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Vol. XIII JULY, 1913 No. 1
floHTH CflHOIilNfl BoOJ^IiET
^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her !
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.'^
THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION
The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication
will be dovoted to patriotic purposes. Editob.
ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
Mrs. Hubeet Haywood. De. Richaed Djxlaed.
Mes. E. E. Moffitt. De. Kemp P. Battle.
Me. R. D. W Connoe. Me. James Speunt.
De. D. H. Hii-l. Me. Marshall DeLancey Haywood.
Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark.
Me. W. J. Peele. Majoe W. A. Geaham.
Miss Adelaide L. Fries. De. Chaeles Lee Smith.
Miss Maetha Helen Haywood.
Miss Maey Hilliaed Hinton.
OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 1912-1914
Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON.
Miss DUNCAN CAMERON WINSTON.
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT.
Mrs. CLARENCE JOHNSON.
Mrs. PAUL H. LEE.
Mrs. frank SHERWOOD.
Miss SARAH W. ASHE.
custodian of relics:
Mrs. JOHN E. RAY.
Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent.
Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent.
Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter,
Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albeetson, Regent,
General Francis Nash Chapter .... Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent.
Founder of the North Caeolina Society and Regent 1896-1902:
Mes. spier WHITAKER.
Mes. D. H. HILL, Se.
Mes. THOMAS K. BRUNBR.
Mes. E. E. MOFFITT.
•Died December 12, 1904.
tDied November 25, 1911.
'the north CAROLINA BOOKLET
Vol. XIII JULY> ins No. I
CHRISTMAS AT BUCHOI, A NORTH CAROLINA
RICE PLANTATION *
BY EEBECCA CAMERON.
(Regent General Francis Nash Chapter Daughters of the Revolution.)
Mj grandfather lived on a rice plantation on the Cape
Fear River in the section known as "The ]^eck," a region
noted for open-handed hospitality^ wealth, refinement, and
culture. He owned a large number of negToes and was an
amiable, easy-going master, much more interested in litera-
ture than in rice planting, and preserving in his daily life
many of the habits of his English ancestors.
The Chr*istmas holidays on his plantation lasted from
Christmas Eve — always a half-holiday — until the Yule log
burnt in two after ISTew Year's Day. The first work done
in the jSTew Year was the selection by the negroes of the Yule
log, or, as they called it, the "Christmas back-log," for the
next Christmas fire.
The driverf marshaled a gang of the best axe hands, and
down they went into the swamp to select the biggest, knot-
tiest, most indestructible cypress tree that could be found,
which was felled with great ceremony, while the hands
chanted a part of the "Coonah" song:
Christmas comes but once a year.
Ho rang du rango!
Let everybody have a share.
Ho rang du rango!
When the tree was cut down the butt end of the stock was
measured the length of the hall fireplace "up to de gret
'Published in The Ladies' Home Journal, Christmas, 1891.
tOne of the negroes who was selected by the overseer as a superintendent of the work-
ing force or " field hands. "
4 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
house/' and cut or sawed off, then hauled down to the canal
and anchored, where it would get thoroughly water-logged
during the ensuing twelve months.
The object of this was to keep it from being burnt out too
soon, for as long as the Yule log burned the whole plantation
force had holiday.
A day or two before Christmas the back-log was hauled to
the house and given a bed in the sand, so that the surface
water could drain off. Christmas morning, the moment the
first misguided fowl "crowed for day," the back-log was car-
ried into the great holly-wreathed hall, the massive brass
andirons were dragged forward on the wide, ample hearth,
a bed of wet ashes was carefully prepared, and the huge log
laid on it ; and then an artistic fire of fragrant, resinous light-
wood and seasoned oak was built up against it, and the revels
The week before Christmas — ah ! what a deliciously busy
md expectant season it was.
The fanners* full of eggs that were carried into the store-
room, gave promise of endless puddings, pies, and cakes ;
while sundry tantalizing whiffs that were borne to us when-
ever we ranged near the door, and, who could keep away ? —
made us all long with childish eagerness to shorten the days.
Busy days they were indeed. Holly and mistletoe had to
be wreathed for the hall, dining room and ball room. Candle
papers were to be cut and dipped in melted spermaceti. Cake
papers of most elaborate desigTi, were to be originated by
aunt's artistic fingers. All the china, silver and glass had to
be washed and polished ; all the finest, oldest, oddest things in
the house replenishing were brought out to do honor to the
The linen closets were ransacked and dozens of the finest
* Fanners were large square split baskets, holding about two-and-a-half bushels, and
were for carrying rough rice from the fans to the mortars.
CHEISTMAS AT BUCHOI. 5
damask cloths and napkins sent down to the hall closets. Re-
lays of sheets, pillow-cases, blankets and counterpanes were
put into readiness for the impromptu beds that were going to
be made up wherever there was room for a man to stretch
Christmas eve came at last and found the house filled with
guests. We children were scrubbed within an inch of our
lives, so as to be clean for Christmas, mammy well knowing
the impossibility of getting one of us to consent to the daily
bath next morning. Then there was a great flitting abont to
hang up the stockings, and mammy must take notice just
whose stocking it was that hung at the foot of the bed, and
whose hung on either side of the fire-place, and on the bureau
knob; while mammy's own stocking, by universal consent,
was given the best place in the room, and hung on a chair
right before the fire-place. Then we were tucked into bed,
quite sure we would lie awake to see Santa Claus, but only
rousing when, at 4 :00 o'clock, the horn at the quarters blew
a long, clear blast, and we felt the door shake as the men
staggered through the hall passage with the great back-log.
By the time our stockings were emptied and examined,
grandpa, fully dressed, had come out of his room into the
hall, where the servants had set out all the materials for
making egg-nog on a gigantic scale. A fanner of fresh eggs,
great dishes of sugar, and the claret of liquors. When the
eggs were beaten to the required degree, viz. : until the yolks
were the color of rich cream and the whites adhered steadily
to the dish when it was turned upside down, the whole was
put together in the gigantic china punch-bowl, relic of an-
cestral feastings across seas in "ye olde countrie," I would
not dare to say how many eggs, or how much brandy and rum
went into the concoction of that bowl of egg-nog.
When it was pronounced right a waiter of glasses was
6 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
filled and handed 'round to the assembled company, and then
''the stand" — a great circular, claw-footed mahogany table —
was lifted out on the wide front piazza, the flaming sconces
were lighted, and the egg-nog bowl, surrounded by pyramids
of tumblers, placed upon it. The driver, lurking somewhere
in the shadows, began to beat a furious tatoo on the drimi,
and, as if by magic, all at once the house was surrounded by a
sea of torch-bearing negroes, all the hands from the quarters,
who had come over to wish "ole master" a happy Christmas,
and to receive from him a glass of egg-nog apiece.
My grandfather knew every one of his negroes, big and
little, by name, and his greeting was always personal to each.
They came up in couples, according to age and dignity, and
the unvarying formula was : "Sarvant Master ; merry Christ-
mas to you, an' all de fambly, sir!" "Thank you. Jack;
merry Christmas to you and yours!"
The "drinking Christmas" is at last ended; the negroes
returned to the quarters, and after breakfast reassembled
again to "git Christmas," as they phrased it. All the fam-
ily gathered on the front piazza, which was strung with hamp-
ers filled with all sorts of things for Christmas gifts. Grandpa
invariably gave money, fifty cents in silver, to the men, a
quarter to the women, and a shilling and sixpence, respect-
ively, to "the chaps" (half-grown boys) and little children,
who, in plantation parlance, were called "the trash gang."
The ladies distributed the contents of the hampers. Gloves,
comforters, Madras handkerchiefs, printed cotton handker-
chiefs, balls, tops, knives, pipes, shawls, aprons, cravats, caps,
hoods, all sorts of things that experience had taught their
owners the negroes most delighted in. Barrels of apples and
great waiters piled up high with gingerbread and cakes, were
divided out, until the last little bow-legged tot had been made
CHRISTMAS AT BUCHOI. 7
From the piazza in a straight line to the store-room filed
all the negro women who were wives, "to draw Christmas,"
which meant getting an extra allowance of meat, rice, molas-
ses, coffee, sugar, flour, dried fruit, and anything of the sort
they chose to ask for, to make their holiday feasting. The
week before there had been a great hog killing, so that fresh
pork would be in abundance for every cabin" at the quarters.
Then everywhere revelry had full swing. The gentlemen,
headed by "ole Master," went deer hunting, with a pack of
hounds and out-riders, returning to "a great dining dinner,"
a special phrase that seemed to heighten the magnitude of the
feast to the negroes.
The evening closed with a dance in the ball-room. Uncle
Eobin, dressed in my great-grandfather's regimentals, and
looking supremely absurd, was the head fiddler, and a re-
markably fine one, too. It was delightful to watch him as-
cend the musicians' stand, bowing with great ceremoniousness
to the friendly greetings of the neighborhood gentry, from
whom he was quite sure of a perfect shower of gold and
silver pieces in the pauses of the dance. "Big Ben" and
"Cousin Hannah's Ben," who played second and third fiddle
to the old autocrat, followed with due humility behind him,
quite certain of as many reproofs from him as they got quar-
ters from the young gentlemen. The banjo player was a
unique — a great, big, heavy, awkward-looking fellow, black
imtil he looked blue — and a typical negro ; the very last man
on the plantation that you would have suspected of having a
note of music in him, but just give him a banjo ! Dan tuned
languidly, with half-shut eyes, struck a note or two to test the
strings, and then — if you had one note of dancing blood in
your veins you belonged to him till he chose to stop.
All the negroes came over to the house "to look on," and it
would have been hard to tell which half of the company —
8 THE JSrORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
those indoors or out — had the merriest time. Somewhere
about midnight there was a general distribution of hot apple-
toddy and rum-punch, and after that came the Virginia reel,
and the ball was ended.
The second day after Christmas the John Coonahs* began
to make their appearance. Some time in the course of the
morning an ebony herald, breathless with excitement, would
project the announcement : ''De John Coonahs comin' !" and
away flew every pair of feet within nursery precincts.
There they come sure enough ! A long, grotesque jDroces-
sion, winding slowly over the hill from the quarters ; a dense
body of men (the women took no part in it, save as specta-
tors) dressed in the oddest, most fantastic garb, representing
birds and beasts and men, ragged and tattered, until "ragged
as a Coonah" was a common plantation simile ; with stripes
and tatters of all sorts of cloth, in which white and red flan-
nel had a conspicuous part, sewed all over their clothes in
tufts and fringes. "They were, indeed, a marvelous spectacle.
Rude imitations of animals' heads, with and without horns,
hid some faces ; pasteboard masks covered some, while
streaks and spots of red, white and yellow paint metamor-
phosed others, and immense beards of horse hair or Spanish
moss, were plentiful.
The leader — for there seemed to be some regiilar organi-
zation among them, thoug'h I could never piersuade any
negro to explain it to me — was the most fantastic figure
among them all. A gigantic pair of branching deer horns
decorated his head ; his arms, bare to the elbows, were hung
with bracelets thickly set with jingling bells and metal rings;
•I have been unable to discover the origin of the Coonahs and do not know in how
many of the Southern States they were known. My impression is that the custom waa
introduced into South Carolina by the slaves who accompanied Governor Sir John Yea-
mans from the Barbadoes, and from there were brought by his descendants into North
Carolina, when they resettled hie old colony on the Cape Fear River. They were con-
fined altogether to the low country or tide-water region. The Coonahs were an institu-
tion principally known on the South Carolina, Georgia and Florida coast, and in New
CHRISTMAS AT BUCHOI. 9
similar bells were fastened to the fringes of rags around his
The banjo, the bones, triangles, castanets, fifes, drums and
all manner of plantation musical instruments, accompanied
the procession. One of the Coonahs, generally a small and
very nimble man, dressed in woman's clothes, and though
dancing with frantic zeal, never violated the proprieties sup-
posed to be incumbent upon the wearer of skirts.
Once before the hall-door the leader snapped his whip with
a crack like a pistol-shot. Everything stood still for an in-
stant ; we dared not draw a breath and could hear the tumult-
uous beating of our hearts as we pressed close to mammy or
The awful stillness is broken by another resonant crack of
the whip, and at the instant the whole medley of instruments
began to play, and, with their first note, out into the open
sprang the dancers. Those weird, grotesque, even hideous
creatures embody the very ideal of joyous, harmonious move-
ment. Faster and faster rings out the wild, barbaric melody ;
faster and faster falls the beat of the flying feet, never miss-
ing the time by the space of a midget's breath. One after the
other of the dancers fall out of line, until only the woman and
the leader are left to exhibit their best steps and movements.
About this time one of the dancers, a hideous travesty of a
bear, snatches a hat off the head of the nearest pickaninny,
and begins to go around to the "white folks" to gather the
harvest of pennies with which every one is provided. All the
while the dance was in progress the musical voice of the
leader was chanting the Coonah song, the refrain of which
was taken up by hundreds of voices.
As the wild chant draws to a close out of the hall door run
a bevy of white children with laps and hats full of nuts,
raisins, apples, oranges, cakes and candy, and scatter the
10 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
whole among the crowd. Such a scramble as follows ! The
last fragment gathered up, all at once the leader cracks his
whip, and whirls around with his face from the house, and
the crowd marches to the next plantation.
Some time during the Christmas week the negroes had a
grand ball. There was a very large and comfortable servants'
hall attached to my grandfather's kitchen, and in it the ball
was held. It was made gay with holly and myrtle boughs,
myrtle-wax candles in the ball-room sconces lighted the
scene, aided by the immense silver branch candle-sticks, the
crowning glory of the great drawing-room. I^or seldom the
ball was opened by "young master hisself," who danced either
with his mammy, the driver's wife, or some newly-wedded
But, meanwhile, the Yule log has been slowly burning out.
Uncle Tony, coming to mend the fire, discovers that the log
is only two chunks now. When the family go to dinner he
will carry one chunk out, extinguish the fire upon it, and lay
it in the path between the house and the kitchen. The next
morning he will put it away in the corner of the woodhouse
to start the next year's Christmas fire. But while it lies in
the path it is a sign well understood. Over the plantation has
flown the news: "De back-log done burn in two, an' Cousin
Tony lay um out !"
The long merry festival has ended. The negToes will dance
and frolic all night long, and tomorrow, at daybreak, the over-
seer's horn will blow; each gang will muster under its head
man, and the plantation work begin.
GENEEAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 11
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON
An Address by Major W. A. Graham,* Delivered at the Unveiling
OF A Monument to General Davidson, Voted by Congress,
AT the Guilford Battleground, July 4, 1906.
Mr. President of the Guilford Battle Ground Company,
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Fourth of July celebrations are usually expected to be ac-
companied witb flights of eloquence and streams of oratory as
the deeds of our ancestors and the blessings they have secured
for mankind are brought to memory. Although a century and
a fourth have elapsed since he of whom I speak to you gave
his life as a part of the price of the independence of America,
yet so little history has been written concerning his services
that a simple memorial oration would be but little understood
or appreciated by my audience. In order to have true history
we must first collect the "ana" or account of the individual
incidents or deeds of the individual. These the annalist
arranges with reference to date of occurrence and then the
historian is ready for his work. Comparison of events and
individuals with panegyrics, etc., follow. Today I come not
with an oration, but with some "ana," some annals, some his-
tory concerning my subject, and hope I may furnish a paper
that will be useful to the writer and student of ISTorth Caro-
lina history. I fear that many of our people do not appre-
ciate the claims of the State to the glories and blessings of
the Fourth of July — hail its coming with joyful acclaim and
have a just pride in all that concerns it. The men of whom
you shall hear today rendered their services and gave their
lives to establish the Fourth of July as an important date in
the calendars of the nations of the earth.
* A biographical sketch of the writer of this article appeared in Vol. XI, No. 1.
12 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
Tten while we will never cease to honor the memory of the
men who followed Lee and his lieutenants in 18 61-' 6 5, let us
not forget the services of those who followed Washington and
Greene in 1776-'81, and the blessings they purchased for us.
In most of the States there are no localities to recall events
of the Revolution. The oldest inhabitant almost recollects
the first house or even when the Indians left. The military
monuments relate almost wholly to the Civil War. And as
the father tells his son of the hero commemorated, embellish-
ing with real or imaginary narration, he arouses and perpet-
uates sectional feeling and keeps alive in the youth animosity
for a portion of his countrymen. With us it is different:
this battlefield, Moore' Creek, Charlotte, and the other places
of revolutionary engagements, are object lessons in teaching
patriotism. From almost every hill-top in my vicinity we see
Kings Mountain; it aids in perpetuating the valor of our
ancestors and encouraging love for the Union.
During the Civil War, when the body of the heroic grand-
son was interred by that of the grandfather of Revolutionary
fame, pride was felt in his conduct and generations will be
taught to remember it — but there was and has been no lessen-
ing of the admiration and veneration of the deeds of the
grand-sire in making America a ISTation.
GEN. WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON.
Davidson's Creek, having its source a few miles north of
Mooresville, in Iredell (formerly Rowan) County, flows in a
southeast direction and empties into the Catawba River
below Seattle's Ford, in Mecklenburg County.
Among the families that settled upon the lands of the
upper portion of the creek prior to the Revolution were those
of Davidson, Ramsey, Brevard, Osborne, Winslow, Kerr,
Rankin, Templeton, Dickey, Brawley, Moore, and Emerson.
They came principally from Pennsylvania and Maryland.
GE.NEKAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 13
From the Davidsons the creek derived its name. They were
generally Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and as was the custom
of these people, organized themselves into a "congregation"
for the promotion of religion and education.
Among the early settlers was George Davidson and family,
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1750. His young-
est son, William Lee Davidson, was bom in 1746. He was
educated at Charlotte at the Academy, which afterwards be-
came successively Queen's Museum and Liberty Hall, but
probably attended the Centre Academy prior to coming to
Charlotte. There is some confusion as to his name — whether
'^Lee" is properly a portion of it. He appears upon the mus-
ter rolls under both names. In his will, which is recorded
in the office of the Clerk of the Superior Court in Salisbury,
he says: "I, William Lee Davidson," and signs it ''Wm. L.
Davidson." This settles the question.
His pension and land grant for services are to William
Davidson. He is not mentioned in the records as William
Lee until he becomes lieutenant-colonel, October 4, 1777. So
in historical matters he is both William and William Lee,
and can not be restricted to either name. I think Lee was
the maiden name of his mother, or some of her connection.
His eldest son was called George Lee. His youngest son,
bom several months after his death and named for him, was
called William Lee.
William Lee Davidson, after reaching his majority, made
his home prior to his marriage with his cousin. Major George
Davidson. He married Mary, the eldest child of John Bre-
vard, and settled on Davidson's Creek at what is now known
as the McPherson place, and owned afterwards by Hon.
Rufus Eeid. He also owned the land upon which Davidson
College is located. It was sold by his son, William Lee, to
the trustees of the college in 1835.
14 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
In 1783 the Legislature organized the county of Davidson
and named the county seat E^ashville, in honor of Generals
Davidson and l^ash. When Tennessee was conveyed to the
United States this ceased to be a part of JSTorth Carolina, as
did also Washington, Greene, Hawkins, Sullivan, and Sum-
ner counties. In 1822 the present county of Davidson was
formed, as the State desired to honor his name. In 1777 the
county of ISTash had been organized.
August 26, 1835, the Concord Presbytery resolved "that
the manual labor institution which we are about to build be
called Davidson College, as a tribute to the memory of that
distinguished and excellent man. General William Davidson,
who in the ardor of patriotism fearlessly contending for the
liberty of his country, fell (universally lamented) in the
battle of Cowan's Ford."
THE DAVIDSON MONUMENT.
September 20, 1781, Congress enacted the following reso-
"That the Governor and Council of the State of North Carolina be
directed to erect a monument at the expense of the United States, not
exceeding in value five hundred dollars, to the memory of the late
Brigadier-General Davidson, who commanded the militia of the dis-
trict of Salisbury, in the State of North Carolina, and was killed on
the first of February last, fighting gallantly for the defense of the
liberty and independence of these states."
This matter was revived in Congress at different times,
notably by Senator W. A. Graham in 1841 and 1842, and
attention was called to it at various times by the Society of
the Cincinnati and private individuals, among them Prof.
W. A. Withers, of the North Carolina A. and M. College,
and later by the Guilford Battle Ground Company, and an
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 15
appropriation urged to execute the resolution of 1781, but
not until 1902, through the labors of Hon. W. W. Kitchin,
the present worthy Representative from this the Fifth N^orth
Carolina District, in the House of Representatives of the
United States CongTess, was an appropriation secured. He
was materially aided in its enactment by the labors of Colonel
Bennehan Cameron, who represented the Society of the Cin-
cinnati, and Col. Joseph M. Morehead, the efficient presi-
dent of the Guilford Battle Ground Company, to whose
patriotic services much of the work of preserving and adorn-
ing this historic field is due. By means of this appropriation
of five thousand dollars, this monument has been erected.
General Davidson ivas a citizen of Rowan (now Iredell)
County, and his services are to he credited to that county, and
not to Mecklenburg, as is sometimes done.
In 18Jf.8, in his message to the Legislature, Governor Gra-
ham recommended an appropriation for monuments to Gen-
erals Nash and Davidson, as Congress had neglected to make
the necessary provision. In concluding he said:
"It would be a fitting memorial of the patriotic services and sacri-
fices of the illustrious dead and a perpetual incentive to the living to
lead such lives, and if duty demanded it, to devote themselves to
such deaths for their country."
SERVICES IN THE REVOLUTION.
The commencement of hostilities in the Revolution was not
similar to a riot or outbreak where one day there is order and
law, and the next strife and turmoil. The aspirations of the
people individually and collectively for liberty and self-
government were well fertilized by the oppressive conduct of
officers of the Crown and the unfriendly legislation of Par-
liament. The approach of the storm was visible and prepe-
rations were made for its coming. The flouring mills were
the points where neighbors met. As he communicated his
ideas of liberty to comrades he sowed seed in fertile groimd.
16 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
or watered that already germinating; tlie work continued
until the harvest was ripe. The first organizations were in
captain's ''beats," which were the unit of organization until
"townships" were introduced in 1868, then by regiment or
county, then Superior Court districts or brigade, afterwards
State or Province.
COMMITTEES OF SAFETY.
The first governing bodies were Committees of Safety, and
were organized in New Hanover, Mecklenburg, Rowan, and
perhaps other counties, as early as 1773. The county commit-
tees were generally composed of two representatives from
each captain's beat. The convention, May 20, 1775, at Char-
lotte, was probably the Committee of Safety for Mecklenburg
County. General Graham, in his address at Charlotte, May
20, 1835, says these committees continued for fifteen years or
Subsequent to -the Eevolution they usually met after the
election and framed instructions to Representatives in the
Legislature, that he received such instruction in 1789 and
1790 when Senator. That at that time (1835) there were
laws in existence that had been suggested by these commit-
tees. The journal of the Committee of Safety of Rowan
County is preserved as early as August 8, 1774, and shows
existence before that date.
William Davidson appears as a member September 23d,
and was probably one of the members at the organiza,tion. He
is appointed a member of a committee of twenty-five to see
that the resolves of the Provincial and Continental Con-
gresses are observed. This is the first appearance of his name
upon the records. At the same session he is appointed a
member of a committee to cite certain persons to appear be-
fore the Committee of Safety to answer the charge of advanc-
ing the price of powder.
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 17
August 1, 1775, formation of companies of "minute men"
is authorized, who shall be ready to respond immediately to
the call of the committee. At this session he is mentioned as
captain of militia and ordered to impress some ammunition
in the possession of John Work. During this month the Pro-
vincial Congress provided for the organization of the State
and he is named on the committee for Eowan County. The
State simply extended the captain's beat and county organi-
zation, retaining the name of Committee of Safety, except
for the State, which was called Provincial Council.
September 20th his militia company is reported as contain-
ing one hundred and eighteen men.
October 17, 1775, under the law of the Provincial Con-
gress, he is elected a member of the Committee of Safety for
the county of Rowan, the committee being now elected by the
freeholders and householders of the county.
i^Tovember 28th he reported a company of minute men as
organized and a committee is appointed to inspect the com-
pany and see that it is composed of "able, effective men."
In December, 1775, he served under General Rutherford
against the Schovilite tories in South Carolina in the "Snow
Campaign," probably with his company of minute men ; also
in the campaign against the Cherokee Indians in the fall of
1776. (State Records, Vol. XV, p. 113.)
THE NORTH CAROLINA LINE, OR CONTINENTALS.
In August, 1775, ITorth Carolina organized two regiments
to serve "during the war." In April, 1776, in compliance
with the act of Congress to furnish nine battalions "to serve
during the war," four more regiments were organized, which,
with the two formed the year before, six in all, constituted
the nine battalions.
18 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
William Davidson was commissioned Major of the Fourth
Eegiment April 15, 17Y6.
These troops were designated the "North Carolina Line or
Continentals," as distinguishing them from the militia, which
retained its former organization, and was called into service
by the State authorities for designated terms of service, gen-
erally three months. This distinction of troops was not ob-
served by all the States. Massachusetts and the other l^ew
England States succeeded in having Congress to recognize
nearly all their troops as Continentals, however short the
term of enlistment or call to service, and thus had a large
force recorded as Continentals who did not serve nearly as
long as many of the l^orth Carolina militia, and the IsTew
England States thus secured the appointment of a much
larger number of general officers in the Continental force
than they were justly entitled to, and obtained for their troops
the benefit of the acts of the Continental Congress. The
militia was under control of the State, the Continental, of
The frequent reduction of General Washington's forces to
inconveniently small numbers by the return home of many of
the troops of the Northern States whose short terms of enlist-
ment would expire, interfered much with its efficiency and
prevented action of importance to the American cause.
This New England Continental Army, except the officers,
was with difficulty kept embodied after Washington assumed
command during the siege of Boston, owing to short enlist-
ments, and soon melted away when the British evacuated the
city in March, 1776. Having had a short military service,
they returned home to enjoy the comforts of the fireside and
the appropriations of the Continental Congress.
In the campaign of 1776 the loss of the State of New
York and the retreat through New Jersey of Washington
with his depleted army is attributed to this cause.
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 19
Early in 177Y Congress, in order to remedy this evil,
ordered the North Carolina brigade to march to reenforce
the army of the commander-in-chief, and furnish him a force
that could be depended upon for permanent and efficient
These troops, under Colonel Martin, Generals Howe and
Moore, had "seen service" against the Schovilite tories in
South Carolina; under Major-General Lee in the repulse of
Clinton and Parker at Charleston, S. C, and against the
Loyalists of the Cape Fear section. General Moore had died
in April, 17Y7. General Howe was in command of the De-
partment of the South. Colonel IsTash was promoted to brig-
adier general and placed in command. The troops were in
Charleston as late as February, but before May had assem-
bled at Halifax and begun the march northward.
In May, 1777, Col. Alex. Martin, of the Second Regiment,
writes General Washington that he has reached Alexandria,
Va., with the advance of the brigade; that nine battalions,
with a total of forty-five hundred men, had left Halifax as
reinforcements to his army; that the men who had not had
smallpox would go into camp (at Georgetown) for inocula-
tion ; that Major Jethro Sumner would proceed immediately
with a command of all the immunes. A report of Major
Sumner's command, ten days later, shows only one hundred
and sixty men. This would indicate that 4,300 men went
into camp for inoculation. The number which died can not
be accurately stated. Governor Graham, in his address upon
the "Life and Character of General Greene," (December,
1860), states that "an extensive burial place is still recog-
nized in that place (Georgetown) as the sepulchre of the
l^orth Carolina troops who died there of the malady." This
was twenty years before the discovery of vaccination. The
disease was communicated by applying the virus from one
20 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
afflicted witli it to the jjatient, and he had a genuine case of
smallpox. Courage to endure the agonies of this camp was
greater than that to face the enemy in battle.
The troops reached Washington's army in June at Middle-
brook, ]^ew Jersey, and were organized by General l!^ash.
There is no report of the services of this brigade as a body
in the campaigns under General Washington. It is only from
references to service or parts of it by other officers that we
procure any information. Concerning its action in the battle
of Germantown in which the brigade was a part of the divis-
ion of Major-General Greene, Marshall and other historians
only state that General ISTash was killed. It is known that
Colonel Irwin and Captain Turner were killed. Colonel Bun-
combe was mortally wounded and taken prisoner, and Colonel
General Sullivan, of ISTew Hampshire, in his report to the
Governor of that State, says a North Carolina regiment,
under Colonel Armstrong, in conjunction with his own divi-
sion, had driven the enemy a mile and a half beyond Chew's
house, before the panic occurred. The ISTorth Carolina bri-
gade was acting as a unit, and it is possible that this was the
work of the entire command with Colonel Armstrong con-
spicuously in the van. Davidson is promoted this date to
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Fifth Regiment. Tradition says
for gallantry in the action.
The earliest report of the strength of the brigade on the
records of the United States War Department is November
11, 1777, and shows 139 officers and 1,025 men, total 1,156
present for duty.
After the battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777, the
Second and Third regiments were consolidated and were
called the Second. After the battle of Germantown the First
and Fourth were merged into the First. The Eighth Battal-
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 21
ion was disbanded, the men in it being transferred to the
Second Regiment. This would indicate severe loss in the
I^orth Carolina troops in these actions.
Davidson appears as Lieutenant-Colonel of the First in
1777 and 1780. In May, 1778, Congress ordered the con-
solidation of the l^orth Carolina troops into full battalions
and that the officers not needed to command these battalions
should return to ISTorth Carolina to command the four addi-
tional regiments to be furnished by the State. Moon's Creek,
near the Virginia line, in Caswell County, on the old plank
road, about midway between Danville, Va., and Yanceyville,
!N^. C, and Halifax were named as points of rendezvous for
the troops; and commissioners sent to these points to desig-
nate the officers of the respective commands. A church of
the Primitive Baptists, called by the name, now marks the
locality of Moon's Creek encampment. The whole to assem-
ble at Bladensburg, Maryland.
Lieutenant-Colonel Davidson assumed command of those
who met at Charlotte, being joined on the march by volun-
teers from other points. On reaching Moon's Creek news of
the battle of Monmouth was received ; that the British had
gone to 'New York and there was no urgent need of reinforce-
ments. Many of the men from western ISTorth Carolina took
furloughs until again called to service. There was consid-
erable dissatisfaction and some mutinous conduct on the part
of some of the officers and men as to payment of bounty and
fixing a definite time for service to commence. This was to
be after passing the State's border.
July 18th Colonel Thackston writes Colonel Hogan about
sending the paymaster at once to Colonel Davidson's relief,
concerning which he (Davidson) had written him. Colonel
Davidson assumed command of those who continued in serv-
ice and after these disagreements were settled, moved to
22 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Bladensburg to join the contingent that had assembled at
Halifax, and thence to Washington's army. They remained
with this army until November, 1779, when the N'orth Caro-
lina Continental Brigade was ordered to reinforce General
Lincoln at Charleston.
In May the Legislature had requested the brigade to be
sent south. Congress replied that this was impracticable in
the summer, but it would be done in the fall. The brigade
then numbered seven hundred and thirty-seven efficient men.
It arrived at Charleston in March. Colonel Davidson having
obtained, en route, a furlough to visit his family, did not
report at Charleston before it was encompassed by the enemy
and thus escaped capture at the surrender.
The muster rolls of the Continental Line show that the
field officers of a regiment each had a company, the captains
being omitted in organization of such companies. In Vol.
XIV of the State Records, page 294, there is the roll of
Lieutenant-Colonel W. L. Davidson's company on April 23,
1779. It contained, after leaving the smallpox camp, sixty-
two men ; nineteen of these had died, nine were in the hos-
pital, and thirty-two present for duty, a death rate of thirty-
one per cent., of dead and disabled and forty-seven per cent.
The brigade suffered severely in the service with General
It served in Pennsylvania, ]S[ew Jersey, and ISTew York,
going as far north as West Point (one of Davidson's men
died at West Point) ; fought in the battle of Monmouth and
shared in all the hardships of this memorable epoch of the
war in that section.
The State was to supply the clothing, the national govern-
ment the rations ; the officers to purchase both for themselves.
Both officers and men suffered severely, the arrearage of pay
causing the officers to see even ^^harder times" than the men.
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 23
as is shown bj coiTespondence with the State authorities. A
letter from General Lockton Mcintosh to Governor Caswell
from the camp at Valley Forge, states that no troops suffered
more in the intensely cold winter of l777-'78 than did those of
North Carolina in Washington's army.
In this service, although we see but little recorded mention
of Colonel Davidson, the esteem in which he was held by his
comrades and others familiar with military movements,
shows that he was among the most efficient officers of the
I have never seen a report subsequent to that of Colonel
Martin in 1777, that returns more than 2,000 men. Of the
4,500 men who left Halifax in May, 1777, and the reenforce-
ments sent in 1778, only 737 effective men returned to North
Carolina in December, 1779. The report for January, 1779,
shows present 1,339, of whom 448 are sick. The Third Regi-
ment reports 35 effective out of 464.
SERVICE IN NORTH CAROLINA MILITIA.
When Lord Rawdon, in May, 1780, began his advance to-
ward ISTorth Carolina, General Rutherford, who commanded
the militia of the Salisbury district, i. e., of Rowan, Meck-
lenburg, Lincoln, Rutherford, Burke, and the counties in
what is now Tennessee, called his forces into service — some
for three months, the usual length of a term of service, and
some for such time as actually needed.
Colonel Davidson reported to him at Charlotte for duty.
General Rutherford formed a battalion of light infantry (as
mounted infantry were then designated) of one hundred men,
and assigned him to this command. Principally by the aid
of General Graham's "Revolutionary Papers" we can con-
nectedly follow his service from this time until death.
24 the north carolina booklet,
When Lord Eawdon retired to Camden he went with Gen-
eral Eutherford to Eamsaur's Mill, where they arrived a few
hours after the conflict had terminated. From here he
marched with General Eutherford to suppress the Tory
leader Bryan in the "forks of the Yadkin." The forks of the
Yadkin, as mentioned in history of this time, was not the
territory between ISTorth and South Yadkin rivers, but that
between the creeks east of the Yadkin, mostly in what is now
Surry County. Bryan, whose force numbered eight hun-
dred, having learned of the battle of Eamsaur's Mill and
Eutherford's advance against him, hastily departed to unite
with Major McArthur on the Pee Dee. Colonel Davidson,
with his command, which, according to Major Blount's letter
to Governor ISTash, numbered 160 (Vol. XY, page 6, State
Eecords), being mounted, was dispatched down the west side
of the Yadkin to overtake him, but the start he had and the
celerity with which he moved, enabled Bryan to reach his
friends without molestation. Learning that a party of Tories
was at Colson's Mill (now probably Lowder's, in Stanly
County), near the junction of Eocky and Pee Dee rivers.
Colonel Davidson, on July 21st, undertook to surprise and
capture them, but his movements being discerned by the
enemy, only partially succeeded ; he killed three, wounded
four, and captured ten. He was severely wounded through
the loins, attention being probably called to him by his con-
spicuous uniform; two of his men were also wounded. He
was carried home, where he remained two months.
APPOINTED BRIGADIER GENERAL.
General Eutherford was wounded and captured at the bat-
tle of Camden, August 16th. Gen. H. W. HarringixDU, of the
Fayetteville district, was assigned temporarily to the com-
mand of the Salisbury district. General Sumner having been
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 25
assigned to the command of the militia service other than that
of the Salisbury district, had Colonel Davidson appointed to
command the "horse" of his command. On August 31st the
Legislature appointed Colonel Davidson Brigadier-General of
militia for the Salisbury district during General Ruther-
ford's absence, and Major William R. Davie colonel of the
cavalry. These appointments met with hearty approval in
the Salisbury district, but General Harrington, being offended
at the appointment of General Davidson, gave notice of his
resignation as brigadier-general of militia so soon as the con-
dition of affairs in his immediate command would admit,
and on I^ovember 3d tendered it to the Board of War. He
complained of being deprived of command of the first brigade
in the State, a deserved compliment to the Salisbury district.
General Harrington had been an efficient officer and per-
formed valuable services in the Fayetteville district. There
was considerable jealousy between the militia and Conti-
nental officers when thrown in the same command.
Upon the reception of his commission General Davidson,
having recovered from his wound, immediately repaired to
Charlotte and entered upon his duties. He still, however, re-
tained his commission as lieutenant-colonel in the Continental
line. The militia were assembling to oppose the advance of
Comwallis, the rendezvous was at McCalpin's Creek, seven
miles from Charlotte, on the Camden road.
When Ferguson moved into Rutherford and Burke coun-
ties General Davidson ordered a force of militia to assemble at
Sherrill's Ford to oppose him, the supposition being that Fer-
guson would cross the Catawba near the mountains and move
down the Yadkin in order to aid Cornwallis in crossing that
stream. Colonel Francis Locke, of Rowan, one of the most
gallant and useful officers of this time, commanded at Sher-
rill's Ford, and was to be reenforced by Colonel Williams
26 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
with the militia of Surry and other counties. Colonel Locke
had won the battle at Ramsaur's Mill, three months before,
when sent bj General Rutherford on similar service.
COKNWALLIS AT CHARLOTTE.
The Yadkin had been designated as the place of battle and
when Cornwallis advanced on the 25th of September General
Sumner, with his command, immediately moved, not stopping
until he had crossed at Trading Ford, near where the South-
ern Railroad now crosses. General Davidson took position at
Mallard Creek, eight miles from Charlotte, and committed to
Colonel Davie the opposition of Cornwallis' entrance to Char-
lotte and Davie in turn committed covering the retreat to
Adjutant Graham. There seems to have been no intention to
reenforce the parties engaged in the fight, but each command
was expected after engaging the enemy, to escape as best he
could. An account of the gallant fight at Charlotte and the
Cross Roads would too much enlarge my narrative and is well
told elsewhere. Cornwallis was awaiting news from FergTi-
son and did not advance beyond Charlotte. General Sumner
did not recross the Yadkin ; General Davidson kept his com-
mand at Phifer's, and by detachments annoyed the expedi-
tions sent from Charlotte into the adjacent country for pro-
visions and supplies, and kept Cornwallis in ignorance of the
movements of his allies. These forays extended entirely
around Charlotte and there were engagements almost daily,
the most noted being that at Mclntyre's farm, October 3d.
