringer to Elizabeth Smith, September 22, 1796. 
John (his X mark) Buringer and George Barringer. (Jno. 
Rogers. ) 

Robert Benston to Lucy Hitchins. September 24, 1796. 
pabboth(?) Benston and Jonathan Smith. 

Lewis Bryan to (no name). December 7, 1796. Lewis 
Bryan and Henry M'guyre. (Humphrey Marshall.) 

Philip Boston to (no name). December 12, 1796. Philip 
Boston? (in Dutch) and Adam Casper. (Humphrey Mar- 

Timothy Brown to Polly Beaty. January 11, 1797. 
Timothy Brown and Henry Pool. (Jn°. Rogers.) 

Geo. Brandon to Siddey McGuire. January 24, 1797. 
Geo. Brandon and George McGuier. (Jn°. Rogers.) 

Thomas Bailey to Precilla Andrews. February 13, 1797. 
Thomas Bayley and James Ellis. (Jn°. Rogers.) 

Sam'. Bailey to Sucky (or Tucky?) Chaffin. March 15, 

1797. Sam', (his X mark) Bailey and William Glascock. 
(Jn°. Rogers.) 

Wm. Bird to Jenny Lewis. April 2, 1797. Wm. (his X 
mark) Bird and Simeon (his X mark) Lewis. (Jn°. Rog- 

James Bolin to Sarah McKnight. April 24, 1797. James 
Bolin and Jn° Rogers. (Jn°. Rogers.) 

Moses Brown to Cathy Swink. June 10, 1797. 'Moses 
Brown and John Hampton. (Jn°. Rogers.) 

Parker Baggett to Nancy Doty. June 13, 1797. Parker 
(his X mark) Baggett and John Doty. (Jn°. Rogers.) 


Wm. Beard to Jenny Hunt. Sept. 30, 1797. William 
Beard and David Hunt. (Jn°. Rogers.) 

William Begiiam to Sarah Braly. Nov. 7, 1797. Wm. 
Bejham and Hu. Braly. (Ad. Osborn.) 

Christopher Bateman to Ann Hunter. Dec. 5, 1797. 
Christopher (his X mark) Bateman and David Montgomery. 
(Jn°. Rogers.) 

Christian Beaver to Sally Stoel (Shoet?) March 6, 1798. 
Christian (his X mark) Beaver and Peter (his X mark) 
Frieze. (Edwin J. Osborn.) 

William Beaty to Xancy Hattock. March 20, 1798. Wil- 
liam Baty and Wm. (his X mark) Haddock. (Edwin J. 
Osborn. D. C.) 

Devault Beaver to Betsy Beaver. April 24, 1798. De- 
vault Beaver? (in Dutch?) and Peter Beaver ([?] in 
Dutch). (Ed: J. Osborn, D. C.) 

Christopher Baringer to Mackalena Messimer. May 30, 
1798. Christopher Barringer and Peter Barringer. (Matt: 

William Behook to Peggy Smith. June 9, 1798. Wil- 
liam (his X mark) Behook and David (his X mark) Cross. 
(Ma: Troy.) 

David Baity to Sarah Hendrix. June 20, 1798. David 
Baity and William Cranfill. (Ma: Troy.) 

Michael Brown to Barbary Mowrey. July 30, 1798. 
Michael Brown and Frederick Miller. (Edwin J. Osborn.) 

Conrod Bost to Maria Anne Fisher. July 31, 1798. Con- 
rod Bost and Henry Sosseman. (Edwin J. Osborn.) 

Jacob Bushart to Ann Fullenwider. December 22, 1798. 
Jacob Boshart and Henry follenwider. (I. Troy.) 

Fielding Bevin to Polly Moore. December 24, 1798. 
Feelding (his X mark) Bevin and William (his W mark) 
West. (Ma: Troy.) 

Henry Beek to Catharine Young. January 12, 1799. 


Henry (his X mark) Beek and John (his X mark) Bless- 
ing (?). (Edwin J. Osborn, D. C.) 

Daniel Bowman to Polly Summons. January 14, 1799. 
Daniel (his X mark) Bowman and Henry Giles. (Edwin 
J. Osborn, D. C.) 

Eobert Bishop to Mary Chadwick. October 29, 1799. 
Robert Bishop and Wheeler Chadwick. (Wm. Melbon.) 

Peter Barringer to Catherine Trexler. December 10, 
1799. Peter Berringer and John Trexler. (E. J. Os- 
born, D. C.) 

Jacob Booe to Fanny Glascock. December 28, 1799. 
Jacob Booe and Philip Baker. (Edwin J. Osborn.) 

Phillip Byal to Christean Luknbell. January, 1800. 
Phillip (his X mark) Byal and John (his X mark) Luckin- 
bell. (Edwin J. Osborn.) 




(Lucy Bramlette Patterson) 

The article, ''Palmyra in the Happy Valley," in this issue 
of The Booklet from the facile pen of Mrs. Lindsay Pat- 
terson will be of much interest to the generality of its readers. 
"Mrs. Patterson, young in years and younger in spirit, is 
wide awake to the interests of her adopted state. In the 
numerous essays that she has written no one can fail to 
have gathered therefrom much of the writer's personality. 
In these letters, so gay and so sad, so caustic and so gentle, 
so witty and so tender, so severe and so kind, one reads a 
many sided nature ; a soul strong to stand for the right 
and combat the wrong, a charity that believeth all things, 
a pride of race which is inherent ; the deep love of blue skies 
and little children and singing birds and the tender blooms of 
life." Endowed with such attributes she well deserves the 
appellation given her by a correspondent of the Charlotte 
Observer as "Our Lady of Letters," to which may be added 
"Lady Bountiful." 

The Patterson family through whom she descended are 
Scotch-Irish. Her paternal grandfather, General Robert 
Patterson, was born in the town of Strabane, County Tyrone, 
Ireland, in 1782; came to America, 1798, with his father 
Francis Patterson and wife Ann (Graham) Patterson. The 
career of General Robert Patterson was one of startling 
activity and versatility. He filled a distinctive and unique 
place in Philadelphia. His career as a soldier was no less 
remarkable than his life as a private citizen. He fought 
through three wars and was the founder of the famous 


Aztec Club. At the age of twenty-five he married Sarah 
Engle, of Germanto\\ai, Pennsylvania, a brilliantly intellec- 
tual woman, fit helpmate and companion for her distinguished 
husband. Their son. Colonel William Houston Patterson, 
fthe father of Mrs. Lindsay Patterson) was born in Phila- 
delphia in 1832. He was a writer, scholar of unusual ability 
and a devoted patron of letters, inheriting from his dis- 
tinguished father some of the most marked traits of temper 
and temperament. He touched life at many points and filled 
a place of large influence. For many years an invalid. Col- 
onel Patterson retired from active business at an early age 
and devoted a life of leisure to his family, his friends and 
his books. His library, one of the celebrated ones of Phila- 
delphia, was composed of books largely illustrated by him- 
self. During the last years of his life he was deeply inter- 
ested in the study of Southern literature, predicting for it a 
great awakening, believing that the South, so long sterile after 
years of once rich fruition, would again blossom and give to 
the world a literature beautiful and lasting. At the time 
of his death he was en2;ao;ed in writino; his memoirs which 
would prove a valuable addition to the historical literature of 
our country, were it not that these memoirs were incomplete 
at his death, in 1904. He died at his country residence 
"Cavana Lee Place," Russellville, East Tennessee, where his 
family spent a few months every year, '^Cavana Lee" was 
given by Mr. Hugh Graham to his daughter, Mrs. William 
Houston Patterson. The Graham family record goes back 
to the Crusaders ; were followers of Pichard Coeur De Leon. 
They came to America in 1789. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that Mrs. Lindsay Pat- 
terson comes of a distinguished ancestry and from them in- 
herits qualities of head and heart which are being reflected 
in her present career as a loyal daughter of Philadelphia and 
a devoted Southerner. She is a prominent member of the 


Daughters of the American Revolution, was Vice-President 
General of that organization, an active member of the North 
Carolina Historical and Literary Society, member of the 
Wachovia Historical Society, the oldest society of its kind in 
the State. She wns the Chairman of the North Carolina His- 
tory Exhibit at the Jamestown Exposition, which exhibit was 
awarded one of the three silver medals for the most meritori- 
ous exhibits, and which medal is now owned by the North 
Carolina Historical Society. Mrs. Patterson was born at 
"Castle Rock," her mother's Tennessee home, her father at 
the time being in ill health was ordered South for some 
months by his physicians. Thus it was that though a Phila- 
delphian, she was born in the South, and so belongs to both 
sections, being again a Southerner by adoption, having mar- 
ried in 1888 Mr. Lindsay Patterson, a prominent law- 
yer of Winston-Salem, N. C. She finished her scholastic 
course at Salem Academy, North Carolina, a school so wide- 
ly known throughout the South. Mr, and Mrs. Patterson's 
place ''Bramlette," in the thriving city of Winston-Salem, 
is a most charming home and has ever been a social center 
from which has radiated a most beneficent influence. Mrs. 
Patterson, like her cultured father, is gifted with fine literary 
taste, and she conceived the design of promoting literature 
in North Carolina by offering some reward for meritorious 
achievements. Inspired by the deep heart-interest of her 
father, it has been given to Mrs. Patterson to become the 
"keeper of the light," and in furtherance of his desires 
and in the effort to promote their fulfillment, has presented 
a magnificent gift which will be not only a memorial to 
her father, but will serve to act as an incentive to the 
advancement of literature in North Carolina, the State of 
her adoption, in the future of which her father was especially 
interested. Certainly no happier idea could have been con- 
ceived by a daughter for honoring the memory of a father 


and at the same time fostering and stimulating the literary 
spirit of our people. This prize is a loving cup which was 
made in the city of Philadelphia, is made of massive gold, 
being 16 inches high and 7 inches in diameter. The coats 
of arms of ISTorth Carolina, of Pennsylvania and of the Pat- 
terson family are borne on the bases of its three handles and 
it is studded with forty-nine gems selected by Mrs. Patterson 
from a large number of precious stones found in North 
Carolina, and bears the inscription: ''The William Houston 
Patterson Cup" and "Cor Cordium" (Heart of Hearts). 

The Cup was presented to the State Literary and Histori- 
cal Association of North Carolina by Mrs. Patterson in 
1905 and is to be awarded to that resident of North Carolina 
who during the preceding twelve months has published the 
best work, either in prose or verse — history, essay, fiction 
or poetry ; in books, pamphlets or periodicals. At the end 
of ten years the Cup is to become the permanent possession 
of the writer winning it the greatest number of times, 
though if no one person won it three times, or if there be 
a tie, the time will be extended. No one is to formally enter 
the contest, and the judges, from their knowledge of our 
State literature, are simply to decide which North Carolina 
writer publishes the worthiest work between the annual meet- 
ings of the Association. Each winner is to have his or her 
name engraved on the prize and to retain possession of it for 
one year. The Board of Award consists of the President 
of the Literary and Historical Association of North Carolina, 
Chairman, and the occupants of the chairs of history at 
the University of North Carolina and Trinity College, and 
the Chairs of English literature in the University, Davidson 
and Wake Eorest Colleges. The selection of the Awarding 
Committee was made by Mrs. Patterson. All the plan is re- 
garded by the Committee as thoroughly happy and praise- 
worthy and practical, and feel that the whole State will 


honor Mrs. Patterson for her patriotic action. The Cup 
has been won seven times : 

First annual award, October 1905, was to John Charles 

Second annual award, October 1906, was to Prof. Edwin 

Third annual award, October 1907, was to Dr. Kemp 
Plummer Battle. 

Fourth annual award, October 1908, was to Hon. Samuel 
A'Court Ashe. 

Fifth annual award, October 1909, was to Mr. Clarence 
Hamilton Poe. 

Sixth annual award, October 1910, was to Robert Diggs 
Wimberly Connor. 

Seventh annual award, October 1911, was to Dr. Archi 
bald Henderson. 

The Booklet has the proud distinction of having 
heretofore published articles from these talented prize win- 
ners, and is to be congratulated that this "Lady of Letters" 
and the giver of the Patterson Cup has enriched its columns 
with an article in this issue.* 


Dr. Archibald Henderson, whose article on ''Elizabeth 
Maxwell Steel : Patriot," appears in this number of The 
Booklet, is a son of the Hon. John Steele and Elizabeth 
Brownrigg (Cain) Henderson. He was born in Salisbury, 
June 17th, 1877. His preparation for college was received 
in private and church (Episcopal) schools of Salisbury, and 
in the autumn of 1894 he entered the Freshman class of the 
University of North Carolina. He was graduated from the 

•Authorities for facts of the above from Charlotte Observer and Biographical History of 
North Carolina. 


University at tJae head of his class, with the degree of 
A.B. in 1898. He was awarded the Holt Mathematical 
Medal for the excellence of his work in Mathematics. In 
1899 he received his Master's degree, and in 1902 his Ph.D. 
from the same Institution. From 1899 to 1902 he was In- 
structor in Mathematics in the University of North Carolina, 
In 1902, he was made Associate Professor of Mathematics; 
and in 1902-3 he was a Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics in 
the University of Chicago. Returning to the University of 
North Carolina, he served as Associate Professor of Mathe- 
matics until 1908, when he was made Professor of Pure 
Mathematics, which chair he has since held. 

His scientific researches have been prosecuted at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin, the Sorbonne, Paris, and Cambridge Uni- 
versity in England. The latter University recently paid him 
the exceptional honor of publishing his researches upon "The 
Twenty-seven Lines upon the Cubic Surface," Dr. Hender- 
son is a member of the North Carolina Academy of Science, 
the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, (of which he was pres- 
ident 1908-9), the Modern Literature Club (of which he was 
president 1906-7), the Authors' Club, London, and the Phi 
Beta Kappa Society. He is also a member of the Sigma Nu 
College Fraternity. 

Dr. Henderson is most widely known as a critic of litera- 
ture. Lie has made notable contributions not only to scien- 
tific journals, but also to the leading literary and critical 
periodicals in America and Europe, in five languages, 
notably — the Forum, Arena, Harper's Magazine, North 
American Review, Atlantic Monthly, La Societe Nou- 
velle, Mercure de France, Deutsche Revue, Illustreret 
Tidende, Finsk Tidskrift, T. P's Magazine, Dial, Book- 
man, Theatre. His "Interpreters of Life, and the Mod- 
ern Spirit," (1911) "Mark Twain," (1911), and "George 
Bernard Shaw, his Life and Work," (1911), have placed 
him among the foremost of American critics and have given 


him an international reputation. Dr. Henderson's sincere 
ambition is to serve his native State, and to promote the 
development of literature among North Carolinians. As 
some one else has said of him, "His head is bursting with 
schemes of things that might be done." He is assuredly doing 
a tremendous deal to stir the imagination and stimulate the 
inward vision of the people of the State. 

The North American Review recently contained a sketch 
of Dr. Henderson in which it said : 

"Dr. Henderson has also achieved eminence internation- 
ally as a critic of literature. His essays are frequently found 
in the leading periodicals of Europe, as well as of the United 
States. His monumental, authoritative biography of George 
Bernard Shaw has been pronounced, by critics everywhere, 
to be a great work. He is widely known, both at home and 
abroad, for his other works, notably his appreciations of 
Meredith, Ibsen, Wilde, Shaw, and Maeterlinck, collected 
under the title, 'Interpreters of Life, and the Modern 
Spirit,' his study of the great humorist, Mark Twain, and 
his model translation from the French, with his wife, of 
Emile Boutroux's 'William James.' " 

June 23, 1903, Dr. Henderson was married to Miss Minna 
Curtis Bynum, of Lincolnton, IST. C, who as co-laborer with 
him in his literary work, has at all times, been his most 
helpful critic. They have two children. 


A biographical sketch of Professor Cobb appeared in the 
January, 1912, issue. He again gives The Booklet a 
most interesting and opportune article on "Forestry in North 
Carolina," a subject that should claim State-wide attention. 
It is to be hoped that his investigations of present conditions 
may awaken the people to the importance of conserving our 
natural resources and lead to stringent legislation on the 
subject before it is too late. 


Professor Cobb continues to fill the Chair of Geology in 
the University of North Carolina. 

His first article contributed to this publication, January 
1905, on ''Some Changes in the North Carolina Coast since 
1585/' is of great enlightening value. 

His second article, January 1912, on "Governor Benjamin 
Smith," the Governor of whom Professor Cobb said : ''Lived 
just one hundred years before his time" — for he stood for the 
best of what has characterized each and every administra- 
tion from that date, 1810, to the present, 1912. 

The editor wishes to add somewhat to the biographical 
sketch of Professor Cobb which appeared in the January 
number of The Booklet, as the part of his work which has 
especially fitted him for the preparation of this address has 
been done in large part since the data for the preparation 
of that sketch were gathered. Mr. Cobb has been for many 
years lecturer on Forest Geology in the Biltmore Forest 
School, working with the school for one month each summer 
in different parts of the United States. In January, 1886, 
he made the first plantation on dunes in this country, at a 
point not far from Virginia Beach, close to what is now 
known as The Hollies ; and this little forest flourished until 
it was injured by fire about two years ago. 

In 1908 he was with Professor Davis, of Harvard, as a 
member of an international excursion for geographical study 
in Europe ; there he incidentally looked into the forest plant- 
ing in Italy, around Grenoble, in France, and around 
Arcachon, on the Bay of Biscay. His studies of the dime 
areas of our own coast have been described in part in several 
papers, the best known of which is "Where the Wind Does 
the Work," and the work on the Bay of Biscay is seen in 
"The Landes and Dunes of Gascony." Both papers have 
been reprinted many times. 

Mr. Cobb is now taking part in a transcontinental excur- 


sion in this country with Professor Davis and a number of 
European geographers, most of whom were members of the 
European party of 1908. 

The author of the poem '^Swannanoa" is unknown as far 
as can be ascertained. The erroneous statement in the July 
Booklet was a typographical error. The MS. was correct 
and read "Swannanoa. From North Carolina Reader, C. H. 
Wiley— 1855." 

The Editor. 



