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Vol. XIII JULY, 1913 No. 1 


floHTH CflHOIilNfl BoOJ^IiET 

^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.'^ 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be dovoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 


Mrs. Hubeet Haywood. De. Richaed Djxlaed. 

Mes. E. E. Moffitt. De. Kemp P. Battle. 

Me. R. D. W Connoe. Me. James Speunt. 

De. D. H. Hii-l. Me. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Me. W. J. Peele. Majoe W. A. Geaham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. De. Chaeles Lee Smith. 

Miss Maetha Helen Haywood. 

Miss Maey Hilliaed Hinton. 






honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

recording secretary: 


corresponding secretary: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 



custodian of relics: 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albeetson, Regent, 
General Francis Nash Chapter .... Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent 
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent. 

Founder of the North Caeolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 

Mes. spier WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 

Mes. D. H. HILL, Se. 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Regent 1906-1910: 
Mes. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12, 1904. 
tDied November 25, 1911. 


Vol. XIII JULY> ins No. I 



(Regent General Francis Nash Chapter Daughters of the Revolution.) 

Mj grandfather lived on a rice plantation on the Cape 
Fear River in the section known as "The ]^eck," a region 
noted for open-handed hospitality^ wealth, refinement, and 
culture. He owned a large number of negToes and was an 
amiable, easy-going master, much more interested in litera- 
ture than in rice planting, and preserving in his daily life 
many of the habits of his English ancestors. 

The Chr*istmas holidays on his plantation lasted from 
Christmas Eve — always a half-holiday — until the Yule log 
burnt in two after ISTew Year's Day. The first work done 
in the jSTew Year was the selection by the negroes of the Yule 
log, or, as they called it, the "Christmas back-log," for the 
next Christmas fire. 

The driverf marshaled a gang of the best axe hands, and 
down they went into the swamp to select the biggest, knot- 
tiest, most indestructible cypress tree that could be found, 
which was felled with great ceremony, while the hands 
chanted a part of the "Coonah" song: 

Christmas comes but once a year. 

Ho rang du rango! 
Let everybody have a share. 

Ho rang du rango! 

When the tree was cut down the butt end of the stock was 
measured the length of the hall fireplace "up to de gret 

'Published in The Ladies' Home Journal, Christmas, 1891. 

tOne of the negroes who was selected by the overseer as a superintendent of the work- 
ing force or " field hands. " 


house/' and cut or sawed off, then hauled down to the canal 
and anchored, where it would get thoroughly water-logged 
during the ensuing twelve months. 

The object of this was to keep it from being burnt out too 
soon, for as long as the Yule log burned the whole plantation 
force had holiday. 

A day or two before Christmas the back-log was hauled to 
the house and given a bed in the sand, so that the surface 
water could drain off. Christmas morning, the moment the 
first misguided fowl "crowed for day," the back-log was car- 
ried into the great holly-wreathed hall, the massive brass 
andirons were dragged forward on the wide, ample hearth, 
a bed of wet ashes was carefully prepared, and the huge log 
laid on it ; and then an artistic fire of fragrant, resinous light- 
wood and seasoned oak was built up against it, and the revels 
had begun. 

The week before Christmas — ah ! what a deliciously busy 
md expectant season it was. 

The fanners* full of eggs that were carried into the store- 
room, gave promise of endless puddings, pies, and cakes ; 
while sundry tantalizing whiffs that were borne to us when- 
ever we ranged near the door, and, who could keep away ? — 
made us all long with childish eagerness to shorten the days. 

Busy days they were indeed. Holly and mistletoe had to 
be wreathed for the hall, dining room and ball room. Candle 
papers were to be cut and dipped in melted spermaceti. Cake 
papers of most elaborate desigTi, were to be originated by 
aunt's artistic fingers. All the china, silver and glass had to 
be washed and polished ; all the finest, oldest, oddest things in 
the house replenishing were brought out to do honor to the 
great festival. 

The linen closets were ransacked and dozens of the finest 

* Fanners were large square split baskets, holding about two-and-a-half bushels, and 
were for carrying rough rice from the fans to the mortars. 


damask cloths and napkins sent down to the hall closets. Re- 
lays of sheets, pillow-cases, blankets and counterpanes were 
put into readiness for the impromptu beds that were going to 
be made up wherever there was room for a man to stretch 

Christmas eve came at last and found the house filled with 
guests. We children were scrubbed within an inch of our 
lives, so as to be clean for Christmas, mammy well knowing 
the impossibility of getting one of us to consent to the daily 
bath next morning. Then there was a great flitting abont to 
hang up the stockings, and mammy must take notice just 
whose stocking it was that hung at the foot of the bed, and 
whose hung on either side of the fire-place, and on the bureau 
knob; while mammy's own stocking, by universal consent, 
was given the best place in the room, and hung on a chair 
right before the fire-place. Then we were tucked into bed, 
quite sure we would lie awake to see Santa Claus, but only 
rousing when, at 4 :00 o'clock, the horn at the quarters blew 
a long, clear blast, and we felt the door shake as the men 
staggered through the hall passage with the great back-log. 

By the time our stockings were emptied and examined, 
grandpa, fully dressed, had come out of his room into the 
hall, where the servants had set out all the materials for 
making egg-nog on a gigantic scale. A fanner of fresh eggs, 
great dishes of sugar, and the claret of liquors. When the 
eggs were beaten to the required degree, viz. : until the yolks 
were the color of rich cream and the whites adhered steadily 
to the dish when it was turned upside down, the whole was 
put together in the gigantic china punch-bowl, relic of an- 
cestral feastings across seas in "ye olde countrie," I would 
not dare to say how many eggs, or how much brandy and rum 
went into the concoction of that bowl of egg-nog. 

When it was pronounced right a waiter of glasses was 


filled and handed 'round to the assembled company, and then 
''the stand" — a great circular, claw-footed mahogany table — 
was lifted out on the wide front piazza, the flaming sconces 
were lighted, and the egg-nog bowl, surrounded by pyramids 
of tumblers, placed upon it. The driver, lurking somewhere 
in the shadows, began to beat a furious tatoo on the drimi, 
and, as if by magic, all at once the house was surrounded by a 
sea of torch-bearing negroes, all the hands from the quarters, 
who had come over to wish "ole master" a happy Christmas, 
and to receive from him a glass of egg-nog apiece. 

My grandfather knew every one of his negroes, big and 
little, by name, and his greeting was always personal to each. 
They came up in couples, according to age and dignity, and 
the unvarying formula was : "Sarvant Master ; merry Christ- 
mas to you, an' all de fambly, sir!" "Thank you. Jack; 
merry Christmas to you and yours!" 

The "drinking Christmas" is at last ended; the negroes 
returned to the quarters, and after breakfast reassembled 
again to "git Christmas," as they phrased it. All the fam- 
ily gathered on the front piazza, which was strung with hamp- 
ers filled with all sorts of things for Christmas gifts. Grandpa 
invariably gave money, fifty cents in silver, to the men, a 
quarter to the women, and a shilling and sixpence, respect- 
ively, to "the chaps" (half-grown boys) and little children, 
who, in plantation parlance, were called "the trash gang." 
The ladies distributed the contents of the hampers. Gloves, 
comforters, Madras handkerchiefs, printed cotton handker- 
chiefs, balls, tops, knives, pipes, shawls, aprons, cravats, caps, 
hoods, all sorts of things that experience had taught their 
owners the negroes most delighted in. Barrels of apples and 
great waiters piled up high with gingerbread and cakes, were 
divided out, until the last little bow-legged tot had been made 


From the piazza in a straight line to the store-room filed 
all the negro women who were wives, "to draw Christmas," 
which meant getting an extra allowance of meat, rice, molas- 
ses, coffee, sugar, flour, dried fruit, and anything of the sort 
they chose to ask for, to make their holiday feasting. The 
week before there had been a great hog killing, so that fresh 
pork would be in abundance for every cabin" at the quarters. 
Then everywhere revelry had full swing. The gentlemen, 
headed by "ole Master," went deer hunting, with a pack of 
hounds and out-riders, returning to "a great dining dinner," 
a special phrase that seemed to heighten the magnitude of the 
feast to the negroes. 

The evening closed with a dance in the ball-room. Uncle 
Eobin, dressed in my great-grandfather's regimentals, and 
looking supremely absurd, was the head fiddler, and a re- 
markably fine one, too. It was delightful to watch him as- 
cend the musicians' stand, bowing with great ceremoniousness 
to the friendly greetings of the neighborhood gentry, from 
whom he was quite sure of a perfect shower of gold and 
silver pieces in the pauses of the dance. "Big Ben" and 
"Cousin Hannah's Ben," who played second and third fiddle 
to the old autocrat, followed with due humility behind him, 
quite certain of as many reproofs from him as they got quar- 
ters from the young gentlemen. The banjo player was a 
unique — a great, big, heavy, awkward-looking fellow, black 
imtil he looked blue — and a typical negro ; the very last man 
on the plantation that you would have suspected of having a 
note of music in him, but just give him a banjo ! Dan tuned 
languidly, with half-shut eyes, struck a note or two to test the 
strings, and then — if you had one note of dancing blood in 
your veins you belonged to him till he chose to stop. 

All the negroes came over to the house "to look on," and it 
would have been hard to tell which half of the company — 


those indoors or out — had the merriest time. Somewhere 
about midnight there was a general distribution of hot apple- 
toddy and rum-punch, and after that came the Virginia reel, 
and the ball was ended. 

The second day after Christmas the John Coonahs* began 
to make their appearance. Some time in the course of the 
morning an ebony herald, breathless with excitement, would 
project the announcement : ''De John Coonahs comin' !" and 
away flew every pair of feet within nursery precincts. 

There they come sure enough ! A long, grotesque jDroces- 
sion, winding slowly over the hill from the quarters ; a dense 
body of men (the women took no part in it, save as specta- 
tors) dressed in the oddest, most fantastic garb, representing 
birds and beasts and men, ragged and tattered, until "ragged 
as a Coonah" was a common plantation simile ; with stripes 
and tatters of all sorts of cloth, in which white and red flan- 
nel had a conspicuous part, sewed all over their clothes in 
tufts and fringes. "They were, indeed, a marvelous spectacle. 
Rude imitations of animals' heads, with and without horns, 
hid some faces ; pasteboard masks covered some, while 
streaks and spots of red, white and yellow paint metamor- 
phosed others, and immense beards of horse hair or Spanish 
moss, were plentiful. 

The leader — for there seemed to be some regiilar organi- 
zation among them, thoug'h I could never piersuade any 
negro to explain it to me — was the most fantastic figure 
among them all. A gigantic pair of branching deer horns 
decorated his head ; his arms, bare to the elbows, were hung 
with bracelets thickly set with jingling bells and metal rings; 

•I have been unable to discover the origin of the Coonahs and do not know in how 
many of the Southern States they were known. My impression is that the custom waa 
introduced into South Carolina by the slaves who accompanied Governor Sir John Yea- 
mans from the Barbadoes, and from there were brought by his descendants into North 
Carolina, when they resettled hie old colony on the Cape Fear River. They were con- 
fined altogether to the low country or tide-water region. The Coonahs were an institu- 
tion principally known on the South Carolina, Georgia and Florida coast, and in New 


similar bells were fastened to the fringes of rags around his 

The banjo, the bones, triangles, castanets, fifes, drums and 
all manner of plantation musical instruments, accompanied 
the procession. One of the Coonahs, generally a small and 
very nimble man, dressed in woman's clothes, and though 
dancing with frantic zeal, never violated the proprieties sup- 
posed to be incumbent upon the wearer of skirts. 

Once before the hall-door the leader snapped his whip with 
a crack like a pistol-shot. Everything stood still for an in- 
stant ; we dared not draw a breath and could hear the tumult- 
uous beating of our hearts as we pressed close to mammy or 

The awful stillness is broken by another resonant crack of 
the whip, and at the instant the whole medley of instruments 
began to play, and, with their first note, out into the open 
sprang the dancers. Those weird, grotesque, even hideous 
creatures embody the very ideal of joyous, harmonious move- 
ment. Faster and faster rings out the wild, barbaric melody ; 
faster and faster falls the beat of the flying feet, never miss- 
ing the time by the space of a midget's breath. One after the 
other of the dancers fall out of line, until only the woman and 
the leader are left to exhibit their best steps and movements. 

About this time one of the dancers, a hideous travesty of a 
bear, snatches a hat off the head of the nearest pickaninny, 
and begins to go around to the "white folks" to gather the 
harvest of pennies with which every one is provided. All the 
while the dance was in progress the musical voice of the 
leader was chanting the Coonah song, the refrain of which 
was taken up by hundreds of voices. 

As the wild chant draws to a close out of the hall door run 
a bevy of white children with laps and hats full of nuts, 
raisins, apples, oranges, cakes and candy, and scatter the 


whole among the crowd. Such a scramble as follows ! The 
last fragment gathered up, all at once the leader cracks his 
whip, and whirls around with his face from the house, and 
the crowd marches to the next plantation. 

Some time during the Christmas week the negroes had a 
grand ball. There was a very large and comfortable servants' 
hall attached to my grandfather's kitchen, and in it the ball 
was held. It was made gay with holly and myrtle boughs, 
myrtle-wax candles in the ball-room sconces lighted the 
scene, aided by the immense silver branch candle-sticks, the 
crowning glory of the great drawing-room. I^or seldom the 
ball was opened by "young master hisself," who danced either 
with his mammy, the driver's wife, or some newly-wedded 

But, meanwhile, the Yule log has been slowly burning out. 
Uncle Tony, coming to mend the fire, discovers that the log 
is only two chunks now. When the family go to dinner he 
will carry one chunk out, extinguish the fire upon it, and lay 
it in the path between the house and the kitchen. The next 
morning he will put it away in the corner of the woodhouse 
to start the next year's Christmas fire. But while it lies in 
the path it is a sign well understood. Over the plantation has 
flown the news: "De back-log done burn in two, an' Cousin 
Tony lay um out !" 

The long merry festival has ended. The negToes will dance 
and frolic all night long, and tomorrow, at daybreak, the over- 
seer's horn will blow; each gang will muster under its head 
man, and the plantation work begin. 



An Address by Major W. A. Graham,* Delivered at the Unveiling 
OF A Monument to General Davidson, Voted by Congress, 
AT the Guilford Battleground, July 4, 1906. 

Mr. President of the Guilford Battle Ground Company, 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Fourth of July celebrations are usually expected to be ac- 
companied witb flights of eloquence and streams of oratory as 
the deeds of our ancestors and the blessings they have secured 
for mankind are brought to memory. Although a century and 
a fourth have elapsed since he of whom I speak to you gave 
his life as a part of the price of the independence of America, 
yet so little history has been written concerning his services 
that a simple memorial oration would be but little understood 
or appreciated by my audience. In order to have true history 
we must first collect the "ana" or account of the individual 
incidents or deeds of the individual. These the annalist 
arranges with reference to date of occurrence and then the 
historian is ready for his work. Comparison of events and 
individuals with panegyrics, etc., follow. Today I come not 
with an oration, but with some "ana," some annals, some his- 
tory concerning my subject, and hope I may furnish a paper 
that will be useful to the writer and student of ISTorth Caro- 
lina history. I fear that many of our people do not appre- 
ciate the claims of the State to the glories and blessings of 
the Fourth of July — hail its coming with joyful acclaim and 
have a just pride in all that concerns it. The men of whom 
you shall hear today rendered their services and gave their 
lives to establish the Fourth of July as an important date in 
the calendars of the nations of the earth. 

* A biographical sketch of the writer of this article appeared in Vol. XI, No. 1. 


Tten while we will never cease to honor the memory of the 
men who followed Lee and his lieutenants in 18 61-' 6 5, let us 
not forget the services of those who followed Washington and 
Greene in 1776-'81, and the blessings they purchased for us. 

In most of the States there are no localities to recall events 
of the Revolution. The oldest inhabitant almost recollects 
the first house or even when the Indians left. The military 
monuments relate almost wholly to the Civil War. And as 
the father tells his son of the hero commemorated, embellish- 
ing with real or imaginary narration, he arouses and perpet- 
uates sectional feeling and keeps alive in the youth animosity 
for a portion of his countrymen. With us it is different: 
this battlefield, Moore' Creek, Charlotte, and the other places 
of revolutionary engagements, are object lessons in teaching 
patriotism. From almost every hill-top in my vicinity we see 
Kings Mountain; it aids in perpetuating the valor of our 
ancestors and encouraging love for the Union. 

During the Civil War, when the body of the heroic grand- 
son was interred by that of the grandfather of Revolutionary 
fame, pride was felt in his conduct and generations will be 
taught to remember it — but there was and has been no lessen- 
ing of the admiration and veneration of the deeds of the 
grand-sire in making America a ISTation. 


Davidson's Creek, having its source a few miles north of 
Mooresville, in Iredell (formerly Rowan) County, flows in a 
southeast direction and empties into the Catawba River 
below Seattle's Ford, in Mecklenburg County. 

Among the families that settled upon the lands of the 
upper portion of the creek prior to the Revolution were those 
of Davidson, Ramsey, Brevard, Osborne, Winslow, Kerr, 
Rankin, Templeton, Dickey, Brawley, Moore, and Emerson. 
They came principally from Pennsylvania and Maryland. 


From the Davidsons the creek derived its name. They were 
generally Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and as was the custom 
of these people, organized themselves into a "congregation" 
for the promotion of religion and education. 

Among the early settlers was George Davidson and family, 
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1750. His young- 
est son, William Lee Davidson, was bom in 1746. He was 
educated at Charlotte at the Academy, which afterwards be- 
came successively Queen's Museum and Liberty Hall, but 
probably attended the Centre Academy prior to coming to 
Charlotte. There is some confusion as to his name — whether 
'^Lee" is properly a portion of it. He appears upon the mus- 
ter rolls under both names. In his will, which is recorded 
in the office of the Clerk of the Superior Court in Salisbury, 
he says: "I, William Lee Davidson," and signs it ''Wm. L. 
Davidson." This settles the question. 

His pension and land grant for services are to William 
Davidson. He is not mentioned in the records as William 
Lee until he becomes lieutenant-colonel, October 4, 1777. So 
in historical matters he is both William and William Lee, 
and can not be restricted to either name. I think Lee was 
the maiden name of his mother, or some of her connection. 
His eldest son was called George Lee. His youngest son, 
bom several months after his death and named for him, was 
called William Lee. 

William Lee Davidson, after reaching his majority, made 
his home prior to his marriage with his cousin. Major George 
Davidson. He married Mary, the eldest child of John Bre- 
vard, and settled on Davidson's Creek at what is now known 
as the McPherson place, and owned afterwards by Hon. 
Rufus Eeid. He also owned the land upon which Davidson 
College is located. It was sold by his son, William Lee, to 
the trustees of the college in 1835. 



In 1783 the Legislature organized the county of Davidson 
and named the county seat E^ashville, in honor of Generals 
Davidson and l^ash. When Tennessee was conveyed to the 
United States this ceased to be a part of JSTorth Carolina, as 
did also Washington, Greene, Hawkins, Sullivan, and Sum- 
ner counties. In 1822 the present county of Davidson was 
formed, as the State desired to honor his name. In 1777 the 
county of ISTash had been organized. 


August 26, 1835, the Concord Presbytery resolved "that 
the manual labor institution which we are about to build be 
called Davidson College, as a tribute to the memory of that 
distinguished and excellent man. General William Davidson, 
who in the ardor of patriotism fearlessly contending for the 
liberty of his country, fell (universally lamented) in the 
battle of Cowan's Ford." 


September 20, 1781, Congress enacted the following reso- 
lution : 

"That the Governor and Council of the State of North Carolina be 
directed to erect a monument at the expense of the United States, not 
exceeding in value five hundred dollars, to the memory of the late 
Brigadier-General Davidson, who commanded the militia of the dis- 
trict of Salisbury, in the State of North Carolina, and was killed on 
the first of February last, fighting gallantly for the defense of the 
liberty and independence of these states." 

This matter was revived in Congress at different times, 
notably by Senator W. A. Graham in 1841 and 1842, and 
attention was called to it at various times by the Society of 
the Cincinnati and private individuals, among them Prof. 
W. A. Withers, of the North Carolina A. and M. College, 
and later by the Guilford Battle Ground Company, and an 


appropriation urged to execute the resolution of 1781, but 
not until 1902, through the labors of Hon. W. W. Kitchin, 
the present worthy Representative from this the Fifth N^orth 
Carolina District, in the House of Representatives of the 
United States CongTess, was an appropriation secured. He 
was materially aided in its enactment by the labors of Colonel 
Bennehan Cameron, who represented the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, and Col. Joseph M. Morehead, the efficient presi- 
dent of the Guilford Battle Ground Company, to whose 
patriotic services much of the work of preserving and adorn- 
ing this historic field is due. By means of this appropriation 
of five thousand dollars, this monument has been erected. 
General Davidson ivas a citizen of Rowan (now Iredell) 
County, and his services are to he credited to that county, and 
not to Mecklenburg, as is sometimes done. 

In 18Jf.8, in his message to the Legislature, Governor Gra- 
ham recommended an appropriation for monuments to Gen- 
erals Nash and Davidson, as Congress had neglected to make 
the necessary provision. In concluding he said: 

"It would be a fitting memorial of the patriotic services and sacri- 
fices of the illustrious dead and a perpetual incentive to the living to 
lead such lives, and if duty demanded it, to devote themselves to 
such deaths for their country." 


The commencement of hostilities in the Revolution was not 
similar to a riot or outbreak where one day there is order and 
law, and the next strife and turmoil. The aspirations of the 
people individually and collectively for liberty and self- 
government were well fertilized by the oppressive conduct of 
officers of the Crown and the unfriendly legislation of Par- 
liament. The approach of the storm was visible and prepe- 
rations were made for its coming. The flouring mills were 
the points where neighbors met. As he communicated his 
ideas of liberty to comrades he sowed seed in fertile groimd. 


or watered that already germinating; tlie work continued 
until the harvest was ripe. The first organizations were in 
captain's ''beats," which were the unit of organization until 
"townships" were introduced in 1868, then by regiment or 
county, then Superior Court districts or brigade, afterwards 
State or Province. 


The first governing bodies were Committees of Safety, and 
were organized in New Hanover, Mecklenburg, Rowan, and 
perhaps other counties, as early as 1773. The county commit- 
tees were generally composed of two representatives from 
each captain's beat. The convention, May 20, 1775, at Char- 
lotte, was probably the Committee of Safety for Mecklenburg 
County. General Graham, in his address at Charlotte, May 
20, 1835, says these committees continued for fifteen years or 

Subsequent to -the Eevolution they usually met after the 
election and framed instructions to Representatives in the 
Legislature, that he received such instruction in 1789 and 
1790 when Senator. That at that time (1835) there were 
laws in existence that had been suggested by these commit- 
tees. The journal of the Committee of Safety of Rowan 
County is preserved as early as August 8, 1774, and shows 
existence before that date. 

William Davidson appears as a member September 23d, 
and was probably one of the members at the organiza,tion. He 
is appointed a member of a committee of twenty-five to see 
that the resolves of the Provincial and Continental Con- 
gresses are observed. This is the first appearance of his name 
upon the records. At the same session he is appointed a 
member of a committee to cite certain persons to appear be- 
fore the Committee of Safety to answer the charge of advanc- 
ing the price of powder. 



August 1, 1775, formation of companies of "minute men" 
is authorized, who shall be ready to respond immediately to 
the call of the committee. At this session he is mentioned as 
captain of militia and ordered to impress some ammunition 
in the possession of John Work. During this month the Pro- 
vincial Congress provided for the organization of the State 
and he is named on the committee for Eowan County. The 
State simply extended the captain's beat and county organi- 
zation, retaining the name of Committee of Safety, except 
for the State, which was called Provincial Council. 

September 20th his militia company is reported as contain- 
ing one hundred and eighteen men. 

October 17, 1775, under the law of the Provincial Con- 
gress, he is elected a member of the Committee of Safety for 
the county of Rowan, the committee being now elected by the 
freeholders and householders of the county. 

i^Tovember 28th he reported a company of minute men as 
organized and a committee is appointed to inspect the com- 
pany and see that it is composed of "able, effective men." 

In December, 1775, he served under General Rutherford 
against the Schovilite tories in South Carolina in the "Snow 
Campaign," probably with his company of minute men ; also 
in the campaign against the Cherokee Indians in the fall of 
1776. (State Records, Vol. XV, p. 113.) 


In August, 1775, ITorth Carolina organized two regiments 
to serve "during the war." In April, 1776, in compliance 
with the act of Congress to furnish nine battalions "to serve 
during the war," four more regiments were organized, which, 
with the two formed the year before, six in all, constituted 
the nine battalions. 


William Davidson was commissioned Major of the Fourth 
Eegiment April 15, 17Y6. 

These troops were designated the "North Carolina Line or 
Continentals," as distinguishing them from the militia, which 
retained its former organization, and was called into service 
by the State authorities for designated terms of service, gen- 
erally three months. This distinction of troops was not ob- 
served by all the States. Massachusetts and the other l^ew 
England States succeeded in having Congress to recognize 
nearly all their troops as Continentals, however short the 
term of enlistment or call to service, and thus had a large 
force recorded as Continentals who did not serve nearly as 
long as many of the l^orth Carolina militia, and the IsTew 
England States thus secured the appointment of a much 
larger number of general officers in the Continental force 
than they were justly entitled to, and obtained for their troops 
the benefit of the acts of the Continental Congress. The 
militia was under control of the State, the Continental, of 

The frequent reduction of General Washington's forces to 
inconveniently small numbers by the return home of many of 
the troops of the Northern States whose short terms of enlist- 
ment would expire, interfered much with its efficiency and 
prevented action of importance to the American cause. 

This New England Continental Army, except the officers, 
was with difficulty kept embodied after Washington assumed 
command during the siege of Boston, owing to short enlist- 
ments, and soon melted away when the British evacuated the 
city in March, 1776. Having had a short military service, 
they returned home to enjoy the comforts of the fireside and 
the appropriations of the Continental Congress. 

In the campaign of 1776 the loss of the State of New 
York and the retreat through New Jersey of Washington 
with his depleted army is attributed to this cause. 


Early in 177Y Congress, in order to remedy this evil, 
ordered the North Carolina brigade to march to reenforce 
the army of the commander-in-chief, and furnish him a force 
that could be depended upon for permanent and efficient 

These troops, under Colonel Martin, Generals Howe and 
Moore, had "seen service" against the Schovilite tories in 
South Carolina; under Major-General Lee in the repulse of 
Clinton and Parker at Charleston, S. C, and against the 
Loyalists of the Cape Fear section. General Moore had died 
in April, 17Y7. General Howe was in command of the De- 
partment of the South. Colonel IsTash was promoted to brig- 
adier general and placed in command. The troops were in 
Charleston as late as February, but before May had assem- 
bled at Halifax and begun the march northward. 

In May, 1777, Col. Alex. Martin, of the Second Regiment, 
writes General Washington that he has reached Alexandria, 
Va., with the advance of the brigade; that nine battalions, 
with a total of forty-five hundred men, had left Halifax as 
reinforcements to his army; that the men who had not had 
smallpox would go into camp (at Georgetown) for inocula- 
tion ; that Major Jethro Sumner would proceed immediately 
with a command of all the immunes. A report of Major 
Sumner's command, ten days later, shows only one hundred 
and sixty men. This would indicate that 4,300 men went 
into camp for inoculation. The number which died can not 
be accurately stated. Governor Graham, in his address upon 
the "Life and Character of General Greene," (December, 
1860), states that "an extensive burial place is still recog- 
nized in that place (Georgetown) as the sepulchre of the 
l^orth Carolina troops who died there of the malady." This 
was twenty years before the discovery of vaccination. The 
disease was communicated by applying the virus from one 


afflicted witli it to the jjatient, and he had a genuine case of 
smallpox. Courage to endure the agonies of this camp was 
greater than that to face the enemy in battle. 

The troops reached Washington's army in June at Middle- 
brook, ]^ew Jersey, and were organized by General l!^ash. 

There is no report of the services of this brigade as a body 
in the campaigns under General Washington. It is only from 
references to service or parts of it by other officers that we 
procure any information. Concerning its action in the battle 
of Germantown in which the brigade was a part of the divis- 
ion of Major-General Greene, Marshall and other historians 
only state that General ISTash was killed. It is known that 
Colonel Irwin and Captain Turner were killed. Colonel Bun- 
combe was mortally wounded and taken prisoner, and Colonel 
Polk wounded. 

General Sullivan, of ISTew Hampshire, in his report to the 
Governor of that State, says a North Carolina regiment, 
under Colonel Armstrong, in conjunction with his own divi- 
sion, had driven the enemy a mile and a half beyond Chew's 
house, before the panic occurred. The ISTorth Carolina bri- 
gade was acting as a unit, and it is possible that this was the 
work of the entire command with Colonel Armstrong con- 
spicuously in the van. Davidson is promoted this date to 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Fifth Regiment. Tradition says 
for gallantry in the action. 

The earliest report of the strength of the brigade on the 
records of the United States War Department is November 
11, 1777, and shows 139 officers and 1,025 men, total 1,156 
present for duty. 

After the battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777, the 
Second and Third regiments were consolidated and were 
called the Second. After the battle of Germantown the First 
and Fourth were merged into the First. The Eighth Battal- 


ion was disbanded, the men in it being transferred to the 
Second Regiment. This would indicate severe loss in the 
I^orth Carolina troops in these actions. 

Davidson appears as Lieutenant-Colonel of the First in 
1777 and 1780. In May, 1778, Congress ordered the con- 
solidation of the l^orth Carolina troops into full battalions 
and that the officers not needed to command these battalions 
should return to ISTorth Carolina to command the four addi- 
tional regiments to be furnished by the State. Moon's Creek, 
near the Virginia line, in Caswell County, on the old plank 
road, about midway between Danville, Va., and Yanceyville, 
!N^. C, and Halifax were named as points of rendezvous for 
the troops; and commissioners sent to these points to desig- 
nate the officers of the respective commands. A church of 
the Primitive Baptists, called by the name, now marks the 
locality of Moon's Creek encampment. The whole to assem- 
ble at Bladensburg, Maryland. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Davidson assumed command of those 
who met at Charlotte, being joined on the march by volun- 
teers from other points. On reaching Moon's Creek news of 
the battle of Monmouth was received ; that the British had 
gone to 'New York and there was no urgent need of reinforce- 
ments. Many of the men from western ISTorth Carolina took 
furloughs until again called to service. There was consid- 
erable dissatisfaction and some mutinous conduct on the part 
of some of the officers and men as to payment of bounty and 
fixing a definite time for service to commence. This was to 
be after passing the State's border. 

July 18th Colonel Thackston writes Colonel Hogan about 
sending the paymaster at once to Colonel Davidson's relief, 
concerning which he (Davidson) had written him. Colonel 
Davidson assumed command of those who continued in serv- 
ice and after these disagreements were settled, moved to 


Bladensburg to join the contingent that had assembled at 
Halifax, and thence to Washington's army. They remained 
with this army until November, 1779, when the N'orth Caro- 
lina Continental Brigade was ordered to reinforce General 
Lincoln at Charleston. 

In May the Legislature had requested the brigade to be 
sent south. Congress replied that this was impracticable in 
the summer, but it would be done in the fall. The brigade 
then numbered seven hundred and thirty-seven efficient men. 
It arrived at Charleston in March. Colonel Davidson having 
obtained, en route, a furlough to visit his family, did not 
report at Charleston before it was encompassed by the enemy 
and thus escaped capture at the surrender. 

The muster rolls of the Continental Line show that the 
field officers of a regiment each had a company, the captains 
being omitted in organization of such companies. In Vol. 
XIV of the State Records, page 294, there is the roll of 
Lieutenant-Colonel W. L. Davidson's company on April 23, 
1779. It contained, after leaving the smallpox camp, sixty- 
two men ; nineteen of these had died, nine were in the hos- 
pital, and thirty-two present for duty, a death rate of thirty- 
one per cent., of dead and disabled and forty-seven per cent. 
The brigade suffered severely in the service with General 

It served in Pennsylvania, ]S[ew Jersey, and ISTew York, 
going as far north as West Point (one of Davidson's men 
died at West Point) ; fought in the battle of Monmouth and 
shared in all the hardships of this memorable epoch of the 
war in that section. 

The State was to supply the clothing, the national govern- 
ment the rations ; the officers to purchase both for themselves. 
Both officers and men suffered severely, the arrearage of pay 
causing the officers to see even ^^harder times" than the men. 


as is shown bj coiTespondence with the State authorities. A 
letter from General Lockton Mcintosh to Governor Caswell 
from the camp at Valley Forge, states that no troops suffered 
more in the intensely cold winter of l777-'78 than did those of 
North Carolina in Washington's army. 

In this service, although we see but little recorded mention 
of Colonel Davidson, the esteem in which he was held by his 
comrades and others familiar with military movements, 
shows that he was among the most efficient officers of the 

I have never seen a report subsequent to that of Colonel 
Martin in 1777, that returns more than 2,000 men. Of the 
4,500 men who left Halifax in May, 1777, and the reenforce- 
ments sent in 1778, only 737 effective men returned to North 
Carolina in December, 1779. The report for January, 1779, 
shows present 1,339, of whom 448 are sick. The Third Regi- 
ment reports 35 effective out of 464. 


When Lord Rawdon, in May, 1780, began his advance to- 
ward ISTorth Carolina, General Rutherford, who commanded 
the militia of the Salisbury district, i. e., of Rowan, Meck- 
lenburg, Lincoln, Rutherford, Burke, and the counties in 
what is now Tennessee, called his forces into service — some 
for three months, the usual length of a term of service, and 
some for such time as actually needed. 

Colonel Davidson reported to him at Charlotte for duty. 
General Rutherford formed a battalion of light infantry (as 
mounted infantry were then designated) of one hundred men, 
and assigned him to this command. Principally by the aid 
of General Graham's "Revolutionary Papers" we can con- 
nectedly follow his service from this time until death. 

24 the north carolina booklet, 

colson's mill. 
When Lord Eawdon retired to Camden he went with Gen- 
eral Eutherford to Eamsaur's Mill, where they arrived a few 
hours after the conflict had terminated. From here he 
marched with General Eutherford to suppress the Tory 
leader Bryan in the "forks of the Yadkin." The forks of the 
Yadkin, as mentioned in history of this time, was not the 
territory between ISTorth and South Yadkin rivers, but that 
between the creeks east of the Yadkin, mostly in what is now 
Surry County. Bryan, whose force numbered eight hun- 
dred, having learned of the battle of Eamsaur's Mill and 
Eutherford's advance against him, hastily departed to unite 
with Major McArthur on the Pee Dee. Colonel Davidson, 
with his command, which, according to Major Blount's letter 
to Governor ISTash, numbered 160 (Vol. XY, page 6, State 
Eecords), being mounted, was dispatched down the west side 
of the Yadkin to overtake him, but the start he had and the 
celerity with which he moved, enabled Bryan to reach his 
friends without molestation. Learning that a party of Tories 
was at Colson's Mill (now probably Lowder's, in Stanly 
County), near the junction of Eocky and Pee Dee rivers. 
Colonel Davidson, on July 21st, undertook to surprise and 
capture them, but his movements being discerned by the 
enemy, only partially succeeded ; he killed three, wounded 
four, and captured ten. He was severely wounded through 
the loins, attention being probably called to him by his con- 
spicuous uniform; two of his men were also wounded. He 
was carried home, where he remained two months. 


General Eutherford was wounded and captured at the bat- 
tle of Camden, August 16th. Gen. H. W. HarringixDU, of the 
Fayetteville district, was assigned temporarily to the com- 
mand of the Salisbury district. General Sumner having been 


assigned to the command of the militia service other than that 
of the Salisbury district, had Colonel Davidson appointed to 
command the "horse" of his command. On August 31st the 
Legislature appointed Colonel Davidson Brigadier-General of 
militia for the Salisbury district during General Ruther- 
ford's absence, and Major William R. Davie colonel of the 
cavalry. These appointments met with hearty approval in 
the Salisbury district, but General Harrington, being offended 
at the appointment of General Davidson, gave notice of his 
resignation as brigadier-general of militia so soon as the con- 
dition of affairs in his immediate command would admit, 
and on I^ovember 3d tendered it to the Board of War. He 
complained of being deprived of command of the first brigade 
in the State, a deserved compliment to the Salisbury district. 
General Harrington had been an efficient officer and per- 
formed valuable services in the Fayetteville district. There 
was considerable jealousy between the militia and Conti- 
nental officers when thrown in the same command. 

Upon the reception of his commission General Davidson, 
having recovered from his wound, immediately repaired to 
Charlotte and entered upon his duties. He still, however, re- 
tained his commission as lieutenant-colonel in the Continental 
line. The militia were assembling to oppose the advance of 
Comwallis, the rendezvous was at McCalpin's Creek, seven 
miles from Charlotte, on the Camden road. 

When Ferguson moved into Rutherford and Burke coun- 
ties General Davidson ordered a force of militia to assemble at 
Sherrill's Ford to oppose him, the supposition being that Fer- 
guson would cross the Catawba near the mountains and move 
down the Yadkin in order to aid Cornwallis in crossing that 
stream. Colonel Francis Locke, of Rowan, one of the most 
gallant and useful officers of this time, commanded at Sher- 
rill's Ford, and was to be reenforced by Colonel Williams 


with the militia of Surry and other counties. Colonel Locke 
had won the battle at Ramsaur's Mill, three months before, 
when sent bj General Rutherford on similar service. 


The Yadkin had been designated as the place of battle and 
when Cornwallis advanced on the 25th of September General 
Sumner, with his command, immediately moved, not stopping 
until he had crossed at Trading Ford, near where the South- 
ern Railroad now crosses. General Davidson took position at 
Mallard Creek, eight miles from Charlotte, and committed to 
Colonel Davie the opposition of Cornwallis' entrance to Char- 
lotte and Davie in turn committed covering the retreat to 
Adjutant Graham. There seems to have been no intention to 
reenforce the parties engaged in the fight, but each command 
was expected after engaging the enemy, to escape as best he 
could. An account of the gallant fight at Charlotte and the 
Cross Roads would too much enlarge my narrative and is well 
told elsewhere. Cornwallis was awaiting news from FergTi- 
son and did not advance beyond Charlotte. General Sumner 
did not recross the Yadkin ; General Davidson kept his com- 
mand at Phifer's, and by detachments annoyed the expedi- 
tions sent from Charlotte into the adjacent country for pro- 
visions and supplies, and kept Cornwallis in ignorance of the 
movements of his allies. These forays extended entirely 
around Charlotte and there were engagements almost daily, 
the most noted being that at Mclntyre's farm, October 3d. 
The reports of Cornwallis and his officers testify to the gal- 
lantry of the troops and the patriotism of the Mecklenburg 
people in these affairs. While the militia that were called 
into ser^dce to oppose Ferguson were assembling at Sherrill's 
Ford, Colonels Cleveland, McDowell, Sevier, Shelby, Hamp- 
ton, Winston, of IN'orth Carolina, and Campbell, of Virginia, 


of their own accord, were assembling for the same object such 
of their own men as would answer their call. 

When they had assembled about 1,500 men near Gilberts- 
town, Rutherford County, the question as to who was entitled 
to command could not be satisfactorily adjusted, as they were 
all colonels. On October 4th they sent Col. Joseph McDowell 
to General Gates asking for an officer to be sent to command 
the force. The following are extracts from this communica- 
tion, viz. : 

As we have at this time called out our militia without any orders 
from the executives of our different States, and with the view of 
expelling the enemy out of this part of the country, we think such a 
body of men worthy of your attention and would request you to send 
a general officer immediately to take the command of such troops as 
may embody in this quarter. All our troops being militia and but 
little acquainted with discipline, we could wish him to be a gentle- 
man and be able to keep up a proper discipline without disgusting 
the soldiery. 

It is the wish of such of us as are acquainted with Gen. Davidson 
and Col. Morgan (if in service), that one of these gentlemen may be 
appointed to this command. Benjamin Cleveland. 

Isaac Shelby. 

Andrew Hampton. 

William Campbell. 

Joseph Winston. 

The ISTorth Carolina men belonged to General Davidson's 
command, and it is highly probable that he would have been 

In the meantime Colonel Campbell, having individually the 
largest number of men, was given command, and on October 
Yth the enemy was found and the battle of Kings Mountain 
won before a commander was sent. Soon after this General 
Smallwood, of Maryland, who had acted so gallantly at Cam- 
den and had been appointed Major-General or commander of 
the I^orth Carolina militia in service, arrived and assumed 
command. General Sumner was affronted at the appoint- 


ment and retired from service for a time, or until the arrival 
of General Greene. We have at this time quite a chapter of 
dissatisfaction on account of promotions. Harrington vs. 
Davidson, Caswell and Sumner vs. Smallwood, and Small- 
wood vs. Baron Stueben, if he should be placed over him. 

The time for which the militia had been called in service 
expired in J^ovember. General Gates had been relieved of 
the command of the Southern army and his successor, General 
Greene, had arrived at Charlotte December 3d. Early in 
December General Davidson ordered into service another de- 
tail of militia for three months. It seems to have been Gen- 
eral Rutherford's plan to have had his regiments divided into 
"details" to be called into service in succession, while in some 
commands when a call to service was issued, first volunteers 
were called for to fill it, and what was lacking in volunteers 
was obtained by draft. One detail had been sent to Charles- 
ton ; another had been called to meet the first advance of Corn- 
wallis ; now a third is needed to be in readiness when he again 
enters the State. 

Davidson's plan of campaig-n. 

Before the arrival and assumption of command of General 
Greene, November 27th, General Davidson wrote a private 
note to Col. Alex. Martin, suggesting a plan of campaign in 
opposition to Cornwallis : 

note to colonel martin. 

Sib: — By this time you may be acquainted with the position the 
army is to take for the present. In the meantime it appears to me 
that the proper exertion of the militia of my district might greatly 
injure if not totally ruin the British army. I have been deliberating 
on this matter some time and submit my plan to your consideration, 
and hope that you will endeavor to present it or something that will 
be more eligible. My scheme is to send Gen. Morgan to the west- 
ward with his light troops and riflemen; one thousand volunteer 
militia, which I can raise in twenty days, and the refugees from 


South Carolina and Georgia to join, which will make a formidable 
body of desperadoes, the whole to be under Morgan's direction, and 
proceed immediately to Ninety-Six and possess ourselves of the west- 
ern parts of South Carolina, at the same time the main army to 
move down to the wax haws, which will oblige the enemy to divide 
(which will put them quite in our power), or vacate the present 
posts and collect on one point, in which case we can command the 
country, cut off their supplies and force them to retreat and fight 
the militia in their own way. The messenger waits. I have neither 
time nor room to make further observations. I think the scheme prac- 
ticable and certain of success, unless the enemy be reenforced. 
Favor me with your opinion on this matter, and believe me, dear sir, 
Your very obedient and honorable servant, 

Wm. Davidson. 

N. B. — This comes to you in a private capacity. (State Records, 
XIV, p. 759.) 

As General Davidson's troops were all infantry, about Jan- 
uary 1st he proposed to Adjt. Joseph Graham, who had 
already served one term, or three months, although exempt 
for three years on account of nine months' service in the Con- 
tinental line, and who had just recovered from wounds re- 
ceived at Charlotte September 26th, to enlist a body of cav- 
alry, promising him such rank as the number enlisted would 
entitle him to. In a few weeks he had fifty-five men, only 
three of whom were married, embodied, and he was commis- 
sioned captain. 


General Greene, in opposing Cornwallis' second advance 
into iN'orth Carolina, disposed of his forces as follows : Gen- 
eral Huger with the Continentals at Cheraw, S. C, on the 
east; General Morgan with Howard and Col. William Wash- 
ington's cavalry and some ISTorth Carolina militia under 
Col. Joseph McDowell, near Broad river, on the west ; for a 
central force, connecting these and prepared to act with 
either as occasion might require, he relied upon the militia of 
Rowan and Mecklenburg, under General Davidson. The 
militia of these counties from the formation of committees of 


safety until the close of the war, while answering in full pro- 
portion all calls for troops for the line or militia service 
beyond the State, seem to have regarded themselves as always 
ready to answer calls to service in their own locality, claiming 
no exemptions to which any might be entitled on account of 
any previous service. They only asked that the call should 
be for fighting and not for ordinary camp duty; as soon as 
the fight was over they returned home, with or without leave. 
The history of the Revolution shows no history of greater 
valor and patriotism. 

At the battle of Cowpens, January, 1781, General Morgan 
defeated Tarleton, and by death, wounds, and capture de- 
prived Cornwallis of the service of one-fifth of the most val- 
uable of his regular troops. Cornwallis, in his forward move- 
ment, would have to cross the Catawba; arrangements were 
made to annoy and injure him while so doing, and this duty 
was assigned to General Davidson and his l^orth Carolina 
militia. General Greene seems to have had no intention of a 
battle with Cornwallis ; he ordered General Huger, who com- 
manded the Continentals at Cheraw, to retreat to Guilford 
Court House, which he himself proceeded to do, and when he 
joined him there continued his journey across the Dan. 

General Davidson made his arrangements at the respective 
fords on the Catawba River ; pickets of cavalry were placed at 
Tuckaseege, Toole's and Cowan's fords. Col. John Williams, 
of Surry, with two hundred men at Tuckaseege ; Captain 
Potts, of Mecklenburg, at Toole's, with seventy; Lieutenant 
Thomas Davidson, of Mecklenburg, at Cowan's, with twenty- 
five. It was supposed that the crossing would be at Beattie's 
Ford, the best crossing on the river, and on the main line of 
travel in passing through this section. Here were assembled 
the Orange County militia, imder Colonel Farmer, and the 
Mecklenburg under Col. Thomas Polk, and some of the Rowan 


men. General Davidson made his headquarters at this point. 
General Greene having notified him that he desired to see 
General Morgan and Colonel Washington at Seattle's Ford, 
dispatched his brother-in-law, Ephraim Davidson, then only 
a lad, to notify them. On January 31st all parties had arrived 
at the appointed place within ten minutes. After an inter- 
view of half an hour they separated. The enemy appeared on 
the opposite bank during the conference. In The North 
Carolina Booklet for April, 1906, is a detailed account of 
the battle of Cowan's Ford, hence I omit particulars of it. 
General Davidson, by the aid of Graham's cavalry, who fre- 
quently crossed the river, kept well posted as to the position 
of the enemy. General Greene suggested that the appear- 
ance at Beattie's Ford was probably a ruse and that Corn- 
wallis would pass Tarleton over the river during the night at 
some private ford and attack Davidson in the rear at the point 
selected for crossing. Patrols were ordered up and down the 
river between the fords, to be kept moving all night. General 
Davidson, after Greene's departure, remarked to Captain 
Graham that "this was General Greene's first view of the 
Catawba, but he seemed to know as much about it as those 
who were reared on it." 

General Davidson had probably learned through friends 
that Cowan's had been selected as the point of crossing, and 
moved Colonel Polk's force and Graham's cavalry to this 
point, where they arrived after dark and spent the night near 
by. Information received led them to think that the horse 
ford would be chosen as the route for the crossing. This in- 
formation was probably gained from persons who had heard 
the inquiries of the officers as to the fords. The horse ford 
was much the best bottom and shallower water, while the 
wagon ford was not half the length. The horse ford reaches 
the bank a quarter of a mile below the wagon ford. 



General O'Hara, supported by Tarleton, had been chosen 
as the force to cross at Cowan's. The British entered the 
water, O'Hara's infantry in front with poles to steady them- 
selves against the swift current, Tarleton's cavalry following. 
About the time O'Hara moved Webster had his men to go 
into the river at Beattie's Ford and fire their guns, also 
opened with his artillery, made a feint as if he were going to 
cross in order to detract attention from Cowan's. As soon as 
Lieutenant Davidson's pickets discovered the enemy they 
opened fire. They were reenforced by Graham's men, dis- 
mounted, who joined in the firing. General Davidson, hear- 
ing the firing, repaired immediately to Colonel Polk's com- 
mand and ordered them to move up to the wagon ford. He 
directed Captain Graham to give place to Polk's men and to 
mount his men, form on the ridge in the rear and be prepared 
to meet any attack, as General Greene had suggested. The 
enemy reached the bank before many of Polk's men got into 
position, and securing the crossing, immediately loaded and 
advancing up the bank began firing. General Davidson or- 
dered a retreat for one hundred yards down the river. The 
firing became so heavy that his command fell back fifty yards 
farther. He ordered his men to take shelter behind the trees 
and renew the battle. The enemy were advancing in line, 
firing slowly, when General Davidson was shot, being in- 
stantly killed. The infantry immediately dispersed, going 
through the bushes to avoid the enemy's cavalry. Captain 
Graham brought off his command in order. 