The reports of Cornwallis and his officers testify to the gal-
lantry of the troops and the patriotism of the Mecklenburg
people in these affairs. While the militia that were called
into ser^dce to oppose Ferguson were assembling at Sherrill's
Ford, Colonels Cleveland, McDowell, Sevier, Shelby, Hamp-
ton, Winston, of IN'orth Carolina, and Campbell, of Virginia,
GENERAL "WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 2Y
of their own accord, were assembling for the same object such
of their own men as would answer their call.
When they had assembled about 1,500 men near Gilberts-
town, Rutherford County, the question as to who was entitled
to command could not be satisfactorily adjusted, as they were
all colonels. On October 4th they sent Col. Joseph McDowell
to General Gates asking for an officer to be sent to command
the force. The following are extracts from this communica-
tion, viz. :
As we have at this time called out our militia without any orders
from the executives of our different States, and with the view of
expelling the enemy out of this part of the country, we think such a
body of men worthy of your attention and would request you to send
a general officer immediately to take the command of such troops as
may embody in this quarter. All our troops being militia and but
little acquainted with discipline, we could wish him to be a gentle-
man and be able to keep up a proper discipline without disgusting
It is the wish of such of us as are acquainted with Gen. Davidson
and Col. Morgan (if in service), that one of these gentlemen may be
appointed to this command. Benjamin Cleveland.
The ISTorth Carolina men belonged to General Davidson's
command, and it is highly probable that he would have been
In the meantime Colonel Campbell, having individually the
largest number of men, was given command, and on October
Yth the enemy was found and the battle of Kings Mountain
won before a commander was sent. Soon after this General
Smallwood, of Maryland, who had acted so gallantly at Cam-
den and had been appointed Major-General or commander of
the I^orth Carolina militia in service, arrived and assumed
command. General Sumner was affronted at the appoint-
28 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
ment and retired from service for a time, or until the arrival
of General Greene. We have at this time quite a chapter of
dissatisfaction on account of promotions. Harrington vs.
Davidson, Caswell and Sumner vs. Smallwood, and Small-
wood vs. Baron Stueben, if he should be placed over him.
The time for which the militia had been called in service
expired in J^ovember. General Gates had been relieved of
the command of the Southern army and his successor, General
Greene, had arrived at Charlotte December 3d. Early in
December General Davidson ordered into service another de-
tail of militia for three months. It seems to have been Gen-
eral Rutherford's plan to have had his regiments divided into
"details" to be called into service in succession, while in some
commands when a call to service was issued, first volunteers
were called for to fill it, and what was lacking in volunteers
was obtained by draft. One detail had been sent to Charles-
ton ; another had been called to meet the first advance of Corn-
wallis ; now a third is needed to be in readiness when he again
enters the State.
Davidson's plan of campaig-n.
Before the arrival and assumption of command of General
Greene, November 27th, General Davidson wrote a private
note to Col. Alex. Martin, suggesting a plan of campaign in
opposition to Cornwallis :
note to colonel martin.
Sib: — By this time you may be acquainted with the position the
army is to take for the present. In the meantime it appears to me
that the proper exertion of the militia of my district might greatly
injure if not totally ruin the British army. I have been deliberating
on this matter some time and submit my plan to your consideration,
and hope that you will endeavor to present it or something that will
be more eligible. My scheme is to send Gen. Morgan to the west-
ward with his light troops and riflemen; one thousand volunteer
militia, which I can raise in twenty days, and the refugees from
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 29
South Carolina and Georgia to join, which will make a formidable
body of desperadoes, the whole to be under Morgan's direction, and
proceed immediately to Ninety-Six and possess ourselves of the west-
ern parts of South Carolina, at the same time the main army to
move down to the wax haws, which will oblige the enemy to divide
(which will put them quite in our power), or vacate the present
posts and collect on one point, in which case we can command the
country, cut off their supplies and force them to retreat and fight
the militia in their own way. The messenger waits. I have neither
time nor room to make further observations. I think the scheme prac-
ticable and certain of success, unless the enemy be reenforced.
Favor me with your opinion on this matter, and believe me, dear sir,
Your very obedient and honorable servant,
N. B. — This comes to you in a private capacity. (State Records,
XIV, p. 759.)
As General Davidson's troops were all infantry, about Jan-
uary 1st he proposed to Adjt. Joseph Graham, who had
already served one term, or three months, although exempt
for three years on account of nine months' service in the Con-
tinental line, and who had just recovered from wounds re-
ceived at Charlotte September 26th, to enlist a body of cav-
alry, promising him such rank as the number enlisted would
entitle him to. In a few weeks he had fifty-five men, only
three of whom were married, embodied, and he was commis-
General Greene, in opposing Cornwallis' second advance
into iN'orth Carolina, disposed of his forces as follows : Gen-
eral Huger with the Continentals at Cheraw, S. C, on the
east; General Morgan with Howard and Col. William Wash-
ington's cavalry and some ISTorth Carolina militia under
Col. Joseph McDowell, near Broad river, on the west ; for a
central force, connecting these and prepared to act with
either as occasion might require, he relied upon the militia of
Rowan and Mecklenburg, under General Davidson. The
militia of these counties from the formation of committees of
30 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
safety until the close of the war, while answering in full pro-
portion all calls for troops for the line or militia service
beyond the State, seem to have regarded themselves as always
ready to answer calls to service in their own locality, claiming
no exemptions to which any might be entitled on account of
any previous service. They only asked that the call should
be for fighting and not for ordinary camp duty; as soon as
the fight was over they returned home, with or without leave.
The history of the Revolution shows no history of greater
valor and patriotism.
At the battle of Cowpens, January, 1781, General Morgan
defeated Tarleton, and by death, wounds, and capture de-
prived Cornwallis of the service of one-fifth of the most val-
uable of his regular troops. Cornwallis, in his forward move-
ment, would have to cross the Catawba; arrangements were
made to annoy and injure him while so doing, and this duty
was assigned to General Davidson and his l^orth Carolina
militia. General Greene seems to have had no intention of a
battle with Cornwallis ; he ordered General Huger, who com-
manded the Continentals at Cheraw, to retreat to Guilford
Court House, which he himself proceeded to do, and when he
joined him there continued his journey across the Dan.
General Davidson made his arrangements at the respective
fords on the Catawba River ; pickets of cavalry were placed at
Tuckaseege, Toole's and Cowan's fords. Col. John Williams,
of Surry, with two hundred men at Tuckaseege ; Captain
Potts, of Mecklenburg, at Toole's, with seventy; Lieutenant
Thomas Davidson, of Mecklenburg, at Cowan's, with twenty-
five. It was supposed that the crossing would be at Beattie's
Ford, the best crossing on the river, and on the main line of
travel in passing through this section. Here were assembled
the Orange County militia, imder Colonel Farmer, and the
Mecklenburg under Col. Thomas Polk, and some of the Rowan
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 31
men. General Davidson made his headquarters at this point.
General Greene having notified him that he desired to see
General Morgan and Colonel Washington at Seattle's Ford,
dispatched his brother-in-law, Ephraim Davidson, then only
a lad, to notify them. On January 31st all parties had arrived
at the appointed place within ten minutes. After an inter-
view of half an hour they separated. The enemy appeared on
the opposite bank during the conference. In The North
Carolina Booklet for April, 1906, is a detailed account of
the battle of Cowan's Ford, hence I omit particulars of it.
General Davidson, by the aid of Graham's cavalry, who fre-
quently crossed the river, kept well posted as to the position
of the enemy. General Greene suggested that the appear-
ance at Beattie's Ford was probably a ruse and that Corn-
wallis would pass Tarleton over the river during the night at
some private ford and attack Davidson in the rear at the point
selected for crossing. Patrols were ordered up and down the
river between the fords, to be kept moving all night. General
Davidson, after Greene's departure, remarked to Captain
Graham that "this was General Greene's first view of the
Catawba, but he seemed to know as much about it as those
who were reared on it."
General Davidson had probably learned through friends
that Cowan's had been selected as the point of crossing, and
moved Colonel Polk's force and Graham's cavalry to this
point, where they arrived after dark and spent the night near
by. Information received led them to think that the horse
ford would be chosen as the route for the crossing. This in-
formation was probably gained from persons who had heard
the inquiries of the officers as to the fords. The horse ford
was much the best bottom and shallower water, while the
wagon ford was not half the length. The horse ford reaches
the bank a quarter of a mile below the wagon ford.
32 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
GENERAL DAVIDSON KILLED.
General O'Hara, supported by Tarleton, had been chosen
as the force to cross at Cowan's. The British entered the
water, O'Hara's infantry in front with poles to steady them-
selves against the swift current, Tarleton's cavalry following.
About the time O'Hara moved Webster had his men to go
into the river at Beattie's Ford and fire their guns, also
opened with his artillery, made a feint as if he were going to
cross in order to detract attention from Cowan's. As soon as
Lieutenant Davidson's pickets discovered the enemy they
opened fire. They were reenforced by Graham's men, dis-
mounted, who joined in the firing. General Davidson, hear-
ing the firing, repaired immediately to Colonel Polk's com-
mand and ordered them to move up to the wagon ford. He
directed Captain Graham to give place to Polk's men and to
mount his men, form on the ridge in the rear and be prepared
to meet any attack, as General Greene had suggested. The
enemy reached the bank before many of Polk's men got into
position, and securing the crossing, immediately loaded and
advancing up the bank began firing. General Davidson or-
dered a retreat for one hundred yards down the river. The
firing became so heavy that his command fell back fifty yards
farther. He ordered his men to take shelter behind the trees
and renew the battle. The enemy were advancing in line,
firing slowly, when General Davidson was shot, being in-
stantly killed. The infantry immediately dispersed, going
through the bushes to avoid the enemy's cavalry. Captain
Graham brought off his command in order.
General Davidson was shot through the left breast by a
small rifle ball. As the British carried muskets this is sup-
posed to have been done by a Tory, who acted as pilot to
the enemy in crossing the river. The enemy did not discover
General Davidson's body. They buried the three other
GENERAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 33
Americans who were killed at the river, and all of their dead,
including Major Hall. He fell down the river from the ford
and thej moved up the river on leaving. General Davidson's
horse, after he fell, went to the house of Maj. John David-
son, where Jos. G. Davidson now lives, near Toole's Ford.
Maj. David Wilson, who was with General Davidson when
he fell, assisted by his pastor, Rev. Mr. McCaul, and Richard
Harry, took the body to the residence of Samuel Wilson,
where it was prepared for burial and that night interred at
Hopewell church, some three miles away, by torchlight, as
the night was very dark. It is stated by some writers that
the body, before recovery, had been stripped of its clothing,
but this is very improbable. His sword was recovered and is
now preserved at Davidson College. If the clothing had been
taken, the sword would not have been left. His gTave is still
known, although unmarked by memorial stone. Mrs. David-
son was informed of the General's death at her home some
eight or ten miles away, and her neighbor, George Temple-
ton, whose descendants still live in the community near
Mooresville, accompanied her to the burial.
Thus at the age of thirty-four years fell one of the most
useful men that jSTorth Carolina furnished in the struggle for
independence, after more than six years service in various
positions, in each of which he met the demands of the occa-
Light Horse Harry Lee says of him in his "Memoirs" :
"The loss of Brigadier Davidson would have been always felt
in any stage of the war. It was particularly detrimental in its
effects at this period, as he was the chief instrument relied upon
by Greene for the assembly of the militia, an event all important at
this crisis and anxiously desired by the American general. The
ball passed through his breast and he instantly fell dead. This
promising soldier was thus lost to his country in the meridian of
life and at a moment when his services would have been highly
beneficial to her. He was a man of popular manners, pleasing ad-
34 THE NORTH CABOLHSTA BOOKLET.
dress, active and indefatigable; devoted to the profession of arms
and to the great cause for which he fought. His future usefulness
may be inferred from his former conduct. The Congress of the
United States in gratitude for his services and in commemoration of
their sense of his worth, passed suitable resolutions."
He made his will December, 1780, appointing his father-
in-law, John Brevard, his brother-in-law, Wm. Sharp©, and
John Dickej executors. Only Dickey and Sharpe acted, and
in 1783 presented a memorial to the Legislature of the State
for settlement of amount due for his services. This was
ordered paid. The matter is again referred to in the session
of 1790, November 29th, and of 1792. H. J. December 5th.
When he was appointed brigadier-general of the militia, he
still retained his j)osition in the "line" as General Rutherford
would when exchanged, assume the command of the militia.
In December, 1780, Greneral Sumner was ordered by Con-
gress to report the supernumerary officers of the Continental
line who were unnecessary on account of the reduced number
of the force, and could be dropped. General Sumner, in
making his report, January 27, 1781, to General Greene,
regrets that the country is to lose the valuable services of these
officers. He includes General Davidson in the list, as he
states, at his request. (State Records, Vol. XV, p. 501.)
On December 31, 1780, his connection with the ISTorth
Carolina Continentals ended, but the dropped officers, or
their widows, were to receive half-pay until seven years after
the close of the war. (101, Vol. XV.)
DAVIDSON^S BRIGADE AFTER HIS DEATH.
As this paper is intended to be historical, a short notice of
General Davidson's Brigade after his death is annexed. A
full account of this is given in General Graham's Revolution-
ary Papers. They did not conclude that as the enemy had
left their borders they would return home and leave him to
GENEEAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 35
the attention of those whom he might next visit, but being
unable to stop his advance, formed to annoy his rear and
serve as best they could wherever needed until their term of
service expired. They assembled at Harris' Mill, on Rocky
River, the next day and started in pursuit of the enemy. On
the 11th of February at Shallow Ford they requested General
Andrew Pickens, of South Carolina, to assume command, as
there was no general officer of this State present, and Major
James Jackson, of Georgia, afterwards Governor of that
State, was appointed brigade major, or as we say now, adju-
tant-general. There were seven hundred of Davidson's men
and some thirty or forty refugees from South Carolina and
Georgia. General Pickens continued in command until the
expiration of the three months' term of his men, early in
March, and just before the battle of Guilford Court House.
General Pickens, being from South Carolina, has caused
historians to credit these troops to that State. General Pick-
ens was a brave and efficient commander and his association
with the ITorth Carolina troops entirely pleasant, but the
troops were N^orth Carolinians and their service should be
credited to the State. On February 18th preparations for
battle were made upon the alarm of "Tarleton is coming." It
proved to be Light Horse Harry Lee, with his legion, whose
uniform — dark green — ^was the same as that of Tarleton.
This was the first intelligence that General Greene had of the
whereabouts of Davidson's command or that Pickens had that
Greene had recrossed the Dan. The brigade then served with
General Greene until the term of service expired early in
March, participating in the engagement at Clapps, Whitsell
or Hart's Mills, Pyle's massacre and other points. Some of
them remained longer but the last departed for home
36 . THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
A query, concerning which the students of history can em-
ploy themselves is : whether the seven hundred men of David-
son's brigade, nearly all of whom had seen service in two or
three campaigns, would not have been more valuable in the
battle of Guilford Court House than those of the raw troops
of Butler and Eaton ; and if it was not a mistake in General
Greene to defer battle awaiting the arrival of the latter until
Pickens (or Davidson's) men had been disbanded.
PAPERS RELATING TO GENERAL DAVIDSON'S SERVICES.
ROLL OF W. L. DAVIDSON'S COMPANY.
Pension Office. Book entitled "North Carolina Miscellaneous
Rolls." Not paged.
Roll of Lieutenant Col. Davidson's Company on the 23d of April,
1779: (Copied from Orderly Book of Sergeant Isaac Rowel.)
First Lieutenant — Edward Yarborough.
Second Lieutenant — Reuben Wilkerson.
Sergeant — Isaac Rowel, John Horton, John Godwin.
Corporal — Jesse Baggett, Dempsy Johnson, James Thorp.
Privates — Adam Brevard, Samuel Boyd, James Boyd, Uriah Bass,
Bird, Cornett, Timothy Morgan, Joseph Furtrell, Wm. Grant, Daniel
Parker, Council Bass, Pifer, Barney Johnson, Richard Sumner,
Sothey Manly, Booth Newton, Pioneer, Wm. Scott, Pioneer, Lemon
Land, Waiter, Hardy Short, John Norwood, Joshua Reams, Buckner
Floyd, Wm. Hatchcock, Solomon Deberry, Thomas Wiggins, Wm.
Wilkinson, John Wilson, David Journekin, Samuel Davis.
Left at Hospital — Barnaby Murrel, Drummer, Wm. Moore, Charles
Gibson, James Robards, Sterling Scott, Waiter, Hardy Portiss, Wm.
Smith, Isham Jones, Lithro Lane, left at Trenton, Joshua Lewis,
Robert Monger, Wm. Gray, Jos. Ward, Isaac Gunns, Chas. Thompson,
John Carter, and James Goodson, died at New Windsor Hospital,
Maryland; John Feasley, died at West Point; Henry Short and Caleb
Woodard, at Robertson's Hospital and Matthew Murrel, Andrew
Rowell, Peter Valentine, Josiah Measley, Benj. Brittle, John Clark,
John Batliss and John Floyd, at Philadelphia Hospital. (State Rec,
XIV, page 294.)
GENEKAL WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 37
davidson's commission as bkigadiee geneeal.
State of North Carolina.
In the House of Commons, 31st August, 1780.
Mb. Speaker and Gentlemen:
Whereas from the late captivation of General Rutherford by the
enemy in South Carolina the militia of Salisbury district is in a
manner left destitute of a general officer to command them; therefore
Resolved, That William Lee Davidson be appointed Brigadier
General of the militia for said district until the return of General
Rutherford from captivity. Thomas Benbury,
In the Senate 31st August, 1780, concurred vrith.
council of yfASi.
At a Council of War held at the camp at New Providence, in the
State of North Carolina, the 25th of November, 1780, consisting of
the Commander-in-Chief, Major-General Smallwood, Brigadier-Gen-
eral Huger, Brigadier-General Morgan, Brigadier-General Davidson,
Colonel Kosciusko, Chief Engineer, Colonel Buford, Lieutenant-
Colonel Howard, Lieutenant-Colonel Washington.
The Council being assembled the Commander-in-Chief acquaints
them that: The want of provisions and forage in the camp, the
advanced season of the year, the almost total failure of the herbage,
the entire want of a magazine of salt meat and the uncertainty of
providing it, the increasing sickness and the unwholesome situation
of the camp, the want of any proper accommodation of the sick, the
want of hospital stores and proper comforts necessary for sick and
diseased soldiers, the probability of reinforcement being sent from
the enemy at New York, the invasion of Virginia, and the apparent
prospect of Sir Henry Clinton's supporting that invasion and com-
manding a cooperation with Cornwallis, the State and strength of
the army compared with that of the enemy, and the expediency of
reinforcement coming to our army are the motives which induced
him to assemble this Council of War and request their opinion of
the movement and the position that the army ought to take in the
The Council having fully deliberated upon the matter before them
and the question being put of what position the troops ought to
take, whether at or near Charlotte or at the Waxhaws or in the
neighborhood, the junior member, Lieutenant Col. Washington, gave
it as his opinion that at or near Charlotte should be the present
38 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
position of the army to which every other member of the Council con-
sented but Gen. Smallwood, who was for the army's moving to the
Waxhaws, taking post there for three weeks, and then returning to
(Signed:) H. Walter Gates.
■ Wm. Davidson.
("Thadeus of Warsaw.")
J. E. Howard.
— . — . Clovis, Richmond, Sec'y. to Gen. Gates.
Camp Colo., Phifeb's, October 6, 1780.
To Gen. Gates:
The enemy is still confined to Charlotte. The small rifle com-
panies I have kept hanging upon their lines have been of service in
checking their foraging parties. They are probably 1,800 strong,
including those Loyalists they have received recruited in the South-
ward. Besides these they have some ununiformed tories who follow
the fortunes of the army; rather a dead weight than a benefit.
A Col. Ferguson, in the British service, has by a variety of means
been pernicious to our interests in the west of both the Carolinas.
There has such a force taken the field against him as will probably
rid us of such a troublesome neighbor. As the main strength of the
British in the Southern States seems collected in Charlotte I have
adopted every measure in my power to annoy them.
October 8th, 1780.
To Gen. Sumner:
I have the pleasure to enclose you a large packet of dispatches
taken yesterday at McCalpin's creek on the way to Camden by a
small party of my brigade. A detachment of 120 horses under Rut-
ledge and Dixon almost surrounded Charlotte yesterday, attacked a
pickquet at Col. Polk's mill and at a certain Mr. Elliott's brought a
sentry of eight Tories who are now on their way to you. A small
party of riflemen brought off fifty horses from the Tories at Col.
Polk's plantation last night. Dixon lost one man killed.
I have the honor to be, etc., etc., Wm. Davidson.
(Vol. XIV, p. 644.)
GENEEAL, WILLIAM LEE DAVIDSON. 39
Camp Rocky Rivee, Oct. 10, 1780.
Sir: — I have two detachments of Cavalry and Infantry, each on
the enemy's line. A considerable quantity of powder was secured
some time ago within four miles of Charlotte, which I knew noth-
ing of until Sunday evening. 13 cags were brought off that night,
and the remainder sixteen have this moment arrived safe, which I
will forward immediately. Pray let me know if his Lordship's
figures have been deciphered yet. I find he is determined to sur-
prise me and I am as determined to disappoint him. Inclosed you
have a draft of the enemy's lines which was sent to me by Col.
P k, whilst a prisoner. I believe it may be depended on. Col.
Davie is very poorly. I am etc., etc.,
N. B. — Gen. Graham in an address at Charlotte, May 20, 1835, says
this powder had been moved from Camden to Charlotte in the fall
of 1779, and was guarded by the students of the Academy; that when
there was expectation of the enemy advancing several of the signers
of the Mecklenburg Declaration on a day agreed upon came with
sacks in which they filled the powder and conveyed it to places of
safety, they appeared like boys going to mill. It was concealed in
separate places — afterwards afforded a reasonable supply — not much
was damaged and the enemy got none. (N. C. Booklet, January,
Tuesday evening a small party of my infantry fell in with two
wagons on their way from Camden within two miles of Charlotte.
They killed two men, took and brought off the wagons, horses and
portmanteaus with officers' baggage. (Page 786.)
October 11, 1780.
To Gen. Sumner:
Nothing new from Charlotte. Had we more men we could make
their forage cost them dear. The appearance of 50 men yesterday
caused 400 to return without a handful. Inform Gov. Nash.
40 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
AN OLD GRAVEYARD IN THE HISTORIC TOWN
BY ANNA ALEXANDEE CAMEEON.
A very old graveyard it is, for here the earliest settlers of
this ancient borough found their graves, and here the first
church erected in this part of the State was built — an Epis-
copal church, whose rector was "Parson Micklejohn."
After the Eevolutionary War the church fell into disuse,
having no minister in charge, and so went to decay, nor was
another Episcopal congregation gathered together again under
a minister until 18 — , when the Rev. William Mercer Green,
now the venerable Bishop of Mississippi, was called to the
pastorate of St. Matthew's, the present church, which was
built on land deeded to the congregation by Chief Justice
On the site of the old church stands now the one in which
the Presbyterian congregation worships. The graveyard hav-
ing been used for many years as the public burying ground is
so thickly peopled with the dead that the town authorities
have forbidden further interments except in private squares,
a prohibition rendered necessary by the frequent invasion of
old graves. And all the terrible secrets that those old graves
sometimes revealed. One day, not many years ago, the sun-
shine fell soft and golden into one of them where rested an
old, old coffin, in which face downwards, lay the skeleton of a
woman. The poor, pathetic bones were in such a position that
no doubt could remain that the unfortunate creature had been
buried alive and had struggled wildly to escape the horrible
imprisonment, which meant a still more horrible death.
In the northwest corner of the churchyard in a small
square overgrown with brambles and creeping vines, is a
OLD GRAVEYAED IN HILLSBORO. 41
gray, weather-stained tombstone on which the inscription is
almost effaced, yet enough remains to tell that "Here sleeps
William Hooper, signer of the Declaration of Independence,"
etc. One of that band of resolute patriots who wrote their
names none the less firmly and boldly because thereby they
were risking all but honor and the liberty they held so dear.
Across the graveyard towards the east, amongst waifs and
strays, rests a bit of the world's strange driftwood. A
French captain lies here, a gentleman of courage, honor and
refinement. He was one of Caroline Murat's body guard,
and after the downfall of the JSTapoleonic dynasty he left
Naples and went to Spain. Subsequently, becoming engaged
in a revolution on the island of Malta, he was banished and
fled to 'New York. From thence he drifted here as a music
teacher in a large female school. After holding this position
for a number of years he became private tutor in the family
of a wealthy gentleman of the place, and it was while thus
employed that he began to lose his sight. Although treated
with the most generous kindness and consideration and offered
a home and every comfort for his declining years, his pride
could not brook the thought of blindness, helplessness and de-
pendence, and so he made choice of what he thought by far the
most honorable alternative by ending his life.
Long ago, when the inhabitants were few, there came to the
village a peddler, and he put up at a tavern kept by an old
man and his wife. Anon the peddler disappeared. "Gone
on," mine host said, "to other pastures green." There was
just a suggestion of something mysterious about the sudden
departure, for no one had seen him go. Still, nobody made
it his business to inquire closely, and in time men forgot or
ceased to speculate about it.
The old people passed away. The man, in a gloomy and
morose old age, hung himself in his barn, and the wife disap-
42 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
p^ared, none knew whither. Years afterwards, in digging a
grave in the churchyard, the grave diggers came to something
that seemed more like a box than a coffin, and on unearthing
it it proved to be a chest, inside of which was the skeleton of
a man whose skull had been fractured. Amongst some of the
"old people" were those who, on seeing the chest recognized
it as a very peculiar one that used to stand in the passage up
stairs at the tavern and which could not be found when the
fixtures of the tavern had been sold. Here, then, had come to
light the unfortunate peddler and the crime committed so
Within a few feet of the door of the Presbyterian church
has lain in his grave for more than half a century one of the
most remarkable men that l^orth Carolina has ever produced,
Archibald Debow Murphey. At the bar, on the bench, in the
Assembly halls, his gTeat intellect, deep culture, expanded
views, perfect courtesy and dignity commanded the profound
admiration and respect of his compeers. His far-reaching
mind and keen foresight grasped and would have developed
schemes for the internal improvement of his State, which,
with the slow march of other minds of less impulsive genius,
were yet fifty years adown the future. Deep was his learn-
ing, wide his range of thought, keen and incisive his intellect,
and while others gradually developed an idea or plan, Minerva
like, it sprang to life, perfect and complete in his superb mind.
Far down the coming years swept his impetuous thoughts, out
of range of those slower moving ones that could not keep step
with the strides of his genius. Today the things he planned
and argued as possible and of immense value to the develop-
ment and internal improvement of the State, are realities.
Then they were regarded as the wild dreams of a visionary.
Judge Murphey was at least half a century in advance of his
generation. At the time of his death he was engaged in pre-
paring a history of N^orth Carolina, and it is a source of deep
OLD GEAVEYAED IN HILLSBORO. 43
regret and irreparable loss to the State that the rich store of
material he had collected was entirely lost.
Towering above all else that siu-rounds it, stately, clear cut,
and stainless as the character of the sleeper beneath it, rises
the shaft on which is carved the name of William A. Gra-
ham, and beneath which sleeps until the resurrection morn
all that was mortal of one of ISTorth Carolina's noblest, most
gifted and distinguished sons. A gTeat statesman, and an
able jurist, a Christian gentleman, a man who went up stead-
ily by merit to the highest position in his native State, and to
one of the highest in the ISTational Government, and who
retired from public life at eventide as he had entered it in
the dawn of his brilliant young manhood ''sans peur et sans
I see him yet, the tall, stately form erect and elegant, the
fine intellectual face so scholarly and refined! A close stu-
dent, a dee J) thinker, wise in statecraft, just in his conclusions,
fearless in his advocacy of the right and faithful in his dis-
charge of a trust. Fair as a Doric column stands the life, pub-
lic and private, of this noble son of a grand old common-
Limited space forbids an extended notice of many other
sleepers here worthy of most honorable mention. Frederick
JSTash, a distinguished Chief Justice of the State of North
Carolina, a man whose fine intellect, deep culture and impar-
tial discharge of the high duties of his office added yet further
lustre to an honored name ; the Rev. John Witherspoon, an
able and popular divine, founder and first pastor of the Pres-
byterian church here ; Judge ISTorwood and his son, the late
venerable John W. Norwood, who has within the past few
months gone to his rest after a long, honorable and useful life.
Dr. James Webb, many years ago well known throughout a
large section of the State as a physician of great merit and
high character, and who was held in great respect and affec-
44 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
tion ; Dr. Edmund Strudwick, who succeeded Dr. Webb, and
who for eminence as a physician and skill as a surgeon had a
very wide reputation, the benediction of whose life still rests
upon those who loved him.
Gallant soldiers sleep amongst the dead here. Major Ben
Huske, Alvis ^N'orwood, Capt. Ed. Scott, Henry ISTash, Eos-
coe Richards, of whom his colonel said: "I never knew a
braver man. Whenever I called for volunteers for desperate
work Eoscoe Richards was one of the first men to step from
the ranks." Frederick ISFash, who laid down the burden of
life far from friends and home after months of suffering
amidst the dreary horrors of prison life at Elmira, IST. Y.,
faithful unto death !
Ah ! those days long ago, yet ever near in memory, when
there came back to Southern homes only a coffin in place of a
gallant son or brother, husband or father, who had gone forth
in the strength of manhood and who was to come again, if
come he ever did, feet foremost, and sometimes only the poor
remnants that shot or shell had left. Vividly do I recall the
burial of a brave young soldier who had been brought home
from the carnage of the "Chickahominy." As we sat in the
church the heavy tread of those who bore him to his rest passed
by the door. Alas ! they could not bring him into the church ;
and as we gathered around the grave in the exquisite bright-
ness of a summer evening, while the prayers were being said,
a mocking bird in a tree just above the grave sang as though
all the world was mad with joy. In and out amidst the sol-
emn words of prayer ran this liquid, rippling strain, note after
note, the very sweetest a sweet bird ever sang. And when the
grave was filled and we turned away, still the same glad song
flowed on and on, and we left the young hero sleeping his last
long, dreamless sleep, while the mockingbird sang his requiem
as never bird sang before.
HiLLSBORO, N. C, 1892.
KOANOKE ISLAND. 45
Of the Landing of Captain Ralph Lane» with Sir Walter Raleigh's Colonists,
on the Coast of Carolina in 1585
BY MAESHALL DE LANCEY HAYWOOD.
If sandy hills could speak and tell
What deeds in ancient days befell,
We first would hear of Redskin braves
Whose bones now moulder in their graves.
And then upon this western shore,
Where Christian never trod before.
Bold Raleigh's voyagers were seen —
Sent hither by the English Queen.
Above their ships within the bay
Floated St. George's banner gay,
While on the decks, for action set.
Stood culverin and falconet.
Then Captain Lane, with eye serene.
Gazed proudly on the quiet scene ;
And when his voice the silence broke.
In solemn tones he slowly spoke :
''My noble men, so true and brave
When tempest-tossed upon the wave.
In safety we have now been brought
To this good haven which we sought.
4:6 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
"This fertile land, so fair and green,
We claim of right for Britain's Queen,
And our good blades, on land and main,
Shall guard it from the fleets of Spain.
"In Holy Scriptures we may read
A man once took a mustard seed
And cast it in a garden fair,
When soon its branches filled the air.
"We plant a nation! — ^may it stand
For all that makes a noble land ;
And English laws shall rule this State
Where dwell the happy, wise, and great.
"May God, to Whom our fathers prayed.
Still shelter those who seek His aid ;
And may His favor rest on all
Who gather at our Sovereign's call.
"So up St. George, and down with Spain !
Long may our Queen in honor reign !
We'll sweep her foes from every sea,
And make this western country free !"
PEESENTATION OF JOEL LANE TABLET. 47
PRESENTATION OF JOEL LANE TABLET TO
THE CITY OF RALEIGH
On the morning of the twenty-third of April, 1913, the
Bloomsbury Chapter, Daughters of the Revolution, realized
one of their cherished dreams when the tablet to the memory
of Colonel Joel Lane was formally presented to the city of
It is of bronze, and is placed on the left-hand side of the
entrance to the city Municipal Building, a most appropriate
location, for to Colonel Lane's influence, more than that
of any of the other commissioners who were chosen by the
Legislature to select a site for the permanent seat of govern-
ment for ISTorth Carolina, Raleigh owes its location.
The State had been much inconvenienced and had doubt-
less had many vexatious and petty jealousies to adjust, with
a migratory capital, first one place wishing the honor and
then another. Meeting in various towns, I^ew Bern, Hills-
borough, Halifax, Fayetteville, and once at Joel Lane's resi-
dence at Bloomsbuiy in 1781, when Thomas Burke was made
Governor of the State.
In consequence of these disadvantages a law was passed
by the Legislature requiring an "unalterable" seat of govern-
ment, geographically situated as near the center of the State
as possible. Men of ability and discretion were chosen to
act for the State, and many sites were offered. It was a most
difficult problem, but Colonel Lane finally persuaded the
other commissioners that the tract of land offered by him was
the most desirable. It was a part of the tract upon which he
resided, adjacent to the little tov^ni of Bloomsbury, which was
also called Wake Court House, and which in the lapse of
time has merged into the larger town of Raleigh, and its
name now only remains a memory.
48 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
The city was laid off into lots and the streets were named
by the commissioners. The squares not required for pur-
poses of the State government were sold to private individ-
uals, some of which are still owned by the descendants of the
original purchasers. Today those streets lying within the
bounds of the original tract are still owned by the State,
though the State does not maintain them, and it still owns
several squares which were reserved at that time.
Raleigh is situated midway between the mountains and
the ocean, in a beautiful rolling country, where the hills of
the mountains just begin to merge into the level country of
the coast, and as we view our many advantages we are re-
minded to express ourselves as one of our historians has
done, when he said : ''Truly, we live in one of the favored
regions of the globe." It was a wise forethought of the com-
missioners when they had incorporated into the law, and also
in the deed executed by Colonel Lane, that Raleigh should
be the unalterable seat of government for ISTorth Carolina.
It was with a sincere appreciation of these benefits that
the Daughters of the Revolution desired to place this tablet
to Colonel Lane's memory.
The tablet is inscribed :
Colonial and Revolutionary Patriot
Who Represented Wake County on the Committees of Safety,
and in the Provincial Congresses, Constitutional
Conventions and Legislative Assemblies
OF North Carolina.
The City of Raleigh
Stands on his Ancient Domain.
He Died on the 29th of March, 1795.
Erected by the Bloomsbury Chapter,
Daughters of the Revolution,
A. D. 1913.
PEESENTATION OF JOEL LANE TABLET. 49
The presentation ceremonies were simple, the program
Address of Presentation — Miss Mary Milliard Hinton, State
Regent Daughters of the Revolution.
Unveiling the Tablet — Miss Hinton.
Acceptance of Tablet — Hon. James Iredell Johnson, Mayor of
Address on Life of Joel Lane — Mr. Joseph G. Brown, President
Citizens National Bank.
Benediction — Rev. Milton A. Barber, Rector of Christ Church.
There were quite a number of people present, many of
them descendants of Colonel Lane, who expressed their ap-
preciation of the beauty of the tablet and the patriotism of
Miss Hinton, who presented the tablet, is a relative of Col-
onel Lane's, and her address is as follows :
MISS hinton's address.
This month, two years ago, the Bloomsbury Chapter,
Daughters of the Revolution, in celebration of its first anni-
versary, presented to our beautiful capital city a boulder
and tablet, marking the site of the old town of Bloomsbury.
Today we assemble to honor the memory of the man who,
although he can not be called the founder of Ealeigh, it is an
historic fact that it was through his influence that the capital
was located at this particular point. To Colonel Lane we owe
a standing debt of gratitude, for without his skillful man-
agement the location might have been six miles farther east,
in which case the health of the inhabitants would probably
have been affected by the miasmal vapors of the N^euse.
Colonel Joel Lane was one of the most prominent men of
the county in his day. This position was won because he
was a man of force and he was progressive. Were he living
in this age of wonderful endeavor and achievement he would
be as thoroughly at home as he was more than a hundred
50 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
years ago, and we have reason to believe that he would have
been urged to accept the office of Major and Commissioner
of Finance, and that he would advocate supplying the reser-
voirs of the city — not one, but several — with water from the
As each year passes our people are more keenly alive to
the value of our noble history as a guide for present and
future living. This is due partly to the galaxy of historians
whom we have cause to regard with pride, whose active pens
have been educational, and partly to the zeal of our patriotic
orders — these are the co-guardians of nation's and State's
glorious past and future resplendent with promise.
By mementoes such as these we, the Daughters of the
Revolution are striving to honor the memories of the men
and women who labored in the long ago to make our lot
happier, and to cause the coming generation to pause and
seek the unknown truths, to inspire them to employ their
talents in a broader sphere of usefulness.
On behalf of the Bloomsbury Chapter, N^orth Carolina
Society Daughters of the Revolution, and at the special re-
quest of our beloved Chapter Regent, Mrs. Hubert Hay-
wood, it affords me extreme pleasure to present to the city of
Raleigh, through her most honorable Mayor, Mr. James Ire-
dell Johnson, this memorial tablet, asking their care of the
same henceforth, and trusting that it may serve to arouse
greater deeds of patriotism.
Mayor Johnson accepted the tablet in a most graceful man-
MAYOE Johnson's acceptance.