Vol. XII 

JANUARY, 1913 

No. 3 


North Carolina Booklet 











John Motley Morehead: Architect and Builder of Public 
Works - - 173 

By R. D. W. Connor 

Address of Presentation 193 

By J. Bryan Grimei 

Address of Acceptance - - - - 194 

By J. Y. Joyner 

A Sprig of English Oak .- - - 195 

By Rebecca Cameron 

The First Albemarle Assembly, Hall's Creek, near 
Nixonton .-.-.-..- 203 

By Catherine Albertaoa 


$1.00 THE YEAR 


Entered at the PostoflSce at Raleigh, N. C, July 15, 1905, under the Act of 
Conip-ess of March 3, 1879. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XII of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1912. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Miss Maby Hilliaed Hinton. 


History of Union County, Including the Waxhaw Settlement. 

Mr. Ney McNeely 

The Forest (Poem) Mr. B. F. Jarrett 

Masonic Revolutionary Patriots in North Carolina. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 
Our Forests — What They Have Done, Are Doing, and May Do 

for North Carolina Dr. Collier Cobb 

Some Notable Senatorial Campaigns in North Carolina. 

Judge Robert W. Winston 
Historic Homes, Part VI: Palmyra in the Happy Valley. 

Mrs. Lindsay Patterson 
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele: the Famous Revolutionary Patriot. 

Dr. Archibald Henderson 
Reprint of Washington's Diary, written In North Carolina. 

The Confederacy (Poem) Mr. R. F. Jarrett 

History of the Whig Party in North Carolina. 

North Carolina's Social Life, Ante-bellum Major E. J. Hale 

How "Carolina" Came to be Written Mr. Jaques Busbee 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina's History, will appear 
hereafter in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1800, as sources 
of biography, history and genealogy. Mrs. M. G. McCubbins will 
contribute abstracts of wills and marriage bonds in Rowan County 
to the coming volume. Hon. F. D. Winston will furnish similar 
data from Bertie County. 

Mrs. E. E. Moflatt has consented to edit the Biographical Sketches 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Bookist 
for Vol. XII are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XI for sale.i 

Vol, XII JANUARY, 1913 No. 3 


floRTH CflROIilHfl BoOKIiET 

' ' Carolina ! Carolina I Heaven^ s blessings attend her I 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.'^ 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editoe. 


Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 






honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

recording secretary: 

Mrs. clarence JOHNSON. 

corresponding secretary: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 



custodian of relics: 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 
DeGraffenried Chapter Mrs. Charles Slover Hollister, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12, 1904. 
tDied November 25, 1911. 


Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 






honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

recording secretary: 

Mrs. clarence JOHNSON. 

corresponding secretary: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 



custodian of relics: 
Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 
DeGraffenried Chapter Mrs. Charles Slover Hollister, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, Sr.* 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12, 1904. 
fDied November 25, 1911. 

King Clcoigr III, 


Vol. XII JANUARY, 1913 No. 3 


By R. D. W. Connor. 

An Addbess Delivered in the Hall of the House of Representatives, Decem- 
ber 4, 1912, UPON the Presentation to the State of a Bust of 
Governor Morehead by the North Carolina 
Historical Commission. 

Along the Hue of the iSTorth Carolina Railroad, from its eastern 
terminus at Goldsboro to its western terminus at Charlotte, lie eleven 
counties embracing six thousand square miles of territory, now one of 
the most prosperous and productive regions in North Carolina. During 
the decade from 1840 to 1850, perhaps no other State on the entire At- 
lantic seaboard could have exhibited a stretch of country of equal area 
which presented to the patriotic citizen so discouraging a prospect or so 
hopeless an outlook. Such a citizen traversing this region would have 
found public roads and methods of travel and transportation that were 
primitive when George III claimed the allegiance of the American col- 
onies. Delays, inconveniences, and discomforts were the least of the evils 
that beset the traveler who entrusted life and limbs to the public convey- 
ances of that period. 2 The cost of transportation was so great that the 
profits of one half the planters' crops were consumed in getting the 
other half to market, and hundreds of them found it profitless to pro- 

iJohn Motley Morehead was born in Pittsylvania County, Virginin, July 4, 1796, son of John 
Morehead and Obedience Motley. In 1798 his parents moved to Rockingham County, North Caro- 
lina, where John grew to manhood. He was prepared for college partly under the private instruction 
of Thomas Settle and partly at the Academy of Dr. David Caldwell, near Greensboro. He afterwards 
entered the University of North Carolina, from which he was graduated in 1817. In his junior year 
he was appointed a tutor in the University. From 1828 to 1866 he served on the Board of Trustees, 
and in 1849 was President of the Alumni Association. Morehead was the sixth allimnus of the Uni- 
versity to become Governor of North Carolina. After his graduation from the University he studied 
law under Archibald D. Murphey. In 1819, receiving his license to practice, he settled at Wentworth, 
county seat of Rockingham County, where he lived until his marriage to Miss Ann Eliza Lindsay, 
eldest daughter of Col. Robert Lindsay, of Guilford County. He removed to Greensboro which con- 
tinued to be his home during the rest of his life. 

2" The road [from Weldon to Gaston] was as bad as anji^hing, under the name of a road, can be 
conceived to be. Whenever the adjoining swamps, fallen trees, stumps, and plantation fences would 
admit of it, the coach was driven, with a great deal of dexterity, out of the road. When the wheels 
sunk in the mud, below the hubs, we were sometimes requested to get out and walk. An upset seemed 
every moment inevitable. At length, it came."— Frederick Law Olmsted. "A Journey in the Sea- 
board Slave States," 1853-1854. Vol. I, page 348. "From personal observations, I have found the 
roads leading from Raleigh westward, for the distance of fifty or sixty miles, * » » decid- 
edly the worst in the State."— Governor Morehead's message to the Legislature of 1842. Journal of 
the General Assembly, page 409. 


duce more than their own families could use.^ In 1853 a traveler, 
"within thirty miles of the State Capitol, saw "three thousand barrels 
of an article worth a dollar and a half a barrel in New York, thrown 
away, a mere heap of useless offal, because it would cost more to 
transport it than it would be worth."* 

Under such conditions there could be, of course, no commerce, and 
without commerce no markets. Such commerce as the produce of the 
fertile valleys and plateaux of the Piedmont section created found its 
way to the markets of Virginia and South Carolina; and among the 
people who dwelt west of Greensboro, declared Governor Morehead in 
1842, "Cheraw, Camden, Columbia, * * * Augusta, and Charles- 
ton are much more familiarly known than even Fayetteville and 
Ealeigh."5 In all the region from Goldsboro to Charlotte, Raleigh, 
then a straggling country village, was the only town of sufficient im- 
portance to be noted in the United States census of 1850. This section, 
now the heart of the manufacturing region of the South, reported to 
the census takers of that year no other manufactures than a handful 
of "homemade" articles valued at $396,473. The social and labor sys- 
tems upon which the civilization of the State was founded confined the 
energies of the peoj)le almost exclusively to agriculture, yet their farm- 
ing operations were so crude and unproductive that a traveler, comment- 
ing on the agriculture in the vicinity of Raleigh, found it "a. mystery 
how a town of 2,500 inhabitants can obtain sufficient supplies from it to 
exist. "6 This was not the view merely of an unsympathetic stranger. 
Calvin H. Wiley, attempting to arouse his fellow members of the Legis- 
lature of 1852 from their indifference and lethargy, after referring to 
the "magnificent capitol" in which they sat, exclaimed, "But what is 
the view from these porticoes, and what do we see as we travel hither? 
Wasted fields and decaying tenements; long stretches of silent desola- 
tion with here and there a rudely cultivated farm and a tottering 

But more forcible than any other evidence, because incontrovertible, 
is the testimony of the United States census. The census reports of 
1840 show that nearly one-third of the adult white population of the 
State could neither read nor write. The population of the State was at 

'Speaking of the building of a turnpike, from Raleigh westward, Governor Morehead in his message 
of 1842, said: "Labor can not be difficult to obtain in a region now growing cotton at six cents per 
pound, corn at one dollar per barrel, and wheat so low that it takes one half to transport the other to 
market."— Journals of the Legislature lS42-'43, page 411. "A farmer told me that he considered twenty- 
five bushels of corn a large crop, and that he generally got as much as fifteen. He said that no money 
was to be got by raising corn, and very few farmers here [about ten miles from Raleigh] 'made' any 
more than they needed for their own force. It cost too much to get it to market."— Olmsted, "Sea- 
board Slave States," Vol. I, page 3.58. 

<01msted: A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States. 18.53-1854. Vol. I, page 369. 

'Annual Message. Legislative Journals, 1842-'43, page 409. 


'Speech in favor of his bill to appoint a State Superintendent of Common Schools. 



a standstill. From 1830 to 1840, thirty-two of the sixty-eight counties 
of I^orth Carolina lost in population, while the increase in the State as 
a whole was less than two and a half per cent.^ The best blood of ISTorth 
Carolina, refusing to remain at home and stagnate, was flowing in a 
steady stream into the vast and fertile regions of the South and "West; 
and that brain and energy which should have been utilized in developing 
the resources of i\orth Carolina was being forced to seek an outlet in 
other regions where it went to lay the foundations of Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, and Texas, of Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana. Dr. Wiley was guilty 
of no exaggeration when he declared that J^orth Carolina had "long 
been regarded by her own citizens as a mere nursery to grow up in" ; 
that the State had become a great camping ground on which the inhabi- 
tants were merely tenanted for a while ; and that thousands were annu- 
ally seeking homes elsewhere whose sacrifices in moving would have 
paid for twenty years their share of taxation sufficient to give to ISTorth 
Carolina all the fancied advantages of those regions whither they went 
to be taxed with disease and suffering. The melancholy sign "For 
Sale" seemed plowed in deep black characters over the whole State, and 
the State flag which floated over the Capitol was jestingly called by our 
neighbors of Virginia and South Carolina an auctioneer's sign. "The 
ruinous effects," said he, "are eloquently recorded in deserted farms, in 
wide wastes of guttered sedgefields, in neglected resources, in the absence 
of improvements, and in the hardships, sacrifices and sorrows of con- 
stant emigration." 

Such was the view wdiich Central ISTorth Carolina presented to the 
keen eyes of John M. Morehead when, in the closing days of 1840, he 
journeyed from Greensboro to Ealeigh to assume his duties and responsi- 
bilities as Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth. As desolate as the 
prospect was, however, Morehead's foresight saw in it not a little to 
give him courage. He must have realized that iN^orth Carolina was 
standing at the turn of the road and that much depended on the wisdom 
and prudence with which he himself directed her choice of future routes. 
Four years before a new Constitution, profoundly affecting the political 
life of the State, had gone into operation, from which Morehead, and 
other leaders who thought as he did, had prophesied great results for 
the upbuilding of the State. This new Constitution had paved the way 
for the work of a small group of constructive statesmen, of whom More- 
head was now the chosen leader, who were destined to direct and lead the 
public thought of JSTorth Carolina during the quarter century from 
1835 to 1860. 

Among these men two distinct types of genius were represented. On 

sPopulation in 1830, 737,987; in 1840, 753,409. 


the one hand there were the dreamers, — men who had the power of 
vision to see what the future held in store for their country, who wrote 
and spoke forcibly of what they foresaw, but lacked the power to con- 
vince men of the practicability of their visions. On the other hand 
there were the so called practical men, — men who knew well enough how 
to construct what other men had planned, but lacked the power of 
vision necessary to see beyond the common everyday affairs that sur- 
rounded and engrossed them. Once in an age appears that rare indi- 
vidiial, both architect and contractor, both poet and man of action, to 
whom is given both the power to dream and the power to execute. Such 
men write themselves deep in their country's annals and make the 
epochs of history. 

In the history of North Carolina such a man was John M. Morehead. 
Those who have written and spoken of Governor Morehead heretofore 
have been chiefly impressed with his great practical wisdom,^ and this 
he certainly had as much as any other man in our history. As for 
myself, what most impresses me after a careful study of his life and 
works, is his wonderful power of vision. He was our most visionary 
builder, our greatest practical dreamer. ISTo other man of his day had 
so clear a vision of the future to which North Carolina was destined, or 
did so much to bring about its realization as Grovernor Morehead. It is 
no exaggeration to say that we have not now in process of construction, 
and have not had since his day, a single great work of internal improve- 
ment of which he did not dream and for which he did not labor. He 
dreamed of great lines of railroad binding together not only all sections 
of North Carolina, but connecting this State with every part of the 
American Union. He dreamed of a network of improved country roads 
leading from every farm in the State to all her markets. He dreamed 
of a great central highway, fed by these roads, finding its origin in the 
waters of the Atlantic at Morehead City and finally losing itself in the 
clouds that hang about the crests of the Blue Ridge. He dreamed of 
the day when the channels of our rivers would be so deepened and 
widened that they could bear upon their waters our share of the com- 
merce of the world. He dreamed of an inland waterway connecting the 
harbor of Beaufort with the waters of Pamlico Sound and through the 
opening of Boanoke Inlet, aifording a safe inland passage for coastwise 
vessels around the whitecaps of Cape Hatteras. He dreamed of the 
day when the flags of all nations might be seen floating from the mast- 
heads of their fleets riding at anchor in the harbors of Beaufort and 

'Kerr, John, "Oration on the Life and Character of John M. Morehead"; In Memoriam of John 
M. j^forphead, Raleieh, 186S; Scott, William Lafayette, "Tribute to the Genius and Worth of John M. 
Morehead": Ibirl: Smith, C. Alphonso, "John Motley Morehead"; The Biographical History of North 
Carolina, Vol. VI, pp. 250-258; Wooten, Council, "Governor Morehead"; Charlotte Daily Observer, 
September 30, 1901. 


Wilmington. He dreamed of a chain of mills and factories dotting 
every river bank in the State and distributing over these highways of 
commerce a variety of products bearing the brand of North Carolina 

Such were his dreams, and the history of North Carolina during the 
last half-century is largely the story of their realization. It is this 
fact that gives to Morehead his unique place in our history. He had a 
distinguished political career, but his fame is not the fame of the office Indeed, no other man in our history, save Charles B. Aycock 
alone, in so brief a public career, made so deep an impression on the life 
of the State. The explanation is simple. The public service of each 
was inspired by a genuine love of the State and consecrated to the 
accomplishment of a great purpose. The educational and intellectual 
development which Aycock stimulated was based on the material pros- 
perity of which Morehead laid the foundation. It is, then, his service 
as architect and builder of great and enduring public works that gives 
to Morehead his distinctive place in our annals, and it is of this service 
that I shall speak today. 

When Morehead began his public career the prevailing political 
thought of the State was, in modern political vernacular, reactionary. 
Representation was distributed equally among the counties, regardless 
of population. East of Raleigh, where the institution of slavery was 
most strongly entrenched, thirty-five counties with a combined popula- 
tion of 294,312, sent to the General Assembly sixteen more Commoners 
and eight more Senators than twenty-seven counties west of Raleigh 
which had a combined population of 50,205 more people. A property 
qualification was requisite for membership in the General Assembly and 
inasmuch as all State officials were elected by the Legislature, not by 
the people directly. Property, not Men, controlled the government. The 
theory of Property was that the best government is that which governs 
least. Adherents of this school of politics taught, therefore, that gov- 
ernment had fulfilled its mission when it had preserved order, pun- 
ished crime, and kept down the rate of taxation. But another school of 
political thought, originating in the counties west of Raleigh, where the 
institution of slavery had not secured so strong a foothold, was now 
beginning to make itself heard. Its adherents favored a constitutional 

i"In 1821 he represented Rockingham County in the House of Commons; in 1826, 1827 and 1858 he 
represented Guilford County in the House, and in 1860 in the Senate. He was one of the delegates 
from Guilford in the Convention of 1835. In 1840 he was elected Governor, and in 1842 was re-elected. 
He was the permanent presiding officer of the National Whig Convention, which met at Philadelphia, 
June 7, 1848, and nominated General Zachary Taylor for the Presidency. By the act establishing 
the North Carolina Insane Asylum he was designated as Chairman of the Board of Commissioners 
to locate and build the asylum. In 1S57 he was elected President of the association organized for the 
purpose of erecting at Greensboro a monument to General Nathanael Greene. He was one of the 
delegates from North Carolina to the Peace Congress at Washington in 1861. In 1861-'02 he was a 
member of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States. He died at Greensboro, Augiist 27, 


conventiou to revise the basis of representation, to give to the people 
the right to elect their chief magistrate, and in other respects to make 
the government -popular in practice as well as in form; and they advo- 
cated internal improvements, geological surveys, the conservation of 
resources, asylums for the insane, public schools, schools for the deaf 
and dumb and for the blind, and numerous other progressive measures 
which all right thinking people now acknowledge to be governmental in 
their nature. These men were the Progressives of their day. 

Morehead found his place among these Progressives. As a member 
of the General Assembly he was among the foremost in advocating a con- 
stitutional convention. He supported measures for the building of 
good roads, for the digging of canals, for the improvement of inland 
navigation, for drainage of swamps, and for railroad surveys.!^ He 
opposed a bill to prevent the education of negroes, moved tlie appoint- 
ment of a select committee on the colonization of slaves, introduced a 
bill providing for their emancipation under certain conditions, and 
displayed so much interest in measures for the amelioration of the con- 
ditions of the slaves that his opponents, when he became a candidate 
for Governor, charged him with being at heart an Abolitionist. ^^ Jje 
endeavored to secure the appropriation of funds for the collection of 
material for the preservation of the history of North Carolina^^ and 
took a deep interest in all measures for the promotion of public educa- 
tion. In 1827, while he was chairman of the Committee on Education, 
a bill came before his committee to repeal the Act of 1825 which had 
created the Literary Fund "for the establishment of common schools." 
Morehead submitted the report of the committee, in which he said : 

Your committee believe that the passage of that act [to establish common 
schools] must have been greeted by every philanthropist and friend of civil 
liberty as the foundation on which was to rest the future happiness of our 
citizens and the perpetuity of our political institutions. * * * From the 
very nature of our civil institutions, the people must act; it is wisdom and 
policy to teach them to act from the lights of reason, and not from the blind 
Impulse of deluded feeling. * * * Independent of any political influence 
that general education might have, your committee are of opinion that any 
State or sovereign, having the means at command, are morally criminal if they 
neglect to contribute to each citizen or subject that individual usefulness and 
happiness which arises from a well cultured understanding. * * * Your 
committee can not conceive a nobler idea than that of the genius of our coun- 

"In the Legislature of 1821 he voted with the minority for a resolution providine for the calling 
of a Constitutional Convention; for a bill "to provide an additional fund for internal improvements"; 
in 1820, for a bill to improve the navigation of the C^ape Fear River below Wilmington, and for a sim- 
ilar bill in 1827; for the survey of a route for a railroad from New Bern through Raleigh, to the western 

i-The Raleigh Standard called him an Abolitionist because as a Member of the Legislature he "drew 
a report against the proposition of Mr. Stedman, from Chatham, forbidding the instruction of slaves." 
Quoted in the Raleigh Register, January 3, 1840. 