General Davidson was shot through the left breast by a 
small rifle ball. As the British carried muskets this is sup- 
posed to have been done by a Tory, who acted as pilot to 
the enemy in crossing the river. The enemy did not discover 
General Davidson's body. They buried the three other 


Americans who were killed at the river, and all of their dead, 
including Major Hall. He fell down the river from the ford 
and thej moved up the river on leaving. General Davidson's 
horse, after he fell, went to the house of Maj. John David- 
son, where Jos. G. Davidson now lives, near Toole's Ford. 
Maj. David Wilson, who was with General Davidson when 
he fell, assisted by his pastor, Rev. Mr. McCaul, and Richard 
Harry, took the body to the residence of Samuel Wilson, 
where it was prepared for burial and that night interred at 
Hopewell church, some three miles away, by torchlight, as 
the night was very dark. It is stated by some writers that 
the body, before recovery, had been stripped of its clothing, 
but this is very improbable. His sword was recovered and is 
now preserved at Davidson College. If the clothing had been 
taken, the sword would not have been left. His gTave is still 
known, although unmarked by memorial stone. Mrs. David- 
son was informed of the General's death at her home some 
eight or ten miles away, and her neighbor, George Temple- 
ton, whose descendants still live in the community near 
Mooresville, accompanied her to the burial. 

Thus at the age of thirty-four years fell one of the most 
useful men that jSTorth Carolina furnished in the struggle for 
independence, after more than six years service in various 
positions, in each of which he met the demands of the occa- 

Light Horse Harry Lee says of him in his "Memoirs" : 

"The loss of Brigadier Davidson would have been always felt 
in any stage of the war. It was particularly detrimental in its 
effects at this period, as he was the chief instrument relied upon 
by Greene for the assembly of the militia, an event all important at 
this crisis and anxiously desired by the American general. The 
ball passed through his breast and he instantly fell dead. This 
promising soldier was thus lost to his country in the meridian of 
life and at a moment when his services would have been highly 
beneficial to her. He was a man of popular manners, pleasing ad- 


dress, active and indefatigable; devoted to the profession of arms 
and to the great cause for which he fought. His future usefulness 
may be inferred from his former conduct. The Congress of the 
United States in gratitude for his services and in commemoration of 
their sense of his worth, passed suitable resolutions." 

He made his will December, 1780, appointing his father- 
in-law, John Brevard, his brother-in-law, Wm. Sharp©, and 
John Dickej executors. Only Dickey and Sharpe acted, and 
in 1783 presented a memorial to the Legislature of the State 
for settlement of amount due for his services. This was 
ordered paid. The matter is again referred to in the session 
of 1790, November 29th, and of 1792. H. J. December 5th. 
When he was appointed brigadier-general of the militia, he 
still retained his j)osition in the "line" as General Rutherford 
would when exchanged, assume the command of the militia. 
In December, 1780, Greneral Sumner was ordered by Con- 
gress to report the supernumerary officers of the Continental 
line who were unnecessary on account of the reduced number 
of the force, and could be dropped. General Sumner, in 
making his report, January 27, 1781, to General Greene, 
regrets that the country is to lose the valuable services of these 
officers. He includes General Davidson in the list, as he 
states, at his request. (State Records, Vol. XV, p. 501.) 

On December 31, 1780, his connection with the ISTorth 
Carolina Continentals ended, but the dropped officers, or 
their widows, were to receive half-pay until seven years after 
the close of the war. (101, Vol. XV.) 


As this paper is intended to be historical, a short notice of 
General Davidson's Brigade after his death is annexed. A 
full account of this is given in General Graham's Revolution- 
ary Papers. They did not conclude that as the enemy had 
left their borders they would return home and leave him to 


the attention of those whom he might next visit, but being 
unable to stop his advance, formed to annoy his rear and 
serve as best they could wherever needed until their term of 
service expired. They assembled at Harris' Mill, on Rocky 
River, the next day and started in pursuit of the enemy. On 
the 11th of February at Shallow Ford they requested General 
Andrew Pickens, of South Carolina, to assume command, as 
there was no general officer of this State present, and Major 
James Jackson, of Georgia, afterwards Governor of that 
State, was appointed brigade major, or as we say now, adju- 
tant-general. There were seven hundred of Davidson's men 
and some thirty or forty refugees from South Carolina and 
Georgia. General Pickens continued in command until the 
expiration of the three months' term of his men, early in 
March, and just before the battle of Guilford Court House. 

General Pickens, being from South Carolina, has caused 
historians to credit these troops to that State. General Pick- 
ens was a brave and efficient commander and his association 
with the ITorth Carolina troops entirely pleasant, but the 
troops were N^orth Carolinians and their service should be 
credited to the State. On February 18th preparations for 
battle were made upon the alarm of "Tarleton is coming." It 
proved to be Light Horse Harry Lee, with his legion, whose 
uniform — dark green — ^was the same as that of Tarleton. 
This was the first intelligence that General Greene had of the 
whereabouts of Davidson's command or that Pickens had that 
Greene had recrossed the Dan. The brigade then served with 
General Greene until the term of service expired early in 
March, participating in the engagement at Clapps, Whitsell 
or Hart's Mills, Pyle's massacre and other points. Some of 
them remained longer but the last departed for home 
March 10. 


A query, concerning which the students of history can em- 
ploy themselves is : whether the seven hundred men of David- 
son's brigade, nearly all of whom had seen service in two or 
three campaigns, would not have been more valuable in the 
battle of Guilford Court House than those of the raw troops 
of Butler and Eaton ; and if it was not a mistake in General 
Greene to defer battle awaiting the arrival of the latter until 
Pickens (or Davidson's) men had been disbanded. 



Pension Office. Book entitled "North Carolina Miscellaneous 
Rolls." Not paged. 

Roll of Lieutenant Col. Davidson's Company on the 23d of April, 
1779: (Copied from Orderly Book of Sergeant Isaac Rowel.) 

First Lieutenant — Edward Yarborough. 

Second Lieutenant — Reuben Wilkerson. 

Sergeant — Isaac Rowel, John Horton, John Godwin. 

Corporal — Jesse Baggett, Dempsy Johnson, James Thorp. 

Privates — Adam Brevard, Samuel Boyd, James Boyd, Uriah Bass, 
Bird, Cornett, Timothy Morgan, Joseph Furtrell, Wm. Grant, Daniel 
Parker, Council Bass, Pifer, Barney Johnson, Richard Sumner, 
Sothey Manly, Booth Newton, Pioneer, Wm. Scott, Pioneer, Lemon 
Land, Waiter, Hardy Short, John Norwood, Joshua Reams, Buckner 
Floyd, Wm. Hatchcock, Solomon Deberry, Thomas Wiggins, Wm. 
Wilkinson, John Wilson, David Journekin, Samuel Davis. 

Left at Hospital — Barnaby Murrel, Drummer, Wm. Moore, Charles 
Gibson, James Robards, Sterling Scott, Waiter, Hardy Portiss, Wm. 
Smith, Isham Jones, Lithro Lane, left at Trenton, Joshua Lewis, 
Robert Monger, Wm. Gray, Jos. Ward, Isaac Gunns, Chas. Thompson, 
John Carter, and James Goodson, died at New Windsor Hospital, 
Maryland; John Feasley, died at West Point; Henry Short and Caleb 
Woodard, at Robertson's Hospital and Matthew Murrel, Andrew 
Rowell, Peter Valentine, Josiah Measley, Benj. Brittle, John Clark, 
John Batliss and John Floyd, at Philadelphia Hospital. (State Rec, 
XIV, page 294.) 


davidson's commission as bkigadiee geneeal. 

State of North Carolina. 
In the House of Commons, 31st August, 1780. 
Mb. Speaker and Gentlemen: 

Whereas from the late captivation of General Rutherford by the 
enemy in South Carolina the militia of Salisbury district is in a 
manner left destitute of a general officer to command them; therefore 
Resolved, That William Lee Davidson be appointed Brigadier 
General of the militia for said district until the return of General 
Rutherford from captivity. Thomas Benbury, 

Speaker Commons. 

In the Senate 31st August, 1780, concurred vrith. 

Alex Martin, 
Speaker Senate. 
council of yfASi. 

At a Council of War held at the camp at New Providence, in the 
State of North Carolina, the 25th of November, 1780, consisting of 
the Commander-in-Chief, Major-General Smallwood, Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Huger, Brigadier-General Morgan, Brigadier-General Davidson, 
Colonel Kosciusko, Chief Engineer, Colonel Buford, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Howard, Lieutenant-Colonel Washington. 

The Council being assembled the Commander-in-Chief acquaints 
them that: The want of provisions and forage in the camp, the 
advanced season of the year, the almost total failure of the herbage, 
the entire want of a magazine of salt meat and the uncertainty of 
providing it, the increasing sickness and the unwholesome situation 
of the camp, the want of any proper accommodation of the sick, the 
want of hospital stores and proper comforts necessary for sick and 
diseased soldiers, the probability of reinforcement being sent from 
the enemy at New York, the invasion of Virginia, and the apparent 
prospect of Sir Henry Clinton's supporting that invasion and com- 
manding a cooperation with Cornwallis, the State and strength of 
the army compared with that of the enemy, and the expediency of 
reinforcement coming to our army are the motives which induced 
him to assemble this Council of War and request their opinion of 
the movement and the position that the army ought to take in the 
present circumstances. 

The Council having fully deliberated upon the matter before them 
and the question being put of what position the troops ought to 
take, whether at or near Charlotte or at the Waxhaws or in the 
neighborhood, the junior member, Lieutenant Col. Washington, gave 
it as his opinion that at or near Charlotte should be the present 


position of the army to which every other member of the Council con- 
sented but Gen. Smallwood, who was for the army's moving to the 
Waxhaws, taking post there for three weeks, and then returning to 

(Signed:) H. Walter Gates. 

W. Smallwood. 
Isaac Htjgeb. 
Daniel Mokgan. 
■ Wm. Davidson. 
Thad Kosciusko. 
("Thadeus of Warsaw.") 


J. E. Howard. 

Wm. Washington. 
— . — . Clovis, Richmond, Sec'y. to Gen. Gates. 

Camp Colo., Phifeb's, October 6, 1780. 
To Gen. Gates: 

The enemy is still confined to Charlotte. The small rifle com- 
panies I have kept hanging upon their lines have been of service in 
checking their foraging parties. They are probably 1,800 strong, 
including those Loyalists they have received recruited in the South- 
ward. Besides these they have some ununiformed tories who follow 
the fortunes of the army; rather a dead weight than a benefit. 

A Col. Ferguson, in the British service, has by a variety of means 
been pernicious to our interests in the west of both the Carolinas. 
There has such a force taken the field against him as will probably 
rid us of such a troublesome neighbor. As the main strength of the 
British in the Southern States seems collected in Charlotte I have 
adopted every measure in my power to annoy them. 

Wm. Davidson. 

October 8th, 1780. 
To Gen. Sumner: 

I have the pleasure to enclose you a large packet of dispatches 
taken yesterday at McCalpin's creek on the way to Camden by a 
small party of my brigade. A detachment of 120 horses under Rut- 
ledge and Dixon almost surrounded Charlotte yesterday, attacked a 
pickquet at Col. Polk's mill and at a certain Mr. Elliott's brought a 
sentry of eight Tories who are now on their way to you. A small 
party of riflemen brought off fifty horses from the Tories at Col. 
Polk's plantation last night. Dixon lost one man killed. 

I have the honor to be, etc., etc., Wm. Davidson. 

(Vol. XIV, p. 644.) 


Camp Rocky Rivee, Oct. 10, 1780. 

Sir: — I have two detachments of Cavalry and Infantry, each on 
the enemy's line. A considerable quantity of powder was secured 
some time ago within four miles of Charlotte, which I knew noth- 
ing of until Sunday evening. 13 cags were brought off that night, 
and the remainder sixteen have this moment arrived safe, which I 
will forward immediately. Pray let me know if his Lordship's 
figures have been deciphered yet. I find he is determined to sur- 
prise me and I am as determined to disappoint him. Inclosed you 
have a draft of the enemy's lines which was sent to me by Col. 

P k, whilst a prisoner. I believe it may be depended on. Col. 

Davie is very poorly. I am etc., etc., 

Wm. Davidson. 

N. B. — Gen. Graham in an address at Charlotte, May 20, 1835, says 
this powder had been moved from Camden to Charlotte in the fall 
of 1779, and was guarded by the students of the Academy; that when 
there was expectation of the enemy advancing several of the signers 
of the Mecklenburg Declaration on a day agreed upon came with 
sacks in which they filled the powder and conveyed it to places of 
safety, they appeared like boys going to mill. It was concealed in 
separate places — afterwards afforded a reasonable supply — not much 
was damaged and the enemy got none. (N. C. Booklet, January, 

Tuesday evening a small party of my infantry fell in with two 
wagons on their way from Camden within two miles of Charlotte. 
They killed two men, took and brought off the wagons, horses and 
portmanteaus with officers' baggage. (Page 786.) 

October 11, 1780. 
To Gen. Sumner: 

Nothing new from Charlotte. Had we more men we could make 
their forage cost them dear. The appearance of 50 men yesterday 
caused 400 to return without a handful. Inform Gov. Nash. 




A very old graveyard it is, for here the earliest settlers of 
this ancient borough found their graves, and here the first 
church erected in this part of the State was built — an Epis- 
copal church, whose rector was "Parson Micklejohn." 

After the Eevolutionary War the church fell into disuse, 
having no minister in charge, and so went to decay, nor was 
another Episcopal congregation gathered together again under 
a minister until 18 — , when the Rev. William Mercer Green, 
now the venerable Bishop of Mississippi, was called to the 
pastorate of St. Matthew's, the present church, which was 
built on land deeded to the congregation by Chief Justice 
Thomas Euffin. 

On the site of the old church stands now the one in which 
the Presbyterian congregation worships. The graveyard hav- 
ing been used for many years as the public burying ground is 
so thickly peopled with the dead that the town authorities 
have forbidden further interments except in private squares, 
a prohibition rendered necessary by the frequent invasion of 
old graves. And all the terrible secrets that those old graves 
sometimes revealed. One day, not many years ago, the sun- 
shine fell soft and golden into one of them where rested an 
old, old coffin, in which face downwards, lay the skeleton of a 
woman. The poor, pathetic bones were in such a position that 
no doubt could remain that the unfortunate creature had been 
buried alive and had struggled wildly to escape the horrible 
imprisonment, which meant a still more horrible death. 

In the northwest corner of the churchyard in a small 
square overgrown with brambles and creeping vines, is a 


gray, weather-stained tombstone on which the inscription is 
almost effaced, yet enough remains to tell that "Here sleeps 
William Hooper, signer of the Declaration of Independence," 
etc. One of that band of resolute patriots who wrote their 
names none the less firmly and boldly because thereby they 
were risking all but honor and the liberty they held so dear. 

Across the graveyard towards the east, amongst waifs and 
strays, rests a bit of the world's strange driftwood. A 
French captain lies here, a gentleman of courage, honor and 
refinement. He was one of Caroline Murat's body guard, 
and after the downfall of the JSTapoleonic dynasty he left 
Naples and went to Spain. Subsequently, becoming engaged 
in a revolution on the island of Malta, he was banished and 
fled to 'New York. From thence he drifted here as a music 
teacher in a large female school. After holding this position 
for a number of years he became private tutor in the family 
of a wealthy gentleman of the place, and it was while thus 
employed that he began to lose his sight. Although treated 
with the most generous kindness and consideration and offered 
a home and every comfort for his declining years, his pride 
could not brook the thought of blindness, helplessness and de- 
pendence, and so he made choice of what he thought by far the 
most honorable alternative by ending his life. 

Long ago, when the inhabitants were few, there came to the 
village a peddler, and he put up at a tavern kept by an old 
man and his wife. Anon the peddler disappeared. "Gone 
on," mine host said, "to other pastures green." There was 
just a suggestion of something mysterious about the sudden 
departure, for no one had seen him go. Still, nobody made 
it his business to inquire closely, and in time men forgot or 
ceased to speculate about it. 

The old people passed away. The man, in a gloomy and 
morose old age, hung himself in his barn, and the wife disap- 


p^ared, none knew whither. Years afterwards, in digging a 
grave in the churchyard, the grave diggers came to something 
that seemed more like a box than a coffin, and on unearthing 
it it proved to be a chest, inside of which was the skeleton of 
a man whose skull had been fractured. Amongst some of the 
"old people" were those who, on seeing the chest recognized 
it as a very peculiar one that used to stand in the passage up 
stairs at the tavern and which could not be found when the 
fixtures of the tavern had been sold. Here, then, had come to 
light the unfortunate peddler and the crime committed so 
long ago. 

Within a few feet of the door of the Presbyterian church 
has lain in his grave for more than half a century one of the 
most remarkable men that l^orth Carolina has ever produced, 
Archibald Debow Murphey. At the bar, on the bench, in the 
Assembly halls, his gTeat intellect, deep culture, expanded 
views, perfect courtesy and dignity commanded the profound 
admiration and respect of his compeers. His far-reaching 
mind and keen foresight grasped and would have developed 
schemes for the internal improvement of his State, which, 
with the slow march of other minds of less impulsive genius, 
were yet fifty years adown the future. Deep was his learn- 
ing, wide his range of thought, keen and incisive his intellect, 
and while others gradually developed an idea or plan, Minerva 
like, it sprang to life, perfect and complete in his superb mind. 
Far down the coming years swept his impetuous thoughts, out 
of range of those slower moving ones that could not keep step 
with the strides of his genius. Today the things he planned 
and argued as possible and of immense value to the develop- 
ment and internal improvement of the State, are realities. 
Then they were regarded as the wild dreams of a visionary. 
Judge Murphey was at least half a century in advance of his 
generation. At the time of his death he was engaged in pre- 
paring a history of N^orth Carolina, and it is a source of deep 


regret and irreparable loss to the State that the rich store of 
material he had collected was entirely lost. 

Towering above all else that siu-rounds it, stately, clear cut, 
and stainless as the character of the sleeper beneath it, rises 
the shaft on which is carved the name of William A. Gra- 
ham, and beneath which sleeps until the resurrection morn 
all that was mortal of one of ISTorth Carolina's noblest, most 
gifted and distinguished sons. A gTeat statesman, and an 
able jurist, a Christian gentleman, a man who went up stead- 
ily by merit to the highest position in his native State, and to 
one of the highest in the ISTational Government, and who 
retired from public life at eventide as he had entered it in 
the dawn of his brilliant young manhood ''sans peur et sans 

I see him yet, the tall, stately form erect and elegant, the 
fine intellectual face so scholarly and refined! A close stu- 
dent, a dee J) thinker, wise in statecraft, just in his conclusions, 
fearless in his advocacy of the right and faithful in his dis- 
charge of a trust. Fair as a Doric column stands the life, pub- 
lic and private, of this noble son of a grand old common- 

Limited space forbids an extended notice of many other 
sleepers here worthy of most honorable mention. Frederick 
JSTash, a distinguished Chief Justice of the State of North 
Carolina, a man whose fine intellect, deep culture and impar- 
tial discharge of the high duties of his office added yet further 
lustre to an honored name ; the Rev. John Witherspoon, an 
able and popular divine, founder and first pastor of the Pres- 
byterian church here ; Judge ISTorwood and his son, the late 
venerable John W. Norwood, who has within the past few 
months gone to his rest after a long, honorable and useful life. 
Dr. James Webb, many years ago well known throughout a 
large section of the State as a physician of great merit and 
high character, and who was held in great respect and affec- 


tion ; Dr. Edmund Strudwick, who succeeded Dr. Webb, and 
who for eminence as a physician and skill as a surgeon had a 
very wide reputation, the benediction of whose life still rests 
upon those who loved him. 

Gallant soldiers sleep amongst the dead here. Major Ben 
Huske, Alvis ^N'orwood, Capt. Ed. Scott, Henry ISTash, Eos- 
coe Richards, of whom his colonel said: "I never knew a 
braver man. Whenever I called for volunteers for desperate 
work Eoscoe Richards was one of the first men to step from 
the ranks." Frederick ISFash, who laid down the burden of 
life far from friends and home after months of suffering 
amidst the dreary horrors of prison life at Elmira, IST. Y., 
faithful unto death ! 

Ah ! those days long ago, yet ever near in memory, when 
there came back to Southern homes only a coffin in place of a 
gallant son or brother, husband or father, who had gone forth 
in the strength of manhood and who was to come again, if 
come he ever did, feet foremost, and sometimes only the poor 
remnants that shot or shell had left. Vividly do I recall the 
burial of a brave young soldier who had been brought home 
from the carnage of the "Chickahominy." As we sat in the 
church the heavy tread of those who bore him to his rest passed 
by the door. Alas ! they could not bring him into the church ; 
and as we gathered around the grave in the exquisite bright- 
ness of a summer evening, while the prayers were being said, 
a mocking bird in a tree just above the grave sang as though 
all the world was mad with joy. In and out amidst the sol- 
emn words of prayer ran this liquid, rippling strain, note after 
note, the very sweetest a sweet bird ever sang. And when the 
grave was filled and we turned away, still the same glad song 
flowed on and on, and we left the young hero sleeping his last 
long, dreamless sleep, while the mockingbird sang his requiem 

as never bird sang before. 
HiLLSBORO, N. C, 1892. 



Of the Landing of Captain Ralph Lane» with Sir Walter Raleigh's Colonists, 
on the Coast of Carolina in 1585 


If sandy hills could speak and tell 
What deeds in ancient days befell, 
We first would hear of Redskin braves 
Whose bones now moulder in their graves. 

And then upon this western shore, 
Where Christian never trod before. 
Bold Raleigh's voyagers were seen — 
Sent hither by the English Queen. 

Above their ships within the bay 
Floated St. George's banner gay, 
While on the decks, for action set. 
Stood culverin and falconet. 

Then Captain Lane, with eye serene. 
Gazed proudly on the quiet scene ; 
And when his voice the silence broke. 
In solemn tones he slowly spoke : 

''My noble men, so true and brave 
When tempest-tossed upon the wave. 
In safety we have now been brought 
To this good haven which we sought. 


"This fertile land, so fair and green, 
We claim of right for Britain's Queen, 
And our good blades, on land and main, 
Shall guard it from the fleets of Spain. 

"In Holy Scriptures we may read 
A man once took a mustard seed 
And cast it in a garden fair, 
When soon its branches filled the air. 

"We plant a nation! — ^may it stand 
For all that makes a noble land ; 
And English laws shall rule this State 
Where dwell the happy, wise, and great. 

"May God, to Whom our fathers prayed. 
Still shelter those who seek His aid ; 
And may His favor rest on all 
Who gather at our Sovereign's call. 

"So up St. George, and down with Spain ! 
Long may our Queen in honor reign ! 
We'll sweep her foes from every sea, 
And make this western country free !" 



On the morning of the twenty-third of April, 1913, the 
Bloomsbury Chapter, Daughters of the Revolution, realized 
one of their cherished dreams when the tablet to the memory 
of Colonel Joel Lane was formally presented to the city of 

It is of bronze, and is placed on the left-hand side of the 
entrance to the city Municipal Building, a most appropriate 
location, for to Colonel Lane's influence, more than that 
of any of the other commissioners who were chosen by the 
Legislature to select a site for the permanent seat of govern- 
ment for ISTorth Carolina, Raleigh owes its location. 

The State had been much inconvenienced and had doubt- 
less had many vexatious and petty jealousies to adjust, with 
a migratory capital, first one place wishing the honor and 
then another. Meeting in various towns, I^ew Bern, Hills- 
borough, Halifax, Fayetteville, and once at Joel Lane's resi- 
dence at Bloomsbuiy in 1781, when Thomas Burke was made 
Governor of the State. 

In consequence of these disadvantages a law was passed 
by the Legislature requiring an "unalterable" seat of govern- 
ment, geographically situated as near the center of the State 
as possible. Men of ability and discretion were chosen to 
act for the State, and many sites were offered. It was a most 
difficult problem, but Colonel Lane finally persuaded the 
other commissioners that the tract of land offered by him was 
the most desirable. It was a part of the tract upon which he 
resided, adjacent to the little tov^ni of Bloomsbury, which was 
also called Wake Court House, and which in the lapse of 
time has merged into the larger town of Raleigh, and its 
name now only remains a memory. 


The city was laid off into lots and the streets were named 
by the commissioners. The squares not required for pur- 
poses of the State government were sold to private individ- 
uals, some of which are still owned by the descendants of the 
original purchasers. Today those streets lying within the 
bounds of the original tract are still owned by the State, 
though the State does not maintain them, and it still owns 
several squares which were reserved at that time. 

Raleigh is situated midway between the mountains and 
the ocean, in a beautiful rolling country, where the hills of 
the mountains just begin to merge into the level country of 
the coast, and as we view our many advantages we are re- 
minded to express ourselves as one of our historians has 
done, when he said : ''Truly, we live in one of the favored 
regions of the globe." It was a wise forethought of the com- 
missioners when they had incorporated into the law, and also 
in the deed executed by Colonel Lane, that Raleigh should 
be the unalterable seat of government for ISTorth Carolina. 

It was with a sincere appreciation of these benefits that 
the Daughters of the Revolution desired to place this tablet 
to Colonel Lane's memory. 

The tablet is inscribed : 


Colonial and Revolutionary Patriot 

Who Represented Wake County on the Committees of Safety, 

and in the Provincial Congresses, Constitutional 

Conventions and Legislative Assemblies 

OF North Carolina. 

The City of Raleigh 

Stands on his Ancient Domain. 

He Died on the 29th of March, 1795. 

Erected by the Bloomsbury Chapter, 

Daughters of the Revolution, 

A. D. 1913. 


The presentation ceremonies were simple, the program 

Address of Presentation — Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, State 

Regent Daughters of the Revolution. 
Unveiling the Tablet — Miss Hinton. 
Acceptance of Tablet — Hon. James Iredell Johnson, Mayor of 

the City. 
Address on Life of Joel Lane — Mr. Joseph G. Brown, President 

Citizens National Bank. 
Benediction — Rev. Milton A. Barber, Rector of Christ Church. 

There were quite a number of people present, many of 
them descendants of Colonel Lane, who expressed their ap- 
preciation of the beauty of the tablet and the patriotism of 
the Daughters. 

Miss Hinton, who presented the tablet, is a relative of Col- 
onel Lane's, and her address is as follows : 

MISS hinton's address. 

This month, two years ago, the Bloomsbury Chapter, 
Daughters of the Revolution, in celebration of its first anni- 
versary, presented to our beautiful capital city a boulder 
and tablet, marking the site of the old town of Bloomsbury. 
Today we assemble to honor the memory of the man who, 
although he can not be called the founder of Ealeigh, it is an 
historic fact that it was through his influence that the capital 
was located at this particular point. To Colonel Lane we owe 
a standing debt of gratitude, for without his skillful man- 
agement the location might have been six miles farther east, 
in which case the health of the inhabitants would probably 
have been affected by the miasmal vapors of the N^euse. 

Colonel Joel Lane was one of the most prominent men of 
the county in his day. This position was won because he 
was a man of force and he was progressive. Were he living 
in this age of wonderful endeavor and achievement he would 
be as thoroughly at home as he was more than a hundred 


years ago, and we have reason to believe that he would have 
been urged to accept the office of Major and Commissioner 
of Finance, and that he would advocate supplying the reser- 
voirs of the city — not one, but several — with water from the 

As each year passes our people are more keenly alive to 
the value of our noble history as a guide for present and 
future living. This is due partly to the galaxy of historians 
whom we have cause to regard with pride, whose active pens 
have been educational, and partly to the zeal of our patriotic 
orders — these are the co-guardians of nation's and State's 
glorious past and future resplendent with promise. 

By mementoes such as these we, the Daughters of the 
Revolution are striving to honor the memories of the men 
and women who labored in the long ago to make our lot 
happier, and to cause the coming generation to pause and 
seek the unknown truths, to inspire them to employ their 
talents in a broader sphere of usefulness. 

On behalf of the Bloomsbury Chapter, N^orth Carolina 
Society Daughters of the Revolution, and at the special re- 
quest of our beloved Chapter Regent, Mrs. Hubert Hay- 
wood, it affords me extreme pleasure to present to the city of 
Raleigh, through her most honorable Mayor, Mr. James Ire- 
dell Johnson, this memorial tablet, asking their care of the 
same henceforth, and trusting that it may serve to arouse 
greater deeds of patriotism. 

Mayor Johnson accepted the tablet in a most graceful man- 
ner, saying: 

MAYOE Johnson's acceptance. 

State Regent of the Daughters of the Revolution and Regent 

of the Bloomsbury Chapter: 

It was a gracious thought which prompted the donation of 
the tablet to this great patriot, and it is fitting that the tablet 



should be on the walls of the building which stands on the 
ground owned bj him. The whole site of the city was orig- 
inally owned by Lane, and in days to come visitors will see 
the tablet and learn of the man. In the name of the city of 
Raleigh it gives me great pleasure to accept the tablet, and 
thank the Daughters of the Eevolution very much for the 
magnificent gift. 

Mr. Joseph G. Brown, who is one of Colonel Lane's collat- 
eral descendants, then made this interesting and instructive 
talk : 

MK. brown's ADDRESS. 

It is a very beautiful custom that has grown up in our 
Southland, and indeed in all sections, of setting apart one 
day in the joyous springtime as a Memorial Day to the 
heroes who gave their lives in their country's cause, a day 
when with loving hearts and tender hands their friends may 
gather about their last resting places and cover their graves 
with flowers while, in loving memory, they recall the deeds 
that made them noble in life and noble in death. 

And so, too, it was a beautiful thought, born in a woman's 
heart, to establish this memorial — to perpetuate the memory 
of one who, in the days that tried men's souls, stood ever 
ready to lay upon his country's altar his best services, and, 
if need be, his life blood. 

I can not withhold an expression of appreciation of the 
loving tenderness with which the Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion have ever cherished the names and memory of those 
whose patriotism and devotion to country give just cause 
for pride to those of us through whose veins their blood 

Worthy indeed is your association and it ought to be 
strengthened in its sacred work. It should not be content. 


however, simply to indulge in a pride of ancestry, or to build 
up a membership, dependent for their own distinction upon 
the deeds of their forefathers, but rather, by making known 
the problems which these men had to face and overcome, to 
induce our young people to emulate their wisdom and their 

We can hope for no greater good than to inspire in them a 
courage and devotion like that their forefathers displayed. 

Standing under the shadow of this splendid edifice, which 
marks the beginning of a new era in the capital city of J^Torth 
Carolina, it requires no little stretch of the imagination to 
enter into and even for a brief while, to become a part of the 
life that pulsated in and around the little village of Blooms- 
bury about the middle of the eighteenth century. 

The Old South at any point will always be a profitable 
study. It is, indeed, the one unique page in our national his- 
tory. To us who .are gathered here today there is special in- 
terest in the story of that period and of him who has trans- 
mitted to so many of us the blood of a noble race. 

As some one has well said, "It was in the old South that 
the first word was spoken that stirred the blood and fired the 
heart and marked the way of freedom from British tyramiy. 
The very declaration of independence itself was written 
by a Southern hand, and a Southern General led the ragged 
Continentals to victory and became the father of a free re- 
public, and for many years it was the guiding hand of patri- 
otic Southern men that shaped the destiny of the young re- 

They were found in places of high position in the army, in 
the navy, in ofiicial and commercial life everywhere, and in 
all the expansion of the country the spirit of the South was 
dominant. The thrilling story of the republic can never be 
told without placing new laurels on the brows of Southern 


For more than a half century, however, it seems that her 
scepter had dej)arted, but today we see again the command- 
ing spirit of the South in the persons of the chief magistrate 
of the nation, and of his associates in the cabinet, on the Su- 
preme Court bench, and now in the Court of St. James, and 
through them and men of like mould from other sections, we 
may confidently expect the domination of a spirit of broad 
patriotism that in affairs of government will know no feeling 
of sectionalism, no l^orth, no South, but one great country, 
one united people. 

We are proud, and rightly so, of the honors our fathers 
won and of their achievements, whether on the field of battle 
or in the public forum. 

And this spirit should be cultivated. It is a laudable aspi- 
ration to link our names with those of the great men of the 
past, and to proclaim the virtues of our ancestors. If we will 
but emulate those virtues our lives may be made the purer 
and better thereby, and our service to our country more de- 

In such a spirit have we come today to do honor to one 
whose memory we revere, who was bone of our bone and flesh 
of our flesh, and to whom so many of us are proud to trace 
our lineage. 

We would perpetuate his memory, and by this tablet com- 
mend to those who come after us the heroic virtues which en- 
nobled and made useful his life. 

It was far back in the sixteenth century when Sir Ralph 
Lane, an honored Briton, founded the colony of Roanoke, 
and became the first English Governor in America, and 
although he returned to the old country and finally died in 
Ireland, yet it was not long before other members of the same 
family were on American soil, and laying the foundation for 
our own beloved State. They located in Halifax County, 


and there was bom Joel Lane to whom this tablet is erected. 
He came to Wake (then a part of Johnston) County in 1750. 

The good Lord must have pronounced upon him the same 
blessing that he bestowed upon the old patriarch, Abraham, 
"And I will make thee exceeding fruitful and I will make a 
nation of thee and kings shall come out of thee." 

God did bless him, and as the years have chased each other 
into the great abyss of the past we have seen his children and 
grandchildren and great-grandchildren occupying the goodly 
lands in every direction, from sea to sea and from the gulf 
to the great lakes, until their name has become legion — for 
they are many, and from their ranks have come, time and 
again, if not kings, at least princely men and queenly women. 
Governors and judges and distinguished leaders in civil and 
military life. There is scarcely a State in the Union that 
has not felt at some point the touch of their helpful hand, 
whilst in our own county almost every old family has some 
trace of their blood. 

As far back as 1772 the name of Joel Lane appears on the 
roster as lieutenant-colonel. He was a member of the first 
Provincial CongTess. For fourteen years he was State Sen- 
ator, and during the troublous days of the Revolution (1781) 
the General Assembly met in his home. 

In 1792 he deeded one thousand acres for the site of the 
city of Raleigh, and the ground upon which this building 
stands was a part of his farm. Some of us are old enough to 
remember the statements of our parents, as I well remember 
those of my mother, Lydia Lane, about the killing of deer at 
a stand just inside the southern entrance of Capitol Square, 
and of many other interesting incidents of those days, but I 
have not the time, nor is this the occasion to record and relate 

It was long before Wake County was established that Joel 


Lane settled in Bloomsbury. He was one of the commission- 
ers that laid out the county boundaries. 

Its first court was held on June 4, 1771, and both Joel 
Lane and his brother Joseph were among the members of 
that tribunal, there being eight others besides them. He was 
for many years a justice of the court, and during the war its 
presiding justice. He was a trustee of the State University 
and in 1791 offered to donate to that institution 640 acres of 
land if it would locate thereon. 

Following his ancestors he was an adherent of the Church 
of England, he kept the fasts religiously, and led his family 
in daily devotions. 

He occupied many positions of trust and in them all served 
with gTeat fidelity. The commission to locate the capital of 
the State, which had no permanent abiding place until 1788, 
met in his home, and although some criticism was made be- 
cause, while accepting his hospitality, they selected his land 
as a permanent site, yet he evidently retained the favor and 
good will of the people, for he continued to serve them in the 
Senate as late as 1795, in which year he died. 

It is a pity that no stone marks his last resting place. His 
grave on Boylan Avenue is covered by the home of one of our 

I have endeavored to be brief, so that I might not weary 
you with a repetition of details that are so thoroughly famil- 

Only a few days ago a well-known local writer, Col. Fred 
Olds, gave an interesting story of an imaginary visit of Joel 
Lane to his old home. Instead of the scattered village he 
found a splendid city, her streets and sidewalks well paved, 
her business houses modern and well equipped, and some of 
them almost penetrating the clouds, her little inn replaced by 
splendid hotels, a beautiful capitol building, a splendid post- 


office, a spacious auditorium, an attractive Country Club, 
reached by cars operated by the same mysterious power that 
converts her nights into day. And many wonderful things 
he found the peoj)le doing, such as talking with each other at 
long distances over the wires, speeding across the country in 
lightning motor cars, and flying through the air like birds. 

Little wonder he found no familiar face and nothing to 
remind him of the Bloomsbury of long ago, and that in his 
utter loneliness he was content to go peacefully back to his 
quiet resting place. 

It is well thus occasionally to spend a brief while recalling 
the faces and forms and characteristics of those long gone. 
Their memories are sacred to us yet. We pay obeisance to 
our honored dead. 

Yet turn we forward to the future's call, 
By beacon lights of progress onward led, 
And dedicate, whatever fate befall, 
Unto our country's needs, our lives. 
Our strength, our all. 

These simple services were closed with the benediction by 
the Rev. Milton A. Barber, Rector of Christ Episcopal 
Church, of which Colonel Lane was a most devoted member, 
and one of its most influential pioneer laymen. 

With this conclusion, the Daughters, happy with the 
thought that they had accomplished the object for which they 
had so pleasantly worked together, and with thanks to the 
many friends who had given them assistance, bade each other 
good-bye, with renewed affection and esteem. 

Emily Benbury Haywood, 
(Mrs. Hubert Haj^wood) 
Regent Bloomsbury Chapter, D. R. 
Raleigh, ]^. C, May 27, 1913. 



This Identure made the fifth day of April, in the year one 
thousand seven hundred & ninety two, between Joel Lane, 
Esquire of Wake County, of one part, and Alexander Mar- 
tin, Esquire, Governor of the State of ISTorth Carolina, of the 
other part, Witnesseth that the said Joel Lane, for the sum 
of one thousand three hundred & seventy eight pounds, current 
money of IvTorth Carolina, to him paid by Frederick Hargate, 
Esquire, Chairman of the Board of Commissioners appointed 
by Act of Assembly passed in dec'' in the year one thousand 
seven hundred & ninety one, to determine on the place for 
holding the future meetings of the General Assembly and for 
the residence of the Chief Officers of the State of ISTorth Caro- 
lina — the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged — Hath 
granted, bargained & sold, aliened and enfeoffed, released and 
confirmed and by these presents Doth grant, bargain, & sell, 
alien and enfeoff, release and confirm to the said Alexander 
Martin, Esquire and his Successors in Office for the time 
being a certain tract or parcel of Land in Wake County to the 
Eastward of and near to Wake Court-house, containing One 
thousand acres, more or less and bound as follows: Begin- 
ning at four sasafras, two white oaks, two persimmons, and 
an elm on Rocky Branch, thence north ten degrees East three 
hundred & thirty four poles to a stake in the Run of a Spring 
Branch, thence East three hundred and twenty seven poles to 
a small Hickory & Red Oak, near a craggy Rock — thence 
north forty poles to a stake near a Red Oak — then East one 
hundred and fifty eight poles to a Stake in the center of a 
Red-Oak a Hickory & two post Oaks, — then South two hun- 
dred & eighty one poles to a White Oak in Joshua Suggs 
Line, — then South fifty seven degrees west two hundred & 


fiftj six poles to a young Hickory, — then iSTorth eighty four 
degrees west one hundred and thirty poles to a Post Oak — 
then west one hundred and forty eight poles to a White Oak 
on the Rocky Branch, — then up the Branch, the various 
courses thereof to the Beginning ; and all the Woods, Timber, 
Trees, Ways, Waters, Springs, Emoluments & advantages to 
said tract of land belonging: — To have & to hold the said 
Tract of Land, with all the Appurtenances, to the said Alex- 
ander Martin Esquire, and his Successors in Office for the 
time being for the sole use & benefit of the State of North 
Carolina forever, — And the said Joel Lane, for himself & 
his Heirs, doth covenant bargain & agree to & with the said 
Alexander Martin Esquire & his Successors in Office : that 
he the said Joel Lane & his Heirs shall & will warrant & 
defend the premises, with the appurtenances to the said Alex- 
ander Martin & his successors in Office for the time being, 
for the Benefit of the State as aforesaid against himself & 
his Heirs, and against the lawful claim of all persons forever, 
— In witness whereof the said Joel Lane hath hereunto put 
his Hand & Seal the day & year first above mentioned. 

Joel Lane (Seal) 
Signed sealed & delivered 
in presence of 

Wm. Christmas 

Willie Jones 

Joseph Brown 


April 5th 1792— 

Received of Frederick Harget, Esquire chairman of the 
Board of Commissioners authorized to purchase Lands for the 
permanent Seat of Government a warrant on the Treasurer 


for the sum of One thousand three hundred & seventy eight 
pounds currency, in full of the consideration Money above 
mentioned. Joel Lane 



Thos. Blount. 

Wake County. June Term, 1792. 

Then was the above Deed duly acknowledged in Open 
Court by Joel Lane Esq. and ordered to be registered. 

H. Lane C. C. 

Enrolled in the Registers Office of Wake County in Book 
L and page (illegible) this 6th day of June 1792. 

Jas. Hinton Register 

Examd. by Sol Goodrich. 

Surveyed for the Governor of the State for the time being 
& his Successors in office for the use of the State by order of 
the Commissioners appointed by the General Assembly to fix 
on and purchase a place for the future and unalterable place 
for the Seat of Government A Tract of Land containing One 
Thousand Acres, the Courses & Distances as described in the 
Above Plot. Wm. Christmas^ Surv'r. 

31st. Day March 1792. 



Contributed by Mrs. M. G. McCubbins. 

Josua Cox to Mary :^eal. May 17, 1769. Joshua Cox, 
Adam Mitchell, Thomas Niel, and Richard Cox. Witnesses : 
John Duncan, William Bostin ( ?), and Samuel (his X 
mark) Shaw. 

John Conger, jr., to Mary Ross. June 5, 1769. John 
Conger and Jonathan Conger. (Thomas Frohock.) A note 
of consent from John Conger, dated June 5. 

Anthony Coons (Coors ?) to Roxanna Simmons. Jime 16, 
1769. Anthony (his X mark) Coons, Peter Simmons ? (in 
Dutch), and Benj"^ Milner. (John Frohock.) 

John Cook (Coots?) to Mary McCueston. July 18, 1769. 
John Coots, Hugh Foster, Walter McCueston, and Francis 
McXary( ?). (Thomas Frohock and William Mebane.) 

Robert Cherry to Sarah McCuistan. July 31, 1769. Rob- 
ert Cherry, John McCuistin, and John Anderson. (Charles 

John Cole to Xancy Purlee. August 26, 1769. John Cole, 
Adam Harmon (Herin?). (Thomas Frohock.) 

James Cathey to Isabell Sloan. February 14, 1770. 
James Cathey, Arch*^ Sloan, and Robert Gordon. (John 
Frohock. ) 

Joseph Cartwright to Eve Miller. March 24, 1770. 
Joseph Cartwright and Michael Miller. (Thomas Frohock.) 

David Collins to Thompson (or Thompsey) Posting. Octo- 
ber 1, 1772. David (his X mark) Collins, Henry Zevely, 
and Alex Brown. 

William Craige to Ann McPherson (or McApherson). 
October 7, 1772. William Craig and William Steel. The 
bride's brother, Joseph McPherson, gives note of consent. 


dated October 2, 1772 (as bride is an orphan) and Susanna 
Linn is a witness. (Max: Chambers.) 

Hugh Campbell to Elizabeth Greer. October 15, 1772. 
Hugh Campbell, Robert Rogers, and Robert Linn. (Ad: 
Osborn, C. C.) A note from bride's father, Robert (his X 
mark) Greer, giving his consent, October 15, 1772. Wit- 
nesses : James White and Samuel Jirwin. 

William Cathey to Else Hagan. October 24, 1772. Will 
Cathey and John Hag-in. 

Thomas Caradine to Elizabeth Bell. January 7, 1773. 
Thomas Caradene and John Cathey. (Ad: Osborn.) A 
note of consent from bride's father, Thomas Bell, dated Jan- 
uary 6, 1773, and witnessed by David Roan. 


Simon Murphy and Sarah Duke were married in ISTorth 
Carolina about 1760. He came from Virginia and she, I 
think, lived in ISTorth Carolina. They came to the upper 
part of South Carolina and settled in Union County soon 
after marriage. They had two sons in the Revolutionary 
War. Simon may have fought also. Can any one give me 
information about the Duke family ? Address, 

Mes. L. D. Childs, 
2202 Plain Street, 
Columbia, S. C. 

HORNER WINSTON, BORN SEPT. 24, 1861; DIED FEB. 18, 1913 


Whereas, God in His divine love and wisdom has called 
from the blessings of her earthly home to the brighter life 
of ''the Great Beyond" our beloved member, Mrs. Sophia 
Horner Winston ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the l^orth Carolina Society, Daughters of 
the Kevolution, mourns the inexpressible loss sustained in 
her death. 

That they are truly thankful for the radiating influence of 
her beautiful life, whose talents were conscientiously em- 
ployed for the uplifting of mankind, her State, and her coun- 
try, and are cognizant of the fact that our Society has lost one 
of its most brilliant, useful and faithful members, who though 
associated but a short period with our organization, has left 
there the impress of her phenomenal gifts. 

That they will miss through the coming years her wise 
counsel and the inspiring enthusiasm and optimism that her 
presence ever insured, fully' realizing that to have known and 
been associated with her has been a rare privilege. 

That we tender to the bereaved family our warmest sym- 
pathy in this gTeat sorrow. 

That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the 
Society and a copy sent to the family. 

Mart Hileiard Hinton^ 
Martha H. Haywood, 
Mrs. Hubert Haywood, 



From an funrarinn ni the collection of A. B. Andrews, Jr. 

Vol, XIII OCTOBER, 1913 No. 2 


floHTH CflROIilflfl BoOKIiET 

Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her^ 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developinj and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be dovoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 


Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. B. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Miss Mary Hilliakd Hinton. 


regent : 


vice-regent : 


honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

recording secretary: 


corresponding secretary: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 





custodian of relics: 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 
General Francis Nash Chapter. .. .Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent 
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12. 1904. 
fDied November 25, 1911. 


Vol XIll OCTOBER, 1913 No. 2 


An Address Delivered at Old Fort Raleigh on Roanoke Island, 
North Carolina, at the Celebration of Virginia 
Dare Day, August 19, 1913. 


Member Roanoke Colony Memorial Association, General Historian of the Sons of the 

Revolution, Historian of the Masonic Grand Lodge of North Carolina, 

Historiographer of the Diocese of North Carolina, etc. 

My Friends and Fellow-Countrymen: 

To be invited to appear before this company today, amid 
such inspiring surroundings, is an honor which might well 
flatter the pride of any true American, and I value it most 
highly. For many years I have been a member of the Roan- 
oke Colony Memorial Association, but never until last night 
was it my privilege to set foot upon Roanoke Island. 

The purchase and reclamation of the site on which stand 
the remains of this old fortress were due to the efforts of the 
late Professor Edward Graham Daves, a native l^orth Caro- 
linian residing in the city of Baltimore. This scholarly gen- 
tleman associated with himself a number of patriotic per- 
sons who were interested in historical and antiquarian work, 
and soon raised funds sufficient for the purchase of Fort 
Raleigh. During the Christmas holidays of 1893, I first had 
the pleasure of forming the acquaintance of Professor Daves 
when he came to my home tovra. and delivered an interesting 
and instructive lecture on Roanoke Island and the daring 
Englishmen who first discovered and colonized it. In the 

'Owing to the length of this paper, parts were omitted in delivery. 


following April I spent several happy days at his hospitable 
home in Baltimore, and there learned more of the work he 
had so much at heart, but a few months later I was greatly 
shocked to hear of his death, which occurred while he was on 
a visit to Boston. His only son at present surviving is Mr. 
John Collins Daves, of Baltimore, now vice-president of this 
Association. From its organization up to the time of his 
death, Professor Daves was president of the Association, and 
he was succeeded in office by his no less patriotic brother 
Major Graham Daves, of ISTew Bern, in this State, who zeal- 
ously pushed forward the work. After the death of Major 
Daves, which occurred in 1902, Vice-President William D. 
Pruden became acting president, and later was succeeded by 
the present incumbent, the Reverend Eobert Brent Drane, 
D.D. Both Mr. Pruden and Doctor Drane have rendered 
and are still rendering valuable services to the good cause 
of keeping alive the glorious memories of this spot. 

'Nor must I fail to mention those who have filled the office 
of Secretary-Treasurer of this Association. The first Secre- 
tary-Treasurer was Professor John Spencer Bassett, a stu- 
dent and teacher of history, born in our State but now resid- 
ing in Massachusetts. Upon his resignation, Mr. A. B. An- 
drews, Jr., of Raleigh, was chosen. Miss Leah D. Jones (now 
Mrs. Charles L. Stevens), of Kew Bern, next succeeded; 
and, in turn, gave place to Mr. William Blount Shepard, of 
Edenton, who discharged the duties of that office until his 
much-lamented death last January. Mr. Shepard's succes- 
sor is the present capable and energetic incumbent. Dr. Rich- 
ard Dillard, also of Edenton. 