State Regent of the Daughters of the Revolution and Regent
of the Bloomsbury Chapter:
It was a gracious thought which prompted the donation of
the tablet to this great patriot, and it is fitting that the tablet
PRESENTATION OF JOEL LANE TABLET. 51
should be on the walls of the building which stands on the
ground owned bj him. The whole site of the city was orig-
inally owned by Lane, and in days to come visitors will see
the tablet and learn of the man. In the name of the city of
Raleigh it gives me great pleasure to accept the tablet, and
thank the Daughters of the Eevolution very much for the
Mr. Joseph G. Brown, who is one of Colonel Lane's collat-
eral descendants, then made this interesting and instructive
MK. brown's ADDRESS.
It is a very beautiful custom that has grown up in our
Southland, and indeed in all sections, of setting apart one
day in the joyous springtime as a Memorial Day to the
heroes who gave their lives in their country's cause, a day
when with loving hearts and tender hands their friends may
gather about their last resting places and cover their graves
with flowers while, in loving memory, they recall the deeds
that made them noble in life and noble in death.
And so, too, it was a beautiful thought, born in a woman's
heart, to establish this memorial — to perpetuate the memory
of one who, in the days that tried men's souls, stood ever
ready to lay upon his country's altar his best services, and,
if need be, his life blood.
I can not withhold an expression of appreciation of the
loving tenderness with which the Daughters of the Revolu-
tion have ever cherished the names and memory of those
whose patriotism and devotion to country give just cause
for pride to those of us through whose veins their blood
Worthy indeed is your association and it ought to be
strengthened in its sacred work. It should not be content.
52 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
however, simply to indulge in a pride of ancestry, or to build
up a membership, dependent for their own distinction upon
the deeds of their forefathers, but rather, by making known
the problems which these men had to face and overcome, to
induce our young people to emulate their wisdom and their
We can hope for no greater good than to inspire in them a
courage and devotion like that their forefathers displayed.
Standing under the shadow of this splendid edifice, which
marks the beginning of a new era in the capital city of J^Torth
Carolina, it requires no little stretch of the imagination to
enter into and even for a brief while, to become a part of the
life that pulsated in and around the little village of Blooms-
bury about the middle of the eighteenth century.
The Old South at any point will always be a profitable
study. It is, indeed, the one unique page in our national his-
tory. To us who .are gathered here today there is special in-
terest in the story of that period and of him who has trans-
mitted to so many of us the blood of a noble race.
As some one has well said, "It was in the old South that
the first word was spoken that stirred the blood and fired the
heart and marked the way of freedom from British tyramiy.
The very declaration of independence itself was written
by a Southern hand, and a Southern General led the ragged
Continentals to victory and became the father of a free re-
public, and for many years it was the guiding hand of patri-
otic Southern men that shaped the destiny of the young re-
They were found in places of high position in the army, in
the navy, in ofiicial and commercial life everywhere, and in
all the expansion of the country the spirit of the South was
dominant. The thrilling story of the republic can never be
told without placing new laurels on the brows of Southern
PRESENTATION OF JOEL LANE TABLET. 6B
For more than a half century, however, it seems that her
scepter had dej)arted, but today we see again the command-
ing spirit of the South in the persons of the chief magistrate
of the nation, and of his associates in the cabinet, on the Su-
preme Court bench, and now in the Court of St. James, and
through them and men of like mould from other sections, we
may confidently expect the domination of a spirit of broad
patriotism that in affairs of government will know no feeling
of sectionalism, no l^orth, no South, but one great country,
one united people.
We are proud, and rightly so, of the honors our fathers
won and of their achievements, whether on the field of battle
or in the public forum.
And this spirit should be cultivated. It is a laudable aspi-
ration to link our names with those of the great men of the
past, and to proclaim the virtues of our ancestors. If we will
but emulate those virtues our lives may be made the purer
and better thereby, and our service to our country more de-
In such a spirit have we come today to do honor to one
whose memory we revere, who was bone of our bone and flesh
of our flesh, and to whom so many of us are proud to trace
We would perpetuate his memory, and by this tablet com-
mend to those who come after us the heroic virtues which en-
nobled and made useful his life.
It was far back in the sixteenth century when Sir Ralph
Lane, an honored Briton, founded the colony of Roanoke,
and became the first English Governor in America, and
although he returned to the old country and finally died in
Ireland, yet it was not long before other members of the same
family were on American soil, and laying the foundation for
our own beloved State. They located in Halifax County,
54 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
and there was bom Joel Lane to whom this tablet is erected.
He came to Wake (then a part of Johnston) County in 1750.
The good Lord must have pronounced upon him the same
blessing that he bestowed upon the old patriarch, Abraham,
"And I will make thee exceeding fruitful and I will make a
nation of thee and kings shall come out of thee."
God did bless him, and as the years have chased each other
into the great abyss of the past we have seen his children and
grandchildren and great-grandchildren occupying the goodly
lands in every direction, from sea to sea and from the gulf
to the great lakes, until their name has become legion — for
they are many, and from their ranks have come, time and
again, if not kings, at least princely men and queenly women.
Governors and judges and distinguished leaders in civil and
military life. There is scarcely a State in the Union that
has not felt at some point the touch of their helpful hand,
whilst in our own county almost every old family has some
trace of their blood.
As far back as 1772 the name of Joel Lane appears on the
roster as lieutenant-colonel. He was a member of the first
Provincial CongTess. For fourteen years he was State Sen-
ator, and during the troublous days of the Revolution (1781)
the General Assembly met in his home.
In 1792 he deeded one thousand acres for the site of the
city of Raleigh, and the ground upon which this building
stands was a part of his farm. Some of us are old enough to
remember the statements of our parents, as I well remember
those of my mother, Lydia Lane, about the killing of deer at
a stand just inside the southern entrance of Capitol Square,
and of many other interesting incidents of those days, but I
have not the time, nor is this the occasion to record and relate
It was long before Wake County was established that Joel
PRESENTATION OF JOEL LANE TABLET. 55
Lane settled in Bloomsbury. He was one of the commission-
ers that laid out the county boundaries.
Its first court was held on June 4, 1771, and both Joel
Lane and his brother Joseph were among the members of
that tribunal, there being eight others besides them. He was
for many years a justice of the court, and during the war its
presiding justice. He was a trustee of the State University
and in 1791 offered to donate to that institution 640 acres of
land if it would locate thereon.
Following his ancestors he was an adherent of the Church
of England, he kept the fasts religiously, and led his family
in daily devotions.
He occupied many positions of trust and in them all served
with gTeat fidelity. The commission to locate the capital of
the State, which had no permanent abiding place until 1788,
met in his home, and although some criticism was made be-
cause, while accepting his hospitality, they selected his land
as a permanent site, yet he evidently retained the favor and
good will of the people, for he continued to serve them in the
Senate as late as 1795, in which year he died.
It is a pity that no stone marks his last resting place. His
grave on Boylan Avenue is covered by the home of one of our
I have endeavored to be brief, so that I might not weary
you with a repetition of details that are so thoroughly famil-
Only a few days ago a well-known local writer, Col. Fred
Olds, gave an interesting story of an imaginary visit of Joel
Lane to his old home. Instead of the scattered village he
found a splendid city, her streets and sidewalks well paved,
her business houses modern and well equipped, and some of
them almost penetrating the clouds, her little inn replaced by
splendid hotels, a beautiful capitol building, a splendid post-
56 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
office, a spacious auditorium, an attractive Country Club,
reached by cars operated by the same mysterious power that
converts her nights into day. And many wonderful things
he found the peoj)le doing, such as talking with each other at
long distances over the wires, speeding across the country in
lightning motor cars, and flying through the air like birds.
Little wonder he found no familiar face and nothing to
remind him of the Bloomsbury of long ago, and that in his
utter loneliness he was content to go peacefully back to his
quiet resting place.
It is well thus occasionally to spend a brief while recalling
the faces and forms and characteristics of those long gone.
Their memories are sacred to us yet. We pay obeisance to
our honored dead.
Yet turn we forward to the future's call,
By beacon lights of progress onward led,
And dedicate, whatever fate befall,
Unto our country's needs, our lives.
Our strength, our all.
These simple services were closed with the benediction by
the Rev. Milton A. Barber, Rector of Christ Episcopal
Church, of which Colonel Lane was a most devoted member,
and one of its most influential pioneer laymen.
With this conclusion, the Daughters, happy with the
thought that they had accomplished the object for which they
had so pleasantly worked together, and with thanks to the
many friends who had given them assistance, bade each other
good-bye, with renewed affection and esteem.
Emily Benbury Haywood,
(Mrs. Hubert Haj^wood)
Regent Bloomsbury Chapter, D. R.
Raleigh, ]^. C, May 27, 1913.
DEED FOK SITE OF CITY OF RALEIGH. 57
DEED OF JOEL LANE FOR SITE OF CITY OF
This Identure made the fifth day of April, in the year one
thousand seven hundred & ninety two, between Joel Lane,
Esquire of Wake County, of one part, and Alexander Mar-
tin, Esquire, Governor of the State of ISTorth Carolina, of the
other part, Witnesseth that the said Joel Lane, for the sum
of one thousand three hundred & seventy eight pounds, current
money of IvTorth Carolina, to him paid by Frederick Hargate,
Esquire, Chairman of the Board of Commissioners appointed
by Act of Assembly passed in dec'' in the year one thousand
seven hundred & ninety one, to determine on the place for
holding the future meetings of the General Assembly and for
the residence of the Chief Officers of the State of ISTorth Caro-
lina — the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged — Hath
granted, bargained & sold, aliened and enfeoffed, released and
confirmed and by these presents Doth grant, bargain, & sell,
alien and enfeoff, release and confirm to the said Alexander
Martin, Esquire and his Successors in Office for the time
being a certain tract or parcel of Land in Wake County to the
Eastward of and near to Wake Court-house, containing One
thousand acres, more or less and bound as follows: Begin-
ning at four sasafras, two white oaks, two persimmons, and
an elm on Rocky Branch, thence north ten degrees East three
hundred & thirty four poles to a stake in the Run of a Spring
Branch, thence East three hundred and twenty seven poles to
a small Hickory & Red Oak, near a craggy Rock — thence
north forty poles to a stake near a Red Oak — then East one
hundred and fifty eight poles to a Stake in the center of a
Red-Oak a Hickory & two post Oaks, — then South two hun-
dred & eighty one poles to a White Oak in Joshua Suggs
Line, — then South fifty seven degrees west two hundred &
58 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
fiftj six poles to a young Hickory, — then iSTorth eighty four
degrees west one hundred and thirty poles to a Post Oak —
then west one hundred and forty eight poles to a White Oak
on the Rocky Branch, — then up the Branch, the various
courses thereof to the Beginning ; and all the Woods, Timber,
Trees, Ways, Waters, Springs, Emoluments & advantages to
said tract of land belonging: — To have & to hold the said
Tract of Land, with all the Appurtenances, to the said Alex-
ander Martin Esquire, and his Successors in Office for the
time being for the sole use & benefit of the State of North
Carolina forever, — And the said Joel Lane, for himself &
his Heirs, doth covenant bargain & agree to & with the said
Alexander Martin Esquire & his Successors in Office : that
he the said Joel Lane & his Heirs shall & will warrant &
defend the premises, with the appurtenances to the said Alex-
ander Martin & his successors in Office for the time being,
for the Benefit of the State as aforesaid against himself &
his Heirs, and against the lawful claim of all persons forever,
— In witness whereof the said Joel Lane hath hereunto put
his Hand & Seal the day & year first above mentioned.
Joel Lane (Seal)
Signed sealed & delivered
in presence of
April 5th 1792—
Received of Frederick Harget, Esquire chairman of the
Board of Commissioners authorized to purchase Lands for the
permanent Seat of Government a warrant on the Treasurer
DEED FOR SITE OF CITY OF RALEIGH. 59
for the sum of One thousand three hundred & seventy eight
pounds currency, in full of the consideration Money above
mentioned. Joel Lane
Wake County. June Term, 1792.
Then was the above Deed duly acknowledged in Open
Court by Joel Lane Esq. and ordered to be registered.
H. Lane C. C.
Enrolled in the Registers Office of Wake County in Book
L and page (illegible) this 6th day of June 1792.
Jas. Hinton Register
Examd. by Sol Goodrich.
Surveyed for the Governor of the State for the time being
& his Successors in office for the use of the State by order of
the Commissioners appointed by the General Assembly to fix
on and purchase a place for the future and unalterable place
for the Seat of Government A Tract of Land containing One
Thousand Acres, the Courses & Distances as described in the
Above Plot. Wm. Christmas^ Surv'r.
31st. Day March 1792.
60 THE NOKTH CAROLHSTA BOOKLET
ROWAN COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS
Contributed by Mrs. M. G. McCubbins.
Josua Cox to Mary :^eal. May 17, 1769. Joshua Cox,
Adam Mitchell, Thomas Niel, and Richard Cox. Witnesses :
John Duncan, William Bostin ( ?), and Samuel (his X
John Conger, jr., to Mary Ross. June 5, 1769. John
Conger and Jonathan Conger. (Thomas Frohock.) A note
of consent from John Conger, dated June 5.
Anthony Coons (Coors ?) to Roxanna Simmons. Jime 16,
1769. Anthony (his X mark) Coons, Peter Simmons ? (in
Dutch), and Benj"^ Milner. (John Frohock.)
John Cook (Coots?) to Mary McCueston. July 18, 1769.
John Coots, Hugh Foster, Walter McCueston, and Francis
McXary( ?). (Thomas Frohock and William Mebane.)
Robert Cherry to Sarah McCuistan. July 31, 1769. Rob-
ert Cherry, John McCuistin, and John Anderson. (Charles
John Cole to Xancy Purlee. August 26, 1769. John Cole,
Adam Harmon (Herin?). (Thomas Frohock.)
James Cathey to Isabell Sloan. February 14, 1770.
James Cathey, Arch*^ Sloan, and Robert Gordon. (John
Joseph Cartwright to Eve Miller. March 24, 1770.
Joseph Cartwright and Michael Miller. (Thomas Frohock.)
David Collins to Thompson (or Thompsey) Posting. Octo-
ber 1, 1772. David (his X mark) Collins, Henry Zevely,
and Alex Brown.
William Craige to Ann McPherson (or McApherson).
October 7, 1772. William Craig and William Steel. The
bride's brother, Joseph McPherson, gives note of consent.
ROWAN COUIN^TY MAREIAGE BONDS. 61
dated October 2, 1772 (as bride is an orphan) and Susanna
Linn is a witness. (Max: Chambers.)
Hugh Campbell to Elizabeth Greer. October 15, 1772.
Hugh Campbell, Robert Rogers, and Robert Linn. (Ad:
Osborn, C. C.) A note from bride's father, Robert (his X
mark) Greer, giving his consent, October 15, 1772. Wit-
nesses : James White and Samuel Jirwin.
William Cathey to Else Hagan. October 24, 1772. Will
Cathey and John Hag-in.
Thomas Caradine to Elizabeth Bell. January 7, 1773.
Thomas Caradene and John Cathey. (Ad: Osborn.) A
note of consent from bride's father, Thomas Bell, dated Jan-
uary 6, 1773, and witnessed by David Roan.
Simon Murphy and Sarah Duke were married in ISTorth
Carolina about 1760. He came from Virginia and she, I
think, lived in ISTorth Carolina. They came to the upper
part of South Carolina and settled in Union County soon
after marriage. They had two sons in the Revolutionary
War. Simon may have fought also. Can any one give me
information about the Duke family ? Address,
Mes. L. D. Childs,
2202 Plain Street,
Columbia, S. C.
RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT TO THE MEMORY OF MRS. SOPHRONIA
HORNER WINSTON, BORN SEPT. 24, 1861; DIED FEB. 18, 1913
Whereas, God in His divine love and wisdom has called
from the blessings of her earthly home to the brighter life
of ''the Great Beyond" our beloved member, Mrs. Sophia
Horner Winston ; therefore be it
Resolved, That the l^orth Carolina Society, Daughters of
the Kevolution, mourns the inexpressible loss sustained in
That they are truly thankful for the radiating influence of
her beautiful life, whose talents were conscientiously em-
ployed for the uplifting of mankind, her State, and her coun-
try, and are cognizant of the fact that our Society has lost one
of its most brilliant, useful and faithful members, who though
associated but a short period with our organization, has left
there the impress of her phenomenal gifts.
That they will miss through the coming years her wise
counsel and the inspiring enthusiasm and optimism that her
presence ever insured, fully' realizing that to have known and
been associated with her has been a rare privilege.
That we tender to the bereaved family our warmest sym-
pathy in this gTeat sorrow.
That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the
Society and a copy sent to the family.
Mart Hileiard Hinton^
Martha H. Haywood,
Mrs. Hubert Haywood,
ELIZABETH THROCKMORTON, LADY RALEIGH
From an funrarinn ni the collection of A. B. Andrews, Jr.
Vol, XIII OCTOBER, 1913 No. 2
floHTH CflROIilflfl BoOKIiET
Carolina! Carolina! Heaven' s blessings attend her !
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her^
THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION
The object of The Booklet is to aid in developinj and preserving
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication
will be dovoted to patriotic purposes. Editob.
ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard.
Mrs. E. B. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle.
Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt.
Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood.
Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark.
Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham.
Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith.
Miss Martha Helen Haywood.
Miss Mary Hilliakd Hinton.
OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 1912-1914
Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON.
Miss DUNCAN CAMERON WINSTON.
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT.
Mrs. CLARENCE JOHNSON.
Mrs. PAUL H. LEE.
■ Mrs. FRANK SHERWOOD.
Miss SARAH W. ASHE.
custodian of relics:
Mrs. JOHN E. RAY.
Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent.
Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent.
Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter,
Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent.
General Francis Nash Chapter. .. .Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent.
Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902:
Mrs. spier WHITAKER.*
Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f
Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER.
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT.
•Died December 12. 1904.
fDied November 25, 1911.
THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
Vol XIll OCTOBER, 1913 No. 2
SIR WALTER RALEIGH*
An Address Delivered at Old Fort Raleigh on Roanoke Island,
North Carolina, at the Celebration of Virginia
Dare Day, August 19, 1913.
BY MARSHALL DeLANCEY HAYWOOD,
Member Roanoke Colony Memorial Association, General Historian of the Sons of the
Revolution, Historian of the Masonic Grand Lodge of North Carolina,
Historiographer of the Diocese of North Carolina, etc.
My Friends and Fellow-Countrymen:
To be invited to appear before this company today, amid
such inspiring surroundings, is an honor which might well
flatter the pride of any true American, and I value it most
highly. For many years I have been a member of the Roan-
oke Colony Memorial Association, but never until last night
was it my privilege to set foot upon Roanoke Island.
The purchase and reclamation of the site on which stand
the remains of this old fortress were due to the efforts of the
late Professor Edward Graham Daves, a native l^orth Caro-
linian residing in the city of Baltimore. This scholarly gen-
tleman associated with himself a number of patriotic per-
sons who were interested in historical and antiquarian work,
and soon raised funds sufficient for the purchase of Fort
Raleigh. During the Christmas holidays of 1893, I first had
the pleasure of forming the acquaintance of Professor Daves
when he came to my home tovra. and delivered an interesting
and instructive lecture on Roanoke Island and the daring
Englishmen who first discovered and colonized it. In the
'Owing to the length of this paper, parts were omitted in delivery.
66 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
following April I spent several happy days at his hospitable
home in Baltimore, and there learned more of the work he
had so much at heart, but a few months later I was greatly
shocked to hear of his death, which occurred while he was on
a visit to Boston. His only son at present surviving is Mr.
John Collins Daves, of Baltimore, now vice-president of this
Association. From its organization up to the time of his
death, Professor Daves was president of the Association, and
he was succeeded in office by his no less patriotic brother
Major Graham Daves, of ISTew Bern, in this State, who zeal-
ously pushed forward the work. After the death of Major
Daves, which occurred in 1902, Vice-President William D.
Pruden became acting president, and later was succeeded by
the present incumbent, the Reverend Eobert Brent Drane,
D.D. Both Mr. Pruden and Doctor Drane have rendered
and are still rendering valuable services to the good cause
of keeping alive the glorious memories of this spot.
'Nor must I fail to mention those who have filled the office
of Secretary-Treasurer of this Association. The first Secre-
tary-Treasurer was Professor John Spencer Bassett, a stu-
dent and teacher of history, born in our State but now resid-
ing in Massachusetts. Upon his resignation, Mr. A. B. An-
drews, Jr., of Raleigh, was chosen. Miss Leah D. Jones (now
Mrs. Charles L. Stevens), of Kew Bern, next succeeded;
and, in turn, gave place to Mr. William Blount Shepard, of
Edenton, who discharged the duties of that office until his
much-lamented death last January. Mr. Shepard's succes-
sor is the present capable and energetic incumbent. Dr. Rich-
ard Dillard, also of Edenton.
In making choice of a subject on which to speak this morn-
ing, I have selected Sir Walter Raleigh, one of the great-
est men of whom the annals of England can boast, and also
one of the most versatile — statesman, colonizer, explorer,
fort-builder, ship-builder, historian, courtier, soldier, sailor,
SIK WALTER BALEIGH. 67
scientist, chemist, poet, and orator. An English writer. Hep-
worth Dixon, has said : ^'Raleigh is still a power among us ;
a power in the Old World and in the New World ; hardly less
visible in England than in America, where the beautiful
capital of a chivalrous nation bears his name." To Raleigh
belonged the masterful mind and gaiiding hand which first
sent forth English civilization to this continent and this
spot more than three centuries ago.
There are countless variations in the spelling of the
surname Raleigh,* but only one pronunciation — with a very
broad Devonshire accent on the first syllable, as if it were
written Rawley, and that was the way it was written when
young Walter was entered as a student at the University of
Oxford. He himself wrote it Ralegh, in later life. His-
torians, as a general rule, use the orthography Raleigh, which
is the form I shall adopt — from force of habit, as our State
so named its capital city, wherein I have spent my life.
When this land of ours was first discovered the "Virgin
Queen" of England called it Virginia in honor of herself,
but let me remind you that North Carolina is the "Virginia"
of Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh. The present
State of Virginia was not settled until 1607, when Elizabeth
had been in her grave four years and when the heroic Raleigh
was mewed up in the Tower of London by that great Queen's
unworthy successor. The eminent English historian, James
Anthony Froude, in his work entitled English Seamen in
the Sixteenth Century, says: "Of Raleigh there remains
nothing in Virginia save the name of the city called after
him." Ladies and gentlemen, there is a very small village
called Raleigh somewhere in West Virginia (which State was
a part of Virginia until 1862), but I have personal knowledge
of the fact that Doctor Froude was slightly mistaken in his
supposition that the "city of Raleigh" — ITorth Carolina's
*Stebbing'3 Life of Raleigh, pp. 30-3L
68 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
beautiful capital — is in Virginia. I was born in the city of
Raleigh, my home still stands within its limits ; and it grieves
me bayond measure to see so great a historian as Froude com-
placently present my native town to our sister State of Vir-
ginia. I refuse to be moved in any such way. And then,
too, Virginia has recently drawn so heavily upon North Caro-
lina in the matter of men that she should be willing for us
to keep both the city of Ealeigh and Roanoke Island with
this old fortress built by Sir Walter's colonists. There is
scarcely an institution of any importance in Virginia today
which has not had to come to North Carolina for its president.
Among these are the University of Virginia, Washington
and Lee University, the Union Theological Seminary, the
Randolph-Macon Woman's College, the Virginia Life In-
surance Company, and the Virginia Trust Company, while
the general manager (though not titular president) of the
Old Dominion Trust Company is also a North Carolinian.
In view of all this, Ladies and Gentlemen, it does seem to me
that Virginia should be duly grateful for what North Caro-
lina has already done for her, and leave us in the quiet and
undisturbed possession of Roanoke Island and our capital
city of Raleigh.
But I am drifting from my subject. I came here not to
discourse upon self-exiled North Carolinians residing in Vir-
ginia, but to call your attention to the career of Sir Walter
Raleigh, under whose patronage came the English explorers
who claimed this land in the name of Queen Elizabeth in
the year of our Lord 1584.
It may be well to state, at the outset, a fact already known
to most of you, that Raleigh himself never saw the North
American continent, though he was twice in South America,
Nevertheless his was the world-vision and his was the purse
without which the expeditions to this place would not have
been undertaken so soon.
SIE WALTER RALEIGH. 69
Many of my hearers may recall tbe striking observation
of Macaulay concerning the navy of Great Britain in the
latter half of the seventeenth century. Said that historian :
"There were gentlemen and there were seamen in the navy
of Charles II. But the seamen were not gentlemen, and the
gentlemen were not seamen." However true this may have
been in the days of King Charles, it was widely different in
the reign of his great predecessor Queen Elizabeth, many of
whose fleets and vessels were commanded by men of high birth
as well as approved valor. Sea-fighting was then considered
a gentleman's trade, and there was no surer road to the
Queen's favor than to join the ranks of those who were her
main reliance when struggling with Spain for the freedom
of the seas. In all England there was no shire so prolific of
these hardy aventurers as Devon, the birthplace of Raleigh.
Says the novelist Kingsley: "It was the men of Devon, the
Drakes and Hawkinses, Gilberts and Raleighs, Grenvilles and
Oxenhams, and a host more of 'forgotten worthies' whom
we shall learn one day to honor as they deserve, to whom
England owes her commerce, her colonies, her very exist-
ence." Sir Walter Ealeigh was related by blood to the Gil-
berts, Grenvilles, and Drakes, as well as other noted Devon-
shire families, including the Courtneys, Carews, St. Legers,
In a recent biography of Sir Walter Raleigh by William
Stebbing (who uses the orthography Ralegh) an account of
the Raleigh family is given as follows : "The Raleghs were
an old Devonshire family, once wealthy and distinguished.
At one period five knightly branches of the house flourished
simultaneously in the county. In the reign of Henry III a
Ralegh had been Justiciary. There were genealogists who,
though others doubted, traced the stock to the Plantagenets
through an intermarriage with the Clares. The Clare arms
have been found quartered with those of Ralegh on a Ralegh.
70 THE NOETH CAKOLIBTA BOOKLET.
pew in East Budleigh Church. The family had held Small-
ridge, near Axminster, from before the Conquest. Since the
reign of Edward III it had been seated on the edge of Dart-
moor, at Eardell. There it built a picturesque mansion and
chapel. The Raleghs of Fardell were, writes Polwhele, 'es-
teemed ancient gentlemen.' But the rapacious lawyers of
Henry VII had discovered some occasion against Wimund
Ralegh, the head of the family in their day. They thought
him worth the levy of a heavy fine for misprision of treason ;
and he had to sell Smallridge." Wimund Raleigh, whose
wife was a Grenville, left a son Walter, born in 1497. This
Walter engaged at times in seafaring, and owned three sepa-
rate estates, viz. : Fardell, Colaton-Ealeigh, Wythecombe-
Raleigh, and Bollams. His third wife was Mrs. Katherine
Gilbert, widow of Otho Gilbert of Compton Castle and Green-
way Castle, and a daughter of Sir Philip Champernoun of
Modbury. To this marriage were born several children,
among whom was Sir Walter Raleigh, of whom I shall speak
Walter Raleigh, afterwards known to fame as Sir Walter
Raleigh, was born at Hayes, in Budleigh Parish, Devonshire.
Some accounts give 1552 as the year of his birth, though the
inscriptions on several of his oldest engraved portraits seem
to indicate that he was born in 1554. Two pictures, slightly
differing, of the house where he was born may be found in
the first volume of the History of North Carolina, by Francis
L, Hawks, and in the fifth volume of Applet on s Cyclopcedia
of American Biography. Raleigh's father, having determined
that his son should have educational advantages becoming his
station in life, entered him as a student in Oriel College at
the University of Oxford, in 1568. In the following year
young Raleigh went abroad and pursued his studies in the
University of France, but left that institution to fight as a
volunteer under the renowned Huguenot leaders the Prince
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. Yl
de Conde and Admiral Coligny. He was present at the bat-
tles of Jaruac and Moncontour; but was absent from Paris,
though still in France, at the time of the Massacre of St.
Bartholomew. In 1576 he was again in London, but a year
or two later went to the Netherlands and assisted the Hol-
landers in their warfare against the Spaniards under the
Duke of Alva.
Soon after Raleigh's return to England from the ISTether-
lands his thoughts began to turn to the New World beyond
the seas. His eldest half-brother. Sir Humphrey Gilbert,
had set hope on western discoveries as early as 1566, but at
that time Queen Elizabeth was unwilling for him to absent
himself from Ireland, where he was president of the English
colony recently established in Munster. By 1578, however,
Gilbert renewed his efforts, and was engaged in fitting out a
fleet of eleven ships at Dartmouth, in Devonshire. This enter-
prise Raleigh joined, but only seven of the eleven ships could
be gotten to sea. Gilbert was Admiral of the fleet, Carew
(afterwards Sir Carew) Ealeigh, a brother of Walter, was
Vice-Admiral, and Walter Raleigh commanded the Falcon.
Though Gilbert had announced that he was going on a voyage
of discovery, the unusually heavy armament carried by his
ships led many to believe that the "discovery" of Spaniards
was his chief aim. This fleet went to the Azores, and possibly
as far as the West Indies, engaged in an undecisive fight with
a Spanish sea-force, and lost one ship, which foundered in a
gale — the others returning to Dartmouth in 1579.
After his return to England with Gilbert's fleet, Raleigh
spent some time in London; and, in June, 1580, was sent to
Ireland as captain of a company which was to operate against
the insurgent natives and their Spanish allies, the latter of
whom had landed in that country to join forces with the ene-
mies of England. These Spaniards, with the assistance of
some Italians, had built Eort del Oro at Smerwick in county
T2 THE NORTH CAEOLHSTA BOOKLET.
Kerry, and had heavily garrisoned that stronghold. The
Lord Deputy of Ireland, Baron Grey of Wilton, together
with the sea forces of Admiral Sir William Winter, besieged
this fort in due time, and it later surrendered uncondition-
ally. By Lord Grey's order, Ealeigh and one Macworth
(another officer of the besiegers) marched in and put to the
sword more than four hundred Spaniards and Italians, also
hanging such of the Irish as could be found there. Some of
the foreign officers of rank were spared and held for ransom.
Though Lord Grey gave the order for this butchery, we are
forced to doubt if Raleigh had any scruples in performing
his part of the bloody work. Of him his biographer Stebbing
says: '^Towards American Indians he could be gentle and
just. Llis invariable rule with Irishmen and Anglo-Irishmen
was to crush." While Raleigh remained in Ireland he en-
gaged in numerous skirmishes with the insurgents, also serv-
ing as a member of the temporary commission for the govern-
ment of Munster. Returning to England in 1581, he first
attracted the personal notice of the Queen by throwing his
handsome cloak over a muddy place in her pathway at Green-
wich, thereby saving her shoes from being soiled. This inci-
dent was first recorded in 1662 (less than fifty years after
Raleigh's death) by Fuller in his Worthies of England. Sir
Walter Scott, as many of my hearers may remember, gives a
graphic account of this piece of gallantry in the novel Kenil-
Whatever may have been the cause of Raleigh's rise in the
favor of Queen Elizabeth, he soon became a man of great
wealth in consequence of patents and monopolies received
through royal grants. In 1583 he was given portions of all
revenues from the wine licenses of the kingdom, thereafter
aggregating from eight hundred to two thousand pounds
sterling per annum. In 1584 he was knighted — an honor
always sparingly bestowed by the hand of Elizabeth. In the
SIK WALTER KALEIGII. 73
year following lie was made '^Warden of the Stannaries" —
which, translated into our American language, means Super-
visor of the Tin Mines. He became Lord Lieutenant of
Cornwall, and Vice-Admiral of the two counties of Corn-
wall and Devon in 1585. In 1585 and 1586 he represented
the shire of Devon in Parliament; and, in the latter year,
obtained a vast land-grant (about forty thousand acres) in
the Irish counties of Cork, Waterford, and Tipperary. This
grant also included the salmon fisheries of Blackwater. He
received, in 1587, grants of English lands in the shires of
Lincoln, Derby, and jSTottingham, which had been forfeited
by Anthony Babington and other conspirators against the
life of Elizabeth. He also became Captain of the Queen's
Guard, thereby being thrown into personal attendance upon
I have already spoken of lialeigh's venture with Sir Hum-
phrey Gilbert when the latter's fleet went on a western voyage
in 1578. In 1583 Gilbert fitted out another expedition of a
similar nature. In his fleet of five vessels the largest was the
bark Raleigh, furnished by Sir Walter Raleigh, who earnestly
desired to command it in person, but the Queen needed his
services at home, and forbade his departure from England.
After two days sailing, the Raleigh left the remainder of
Gilbert's fleet and returned to Plymouth, on account of sick-
ness which had broken out among her crew, but the admiral
continued on his way with his four remaining ships. He
finally reached a place which is now a part of JSTewfoundland,
and formally took possession of that locality in the name of
Queen Elizabeth. The expedition to ISTewfoundland was the
last voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. On his return he re-
fused to take refuge in his largest ship, the Golden Hind, but
cast his fortunes with those who manned the Squirrel, a little
craft of ten tons, whose decks were already overburdened
with heavv ordnance. In the midst of a great storm, south
74 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
of the Azores, the heroic Gilbert was last seen, calmly sitting
in his little ship with a book in hand, while night was ap-
proaching. As he got within hailing distance of his comrades
on the other vessels he called out the ever-memorable words
"We are as near to heaven by sea as by land," and a little
later his anxious friends on the Golden Hind saw the lights
of the Squirrel disappear from the face of the waters.
The tragic ending of this voyage of his beloved brother
did not deter Sir Walter Ealeigh from further efforts to
colonize America. In 1584, the year following, on the 25th
of March (which was ISTew Year's Day under the old Julian
Calendar, then in use) he secured from Queen Elizabeth a
charter or Letters Patent, empowering him or his heirs and
assigns to "discover, search, find out, and view such remote
heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and territories not
actually possessed of any Christian prince, nor inhabited by
Christian people." He was also authorized to fortify any
new settlements made under his authority and to "encounter
and expulse, repel and resist, as well by sea as by land, and
by all other ways whatsoever, all and every such person or
persons whatsoever, as without the especial liking and license
of the said Walter Raleigh, and his heirs and assigns, shall
attempt to inhabit within the said countries." It was pro-
vided that the laws enacted for the government of the new
settlements should be "as conveniently as may be, agreeable
to the form of the laws, statutes, government, or policy of
England, and also so as they be not against the true Christian
faith now professed in the Church of England." This charter
contained many other provisions, which it is not my purpose
here to quote. Suffice it to say that Ealeigh was thereby
given what he most desired — an opportunity to extend the
sovereignty of England over the lands and waters of the New
For the carrying out of his plans, Raleigh secured the
Sm WALTER KALEIGH. 75
services of Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, two stalwart
English sea-captains, and fitted up for their use two barks,
"well furnished with men and victuals/' in which they saile4
out of the Thames on the 27th of April, 1584. Fortunately
for history, a record of this voyage has been preserved in the
volumes of Hakluyt, it being in the form of a report to Sir
Walter Ealeigh, written by Captain Barlowe. On June 10th
the explorers reached the Canaries, and just a month later
wended their way through the West Indies. They found the
climate there very unwholesome, and many members of the
two crews were taken sick. They tarried twelve days to re-
cuperate and take on fresh supplies, and then struck out for
this locality where good climate may always be found in
abundance. Delicate odors from our Carolina coast were
wafted to them before they sighted land, for Barlowe tells
us that on the 2d of July "we smelled so sweet and so strong
a smell as if we had been in the midst of some delicate garden
abounding with all kinds of odoriferous flowers, by which we
were assured that the land could not be far distant; and,
keeping good watch and bearing but slack sail, the fourth of
the same month we arrived upon the coast, which we sup-
posed to be a continent and firm land, and we sailed along
the same a hundred and twenty English miles before we could
find any entrance or river issuing into the sea."
Though the above quoted record says that the voyagers
first reached our coast on the 4th of July, we must remember
that the Independence Day we now celebrate on the Fourth
of July does not fall on the same anniversary; for, between
the Julian Calendar or "old style" then used and the Gre-
gorian Calendar or "new style" now used, there is a differ-
ence of ten days, making July 14th the present anni-
versary of the coming of Ealeigh's first expedition in 1584.*
*In the 18th century (Washington's birthday for example) the difference was eleven
days, not ten.
76 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
As already stated, Captains Amadas and Barlowe sailed
up our coast one hundred and twenty miles before effecting
a landing. Finally an inlet was discovered, and the explorers
sailed in. Barlowe tells us that ''after thanks given to God
for our safe arrival thither," two boats were manned and a
landing effected. After this, formal proclamation was made,
declaring that England's sovereign was "rightful Queen and
Princess of the same," and that the newly discovered country
should be held for the use of Sir Walter Raleigh by authority
of the Letters Patent issued to him by Her Majesty.
Some difference of opinion exists as to which of the numer-
ous North Carolina inlets Amadas and Barlowe first entered.
Many believe that the inlet they used has since been closed
by storms which have piled up sand-bars where the old chan-
nel ran. It is not my purpose to discuss that matter here.
It is sufficient for us to know that they were "conducted in
safety to the haven where they would be," that they first re-
turned thanks to God for deliverance from the dangers of the
deep, and then began viewing the lands adjacent to their
The narrative of Captain Barlowe goes quite into detail
explaining the habits and traits of the natives, the location
of lands and waters, the fauna and flora of the country, and
many other interestiug conditions there existing, but too long
here to be quoted.
The ships were anchored for two days before any natives
were seen by the explorers. On the third day they espied
a small boat containing three men. Two of these remained
in their canoe, and the third walked up the shore near the
ships, later being taken on board and presented with some
articles of apparel. After viewing the ships with interest,
he returned to his own boat, later beginning to fish, and came
back with a large supply of fresh fish which he presented to
the English. The next day numerous Indians were seen in
SIK WALTER KALEIGH. 77
small boats, among them being Granganimeo, brother of the
savage monarch who held sway in that locality. The king
himself, Wingina bv name, had recently been wounded and
hence was unable to do the honors of the occasion. Gran-
ganimeo left his boats and came up the shore, followed by
forty of his braves. These spread a mat upon the ground,
and the king's brother seated himself thereon, as did four of
his principal followers. When the English approached the
shore, they were invited to a seat on the mat by the Indians.