"He introduced a resolution to advance money from the Literary Fund to be used "in aiding Archi- 
bald D. Murphey, of Orange County, in wTiting and publishing the History of this State," to be repaid 
from the proceeds of a lottery authorized by the Legislature for the purpose. 


try, hovering over the tattered son of some miserable hovel, leading his in^ 
fant but gigantic mind in the paths of useful knowledge, and pointing out 
to his noble ambition the open way by which talented merit may reach the 
highest honors and preferments of our government. 

The committee, accordingly, unanimously recommended the rejection 
of the bill to discontinue the Literary Fund.^^ The recommendation 
was accepted, the bill was lost, the Literary Fund was saved, and the 
foundation on which our common school system was afterwards built 
was preserved intact. 

In the Convention of 1835, in which he represented Guilford County, 
Morehead supported the amendments offered to the Constitution de- 
signed to democratize the State Government. Two of these amendments 
in particular have had a far reaching influence on our history. One of 
them placed representation in the House of Commons on a basis of 
Federal poptilation ; the other took away from the Legislature the elec- 
tion of the Governor and gave it to the people. To this latter change 
we may trace the origin of two of the most important political institu- 
tions of our own day, — the party State Convention and the preelection 
canvass of the State by the nominees for State offices. 

The first party State Convention ever held in North Carolina was 
the Whig Convention which met in Raleigh, ISTovember 12, 1839, and 
nominated John M. Morehead for Governor. i^ Reading the contem- 
porary newspaper reports of this Convention shortly after attending 
the last State Convention held in this city in June of the present year, 
one is greatly impressed with the marked contrast in the two bodies. 
They were typical of the political conditions of the two eras in which 
they were held. The latter with its more than one thousand cheering, 
shouting, declaiming delegates, uncontrolled and uncontrollable, was 
truly representative of the aggressive direct democracy of the twentieth 
century. The former with its ninety-one sober, orderly, deliberative 
gentlemen of the old school, thoroughly responsive to the mallet of their 
chairman, was just as truly representative of the staid, self-restrained, 
representative democracy of the early nineteenth century. 

"Coon, Charles L.: Public Education in North Carolina, 1790-1840; Vol. I, page 376. 

i^Ex-Gov. John Owen, delegate from Bladen, presided. A General Committee of Thirteen, one 
from each Congressional District, was appointed "to take into consideration the purposes for which 
the Convention had assembled" and to report thereon. November 13th, this committee reported, 
among other resolutions, the following: "Resolved, That having been inspired with a deep and lively 
sense of the eminent practical vigor, sound Republican principles, unblemished public and private 
virtues, ardent patriotism and decided abilities of John M. Morehead, of the County of Guilford, we 
do accordingly recommend him to our fellow citizens as a fit successor to our present enlightened 
Chief Magistr.ate, Governor Dudley."— Adopted unanimously. The platform of the Convention 
favored: (1) Economy in government; (2) Reform in the revenue system; (3) Reduction in the num- 
ber of government employees; (4) Selection of government employees "without discrimination of par- 
ties"; (5) An Amendment to the Federal Constitution to abolish the Electoral College; (6) One term 
of four years for the President; (7) A National Bank; (S) A di\asion of the proceeds of public lands 
among the States on a basis of Federal population; (9) Public education; (10) Strict Construction of 
the Constitution. It opposed; (1) Jackson's Spoil System; (2) Appointment of Members of Congress 
to Federal offices during their terms in Congress; (3) Making judicial appointments for partisan rea- 
sons; (4) Interference of Federal Officers in elections; (.5) Protective tariff; (6) The Federal Government's 
making internal improvements "except such as may be stampt with a national character"; (7) The 
Sub-Treasury scheme; (8) Federal interference with slavery. 


Morehead's election as Governor followed a campaign that is 
memorable in tlie history of ISTorth Carolina as the first in which 
candidates for public ofiice ever made a canvass of the State.^^ 
But in other respects also his election and inauguration as Chief Execu- 
tive marks a turning point in our history. He was the first Governor to 
sit in this Capitol, in itself typical of the new era then dawning upon 
the State;!" and, what is more important still, he was the first of our 
Governors to discard the old laissez faire policy which his predecessors 
had followed since the Eevolution, and to come into office with a distinct 
program in view. This program he outlined in very general terms in 
his Inaugural Address before the Members of the General Assembly, 
in the course of which he said: 

I shall be happy to cooperate with you in bringing into active operation all 
the elements of greatness and usefulness with which our State is so abund- 
antly blessed. Other States have outstripped us in the career of improve- 
ments, and in the development of their natural resources, but North Carolina 
will stand a favorable comparison with most of her sister States in her 
natural advantages, — her great extent of fertile soil, her great variety of pro- 
duction, her exhaustless deposits of mineral wealth, her extraordinary water- 
power, inviting to manufactures, all, all combine to give her advantages that 
few other States possess. Whatever measures you may adopt to encourage 
agriculture and to induce the husbandman while he toils and sweats to hope 
that his labors will be duly rewarded; whatever measures you may adopt to 
facilitate commerce and to aid industry in all departments of life to reap its 
full rewards, will meet with my cordial approbation. * * * It is equally 
our duty, fellow citizens, to attend to our moral and intellectual cultivation. 
* * * It is to our common schools, in which every child can receive the 
rudiments of an education, that our attention should be mainly directed. 
Our system is yet in its infancy; it will require time and experience to give 
to it its greatest perfection. * * * j doubt not, in due time, the legisla- 
tive wisdom of the State will perfect the system as far as human sagacity 
can do it. And no part of my official duty will be performed with more 
pleasure than that part which may aid in bringing about that happy 

I'Morehead's opponent in 1840 was Romulus M. Saunders. The vote was, Morehead 44,484; Saun- 
ders, 35,903; Morehead's majority, 8,581. In 1842 Morehead's opponent was Louis D. Henry. The 
vote was, Morehead, 37,943; Henry, 34,411; Morehead's majority, 3,532. The falling off in Morehead's 
vote is attributable to the disorganization of the Whig party following the death of President Harri- 
son, and the defection of President Tyler. Morehead's first inauguration was January 1, 1841; his 
second, December 31, 1842. 

"Referring to this fact in his Inaugural Address before the General Assembly he said: 

"You are the first legislative body that ever had the honor to assemble in its splendid halls. I 
am the first Executive who ever had the honor to be installed within its durable walls. It will endure 
as a monument for ages to come of the munificence, the liberality and taste of the age in which we live. 
There is a moral effect produced by the erection of such an edifice as this,— it will serve in the chain 
of time to link the past with the future. And if ever that proud spirit that has ever characterized us, 
which has ever been ready to assert its rights and to avenge its wrongs, which exhibited itself at the 
Regulation Battle of 1770 11771], which burnt with more brilliance at the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Indepen dence in 1775, and which boldly declared for independence in 1776,— if ever that proud spirit 
shall become craven in time to come, and shall not dare animate the bosom of a freeman, let it look 
upon this monument and remember the glorious institution under which its foundations were laid, 
and the noble people by whom it was reared, and then let it become a slave if it can. May it endure 
for ages to come— may it endure until time itself shall grow old; may a thousand years find these 
halls still occupied by freemen legislating for a free and happy people."— Raleigh Register, January 
5, 1841. 

''Raleigh Register, January 5, 1841. 


But we should not expect a man of Governor Morehead's great prac- 
tical wisdom to content himself with general observations. To reduce 
these general observations into a concrete, practical system was the 
work of his first two years in the Governor's office, and when the Legis- 
lature of 1842 met he was ready with a message outlining a complete 
system of internal improvements. ^^ His scheme embraced the further 
extension of the railroad lines already built in the State, the improve- 
ment of our rivers and harbors, the construction of extensive lines of 
turnpikes, and the linking of all three together in one general system 
of transportation. One of the ablest public documents in our history, 
this message, for its practical bearing on the problems of our own day, 
still repays a careful study. With reference to the great inland water- 
way now nearing completion, of which the connection between Pamlico 
Sound and Beaufort Harbor forms an important link, he said : 

Turning our attention to the eastern part of the State, two improvements 
said to be practicable, assume an importance that renders them national in 
their character. I allude to the opening of Roanoke Inlet and the connection 
of Pamlico Sound by a ship canal with Beaufort harbor. Frequent surveys 
of the first of these proposed improvements * * * establish the feasi- 
bility of this work. The advantages arising from this improvement to our 
commerce are too obvious to need pointing out. But the view to be taken 
of its vast importance is in the protection it will afford to our shipping and 
the lives of our seamen. The difficulty and dangers often encountered at 
Ocracoke Inlet render the connection between Pamlico Sound and Beaufort 
harbor of vast importance to the convenience and security of our commerce 
and shipping. It will be an extension of that inland navigation, so essential 
to us in time of war, and give access to one of the safest harbors on our 
coast, and one from which a vessel can be quicker at sea than from any 
other, perhaps, on the continent. In these improvements the commerce of 
the nation is interested; it becomes the duty of the nation to make them, 
if they be practicable and proper. I therefore recommend that you bring the 
attention of Congress to the subject in the manner most likely to effect the 
object. * * * ^j^tq should assert a continual claim to our right to have 
this work effected by the general government. * * * You would be saved 
the trouble of this appeal if the nation could witness one of those storms so 
frequent on our coast — could witness the war of elements which rage around 
Hatteras and the dangers which dance about Ocracoke — could witness the 
noble daring of our pilots and the ineffectual but manly struggles of our 
seamen — could see our coast fringed with wrecks and our towns filled with 
the widows and orphans of our gallant tars. Justice and humanity would 
extort what we now ask in vain. 

'^This message is published in the Journals of the Legislature, Session of 1842-'43, pp, 405-422; also 
in the Public Documents of the same year. Doc. No. 1. 


Of the conditions of transportation and travel in the central section 
of the State, he said: 

I would respectfully invite your attention to the public highways generally. 
* * * Prom Fayetteville, the highest point of good navigation, westward 
to the Buncombe Turnpike, a distance of some two hundred and fifty or three 
hundred miles, what navigable stream, railroad, turnpike, or macadamized 
highway gives to the laborer facilities of transportation? None! Literally 
none! This vast extent of territory, reaching from the Blue Ridge in the west 
to the alluvial region in the east, and extending across the whole State, it is 
believed, will compare with any spot upon the globe for the fertility of its 
soil, the variety of its productions, the salubrity of its climate, the beauty 
of its landscapes, the richness of its mines, the facilities for manufactures, 
and the intelligence and moral worth of its population. Can another such 
territory, combining all these advantages, be found upon the face of the 
whole earth, so wholly destitute of natural or artificial facilities for trans- 

"What scheme, that is practicable," he asked, "will afford the de- 
sired facilities?" And in answer to this query he made two recom- 

The remedy for these evils is believed to be in good turnpikes. * * * 
I therefore recommend that a charter be granted to make a turnpike road 
from the city of Raleigh to some point westward selected with a view to its 
ultimate continuance to the extreme west. * * * Should this road be 
continued to Waynesboro [now Goldsboro], which might be done at com- 
paratively small expense, the farmer would have the choice of markets, of 
Wilmington by the railroad, or New Bern by the river Neuse. 

Further he recommended : 

That a charter be granted to make a turnpike from Fayetteville to the 
Yadkin River at some point above the Narrows, or, if deemed more expedient, 
to some point on a similar road leading from Raleigh westward, thus giving 
the west the advantages of both markets. * * * Should this road ever 
reach the Yadkin, no doubt is entertained of its continuance across the 
Catawba westward — thus giving to this road the advantages which will arise 
from the navigation of these two noble rivers. 

ISTearly seventy years Avere to pass before the State was ready for the 
execution of these plans, and it was left for the engineers of 1912 to 
realize what the statesman of 1842 had dreamed. A vaster work was 
waiting the constructive genius of Moi-ehead. 

Turning his eyes farther westward. Governor Morehead foresaw the 
future development of the mountainous section of North Carolina. To 
make this region more interesting, he declared, we have only to make it 
more accessible, and continuing, ho said: 

The sublimity and beauty of its mountain scenery, the purity of its waters, 
the buoyancy and salubrity of its atmosphere, the fertility of its valleys, the 


verdure of its mountains, and, above all, its energetic, intelligent and hospitable 
inhabitants, make it an inviting portion of the State. * * * when good 
roads shall be established in that region, it is believed the population will 
increase with rapidity, agriculture improve, grazing will be extended, and 
manufactures and the mechanic arts will flourish in a location combining 
so many advantages and inviting their growth. The improved highways will 
be additional inducements to the citizens of other sections of our State to 
abandon their usual northern tours, or visits to the Virginia watering places, 
for a tour much more interesting among our own mountains, much cheaper, 
and much more beautiful^a tour in which they will inspire health in every 
breath and drink in health at every draught. 

Governor Moreliead did not expect, indeed he did not desire that the 
General Assembly should proceed to put all of his recommendations 
into immediate effect. He realized only too well that such a procedure 
would require enormous outlays far beyond the resources of the State, 
and he never forgot that debts contracted today must be paid tomorrow. 
Sufficient warning of the effects of such a course was not lacking. 
Many of the Southern and Western States embarking in wild and extrav- 
agant schemes of internal improvements had made such vast expendi- 
tures that their treasuries had become bankrupt and their people op- 
pressed with obligations which they could not meet; and to extricate 
themselves they had resorted to the very simple but very effective means 
of repudiation. If Governor Morehead loved progress much, he detest- 
ed repudiation more; and the most vigorous passage in his message 
is that in which he warns the Legislature against such a course. Said 

I would recommend that whatever schemes of expenditure you may embark 
in, you keep within the means at the command of the State; otherwise the 
people must be taxed more heavily or the State must contract a loan. The 
pressure of the times forbids the former — the tarnished honor of some of the 
States should make us, for the present, decline the latter. The mania for 
State banking and the mad career of internal improvements, which seized a 
number of the States, have involved them in an indebtedness very oppressive, 
but not hopeless. American credit and character requires that this stain of 
violated faith should be obliterated by our honest acknowledgment of the 
debt, and a still more honest effort to pay it. I therefore recommend the 
passage of resolutions expressive of the strong interest which this State feels 
in the full redemption of every pledge of public faith, and of Hs utter detesta- 
tion of the abominable doctrine of Repudiation. That State which honestly 
owes a debt and has or can command the means of payment, and refuses 
to pay because it can not be compelled to do so, has already bartered Public 
Honor, and only waits an increase of price to barter Public Liberty. This 
recommendation will come with peculiar force from you. North Carolina 
has been jeered for sluggishness and indolence, because she has chosen to 
guard her treasury and protect her honor by avoiding debt and promptly 
meeting her engagements. She has yielded to others the glory of their 


magnificent expenditures and will yield to them all that glory which will 
arise from a repudiation of their contracts. In the language of one of her 
noblest sons, "It is better for her to sleep on in indolence and innocence than 
to wake up in infamy and treason." 