In making choice of a subject on which to speak this morn- 
ing, I have selected Sir Walter Raleigh, one of the great- 
est men of whom the annals of England can boast, and also 
one of the most versatile — statesman, colonizer, explorer, 
fort-builder, ship-builder, historian, courtier, soldier, sailor, 


scientist, chemist, poet, and orator. An English writer. Hep- 
worth Dixon, has said : ^'Raleigh is still a power among us ; 
a power in the Old World and in the New World ; hardly less 
visible in England than in America, where the beautiful 
capital of a chivalrous nation bears his name." To Raleigh 
belonged the masterful mind and gaiiding hand which first 
sent forth English civilization to this continent and this 
spot more than three centuries ago. 

There are countless variations in the spelling of the 
surname Raleigh,* but only one pronunciation — with a very 
broad Devonshire accent on the first syllable, as if it were 
written Rawley, and that was the way it was written when 
young Walter was entered as a student at the University of 
Oxford. He himself wrote it Ralegh, in later life. His- 
torians, as a general rule, use the orthography Raleigh, which 
is the form I shall adopt — from force of habit, as our State 
so named its capital city, wherein I have spent my life. 

When this land of ours was first discovered the "Virgin 
Queen" of England called it Virginia in honor of herself, 
but let me remind you that North Carolina is the "Virginia" 
of Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh. The present 
State of Virginia was not settled until 1607, when Elizabeth 
had been in her grave four years and when the heroic Raleigh 
was mewed up in the Tower of London by that great Queen's 
unworthy successor. The eminent English historian, James 
Anthony Froude, in his work entitled English Seamen in 
the Sixteenth Century, says: "Of Raleigh there remains 
nothing in Virginia save the name of the city called after 
him." Ladies and gentlemen, there is a very small village 
called Raleigh somewhere in West Virginia (which State was 
a part of Virginia until 1862), but I have personal knowledge 
of the fact that Doctor Froude was slightly mistaken in his 
supposition that the "city of Raleigh" — ITorth Carolina's 

*Stebbing'3 Life of Raleigh, pp. 30-3L 


beautiful capital — is in Virginia. I was born in the city of 
Raleigh, my home still stands within its limits ; and it grieves 
me bayond measure to see so great a historian as Froude com- 
placently present my native town to our sister State of Vir- 
ginia. I refuse to be moved in any such way. And then, 
too, Virginia has recently drawn so heavily upon North Caro- 
lina in the matter of men that she should be willing for us 
to keep both the city of Ealeigh and Roanoke Island with 
this old fortress built by Sir Walter's colonists. There is 
scarcely an institution of any importance in Virginia today 
which has not had to come to North Carolina for its president. 
Among these are the University of Virginia, Washington 
and Lee University, the Union Theological Seminary, the 
Randolph-Macon Woman's College, the Virginia Life In- 
surance Company, and the Virginia Trust Company, while 
the general manager (though not titular president) of the 
Old Dominion Trust Company is also a North Carolinian. 
In view of all this, Ladies and Gentlemen, it does seem to me 
that Virginia should be duly grateful for what North Caro- 
lina has already done for her, and leave us in the quiet and 
undisturbed possession of Roanoke Island and our capital 
city of Raleigh. 

But I am drifting from my subject. I came here not to 
discourse upon self-exiled North Carolinians residing in Vir- 
ginia, but to call your attention to the career of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, under whose patronage came the English explorers 
who claimed this land in the name of Queen Elizabeth in 
the year of our Lord 1584. 

It may be well to state, at the outset, a fact already known 
to most of you, that Raleigh himself never saw the North 
American continent, though he was twice in South America, 
Nevertheless his was the world-vision and his was the purse 
without which the expeditions to this place would not have 
been undertaken so soon. 


Many of my hearers may recall tbe striking observation 
of Macaulay concerning the navy of Great Britain in the 
latter half of the seventeenth century. Said that historian : 
"There were gentlemen and there were seamen in the navy 
of Charles II. But the seamen were not gentlemen, and the 
gentlemen were not seamen." However true this may have 
been in the days of King Charles, it was widely different in 
the reign of his great predecessor Queen Elizabeth, many of 
whose fleets and vessels were commanded by men of high birth 
as well as approved valor. Sea-fighting was then considered 
a gentleman's trade, and there was no surer road to the 
Queen's favor than to join the ranks of those who were her 
main reliance when struggling with Spain for the freedom 
of the seas. In all England there was no shire so prolific of 
these hardy aventurers as Devon, the birthplace of Raleigh. 
Says the novelist Kingsley: "It was the men of Devon, the 
Drakes and Hawkinses, Gilberts and Raleighs, Grenvilles and 
Oxenhams, and a host more of 'forgotten worthies' whom 
we shall learn one day to honor as they deserve, to whom 
England owes her commerce, her colonies, her very exist- 
ence." Sir Walter Ealeigh was related by blood to the Gil- 
berts, Grenvilles, and Drakes, as well as other noted Devon- 
shire families, including the Courtneys, Carews, St. Legers, 
and Russells. 

In a recent biography of Sir Walter Raleigh by William 
Stebbing (who uses the orthography Ralegh) an account of 
the Raleigh family is given as follows : "The Raleghs were 
an old Devonshire family, once wealthy and distinguished. 
At one period five knightly branches of the house flourished 
simultaneously in the county. In the reign of Henry III a 
Ralegh had been Justiciary. There were genealogists who, 
though others doubted, traced the stock to the Plantagenets 
through an intermarriage with the Clares. The Clare arms 
have been found quartered with those of Ralegh on a Ralegh. 


pew in East Budleigh Church. The family had held Small- 
ridge, near Axminster, from before the Conquest. Since the 
reign of Edward III it had been seated on the edge of Dart- 
moor, at Eardell. There it built a picturesque mansion and 
chapel. The Raleghs of Fardell were, writes Polwhele, 'es- 
teemed ancient gentlemen.' But the rapacious lawyers of 
Henry VII had discovered some occasion against Wimund 
Ralegh, the head of the family in their day. They thought 
him worth the levy of a heavy fine for misprision of treason ; 
and he had to sell Smallridge." Wimund Raleigh, whose 
wife was a Grenville, left a son Walter, born in 1497. This 
Walter engaged at times in seafaring, and owned three sepa- 
rate estates, viz. : Fardell, Colaton-Ealeigh, Wythecombe- 
Raleigh, and Bollams. His third wife was Mrs. Katherine 
Gilbert, widow of Otho Gilbert of Compton Castle and Green- 
way Castle, and a daughter of Sir Philip Champernoun of 
Modbury. To this marriage were born several children, 
among whom was Sir Walter Raleigh, of whom I shall speak 

Walter Raleigh, afterwards known to fame as Sir Walter 
Raleigh, was born at Hayes, in Budleigh Parish, Devonshire. 
Some accounts give 1552 as the year of his birth, though the 
inscriptions on several of his oldest engraved portraits seem 
to indicate that he was born in 1554. Two pictures, slightly 
differing, of the house where he was born may be found in 
the first volume of the History of North Carolina, by Francis 
L, Hawks, and in the fifth volume of Applet on s Cyclopcedia 
of American Biography. Raleigh's father, having determined 
that his son should have educational advantages becoming his 
station in life, entered him as a student in Oriel College at 
the University of Oxford, in 1568. In the following year 
young Raleigh went abroad and pursued his studies in the 
University of France, but left that institution to fight as a 
volunteer under the renowned Huguenot leaders the Prince 


de Conde and Admiral Coligny. He was present at the bat- 
tles of Jaruac and Moncontour; but was absent from Paris, 
though still in France, at the time of the Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew. In 1576 he was again in London, but a year 
or two later went to the Netherlands and assisted the Hol- 
landers in their warfare against the Spaniards under the 
Duke of Alva. 

Soon after Raleigh's return to England from the ISTether- 
lands his thoughts began to turn to the New World beyond 
the seas. His eldest half-brother. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
had set hope on western discoveries as early as 1566, but at 
that time Queen Elizabeth was unwilling for him to absent 
himself from Ireland, where he was president of the English 
colony recently established in Munster. By 1578, however, 
Gilbert renewed his efforts, and was engaged in fitting out a 
fleet of eleven ships at Dartmouth, in Devonshire. This enter- 
prise Raleigh joined, but only seven of the eleven ships could 
be gotten to sea. Gilbert was Admiral of the fleet, Carew 
(afterwards Sir Carew) Ealeigh, a brother of Walter, was 
Vice-Admiral, and Walter Raleigh commanded the Falcon. 
Though Gilbert had announced that he was going on a voyage 
of discovery, the unusually heavy armament carried by his 
ships led many to believe that the "discovery" of Spaniards 
was his chief aim. This fleet went to the Azores, and possibly 
as far as the West Indies, engaged in an undecisive fight with 
a Spanish sea-force, and lost one ship, which foundered in a 
gale — the others returning to Dartmouth in 1579. 

After his return to England with Gilbert's fleet, Raleigh 
spent some time in London; and, in June, 1580, was sent to 
Ireland as captain of a company which was to operate against 
the insurgent natives and their Spanish allies, the latter of 
whom had landed in that country to join forces with the ene- 
mies of England. These Spaniards, with the assistance of 
some Italians, had built Eort del Oro at Smerwick in county 


Kerry, and had heavily garrisoned that stronghold. The 
Lord Deputy of Ireland, Baron Grey of Wilton, together 
with the sea forces of Admiral Sir William Winter, besieged 
this fort in due time, and it later surrendered uncondition- 
ally. By Lord Grey's order, Ealeigh and one Macworth 
(another officer of the besiegers) marched in and put to the 
sword more than four hundred Spaniards and Italians, also 
hanging such of the Irish as could be found there. Some of 
the foreign officers of rank were spared and held for ransom. 
Though Lord Grey gave the order for this butchery, we are 
forced to doubt if Raleigh had any scruples in performing 
his part of the bloody work. Of him his biographer Stebbing 
says: '^Towards American Indians he could be gentle and 
just. Llis invariable rule with Irishmen and Anglo-Irishmen 
was to crush." While Raleigh remained in Ireland he en- 
gaged in numerous skirmishes with the insurgents, also serv- 
ing as a member of the temporary commission for the govern- 
ment of Munster. Returning to England in 1581, he first 
attracted the personal notice of the Queen by throwing his 
handsome cloak over a muddy place in her pathway at Green- 
wich, thereby saving her shoes from being soiled. This inci- 
dent was first recorded in 1662 (less than fifty years after 
Raleigh's death) by Fuller in his Worthies of England. Sir 
Walter Scott, as many of my hearers may remember, gives a 
graphic account of this piece of gallantry in the novel Kenil- 

Whatever may have been the cause of Raleigh's rise in the 
favor of Queen Elizabeth, he soon became a man of great 
wealth in consequence of patents and monopolies received 
through royal grants. In 1583 he was given portions of all 
revenues from the wine licenses of the kingdom, thereafter 
aggregating from eight hundred to two thousand pounds 
sterling per annum. In 1584 he was knighted — an honor 
always sparingly bestowed by the hand of Elizabeth. In the 


year following lie was made '^Warden of the Stannaries" — 
which, translated into our American language, means Super- 
visor of the Tin Mines. He became Lord Lieutenant of 
Cornwall, and Vice-Admiral of the two counties of Corn- 
wall and Devon in 1585. In 1585 and 1586 he represented 
the shire of Devon in Parliament; and, in the latter year, 
obtained a vast land-grant (about forty thousand acres) in 
the Irish counties of Cork, Waterford, and Tipperary. This 
grant also included the salmon fisheries of Blackwater. He 
received, in 1587, grants of English lands in the shires of 
Lincoln, Derby, and jSTottingham, which had been forfeited 
by Anthony Babington and other conspirators against the 
life of Elizabeth. He also became Captain of the Queen's 
Guard, thereby being thrown into personal attendance upon 
Her Majesty. 

I have already spoken of lialeigh's venture with Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert when the latter's fleet went on a western voyage 
in 1578. In 1583 Gilbert fitted out another expedition of a 
similar nature. In his fleet of five vessels the largest was the 
bark Raleigh, furnished by Sir Walter Raleigh, who earnestly 
desired to command it in person, but the Queen needed his 
services at home, and forbade his departure from England. 
After two days sailing, the Raleigh left the remainder of 
Gilbert's fleet and returned to Plymouth, on account of sick- 
ness which had broken out among her crew, but the admiral 
continued on his way with his four remaining ships. He 
finally reached a place which is now a part of JSTewfoundland, 
and formally took possession of that locality in the name of 
Queen Elizabeth. The expedition to ISTewfoundland was the 
last voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. On his return he re- 
fused to take refuge in his largest ship, the Golden Hind, but 
cast his fortunes with those who manned the Squirrel, a little 
craft of ten tons, whose decks were already overburdened 
with heavv ordnance. In the midst of a great storm, south 


of the Azores, the heroic Gilbert was last seen, calmly sitting 
in his little ship with a book in hand, while night was ap- 
proaching. As he got within hailing distance of his comrades 
on the other vessels he called out the ever-memorable words 
"We are as near to heaven by sea as by land," and a little 
later his anxious friends on the Golden Hind saw the lights 
of the Squirrel disappear from the face of the waters. 

The tragic ending of this voyage of his beloved brother 
did not deter Sir Walter Ealeigh from further efforts to 
colonize America. In 1584, the year following, on the 25th 
of March (which was ISTew Year's Day under the old Julian 
Calendar, then in use) he secured from Queen Elizabeth a 
charter or Letters Patent, empowering him or his heirs and 
assigns to "discover, search, find out, and view such remote 
heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and territories not 
actually possessed of any Christian prince, nor inhabited by 
Christian people." He was also authorized to fortify any 
new settlements made under his authority and to "encounter 
and expulse, repel and resist, as well by sea as by land, and 
by all other ways whatsoever, all and every such person or 
persons whatsoever, as without the especial liking and license 
of the said Walter Raleigh, and his heirs and assigns, shall 
attempt to inhabit within the said countries." It was pro- 
vided that the laws enacted for the government of the new 
settlements should be "as conveniently as may be, agreeable 
to the form of the laws, statutes, government, or policy of 
England, and also so as they be not against the true Christian 
faith now professed in the Church of England." This charter 
contained many other provisions, which it is not my purpose 
here to quote. Suffice it to say that Ealeigh was thereby 
given what he most desired — an opportunity to extend the 
sovereignty of England over the lands and waters of the New 

For the carrying out of his plans, Raleigh secured the 


services of Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, two stalwart 
English sea-captains, and fitted up for their use two barks, 
"well furnished with men and victuals/' in which they saile4 
out of the Thames on the 27th of April, 1584. Fortunately 
for history, a record of this voyage has been preserved in the 
volumes of Hakluyt, it being in the form of a report to Sir 
Walter Ealeigh, written by Captain Barlowe. On June 10th 
the explorers reached the Canaries, and just a month later 
wended their way through the West Indies. They found the 
climate there very unwholesome, and many members of the 
two crews were taken sick. They tarried twelve days to re- 
cuperate and take on fresh supplies, and then struck out for 
this locality where good climate may always be found in 
abundance. Delicate odors from our Carolina coast were 
wafted to them before they sighted land, for Barlowe tells 
us that on the 2d of July "we smelled so sweet and so strong 
a smell as if we had been in the midst of some delicate garden 
abounding with all kinds of odoriferous flowers, by which we 
were assured that the land could not be far distant; and, 
keeping good watch and bearing but slack sail, the fourth of 
the same month we arrived upon the coast, which we sup- 
posed to be a continent and firm land, and we sailed along 
the same a hundred and twenty English miles before we could 
find any entrance or river issuing into the sea." 

Though the above quoted record says that the voyagers 
first reached our coast on the 4th of July, we must remember 
that the Independence Day we now celebrate on the Fourth 
of July does not fall on the same anniversary; for, between 
the Julian Calendar or "old style" then used and the Gre- 
gorian Calendar or "new style" now used, there is a differ- 
ence of ten days, making July 14th the present anni- 
versary of the coming of Ealeigh's first expedition in 1584.* 

*In the 18th century (Washington's birthday for example) the difference was eleven 
days, not ten. 


As already stated, Captains Amadas and Barlowe sailed 
up our coast one hundred and twenty miles before effecting 
a landing. Finally an inlet was discovered, and the explorers 
sailed in. Barlowe tells us that ''after thanks given to God 
for our safe arrival thither," two boats were manned and a 
landing effected. After this, formal proclamation was made, 
declaring that England's sovereign was "rightful Queen and 
Princess of the same," and that the newly discovered country 
should be held for the use of Sir Walter Raleigh by authority 
of the Letters Patent issued to him by Her Majesty. 

Some difference of opinion exists as to which of the numer- 
ous North Carolina inlets Amadas and Barlowe first entered. 
Many believe that the inlet they used has since been closed 
by storms which have piled up sand-bars where the old chan- 
nel ran. It is not my purpose to discuss that matter here. 
It is sufficient for us to know that they were "conducted in 
safety to the haven where they would be," that they first re- 
turned thanks to God for deliverance from the dangers of the 
deep, and then began viewing the lands adjacent to their 

The narrative of Captain Barlowe goes quite into detail 
explaining the habits and traits of the natives, the location 
of lands and waters, the fauna and flora of the country, and 
many other interestiug conditions there existing, but too long 
here to be quoted. 

The ships were anchored for two days before any natives 
were seen by the explorers. On the third day they espied 
a small boat containing three men. Two of these remained 
in their canoe, and the third walked up the shore near the 
ships, later being taken on board and presented with some 
articles of apparel. After viewing the ships with interest, 
he returned to his own boat, later beginning to fish, and came 
back with a large supply of fresh fish which he presented to 
the English. The next day numerous Indians were seen in 


small boats, among them being Granganimeo, brother of the 
savage monarch who held sway in that locality. The king 
himself, Wingina bv name, had recently been wounded and 
hence was unable to do the honors of the occasion. Gran- 
ganimeo left his boats and came up the shore, followed by 
forty of his braves. These spread a mat upon the ground, 
and the king's brother seated himself thereon, as did four of 
his principal followers. When the English approached the 
shore, they were invited to a seat on the mat by the Indians. 
Then Granganimeo ''made all signs of joy and welcome, 
striking on his head and breast, and afterwards on those of 
his visitors, to show that all were one, at the same time smil- 
ing and making the best show he could of all love and famil- 

Speaking of the natives Captain Barlowe says : "After 
they had been divers times aboard the ships, myself, with 
seven more, went twenty miles into the river that runs to- 
wards the city of Skycoak, which river they call Occam ; and 
the evenino- following we came to an island which thev call 
Eoanoak, distant from the harbor,_ by which we entered, seven 
leagues." Thus was this island of Eoanoke discovered by the 
English. On it was a small village of nine houses, well forti- 
fied after the Indian fashion. Granganimeo being absent 
from this village, his wife came to the waterside to meet the 
explorers, and entertained them vnth much pomp and cere- 
mony, commanding her tribesmen to attend their wants, and 
feasting them with a profusion of savage hospitality. Of 
the natives it is recorded : "We found the people most gentle, 
loving, and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and such 
as live after the manner of the golden age." 

After trading with the Indians for some time, learning 
as much as they could of the country, and mapping the out- 
lines of the coast for future use, the explorers once more be- 
took themselves to their ships and sailed back to England, 


arriving safely about the middle of September. They took 
with them two natives, Wanchese and Manteo, of whom I 
shall have more to say later on. 

At the end of Captain Barlowe's narrative is a "record of 
some of the particular gentlemen and men of account" who 
were witnesses of the events which had transpired. They 
were : Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, Captains ; and 
William Greenvile, John Wood, James Browewich, Henry 
Greene, Benjamin Wood, Simon Ferdinando, ISTicholas Pet- 
man, and John Hewes, members of the ship's company. 

One laughable mistake occurred during the stay of the 
English in the vicinity of Roanoke Island. When they first 
arrived, they pointed to the mainland and made signs to an 
Indian that they wished to know the name by which the 
whole continent was called. The Indian, not understanding, 
replied: "Win-gan-da-coa." So it was duly reported to Sir 
Walter Raleigh that the domain which the Queen had granted 
him was named "Wingandacoa," and it was formally recorded 
under that name in the contemporaneous descriptions and on 
the maps of the newly discovered country. When later voya- 
gers learned more of the dialect used by the savages, they 
ascertained that when the Indian had said "Win-gan-da-coa" 
his remark (when translated) meant: "You wear gay 

When Amadas and Barlowe returned to England with their 
tales of strange adventure, and glowing accounts of the dis- 
coveries they had made, also showing Wanchese and Manteo 
in their wild and gorgeous costumes, the effect on the public 
mind was almost magical. Sturdy adventurers of all ranks 
and classes eagerly sought an opportunity to gain fortunes in 
expeditions across the Atlantic. Elizabeth, the "Virgin 
Queen," was so impressed with the accounts brought back 
by Amadas and Barlowe that she named the new land "Vir- 
ginia" in honor of her sino'le condition in life. As for Sir 


Walter Raleigh, his fame spread far and wide, and he at 
once sought opportunities to send forth other fleets. As com- 
mander of his next expedition he was fortunate in securing 
the services of his kinsman, Sir Richard Grenville, member 
of an ancient Devonshire family whose name has been spelled 
in almost as many ways as that of Raleigh. Sir Richard him- 
self signed it "Greynvil," the printed accounts of his voyages 
have it recorded "Greenville" and '^Granville," many (if not 
all) of his descendants write it "Granville," and historians 
generally use the orthography "Grenville," which last men- 
tioned style I shall adopt. The naval annals of the world 
can not boast of a more heroic figure than this selfsame Sir 
Richard Grenville, who was afterwards mortally wounded 
while fighting one English vessel, the Revenge, against a 
Spanish fleet of fifty-three ships — an exploit immortalized 
by Tennyson in his poem The Revenge, a ballad of the fleet, 

It was on the 9th day of April, 1585, that Sir Richard 
Grenville sailed out of Plymouth with the second expedition 
of Sir Walter Raleigh. Grenville's fleet consisted of the fol- 
lowing ships: the Tiger, the Roe-Buck, the Lion, the Eliza- 
heth, the Dorothy, and two small pinnaces. The "principal 
gentlemen" in this expedition are set down as Master Ralph 
Lane, Master Thomas Candish [Cavendish], Master John 
Arundell, Master Raymund, Master Stukeley, Master Bre- 
mige. Master Vincent, and Master John Clarke. Some of 
these, we are told, were captains, and others were needed for 
their "counsel and good discretion." Among these latter were 
Thomas Hariot, the historian of events occurring on the 
voyage, and John White, an artist whose paintings of Indian 
life are still preserved in the British Museum. We shall learn 
more of White later on. Ralph Lane, who afterwards won 
the honor of knighthood, was Grenville's second in command, 
and was later left at Roanoke Island as Governor of the 


Colony. After leaving England on its voyage to America, 
the fleet touched at the Canaries and Antilles, and then an- 
chored at Cotesa, a small island near the island of St. John. 
The voyagers rested a day at Cotesa, and then sailed over 
to Mosquito Bay, on the island of St. John. There Grenville 
landed with some of his men and erected a fortification, later 
adding to his fleet by building a new pinnance, which was 
finished and launched on the 23d of May. The Spaniards 
on the island sent a flag of truce and protested against the 
erection of this fortress, but Grenville somewhat cooled their 
resentment by saying he had only stopped for supplies ; that 
he would depart from their shores in peace if these supplies 
were furnished, but would use force if they were not. The 
Spaniards promised compliance, but failed to keep their 
word, whereupon Grenville set flre to his fortification and 
sailed away, bent on squaring up matters with the Dons. 
Within the next two days he captured two Spanish frigates, 
ransomed the officers and some passengers of rank, and placed 
Lane in command of one of these vessels. The fleet needing 
salt. Captain Lane went to the southwest side of the island 
of St. John, and landed twenty men who threw up an en- 
trenchment, after which they commenced to get salt. We 
are told that, when the Spaniards beheld Lane, there "came 
down towards him two or three troops of horsemen and foot- 
men, who gave him the looking and gazing on but durst not 
come near him to ofi^er any resistance." So Lane sailed off 
and rejoined the fleet, after which they went to the island of 
Hispaniola (now called ILayti), which was reached on the 
1st of June. Upon news of their arrival at Hispaniola, the 
Spanish Governor sent them a courteous message, promising 
to call and pay his respects. He accordingly came on the 
5th of June, "accompanied by a lusty friar and twenty other 
Spaniards, with their servants and negroes." Thereupon 
Grenville, with his officers and various crews, dressed up in 


their gayest attire to receive them. The English, both ojfficers 
and men, were feasted sumptuously and provided with all 
manner of costly entertainment during their stay, and left 
with great good will towards the Spaniards, though the 
chronicler of those events stated in his narrative that the 
Englishmen believed that the courtesy of the Spaniards was 
due to fear of Grenville's formidable armament. If the 
Spaniards had been stronger, it was added, the English might 
have received the same treatment which had been accorded 
their countrymen Sir John Hawkins at San Juan d'Ulloa, 
Captain John Oxenham near the Straits of Darien, and divers 
others who had tasted Spanish cruelty. 

After leaving Hispaniola, Grenville's fleet touched at 
numerous small islands on its voyage northward, and finally 
came to the coast of what is now ISTorth Carolina but which 
these explorers called Florida. On the 23d of June, it was 
stated that they '''were in great danger of a wreck on a breach 
called the Cape of Fear." On the 26th, Ocracoke Inlet (then 
called Wococon) was reached, and two days later the Tiger 
was run aground and sunk through the treachery (not then 
discovered) of Simon Ferdinando, by whom she was piloted. 
The settlers sent word of their arrival to King Wingina at 
Eoanoke Island on July 3d, and three days later Manteo, who 
had returned to America with the voyagers, was sent ashore. 

Fearing to go further through the inland waters in the 
large ships, many of the officers and crew set off, on July 
11th, in well armed and fully provisioned pinnaces and other 
small boats to explore the mainland. On the 16th of July 
occurred the first act of English hostility towards the In- 
dians — the beginning of countless bloody onslaughts and sav- 
age reprisals which were to follow throughout the succeeding 
centuries and extend down to a time within the memory of 
men still living. An Indian had stolen a silver cup belonging 
to one of the Englishmen. A party was sent to demand its 


return. This demand not being complied with, the village 
and gi'ain crops of the Indians were burned (the savages 
themselves having fled), and the attacking party returned to 
the fleet, on the 18th, at Wococon or Ocracoke Inlet. 

At the end of July the English received a call from their 
old friend Granganimeo, who visited the fleet in company 
with Manteo. Granganimeo was shown through the ships 
of the fleet, and kindly entertained during his stay. 

On August 5, 1585, Captain John Arundell, having been 
ordered to return to England, did so. The remainder of the 
fleet, under Sir Richard Grenville, set sail on Augiist 25th, 
leaving a garrison or colony of one hundred and seven men 
on Roanoke Island.* The English Governor or '^General" 
of the colony was Ralph Lane, heretofore mentioned. These 
colonists under Lane remained on the island nearly a year. 
Of Lane personally, the historian Hawks observes : "He had 
the rough courage of a soldier of his day, he endured hard- 
ships with his men, he had judgment to see that Roanoke 
Island was not a proper site for the colony, and to devise a 
plan by which two parties, one on the land and the other on 
the water, should attempt to meet and find on the Chesapeake 
Bay a better locality, of which he had heard from an Indian 
prince, his prisoner. He had wit and prudence enough to 
secure the fidelity of that prisoner by keeping his only son 
as a hostage ; he pursued the wise policy of attaching that 
son to him by great personal kindness. * * * The per- 
sonal attachment he had created in his young hostage was the 
means of discovering a widespread plot for the destruction 
of the colony by the natives." The young hostage, just men- 
tioned, was Skiko, son of Monatonon, King of the Chawa- 
nooks or Chowan Indians. When Skiko was first captured, 
he attempted to escape, and Lane threatened to have his head 
cut off, thereby frightening him into better discipline. He 

*For list of colonists under Lane, see Hakluyt (1810 edition), Vol. Ill, pp. 310-311. 


later treated him with marked kindness, in conseqnence of 
which he remained a friend of the English throughout the 
remainder of their stay. 

Lane's only sources of information concerning the interior 
of the country, except that in his immediate neighborhood, 
were the statements made to him by the Indians, and hence 
his accounts are not always accurate. Like the ancient He- 
rodotus (who recorded the wonderful tales told him by all 
travelers and thereby gained an unenviable reputation for 
mendacity) Lane was often misled, but narratives of what 
came under his personal observation are trustworthy. One 
laughable inaccuracy in the geographical knowledge of the 
early settlers (probably based on Indian authority) was the 
belief that a near-by river flowed out of the Gulf of Mexico or 
some bay in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean ! Another ac- 
count said that this river gaished out of a huge rock at its 
source, and this rock was so close to a great western sea that 
in storms ''the waves thereof are beaten into the said fresh 
stream, so that the fresh water, for a certain space, groweth 
salt and brackish." 

During the stay of Lane's colony at Roanoke, Granganimeo 
died, and thereby the English lost a trusty friend. Upon his 
death, for some reason not given, his brother. King Wingina, 
changed his name to Pemisapan. Thereafter he entered into 
numerous confederacies with other tribes for the destruction 
of the whites, but these conspiracies were thwarted by the 
vigilance, courage, and sagacity of Lane, aided by timely 
warnings from Manteo, young Skiko, and other friendly In- 
dians. Old Ensenore, father of King Wingina alias Pemisa- 
pan, was also friendly to the colonists, but he died on the 20th 
of April 1586. Wanchese, who had gone to England in 
company with the friendly Manteo, became a lifelong enemy 
of the English, for some cause which does not now appear to 
be recorded. 


Soon after the death of the King's father, the Indians 
(having no one to restrain their unfriendly designs) entered 
into a gigantic conspiracy for the purpose of exterminating 
the whites. The plan was to go secretly by night and set fire 
to the houses occuj^ied by Lane, Hariot, and other chief men 
of the colony; and, when they rushed from the flames, un- 
dressed and unarmed, to shoot them down, afterwards 
slaughtering and dispersing their followers. The secret of 
this conspiracy was communicated to Lane by young Skiko. 
The evil genius at the head of the proposed uprising was 
King Pemisapan, formerly known as Wingina, and Lane 
promptly determined to strike the first blow, and once for all 
rid his colonists of their inveterate enemy. He sent word 
to the savage king that he wished to meet him. The chief 
accordingly came to a place specified, with a large following 
of armed tribesmen. At a given sigTial the king was shot 
dovyn with a pistol, and a general battle ensued. In the 
course of the melee, which proved a defeat for the savages, 
their leader (who was supposed to be dead from the pistol 
wound) suddenly sprang up and took to his heels. As he 
ran, an Irish boy who held Lane's petronel (a hand-gun or 
large pistol) wounded him again, but he disappeared into the 
forest, pursued by an Irishman named Edward I^ugent. Lane 
and some of his men soon followed, and met ISTugent coming 
out of the wilderness with the King's head in his hand. Thus 
were the settlers freed from their bitterest and most formid- 
able enem}^, and for some time thereafter they were little 
troubled by unfriendly savages. 

During their entire stay on the island of Roanoke and in 
its vicinity, the colonists were industriously engaged. They 
shot game, caught fish, and planted corn in proper season, all 
the while keeping armed watch against the approach of un- 
friendl}^ Indians. Nor were their old enemies the Spaniards 


out of mind, as they had no assurance that these would not 
pay them an unfriendly visit by water. 

In the Roanoke company of colonists was a courageous 
captain, Edward Stafford by name, of whom Lane says : ''I 
must truly report of him, from the first to the last, he was 
the gentleman that never spared labor or peril, either by land 
or water, fair weather or foul, to perform any service com- 
mitted unto him." This officer was sent with a well-manned 
boat to the vicinity of an inlet, with instructions to be on the 
watch for any ships which might be sent from England. On 
June 1, 1586, Stafford sent a messenger to Lane with the 
information that he had sighted a gTeat fleet of twenty-three 
sail ; but, as he could not make out whether they were friends 
or foes, all should be on their guard. Great was the joy of 
the colonists when the commander of this formidable fleet 
turned out to be the renowned Admiral Sir Francis Drake, 
circumnavigator of the world, whose daring warfare against 
the Spaniards had been the wonder of all Europe, and who 
was to gain a fame still greater two years thereafter by his 
share in destroying the '^Invincible Armada" of King Philip. 

Like a true patriot, Drake placed the resources of his well 
manned and thoroughly equipped fleet at the disposal of the 
colonists on Eoanoke Island. A bark, pinnaces, canoes, muni- 
tions of war, food, clothing, and all else needful, were offered 
them, with a sufiicient complement of seamen to man such 
craft as should be left for their use. In accepting this gener- 
ous proffer, Lane requested Drake to receive on his fleet and 
take to England all men whose health had suffered during 
their stay in America, and to replace them with capable sea- 
men and skilled artisans. The admiral was also requested 
to leave a ship to convey the colonists back to England two 
months thereafter, in August, if a promised relief expedition 
under Grenville's command should not be sent to them by 
their patron Sir Walter Raleigh. With the advice of his 


captains, Drake decided to leave the Francis, a brig of seventy 
tons, and to put provisions on board in sufficient quantities 
to supply a hundred men for four months. Two pinnaces and 
four smaller boats were also to be left, with Captains Abra- 
ham Kendall and Griffith Heme to direct navigation. While 
these preparations were in progress a great storm arose and 
continued for some days. All vessels in the fleet, including 
the Francis, were driven out to sea many miles ; but Drake 
returned with a much larger bark, the Bonner, of one hun- 
dred and seventy tons, and tendered her to Lane in place of 
the Francis, with like conditions and equipment. Wishing 
to have the advice of his officers in the determination of a 
matter so important. Lane called a council and it was the 
opinion of all that ''the very hand of God seemed stretched 
out to take them from hence," for the relief expedition 
under Sir Richard Grenville had been promised them 
before Easter, and that season was long passed. England, 
it was believed by those at Roanoke, had so much to occupy 
her armies and fleets against traitors at home and enemies 
abroad, that the needed help could not be sent across the 
water, so all the colonists decided to return at once in the 
English fleet. Drake thereupon sent up pinnaces to bring 
off their belongings, among which were valuable maps and 
charts of the country. These latter, unfortunately, were 
washed overboard and lost while the men were endeavoring 
to place them aboard ship. The colonists themselves, how- 
ever, got safely on board, and Drake "in the name of the 
Almighty, weighed his anchors" on the 19th of June, 1586, 
arriving in the English harbor of Plymouth on the 27th of 

Though delayed by many vexatious circumstances bej^ond 
his control Sir Walter Raleigh had not been unmindful of 
the welfare of the colonists left at Roanoke, and sent (but 
too late) a well-provisioned ship for their relief. This ves- 




sel arrived not long after Lane and his men had departed 
in Drake's fleet. Finding the former settlement abandoned, 
the relief ship returned to England, but not in time to com- 
municate the discouraging news to another expedition of three 
ships sailing bj Raleigh's orders under the command of Sir 
Richard Grenville. Finding none of his countrymen at 
Roanoke, but unwilling to abandon England's claim to the 
land, Grenville left fifteen of his men to hold possession 
of the island, and returned to England with his ships. 

In the next year, 1587, Raleigh perfected plans for another 
attempt at colonizing Roanoke, and wisely came to a realiza- 
tion of the fact that no colony could be made permanent with- 
out the presence of women. He therefore issued a charter or 
commission constituting John White as Governor, with twelve 
councilors, under the corporate name of "The Governor and 
Assistants of the city of Raleigh in Virginia." JSTinety-one 
men, seventeen women, and nine boys made up the company. 
Two more, Virginia Dare and another baby named Harvie, 
were born after the arrival in America, making one hundred 
and twenty-one white persons in all.* In this expedition 
was the faithful Manteo, who had again visited England, and 
now returned to his native wilds with the whites. With him 
was another friendly Indian, named Towaye. 

The three ships bearing the colonists of 1587, sailed out 
of Portsmouth, England, on the 26th of April, and arrived 
at Cowes, on the Isle of Wight, the same date, tarrying in 
the latter place for eight days. Leaving Cowes, they reached 
Plymouth on the 5th of May; and, on the 8th of the same 
month, began their westward journey. On the 16th of May, 
Simon Ferdinando, the pilot, to whose former base conduct 
I have already alluded, abandoned the fly-boat in the Bay of 
Portugal, rejoined the fleet, and remained to practice more 
treachery later on. The captain (Edward Spicer) and the 

*For list of colonists under White, see Haklu>-t (1810 edition), Vol. Ill, p. 348. 


daring crew of this flj-boat were not so helpless as the pilot 
supposed they would be. They immediately set sail in their 
little craft and safely crossed the Atlantic, rejoining their 
comrades at Roanoke. 

Sailing as before stated, the fleet with the colonists under 
Governor White passed through the West Indies, stopping at 
various islands there for drinking water, salt, game, and other 
supplies, and started northward from Hispaniola about the 
6th of July, arriving ten days later at Caj)e Fear, where the 
traitor Ferdinando came near causing another wreck, his 
design being thwarted by the vigilance of Captain Edward 
Stafford, of whose courage and good conduct in the previous 
expedition under Lane, I have already spoken. On July 
22d, Hatorask (Hatteras) Inlet was reached, and there the 
large ships anchored. Governor White manned a pinnance 
with forty of his best men and started for Roanoke Island, 
where he hoped to. find the fifteen men left by Grenville in 
1586, the preceding year. None of these fifteen could be 
found, but the bones of one (who had been murdered by the 
savages) were discovered. It later was learned that all had 
been treacherously slain, except some who escaped in a small 
boat and were probably lost. 

The day after his arrival at Roanoke, Governor White and 
a strong body of his men walked to the north end of the 
island, where the "city of Raleigh" had stood. They found 
the fort destroyed, but many of the small dwelling houses 
were in fair condition, and the party immediately set to work 
repairing these huts. On the 28th of July, George Howe, 
one of the colonists, was shot and killed by some Indians 
who were the remnants of Wingina's tribe, with whom was 
Wanchese. On the 30th of the same month, Captain Staf- 
ford took a party, with Manteo as g-uide and interpreter, and 
met the Indians on August 1st, offering to make peace with 
them, forgetting all past differences. The savages promised 


that their chiefs would come in for a conference on this sub- 
ject and give their answer in the course of the next seven 
days. jSTothing being heard in that time, Governor White 
and Captain Stafford headed a party of colonists which at- 
tacked an Indian encampment and wounded one or more 
before it was discovered that they had fired upon a friendly 
tribe from Croatan. The account of this transaction says: 
"Although the mistaking of these savages somewhat grieved 
Manteo, yet he imputed their harm to their own folly, saying 
to them that if their weroances [chiefs] had kept their prom- 
ise in coming to the Governor at the day appointed, they 
had not known that mischance." 

Both in America and England instructions in the principles 
of the Christian religion had been imparted to Manteo, the 
never-failing friend of the whites ; and, before the colonists 
left England, Sir Walter Raleigh had expressly commanded 
that this Indian should be baptized as soon as practicable 
after arrival in his old home on Roanoke. It was probably 
decided that this ceremony should take place in America in 
order that the example might have the effect of causing other 
Indians to embrace Christianity. Manteo was accordingly 
baptized on Roanoke Island on the 13th of August, at the 
same time being (by Raleigh's orders) created Lord of Roan- 
oke and of Dasamonguepeuk, as a reward for his faithful 
service. This was the first administration of the sacrament 
of baptism, according to the rites of the Church of England, 
which ever took place within the limits of the present United 
States. Five days later, on the 18th, a daughter was born 
to Ananias and Eleanor Dare, this little girl's mother being 
a daughter of Governor White. As she was the first child 
born in the new country, she was called Virginia, by which 
name she was baptized on the first Sunday after her birth. 

During the latter half of August it was determined to send 
back to England for further supplies, but gTcat difficulty was 


exj)erieiiced in securing the services of any officer to under- 
take the mission. All the colonists finally united in a re- 
quest that Governor White himself should go. This request 
was at first refused, White saying that his return would be 
looked upon by the public in England as a desertion of those 
whom he had persuaded to undertake the voyage to America, 
and would consequently bring gTeat discredit upon his name. 
ITe also had misgivings about his personal belongings, which 
he feared might be lost when the colonists moved further in- 
land, as it was their intention to do later on. The colonists 
then grew even more importunate, and White finally con- 
sented, with much reluctance, after being given a signed cer- 
tificate wherewith to justify his course in departing from 
the colony which he had been sent to govern. He accordingly 
set sail with one ship and a fly-boat on the 27th of August, 
1587. At the outset of this return voyage, quite a number 
of the fly-boat's crew were disabled by the breaking of a 
capstan. Later the two crafts separated, as the larger one 
(with the marplot Ferdinando on board) wished to trade at 
the island of Tercera. White would not delay, but proceeded 
in the fly-boat. All on board came near perishing for lack 
of drinking water, and the boat lost its course in consequence 
of foul weather. Finally those on the boat sighted a port, 
which turned out to be the Irish town of Smerwick (the 
scene of Raleigh's bloody work in 1580), and there the crew 
gained much needed help. From Smerwick the boat pro- 
ceeded to Dingen, five miles distant. There the boatswain, 
the boatswain's mate, and the steward died on board, and 
the master's mate and two other sick sailors were taken 
ashore. On ISTovember 1st, Governor White took shipping 
for England on another boat, and arrived in due time at a 
port in Cornwall. 

In April, 1588, Governor White made a futile attempt 
to return with supplies for the relief of Raleigh's colonists 


who had been left on Roanoke Island. The failure of this 
attempt was due to the fact that the English went out of their 
way in an attempt to secure Spanish prizes, were beaten in 
a sea-fight which ensued, and finally were forced to return 
for repairs. A few weeks later the great Spanish Armada 
came. Then all the ships and seamen in England were 
needed for purposes of national defense. Two more years 
elapsed before White had another opportunity to return to 
America, even then going as a passenger on a ship whose 
first object was trading with or fighting against Spaniards in 
the West Indies, after which it was to sail northward and see 
if any of the colonists could be found on or around Roanoke 
Island. The narrative of his experiences on shipboard, 
during this voyage. White communicated to Richard Hak- 
luyt, dating his letter of transmittal at "my house at Newtown 
in Kilmore, the 4th of February, 1593," which was several 
years after his return. The small fleet of three ships, in 
which he took passage, sailed out of Plymouth on the 20th 
of March, 1590. They cruised in the vicinity of Spain and 
on the north coast of Africa for a few weeks and then set 
sail for the West Indies. On May 7th, fresh water was se- 
cured on the island of St. John, in the West Indies, and a 
large Spanish prize was taken on the next day. Then fol- 
lowed numerous sea-fights, and pillaging by land, in the terri- 
tory of the Spaniards. On July 2d, White's old friend Cap- 
tain Edward Spicer, joined the fleet at Cape Tyburon, after 
a long voyage from England. We also find mention of Cap- 
tain Lane, who was probably Ralph Lane, former Governor 
of Roanoke. On the 13th of July the coast of Florida came 
into view, and on August 3d the fleet sighted what is now 
the coast of JSTorth Carolina, but was forced out to sea in a 
storm, to avoid ship-wreck on the banks. Later the inland 
waters were entered, and, on the 15th, Roanoke Island was 
in close view. From this island was seen to arise a column 


of smoke, which raised hopes that the colonists were still in 
the vicinity of the locality where they had been left. A dili- 
gent search for them proved fruitless. On the 16th of August, 
White went ashore, accompanied by Captains Spicer and 
Cooke, with a sufficient armed escort. Orders were left with 
the master-gunner on shipboard to have shots iired, at stated 
intervals, from two minions and a falcon (small pieces of 
ordnance) to attract the attention of any English who might 
be in the neighborhood; but reverberating echoes were the 
only answer. On going ashore in the direction of another 
column of smoke, the fire was located, but no human being — 
white man or Indian — ^was found near it. The party, being 
much fatigued, camped on the island for the night, but later 
returned to the ships. 

On the 17th of August, the greatest catastrophe of the 
voyage occurred when a boat containing eleven men capsized 
in trying to enter an inlet, and seven were drowned. Those 
lost were the gallant Captain Spicer, to whose daring at sea 
I have alluded more than once, also Master's-Mate Ealph 
Skinner, Surgeon Hance, Edward Kelley, Thomas Bevis, Ed- 
ward Kelborne, and Robert Coleman. The remaining four 
were saved by the heroic eiforts of Captain Cooke and four 
stout seamen who rowed to their rescue. The sailors were 
much disheartened by this deplorable accident, but Governor 
White and Captain Cooke prevailed on them to proceed with 
an exploration of the vicinity which they wished to make. 
Before Roanoke Island was again reached, dark had settled, 
and another great fire was seen in the woods. White's nar- 
rative of the voyage says : "When we came right over against 
it, we let fall our grapnel near the shore and sounded with 
a trumpet a call, and afterwards many English tunes of 
songs, and called to them friendly, but we had no answer. 
We therefore landed at daybreak; and, coming to the fire, 
we found the grass and sundry rotten trees burning about 


the place." White and his companions went through the 
woods for a considerable distance, and then sailed around 
the island until they reached the point where the colony had 
been left in 1587. Upon the departure of White for Eng- 
land in 1587, it had been agreed that if the colonists re- 
moved, thej should cut on trees and posts the name of the 
locality to which they had gone, and a cross should be cut 
over the name if they were distressed. Upon one tree were 
found the letters C K O, and CROAT OAI^ was cut on an- 
other, but both were without the sign of distress agreed upon. 
Of the further investigation White says : *'We entered into 
the palisado, where we found many bars of iron, two pigs 
of lead, four iron fowlers, iron sacker shot, and such like 
heavy things, thrown here and there, almost overgrown with 
grass and weeds. From thence we went along the waterside 
toward the point of the creek, to see if we could find any of 
their boats or pinnace, but we could perceive no sign 
of them, nor any of the falcons or small ordnance which were 
left mth them at my departure from them. At our return 
from the creek, some of our sailors, meeting us, told us they 
had found where divers chests had been hidden, and long 
since digged up again and broken up, and much of the goods 
in them spoiled and scattered about, but nothing left, of such 
things as the savages knew any use of, undefaced. Presently 
Captain Cooke and I went to the place, which was in the end 
of an old trench, made two [s-ic] years past by Captain 
Amadas, where we found five chests that had been carefully 
hidden of the planters, and of the same chests three were my 
own, and about the place many of my things spoiled and 
broken, and my books torn from the covers, the frames of 
some of my pictures and maps rotten and spoiled with rain, 
and my armor almost eaten through with rust. This could 
be no other than the deed of the savages, our enemies at 
Dasamonguepeuk, who had watched the departure of our 


men to Croatoaii, and, as soon as tliej were departed, digged 
up every place where they suspected anything to be buried. 
But although it much grieved me to see such spoil of my 
goods, yet on the other side I greatly joyed that I had safely 
found a certain token of their safe being at Croatoan, which 
is the place where Manteo was born, and the savages of the 
island our friends." 

Returning from the scene of desolation at the old fort. 
White, Coobe, and the remainder of their party regained 
their ships, and then determined to proceed to Croatan. After 
losing several anchors in a storm and suffering other mishaps, 
however, it was determined to go to the West Indies for re- 
pairs, spend the Winter there, and return in the Spring to 
the vicinity of Roanoke for a further search. The captain 
of one vessel, the Moonlight, objected to this plan, as his ship 
was in bad shape generally and needed supplies, so he forth- 
with sailed for .England. The remaining vessels pursued 
their course to the West Indies, took several Spanish prizes, 
and later joined a large fleet of warships under the command 
of Admiral Sir John Hawkins. This admiral was watching 
for a Spanish fleet which was known to be in the West Indies ; 
but, by the counsel of his officers, he later decided that his 
ships should '^spread themselves on the coast of Spain and 
Portugal, so far as conveniently they might, for the sure 
meeting of the Spanish fleet in those parts." In this last 
mentioned plan the ship on which White sailed did not join, 
as its captain determined to return to England. Leave was 
accordingly taken of the redoubtable Hawkins on Sunday, 
the 13th of September, and White reached Plymouth, in 
England, on the 24th of October. 

The fate of the colonists left on Roanoke Island in 1587 
is one of the unsolved mysteries of the ages. Some believe 
they were massacred. Others contend that, when all hope 
for help had been abandoned, they became absorbed into the 


tribe of Croatan Indians, whose friendship for the whites 
had been so often manifested. Mr. Hamilton McMillan and 
Dr. Stephen B. Weeks have written monographs in support 
of this contention, while Bishop Cheshire and others have 
vigorously argued the contrary. As a single word, cut on a 
tree, was the only message found, I shall not endeavor to 
discuss the conflicting theories. In the words of Mrs. Mar- 
garet J. Preston, a Virginia poetess : 

"The mystery rests a mystery still. 
Unsolved of mortal man; 
Sphinx-like, untold, the ages hold 
The tale of CRO-A-TAN." 