Then Granganimeo ''made all signs of joy and welcome,
striking on his head and breast, and afterwards on those of
his visitors, to show that all were one, at the same time smil-
ing and making the best show he could of all love and famil-
Speaking of the natives Captain Barlowe says : "After
they had been divers times aboard the ships, myself, with
seven more, went twenty miles into the river that runs to-
wards the city of Skycoak, which river they call Occam ; and
the evenino- following we came to an island which thev call
Eoanoak, distant from the harbor,_ by which we entered, seven
leagues." Thus was this island of Eoanoke discovered by the
English. On it was a small village of nine houses, well forti-
fied after the Indian fashion. Granganimeo being absent
from this village, his wife came to the waterside to meet the
explorers, and entertained them vnth much pomp and cere-
mony, commanding her tribesmen to attend their wants, and
feasting them with a profusion of savage hospitality. Of
the natives it is recorded : "We found the people most gentle,
loving, and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and such
as live after the manner of the golden age."
After trading with the Indians for some time, learning
as much as they could of the country, and mapping the out-
lines of the coast for future use, the explorers once more be-
took themselves to their ships and sailed back to England,
78 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
arriving safely about the middle of September. They took
with them two natives, Wanchese and Manteo, of whom I
shall have more to say later on.
At the end of Captain Barlowe's narrative is a "record of
some of the particular gentlemen and men of account" who
were witnesses of the events which had transpired. They
were : Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, Captains ; and
William Greenvile, John Wood, James Browewich, Henry
Greene, Benjamin Wood, Simon Ferdinando, ISTicholas Pet-
man, and John Hewes, members of the ship's company.
One laughable mistake occurred during the stay of the
English in the vicinity of Roanoke Island. When they first
arrived, they pointed to the mainland and made signs to an
Indian that they wished to know the name by which the
whole continent was called. The Indian, not understanding,
replied: "Win-gan-da-coa." So it was duly reported to Sir
Walter Raleigh that the domain which the Queen had granted
him was named "Wingandacoa," and it was formally recorded
under that name in the contemporaneous descriptions and on
the maps of the newly discovered country. When later voya-
gers learned more of the dialect used by the savages, they
ascertained that when the Indian had said "Win-gan-da-coa"
his remark (when translated) meant: "You wear gay
When Amadas and Barlowe returned to England with their
tales of strange adventure, and glowing accounts of the dis-
coveries they had made, also showing Wanchese and Manteo
in their wild and gorgeous costumes, the effect on the public
mind was almost magical. Sturdy adventurers of all ranks
and classes eagerly sought an opportunity to gain fortunes in
expeditions across the Atlantic. Elizabeth, the "Virgin
Queen," was so impressed with the accounts brought back
by Amadas and Barlowe that she named the new land "Vir-
ginia" in honor of her sino'le condition in life. As for Sir
SIB WALTER RALEIGH. T9
Walter Raleigh, his fame spread far and wide, and he at
once sought opportunities to send forth other fleets. As com-
mander of his next expedition he was fortunate in securing
the services of his kinsman, Sir Richard Grenville, member
of an ancient Devonshire family whose name has been spelled
in almost as many ways as that of Raleigh. Sir Richard him-
self signed it "Greynvil," the printed accounts of his voyages
have it recorded "Greenville" and '^Granville," many (if not
all) of his descendants write it "Granville," and historians
generally use the orthography "Grenville," which last men-
tioned style I shall adopt. The naval annals of the world
can not boast of a more heroic figure than this selfsame Sir
Richard Grenville, who was afterwards mortally wounded
while fighting one English vessel, the Revenge, against a
Spanish fleet of fifty-three ships — an exploit immortalized
by Tennyson in his poem The Revenge, a ballad of the fleet,
It was on the 9th day of April, 1585, that Sir Richard
Grenville sailed out of Plymouth with the second expedition
of Sir Walter Raleigh. Grenville's fleet consisted of the fol-
lowing ships: the Tiger, the Roe-Buck, the Lion, the Eliza-
heth, the Dorothy, and two small pinnaces. The "principal
gentlemen" in this expedition are set down as Master Ralph
Lane, Master Thomas Candish [Cavendish], Master John
Arundell, Master Raymund, Master Stukeley, Master Bre-
mige. Master Vincent, and Master John Clarke. Some of
these, we are told, were captains, and others were needed for
their "counsel and good discretion." Among these latter were
Thomas Hariot, the historian of events occurring on the
voyage, and John White, an artist whose paintings of Indian
life are still preserved in the British Museum. We shall learn
more of White later on. Ralph Lane, who afterwards won
the honor of knighthood, was Grenville's second in command,
and was later left at Roanoke Island as Governor of the
80 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Colony. After leaving England on its voyage to America,
the fleet touched at the Canaries and Antilles, and then an-
chored at Cotesa, a small island near the island of St. John.
The voyagers rested a day at Cotesa, and then sailed over
to Mosquito Bay, on the island of St. John. There Grenville
landed with some of his men and erected a fortification, later
adding to his fleet by building a new pinnance, which was
finished and launched on the 23d of May. The Spaniards
on the island sent a flag of truce and protested against the
erection of this fortress, but Grenville somewhat cooled their
resentment by saying he had only stopped for supplies ; that
he would depart from their shores in peace if these supplies
were furnished, but would use force if they were not. The
Spaniards promised compliance, but failed to keep their
word, whereupon Grenville set flre to his fortification and
sailed away, bent on squaring up matters with the Dons.
Within the next two days he captured two Spanish frigates,
ransomed the officers and some passengers of rank, and placed
Lane in command of one of these vessels. The fleet needing
salt. Captain Lane went to the southwest side of the island
of St. John, and landed twenty men who threw up an en-
trenchment, after which they commenced to get salt. We
are told that, when the Spaniards beheld Lane, there "came
down towards him two or three troops of horsemen and foot-
men, who gave him the looking and gazing on but durst not
come near him to ofi^er any resistance." So Lane sailed off
and rejoined the fleet, after which they went to the island of
Hispaniola (now called ILayti), which was reached on the
1st of June. Upon news of their arrival at Hispaniola, the
Spanish Governor sent them a courteous message, promising
to call and pay his respects. He accordingly came on the
5th of June, "accompanied by a lusty friar and twenty other
Spaniards, with their servants and negroes." Thereupon
Grenville, with his officers and various crews, dressed up in
SIB WALTER RALEIGH. 81
their gayest attire to receive them. The English, both ojfficers
and men, were feasted sumptuously and provided with all
manner of costly entertainment during their stay, and left
with great good will towards the Spaniards, though the
chronicler of those events stated in his narrative that the
Englishmen believed that the courtesy of the Spaniards was
due to fear of Grenville's formidable armament. If the
Spaniards had been stronger, it was added, the English might
have received the same treatment which had been accorded
their countrymen Sir John Hawkins at San Juan d'Ulloa,
Captain John Oxenham near the Straits of Darien, and divers
others who had tasted Spanish cruelty.
After leaving Hispaniola, Grenville's fleet touched at
numerous small islands on its voyage northward, and finally
came to the coast of what is now ISTorth Carolina but which
these explorers called Florida. On the 23d of June, it was
stated that they '''were in great danger of a wreck on a breach
called the Cape of Fear." On the 26th, Ocracoke Inlet (then
called Wococon) was reached, and two days later the Tiger
was run aground and sunk through the treachery (not then
discovered) of Simon Ferdinando, by whom she was piloted.
The settlers sent word of their arrival to King Wingina at
Eoanoke Island on July 3d, and three days later Manteo, who
had returned to America with the voyagers, was sent ashore.
Fearing to go further through the inland waters in the
large ships, many of the officers and crew set off, on July
11th, in well armed and fully provisioned pinnaces and other
small boats to explore the mainland. On the 16th of July
occurred the first act of English hostility towards the In-
dians — the beginning of countless bloody onslaughts and sav-
age reprisals which were to follow throughout the succeeding
centuries and extend down to a time within the memory of
men still living. An Indian had stolen a silver cup belonging
to one of the Englishmen. A party was sent to demand its
82 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
return. This demand not being complied with, the village
and gi'ain crops of the Indians were burned (the savages
themselves having fled), and the attacking party returned to
the fleet, on the 18th, at Wococon or Ocracoke Inlet.
At the end of July the English received a call from their
old friend Granganimeo, who visited the fleet in company
with Manteo. Granganimeo was shown through the ships
of the fleet, and kindly entertained during his stay.
On August 5, 1585, Captain John Arundell, having been
ordered to return to England, did so. The remainder of the
fleet, under Sir Richard Grenville, set sail on Augiist 25th,
leaving a garrison or colony of one hundred and seven men
on Roanoke Island.* The English Governor or '^General"
of the colony was Ralph Lane, heretofore mentioned. These
colonists under Lane remained on the island nearly a year.
Of Lane personally, the historian Hawks observes : "He had
the rough courage of a soldier of his day, he endured hard-
ships with his men, he had judgment to see that Roanoke
Island was not a proper site for the colony, and to devise a
plan by which two parties, one on the land and the other on
the water, should attempt to meet and find on the Chesapeake
Bay a better locality, of which he had heard from an Indian
prince, his prisoner. He had wit and prudence enough to
secure the fidelity of that prisoner by keeping his only son
as a hostage ; he pursued the wise policy of attaching that
son to him by great personal kindness. * * * The per-
sonal attachment he had created in his young hostage was the
means of discovering a widespread plot for the destruction
of the colony by the natives." The young hostage, just men-
tioned, was Skiko, son of Monatonon, King of the Chawa-
nooks or Chowan Indians. When Skiko was first captured,
he attempted to escape, and Lane threatened to have his head
cut off, thereby frightening him into better discipline. He
*For list of colonists under Lane, see Hakluyt (1810 edition), Vol. Ill, pp. 310-311.
Sm WALTER EALEIGH. 83
later treated him with marked kindness, in conseqnence of
which he remained a friend of the English throughout the
remainder of their stay.
Lane's only sources of information concerning the interior
of the country, except that in his immediate neighborhood,
were the statements made to him by the Indians, and hence
his accounts are not always accurate. Like the ancient He-
rodotus (who recorded the wonderful tales told him by all
travelers and thereby gained an unenviable reputation for
mendacity) Lane was often misled, but narratives of what
came under his personal observation are trustworthy. One
laughable inaccuracy in the geographical knowledge of the
early settlers (probably based on Indian authority) was the
belief that a near-by river flowed out of the Gulf of Mexico or
some bay in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean ! Another ac-
count said that this river gaished out of a huge rock at its
source, and this rock was so close to a great western sea that
in storms ''the waves thereof are beaten into the said fresh
stream, so that the fresh water, for a certain space, groweth
salt and brackish."
During the stay of Lane's colony at Roanoke, Granganimeo
died, and thereby the English lost a trusty friend. Upon his
death, for some reason not given, his brother. King Wingina,
changed his name to Pemisapan. Thereafter he entered into
numerous confederacies with other tribes for the destruction
of the whites, but these conspiracies were thwarted by the
vigilance, courage, and sagacity of Lane, aided by timely
warnings from Manteo, young Skiko, and other friendly In-
dians. Old Ensenore, father of King Wingina alias Pemisa-
pan, was also friendly to the colonists, but he died on the 20th
of April 1586. Wanchese, who had gone to England in
company with the friendly Manteo, became a lifelong enemy
of the English, for some cause which does not now appear to
84 THE NOETH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
Soon after the death of the King's father, the Indians
(having no one to restrain their unfriendly designs) entered
into a gigantic conspiracy for the purpose of exterminating
the whites. The plan was to go secretly by night and set fire
to the houses occuj^ied by Lane, Hariot, and other chief men
of the colony; and, when they rushed from the flames, un-
dressed and unarmed, to shoot them down, afterwards
slaughtering and dispersing their followers. The secret of
this conspiracy was communicated to Lane by young Skiko.
The evil genius at the head of the proposed uprising was
King Pemisapan, formerly known as Wingina, and Lane
promptly determined to strike the first blow, and once for all
rid his colonists of their inveterate enemy. He sent word
to the savage king that he wished to meet him. The chief
accordingly came to a place specified, with a large following
of armed tribesmen. At a given sigTial the king was shot
dovyn with a pistol, and a general battle ensued. In the
course of the melee, which proved a defeat for the savages,
their leader (who was supposed to be dead from the pistol
wound) suddenly sprang up and took to his heels. As he
ran, an Irish boy who held Lane's petronel (a hand-gun or
large pistol) wounded him again, but he disappeared into the
forest, pursued by an Irishman named Edward I^ugent. Lane
and some of his men soon followed, and met ISTugent coming
out of the wilderness with the King's head in his hand. Thus
were the settlers freed from their bitterest and most formid-
able enem}^, and for some time thereafter they were little
troubled by unfriendly savages.
During their entire stay on the island of Roanoke and in
its vicinity, the colonists were industriously engaged. They
shot game, caught fish, and planted corn in proper season, all
the while keeping armed watch against the approach of un-
friendl}^ Indians. Nor were their old enemies the Spaniards
SIB WALTER KALEIGH. 85
out of mind, as they had no assurance that these would not
pay them an unfriendly visit by water.
In the Roanoke company of colonists was a courageous
captain, Edward Stafford by name, of whom Lane says : ''I
must truly report of him, from the first to the last, he was
the gentleman that never spared labor or peril, either by land
or water, fair weather or foul, to perform any service com-
mitted unto him." This officer was sent with a well-manned
boat to the vicinity of an inlet, with instructions to be on the
watch for any ships which might be sent from England. On
June 1, 1586, Stafford sent a messenger to Lane with the
information that he had sighted a gTeat fleet of twenty-three
sail ; but, as he could not make out whether they were friends
or foes, all should be on their guard. Great was the joy of
the colonists when the commander of this formidable fleet
turned out to be the renowned Admiral Sir Francis Drake,
circumnavigator of the world, whose daring warfare against
the Spaniards had been the wonder of all Europe, and who
was to gain a fame still greater two years thereafter by his
share in destroying the '^Invincible Armada" of King Philip.
Like a true patriot, Drake placed the resources of his well
manned and thoroughly equipped fleet at the disposal of the
colonists on Eoanoke Island. A bark, pinnaces, canoes, muni-
tions of war, food, clothing, and all else needful, were offered
them, with a sufiicient complement of seamen to man such
craft as should be left for their use. In accepting this gener-
ous proffer, Lane requested Drake to receive on his fleet and
take to England all men whose health had suffered during
their stay in America, and to replace them with capable sea-
men and skilled artisans. The admiral was also requested
to leave a ship to convey the colonists back to England two
months thereafter, in August, if a promised relief expedition
under Grenville's command should not be sent to them by
their patron Sir Walter Raleigh. With the advice of his
86 THE NORTH CAEOLHSTA BOOKLET.
captains, Drake decided to leave the Francis, a brig of seventy
tons, and to put provisions on board in sufficient quantities
to supply a hundred men for four months. Two pinnaces and
four smaller boats were also to be left, with Captains Abra-
ham Kendall and Griffith Heme to direct navigation. While
these preparations were in progress a great storm arose and
continued for some days. All vessels in the fleet, including
the Francis, were driven out to sea many miles ; but Drake
returned with a much larger bark, the Bonner, of one hun-
dred and seventy tons, and tendered her to Lane in place of
the Francis, with like conditions and equipment. Wishing
to have the advice of his officers in the determination of a
matter so important. Lane called a council and it was the
opinion of all that ''the very hand of God seemed stretched
out to take them from hence," for the relief expedition
under Sir Richard Grenville had been promised them
before Easter, and that season was long passed. England,
it was believed by those at Roanoke, had so much to occupy
her armies and fleets against traitors at home and enemies
abroad, that the needed help could not be sent across the
water, so all the colonists decided to return at once in the
English fleet. Drake thereupon sent up pinnaces to bring
off their belongings, among which were valuable maps and
charts of the country. These latter, unfortunately, were
washed overboard and lost while the men were endeavoring
to place them aboard ship. The colonists themselves, how-
ever, got safely on board, and Drake "in the name of the
Almighty, weighed his anchors" on the 19th of June, 1586,
arriving in the English harbor of Plymouth on the 27th of
Though delayed by many vexatious circumstances bej^ond
his control Sir Walter Raleigh had not been unmindful of
the welfare of the colonists left at Roanoke, and sent (but
too late) a well-provisioned ship for their relief. This ves-
SIR WALTER KALEIGH.
sel arrived not long after Lane and his men had departed
in Drake's fleet. Finding the former settlement abandoned,
the relief ship returned to England, but not in time to com-
municate the discouraging news to another expedition of three
ships sailing bj Raleigh's orders under the command of Sir
Richard Grenville. Finding none of his countrymen at
Roanoke, but unwilling to abandon England's claim to the
land, Grenville left fifteen of his men to hold possession
of the island, and returned to England with his ships.
In the next year, 1587, Raleigh perfected plans for another
attempt at colonizing Roanoke, and wisely came to a realiza-
tion of the fact that no colony could be made permanent with-
out the presence of women. He therefore issued a charter or
commission constituting John White as Governor, with twelve
councilors, under the corporate name of "The Governor and
Assistants of the city of Raleigh in Virginia." JSTinety-one
men, seventeen women, and nine boys made up the company.
Two more, Virginia Dare and another baby named Harvie,
were born after the arrival in America, making one hundred
and twenty-one white persons in all.* In this expedition
was the faithful Manteo, who had again visited England, and
now returned to his native wilds with the whites. With him
was another friendly Indian, named Towaye.
The three ships bearing the colonists of 1587, sailed out
of Portsmouth, England, on the 26th of April, and arrived
at Cowes, on the Isle of Wight, the same date, tarrying in
the latter place for eight days. Leaving Cowes, they reached
Plymouth on the 5th of May; and, on the 8th of the same
month, began their westward journey. On the 16th of May,
Simon Ferdinando, the pilot, to whose former base conduct
I have already alluded, abandoned the fly-boat in the Bay of
Portugal, rejoined the fleet, and remained to practice more
treachery later on. The captain (Edward Spicer) and the
*For list of colonists under White, see Haklu>-t (1810 edition), Vol. Ill, p. 348.
88 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
daring crew of this flj-boat were not so helpless as the pilot
supposed they would be. They immediately set sail in their
little craft and safely crossed the Atlantic, rejoining their
comrades at Roanoke.
Sailing as before stated, the fleet with the colonists under
Governor White passed through the West Indies, stopping at
various islands there for drinking water, salt, game, and other
supplies, and started northward from Hispaniola about the
6th of July, arriving ten days later at Caj)e Fear, where the
traitor Ferdinando came near causing another wreck, his
design being thwarted by the vigilance of Captain Edward
Stafford, of whose courage and good conduct in the previous
expedition under Lane, I have already spoken. On July
22d, Hatorask (Hatteras) Inlet was reached, and there the
large ships anchored. Governor White manned a pinnance
with forty of his best men and started for Roanoke Island,
where he hoped to. find the fifteen men left by Grenville in
1586, the preceding year. None of these fifteen could be
found, but the bones of one (who had been murdered by the
savages) were discovered. It later was learned that all had
been treacherously slain, except some who escaped in a small
boat and were probably lost.
The day after his arrival at Roanoke, Governor White and
a strong body of his men walked to the north end of the
island, where the "city of Raleigh" had stood. They found
the fort destroyed, but many of the small dwelling houses
were in fair condition, and the party immediately set to work
repairing these huts. On the 28th of July, George Howe,
one of the colonists, was shot and killed by some Indians
who were the remnants of Wingina's tribe, with whom was
Wanchese. On the 30th of the same month, Captain Staf-
ford took a party, with Manteo as g-uide and interpreter, and
met the Indians on August 1st, offering to make peace with
them, forgetting all past differences. The savages promised
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 89
that their chiefs would come in for a conference on this sub-
ject and give their answer in the course of the next seven
days. jSTothing being heard in that time, Governor White
and Captain Stafford headed a party of colonists which at-
tacked an Indian encampment and wounded one or more
before it was discovered that they had fired upon a friendly
tribe from Croatan. The account of this transaction says:
"Although the mistaking of these savages somewhat grieved
Manteo, yet he imputed their harm to their own folly, saying
to them that if their weroances [chiefs] had kept their prom-
ise in coming to the Governor at the day appointed, they
had not known that mischance."
Both in America and England instructions in the principles
of the Christian religion had been imparted to Manteo, the
never-failing friend of the whites ; and, before the colonists
left England, Sir Walter Raleigh had expressly commanded
that this Indian should be baptized as soon as practicable
after arrival in his old home on Roanoke. It was probably
decided that this ceremony should take place in America in
order that the example might have the effect of causing other
Indians to embrace Christianity. Manteo was accordingly
baptized on Roanoke Island on the 13th of August, at the
same time being (by Raleigh's orders) created Lord of Roan-
oke and of Dasamonguepeuk, as a reward for his faithful
service. This was the first administration of the sacrament
of baptism, according to the rites of the Church of England,
which ever took place within the limits of the present United
States. Five days later, on the 18th, a daughter was born
to Ananias and Eleanor Dare, this little girl's mother being
a daughter of Governor White. As she was the first child
born in the new country, she was called Virginia, by which
name she was baptized on the first Sunday after her birth.
During the latter half of August it was determined to send
back to England for further supplies, but gTcat difficulty was
90 THE NORTH CAEOLIJSTA BOOKLET.
exj)erieiiced in securing the services of any officer to under-
take the mission. All the colonists finally united in a re-
quest that Governor White himself should go. This request
was at first refused, White saying that his return would be
looked upon by the public in England as a desertion of those
whom he had persuaded to undertake the voyage to America,
and would consequently bring gTeat discredit upon his name.
ITe also had misgivings about his personal belongings, which
he feared might be lost when the colonists moved further in-
land, as it was their intention to do later on. The colonists
then grew even more importunate, and White finally con-
sented, with much reluctance, after being given a signed cer-
tificate wherewith to justify his course in departing from
the colony which he had been sent to govern. He accordingly
set sail with one ship and a fly-boat on the 27th of August,
1587. At the outset of this return voyage, quite a number
of the fly-boat's crew were disabled by the breaking of a
capstan. Later the two crafts separated, as the larger one
(with the marplot Ferdinando on board) wished to trade at
the island of Tercera. White would not delay, but proceeded
in the fly-boat. All on board came near perishing for lack
of drinking water, and the boat lost its course in consequence
of foul weather. Finally those on the boat sighted a port,
which turned out to be the Irish town of Smerwick (the
scene of Raleigh's bloody work in 1580), and there the crew
gained much needed help. From Smerwick the boat pro-
ceeded to Dingen, five miles distant. There the boatswain,
the boatswain's mate, and the steward died on board, and
the master's mate and two other sick sailors were taken
ashore. On ISTovember 1st, Governor White took shipping
for England on another boat, and arrived in due time at a
port in Cornwall.
In April, 1588, Governor White made a futile attempt
to return with supplies for the relief of Raleigh's colonists
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 91
who had been left on Roanoke Island. The failure of this
attempt was due to the fact that the English went out of their
way in an attempt to secure Spanish prizes, were beaten in
a sea-fight which ensued, and finally were forced to return
for repairs. A few weeks later the great Spanish Armada
came. Then all the ships and seamen in England were
needed for purposes of national defense. Two more years
elapsed before White had another opportunity to return to
America, even then going as a passenger on a ship whose
first object was trading with or fighting against Spaniards in
the West Indies, after which it was to sail northward and see
if any of the colonists could be found on or around Roanoke
Island. The narrative of his experiences on shipboard,
during this voyage. White communicated to Richard Hak-
luyt, dating his letter of transmittal at "my house at Newtown
in Kilmore, the 4th of February, 1593," which was several
years after his return. The small fleet of three ships, in
which he took passage, sailed out of Plymouth on the 20th
of March, 1590. They cruised in the vicinity of Spain and
on the north coast of Africa for a few weeks and then set
sail for the West Indies. On May 7th, fresh water was se-
cured on the island of St. John, in the West Indies, and a
large Spanish prize was taken on the next day. Then fol-
lowed numerous sea-fights, and pillaging by land, in the terri-
tory of the Spaniards. On July 2d, White's old friend Cap-
tain Edward Spicer, joined the fleet at Cape Tyburon, after
a long voyage from England. We also find mention of Cap-
tain Lane, who was probably Ralph Lane, former Governor
of Roanoke. On the 13th of July the coast of Florida came
into view, and on August 3d the fleet sighted what is now
the coast of JSTorth Carolina, but was forced out to sea in a
storm, to avoid ship-wreck on the banks. Later the inland
waters were entered, and, on the 15th, Roanoke Island was
in close view. From this island was seen to arise a column
92 THE NOKTH CAEOLUSTA BOOKLET.
of smoke, which raised hopes that the colonists were still in
the vicinity of the locality where they had been left. A dili-
gent search for them proved fruitless. On the 16th of August,
White went ashore, accompanied by Captains Spicer and
Cooke, with a sufficient armed escort. Orders were left with
the master-gunner on shipboard to have shots iired, at stated
intervals, from two minions and a falcon (small pieces of
ordnance) to attract the attention of any English who might
be in the neighborhood; but reverberating echoes were the
only answer. On going ashore in the direction of another
column of smoke, the fire was located, but no human being —
white man or Indian — ^was found near it. The party, being
much fatigued, camped on the island for the night, but later
returned to the ships.
On the 17th of August, the greatest catastrophe of the
voyage occurred when a boat containing eleven men capsized
in trying to enter an inlet, and seven were drowned. Those
lost were the gallant Captain Spicer, to whose daring at sea
I have alluded more than once, also Master's-Mate Ealph
Skinner, Surgeon Hance, Edward Kelley, Thomas Bevis, Ed-
ward Kelborne, and Robert Coleman. The remaining four
were saved by the heroic eiforts of Captain Cooke and four
stout seamen who rowed to their rescue. The sailors were
much disheartened by this deplorable accident, but Governor
White and Captain Cooke prevailed on them to proceed with
an exploration of the vicinity which they wished to make.
Before Roanoke Island was again reached, dark had settled,
and another great fire was seen in the woods. White's nar-
rative of the voyage says : "When we came right over against
it, we let fall our grapnel near the shore and sounded with
a trumpet a call, and afterwards many English tunes of
songs, and called to them friendly, but we had no answer.
We therefore landed at daybreak; and, coming to the fire,
we found the grass and sundry rotten trees burning about
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 93
the place." White and his companions went through the
woods for a considerable distance, and then sailed around
the island until they reached the point where the colony had
been left in 1587. Upon the departure of White for Eng-
land in 1587, it had been agreed that if the colonists re-
moved, thej should cut on trees and posts the name of the
locality to which they had gone, and a cross should be cut
over the name if they were distressed. Upon one tree were
found the letters C K O, and CROAT OAI^ was cut on an-
other, but both were without the sign of distress agreed upon.
Of the further investigation White says : *'We entered into
the palisado, where we found many bars of iron, two pigs
of lead, four iron fowlers, iron sacker shot, and such like
heavy things, thrown here and there, almost overgrown with
grass and weeds. From thence we went along the waterside
toward the point of the creek, to see if we could find any of
their boats or pinnace, but we could perceive no sign
of them, nor any of the falcons or small ordnance which were
left mth them at my departure from them. At our return
from the creek, some of our sailors, meeting us, told us they
had found where divers chests had been hidden, and long
since digged up again and broken up, and much of the goods
in them spoiled and scattered about, but nothing left, of such
things as the savages knew any use of, undefaced. Presently
Captain Cooke and I went to the place, which was in the end
of an old trench, made two [s-ic] years past by Captain
Amadas, where we found five chests that had been carefully
hidden of the planters, and of the same chests three were my
own, and about the place many of my things spoiled and
broken, and my books torn from the covers, the frames of
some of my pictures and maps rotten and spoiled with rain,
and my armor almost eaten through with rust. This could
be no other than the deed of the savages, our enemies at
Dasamonguepeuk, who had watched the departure of our
94 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
men to Croatoaii, and, as soon as tliej were departed, digged
up every place where they suspected anything to be buried.
But although it much grieved me to see such spoil of my
goods, yet on the other side I greatly joyed that I had safely
found a certain token of their safe being at Croatoan, which
is the place where Manteo was born, and the savages of the
island our friends."
Returning from the scene of desolation at the old fort.
White, Coobe, and the remainder of their party regained
their ships, and then determined to proceed to Croatan. After
losing several anchors in a storm and suffering other mishaps,
however, it was determined to go to the West Indies for re-
pairs, spend the Winter there, and return in the Spring to
the vicinity of Roanoke for a further search. The captain
of one vessel, the Moonlight, objected to this plan, as his ship
was in bad shape generally and needed supplies, so he forth-
with sailed for .England. The remaining vessels pursued
their course to the West Indies, took several Spanish prizes,
and later joined a large fleet of warships under the command
of Admiral Sir John Hawkins. This admiral was watching
for a Spanish fleet which was known to be in the West Indies ;
but, by the counsel of his officers, he later decided that his
ships should '^spread themselves on the coast of Spain and
Portugal, so far as conveniently they might, for the sure
meeting of the Spanish fleet in those parts." In this last
mentioned plan the ship on which White sailed did not join,
as its captain determined to return to England. Leave was
accordingly taken of the redoubtable Hawkins on Sunday,
the 13th of September, and White reached Plymouth, in
England, on the 24th of October.
The fate of the colonists left on Roanoke Island in 1587
is one of the unsolved mysteries of the ages. Some believe
they were massacred. Others contend that, when all hope
for help had been abandoned, they became absorbed into the
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 95
tribe of Croatan Indians, whose friendship for the whites
had been so often manifested. Mr. Hamilton McMillan and
Dr. Stephen B. Weeks have written monographs in support
of this contention, while Bishop Cheshire and others have
vigorously argued the contrary. As a single word, cut on a
tree, was the only message found, I shall not endeavor to
discuss the conflicting theories. In the words of Mrs. Mar-
garet J. Preston, a Virginia poetess :
"The mystery rests a mystery still.
Unsolved of mortal man;
Sphinx-like, untold, the ages hold
The tale of CRO-A-TAN."
Some writers have ignorantly charged that Raleigh heart-
lessly abandoned the Lost Colony of 1587, and made no effort
to discover and rescue its members. This is far from true.
One old nautical historian, Samuel Purchas, while referring
to the year 1602, says that Ealeigh then sent Captain Samuel
Mace, who had been to Virginia twice before, on another
voyage to hunt for the Lost Colony "to whose succor he had
sent five several times at his own charges." By the time Mace
returned from this voyage, Raleigh had been attainted as a
traitor, his estates had been confiscated, and he could do no
As every one knows, Raleigh's explorers brought back with
them an edible tuber, theretofore unknown to Europeans,
called the potato. Raleigh experimented with it on his estates
in Ireland with so much success that it became the chief food-
stuff of that country and is generally called the Irish Potato
after the land to which it was transplanted. Thus an im-
portation by Raleigh, who had often wasted Ireland with
the fire and sword, has often been the salvation of that country
when other food crops have failed. Tobacco, too, was brought
from the ISTew World, and Raleigh was joined by his friends
in acquiring its use by puffing it from small silver bowls.
96 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
We have all heard the story of how Sir Walter's first smoke
was interrupted by an alaraied servant who dashed a cup of
spiced ale in his face to extinguish the fire.
Art and archecology in our day are also debtors to the
Roanoke colonists, for Governor White was a talented artist,
who not only made maps of the new land but also water-
color drawings of the natives. His paintings of the Indians
are still preserved in the British Museum. At the time of
the Jamestown Exposition, in 1907, Colonel Bennehan
Cameron, of this State, employed a competent artist to make
copies of these paintings for the use of the North Carolina
Historical Exhibit ; and, after the close of the Exposition,
he presented them to the North Carolina Hall of History
in the city of Raleigh, where they may still be seen.
And now, as Raleigh bade farewell to his cherished hopes
of colonization on this spot, we must say farewell to the sad
story of its failure. The prosecution of these noble but un-
successful designs cost an immense sum, and not a few lives.
I have already told how seven men were drowned by the cap-
sizing of a pinnace ; and others, who are known to have sought
safety in small boats amid the horrors of Indian warfare,
were doubtless lost at sea. These sad circumstances lend a
touch of reality to the beautiful poem Ilatteras, by the late
Joseph W. Holden, of Raleigh, wherein a skull cast up on
Cape Hatteras is supposed to voice its tale of the past and
warning to the present in these lines :
"When life was young, adventure sweet,
I came with Walter Raleigh's fleet,
But here my scattered bones have lain
And bleached for ages by the main!
Though lonely once, strange folks have come,
Till peopled is my barren home;
Enough are here: oh, heed the cry,
Ye white-winged strangers sailing by!
The bark that lingers on this wave
Will find its smiling but a grave!"
SIK WALTER KALEIGH. 97
It was in 1588 that all true Englishmen flew to arms at
news of the coming of the great fleet which the Spaniards
in their pride called the "Invincible Armada." On sea and
land every available man was mustered into the service of
the realm which was so much imperiled. The lion-hearted
Queen herself, though no longer young, laid aside womanly
apparel and rode through the great camp at Tilbury in a
full suit of armor, encouraging her people in a speech filled
with expressions of confidence in their fidelity and valor.
In the course of her address she said : "We have been per-
suaded by some, that are careful of our safety, to take heed
how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of
treachery ; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust
my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear; I have
always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my
chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good
will of my subjects, and therefore I am come among you,
as you see at this time, not for my recreation and disport,
but being resolved, in the midst and heat of battle, to live
or die amongst you all."
In the defense of England against the Spanish Armada
it is needless to say that Ealeigh played the part of a loyal
subject and true man. When a council of nine was formed
to consider the state of national fortifications and defenses,
Raleigh sat in that body, being styled "Lieutenant-General
of Cornwall." The only member of this council below the
rank of knighthood was Ralph Lane, former Governor of
Roanoke, and he was later knighted in recognition of his
many services to the kingdom at home and abroad. In both
England and Ireland, Raleigh was active in disciplining the
levies raised to defend the realm against the Armada ; and,
v/hen it became apparent that no fighting was soon to be done
on land, he relinquished his army commands and betook
98 • THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
himself to the channel, there aiding materially, as captain
of a ship, in the destruction of the Spanish war vessels.
In March, 1589, after having spent more than forty thou-
sand pounds in his attemj^t to plant colonies in ''Virginia,"
with no financial returns for the outlay, Raleigh, as Chief
Governor, sold his rights to trade (though not his patent) in
that locality to a corporation or company composed of Thomas
Smith, John White, Richard Hakluyt, and others.
In 1589, as a retaliation for the Armada, the English
fitted up a fleet for the purpose of restoring Don Antonio
to the throne of Portugal, and thereby weakening Spanish
influence in that kingdom. Six warships and one hundred
and twenty volunteer vessels, under Sir Francis Drake and
Sir John ISTorris, went on this expedition. With them sailed
Raleigh in a ship of his o\vn. The English burned Vigo,
destroyed two hundred vessels in the Tagus River (many
of them containing stores for a new invasion of England),
and attacked Lisbon, Aside from the capture of valuable
spoils little else was accomplished.
In 1592, Philip of Spain was believed to be fostering fur-
ther hostile designs upon England, and Elizabeth decided
to divert his attack by sending a fleet against the Spanish
possessions in Panama. Raleigh was placed in command
of the English fleet. On May 6th, he set sail, but on the
next day he was overtaken in a swift-sailing boat by Sir
Martin Frobisher, with the Queen's peremptory order to re-
turn to England and to leave his fleet under the joint com-
mand of Erobisher and Sir John Burgh. Raleigh remained
with the fleet long enough to give particular directions to
his two successors in command and then sailed back to Eng-
land, much puzzled to know the reason of his recall. He
was not left long in doubt. Court gossip, connecting his
name with that of a maid of honor, Elizabeth Throckmorton,
had come to the ears of the Queen and she promptly sent the
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 99
offending courtier to the Tower of London. A letter written
at the time sajs of Ealeigh and Miss Throckmorton : ''It is
affirmed that they are married, but the Queen is most furi-
ously incensed." The exact date when Raleigh's marriage
to Miss Throckmorton took place does not appear, but the
Queen later needed his services and ordered his release,
though it took him a long time to regain the favor of his
royal mistress. As for his wife, she became his heroic and
devoted friend and companion throughout the remainder of
his life, in adversity and prosperity alike, never ceasing her
labors in his behalf until his head rolled from the block in
1618. She was a daughter of Sir E^icholas Throckmorton,
then deceased, a former councilor at the court of Elizabeth.