The schemes outlined in Morehead's message of 1842 were laid before 
a Legislature controlled by the Democratic party, and the policy of that 
party was hostile to internal improvements. Morehead accordingly was 
forced to wait upon events for the consummation of his great schemes. 
In outlining these schemes he had given evidences of his extraordinary 
power of vision; the next few years were to bring him an opportunity 
to demonstrate his ability to transform his dreams into actual realities. 
This opportunity, for which he had so long waited, came with the pas- 
sage by the Legislature of 1849 of the act to charter "The JSTorth Caro- 
lina Railroad Company." The history of this measure — the long and 
bitter contest between the East and the West over the proposed railroad 
from Charlotte to Danville, the statesmanlike compromise of its advo- 
cates in accepting the road from Charlotte to Goldsboro, the prolonged 
struggle and ultimate victory in the House of Commons, the dramatic 
scene in the Senate wherein Calvin Graves immolated his own personal 
ambition on the altar of public duty, — all this has been described so often 
that it is not necessary to repeat the story here. The act authorized 
the organization of a corporation with stock of $3,000,000, of which the 
State was to take $2,000,000 when private individuals had subscribed 
$1,000,000 and actually paid in $500,000. North Carolina had long 
stood at the turn of the road hesitatingly. By the passage of this act 
she finally made her decision. The enthusiam of Governor Morehead, 
who was not usually given to picturesque language, was too great for 
plain speech. "The passage of the act," he declared, "under which this 
company is organized was the dawaiing of hope to North Carolina; the 
securing its charter was the rising sun of that hope; the completion of 
the road will be the meridian glory of that hope, pregnant with the 
results that none living can divine. "20 

For the next five years, during which the private subscription of $1,- 
000,000 was secured, the charter obtained, the company organized, the 
route surveyed, and the road constructed, the dominant figure in its his- 
tory is the figure of John M. Morehead. In this period he performed his 
greatest service to the State and enrolled his name permanently among 
the builders of the Commonwealth. The experience of North Carolina 
in railroad building up to that time had not been encouraging. Both 
the Wilmington and Weldon and the Raleigh and Gaston railroads 

^Report of the Directors of the North Carolina Railroad Company: Legislative Documenta 
1850-'51, Executive Document No. 9. 


were bankrupt for the want of patronage. In the face of this fact, it 
was no slight achievement to raise a million dollars in North Carolina 
for another similar enterprise. Yet this is the task to which Governor 
Morehead now set himself. On June 15, 1849, he presided over a great 
Internal Improvements Convention at Salisbury at which measures, 
largely suggested by himself, were adopted for securing the stock.^i 
Placed by this convention at the head of an executive committee to carry 
out these measures, he pushed them with a vigor, determination, and wis- 
dom that aroused the enthusiasm of the whole State and inspired confi- 
dence in the enterprise. Speaking of his work at a convention held in 
Greensboro, November 30, 1849, in the interest of the road, the Greens- 
boro Patriot declared that "the determined spirit of this distinguished 
gentleman touched every heart in that assembly and awoke a feeling of 
enthusiasm and anxiety, deep, startling, and fervent as we have ever 
witnessed."-^ On March 6, 1850, Morehead was able to announce to a 
convention at Hillsboro that only $100,000 remained to be taken to com- 
plete the private subscription, and then announced his willingness to be 
one of the ten men to take the balance. Nine others promptly came 
forward, subscribed their proportionate part, and thus ensured the 
building of the road.--'^ "It is worthy of remark," declared Major 
Walter Gwyn, the eminent engineer whose skill contributed so much to 
the construction of the road, "that the whole amount was subscribed by 
individuals, without the aid of corporations, the largest subscription 

2iThis convention was attended by two hundred and twenty-five delegates from twenty-one coun- 
ties and Norfolk, Virginia. Among those present were, ex-Gov. D. L. Swain, ex-Gov. W. A. Graham, 
ex-Gov. John M. Morehead, John W. Ellis, afterwards Governor, John A. Gilmer, Rufus Barringer, 
Victor Barringer, .James W. Osborne, Calvin H. Wiley, Hamilton C. Jones. Morehead was unani- 
mously elected president. The correspondent of the Raleigh Register wrote that the meetings of this 
convention "had been looked to for some time past with the most intense interest, by the friends of 
the Central Railroad, as determining, to a considerable extent, the probable success or failure of that 
enterprise." He declared that "the Convention in every respect— the numbers, intelligence and re- 
spectability of its members, its zeal and its harmony of action— was all that even the most sanguine 
would have desired * * * 'pjjg address of the President was, in all respects, worthy the 
importance of the occasion and the high reputation of the man." A Committee of Thirteen was ap- 
pointed "to consider of and report upon the measures to be acted on by the Convention." This com- 
mittee recommended a plan, which the Convention adopted, for securing stock subscriptions and the 
appointment of an Executive Committee of three to carry it into effect. Morehead was made Chair- 
man of this Executive Committee. The other members were George W. Mordecai and Dr. W. R. Holt— 
The Raleigh Register, June 23, 1849. Similar Conventions were held at Greensboro, November 29, 
1849; Raleigh, December 15, 1849; Goldsboro, in January, 1850; and Hillsboro, March, 1850. At the 
Greensboro Convention Governor Morehead "passed a high eulogism upon Calvin Graves, of Caswell, 
who had given the casting vote by which this charter of the N. C. Railroad Company had been 
passed," and then nominated him for president. Morehead was appointed chairman of the commit- 
tee on subscriptions. He reported subscriptions of $190,800. John A. Gilmer suggested that one hun- 
dred men come forward to take the balance in equal parts. Morehead headed the Ijst, but the requisite 
number was not secured. After several addresses had been delivered, Morehead rose and said "that 
as the speaking seemed to be over, he reckoned we had as well get to work now, and take the remainder 
of the stock." As only fifty-one men had taken up Mr. Gilmer's suggestion, Morehead agreed to double 
his subscription, if the others would. The proposition, however, was not accepted.— Raleigh Star, 
December 5, 1849. On December 15, Morehead addressed the Convention at Raleigh at which about 
$40,000 of stock was subscribed. He was also at the Goldsboro Convention. At the Hillsboro Con- 
vention the subscription was completed, and a meeting of the stockholders called to be held at Salis- 
burv, to organize the company. 

"Quoted in the Raleigh Star, December 5, 1849. 

23The others were George W. Mordecai, of Wake; John W. Thomas, of Davidson; Dr. (Edmund) 
Strudwick, of Orange; Paul Cameron, of Orange; William Boylan, of Wake; Alonzo T. Jerkins, of Cra- 
ven; Dr. A. J. DeRosset, of New Hanover; Giles Mebane, of Alamance; and a group of ten individuals 
in Orange who subscribed the last ten thousand.— Raleigh Star, March 20, 1850. 


thus made to any public improvement in the Southern country." The 
editor of the Raleigh Star,^'^ announced the completion of the private 
subscription with the following comments: 

We must be permitted to remark that the State owes much to that sterling 
man, Governor Morehead, for success in this enterprise; and that he who has 
heretofore been styled a "wheel horse" in this matter, may be justly entitled 
to the appellation of a "whole team." Whilst we pen these hasty lines, the 
deep-mouthed cannon is pealing forth from Union Square commemorative 
of this great deed for North Carolina. We are not of a very excitable dispo- 
sition, but we must confess that it makes our blood run quicker at every peal, 
so that we can scarcely restrain ourselves from responding to its notes, 
"Huzza! Huzza! for the railroad." 

On July 11, 1850, the private stockholders met at Salisbury and organ- 
ized the company.25 The board of directors unanimously elected John 
M. Morehead president. He was continuously reelected president until 
1855, when declining further election he was succeeded by Charles F. 
Fisher. During these five years of President Morehead's administra- 
tion the ISTorth Carolina Railroad, truly described as "the greatest of all 
enterprises so far attempted by the State of North Carolina in the nature 
of a public or internal improvement," was constructed and opened 
to traffic. The surveys were commenced August 21, 1850; on July 
11, 1851, at Greensboro, in the presence of an immense throng, ground 
for the laying of the rails was broken ;26 on January 29, 1856, the road 
was ready for cars from Goldsboro to Charlotte, a distance of two hun- 
dred and twenty-three miles. In his last report to the board of direc- 
tors, Engineer Gwyn said that the breaking of ground for this railroad 
"may be justly regarded as an event which will ever be memorable in 
the annals of North Carolina — an era which marks her engaging with 

"March 6, ISoO. 

^■''The following Directors were elected: William C. Means, John B. Lord, John I. Shaver, Francis 
Fries, John W. Thomas, John M. Morehead, John A. Gilmer, William A. Graham, Benjamin Trol- 
lineer, Romulus M. Saunders, Armand J. DeRosset, Alonzo T. Jerkins. The Directors elected the 
followine officers: President, John M. Morehead; Secretary-Treasurer, John U. Kirkland; Engineer, 
Major Walter Gwyn. 

28This ceremony followed the regular annual meeting of the stockholders. The correspondent of 
the Raleigh Register gives the following account of it: 

"A crowd of people appeared, ready for the celebration, such as we may safely say was never seen 
in our town before for numbers. It was one universal jam all out of doors. The young gentlemen 
who acted as marshals had hard enough work of it, to persuade this vast and unwieldy crowd into 
marching shape; but they at length succeeded to a degree which at first appeared impossible. The 
procession was formed on West Street, the clergy in front; then the stockholders; then the Orders of 
Odd Fellows and Free Masons, who turned out in great numbers and in full regalia; closing with the 
citizens generally. line moved down South Street to a point on the Railroad survey 
nearly opposite the Caldwell Institute building, where a space of a hundred feet each way was enclosed 
by a line and reserved for the ceremony of the day. The north side of this space was occupied by the 
ladies, whose smiles are always ready for the encouragement of every good word and work. The other 
three sides were soon occupied by the male portion of the assemblage, from ten to twenty deep 
around. You may imagine, then, the difficulty which the 'rear rank' encountered in getting a glimpse 
of the proceedings within. 

"Having the misfortune to be among the outsiders, our situation was of course unfavorable for 
hearing, and seeing was impossible. But we did hear nearly every word of Governor Morehead's clear, 
sonorous voice, as he introduced the Hon. Calvin Graves to the vast assemblage. He did this in terms 
eloquent and singularly appropriate to the occasion. After alluding to the necessity so long felt by 
our people for an outlet to the commercial world— to the inception of the great scheme, the commence- 
ment of which we had met today to celebrate — to the vicissitudes of the charter before the two houses 



earnestness in honorable competition with her sister states in the great 
work of internal improvement which is to raise the State to that rank 
which the advantages of her situation entitle her to hold," and continu- 
ing, he said : 

From this memorable day, July 11, 1851, there has been no faltering or 
despondency; all have been united heart and hand in the great undertaking; 
the whole State, her entire people, catching the enthusiasm which it engen- 
dered, have come forth in their might and majesty, battling in the cause of 
internal improvement, those heretofore signalized as laggards now pressing 
forward in the front rank. * * * The contractors on the North Carolina 
Railroad were all stockholders, and with only two or three exceptions en- 
tirely destitute of experience in the work they undertook; they commenced 
their contracts very generally in January, 1852, and on the first of January, 
1853, without the aid of a single dollar from the treasury of the company, 
but relying entirely upon their own credit and means, their united labor 
amounted to $500,000, which, carried to the credit of their stock subscription, 
fulfilled the second condition of the subscription on the part of the State and 
brought her in as a partner in the great enterprise. This (coupling the sub- 
scription of a million of dollars by individuals, chiefly farmers, and working 
out a half a million on their own resources) is an achievement unprecedented 
in the annals of the public works of this or any other country, and wherever 
known (and it ought to be published everywhere) will disabuse the public 
mind and vindicate the energy, enterprise and industry of the citizens of the 
State. I have repeatedly said publicly, and perceiving no impropriety in 
it, I avail myself of this occasion to say that in my experience, now exceed- 
ing thirty years, I have not found on any public work with which I have been 
connected a set of contractors more reliable than those with whom I have 
had to deal on the North Carolina Railroad, and none with whom my inter- 
course has been so pleasant and agreeable. 

It is no small tribute to the wisdom and constructive genius of Presi- 
dent Morehead to be able to say that, of all the contracts which, as presi- 
dent of the road, he had to make, the only one about which any contro- 
versy ever arose, or any charge of favoritism was ever made, was one 

of the General Assembly, and the fact that it at last hung upon the decision of the Speaker of the 
Senate, and that its fate was decided in the affirmative by the unfaltering 'Aye' of that Speaker, 
Calvin Graves — he said that no other citizen of North Carolina could so appropriately perform the 
ceremony of removing the first earth in the commencement of this work on which the hopes of the State 
80 vitally depend, as to the man who pronounced the decisive 'Aye.' 

"It was impossible for us to catch the full connection of Mr. Graves' speech. Some sentences we 
heard, glowing with that patriotic feeling which has so long distinguished him as one of the first and 
best sons of old North Carolina. We could only judge generally of its effect by the waving of para- 
sols and handkerchiefs among the ladies, and the frequent and hearty applause that arose from the 
inner ranks of the citizens. « * * * 

"At the conclusion of Mr. Graves' speech he 'broke' ground on the Railroad by digging up and 
depositing in a box prepared for that purpose a few spadesful of earth. 

"Governor Morehead remarked that this was deposited in the box, to remain a hundred years, 
and then be reopened for our inspection! The crowd laughed at the ludicrousness of the idea and so did 
we. But it naturally awoke a graver thought. Before a tenth of a century shall pass, we dare say 
that numbers of those present will see the railroad cars swiftly traversing the spot where this interest- 
ing ceremony occurred. • * • « 

"The annual meeting of stockholders closed on Friday morning. Nothing of importance was done 
during the afternoon sitting. . * * * The apprehension felt by a few that something fatal to 
the road would happen at this meeting was very agreeably dissipated. Conciliation and harmony, 
and a disposition to prosecute the enterprise with all power to a successful termination marked the 
proceedings."- The Raleigh Register, July 16, 1851. 


which the State Directors, for partisan political purposes, took out of 
his hands and referred for settlement to a committee of their own 

The N'orth Carolina Railroad was only one link in the great State 
system which Morehead contemplated. As he himself expressed it this 
system was to include "one great leading trunk line of railway from 
the magnificent harbor of Beaufort to the Tennessee line." Writing in 
1866, he attributed the conception of this scheme to Joseph Caldwell and 
Judge Gaston, adding: 

Charter after charter, by the influence of these great men, was granted to 
effect the work, but the gigantic work was thought to be too much for the 
limited means the State and her citizens could then command, and the 
charters remain monuments of their wisdom and our folly, or inability to 
carry them out. A more successful plan it is hoped was finally adopted — 
to do this great work by sections. The North Carolina Railroad * * * 
was the first [section] undertaken. 28 

The other sections were to be built between Goldsboro and Beaufort 

2'This controversy was an incident in one of the most memorable events in Governor Jlorehead'a 
career. Before the passage of the act to cliarter the North Carolina Railroad Company, the people 
of the Central section of the State had asked the Legislature to charter a company to build a railroad 
from Charlotte to Danville, Va. The people of the East opposed this charter, and in 1849 its advo- 
cates accepted in its place the railroad from Charlotte to Goldsboro. Nearly ten years passed, there- 
fore, before anj^thing more was heard of the Danville Connection. In 1S5S the advocates of the Dan- 
ville Connection again brought fonvard their scheme, and asked for a charter for a company to build 
a road, without any aid from the State, to connect the North Carolina Railroad at Greensboro with 
the Richmond and Danville at Danville. The bill was introduced in the House of Commons in 1858 
by Francis L. Simpson, of Rockingham, but everybody understood that it was in reality Governor 
Morehead's bill and he was its principal champion. The members from the East, supported by the 
Raleigh Register and the Raleigh Sta?idard, immediately assailed the project as inimical to the interests 
of the North Carolina Railroad. The debate continued several days. It was participated in by some 
of the ablest debaters in the State, and was extended to embrace the whole subject and history of the 
State's policy toward railroads. Governor Morehead's administration of the affairs of the North Caro- 
lina Railroad was bitterly assailed. He was charged with mismanagement and with a breach of faith 
and betrayal of the interests of the State, his opponents claiming that, while soliciting subscriptions 
to stock in the North Carolina Railroad Company, he had expressly promised to abandon forever 
all advocacy of the Danville Connection. No more formidable attack, perhaps, has ever been made 
on any public man in the history of North Carolina. Arrayed against Morehead, besides the two 
newspapers mentioned, were Robert R. Bridgers, of Edgecombe; W. T. Dortch, of Wayne; Pride Jones 
and John W. Norwood, of Orange, and Dennis D. Ferebee, of Camden, and others scarcely less distin- 
guished for ability. Morehead's defence is still remembered as one of the really great forensic triumphs 
in our history. Mr. J. S. F. Baird, who represented Buncombe County in that Legislature, and who 
was not of Governor Morehead's political faith, under d.ate of April 29, 1912, writes of the contest: 

"After the lapse of fifty-four years it is impossible for me to recall many of the incidents of the de- 
bate but this much I do remember, that Colonel Bridgers' attack on Governor Morehead was futile 
and did the Governor no harm, for he vindicated himself in the most thorough manner." 

Two other members who themselves participated in the debate have left their testimony. John 
Kerr, of Rockingham County, said of Morehead's defence: 

"Never was a more brilliant victory won than he achieved that day. His assailants were driven 
from all their positions, were pursued and routed, 'horse, foot and dragoons' * * * They 
were stronp men, and the House felt the shock of battle while the conflict lasted. But when he closed 
his defence his assailants bore the air of deep dejection and discomfiture. The House was enraptured 
with the display of power on the part of Governor Morehead, and no further charges were heard against 
him." Hon. Thomas Settle said: "For a time the attack seemed overwhelming, and Governor More- 
head's friends feared that he would not be able to repel it. For five days he sat and received it in 
silence, but when he arose and as he proceeded with his defence, friend, foe, and everybody else was 
struck with amazement. We could scarcely realize that any man possessed such powers of argument 
and eloquence. His vindication was so complete that his assailants openly acknowledged it." Mr. 
C. S. Wooten, who did not hear the debate but remembers the impression it created in the State at the 
time, says of Morehead's effort; "I know of but one other instance in American history that can 
parallel Morehead's fight and that was when Benton, solitary and alone, made his fight against Cal- 
houn, Clay and Webster in favor of his resolution expunging from the records of the Senate the resolu- 
tion censuring General Jackson. There never has been such another instance in the history of the 
State of such moral courage, such heroic firmness, and such a grand exhibition of iron nerve." In the 
heat of the contest the Danville Connection was almost forgotten in the attack on Morehead. The 
former was defeated by a strictly sectional vote; but Morehead achieved, according to all testimony, 
both contemporary and subsequent, a great personal triumph. The newspaper reports of the debate 
are too meager to give one anything like an adequate idea of the speeches on either side. 

"Letter to the Stockholders of the North Carolina Railroad Co. Proceedings of the Seventeenth 
Annual Meeting, July 17, 1866. 



and between Salisbury and the Tennessee boundary. In accordance 
with this plan the Legislature, in 1853, incorporated "The Atlantic and 
N'orth Carolina Eailroad Company," and "The ISTorth Carolina and 
Western Eailroad Company," to which Grovernor Morehead referred as 
^'the contemplated extensions of the North Carolina Railroad." Imme- 
diately after the passage of these acts. Governor Reid ordered President 
Morehead and the Directors of the North Carolina Railroad to make 
the necessary surveys. In an open letter to the Greensboro Patriot, 
Governor Morehead said of this order: 

I desire to give tliis pleasing intelligence to the friends of these enter- 
prises, through your valuable paper, with an assurance that the work will 
be commenced at as early a day as practicable. * * * ]vjot a moment is 
to be lost. The deep, deep regret is that these extensions are not now in full 
progress of construction. The giant strides of improvement around us should 
arouse us to action. The ignominious and pusillanimous complaint that 
Nature has done so little for us is a libel upon the old dame. Let us see if 
it is not. * * * -y^e have at the eastern terminus of one of these exten- 
sions one of the finest harbors, at Beaufort, for all commercial purposes, on 
t^e whole Atlantic coast. And if the improvements at the mouth of Cape 
Fear shall succeed, as it is hoped they will, we shall have another port sur- 
passed by few, if any, in the South. * * * But it may be asked, what 
commerce have we to require such a port as Beaufort? Let the answer be, the 
commerce of the world. Look at the location of this port — placed at the end 
of the North Carolina coast, which projects like a promontory into the At- 
lantic, midway and within sight of the great line of navigation between the 
North and the South, and within thirty minutes' sail of the ocean. Nature 
made it for a stopping place of commerce — the halfway house between the 
North and the South, where steamers may get their supplies of anthracite, 
semi-bituminous and bituminous coal. * * * But let us take a western 
view of these extensions. The road running from Beaufort along the Central 
Railroad [the North Carolina Railroad] and to the Tennessee line and thence 
along the lines already in progress of construction to Memphis will not vary 
one degree from a due west course. Extend the same line westward (and I 
predict it will surely be done) to the city of San Francisco, which is to be- 
come the great emporium of the East India trade, and who can doubt that the 
trade of the Mississippi Valley, as well as that of the East Indies and China, 
will crowd our port.29 

Under Morehead's supervision, the work of both the Atlantic and 
North Carolina Railroad, and the Western North Carolina Railroad 
was inaugurated.30 On June 17, 1858, the former was completed and 

2»Raleigh Register, June 25, 1843. 