Some writers have ignorantly charged that Raleigh heart- 
lessly abandoned the Lost Colony of 1587, and made no effort 
to discover and rescue its members. This is far from true. 
One old nautical historian, Samuel Purchas, while referring 
to the year 1602, says that Ealeigh then sent Captain Samuel 
Mace, who had been to Virginia twice before, on another 
voyage to hunt for the Lost Colony "to whose succor he had 
sent five several times at his own charges." By the time Mace 
returned from this voyage, Raleigh had been attainted as a 
traitor, his estates had been confiscated, and he could do no 

As every one knows, Raleigh's explorers brought back with 
them an edible tuber, theretofore unknown to Europeans, 
called the potato. Raleigh experimented with it on his estates 
in Ireland with so much success that it became the chief food- 
stuff of that country and is generally called the Irish Potato 
after the land to which it was transplanted. Thus an im- 
portation by Raleigh, who had often wasted Ireland with 
the fire and sword, has often been the salvation of that country 
when other food crops have failed. Tobacco, too, was brought 
from the ISTew World, and Raleigh was joined by his friends 
in acquiring its use by puffing it from small silver bowls. 



We have all heard the story of how Sir Walter's first smoke 
was interrupted by an alaraied servant who dashed a cup of 
spiced ale in his face to extinguish the fire. 

Art and archecology in our day are also debtors to the 
Roanoke colonists, for Governor White was a talented artist, 
who not only made maps of the new land but also water- 
color drawings of the natives. His paintings of the Indians 
are still preserved in the British Museum. At the time of 
the Jamestown Exposition, in 1907, Colonel Bennehan 
Cameron, of this State, employed a competent artist to make 
copies of these paintings for the use of the North Carolina 
Historical Exhibit ; and, after the close of the Exposition, 
he presented them to the North Carolina Hall of History 
in the city of Raleigh, where they may still be seen. 

And now, as Raleigh bade farewell to his cherished hopes 
of colonization on this spot, we must say farewell to the sad 
story of its failure. The prosecution of these noble but un- 
successful designs cost an immense sum, and not a few lives. 
I have already told how seven men were drowned by the cap- 
sizing of a pinnace ; and others, who are known to have sought 
safety in small boats amid the horrors of Indian warfare, 
were doubtless lost at sea. These sad circumstances lend a 
touch of reality to the beautiful poem Ilatteras, by the late 
Joseph W. Holden, of Raleigh, wherein a skull cast up on 
Cape Hatteras is supposed to voice its tale of the past and 
warning to the present in these lines : 

"When life was young, adventure sweet, 
I came with Walter Raleigh's fleet, 
But here my scattered bones have lain 
And bleached for ages by the main! 
Though lonely once, strange folks have come, 
Till peopled is my barren home; 
Enough are here: oh, heed the cry, 
Ye white-winged strangers sailing by! 
The bark that lingers on this wave 
Will find its smiling but a grave!" 


It was in 1588 that all true Englishmen flew to arms at 
news of the coming of the great fleet which the Spaniards 
in their pride called the "Invincible Armada." On sea and 
land every available man was mustered into the service of 
the realm which was so much imperiled. The lion-hearted 
Queen herself, though no longer young, laid aside womanly 
apparel and rode through the great camp at Tilbury in a 
full suit of armor, encouraging her people in a speech filled 
with expressions of confidence in their fidelity and valor. 
In the course of her address she said : "We have been per- 
suaded by some, that are careful of our safety, to take heed 
how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of 
treachery ; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust 
my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear; I have 
always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my 
chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good 
will of my subjects, and therefore I am come among you, 
as you see at this time, not for my recreation and disport, 
but being resolved, in the midst and heat of battle, to live 
or die amongst you all." 

In the defense of England against the Spanish Armada 
it is needless to say that Ealeigh played the part of a loyal 
subject and true man. When a council of nine was formed 
to consider the state of national fortifications and defenses, 
Raleigh sat in that body, being styled "Lieutenant-General 
of Cornwall." The only member of this council below the 
rank of knighthood was Ralph Lane, former Governor of 
Roanoke, and he was later knighted in recognition of his 
many services to the kingdom at home and abroad. In both 
England and Ireland, Raleigh was active in disciplining the 
levies raised to defend the realm against the Armada ; and, 
v/hen it became apparent that no fighting was soon to be done 
on land, he relinquished his army commands and betook 


himself to the channel, there aiding materially, as captain 
of a ship, in the destruction of the Spanish war vessels. 

In March, 1589, after having spent more than forty thou- 
sand pounds in his attemj^t to plant colonies in ''Virginia," 
with no financial returns for the outlay, Raleigh, as Chief 
Governor, sold his rights to trade (though not his patent) in 
that locality to a corporation or company composed of Thomas 
Smith, John White, Richard Hakluyt, and others. 

In 1589, as a retaliation for the Armada, the English 
fitted up a fleet for the purpose of restoring Don Antonio 
to the throne of Portugal, and thereby weakening Spanish 
influence in that kingdom. Six warships and one hundred 
and twenty volunteer vessels, under Sir Francis Drake and 
Sir John ISTorris, went on this expedition. With them sailed 
Raleigh in a ship of his o\vn. The English burned Vigo, 
destroyed two hundred vessels in the Tagus River (many 
of them containing stores for a new invasion of England), 
and attacked Lisbon, Aside from the capture of valuable 
spoils little else was accomplished. 

In 1592, Philip of Spain was believed to be fostering fur- 
ther hostile designs upon England, and Elizabeth decided 
to divert his attack by sending a fleet against the Spanish 
possessions in Panama. Raleigh was placed in command 
of the English fleet. On May 6th, he set sail, but on the 
next day he was overtaken in a swift-sailing boat by Sir 
Martin Frobisher, with the Queen's peremptory order to re- 
turn to England and to leave his fleet under the joint com- 
mand of Erobisher and Sir John Burgh. Raleigh remained 
with the fleet long enough to give particular directions to 
his two successors in command and then sailed back to Eng- 
land, much puzzled to know the reason of his recall. He 
was not left long in doubt. Court gossip, connecting his 
name with that of a maid of honor, Elizabeth Throckmorton, 
had come to the ears of the Queen and she promptly sent the 


offending courtier to the Tower of London. A letter written 
at the time sajs of Ealeigh and Miss Throckmorton : ''It is 
affirmed that they are married, but the Queen is most furi- 
ously incensed." The exact date when Raleigh's marriage 
to Miss Throckmorton took place does not appear, but the 
Queen later needed his services and ordered his release, 
though it took him a long time to regain the favor of his 
royal mistress. As for his wife, she became his heroic and 
devoted friend and companion throughout the remainder of 
his life, in adversity and prosperity alike, never ceasing her 
labors in his behalf until his head rolled from the block in 
1618. She was a daughter of Sir E^icholas Throckmorton, 
then deceased, a former councilor at the court of Elizabeth. 
Lady Kaleigh is described as tall, slender, blue-eyed, and 

As England was not an absolute monarchy even in the 
days of Elizabeth, and as Raleigh had been committed to the 
Tower without due process of law, he might possibly have 
secured an earlier release through legal means, but chose a 
more unique method, by writing a letter to Robert Cecil, 
trusting that it would come to the eye of the Queen. As the 
Queen was going away from the vicinity of the Tower for a 
short season, her imprisoned courtier sent forth a lamentation 
in these words: "My heart was never broken till this day 
that I hear the Queen goes away so far off — whom I have 
followed so many years with so great love and desire, in so 
many journeys, and am now left behind her in a dark prison 
all alone. While she was yet nigher at hand, that I might 
hear of her once in two or three days, my sorrows were the 
less ; but even now my heart is cast into the depth of all 
misery. I that was wont to behold her riding like Alexander, 
hunting like Diana, walking like Venus, the gentle wind 
blowing her fair hair about her pure cheeks like a nymph; 
sometimes sitting in the shade like a Goddess; sometimes 


singing like an angel ; sometimes playing like Orpheus. Be- 
hold the sorrow of this world ! Once amiss hath bereaved 
me of all ! Oh Glory, that shineth in misfortune, what is 
become of thy assurance ? * * * She is gone in whom 
I trusted, and of me hath not one thought of mercy." When 
we reflect that the Queen, at the time this letter was written, 
was in her sixtieth year, gray-haired, wrinkled, and ugly as 
the proverbial home-made sin, we are almost tempted to doubt 
Sir Walter's sincerity in painting her as a beautiful fairy 
princess with all the entrancing attributes of heavenly angels, 
heathen deities, anel earthly heroes. Raleigh's imprisonment 
in the Tower was not rigorous. He was in the custody of 
his cousin, Sir George Carew, Master of Ordnance in that 
strong-hold, and the Queen had given orders that his friends 
should have free access to him, while servants attended his 
every want. Even his offices were not taken away from him, 
and he discharged his duties by deputies. On one occasion 
when it came to his ear that the Queen would soon pass down 
the Thames in her barge, he asked Carew to let him be dis- 
guised as a boatman and go near the barge under guard, that 
he might feast his eyes on the royal object of his adoration 
once more. The request was of course refused, whereupon 
Raleigh became frantic and attacked his keeper in seeming 
desperation, though no further harm was done than the in- 
jury of his Cousin George's new periwig. 

There is a homely old saying that "fair words butter no 
parsnips," and Raleigh soon discovered that they were equally 
powerless to unlock the gates of the Tower of London, But 
his release came in September. In that month Frobisher 
and Burgh returned to Plymouth with the fleet of which he 
was still the titular "General" or Admiral, and with them 
brought many valuable spoils taken from the Spaniards, so 
the services of Raleigh were needed in making partition be- 
tween the Queen and those who financed the voyage. Among 


the latter was Admiral Sir John Hawkins, who had 
urged that Raleigh should be sent. He accordingly went 
to Plymouth under guard. Though one of Raleigh's con- 
temporaries had described him as "the best hated man 
of the world in court, city, and country," his reception at 
Plymouth did not seem to indicate it. Referring to his ar- 
rival there, Robert Cecil wrote: "I assure you, sir, his 
poor servants, to the number of one hundred and forty goodly 
men, and all the mariners, came to him with shouts of joy. 
I never saw a man more troubled to quiet them. But his 
heart is broken, as he is extremely pensive, unless he is 
busied, in which he can toil terribly. The meeting between 
him and Sir John Gilbert was with tears on Sir John's part. 
But he, finding it known that he has a keeper, whenever he 
is saluted with congratulations for liberty, doth answer^ ^'No, 
I am still the Queen of England's poor captive.' I wished 
him to conceal it, because here it doth diminish his credit, 
which I do vow to you before God is greater among the mari- 
ners than I thought for." Finally the Queen's anger sim- 
mered do^vn, and Raleigh was relieved from his nominal 

In 1594 Raleigh secured a charter from Queen Elizabeth 
for his first expedition to Guiana, on the northern coast of 
South America. As a preliminary he sent one of his most 
experienced officers, Captain Jacob Whiddon to spy out the 
route and report his findings. Upon Whiddon's return, Ra- 
leigh's expedition sailed in 1595. With him were his nephew, 
John Gilbert, son of Sir Humphrey, and Captain Laurence 
Keymis. On the voyage to South America the forces of Ra- 
leigh captured and burned the town of St. Joseph on the 
island of Trinidad. On the continent of South America the 
explorers penetrated far inland, up the Orinoco River, 
and enjoyed most friendly relations with the natives, who 
had suffered much from Spanish cruelty and were conse- 


quentlj willing to render all aid and assistance to the Eng- 
lish upon learning that they were enemies of Spain. Much 
time was spent in explorations bj Ealeigh before he left the 
continent. It was his hope to sail northward for the purpose 
of making a personal attempt to find and relieve his settlers 
here on Roanoke, but he was prevented by storms and other 
circumstances. While in South America he collected much 
ore, as samples, though he did not engage in mining on a 
large scale. On his return voyage the Spanish towns of 
Cumana, Santa Maria, and Rio de la Hacha refused to 
furnish his fleet with supjDlies, and were sacked and burned 
in consequence. Before Raleigh left England his enemies 
had prophesied that he would never return, but would enter 
the service of Spain. This absurd charge was disproved by 
his return, and then those same enemies sought to discredit 
his account of discoveries, especially of precious ores. Some 
modern historians — Hume and others — have branded Ra- 
leigh's narrative as a collection of lies, but recent discoveries 
of rich gold fields in Venezuela (a part of Raleigh's Guiana) 
have partly or wholly justified his statements. In 1596, in 
fulfillment of a promise to the Indians to return to Guiana, 
Raleigh sent Captain Keymis with the ships Darling and 
Discovery, laden with presents for the Indians. In the mean- 
time San Thome, in Guiana, had been heavily fortified by the 
Spaniards, so Keymis avoided that town and went towards 
the mines by another route. Later he returned to England, 
bringing with him little more than samples of gold ore. Thus 
ended Raleigh's earlier expeditions to Guiana- — ventures to 
be resumed near his life's end, as I shall relate hereafter. 

When rumors of the coming of the Spanish Armada of 
1588 first reached England, Raleigh had boldly volunteered 
for an expedition to sail into the Spanish harbors and burn 
the ships of King Philip while they were being fitted up. 
This advice was rejected as the dream of a desperate vision- 


ary. Eight years later, however, in 1596, when news came 
that the indefatigable Philip was building another fleet (sixty- 
ships) for an invasion of Ireland, where he hoped for many 
allies, Raleigh again urged Elizabeth to strike the first blow, 
and this time his advice was followed. The result was a 
brilliant success. With the English fleet of ninety-six sail, 
went twenty-four Dutch ships, making one hundred and 
twenty vessels in all. On these ships were fourteen thousand 
English and twenty-six hundred Dutch troops. Lord Ad- 
miral Howard and the Earl of Essex were in joint command. 
This fleet divided itself into four squadrons, one of which 
was commanded by Ealeigh, under whom were thirteen hun- 
dred and fifty-two sailors and eighteen hundred and seventy- 
five soldiers. The fleet sailed out of Plymouth on June 1,» 
1596, and, on the 20th of the same month anchored within 
half a league of Cadiz. In the attack on that city the fol- 
lowing day, Raleigh led the van in a vessel called the War- 
spright, with a crew of two hundred and ninety men. As 
the Warspriglit advanced, followed by five other English 
ships, four huge galleons appeared, bearing the usual saintly 
names of those "children of the Devil," the Spaniards. They 
were the St. Philip, the St. Matthew, the St. Andrew, and 
the St. Thomas — "those Apostles aforesaid," as Raleigh after- 
wards called them. All of these galleons moored under the 
guns of Fort Puntal, with three galleys about each ; and 
then the batteries on sea and land opened a furious can- 
nonading on the invaders. The largest Spanish ships were 
the St. Philip and the St. Andrew, wh^'ch had been with the 
fleet of fifty-three which sank the ship Revenge and killed its 
commander Sir Richard Grenville, Raleigh's kinsman. Ra- 
leigh now vowed that he would be "reveiiged for the Revenge 
or second her with his own life." This was no idle boast. 
Though the Warspright was nearly sunk, the ships of the 
other English commanders came rushing to her assistance, 


and two got the start of her, but Raleigh was unwilling to 
relinquish his perilous post of honor, so he again succeeded 
in running ahead and blocked further advance by laying his 
ship athwart the channel in order, as he said, that ''none 
other should outstart him that day." He and his crew next 
grappled the St. Philip, and were soon reinforced by the ether 
English vessels, when a wild panic seized the Spaniards, who 
ran their galleons aground and attempted to burn them, but 
the English were too quick for this and captured all but the 
St. Philip and the St. Thomas which were blown up by their 
captains. The English spared the lives of their captives, 
but the Dutch partly paid off their score for Alva's cruelties 
by mercilessly butchering prisoners until the forces of the 
Lord Admiral and Kaleigh beat them off. These Flemings, 
Raleigh declared, contributed little or nothing to the winning 
of the victory. Toward the close of the sea-fight, Ealeigh 
was badly w^ounded in the leg, but had himself borne ashore 
on the shoulders of his men when the land forces disembarked. 
After landing, the troops, under the chief command of Essex, 
first swept eight hundred Spanish horsemen from their path, 
and then captured all the fortifications of the city except the 
castle ; and that, too, surrendered on the next day. Spoils 
of the town and ransoms for w^ealthy prisoners were the re- 
wards of the victors. Said Raleigh: ''We stayed not to 
pick any lock, but brake open the doors ; and, having rifled 
all, threw the key into the fire." The "key" here alluded 
to was the city of Cadiz, which had been described as 
one of the three keys of the kingdom of Spain. Other locali- 
ties around Cadiz were also sacked and burned, and the vic- 
torious expedition finally returned to England, Raleigh ar- 
riving there ahead of the rest on August 6th. 

Raleigh's splendid services at Cadiz restored h"m in a 
large measure to the good graces of Queen Elizabeth, and 


he once more became an inmate of her Court, where there 
was a bitter rivalry between himself and Essex. 

So happy were the English over their victories in Spain 
that, in 1597, they organized a campaign against Spanish 
possessions in the West Indies. This expedition by sea is 
known as the "Islands Voyage." Time will not allov. me 
to go into its full details. In the course of the cruise, Raleigh 
landed without orders and stormed the strongholds of the 
island of Fayal, thereby kindling anew the jealousy of his 
chief commander, the Earl of Essex, who arrived too late 
to share the honors of the day. IsTumerous rich ships of the 
Spaniards also fell a prey to the English on this voyage. 

I can not here tell in full the story of the feud between 
Ealeigh and Essex, but it was bitter and lasting. Though 
Ealeigh was at his post, as Captain of the Guard, when the 
fallen Earl was in later years led to the block, he withdrew 
before the final stroke for fear it should be charged that he 
gloated over the execution. In later years, when it was 
charged that he had a hand in the destruction of his former 
rival, he said : "It is true that I was of an opposite faction, 
but I take God to witness that I had no hand in his death. 
* * * My soul hath many times been grieved that I was 
not nearer to him when he died, as I understood afterwards 
that he asked for me, desiring to be reconciled." 

In 1600, Ealeigh was advanced to the important post of 
Governor of the Isle of Jersey, and greatly improved the 
conditions of that locality by his administration of its affairs. 

The great Queen Elizabeth died in the early Spring of 
1603, and gave place to the cowardly descendant of a warlike 
race of Scottish monarchs. King James the First of England 
and Sixth of Scotland. Before the arrival of James in 
London, his mind had been poisoned against Raleigh by the 
latter's enemies, and he was not long in stripping Elizabeth's 
former favorite of all the honors held by him. In a short 


time Ealeigh was deprived of his posts as Captain of the 
Guard and Governor of Jersey, likewise being shorn of the 
monopolies and special privileges conferred by the late Queen. 
He was also ejected from Durham House (an episcopal resi- 
dence) and Sherborne Castle upon which he held long leases. 
If he could now conveniently be proved a traitor, the efforts 
for his destruction would be crowned with complete success. 
Finally that opportunity presented itself when Lord Cobham 
became involved in a conspiracy to seat Lady Arabella Stuart 
on the throne of England. In an effort to save his own life, 
Cobham had accused Raleigh ; later the conscience-stricken 
nobleman retracted his charge; afterwards renewed it, with 
more retractions later, and this was the farcical evidence 
upon which Raleigh was convicted. In much bitterness of 
spirit he wrote his wife : "All my services, hazards, and 
exjDenses for my country — plantings, discoveries, fights, coun- 
cils, and whatever else — malice hath now covered over. I 
am now made an enemy and a traitor by the word of an un- 
worthy man." 

On September 21, 1G03, Raleigh was indicted for having 
conspired to deprive the King of his Crown, to alter the true 
religion, and to levy war. The trial was begun in Winchester 
on ISTovember 17th, Lord Chief Justice Pophani presiding. 
The eminent legal dignitary just named had been, by turns, 
a gambler, a drunkard, and a highwayman, afterwards mend- 
ing his ways to some extent and reading law. With Popham 
sat many other men of note, the King being careful to select 
one or more whom he knew to be bitter enemies of Raieigh. 
Attorney-General Coke, Serjeant Hele, and Serjeant Phillips 
were attorneys for the prosecution. In that day the laws 
of England did not give prisoners the advantage of counsel, 
and hence Raleigh had to plead his own cause, which he did 
with ability, dignity, and decorum. I shall not trouble my 
hearers with an account of this trial. The absurdity of the 


accusation is now admitted by all men, while tbe underhanded 
displacement of impartial jurymen and the disgraceful con- 
duct of the King's attorneys will ever remain as blots upon 
the justice of the reign in which they occurred. In speaking 
of the behavior of Attorney-General Coke during the trial, 
an eminent Baltimore lawyer, J. Morrison Harris, said in 
an address on Ealeigh before the Maryland Historical So- 
ciety in 1846 : "The conduct of Coke, the King's attorney, 
was disgraceful to the position he occupied — to the sovereign 
he represented — to the profession to which he belonged — the 
age in which he lived — and the manhood he shamed. He 
was, throughout the trial, ungenerous and unjust; overbear- 
ing and cruel ; brutal and insolent." Continuing, Mr. Harris 
says: ''Venality soiled the ermine of the judge, and power 
controlled the decision of the jury. The former pronounced 
his doom with as much alacrity as he had formerly shewn 
in taking purses on the highway, or bribes upon the bench; 
and the latter, in their eagerness to perform their part well, 
overdid it ; so that the malignant Coke, when he heard that 
they had found him guilty of treason, exclaimed to the mes- 
senger: 'Surely thou art mistaken; I myself only accused 
him of misprision of treason !' " The programme for Raleigh's 
conviction having been duly carried out by the jury, he was 
condemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. He peti- 
tioned for a reprieve, writing to Cecil : "Your Lordship will- 
find that I have been strangely practiced against, and that 
others have their lives promised to accuse me." 

On December 10, 1603, James granted Raleigh a re- 
prieve and the prisoner was carried from the place of trial 
at Winchester back to London, where he was confined in 
the Tower to await the King's pleasure. 

In his work entitled Ker Majesty's Tower, Hepworth 
Dixon says: "The most eminent and interesting prisoner 
ever lodged in the Tower is Raleigh ; eminent by his personal 


genius, interesting from bis political fortune. Raleigli has, 
in higher degree than any other captive who fills the Tower 
with story, the distinction that he was not the prisoner of 
his country but the prisoner of Spain." And so he was, 
during the latter part of his captivity. While in the Tower 
he did not spend his time in useless repining, but well ex- 
emplified the truth of the old lines : 

"Stone walls do not a prison make 
Or iron bars a cage; 
A free and quiet mind can take 
These for a hermitage." 

The story of Raleigh's confinement is a long record of noble 
literary and scientific achievements, too numerous to relate. 
The most important of his productions was a History of the 
World, which would have immortalized his name if he had 
no other title to distinction. Some of his poetical produc- 
tions are most charming. 

Though the statement may be strong, I doubt if there has 
ever been a man in the history of the world of whom so many 
biographies have been written as those which treat of Ra- 
leigh's career. Xumerous publications of his works have 
also been made, the standard edition being issued in eight 
volumes by the University of Oxford in 1829, the first volume 
in this series giving two separate biographies (written many 
years before), one by William Oldys and the other by Thomas 
Birch, and the last volume containing a collection of his 

At times Raleigh's confinement in the Tower was light, 
and at times oppressive beyond reason. Within the confines 
of that gloomy stronghold "Raleigh's Walk" still preserves 
his name. Once, during his imprisonment, to test the effect 
which his death would have upon the public mind, the news 
was spread abroad that he had committed suicide. Later his 
captors tempted him to take that step by placing weapons 


within his reach and turning his mind to the subject by dis- 
coursing upon that custom of the old Romans when they 
wished to end the ills of life. When conversations took this 
turn, Raleigh ''spoke very gravely against self-murder, saying 
that for himself he would die in the light of day and in the 
face of his countrymen." 

In his confinement Raleigh had many unflinching and in- 
fluential friends, among the most devoted being Prince Henry, 
heir apparent to the throne, whose untimely death added to 
the misfortunes of the captive. Prince Henry constantly 
labored for Raleigh's release and visited him frequently in 
the Tower, while the prisoner sought to return the kindness 
by giving his royal visitor the benefit of his long experience 
in state-craft and military operations on land and water. One 
naval treatise he wrote for the especial instruction of Henry. 
Queen Anne was also Raleigh's friend. Among the countless 
throngs who sought his society while he was a prisoner was 
Thomas Hariot, who had been one of the voyagers to Roanoke 
Island, and to whose pen we of the present day are indebted 
for much of the early history of English colonization on this 
spot. Raleigh readily and generously gave of his means to 
enable Hariot to pursue his studies ; and, when powerless to 
render him further assistance, sought and obtained for him 
congenial employment in the service of the Earl of ISTorth- 
umberland, a patron of letters and benefactor of scholars. 

Raleigh was a sailor at heart and took a keen interest 
in the welfare of the mariners of his country. While in the 
Tower he contrived a process, designed for their benefit, 
whereby salt water could be made fresh and used for drink- 
ing purposes. Later he was deprived of his chemical appa- 
ratus, and the secret was thereby lost, not being re-discovered 
until modern times. 

At times Raleigh had his heroic and devoted wife as the 
companion of his confinement, and one of his sons was born 


in the Tower. Lady Kaleigh exhausted every means in the 
interest of her husband during life, and called down curses 
(later fulfilled) upon those who robbed him and his children 
of Sherborne Castle and other property which his wealth 
had beautified. The Sherborne estate alone had brought an 
income of five thousand pounds annually, and yet in later 
years, by way of restitution, Raleigh was only given eight 
thousand pounds in satisfaction of the ninety-nine year lease 
which he had held. In speaking of Raleigh's family it may 
be here mentioned that he left two sons: Walter (unmar- 
ried), to whose death in South America I shall later call at- 
tention; and Carew (1605-1666), who was educated at Ox- 
ford, was a Cavalier in the Civil War of the next reign, mem- 
ber of Parliament, cooperator with Monk in the Restoration, 
and Governor of Jersey, the post formerly held by his father. 
The maiden name of his wife was Philippa Weston, at the 
time of her marriage widow of Sir Anthony Ashley. By this 
marriage Carew Raleigh had two sons, Walter (a knight, 
who died unmarried) ; and Philip, who married and left four 
sons and three daughters. Through them Sir Walter Raleigh 
doubtless has descendants now living. 

Though King James could not be moved by mercy to order 
the release of Sir Walter Raleigh from the Tower, his cu- 
pidity was finally responsive to appeals in the prisoner's be- 
half. Raleigh still had hopes of great wealth to be found in 
the Spanish possessions in Guiana, in South America, where 
he had voyaged before, in 1595, and James was not averse 
to having a chance at such a share as would fall by law into 
the Royal treasury, though too cowardly to hold himself 
answerable to Spain for having authorized the sailing of this 
expedition. Raleigh was accordingly released from the Tower 
in 1616, and for the last time sailed westward on the 28th of 
March, 1617. With the eight thousand pounds allowed him 
for his lease on Sherborne Castle, with some purchase money 


which had been paid Lady Raleigh for landed property held 
in her own right, and the sale of family plate, Raleigh risked 
his all in this expedition, though history sometimes ac- 
cuses him of going on this voyage when he knew it would 
be unsuccessful. While in the Tower he had agreed to either 
bring back a ton of rich gold ore from Guiana, or return and 
spend the remainder of his days in prison. Raleigh's flagship, 
the Destiny^ was commanded by his son. Captain Walter 
Raleigh, and with him also sailed a nephew, Captain George 
Raleigh. Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to keep the destina- 
tion of his expedition a secret, but his confidence was be- 
trayed by the King himself in an attempt to shift from his 
own shoulders all blame in the eyes of the Spanish minister 
in London. Hence before Raleigh had gotten well out to 
sea, his destination was known in the Court of Madrid. King 
James had authorized Raleigh to seek gold in territory which 
he knew was then occupied by Spain. He likewise knew 
that the supposed feeling of the Devil for holy water was a 
Damon and Pythias friendship in comparison vsdth the hatred 
which existed between English and Spanish colonists in the 
I^ew World, and yet he sought to convince Spain that he 
had no unfriendly motive in authorizing Raleigh to proceed 
westward. Raleigh's fleet finally reached the mouth of the 
Orinoco River, in South America ; but there he became ill, 
and hence was unable to head the expedition which was 
preparing to march inland. The leadership of these land 
forces he confided to a veteran sailor who had been with him 
in Guiana before. Captain Laurence Keymis, with Captain 
George Raleigh, second in command. Keymis first met a 
Spanish force, which he routed, and then took possession 
of the town of San Thome. Further up the road towards 
the mines of which he was in search, another Spanish 
detachment was discovered to be in ambush, and so formid- 
able were their numbers that Keymis deemed it prudent to 


return to the ships. In the course of the fighting which had 
occurred Raleigh's son and namesake was killed. This young 
man had been a wild character in youth, but doubtless had 
gathered wisdom in his more mature years, as evidenced by 
so prudent a commander as his father entrusting him with 
important posts on both land and water during this expedi- 
tion. His death was of course a deep grief to his father. 
The failure of the expedition to the mines was a source of 
much disappointment to Raleigh, and his reproac3ies to 
Keymis caused the unfortunate Captain to commit suicide. 
The chances of success in Guiana now being most unfavorable, 
Raleigh made a voyage all the way to ITewfoundland in order 
to re-fit and renew his efforts against the Spanish possessions 
in South Ameria. In ISTewfoundland a portion of his crew 
became mutinous, and he deemed it advisable to return to 
England, which he accordingly did. Prior to his return. Don 
Diego Sarmientos. de Acuna, Count Gondomar, diplomatic 
representative of Spain at the English Court had made formal 
complaint to King James on account of the breach of peace 
which had been committed by his fleet-commander at a time 
when no war existed between England and Spain, and had 
denounced Raleigh as a pirate. King James was then making 
every effort to effect a match between Prince Charles, his 
heir, and a Spanish princess, so he basely denied all responsi- 
bility for the expedition he had authorized, and issued a 
proclamation for the arrest of Raleigh, who was accordingly 
taken into custody and re-committed to the Tower. Says Mr. 
Harris, in the address already quoted: "A writ of Pri^^ 
Seal was then despatched to the Judges, commanding them 
to order its [the former warrant's] execution. They shrank 
from the flagrant injustice. They declared that neither the 
writ of Privy Seal, nor even a warrant under the Great Seal, 
could authorize them, after so long an interval of time, to 
execute the sentence without first affording the prisoner an 


opportunity of pleading in person against it; and they re- 
solved to bring him to the bar by a writ of habeas corpus, to 
answer why execution should not be awarded against him." 
The King approved this plan, and Raleigh was hurried from 
a sick bed to the bar at Westminster. It is needless to tell 
of the outcome of these proceedings, wherein, at the instiga- 
tion of Spain, an illustrious Englishmen was doomed to die 
on the false charge that he had — sixteen years before — 
plotted to dethrone King James in favor of Arabella Stuart, 
a claimant who then had the warm support of Spain. With 
all haste, James signed the death warrant, and Raleigh was 
led to the block in Palace Yard, on October 29th (ISTo- 
vember 8th new style) 1618. On the day of execution 
the High Sheriff offered his prisoner a slight delay in order 
that he might warm himself before he said his prayers, but 
this offer was declined, Raleigh saying that an ague, to which 
he was subject, would soon come on again and cause his ene- 
mies to say that he quaked from fear. He met his death with 
courage and Christian fortitude. To a question from Dean 
Tounson, as to his religious belief, he replied that he died 
in the faith professed by the Church of England, and hoped 
to have his sins washed away by the precious blood of our 
Savior Christ. He carefully felt the edge of the executioner's 
axe, remarking that it was "a sharp remedy but a cure for 
all diseases." As he was about to kneel on the block he was 
told to turn his face toward the east, but answered that it 
was "no matter how the head should lay if the heart were 
right." At the request of friends, however, he did face east- 
ward. Then he gave a signal, and the fatal blow was struck. 
Soon after Raleigh's death, when King James was still 
striving to effect a Spanish match for his son, he caused a 
letter to be written to one of his representatives in Spain, 
saying that he "had caused Sir Walter Raleigh to be put to 
death CHIEFLY for the giving them [the Spaniards] satis- 


faction." In commenting on this admission, Dr. Hawks truly 
observes : '^JSTo further evidence is necessary. Raleigh was 
murdered and James was his murderer." And the memory 
of Raleigh left its mark on the heart of that murderer ; for, 
in later years, when young Carew Raleigh was brought to 
Court by his kinsman, the Earl of Pembroke, that nobleman 
soon carried him therefrom because the conscience-stricken 
King was haunted by the lad's resemblance to his father, 
declaring that he "looked like Sir Walter Raleigh's ghost." 

In j)ersonal appearance Raleigh is represented to have been 
tall and well-proportioned, with thick curly locks, beard, and 
mustache, full red lips, bluish grey eyes, high forehead, and 
long bold face. A number of portraits of him were painted, 
among these being more than one by Federigo Zuccarro, a 
Florentine artist who lived in England during the reigii of 
Elizabeth. One of the Zuccaro portraits was handsomely 
copied in oil, several years ago, by order of Mr. Walter F. 
Burns, who presented the reproduction to Chief Justice Clark, 
of the Supreme Court of this State. Though highly valuing 
this beautiful gift from an esteemed friend, the Chief Justice 
generously decided that a more appropriate place for it to be 
displayed would be the Mayor's Office in Raleigh, so he pre- 
sented it to that city. Mr. Burns, at whose order this copy 
was made, is a grandson of Captain Otway Burns, commander 
of the privateer S^iapdragon in the War of 1812-'15, an 
American successor of the daring sea-rangers of the reign of 

In an address delivered in the city of Raleigh before the 
State Literary and Historical Association of j^orth Carolina, 
on JSTovember 4, 1909, the Right Honorable James Brvce, 
Ambassador from Great Britain to the United States, said, 
referring to those who have both made and written history : 
"Such an one was the famous man who may be called the 
first founder of ISTorth Carolina and whom you have fitly 


commemorated in the name of the chief city of your State — 
Sir Walter Raleigh. The adventurer is always an attractive 
type, because spirit, courage, and love of discovery have a 
perpetual fascination, and when the explorer or conqueror 
has aims not wholly selfish, we are glad to palliate his faults. 
Raleigh had his faults, but he was a fine specimen of the 
bold, versatile, keen-witted, large-visioned man of the Eliza- 
bethan age, not very scrupulous, but with gifts which engage 
our sympathy, and rich in intellectual power. He was both 
a man of action and a man of letters, and might, had cir- 
cumstances allowed, have shone as brightly in the latter as he 
did in the former field. He was a true Elizabethan in his 
intellectual culture, in his largeness of spirit, in his far- 
reaching imagination — a worthy contemporary of Shake- 
speare and Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser and 
Francis Bacon." 

Though iNTorth Carolina's capital city of Raleigh is, in 
itself, a monument "more lasting than brass," a plan is now 
on foot to erect in that city a bronze likeness of Sir Walter 
Raleigh that coming generations may behold the majestic 
form of this gTeat fore-runner of English civilization in 
America. A sum something upwards of a thousand dollars 
(made up of small contributions) has already been placed 
in the hands of the treasurer of the association which is to 
erect this monument, Mr. Joseph G. Brown, President of the 
Citizens ISTational Bank, of Raleigh, and this sum will doubt- 
less be increased to a proportion which will creditably carry 
out the patriotic plans of the promoters of this worthy enter- 

In Dixon's work on the Tower of London, already quoted, 
that author says of the execution of Raleigh: "That day 
was thought to be a very sad day for Englishmen. The parti- 
sans of Spain went mad with joy. Yet the victory was not 
to Spain. A higher power than man's directs the course of 


a nation's life; tiie death of a hero is not a failure, for the 
martyr's blood is stronger than a thousand swords. The day 
of Raleigh's death was the day of a new English birth. Eliot 
was not the only youth of ardent soul who stood by the scaffold 
in Palace Yard, to note the matchless spirit in which the 
martyr met his fate, and to walk away from that solemnity — 
a new man. Thousands of men in every part of England, 
who had led a careless life, became, from that hour, the sleep- 
less enemies of Spain. The purposes of Raleigh were ac- 
complished in the very way his genius had contrived. Spain 
held the dominion of the sea, and England took it from her. 
Spain excluded England from the New World, and the genius 
of the ISTew World is English." 

In closing these remarks I can not do better than quote the 
beautiful lines of jSTorth Carolina's most gifted poet, Henry 
Jerome Stockard, when treating of the same heroic character 
of whom I have spoken today: 

"And lie still lives, the courteous and the brave, 
Whose life went out in seeming dark defeat. 
The Tower held not his princely spirit immured, 
But in those narrow dungeon walls he trod 
Kingdoms unlimited by earthly zones, 
And from its dismal gates passed unafraid 
To an inheritance beyond decay, 
Stored in the love and gratitude of man. 
He lives in our fair city, noble State, 
Puissant land — in all each hopes to be! 
He lives in noble words and splendid dreams. 
In strenuous actions and in high careers. 
An inspiration unto loftier things." 



The Constitution of 1776 instructed the General Assembly 
to provide one or more universities. The charter of the Uni- 
versity of ISTorth Carolina was granted in 1789, mainly by 
the influence of General William Richardson Davie. The 
Trustees were the prominent men of the State. There was a 
meeting of these Trustees within a month after the charter 
was ratified, the Senator from Bertie, Charles Johnson, an- 
cestor of the present Mayor of Raleigh, then President of the 
Senate, being Chairman. At a meeting soon afterwards. 
General William Lenoir, President of the Senate, was elected 
permanent President of the Board. Subscriptions were asked 
for. General Benjamin Smith, of Brunswick, afterwards 
Governor, donated 25,000 acres of military land warrants 
to be located in West Tennessee. In 1835 these were sold 
for $14,000. 

It was voted to locate the University within fifteen miles 
of Cyprett's Bridge over New Hope Creek in Chatham 
County, and a committee of the Board selected the site on the 
eminence in Orange County known as ISTew Hope Chapel 
Hill. About 1,300 acres of land were donated for the pur- 
pose. A village was laid out and lots sold, the words "'New 
Hope" being omitted in the name of the village. 

On October 12th, 1793, the corner-stone of the first build- 
ing, the Old East, was laid with Masonic ritual. General 
Davie being Grand Master. Reverend Samuel E. McCorckle, 
D.D., delivered an able and wise address. 

It was concluded not to have a President but only a "Pre- 
siding Professor." A Presbyterian divine. Reverend David 
Ker, a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, was chosen. The 
doors were opened for students January 15, 1795, but, owing 


to the rainy weather and muddj roads, the first to arrive two 
weeks afterwards was Hinton James of iSTew Hanover. It 
was near a month before others came, but by May the num- 
bers increased to 41 in the sjDring and near 100 in the fall. 
Charles Wilson Harris, of Cabarrus County, graduate of 
Princeton with high honors, was chosen Tutor. The next 
year he was Professor of Mathematics and on the resignation 
of Dr. Ker, Presiding Professor. Having determined to be a 
lawyer, Professor Harris induced the Trustees to elect in his 
place Rev. Joseph Caldwell, likewise a high honor graduate 
of Princeton, and a Tutor. 

Professor Harris induced the students to form a Literary 
Society. This was in June, 1795. It was called the Debat- 
ing Society. Three weeks afterwards the Concord Society 
was formed, and the next year Debating was changed to its 
Greek equivalent, Dialectic, and the Concord was trans- 
formed into the Philanthrophic. James Mebane was first 
President of the former and James Gillespie (or Gillaspie) 
of the latter. Dr. Kemp P. Battle is proud of the fact that 
he, as President in 1848, and the venerable James Mebane, 
President of 1795, jointly presided over the Dialectic Society 
on the dedication of a new Hall. 

The first scheme of studies was the work of Dr. McCorckle. 
In the latter part of the same year a "Plan of Education," 
the work of General Davie, was adopted. He relegated the 
young and untaught boys to a Grammar School. The more 
proficient were grouped in the Collegiate Department. It 
is noticeable that in choice of studies, for example French 
for German, and with large liberty of election for scientific 
studies, Davie was twenty-three years ahead of President 
Jefferson's noted plan of the University of Virginia, But 
when Dr. Caldwell in 1804 became President, he naturally 
introduced the classical curriculum of Princeton, This was 


continued substantially for many years, in 1858 liberty to 
elect Civil Engineering and Agricultural Chemistry being 

About this time there were repeated efforts by lotteries and 
by soliciting private subscriptions to obtain funds for com- 
pleting the South, then called Main. Building. President 
Caldwell journeyed to many points in the State for the pur- 
pose with considerable success. Larger donations had been 
ceived from General Thomas Person and Major Charles 
Gerrard, the latter being in Tennessee land warrants not then 
convertible into money. 

In 1812 Dr. Caldwell resigned the Presidency for the Chair 
of Mathematics. In his place was chosen Rev. Robert Hett 
Chapman, D.D., of the State of ISTew York. On account of 
his being a Federalist in the hot blood times of the war with 
Great Britain, he had a stormy time. In 1810 he resigned 
his office and was succeeded by Dr. Caldwell. 

About this time the University had a few years of pros- 
perity. The Legislature had given to the University a large 
number of land warrants to be located in Tennessee. These 
had been granted to l^orth Carolina Continental soldiers, who 
had died without leaving heirs, or who could not be found. 
Tennessee after becoming a State in 1796, claimed that she 
was entitled to the warrants by right of eminent domain. 
The Trustees appointed Archibald D. Murphey and Joseph 
H. Bryan of Bertie, a Congressman, to represent their inter- 
ests before the Legislature of Tennessee. After much diffi- 
culty a compromise was granted by that body. One third 
were allotted to the University and two thirds to colleges in 
that State. Owing to funds thus obtained the institution was 
prosperous until the panic of 1825. President Caldwell was 
allowed to visit Europe for the purchase of books and appa- 
ratus. The teaching force was increased. Elisha Mitchell 
became Professor in 1818, at first of Mathematics, in 1826 


changing to Geology and Mineralogy. In the same year, 
1826, James Phillips accepted the Chair of Mathematics. 
These two were strong members of the Faculty for many 
years; Dr. Mitchell until 1857, when he lost his life on 
Mount Mitchell, and Dr. Phillips in 1867, when he died sud- 
denly at Prayers in Gerrard Hall. 

Owing to the panic of 1825 the sales of the Tennessee lands 
of the University ceased and the University was much im- 
poverished. In 1835 Dr. Caldwell died after a most painful 
and long-continued disease. 

In order to place the management of the University on a 
business basis, an Executive Committee of seven Trustees in 
and near Raleigh was, in 1835, formed with full power. As 
the land market had improved the Committee empowered 
Charles Manly and Samuel Dickens of Tennessee to sell all 
the University lands in that State. This was done and about 
$170,000 was realized. The late Governor David Lowry 
Swain was chosen President and the University, having an 
assured income, entered on a career of prosperity. 

The professors who have not been named, worthy of men- 
tion, are: James S. Gillespie (or Gillaspie), 1797-'9, who was 
also Presiding Professor; Archibald D. Murphey, 1800-'01; 
William Bingham, 1801-'05 ; Andrew Rhea, 1806'-14; Wil- 
liam Hooper, 1817-'37; Ethan A. Andrews, 1822-'28 ; Deni- 
son Olmsted, 1817-'25; Shepard K. Kolloch, 1819-'25; 
Nicholas M. Hentz, 1826-'31 ; Walker Anderson, 1833 ; Wil- 
liam Mercer Green, 1838-'49 ; Manuel Fetter, 1838-'68 ; 
John DeBerniere Hooper, 1838-'48. 

Of these Murphey became an eminent judge, and a dis- 
tinguished pioneer in the advancement of public schools ; 
Bingham was the founder of the Bingham School ; William 
Hooper, an eminent divine and President of Wake Forest 
College ; Andrews, joint author of a widely known. Latin 
Grammar; Olmsted began the first Geological Survey of the 


State, whicli was continued by Dr. Mitchell, and was author 
of scientific school books; Walker Anderson became Chief 
Justice of Florida ; Green, Bishop of Mississippi and Chan- 
cellor of the University of the South ; Hentz, author of a 
valuable treatise on the Arachnidse (Spiders) ; Hooper and 
Fetter accurate scholars in their departments. 

In 1847 the Commencement was honored by a visit from 
the President of the United States, a graduate of 1818, James 
K. Polk, with his Attorney-General, John Y. Mason, a gradu- 
ate of 1816. Twelve years later James Buchanan, with 
Jacob Thompson, Secretary of the Interior, a graduate of 
1831, was present at the exercises. 

The University steadily increased in numbers, the maxi- 
mum in 1857 being 461. Then on account of the threaten- 
ing war there began to be a diminution, until in 1860'61 
there were only 376. Although the numbers of the Faculty 
and students greatly diminished and the salaries of the 
Faculty were only partially paid. President Swain pluckily 
kept the exercises carried on all during the war. Even a 
truncated Commencement was held in June, 1865. 

The University sent to the army 42 per cent of all students 
from 1830 to 1867, viz., 1,068. Of the younger alumni, 
1850 to 1862, 57 per cent, 842 out of 1,478. Dr. S. B. 
Weeks ascertained these facts and adds that 312 lost 
their lives. There were 702 officers and 365 privates. Out 
of 5 Tutors, 4 lost their lives. Out of a Faculty of 14, some 
old and ministers of the gospel, 6 volunteered for the war. It 
is stated that out of 84 in the class of 1860 all became soldiers 
except one, detained by ill health. 

In 1858 the new Caldwell monument was erected by the 
Alumni, of marble in the place of the weather-beaten sand- 
stone shaft near the new West Building. President Polk 
made the motion and gave the first contribution. 

The Trustees in 1859 made an investment, which by the 


fortunes of war caused the bankruptcy of the University. 
They subscribed for $200,000 stock in the Bank of ISTorth 
Carolina. They paid cash for $110,000 but incurred a debt 
to the bank for $90,000. The bank stock became worthless 
but the debt remained. The final outcome will be seen in 
the second volume. 

Dr. Battle has a chapter giving the characters, virtues and 
failings of the Professors, Tutors, officers and servants of 
the University during the three decades prior to the closing 
in 1868 ; President Swain, Mitchell, Phillips, Fetter, Hooper, 
Green, Deems, Judge Battle, Graves, Sr., Hubbard, Wheat, 
Shipp, Martin, Hepburn, Hedrick, C. Phillips, Brown, S. 
Phillips, Smith, Kimberly. 

Of the servants he describes Dave Barham and Doctor 'No- 
vember. He also faithfully gave the breaches of discipline 
by the students, the humorous pranks and the punishments. 
He described the hazing which was stopped for several yearg 
by a Freshman barricading himself and firing with pistol 
on his assailants, drawing blood but not killing. The cessa- 
tion was voluntary, in consideration of the free pardon of 
offenders. In the sport of throwing fireballs the old belfry 
was burned and a bell of uncommon tone destroyed. 

Under the old regune all students were required to attend 
prayers twice a day except on Saturday when the afternoon 
service was dispensed with. They were also required to at- 
tend religious services on Sunday and Bible classes in the 
afternoon. Professor Green and Dr. Mitchell for years offici- 
ated alternately in the Chapel. About 1848, when the Epis- 
copal church edifice was completed. Professor Green started 
an agitation for allowing students exemption from Chapel 
services, provided they would attend elsewhere. This was 
resisted by President Swain, Dr. Mitchell, Dr. Phillips and 
others of the old school. After a long controversy, which 
did not cease with the departure of Bishop Green to Missis- 


sippi, the question was settled in 1860 by allowing exemp- 
tions to communicants, to those whose parents requested such 
exemption, and to those declaring that their consciences did 
not allow them to attend Chapel worship. President Swain 
granted special exemptions with liberality. 

In 1854 the curriculum was extended in the direction of 
scientific studies. Tutor Charles Phillips was elected Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering and spent a year at Harvard 
preparing for its duties. Benjamin S. Hedrick took charge 
of Agricultural Chemistry. The Trustees did not allow its 
ofiicers to be active in politics, and as Professor Hedrick 
published a letter advocating the election of Fremont, in the 
inflammatory state of the public mind incurring widespread 
odium, he resigned by request. Mr. John Kimberly took his 

The University with fluctuating numbers had during the 
war continuous exercises. The professors were paid in Con- 
federate money, which rapidly depreciated, and were only 
able to live by strictest economy. The Trustees gave some 
help by granting leave to cut firewood from their woodlands. 
One hundred-dollar gold bonds were issued to the profes- 
sors, one to each, but the distress was severe. At the close 
of the war there was due them $7,000 for which 8 per cent 
bonds were given. The University owed $103,000 and the 
assets were $200,000 of worthless bank stock and other se- 
curities of insigTiificant value. Valuable members of the 
Faculty, e. g., Professors Hepburn and Martin, were forced 
to seek other fields of labor. 