Lady Kaleigh is described as tall, slender, blue-eyed, and
As England was not an absolute monarchy even in the
days of Elizabeth, and as Raleigh had been committed to the
Tower without due process of law, he might possibly have
secured an earlier release through legal means, but chose a
more unique method, by writing a letter to Robert Cecil,
trusting that it would come to the eye of the Queen. As the
Queen was going away from the vicinity of the Tower for a
short season, her imprisoned courtier sent forth a lamentation
in these words: "My heart was never broken till this day
that I hear the Queen goes away so far off — whom I have
followed so many years with so great love and desire, in so
many journeys, and am now left behind her in a dark prison
all alone. While she was yet nigher at hand, that I might
hear of her once in two or three days, my sorrows were the
less ; but even now my heart is cast into the depth of all
misery. I that was wont to behold her riding like Alexander,
hunting like Diana, walking like Venus, the gentle wind
blowing her fair hair about her pure cheeks like a nymph;
sometimes sitting in the shade like a Goddess; sometimes
100 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
singing like an angel ; sometimes playing like Orpheus. Be-
hold the sorrow of this world ! Once amiss hath bereaved
me of all ! Oh Glory, that shineth in misfortune, what is
become of thy assurance ? * * * She is gone in whom
I trusted, and of me hath not one thought of mercy." When
we reflect that the Queen, at the time this letter was written,
was in her sixtieth year, gray-haired, wrinkled, and ugly as
the proverbial home-made sin, we are almost tempted to doubt
Sir Walter's sincerity in painting her as a beautiful fairy
princess with all the entrancing attributes of heavenly angels,
heathen deities, anel earthly heroes. Raleigh's imprisonment
in the Tower was not rigorous. He was in the custody of
his cousin, Sir George Carew, Master of Ordnance in that
strong-hold, and the Queen had given orders that his friends
should have free access to him, while servants attended his
every want. Even his offices were not taken away from him,
and he discharged his duties by deputies. On one occasion
when it came to his ear that the Queen would soon pass down
the Thames in her barge, he asked Carew to let him be dis-
guised as a boatman and go near the barge under guard, that
he might feast his eyes on the royal object of his adoration
once more. The request was of course refused, whereupon
Raleigh became frantic and attacked his keeper in seeming
desperation, though no further harm was done than the in-
jury of his Cousin George's new periwig.
There is a homely old saying that "fair words butter no
parsnips," and Raleigh soon discovered that they were equally
powerless to unlock the gates of the Tower of London, But
his release came in September. In that month Frobisher
and Burgh returned to Plymouth with the fleet of which he
was still the titular "General" or Admiral, and with them
brought many valuable spoils taken from the Spaniards, so
the services of Raleigh were needed in making partition be-
tween the Queen and those who financed the voyage. Among
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 101
the latter was Admiral Sir John Hawkins, who had
urged that Raleigh should be sent. He accordingly went
to Plymouth under guard. Though one of Raleigh's con-
temporaries had described him as "the best hated man
of the world in court, city, and country," his reception at
Plymouth did not seem to indicate it. Referring to his ar-
rival there, Robert Cecil wrote: "I assure you, sir, his
poor servants, to the number of one hundred and forty goodly
men, and all the mariners, came to him with shouts of joy.
I never saw a man more troubled to quiet them. But his
heart is broken, as he is extremely pensive, unless he is
busied, in which he can toil terribly. The meeting between
him and Sir John Gilbert was with tears on Sir John's part.
But he, finding it known that he has a keeper, whenever he
is saluted with congratulations for liberty, doth answer^ ^'No,
I am still the Queen of England's poor captive.' I wished
him to conceal it, because here it doth diminish his credit,
which I do vow to you before God is greater among the mari-
ners than I thought for." Finally the Queen's anger sim-
mered do^vn, and Raleigh was relieved from his nominal
In 1594 Raleigh secured a charter from Queen Elizabeth
for his first expedition to Guiana, on the northern coast of
South America. As a preliminary he sent one of his most
experienced officers, Captain Jacob Whiddon to spy out the
route and report his findings. Upon Whiddon's return, Ra-
leigh's expedition sailed in 1595. With him were his nephew,
John Gilbert, son of Sir Humphrey, and Captain Laurence
Keymis. On the voyage to South America the forces of Ra-
leigh captured and burned the town of St. Joseph on the
island of Trinidad. On the continent of South America the
explorers penetrated far inland, up the Orinoco River,
and enjoyed most friendly relations with the natives, who
had suffered much from Spanish cruelty and were conse-
102 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
quentlj willing to render all aid and assistance to the Eng-
lish upon learning that they were enemies of Spain. Much
time was spent in explorations bj Ealeigh before he left the
continent. It was his hope to sail northward for the purpose
of making a personal attempt to find and relieve his settlers
here on Roanoke, but he was prevented by storms and other
circumstances. While in South America he collected much
ore, as samples, though he did not engage in mining on a
large scale. On his return voyage the Spanish towns of
Cumana, Santa Maria, and Rio de la Hacha refused to
furnish his fleet with supjDlies, and were sacked and burned
in consequence. Before Raleigh left England his enemies
had prophesied that he would never return, but would enter
the service of Spain. This absurd charge was disproved by
his return, and then those same enemies sought to discredit
his account of discoveries, especially of precious ores. Some
modern historians — Hume and others — have branded Ra-
leigh's narrative as a collection of lies, but recent discoveries
of rich gold fields in Venezuela (a part of Raleigh's Guiana)
have partly or wholly justified his statements. In 1596, in
fulfillment of a promise to the Indians to return to Guiana,
Raleigh sent Captain Keymis with the ships Darling and
Discovery, laden with presents for the Indians. In the mean-
time San Thome, in Guiana, had been heavily fortified by the
Spaniards, so Keymis avoided that town and went towards
the mines by another route. Later he returned to England,
bringing with him little more than samples of gold ore. Thus
ended Raleigh's earlier expeditions to Guiana- — ventures to
be resumed near his life's end, as I shall relate hereafter.
When rumors of the coming of the Spanish Armada of
1588 first reached England, Raleigh had boldly volunteered
for an expedition to sail into the Spanish harbors and burn
the ships of King Philip while they were being fitted up.
This advice was rejected as the dream of a desperate vision-
SIE WALTER RALEIGH. 103
ary. Eight years later, however, in 1596, when news came
that the indefatigable Philip was building another fleet (sixty-
ships) for an invasion of Ireland, where he hoped for many
allies, Raleigh again urged Elizabeth to strike the first blow,
and this time his advice was followed. The result was a
brilliant success. With the English fleet of ninety-six sail,
went twenty-four Dutch ships, making one hundred and
twenty vessels in all. On these ships were fourteen thousand
English and twenty-six hundred Dutch troops. Lord Ad-
miral Howard and the Earl of Essex were in joint command.
This fleet divided itself into four squadrons, one of which
was commanded by Ealeigh, under whom were thirteen hun-
dred and fifty-two sailors and eighteen hundred and seventy-
five soldiers. The fleet sailed out of Plymouth on June 1,»
1596, and, on the 20th of the same month anchored within
half a league of Cadiz. In the attack on that city the fol-
lowing day, Raleigh led the van in a vessel called the War-
spright, with a crew of two hundred and ninety men. As
the Warspriglit advanced, followed by five other English
ships, four huge galleons appeared, bearing the usual saintly
names of those "children of the Devil," the Spaniards. They
were the St. Philip, the St. Matthew, the St. Andrew, and
the St. Thomas — "those Apostles aforesaid," as Raleigh after-
wards called them. All of these galleons moored under the
guns of Fort Puntal, with three galleys about each ; and
then the batteries on sea and land opened a furious can-
nonading on the invaders. The largest Spanish ships were
the St. Philip and the St. Andrew, wh^'ch had been with the
fleet of fifty-three which sank the ship Revenge and killed its
commander Sir Richard Grenville, Raleigh's kinsman. Ra-
leigh now vowed that he would be "reveiiged for the Revenge
or second her with his own life." This was no idle boast.
Though the Warspright was nearly sunk, the ships of the
other English commanders came rushing to her assistance,
104 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
and two got the start of her, but Raleigh was unwilling to
relinquish his perilous post of honor, so he again succeeded
in running ahead and blocked further advance by laying his
ship athwart the channel in order, as he said, that ''none
other should outstart him that day." He and his crew next
grappled the St. Philip, and were soon reinforced by the ether
English vessels, when a wild panic seized the Spaniards, who
ran their galleons aground and attempted to burn them, but
the English were too quick for this and captured all but the
St. Philip and the St. Thomas which were blown up by their
captains. The English spared the lives of their captives,
but the Dutch partly paid off their score for Alva's cruelties
by mercilessly butchering prisoners until the forces of the
Lord Admiral and Kaleigh beat them off. These Flemings,
Raleigh declared, contributed little or nothing to the winning
of the victory. Toward the close of the sea-fight, Ealeigh
was badly w^ounded in the leg, but had himself borne ashore
on the shoulders of his men when the land forces disembarked.
After landing, the troops, under the chief command of Essex,
first swept eight hundred Spanish horsemen from their path,
and then captured all the fortifications of the city except the
castle ; and that, too, surrendered on the next day. Spoils
of the town and ransoms for w^ealthy prisoners were the re-
wards of the victors. Said Raleigh: ''We stayed not to
pick any lock, but brake open the doors ; and, having rifled
all, threw the key into the fire." The "key" here alluded
to was the city of Cadiz, which had been described as
one of the three keys of the kingdom of Spain. Other locali-
ties around Cadiz were also sacked and burned, and the vic-
torious expedition finally returned to England, Raleigh ar-
riving there ahead of the rest on August 6th.
Raleigh's splendid services at Cadiz restored h"m in a
large measure to the good graces of Queen Elizabeth, and
SIK WALTER EALEIGH. 105
he once more became an inmate of her Court, where there
was a bitter rivalry between himself and Essex.
So happy were the English over their victories in Spain
that, in 1597, they organized a campaign against Spanish
possessions in the West Indies. This expedition by sea is
known as the "Islands Voyage." Time will not allov. me
to go into its full details. In the course of the cruise, Raleigh
landed without orders and stormed the strongholds of the
island of Fayal, thereby kindling anew the jealousy of his
chief commander, the Earl of Essex, who arrived too late
to share the honors of the day. IsTumerous rich ships of the
Spaniards also fell a prey to the English on this voyage.
I can not here tell in full the story of the feud between
Ealeigh and Essex, but it was bitter and lasting. Though
Ealeigh was at his post, as Captain of the Guard, when the
fallen Earl was in later years led to the block, he withdrew
before the final stroke for fear it should be charged that he
gloated over the execution. In later years, when it was
charged that he had a hand in the destruction of his former
rival, he said : "It is true that I was of an opposite faction,
but I take God to witness that I had no hand in his death.
* * * My soul hath many times been grieved that I was
not nearer to him when he died, as I understood afterwards
that he asked for me, desiring to be reconciled."
In 1600, Ealeigh was advanced to the important post of
Governor of the Isle of Jersey, and greatly improved the
conditions of that locality by his administration of its affairs.
The great Queen Elizabeth died in the early Spring of
1603, and gave place to the cowardly descendant of a warlike
race of Scottish monarchs. King James the First of England
and Sixth of Scotland. Before the arrival of James in
London, his mind had been poisoned against Raleigh by the
latter's enemies, and he was not long in stripping Elizabeth's
former favorite of all the honors held by him. In a short
106 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
time Ealeigh was deprived of his posts as Captain of the
Guard and Governor of Jersey, likewise being shorn of the
monopolies and special privileges conferred by the late Queen.
He was also ejected from Durham House (an episcopal resi-
dence) and Sherborne Castle upon which he held long leases.
If he could now conveniently be proved a traitor, the efforts
for his destruction would be crowned with complete success.
Finally that opportunity presented itself when Lord Cobham
became involved in a conspiracy to seat Lady Arabella Stuart
on the throne of England. In an effort to save his own life,
Cobham had accused Raleigh ; later the conscience-stricken
nobleman retracted his charge; afterwards renewed it, with
more retractions later, and this was the farcical evidence
upon which Raleigh was convicted. In much bitterness of
spirit he wrote his wife : "All my services, hazards, and
exjDenses for my country — plantings, discoveries, fights, coun-
cils, and whatever else — malice hath now covered over. I
am now made an enemy and a traitor by the word of an un-
On September 21, 1G03, Raleigh was indicted for having
conspired to deprive the King of his Crown, to alter the true
religion, and to levy war. The trial was begun in Winchester
on ISTovember 17th, Lord Chief Justice Pophani presiding.
The eminent legal dignitary just named had been, by turns,
a gambler, a drunkard, and a highwayman, afterwards mend-
ing his ways to some extent and reading law. With Popham
sat many other men of note, the King being careful to select
one or more whom he knew to be bitter enemies of Raieigh.
Attorney-General Coke, Serjeant Hele, and Serjeant Phillips
were attorneys for the prosecution. In that day the laws
of England did not give prisoners the advantage of counsel,
and hence Raleigh had to plead his own cause, which he did
with ability, dignity, and decorum. I shall not trouble my
hearers with an account of this trial. The absurdity of the
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. lOY
accusation is now admitted by all men, while tbe underhanded
displacement of impartial jurymen and the disgraceful con-
duct of the King's attorneys will ever remain as blots upon
the justice of the reign in which they occurred. In speaking
of the behavior of Attorney-General Coke during the trial,
an eminent Baltimore lawyer, J. Morrison Harris, said in
an address on Ealeigh before the Maryland Historical So-
ciety in 1846 : "The conduct of Coke, the King's attorney,
was disgraceful to the position he occupied — to the sovereign
he represented — to the profession to which he belonged — the
age in which he lived — and the manhood he shamed. He
was, throughout the trial, ungenerous and unjust; overbear-
ing and cruel ; brutal and insolent." Continuing, Mr. Harris
says: ''Venality soiled the ermine of the judge, and power
controlled the decision of the jury. The former pronounced
his doom with as much alacrity as he had formerly shewn
in taking purses on the highway, or bribes upon the bench;
and the latter, in their eagerness to perform their part well,
overdid it ; so that the malignant Coke, when he heard that
they had found him guilty of treason, exclaimed to the mes-
senger: 'Surely thou art mistaken; I myself only accused
him of misprision of treason !' " The programme for Raleigh's
conviction having been duly carried out by the jury, he was
condemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. He peti-
tioned for a reprieve, writing to Cecil : "Your Lordship will-
find that I have been strangely practiced against, and that
others have their lives promised to accuse me."
On December 10, 1603, James granted Raleigh a re-
prieve and the prisoner was carried from the place of trial
at Winchester back to London, where he was confined in
the Tower to await the King's pleasure.
In his work entitled Ker Majesty's Tower, Hepworth
Dixon says: "The most eminent and interesting prisoner
ever lodged in the Tower is Raleigh ; eminent by his personal
108 THE JSrOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
genius, interesting from bis political fortune. Raleigli has,
in higher degree than any other captive who fills the Tower
with story, the distinction that he was not the prisoner of
his country but the prisoner of Spain." And so he was,
during the latter part of his captivity. While in the Tower
he did not spend his time in useless repining, but well ex-
emplified the truth of the old lines :
"Stone walls do not a prison make
Or iron bars a cage;
A free and quiet mind can take
These for a hermitage."
The story of Raleigh's confinement is a long record of noble
literary and scientific achievements, too numerous to relate.
The most important of his productions was a History of the
World, which would have immortalized his name if he had
no other title to distinction. Some of his poetical produc-
tions are most charming.
Though the statement may be strong, I doubt if there has
ever been a man in the history of the world of whom so many
biographies have been written as those which treat of Ra-
leigh's career. Xumerous publications of his works have
also been made, the standard edition being issued in eight
volumes by the University of Oxford in 1829, the first volume
in this series giving two separate biographies (written many
years before), one by William Oldys and the other by Thomas
Birch, and the last volume containing a collection of his
At times Raleigh's confinement in the Tower was light,
and at times oppressive beyond reason. Within the confines
of that gloomy stronghold "Raleigh's Walk" still preserves
his name. Once, during his imprisonment, to test the effect
which his death would have upon the public mind, the news
was spread abroad that he had committed suicide. Later his
captors tempted him to take that step by placing weapons
SIK WALTER KALEIGH. 109
within his reach and turning his mind to the subject by dis-
coursing upon that custom of the old Romans when they
wished to end the ills of life. When conversations took this
turn, Raleigh ''spoke very gravely against self-murder, saying
that for himself he would die in the light of day and in the
face of his countrymen."
In his confinement Raleigh had many unflinching and in-
fluential friends, among the most devoted being Prince Henry,
heir apparent to the throne, whose untimely death added to
the misfortunes of the captive. Prince Henry constantly
labored for Raleigh's release and visited him frequently in
the Tower, while the prisoner sought to return the kindness
by giving his royal visitor the benefit of his long experience
in state-craft and military operations on land and water. One
naval treatise he wrote for the especial instruction of Henry.
Queen Anne was also Raleigh's friend. Among the countless
throngs who sought his society while he was a prisoner was
Thomas Hariot, who had been one of the voyagers to Roanoke
Island, and to whose pen we of the present day are indebted
for much of the early history of English colonization on this
spot. Raleigh readily and generously gave of his means to
enable Hariot to pursue his studies ; and, when powerless to
render him further assistance, sought and obtained for him
congenial employment in the service of the Earl of ISTorth-
umberland, a patron of letters and benefactor of scholars.
Raleigh was a sailor at heart and took a keen interest
in the welfare of the mariners of his country. While in the
Tower he contrived a process, designed for their benefit,
whereby salt water could be made fresh and used for drink-
ing purposes. Later he was deprived of his chemical appa-
ratus, and the secret was thereby lost, not being re-discovered
until modern times.
At times Raleigh had his heroic and devoted wife as the
companion of his confinement, and one of his sons was born
110 THE NOBTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
in the Tower. Lady Kaleigh exhausted every means in the
interest of her husband during life, and called down curses
(later fulfilled) upon those who robbed him and his children
of Sherborne Castle and other property which his wealth
had beautified. The Sherborne estate alone had brought an
income of five thousand pounds annually, and yet in later
years, by way of restitution, Raleigh was only given eight
thousand pounds in satisfaction of the ninety-nine year lease
which he had held. In speaking of Raleigh's family it may
be here mentioned that he left two sons: Walter (unmar-
ried), to whose death in South America I shall later call at-
tention; and Carew (1605-1666), who was educated at Ox-
ford, was a Cavalier in the Civil War of the next reign, mem-
ber of Parliament, cooperator with Monk in the Restoration,
and Governor of Jersey, the post formerly held by his father.
The maiden name of his wife was Philippa Weston, at the
time of her marriage widow of Sir Anthony Ashley. By this
marriage Carew Raleigh had two sons, Walter (a knight,
who died unmarried) ; and Philip, who married and left four
sons and three daughters. Through them Sir Walter Raleigh
doubtless has descendants now living.
Though King James could not be moved by mercy to order
the release of Sir Walter Raleigh from the Tower, his cu-
pidity was finally responsive to appeals in the prisoner's be-
half. Raleigh still had hopes of great wealth to be found in
the Spanish possessions in Guiana, in South America, where
he had voyaged before, in 1595, and James was not averse
to having a chance at such a share as would fall by law into
the Royal treasury, though too cowardly to hold himself
answerable to Spain for having authorized the sailing of this
expedition. Raleigh was accordingly released from the Tower
in 1616, and for the last time sailed westward on the 28th of
March, 1617. With the eight thousand pounds allowed him
for his lease on Sherborne Castle, with some purchase money
SIK WALTER RALEIGH. Ill
which had been paid Lady Raleigh for landed property held
in her own right, and the sale of family plate, Raleigh risked
his all in this expedition, though history sometimes ac-
cuses him of going on this voyage when he knew it would
be unsuccessful. While in the Tower he had agreed to either
bring back a ton of rich gold ore from Guiana, or return and
spend the remainder of his days in prison. Raleigh's flagship,
the Destiny^ was commanded by his son. Captain Walter
Raleigh, and with him also sailed a nephew, Captain George
Raleigh. Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to keep the destina-
tion of his expedition a secret, but his confidence was be-
trayed by the King himself in an attempt to shift from his
own shoulders all blame in the eyes of the Spanish minister
in London. Hence before Raleigh had gotten well out to
sea, his destination was known in the Court of Madrid. King
James had authorized Raleigh to seek gold in territory which
he knew was then occupied by Spain. He likewise knew
that the supposed feeling of the Devil for holy water was a
Damon and Pythias friendship in comparison vsdth the hatred
which existed between English and Spanish colonists in the
I^ew World, and yet he sought to convince Spain that he
had no unfriendly motive in authorizing Raleigh to proceed
westward. Raleigh's fleet finally reached the mouth of the
Orinoco River, in South America ; but there he became ill,
and hence was unable to head the expedition which was
preparing to march inland. The leadership of these land
forces he confided to a veteran sailor who had been with him
in Guiana before. Captain Laurence Keymis, with Captain
George Raleigh, second in command. Keymis first met a
Spanish force, which he routed, and then took possession
of the town of San Thome. Further up the road towards
the mines of which he was in search, another Spanish
detachment was discovered to be in ambush, and so formid-
able were their numbers that Keymis deemed it prudent to
112 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
return to the ships. In the course of the fighting which had
occurred Raleigh's son and namesake was killed. This young
man had been a wild character in youth, but doubtless had
gathered wisdom in his more mature years, as evidenced by
so prudent a commander as his father entrusting him with
important posts on both land and water during this expedi-
tion. His death was of course a deep grief to his father.
The failure of the expedition to the mines was a source of
much disappointment to Raleigh, and his reproac3ies to
Keymis caused the unfortunate Captain to commit suicide.
The chances of success in Guiana now being most unfavorable,
Raleigh made a voyage all the way to ITewfoundland in order
to re-fit and renew his efforts against the Spanish possessions
in South Ameria. In ISTewfoundland a portion of his crew
became mutinous, and he deemed it advisable to return to
England, which he accordingly did. Prior to his return. Don
Diego Sarmientos. de Acuna, Count Gondomar, diplomatic
representative of Spain at the English Court had made formal
complaint to King James on account of the breach of peace
which had been committed by his fleet-commander at a time
when no war existed between England and Spain, and had
denounced Raleigh as a pirate. King James was then making
every effort to effect a match between Prince Charles, his
heir, and a Spanish princess, so he basely denied all responsi-
bility for the expedition he had authorized, and issued a
proclamation for the arrest of Raleigh, who was accordingly
taken into custody and re-committed to the Tower. Says Mr.
Harris, in the address already quoted: "A writ of Pri^^
Seal was then despatched to the Judges, commanding them
to order its [the former warrant's] execution. They shrank
from the flagrant injustice. They declared that neither the
writ of Privy Seal, nor even a warrant under the Great Seal,
could authorize them, after so long an interval of time, to
execute the sentence without first affording the prisoner an
SIK WALTER RALEIGH. 113
opportunity of pleading in person against it; and they re-
solved to bring him to the bar by a writ of habeas corpus, to
answer why execution should not be awarded against him."
The King approved this plan, and Raleigh was hurried from
a sick bed to the bar at Westminster. It is needless to tell
of the outcome of these proceedings, wherein, at the instiga-
tion of Spain, an illustrious Englishmen was doomed to die
on the false charge that he had — sixteen years before —
plotted to dethrone King James in favor of Arabella Stuart,
a claimant who then had the warm support of Spain. With
all haste, James signed the death warrant, and Raleigh was
led to the block in Palace Yard, on October 29th (ISTo-
vember 8th new style) 1618. On the day of execution
the High Sheriff offered his prisoner a slight delay in order
that he might warm himself before he said his prayers, but
this offer was declined, Raleigh saying that an ague, to which
he was subject, would soon come on again and cause his ene-
mies to say that he quaked from fear. He met his death with
courage and Christian fortitude. To a question from Dean
Tounson, as to his religious belief, he replied that he died
in the faith professed by the Church of England, and hoped
to have his sins washed away by the precious blood of our
Savior Christ. He carefully felt the edge of the executioner's
axe, remarking that it was "a sharp remedy but a cure for
all diseases." As he was about to kneel on the block he was
told to turn his face toward the east, but answered that it
was "no matter how the head should lay if the heart were
right." At the request of friends, however, he did face east-
ward. Then he gave a signal, and the fatal blow was struck.
Soon after Raleigh's death, when King James was still
striving to effect a Spanish match for his son, he caused a
letter to be written to one of his representatives in Spain,
saying that he "had caused Sir Walter Raleigh to be put to
death CHIEFLY for the giving them [the Spaniards] satis-
114 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
faction." In commenting on this admission, Dr. Hawks truly
observes : '^JSTo further evidence is necessary. Raleigh was
murdered and James was his murderer." And the memory
of Raleigh left its mark on the heart of that murderer ; for,
in later years, when young Carew Raleigh was brought to
Court by his kinsman, the Earl of Pembroke, that nobleman
soon carried him therefrom because the conscience-stricken
King was haunted by the lad's resemblance to his father,
declaring that he "looked like Sir Walter Raleigh's ghost."
In j)ersonal appearance Raleigh is represented to have been
tall and well-proportioned, with thick curly locks, beard, and
mustache, full red lips, bluish grey eyes, high forehead, and
long bold face. A number of portraits of him were painted,
among these being more than one by Federigo Zuccarro, a
Florentine artist who lived in England during the reigii of
Elizabeth. One of the Zuccaro portraits was handsomely
copied in oil, several years ago, by order of Mr. Walter F.
Burns, who presented the reproduction to Chief Justice Clark,
of the Supreme Court of this State. Though highly valuing
this beautiful gift from an esteemed friend, the Chief Justice
generously decided that a more appropriate place for it to be
displayed would be the Mayor's Office in Raleigh, so he pre-
sented it to that city. Mr. Burns, at whose order this copy
was made, is a grandson of Captain Otway Burns, commander
of the privateer S^iapdragon in the War of 1812-'15, an
American successor of the daring sea-rangers of the reign of
In an address delivered in the city of Raleigh before the
State Literary and Historical Association of j^orth Carolina,
on JSTovember 4, 1909, the Right Honorable James Brvce,
Ambassador from Great Britain to the United States, said,
referring to those who have both made and written history :
"Such an one was the famous man who may be called the
first founder of ISTorth Carolina and whom you have fitly
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 115
commemorated in the name of the chief city of your State —
Sir Walter Raleigh. The adventurer is always an attractive
type, because spirit, courage, and love of discovery have a
perpetual fascination, and when the explorer or conqueror
has aims not wholly selfish, we are glad to palliate his faults.
Raleigh had his faults, but he was a fine specimen of the
bold, versatile, keen-witted, large-visioned man of the Eliza-
bethan age, not very scrupulous, but with gifts which engage
our sympathy, and rich in intellectual power. He was both
a man of action and a man of letters, and might, had cir-
cumstances allowed, have shone as brightly in the latter as he
did in the former field. He was a true Elizabethan in his
intellectual culture, in his largeness of spirit, in his far-
reaching imagination — a worthy contemporary of Shake-
speare and Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser and
Though iNTorth Carolina's capital city of Raleigh is, in
itself, a monument "more lasting than brass," a plan is now
on foot to erect in that city a bronze likeness of Sir Walter
Raleigh that coming generations may behold the majestic
form of this gTeat fore-runner of English civilization in
America. A sum something upwards of a thousand dollars
(made up of small contributions) has already been placed
in the hands of the treasurer of the association which is to
erect this monument, Mr. Joseph G. Brown, President of the
Citizens ISTational Bank, of Raleigh, and this sum will doubt-
less be increased to a proportion which will creditably carry
out the patriotic plans of the promoters of this worthy enter-
In Dixon's work on the Tower of London, already quoted,
that author says of the execution of Raleigh: "That day
was thought to be a very sad day for Englishmen. The parti-
sans of Spain went mad with joy. Yet the victory was not
to Spain. A higher power than man's directs the course of
116 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
a nation's life; tiie death of a hero is not a failure, for the
martyr's blood is stronger than a thousand swords. The day
of Raleigh's death was the day of a new English birth. Eliot
was not the only youth of ardent soul who stood by the scaffold
in Palace Yard, to note the matchless spirit in which the
martyr met his fate, and to walk away from that solemnity —
a new man. Thousands of men in every part of England,
who had led a careless life, became, from that hour, the sleep-
less enemies of Spain. The purposes of Raleigh were ac-
complished in the very way his genius had contrived. Spain
held the dominion of the sea, and England took it from her.
Spain excluded England from the New World, and the genius
of the ISTew World is English."
In closing these remarks I can not do better than quote the
beautiful lines of jSTorth Carolina's most gifted poet, Henry
Jerome Stockard, when treating of the same heroic character
of whom I have spoken today:
"And lie still lives, the courteous and the brave,
Whose life went out in seeming dark defeat.
The Tower held not his princely spirit immured,
But in those narrow dungeon walls he trod
Kingdoms unlimited by earthly zones,
And from its dismal gates passed unafraid
To an inheritance beyond decay,
Stored in the love and gratitude of man.
He lives in our fair city, noble State,
Puissant land — in all each hopes to be!
He lives in noble words and splendid dreams.
In strenuous actions and in high careers.
An inspiration unto loftier things."
ABSTKACT OF HISTOET OF THE UNIVEESITY. 117
ABSTRACT OF VOLUME I OF BATTLE'S HISTORY
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
The Constitution of 1776 instructed the General Assembly
to provide one or more universities. The charter of the Uni-
versity of ISTorth Carolina was granted in 1789, mainly by
the influence of General William Richardson Davie. The
Trustees were the prominent men of the State. There was a
meeting of these Trustees within a month after the charter
was ratified, the Senator from Bertie, Charles Johnson, an-
cestor of the present Mayor of Raleigh, then President of the
Senate, being Chairman. At a meeting soon afterwards.
General William Lenoir, President of the Senate, was elected
permanent President of the Board. Subscriptions were asked
for. General Benjamin Smith, of Brunswick, afterwards
Governor, donated 25,000 acres of military land warrants
to be located in West Tennessee. In 1835 these were sold
It was voted to locate the University within fifteen miles
of Cyprett's Bridge over New Hope Creek in Chatham
County, and a committee of the Board selected the site on the
eminence in Orange County known as ISTew Hope Chapel
Hill. About 1,300 acres of land were donated for the pur-
pose. A village was laid out and lots sold, the words "'New
Hope" being omitted in the name of the village.
On October 12th, 1793, the corner-stone of the first build-
ing, the Old East, was laid with Masonic ritual. General
Davie being Grand Master. Reverend Samuel E. McCorckle,
D.D., delivered an able and wise address.
It was concluded not to have a President but only a "Pre-
siding Professor." A Presbyterian divine. Reverend David
Ker, a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, was chosen. The
doors were opened for students January 15, 1795, but, owing
118 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
to the rainy weather and muddj roads, the first to arrive two
weeks afterwards was Hinton James of iSTew Hanover. It
was near a month before others came, but by May the num-
bers increased to 41 in the sjDring and near 100 in the fall.
Charles Wilson Harris, of Cabarrus County, graduate of
Princeton with high honors, was chosen Tutor. The next
year he was Professor of Mathematics and on the resignation
of Dr. Ker, Presiding Professor. Having determined to be a
lawyer, Professor Harris induced the Trustees to elect in his
place Rev. Joseph Caldwell, likewise a high honor graduate
of Princeton, and a Tutor.
Professor Harris induced the students to form a Literary
Society. This was in June, 1795. It was called the Debat-
ing Society. Three weeks afterwards the Concord Society
was formed, and the next year Debating was changed to its
Greek equivalent, Dialectic, and the Concord was trans-
formed into the Philanthrophic. James Mebane was first
President of the former and James Gillespie (or Gillaspie)
of the latter. Dr. Kemp P. Battle is proud of the fact that
he, as President in 1848, and the venerable James Mebane,
President of 1795, jointly presided over the Dialectic Society
on the dedication of a new Hall.
The first scheme of studies was the work of Dr. McCorckle.
In the latter part of the same year a "Plan of Education,"
the work of General Davie, was adopted. He relegated the
young and untaught boys to a Grammar School. The more
proficient were grouped in the Collegiate Department. It
is noticeable that in choice of studies, for example French
for German, and with large liberty of election for scientific
studies, Davie was twenty-three years ahead of President
Jefferson's noted plan of the University of Virginia, But
when Dr. Caldwell in 1804 became President, he naturally
introduced the classical curriculum of Princeton, This was
ABSTRACT OF HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 119
continued substantially for many years, in 1858 liberty to
elect Civil Engineering and Agricultural Chemistry being
About this time there were repeated efforts by lotteries and
by soliciting private subscriptions to obtain funds for com-
pleting the South, then called Main. Building. President
Caldwell journeyed to many points in the State for the pur-
pose with considerable success. Larger donations had been
ceived from General Thomas Person and Major Charles
Gerrard, the latter being in Tennessee land warrants not then
convertible into money.
In 1812 Dr. Caldwell resigned the Presidency for the Chair
of Mathematics. In his place was chosen Rev. Robert Hett
Chapman, D.D., of the State of ISTew York. On account of
his being a Federalist in the hot blood times of the war with
Great Britain, he had a stormy time. In 1810 he resigned
his office and was succeeded by Dr. Caldwell.
About this time the University had a few years of pros-
perity. The Legislature had given to the University a large
number of land warrants to be located in Tennessee. These
had been granted to l^orth Carolina Continental soldiers, who
had died without leaving heirs, or who could not be found.
Tennessee after becoming a State in 1796, claimed that she
was entitled to the warrants by right of eminent domain.
The Trustees appointed Archibald D. Murphey and Joseph
H. Bryan of Bertie, a Congressman, to represent their inter-
ests before the Legislature of Tennessee. After much diffi-
culty a compromise was granted by that body. One third
were allotted to the University and two thirds to colleges in
that State. Owing to funds thus obtained the institution was
prosperous until the panic of 1825. President Caldwell was
allowed to visit Europe for the purchase of books and appa-
ratus. The teaching force was increased. Elisha Mitchell
became Professor in 1818, at first of Mathematics, in 1826
120 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
changing to Geology and Mineralogy. In the same year,
1826, James Phillips accepted the Chair of Mathematics.
These two were strong members of the Faculty for many
years; Dr. Mitchell until 1857, when he lost his life on
Mount Mitchell, and Dr. Phillips in 1867, when he died sud-
denly at Prayers in Gerrard Hall.
Owing to the panic of 1825 the sales of the Tennessee lands
of the University ceased and the University was much im-
poverished. In 1835 Dr. Caldwell died after a most painful
and long-continued disease.
In order to place the management of the University on a
business basis, an Executive Committee of seven Trustees in
and near Raleigh was, in 1835, formed with full power. As
the land market had improved the Committee empowered
Charles Manly and Samuel Dickens of Tennessee to sell all
the University lands in that State. This was done and about
$170,000 was realized. The late Governor David Lowry
Swain was chosen President and the University, having an
assured income, entered on a career of prosperity.
The professors who have not been named, worthy of men-
tion, are: James S. Gillespie (or Gillaspie), 1797-'9, who was
also Presiding Professor; Archibald D. Murphey, 1800-'01;
William Bingham, 1801-'05 ; Andrew Rhea, 1806'-14; Wil-
liam Hooper, 1817-'37; Ethan A. Andrews, 1822-'28 ; Deni-
son Olmsted, 1817-'25; Shepard K. Kolloch, 1819-'25;
Nicholas M. Hentz, 1826-'31 ; Walker Anderson, 1833 ; Wil-
liam Mercer Green, 1838-'49 ; Manuel Fetter, 1838-'68 ;
John DeBerniere Hooper, 1838-'48.
Of these Murphey became an eminent judge, and a dis-
tinguished pioneer in the advancement of public schools ;
Bingham was the founder of the Bingham School ; William
Hooper, an eminent divine and President of Wake Forest
College ; Andrews, joint author of a widely known. Latin
Grammar; Olmsted began the first Geological Survey of the
ABSTRACT OF HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 121
State, whicli was continued by Dr. Mitchell, and was author
of scientific school books; Walker Anderson became Chief
Justice of Florida ; Green, Bishop of Mississippi and Chan-
cellor of the University of the South ; Hentz, author of a
valuable treatise on the Arachnidse (Spiders) ; Hooper and
Fetter accurate scholars in their departments.
In 1847 the Commencement was honored by a visit from
the President of the United States, a graduate of 1818, James
K. Polk, with his Attorney-General, John Y. Mason, a gradu-
ate of 1816. Twelve years later James Buchanan, with
Jacob Thompson, Secretary of the Interior, a graduate of
1831, was present at the exercises.
The University steadily increased in numbers, the maxi-
mum in 1857 being 461. Then on account of the threaten-
ing war there began to be a diminution, until in 1860'61
there were only 376. Although the numbers of the Faculty
and students greatly diminished and the salaries of the
Faculty were only partially paid. President Swain pluckily
kept the exercises carried on all during the war. Even a
truncated Commencement was held in June, 1865.
The University sent to the army 42 per cent of all students
from 1830 to 1867, viz., 1,068. Of the younger alumni,
1850 to 1862, 57 per cent, 842 out of 1,478. Dr. S. B.
Weeks ascertained these facts and adds that 312 lost
their lives. There were 702 officers and 365 privates. Out
of 5 Tutors, 4 lost their lives. Out of a Faculty of 14, some
old and ministers of the gospel, 6 volunteered for the war. It
is stated that out of 84 in the class of 1860 all became soldiers
except one, detained by ill health.
In 1858 the new Caldwell monument was erected by the
Alumni, of marble in the place of the weather-beaten sand-
stone shaft near the new West Building. President Polk
made the motion and gave the first contribution.
The Trustees in 1859 made an investment, which by the
122 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
fortunes of war caused the bankruptcy of the University.
They subscribed for $200,000 stock in the Bank of ISTorth
Carolina. They paid cash for $110,000 but incurred a debt
to the bank for $90,000. The bank stock became worthless
but the debt remained. The final outcome will be seen in
the second volume.
Dr. Battle has a chapter giving the characters, virtues and
failings of the Professors, Tutors, officers and servants of
the University during the three decades prior to the closing
in 1868 ; President Swain, Mitchell, Phillips, Fetter, Hooper,
Green, Deems, Judge Battle, Graves, Sr., Hubbard, Wheat,
Shipp, Martin, Hepburn, Hedrick, C. Phillips, Brown, S.
Phillips, Smith, Kimberly.
Of the servants he describes Dave Barham and Doctor 'No-
vember. He also faithfully gave the breaches of discipline
by the students, the humorous pranks and the punishments.
He described the hazing which was stopped for several yearg
by a Freshman barricading himself and firing with pistol
on his assailants, drawing blood but not killing. The cessa-
tion was voluntary, in consideration of the free pardon of
offenders. In the sport of throwing fireballs the old belfry
was burned and a bell of uncommon tone destroyed.