^Morehead was the pioneer in developing our system of internal improvements and was the lead- 
. ing spirit in the building of the North Carolina Railroad. He was President for four years of the Cen- 
tral Road and was the Chief Contractor in building the road from Morehead City to New Bern * * « 
Badger was an abler lawyer, Bragg a more astute reasoner, Graham more polished and graceful, but 
Morehead, as a man of affairs, for broad scope and grasp of intellect, for vigor of thought, for practical 
common sense, for managing vast financial enterprises, was greater than either. He could stuff his 
pants in his boot legs, splash through the mud and build railroads while the others would rather 
recline in easy chairs in some cosy office and attend to their law practice, discuss literature, or talk on 
social topics. While building the road from New Bern to Morehfead, I have seen him dressed as I have 
described, and his boots besmeared with the red mud of Guilford County."— C. S. Wooten. 


ready for trains from Goldsboro to Beaufort Harbor; and a few montlis 
thereafter found trains running over the latter to within four miles of 
Morganton, while the entire route to the Tennessee line had been sur- 
veyed and partly graded. In 1866 a bill drawn in accordance with the 
original plan, was introduced in the Senate to consolidate these two 
roads and the North Carolina Railroad under the name of ''The ITorth 
Carolina Railroad Company." Morehead, now approaching the end 
of his long and useful career, strongly endorsed and supported this 
measure. One of his last public utterances was an appeal to the stock- 
holders of the North Carolina Railroad Company to throw their power- 
ful influence in favor of the consummation of the great plans for which 
he had given the best service of his life. After giving a brief resume 
of the railroad work done in the State he said : 

Here let us pause and take a survey of what has been done in seven years 
towards this great work. Prom Beaufort harbor to Goldsboro the Atlantic 
and North Carolina Railroad Company have built ninety-six miles. From 
Goldsboro to Charlotte you (the North Carolina Railroad) have built two 
hundred and twenty-three miles. Prom Salisbury to within four miles of 
Morganton the Western North Carolina Railroad have built seventy-six miles 
* * * making in all three hundred and ninety-five miles, from which de- 
duet forty-three miles from Salisbury to Charlotte, and we have actually 
built of this great line three hundred and fifty-two miles in one continuous 
line. Think of it! Seven years! In the lifetime of a State or nation seven 
years is but as a moment in its existence. It would not cover the dawning 
of its existence. In the great day of a nation's improvements seven years 
would not be the sunrise of that day. We have done this great work in the 
twilight of our great day of internal improvement — a day which dawned so 
beautifully upon us, but which became enveloped in that gloom which shrouds 
the nation in mourning. But let us not despair. The day which dawned so 
beautifully upon us will yet reach its meridian splendor. Then let us be up 
and doing * * * and then the hopes, the dreams of the great and good 
Caldwell and Gaston will be realized. * * * You have the honor of being 
the pioneers in this great work executed in sections. Do yourselves now the 
honor to consolidate the whole and complete the original design. You, the 
most powerful and most independent of the three corporations, can, with 
much grace, propose to your sister corporations consolidations upon terms of 
justice and equity manifesting selfishness in naught but your name. Yield 
not that. The new consolidated corporation should be still "The North 
Carolina Railroad Company." This will be a corporation worthy of you, of 
your State, and of the great destinies that await it.31 

What this great destiny was no man had foreseen so clearly as he. 
The traveler of 1912 along the line of the North Carolina Railroad 
sees the fulfilment of Morehead's dreams of 1850. He finds himself in 
one of the most productive regions of the new world. He traverses it 
from one end to the other at a speed of forty miles an hour, surrounded 

"Letter of July 17, 1866, to the Stockholders of the North Carohna Railroad Company. 


by every comfort and convenience of modern travel. He passes through 
a region bound together by a thousand miles of steel rails, by telegraph 
and telephone lines, and by nearly two thousand miles of improved coun- 
try roads. He finds a population engaged not only in agriculture, but 
in manufacturing, in commerce, in transportation, and in a hundred 
other enterprises. Instead of a few old fashioned handlooms turning 
out annually less than $400,000 worth of "homemade" articles, he 
hears the hum of three hundred and sixty modern factories, operating 
two millions of spindles and looms by steam, water, electricity, employ- 
ing more than fifty millions of capital, and sending their products to 
the uttermost ends of the earth. His train passes through farm lands 
that, since Morehead began his work, have increased six times in value, 
that produce annually ten times as much cotton and seventy-five times 
as much tobacco. From his car window instead of the four hundred 
and sixty-six log huts that passed for schoolhouses in 1850, with their 
handful of pupils, he beholds a thousand modern schoolhouses, alive 
with the energy and activity of one hundred thousand school children. 
His train carries him from Goldsboro through Kaleigh, Durham, Bur- 
lington, Greensboro, High Point, Lexington, Salisbury, Concord, Char- 
lotte, — villages that have grown into cities, old fields and cross roads 
that have become thriving centers of industry and culture. Better than 
all else, he finds himself among a people, no longer characterized by 
their lethargy, isolation and ignorance, but bristling with energy, alert 
to every opportunity, fired with the spirit of the modern world, and 
with their faces steadfastly set toward the future. 

The foundation on which all this prosperity and progress rests is the 
work done by John M. Morehead or inspired by him. No well informed 
man can be found today in North Carolina who will dispute his primacy 
among the railroad builders of the State. The ISTorth Carolina Eail- 
road, the Atlantic and ISTorth Carolina Railroad, the Western ISTorth 
Carolina Railroad, the connecting link between the ISTorth Carolina and 
the Richmond and Danville railroads from Greensboro to Danville, all 
bear witness of his supremacy in this field. In one of the finest passages 
of his message to the General Assembly in 1842 he urged the building of 
good country roads ; today there are five thousand miles of iniproved rural 
highways in North Carolina. He recommended the building of a Central 
Highway from Morehead City through Raleigh to the Tennessee line; 
today we have just witnessed the completion of a great State Highway 
piercing the very heart of the State almost along the very route he sug- 
gested seventy years ago. He suggested plans for extensive improvements 
of our rivers and harbors; today a "thirty foot channel to the sea" has 
become the slogan of our chief port and the National Government is 


spending annually hundreds of thousands of dollars in the improvement 
of the Cape Eear, the Neuse, the Pamlico and other rivers of Eastern 
North Carolina. He urged the construction hy the National Govern- 
ment of an inland waterway for our coastwise vessels through Pamlico 
Sound to Beaufort harbor; seventy years have passed since then, this 
enterprise has become national in its scope, the Federal Government has 
assumed charge of it, and the whole nation is anticipating the comple- 
tion in the near future of an inland waterway from Maine through 
Pamlico Sound and Beaufort Harbor to Florida. First of all our 
statesmen Morehead realized the possibility of establishing at Beaufort 
a great world port ; and although this dream has not yet been realized 
there are not lacking today men noted throughout the business world for 
their practical wisdom, inspired by no other purpose than commercial 
success, who have not hesitated to stake large fortunes on the ultimate 
realization of this dream also. A twentieth century statesman sent 
before his time into the world of the nineteenth century. Governor 
Morehead, as a distinguished scholar has declared, "would have been 
more at home in ISTorth Carolina today than would any other of our 
antebellum governors. He has been dead forty years, and they have 
been years of constant change and unceasing development. But so 
wide were his sympathies, so vital were his aims, so far sighted were his 
public policies, and so clearly did he foresee the larger JSTorth Carolina 
of schools, railroads and cotton mills, that he would be as truly a con- 
temporary in the twentieth century as he was a leader in the nine- 
teenth. 32 

s^See sketch by C. Alphonso Smith in the "Biographical History of North Carolina," Vol. 2, pp. 




Ladies and Gentlemen : 

It is tlie good fortune of the ISTorth Carolina Historical Commission 
to be able to offer to the State a marble bust of Governor John Motley 
Morehead, a memorial gift from his grandsons, J. Lindsay Patterson 
and John Motley Morehead. Governor Morehead's career has been so 
ably and amply reviewed by Mr. Connor that it is unnecessary to 
recount his many services to his State. He was one of those remarkable 
men who left an indelible impression upon his people, and we should 
hold his memory in most grateful esteem. Far sighted beyond his time, 
he saw the needs of his State with seerlike wisdom, and with rare acumen 
he planned a great industrial commonwealth, and his popularity and 
power over the people enabled him to put into operation policies whose 
influence was far reaching and whose benefits are still accruing. Plans 
that might have been regarded as the dream of a visionist, under his 
master mind and great executive ability became realities. His admin- 
istration was distinguished for the development of commerce, agricul- 
ture, the growth of the common schools and the establishment of an insti- 
tution for the deaf and dumb and blind, but it was most famed for the 
great system of internal improvements with which his name is insepar- 
ably linked. His greatest achievement was the building of a trunk line 
of railroad from the mountains to the sea — from Morganton to More- 
head City. He was the father of its development and was its first presi- 

This road is the State's greatest single financial asset, valued today at 
more than $7,000,000 and built without a cent of taxation of the people. 
The ISTorth Carolina Railroad as planned by him to connect the Mis- 
sissippi with the Atlantic at Beaufort Harbor was one of the greatest 
projects of the middle of the last century. His heart and brain were 
absorbed in uniting the East with the West, establishing a community 
of interest and making a homogeneous people, bound together with 
ties of steel. Its inestimable service in acquainting the sections and 
unifying our people have been its greatest value to our State. Its worth 
can hardly be overestimated. 

Mr. Joyner, to you, representing the State, I, as Chairman of the 
North Carolina Historical Commission, have the honor to offer a bust of 
this master builder and great constructive statesman, John Motley 




Air. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

To me has been assigned, in the absence of the Governor, the pleasant 
duty of accepting, on behalf of the State of JSTorth Carolina, this marble 
bust of John Motley Morehead. 

"Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war." This man 
whose memory we are met to honor today, is facile princeps among 
North Carolina's great leaders of those silent revolutions by which 
alone are won the greatest victories of peace. 

Father and builder of the North Carolina Railroad, pioneer manu- 
facturer, promoter of inland waterways and public highways, successful 
champion of public education and of charitable institutions, able advo- 
cate of all that was best industrially, morally, and intellectually for his 
people, gifted with the vision and enthusiam that characterizes every 
truly great soul, endowed Avith common sense, wisdom, courage, force of 
character, strength of will and devotion to duty that made him a great 
leader and a great executive in public and private business, he has won 
and merited his place in North Carolina history among "the few, the 
immortal names that were not born to die." His bust deserves this 
honored niche in the Westminster Abbey of our State. 

As his tongue was the first to proclaim from the granite halls of this 
Capitol North Carolina's declaration of commercial and industrial 
freedom, and to point the way thereto, may the spirit of the man, incar- 
nate in this sculptured image, speak, trumpet-tongued, through these 
marble lips to the countless generations of noble youth that reverently 
pause before it, and hearten them for high endeavor and noble achieve- 

In the name of the people of the State that he served with such dis- 
tinguished ability, I now accept, with gratitude to the donors, this artistic 
image of one of her greatest Governors and noblest sons. 



Lieutenant Colonel Wilson Webster, of His Majesty's 
33d Regiment of Foot, 1781 


One of the stories which I never wearied hearing my 
mother tell, was of the gallant and unfortunate Colonel Web- 
ster, of the English Army, who died in consequence of a 
wound received at the battle of Guilford Court House, in 
17S1 ; and was buried at Bellefont, in Bladen County; the 
residence of my mother's uncle-in-law. Major Hugh AVaddell. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson Webster was one of the most 
brilliant and attractive figures in the army of Lord Cornwal- 
lis during his campaign in jSTorth Carolina. The son of a 
clergyman — the Reverend Dr. Webster, of Edinburgh, — he 
united to a thorough knowledge of the profession of arms 
all the graces and virtues of civil life, extreme personal 
beauty, and the most daring and conspicuous gallantry. 

The following story of his courage and coolness is still 
told in the farm houses in Alamance. 

Lord Cornwallis left Hillsborough on the 26th of Febru- 
ary, 1781, and moving his forces southward, encamped on 
the fertile Alamance. On the 6th of March, he made a move 
to entrap that wary and remarkable officer. Colonel Otho 
Williams, of Maryland. 

In the manoeuvres that followed, a circumstance occurred 
which gave great eclat to an English officer. 

Above thirty picked King-'s Mountain riflemen were am- 
bushed in Wetzell's Mill, on Reedy Fork. They saw a 
British officer, mounted on a beautiful black horse, slowly 
approach the bank of the stream, and carefully ford the 


current, ajDpareutlj busied with directing the movements of 
a detachment of soldiers. 

He was in fair riile range all the time; and these picked 
men, all of whom could cut a hair at ordinary rifle distance, 
took deliberate aim at him, and fired thirty shots without 
striking either man or horse ! 

The officer showed no atom of fear, quietly sitting on his 
horse in mid-stream, while the rifle balls hissed all around 
him ; and when the operations he was superintending were 
finished, as quickly riding away. 

I remember hearing that one man said he was so amazed 
at Webster's not being struck by any of the balls, that he 
began to have a superstitious feeling about him, and when 
he fired his last shot at him, his hand was shaking so that 
he had to rest his rifle on one of the timbers of the mill ; and 
even then, firing from a rest, saw his bullet fall short of the 
mark for which it had been aimed. 

Upon asking some prisoners which officer rode a black 
horse in the affair at Wetzell's Mill, the reply was that it 
was the gallant and chivalrous Lieutenant Colonel 
Wilson Webster of the 33d, one of Lord Cornwallis's 
favorite officers. At the battle of Guilford Court House 
(fought March 15th, 1781) Webster commanded the 33d 
and 23d regiments, and opened the battle, leading his men 
right across an open, rolling field, as if he bore a charmed 
life against shot and shell, and hurling them impetuously 
upon the gallant 1st Maryland, whose exploits at the Cow- 
pens the English had not forgetten, for they recoiled at their 
deadly fire, and gave way before the Maryland advance. 

Webster, who had been severely wounded in the right 
knee at the first fire, rallied his men in a skirt of woods, and 
gallantly came back to the charge, finally routing the Mary- 
landers with great loss, and saving the field to the British 


He had given his life for the day, however, for the wound 
he had received, although not considered fatal at first, was 
destined to terminate his brilliant career. He fainted on 
being taken from his horse, and his boot was found full of 

Comwallis had his wounded moved by easy stages towards 
Wilmington so as to have them taken aboard his ships. 

It was slow journej'ing over rough country, and Webster's 
wound, which had shattered the patella, or knee pan, took 
on violent inflammation, and he became so ill that on reach- 
Bladen County he could go no farther, and was quartered 
with his attendants at Bellefont, the residence of Major 
Hugh Waddell (who, still a minor, was then absent at an 
English University). Here he grew rapidly worse, and lock- 
jaw ensuing, he died in great agony three weeks after the 

He was buried on the Bellefont plantation, a mile from 

the dwelling house, and perhaps the same distance from 

Elizabethtown, — the post town and court-house of Bladen 


* * * 

The war was ended, thirty years of peace had cooled the 
fierce anger of the outraged colonists. Many of the victors 
and vanquished had "died in their beds like good Chris- 
tians," and a new generation had arisen to inherit the memo- 
ries, but not the animosities of the late internecine strife. 
Judge Alfred Moore — who as Captain Moore had shared the 
dangers of the Guilford battlefield — died strangely enough, 
as the gallant Webster had done, at Bellefont, on his way to 
his winter residence at Buchoi, near Wilmington. 

Dying on the 15th of October, 1810, his remains were 
temporarily interred at Bellefont until such time as they 
could be removed to the family vault at Buchoi. It was de- 
cided to make the removal in the spring of 1812, and a party 


of gentlemen composed of the immediate family, connec- 
tions, and personal friends of the late Judge left Wilming- 
ton and made one day's drive towards Bellefont, stopping 
for the night at jSTewfields, the residence of Mr. John Wad- 
dell, who had married Judge Moore's beloved and only niece, 
General Frank Nash's daughter, Sallie. The party con- 
sisted of the following gentlemen: Judge Moore's two sons. 
Colonel Maurice Moore, of Sj)ringfield, and Alfred Moore, 
of Buchoi ; his family physician, and friend, Dr. A. J. 
DeRosset, of Wilmington; Judge John D. Thomas, 
Major Duncan Moore, and John R. London, also of Wil- 
mington; Captain Jack Grange, of The Grange, and Mr. 
John Waddell, of ISTewfields. The ISTewfields plantation is 
twenty-seven miles from Wilmington, and on the Cape Fear 

During the evening, my grandfather, Mr. Alfred Moore, 
read aloud to the company from a copy of the European Mag- 
azine an account of the death and burial of Colonel Webster, 
thirty years before, at the Bellefont plantation. 

The article excited a gTeat deal of interest and comment, 
especially when someone present stated that it was currently 
reported that a Dr. Morse, living at Elizabethtown, had dis- 
interred the remains, articulated the skelton, and then had it 
in his office. This story (although absolutely without foun- 
dation) so aroused the ire and indignation of the fiery Colo- 
nel Maurice Moore, that he exclaimed vehemently: 

"If Dr. Morse has done this thing I will cut both his ears 

Fortunately, Dr. Morse had not committed the atrocity, so 
the impetuous colonel did not have to amputate bis ears. 

To determine the truth of the matter, however, the gen- 
tlemen decided to make search for Colonel Webster's forgot- 
ten grave, and investigate the condition of his remains. The 


next morning they took boats, and accompanied by Mr. John 
Waddell, were rowed up the Caj)e Fear river to Bellefont. 