In 1867, the affairs of the University being desperate, an 
effort was made towards a reorganization. To effect this 
the Faculty resigned their offices but were requested to hold 
their chairs until the Commencement of 1868. When that 
time came it was evident that the Trustees would lose their 
places under the Reconstruction Constitution of 1868. They 


therefore reelected the President and all the professors. The 
new Trustees treated this reelection as invalid and vacated all 
the chairs. 

In the foregoing condensed narrative it has been found 
necessary to omit much of the first volume of the history, 
which contains full accounts of the following subjects among 
others : 

1. Early meetings of Trustees. 

2. Journal of the Committee who selected the site. 

3. Sale of lots in the new village. 

4. Letters of Charles W. Harris and Dr. Caldwell from Chapel Hill. 

5. Subsequent careers of Dr. afterwards Judge, Ker and of Pro- 
fessor Harris. 

6. Early rules and queries of the two Literary Societies. 

7. Letters of John Pettigrew giving social life of the early students. 

8. Wild conduct of early students. 

9. The first Commencement and graduates. 

10. The "great Secession" and its cause. 

11. The trials of Dr. Chapman. 

12. Letters of Slade and other students. 

13. Dr. Caldwell's narrative of his European trip. 

14. Judge Murphey's address. 

15. Judge Gaston's address. 

16. Legislature refuses relief. 

17. The Droomgoole myth. 

18. The Harbinger journal and contents. 

19. Sketches of professors and graduates. 

20. History of the Buildings and much other matter. 

21. Subsequent careers of Alumni. 

Kemp P. Battle. 



His peers to him attention gave, 
With listening air; and aspect grave, 
While thus the worthy Baron spoke: 
"Our lovely shire a name must take; 
And, bring of all this promise fair. 
The garden spot, I here declare 
That Beauty's self that name should make 
And I propose sweet Esther Wake." 

With loud acclaim the name they hail. 
A name that ne'er in time shall fail. 
Wherever heard, whenever spoken. 
To be to every heart a token 
Of Beauty's power, and soft control 
O'er manhood's ardent soul. 

These lines were written by the late Dr. William Cameron, 
of Hillsboro, ISTorth Carolina, and embody the tradition that 
Wake County was named by Governor Tryon in honor of his 
sister-in-law, Miss Esther Wake, of Ireland, who was perhaps 
the only popular member of the royal Governor's family in 
the Colony ; and who is said to have been very beautiful and 
amiable, and much given to field sports and hard riding. 

There is or was a ford on Eno long known as ''Miss Esther 
Wake's Ford." Perhaps some of our old country folk know 
it still Rebecca CAMEROisr. 




At the end of four long years of terrific struggle, it was 
Lee himself who said: "God bless North Carolina." With 
the part our soldiers bore so resolutely, so gloriously, we are 
all somewhat familiar; but while the great theatre of action 
was on land, there were perils and high resolves, and crown- 
ing glories also on the deep. Beleagured and blockaded as 
were the Confederate States, the Stars and Bars were borne 
across the oceans, and were carried in triumph around the 
woxld. There were heroes of the seas as Avell as of the tented 
field. Such a one was James Iredell Waddell — a descendant 
of Hugh Waddell, who won great fame in the Colonial wars, 
and who in Stamp Act times proudly bore the plume of a 
stalwart patriot. Also, he was a grandson of General Fran- 
cis ITash — who, under Washington, received his mortal 
wound on the bloody field of Germantown ; while through 
his arteries coursed the hot blood of many other warriors of 
the olden time. 

He was born in Pittsboro, on July 13, 1824. His father 
was Francis Nash Waddell, and his mother's maiden name 
was Elizabeth Davis Moore. 

In the ante-bellum days the vocations open to a young 
gentleman in North Carolina were the law, or medicine; 
the life of a planter, or a military career. The latter suited 
the temper of James Iredell Waddell ; and in September, 
1841, when seventeen years of age, he received the appoint- 
ment of Midshipman and was ordered on duty at Norfolk. 
That was before the Naval school was established at An- 
napolis, and the boys were required to go on cruises, study- 
ing while at sea, and afterwards were examined for promo- 


tion. Young Waddell bad hardlj donned his uniform before 
bis figbting blood sbowed itself. 

An older Midsbipman, by name of Wearing, was offensive 
to bim, and Waddell promptly called bim to tbe field of 
bonor. In tbe encounter tbe bigb-spirited Carolinian re- 
ceived a wound in tbe bip tbat caused bim to limp a little all 
tbrougb life. 

Tbe record at tbe department is simply: "On leave to re- 
covered from tbe effect of a duel." Years afterwards wben tbe 
naval service was undergoing tbe transformation incident to 
tbe introduction of steam, wben science was being added to 
tbe necessary attainments of JSTavy Officers — ^wben tbe style 
of men like Jobn Paul Jones, Jobnson Blakely and Lawrence 
and Decatur was becoming obsolete — and steam, and ma- 
cbinery, and turrets and armor plates were about to sup- 
plant tbe gallant sailing frigates, tbe cbange was loudly 
bemoaned ; and at tbat time, among those wbo were being ed- 
ucated for tbe service, tbe pluck of Waddell was an inspira^ 
tion ; and bis sense of bonor, bis fearlessness, bis bearing 
and prompt challenge of an older officer to mortal combat — 
made bim an ideal hero, and invested bim with a halo 
among the young fighters who dreamed of a future career 
famous for carnage and glory. 

Tbe record of his service in bis junior years shows that be 
served on tbe Pacific; that on tbe breaking out of tbe war 
in Mexico be was ordered to tbe Gulf — and was on duty in 
tbe blockade of Vera Cruz, and was in tbe battle of Palo Alto, 
being with the sailors and marines sent by Commodore Con- 
ner to the assistance of General Taylor. 

In 1848, having passed bis examination, he was on duty at 

tbe Observatory at Washington. Three years later, he was 

ordered to tbe practice ship at Annapolis, and then to tbe 

Germantown — a vessel named to commemorate the battle in 



which his distinguished grandfather received his mortal 



In 1848, he had married at Annapolis, Miss Ann Sellmon 
Iglehart, and had thus become connected with some of the 
old established families of that region. Their home was at 
Annapolis where he was again on duty when I first knew 
him in 1858. He was a splendid specimen of manhood. 
He was six feet, one inch in height, with a powerful frame, 
weighing more than two hundred pounds, well proportioned, 
with a fine person. His features were well cut, betokening 
resolution and decision. He had a noble bearing, intelli- 
gence kindled his eye, and withal gracious and courtly, he 
was radiant with kindliness. Mrs. Waddell was small in 
person. She was a lovely and affectionate woman. They 
had no children, and the life of each seemed centered in the 
other. Though long married, they still were lovers. It was 
agreeable to observe them, the strong great man — the lovely, 
little woman — wandering over the grounds together — happy 
in themselves, a charming idyl of real life. 

His life was as a spotless mirror ; bright, effulgent with 
honor ; adorned mth virtue and with high attributes — while 
his person and noble countenance recalled the lines : 

A combination and a form indeed 

Where every god did seem to set his seal 

To give the world assurance of a man! 

The following summer he was on the practice ship ; and at 
sea, when he had leisure, he daily occupied himself in study- 
ing international law. Without premonition of the future, 
he then acquired that knowledge of international law which 
served him so well on the sudden occasion in after years. 

As an officer, he was a disciplinarian, without being harsh ; 
exacting, but not tyrannical. He commanded obedience, and 


compelled respect ; but there was nothing to beget any feeling 
of repugnance among those subject to his orders. 

He returned from his last cruise as an officer in the United 
States jSTavy August, 1861, and tendered his resignation, 
which the Department refused to accept. 

On a dark and stormy night early in January, 1862, he, 
with his brother-in-law, Mr. Iglehart, shipped as oystermen 
on board an oyster dredging boat and sailed out into the 
Chesapeake; and after some striking adventures, narrowly 
escaping capture, made good their way into Dixie. 

The I^avy Department at Washington struck his name 
from the navy roll, spitefully entering on the record, "Dis- 

Lieutenant Waddell who had been the ordnance officer 
at the Naval station at Drewry's Bluff, was in 1864 sent 
abroad to carry on the work of distressing the commerce of 
the enemy. Vessels carrying the United States flag had 
measurably disappeared from the Atlantic ocean. But in 
the Pacific a whaling fleet was still to be found, and it was 
important to destroy it. 

The Navy department selected Lieutenant Waddell for 
that service. His reputation as a seaman was superb, and he 
enjoyed the entire confidence of the department. 

Captain Bulloch, the representative of the Confederate 
government in Europe, had succeeded in purchasing the Sea 
King, a vessel built for the East India trade, and on her 
maiden voyage. She was commodious and well adapted to 
carrying a large complement of men ; sailed well under can- 
vas, and had her screw propeller so adjusted that when not 
in use it could be raised out of water. In September, 1864, 
flag-officer Barron at Paris, pursuant to instructions from 
the department, gave to Lieutenant Waddell his particular 


His orders were to the effect that he should proceed to 
London and sail on the steamer Laurel to the Island of 
Madeira. The Laurel had already on board a cargo appar- 
ently of merchandize — hut really of cannon and munitions 
of war, which had been invoiced as machinery and other in- 
nocent goods and chattels. • ~~" 

The difficulties that beset Confederate operations abroad 
were almost insurmountable ; the British authorities being 
vigilant to give no offense to the United States. 

The Sea King, a new screw steamer, however, had been 
secretly purchased, and she also set sail for Madeira. 

On October 19th the two vessels met off Funchal, and, a 
preconcerted signal being given, recognized each other, and 
proceeded to an anchorage on the shores of an uninhabited 
island some miles distant, where the transfer of stores was 
rapidly made, and Lieutenant Waddell read his commission, 
and raising the Confederate flag over the Sea King, christ- 
ened her the Shenandoah. The little nook in which the 
vessel lay was well protected and the sea was smooth. The 
day was bright and lovely, and Lieutenant Waddell was 
inspired by the auspicious circumstances with the confident 
hope of success. In thirteen hours the consort had dis- 
charged every conceivable outfit intended for the Shenan- 
doah, and then remained only to receive such passengers as 
were to return. 

Captain Waddell has left an account of the cruise of the 
Shenandoah — from which I make some quotations : "I now 
felt," says Waddell, "that I had a good and fast ship under 
my feet — but there was a vast deal to be done, and to ac- 
complish all that a crew was necessary." 

In picking out the crew of the two vessels in England par- 
ticular efforts were made to secure adventurous spirits who 
might be induced to enlist on the Shenandoah. Ko married 


man was shipped, and none were taken except with the hope 
that when the time came thej could take service under the 
Confederate flag; but out of the 55 men present only 23 were 
willing to adventure in such an undertaking. 

Waddell's force was indeed so weak that they could not 
weigh anchor — without the assistance of the officers. These 
were young Confederates who had been sent abroad for such 
service, the first Lieutenant being William C. Whittle, of 
Virginia, whose fine capacity rendered him of great assist- 
ance to Captain Waddell. The officers threw off their jackets, 
and amid hearty cheers, soon had the anchor hanging at the 
bow; and the Shenandoah entered upon her new career, 
throwing out to the breeze the flag of the South and taking 
her place as a Confederate cruiser on her ocean home, as a 
war vessel duly commissioned according to the law of 
nations. That flag, wrote Waddell, "unfolded itself grace- 
fully to the favoring breeze and declared the majesty of the 
country it represented, amid the cheers of a handful of brave 
hearted men — and the Shenandoah dashed upon her native 
element, as if more than equal to the contest — cheered on 
by the acclamations of the Laurel, which was steaming away 
for the land we love — to tell the tale to those who would re- 
joice that another Confederate cruiser was afloat !" 

But work was to be done ! The Sea King was to be meta- 
morphosed into a cruiser, and armed with a battery for which 
she was not constructed. The deck was to be cleared, the 
stores put away, the guns mounted, gun ports cut in the 
vessel's sides, and the ship put in readiness to uphold the 
honor of the Confederate flag. All was to be done in mid- 
ocean, without an organized force, and with a small crew 
never before associated together. 

While the situation was itself embarrassing, other em- 
barrassments forced themselves on the mind of Captain Wad- 


dell. In his memoir of his cruise, he wrote: ''The novel 
character of my political position embarrassed me more than 
the feeble condition of mj command, and that was fraught 
with j)ainful aj)prehensions enough. I had the compass to 
guide me as a sailor, but my instructions made me a magis- 
trate in a new field of duty and where the law was not very 
clear even to the lavr7ers. I was on all matters to act 
promptly and without counsel ; but my admirable instruc- 
tions and the instincts of honor and patriotism that ani- 
mated every Southern gentleman, who bore arms in the 
Southj bouyed me up with hope and supported me amid the 
difficulties and responsibilities bearing upon me." 

jSToble man ! chivalrous soul ! brave heart ; We here, after 
these many years, behold you raising aloft in those distant 
waters the sole and solitary Confederate banner that then 
floated upon the bosom of the ocean. Alone it is borne by 
the breeze over the great waste of waters — the only emblem 
of our nation's sovereignty upheld beyond the limit of our 
beleagured States. We now realize the difficulties that beset 
you. We know the perils of the deep — the storms and hurri- 
canes that sweep the ocean — the fury of the wild waves 
moved by mighty winds — but these, these have no place in 
your thoughts as you unfold the flag of your country then 
heroically struggling for existence, but jour mind is intent 
only on the honor of your countrymen ! 

The Shenandoah was a composite vessel — the frame of 
iron, the hull of teak — six inches thick ; she could steam 
about nine miles an hour — could condense about 500 gallons 
of water a day; and used about twenty tons of coal a day; 
was very fast; under favorable circumstances — making 15 
miles an hour under sail. 

I am much indebted for some account of life on board the 
Shenandoah to Lieut. W. C. Whittle and also recently have 


had the pleasure of talking over the same subject with Lieu- 
tenant Grimball, both of whom were schoolmates with me 
at Annapolis and who were Captain Waddell's main depend- 
ence for assistance in his long and adventuous cruise. 

Captain Whittle says: ''Captain Waddell though brave 
and courageous was naturally discomfited and appalled at 
the work to be done. 

"The battery consisted of four 8-inch smooth bore cannon, 
two rifled Whitworth 32-pounders and two 12-po under signal 

"Every man and officer pulled off his jacket and rolled up 
his sleeves, and with the motto 'Do or die,' went to work at 
anything and everything. The Captain took the wheel fre- 
quently, steering the ship, to give one more pair of hands 
for the work to be done. We worked systematically and 
intelligently, doing first those things that were most impera- 
tively necessary. By the 22d of October, after four days of 
hard work, the decks were cleared, the guns mounted, and 
the carpenters began to cut portholes in the sides of the ship." 

Five days later, the Shenandoah entered upon her first 
chase, and made a prize. And then other prizes followed. 
From these prizes they secured twenty enlistments, increasing 
the crew from nineteen to thirty-nine ; so, including the ofii- 
cers, they had all told sixty-two men, besides the prisoners, 
who were now and then sent away on some bonded vessel. 

On December 8th, they made Tristam da Canha, near St. 
Helena, and passing to the east of Africa, they reached Mel- 
bourne, Australia, January 25, 1865. There they landed 
all their prisoners, and after refitting left on February 18th. 
After leaving the harbor, a number of men who had secreted 
themselves on board, came on deck and enlisted, increasing 
their crew to 144 men. 

Sailing northward in May, after many adventures and 


capturing many j)rizes, they reached the shores of Kam- 

Captain Whittle says : "We were in the Arctic and contig- 
uous regions during the summer. It was most interesting, 
as we went north towards the pole, to mark the days grow 
longer and longer, and to experience the sun's being below 
the horizon a shorter and shorter time, until finally the sun 
did not go out of sight at all, but would go down to the lowest 
point, and without disappearing, would rise again. In short, 
it was all day. 

"We went up as far as Gifinski and Tansk Bays, but could 
not enter for ice, from fifteen to thirty feet thick. Frequent 
captures were made, and the smoke of the burning vessels 
made landmarks against the skies." 

It was now in the middle of summer, and on June 23 
Waddell captured two whalers, which had left San Francisco 
in April and had on board papers of April 17th, in which 
was found the correspondence between General Grant and 
General Lee, and a statement of the surrender at Appomat- 
tox; but the same papers also contained President Davis's 
proclamation from Danville, declaring Lee's surrender would 
only cause the prosecution of the war with renewed vigor. 

How harrowing must have been this news to these daring 
Confederates, then amid floes of ice in the Polar Ocean ! 
But they were men of nerve. Whittle says : "We felt that 
the South had sustained great reverses ; but at no time did 
we feel a more imperative duty to prosecute our work with 
vigor. Between June 22d and 28th we captured 24 whaling 
vessels, eleven being taken on the 28th." 

Some of the prisoners expressed their opinion that the 
war was over; but notwithstanding, eight of the prisoners 
taken that day enlisted on board the Shenandoah. 

On June 29th, the Confederate flag was flying in the 


Arctic Ocean; but on that day Waddell turned his prow 
away from the pole and passed southward through Bering 

In July 5th, they passed the Aleutian Islands, one of 
which was a volcano and was in a state of eruption, smoke 
and fire issuing from its peak. That was the last land seen 
by the Shenandoah for many days. 

Let us pause for a moment and consider the strange situa- 
tion of this Confederate cruiser — a war vessel representing 
the sovereignty of a nation that had expired amid the throes 
of disaster; — in mid-ocean, separated by thousands of miles 
from any friendly hand, subject to vicissitudes — uncertain of 
the present ; apprehensive of the future. 

Brave hearts, true men, bold seamen ! They feared not 
the fury of the waves, nor the storms of the ocean, but they 
knew well man's inhumanity to man ! They knew that the 
jSTavy Department of the United States, freed from the re- 
straints imposed by fear of retaliation, would be vindictive 
and tyrannical to the last degree. 

That department had always proclaimed the Southern 
people rebels, and their cruisers only pirates. On the land 
we had forced a recognition of belligerent rights: but at sea 
we had been powerless to retaliate. 

On August 2d, when in north latitude 16 degrees and 122 
west longitude, seeing a sailing bark, the Shenandoah made 
chase under steam and sail, and overhauled her at 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon. It proved to be the British bark Barra- 
conta, thirteen days out from San Francisco, en route to Liv- 
erpool. When the British captain was asked for the news of 
the war, he inquired in astonishment : 

"What war ?" 

"The war between the United States and the Confederate 


''Why/' said be, "that war has been over ever since 
April. What ship is that ?" 

''The Confederate ship, Shenandoah," was the reply. 

Then came the information of the surrender of all the 
Confederate forces, the capture of President Davis, and the 
entire collapse of the Confederate cause; and the additional 
information, says Whittle, "that Federal cruisers were search- 
ing for us eA'^erywhere and would deal summarily with us, if 
caught. Files of recent papers confirmed it all. The infor- 
mation was appalling. We were bereft of country, bereft of 
ground of hope or aspiration, bereft of a cause for which to 
struggle and to suffer ! 

"That independence for which our brave people had so 
nobly fought, suffered and died, was under God's ruling, de- 
nied to us. Our anguish of disappointed hopes can not be 
described ! 

"^Naturally our minds and hearts turned to our dear ones 
at home. What of the fate of each and all who were dear 
to us ? These were the harrowing thoughts that entered into 
our very souls, the measure and intensity of which can not 
be portrayed. 

"Then of ourselves ! We knew the intensity of feeling en- 
gendered by the war — and particularly in the breasts of our 
foes towards us. 

"We knew that every eifort would be made for our capture, 
and felt that if we fell into the hands of the enemy, fired as 
their hearts were, we could not hope for a fair trial and judg- 
ment. Even during the war, we had been opprobriously 
called pirates, and we knew if captured, we would be sum- 
marily dealt with as such. 

"These were reflections that disquieted us, but they caused 
no demoralization, or craven fear, but were borne by true 
men with clear consciences, who had done their duty as they 


saw it, with all the powers given them by God. It was a 
situation desperate to a degree to which history furnishes 
no parallel. The first duty was to suspend hostilities and to 
proclaim such suspension. 

"The following entry was made in the log book August 
2, 1865, the Shenandoah then being off the coast of Mexico: 
'Having received by the bark Barraconta the sad intelligence 
of the overthrow of the Confederate government, all attempts 
to destroy shipping or property of the United States will 
cease from this date, in accordance with which First Lieu- 
tenant W. C. Whittle received the order from the commander 
to strike below the battery and disarm the ship and crew.' 

"The next step was to seek asylum with some strong nation, 
strong enough to maintain the ruling of the law of nations 
and resist any demand for our surrender to our enemies, so 
that we might have a full and fair trial." 

Writing of that critical time. Captain Waddell, wrote: 
"My own life had been checkered, and I was tutored to 
disappointments. The intelligence of the issue of the fear- 
ful struggle cast a deep stillness over the ship's company, 
and would have occupied all my reflection, had not a respon- 
sibility of the highest order rested upon me — as to the course 
I should pursue, which involved not only my personal honor, 
but the honor of that flag intrusted to me, which had thus 
far been triumphant. I determined to run the ship for a 
Euroi^ean port — which involved a distance of 17,000 miles — 
a long gantlet to run, and escape. But why should not I 
succeed in baffling observation and pursuit? The ship had 
up to that time traveled 40,000 miles without accident. I 
considered it due to the honor of all concerned to avoid any- 
thing that had a show of dread — under the severe trial im- 
posed upon me: that such was my duty as a man and an 


officer in whose hands was placed the honor of my country's 
flag and the welfare of my command," 

And so Waddell determined to sail for England. jSTo 
longer did he have legitimate authority, for his commission 
expired with the collapse of the Confederacy; yet so well 
disciplined had his crew become, that to the very end the con- 
duct of his crew was remarkable. 

On the 15th of September, running at the rate of 15 miles 
an hour, the Shenandoah turned Cape Horn, and took her 
course northward for Liverpool. "We passed many sails," 
says Whittle, "but exchanged no signals. We were making 
no new acquaintances." They crossed the equator for the 
fourth time on October 11, 1865. On October 25th, in the 
afternoon, when about 500 miles south of the Azores, they 
sighted a supposed Federal cruiser. Their courses con- 
verged. The stranger was apj)arently waiting for the ap- 
proaching vessel. 

Quoting now from Captain Waddell: "The situation was 
one of anxious suspense. Our security, if any remained, de- 
pended on a strict adherence to our course. Deviation would 
be fatal ; boldness must accomplish deception. Still we 
forged towards the sail, and it would be madness to stop. 
Darkness finally threw her friendly folds around the anxious 
hearts on the little ship and closed the space between the 
vessels. What a relief ! We could not have been four miles 

The Shenandoah's head was then turned southward and 
steam ordered. It was the first time she had been under 
steam since crossing the equator on the Pacific side ; indeed, 
the fires had not been lighted for a distance of more than 
13,000 miles. The Shenandoah ran fifteen miles to the east- 
ward and then steamed north for 100 miles, when a strong 
southwest wind dashed her to within 700 miles of Liverpool. 


A calm then ensued, leaving the Shenandoah in sight of 
eleven sails during daylight, but the ship was continued 
under sail until night again took her in its friendly em- 
brace. After furling all sails, the vessel was put under 
steam and pushed her way towards the desired haven. 

The Shenandoah entered St. George's Channel on the 
morning of N^ovember 5th, just 122 days from the Aleutian 
Islands. "We saw no land," says Captain Waddell, "^after 
leaving the Aleutian Islands until the beacon light in St. 
George's Channel was seen exactly where it was looked for. 
We had sailed 23,000 miles without seeing land and still saw 
the beacon exactly where we expected." 

The daily calculation of the ship's position was very ac- 
curate, when that fact is considered. It was indeed a most 
remarkable record in navigation. They received a pilot after 
night, and when he was informed of the character of the 
vessel, he said : "I was reading a few days ago of her being 
in the Arctic Ocean." Asked for American news, he said 
the war had gone against the South. That was in ISTovember. 
Lee's surrender was in April. 

"The quiet satisfaction seen in all countenances," says 
Captain Waddell, "for our success in reaching a European 
port was unmistakable." 

Indeed, there was cause. The chief danger was now past. 
On the morning of the 6th of ISTovember, 1865, the Shenan- 
doah steamed up the Mersey, bearing aloft the Confederate 
flag. A few moments after she had anchored, a British naval 
officer boarded her — to ascertain the name of the steamer — 
and he gave Captain Waddell official information that the 
American war had terminated. 'No longer was there any 
Confederacy ! The Southern States were again a part of the 
United States. 

The Confederate flag, representing neither people nor 


country, an emblem of an era that had closed in the history 
of mankind, was then sorrowfully lowered, this historic act 
taking place at 10 a. m. on the 6th of November, 1865. The 
vessel was then given in charge to the British government. 

For a day or two some correspondence was in progress be- 
tween the British and American authorities in regard to 
the Shenandoah, her officers and crew. But on the 8th of 
iN'ovember the crew were suffered to depart, and soon the 
British government turned the vessel over to the United 
States authorities, by whom she was sold to the Sultan of 
Zanzibar, and later she was lost at sea. 

She was the only vessel that carried the Confederate flag 
around the world, and she bore it at her mast head seven 
months after the surrender of the Southern armies and the 
obliteration of the Southern Confederacy. 

In her cruise of thirteen months, she ran 58,000 miles and 
met with no accident; and for a period of eight months she 
did not drop her anchor. She destroyed more vessels than 
any other ship of war known in history, except alone the 
Alabama, and inflicted heavy loss on the commerce of the 
United States. 

The feeling of the United States was so intense against 
Captain Waddell that he lingered some time in Europe be- 
fore venturing to return to America. Finally he came, and 
in 1875 the Pacific Mail Company, owned largely by Eng- 
lishmen, running lines of steamers from San Francisco to 
Japan and Australia, engaged him as commander of one of 
its fine steamships. For some years he continued in that 
service, but on one of his return trips, as he was nearing the 
coast, his vessel struck a rock or bar not laid down in any 
chart, some thirteen miles from shore, which had doubtless 
been thrown up by a recent earthquake. He had 120 pas- 
sengers on board, many being women and children. He at 


once took personal command, and by the perfect discipline 
lie had maintained among the crew, he controlled the excited 
passengers. Indeed his was a personality that would in- 
sjDire confidence under all circumstances. Through an open- 
ing fifty feet long, water poured into the vessel. He put all 
men at the pumps, turned toward the shore and got his 
boats and life rafts ready. He got within three miles of land 
before he found it necessary to abandon the sinking vessel. 
Eapidly he had the women and children transferred to the 
small boats, and then the men, and then the crew — until at 
length he alone remained the sole human being upon his fated 
ship. Then hurrying the boats away, he himself stepped 
upon a life raft, and when not more than fifty yards away, 
the great vessel plunged into the waves, creating a vortex of 
waters from which he barely escaped. But no soul was lost. 
His perfect self-command, his perfect discipline, secured the 
safety of every passenger. They were landed without 
trouble on the neighboring shore, and the admirable conduct 
of Captain Waddell won the highest praise. 

But after that he determined to abandon a career upon 
the sea, and eventually returned to Annapolis. 

Later, there being much trouble in controlling the fleet of 
oyster boats on the Chesapeake that set at defiance the laws 
of Maryland, the governor of that State invited Captain 
Waddell to take charge of the State guard boats in the Chesa- 
j)eake. He soon established order and made the oystermen 
respect the law. 

He continued in this service at Annapolis until his death, 
March 15, 1886, being then in the 6 2d year of his age. The 
Legislature of Maryland was in session at the time and ad- 
journed to do him honor. The old Confederate soldiers 
formed in line and marched to his residence. General 
George H. Stuart acted as marshal and the pall-bearers were 


Captain Morris, Captain Murray, General Bradley Johnson 
and other distinguished Confederates, while the escort of 
honor was commanded by Colonel William Morris. The 
governor and State officers participated. 

Indeed it was a State funeral — the only one, that we re- 
member, ever accorded to a Confederate in a State north of 
the Potomac. 

Thus was laid to rest this brave son of the Cape Fear, who 
never ceased to love his native soil and his friends and kin- 
dred in JSTorth Carolina. His life was full vicissitudes, but 
his guiding star was honor, and he was a shining example 
of all that is admirable in human character and all that is 
meritorious in human conduct. 

Like many other heroes of the great drama, he has passed 
away and his grave is adorned with flowers by the loving 
hands of patriotic women — Confederate women, who suffered 
for the lost cause -and who perpetuate its sacred memories. 
In the time of sorrow, they and their Confederate sisters 
throughout the Southland bore themselves with unsurpassed 
fortitude, and in these later days, they treasure the hallowed 
past and keep bright the fame of our fathers and brothers 
and tenderly pay deserved tribute to their honored dead. 
Duty, Christian duty, is their watchword, and the people 
of ISTorth Carolina and of the South in the ages to come — 
the descendants of our people here to remote posterity — will 
bless them for their noble, patriotic and devoted work in 
preserving the unsullied records of the heroes of the Southern 




John Cochran to Elizabeth Patten. February 7, 1773. 
John Cochran, Richard paton and Andrew Cochran. (Ad: 
Osborn. ) 

John Chambers to Eebecah Graham. June 13, 177 

John Chambers and Jas. Cathej. (Ad: Osborn.) A note 
of consent from bride's father, James Graham, dated June 
13, 1774, witnessed by George Howard. 

Hugh Cathey to Jane Bailey. August 4, 1774. Hu: 
Cathey and James Brandon. (Ad: Osborn.) A note of 
consent from bride's father, Charles Bailey, dated August 
3, 1774. 

Richard Cathey, to Elizabeth Giles, a spinster. September 
6, 1774. Richard Cathey and William Giles. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Hugh Cunningham to Elizabeth Smith, a spinster. Sep- 
tember 15, 1774. Hugh (his X mark) Cunningham and 
John Johnston. (Ad: Osborn.) 

James Cooke to Anne McConnell. August 15, 1774. 
James Cook and Joseph Dickson. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Leonard Crider to Margaret Vervele. February 14, 1775. 
Leonard Crider (in Dutch ?) and George Gonter. (Ad : 

John Campbell to Juda Peterson. February 15, 1775. 
John Campbell, William Brandon and John Lock. (No 

Henry Chambers to Agness McHenry. May 11, 1775. 
Henery Chambers and John McHenry. (David Flowers.) 

William Clark to Sarah Jones. August 17, 1775. Wil- 
liam Clark and George Gonder. (David Flowers.) 



John Calahan to Jane Templeton. August 19, 17Y5. John 
Calahan and George Templeton. (David Flowers.) 

James Cowen to Easther Lewis. August 22, 1775. James 
Cowan and Henry Dobbin. (David Flowers.) 

John Carson to Sarah Slaven. August 31, 1775. John 
Carson and Robert Nevins. (David Flowers.) 

Joshua Crowdir to Rebecca (Rebena?) Smith (a spinster) 
January 19, 1776. Joshua Crowder and Arch*^ Kerr. 

Arthur Chambers to Ruth Woods. May 9, 1776. Arthur 
Chambers and Samuel Woods. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Robert Chambers to Lettice Boyd. May 10, 1776. Robert 
Chambers and Robert Boyd. (Ad: Osborne.) 

Valentine Calahan to Elizabeth McCreedy. May 28, 1776. 
— Callahan and James Bone (?). (Ad.: Osborn.) A note 
from Andrew McCreedy. 

Samuel McCorkle to Elisabeth Gillespie. June 29, 1776. 
Samuel McCorkle and Adlai Osborn. (No name.) 

David Craige to Mary Foster. July 20, 1776. David 
Craige and Adlexander Brown. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Benjamin Cowen to Anne Henley Jenkins. April 9, 1778. 
Benjamin Cowan and William Cowan. (Ad: Osborn.) 

James Coyle to Jean Harrington. September 12, 1778. 
James Coile and William (his X mark) Harrington. (Ad: 

Joseph Chambers to Mary Campbell. September 14, 
1778. Joseph Chambers and George Reed. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Daniel Clenard to Mary Hinkle. November 8, 1778 ( ?). 
Daniel (his X mark) and Geo. (his X mark) Hoover. ( Jno. 

Eleazer Cummins to Isabell (?) Caswell ( ?). December 
15, 1778. Eliazar Comens and James Eraser. (William 
R. Davie.) 

Jonathan Cox to Mary Konne (?). May (?) 8, 1779. 
Jonathan Cox and Joseph (his X mark) Cox. (Jo. Brevard.) 


]Sr. B. — This is mixed and Joseph may have married instead 
of Jonathan. 

Robert Carlisle to Elizabeth Cash. February 3, 1779. 
Eobert Carlile and John Cochran. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Christophel Cupp to Prusilla Landuse. May 17, 1779. 
Christophel Cupp ( ?) and Johannes Cochenour ? (these are 
in Dutch?) (Ad: Osborn.) 

John Cochran to Margret Huston. September 9, 1779. 
Jno. Coghlan and Jno. Bailey. (Ad: Osborn and Jo. 
Brevard. ) 

Hugh Cunningham to Mary Kent (?). February 10, 
1780. Hugh Cunningham and Jonathan Conger. (B. Booth 

Isaac Cowin to Mary Pelton. JSTovember 8, 1780. Isaac 
(his X mark) Cowin and Nicholas (his X mark) Aldredge. 
(H.? Giffard.) 

Thomas Cook to Ann Clayton. January 20, 1781. Thomas 
Cook and Lambert Clayton. 

George Clark to Elizabeth Allen. March 14, 1781 (?). 
George Clark and John Smith. (Ad: Osborn.) 

James Cook and Margaret Thompson. June 22, 1782 ( ?). 
James Cooke and John Hide (?). 

James Chambers to Margret Erwin. October 19, 1782. 
Abraham (his X mark) Ervin. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Lambert Clayton to Serah Davidson. December 14 (11 ?), 
1782. Lambert Clayton and Jas. Ker. (H. C. Caule.) 

Joseph Crofts to Sarah Wells. December 16, 1782 (3 ?). 
Joseph Crofts and Thos. (his X mark) Willis. (William 
Crawford. ) 

John Current to Susanna Remington. December 13 
(19?), 1782. John Current and William Clark. (William 

Albert Carson to Ellie Patterson. December 20, 1782. 
Robert Carson and James Patterson. (?) H. C. Caule. 


William Craige to Deborah Orman. 1783. William 
Craig and Joseph Chambers. (Wm. Crawford.) 

Samuel Cummins to Elizabeth ISTevins. January 28, 
1783. Samuel Cummins and John Edgard. (William 

Amos Church to Elizabeth Swink. February 25, 1783. 
Amos (his X mark) Swink and Henry Giles. (A mistake 
surely. (William Crawford.) 

Samuel Cowin to Phebe Lewis. Jun. ( ?) 14, 1783. 
Samuel Cowan and Samuel (his X mark) Lewis. (Wm. 

Jacob Clever to Christina Billing. August 11, 1783, 
Jacob Clevey ( ?) and Leonard (his X mark) Ca. ? 

James Kilehand to Mary Wason. August 14, 1783. 
James W. Calahan and John Wason. (Jno. McNairy.) 

John Chriwer ( ?) to Cathrin Kup ( ^). Xovember 1, 
1783. John (his X mark) Chriver and Peter Brown. 

Isaac Cowin to Sarah Stewart. December 18, 1783. Isaac 
(his X mark) Cowin and Da\dd (his X mark) Stewart. 
(Jno. McXairy.) 

(To be Continued.) 

Biographical Sketches of the contributors to this issue of 
The Booklet have been published heretofore as follows : 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood Yol. VIII, 1 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle Vol. VII, 2 

Captain S. A. Ashe Vol IX, 4 

Vol. XIII JANUARY, 1914 No. 3 



** Carolina! Carolina! Heaven^ s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.'^ 

Published by 



The object of The Bookxet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publicatiOB 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 


Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : ~~~ 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 





honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

recording secretary: 

Mrs. clarence JOHNSON. 

corresponding secretary: 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 





custodian of relics: 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 
General Francis Nash Chapter. .. .Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent 
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent. 

Founder op the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12, 1904. 
tDied November 25. 1911. 


Vol. XIII JANUARY, J9I4 No. 3 


By Major Wm. A. Graham. 

The Germans who came from the Fatherland direct or via 
Pennsylvania to the country adjacent to the Catawba River 
and perhaps to other sections of the State brought with 
them the custom of "N^ew Year's Shooting," which from the 
opening words of the sermon seems to have been a custom 
in the old country in which the tenants on ISTew Year's Eve, 
going to the mansion of the Baron or Landlord, delivered 
an address and saluted him by firing their guns. 

It was not a carousal of boys on a spree, but one of the 
steadiest, and generally an elderly man, was the preacher, 
who promptly left if there was any misbehavior. 

The custom has now become almost obsolete, but there are 
still a few communities who prepare for the visit of the 
shooters by having a supply of eatables on hand for them. 

Assembling about midnight, they went from house to 
house until sunrise, having designated some place where 
they would breakfast. Here the preacher left and the 
others, principally the young people, spent some time in 
drinking, dancing, prize shooting and other festivities com- 
mon to the Christmas season in those days. 

The desire was to reach the house unobserved by the ocr- 
eupants. Assembling before the house, the preacher called 
out three times : "Hello, Major (or William) Graham!" At 


the third call the landlord answers, "Hello." Then follows 

the sermon: 

Good morning, Landlord and Landlady! 

Sons and daughters and all who are within your house. 

I wish you all a happy New Year in this year of our Lord 1914. 

I wish you all great health, long life, which God will bestow you on, 

Keep joy, peace and encouragement and God will bless your whole 

On your house and all therein 
I wish you all a blessing. 
Praise Him in times of all 
Who gives you houses, lands and all. 
The poor and needy praise the Lord 
Who blessings need of every sort. 
In every part I wish you ease, 
That God may give you luck and peace. 
God preserve the house that you are in, 
Where you go out, where you come in. 
In this world both man and wife 
Grow tired of this earthly life 
And seek an eternal rest, 
Choosing some other subject for the best. 
And I wish from my heart 
From this world we do depart 
We may all sing new hymns 
Like David did in former times. 
But you are like that frail flower. 
Born to flourish but an hour, 
That with the sun does uprise, 
Unfolds, and with the evening dies. 
Such and so withering are our earthly joys 
Which time and sickness soon destroys. 
A thousand wretched souls have fled 
Since the last setting sun; 
But the Lord hath lengthened out our thread 
And still our moments run. 
Great God, let all our hours be thine, 
Then shall our sun in smiles decline. 
Never build your hopes too high. 
But keep God always before your eye. 
And that you and I are born to die. 
Time by moments steals away. 
First the hour and then the day, 

NEW year's shooting. 149 

Small the daily loss appears, 

But soon it doth amount to years. 

Sad experience may relate 

What a year the last has been; 

Crops of sorrow have been great 

In this vain world of sin. 

That they must lie within the tomb 

The sons of Adam know is their certain doom. 

As runs the glass, man's life does pass. 

Xerxes the Great did surely die; 

This must be the case with you and I. 

I have this New Year's morn called you by your name, 

Disturbed you of your rest, meant no harm by the same; 

Here we stand upon your land 

With guns and pistols in our hand. 

And when we pull trigger and powder burn. 

You'll hear the roaring of our guns. 

Here we are in your yard, 

A little distance all apart. 

And, as it may be your desire, 

Our guns shall either snap* or fire. 

As I hear no objection. 

We'll now proceed to your protection. 

After the sermon comes the firing. Beginning at the head 
of the line each one fires until all have shot. A loud re- 
port is highly prized and to secure this by overloading 
sometimes the guns burst or are kicked out of the hands of 
the person firing. Others fire with the muzzle pointed to 
the ground to increase the volume of the report. A large 
attendance at New Year's shooting was considered a good 
omen for the next wheat crop, caused by the settling of the 
powder smoke upon the ground. The firing over, the 
preacher says : 

If you are a man of grace. 

Come to the door and show your face. 

The landlord opens the door, the shooters enter, exchange 
the compliments of the season, partake of such entertain- 

*If on account of sickness or other cause, firing is not desired, the landlord calls out 
" Snap." 


ment as has been prepared and then proceed to the next 
house, continuing the march until sunrise. 

It is a pretty manner of extending ISTew Year's saluta- 
tion and it is to be regretted that it will soon be obsolete. 

The original sermon was in German, and in many places 
it was preached in that language prior to 1860. There are 
several versions in English ; the one I have given is the 
one used in the neighborhood of the writer. 

Mr. R, M. Beal, of Lincolnton, gives the following ver- 
sion as that used by him and his associates: 


Good morning. Landlord and Landlady, 

Sons and daughters and all that are within thy house. 

I wish you a happy New Year, 

Great health and long life. 

Which God bestow upon you in mercy 

As long as you are upon the earth. 

I hope you lovers of every kind. 

Please your heart and please your mind, 

Whose heart is pure, whose hands are clean, 

Whose tongues still speak the things they mean, 

No slander dwells upon your tongue 

You hate to do your lovers wrong. 

A state of sin I despise 

But love the honor in the eyes, 

Don't be too proud, don't build your hopes too high, 

Keep God always before your eye 

And recollect you are born to die 

As well as I. 

The hoar frost that shrouds the ground, 

The hail that sends the dreadful sound. 

The icy hand the rivers hold 

From the dread arms of winter's cold, 

The branches we are ordained to shoot 

From David's stock to Jacob's root. 

To this New Year's morning 1914 

I have called you by your name 

And meant no harm by the same. 

If these proceedings don't agree, 

NEW year's shooting. 151 

Make us an answer se-ri-ous-ly. 
That we may hold our credit by 
And burn our powders in aegy sly — 
But since it has been your desire, 
Guns and pistols shall snap and fire. 



By Captain S. A. Ashe. 


As, when some devotee repairs to a sacred shrine and lifts 
his silent thoughts to the throne in Heaven, his being be- 
comes penetrated v^ith the softening atmosphere of the hal- 
lov^ed sanctuary and his piety is nourished by his emotions; 
so, on such an occasion as this, when we draw nigh to these 
venerable ruins, where our forefathers gathered in years 
long past, and which speak to us of their patriotic deeds in 
perilous times, our own natures must be uplifted and our 
patriotism strengthened and made more fervent. 

Here we find visible objects connecting us with an inter- 
esting past and attesting the verity of legends and memo- 
ries that we dearly cherish. Here at the gateway of our 
noble river stands a monument that speaks to us of the 
very beginning of life upon the Cape Fear, of the first set- 
tlement, of its early days, and of its growth, developmeiit 
and expansion. But more particularly it is a mournful 
memorial of the conflicting interests between the newer 
city — ISTewton it was originally called — and the first toA\ai 
laid off as a center for the trade and commerce of the peo- 
ple. The younger sister, with her superior advantages, sur- 
vived the contest and won the victory ; and Wilmington be- 
came the great heart of the Cape Fear region, sending 
warm blood of energy and intelligence through the arteries 
of the country, and growing in strength and importance in 
every succeeding generation ; while Brunswick faded away 
with the Colonial days, and her ruins here are only vestiges 
of the Colonial period. They bid us pause and reflect 
upon their history. 


They recall to our remembrance, the important 
changes that Time has wrought among us. The services 
held within these walls were those of the Church of Eng- 
land, the ministers being under the authority of the Bish- 
ops of London ; and the worshippers with loyal hearts 
gloried in being subjects of His Sacred Majesty, the King. 
The fountain of honor, the resplendent source of earthly 
glory, was the beloved and revered Monarch who sat on 
his throne in his royal palace across the water. His min- 
isters ordered our affairs, selected our Governors, appointed 
our counsellors and local officers, and allowed or annulled 
the enactments of our legislatures. Yes, then our fore- 
fathers were British subjects, and earnestly and anxiously 
sought the smiles of their Sovereign, and had neither hope 
nor desire for any change. 

There is no record of the arrival of the vessel that brought 
here the pioneer family. She came with bended sail across 
yonder bar and boldly coursed the broad harbor and drew 
near to the haven where she would be. There were anxious 
mothers — the children, the household servants, and all the 
accompaniments of the family. Oh ! noble river : thus was 
borne upon your bosom the first germs of a people destined 
in time to occupy a vast country and by their deeds and 
virtues to become famous on the pages of history. Ah ! 
that bark ! freighted with precious lives, animated with high 
hopes of a happy future here on the virgin banks of this 
splendid river : maids and matrons ; brave, courageous and 
enterprising men — they come to found a people ; to lay the 
foundations of a settlement amid the solitude of an un- 
broken wilderness. But soon the axes ring; great trees 
fall ; clearings are made ; houses rise, and settlers hasten to 
make new homes on these broad and placid waters. 

With these first enterprising families, nearly every one 


of US here present today is, perhaps in some way, connected ; 
and it is from such a standpoint, that we children of the 
Cape Fear find a particular interest in the incoming of our 
Fathers, in their first clearings, in the first family prayers 
that ascended from the hearthstones of old Brunswick, and 
in the redemption of our loved section from its original 
condition of primeval wilderness. 

Among the immigrants from foreign parts were men of 
learning, culture, and social position, and they found con- 
genial society. Indeed social conditions on the Cape Fear 
were exceptionally fine. The native sons, children of South 
Carolina and of Albemarle, could boast refinement, as well 
as wealth and strength of character ; and preeminent among 
all were the Moores and their kinspeople, who were called 
by those who had antagonistic interests, "The Family." 
"The Family" was not on easy terms with the new Governor, 
Gabriel Johnston, who with his immediate friends had pur- 
chased lands around Newton, and had cast the whole influ- 
ence of the administration in favor of that town and against 
Brunswick, And so after a hot and strong fight, by very 
doubtful tactics, the Governor carried his point and ISTewton 
took its place among the few incorporated towns, under the 
name of Wilmington: and, backed by all the official influ- 
ences of the administration, and of others interested in its 
land values, and sustained by a more thriving trade because 
of its superior location, it soon became the chief emporium 
of the Cape Fear and the local seat of government. 

But still there centered in Brunswick many interests. 
There an elegant and refined society held sway; and later 
other Governors resided there, as well as some of the Crown 

At length, however, ]^ew Bern became the established 
seat of government and the residence of the Governor; and. 


perhaps because of its exposed position during the periods 
times of the Revolution, Brunswick was entirely deserted, 
and passed into history, its light going out with the end of 
the Colonial period. 

But to us, as long as this ruin endures, it will be a memo- 
rial of exceeding interest. It recalls to us the joyous aspect 
of the social side of Colonial days. Here was a seat of ele- 
gance, refinement and culture, and of a fine hospitality un- 
surpassed anywhere in the Southland. 

Here gathered the Colonial dames who imparted a charm 
to daily life, and whose gTacious presence cast a refining 
and elevating influence throughout the Cape Fear region. 
These were indeed the Colonial Dames of the earlier times. 

You know, fair ladies, the immutable order of nature — 
evolution — development. First, the bud ; then the flower. 

In a spacious garden that adorns the banks of our be- 
loved river, fit for some modem Maecenas and his elegant 
spouse, where a multitude of roses beautify nature, one can 
see some lovely buds of the variety known as American 
Beauty — in time, by natural processes, these become full 
blowra, glorious roses — the admiration of all who love per- 
fection in nature. 

The Colonial Dames of Old Brunswick were as the lovely 
buds : the Dames of today — are the perfect development — 
the glorious full blown American Beauties: living roses in 
a veritable garden of Hesperides with heavenly souls and 
divine forms, and whose charms and graces make them 
actual goddesses for the souls of men to worship. 

Such a picture is only an illustration of what was to be 
found in all the mansions that adorned the banks of the Cape 
Fear. Happy indeed was life in these abodes of culture 
and refinement; there being abundant crops, increasing 


wealth and social pleasures that gave a delightful flavor to 
the placid current of happy existence. 

But there were occasions of excitement. The course of 
public affairs often ran in channels calling for bold and 
courageous action. 

In the system of government, as the Governor repre- 
sented in Proprietary times the will of the Palatine or of 
the Lords Proprietors, and, in after years, he received his 
instructions from the Colonial office, his relations to the 
people were those of a foreign ruler; while, on the other 
hand, the Assembly represented the people, and its mouth- 
piece was the Speaker. The Speaker stood before the people 
as a champion of their rights and principles ; he was the 
guardian of their liberty. In him was reposed the public 
trust of maintaining and defending their sacred rights 
against all encroachments ; and his courage, patriotism, and 
devotion constituted • the very ark of their safety. 
Although his position was not so exalted as that of the rep- 
resentative of His Sacred Majesty, the King, yet the power 
of the Speaker with the people at his back was greater and 
more important than that of the Royal Governor. 

For fifty years, with some slight intermissions, this high 
and responsible post was entrusted by the people to a single 
family. For fifty years Maurice Moore's family connec- 
tions controlled and directed public affairs in North Caro- 
lina, and so wisely, vigorously, and patriotically managed 
the cause of the people, that in nearly every conflict with 
the successive Governors they won the victory. 