Under the old regune all students were required to attend
prayers twice a day except on Saturday when the afternoon
service was dispensed with. They were also required to at-
tend religious services on Sunday and Bible classes in the
afternoon. Professor Green and Dr. Mitchell for years offici-
ated alternately in the Chapel. About 1848, when the Epis-
copal church edifice was completed. Professor Green started
an agitation for allowing students exemption from Chapel
services, provided they would attend elsewhere. This was
resisted by President Swain, Dr. Mitchell, Dr. Phillips and
others of the old school. After a long controversy, which
did not cease with the departure of Bishop Green to Missis-
ABSTEACT OF HISTORY OF THE UNIVEESITY. 123
sippi, the question was settled in 1860 by allowing exemp-
tions to communicants, to those whose parents requested such
exemption, and to those declaring that their consciences did
not allow them to attend Chapel worship. President Swain
granted special exemptions with liberality.
In 1854 the curriculum was extended in the direction of
scientific studies. Tutor Charles Phillips was elected Pro-
fessor of Civil Engineering and spent a year at Harvard
preparing for its duties. Benjamin S. Hedrick took charge
of Agricultural Chemistry. The Trustees did not allow its
ofiicers to be active in politics, and as Professor Hedrick
published a letter advocating the election of Fremont, in the
inflammatory state of the public mind incurring widespread
odium, he resigned by request. Mr. John Kimberly took his
The University with fluctuating numbers had during the
war continuous exercises. The professors were paid in Con-
federate money, which rapidly depreciated, and were only
able to live by strictest economy. The Trustees gave some
help by granting leave to cut firewood from their woodlands.
One hundred-dollar gold bonds were issued to the profes-
sors, one to each, but the distress was severe. At the close
of the war there was due them $7,000 for which 8 per cent
bonds were given. The University owed $103,000 and the
assets were $200,000 of worthless bank stock and other se-
curities of insigTiificant value. Valuable members of the
Faculty, e. g., Professors Hepburn and Martin, were forced
to seek other fields of labor.
In 1867, the affairs of the University being desperate, an
effort was made towards a reorganization. To effect this
the Faculty resigned their offices but were requested to hold
their chairs until the Commencement of 1868. When that
time came it was evident that the Trustees would lose their
places under the Reconstruction Constitution of 1868. They
124 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
therefore reelected the President and all the professors. The
new Trustees treated this reelection as invalid and vacated all
In the foregoing condensed narrative it has been found
necessary to omit much of the first volume of the history,
which contains full accounts of the following subjects among
1. Early meetings of Trustees.
2. Journal of the Committee who selected the site.
3. Sale of lots in the new village.
4. Letters of Charles W. Harris and Dr. Caldwell from Chapel Hill.
5. Subsequent careers of Dr. afterwards Judge, Ker and of Pro-
6. Early rules and queries of the two Literary Societies.
7. Letters of John Pettigrew giving social life of the early students.
8. Wild conduct of early students.
9. The first Commencement and graduates.
10. The "great Secession" and its cause.
11. The trials of Dr. Chapman.
12. Letters of Slade and other students.
13. Dr. Caldwell's narrative of his European trip.
14. Judge Murphey's address.
15. Judge Gaston's address.
16. Legislature refuses relief.
17. The Droomgoole myth.
18. The Harbinger journal and contents.
19. Sketches of professors and graduates.
20. History of the Buildings and much other matter.
21. Subsequent careers of Alumni.
Kemp P. Battle.
THE NAMING OE WAKE COUNTY. 125
THE NAMING OF WAKE COUNTY
His peers to him attention gave,
With listening air; and aspect grave,
While thus the worthy Baron spoke:
"Our lovely shire a name must take;
And, bring of all this promise fair.
The garden spot, I here declare
That Beauty's self that name should make
And I propose sweet Esther Wake."
With loud acclaim the name they hail.
A name that ne'er in time shall fail.
Wherever heard, whenever spoken.
To be to every heart a token
Of Beauty's power, and soft control
O'er manhood's ardent soul.
These lines were written by the late Dr. William Cameron,
of Hillsboro, ISTorth Carolina, and embody the tradition that
Wake County was named by Governor Tryon in honor of his
sister-in-law, Miss Esther Wake, of Ireland, who was perhaps
the only popular member of the royal Governor's family in
the Colony ; and who is said to have been very beautiful and
amiable, and much given to field sports and hard riding.
There is or was a ford on Eno long known as ''Miss Esther
Wake's Ford." Perhaps some of our old country folk know
it still Rebecca CAMEROisr.
126 THE NOBTPI CAKOLIjSTA BOOKLET.
CAPTAIN JAMES IREDELL WADDELL
BY CAPTAIN S. A. ASHE.
At the end of four long years of terrific struggle, it was
Lee himself who said: "God bless North Carolina." With
the part our soldiers bore so resolutely, so gloriously, we are
all somewhat familiar; but while the great theatre of action
was on land, there were perils and high resolves, and crown-
ing glories also on the deep. Beleagured and blockaded as
were the Confederate States, the Stars and Bars were borne
across the oceans, and were carried in triumph around the
woxld. There were heroes of the seas as Avell as of the tented
field. Such a one was James Iredell Waddell — a descendant
of Hugh Waddell, who won great fame in the Colonial wars,
and who in Stamp Act times proudly bore the plume of a
stalwart patriot. Also, he was a grandson of General Fran-
cis ITash — who, under Washington, received his mortal
wound on the bloody field of Germantown ; while through
his arteries coursed the hot blood of many other warriors of
the olden time.
He was born in Pittsboro, on July 13, 1824. His father
was Francis Nash Waddell, and his mother's maiden name
was Elizabeth Davis Moore.
In the ante-bellum days the vocations open to a young
gentleman in North Carolina were the law, or medicine;
the life of a planter, or a military career. The latter suited
the temper of James Iredell Waddell ; and in September,
1841, when seventeen years of age, he received the appoint-
ment of Midshipman and was ordered on duty at Norfolk.
That was before the Naval school was established at An-
napolis, and the boys were required to go on cruises, study-
ing while at sea, and afterwards were examined for promo-
CAPTAIN JAMES IREDELL WADDELL. 127
tion. Young Waddell bad hardlj donned his uniform before
bis figbting blood sbowed itself.
An older Midsbipman, by name of Wearing, was offensive
to bim, and Waddell promptly called bim to tbe field of
bonor. In tbe encounter tbe bigb-spirited Carolinian re-
ceived a wound in tbe bip tbat caused bim to limp a little all
Tbe record at tbe department is simply: "On leave to re-
covered from tbe effect of a duel." Years afterwards wben tbe
naval service was undergoing tbe transformation incident to
tbe introduction of steam, wben science was being added to
tbe necessary attainments of JSTavy Officers — ^wben tbe style
of men like Jobn Paul Jones, Jobnson Blakely and Lawrence
and Decatur was becoming obsolete — and steam, and ma-
cbinery, and turrets and armor plates were about to sup-
plant tbe gallant sailing frigates, tbe cbange was loudly
bemoaned ; and at tbat time, among those wbo were being ed-
ucated for tbe service, tbe pluck of Waddell was an inspira^
tion ; and bis sense of bonor, bis fearlessness, bis bearing
and prompt challenge of an older officer to mortal combat —
made bim an ideal hero, and invested bim with a halo
among the young fighters who dreamed of a future career
famous for carnage and glory.
Tbe record of his service in bis junior years shows that be
served on tbe Pacific; that on tbe breaking out of tbe war
in Mexico be was ordered to tbe Gulf — and was on duty in
tbe blockade of Vera Cruz, and was in tbe battle of Palo Alto,
being with the sailors and marines sent by Commodore Con-
ner to the assistance of General Taylor.
In 1848, having passed bis examination, he was on duty at
tbe Observatory at Washington. Three years later, he was
ordered to tbe practice ship at Annapolis, and then to tbe
Germantown — a vessel named to commemorate the battle in
128 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
which his distinguished grandfather received his mortal
In 1848, he had married at Annapolis, Miss Ann Sellmon
Iglehart, and had thus become connected with some of the
old established families of that region. Their home was at
Annapolis where he was again on duty when I first knew
him in 1858. He was a splendid specimen of manhood.
He was six feet, one inch in height, with a powerful frame,
weighing more than two hundred pounds, well proportioned,
with a fine person. His features were well cut, betokening
resolution and decision. He had a noble bearing, intelli-
gence kindled his eye, and withal gracious and courtly, he
was radiant with kindliness. Mrs. Waddell was small in
person. She was a lovely and affectionate woman. They
had no children, and the life of each seemed centered in the
other. Though long married, they still were lovers. It was
agreeable to observe them, the strong great man — the lovely,
little woman — wandering over the grounds together — happy
in themselves, a charming idyl of real life.
His life was as a spotless mirror ; bright, effulgent with
honor ; adorned mth virtue and with high attributes — while
his person and noble countenance recalled the lines :
A combination and a form indeed
Where every god did seem to set his seal
To give the world assurance of a man!
The following summer he was on the practice ship ; and at
sea, when he had leisure, he daily occupied himself in study-
ing international law. Without premonition of the future,
he then acquired that knowledge of international law which
served him so well on the sudden occasion in after years.
As an officer, he was a disciplinarian, without being harsh ;
exacting, but not tyrannical. He commanded obedience, and
CAPTAIN JAMES lEEDELL WADDELL,. 129
compelled respect ; but there was nothing to beget any feeling
of repugnance among those subject to his orders.
He returned from his last cruise as an officer in the United
States jSTavy August, 1861, and tendered his resignation,
which the Department refused to accept.
On a dark and stormy night early in January, 1862, he,
with his brother-in-law, Mr. Iglehart, shipped as oystermen
on board an oyster dredging boat and sailed out into the
Chesapeake; and after some striking adventures, narrowly
escaping capture, made good their way into Dixie.
The I^avy Department at Washington struck his name
from the navy roll, spitefully entering on the record, "Dis-
Lieutenant Waddell who had been the ordnance officer
at the Naval station at Drewry's Bluff, was in 1864 sent
abroad to carry on the work of distressing the commerce of
the enemy. Vessels carrying the United States flag had
measurably disappeared from the Atlantic ocean. But in
the Pacific a whaling fleet was still to be found, and it was
important to destroy it.
The Navy department selected Lieutenant Waddell for
that service. His reputation as a seaman was superb, and he
enjoyed the entire confidence of the department.
Captain Bulloch, the representative of the Confederate
government in Europe, had succeeded in purchasing the Sea
King, a vessel built for the East India trade, and on her
maiden voyage. She was commodious and well adapted to
carrying a large complement of men ; sailed well under can-
vas, and had her screw propeller so adjusted that when not
in use it could be raised out of water. In September, 1864,
flag-officer Barron at Paris, pursuant to instructions from
the department, gave to Lieutenant Waddell his particular
130 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
His orders were to the effect that he should proceed to
London and sail on the steamer Laurel to the Island of
Madeira. The Laurel had already on board a cargo appar-
ently of merchandize — hut really of cannon and munitions
of war, which had been invoiced as machinery and other in-
nocent goods and chattels. • ~~"
The difficulties that beset Confederate operations abroad
were almost insurmountable ; the British authorities being
vigilant to give no offense to the United States.
The Sea King, a new screw steamer, however, had been
secretly purchased, and she also set sail for Madeira.
On October 19th the two vessels met off Funchal, and, a
preconcerted signal being given, recognized each other, and
proceeded to an anchorage on the shores of an uninhabited
island some miles distant, where the transfer of stores was
rapidly made, and Lieutenant Waddell read his commission,
and raising the Confederate flag over the Sea King, christ-
ened her the Shenandoah. The little nook in which the
vessel lay was well protected and the sea was smooth. The
day was bright and lovely, and Lieutenant Waddell was
inspired by the auspicious circumstances with the confident
hope of success. In thirteen hours the consort had dis-
charged every conceivable outfit intended for the Shenan-
doah, and then remained only to receive such passengers as
were to return.
Captain Waddell has left an account of the cruise of the
Shenandoah — from which I make some quotations : "I now
felt," says Waddell, "that I had a good and fast ship under
my feet — but there was a vast deal to be done, and to ac-
complish all that a crew was necessary."
In picking out the crew of the two vessels in England par-
ticular efforts were made to secure adventurous spirits who
might be induced to enlist on the Shenandoah. Ko married
CAPTAIN JAMES IREDELL WADDELL. 131
man was shipped, and none were taken except with the hope
that when the time came thej could take service under the
Confederate flag; but out of the 55 men present only 23 were
willing to adventure in such an undertaking.
Waddell's force was indeed so weak that they could not
weigh anchor — without the assistance of the officers. These
were young Confederates who had been sent abroad for such
service, the first Lieutenant being William C. Whittle, of
Virginia, whose fine capacity rendered him of great assist-
ance to Captain Waddell. The officers threw off their jackets,
and amid hearty cheers, soon had the anchor hanging at the
bow; and the Shenandoah entered upon her new career,
throwing out to the breeze the flag of the South and taking
her place as a Confederate cruiser on her ocean home, as a
war vessel duly commissioned according to the law of
nations. That flag, wrote Waddell, "unfolded itself grace-
fully to the favoring breeze and declared the majesty of the
country it represented, amid the cheers of a handful of brave
hearted men — and the Shenandoah dashed upon her native
element, as if more than equal to the contest — cheered on
by the acclamations of the Laurel, which was steaming away
for the land we love — to tell the tale to those who would re-
joice that another Confederate cruiser was afloat !"
But work was to be done ! The Sea King was to be meta-
morphosed into a cruiser, and armed with a battery for which
she was not constructed. The deck was to be cleared, the
stores put away, the guns mounted, gun ports cut in the
vessel's sides, and the ship put in readiness to uphold the
honor of the Confederate flag. All was to be done in mid-
ocean, without an organized force, and with a small crew
never before associated together.
While the situation was itself embarrassing, other em-
barrassments forced themselves on the mind of Captain Wad-
132 THE JSrOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
dell. In his memoir of his cruise, he wrote: ''The novel
character of my political position embarrassed me more than
the feeble condition of mj command, and that was fraught
with j)ainful aj)prehensions enough. I had the compass to
guide me as a sailor, but my instructions made me a magis-
trate in a new field of duty and where the law was not very
clear even to the lavr7ers. I was on all matters to act
promptly and without counsel ; but my admirable instruc-
tions and the instincts of honor and patriotism that ani-
mated every Southern gentleman, who bore arms in the
Southj bouyed me up with hope and supported me amid the
difficulties and responsibilities bearing upon me."
jSToble man ! chivalrous soul ! brave heart ; We here, after
these many years, behold you raising aloft in those distant
waters the sole and solitary Confederate banner that then
floated upon the bosom of the ocean. Alone it is borne by
the breeze over the great waste of waters — the only emblem
of our nation's sovereignty upheld beyond the limit of our
beleagured States. We now realize the difficulties that beset
you. We know the perils of the deep — the storms and hurri-
canes that sweep the ocean — the fury of the wild waves
moved by mighty winds — but these, these have no place in
your thoughts as you unfold the flag of your country then
heroically struggling for existence, but jour mind is intent
only on the honor of your countrymen !
The Shenandoah was a composite vessel — the frame of
iron, the hull of teak — six inches thick ; she could steam
about nine miles an hour — could condense about 500 gallons
of water a day; and used about twenty tons of coal a day;
was very fast; under favorable circumstances — making 15
miles an hour under sail.
I am much indebted for some account of life on board the
Shenandoah to Lieut. W. C. Whittle and also recently have
CAPTAIN JAMES lEEDELL WADDELL. 133
had the pleasure of talking over the same subject with Lieu-
tenant Grimball, both of whom were schoolmates with me
at Annapolis and who were Captain Waddell's main depend-
ence for assistance in his long and adventuous cruise.
Captain Whittle says: ''Captain Waddell though brave
and courageous was naturally discomfited and appalled at
the work to be done.
"The battery consisted of four 8-inch smooth bore cannon,
two rifled Whitworth 32-pounders and two 12-po under signal
"Every man and officer pulled off his jacket and rolled up
his sleeves, and with the motto 'Do or die,' went to work at
anything and everything. The Captain took the wheel fre-
quently, steering the ship, to give one more pair of hands
for the work to be done. We worked systematically and
intelligently, doing first those things that were most impera-
tively necessary. By the 22d of October, after four days of
hard work, the decks were cleared, the guns mounted, and
the carpenters began to cut portholes in the sides of the ship."
Five days later, the Shenandoah entered upon her first
chase, and made a prize. And then other prizes followed.
From these prizes they secured twenty enlistments, increasing
the crew from nineteen to thirty-nine ; so, including the ofii-
cers, they had all told sixty-two men, besides the prisoners,
who were now and then sent away on some bonded vessel.
On December 8th, they made Tristam da Canha, near St.
Helena, and passing to the east of Africa, they reached Mel-
bourne, Australia, January 25, 1865. There they landed
all their prisoners, and after refitting left on February 18th.
After leaving the harbor, a number of men who had secreted
themselves on board, came on deck and enlisted, increasing
their crew to 144 men.
Sailing northward in May, after many adventures and
134 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
capturing many j)rizes, they reached the shores of Kam-
Captain Whittle says : "We were in the Arctic and contig-
uous regions during the summer. It was most interesting,
as we went north towards the pole, to mark the days grow
longer and longer, and to experience the sun's being below
the horizon a shorter and shorter time, until finally the sun
did not go out of sight at all, but would go down to the lowest
point, and without disappearing, would rise again. In short,
it was all day.
"We went up as far as Gifinski and Tansk Bays, but could
not enter for ice, from fifteen to thirty feet thick. Frequent
captures were made, and the smoke of the burning vessels
made landmarks against the skies."
It was now in the middle of summer, and on June 23
Waddell captured two whalers, which had left San Francisco
in April and had on board papers of April 17th, in which
was found the correspondence between General Grant and
General Lee, and a statement of the surrender at Appomat-
tox; but the same papers also contained President Davis's
proclamation from Danville, declaring Lee's surrender would
only cause the prosecution of the war with renewed vigor.
How harrowing must have been this news to these daring
Confederates, then amid floes of ice in the Polar Ocean !
But they were men of nerve. Whittle says : "We felt that
the South had sustained great reverses ; but at no time did
we feel a more imperative duty to prosecute our work with
vigor. Between June 22d and 28th we captured 24 whaling
vessels, eleven being taken on the 28th."
Some of the prisoners expressed their opinion that the
war was over; but notwithstanding, eight of the prisoners
taken that day enlisted on board the Shenandoah.
On June 29th, the Confederate flag was flying in the
CAPTAIN JAMES IREDELL WADDELL. 135
Arctic Ocean; but on that day Waddell turned his prow
away from the pole and passed southward through Bering
In July 5th, they passed the Aleutian Islands, one of
which was a volcano and was in a state of eruption, smoke
and fire issuing from its peak. That was the last land seen
by the Shenandoah for many days.
Let us pause for a moment and consider the strange situa-
tion of this Confederate cruiser — a war vessel representing
the sovereignty of a nation that had expired amid the throes
of disaster; — in mid-ocean, separated by thousands of miles
from any friendly hand, subject to vicissitudes — uncertain of
the present ; apprehensive of the future.
Brave hearts, true men, bold seamen ! They feared not
the fury of the waves, nor the storms of the ocean, but they
knew well man's inhumanity to man ! They knew that the
jSTavy Department of the United States, freed from the re-
straints imposed by fear of retaliation, would be vindictive
and tyrannical to the last degree.
That department had always proclaimed the Southern
people rebels, and their cruisers only pirates. On the land
we had forced a recognition of belligerent rights: but at sea
we had been powerless to retaliate.
On August 2d, when in north latitude 16 degrees and 122
west longitude, seeing a sailing bark, the Shenandoah made
chase under steam and sail, and overhauled her at 4 o'clock
in the afternoon. It proved to be the British bark Barra-
conta, thirteen days out from San Francisco, en route to Liv-
erpool. When the British captain was asked for the news of
the war, he inquired in astonishment :
"What war ?"
"The war between the United States and the Confederate
136 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
''Why/' said be, "that war has been over ever since
April. What ship is that ?"
''The Confederate ship, Shenandoah," was the reply.
Then came the information of the surrender of all the
Confederate forces, the capture of President Davis, and the
entire collapse of the Confederate cause; and the additional
information, says Whittle, "that Federal cruisers were search-
ing for us eA'^erywhere and would deal summarily with us, if
caught. Files of recent papers confirmed it all. The infor-
mation was appalling. We were bereft of country, bereft of
ground of hope or aspiration, bereft of a cause for which to
struggle and to suffer !
"That independence for which our brave people had so
nobly fought, suffered and died, was under God's ruling, de-
nied to us. Our anguish of disappointed hopes can not be
"^Naturally our minds and hearts turned to our dear ones
at home. What of the fate of each and all who were dear
to us ? These were the harrowing thoughts that entered into
our very souls, the measure and intensity of which can not
"Then of ourselves ! We knew the intensity of feeling en-
gendered by the war — and particularly in the breasts of our
foes towards us.
"We knew that every eifort would be made for our capture,
and felt that if we fell into the hands of the enemy, fired as
their hearts were, we could not hope for a fair trial and judg-
ment. Even during the war, we had been opprobriously
called pirates, and we knew if captured, we would be sum-
marily dealt with as such.
"These were reflections that disquieted us, but they caused
no demoralization, or craven fear, but were borne by true
men with clear consciences, who had done their duty as they
CAPTAIN JAMES IKEDELL WADDELL. 13Y
saw it, with all the powers given them by God. It was a
situation desperate to a degree to which history furnishes
no parallel. The first duty was to suspend hostilities and to
proclaim such suspension.
"The following entry was made in the log book August
2, 1865, the Shenandoah then being off the coast of Mexico:
'Having received by the bark Barraconta the sad intelligence
of the overthrow of the Confederate government, all attempts
to destroy shipping or property of the United States will
cease from this date, in accordance with which First Lieu-
tenant W. C. Whittle received the order from the commander
to strike below the battery and disarm the ship and crew.'
"The next step was to seek asylum with some strong nation,
strong enough to maintain the ruling of the law of nations
and resist any demand for our surrender to our enemies, so
that we might have a full and fair trial."
Writing of that critical time. Captain Waddell, wrote:
"My own life had been checkered, and I was tutored to
disappointments. The intelligence of the issue of the fear-
ful struggle cast a deep stillness over the ship's company,
and would have occupied all my reflection, had not a respon-
sibility of the highest order rested upon me — as to the course
I should pursue, which involved not only my personal honor,
but the honor of that flag intrusted to me, which had thus
far been triumphant. I determined to run the ship for a
Euroi^ean port — which involved a distance of 17,000 miles —
a long gantlet to run, and escape. But why should not I
succeed in baffling observation and pursuit? The ship had
up to that time traveled 40,000 miles without accident. I
considered it due to the honor of all concerned to avoid any-
thing that had a show of dread — under the severe trial im-
posed upon me: that such was my duty as a man and an
138 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
officer in whose hands was placed the honor of my country's
flag and the welfare of my command,"
And so Waddell determined to sail for England. jSTo
longer did he have legitimate authority, for his commission
expired with the collapse of the Confederacy; yet so well
disciplined had his crew become, that to the very end the con-
duct of his crew was remarkable.
On the 15th of September, running at the rate of 15 miles
an hour, the Shenandoah turned Cape Horn, and took her
course northward for Liverpool. "We passed many sails,"
says Whittle, "but exchanged no signals. We were making
no new acquaintances." They crossed the equator for the
fourth time on October 11, 1865. On October 25th, in the
afternoon, when about 500 miles south of the Azores, they
sighted a supposed Federal cruiser. Their courses con-
verged. The stranger was apj)arently waiting for the ap-
Quoting now from Captain Waddell: "The situation was
one of anxious suspense. Our security, if any remained, de-
pended on a strict adherence to our course. Deviation would
be fatal ; boldness must accomplish deception. Still we
forged towards the sail, and it would be madness to stop.
Darkness finally threw her friendly folds around the anxious
hearts on the little ship and closed the space between the
vessels. What a relief ! We could not have been four miles
The Shenandoah's head was then turned southward and
steam ordered. It was the first time she had been under
steam since crossing the equator on the Pacific side ; indeed,
the fires had not been lighted for a distance of more than
13,000 miles. The Shenandoah ran fifteen miles to the east-
ward and then steamed north for 100 miles, when a strong
southwest wind dashed her to within 700 miles of Liverpool.
CAPTAIN JAMES IREDELL WADDELL. 139
A calm then ensued, leaving the Shenandoah in sight of
eleven sails during daylight, but the ship was continued
under sail until night again took her in its friendly em-
brace. After furling all sails, the vessel was put under
steam and pushed her way towards the desired haven.
The Shenandoah entered St. George's Channel on the
morning of N^ovember 5th, just 122 days from the Aleutian
Islands. "We saw no land," says Captain Waddell, "^after
leaving the Aleutian Islands until the beacon light in St.
George's Channel was seen exactly where it was looked for.
We had sailed 23,000 miles without seeing land and still saw
the beacon exactly where we expected."
The daily calculation of the ship's position was very ac-
curate, when that fact is considered. It was indeed a most
remarkable record in navigation. They received a pilot after
night, and when he was informed of the character of the
vessel, he said : "I was reading a few days ago of her being
in the Arctic Ocean." Asked for American news, he said
the war had gone against the South. That was in ISTovember.
Lee's surrender was in April.
"The quiet satisfaction seen in all countenances," says
Captain Waddell, "for our success in reaching a European
port was unmistakable."
Indeed, there was cause. The chief danger was now past.
On the morning of the 6th of ISTovember, 1865, the Shenan-
doah steamed up the Mersey, bearing aloft the Confederate
flag. A few moments after she had anchored, a British naval
officer boarded her — to ascertain the name of the steamer —
and he gave Captain Waddell official information that the
American war had terminated. 'No longer was there any
Confederacy ! The Southern States were again a part of the
The Confederate flag, representing neither people nor
140 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET,
country, an emblem of an era that had closed in the history
of mankind, was then sorrowfully lowered, this historic act
taking place at 10 a. m. on the 6th of November, 1865. The
vessel was then given in charge to the British government.
For a day or two some correspondence was in progress be-
tween the British and American authorities in regard to
the Shenandoah, her officers and crew. But on the 8th of
iN'ovember the crew were suffered to depart, and soon the
British government turned the vessel over to the United
States authorities, by whom she was sold to the Sultan of
Zanzibar, and later she was lost at sea.
She was the only vessel that carried the Confederate flag
around the world, and she bore it at her mast head seven
months after the surrender of the Southern armies and the
obliteration of the Southern Confederacy.
In her cruise of thirteen months, she ran 58,000 miles and
met with no accident; and for a period of eight months she
did not drop her anchor. She destroyed more vessels than
any other ship of war known in history, except alone the
Alabama, and inflicted heavy loss on the commerce of the
The feeling of the United States was so intense against
Captain Waddell that he lingered some time in Europe be-
fore venturing to return to America. Finally he came, and
in 1875 the Pacific Mail Company, owned largely by Eng-
lishmen, running lines of steamers from San Francisco to
Japan and Australia, engaged him as commander of one of
its fine steamships. For some years he continued in that
service, but on one of his return trips, as he was nearing the
coast, his vessel struck a rock or bar not laid down in any
chart, some thirteen miles from shore, which had doubtless
been thrown up by a recent earthquake. He had 120 pas-
sengers on board, many being women and children. He at
CAPTAIN JAMES IREDELL WADDELL. 141
once took personal command, and by the perfect discipline
lie had maintained among the crew, he controlled the excited
passengers. Indeed his was a personality that would in-
sjDire confidence under all circumstances. Through an open-
ing fifty feet long, water poured into the vessel. He put all
men at the pumps, turned toward the shore and got his
boats and life rafts ready. He got within three miles of land
before he found it necessary to abandon the sinking vessel.
Eapidly he had the women and children transferred to the
small boats, and then the men, and then the crew — until at
length he alone remained the sole human being upon his fated
ship. Then hurrying the boats away, he himself stepped
upon a life raft, and when not more than fifty yards away,
the great vessel plunged into the waves, creating a vortex of
waters from which he barely escaped. But no soul was lost.
His perfect self-command, his perfect discipline, secured the
safety of every passenger. They were landed without
trouble on the neighboring shore, and the admirable conduct
of Captain Waddell won the highest praise.
But after that he determined to abandon a career upon
the sea, and eventually returned to Annapolis.
Later, there being much trouble in controlling the fleet of
oyster boats on the Chesapeake that set at defiance the laws
of Maryland, the governor of that State invited Captain
Waddell to take charge of the State guard boats in the Chesa-
j)eake. He soon established order and made the oystermen
respect the law.
He continued in this service at Annapolis until his death,
March 15, 1886, being then in the 6 2d year of his age. The
Legislature of Maryland was in session at the time and ad-
journed to do him honor. The old Confederate soldiers
formed in line and marched to his residence. General
George H. Stuart acted as marshal and the pall-bearers were
14:2 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
Captain Morris, Captain Murray, General Bradley Johnson
and other distinguished Confederates, while the escort of
honor was commanded by Colonel William Morris. The
governor and State officers participated.
Indeed it was a State funeral — the only one, that we re-
member, ever accorded to a Confederate in a State north of
Thus was laid to rest this brave son of the Cape Fear, who
never ceased to love his native soil and his friends and kin-
dred in JSTorth Carolina. His life was full vicissitudes, but
his guiding star was honor, and he was a shining example
of all that is admirable in human character and all that is
meritorious in human conduct.
Like many other heroes of the great drama, he has passed
away and his grave is adorned with flowers by the loving
hands of patriotic women — Confederate women, who suffered
for the lost cause -and who perpetuate its sacred memories.
In the time of sorrow, they and their Confederate sisters
throughout the Southland bore themselves with unsurpassed
fortitude, and in these later days, they treasure the hallowed
past and keep bright the fame of our fathers and brothers
and tenderly pay deserved tribute to their honored dead.
Duty, Christian duty, is their watchword, and the people
of ISTorth Carolina and of the South in the ages to come —
the descendants of our people here to remote posterity — will
bless them for their noble, patriotic and devoted work in
preserving the unsullied records of the heroes of the Southern
MAKEIAGE BONDS OF ROWAN COUNTY. 143
MARRIAGE BONDS OF ROWAN COUNTY,
CONTRIBUTED BY MRS. M. G. McCUBBINS.
John Cochran to Elizabeth Patten. February 7, 1773.
John Cochran, Richard paton and Andrew Cochran. (Ad:
John Chambers to Eebecah Graham. June 13, 177
John Chambers and Jas. Cathej. (Ad: Osborn.) A note
of consent from bride's father, James Graham, dated June
13, 1774, witnessed by George Howard.
Hugh Cathey to Jane Bailey. August 4, 1774. Hu:
Cathey and James Brandon. (Ad: Osborn.) A note of
consent from bride's father, Charles Bailey, dated August
Richard Cathey, to Elizabeth Giles, a spinster. September
6, 1774. Richard Cathey and William Giles. (Ad: Osborn.)
Hugh Cunningham to Elizabeth Smith, a spinster. Sep-
tember 15, 1774. Hugh (his X mark) Cunningham and
John Johnston. (Ad: Osborn.)
James Cooke to Anne McConnell. August 15, 1774.
James Cook and Joseph Dickson. (Ad: Osborn.)
Leonard Crider to Margaret Vervele. February 14, 1775.
Leonard Crider (in Dutch ?) and George Gonter. (Ad :
John Campbell to Juda Peterson. February 15, 1775.
John Campbell, William Brandon and John Lock. (No
Henry Chambers to Agness McHenry. May 11, 1775.
Henery Chambers and John McHenry. (David Flowers.)
William Clark to Sarah Jones. August 17, 1775. Wil-
liam Clark and George Gonder. (David Flowers.)
144 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
John Calahan to Jane Templeton. August 19, 17Y5. John
Calahan and George Templeton. (David Flowers.)
James Cowen to Easther Lewis. August 22, 1775. James
Cowan and Henry Dobbin. (David Flowers.)
John Carson to Sarah Slaven. August 31, 1775. John
Carson and Robert Nevins. (David Flowers.)
Joshua Crowdir to Rebecca (Rebena?) Smith (a spinster)
January 19, 1776. Joshua Crowder and Arch*^ Kerr.
Arthur Chambers to Ruth Woods. May 9, 1776. Arthur
Chambers and Samuel Woods. (Ad: Osborn.)
Robert Chambers to Lettice Boyd. May 10, 1776. Robert
Chambers and Robert Boyd. (Ad: Osborne.)
Valentine Calahan to Elizabeth McCreedy. May 28, 1776.
— Callahan and James Bone (?). (Ad.: Osborn.) A note
from Andrew McCreedy.
Samuel McCorkle to Elisabeth Gillespie. June 29, 1776.
Samuel McCorkle and Adlai Osborn. (No name.)
David Craige to Mary Foster. July 20, 1776. David
Craige and Adlexander Brown. (Ad: Osborn.)
Benjamin Cowen to Anne Henley Jenkins. April 9, 1778.
Benjamin Cowan and William Cowan. (Ad: Osborn.)
James Coyle to Jean Harrington. September 12, 1778.
James Coile and William (his X mark) Harrington. (Ad:
Joseph Chambers to Mary Campbell. September 14,
1778. Joseph Chambers and George Reed. (Ad: Osborn.)
Daniel Clenard to Mary Hinkle. November 8, 1778 ( ?).
Daniel (his X mark) and Geo. (his X mark) Hoover. ( Jno.
Eleazer Cummins to Isabell (?) Caswell ( ?). December
15, 1778. Eliazar Comens and James Eraser. (William
Jonathan Cox to Mary Konne (?). May (?) 8, 1779.
Jonathan Cox and Joseph (his X mark) Cox. (Jo. Brevard.)
MAEEIAGE BONDS OP KOWAN COUNTY. 145
]Sr. B. — This is mixed and Joseph may have married instead
Robert Carlisle to Elizabeth Cash. February 3, 1779.
Eobert Carlile and John Cochran. (Ad: Osborn.)
Christophel Cupp to Prusilla Landuse. May 17, 1779.
Christophel Cupp ( ?) and Johannes Cochenour ? (these are
in Dutch?) (Ad: Osborn.)
John Cochran to Margret Huston. September 9, 1779.
Jno. Coghlan and Jno. Bailey. (Ad: Osborn and Jo.
Hugh Cunningham to Mary Kent (?). February 10,
1780. Hugh Cunningham and Jonathan Conger. (B. Booth
Isaac Cowin to Mary Pelton. JSTovember 8, 1780. Isaac
(his X mark) Cowin and Nicholas (his X mark) Aldredge.
Thomas Cook to Ann Clayton. January 20, 1781. Thomas
Cook and Lambert Clayton.
George Clark to Elizabeth Allen. March 14, 1781 (?).
George Clark and John Smith. (Ad: Osborn.)
James Cook and Margaret Thompson. June 22, 1782 ( ?).
James Cooke and John Hide (?).
James Chambers to Margret Erwin. October 19, 1782.
Abraham (his X mark) Ervin. (Ad: Osborn.)
Lambert Clayton to Serah Davidson. December 14 (11 ?),
1782. Lambert Clayton and Jas. Ker. (H. C. Caule.)
Joseph Crofts to Sarah Wells. December 16, 1782 (3 ?).
Joseph Crofts and Thos. (his X mark) Willis. (William
John Current to Susanna Remington. December 13
(19?), 1782. John Current and William Clark. (William
Albert Carson to Ellie Patterson. December 20, 1782.
Robert Carson and James Patterson. (?) H. C. Caule.
146 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
William Craige to Deborah Orman. 1783. William
Craig and Joseph Chambers. (Wm. Crawford.)
Samuel Cummins to Elizabeth ISTevins. January 28,
1783. Samuel Cummins and John Edgard. (William
Amos Church to Elizabeth Swink. February 25, 1783.
Amos (his X mark) Swink and Henry Giles. (A mistake
surely. (William Crawford.)
Samuel Cowin to Phebe Lewis. Jun. ( ?) 14, 1783.
Samuel Cowan and Samuel (his X mark) Lewis. (Wm.
Jacob Clever to Christina Billing. August 11, 1783,
Jacob Clevey ( ?) and Leonard (his X mark) Ca. ?
James Kilehand to Mary Wason. August 14, 1783.
James W. Calahan and John Wason. (Jno. McNairy.)
John Chriwer ( ?) to Cathrin Kup ( ^). Xovember 1,
1783. John (his X mark) Chriver and Peter Brown.
Isaac Cowin to Sarah Stewart. December 18, 1783. Isaac
(his X mark) Cowin and Da\dd (his X mark) Stewart.
(To be Continued.)
Biographical Sketches of the contributors to this issue of
The Booklet have been published heretofore as follows :
Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood Yol. VIII, 1
Dr. Kemp P. Battle Vol. VII, 2
Captain S. A. Ashe Vol IX, 4
Vol. XIII JANUARY, 1914 No. 3
floRTH CflROLmA BoOKIiET
** Carolina! Carolina! Heaven^ s blessings attend her !
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.'^
THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION
The object of The Bookxet is to aid in developing and preserving
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publicatiOB
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob.
ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard.
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle.
Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt.
Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood.
Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark.
Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham.
Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith.
Miss Martha Helen Haywood.
editor : ~~~
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton.
OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 1912-1914
Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON.
Mrs. CHARLES P. WALES.
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT.
Mrs. clarence JOHNSON.
Mrs. PAUL H. LEE.
Mrs'. FRANK SHERWOOD.
Miss SARAH W. ASHE.
custodian of relics:
Mrs. JOHN E. RAY.
Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent.
Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent.
Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter,
Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent.
General Francis Nash Chapter. .. .Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent.
Founder op the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902:
Mrs. SPIER WHITAKER.
Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f
Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER.
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT.
•Died December 12, 1904.
tDied November 25. 1911.
THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
Vol. XIII JANUARY, J9I4 No. 3
NEW YEAR'S SHOOTING, AN ANCIENT
By Major Wm. A. Graham.