It was remembered in the family that Colonel Webster 
had been waited upon during his last illness by one of Major 
Waddell's family servants, a negro man named Lisburne. 
(This name had been given him by General Hugh Waddell, 
tlie Major's father, it being the name of the post town, on or 
near General Waddell's family estate in Ireland.) 

"Old Lisburne," as he was then called in contradistinction 
to his son and grandson of the same name — was summoned, 
and, upon being questioned, gave a succinct account of Colo- 
nel's Webster's last hours, the preparation of his body for 
burial, and the exact location of the grave. 

The next morning, under Lisburne's guidance the company 
started on their search, and about a mile from the house, on 
a wooded hill came to the spot where Lisburne said the grave 
had been made. Thirty years had passed since the April day 
when the gallant young Englishman had resigned his soul 
to the God who gave it, and had been laid to his long, dream- 
less sleep beneath alien skies, and the rapid growth of a 
Southern forest had hidden the mound beneath a cunning 
network of vines and shrubs. 

Two axe hands had been brought along, and in a short 
while the undergrowth was all cleared away, and the mossy, 
leaf-strown earth bared to view. 

"Here is the grave, sir, right here," said old Lisburne. 
One of the gentlemen took an iron ramrod and sunk it down 
in the soft rich loam at the point indicated by Lisburne, and 
after one or two trials succeeded in striking what seemed be 
b© a box or coffin. 

The earth was carefully removed, and the coffin presently 
laid bare once more to the blessed light of day. It was in 
perfect preservation, and was carefully lifted out of the 
grave, and some of the gentlemen present proceeded to re- 


move the top. The description of what followed I give, as 
nearly as I can recall, in the words of my grandfather's old- 
est daughter, the late Mrs. Hugh Waddell, who had been 
allowed to accompany the party : 

"It was a beautiful spring day; the wreaths of yellow 
jessamine now festooning every tree and shrub with their 
fragrant blossoms ; countless butterflies and bees added their 
bright wings and cheery hum to the sense of life and joyous- 
ness that was thrilling the vernal air. 

"A mocking-bird was singing in a jessamine vine just 
above the open grave; and singing as if all joy and life beat 
in his small heart. The gay, brilliant revelry of song, gay 
mockery of the open grave, fascinated my childish gaze until 
a sudden exclamation : 'Good God ! How very extraordi- 
nary!' caused me to look round. 

"I saw my dear father's eyes fill up with sudden tears^ as 
he lifted his hat, and reverently bent his head before the 
Majesty of Death. All eyes were bent upon the open coffin, 
wherein was a sight I shall never forget. 

"The coffin had been uncovered, and lying within it was 
the rather small but elegant figure of a young and exceed- 
ingly handsome man, of apparently twenty-eight years of 
age. He w^as dressed in the gorgeous scarlet uniform of a 
British officer, his beautiful abundant dark browai hair was 
dressed in a c[ueue, the powder still resting lightly upon its 
glossy dark masses ; his face was pale, calm, and beautiful. 
The face of a sleeping youth would not have been more tran- 
quil, or sweeter than that of the dead soldier, who had slept 
within the heart of Mother Earth for full thirty years. 

"Upon his heart lay his cocked hat and gloves; upon his 
small delicate feet were a pair of riding boots well pol- 
ished, with a pair of gold spurs buckled on the heels. The 
glitter of his epaulettes, and the gold lace on his uniform was 
as brilliant as if freshly burnished. Had he just dressed 


himself for morning parade, and lain down to sleep he could 

not have been a more life-like, or more beautiful picture. 

The silence was intense for a few minutes, then slowly as we 

gazed a sort of film or veil-like mist seemed to rise between 

us and the sleeping hero, and in a moment the beauteous 

counterpart of life dissolved before our very gaze, a little 

handful of grey ashes settled in the coffin, and the gallant 

and beautiful Webster was but a poor handful of immaterial 


* ^ * 

Out of the cofiin was taken two copper coins that had been 
used to close the eyes; the rifleball that had shattered the 
knee pan, and ranged upward in the limb ; a lock of the beau- 
tiful rich brown hair, and the gold spurs. These articles 
were given to the British consul — a Mr. Manning, I believe — 
at Wilmington, to be transmitted to Colonel Webster's sur- 
viving friends. The cofiin was closed, and replaced in the 
grave ; my grandfather reciting the commitment sentence of 
the burial service as it was being once more resigiied into 
the custody of the common mother of us all. The grave was 
filled and turfed, and my grandfather had a pillar of heart 
pine hewed and erected at the head of the grave to mark the 
spot in case any of his family should desire to reclaim the 
ashes of the gallant dead. 

But the outbreak of the war of 1812 or some other cause 
hindering, no claim for the remains was ever made ; and the 
noble young warrior still sleeps in an exile's tomb in the land 
that gave him an enemy's welcome, but a soldier's grave. 

It was said that Colonel Webster was engaged to be mar- 
ried to a lovely and accomplished young Englishwoman, who 
died of a broken heart a few years after his death. 


The following verses written by my grandfather, shortly 
after the events herein described, may be of some interest in 
connection with the foregoing narrative. 


Written by A. Moore, whilst sitting at the grave of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Webster of the 33d Regiment, June, 1812. 

Thy war cry is done, in the stillness of death; 

The trumpet's shrill sound, or morning's first breath, 

Alike are unheeded by thee. 
Thy last pang is o'er, and that spirit so high, 
Which rose all on fire when danger was nigh, 

From care and from pain is set free. 

Wild and chill blow the winter winds over thy grave. 
And loud wars the stream as it dashes its wave 

At the foot of the hill where ye lay; 
Night's stillness is broke by the wolf's savage howl, 
Respondent, the low solemn note of the owl, 

Till silenced by wakening day. 

Though far from thy home, and no mother's dear hand 
Dressed thy wound, and then tenderly tightened the band. 

Or wiped the death damps from thy brow — 
O'er thy grave waves the pine, and the firefly's lamp 
Burns around it the brighter in darkness and damp. 

And hallows thine ashes e'en now. 

Brave foe of my country, and pride of thy race. 
Who the red glare of battle so oft looked in the face. 

Whiles thou cheered up thy faltering band, 
Accept from the son of thy foeman a tear, 
A Hail! to thy spirit, if lingering near, 
A sepulchre raised by his hand. 
Bellefont, June, 1812. A. Mooee. 




C Regent Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter D. R.) 

In 1663 King Charles II granted to eight noblemen of his 
court a tract of land reaching from the northern shores of 
Albemarle Sound to the St. John's River, in Florida, and 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. A small strip 
extending from the north shore of Albemarle Sound to the 
southern boundary of Virginia was not included in this 
grant, but nevertheless the lords proprietors, of whom Gov- 
ernor Berkeley, of Virginia, was one, assumed control over 
this section, and in 1663 these noblemen authorized Berke- 
ley to appoint a governor to rule over this territory, whose 
ownership was a disputed question for several years. 

In 1665 this Albemarle region, as it came to be called, 
comprising the four ancient counties, Currituck, Pasquotank, 
Perquimans and Chowan, had become very valuable on ac- 
count of the rich plantations established therein by such 
men as George Durant, of Perquimans, and Valentine Byrd, 
of Pasquotank, and the lords proprietors, as the ownership of 
Carolina were called, begged the king to include this strip 
of land in their grant. This the king did, ignorant of the 
vast extent of the territory which he had already bestowed 
upon the lords. 

William Drummond, whom Berkeley, of Virginia, had 
appointed to govern this Albemarle country, came into Caro- 
lina in 1664 and assumed the reins of government. To as- 
sist him in his arduous duties, the lords authorized 'Berkeley 
to appoint six of the most prominent men in the new settle- 
ment to form what came to be known as the governor's coun- 
cil. This body of men, with the governor, acted for many 


years as the judicial department of state, and also corre- 
sponded to what is now the Senate chamber in our legislative 

That the liberty loving pioneers in Carolina might feel 
that they were a self-governing people, every freeman in the 
settlement was to have right of membership in the General 
Assembly, which was to meet yearly to enact the laws. After 
the governor, councilors and the freemen or their deputies 
had passed the laws, a copy of them was to be sent to the 
lords for their consideration. Should they meet with the ap- 
proval of the proprietors they went into effect ; if not, they 
were null and void. 

In the fall of 1664, Governor Drummond began organizing 
the government of his new province. And on February 6th, 
1665, the "Grand Assembly of Albemarle," as these early 
lawmakers styled themselves, met to frame a set of laws for 
this Albemarle colony. 

The place chosen for the meeting of this first legislative 
body ever essembled in our State, was a little knoll overlook- 
ing Hall's Creek, in Pasquotank County, about a mile from 
Nixonton, a small town which was chartered nearly a hun- 
dred years later. 

ISTo record of the names of the hardy settlers who were 
present at this Grand Assembly has been handed down to 
us, but on such an important occasion we may be sure that 
all the prominent men in the Albemarle region who could 
attend would make it a point to do so. 

Governor Drummond and his secretary, Thomas Wood- 
ward, were surely there ; George Durant, Samuel Prick- 
love, John Harvey, all owners of great plantations in Perqui- 
mans, doubtless were on hand. Thomas Pelfe, Timothy 
Biggs, Valentine Byrd, Solomon Poole, all large landowners 
in Pasquotank, must have been present ; Thomas Jarvis, of 
Currituck, and Timothy Biggs, of Chowan, may have repre- 


sented their counties. And all, the dignified, reserved Scotch 
governor, his haughty secretary, the wealthy, influential 
planters and the humble farmers and hunters must have felt 
the solemnity of the occasion and recognized its importance. 

We may imagine the scene. Under the spreading boughs 
of a lordly oak, this group of men were gathered. Around 
them the dark forest stretched, the wind murmuring among 
the pines, and fragrant with the aromatic odor of the spicy 
needles. At a little distance, a group of red men, silent 
and immovable, some with bow and arrow in hand, leaning 
against the trees, others sitting on the ground, gazed with 
wondexing eyes upon the pale-faces assembled for their first 
great pow-wow. 

Down at the foot of the knoll the silver waters of the creek 
rippled softly against the shore, on its waters the sloops of the 
planters from the settlements near by, here and there on its 
bosom an Indian canoe moored close to its shores. 

As to the work accomplished by this first Albemarle As- 
sembly, only one fact is certain, and that is, the drawing up 
by the members of a petition to the Lords Proprietors, beg- 
ging that these settlers in Carolina should be alloM^ed to hold 
their lands on the same conditions and terms as the people 
in Virginia. The Lords graciously consented to this peti- 
tion, and on the 1st of May, 1668, they issued a paper known 
to this day as the Deed of Grant, by which land in Albemarle 
was directed to be granted on the same terms as in Virginia. 
The Deed was duly recorded in Albemarle, and was pre- 
served with scruplous care. 

There is a tradition in the country that the assembly also 
took steps for preparing for an Indian war then threatening, 
which broke out the following year, but was soon suppressed. 

Doubtless other laws were enacted such as were necessary 
for the settlement, though no record of them is extant. And 
then the business that called them together having been 


transacted, and the wheels of government set in motion, these 
early lawmakers returned home, to manor honse and log 
cabin, to the care of the great plantations, to the plow and 
the wild, free life of the hunter and trapper ; and a new gov- 
ernment had been born. 

There seems to be no doubt in the minds of such historians 
as Colonel Saunders, Captain Ashe, D. H. Hill, Martin, 
Wheeler, et al., that the first Albemarle assembly did con- 
vene in the early spring of 1665. As for the day and the 
month, tradition alone is our authority. An old almanac 
of Henry D. Turner's gives the date as February 6, and in 
default of any more certain dates, this was inscribed upon 
the tablet which the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter Daughters 
of the Revolution have erected at Hall's Creek church. 

As to the statement that the place marked by the tablet 
was the scene of the meeting of our first assemblymen, tradi- 
tion again is responsible. But such authorities as Captain 
Ashe and various members of the State Historical Commis- 
sion accept the tradition as a fact. And old residents of 
Nixonton assert that their fathers and grandfathers handed 
the story down to them. 

An extract from a letter from Captain Ashe, author of 
Ashe's History of ISTorth Carolina, to the regent of the local 
chapter Daughters of the Revolution may be of interest here: 

"Yesterday I came across in the library at Washington this entry, 
made by the late Mrs. Frances Hill, widow of Secretary of State 
William Hill: 'I was born in Nixonton, March 14, 1789. Nixonton is 
a small town one mile from Hall's Creek, and on a little rise of 
ground from the bridge stood the big oak, where the first settlers of 
our county held their assembly.' " 

Other documents in possession of the regent of our local 
chapter Daughters of the Revolution, go to show that the 
place and date as named on the tablet at Hall's Creek are 


authentic, and that Pasquotank County may claim with truth 
the honor of having been the scene of the first meeting of 
"The Grand Assembly of Albemarle." 

The Biographical Sketches will be continued in the April 


Concerning the Patriotic Society 

"Daughters of the Revolution" 

The General Society was founded October 11, 1890, — and organized 
August 20, 1891, — under the name of "Daughters of the American 
Revolution"; was incorporated under the laws of the State of New 
York as an organization national in its work and purpose. Some of 
the members of this organization becoming dissatisfied with the 
terms of entrance, withdrew from it and, in 1891, formed under the 
slightly differing name "Daughters of the Revolution," eligibility to 
which from the moment of its existence has been lineal descent from 
an ancestor who rendered patriotic service during the War of Inde- 

" ^e North Carolina Society " 

a subdivision of the General Society, was organized in October, 1896, 
and has continued to promote the purposes of its institution and to 
observe the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Membership and Qualifications 

Any woman shall be eligible who is above the age of eighteen 
years of good character, and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who 
(1) was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of 
the Continental Congress, Legislature or General Court, of any 
of the Colonies or States; or (2) rendered civil, military or naval 
service under the authority of any of the thirteen Colonies, or of 
the Continental Congress; or (3) by service rendered during the 
War of the Revolution became liable to the penalty of treason 
against the government of Great Britain: Provided, that such an- 
cestor always remained loyal to the cause of American independ- 

The chief work of the North Carolina Society for the past eight 
years has been the publication of the "North Carolina Booklet," a 
quarterly publication of great events in North Carolina history — 
Colonial and Revolutionary. $1.00 per year. It will continue to 
extend its work and to spread the knowledge of its History and 
Biography in other States. 

This Society has its headquarters in Raleigh, N. C, Room 411, 
Carolina Trust Company Building, 232 Fayetteville Street. 


Vol. XII 

APRIL, 1913 

No. 4 


North Carolina Booklet 










My Great Aunt and " Carolina " - - - 

By Jaques Busbee 

North Carolina After the Revolution - - - - 

By Mrs. Georgia Worth Martin 

Enfield Farm, Where the Culpepper Rebellion Began 

By Catherine Albertson 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt 




$1.00 THE YEAR 

Entered at the PostoflSce at Raleigh, N. C, July 15, 1905, under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1879. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XIII of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1913. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Miss Maby Hilliabd Hinton. 


General William Lee Davidson Major William A. Graham 

Captain James Iredell Waddell Captain S. A. Ashe 

Christmas at Buchoi, a North Carolina Rice Plantation, 

Miss Rebecca Cameron 

A Review of the History of the University of North Carolina, 

Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 
Battle of Roanoke Island. 

New Year Shooting — An Ancient German Custom, 

Major William A. Graham 
Fisheries in North Carolina. 

An Old Graveyard in the Historic Town of Hillsboro, 

Miss Anna Alexander Cameron 

The Ku Klux — Part III Professor J. T. Alderman 

Notes on Carolina Heraldica Miss Mary HilUard Hinton 

Nathaniel Macon. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina's History, will appear 
hereafter in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will print abstracts of wills prior to 1800, as sources 
of biography, history, and genealogy. Mrs. M. G. McCubbins will 
contribute abstracts of wills and marriage bonds in Rowan County 
to the coming volume. Similar data from other counties will be 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt has consented to edit the Biographical Sketches 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XIII are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XII for sale. 

Vol. XII APRIL, 1913 No. 4 


floRTH CflHoiiiNfl Booklet 

^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heaven" s blessings attend her! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.** 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developinj and preserving 
Nortli Carolina History. Tlie proceeds arising from its publication 
will be dovoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 


Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mb. R. D. W Connor. Mb. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Miss Mary Hilliakd Hinton. 






honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

recording secretary: 

Mrs. clarence JOHNSON. 

corresponding secretary: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 





custodian of relics: 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent, 
DeGraffenried Chapter Mrs. Charles Sloveb Hollister, Regent. 

Foundee of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER. f 

Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. hill, Sr.* 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Regent 1906-1910: 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12, 1904. 
fDied November 25, 1911. 


"^v ^'-'dMr, 



Where He Wrote " Carolina," and Where He Died. 

( From a pen drawing by Jaques Busbee.) 


Vol. XII APRIL, 1913 No. 4 



She is very old uow, mj great aunt, Louisa jSTora Taylor ; 
and she sits with folded hands and faded vision in the room 
which she has been unable to leave for thirty-seven years. 
Aunt Lou has always been upstairs as far back as I can rec- 
ollect. Only on very warm afternoons she pushes her little 
chair (with great difficulty) out on the balcony; for she is 
very lame. 

We always said "The Balcony" as though it was a verita- 
ble Babylonian Hanging Garden. When the flowers from 
the greenhouse were carried upstairs by Aunt Lou's faithful 
old servant, Sally Williams, it was an event. Aunt Lou 
sat in her room and called out directions: "Sally, put the 
red hibiscus in the centre of the front railing, and put the 
two pots of calla lilies on either side. What is it you have 
brought up now? Well, put the red geraniums next the 
calla lilies, and bring up the tenellas next." 

It was most exciting. I ran up and down stairs with 
small pots of apple geraniums and Chinese primrose, pale 
and spindly from their winter quarters ; and Aunt Lou 
would call out as I passed her door, "Jaques, don't strain 

How she loved flowers ! For thirty-seven years her room 
has never been without them. She loved even vegetable 
blooms. Sometimes I'd bring her a squash bloom and ask 
her to guess what it was, and she would say, "Oh,' isn't it 
beautiful ? I have not seen one in years — not since I was 
lame." Sometimes it would be an okra flower. But Aunt 
Lou could always guess; you couldn't fool her. 