The Parliament of the British Empire in 1765 
usurped the authority of taxing the Colonists. To admit it 
was to court the chains of political slavery. The asserted* 
right was stoutly denied. To assist the King, each Colony 
had been used by taxing itself to raise a fund and present 


it to the King, under the name of "an aid" ; but because of 
the great expense incurred in the war, then ended, Parlia- 
ment resolved itself to lay a tax on the Colonists as on all 
other British subjects. A resolution declaring that policy 
was adopted by Parliament, almost without debate. But 
when the next year a bill was introduced to carry the reso- 
lution into effect, it met with considerable opposition in the 
House of Commons, for the protests of the Colonists were 
not unheeded. Still the ministry, under Lord Bute, per- 
sisted, and the measure was carried. All America was at 
once stirred. Bold and courageous action was taken in 
every Colony, but in none was a more resolute spirit man- 
ifested than here upon the Cape Fear. The Governor was 
Tryon, who had but lately succeeded to that office. He was 
an officer of the army, a gentleman by birth and education, 
a man calculated by his accomplishments and social qualities 
to shine in any community. He sought the Speaker of the 
House, and asked him what would be the action of the peo- 
ple — "Eesistance to the death," was the prompt reply. That 
was a warning that was full of meaning. It pledged the 
Speaker to revolution and war in defense of the people's 

The Assembly was to meet in May, 1765. But Tryon 
astutely postponed the meeting until l!Tovember, and then 
dissolved it. He did not wish the members to meet, confer, 
consult, and arrange a plan of opposition. He hoped by 
dealing with gentlemen, not in an official capacity, to dis- 
arm their antagonism and persuade them to a milder course. 
Vain delusion ! The people had been too long trained to 
rely with confidence on their leaders to abandon them now, 
even though Parliament demanded their obedience. 

The first movement was not long delayed. Within two 
months after the news had come that the odious act had 


been passed, the people of North Carolina discarded from 
their use all clothes of British manufacture and set up 
looms for weaving their own clothes. Since Great Britain 
was to oppress them, they would give the world an assur- 
ance of the spirit of independence that would sustain them 
in the struggle. In October, information was received that 
Doctor Houston, of Duplin County, had been selected in 
England as Stamp-Master. At once proceedings were 
taken to nullify the appointment. At that time Wilming- 
ton had less than 500 white inhabitants, but her citizens 
were very patriotic and very resolute. 

Rocky Point, fifteen miles to the northward, had been 
the residence of Maurice Moore, of Speaker Moseley and 
Speaker Swann, Alexander Lillington, John Swann, George 
Moore, John Porter, Col. Jones, Col. Merrick, and other gen- 
tlemen of influence. It was the centre from which had 
radiated the influences that directed popular movements. 
Nearer to Onslow, Duplin and Bladen, than Wilmington 
was, and the residence of the Speaker and other active lead- 
ers, it was doubtless there that plans were considered, and 
proceedings agreed upon that involved the united action of 
all the neighboring counties. At Wilmington and vicinity, 
were Plarnett, DeRossett, Toomer, Walker, Clayton, Gregg, 
Purviance, Eustace, Maclaine and DuBois ; while near by 
were Col. Waddell, Maurice and James Moore, the Davises, 
Howe, Smith, Grange, Ancrum, and a score of others of the 
loftiest patriotism. All were in full accord with the 
Speaker of the Assembly ; all were nerved by the same 
spirit ; all resolved to carry resistance, if need be, to the 
point of blood and death. 

We fortunately have a contemporaneous record of some 
of their proceedings, "^'On Saturday, the 19th of last month," 


says the North Carolina Gazette, published at Wilmington, 
in its issue of November 20, 1765 : 

''About 7 o'clock in the evening, near five hundred people assem- 
bled together in this town and exhibited the effigy of a certain hon- 
orable gentleman; and after letting it hang by the neck for some 
time, near the courthouse, they made a large bonfire with a number 
of tar barrels, etc., and committed it to the flames. The reason 
assigned for the people's dislike to that gentleman was from being 
informed of his having several times expressed himself much in 
favor of the Stamp Duty. After the effigy was consumed, they went 
to every house in town, and brought all the gentlemen to the bonfire, 
and insisted on their drinking 'Liberty, Property, and No Stamp 
Duty,' 'Confusion to Lord Bute and all his adherents'; giving three 
huzzahs at the conclusion of each toast. They continued together 
until 12 of the clock, and then dispersed without doing any mischief." 

Doubtless it was a very orderly crowd ; since the editor 
says so. A very orderly, harmless, inoffensive gathering; 
patriotic, and given to hurrahing; but we are assured that 
they dispersed without doing any mischief. 

And continues the same paper: 

"On Thursday, the 31st of the same month, in the evening, a great 
number of people assembled again, and produced an effigy of 
Liberty, which they put into a coffin and marched in solemn pro- 
cession with it to the churchyard, a drum in mourning beating be- 
fore them; and the town bell muffled ringing a doleful knell at the 
same time; but before they committed the body to the ground, they 
thought it advisable to feel its pulse, and, finding some remains of 
life, they returned back to a bonfire ready prepared, placed the effigy 
before it in a large two-armed chair, and concluded the evening with 
great rejoicings on finding that Liberty had still an existence in the 

"Not the least injury was offered to any person." 

The editor of that paper, Mr. Stewart, was ai>parently 
anxious to let his readers know that the people engaged in 
these proceedings were the very soul of order, and the es- 
sence of moderation. So far they had done no mischief and 
offered no injury to anyone. But still they had teeth, and 


thej could show them. Ill fared any man who stood in 
their way. 

The next item reads: 

"Saturday, the 16tli of this instant, that is November: William 
Houston, Esq., Distributor of stamps for this Province, came to this 
town; upon which three or four hundred people immediately gath- 
ered together, with drums beating and colors flying, and repaired to 
to the house the said Stamp master put up at, and insisted upon 
knowing 'Whether he intended to execute his said office or not.' He 
told them, 'He should be very sorry to execute any office disagree- 
able to the people of this Province.' But they, not content with such 
declaration, carried him into the courthouse, where he signed a 
resignation satisfactory to the whole. They then placed the stamp 
master in an arm chair, carried him around the courthouse, giving 
at every corner three loud huzzahs, and finally set him down at the 
door of his lodging, formed a circle around him, and gave three 
cheers. They then escorted him into the house, where were pre- 
pared the best liquoirs, and treated him very genteelly. In the 
evening a large bonfire was made and no person appeared on the 
streets without having "Liberty" in large capital letters on his hat. 
They had a table near the bonfire, well furnished with several sorts 
of liquors, where they drank in great form, all the favorite American 
Toasts, giving three cheers at the conclusion of each." 

"The whole was conducted," says the editor, "with great 
decorum, and not the least insult offered to any person." 

This enforced resignation of the Stamp-Master was done 
under the direction of Alderman DeRossett, who received 
from Houston his commission and other papers, and necc'S- 
sarily it was a very orderly performance. The ringing huz- 
zas, the patriotic toasts, the loud acclaim, echoing from the 
court-house square, reverberating through the streets of the 
town, but Mr. Stewart is quite sure that no mischief was 
done, and not the least insult was offered to any person. These 
and other similar proceedings led the Governor to send out 
a circular letter to the principal inhabitants of the Cape 
Fear region, requesting their presence at a dinner at his 
residence at Brunswick on Tuesday the 19th of November, 


three days after Dr. Houston resigned; and after the din- 
ner, he conferred with these gentlemen about the Stamp 
Act. He found them fully determined to annul the Act, 
and prevent its going into effect. He sought to persuade 
them, and begged them to let it be obsei*ved at least in part. 
He plead that if they would let the act go into partial oper- 
ation in the respects he mentioned, he himself would pay 
for all the stamps necessary. It seems that he liked the 
people, and they liked and admired him ; and difficult in- 
deed was his position. He was charged with the execution 
of a law which he knew could not be executed, for there was 
not enough specie in the Province to buy the necessary' 
stamps, even if the law could be enforced ; but, then, the 
people were resolved against recognizing it in any degree. 
The authority of the King and of the Parliament was de- 
fied, and he, the representative of the British Government, 
was powerless in the face of this resolute defiance. While 
still maintaining dignity in his intercourse with the people, 
the Governor wrote to his superiors at London, strongly 
urging the repeal of the law. A week later the stamps 
arrived in the sloop of war, the Diligence. They remained 
on the sloop and were not landed at that time. 

Now there was a lull ; but the quietude was not to remain 
unbroken. In January two merchant vessels arrived in the 
harbor, the Patience and the Dobbs. Their clearance papers 
were not stamped as the Act required. The vessels were 
seized and detained while the lawfulness of their detention 
was referred to the Attorney-General, Robert Jones, then 
absent at his home on the Roanoke. But the leaders of the 
people were determined not to submit to an adverse decision. 
They held meetings and agreed on a plan of action. 

In view of the crisis, on January 20th, the Mayor of the 
town retired to give place to Moses John DeRossett, who had 


been the foremost leader in the action previously taken by 
the town. One whose spirit never quailed was now to stand 
forth as the head of the Corporation. 

On the 5th day of February, Capt. Lobb, in command of 
the Viper, had made a requisition for an additional supply 
of provisions, and Mr. Dry, the Contractor, sent his boat to 
Wilmington to obtain them. The inhabitants, led by the 
Mayor, at once seized the boat, threw the crew into the jail, 
and in a wild tumult of excitement, placed the boat on a 
wagon and hauled it through the streets with a great dem- 
onstration of fervid patriotism. The British forces on the 
river were to receive no supplies from Wilmington ; their 
provisions were cut off, and they were treated as enemies — 
not friends, so long as they supported the odious law of 
Parliament. Ten days later came the opinion of the Attor- 
ney-General to the effect that the detained merchantmen 
were properly seized and were liable to be confiscated under 
the law. This was the signal for action. The news was 
spread throughout the counties, and the whole country was 
astir. Every patriot "was on his legs." There was no 
halt in carrying into effect the plan agreed upon. Imme- 
diately the people began to assemble and detachments, under 
chosen leaders, took up their march from Onslow, Bladen 
and Duplin. On the 18th of February, the inhabitants of 
the Cape Fear counties, being then assembled at Wilming- 
ton, entered into an association, which they signed, declar- 
ing they preferred death to slavery ; and mutually and sol- 
emnly they plighted their faith and honor that they would 
at any risk whatever, and whenever called upon, unite and 
truly and faithfully assist each other, to the best of their 
power, in preventing entirely the operation of the Stamp 

The crisis had now arrived. The hand of destiny had 


struck with a bold stroke the resounding bell. The people, 
nobly responding, had seized their arms. At all times, 
when some patriot is to throw himself to the front, and bid 
defiance to the established authority of Government, there is 
a Rubicon to be crossed — and he who unsheathes his sword 
to resist the law must win success or meet a traitor's doom. 
But the leaders on the Cape Fear did not hesitate at the 
thought of personal peril. At their call, the people, being 
armed and being assembled at Wilmington, chose the men 
who were to guide, govern and direct them. They called to 
the helm John Ashe, the trusted Speaker of the Assembly, 
and associated with him Alexander Lillington and Col. 
Thomas Lloyd, as a Directory, to manage their affairs at this 
momentous crisis. Their movement was not that of an 
irresponsible mob. It was an orderly proceeding, pursu- 
ant to a determined plan of action, under the direction of 
the highest ofiicer of the Province, who was charged with 
maintaining the liberties of the people. In effect, it was 
the institution and ordaining of a temporary government. 
It was resolved to organize an armed force and march to 
Brunswick; and Col. Hugh Waddell was invested with the 
command of the miltary. Let us pause a moment and 
take a view of the situation at that critical juncture. Close 
to Brunswick in his mansion, was Governor Tryon, the rep- 
resentative of the King; no coward he, but resolute, a mili- 
tary man of experience and courage. In the town itself 
were the residences and ofiioes of Col. Dry, the Collector of 
the port, and of other ofiicers of the Crown. Off in the 
river lay the detained merchant vessels and the two sloops of 
war, the Viper, commanded by Capt. Lobb, and the Dili- 
gence, commanded by Capt. Phipps, whose bristling guns, 
26 in number, securely kept them; while Fort Johnston, 
some miles away, well armed with artillery, was held by a 


small garrison. At every point flew the meteor flag of 
Great Britain. Every point was protected by the aegis of 
His Sacred Majesty. For a subject to lift his hand in a 
hostile manner against any of these was treason and re- 
bellion. Yes, treason and rebellion, with the fearful pun- 
ishment of attainder and death : of being hanged and quar- 

Well might the eloquent Davis exclaim, "Beware, John 
Ashe ! Hugh Waddell, take heed !" 

Their lives, their fortunes were at hazard and the dishon- 
ored grave was open to receive their dismembered bodies ! 
But patriots as they were, they did take care — not for them- 
selves, but of the liberties of their country. At high noon, 
on the 19th day of February, the three Directors, the Mayor 
and Corporation of Wilmington, the embodied soldiery and 
the prominent citizens moved forward, crossed the river, 
passed like Caesar the fateful Rubicon, and courageously 
marched to the scene of possible conflict. It was not only 
the Governor with whom they had to deal, but the ships of 
war with their formidable batteries, that held possession of 
the detained vessels. It was not merely the penalties of 
the law that threatened them, but they courted death at 
the cannon's mouth, in conflict with the heavily armed sloops 
of war, from whose power they had come to wrest the mer- 
chantmen. But there was neither halt nor hesitation. 

As they crossed the river, a chasm yawned deep and wide, 
separating them from their loyal past. Behind them they 
left their allegiance as loyal British subjects — before them 
was rebellion — open flagrant war ; leading to revolution. 
Who could tell what the ending might be of the anticipated 
conflict ! 

There all the gentlemen of the Cape Fear were gathered, 
in their cocked hats ; their long queues ; their knee-breeches 


and shining shoe buckles. Mounted on their well-groomed 
horses, they made a famous cavalcade, as they wound their 
way through the sombre pine forests that hedged in the 
highway to old Brunswick. Among them was DeRossett, 
the Mayor, in the prime of manhood, of French descent, 
with keen eye, fine culture and high intelligence; who had 
been a soldier with Innes at the North; bold and resolved 
was he as he rode, surrounded by Cornelius Harnett, Fred- 
erick Gregg, John Sampson and the other Aldermen and 
officers of the town. 

At the head of a thousand armed men, arranged in com- 
panies, and marching in order, was the experienced soldier, 
Hugh Waddell, not yet thirty-three years of age, but already 
renowned for his capacity and courage. He had won more 
distinction and honors in the late wars at the ISTorth and 
West than any other Southern soldier, save only George 
Washington ; and now in command of his companies, offi- 
cered by men who had been trained in discipline in the war, 
he was confident of the issue. Of Irish descent, and com- 
ing of a fighting stock, his blood was up, and his heroic soul 
v/as aflame for the fray. 

Surrounded by a bevy of his kinsmen, the venerable Sam 
and John Swarm ; and his brothers-in-law, James, George 
and Maurice Moore ; by his brother, Sam Ashe, and Alexan- 
der Lillington, whose burly forms towered high above the 
others ; by Home, Davis, Col. Lloyd and other gallant spir- 
its, was the Speaker, John Ashe, now just forty-five years 
of age — on whom the responsibility of giving direction 
chiefly lay; of medium stature, well knit, olive complexion, 
and with a lustrous hazel eye, he was full of nervous en- 
ergy — an orator of surpassing power, elegant carriage and 
commanding presence. Of him Mr. Strudwick has said : 
"That there were not four men in London his intellectual 


superior," and, that at a time when Pitt, Fox, Burke, and 
that splendid galaxy of British orators and statesmen gave 
lustre to British annals. 

How, en this momentous occasion, the spirits of these men 
and of their kinsmen and friends, who gathered around, 
must have soared as thej pressed on resolved to maintain 
their rights. Animated by the noble impulses of a lofty 
patriotism, with their souls elevated by the inspiring emo- 
tions of a perilous struggle for their liberties, they moved 
forward with a resolute purpose to sacrifice their lives 
rather than tamely submit to the oppressive and odious 
enactments of the British Parliament. 

It was nightfall before they reached the vicinity of 
Brunswick, and George Moore and Cornelius Harnett, rid- 
ing in advance, presented to Governor Tryon a letter from 
the Governing Directory, notifying him of their purpose. 
In a few minutes the" Governor's residence was surrounded, 
and Capt. Lobb was inquired for — but he was not there. 
A party was then dispatched towards Fort Johnston, and 
thereupon Tryon notified the British Naval Commanders 
and requested them to protect the Fort, repelling force with 
force. In the meantime a party of gentlemen called on the 
Collector, Mr. Dry, who had the papers of the ship Patience ; 
and in his presence broke open his desk and took them away. 
This gave an earnest of the resolute purpose of the peo- 
ple. They purposed to use all violence that was necessary 
to carry out their designs. Realizing the full import of the 
situation, the following noon a conference of the King's ofii- 
cers was held on the Viper; and Capt. Lobb, confident of 
his strength, declared to the Governor that he would hold 
the ship Patience and insist on the return of her papers. If 
the people were resolved, so were the ofiicers of government. 
The sovereignty of Great Britain was to be enforced. 


There was to be no temporizing with the rebels. The honor 
of the Government demanded that the British flag should 
not droop in the face of this hostile array. But two short 
hours later, a party of the insurgents came aboard and re- 
quested to see Capt, Lobb. They entered the cabin, and 
there, under the royal flag, surrounded by the King's forces, 
they demanded that all efforts to enforce the Stamp Act 
cease. They would allow no opposition. In the presence 
of Ashe, Waddell, DeRossett, Harnett, Moore, Howe and 
Lillington, the spirit of Capt. Lobb quailed. The people 
won. In the evening the British commander, much to the 
Governor's disgust, reported to that functionary — "That 
all was settled." Yes. All had been settled. The vessels 
were released ; the gTievances were redressed. The restric- 
tions on the commerce of the Cape Fear were removed. The 
attempt to enforce the Stamp Act had failed before the 
prompt, vigorous and courageous action of the inhabitants. 
After that, vessels could come and go as if there had been 
no act of Parliament. The people had been victorious over 
the King's ships ; with arms in their hands, they had won 
the victory. But the work was not all finished. There, on 
the Diligence, were the obnoxious stamps, and by chance 
some loyal ofiicer of the government might use them. To 
guard against that, the other officers were to be forced to 
swear not to obey the act of Parliament, but to observe the 
will of the people. Mr. Pennington was His Majesty's con- 
troller, and understanding that the people sought him, he 
took refuge in the Governor's Mansion, and was given a bed 
and made easy; but early the next morning. Col. James 
Moore called to get him. The Governor interfered, to pre- 
vent; and immediately the Mansion was surrounded by the 
insurgent troops, and the Directory notified the Governor, 
in writing, that they requested His Excellency to let Mr. 


Pennington attend, otherwise it would not be ''in the power 
of the Directors appointed to prevent the ill consequences 
that would attend a refusal." In plain language, said John 
Ashe, "Persist in your refusal, and we will come and take 
him." The Governor declined to comply. In a few mo- 
ments he observed a body of near five hundred men move 
towards his house. A detachment of sixty entered his 
avenue. Cornelius Harnett accompanied them, and sent 
word that he wished to speak with Mr, Pennington. The 
Governor replied that Mr. Pennington was protected by his 
house. Harnett thereupon notified the Governor that the 
people would come in and take him out of the house, if 
longer detained, Now the point was reached. The people 
were ready ; the Governor was firm. But Pennington 
v/isely suggested that he would resign, and immediately 
wrote his resignation and delivered it to the Governor, — 
and then he went out -with Harnett and was brought here to 
Brunswick, and required to take an oath never to issue 
any stamped paper in North Carolina : so was Mr. Dry, the 
Collector: and so all the Clerks of the County Courts, and 
other public ofiicers. Every officer in all that region, ex- 
cept alone the Governor, was forced to obey the will of the 
people and swear not to obey the Act of Parliament. 

On the third day after the first assemblage at Wilming- 
ton on the 18th, the Directors, having completed their work 
at Brunswick, took up the line of march to return. With 
what rejoicing they turned their backs on the scene of their 
bloodless triumph ! It had been a time of intense excite- 
ment. It had been no easy task to hold more than a thous- 
and hot and zealous patriots well in hand, and to accomplish 
their purposes without bloodshed. Wisdom and courage 
by the Directors, and prudence, foresight and sagacity on 
the part of the military officers were alike essential to the 


consummation of their design. They now returned in tri- 
umph, their purposes accomplished. The odious law was 
annulled in North Carolina. After that, merchant vessels 
passed freely, in and out of port, without interference. The 
stamps remained boxed on shipboard, and no further effort 
was made to enforce a law which the people had rejected. 

Two months after these events on the Cape Fear, Parlia- 
ment repealed the law, and the news was hurried across the 
Atlantic in the fleetest vessels. The victory of the people 
was complete. They had annulled an act of Parliament, 
crushed their enemies and preserved their liberties. Thus 
once more were the courageous leaders on the Cape Fear, in 
their measures of opposition to encroachments on the rights 
of the people, sustained by the result. On former occa- 
sions they had triumphed over their Governors: now in 
cooperation with the other provinces, they had triumphed 
over the British Ministry and the Parliament of Great 

While in ever}' other province, the people resolutely op- 
posed the Stamp Act, nowhere else in America was there 
a proceeding similar to that which was taken at Wilmington. 
ISTowhere else was the standard of Liberty committed to the 
care of a Governing Directory, even though its creation was 
for a temporary purpose; nowhere else was there an army 
organized, under officers appointed, and led to a field where 
a battle might have ensued. Had not His Majesty's forces 
yielded to the will of the insurgents, the American Revolu- 
tion would have probably begun then — and here — on the 
soil of Old Brunswick. 

The repeal of the Stamp Act was hailed on both sides of 
the water with every demonstration of joy. The city of 
London was illuminated with bonfires and every churchbell 
rang out its joyous peals. With still greater satisfaction, 


did the Colonists welcome the news of their triumph and of 
peace! The furious storm of popular resentment was suc- 
ceeded by a wave of loyalty and love. In that era of good- 
will, Governor Tryon overlooked all differences — except 
as to three of the chief actors in the affair. He had some 
caustic words for DeRossett, the courageous Mayor of Wil- 
mington ; he suspended from his office as Judge, Maurice 
Moore ; and he nourished enmity with John Ashe ; so, when 
the new Assembly met, the wave of loyalty being at its 
height, Ashe, jDcrhaps not wishing to be a cause of disturb- 
ing it, refrained from seeking reelection as Speaker, and re- 
mained away from the Assembly for three days, until an- 
other Speaker, more agreeable to his Excellency and more 
in accord with the prevailing sentiment, should be chosen. 
John Harvey, from the Albemarle region, who had not 
been personally concerned in the Stamp Act trouble, was 
elected Speaker; and the Assembly, radiant with happiness, 
and zealous to display their loyalty and affection, hastened 
to abandon its strenuous opposition concerning the location 
of a capital for the Province, and begged the King to estab- 
lish it in 'New Bern, and also appropriated a large sum 
for the erection of a residence for the Governor, and en- 
trusted the money to Governor Tryon, to be disbursed at his 
discretion. And so it came about that a few years later, the 
Governor removed from Brunswick to New Bern, the people 
having erected there for him one of the finest buildings in 
America as an outgrowth of the Stamp Act troubles on the 
Cape Fear. But while Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, 
it would not entirely relinquish its claimed right to tax the 
Colonists. Eight years later it taxed tea imported into 
America. Boston would not allow a cargo of taxed tea to be 
landed, but threw it overboard. As a punishment that port 
was closed. No vessel was allowed to enter or depart from 


it. All work there ceased. The people suffered for food. 
Again the patriots of Wilmington assembled. They de- 
clared the cause of Boston to be the cause of all. Men and 
women, alike — indeed the Colonial Dames taking the lead — 
subscribed liberally, both money and provisions ; and Parker 
Quince tendered his vessel to carry the cargo, and he sailed 
with her himself to Salem freighted with the generous offer- 
ings of the Cape Fear people. 

And not only did Wilmington respond nobly, but she called 
on others to contribute. On the 24th of July there was a 
general meeting of all the counties of the Cape Fear, and a 
committee was appointed to urge the entire province to join 
in the good work, and contributions were collected from the 
interior at ISTew Bern and sent forward from there as well as 
from the Cape Fear. 

And that same meeting took a still more important ac- 
tion. The Governor could postpone or dissolve a meeting 
of the Assembly. It was desirable to have a body repre- 
senting the people, that he could not dissolve. It was de- 
sirable to establish a governing body for the Province, differ- 
ent from the Assembly which was a part of the Colonial 
Constitution. This meeting at Wilmington appointed a 
committee to call on the counties to elect a revolutionary 
body to direct affairs in N^orth Carolina, and the committee 
sent out handbills urging all the counties to take that revo- 
lutionary action. Pursuant to that recommendation, the 
first Provincial CongTCss was elected, and met at ISTew Bern 
on August 24th, and after that the local affairs of the people 
were generally managed by revolutionary committees. 
Gradually the connection between the people and the Brit- 
ish Government was being severed, and the first great step 
was the calling of the Provincial Congress by the people of 
the Cape Fear. 


Blind and passionate, Parliament had proceeded to pass 
measures of fearful import, as if to force the people to des- 
perate resistance. First, they decreed that any one charged 
with resisting their proceedings should be carried to Eng- 
land and he tried there, instead of in his own country ; next, 
afeserting their right to modify and annul the government of 
any Colony, they passed a bill seriously modifying the 
government of Massachusetts, in utter disregard of the 
rights of the people under their charter; and then, as if to 
show what they deemed a model government for the Ameri- 
ern Colonies, and what the people here might expect, they 
established a government in Canada in which the people had 
no legislature, but the power of making the laws was vested 
exclusively in a Council appointed in England. These meas- 
ures appalled America. There was no other topic of con- 
versation, no other subject of thought, but the imperiled 
rights and liberties of the people. The dangers foreshad- 
owed by the first Stamp Act had now come in terrible form ; 
no longer were the people to be British subjects, but British 
slaves. The iron entered into the souls of men, and again 
our forests and fields resounded ^\dth the cry of "Resistance 
unto death." In the intervening decade Moses John De- 
Rossett, Hugh Waddell, John Harvey and other patriotic 
spirits had passed away; while Hooper, Iredell and other 
great souls had reached the stage of action. John Ashe was 
still in the forefront among the leaders. He had been Colo- 
nel of the militia of New Hanover, but declining a reap- 
pointment by the Governor, about the first of March, 1775. 
he organized a regiment of troops, not under the laws of 
the Province, and was elected by them to be their Colonel. 
Robert Howe likewise organized troops in Brunswick, and 
was engaged in drilling them. Events now moved rapidly. 
On April 19th, occurred the battle of Lexington, the news 


by couriers reaching Wilmington on May the 6th, and the 
excitement became intense. At Kew Bern feeling ran 
equally high, and Governor Martin, who had succeeded 
Tryon, feared to remain in his palace. Sending his wife 
and children to New York, he fled to the protection of the 
garrison at Fort Johnston, arriving there on the 2d of June. 
He had already applied to General Gage for a supply of 
arms and ammunition to arm his loyal adherents, and now 
he concerted measures to organize the Highlanders and the 
loyalists in the interior. In command of the fort, he could 
readily disj)atch emissaries through the country, and his 
holding it was a menace to the people, for information was 
received of his purpose to strengthen it and increase the gar- 
rison. Indeed he had applied for ten thousand stand of 
arms, to equip the loyalists of the interior. The patriotic 
leaders learning his intention, deemed it time to act, and it 
was resolved that the fort should be dismantled and, if pos- 
sible, the cannon removed. Gov. Martin, however, on hear- 
ing that steps were being taken for this purpose, acted 
quickly. He fled from Fort Johnston, taking up his quarters 
on the sloop of war, the Cruiser, and removed all the am- 
munition on board a transport, and dismounted the cannon, 
placing them under the guns of the sloop of war. The 
Patriot forces had been put in motion and Brunswick was 
the appointed rendezvous. There Howe brought his contin- 
gent from Brunswick County; there three hundred were 
marching from Bladen; and there Ashe, with a part of his 
IN^ew Hanover regiment, arrived on the evening of the 17th 
of July on a schooner from Wilmington. Learning of 
the removal of the military stores to the transport, Ashe 
formed the plan of burning her with fire rafts ; but later 
that design was abandoned, and the next evening five hun- 
dred men marched from Brunswick to Fort Johnston; and 


Ashe witli his own hands applied the torch, and the Fort 
was burned and demolished. They had driven the Royal 
Governor from North Carolina soil ; and they had destroyed 
the fort built for the protection of the people, which Mar- 
tin had resigned to convert into a foothold for his loyal ad- 
herents. This was an act of war, and in the then circum- 
stances, was open treason. But bold hearts fear no conse- 
quences. The irrevocable step was taken. 'No apprehen- 
sions could deter the Cape Fear people. As for the lead- 
ers, the Royal Governor awarded them high distinction. 
He urged on the King that in all proclamations of amnesty 
an exception should be made of John Ashe, Robert Howe, 
Cornelius Harnett and Abner ISTash, Kash having been the 
leader in seizing the cannon at the Governor's mansion at 
JSTew Bern. 

The struggle then begun to assert the immemorial rights 
of the people as British subjects, soon changed its aspect, 
and had for its object entire separation from Great Britain 
and complete independence. At the very outset no other 
people were bolder than the inhabitants of Wilmington and 
the people of the Cape Fear, and none were more fixed 
and more resolute in their purpose, and none made greater 
sacrifices in the cause of independence. According to their 
plighted faith, they went forward in the cause, and freely 
offered their lives and sacrificed their fortunes, and they 
emerged from the long and doubtful struggle with only 
their sacred honor preserved, and their liberties secured as 
the cherished heritage of their posterity. As long as Free- 
dom has her votaries, the daring deeds of our Cape Fear 
people must ever receive the highest applause, and those who 
would learn the lessons of patriotism can find in the cour- 
ageous leaders of those old days, examples of virtue and 
heroism, which they may emulate, but which they cannot 
hope to excel. 




NORTH CAROLINA, 1868=1912 

Under the Constitution of 1868 the Trustees of the Uni- 
versity were appointed bj the Board of Education, not by 
the General Assembly. They were new men as a rule, who 
held this office for the first time. Only five of the old Board 
were reappointed, and only one of them had been at all ac- 
tive. The Executive Committee was composed of the mem- 
bers of the Board of Education, eight in number, including 
the Governor, and three Trustees elected by the Board 

The Board met on the 23d of July, 1868. They declared 
the offices of President and Secretary-Treasurer, and the 
chairs of the Professors to be vacant. President Swain con- 
tended that under the Constitution he was still President. 
His contention was not recognized and was cut off by his 

The Board referred the election of a teaching staff to the 
Executive Committee. These chose Solomon Pool, late an 
University Assistant Professor of Mathematics, then holding 
an appointment in the United States Revenue service, Presi- 
dent, and the following Professors: Alexander Mclver, a 
first honor graduate of 1853, late Professor in Davidson 
College, Professor of Mathematics ; Fisk P. Brewer, Pro- 
fessor of Greek; an Honor Graduate of Yale, Brother of 
Judge Brewer of the United States Supreme Court, 
son of Rev. Josiah Brewer, Missionary to Turkey; David 
Settle Patrick, Professor of Latin, Graduate of 1856, Prin- 
cipal of a high school in Texas ; James A. Martling, Profes- 
sor of English, Principal of high school in Missouri, brother- 
in-law of Superintendent Ashley ; George Dixon, Yorkshire, 


England, Lecturer on Chemistry, Botany and Theoretical 
Farming. R. W. Lassiter, of Oxford, was elected Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

The sale of the landscrip by the late Trustees was disap- 
proved and efforts were made to rescind it but without suc- 
cess. As Congress stopped for awhile the location of lands by 
the late Confederate States, the purchaser delayed payment. 
There was therefore no income from this source. The Gen- 
eral Assembly declined to gra.nt an appropriation for the 
support of the University, and as tuition was offered free, 
there was no income. The consequence was that after the 
experiment of a year, few students appearing, the doors 
were closed in 1870. 

The University being forced into bankruptcy by the fail- 
ure of the Bank of ISTorth Carolina, the Federal Court de- 
cided that such of its property as is necessary for its life 
could not be sold, because it is a part of the State. But 
property held for investment was subject to sale. The 
Court then allotted to the University its buildings and con- 
tents and nearly six hundred acres of land. 

At the instance of Professor Mclver, after he became 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, an effort was made 
to revive the University. A meeting of the Alumni wa? 
called. The Trustees of 1868 were asked to resign in favor 
of new trustees, to be nominated by the Alumni. It was 
thought that Governor Caldwell would appoint these nomi- 
nees. As resignations were not forthcoming the scheme 
fell through. 

The friends of the University then obtained a constitu- 
tional amendment, giving the appointment of Trustees to the 
General Assembly, who in 1874 elected a new Board of 
Trustees. This was resisted by Goveraor Caldwell, who 
claimed that nomination by himself and confirmation by the 


Senate were demanded bj the Constitution. But the Su- 
preme Court decided that the election was valid. 

When the act of Congress prohibiting the location of the 
landscrip was repealed, $125,000 of this fund went into the 
hands of the Trustees of 1868. They had invested it in 
Special Tax Bonds of the State and some not special tax. 
In accepting the landscrip, the State agreed to make good 
any loss in the principal of the fund. The new Trustees 
therefore petitioned the General Assembly to pay the Uni- 
versity $7,500 a year, being six per cent interest on $125,000. 
This was done by a majority of one in the House but a two- 
thirds majority in the Senate. The Special Tax Bonds were 
destroyed by the Trustees according to the act. 

The buildings being greatly in need of repair a commit- 
tee, of which K, P. Battle was chairman, was appointed to 
solicit contributions from Alumni and other friends of 
education. They secured $20,000 promised, of which over 
$18,000 was collected. Mr. P. C. Cameron superintended 
repairs, which cost over $13,000. The rest of the fund was 
used in paying professors. 

The Board met in June 1875, to elect professors. 

For the Chair of Mathematics was chosen Rev. Charles 
Phillips, D.D., of wide reputation in that department, of 
which he had been the head in the University and at David- 
son College. 

Rev. Adolphus Williamson Mangum, a high honor gradu- 
ate of Randolph-Macon College, whose sermons had wide 
reputation, was Professor of Philosophy. 

To the Chair of ISTatural Sciences was elected Alexander 
Fletcher Redd, Alumnus of Virginia Military Institute, who 
had charge of Chemistry and Physics in the Homer School. 

Mr. John Kimberly, onoe Professor of Agricultural Chem- 


istrj in this University, was chosen to the Chair of Agricul- 

The Professor for the Chair of Engineering and the Me- 
chanic Arts was Ralph Henry Graves. He was a first honor 
student of this Univ'^ersity. He then was distinguished at 
the University of Virginia, attaining the degree of Bachelor 
of Science, and Civil and Mechanical Engineering. He 
was then Professor of Drawing and Technical Mechanics in 
the Virginia Polytechnic College, after which he was a 
teacher in the School of Horner and Graves at Hillsboro. 

To the Chairs of Greek and French was elected John 
deBerniere Hooper, a first honor graduate of this institution. 
He was then tutor and professor of Latin and French. Re- 
signing in 1848 he was Principal of schools in Warren, Fay- 
etteville and Wilson. 

George Tayloe Winston was made Adjunct Professor of 
Latin and German, soon to be full professor. A first honor 
Alumnus of this University, of the United States Naval 
Academy and graduate and Instructor of Cornell University. 

It was determined to have no President. Professor Phil- 
lips was elected Chairman of the Faculty. The exercises 
were ordered to begin on the 1st of September but the formal 
opening was on the 5th. On this occasion there was much 
enthusiasm, Governor Brogden making a stirring address. 

The Dialectic Society was reopened by Judge W. H. Battle 
and Mr. T. M. Argo, and the Philanthropic by Colonel W. L. 
Saunders. There had been no meetings since the suspension 
of 1868. 

The number of students reached 69. The experiment of 
a Chairman of the University proved unsatisfactory, chiefly 
owing to the ill health of Dr. Phillips. In 1876 the Board 
resolved to elect a President. Kemp P. Battle, a first honor 
graduate of 1849, Tutor of Mathematics 1850-'54, ex-State 


Treasurer, a Trustee, member of the Ealeigh bar, Secretary 
and Treasurer of the University, was cbosen by over tbree- 
fifths majority. He began at once to bring the University to 
the attention of the 7:;eople by j)rinted circulars and by educa- 
tional addresses. On his recommendation the Trustees de- 
creed that the anniversary of the laying the cornerstone of the 
first dormitory (Old East), October 12, 1793, should be a 
holiday (University Day). 

The next year, 1876-7 there vs^as increase of numbers to 

At the commencement of 1877, Governor Vance delivered 
his admirable address on the Life and Character of David 
L. Swain. 

In the summer of 1877 was held the first Normal School in 
the United States connected with a university or college. It 
had signal success. The latest modes of teaching, by experts 
from North and South were adopted. Lectures were deliv- 
ered by eminent men of the State. Professor John J. Ladd, 
of New Hampshire, the Superintendent of Public Schools of 
Staunton, Virginia, was Superintendent of the school. Pres- 
ident Battle being in general charge. Sessions were regu- 
larly held until 1884 inclusive and were a potent factor in 
breaking up the general education lethargy. Women were 
admitted in 1877 by courtesy, afterwards by law. 

The total number in the eight schools were 2,480 some 
teachers of course attending more than once. According to 
the testimony of Dr, Barnas Sears, the eminent Manager of 
the Peabody Fund, of Governor Vance, President A. D. Hep- 
burn, Colonel Bingham, Superintendent Scarborough, Pres- 
ident Pritchard and many other eminent educators, the 
school was one of the greatest movements for education ever 
had up to that time in the State. It stimulated the growth 
of Graded Schools, introduced kindergarten instruction, and 



kindled desire to work for the uplifting of our youth in the 
hearts and minds of such men as Mclver, Alderman, Joyner, 
Noble and others, whose names are conspicuous in this benef- 
icent work. 

The establishment of the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, which has been of conspicuous benefit to farmers, was 
the work of the University, President Battle being the first 
to advocate it by pen and speaking, and the headquarters were 
for some years at Chapel Hill. 

By 1881 the subscriptions in excess of what was needed 
for repairs were exhausted. Application was made to the 
General Assembly for relief. As no appropriation for sup- 
port had ever been granted to the University much opposition 
was experienced. An elaborate printed argument was made 
in answer to the objections. The Alumni Association had a 
meeting in Raleigh, at which Mr. P. C. Cameron and Presi- 
dent Battle made addresses on the history of the institution 
and at a banquet afterwards many members of the General 
Assembly made short speeches. Five thousand dollars an- 
nually was obtained, Governor Jarvis giving powerful help. 

In 1882 the State University Railroad was finished, Miss 
Julia. J. Spencer, daughter of Mrs. Cornelia P. Spencer, now 
Mrs. Love, driving the last spike. A dinner was given by 
the ladies of Chapel Hill to the hired convicts. On account 
of meagreness of funds it was built 10 2-5 miles, to the near- 
est point on the ISTorth Carolina railroad, now called Univer- 
sity Station. It was necessary to use the most rigid econ- 
omy. President Battle was the President and General R. F. 
Hoke, Superintendent, both without salary. The Richmond 
and Danville Railroad Company, the lessee of the !N"orth 
Carolina Railroad Company, bore much the larger part of the 
cost, taking payment in stock. 

The completion of the railroad increased the attendance 


at Commencements, fo that it became necessary to build Me- 
morial Hall. Tablets commemorative of great men of tke 
University adorn its v^^alls, and in addition the names of the 
alumni who lost their lives as Confederate soldiers. It ac- 
commodates 2,400 persons seated and by using the aisles a 
much larger number. 

In 1885 a successful effort was made to obtain from the 
General Assembly a grant of $15,000 in addition to the 
$5,000 voted in 1881, Governor Scales using his powerful 
influence in behalf of the bill. This with the $7,500 inter- 
est of the Land Grant made $27,500. Adding tuition re- 
ceipts and interest from donations, there was now the largest 
income in the history of the institution. There was added 
to the faculty: For the English Language and Literature, 
Eev. Thomas Hume, D.D., LLD., of Virginia ; for the 
Science and Art of Teaching, Professor Nelson B. Henry, of 
Missouri; for Modern Languages, Professor Walter Dallam 
Toy, of Virginia; for Agricultural Chemistry and Mining, 
Wm. B. Phillips, Ph.D., of North Carolina; for Assistant 
Professor of Mathematics, James Lee Love, Ph.B. ; for Nat- 
ural History, Assistant Professor George F. Atkinson, Ph.B. 

The University did not long enjoy the whole of this un- 
usual income. The farmers of the State were stirred up to 
demand a separate institution for Agriculture and Mechani- 
cal training. The $7,500 a year Land Grant was taken 
away, and it became necessary to dispense with two professors 
and one assistant professor. 

In 1889 the centennial of granting the charter was cele- 
brated with great eclat. Numerous alumni and representa- 
tives of other institutions were present and the speeches were 
models of eloquence and appreciation of the institution. 

At the Commencement of 1890 the Alumni History Chair 


was endowed, Judge James Grant and General Julian S. 
Carr being the largest contributors. President Battle bj re- 
quest, visited many cities and towns and procured additions 
to the amount then raised. 

In 1801 President Battle, after fifteen years service, re- 
signed his office receiving laudatory resolutions from the 
Trustees, faculty and students. George T. Winston, LL.D., 
who had shown eminent abilities dealing with University 
problems, who had become widely and favorably known as 
President of the State Teachers' Association, and by able 
public addresses, was unanimously elected as his successor. 

The inaugTiration of the new President was on October 14. 
1891. Addresses were made by ex-President Battle, by 
President D. C. Gilmer, of Johns Hopkins University, and 
by Hon. Walter H. Page, now Ambassador to Great Britain. 
Then President Winston outlined the policy of his adminis- 
tration in his usual clear and strong style. 

President Winston began an active canvass of the State for 
students, and had great success, the numbers increasing by 
1895 to 471. The State appropriations were likewise in- 
creased. The attacks on the University he met with such 
ability, ridicule and sarcasm that they finally ceased. His 
resignation in 1895 was received with much regret. He ac- 
cepted a call to be President of the University of Texas, 
subsequently returning to his native State as President of 
the Agricultural and Mechanical College. 

Tn the same year was held the centennial of the opening 
of the doors for students on January 15, 1795. The exercises 
were exceedingly instructive and interesting. Hon. Alfred 
Moore Waddell spoke on the University up to 1860 ; Mr. 
Henry Armand London on 1860 to 1875 ; Mr. Adolphus H. 
Eller, 1875 to the date. Dr. Stephen B. Weeks gave an ex- 
haustive study of the University in the Civil War. Mr. James 


D. Lynch furnished a beautiful ode, which by his request 
was read by Dr. Alderman. Mrs. C. P. Spencer contribu- 
ted a stirring ode. 

At the centennial banquet toasts were responded to by 
Governor Elias Carr, Hon. Robert W. Winston, ex-Govemor 
Thomas M. Holt, Major William A. Guthrie, Mr. Herman 
H. Home, Hon. Locke Craig, Dr. Charles D. Mclver, Hon. 
Marion Butler, Professor Alexander W. Graham, Lion. 
Josephus Daniels, Dr. Paul B. Bairringer. About $12,000 
was pledged for building a new hall for offices and lecture 
rooms, to be called Alumni Hall. 

After passing resolutions of regTet at the departure of 
President Winston and appreciation of his services. Profes- 
sor Edwin A. Alderman was elected his successor. Dr. Alder- 
man was a first honor graduate of the University, won the 
MangTim medal for oratory, was eminently successful as a 
graded school superintendent, as organizer of Teachers' In- 
stitutes, as President of the State Teachere' Associations and 
Professor of Teaching and Llistory in Summer Schools, in 
the iSTormal and Industrial College, and the University. 
Besides being an inspiring teacher, he has a wonderful gift 
of oratory, not excelled as a speaker on educational topics. 

The formal inauguration of President Alderman was on 
the 27th of January, 1897. The occasion was brilliant. The 
General Assembly took a recess in its honor and a large num- 
ber of representatives of State Universities and Colleges 
attended. Mr. Robert H. Wright spoke in behalf of the stu- 
dents, Dr. K. P. Battle in behalf of the faculty, then Gov- 
ernor Russell delivered into Dr. Alderman's hands the char- 
ter and seal of the University with appropriate and eloquent 
words. Dr. Alderman replied accepting the office as a clear 

The next speaker was the very able Professor IST. M. But- 


ler, now President of Columbia University, New York. He 
proved that this is a century of education. Then came Dr. 
Alderman's masterly address, outlining the functions of a 
true university. 

On 21st February, 1897, the Trustees passed an ordinance 
admitting women to the post-graduate course. xVpplicants 
have been few in number ; but among them have been bril- 
liant students. Women attended the Summer Normal School 
but never heretofore the University curriculum. 

In the same year the Department of Pharmacy was added 
to the curriculum and Dr. E. V. Howell was elected Pro- 
fessor. The Summer School of 1897 was under the manage- 
ment of Professor Clinton W. Toms. He was soon after- 
wards elected Professor of Pedagogy but declined the post 
and went into lucrative business. 

The successive Summer Schools are described, the last, 
that of 1912, under the management of Profesosr IsT. W. 
Walker, having an increased attendance, 471. The close 
was signalized by the acting of an interesting play founded 
on North Carolina History, called Esther Wake. It was 
composed by Professor A. Vermont, one of the teachers. Su- 
perintendent of the Graded Schools of Smithfield. 

In this year the cornerstone of the Alumni Building was 
laid. General J. S. Carr made the presentation to the Trus- 
tees and Hon. F, D. Winston delivered the address of accept- 
ance. Both speeches were in handsome style. 

FoT the first time in our history Judge Thomas C. Fuller 
delivered an address on the practice of the law, of great value 
not only to law students but to the public at large also. 

In 1899 the University lost one of her most learned and 
widely known professors, Dr. John Manning, Dean of the 
Department of Law. At a meeting held in his honor ad- 
dresses on his life, character and services were delivered bv 


Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Dr. Eben Alexander, Dr. J. Crawford 
Biggs, Mr. M. A. Newell of the Law School and President 

Hon. James Cameron MaeRae, late a Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, was deemed bj the Trustees eminently worthy 
to take his place. 

In the same year Mr, George M. McKie was made In- 
structor in the Art of Expression. Professor Cobb dropped 
Mineralogy from his title and was Professor of Geology. 
Professor Harrington resigned the Chair of Latin and Greek 
and was succeeded by Dr. Henry M. Linscott and ex-Judge 
Biggs yielded his professorship of Law to Dr. Thomas Ruf- 
fin, and resumed active practice. 

In 1900 Dr. Alderman resigned the Presidency and ac- 
cepted that of Tulane University. His parting address was 
full of feeling and wise counsels to his Alma Mater. 

The Commencement of this year was devoted mainly to the 
celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the reopening, 
or re-birth of the L^niversity. Elaborate historical addresses 
were delivered by ex-President Battle, his subject being "The 
Struggle and Story of the Re-birth of the University" ; by 
ex-President George T. Winston, on "The First Faculty, Its 
Work and Opportunity"; by Mr. Wm. J. Peele, on "The 
Students of 1875." Lastly was a masterly address by Pres- 
ident Alderman on "The University ; Its Work and its 
E^eeds." !N"early the whole of President Winston's most able 
address and much of those of Peele and Alderman are given 
in the text of this history. 

At this time were begim by the munificence of Mr. James 
Sprunt, of Wilmington, annual historical monographs on 
subjects of l^orth Carolina history. The first was Biograph- 
ical sketches of the Delegates and Ofiicers of the Convention 
of 1861, by James G. McCormick, to which was added the 


"Legislation Enacted by the Convention, and Legislation 
proposed but rejected," by Dr. K. P. Battle. 

The second was "The Congressional Career of ISTathaniel 
Macon," by Edwin M. Wilson and Macon's Letters, annota- 
ted by Dr. Battle. 

These give an idea of the character and scope of the 
Sprunt publications, which are annually issued, since 1907, 
under the supervision of Drs. Hamilton and Wagstaff. 

The presentation of the Carr Dormitory was made by 
Colonel W. H. S. Burg-win, and the acceptance was by Hon. 
R. H. Battle. Both speeches were pronounced to be in excel- 
lent taste. 

Dr. Francis Preston Venable in 1900 was chosen unani- 
mously as President in the place of Dr. Alderman. On Oc- 
tober 12th he gave a rapid review of the history of the Uni- 
versity. His first report shows a faculty of 35 with 527 
students. He showed that the University has furnished 25 
Governors, 105 Judges, 17 United States Senators, 66 Fed- 
eral Representatives, 600 members of the State Legislatures 
and leaders of every community. The majority of the super- 
intendents and principals of gi-aded schools were traced to 
Chapel Hill. 