The Germans who came from the Fatherland direct or via
Pennsylvania to the country adjacent to the Catawba River
and perhaps to other sections of the State brought with
them the custom of "N^ew Year's Shooting," which from the
opening words of the sermon seems to have been a custom
in the old country in which the tenants on ISTew Year's Eve,
going to the mansion of the Baron or Landlord, delivered
an address and saluted him by firing their guns.
It was not a carousal of boys on a spree, but one of the
steadiest, and generally an elderly man, was the preacher,
who promptly left if there was any misbehavior.
The custom has now become almost obsolete, but there are
still a few communities who prepare for the visit of the
shooters by having a supply of eatables on hand for them.
Assembling about midnight, they went from house to
house until sunrise, having designated some place where
they would breakfast. Here the preacher left and the
others, principally the young people, spent some time in
drinking, dancing, prize shooting and other festivities com-
mon to the Christmas season in those days.
The desire was to reach the house unobserved by the ocr-
eupants. Assembling before the house, the preacher called
out three times : "Hello, Major (or William) Graham!" At
148 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
the third call the landlord answers, "Hello." Then follows
Good morning, Landlord and Landlady!
Sons and daughters and all who are within your house.
I wish you all a happy New Year in this year of our Lord 1914.
I wish you all great health, long life, which God will bestow you on,
Keep joy, peace and encouragement and God will bless your whole
On your house and all therein
I wish you all a blessing.
Praise Him in times of all
Who gives you houses, lands and all.
The poor and needy praise the Lord
Who blessings need of every sort.
In every part I wish you ease,
That God may give you luck and peace.
God preserve the house that you are in,
Where you go out, where you come in.
In this world both man and wife
Grow tired of this earthly life
And seek an eternal rest,
Choosing some other subject for the best.
And I wish from my heart
From this world we do depart
We may all sing new hymns
Like David did in former times.
But you are like that frail flower.
Born to flourish but an hour,
That with the sun does uprise,
Unfolds, and with the evening dies.
Such and so withering are our earthly joys
Which time and sickness soon destroys.
A thousand wretched souls have fled
Since the last setting sun;
But the Lord hath lengthened out our thread
And still our moments run.
Great God, let all our hours be thine,
Then shall our sun in smiles decline.
Never build your hopes too high.
But keep God always before your eye.
And that you and I are born to die.
Time by moments steals away.
First the hour and then the day,
NEW year's shooting. 149
Small the daily loss appears,
But soon it doth amount to years.
Sad experience may relate
What a year the last has been;
Crops of sorrow have been great
In this vain world of sin.
That they must lie within the tomb
The sons of Adam know is their certain doom.
As runs the glass, man's life does pass.
Xerxes the Great did surely die;
This must be the case with you and I.
I have this New Year's morn called you by your name,
Disturbed you of your rest, meant no harm by the same;
Here we stand upon your land
With guns and pistols in our hand.
And when we pull trigger and powder burn.
You'll hear the roaring of our guns.
Here we are in your yard,
A little distance all apart.
And, as it may be your desire,
Our guns shall either snap* or fire.
As I hear no objection.
We'll now proceed to your protection.
After the sermon comes the firing. Beginning at the head
of the line each one fires until all have shot. A loud re-
port is highly prized and to secure this by overloading
sometimes the guns burst or are kicked out of the hands of
the person firing. Others fire with the muzzle pointed to
the ground to increase the volume of the report. A large
attendance at New Year's shooting was considered a good
omen for the next wheat crop, caused by the settling of the
powder smoke upon the ground. The firing over, the
preacher says :
If you are a man of grace.
Come to the door and show your face.
The landlord opens the door, the shooters enter, exchange
the compliments of the season, partake of such entertain-
*If on account of sickness or other cause, firing is not desired, the landlord calls out
150 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
ment as has been prepared and then proceed to the next
house, continuing the march until sunrise.
It is a pretty manner of extending ISTew Year's saluta-
tion and it is to be regretted that it will soon be obsolete.
The original sermon was in German, and in many places
it was preached in that language prior to 1860. There are
several versions in English ; the one I have given is the
one used in the neighborhood of the writer.
Mr. R, M. Beal, of Lincolnton, gives the following ver-
sion as that used by him and his associates:
THE NEW YEAB'S SHOOTING.
Good morning. Landlord and Landlady,
Sons and daughters and all that are within thy house.
I wish you a happy New Year,
Great health and long life.
Which God bestow upon you in mercy
As long as you are upon the earth.
I hope you lovers of every kind.
Please your heart and please your mind,
Whose heart is pure, whose hands are clean,
Whose tongues still speak the things they mean,
No slander dwells upon your tongue
You hate to do your lovers wrong.
A state of sin I despise
But love the honor in the eyes,
Don't be too proud, don't build your hopes too high,
Keep God always before your eye
And recollect you are born to die
As well as I.
The hoar frost that shrouds the ground,
The hail that sends the dreadful sound.
The icy hand the rivers hold
From the dread arms of winter's cold,
The branches we are ordained to shoot
From David's stock to Jacob's root.
To this New Year's morning 1914
I have called you by your name
And meant no harm by the same.
If these proceedings don't agree,
NEW year's shooting. 151
Make us an answer se-ri-ous-ly.
That we may hold our credit by
And burn our powders in aegy sly —
But since it has been your desire,
Guns and pistols shall snap and fire.
152 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
EARLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAR
By Captain S. A. Ashe.
AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY OF
COLONIAL DAMES AT BRUNSWICK, N. C.
As, when some devotee repairs to a sacred shrine and lifts
his silent thoughts to the throne in Heaven, his being be-
comes penetrated v^ith the softening atmosphere of the hal-
lov^ed sanctuary and his piety is nourished by his emotions;
so, on such an occasion as this, when we draw nigh to these
venerable ruins, where our forefathers gathered in years
long past, and which speak to us of their patriotic deeds in
perilous times, our own natures must be uplifted and our
patriotism strengthened and made more fervent.
Here we find visible objects connecting us with an inter-
esting past and attesting the verity of legends and memo-
ries that we dearly cherish. Here at the gateway of our
noble river stands a monument that speaks to us of the
very beginning of life upon the Cape Fear, of the first set-
tlement, of its early days, and of its growth, developmeiit
and expansion. But more particularly it is a mournful
memorial of the conflicting interests between the newer
city — ISTewton it was originally called — and the first toA\ai
laid off as a center for the trade and commerce of the peo-
ple. The younger sister, with her superior advantages, sur-
vived the contest and won the victory ; and Wilmington be-
came the great heart of the Cape Fear region, sending
warm blood of energy and intelligence through the arteries
of the country, and growing in strength and importance in
every succeeding generation ; while Brunswick faded away
with the Colonial days, and her ruins here are only vestiges
of the Colonial period. They bid us pause and reflect
upon their history.
EAELY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAB. 153
They recall to our remembrance, the important
changes that Time has wrought among us. The services
held within these walls were those of the Church of Eng-
land, the ministers being under the authority of the Bish-
ops of London ; and the worshippers with loyal hearts
gloried in being subjects of His Sacred Majesty, the King.
The fountain of honor, the resplendent source of earthly
glory, was the beloved and revered Monarch who sat on
his throne in his royal palace across the water. His min-
isters ordered our affairs, selected our Governors, appointed
our counsellors and local officers, and allowed or annulled
the enactments of our legislatures. Yes, then our fore-
fathers were British subjects, and earnestly and anxiously
sought the smiles of their Sovereign, and had neither hope
nor desire for any change.
There is no record of the arrival of the vessel that brought
here the pioneer family. She came with bended sail across
yonder bar and boldly coursed the broad harbor and drew
near to the haven where she would be. There were anxious
mothers — the children, the household servants, and all the
accompaniments of the family. Oh ! noble river : thus was
borne upon your bosom the first germs of a people destined
in time to occupy a vast country and by their deeds and
virtues to become famous on the pages of history. Ah !
that bark ! freighted with precious lives, animated with high
hopes of a happy future here on the virgin banks of this
splendid river : maids and matrons ; brave, courageous and
enterprising men — they come to found a people ; to lay the
foundations of a settlement amid the solitude of an un-
broken wilderness. But soon the axes ring; great trees
fall ; clearings are made ; houses rise, and settlers hasten to
make new homes on these broad and placid waters.
With these first enterprising families, nearly every one
154 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
of US here present today is, perhaps in some way, connected ;
and it is from such a standpoint, that we children of the
Cape Fear find a particular interest in the incoming of our
Fathers, in their first clearings, in the first family prayers
that ascended from the hearthstones of old Brunswick, and
in the redemption of our loved section from its original
condition of primeval wilderness.
Among the immigrants from foreign parts were men of
learning, culture, and social position, and they found con-
genial society. Indeed social conditions on the Cape Fear
were exceptionally fine. The native sons, children of South
Carolina and of Albemarle, could boast refinement, as well
as wealth and strength of character ; and preeminent among
all were the Moores and their kinspeople, who were called
by those who had antagonistic interests, "The Family."
"The Family" was not on easy terms with the new Governor,
Gabriel Johnston, who with his immediate friends had pur-
chased lands around Newton, and had cast the whole influ-
ence of the administration in favor of that town and against
Brunswick, And so after a hot and strong fight, by very
doubtful tactics, the Governor carried his point and ISTewton
took its place among the few incorporated towns, under the
name of Wilmington: and, backed by all the official influ-
ences of the administration, and of others interested in its
land values, and sustained by a more thriving trade because
of its superior location, it soon became the chief emporium
of the Cape Fear and the local seat of government.
But still there centered in Brunswick many interests.
There an elegant and refined society held sway; and later
other Governors resided there, as well as some of the Crown
At length, however, ]^ew Bern became the established
seat of government and the residence of the Governor; and.
EAKLY TIMES ON THK CAPE FEAR. 155
perhaps because of its exposed position during the periods
times of the Revolution, Brunswick was entirely deserted,
and passed into history, its light going out with the end of
the Colonial period.
But to us, as long as this ruin endures, it will be a memo-
rial of exceeding interest. It recalls to us the joyous aspect
of the social side of Colonial days. Here was a seat of ele-
gance, refinement and culture, and of a fine hospitality un-
surpassed anywhere in the Southland.
Here gathered the Colonial dames who imparted a charm
to daily life, and whose gTacious presence cast a refining
and elevating influence throughout the Cape Fear region.
These were indeed the Colonial Dames of the earlier times.
You know, fair ladies, the immutable order of nature —
evolution — development. First, the bud ; then the flower.
In a spacious garden that adorns the banks of our be-
loved river, fit for some modem Maecenas and his elegant
spouse, where a multitude of roses beautify nature, one can
see some lovely buds of the variety known as American
Beauty — in time, by natural processes, these become full
blowra, glorious roses — the admiration of all who love per-
fection in nature.
The Colonial Dames of Old Brunswick were as the lovely
buds : the Dames of today — are the perfect development —
the glorious full blown American Beauties: living roses in
a veritable garden of Hesperides with heavenly souls and
divine forms, and whose charms and graces make them
actual goddesses for the souls of men to worship.
Such a picture is only an illustration of what was to be
found in all the mansions that adorned the banks of the Cape
Fear. Happy indeed was life in these abodes of culture
and refinement; there being abundant crops, increasing
156 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
wealth and social pleasures that gave a delightful flavor to
the placid current of happy existence.
But there were occasions of excitement. The course of
public affairs often ran in channels calling for bold and
In the system of government, as the Governor repre-
sented in Proprietary times the will of the Palatine or of
the Lords Proprietors, and, in after years, he received his
instructions from the Colonial office, his relations to the
people were those of a foreign ruler; while, on the other
hand, the Assembly represented the people, and its mouth-
piece was the Speaker. The Speaker stood before the people
as a champion of their rights and principles ; he was the
guardian of their liberty. In him was reposed the public
trust of maintaining and defending their sacred rights
against all encroachments ; and his courage, patriotism, and
devotion constituted • the very ark of their safety.
Although his position was not so exalted as that of the rep-
resentative of His Sacred Majesty, the King, yet the power
of the Speaker with the people at his back was greater and
more important than that of the Royal Governor.
For fifty years, with some slight intermissions, this high
and responsible post was entrusted by the people to a single
family. For fifty years Maurice Moore's family connec-
tions controlled and directed public affairs in North Caro-
lina, and so wisely, vigorously, and patriotically managed
the cause of the people, that in nearly every conflict with
the successive Governors they won the victory.
The Parliament of the British Empire in 1765
usurped the authority of taxing the Colonists. To admit it
was to court the chains of political slavery. The asserted*
right was stoutly denied. To assist the King, each Colony
had been used by taxing itself to raise a fund and present
EARLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAK. 157
it to the King, under the name of "an aid" ; but because of
the great expense incurred in the war, then ended, Parlia-
ment resolved itself to lay a tax on the Colonists as on all
other British subjects. A resolution declaring that policy
was adopted by Parliament, almost without debate. But
when the next year a bill was introduced to carry the reso-
lution into effect, it met with considerable opposition in the
House of Commons, for the protests of the Colonists were
not unheeded. Still the ministry, under Lord Bute, per-
sisted, and the measure was carried. All America was at
once stirred. Bold and courageous action was taken in
every Colony, but in none was a more resolute spirit man-
ifested than here upon the Cape Fear. The Governor was
Tryon, who had but lately succeeded to that office. He was
an officer of the army, a gentleman by birth and education,
a man calculated by his accomplishments and social qualities
to shine in any community. He sought the Speaker of the
House, and asked him what would be the action of the peo-
ple — "Eesistance to the death," was the prompt reply. That
was a warning that was full of meaning. It pledged the
Speaker to revolution and war in defense of the people's
The Assembly was to meet in May, 1765. But Tryon
astutely postponed the meeting until l!Tovember, and then
dissolved it. He did not wish the members to meet, confer,
consult, and arrange a plan of opposition. He hoped by
dealing with gentlemen, not in an official capacity, to dis-
arm their antagonism and persuade them to a milder course.
Vain delusion ! The people had been too long trained to
rely with confidence on their leaders to abandon them now,
even though Parliament demanded their obedience.
The first movement was not long delayed. Within two
months after the news had come that the odious act had
158 THE NOETII CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
been passed, the people of North Carolina discarded from
their use all clothes of British manufacture and set up
looms for weaving their own clothes. Since Great Britain
was to oppress them, they would give the world an assur-
ance of the spirit of independence that would sustain them
in the struggle. In October, information was received that
Doctor Houston, of Duplin County, had been selected in
England as Stamp-Master. At once proceedings were
taken to nullify the appointment. At that time Wilming-
ton had less than 500 white inhabitants, but her citizens
were very patriotic and very resolute.
Rocky Point, fifteen miles to the northward, had been
the residence of Maurice Moore, of Speaker Moseley and
Speaker Swann, Alexander Lillington, John Swann, George
Moore, John Porter, Col. Jones, Col. Merrick, and other gen-
tlemen of influence. It was the centre from which had
radiated the influences that directed popular movements.
Nearer to Onslow, Duplin and Bladen, than Wilmington
was, and the residence of the Speaker and other active lead-
ers, it was doubtless there that plans were considered, and
proceedings agreed upon that involved the united action of
all the neighboring counties. At Wilmington and vicinity,
were Plarnett, DeRossett, Toomer, Walker, Clayton, Gregg,
Purviance, Eustace, Maclaine and DuBois ; while near by
were Col. Waddell, Maurice and James Moore, the Davises,
Howe, Smith, Grange, Ancrum, and a score of others of the
loftiest patriotism. All were in full accord with the
Speaker of the Assembly ; all were nerved by the same
spirit ; all resolved to carry resistance, if need be, to the
point of blood and death.
We fortunately have a contemporaneous record of some
of their proceedings, "^'On Saturday, the 19th of last month,"
EARLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAK. 159
says the North Carolina Gazette, published at Wilmington,
in its issue of November 20, 1765 :
''About 7 o'clock in the evening, near five hundred people assem-
bled together in this town and exhibited the effigy of a certain hon-
orable gentleman; and after letting it hang by the neck for some
time, near the courthouse, they made a large bonfire with a number
of tar barrels, etc., and committed it to the flames. The reason
assigned for the people's dislike to that gentleman was from being
informed of his having several times expressed himself much in
favor of the Stamp Duty. After the effigy was consumed, they went
to every house in town, and brought all the gentlemen to the bonfire,
and insisted on their drinking 'Liberty, Property, and No Stamp
Duty,' 'Confusion to Lord Bute and all his adherents'; giving three
huzzahs at the conclusion of each toast. They continued together
until 12 of the clock, and then dispersed without doing any mischief."
Doubtless it was a very orderly crowd ; since the editor
says so. A very orderly, harmless, inoffensive gathering;
patriotic, and given to hurrahing; but we are assured that
they dispersed without doing any mischief.
And continues the same paper:
"On Thursday, the 31st of the same month, in the evening, a great
number of people assembled again, and produced an effigy of
Liberty, which they put into a coffin and marched in solemn pro-
cession with it to the churchyard, a drum in mourning beating be-
fore them; and the town bell muffled ringing a doleful knell at the
same time; but before they committed the body to the ground, they
thought it advisable to feel its pulse, and, finding some remains of
life, they returned back to a bonfire ready prepared, placed the effigy
before it in a large two-armed chair, and concluded the evening with
great rejoicings on finding that Liberty had still an existence in the
"Not the least injury was offered to any person."
The editor of that paper, Mr. Stewart, was ai>parently
anxious to let his readers know that the people engaged in
these proceedings were the very soul of order, and the es-
sence of moderation. So far they had done no mischief and
offered no injury to anyone. But still they had teeth, and
160 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
thej could show them. Ill fared any man who stood in
The next item reads:
"Saturday, the 16tli of this instant, that is November: William
Houston, Esq., Distributor of stamps for this Province, came to this
town; upon which three or four hundred people immediately gath-
ered together, with drums beating and colors flying, and repaired to
to the house the said Stamp master put up at, and insisted upon
knowing 'Whether he intended to execute his said office or not.' He
told them, 'He should be very sorry to execute any office disagree-
able to the people of this Province.' But they, not content with such
declaration, carried him into the courthouse, where he signed a
resignation satisfactory to the whole. They then placed the stamp
master in an arm chair, carried him around the courthouse, giving
at every corner three loud huzzahs, and finally set him down at the
door of his lodging, formed a circle around him, and gave three
cheers. They then escorted him into the house, where were pre-
pared the best liquoirs, and treated him very genteelly. In the
evening a large bonfire was made and no person appeared on the
streets without having "Liberty" in large capital letters on his hat.
They had a table near the bonfire, well furnished with several sorts
of liquors, where they drank in great form, all the favorite American
Toasts, giving three cheers at the conclusion of each."
"The whole was conducted," says the editor, "with great
decorum, and not the least insult offered to any person."
This enforced resignation of the Stamp-Master was done
under the direction of Alderman DeRossett, who received
from Houston his commission and other papers, and necc'S-
sarily it was a very orderly performance. The ringing huz-
zas, the patriotic toasts, the loud acclaim, echoing from the
court-house square, reverberating through the streets of the
town, but Mr. Stewart is quite sure that no mischief was
done, and not the least insult was offered to any person. These
and other similar proceedings led the Governor to send out
a circular letter to the principal inhabitants of the Cape
Fear region, requesting their presence at a dinner at his
residence at Brunswick on Tuesday the 19th of November,
EARLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAE. 161
three days after Dr. Houston resigned; and after the din-
ner, he conferred with these gentlemen about the Stamp
Act. He found them fully determined to annul the Act,
and prevent its going into effect. He sought to persuade
them, and begged them to let it be obsei*ved at least in part.
He plead that if they would let the act go into partial oper-
ation in the respects he mentioned, he himself would pay
for all the stamps necessary. It seems that he liked the
people, and they liked and admired him ; and difficult in-
deed was his position. He was charged with the execution
of a law which he knew could not be executed, for there was
not enough specie in the Province to buy the necessary'
stamps, even if the law could be enforced ; but, then, the
people were resolved against recognizing it in any degree.
The authority of the King and of the Parliament was de-
fied, and he, the representative of the British Government,
was powerless in the face of this resolute defiance. While
still maintaining dignity in his intercourse with the people,
the Governor wrote to his superiors at London, strongly
urging the repeal of the law. A week later the stamps
arrived in the sloop of war, the Diligence. They remained
on the sloop and were not landed at that time.
Now there was a lull ; but the quietude was not to remain
unbroken. In January two merchant vessels arrived in the
harbor, the Patience and the Dobbs. Their clearance papers
were not stamped as the Act required. The vessels were
seized and detained while the lawfulness of their detention
was referred to the Attorney-General, Robert Jones, then
absent at his home on the Roanoke. But the leaders of the
people were determined not to submit to an adverse decision.
They held meetings and agreed on a plan of action.
In view of the crisis, on January 20th, the Mayor of the
town retired to give place to Moses John DeRossett, who had
163 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
been the foremost leader in the action previously taken by
the town. One whose spirit never quailed was now to stand
forth as the head of the Corporation.
On the 5th day of February, Capt. Lobb, in command of
the Viper, had made a requisition for an additional supply
of provisions, and Mr. Dry, the Contractor, sent his boat to
Wilmington to obtain them. The inhabitants, led by the
Mayor, at once seized the boat, threw the crew into the jail,
and in a wild tumult of excitement, placed the boat on a
wagon and hauled it through the streets with a great dem-
onstration of fervid patriotism. The British forces on the
river were to receive no supplies from Wilmington ; their
provisions were cut off, and they were treated as enemies —
not friends, so long as they supported the odious law of
Parliament. Ten days later came the opinion of the Attor-
ney-General to the effect that the detained merchantmen
were properly seized and were liable to be confiscated under
the law. This was the signal for action. The news was
spread throughout the counties, and the whole country was
astir. Every patriot "was on his legs." There was no
halt in carrying into effect the plan agreed upon. Imme-
diately the people began to assemble and detachments, under
chosen leaders, took up their march from Onslow, Bladen
and Duplin. On the 18th of February, the inhabitants of
the Cape Fear counties, being then assembled at Wilming-
ton, entered into an association, which they signed, declar-
ing they preferred death to slavery ; and mutually and sol-
emnly they plighted their faith and honor that they would
at any risk whatever, and whenever called upon, unite and
truly and faithfully assist each other, to the best of their
power, in preventing entirely the operation of the Stamp
The crisis had now arrived. The hand of destiny had
EAKLrY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAB. 163
struck with a bold stroke the resounding bell. The people,
nobly responding, had seized their arms. At all times,
when some patriot is to throw himself to the front, and bid
defiance to the established authority of Government, there is
a Rubicon to be crossed — and he who unsheathes his sword
to resist the law must win success or meet a traitor's doom.
But the leaders on the Cape Fear did not hesitate at the
thought of personal peril. At their call, the people, being
armed and being assembled at Wilmington, chose the men
who were to guide, govern and direct them. They called to
the helm John Ashe, the trusted Speaker of the Assembly,
and associated with him Alexander Lillington and Col.
Thomas Lloyd, as a Directory, to manage their affairs at this
momentous crisis. Their movement was not that of an
irresponsible mob. It was an orderly proceeding, pursu-
ant to a determined plan of action, under the direction of
the highest ofiicer of the Province, who was charged with
maintaining the liberties of the people. In effect, it was
the institution and ordaining of a temporary government.
It was resolved to organize an armed force and march to
Brunswick; and Col. Hugh Waddell was invested with the
command of the miltary. Let us pause a moment and
take a view of the situation at that critical juncture. Close
to Brunswick in his mansion, was Governor Tryon, the rep-
resentative of the King; no coward he, but resolute, a mili-
tary man of experience and courage. In the town itself
were the residences and ofiioes of Col. Dry, the Collector of
the port, and of other ofiicers of the Crown. Off in the
river lay the detained merchant vessels and the two sloops of
war, the Viper, commanded by Capt. Lobb, and the Dili-
gence, commanded by Capt. Phipps, whose bristling guns,
26 in number, securely kept them; while Fort Johnston,
some miles away, well armed with artillery, was held by a
164 THE NOETH CAEOLIJSTA BOOKLET.
small garrison. At every point flew the meteor flag of
Great Britain. Every point was protected by the aegis of
His Sacred Majesty. For a subject to lift his hand in a
hostile manner against any of these was treason and re-
bellion. Yes, treason and rebellion, with the fearful pun-
ishment of attainder and death : of being hanged and quar-
Well might the eloquent Davis exclaim, "Beware, John
Ashe ! Hugh Waddell, take heed !"
Their lives, their fortunes were at hazard and the dishon-
ored grave was open to receive their dismembered bodies !
But patriots as they were, they did take care — not for them-
selves, but of the liberties of their country. At high noon,
on the 19th day of February, the three Directors, the Mayor
and Corporation of Wilmington, the embodied soldiery and
the prominent citizens moved forward, crossed the river,
passed like Caesar the fateful Rubicon, and courageously
marched to the scene of possible conflict. It was not only
the Governor with whom they had to deal, but the ships of
war with their formidable batteries, that held possession of
the detained vessels. It was not merely the penalties of
the law that threatened them, but they courted death at
the cannon's mouth, in conflict with the heavily armed sloops
of war, from whose power they had come to wrest the mer-
chantmen. But there was neither halt nor hesitation.
As they crossed the river, a chasm yawned deep and wide,
separating them from their loyal past. Behind them they
left their allegiance as loyal British subjects — before them
was rebellion — open flagrant war ; leading to revolution.
Who could tell what the ending might be of the anticipated
There all the gentlemen of the Cape Fear were gathered,
in their cocked hats ; their long queues ; their knee-breeches
EARLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAB. 165
and shining shoe buckles. Mounted on their well-groomed
horses, they made a famous cavalcade, as they wound their
way through the sombre pine forests that hedged in the
highway to old Brunswick. Among them was DeRossett,
the Mayor, in the prime of manhood, of French descent,
with keen eye, fine culture and high intelligence; who had
been a soldier with Innes at the North; bold and resolved
was he as he rode, surrounded by Cornelius Harnett, Fred-
erick Gregg, John Sampson and the other Aldermen and
officers of the town.
At the head of a thousand armed men, arranged in com-
panies, and marching in order, was the experienced soldier,
Hugh Waddell, not yet thirty-three years of age, but already
renowned for his capacity and courage. He had won more
distinction and honors in the late wars at the ISTorth and
West than any other Southern soldier, save only George
Washington ; and now in command of his companies, offi-
cered by men who had been trained in discipline in the war,
he was confident of the issue. Of Irish descent, and com-
ing of a fighting stock, his blood was up, and his heroic soul
v/as aflame for the fray.
Surrounded by a bevy of his kinsmen, the venerable Sam
and John Swarm ; and his brothers-in-law, James, George
and Maurice Moore ; by his brother, Sam Ashe, and Alexan-
der Lillington, whose burly forms towered high above the
others ; by Home, Davis, Col. Lloyd and other gallant spir-
its, was the Speaker, John Ashe, now just forty-five years
of age — on whom the responsibility of giving direction
chiefly lay; of medium stature, well knit, olive complexion,
and with a lustrous hazel eye, he was full of nervous en-
ergy — an orator of surpassing power, elegant carriage and
commanding presence. Of him Mr. Strudwick has said :
"That there were not four men in London his intellectual
166 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
superior," and, that at a time when Pitt, Fox, Burke, and
that splendid galaxy of British orators and statesmen gave
lustre to British annals.
How, en this momentous occasion, the spirits of these men
and of their kinsmen and friends, who gathered around,
must have soared as thej pressed on resolved to maintain
their rights. Animated by the noble impulses of a lofty
patriotism, with their souls elevated by the inspiring emo-
tions of a perilous struggle for their liberties, they moved
forward with a resolute purpose to sacrifice their lives
rather than tamely submit to the oppressive and odious
enactments of the British Parliament.
It was nightfall before they reached the vicinity of
Brunswick, and George Moore and Cornelius Harnett, rid-
ing in advance, presented to Governor Tryon a letter from
the Governing Directory, notifying him of their purpose.
In a few minutes the" Governor's residence was surrounded,
and Capt. Lobb was inquired for — but he was not there.
A party was then dispatched towards Fort Johnston, and
thereupon Tryon notified the British Naval Commanders
and requested them to protect the Fort, repelling force with
force. In the meantime a party of gentlemen called on the
Collector, Mr. Dry, who had the papers of the ship Patience ;
and in his presence broke open his desk and took them away.
This gave an earnest of the resolute purpose of the peo-
ple. They purposed to use all violence that was necessary
to carry out their designs. Realizing the full import of the
situation, the following noon a conference of the King's ofii-
cers was held on the Viper; and Capt. Lobb, confident of
his strength, declared to the Governor that he would hold
the ship Patience and insist on the return of her papers. If
the people were resolved, so were the ofiicers of government.
The sovereignty of Great Britain was to be enforced.
EAELY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAR. 167
There was to be no temporizing with the rebels. The honor
of the Government demanded that the British flag should
not droop in the face of this hostile array. But two short
hours later, a party of the insurgents came aboard and re-
quested to see Capt, Lobb. They entered the cabin, and
there, under the royal flag, surrounded by the King's forces,
they demanded that all efforts to enforce the Stamp Act
cease. They would allow no opposition. In the presence
of Ashe, Waddell, DeRossett, Harnett, Moore, Howe and
Lillington, the spirit of Capt. Lobb quailed. The people
won. In the evening the British commander, much to the
Governor's disgust, reported to that functionary — "That
all was settled." Yes. All had been settled. The vessels
were released ; the gTievances were redressed. The restric-
tions on the commerce of the Cape Fear were removed. The
attempt to enforce the Stamp Act had failed before the
prompt, vigorous and courageous action of the inhabitants.
After that, vessels could come and go as if there had been
no act of Parliament. The people had been victorious over
the King's ships ; with arms in their hands, they had won
the victory. But the work was not all finished. There, on
the Diligence, were the obnoxious stamps, and by chance
some loyal ofiicer of the government might use them. To
guard against that, the other officers were to be forced to
swear not to obey the act of Parliament, but to observe the
will of the people. Mr. Pennington was His Majesty's con-
troller, and understanding that the people sought him, he
took refuge in the Governor's Mansion, and was given a bed
and made easy; but early the next morning. Col. James
Moore called to get him. The Governor interfered, to pre-
vent; and immediately the Mansion was surrounded by the
insurgent troops, and the Directory notified the Governor,
in writing, that they requested His Excellency to let Mr.
168 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Pennington attend, otherwise it would not be ''in the power
of the Directors appointed to prevent the ill consequences
that would attend a refusal." In plain language, said John
Ashe, "Persist in your refusal, and we will come and take
him." The Governor declined to comply. In a few mo-
ments he observed a body of near five hundred men move
towards his house. A detachment of sixty entered his
avenue. Cornelius Harnett accompanied them, and sent
word that he wished to speak with Mr, Pennington. The
Governor replied that Mr. Pennington was protected by his
house. Harnett thereupon notified the Governor that the
people would come in and take him out of the house, if
longer detained, Now the point was reached. The people
were ready ; the Governor was firm. But Pennington
v/isely suggested that he would resign, and immediately
wrote his resignation and delivered it to the Governor, —
and then he went out -with Harnett and was brought here to
Brunswick, and required to take an oath never to issue
any stamped paper in North Carolina : so was Mr. Dry, the
Collector: and so all the Clerks of the County Courts, and
other public ofiicers. Every officer in all that region, ex-
cept alone the Governor, was forced to obey the will of the
people and swear not to obey the Act of Parliament.
On the third day after the first assemblage at Wilming-
ton on the 18th, the Directors, having completed their work
at Brunswick, took up the line of march to return. With
what rejoicing they turned their backs on the scene of their
bloodless triumph ! It had been a time of intense excite-
ment. It had been no easy task to hold more than a thous-
and hot and zealous patriots well in hand, and to accomplish
their purposes without bloodshed. Wisdom and courage
by the Directors, and prudence, foresight and sagacity on
the part of the military officers were alike essential to the
EARLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAR. 169
consummation of their design. They now returned in tri-
umph, their purposes accomplished. The odious law was
annulled in North Carolina. After that, merchant vessels
passed freely, in and out of port, without interference. The
stamps remained boxed on shipboard, and no further effort
was made to enforce a law which the people had rejected.
Two months after these events on the Cape Fear, Parlia-
ment repealed the law, and the news was hurried across the
Atlantic in the fleetest vessels. The victory of the people
was complete. They had annulled an act of Parliament,
crushed their enemies and preserved their liberties. Thus
once more were the courageous leaders on the Cape Fear, in
their measures of opposition to encroachments on the rights
of the people, sustained by the result. On former occa-
sions they had triumphed over their Governors: now in
cooperation with the other provinces, they had triumphed
over the British Ministry and the Parliament of Great
While in ever}' other province, the people resolutely op-
posed the Stamp Act, nowhere else in America was there
a proceeding similar to that which was taken at Wilmington.
ISTowhere else was the standard of Liberty committed to the
care of a Governing Directory, even though its creation was
for a temporary purpose; nowhere else was there an army
organized, under officers appointed, and led to a field where
a battle might have ensued. Had not His Majesty's forces
yielded to the will of the insurgents, the American Revolu-
tion would have probably begun then — and here — on the
soil of Old Brunswick.
The repeal of the Stamp Act was hailed on both sides of
the water with every demonstration of joy. The city of
London was illuminated with bonfires and every churchbell
rang out its joyous peals. With still greater satisfaction,
170 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
did the Colonists welcome the news of their triumph and of
peace! The furious storm of popular resentment was suc-
ceeded by a wave of loyalty and love. In that era of good-
will, Governor Tryon overlooked all differences — except
as to three of the chief actors in the affair. He had some
caustic words for DeRossett, the courageous Mayor of Wil-
mington ; he suspended from his office as Judge, Maurice
Moore ; and he nourished enmity with John Ashe ; so, when
the new Assembly met, the wave of loyalty being at its
height, Ashe, jDcrhaps not wishing to be a cause of disturb-
ing it, refrained from seeking reelection as Speaker, and re-
mained away from the Assembly for three days, until an-
other Speaker, more agreeable to his Excellency and more
in accord with the prevailing sentiment, should be chosen.
John Harvey, from the Albemarle region, who had not
been personally concerned in the Stamp Act trouble, was
elected Speaker; and the Assembly, radiant with happiness,
and zealous to display their loyalty and affection, hastened
to abandon its strenuous opposition concerning the location
of a capital for the Province, and begged the King to estab-
lish it in 'New Bern, and also appropriated a large sum
for the erection of a residence for the Governor, and en-
trusted the money to Governor Tryon, to be disbursed at his
discretion. And so it came about that a few years later, the
Governor removed from Brunswick to New Bern, the people
having erected there for him one of the finest buildings in
America as an outgrowth of the Stamp Act troubles on the
Cape Fear. But while Parliament repealed the Stamp Act,
it would not entirely relinquish its claimed right to tax the
Colonists. Eight years later it taxed tea imported into
America. Boston would not allow a cargo of taxed tea to be
landed, but threw it overboard. As a punishment that port
was closed. No vessel was allowed to enter or depart from
EAKLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAR. 171
it. All work there ceased. The people suffered for food.
Again the patriots of Wilmington assembled. They de-
clared the cause of Boston to be the cause of all. Men and
women, alike — indeed the Colonial Dames taking the lead —
subscribed liberally, both money and provisions ; and Parker
Quince tendered his vessel to carry the cargo, and he sailed
with her himself to Salem freighted with the generous offer-
ings of the Cape Fear people.
And not only did Wilmington respond nobly, but she called
on others to contribute. On the 24th of July there was a
general meeting of all the counties of the Cape Fear, and a
committee was appointed to urge the entire province to join
in the good work, and contributions were collected from the
interior at ISTew Bern and sent forward from there as well as
from the Cape Fear.
And that same meeting took a still more important ac-
tion. The Governor could postpone or dissolve a meeting
of the Assembly. It was desirable to have a body repre-
senting the people, that he could not dissolve. It was de-
sirable to establish a governing body for the Province, differ-
ent from the Assembly which was a part of the Colonial
Constitution. This meeting at Wilmington appointed a
committee to call on the counties to elect a revolutionary
body to direct affairs in N^orth Carolina, and the committee
sent out handbills urging all the counties to take that revo-
lutionary action. Pursuant to that recommendation, the
first Provincial CongTCss was elected, and met at ISTew Bern
on August 24th, and after that the local affairs of the people
were generally managed by revolutionary committees.
Gradually the connection between the people and the Brit-
ish Government was being severed, and the first great step
was the calling of the Provincial Congress by the people of
the Cape Fear.
172 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
Blind and passionate, Parliament had proceeded to pass
measures of fearful import, as if to force the people to des-
perate resistance. First, they decreed that any one charged
with resisting their proceedings should be carried to Eng-
land and he tried there, instead of in his own country ; next,
afeserting their right to modify and annul the government of
any Colony, they passed a bill seriously modifying the
government of Massachusetts, in utter disregard of the
rights of the people under their charter; and then, as if to
show what they deemed a model government for the Ameri-
ern Colonies, and what the people here might expect, they
established a government in Canada in which the people had
no legislature, but the power of making the laws was vested
exclusively in a Council appointed in England. These meas-
ures appalled America. There was no other topic of con-
versation, no other subject of thought, but the imperiled
rights and liberties of the people. The dangers foreshad-
owed by the first Stamp Act had now come in terrible form ;
no longer were the people to be British subjects, but British
slaves. The iron entered into the souls of men, and again
our forests and fields resounded ^\dth the cry of "Resistance
unto death." In the intervening decade Moses John De-
Rossett, Hugh Waddell, John Harvey and other patriotic
spirits had passed away; while Hooper, Iredell and other
great souls had reached the stage of action. John Ashe was
still in the forefront among the leaders. He had been Colo-
nel of the militia of New Hanover, but declining a reap-
pointment by the Governor, about the first of March, 1775.
he organized a regiment of troops, not under the laws of
the Province, and was elected by them to be their Colonel.
Robert Howe likewise organized troops in Brunswick, and
was engaged in drilling them. Events now moved rapidly.