How could we have lived without Aunt Lou ! After 
breakfast when Sally Williams had cleaned up her room 
(just so many beats for the mattress and so many shakes 
for the feather bed, so many wipes for the mirror and so 
many cans of water for the flower pots on the balcony) we 
went up to Aunt Lou for our lessons: "Reading without 
Tears" and ciphering, and for the girls who came along later 
the rudiments of plain sewing. 

In the evening, that dreary interim between the time it is 
too late to play out of doors and too early for supper (a 
joyous and welcomed time for us) Aunt Lou would read 
aloud to us, in her wonderfully sympathetic and dramatic 
voice. Sometimes it would be extracts from the "Arabian 
Nights" or Hans Christian Anderson's fairy tales. Some- 
times we wept over the stories from Mary de Morgan's "On 
a Pincushion." 

It never occurred to us to feel sorry for Aunt Lou when 
we were playing out of doors and she was singing all alone 
up in her room. She knew so many songs. She could sing 
anything. She often sang the "Old ISTorth State." 

"I sang it when I was a girl, but people don't sing it quite 
right now," she would say. "You mustn't rise on the last 
notes. I know, for I was the first person who ever sang it." 

But I liked some other songs she sang much better — "Of 
Late, So Sweetly Blowing, Lovely Eose," "Yes, it Comes at 
Last," "Lily Dale," and best of all 

"She sat by the door one cold afternoon 
To hear the wind blow and to look at the moon, 
So pensive was Kathleen." 

All this, however, is not the point at which Aunt Lou 
touches peripheries with State history. Ever so long ago 
she was a little girl, to whom for her body God made the 
amende honorable, and gave a voice — a clear, wonderful 
voice which she used with an unconscious birdlike sponta- 


neity. Now and again some older man says to me, "You 
should have heard Miss Lou Taylor raise the tune in the 
Presbyterian church and lead the choir, in the days when 
church organs were unknown in Raleigh." 

Of course I knew that Aunt Lou had been the first to sing 
the "Old North State" and that William Gaston had written 
it, but I had not listened with sufficient attention to remem- 
ber the details ; and &o I went to her to hear again the origin 
of the song. 

As I entered Aunt Lou's room, the Preacher was just 
leaving and she was telling him with circumstantial detail 
about her recent illness ; of how I had nursed her and had 
sent in all haste for the doctor whom she declared she would 
not see. 

"Of course I sent for a doctor," I put in. "When a 
woman who is eighty-nine years old takes her bed for the 
first time in thirty years, even though it be but a bad cold, 
it is high time to have a doctor." 

"You did perfectly right," the Preacher made answer, 
and then said good morning. 

As he closed the door — "Don't you volunteer to tell my 
age, sir," said my great-aunt. "It's none of your business. 
Keep your mouth shut unless you are asked point blank and 
then of course you could not tell a lie." 

And just here I came near losing the story I started out 
to tell. 

"But Aunt Lou, what about the way in which the 'Old 
North State' came to be written ?" said I, ignoring her fem- 
inine rebuke. 

"Oh, there is nothing to tell. Don't you remember? I 
was thirteen years old. We all went to the Town Hall to 
hear some Tyrolean singers. You know the State House 
was burned in June, '31, and the new building was not fin- 
ished. Concerts and the like used to be held in Com- 


mens Hall, but this was in some hall on Fayetteville street 
about where the present market stands. Uncle Gaston took 
mother, brother James and me, and I think Fanny Birdsall 
went too. 

"Jaqnes, you are so stupid ! Fanny Birdsall was Mr. 
Birdsall's daughter. He played beautifully on the flute and 
was clerk in the State Treasurer's office. He got us the 
music, before they left town, from the four brothers who 
sang the air — but that was afterwards. 

''How do I know? It was all sung in German or some 
foreign tongue. At any rate I remembered one tune I 
thought very pretty, and next day was singing it and picking 
out an accompaniment on the piano when Uncle Gaston came 
into the parlor. 

"Yes, the very same piano that was in the parlor before I 
was lame. 

"Uncle Gaston said, 'Lou, that's a very pretty piece of 
music you're singing. What is it ? You heard it last night 
at the concert ? 'Twould make a nice national anthem or 
State Hymn.' And mother said, 'Uncle, couldn't you write 
some verses to fit that tune V 

"Yes, Jaques, I'd give them to you if I could find them, 
but they have been lost for a long time. I must have sent 
them to Isabel. Isabel Donaldson ? Why she is Uncle 
Gaston's own granddaughter. Have you taken good care of 
those other verses I gave you that Uncle Gaston wrote for 
mother's scholars to sing on Mayday ? 

"Years later, Mary Devereux, you know I mean Mary 
Bayard Clarke, borrowed them to publish in a book she got 
up called 'Wood ISTotes.' But let me tell you about the song. 

"Uncle came in from his office in the yard twice during 
the morning to see if he had the metre all right. When he 
came to dinner he had a paper in his hand. 'Lou,' he said, 
'sing this over to see if the words fit the tune.' So Anne 


(your dear gi-andmother) played an accompaniment on the 
piano and I sang it over and Uncle Gaston made two or three 

'' 'That's first rate/ said Uncle Gaston. 'Eliza/ he said 
to mother, 'you must teach your scholars to sing it.' 

''When Fanny Birdsall came around with her guitar we 
sang it over together. Fanny sang a beautiful alto. She 
also played exquisitely on the guitar. Afterwards, when 
Mr. Birdsall got the notes from the Tyroleans, we found 
that I had remembered the tune almost exactly. 

"Mrs. Lucas, who boarded with Mrs. Stephen Haywood, 
taught her singing class in mother's school the new State 
Hymn ; and Uncle Gaston seemed very much pleased. 

"Mrs. Lucas ? Jaques, you are so stupid ! Mrs. Mary 
J. Lucas was Miss Susan Stuart's aunt. Yes, of course, 
that makes her Peter Casso's daughter. Oh, that was before 
my day. Peter Casso kept the tavern in front of the State 
House. Yes, it was on the corner of Fayetteville and Mor- 
gan streets on the east side of the street. He died when 
mother was a girl. 

"Don't interrupt me. ISText we sang Uncle Gaston's song 
at a church sociable. I sang the air, Fanny Birdsall sang 
the alto, and Mrs. Lucas' singing class sang the chorus. Af- 
terwards, so many people wanted the notes that Mrs. Lucas, 
who gave music lessons and could write music, set it down 
and sent it to the North to have it published. 

"After that, everybody sang it. ISTowadays they won't 
sing it right. When they come to 'forever' they go up two 
notes and that is wrong. They should hold the same note 
and go up just one note at the end. But everybody seems 
to do as they please nowadays. They care nothing for old 

Raleigh, N. C. March 17, 1913. 




The time that North Carolina was out of the Union, the most criti- 
cal period of her existence. — Jones. 


1782 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1784 Richard Caswell Lenoir 

1787 Samuel Johnston Chowan 

1789 Alexander Martin (again) Guilford 

1792 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

Cornwallis has surrendered. The English troops have 
been withdrawn from the country. Valley Forge, with its 
terrible suffering; Guilford Court House with its streams 
of blood ; and the mad rush to victory at Crown Point, where 
two companies of North Carolinians formed the forlorn 
hope,^ are left behind us. They are part of the price our 
fathers paid for the liberty which seems as natural to us as 
the air we breathe. 

But it was left us as a birthright, to be Avatched carefully, 
and guarded jealously — for it was bought with blood. 

From the day that the Barons forced King John to sign 
the Magna Charta, to the day when the men of Mecklenburg 
declared themselves independent of the Brittish Crown, our 
race has rebelled against tyranny. 

And now after centuries of struggle and bloodshed, the last 
bond that held us to an ancient monarchy is broken, and we 
have cast aside the iron hand that would reach across the sea 
and strangle Liberty. For the first time the Anglo-Saxon 
stands absolutely free to govern himself; and the whole 
world looks on to see how he will work out his destiny. 

It is the year 1Y82. Alexander Martin sits in the Gov- 

'Moore's School Hist., p. 122. 


ernor's seat. The Treaty of Paris has been signed, and the 
soldiers have returned to ravaged fields, and a land that has 
been for years the scene of a fierce and cruel civil strife,-^ 
between the Whigs and Tories. But, great in peace as in 
war, they begin at once the work of building up their shat- 
tered fortunes, and bringing order out of this confusion. 

Civil law resumes its sway, and might is no longer 
right. Equity jurisdiction is established by act of the Leg- 
islature, and Morganton is made a judicial district." 

North Carolina, restless and turbulent under foreign rule, 
becomes peaceful and law-abiding under the rule of her own 
people.* And now arises the question of pay for the sol- 
diers. There is very little money, even for the current ex- 
penses of the government; so the lands of refugee Tories are 
ordered to be sold, the proceeds to be used for paying the 
troops ; and commissioners are appointed to sell them. The 
State lands lying west of the Alleghany Mountains are also 
largely devoted to this purpose.* 

The people now devote themselves to cultivating their 
fields, and in developing the system of self-rule embodied 
in the Halifax Constitution of 1776. 

So passes the year 1783. 

1784 comes, and with it a new Grovernor, Richard Caswell, 
who is, according to Nathaniel Macon, one of the most pow- 
erful men that ever lived in this or any other country.^ 

This year also brings a call upon the generosity of the peo- 
ple. The General Government, sorely embarrassed by the 
war debt, proposes that those States owning vacant lands 
shall throw them into a common stock to be used in paying 
the common debt.** 

iCaruthera, Vols. 1 and 2. Wheeler, p. 104. 

2 Wheeler, p. 104. 'Bancroft, 2-158. 'Moore's School Hist., p. 148. 'Cotton, Life of 
Macon, p. 178. 'Wheeler, Series I, p. 92. 


l^orth Carolina, considering herself bound in honor to 
assume part of this debt, responds at once, and the General 
Assembly at Hillsboro cedes to the Federal Government all 
the land lying west of the Alleghany Mountains not already 
granted to the soldiers and the actual settlers.^ 

The Government, however, does not accept this magnifi- 
cent gift, and the act authorizing it is repealed October, 

But the offer to part with the land seriously endangers the 
peace of the young State. 

The sturdy pioneers of the western territory, having with 
many hardships reclaimed the land from the savage Indian, 
view with much suspicion the act of 1784.^ They send a 
messenger to the General Government asking that North 
Carolina's gift be accepted, and when the Government fails 
to take advantage of the offer, and the cession act is repealed, 
they determine to throw off the rule of I^orth Carolina, and 
form a State of their own. 

Therefore, in December of this year (1784) a Convention 
meets at Jonesboro, and forms a Constitution for the State 
of Frankland.^ This Constitution is ratified by a later 

The year 1785 opens, and John Sevier, formerly a brave 
soldier of the Revolution, is chosen first Governor of 
Frankland. Other ofiicers, both civil and military, are ap- 

IsTow the General Assembly of Frankland informs the 
Governor of North Carolina that the people of the counties 
of Washington, Sullivan and Greene (East Tennessee) have 
declared themselves independent of North Carolina. 

Governor Caswell at once issues a proclamation denounc- 
ing the whole movement as unlawful, and warns the people 
of Frankland that North Carolina will put down this revolt, 
even at the expense of blood. 

» Moore, p. 191. 'Wheeler, Series I, p. 92. 'Wheeler, Series I, p. 93. 


But the State of Frankland does not heed this warning, 
and proceeds to erect new counties, levy taxes, and exercise 
all the powers of a sovereign State. 

Money is scarce in the new State,^ so that the taxes are 
paid in "good flax linen ; good, clean beaver skins ; raccoon 
and fox skins; bacon, tallow, and good whiskey." 

This gives rise to some humor at the expense of Frankland, 
it being said that the Governor and judges were paid with 
fox skins, and the sheriff and constables with mink skins. 

Yet even this primitive currency is extensively counter- 
feited by sewing raccoon tails to opossum skins, opossum 
skins being worthless and abundant, and raccoon skins having 
a price fixed by law. 

Meantime the General Assembly of North Carolina meets 
at jSFew Bern and passes an act to bury in oblivion the con- 
duct of the Franklanders, provided they return to their alle- 
giance. They next direct that elections shall be held for 
members to the Assembly of ISTorth Carolina, and appoint 
civil and military officers for the revolting territory. 

1786 presents a strange state of affairs. Two states are 
extending authority at the same time over the same territory 
and the same people. Courts are held by both governments, 
and militarj" officers are appointed by both to exercise the 
same powers. As a necessary consequence public opinion 
is divided. While many favor the new government there 
are others who are still loyal to the old. These last are led 
by Colonel Tipton. 

Violence is practiced by one party, and replied to with 
greater violence by the other. A hand to hand fight between 
the leaders of the factions, Colonel Tipton and Colonel Se- 
vier is an example readily followed by the adherents of each, 
and brawls between the members of the opposing parties are 
of common occurrence. 

1 Wheeler, p. 94. 


Taxes are imposed by both Governments, and the people, 
pretending that they do not know to whom to pay them, do 
not pay them at all. 

Affairs have reached a crisis in Frankland for want of 
money, and in 1787 the Legislature meets for the last time 
and authorizes the election of two representatives to attend 
the Legislature of l^orth Carolina. The people also send 
members to the General Assembly, thus acknowledging the 
authority of J^orth Carolina. 

The property of Governor Sevier is levied on, he is arrested 
for resisting the law, and is carried to Morganton; but is 
allowed to escape on account of his services during the Revo- 

The Assembly of 1788 at Fayetteville passes an act of 
general oblivion and pardon to all concerned in the revolt, 
except John Sevier, who is debarred from all offices of trust, 
honor, or profit. So great a favorite is Sevier with the peo- 
ple, however, that in 1789 he is elected to represent Greene 
County in the Assembly. Such is the sense of his worth 
that the Legislature repeals the act disqualifying him from 
office, and on his taking the oath of allegiance he is allowed 
his seat.^ 

On the 25th of February, 1790, a deed for the western 
territory is executed to the United States in the words of the 
cession act, and in April, of the same year, Congi'ess accepts 
the deed, and Tennessee is bom. 

In September Governor Martin announces by proclama- 
tion that he has received from the Secretary of State for the 
United States a copy of the act of Congress accepting the 
cession, and the inhabitants of the district in question 
"would take due notice thereof, and govern themselves ac- 

In the meanwhile (1787), Samuel Johnston, of Chowan 

1 Moore's Hist., p. 153. « Wheeler, p. 97. 


is elected Governor. It is to his unwearied perseverance 
and zeal that we owe the adoption of the Federal Constitu- 

Now the question of the future government of the States 
occupies the minds of all. Many favor a powerful central 
government, while others fear to part with too much of the 
liberty so dearly won. 

A Convention of all the States is called to meet in Phila- 
delphia. To this Convention ISTorth Carolina sends as dele- 
gates, Colonel Davie, ex-Governor Martin, Eichard Dobbs 
Spaight, and William Blount.^ 

At Hillsboro, July 1788,^ a Convention meets to consider 
the Constitution proposed by the Philadelphia Convention. 

Many leading men urge its immediate ratification while 
others oppose it on the ground that the powers reserved to 
the States are not sufficiently guarded. Debates* run high 
concerning it and the populace of the country are divided in 
their opinions. It is said by some that if Sylla and Caesar, 
each in his turn, found ways and means * * * to hew 
his way to an imperial throne, how much easier may it be 
for a president of the United States to establish himself on 
a throne here * * * provided with sovereign power 
for the term of four years at once, and eligible to the same 
again at the expiration of that time ; invested with sole com- 
mand of the army * * * the way is in a manner open 
and plain before him * * * should he aim at sover- 
eign power. 

The convention,^ by a great majority adopts the view that 
the rights of the States are not sufficiently guarded, and re- 
fuses to ratify the Constitution, except on condition of cer- 
tain amendments. 

The spring of 1789 sees the government of the United 

iJones' Defense, p. 288. ^wheeler, p. ... 'Moore, p. 155. ^Old letter, 1787. sMoore, 
pp. 155, 156. 


States going into operation, George Washington being the 
first President of the Eepublic. 

Alexander Martin is elected Governor of North Carolina 
for the second time, and in November a nev^ Convention 
meets at Fayetteville and ratifies the Federal Constitution ; 
the first ten amendments having been proposals to the Leg- 
islatures of the different States for ratification ; thus remov- 
ing the obstacle that had prevented its adoption at Hillsboro 
the year before. 

The capital of the State-^ had been migrating from one 
town to another almost the whole of North Carolina's exist- 
ence, and the Governor and his assistants lived where best 
suited them. The public records, also, had been moved many 

But now the seat of Government is limited to some point 
in Wake County, and during Governor Martin's second term 
(1792) a large tract of land is bought and the city of Raleigh 
laid off. 

Schools are being founded in different parts of the 
State, though in some the studies are limited to Latin and 
English grammar, and the Latin and Greek languages.^ 

The Halifax Constitution declared that "all useful learn- 
ing shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more 
universities." Accordingly, in 1Y89, the University of 
North Carolina is established by incorporating Samuel John- 
ston and others Trustees; and in 1792 the Trustees locate the 
Institution at Chapel Hill, in Orange County. Eleven hun- 
dred acres of land are conveyed to the Trustees by the citi- 
zens of the neighborhood.^ 

The first native North Carolinian to hold the office of 
Governor is Richard Dobbs Spaight, who is elected in 1792.* 

The close of the year 1792 finds our State growing in 
wealth and prosperity. vSchools are springing up; the differ- 

1 Moore, p. 159. 2 Old letter. 'Wheeler, p. 117. 1 Moore, p. 160. 


ent churches are extending their bounds. The country is 
becoming more thickly settled and thirteen^ new counties 
have been formed. Self-rule is no longer an experiment, 
and ISTorth Carolina stands among her sister states with a 
history unstained by cruelty and oppression, and a record 
that demands a prominent place in the history of our coun- 
try; for it was within her borders that the first American 
manifesto was made against the encroachments of power ;^ 
and it was her free people who first declared themselves in- 
dependent of foreign rule. 
IToblesse oblige ! 

"Heaven's blessings defend her!" 

> Wheeler, p. 6. 2 Williamson, Vol. 1, p. 263. 