In 1900 were completed the Mary Ann Smith Dormitory 
and the Alumni Building, also new heating plant, water and 

In 1907 Dr. K. P. Battle and Rev. Dr. Thomas Hume re- 
signed their professorships and accepted Carnegie pensions. 

The cornerstone of the library, the building of which was 
donated by Mr. Andrew Carnegie, was laid with Masonic 
honors. Hon. Francis D. Winston was the orator and his 
address was interesting and eloquent. In 1908 there were 
Memorial services in honor of Professor Gore and Mrs. C. P. 
Spencer. Reunion exercises were held of certain war classes. 


namely, of 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861. These were very in- 
teresting, Mr. James P. Coffin, of Arkansas, being the chief 
speaker. Resolutions commendatory of the work of Dr. K. 
P. Battle were read from the rostrum by Colonel Paul B. 
Means by order of the Board of Trustees. Colonel Means 
accompanied them with a full history of Dr. Battle's labors 
for the University. 

On University Day Dr. Venable reported the faculty 94 in 
number; students 790. The address of the occasion was by 
Hon. Elmer E. Brown, United States Commissioner of Edu- 
cation. The new Biological Laboratory was named after 
General Wm. R. Davie. 

Public exercises in 1909 were held in honor of the one 
hundredth birthday of General R. E. Lee, the orator being 
Dr. Woodrow Wilson, now our President. He made a mas- 
terly analysis of the great Southerner. 

In 1910 began an experiment in student government, it 
being committed to the presidents of the various classes, an 
undergTaduate in law, medicine, and pharmacy, and a mem- 
ber of the Senior class elected by the Council. They are act- 
ing wisely and effectively. Appeal from their decision can 
be taken to the faculty. 

At the Commencement of 1910 the chief interest was in 
the reunion of the classes of 1860 and 1870. Of the foraier 
83 out of 84 entered the Confederate Army. The chief 
speaker was Major W. A. Graham, The class of 1870 was 
composed of those who would have graduated in that year, if 
the University had not been closed. Ex-President George 
T. Winston and Dr. Richard H. Lewis, of Raleigh, were the 
very effective speakers. Mr. Alexander J. Eeild eloquently 
detailed the history of the class of 1855. 

The Raleigh Department of the University Medical 
School, Dr. Hubert A. Royster, Dean, was discontinued. Al- 


though it had done excellent work it was impossible to plaoe 
it on a proper basis without a great increase of funds, which 
could not be procured. 

The annual meeting of the Association of School Superin- 
tendents was held in Chapel Hill. State Superintendent 
J. Y. Joyner presided, and many educational topics were 

The excellent Dean of the Law School, ex-Judge James G. 
MacRae, died amid the general grief. He was succeeded by 
Prof. L. P. McGhee. 

University Day was peculiarly honored. The speakers 
were President Daniel H. Hill, of the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, Professor W. C. Smith of the State ~Rot- 
nial and Industrial College, President R. H. Wright of the 
Eastern Training School, President Howard E. Rondthaler 
of Salem Female College, Pres. W. R. Thompson of the Stone- 
wall Jackson Training School, and Mr. C. L. Williams, a 
Senior, in behalf of the University. Meetings, banquets and 
speeches among the Alumni were held in many distant local- 

In 1911 there were interesting meetings of the war classes 
of 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868. Of the 
class of 1861, called by name the "Great War Class," came 
first Captain Thomas B. Haughton, Captain J. M. B. Hunt 
and Lieutenant-Colonel E. E. Edmondson in attendance. 
Each of the other classes was represented by veterans, some 
of whom made short speeches. 

At this time Dr. Albert R. Ledoux, of iSTew York, donated 
$5,000 to establish a fellowship in Chemistry. He was the 
first Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station, then 
located at Chapel Hill. The General Assembly appropriated 
$300,000 for sundry buildings and the Trustees of the Pea- 
body Eund $40,000 for an Education Building. 


In 1911, University Day address was by Dr. C. Alphonso 
Smith, of the University of Virginia. 

In 1912 the Medical Building was dedicated, the speakers 
being Dr. R. H. Lewis, President Venable, Dr. Isaac Man- 
ning, Dr. A. A. Kent, President of the State Medical So- 
ciety, Dr. Richard H. Whitehead, of the University of Vir- 
ginia, and Dr. Edgar F. Smith, Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania. Its name commemorates President Caldwell. 

On May 12, 1912, died Mr. Richard H. Battle, a first 
honor gTaduate of 1854, long Trustee and Secretary-Treas- 
urer of the University. He was a leader of the Raleigh bar 
and had held high office in the State. He donated shortly 
before his death a valuable law library to the University. 

At Commencement Dr. H. H. Home was the Alumni ora- 
tor. The Commencement orator was Dr. Edwin Anderson 
Alderman, President of the University of Virginia. 

On July 15th died Rev. Thomas Hume, D.D., a most ac- 
complished scholar, eminent divine and inspiring teacher. 

Three handsome dormitories were erected, named respect- 
ively Kemp Plummer Battle, Zebulon Baird Vance and 
James Johnston Pettigrew. 

In addition to the free tuition granted by the General 
Assembly to those of bodily infirmity, to ministers and sons 
of ministers, and to those preparing to teach, there are 
attached to the institution eight fellowships, 86 scholarships, 
and the Deems and Martin Funds for loans to indigent stu- 
dents. There are also 13 prizes offered for excellence in 

A list of scientific and historical publications is given 
showing active work by members of the faculty. This is 
only a small part of their labors. 

The annual lectures by eminent men, delivered under the 
John Calvin MclSTair will, on Harmony of Religion and 


Science, were given by Dr. Frank H. Smith, Dr. Francis 
L. Fatten, President David Starr Jordan, Dr. Henry Van 
Dyke, President A. T. Hadley. 

The debates with other universities, Korth and South, 
show that this University won in 25 competitions and lost in 
only 10. 

A full description by Dr. Joel Whitaker, an Alumnus 
prominent in athletics, showing the part taken by the Uni- 
versity in football and baseball, is given. In both, especially 
in baseball games the University gained the majority. To 
these are added the tennis matches and the athletic meets, in 
which the University holds fine record. The mass meetings 
are chronicled and also a specimen of student cheers and yells. 

Dr. Battle describes minutely the walks around Chapel 
Hill to romantic spots, such as Piney Prospect, Meeting of 
the Waters, Judge's Spring, Otey's Eetreat, Laurel Hill, 
Fern-banks, etc. To which should be added the beautiful 
Arboretum created in the east of the Campus by the labor 
and taste of Dr. W. C. Coker. 

Then follows a poem on the "Roaring Fountain," by Mrs. 
Spencer, and one on Chapel Hill (Zion Parnassus), by Rev. 
Mark John Levy, now of Chicago. 

Additional information in regard to President Swain, Dr. 
James Phillips, and others is given, and in order to show that 
the pranks of our students detailed in Volume I were not un- 
precedented. Similar, or worse, frolics of students of Co- 
lumbia University prior to 1800 are given. 

In the appendix is valuable information. 

1. List of Trustees under the Constitution of 1868. 

2. List since the reopening 1875-1912. 

3. Senators and Representatives who voted for the revival 
of the University. 


4. Lists of those who voted for the appropriation to the 
University in 1881 and 1885. 

5. List of subscribers to tKe revival of the University, 
about $20,000 in 1875. 

6. Stockholders in the Gymnasium Association. 

7. Donations to the Library and Chair of History. 

8. Description of the General University and Society Cat- 

9. Description of the Faculty of 1912. 

10. Degrees in course 1877 to 1912. 

11. Portraits in the University Library and the two So- 
ciety Halls. 

12. Specimens of the Dramatic and Musical efforts of the 

13. jSTames of the Alumni in high offices not mentioned in 
Vol. L, compiled by Hon. Walter Murphy. 

Lastly is a full index of the book prepared by Mr. Put- 

We are unable for lack of space to give the names of all 
the eminent men who preached Baccalaureate and Y, M. C. 
A. sermons, and delivered the Alumni, Commencement, Uni- 
versity Day, and other addresses. The list shows that the 
students were privileged to listen to the great men of the 
country, divines, statesmen, scientists, educators, journalists 
and others, including the President and Secretary of State 
and of the l^avy of the United States together with Govern- 
ors and Judges galore. 

The total number of students in 1912-'13 was 837. 

Teachers at Summer School, 463. 

Professors 46, Instructors 13, Fellows and Assistants 24. 
Total engaged in teaching 83. 

Of the number of students 610 were undergTaduates, 23 
were graduate students, 131 in the Law School, 54 were in 
the Medical School, 32 were in Pharmacy. 



Contributed by Mrs. M. G. McCubbins. 

John Don (spelt Dunn on outside of bond) to Sarah Cross. 
May 26 (or 29), 1758. John (his X mark) Doun, Andrew 
Cathey and James (his X mark) Douthey. (The above men 
are planters of "Roan County.") 

Morgan Davis to (no name given). January 19, 1763. 
Morgan Davies, Benjamin Evans and Madad (his X mark) 
Reed. (John Frohock.) 

John Douthit, Jr., to Elinor Davis. March 9, 1764. 
John Douthit, Jr., Phillip Howard, Jr., and James Davies, 
(Thomas Frohock.) (A note from the bride's father, James 
Davies, Sr., giving his consent. It is address^ed to John 
Frohock and dated March 8, 1765.) 

Marshall (his X mark) Duncan, Jr. to (no name given). 
April 2, 1765. Marshall (his X mark) Duncan, Jr., Mar- 
shall (his X mark) Duncan, Sr., Thomas (his T mark) Den- 
ston Rogers. John Duncan, John (his X mark) Callahan. 
Darby (his D mark) Callahan are witnesses.) (A complete 
marriage bond was enclosed in the above giving the bride's 
name — Bety Densten Rogers "Daughter of the widow Cath- 
arine Densten Rogers"). (John Frohock). 

William Dobbins to Eliz: Erwyn. September 8, 1768. 
William Dobbins, Alexander Erwyn and Joseph Luckie. 
(Thos. Frohock.) 

William Doornail to Margaret King. February 14, 1769. 
William (his W mark) Doornail, William Alexander and 
William Milliken. (Tho. Frohock.) A note of consent from 
Thomas King dated February 13, 1769, in which tlie groom's 
name is spelt "Doornell." 


James Dobbins to Margaret MclSright. January 24, 17Y0. 
James Dobbins, James McKnight and James McKoiin. 
(Thomas Frohock.) 

William Douthit to Sarah Job. January 31, 1772. 
William Douthit, George (his X mark) McNight and John 
Douthit, Jr. (Thomas Frohock.) A note from bride's 
father, Thos. Job, dated January 28, 1772. He and the 
clerk spell the groom's name "Douther." 

John Dunn to Frances Petty. March 23, 1775. John 
Dunn and Waightstill Avery. (Ad: Osbom.) 

Benjamin Davis to Isbell Holland. February 6, 1776. 
Benjamin Davis and John Conger. (Ad: Osborn.) 

James Daniel to Rebecca Atherton (a widow). April 5, 
1779. James Daniel and David Woodson. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Jacob Debalt to Elizabeth Goodman. June 5, 1779. 
Jacob Debalt (in German ?) and John Misenheimer. (Jo. 
Brevard.) (It is possible that Elizabeth Goodman may 
have become the bride of John Misenheimer as his name is 
placed with the gToom's.) 

Thomas Degle to Rebecca Nealy. July 24, 1779. Thomas 
(his X mark) Degle, and Thomas Renshaw. (Jo. Brevard.) 
(Thomas Renshaw's name also appears in the groom's space 
as above.) 

Conrad Dooty to Lovis Hoover. August 27, 1779. 
Conrad (his X mark) Dooly and Conrad (his X mark) 
Shaver. (Ad: Osborn.) 

Joseph Davis to Susanna MeCrary. December 28, 1779. 
Joseph Davis and William Silvers ( ?). (B. Booth Boote.) 
(Messrs. Davis and Silvers ( ?) are planters.) 

John Davidson to Nancey Brevard (spinster). Novem- 
ber 27, 1779. John Davidson and Joseph Byars. (B. 


Booth Boote.) (Messrs. Davidson and Brevard are plant- 
ters. ) 

Andrew Donnell to Agnes Braij. September 29, 1779. 
Andrew Donnell and John Bralj (Braty ?). (Jo: Brevard.) 

William Duffy to Prudence Carson (spinster). August 
1, 1780. William Duffy and John Carson. (H. ( ?) Gif- 

David Duncan to Cathrenah McCulloh. Ad (?) Bran- 
don. January 6, 1766. David Duncan and James Carson. 
(Thomas Frohock.) 

Thomas Donnohoi to Ann Lyhins (?) (Syhins). July 
9, 1767. Thomas (his X mark) Donnahoe and Hugh Mont- 
gomery. (John Frohock.) 

Valentine Day to Eve Reigher. August 4, 1767. Valen- 
tine Day and Christopher Spray her (in German ?). 
(Thomas Frohock.) 

William Davidson to Mary Brown. December 10, 1767. 
William Davidson, Hugh Brevard and James Holmes. (Ko 

Cleveare ( ?) Duke to Lucy Smith. June 13, 1768. 
Clevears Duke, John Wyld and George Magonne. (John 
Frohock.) A complete bond is enclosed in which Duke 
signs his name "Clevers Duke" and Thomas Frohock adds 
his signature. (John Frohock is Clerk of the Superior 
Court. ) 

John Dunn to Sarah Grier. March 8, 1782. John Dunn 
and John Johnson ( ?). (T. H. McCaule.) 

John Darcey, (or Dancey) to Abigail Davis. August 27. 
1783. John Dancey and Myock (?) Davis. (No name.) 

Mark Dedman to Hanna Baily. ^November 7, 1785. 
Mark dedmon and William (his X mark) Baily. (Max: 
Chambers. ) 


Peter ( ?) Dowell to Elizabetli Collier. September ( ?) 7, 
1785. Richard Dowell (no witnesses unless the bond is not 
signed by the groom who may be Peter Dowell. (No name.) 

Joseph Dial to Margaret Hinkle. March 13, 1786. 
Joseph Dial and Jesse Hinkle. (W ( ?) Cupples.) 

James Dauson to Jane Citchen. August 16, 1786. James 
(his X mark) Dauson and Hugh Gray, 
(To be Continued.) 

Vol XIII APRIL, 1914 No. 4 


floRTH CflROIilHfl BoOKIiET 

^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heaven'' s blessings attend her ! 
Wliile we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.^* 

Published by 



The object of The Booexet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editor. 


Mes. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Dr. E. W. SiKES. Chief Justice Walter Clauk. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 


regent : 


vice-regent : 


honorary regent: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 


Mrs. clarence JOHNSON. 


Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 

registrar : 



Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter. Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine P. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 
General Francis Nash Chapter. .. .Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent 
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12, 1904. 
tDied November 25, 1911. 


Vol. XIII APRIL, J9I4 No. 4 

MEMORIES OF 1865=1871 

By Prof. J. T. Alderman.* 

" Lest we forget." 
Virgil in the Aeneid gives a graphic description of the 
long siege and final destruction of Troj the native city of 
the Trojan hero Aeneas. Long years of wandering and 
suffering had passed, but the memory of Aeneas v^as active 
and in recounting those direful afflictions he exclaims with 
touching pathos: 

"Quaeque ipsi miserrima vidi, 
Et quorum pars magna fui." 

A half century has passed since the banner under which 
the southern soldiers fought was furled and laid to rest. 
The men in gTay encompassed by overwhelming numbers 
finally laid down their arms and turned their war-stained 
faces toward the ruined homes of their beloved Southland. 

'No treaty of peace had been arranged and signed at a 
friendly court; no specific indemnity had been claimed and 
adjudicated which could be met and satisfied; no terms were 
arranged by which the dignity and honor of a liberty loving 
people could be sustained in their hour of disappointment 
and defeat. Only a complete subjugation more galling and 
humiliating than had ever been known in the annals of 
warfare awaited them. These men who had taken up arms 
in a cause which they felt was just returned to their deso- 
lated homes conscious of an integTity untarnished by the re- 
sults of the war. It must now be their chief concern to re- 

*See Biographical Sketch, Vol. VI, pp. 209, 210, 211, January Booklet, 1907. 


establish their homes and restore the forlorn spirits of those 
most dear to them and again set up the domestic penates 
which, perchance, had escaped the ravages of fire and sword. 

The people of the South from the establishment of the 
Federal Union had been loyal to the government and had 
furnished a large proportion of the men who gave it stability 
and character among the family of nations. They held to 
the doctrine of '^States' Rights" as guaranteed to them by 
the Constitution. They delegated to the general government 
those powers named in the compact and stood firmly by the 
compromises made by the men who arranged the govern- 
ment. They were proud of the ''Stars and Stripes," and 
were jealous for the good name of the Republic. They felt 
secure in the great Union and prospered in their private and 
state affairs. Culture and refinement were the boast of 
southern life. Hospitality was open and unbounded by state 
lines and social conditions. The broad plantations were 
aglow with prosperity and master and servant felt the stimu- 
lating influence of thrift and industry. All worked together 
in harmony to make a people happy. Truely it was the 
"Sunny South." 

The people of other sections, jealous of our standing and 
influence in the shaping of national affairs, had in the early 
years of the nineteenth century determined to crush the 
South by any means that could be devised. The most plaus- 
ible pretext that could be presented to strike a popular senti- 
ment was the abolition of slavery in the South. They had 
found that the slave could not be made profitable in IS^ew 
England and the isrorth, so the slave dealers carried him to 
the farmers of the South and sold him for full value. With 
the money they returned to their homes in the l^orth and 
immediately were seized with an unbounded sense of phil- 
anthropy and love for the down-trodden negro, whom their 
ship masters had stolen from the jungles of Africa. The 

MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 201 

southern people were not seafaring people and owned no sea- 
going vessels. 

Songs and stories were written to inflame the minds of 
the people ready to he aroused to a most frenzied agitation. 
As a result the war came on and the nation was torn asunder 
in deadly conflict. 

Deliberately the ^^Torth planned to humiliate the South in 
every particular. Regiments of liberated slaves were organ- 
ized to fight their former masters. Confederate prisoners 
were placed under negro guards whose language and actions 
toward them were brutal in the extreme. The helpless men 
were tortured by the cruel soldiers in black, and if a high- 
strung prisoner dared resent their insolence by word or look, 
he was put to tortures unbearable. Handling guns careless- 
ly, they were frequently discharged among the prisoners, 
then, reports were made that it was done to quell insurrec- 
tion. The ISTorth refused to exchange prisoners. They freely 
admitted that it was bad policy to let the men get away from 
them, as each man they let go was equal to four of their 
own. With every facility for taking care of the Confederate 
prisoners they were ill treated and poorly fed, while the 
South was exhausted in her resources and had but little to 
maintain the soldiers and the Federals held in southern 
prisons. When Gen. Lee was asked to order that the scant 
rations be given to the soldiers and let the prisoners go 
without, he rose to the greatness of a true man and said, 
''While we have a crust we will divide with our prisoners." 

The historic "Sherman's march to the sea" has never had 
its equal among civilized nations. Indeed Hell did break 
loose in Georgia and continued to engulf in its sulphurous 
smoke and ashes all the region it touched through the Caro- 
linas. Sherman himself declared that "A buzzard could not 
follow in his wake without taking his rations with him." Old 
men, women and children were treated in the most horrible 


manner and no effort was made bj the officers to restrain the 
brutal men. It was an invasion for plunder. In my father's 
home no article of value that could be moved was left. 
Clocks, pianos, furniture of every kind was hewn to pieces, 
beds were ripped open and the feathers were carried away 
by the winds. Choice pieces of bed-covering of beautiful and 
rare designs made by my mother in her girlhood days were 
roughly folded and put upon the sore-backed mules for saddle 
blankets. The counterpanes upon which she had spent so 
ranch care and labor making them rare and dainty were torn 
from the beds and used for every rough and foul purpose. 
Precious heirlooms which were so highly prized for the asso- 
ciation of loved ones in the long ago were torn into shreds 
or carried away. Dresses and all wearing apparel fared no 
better fate. The soldier seemed to take delight in abusing 
and demolishing before her eyes those things upon which she 
had bestowed especial care in trying to make home com- 
fortable and attractive. ]Srot a piece of bedding was left 
except the heavy mattresses and one quilt which in the 
rummaging had fallen behind an old chest. Every piece of 
table ware of any value was gone. The soldiers set fire to 
the house and would have succeeded in burning it had not 
my mother followed them and put out the flames. 

My father was a minister and had not been called into 
the army. His library was pillaged and depleted. The 
soldiers took his hat from his head, his watch from his vest 
pocket, his purse of Confederate money; they carried away 
all of his clothes except those he had on. These desperadoes 
were not camp followers, they were the regular soldiers in 
blue uniforms, and were marched up in line with flag and 
music, the officers were with them. My father tried to get 
some protection, but they swore at him and told him to send 
for Wheeler's cavalry if he wanted protection. They com- 
pelled him at the point of a bayonet to shoulder a heavy 

MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 203 

wagon wheel and carry it about two hundred yards and put 
it on a wagon which was broken down so they could load it 
with corn to carry to the camp. Previous to this they had 
hung him to a tree to make him tell where the horses were 
concealed ; as they had found them in the meantime they let 
him down. 

My father and Mr. Gray Culbreth had hidden their horses 
in a dense marsh or swamp with briars and matted under- 
brush. The mud and water was a foot or more deep and 
almost impassable on account of its roughness. It was 
a dark densely tangled place nearly a mile through. The 
Yankees came to Mr. Culbreth's home first. They demanded 
the horses but no one would tell where they were. After a 
number of threats the ofiicers said, "We will make you tell" ; 
they then placed a rope around his daughter, a beautiful girl 
of seventeen, and mounting their horses and with a stroke of 
a keen whip drove her through the mud and briars to the 
hiding place of the horses. It was months before she re- 
covered from the harsh treatment and exposure. 

The cattle were ruthlessly shot down in the lots and left 
otherwise untouched. J^ot a living thing of value was left 
on the place, except one hen which had made her escape 
under an old bam. When the army came to the place on 
the 15th of March, 1865, we had plenty of provisions such 
as were found on a well-proivided farm to last the family for 
two years. They left the granaries and bams empty ; no 
scattered corn was left that might serve to feed the children. 

I was a boy and proud of a beautiful little horse that my 
father had given me. A Yankee made me hold my horse for 
him to mount and ride away. I never saw my horse again. 
I had a small beautifully bound Bible which I had as a 
present from my father ; a soldier put it into his pocket and 
carried it away. 

My mother and sisters were made to hear the vilest oaths 


and the most insulting language that foul-mouthed men 
could utter. The wearing apparel of the young ladies was 
taken out and after rude jests were thrown into the mud for 
the horses to trample. It had been very difficult to secure 
silks and other fancy goods for the ladies to wear, but the 
girls had saved some from the old dresses of their mothers 
with jealous care for special occasions, even these did not 
escape the savage hands but were either carried away or were 
torn to shreds. The children's toys and keepsakes and play- 
things fared no better. 

One of Sherman's staff officers, Major George Wade 
l^ichols, who was an eye witness to such scenes, playfuly de- 
;scribes their habitual acts of plunder and rapine. He de- 
scribes the soldiers searching for hidden treasures, poking 
•every foot of soft ground to find the hidden plate, jewelry, 
and other rich goods. He says that watching these proceed- 
ings was one of the pleasurable excitements of the long 
march. He gives a full page picture of one such scene; the 
men have found the hidden box of jewelry, a lone woman is 
standing on a porch begging for the watch that had been 
her mother's while the cruel jests are playing upon the faces 
and lips of her tormentors. These acts of plunder took place 
in full view of the commissioned officers and no restraints 
were offered. 

In one place a gentleman found a marauding Federal sol- 
dier trying to outrage his daughter. For the protection of 
his daughter he killed the soldier with blue coat and brass 
buttons on. The father was soon apprehended and hanged. 

The system of tortures practiced was not for obtaining 
provisions and sustenance for the invading army, but mainly 
for the purpose of securing the valuables of the people along 
the way. Dr. Bachman presents the following picture: 

"When Sherman's army came sweeping through Carolina, leaving 
a broad track of desolation for hundreds of miles, whose steps were 

MEMOKIES OF 1865-18Y1. 205 

accompanied with fire and sword and blood, reminding us of the 
tender mercies of the Duke of Alva, I was near the home of a Mrs. 
Ellerbe, a lady seventy years old. I witnessed the barbarities in- 
flicted on the aged as well as the young and delicate females. 
Officers high in command were engaged in tearing from the ladies 
their watches, their wedding rings and other mementoes of those 
they loved and cherished. A lady of declicacy and refinement was 
compelled to strip before them that they might find watches and 
other valuables concealed under her dress." 

Species of torture known only to the Spanish Inquisition 
were brought into play to force the poor negroes to tell what 
they knew concerning the valuables of their white people. 
Coolly and deliberately those hardened men proceeded on 
their way as if they had perpetrated no crime, for they were 
sustained by the officers with Federal commissions in their 

It is not pleasant to rehearse the scenes of actual occur- 
rence of those unhappy days, but they made history and led 
to serious conditions which followed in their effort to re- 
store our homes in peace. These things are facts, and why 
should not our children know the facts ? Of course there are 
those who would like to have the veil drawn across this 
period. They may well blush to have their deeds brought to 
light. The facts ought to be known. What have we to be 
ashamed of ? Those who committed the crimes are hailed as 
heroes, while those who suffered they would call traitors. 

Attila, the Scourge of God, led the savage Huns from the 
north of Europe and devastated the sunny plains of Italy. 
Cortez and Pizarro dealt out cruelty and treachery upon the 
unlettered and barbarous inhabitants of Mexico and Peru. 
The frenzied leaders of the French Revolution were men of 
low origin and were determined to destroy the better classes. 
But here in a civilized land we see a great army, commanded 
by officers commissioned by the United States government, 
with the Stars and Stripes in one hand and fire and sword in 


the other, devastating the homes of a defenseless people, pour- 
ing out bitter denunciations and wreaking their vengeance 
upon helpless women and children. 

Sunday morning, March 19, 1865, was the dreariest day 
I ever saw. The sky was hazy with smoke and the sun ap- 
peared to come through the red-tinged atmosphere with diffi- 
culty. All nature seemed charged with the bodings of evil. 
We were cold and hungry. The little children were crying 
for food. It was a Sabbath morning, but there was no peace- 
ful rest in our home. All was distress, for there was nothing 
from which our mother could prepare the morning meal. The 
Yankee cavalry came again early. They were looking to 
see if anything had been left that could be of use in preserv- 
ing life. This was the fourth day of their pillage and every 
thing was gone. 

Suddenly they stopped their plundering, for the drum 
sounded. We heard the roaring of cannon in the distance. 
I heard an officer say "There is trouble ahead." We after- 
ward learned that it was the battle of Bentonsville, twenty 
miles distant. The men wheeled into line and dashed away. 
The incessant roar of cannonading produced a feeling of awe 
in our young minds, that the succeeding years have not 

During the years prior to the Civil War and up to its 
close there had been a kindly feeling of friendship between 
the negro slaves and the white people. They had been faith- 
ful and true to the white people in all those trying times. 
Hundreds of young men in the Southern army had their 
faithful servants who stood by them and protected them, often 
at the expenses of their own lives. The negroes on the planta- 
tions managed the farms well and furnished supplies for the 
southern army. They talked fondly and eagerly about our 
soldiers in the camps and at the front. 

MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 207 

If they had been let alone there would have been no 
hostility between the races to this day. It was only when 
instigated by designing men who were really enemies to both 
white and black that antagonism began to disturb the friend- 
liness that was almost universal between the races in the 
South. There were exceptions it is true, but the masses of 
the negroes even when they knew that they were freed from 
bondage felt kindly toward their former masters. 

But even this condition was too good to be allowed to exist 
in the South. The ISTorth had determined to humiliate the 
people and make the yoke galling and bitter. The negroes 
were taught that the white people of the South were their 
enemies and must be hated as such. They were encouraged 
to become insolent and assert their equality and demand 
immediate social recogTiition. They were made to believe 
that if their demands were not welcomed and acceded to that 
it was their duty to burn or otherwise destroy the property 
of their fonner masters. Emissaries by the thousands came 
among them to inflame their minds and passions and to work 
upon their superstitious natures and lead them to acts of 
violence. Before the war they had as a rule been faithful to 
every trust and outrages such as have so often happened 
since were unknown. The white people felt kindly toward 
them. There was no antipathy toward them because they 
had been freed, it was not of their doing and no one blamed 
them. The men of the South would have sympathized with 
them and they would have lived side by side in peace. But 
this could not be, for it was decreed at Washington that the 
South should drink to the bitter dregs and no device or plan 
that could humiliate must be left unenforced. 

Seeing the dark shadows that overhung the South, hundreds 
of the best men sought security and opportunity in the far 
distant West. Those who remained felt the pall darker 
days to come. 


Even under these adverse conditions we managed to get 
along with a semblance of peace until white men of the baser 
sort, men who had been deserters or ^^bushwhackers" during 
the war, combined with the negroes and organized what was 
known as the "Union" or "Loyal League." Just what was 
carried on in their meetings we could only judge by results. 
The negroes became insolent and unbearable, but the white 
men who were with them were ten times worse. The negroes 
were encouraged to acts of violence, to theft, to become loud 
in their demands, to acts of outrage upon helpless women — 
a thing never before known among them. We feared the 
negroes where they were in large numbers but much more 
the men who led them on. We never knew when it might be 
our turn to see the midnight sky lighted up by the blazing 
barn, the mills burned to the water line, or even the dwellings 
burned to ashes — frequently done by spiteful men and 
charged to an innocent negro. 

The presence of the Federal soldiers in every community 
encouraged the negroes, who had now become insolent, to acts 
of violence and outrage, and if the sufferers complained were 
answered with a sneer or an oath and dared to touch the 
negro or interfere with his liberties. There was no appeal. 
The courts were powerless, the administration of affairs was 
a farce, because the officers were themselves of the baser sort 
or dared not antagonize the Yankee soldier who was ready 
at all times to interfere against the better citizens. The mili- 
tary is usually a protection to the proper welfare of a com- 
munity, but here was a spectacle of the military being de- 
liberately used to suppress the good and protect the vile. 
Property, life or honor was not secure at any time. 

Those were times that tried men's souls. How well do I 
remember the intense anxiety of my parents if the girls 
were out of their sight without protection. 

The brave men of the South had laid down their arms at 

MEMOKIES OF 1865-1871. 209 

Appomattox, they had been paroled and made to swear not 
to take up arms again. In fact they were almost without 
arms or any means of defense. But the vilest reptile will 
strike when he is imposed upon. Could the men in whose 
veins flowed the blood renowned at Alamance, and Mecklen- 
burg, and Manassas, and the Wilderness, lie still like be- 
labored hounds while every species of insult was heaped upon 
them ? Must they let every spark of manhood vanish and 
see their homes ruined ! The conditions must be met and 
their families and property saved. But how! The Yankee 
soldiers were quartered in every community and what could 
our people do ? Open resistance would be useless as they 
would be immediately apprehended as rebels and insti- 
gators of treason as was often done. 

Every white man who had taken any part in the Civil War 
was disfranchised and not allowed to participate in the ad- 
ministration of civil affairs. Only the class known as de- 
serters and desperadoes were left to cooperate with the 
negroes in running the local, county, and state affairs. 
Orders were issued from Washington to the soldiers quar- 
tered in each locality to "forbid and prohibit the assembling 
of bodies of citizens under any pretense." Military gover- 
nors were set up over the States as foreign satraps had been 
placed over conquered nations in the heathen days of old. 
Irresponsible men came from the jSTorth as adventurers to 
take advantage of our misfortune and usurp authority and fill 
the time honored stations of trust and honor and despoil the 
remaining resources of revenue. 

Then came the period of Reconstruction so called. Vol- 
umes have been written about the horrors of this period. 
It was not my purpose to add to the volume of literature on 
the subject, but to give the experience of one who passed 
through the times as a boy. 

Here was an example of the people who had been instru- 


mental perhaps more than any other section of the Union 
in making a great Republic, who had furnished its share of 
the strongest statesmen of all time, who had furnished the 
finest examples of statecraft and legal ability, where civiliza- 
tion and culture had reached their highest perfection, — a 
people foremost in sending the light of the Gospel to the 
hungering souls of the earth, a people whose ancestry was of 
the purest stock, whose hospitality had been open to all good 
men everywhere — a people from sheer hatred and malice to 
be blotted politically from the face of the earth, and to be 
reconstructed by such a mongrel set as was collected in 
Washington and those sent to the South to perform the great 
transformation. The annals of history have never presented 
a greater farce. 

The sanctity of the church service was invaded. During 
the existence of the Confederate Government the Episcopal 
Church inserted in its Book of Common Prayers a prayer 
for the President of the Confederacy. After the war closed 
the prayer for the President was left out altogether, where- 
upon Major-General Wood issued an order by which all the 
Clergy of that Church "were suspended from their functions 
and forbidden to preach or perform divine service," unless 
they should pray publicly for the President of the United 
States. This took place in Alabama. 

On a cold ISTovember day in 1871 I witnessed an occur- 
rence in Mayesville, S. C, which caused my blood to boil in 
my veins. I recite this because it was an example of what 
was going on all through the Southland. 

Old Colonel Mayes was one of the most cultured and 
polished gentlemen whom I ever knew. He was an old-time 
planter with broad plantations around him. His sons were 
successful men, he had given them beautiful homes around 
his plantation. Before the war he had been a member of 
the United States Congress. He was a public spirited man 

MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 211 

and had been honored by his State. He was quiet, reserved, 
and dignified — an old-time gentleman. He had furnished 
succor and help during the war. A large number of the 
negroes were freed on his plantations ; among them was one 
who had given a great deal of trouble as the worst among 
the lot. On the i!Tovember day above referred to an election 
was being held on the platform of the railroad station. This 
special negro who had given Colonel Mayes so much trouble 
was conducting the election. The general amnesty bill had 
just been passed by Congress and this was the first effort the 
old man had made after the close of the war to cast a ballot. 
The negro ordered him to take off his hat and hold up his 
right hand. There was the picture. The old gentleman, tall 
and straight, full of honors and the weight of years, the cold 
^N^ovember winds driving the long locks of his white hair, 
his hand raised repeating the oath after the negro. 

One day I was busy in the store when a negro came in and 
read to me a summons to go with him as a witness in a petty 
trial. I went and found a little renegade Yankee holding a 
magistrate's court. I and the magistrate were the only white 
men present. 

The negroes were urged to make advances and demand 
social equality. With a few exceptions, however, they dis- 
played better judgment than their advisers ; and refrained 
from what would have brought on a war between the races. 
The counsel of the well trained and better class of negroes 
prevailed to a great extent among them. 

These are a few of the scenes and memories that still linger 
with me. Michael Angelo decorated the walls of St. Peter's 
with his immortal picture of "Crownless Desolation," in 
which he portrays the purgatorial griefs of those subjugated 
by the ruthless cruelty of war. Could the artist have visited 
our Southland after the smoke of battle had cleared away 
a new impetus might have touched his brush. Cities de- 


stroyed ; towns and villages laid waste ; churches, schools, and 
other public buildings rotting; every industry destroyed; 
landscape horrors and flame-scarred wastes ; all of these were 
the evidences of a once prosperous and happy people. 

Fostered by the dominant powers at the jSTorth, the Union 
League had gathered into its ranks all of the lower class of 
the people as well as the newly liberated negroes who were 
thus encouraged to take part in public affairs and lord it 
over their former masters. Conditions were beyond descrip- 
tion and were growing more tense every day. There was no 
help to be expected from the magistrates or the courts, for all 
were of the same character. 

But the spirit of the men of the South again asserted itself 
and those who had surrendered at Appomattox and the 
younger men saw that something must be done to protect the 
honor of the home. We knew not whence it came but the 
order known as the Ku Klux Klan came to our relief. Others 
have discussed the origin and merits of the great movement. 
Memory takes us back to the time when there seemed to be a 
lifting of the dark clouds along the horizon and hope again 
beckoned our loved ones to take courage and calm their fears. 

In the first volume of The Booklet, Mrs. T. J. Jarvis 
presented two most excellent papers on the Ku Klux Klan. 
William Garrott Brown in the May number of the Atlantic 
Mo7ithIy for 1901, gives a most delightful article on the 
subject. In 1877 James Melville Beard wrote a very read- 
able book entitled "The Ku Klux Klan." His book came out 
so soon after the Congressional investigation of affairs in the 
South that he wrote very cautiously, but it is easy to read 
between the lines. 

The Congressional reports of the Commission sent to the 
States where the order existed are very full of interesting 
matter but nearly all filled with venom toward those impli- 
cated. Prof. Hamilton, of the State University, has written 

MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 213 

a book on the Reconstruction period which promises to be a 
valuable addition to our literature on the subject. 

Tom Dixon's books, while fanciful and dramatic, revealed 
conditions as they existed in many sections. Many other 
publications have been presented through papers and maga- 
iznes, but none have given the history in full of the great 
movement. Many valuable articles have been printed in our 
state papers, but there should be a specific treatise put up in a 
more permanent form. The experiences of Judge Kerr, Joe 
Turner, and Randolph Shotwell, and perhaps a hundred more 
should not be forgotten. 



By Mrs. J. G. Boylin. 

On account of the distance from the Bladen Court House, 
where the settlers, all of the Pee Dee section who numbered 
between two or three hundred tithables, had to go to return 
their taxes, the distance being a hundred miles or so, the 
following act was passed in 1749 for the establishing of a 
county, and St. George Parish, and appointing a place for 
court house, and prisons, and stocks. 

This act was passed by the council, and General Assembly, 
numbering fifty-four members, held at jSTew Bern courthouse. 
The ast was read as follows : 

"We pray that it may be enacted by his excellency, Gabriel John- 
ston, and the General Assembly of this Province, and by the authori- 
ty of the same. That Bladen county be divided by a line, begin- 
ning at the place where the South line of this Province crosseth the 
Westernmost branch of Little Pee Dee river, then by a straight line 
to a place where the commissioners, for the running of the South- 
ern boundary of this line crossed that Branch of Little Pee Dee 
called Drowning Creek, then up the branch to the head, then by a 
line to run as near as may be equidistant from Saxapaw river, now 
near Chatham, and Great Pee Dee river and that the upper part of 
the said county, and Parish, so laid off and divided be erected into 
a county, and parish by the name of Anson County, and St. George 
Parish and that all the inhabitants to the Westward, shall belong, 
and appertain to Anson County, and that said Anson County shall 
enjoy all and every privilege, which any other county, or parish in 
this province holds or enjoys." 

This new County was named for Lord George Anson, a 
famous English ISTavigator, who was bom in April, 1697, and 
died in June, 1762. Between the years 1724 and 1735 he 
was engaged in active service along the coast of the Carolinas. 
To conunemorate his daring deeds and protective sendee to 
the colonists, this county of Anson, and a town, Anson- 
borough, in South Carolina preserve his name. His long 


service on tlie coast of the Carolinas, however useful, was in 
no way brilliant, but be was popular with the colonists. 

At this time Anson County included all of Western ISTortb 
Carolina from 'New Hanover and Bladen, on the East, to the 
state line on the West. 

Anson county is one of the oldest counties of the state. 
On a map dated 1783 it shows this county to have been the 
fifteenth county that was founded. Little Pee Dee river ex- 
tended to Bladen and the Saxapaw formed a part of the 
boundary of what is now Chatham County. 

From Anson County were formed the following counties, 
and for the same reason that Anson was taken from Bladen. 
The settlers were becoming more numerous, and too, they 
were now being called to attend the courts, either to attend 
to their own business, and sometimes as jurors and witnesses. 
An act was passed to establish Rowan County in 1753. At 
this time Rowan extended to Virginia. Mecklenburg was 
taken from Anson in 1762. Montgomery County in 1778 
and on account of the high waters of the Pee Dee Richmond 
was taken in 1779. 

In the year 1754 at a general assembly held at Wilming- 
ton an act was passed for laying out a town on John Jenkins's 
place on the south side of the Pee Dee river to be known as 
Gloucester. Charles Robinson, Caleb Howell, Thomas Tom- 
kins, William Forbes and Edmond Cartlege were appointed 
commissioners with full power and authority to lay off the 
fifty acres of land. It was to be divided into lots of one half 
acre each, with convenient streets, and squares, a lot for a 
court house, jail, church, churchyard and market to be re- 
served. Any person had a right to take up one of these lots, 
upon the payment of forty shillings proclamation money, to 
be paid to the treasurer if he intended to become an inhabi- 
tant. Thomas Tomkins was appointed treasurer. Each 
owner was required to build a good frame store or brick 


house no less than twentj-four feet in length, and sixteen 
feet in width. 

This town was situated where the road leading from 
Cher aw crosses the road leading from Maskes Ferry to Cam- 
den in Anson County. This land was bought from William 
Best by Captain Patrick Boggan, In the year 1786, some 
of the commissioners having died, James Marshall, Stephen 
Pace, Jonathan Jackson, Frederick Wilobey were appointed 
commissioners who were to build the public buildings. 

In 1787 the name of the new town was changed to Wades- 
boro, taking this name from Col. Wade of Eevolutionary 

An academy was founded in 1800 for the town of Sneeds- 
boro, with William Pegues, Thomas Godfrey, Allen Chap- 
man, William Pierce, Isaac Jackson, Laurence Moore and 
John Battle as trustees. 

In 1802 an act was passed to establish an academy in 
Wadesboro. The trustees were as follows: James Marshall, 
Robert Troy, James Goodrich, Joseph Ingram, Sr., Tody 
Robinson, Pleasant May, John Jennings, Esq., the Rev. 
William Taylor, Rev. John Culpepper, and Rev. Daniel 
Gould, Joseph While, William Threadgill, Jesse Beverly, 
James Coleman, James Hough and Augustus Shepherd. 

In 1781, August 4th, Col. Wade called out half of his 
regiment, and was joined by parties from Richmond, and 
Montgomery, and proceeded against the Tories, numbering 
between four and five hundred on Drowning Creek, who were 
engaged in disarming the settlers within twenty miles of the 
Pee Dee and carrying off men, who were fit for service across 
Downing Creek, into what they called the protected land. 
After a sharp engagement at Beatler's Bridge on Drowning 
Creek, lasting until twelve o'clock at night the Tories drew 
off, A dozen Tories having been killed, while Wade only 
lost four. 


On Fanning's return from Wilmington he heard that Wade 
was going to attack McNeill, who held the protected ground. 
There was a narrow causeway, through which Wade would 
have to cross. At Wade's first attack eighteen of Tanning's 
horses were slain, but the Tories at once dismounted and 
made a deadly assault, firing as they advanced. In this en- 
counter Wade lost nineteen men, with fifty-four prisoners 
taken, and two hundred and fifty horses, while Fanning only 
lost one man, with a few wounded. 

Another interesting event was the massacre at Piney Bot- 
tom and the revenge taken by the Whigs. 

When Gates was defeated at Camden, the British overran 
South Carolina, and many of the Whigs fled from the Pee 
Dee section into ISTorth Carolina. Among them was Col. 
Wade. He with Col. Culp decided to return home, and 
having loaded their wagons with salt and such other articles 
as were needed in the Pee Dee section. Having crossed the 
Cape Fear, at Mcl^eil's Ferry, night approaching they took 
up Camp. That night John MclTeil having learned where 
this company of Whigs were camping sent runners out to 
collect the Tories, many of whom were lying out in the 
swamps and other places, with directions to meet at Long 
Street to pursue Wade the next night. 

Just a little before day they came upon Wade and his party 
encamped on Piney Bottom, a branch of Rockfish, all being 
apparently asleep. The Tories fell upon the Whigs, killing 
five or six of them. The rest escaped leaving everything 

A motherless boy who had been taken by Col. Wade, being 
aroused by the firing of the guns, not being fully awake cried 
"Parole me. Parole me." Duncan Furgeson, a renegade 
deserter, told him to come he would parole him. He dropped 
on his knees begging for his life, but seeing this man ap- 
proaching him he jumped up to run. Furgeson overtook him 


and split his head open with a broad sword, so that one half 
fell on one shoulder and one on the other. The wagons were 
plundered, the officers taking the money, the men whatever 
thej could carry away. The Tories burned the wagons, and 
pretended to bury the dead, but the bodies were afterwards 
found scratched up by the wolves, but were buried by Whig 
scouts. As soon as Gulp and Wade reached home they col- 
lected about a hundred men, all swearing that they would 
never return until they avenged the death of the motherless 
boy. On Thursday they camped on the land of Daniel Pat- 
terson, the piper, on Drowning Creek. They caught him and 
whipped him until he gave the names of all those who were 
at Piney Bottom. They then entered into Moore County 
and captured and murdered all who had been connected with 
the massacre. Gen. Wade had John Mcl^eil tried for his 
life on account of the robbery and murder committed at 
Piney Bottom. He was acquitted on account of not having 


Gov. Tryon says that the first trouble that grew into the 
war of the Regulation began in Anson and spread to Orange. 
At this time Samuel Spencer was Deputy Clerk of the pleas 
for Anson. In the year 1768 a mob tried to take possession 
of the court house (at this time the court house of Anson was 
old Mt. Pleasant, now called the Hooker Place, owned by 
the heirs of the late T. J. Ingram). Col. Spencer went to 
the door and demanded what they would have. They an- 
swered that they had some matters to settle and wanted the 
use of the court house. Col. Spencer read them a clause in 
the act of Parliament of George the First against riot and 
unlawful assemblies, at which the mob became very much en- 
raged and threw up their clubs and threatened to tear down 
the court house and jail. They then proposed for a few of 
their company to represent them and set forth their griev- 


ances. Col. Spencer retired to his desk for transaction of 
his business, whereupon the whole mob entered, demanding 
the reason for their being taxed. 

Col. Spencer explained to them the necessity of reasonable- 
ness of taxation. In this time one of them took Mr. ISTeed- 
lock, a magistrate, aside and another took the other justices 
off the bench and entirely obstructed the proceedings of the 
court. They held consultations among themselves and de- 
cided to let the court house stand, and passed resolutions 
to resist the sheriff in collecting taxes. Before they dis- 
persed they elected Mr. Charles Eobinson as representative 
to the General Assembly in place of Mr. John Crawford, 
without giving the Governor the trouble of issuing a new writ 
of election on that vacancy. 

Each member of the mob took oath that in case any officer 
made distress on any goods or the estate that he with other 
assistance would go and take it from the officer, and restore 
it to the party from whom taken, and in case any one who 
joined this company of regulars for the nonpayment of 
taxes should be in prison or under arrest or otherwise con- 
fined that he would immediately raise as many of said sub- 
scribers as necessary to set said person and his estate at lib- 

All these troubles were represented to Gov. Tryon in a let- 
ter written by Col. Spencer. In reply Gov. Tryon gave Col. 
Spencer authority to raise the Anson regiment of militia to 
enable him to secure and bring to trial the ringleaders and 
suppress any future trouble. On the 17th of May, 1Y68, Gov. 
Tryon issued a proclamation to the county of Anson com- 
manding and requiring all persons interested in any way or 
connected with this insurrection to disperse and retire to their 
respective homes. In case they refused he commanded all 
officers, both civil and military, to use all lawful means of 
suppressing the same. 


This outbreak on the part of Anson County seems to have 
been the first open resistance, to the oppression of the officers 
of the crown. Even as early as this date the great principle 
was laid dov^n "that taxation and representation" should 
always be associated, that neither Parliament, nor the Gover- 
nor, nor any other power had the right to tax the people 
without their consent freely given through their representa- 
tives in the General Assembly. 

On March 19, 1T71, Governor Tryon called for fifty volun- 
teers from Anson to march against the insurgents. There 
were 2,550 volunteers called from the Province. 

The delegates from Anson to the first Provincial Congress 
held at New Bern were Samuel Spencer and William Thomas. 
Delegates to the third Congress, which met at Hillsboro, 1775, 
^ere Thomas Wade, Samuel Spencer, William Thomas, 
David Love and William Pickett. The field officers were 
^appointed at this Congress. The regimental muster was held 
sat the home of Griffith Lacy. Samuel Spencer was Colonel ; 
-James Auld was Major. 

Samuel Spencer, one of the State's most prominent men of 
Kevolutionary times, is buried on the land of his relative, 
Mr. S. P. Spencer, on Smith Creek about a mile from the 
Pee Dee River, with no slab to mark his grave. 

This is what the Fayetteville Gazette of 1794 says of his 
death : 

"At his seat in Anson County on the 20th circuit the Hon. 
Samuel Spencer, LL.D., one of the Judges of the Superior 
Court of this State. His Honor's health having been declin- 
ing about two years, but he has performed the last circuit 
three months since, and we imderstand he intended to leave 
home in a few days for this town where Superior Court is 
now sitting had it not been for the following incident. 

"He was sitting on his piazza with a red cap on his head, 
when it attracted the attention of a large turkey gobbler. 