Some tM'o or three miles south of Elizabeth city on the 
banks of the Pasquotank river, just where that lovely stream 
suddenly broadens out into a wide and beautiful expanse, 
lies the old plantation known in our county from earliest 
days as Enfield Farm, sometimes Winfield. 

It is hard to trace the original owners of the plantation, 
but the farm is probably part of the original patent granted 
in 1663 by Sir William Berkeley, one of the Lords Proprie- 
tors, to Mr. Thomas Eelfe, "on account of his bringing into 
the colony fifteen persons and paying on St. Michael's day, 
the 29th of September, one shilling for every acre of land." 

On this plantation close to the river shore, was erected 
about 1670, according to our local tradition, the home of 
the planter, two rooms of which are still standing and in 
good preservation. Possibly "Thomas Relfe, Gentleman," 
as he is styled in the colonial records, was the builder of this 
relic of bygone days, whose massive brick walls and stout 
timbers have for so long defied the onslaughts of time. 

Many are the stories, legendary and historical, that have 
gathered around this ancient building. Among the most 
interesting of the latter is that connected with the Culpepper 
rebellion, an event as important in North Carolina history 
as Bacon's rebellion is in the history of Virginia. 

The cause of Culpepper's rebellion dates back to the pass- 
ing of the navigation act by Cromwell's Parliament, when 
that vigorous ruler held sway in England and over the Amer- 
ican colonies. This act, later broadened and amended, fi- 
nally prohibited the colonists not only from importing goods 
from Europe unless they were shipped from England, but 


forbade the use of any but English vessels iu the carrying 
trade; and finally declared that inter-colonial trade should 
cease, and that England alone should be the market for the 
buying and selling of goods on the part of the Americans. 
Naturally the colonies objected to such selfish restriction of 
their trade, and naturally there was much smuggling carried 
on wherever and whenever this avoidance of the navigation 
acts could be made in safety. 

To none of the thirteen colonies were these laws more in- 
jurious than to the infant settlement on the northern shore 
of Albemarle Sound in Carolina. The sand bars along the 
coast prevented the establishment of a seaport from whence 
trade could be carried on with the mother country. The 
large, English built vessels could not pass through the shal- 
low inlets that connect the Atlantic with the Carolina inland 
waterways. To have strictly obeyed the laws passed by the 
British Parliament would have been the death blow to the 
commerce and to the prosperity of the Albemarle settlement. 
So, for about fifteen years after George Durant bought his 
tract of land on Durant's ISTeck from Ivilcokanen, the great 
chief of the Yeopims, the planters in Albemarle had paid 
but little attention to the trade laws. The Proprietors ap- 
pointed no customs collectors in the little colony, and had 
not considered it worth their while to interfere with the 
trade which the shrewd ISTew Englanders had built up in 

Enterprising Yankee ship-builders, realizing their oppor- 
tunity, constructed staunch little vessels which could weather 
the seas, sail over to Europe, load up with goods necessary 
to the planter, return and glide down the coast till they found 
an opening between the dreaded bars, then, slipping from 
sound to sound, carry to the planters in the Albemarle region 
the cargoes for which they were waiting. 


Another law requiring payment of an export tax on to- 
bacco, then the principal crop of the Albemarle section, as 
it was of Virginia, was evaded for many years by the settlers 
in this region. Governors Drummond and Stevens, and 
John Jenkins, president of the council, must have known of 
this disregard of the laws, both on the part of the Yankee 
skippers and the Albemarle planters. But realizing that 
too strict an adherence to England's trade laws would mean 
ruin to the colonists, these officers were conveniently blind 
to the illegal proceeding of their people. 

But after the organization of the board of trade in London, 
of which four of the Proprietors were members, the rulers 
of Carolina determined to enforce the laws more strictly 
among their subjects in far-away Carolina. Sir Timothy 
Biggs, of the Little River settlement, was appointed surveyor 
of customs and Valentine Byrd, of Pasquotank, collector of 
customs, with orders to enforce the navigation acts and other 
trade laws, so long disregarded. 

There was violent opposition to this decision of the Lords, 
as was to have been expected, but finally the settlers were 
persuaded to allow the officers to perform their duty. Val- 
entine Byrd, himself one of the wealthiest and most influen- 
tial men in Albemarle, was by no means rigid or exacting 
in collecting the tobacco tax, and for several years longer, 
though the laws were ostensibly observed, numerous ways 
were found to evade them. The colonists, however, were 
by no means satisfied, for though they were successful in 
avoiding a strict adherence to the laws, and in continuing 
their trade with J^ew England, still the fact that the hated 
acts were in force at all was to them a thorn in the flesh. 

Matters soon reached a crisis, and the smouldering feeling 
of resentment against the Proprietors broke out in an open 
rebellion. In 1676 the Lords appointed Thomas Eastchurch 
governor of Albemarle and Thomas Miller collector of cus- 


toms for that settlement. Both of these men, who were 
then in London, had previously lived in Albemarle and in- 
curred the enmity of some of the leading men in the settle- 
ment, Eastchurch especially being in bad repute among the 

In 1777, Eastchurch and Miller departed from London 
to take up their duties in Carolina. Stopping at the Island 
of ISTevis on their way over, Eastchurch became enamored 
of the charms (and the fortune) of a fair Creole who there 
abode, and dallied on the island until he succeeded in win- 
ning the lady's hand. And Miller, whom Eastchurch ap- 
pointed as his deputy in Carolina, continued on his way 
alone. When he reached Albemarle the people received him 
kindly and allowed him to fill Eastchurch's place. But no 
sooner had he assumed the reins of government than he be- 
gan a rigid enforcement of the trade and navigation laws. 
Of course, the planters resented his activity in this direction 
and most bitterly did they resent his compelling a strict 
payment of the tobacco tax. Possibly, however, no open 
rebellion would have occurred had not Miller proceeded to 
high-handed and arbitrary deeds, making himself so obnox- 
ious to the people that finally they were wrought up to such 
an inflammable state of mind that only a spark was needed 
to light the flames of revolution. 

And that spark was kindled in December, 1677, when 
Captain Zachary Gilliam, a shrewd New England ship-mas- 
ter, came into the colony in his little vessel "The Carolina," 
bringing with him besides the supplies needed by the planters 
for the winter days at hand ammunition and firearms which 
a threatened Indian uprising made necessary for the safety 
of the settlers' homes. 

On board the "Carolina" was George Durant, the first 
settler in the colony, and the acknowledged leader in public 
affairs in Albemarle. He had been over to England to con- 


suit the Lords Proprietors concerning matters relating to the 
colony, and was returning to his home on Durant's Neck. 

Through the inlet at Ocracoake the "Carolina" slipped, 
over the broad waters of Pamlico Sound, past Roanoke Is- 
land, home of Virginia Dare, and into Albemarle Sound. 
Then up the blue waters of the Pasquotank she sailed with 
"Jack ancient flag and pennant flying," as Miller indignantly 
relates until she came to anchor, at Captain Crawford's 
landing, just oil the shore from Enfield Farm. 

Gladly did the blufi; captain and the jovial planter row 
ashore from their sea-tossed berths. Many were the friendly 
gTeetings extended them, both prime favorites among the 
settlers, who came hurrying down to Enfield when the news 
of the "Carolina's" arrival spread through the community. 
Eager questions assailed them on every side concerning news 
of loved ones in the mother country ; and a busy day did 
Captain Gilliam put in, chaffering and bargaining with the 
planters who anxiously surrounded him in quest of long 
needed supplies. 

Durant, though doubtless impatient to proceed as quickly 
as possible to his home and family in Perquimans, neverthe- 
less spent the day pleasantly enough talking to his brother 
planters, "Valentine Bryd, Samuel Pricklove, and others, and 
all was going merrily on as a marriage bell when suddenly 
Deputy Governor Miller appeared on the scene, accused 
Gilliam of having contraband goods on board and of having 
evaded the export tax on tobacco when he sailed out of port 
with his cargo a year before. A violent altercation arose, in 
which the planters, with few exceptions, sided with Gilliam, 
who indignantly (if not quite truthfully) denied the charges 
brought against him. 

Miller at last withdrew, muttering imprecations and threats 
against Gilliam, but about ten o'clock that night he returned 
with several government officials, boarded the "Carolina" 


and attempted to arrest both Gilliam and Durant. The 
planters, among whom were Valentine Byrd, Captain Craw- 
ford, Captain Jenkins and John Culpepper, hearing of the 
disturbance, anxious for the safety of their friends, and 
fearing lest Gilliam should sail away before they had con- 
cluded their purchases, came hurrying in hot haste to the 
rescue. Eowing swiftly out to the little vessel they quickly 
turned the tables on the governor and his officials; and to 
their indignant surprise, Miller and his men found them- 
selves prisoners in the hands of the rebels. Then the insur- 
gents, with John Culpepper, now the acknowledged leader of 
the revolt, at their head, rowed ashore to the landing with 
their captives ; and in the old house at Enfield, on a bluff 
near the bank of the river — so goes our local tradition — the 
angry and astonished governor was imprisoned. 

Then the revolutionists proceeded to "Little River Poynte," 
probably the settlement which afterwards grew into the town 
of E"ixonton, and seized Timothy Biggs, the surveyor and 
deputy collector of customs, who had been wringing the to- 
bacco tax from the farmers. Then breaking open the chests 
and the locks, they found and took possession of Miller's 
commission as collector of customs and returned to Enfield, 
where they locked Biggs up with Miller in Captain Craw- 
ford's house. 

For two weeks the deputy governor and the deputy col- 
lector were kept close prisoners at Enfield. The revolution- 
ists in the meanwhile drew up a document known as "The 
Remonstrance of the Inhabitants of Pasquotank," in which 
they stated the grievances that had led them to take this high 
handed manner of circumventing Miller and Biggs in their 
tyrannical proceedings. This "remonstrance" was sent to 
the precincts of Currituck, Perquimans and Chowan, and the 
planters, following the example of their neighbors in Pas- 
quotank rose in insurrection against the other collectors of 


the hated customs and export tax, and arrested and deposed 
the collectors. 

At the end of a fortnight the insurgents decided to take 
Miller and Biggs to George Durant's home in Durant's 
!Neck. So the prisoners were taken on board one of the 
planters' vessels; and down the Pasquotank, into the sound, 
and a short distance up Little River, the rebels sailed, accom- 
panied bj several vessels filled with armed men. As they 
passed the ''Carolina," that saucy little ship which, as Miller 
afterwards indignantly reported to the Lords Proprietors, 
"Had in all these confusions rid with Jack, Ensign, Flag and 
pennon flying," just off the shore from Enfield saluted Cul- 
pepper, Durant and their companions by firing three of her 

Arrived at Durant's home, where some seventy prominent 
men of the colony had assembled, the revolutionists proceeded 
to establish a government of their own. John Culpepper 
was appointed Governor, an assembly of eighteen men was 
elected, a court convened before which Miller and Biggs were 
brought for trial on a charge of treason. But before the 
trial was ended Governor Eastchurch, who had arrived in 
Virginia while these affairs were taking place, sent a proc- 
lamation to the insurgents commanding them to disperse 
and return to their homes. This the bold planters refused 
to do, and in further defiance of Eastchurch the new officials 
sent an armed force to prevent his coming into the colony. 

Eastchurch appealed to Virginia to help him establish his 
authority in Carolina; but while he was collecting forces for 
this purpose he fell ill and died. Durant, Culpepper, Byrd 
and their comrades were now masters in Albemarle. 

The interrupted trials were never completed. Biggs 
managed to escape and made his way to England. Miller 
was kept a prisoner for two years in a little log cabin built 
for the purpose at the upper end of Pasquotank, near where 


the old brick house now stands. In two years' time Miller 
also contrived to escape, and found his way back to the 
mother country. 

For ten years the Albemarle colony prospered imder the 
wise and prudent management of the officers whom the peo- 
ple had put in charge of affairs without leave or license from 
lord or king. But finally Culpepper and Durant decided 
of their own accord to give up their authority and restore the 
management of affairs to the Proprietors. An amicable set- 
tlement was arranged with these owners of Albemarle, who 
realizing the wrongs the settlers had suffered at the hands of 
Miller and his associates, made no attempt to punish the 
leaders of the rebellion. John Harvey was quietly installed 
as temporary governor until Seth Sothel, one of the Propri- 
etors could come to take up the reins of government him- 

So at Enfield Farm, now the property of one of Pasquo- 
tank's most successful farmers and business men, Mr. Jeph- 
tha Winslow, began a disturbance which culminated a hun- 
dred years later in the revolutionary war; and here, in em- 
bryo form, in 1677, was the beginning of our republic — "a. 
government of the people, for the people, by the people." 



Compiled and Edited bt Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

( Ne6 Miss Georgia Bryan Worth.) 

The article entitled "North Carolina, 1782-1793," was 
written bj Miss Georgia Bryan Worth, of the Fayetteville 
Seminary, and it is reproduced in this issue of The Book- 
let for its accuracy of historical data. 

Mrs. Martin was the daughter of Mr. John M. Worth 
(now dead) and his wife Mrs. Josephine Bryan Worth, the 
daughter of Josiah E. and Sarah Hodges Bryan, of Pender 
County, iST. C. She was granddaughter of Mr. Joseph Ad- 
dison Worth and Mrs. Fatima (Walker) Worth, long resi- 
dents of Fayetteville, ]Sr. C. She was born and reared in 
Fayetteville and educated in the Fayetteville Seminary 
where the facilities for education were unusually good. She 
was devoted to the study of history, especially that relating 
to her own State. She was a musician of ability, and was 
the organist of St. John's Church for four years. She was 
married to William Mortimer Martin in June, 1902. She 
died in August, 1905, leaving two children. 

Mrs. Martin's antecedents were of pioneer stock on her 
maternal side. She was descended from John Evans who 
emigrated to America with William Penn and was Governor 
of the Colony when Penn returned to England in 1682 and 
he was Proprietary Governor of Pennsylvania in 1704. She 
was also a descendant of Caleb Pusey, one of the founders 
of Pennsylvania. She is a direct descendant of Col. ISTeed- 
ham Bryant, the Revolutionary Patriot of North Carolina, 
who served at the Battle of Alamance in 1771, and afterwards 
was a member of the Provincial Congress, ISTew Bern, Au- 


gust 25, 1774. On her paternal side she is descended from 
three signers of the Mayflower Compact of 1620 — Carver, 
Howland and Tilly. 

This Compact was an agreement or covenant or cooperative 
act, from which was to spring not only a stable government 
for the little Colony, but a great series of Consitutions for 
free States. 



Swannanoa ( poem ) 3-5 

From North Carolina Reader. 

Union County and the Old Waxhaw Settlement 6-20 

By Robert Ney McNeely. 

The Masonic Revolutionary Patriots of North Carolina 21-40 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Diary of George Washington 41-52 

A Partisan Leader in 1776 53-58 

By Miss Rebecca Cameron. 
Rowan County Wills 59-62 

By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins. 

Biographical and Genealogical Sketches 63-64 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Elizabeth Maxwell Steel: Patriot 68-103 

By Dr. Archibald Henderson. 
Palmyra in the Happy Valley 104-130 

By Mrs. Lindsay Patterson. 
The Forest (poem) 135 

By R. F. Jarrett. 
The Forests of North Carolina 136-157 

By Collier Cobb. 
Marriage Bonds of Rowan County 158-161 

By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins. 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda 162-170 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Illttstbations : 

Mrs. Steel Presenting Specie to General Greene. 

Tablet at Salisbury, N. C, set up on site of Elizabeth Max- 
well Steel Tavern. 

Nathaniel Greene. 

King George III. 

Inscription on back of picture of King George III. 

Queen Charlotte. 

Elizabeth Steel presenting a bag of gold to General Greene. 

Palmyra in the Happy Valley. 

General Edmund Jones. 

General and Mrs. Samuel Patterson, and their son, Rufus 
Lenoir Patterson. 
John Motley Morehead: Architect and Builder of Public 

Works 173-192 

By R. D. W. Connor. 

Address of Presentation 193 

By J. Bryan Grimes. 
Address of Acceptance 194 

By J. Y. Joyner. 

A Sprig of English Oak 195-202 

By Miss Rebecca Cameron. 
The First Albemarle Assembly, Hall's Creek, Near Nixonton. 203-207 

By Miss Catherine Albertson. 
My Great Aunt and "Carolina" 211-215 

By Jacques Busbee 
North Carolina After the Revolution 216-223 

By Mrs. Georgia Worth Martin. 
Biographical Sketches: Mrs. Georgia Worth Martin 232-233 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Enfield Farm, Where the Culpepper Rebellion Began 224-231 

By Miss Catherine Albertson. 



Concerning^ the Patriotic Society 

''Daughters of the Revolution*' 

The General Society was founded October 11, 1890, — and organized 
August 20, 1891, — under the name of "Daughters of the American 
Revolution"; was incorporated under the laws of the State of New 
York as an organization national in its work and purpose. Some of 
the members of this organization becoming dissatisfied with the 
terms of entrance, withdrew from it and, in 1891, formed under the 
slightly differing name "Daughters of the Revolution," eligibility to 
which from the moment of its existence has been lineal descent from 
an ancestor who rendered patriotic service during the War of Inde- 

'' 'Pre North Carolina Society '' 

a subdivision of the General Society, was organized in October, 1896, 
and has continued to promote the purposes of its institution and to 
observe the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Membership and Qualifications 

Any woman shall be eligible who is above the age of eighteen 
years of good character, and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who 
(1) was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of 
the Continental Congress, Legislature or General Court, of any 
of the Colonies or States; or (2) rendered civil, military or naval 
service under the authority of any of the thirteen Colonies, or of 
the Continental Congress; or (3) by service rendered during the 
War of the Revolution became liable to the penalty of treason 
against the government of Great Britain: Provided, that such an- 
cestor always remained loyal to the cause of American independ- 

The chief work of the North Carolina Society for the past eight 
years has been the publication of the "North Carolina Booklet," a 
quarterly publication of great events in North Carolina history — 
Colonial and Revolutionary. $1.00 per year. It will continue to 
extend its work and to spread the knowledge of its History and 
Biography In other States. 

This Society has its headquarters in Raleigh, N. C, Room 411, 
Carolina Trust Company Building, 232 Fayetteville Street. 


North Carolina State Library 


1 '<\u.^, / ' ' .