The Judge being sleepy began to nod. The turkey mistaking 
the nodding and the red cap for a challenge to battle made 
so violent and unexpected attack on his Honor that he was 
thrown from his chair on the floor and was so beat and 
bruised that he died in a few days." 

Samuel Spencer is the progenitor of some of the most 
prominent people in the State, namely Londons and Jack- 

A Philadelphia paper at the time of this occurence makes 
this (Zhi deppre) criticism : 

"In this degenerate age, 
What host of knaves engage, 
And do all they can to fetter braver men. 
Dreading that they should be free. 
Leagued with scoundrels pack, 
Even turkey cocks attack 
The red cap of liberty." 

I am greatly indebted to Col. F. J. Coxe for a gTeat part 
of this interesting data, which he collected while a student at 
the University of ]S[orth Carolina, which I have used in 
this paper. I have consulted Wheeler's and Ashe's histories^ 
also Colonial Records. 



By Adelaide L. Fries. 

It was a mere matter of business that set me delving among 
the memoirs in the Salem Archives. From the beginning — , 
that is to say, from 1753, — it has been the custom in Wa- 
chovia at the funeral of a member, to read an account of the 
life of the deceased, and many of these memoirs, autobiog- 
raphies in their major part, were deposited on the Archive 
shelves, where they have rested until this present, as forgot- 
ten as the men and women of whom they spoke. When some 
impulse of patriotism, love of order, — what you will, — led 
me to undertake the making of an Index, it was with the 
expectation that the work would be monotonous in the ex- 
treme. Except to fill a gap in a genealogical table, who 
cares where Johann Schmidt was born and when he died, or, 
indeed, whether he died or was born ? And yet now and 
again there came a surprise, and some tim&-yellowed page 
would outline a life so typical of the period, so full of human 
interest, that all the old longing for the story-writer's gift 
welled up afresh, and its absence seemed almost a tragedy — 
the threatened reburial of men and women who lived again 
after a lapse of more than a century. 

When I was a child I read a story of which only the mys- 
terious title remains in memory, "The Story That Wouldn't 
Be Told." Why it did not wish to be told, or how it avoided 
the telling, is long since forgotten, but in contradistinction to 
that shy tale the memoirs have haunted me and insisted upon 
relation, and reluctant obedience is at last given. ITo attempt 
is made to weave a modem-style romance, — that is left for 
some more gifted pen, — but the simple life of a real woman 

*See Biographical Sketch, Vol. IX, p. 236, April Booklet, 1910. 


18 presented, as she moved through the scenes of a country 
village a century and more ago. 

It was a perfect day in late October, 1766, hut the slight, 
fair-haired girl, seated on the trunk of a fallen tree, gazed 
with unseeing eyes upon the masses of gold and crimson 
leaves that hid all but a hundred or two feet of the road over 
which she had but lately come. So far as foliage was con- 
cerned it had been a royal progress, that journey southward 
from Pennsylvania, for day after day the slowly-moving 
heavily-laden wagons seemed just in the wake of the first 
sharp frost of the season, and the forests all along the way 
had flung out their red and yellow banners as though to give 
the travellers glad greeting. 

The little company, however, was royal only in the faith 
which was leading them to a new home in a distant colony. 
In outward seeming they were simple enough, — the sturdy 
drivers of the stout horses, a minister of the Gospel and his 
wife, three women and a dozen young girls, several of whom 
were now busily putting away the remains of the midday 
meal, preparatory to the start on their further journey. 

To them J ohanna gave as little heed as to the beauties of 
the autumnal landscape, for the weeks of travel had devel- 
oped an almost military precision of life, and each served 
in turn with the deftness born of experience. To-day she was 
free, and something in the surroundings of the noon rest 
had taken her back to the hills of IS^ew Jersey, where her 
eyes had first consciously seen the autumn glory ; the removal 
thither from Connecticut having taken place w:hen she was 
little more than an infant. 

How well she remembered that day in 1Y56 when the 
rumors of months crystallized into definite news of Indian 
war, and preparations were made for hasty flight; and a 
Moravian, coming to her father's mill for meal, cheerfully 


returned without his intended freight in order to convey the 
Colvers and their effects to ISTazareth and to safety. Her 
parents, who had long awaited an opportunity to join the 
Moravians, gladly accepted a position in a neighboring vil- 
lage, an older sister was sent to Bethlehem, and Johanna and 
a younger sister were placed in a little school just being 
started in Nazareth to care for children who like herself 
had been driven in by the war from unprotected districts. 

The lessons taught in the school were of the simplest. She 
learned to speak German, to read and write in German and 
English, to cipher, to knit, to sew, and to share in the varied 
activities of the household. Religious instruction was also 
carefully given, and not until she was older would she see 
the real pathos of her inner life during that time. Of imagi- 
native mind and emotional temperament, the tenderly told 
stories of the Saviour's love and care had at first the strange 
effect of driving her almost frantic with terror, for her father, 
unwilling to have his child baptized by other than a Moravian 
pastor, and unable to secure the services of one in his far-off 
Connecticut home, had neglected the rite altogether, and being 
unbaptized she became obsessed with the idea that she was 
wholly in the power of the Evil One, and beyond the reach 
of the love which her soul craved. Too shy to hint her 
trouble the poor little thing struggled on, and at last light 
began to break in on the eager mind, and she found courage 
to pray, to hope, and finally to speak to the kindly woman 
in charge of the children, who dispelled her fear, comforted 
the tender little heart, and promised that when she was older 
she should receive adult baptism, and assured her that mean- 
while she was perfectly safe in the Saviour's keeping. 

A year in the Bethlehem school gave opportunity for more 
study, and of this she gladly availed herself; then her long 
cherished wish was granted, and she was baptised, admitted 
to the Choir of Older Girls and placed with other young 


girls of tbe congregation in the Sisters' House, there to learn 
the serious business of self-support. An interruption came 
in the form of a severe illness, through which she went to the 
very gates of death, hut they did not open, health and strength 
returned, and now she was one of those selected to go to the 
new little Moravian settlement in ITorth Carolina, there to 
begin a Choir of Older Girls, as the older women of the 
company were to form the nucleus of the Choir of Single 
Sisters. Would she like the new home ? Would the work 
be harder or easier than in Bethlehem ? Would she, per- 
chance, be asked in marriage? There were many more 
brethren than sisters in Wachovia so far, and all the young 
women who had come with earlier parties had been quickly 
wedded. And if an oifer came would she wish to accept it, 
or would she rather be Vorsteherin of the Single Sisters 
like Sister Krause, and manage the money, or better yet, 
be Pflegerin, like Sister Schmidt in Bethlehem, and have all 
the Sisters look up to her, and listen to what she said, and 
have even the minister consult her ? On the whole that 
sounded attractive, and — But Sister Krause's voice was 
calling her to take her place in the wagon, and air-castles 
vanished in the wearily impatient wish that the journey was 
over and she could rest. 

Very cheerful the little village looked next day as they 
drove into it, and were warmly welcomed, bountifully fed, 
and conducted to the house which had been set apart for their 
use. And how interesting it was in the morning to go here 
and there, seeing the places already familiar through letters, 
and hearing retold the stories of early experiences in the 
wilderness. Here was the cabin to which the first settlers 
came on that chill l^ovember day in 1753, and in which they 
held their first lovefeast while the wolves howled in the forest 
near by. Well might they howl, for their day was done ! 
Some were to fall before the hunter's gun, and the rest would 


vanish before the onmarching civilization of which that care- 
fully selected group of colonists was the sign. Here was the 
church, center of the village and of the village life, with its 
bell, whose daybreak peal had more than once startled lurk- 
ing Indians into believing themselves discovered, and had 
so averted the attack. The substantial walls and loopholed 
attic made the church almost a fort, and beside it was the 
stockade, whose protection had been shared by many a fright- 
ened farmer, coming to the village for shelter during the 
troubled years of Indian warfare. High on the hill lay the 
little graveyard, and at its foot the garden of medicinal herbs, 
eloquent reminder of the good Dr. Kalberlahn, whose fame 
had spread far and wide, but who, alas ! had been one of the 
first victims of the epidemic of 1759. Then there were the 
shops for the tailor and the shoemaker, the homes of married 
people, the newly-opened Sisters' House, and the Brothers' 
House occupied by the unmarried men. There was also the 
village kitchen, a source of surprise to the casual visitor, but 
the quite-to-be expected thing in the eyes of the new arrivals 
for the pioneer Moravian settlers had been quick to realize 
the value of practical cooperation, and it was their system 
of community organization, "the labor of all for the good of 
all," which made possible the almost phenomenal industrial 
success of the earlier years in their first villages. Then 
there was the mill a mile or two away, the farm and the 
dairy, — plenty of work for willing hands ; and when the fa- 
tigue of their trip was over the Sisters and Older Girls were 
assigTied to tasks suited to their strength and ability. In 
that little village, if nowhere else in the world, all work was 
honorable, the cow-herd and the cook were as carefully se- 
lected as the merchant or the minister, and all met together 
in the conference which made the plans and gave to each his 
share of labor. 

It seemed to Johanna that everybody was happy except 


herself, and that she was not made her the more unhappy. 
The fact is that the sensitive nature, which would later make 
her so dearly beloved for her quick sympathy and ready aid 
of all who came to her for advice or help, was now finding 
temporary expression in a morbid craving for approval, and 
a tendency to droop — and, it must be confessed, to pout, — 
under real or fancied reproof, to her own sorrow and to the 
annoyance of all about her. She did not understand herself, 
and no one fully understood her, but they were patient with 
her ; and by and by she learned the hard lesson of self-control, 
and was admitted to the Holy Communion. In those days 
privilege of the Sacrament was highly prized and carefully 
guarded, and each Communion-day was preceded by heart- 
searchings, deep though tender; and it happened not infre- 
quently that quite an interval elapsed between the taking of 
vows in baptism or confirmation and admission to the Lord's 
Table. To Johanna the granting of this privilege was the 
sign and seal that her strivings after a higher life had found 
favor with God and man, and from that hour she "thanked 
God and took courage." 

But she never learned to really like Bethabara, and her 
thoughts turned with ever increasing longing to the new town 
being built six miles to the south. Salem — "Peace" — the 
very name seemed to her a prophecy! When she came to 
Wachovia the work was just begun; since then she had lis- 
tened eagerly to every word concerning it, as the young men 
who had gone thither from Bethabara and the hired laborers 
built first a Brothers' House, then homes for married people, 
and, ultimately, a CongTegation House, with the meeting- 
hall in its second story. There was something fascinating 
about a town all prepared as to houses before the people came. 
How happy the Brethern must be when their own particular 
house was finished, and the company of builders could wel- 
come into it the young men and boys who had remained in 


Bethabara. Perhaps even happier were the four who hav- 
ing toiled earnestly at town-building, were now to be wedded, 
three to move into three of those empty waiting houses, while 
the fourth went to the farm near by. Who before had ever 
attended a quadruple wedding ? 'All Bethabara was inter- 
ested, but Johanna, who knew all the brides, and was warmly 
attached to two of them, was in a tingle of excitement from 
the day when her friends told her of their acceptance of the 
proposals to the hour of the solemn bethrothal service, and the 
still more solemn exchange of marriage vows in the presence 
of the entire population of the village. 

Later there followed the consecration of the meeting-hall 
in Salem, organization of the new congregation, and installa- 
tion of the pastor and other officers, and at last, at last, word 
was received that the rooms for the Single Sisters were ready. 
The breath of Spring was in the air and in Johanna's soul 
that April day, and when their few possessions were arranged 
in the new rooms, and they knelt for their first evening prayer 
in Salem, her throbbing heart chanted joyfully: ''Home — 
peace, home — peace!" 

And peace remained with her through all the following 
years, despite difficulties and hardships not a few. At first 
it was a struggle to provide the bare necessaries of life, for 
remunerative work was scarce; but the Sisters tilled their 
garden, sewed, and washed, and knit, and spun, and helped 
in the homes of married people, and by their united effort the 
hardest years were safely passed. Then came the Revolution, 
with its manifold anxieties, which in their turn passed away. 
And Johanna was like a plant, rooted in the shadow and 
coming rapidly into blossoming when brought to the light. 
Appointed assistant to Sister Pflegerin Quest, she was so 
helpful, and showed so much tact in her relation to the other 
Sisters and Older Girls, that she was soon made "house dien- 
erin," and charged with the supervision of all household af- 


fairs. This position also made her a member of the Congre- 
gation Council, composed of the leading men and women of 
the congregation, for in those days the women were accorded 
a much more active voice in matters of the town and Church 
than they were permitted to have in later times. 

Johanna threw her whole heart into her work, dedicating 
her life to the service of her Church among the Sisters, and 
in 1780 she was received as an Akoluthe. She now began ac- 
tively to plan for the erection of a separate house for the 
Single Sisters, as their rooms in the Congregation House 
were becoming overcrowded, in spite of the fact that each 
year some Sisters married and moved into other homes. It 
had, indeed, always been the intention that there should be a 
Sisters' Hoiuse, but while their Choir was small and poor it 
seemed wiser to wait. Money was still very scarce, but a 
few hundred dollars were held in reserve for that purpose, 
and Johanna began to collect small offerings from the Sisters 
and little girls, and cherished them in faith that a way would 
open. Then permission was given to ask aid from congrega- 
tions elsewhere, as well as of friends in the village; and in 
1783 preparations were begun for building. 

But her faith was not so soon to be rewarded. On a cold 
winter night in January there rang through the sleeping town 
the weird, piercing cry of "F-i-r-e ! F-i-r-e!" Hastily 
dressing, men and women seized their buckets and hurried to 
the scene, there to form in two long lines, the men passing 
full buckets of water, and the women returning them empty 
to be refilled. But it was in vain, and when morning came 
the tavern was a smoking ruin, and Jacob Meyer and his 
family were without a roof over their heads. Every house 
in the village was already full, but place was cheerfully made 
for the accommodation of the Meyers, and quite as promptly 
it was decided that the tavern must be at once rebuilt, the ma- 


terial already gathered for the Sisters' House being used as 
far as it would go. 

For another year, therefore, Johanna and her associates 
waited, with what patience they could command, and at last 
the tavern was completed, work on the Sisters' House was re- 
commenced, the cornerstone was laid with appropriate cere- 
monies, the walls were raised, and the day of dedication ap- 

It so happened that just at this juncture Bishop Watteville 
visited Salem, as the representative of the Unity's Elders' 
Conference. The Revolution had left many problems for 
which his wise counsel was much needed, but details of the 
congregational life were just as carefully considered. One 
point discussed was that Sister Pflegerin Quest and Sister 
Vorsteherin Krause were growing old and scarcely able to 
conduct the affairs of the growing Choir. Sister Quest was 
asked whether she would relinquish her position and go to 
Bethabara, there to teach the school for little girls as long as 
her health permitted, to which she cheerfully agreed. Sister 
Krause was retired, with the understanding that she would 
help as much as she could, and the mantles of both fell on 
Johanna Colver, the timid child, the moody girl, now the 
ablest and best beloved Sister. Humbly but trustfully she ac- 
cepted the call, and was installed by Bishop Watteville a few 
days before the Choir House was finished. 

The 5th of April, 1786, was probably the happiest day of 
Johanna's life. At the head of her Choir, surrounded by 
sympathizing friends , she moved from the Congregation 
House to the new Sisters' House, which was opened with im- 
pressive and appropriate ceremonies. There, a few days 
later. Bishop Watteville solemnly consecrated her a Deacon- 
ess of the Moravian Church, and she entered upon eleven 
years of earnest and successful service. 

The duties and responsibilities of her position were mani- 


fold. According to the Principles laid down, the Single Sis- 
ters' Choir was to be "a garden of the Holy Ghost," wherein 
girls and women were to be trained "for all kinds of service; 
it might be for marriage, or for work in the Choir, among 
children, or in families, or as Choir Sisters passing their days 
in quiet and union of heart with the friends of their souls, 
thinking with deep interest on the things of the Lord, and 
praying for them." As Pflegerin Johanna was charged with 
"the care of the inner or soul life of her Choir Sisters," not 
only those of adult years, but even wee maidens just growing 
out of babyhood. Dearly she loved these little folk, and sought 
to win their confidence, so that even in tender years she might 
draw them into communion with her Saviour. In modern 
times there is no one person in the community who quite takes 
the place that Johanna Colver filled. Many of the mother's 
duties, of the Sunday School teacher's opportunities, of the 
pastor's responsibilities, were hers, and, as the girls grew 
older, she helped them to find means of self-support, and was 
their trusted confidante in all the perplexing problems of 
young womanhood, while to the older Sisters she gave her af- 
fectionate interest, and to the aged her tender care. 

As Vorsteherin she was the treasurer, the business manager 
of the Choir, — a 230sition bringing many difficulties and anxie- 
ties, for to complete their House the Sisters had been obliged 
to borrow a considerable sum from the Salem Congregation, 
from potter Gottfried Aust and tanner Johanna Herbst, and 
to keep up the interest and pay off the principal was no small 
task, even with the help of all the Sisters, and the unfail- 
ing support of tanner Herbst, who would never accept any 
interest on his loan, and finally gave them the principal as 

'Not to every one is it given to see the end as well as the be- 
ginning of an undertaking, but one year before Johanna died 
she had the joy of knowing that the debt was fully paid, and 


that her cherished House would pass unencumbered into other 
hands, — for that she would soon leave it she knew full well. 
One of the marvels of Johanna's life was that she accom- 
plished so much despite her bodily weakness. In the very 
month in which she became Pflegerin the first attack of lung 
trouble manifested itself, though for some years an occasional 
hemmorhage seemed to have little effect upon her strength. 
A vacation in Pennsylvania refreshed her after the strain 
incident to an epidemic from which many of the Sisters suf- 
fered in 1792, but in 1795 the disease took firm hold on her, 
and her streng-th gradually but steadily failed. Toward the 
end she suffered much, and oh, how she longed for rest! 
''Dear Saviour, pity me, and bring these painful hours to a 
close. I am ready to go, and there is naught to keep me 
here," so she prayed in an hour of utter weariness, though as 
a rule she waited with utmost patience for the final summons. 
Asking a friend to read her the Daily Texts for some days 
ahead, that for March 5th was reached, "The Lord shall be 
unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory," Isa. 
60:19. "Oh, that I might go home on that day," she ex- 
claimed; "think of the joy and wonder, to go out into the sun- 
shine, into the day that shall have no end." And even so it 
was. On the 5th of March, 1797, she peacefully fell asleep, 
while her weeping Sisters, gathered in an adjoining room, 
sang hymns wherewith to comfort their aching hearts. Soon 
the trombonists gathered in front of the House, and through- 
out the village people paused to listen to the message floating 
out on the evening air: 

A pilgrim, us preceding, 
Departs unto her home, 

The final summons heeding, 
Which soon to all must come, 

joy! the chains to sever 
Which burden pilgrims here, 

To dwell with Christ forever 
Who to our souls is dear. 


The second stanza, tbough used at the departure of any un- 
married Sister, might have been Johanna's own statement of 
her life's ideal, and many an eye grew moist as the tune was 
recognized : 

My happy lot is here 

The Lamb to follow; 
Be this my only care 

Each step to hallow, 
And thus await the time 

When Christ, my Saviour, 
Will call me hence, with Him 
To live forever. 

Once more the sweetly solemn strains stole over the village, 
this time breathing a prayer that each who listened might in 
turn find ready entrance into that heavenly mansion ; and as 
the last note sank into the evening silence quivering lips 
whispered with sorrow and yet in perfect trust: "Sister 
Pflegerin Colver has indeed gone home." 



By Mks. E. E. Moffitt. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker was born in Chapel Hill, iSTorth Caro- 
lina, and lived there during a large part of her girlhood. 
Prior to her marriage she was Miss Fanny DeBerniere 
Hooper, the second daughter of Professor John Deberniere 
Hooper of the University, who was the son of Archibald Mac- 
laine Hooper, the well-known editor and writer of Wilming- 
ton, North Carolina — a contributor on historical subjects to 
various journals — who married Miss Charlotte DeBerniere. 
Fanny DeBerniere Hooper's mother was before her marriage 
Miss Mary Elizabeth Hooper, daughter of William Hooper, 
D.D., LL.D., scholar and litterateur, a Professor in the Uni- 
versity of ISTorth Carolina, later President of Wake Forest 
College, and the author of Fifty Years Since, Force of Kahit, 
Sacredness of Human Life, Imperfections of Primary 
Schools, and many other sketches. He married Frances Pol- 
lock Jones, daughter of Colonel Edward Jones, Solicitor-Gen- 
eral of JSTorth Carolina, who was born in Ireland, and Mary 
Mallett Jones who was the daughter of Peter Mallett, member 
of one of the Committees of Safety in the Revolution and 
Commissary of the fifth and sixth regiments of the Conti- 
nental Line. Mary Elizabeth Hooper was the great grand- 
daugher of the William Hooper who was one of the signers of 
the Declaration of Independence, son of Reverend William 
Hooper, second rector (1747-1767) of Trinity Church, Bos- 
ton. She (Mary Elizabeth Hooper) was the granddaughter 
of William Hooper, son of the "Signer," who married Helen 
Hogg, daughter of James Hogg of Hillsborough, ISTorth Caro- 
lina, a native of Scotland who came to America in 1774, was 
influential in the Revolutionary period, and married Miss 


This picture is a copy of a daguerreotype taken about the time of her 
marriage. There is no good recent picture. 


Alves. J. DeBerniere Hooper was the grandson of the "Sign- 
er's" brother George — who married Katharine Maclaine, 
daughter of Archibald Maclaine of Wilmington, prominent 
among Revolutionary patriots. The one son of this marriage, 
Archibald Maclaine Hooper — father of Professor J. De- 
Berniere Hooper, before mentioned as the father of Fannie 
DeB. Whitaker — married, as has been said, Charlotte De- 
Berniere who was the daughter of Colonel John DeBerniere 
of the British army who had married near Belfast, Ireland, 
Miss Anna Jones, daughter of Conway Jones of Rostrevor, 
and whose grandfather, Jean Antoine DeBerniere, a Hugue- 
not of noble birth, had fled from French persecution and set- 
tled first in Ireland/ 

It will be seen from the foregoing that Mrs. Whitaker was 
descended from those who bore a considerable part in the pe- 
riod of the American Revolution — William Hooper, Archi- 
bald Maclaine, Peter Mallett. Karnes might be cited to 
show that patriotic interests and military records are to be 
found also in collateral branches and that force of talent has 
been evident in these lines. Among these names there is that 
of an ancestral uncle, Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General 
Thomas Clark of the Revolutionary army. A brother of J. 
DeBerniere Hooper was Johnson J. Hooper, lawyer, Secre- 
tary of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, a 
conspicuous and influential editor, one of the most successful 
humorous writers of the day — author of "Simon Suggs," 
"Widow Rugby's Husband" and "Other Tales of Alabama/' 

The late Mrs. C. P. Spencer, in a memorial of J. DeB, 
Hooper in 1886, says: 

"The Hooper family is one long and well known In Nortli Caro- 
lina and other Southern states. Wherever known they are strongly 
marked by certain family traits; a high-toned, passionate sense of 

1 The genealogical data for this sketch was furnished by Miss Bessie Lewis Whitaker. 


honor, a quick and generous sensibility, a love of letters, combined 
with intellect of a fine and flexible quality. In many of them these 
mental gifts are accompanied by a rare strain of subtle humor, 
imparting to their conversation and writings the real Attic flavor 
and salt." 

Miss Fanny Hooper imbibed much of great educational 
value from the atmosphere of her home. Her father, revered 
by all who knew him, was "justly dear to learning, to social 
life, to the cause of education, and the Church of God,"-"- her 
mother a "sweet, high-minded, 'other-worldly' woman. "^ She 
has said that her parents instilled into their children^ a love 
of learning and, at a time when such matters were compara- 
tively ignored, imbued them with a knowledge of and admira- 
tion of a worthy ancestry. She was formally educated at the 
■Chowan Female Institute, Murfreesboro, IvTorth Carolina— a 
ischool well known at this period for thorough scholarship and 
iigh standards — where she graduated at the head of her class 
and was the valedictorian. Her essay, a humorous produc- 
tion entitled "Lucifei" Matches" was written in verse and is 
jDreserved today as a happy effort of the girl whose mind 
showed at this early age the vivacity and brilliant tendencies 
retained and developed through life. 

She married July 31, 1866, Mr. Spier Whitaker, son of 
Colonel Spier Whitaker, of eastern ISTorth Carolina — a lawyer 
learned and widely successful, essentially a "gentlemen of the 
old school," Attoxney-General of l^orth Carolina for four 
years, later a resident of Davenport, Iowa. Spier Whitaker, 
the son, was, at the time of his marriage to Miss Hooper, an 
alumnus of the University of North Carolina, one of the 
fifty-seven of the members of the historic class of 1861 who 

1 William Mercer Green, Bishop of Missiasippi. 

2 Dr. E. A. Alderman in an address on William Hooper. 

' The children of J. DeBerniere Hooper and Mary E. Hooper: 

Helen DeBerniere Hooper (deceased), who married James Wills. 
Fanny DeBerniere Hooper ( deceased ), who married Spier Whitaker. 
Henry DeBerniere Hooper ( deceased ), who married Jessie Wright. 
Julia Charlotte Hooper, who married Ralph Graves. 


left the University for the battlefield a few weeks before the 
end of the course that was crowned nevertheless, through the 
University diplomas, by an alma mater ready to yield ap- 
proval and award degrees to honorable sons^ He was First 
Lieutenant and Adjutant of the Thirty-third North Caro- 
lina Regiment, Lane's Brigade, Hill's Division, Jackson's 
Corps, Army of jS'orthern Virginia. As a Confederate sol- 
dier, he served with distinguished gallantry during the four 
years of the war — literally from Bethel to Appomattox. He 
was caj)tured at JSTew Bern by Burnside and was a prisoner 
of war for about four months at Governor's Island, the ''Rip 
Raps," and Fort Delaware. He was at Harper's Ferry, 
Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania, Gettysburg — in fact in every battle of 
his regiment except one. His services were conspicuous 
many times during the war and the commendation accorded 
him after Gravelly Hill has been often quoted. He after- 
wards became one of ]^orth Carolina's ablest lawyers, "his 
reputation extending far beyond State bounds."' He ren- 
dered able and important service to the State as Chairman 
of the Democratic State Executive Committee in 1888 when 
he conducted a campaigTi "with a skill and success that were 
phenomenal."^ As a Judge of the Superior Courts of the 
State he has left an enviable record — a record bearing close 
investigation and study. "He brought to the Bench a mind 
well stored with legal learning and his decisions showed him 
equipped for determining knotty points of the law continually 
arising.'* During the time he served as Judge he concen- 
trated the great force of his will and effort upon the ameliora- 

1 "Commencement day was on the first Thursday in June, 1861. Only thirty out of 
the eighty-seven graduates were present. The diplomas of the absent were forwarded to 
them. Very likely some of them reached their owners on the battle-field, but I never 
heard of it-"— Dr. Kemp P. Battle. (See Battle's History of the University, Vol. I ). The 
foregoing note may account for the statement, sometimes heard, that the diplomas of the 
class of 1861 were delivered on the battle-field. 

2 Daily Call, Raleigh, 1889. 

3 Daily Call, Raleigh, 1889. 

< News-Observer Chronicle, 1894. 


tion of conditions in the jails and county homes of the State. 
He was appointed Major of the Sixth Regiment United States 
Volunteers in the war with Spain, 1898-99, which regiment 
though on active duty in this country and Porto Rico, was 
never engaged in battle. 

An esteemed friend and college-mate and Confederate 
army comrade of Judge Whitaker's thus referred to him af- 
ter his death : ^"He possessed an excellent mind which was 
of a philosophic turn and cultivated in many fields of litera- 
ture. He was an able lawyer and was distinguished as a 
logician. He was a man of a high sense of honor and to his 
intimates was a most delightful companion, whose quaint 
himior added piquancy to their enjoyment of his company. -*■ 
In reference to his wife, the subject of the present sketch, 
another valued friend of the early days of strong associa- 
tions, recently said : "She was indeed an unusual woman — 
and as a young maiden, so lovely in person, so bright and fas- 
cinating. She developed into a woman of rare intellectual 
gifts and doubtless her intelligent husband by his association 
with her stimulated her mental powers and gave them play 
so that they were not repressed, notwithstanding her house- 
hold cares. "^ The homage he accorded her, the stimulus he 
gave through his own need of intellectual sympathy in life's 
mental interests, and his influence that caused her yielding 
to the solicitations of friends — these did contribute much to- 
wards her being known beyond her home. For finely 
equipped as she was, she shrank from all initiative and from 
being to the slightest extent before the public. 

After her marriage, she lived in Raleigh, IsTorth Carolina, 
for some months, but as her husband soon became engaged in 
much practice in eastern North Carolina, they, within a 
year, began residence in Enfield, Halifax County, North 

1 Major E. J. Hale in Fayetteville Observer 1901. 

2 Captain S. A. Ashe of Raleigh, N. C. 


Carolina, which place was their home until the year 1882 
when they came with their five children^ to Raleigh. Here 
she lived until the death of her husband in July, 1901. Af- 
ter some intervening years spent partly with her sisters in 
Chapel Hill and partly in Raleigh, she and her daughter in 
1907 folloTved her two youngest sons to Birmingham, Ala- 
bama, where she resided until her death on ISTovember 28, 
1911. This brief statement, covering the period of her mar- 
ried life and another decade of thought and love and service 
can only suggest the real biography. Her intense delicate, 
sensitive nature knew no compromise in life's duties. There 
is not much more to say than that, as was said by one who 
loved her, "her large heart and large mind were given in 
large, unstinted service," this service given first in accord- 
ance with the heart's first dictates but shutting out none of 
the wide and universal sympathies. Mental and spir- 
itual activity was necessary for her — that activity that tends 
to development and benefit if not to absolute rest of mind 
and the happiness of the unquestioning. 

Literary, historical, patriotic interests played a part in her 
life. The I^orth Carolina Society of the Daughters of the 
Revolution, founded by her and made up even now of her 
personal friends, desires to pay a tribute to her and to trace 
at the same time the history of the society by showing some- 
thing of her work in connection with it during her long resi- 
dence in Raleigh and by pointing out her contributions to the 
history of the State and her efiicient patriotic interests. 

In 1894 — September 10th — she was asked by the ISTational 

iThe children of Fanny DeBerniere (Hooper) Whitaker and Spier Whitaker are: 
DeBerniere Whitaker, University of North Carolina, Engineer. Vice-President 

and General Manager Juragua Iron Company, Santiago de Cuba. 
Bessie Lewis Whitaker, A.M., University of North Carolina: Teacher. Present 

address, Bertram Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 
Percy duPonceau Whitaker, B.S., University of North Carolina. Advertising 

Counsel, Denver, Colorado. 
David Spier Whitaker, University of North Carolina. Merchandise Broker, 

Denver, Colorado. 
Vernon Edelen Whitaker, University of North Carolina. General Agent A. B. & 

A. R. R., Atlanta, Georgia. 


Society of tbe Daughters of the Revolution, through the Sec- 
retary of the ISTorth Carolina Society of the Sons of the Revo- 
lution, to consider the position of regent for the Society in 
the State of JSTorth Carolina, the reason for the request being 
based, said the Secretary, ■*■ on her "interest in such matters as 
well as ancestral and other qualifications." She became a 
member of the JN^ational Society of the Daughters of the Rev- 
olution December 18, 1894. She was appointed State Regent 
for jSTorth Carolina for a term extending from January 7, 
1895, to January 1, 1899. She was retained as Regent by 
the jSTorth Carolina Society until her resignation, formally 
tendered July 6, 1902. 

Her work in creating conditions for the establishment of 
a State Society began immediately after her appointment. 
Gradually, constantly, and persistently she interested her 
friends in the work and the objects and, on October 19, 1896, 
the anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis, she organized 
the JSTorth Carolina Society. Her work in effecting the 
organization was accomplished under difficulties ; for, even 
so recently, women were not as easily aroused as now to a 
sense of the importance of an opportunity for preserving 
family records and contributing to the cause of historical re- 
search and the inculcating of historical interests. Before 
beginning this work, she had made a careful study of the 
history and standards of the National patriotic societies and 
it was the strict and unvarying requirement of membership 
through lineal descent that determined her allegiance to this 
particular society. In January, 1897, the JSTorth Carolina 
Society of the Daughters of the Revolution adopted a pro- 
visional State Constitution and By-Laws, the objects as stated 
in this constitution being to ^'perpetuate the patriotic spirit 
of the men and women who achieved American independence ; 
to commemorate Revolutionary events — especially those con- 

iMr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood, Raleigh, N. C. 


nected with North Carolina ; to collect, publish and preserve 
the rolls, records and historic documents relating to that pe- 
riod ; to encourage the study of the country's history ; and 
to promote sentiments of friendship and common interests 
among the members of the Society." It was through the zeal 
and ability of Mrs. Whitaker as regent and the able coopera- 
tion of other women that the growth of the Society became 
assured and that its influence steadily widened. 

In the North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Regis- 
ter, October, 1900, Vol. 1, there is an outline by Mrs. Whita- 
ker of the activities of the society, in which she shows that 
it had labored steadily to promote the objects for which it 
was established as set forth in its constitution, in line with 
which, among other activities, a hall had been rented for busi- 
ness meetings where historical and other papers were read 
and these and other matters germane to the Society were dis- 
cussed and where were kept its nucleus of a library and a 
collection of relics ; a genealogical department established as 
an adjunct to the Society ; a gold medal offered to a pupil of 
the Raleigh Graded Schools for an essay on an assigned his- 
torical subject; steps taken towards marking hitherto neg- 
lected graves of soldiers of the Revolution in Wake County ; 
resolutions sent (in 1898) to United States Senators and 
Representatives from North Carolina (at request of the Ti- 
conderoga Historical Society, Ticonderoga, New York), ad- 
vocating the passage of a bill for the Government ownership 
and preservation of old Fort Ticonderoga ; an appeal made 
through a circular letter (May, 1898) to the House of Rep- 
resentatives in Washington for the appropriation of ten 
thousand dollars to carry into eifect two resolutions of the 
Continental Congress in 1778 and 1781 for the erection of 
monuments to Brigadier-General Francis Nash and William 
Lee Davidson of North Carolina ; a movement inaugurated 
May 4, 1898, when troops were being organized for the Span- 


ish War for the formation of a Soldiers' Aid Society, etc. 
The movement that has proved perhaps of most lasting bene- 
fit to the State is referred to as the "publication of TiiElSroRTH 
Caeolina Booklet, containing articles of great historic 
value, for the most part contributions from distinguished 
writers of the State." "This," she continues, "formerly un- 
der the able management of its first editors. Miss Martha 
Helen Hayveood and Mrs. Hubert Hayv^^ood, with the former 
of whom the idea of its publication originated — palmam qui 
meruit ferat — is now in the hands of Miss Mary Hilliard 
Hinton and Mrs. E. E. Moffitt." As late as May 12, 1912, 
Captain S. A. Ashe wrote of The Booklet thus: "I recall 
the origin of The Booklet. A noble oak has grown from 
the acorn. What an advantage it has been to the State ! How 
many subjects have been explored— how many historical inci- 
dents have been rescued from oblivion — what a medium it 
has been of thought — what a stimulus to writing for the pub- 
lic to read. Our jDoople before The Booklet began were not 
in the habit of writing for the public. N^ow many use the 
pen as if they had been brought up in JSTew England. I re- 
joice in the good it has brought our people." 

Mrs. Whitaker was the very heart of The Booklet enter- 
prise. It was she who gave it living force, she who seem- 
ingly not active in its publication was the vital spark that 
gave it action. 

As stated by Mrs. Whitaker in the outline in the Histori- 
cal Register, the direct object of The Booklet was to "begin 
a fund for the rearing of a monument to the first signers of 
an American Declaration of Independence — the patriotic 
ladies of the famous Edenton Tea Party of October 25, 
1774, whose declaration antedated by nearly two years that of 
the vestry of St. Paul's Church in the same town, by seven 
months that of Mecklenburg, and by a year and eight months 
the ISTational Declaration at Philadelphia." It was Mrs. 


Whitaker who proposed that the Society attempt to create a 
fund for the "purpose of commemorating the heroism of the 
women of the Revolution by erecting a memorial to the tocn 
much-ignored ladies of the historic Edenton Tea Party of 
1774." Correspondence retained by her attests the interest 
and response on the part of prominent men who cooperated 
with her and the Society in the work of securing historic 
testimony as to the occasion of the Edenton Tea Party. She 
also appealed directly to persons in England who had access 
to records there. Evidence of the incident alluded to — 
casually mentioned by Wheeler in his History of North 
Carolina — ^was secured in an authoritative record which had 
been published in the Morning Chronicle and London Ad- 
vertiser in England and she also obtained directly from Eng- 
land a list of the fifty-one ladies who signed the Edenton 
document, endorsing on October 25, 1774, the resolves of the 
provincial deputies who had held a Congress in ITew Bern, 
JSTorth Carolina, the preceding August. After some years 
the object proposed was accomplished by the Society through 
the publication of The JSTorth Carolina Booklet, referred 
to in the foregoing — the publication devoted to developing 
and preserving incidents in the history of the State which pre- 
viously had not received sufficient recognition and notice, the 
publication that achieved success through the work and skill 
of members of the Society who volunteered to take charge 
of it, and through the historical contributions of educators 
and historians of the State. The first issue appeared in 
May, 1901. On October 24, 1908, a bronze tablet was 
erected in the Capitol in Raleigh which bears this inscrip- 
tion : "Erected by the !N"orth Carolina Society of the Daugh- 
ters of the Revolution to the fifty-one ladies of Edenton who 
by their patriotism, zeal and early protest against British 
authority assisted our forefathers in the making of this Re- 
public and our Commonwealth." Considerable thought 


was given to the form of the memorial. There is this refer- 
ence to it in a letter from the writer of the present sketch, 
who is a member of the Society, to Mrs. Whitaker: "Your 
idea of the memorial that, instead of a shaft or statute or 
painting, it should have the educational form is an admirable 
one. You formulate ideas. Would that they could ma- 
terialize ! And I think they will, though a long time after 

Mrs. Whitaker was one of the charter members of the 
State Literary and Historical Association, organized in Ra- 
leigh October 23, 1900. She became a member of the Colo- 
nial Dames of America, May 27, 1897; in 1900 she was 
second vice-president of that society in North Carolina.^ 
On January 3, 1901, she organized the Raleigh local circle 
of Colonial Dames. She was a member of the recently or- 
ganized National Society known as the Descendants of the 
Signers. She evidently considered membership in the 
Huguenot Society of America— though we have obtained no 
record of the membership — as there is correspondence rela- 
tive to her eligibility through the lines DeBerniere and 
Crommelin. Although she did not actually and directly 
engage in work for the Daughters of the Revolution after 
the death of her husband in 1901, her influence and her name 
never ceased to be connected with it. Pier formal resigna- 
tion was tendered July 6, 1902. The record of the meeting 
of that date has the following statement in regard to it: 
"The resignation was received with profound regret and the 
Secretary requested to express the sentiments of the Society 
in the loss they sustain in her withdrawal. She has been 
Regent from the organization of the Society, and to her un- 
tiring zeal and labors the Society owes its existence today. ''^ 
After her removal to Birmingham she was made an honorary 

iSee North Carolina Colonial Dames Directory for 1900. 
iRaleigh News and Observer, July 6, 1902. 


life member of the Society. A clipping from the Raleigh 
paper, the date of which is missing, states that "Mrs. Spier 
Whitaker, founder of the Society of the Daughters of the 
Revolution in North Carolina, was elected Honorary Regent 
for life by a unanimous standing vote." 

Mrs. Whitaker's tenderest allegiance was always with the 
old Southern Confederacy. Her name was among the first 
on the roll of the Daughters of the Confederacy in Raleigh, 
for on April 14, 1896, she became a member of the Johnston 
Pettigrew Chapter of that Society. Her feeling for the cause 
may be found in her own expression, in reference to various 
organizations in which she was interested — "the Daughters 
of the Confederacy being by far the closest to my heart." 

In response to requests of compilers and editors she from 
time to time showed the facile pen and the work of the stu- 
dent and scholar. Her writing, unfortunately, must be sought 
where it was placed not on her own account but solely in the 
interest of some. cause or to record some life she knew. Her 
circular letter written to enlist the first interest in the forma- 
tion of the ISTorth Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion — prepared first upon the request for a contribution to 
the Monumental, or Ladies' Edition of the News and Ob- 
server on the occasion of the unveiling of the Confederate 
monument in Raleigh, May 20, 1895 — is still extant and is 
an appeal replete with fine distinctions, delicate touches, and 
fervid feeling. The purport may be seen in these words: 
"In our devotion to these unsuccessful, tear-crowned heroes 
ajid that Confederacy, unique and radiant, which is in eccen- 
tric orbit through stormy skies descending, blazed for a brief 
space among the constellations of the nations and went out in 
darkness, let us not forget those who participated in the trium- 
phant struggle of the Revolution, from whom our Southern 
Chivalry derived and inherited that splendid courage and 



heroism which have forever glorified both themselves and the 
cause for which thej fought." Traces of her pen may be 
found among various papers and circular letters issued by 
the Society from time to time. And we find preserved oc- 
casional newspaper and pamphlet articles from her pen, the 
titles of which being somewhat as follows: "ISTorth Carolina 
Society Daughters of the Revolution," March 25, 1901, in 
North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register. 
"Daughters of the Revolution," in Literary and Historical 
Activities, 1900-1905. "Just to the South" (Letter) in the 
Democrat, Clinton, ISTorth Carolina, June, 1905. "Xorth 
Carolina Descendants of Signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence," Raleigh News and Observer, July 3, 1907. "Wil- 
liam Hooper and His Descendants" (answer to communica- 
tion), ISTorfolk Virginian^Pilot, July 3, 1907, and AsJieville 
Gazette, August 14, 1907. "Colonel (or General) Thomas 
Clarke" — article not signed, Raleigh News and Observer, 
July 31, 1892. 

She was called upon to supply family book-plates for use in 
publications ; apparently the Hooper and Maclaine plates 
were included in some elaborate book on the public, semi-pub- 
lic, and private libraries of the Thirteen Colonies, compiled 
by James Terry in 1904. As a close student of family history, 
she was asked to contribute a number of biographical 
sketches of historical and genealogical interest, embodying 
fruits of her research for family data, to the Cyclopwdia of 
American Biographies (Lamb's Biographical Dictionary of 
the United States), edited by John Howard Brown, published 
by the James H. Lamb Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 
1901. These articles include as titles the names Archibald 
Maclaine Hooper, George DeBerniere Hooper, John DeBer- 
niere Hooper, Johnson J. Hooper, William Hooper, Clergy- 
man ; William Hooper, Signer Declaration of Independence ; 
William Hooper, Educator, Edward Jones, Johnston Blake- 


ley Jones, Abraham Rencher, Joseph Caldwell. The eleven 
sketches, not signed, and apparently not credited on any list 
of contributors, are acknowledged in part through a statement 
which appears in the published sketch of J. DeB. Hooper, as 
follows: "The data used in preparing the sketches of the 
Hooper family which appear in this work were furnished by 
Mrs. Spier Whitaker, a careful student of the annals of the 
family." The editor also acknowledges this extensive ma- 
terial relating to the Hooper family in a private letter of 
January 22, 1900, in which he speaks of her "invaluable as- 
sistance" in the matter of preparing the sketches, referring 
at the same time to the necessity for utmost conciseness and 
the final making of the sketches as nearly like those she sent 
as consistent with the scope of the Encyclopsedia. Private 
memoranda establish the fact that there was also personaly 
acknowledgment of the Jones, Rencher, and Caldwell 
sketches. For The ISTorth Carolhsta Booklet of July, 
1905, she contributed a valuable account of the life and times 
of William Hooper, the "Signer," vdth a genealogical ac- 
count of the Hooper family. She wrote by request for the 
Biographical History of North Carolina a life of Thomas 
Clark of the Revolution, which sketch, however, is still held 
by the editors, awaiting publication in one of the later vol- 
umes to be issued within the next few years. In an early 
volume of the same work, a part of her sketch of her husband. 
Spier Whitaker, is published. The full sketch and another 
separate account of the Whitaker family are still unpub- 

Obviously it has been difficult to locate some of her writ- 
ing. Probably some of her work is not to be found at all. 
Her object in writing was clearly not for personal recogni- 
tion; it may be understood from her owa remark in corre- 
spondence of 1894 with some editor or publisher, when she 
says "I hope I am not too late, being exceedingly anxious that 


the facts should he accurately stated." As some one has re- 
cently said, "It is characteristic of her that she should have 
last herself and her name and the credit due her in the work. 
She was so self-effacing — or rather so unaware — so uncon- 
scious of herself and her rarity." 

A robust constitution gradually weakened under the strain 
of disease too insidious to be recognized until its work had 
become advanced. Death was not expected until a few days 
before the end. The calamity to her family was felt as a dis- 
tinct shock by the many friends in her own State of Xorth 
Carolina, in Alabama, and elsewhere, for she was widely 
known and loved. The funeral was held from Christ [Epis- 
copal] Church, Raleigh, ISTorth Carolina, to which congrega- 
tion she had belonged. The interment was in Oakwood Cem- 
etery by the side of her husband. 

Hers was a rare mind, of many gifts and marked original- 
ity. A too highly sensitive nature, and, for many years, a 
slight lameness due to rheumatism, had made her for some 
time almost a recluse. But far from being self-centered, she 
was always appreciative of friends, always thoughtful of oth- 
ers, much occupied with correspondence, full of interest in 
all that went on about her in home and town, an accurate 
and comprehensive reader, an indefatigable student, and a 
close observer of current events. Her remarkable fund of 
information was evident both in her speech and writings and 
her quick perception, unusual memory, and originality made 
her delightful in conversation. Interested to the last days 
of her life, when she was well-acquainted with pain, in de- 
tails of home-making, full of broad, genuine sympathy and 
great charity — with a mind and heart occupied with great 
subjects and with great depths of affection — she was a 
womanly woman whose greatest weakness was an under- 
estimation of herself and an unwarranted reserve. Keenly 
interested in all intellectual movements and problems and 


strongly favoring the saner, quieter efforts of women to take 
part even in legislation and government, she herself, endowed 
as she was with beauty of person and beauty of mind and 
heart and soul, wished to live the simplest life of greatest re- 
tirement. As said by one who knew her for many years, 
''She was a noble woman, one of the best God sends to this 

The picture of Fanny Hooper as a girl of seventeen, still in 
possession of her children, is loveliness itself. The glimpses 
of her girlhood, as pictured in words by those who knew her 
then are not less beautiful. In this youth she married Spier 
Whitaker, the young soldier and law-student who proved his 
worth and nobility as she did hers. Her life was primarily 
given to the love and sacrifice and the work and the joys of 
wife and mother. Incidentally she contributed much 
thought and influence where it was of value in her time. 
Her friends as well as her five children "rise up and call her 
blessed" while mourning her loss and grieving that she was 
not spared longer for love and service and for the blessing of 
her presence for those who can not understand her going. 

iDr. Kemp P. Battle, University of North Carolina. 



Christmas at Buchoi, A North Carolina Rice Plantation 3-10 

By Rebecca Cameron. 

General William Lee Davidson 11-39 

By Major W. A. Graham. 

An Old Graveyard in the Historic Town of Hillsboro 40-44 

By Anna Alexander Cameron. 

Roanoke Island (poem) 45-46 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Presentation of Joel Lane Tablet to the City of Raleigh 47-56 

By Emily Benbury Haywood. 

Deed of Joel Lane for Site of City of Raleigh 57-59 

Rowan County Marriage Bonds 60-61 

By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins. 
Illustration: The Joel Lane Tablet. 

Sir Walter Raleigh 65-ll« 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
Abstract of Volume I of Battle's History of the University of 

North Carolina 117-124 

By Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

The Naming of Wake County (poem) 125 

By Dr. William Cameron. 

Captain James Iredell Waddell 126-142 

By Captain S. A. Ashe. 

Rowan County Marriage Bonds 143-146 

Illustration: Elizabeth Throckmorton — Lady Raleigh. 

New Year's Shooting, an Ancient German Custom 147-157 

By Major W. A. Graham. 

Early Times on the Cape Fear 152-174 

By Captain S. A. Ashe. 
Abstract of Volume II of Battle's History of the University 

of North Caroina, 1868-1912 175-191 

By Dr. K. P. Battle. 

Rowan County Marriage Bonds 192-195 

By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins. 

Memories of 1865-1871 197-213 

By Professor J. T. Alderman. 

Anson County 214-221 

By Mrs. J. G. Boylin. 

The Pflegerin 222-233 

By Adelaide L. Fries. 

Biographical Sketch of Mrs. Spier Whitaker 234-249 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Illustration: Mrs. Spier Whitaker.