On April 19th, occurred the battle of Lexington, the news
EARLY TIMES ON THE CAPE FEAR. 173
by couriers reaching Wilmington on May the 6th, and the
excitement became intense. At Kew Bern feeling ran
equally high, and Governor Martin, who had succeeded
Tryon, feared to remain in his palace. Sending his wife
and children to New York, he fled to the protection of the
garrison at Fort Johnston, arriving there on the 2d of June.
He had already applied to General Gage for a supply of
arms and ammunition to arm his loyal adherents, and now
he concerted measures to organize the Highlanders and the
loyalists in the interior. In command of the fort, he could
readily disj)atch emissaries through the country, and his
holding it was a menace to the people, for information was
received of his purpose to strengthen it and increase the gar-
rison. Indeed he had applied for ten thousand stand of
arms, to equip the loyalists of the interior. The patriotic
leaders learning his intention, deemed it time to act, and it
was resolved that the fort should be dismantled and, if pos-
sible, the cannon removed. Gov. Martin, however, on hear-
ing that steps were being taken for this purpose, acted
quickly. He fled from Fort Johnston, taking up his quarters
on the sloop of war, the Cruiser, and removed all the am-
munition on board a transport, and dismounted the cannon,
placing them under the guns of the sloop of war. The
Patriot forces had been put in motion and Brunswick was
the appointed rendezvous. There Howe brought his contin-
gent from Brunswick County; there three hundred were
marching from Bladen; and there Ashe, with a part of his
IN^ew Hanover regiment, arrived on the evening of the 17th
of July on a schooner from Wilmington. Learning of
the removal of the military stores to the transport, Ashe
formed the plan of burning her with fire rafts ; but later
that design was abandoned, and the next evening five hun-
dred men marched from Brunswick to Fort Johnston; and
174: THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Ashe witli his own hands applied the torch, and the Fort
was burned and demolished. They had driven the Royal
Governor from North Carolina soil ; and they had destroyed
the fort built for the protection of the people, which Mar-
tin had resigned to convert into a foothold for his loyal ad-
herents. This was an act of war, and in the then circum-
stances, was open treason. But bold hearts fear no conse-
quences. The irrevocable step was taken. 'No apprehen-
sions could deter the Cape Fear people. As for the lead-
ers, the Royal Governor awarded them high distinction.
He urged on the King that in all proclamations of amnesty
an exception should be made of John Ashe, Robert Howe,
Cornelius Harnett and Abner ISTash, Kash having been the
leader in seizing the cannon at the Governor's mansion at
The struggle then begun to assert the immemorial rights
of the people as British subjects, soon changed its aspect,
and had for its object entire separation from Great Britain
and complete independence. At the very outset no other
people were bolder than the inhabitants of Wilmington and
the people of the Cape Fear, and none were more fixed
and more resolute in their purpose, and none made greater
sacrifices in the cause of independence. According to their
plighted faith, they went forward in the cause, and freely
offered their lives and sacrificed their fortunes, and they
emerged from the long and doubtful struggle with only
their sacred honor preserved, and their liberties secured as
the cherished heritage of their posterity. As long as Free-
dom has her votaries, the daring deeds of our Cape Fear
people must ever receive the highest applause, and those who
would learn the lessons of patriotism can find in the cour-
ageous leaders of those old days, examples of virtue and
heroism, which they may emulate, but which they cannot
hope to excel.
HISTORY OF THE UNIVEKSITY. 1Y5
ABSTRACT OF VOLUME II OF DR. K. P. BATTLE'S
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
NORTH CAROLINA, 1868=1912
Under the Constitution of 1868 the Trustees of the Uni-
versity were appointed bj the Board of Education, not by
the General Assembly. They were new men as a rule, who
held this office for the first time. Only five of the old Board
were reappointed, and only one of them had been at all ac-
tive. The Executive Committee was composed of the mem-
bers of the Board of Education, eight in number, including
the Governor, and three Trustees elected by the Board
The Board met on the 23d of July, 1868. They declared
the offices of President and Secretary-Treasurer, and the
chairs of the Professors to be vacant. President Swain con-
tended that under the Constitution he was still President.
His contention was not recognized and was cut off by his
The Board referred the election of a teaching staff to the
Executive Committee. These chose Solomon Pool, late an
University Assistant Professor of Mathematics, then holding
an appointment in the United States Revenue service, Presi-
dent, and the following Professors: Alexander Mclver, a
first honor graduate of 1853, late Professor in Davidson
College, Professor of Mathematics ; Fisk P. Brewer, Pro-
fessor of Greek; an Honor Graduate of Yale, Brother of
Judge Brewer of the United States Supreme Court,
son of Rev. Josiah Brewer, Missionary to Turkey; David
Settle Patrick, Professor of Latin, Graduate of 1856, Prin-
cipal of a high school in Texas ; James A. Martling, Profes-
sor of English, Principal of high school in Missouri, brother-
in-law of Superintendent Ashley ; George Dixon, Yorkshire,
176 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
England, Lecturer on Chemistry, Botany and Theoretical
Farming. R. W. Lassiter, of Oxford, was elected Secretary
The sale of the landscrip by the late Trustees was disap-
proved and efforts were made to rescind it but without suc-
cess. As Congress stopped for awhile the location of lands by
the late Confederate States, the purchaser delayed payment.
There was therefore no income from this source. The Gen-
eral Assembly declined to gra.nt an appropriation for the
support of the University, and as tuition was offered free,
there was no income. The consequence was that after the
experiment of a year, few students appearing, the doors
were closed in 1870.
The University being forced into bankruptcy by the fail-
ure of the Bank of ISTorth Carolina, the Federal Court de-
cided that such of its property as is necessary for its life
could not be sold, because it is a part of the State. But
property held for investment was subject to sale. The
Court then allotted to the University its buildings and con-
tents and nearly six hundred acres of land.
At the instance of Professor Mclver, after he became
Superintendent of Public Instruction, an effort was made
to revive the University. A meeting of the Alumni wa?
called. The Trustees of 1868 were asked to resign in favor
of new trustees, to be nominated by the Alumni. It was
thought that Governor Caldwell would appoint these nomi-
nees. As resignations were not forthcoming the scheme
The friends of the University then obtained a constitu-
tional amendment, giving the appointment of Trustees to the
General Assembly, who in 1874 elected a new Board of
Trustees. This was resisted by Goveraor Caldwell, who
claimed that nomination by himself and confirmation by the
HISTORY OF THE UNIVEBSITY. 177
Senate were demanded bj the Constitution. But the Su-
preme Court decided that the election was valid.
When the act of Congress prohibiting the location of the
landscrip was repealed, $125,000 of this fund went into the
hands of the Trustees of 1868. They had invested it in
Special Tax Bonds of the State and some not special tax.
In accepting the landscrip, the State agreed to make good
any loss in the principal of the fund. The new Trustees
therefore petitioned the General Assembly to pay the Uni-
versity $7,500 a year, being six per cent interest on $125,000.
This was done by a majority of one in the House but a two-
thirds majority in the Senate. The Special Tax Bonds were
destroyed by the Trustees according to the act.
The buildings being greatly in need of repair a commit-
tee, of which K, P. Battle was chairman, was appointed to
solicit contributions from Alumni and other friends of
education. They secured $20,000 promised, of which over
$18,000 was collected. Mr. P. C. Cameron superintended
repairs, which cost over $13,000. The rest of the fund was
used in paying professors.
The Board met in June 1875, to elect professors.
For the Chair of Mathematics was chosen Rev. Charles
Phillips, D.D., of wide reputation in that department, of
which he had been the head in the University and at David-
Rev. Adolphus Williamson Mangum, a high honor gradu-
ate of Randolph-Macon College, whose sermons had wide
reputation, was Professor of Philosophy.
To the Chair of ISTatural Sciences was elected Alexander
Fletcher Redd, Alumnus of Virginia Military Institute, who
had charge of Chemistry and Physics in the Homer School.
Mr. John Kimberly, onoe Professor of Agricultural Chem-
1T8 THE NOETII CAROLINA BOOKLET.
istrj in this University, was chosen to the Chair of Agricul-
The Professor for the Chair of Engineering and the Me-
chanic Arts was Ralph Henry Graves. He was a first honor
student of this Univ'^ersity. He then was distinguished at
the University of Virginia, attaining the degree of Bachelor
of Science, and Civil and Mechanical Engineering. He
was then Professor of Drawing and Technical Mechanics in
the Virginia Polytechnic College, after which he was a
teacher in the School of Horner and Graves at Hillsboro.
To the Chairs of Greek and French was elected John
deBerniere Hooper, a first honor graduate of this institution.
He was then tutor and professor of Latin and French. Re-
signing in 1848 he was Principal of schools in Warren, Fay-
etteville and Wilson.
George Tayloe Winston was made Adjunct Professor of
Latin and German, soon to be full professor. A first honor
Alumnus of this University, of the United States Naval
Academy and graduate and Instructor of Cornell University.
It was determined to have no President. Professor Phil-
lips was elected Chairman of the Faculty. The exercises
were ordered to begin on the 1st of September but the formal
opening was on the 5th. On this occasion there was much
enthusiasm, Governor Brogden making a stirring address.
The Dialectic Society was reopened by Judge W. H. Battle
and Mr. T. M. Argo, and the Philanthropic by Colonel W. L.
Saunders. There had been no meetings since the suspension
The number of students reached 69. The experiment of
a Chairman of the University proved unsatisfactory, chiefly
owing to the ill health of Dr. Phillips. In 1876 the Board
resolved to elect a President. Kemp P. Battle, a first honor
graduate of 1849, Tutor of Mathematics 1850-'54, ex-State
HISTORY OF THE UNIVEESITY. 179
Treasurer, a Trustee, member of the Ealeigh bar, Secretary
and Treasurer of the University, was cbosen by over tbree-
fifths majority. He began at once to bring the University to
the attention of the 7:;eople by j)rinted circulars and by educa-
tional addresses. On his recommendation the Trustees de-
creed that the anniversary of the laying the cornerstone of the
first dormitory (Old East), October 12, 1793, should be a
holiday (University Day).
The next year, 1876-7 there vs^as increase of numbers to
At the commencement of 1877, Governor Vance delivered
his admirable address on the Life and Character of David
In the summer of 1877 was held the first Normal School in
the United States connected with a university or college. It
had signal success. The latest modes of teaching, by experts
from North and South were adopted. Lectures were deliv-
ered by eminent men of the State. Professor John J. Ladd,
of New Hampshire, the Superintendent of Public Schools of
Staunton, Virginia, was Superintendent of the school. Pres-
ident Battle being in general charge. Sessions were regu-
larly held until 1884 inclusive and were a potent factor in
breaking up the general education lethargy. Women were
admitted in 1877 by courtesy, afterwards by law.
The total number in the eight schools were 2,480 some
teachers of course attending more than once. According to
the testimony of Dr, Barnas Sears, the eminent Manager of
the Peabody Fund, of Governor Vance, President A. D. Hep-
burn, Colonel Bingham, Superintendent Scarborough, Pres-
ident Pritchard and many other eminent educators, the
school was one of the greatest movements for education ever
had up to that time in the State. It stimulated the growth
of Graded Schools, introduced kindergarten instruction, and
180 THE NOETH CAROLIISrA BOOKLET.
kindled desire to work for the uplifting of our youth in the
hearts and minds of such men as Mclver, Alderman, Joyner,
Noble and others, whose names are conspicuous in this benef-
The establishment of the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, which has been of conspicuous benefit to farmers, was
the work of the University, President Battle being the first
to advocate it by pen and speaking, and the headquarters were
for some years at Chapel Hill.
By 1881 the subscriptions in excess of what was needed
for repairs were exhausted. Application was made to the
General Assembly for relief. As no appropriation for sup-
port had ever been granted to the University much opposition
was experienced. An elaborate printed argument was made
in answer to the objections. The Alumni Association had a
meeting in Raleigh, at which Mr. P. C. Cameron and Presi-
dent Battle made addresses on the history of the institution
and at a banquet afterwards many members of the General
Assembly made short speeches. Five thousand dollars an-
nually was obtained, Governor Jarvis giving powerful help.
In 1882 the State University Railroad was finished, Miss
Julia. J. Spencer, daughter of Mrs. Cornelia P. Spencer, now
Mrs. Love, driving the last spike. A dinner was given by
the ladies of Chapel Hill to the hired convicts. On account
of meagreness of funds it was built 10 2-5 miles, to the near-
est point on the ISTorth Carolina railroad, now called Univer-
sity Station. It was necessary to use the most rigid econ-
omy. President Battle was the President and General R. F.
Hoke, Superintendent, both without salary. The Richmond
and Danville Railroad Company, the lessee of the !N"orth
Carolina Railroad Company, bore much the larger part of the
cost, taking payment in stock.
The completion of the railroad increased the attendance
HISTORY OF THE UNIVEKSITT. 181
at Commencements, fo that it became necessary to build Me-
morial Hall. Tablets commemorative of great men of tke
University adorn its v^^alls, and in addition the names of the
alumni who lost their lives as Confederate soldiers. It ac-
commodates 2,400 persons seated and by using the aisles a
much larger number.
In 1885 a successful effort was made to obtain from the
General Assembly a grant of $15,000 in addition to the
$5,000 voted in 1881, Governor Scales using his powerful
influence in behalf of the bill. This with the $7,500 inter-
est of the Land Grant made $27,500. Adding tuition re-
ceipts and interest from donations, there was now the largest
income in the history of the institution. There was added
to the faculty: For the English Language and Literature,
Eev. Thomas Hume, D.D., LLD., of Virginia ; for the
Science and Art of Teaching, Professor Nelson B. Henry, of
Missouri; for Modern Languages, Professor Walter Dallam
Toy, of Virginia; for Agricultural Chemistry and Mining,
Wm. B. Phillips, Ph.D., of North Carolina; for Assistant
Professor of Mathematics, James Lee Love, Ph.B. ; for Nat-
ural History, Assistant Professor George F. Atkinson, Ph.B.
The University did not long enjoy the whole of this un-
usual income. The farmers of the State were stirred up to
demand a separate institution for Agriculture and Mechani-
cal training. The $7,500 a year Land Grant was taken
away, and it became necessary to dispense with two professors
and one assistant professor.
In 1889 the centennial of granting the charter was cele-
brated with great eclat. Numerous alumni and representa-
tives of other institutions were present and the speeches were
models of eloquence and appreciation of the institution.
At the Commencement of 1890 the Alumni History Chair
182 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
was endowed, Judge James Grant and General Julian S.
Carr being the largest contributors. President Battle bj re-
quest, visited many cities and towns and procured additions
to the amount then raised.
In 1801 President Battle, after fifteen years service, re-
signed his office receiving laudatory resolutions from the
Trustees, faculty and students. George T. Winston, LL.D.,
who had shown eminent abilities dealing with University
problems, who had become widely and favorably known as
President of the State Teachers' Association, and by able
public addresses, was unanimously elected as his successor.
The inaugTiration of the new President was on October 14.
1891. Addresses were made by ex-President Battle, by
President D. C. Gilmer, of Johns Hopkins University, and
by Hon. Walter H. Page, now Ambassador to Great Britain.
Then President Winston outlined the policy of his adminis-
tration in his usual clear and strong style.
President Winston began an active canvass of the State for
students, and had great success, the numbers increasing by
1895 to 471. The State appropriations were likewise in-
creased. The attacks on the University he met with such
ability, ridicule and sarcasm that they finally ceased. His
resignation in 1895 was received with much regret. He ac-
cepted a call to be President of the University of Texas,
subsequently returning to his native State as President of
the Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Tn the same year was held the centennial of the opening
of the doors for students on January 15, 1795. The exercises
were exceedingly instructive and interesting. Hon. Alfred
Moore Waddell spoke on the University up to 1860 ; Mr.
Henry Armand London on 1860 to 1875 ; Mr. Adolphus H.
Eller, 1875 to the date. Dr. Stephen B. Weeks gave an ex-
haustive study of the University in the Civil War. Mr. James
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 183
D. Lynch furnished a beautiful ode, which by his request
was read by Dr. Alderman. Mrs. C. P. Spencer contribu-
ted a stirring ode.
At the centennial banquet toasts were responded to by
Governor Elias Carr, Hon. Robert W. Winston, ex-Govemor
Thomas M. Holt, Major William A. Guthrie, Mr. Herman
H. Home, Hon. Locke Craig, Dr. Charles D. Mclver, Hon.
Marion Butler, Professor Alexander W. Graham, Lion.
Josephus Daniels, Dr. Paul B. Bairringer. About $12,000
was pledged for building a new hall for offices and lecture
rooms, to be called Alumni Hall.
After passing resolutions of regTet at the departure of
President Winston and appreciation of his services. Profes-
sor Edwin A. Alderman was elected his successor. Dr. Alder-
man was a first honor graduate of the University, won the
MangTim medal for oratory, was eminently successful as a
graded school superintendent, as organizer of Teachers' In-
stitutes, as President of the State Teachere' Associations and
Professor of Teaching and Llistory in Summer Schools, in
the iSTormal and Industrial College, and the University.
Besides being an inspiring teacher, he has a wonderful gift
of oratory, not excelled as a speaker on educational topics.
The formal inauguration of President Alderman was on
the 27th of January, 1897. The occasion was brilliant. The
General Assembly took a recess in its honor and a large num-
ber of representatives of State Universities and Colleges
attended. Mr. Robert H. Wright spoke in behalf of the stu-
dents, Dr. K. P. Battle in behalf of the faculty, then Gov-
ernor Russell delivered into Dr. Alderman's hands the char-
ter and seal of the University with appropriate and eloquent
words. Dr. Alderman replied accepting the office as a clear
The next speaker was the very able Professor IST. M. But-
184 THE NOETIt CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
ler, now President of Columbia University, New York. He
proved that this is a century of education. Then came Dr.
Alderman's masterly address, outlining the functions of a
On 21st February, 1897, the Trustees passed an ordinance
admitting women to the post-graduate course. xVpplicants
have been few in number ; but among them have been bril-
liant students. Women attended the Summer Normal School
but never heretofore the University curriculum.
In the same year the Department of Pharmacy was added
to the curriculum and Dr. E. V. Howell was elected Pro-
fessor. The Summer School of 1897 was under the manage-
ment of Professor Clinton W. Toms. He was soon after-
wards elected Professor of Pedagogy but declined the post
and went into lucrative business.
The successive Summer Schools are described, the last,
that of 1912, under the management of Profesosr IsT. W.
Walker, having an increased attendance, 471. The close
was signalized by the acting of an interesting play founded
on North Carolina History, called Esther Wake. It was
composed by Professor A. Vermont, one of the teachers. Su-
perintendent of the Graded Schools of Smithfield.
In this year the cornerstone of the Alumni Building was
laid. General J. S. Carr made the presentation to the Trus-
tees and Hon. F, D. Winston delivered the address of accept-
ance. Both speeches were in handsome style.
FoT the first time in our history Judge Thomas C. Fuller
delivered an address on the practice of the law, of great value
not only to law students but to the public at large also.
In 1899 the University lost one of her most learned and
widely known professors, Dr. John Manning, Dean of the
Department of Law. At a meeting held in his honor ad-
dresses on his life, character and services were delivered bv
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 185
Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Dr. Eben Alexander, Dr. J. Crawford
Biggs, Mr. M. A. Newell of the Law School and President
Hon. James Cameron MaeRae, late a Justice of the Su-
preme Court, was deemed bj the Trustees eminently worthy
to take his place.
In the same year Mr, George M. McKie was made In-
structor in the Art of Expression. Professor Cobb dropped
Mineralogy from his title and was Professor of Geology.
Professor Harrington resigned the Chair of Latin and Greek
and was succeeded by Dr. Henry M. Linscott and ex-Judge
Biggs yielded his professorship of Law to Dr. Thomas Ruf-
fin, and resumed active practice.
In 1900 Dr. Alderman resigned the Presidency and ac-
cepted that of Tulane University. His parting address was
full of feeling and wise counsels to his Alma Mater.
The Commencement of this year was devoted mainly to the
celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the reopening,
or re-birth of the L^niversity. Elaborate historical addresses
were delivered by ex-President Battle, his subject being "The
Struggle and Story of the Re-birth of the University" ; by
ex-President George T. Winston, on "The First Faculty, Its
Work and Opportunity"; by Mr. Wm. J. Peele, on "The
Students of 1875." Lastly was a masterly address by Pres-
ident Alderman on "The University ; Its Work and its
E^eeds." !N"early the whole of President Winston's most able
address and much of those of Peele and Alderman are given
in the text of this history.
At this time were begim by the munificence of Mr. James
Sprunt, of Wilmington, annual historical monographs on
subjects of l^orth Carolina history. The first was Biograph-
ical sketches of the Delegates and Ofiicers of the Convention
of 1861, by James G. McCormick, to which was added the
186 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
"Legislation Enacted by the Convention, and Legislation
proposed but rejected," by Dr. K. P. Battle.
The second was "The Congressional Career of ISTathaniel
Macon," by Edwin M. Wilson and Macon's Letters, annota-
ted by Dr. Battle.
These give an idea of the character and scope of the
Sprunt publications, which are annually issued, since 1907,
under the supervision of Drs. Hamilton and Wagstaff.
The presentation of the Carr Dormitory was made by
Colonel W. H. S. Burg-win, and the acceptance was by Hon.
R. H. Battle. Both speeches were pronounced to be in excel-
Dr. Francis Preston Venable in 1900 was chosen unani-
mously as President in the place of Dr. Alderman. On Oc-
tober 12th he gave a rapid review of the history of the Uni-
versity. His first report shows a faculty of 35 with 527
students. He showed that the University has furnished 25
Governors, 105 Judges, 17 United States Senators, 66 Fed-
eral Representatives, 600 members of the State Legislatures
and leaders of every community. The majority of the super-
intendents and principals of gi-aded schools were traced to
In 1900 were completed the Mary Ann Smith Dormitory
and the Alumni Building, also new heating plant, water and
In 1907 Dr. K. P. Battle and Rev. Dr. Thomas Hume re-
signed their professorships and accepted Carnegie pensions.
The cornerstone of the library, the building of which was
donated by Mr. Andrew Carnegie, was laid with Masonic
honors. Hon. Francis D. Winston was the orator and his
address was interesting and eloquent. In 1908 there were
Memorial services in honor of Professor Gore and Mrs. C. P.
Spencer. Reunion exercises were held of certain war classes.
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 187
namely, of 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861. These were very in-
teresting, Mr. James P. Coffin, of Arkansas, being the chief
speaker. Resolutions commendatory of the work of Dr. K.
P. Battle were read from the rostrum by Colonel Paul B.
Means by order of the Board of Trustees. Colonel Means
accompanied them with a full history of Dr. Battle's labors
for the University.
On University Day Dr. Venable reported the faculty 94 in
number; students 790. The address of the occasion was by
Hon. Elmer E. Brown, United States Commissioner of Edu-
cation. The new Biological Laboratory was named after
General Wm. R. Davie.
Public exercises in 1909 were held in honor of the one
hundredth birthday of General R. E. Lee, the orator being
Dr. Woodrow Wilson, now our President. He made a mas-
terly analysis of the great Southerner.
In 1910 began an experiment in student government, it
being committed to the presidents of the various classes, an
undergTaduate in law, medicine, and pharmacy, and a mem-
ber of the Senior class elected by the Council. They are act-
ing wisely and effectively. Appeal from their decision can
be taken to the faculty.
At the Commencement of 1910 the chief interest was in
the reunion of the classes of 1860 and 1870. Of the foraier
83 out of 84 entered the Confederate Army. The chief
speaker was Major W. A. Graham, The class of 1870 was
composed of those who would have graduated in that year, if
the University had not been closed. Ex-President George
T. Winston and Dr. Richard H. Lewis, of Raleigh, were the
very effective speakers. Mr. Alexander J. Eeild eloquently
detailed the history of the class of 1855.
The Raleigh Department of the University Medical
School, Dr. Hubert A. Royster, Dean, was discontinued. Al-
188 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
though it had done excellent work it was impossible to plaoe
it on a proper basis without a great increase of funds, which
could not be procured.
The annual meeting of the Association of School Superin-
tendents was held in Chapel Hill. State Superintendent
J. Y. Joyner presided, and many educational topics were
The excellent Dean of the Law School, ex-Judge James G.
MacRae, died amid the general grief. He was succeeded by
Prof. L. P. McGhee.
University Day was peculiarly honored. The speakers
were President Daniel H. Hill, of the Agricultural and Me-
chanical College, Professor W. C. Smith of the State ~Rot-
nial and Industrial College, President R. H. Wright of the
Eastern Training School, President Howard E. Rondthaler
of Salem Female College, Pres. W. R. Thompson of the Stone-
wall Jackson Training School, and Mr. C. L. Williams, a
Senior, in behalf of the University. Meetings, banquets and
speeches among the Alumni were held in many distant local-
In 1911 there were interesting meetings of the war classes
of 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868. Of the
class of 1861, called by name the "Great War Class," came
first Captain Thomas B. Haughton, Captain J. M. B. Hunt
and Lieutenant-Colonel E. E. Edmondson in attendance.
Each of the other classes was represented by veterans, some
of whom made short speeches.
At this time Dr. Albert R. Ledoux, of iSTew York, donated
$5,000 to establish a fellowship in Chemistry. He was the
first Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station, then
located at Chapel Hill. The General Assembly appropriated
$300,000 for sundry buildings and the Trustees of the Pea-
body Eund $40,000 for an Education Building.
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 189
In 1911, University Day address was by Dr. C. Alphonso
Smith, of the University of Virginia.
In 1912 the Medical Building was dedicated, the speakers
being Dr. R. H. Lewis, President Venable, Dr. Isaac Man-
ning, Dr. A. A. Kent, President of the State Medical So-
ciety, Dr. Richard H. Whitehead, of the University of Vir-
ginia, and Dr. Edgar F. Smith, Provost of the University of
Pennsylvania. Its name commemorates President Caldwell.
On May 12, 1912, died Mr. Richard H. Battle, a first
honor gTaduate of 1854, long Trustee and Secretary-Treas-
urer of the University. He was a leader of the Raleigh bar
and had held high office in the State. He donated shortly
before his death a valuable law library to the University.
At Commencement Dr. H. H. Home was the Alumni ora-
tor. The Commencement orator was Dr. Edwin Anderson
Alderman, President of the University of Virginia.
On July 15th died Rev. Thomas Hume, D.D., a most ac-
complished scholar, eminent divine and inspiring teacher.
Three handsome dormitories were erected, named respect-
ively Kemp Plummer Battle, Zebulon Baird Vance and
James Johnston Pettigrew.
In addition to the free tuition granted by the General
Assembly to those of bodily infirmity, to ministers and sons
of ministers, and to those preparing to teach, there are
attached to the institution eight fellowships, 86 scholarships,
and the Deems and Martin Funds for loans to indigent stu-
dents. There are also 13 prizes offered for excellence in
A list of scientific and historical publications is given
showing active work by members of the faculty. This is
only a small part of their labors.
The annual lectures by eminent men, delivered under the
John Calvin MclSTair will, on Harmony of Religion and
190 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Science, were given by Dr. Frank H. Smith, Dr. Francis
L. Fatten, President David Starr Jordan, Dr. Henry Van
Dyke, President A. T. Hadley.
The debates with other universities, Korth and South,
show that this University won in 25 competitions and lost in
A full description by Dr. Joel Whitaker, an Alumnus
prominent in athletics, showing the part taken by the Uni-
versity in football and baseball, is given. In both, especially
in baseball games the University gained the majority. To
these are added the tennis matches and the athletic meets, in
which the University holds fine record. The mass meetings
are chronicled and also a specimen of student cheers and yells.
Dr. Battle describes minutely the walks around Chapel
Hill to romantic spots, such as Piney Prospect, Meeting of
the Waters, Judge's Spring, Otey's Eetreat, Laurel Hill,
Fern-banks, etc. To which should be added the beautiful
Arboretum created in the east of the Campus by the labor
and taste of Dr. W. C. Coker.
Then follows a poem on the "Roaring Fountain," by Mrs.
Spencer, and one on Chapel Hill (Zion Parnassus), by Rev.
Mark John Levy, now of Chicago.
Additional information in regard to President Swain, Dr.
James Phillips, and others is given, and in order to show that
the pranks of our students detailed in Volume I were not un-
precedented. Similar, or worse, frolics of students of Co-
lumbia University prior to 1800 are given.
In the appendix is valuable information.
1. List of Trustees under the Constitution of 1868.
2. List since the reopening 1875-1912.
3. Senators and Representatives who voted for the revival
of the University.
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 191
4. Lists of those who voted for the appropriation to the
University in 1881 and 1885.
5. List of subscribers to tKe revival of the University,
about $20,000 in 1875.
6. Stockholders in the Gymnasium Association.
7. Donations to the Library and Chair of History.
8. Description of the General University and Society Cat-
9. Description of the Faculty of 1912.
10. Degrees in course 1877 to 1912.
11. Portraits in the University Library and the two So-
12. Specimens of the Dramatic and Musical efforts of the
13. jSTames of the Alumni in high offices not mentioned in
Vol. L, compiled by Hon. Walter Murphy.
Lastly is a full index of the book prepared by Mr. Put-
We are unable for lack of space to give the names of all
the eminent men who preached Baccalaureate and Y, M. C.
A. sermons, and delivered the Alumni, Commencement, Uni-
versity Day, and other addresses. The list shows that the
students were privileged to listen to the great men of the
country, divines, statesmen, scientists, educators, journalists
and others, including the President and Secretary of State
and of the l^avy of the United States together with Govern-
ors and Judges galore.
The total number of students in 1912-'13 was 837.
Teachers at Summer School, 463.
Professors 46, Instructors 13, Fellows and Assistants 24.
Total engaged in teaching 83.
Of the number of students 610 were undergTaduates, 23
were graduate students, 131 in the Law School, 54 were in
the Medical School, 32 were in Pharmacy.
192 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
MARRIAGE BONDS OF ROWAN COUNTY,
Contributed by Mrs. M. G. McCubbins.
John Don (spelt Dunn on outside of bond) to Sarah Cross.
May 26 (or 29), 1758. John (his X mark) Doun, Andrew
Cathey and James (his X mark) Douthey. (The above men
are planters of "Roan County.")
Morgan Davis to (no name given). January 19, 1763.
Morgan Davies, Benjamin Evans and Madad (his X mark)
Reed. (John Frohock.)
John Douthit, Jr., to Elinor Davis. March 9, 1764.
John Douthit, Jr., Phillip Howard, Jr., and James Davies,
(Thomas Frohock.) (A note from the bride's father, James
Davies, Sr., giving his consent. It is address^ed to John
Frohock and dated March 8, 1765.)
Marshall (his X mark) Duncan, Jr. to (no name given).
April 2, 1765. Marshall (his X mark) Duncan, Jr., Mar-
shall (his X mark) Duncan, Sr., Thomas (his T mark) Den-
ston Rogers. John Duncan, John (his X mark) Callahan.
Darby (his D mark) Callahan are witnesses.) (A complete
marriage bond was enclosed in the above giving the bride's
name — Bety Densten Rogers "Daughter of the widow Cath-
arine Densten Rogers"). (John Frohock).
William Dobbins to Eliz: Erwyn. September 8, 1768.
William Dobbins, Alexander Erwyn and Joseph Luckie.
William Doornail to Margaret King. February 14, 1769.
William (his W mark) Doornail, William Alexander and
William Milliken. (Tho. Frohock.) A note of consent from
Thomas King dated February 13, 1769, in which tlie groom's
name is spelt "Doornell."
BOW AN COUNTY MARRIAGE BONDS. 193
James Dobbins to Margaret MclSright. January 24, 17Y0.
James Dobbins, James McKnight and James McKoiin.
William Douthit to Sarah Job. January 31, 1772.
William Douthit, George (his X mark) McNight and John
Douthit, Jr. (Thomas Frohock.) A note from bride's
father, Thos. Job, dated January 28, 1772. He and the
clerk spell the groom's name "Douther."
John Dunn to Frances Petty. March 23, 1775. John
Dunn and Waightstill Avery. (Ad: Osbom.)
Benjamin Davis to Isbell Holland. February 6, 1776.
Benjamin Davis and John Conger. (Ad: Osborn.)
James Daniel to Rebecca Atherton (a widow). April 5,
1779. James Daniel and David Woodson. (Ad: Osborn.)
Jacob Debalt to Elizabeth Goodman. June 5, 1779.
Jacob Debalt (in German ?) and John Misenheimer. (Jo.
Brevard.) (It is possible that Elizabeth Goodman may
have become the bride of John Misenheimer as his name is
placed with the gToom's.)
Thomas Degle to Rebecca Nealy. July 24, 1779. Thomas
(his X mark) Degle, and Thomas Renshaw. (Jo. Brevard.)
(Thomas Renshaw's name also appears in the groom's space
Conrad Dooty to Lovis Hoover. August 27, 1779.
Conrad (his X mark) Dooly and Conrad (his X mark)
Shaver. (Ad: Osborn.)
Joseph Davis to Susanna MeCrary. December 28, 1779.
Joseph Davis and William Silvers ( ?). (B. Booth Boote.)
(Messrs. Davis and Silvers ( ?) are planters.)
John Davidson to Nancey Brevard (spinster). Novem-
ber 27, 1779. John Davidson and Joseph Byars. (B.
194 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Booth Boote.) (Messrs. Davidson and Brevard are plant-
Andrew Donnell to Agnes Braij. September 29, 1779.
Andrew Donnell and John Bralj (Braty ?). (Jo: Brevard.)
William Duffy to Prudence Carson (spinster). August
1, 1780. William Duffy and John Carson. (H. ( ?) Gif-
David Duncan to Cathrenah McCulloh. Ad (?) Bran-
don. January 6, 1766. David Duncan and James Carson.
Thomas Donnohoi to Ann Lyhins (?) (Syhins). July
9, 1767. Thomas (his X mark) Donnahoe and Hugh Mont-
gomery. (John Frohock.)
Valentine Day to Eve Reigher. August 4, 1767. Valen-
tine Day and Christopher Spray her (in German ?).
William Davidson to Mary Brown. December 10, 1767.
William Davidson, Hugh Brevard and James Holmes. (Ko
Cleveare ( ?) Duke to Lucy Smith. June 13, 1768.
Clevears Duke, John Wyld and George Magonne. (John
Frohock.) A complete bond is enclosed in which Duke
signs his name "Clevers Duke" and Thomas Frohock adds
his signature. (John Frohock is Clerk of the Superior
John Dunn to Sarah Grier. March 8, 1782. John Dunn
and John Johnson ( ?). (T. H. McCaule.)
John Darcey, (or Dancey) to Abigail Davis. August 27.
1783. John Dancey and Myock (?) Davis. (No name.)
Mark Dedman to Hanna Baily. ^November 7, 1785.
Mark dedmon and William (his X mark) Baily. (Max:
ROWAN COUNTY MAKKIAGE BONDS. 195
Peter ( ?) Dowell to Elizabetli Collier. September ( ?) 7,
1785. Richard Dowell (no witnesses unless the bond is not
signed by the groom who may be Peter Dowell. (No name.)
Joseph Dial to Margaret Hinkle. March 13, 1786.
Joseph Dial and Jesse Hinkle. (W ( ?) Cupples.)
James Dauson to Jane Citchen. August 16, 1786. James
(his X mark) Dauson and Hugh Gray,
(To be Continued.)
Vol XIII APRIL, 1914 No. 4
floRTH CflROIilHfl BoOKIiET
^^ Carolina! Carolina! Heaven'' s blessings attend her !
Wliile we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.^*
THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION
The object of The Booexet is to aid in developing and preserving
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editor.
ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
Mes. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard.
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle.
Mr. R. D. W Connor. Mr. James Sprunt.
Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood.
Dr. E. W. SiKES. Chief Justice Walter Clauk.
Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham.
Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith.
Miss Martha Helen Haywood.
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton.
OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 1912-1914
Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON.
Mrs. CHARLES P. WALES.
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT.
Mrs. clarence JOHNSON.
CORRESPONDING SECRETARY :
Mrs. PAUL H. LEE.
Mrs. frank SHERWOOD.
Miss SARAH W. ASHE.
CUSTODIAN OF RELICS:
Mrs. JOHN E. RAY.
Bloomsbury Chapter. Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent.
Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent.
Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter,
Miss Catherine P. Seyton Albertson, Regent.
General Francis Nash Chapter. .. .Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent
Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent
Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902:
Mrs. SPIER WHITAKER.
Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f
Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER.
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT.
•Died December 12, 1904.
tDied November 25, 1911.
THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET
Vol. XIII APRIL, J9I4 No. 4
MEMORIES OF 1865=1871
By Prof. J. T. Alderman.*
" Lest we forget."
Virgil in the Aeneid gives a graphic description of the
long siege and final destruction of Troj the native city of
the Trojan hero Aeneas. Long years of wandering and
suffering had passed, but the memory of Aeneas v^as active
and in recounting those direful afflictions he exclaims with
"Quaeque ipsi miserrima vidi,
Et quorum pars magna fui."
A half century has passed since the banner under which
the southern soldiers fought was furled and laid to rest.
The men in gTay encompassed by overwhelming numbers
finally laid down their arms and turned their war-stained
faces toward the ruined homes of their beloved Southland.
'No treaty of peace had been arranged and signed at a
friendly court; no specific indemnity had been claimed and
adjudicated which could be met and satisfied; no terms were
arranged by which the dignity and honor of a liberty loving
people could be sustained in their hour of disappointment
and defeat. Only a complete subjugation more galling and
humiliating than had ever been known in the annals of
warfare awaited them. These men who had taken up arms
in a cause which they felt was just returned to their deso-
lated homes conscious of an integTity untarnished by the re-
sults of the war. It must now be their chief concern to re-
*See Biographical Sketch, Vol. VI, pp. 209, 210, 211, January Booklet, 1907.
200 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
establish their homes and restore the forlorn spirits of those
most dear to them and again set up the domestic penates
which, perchance, had escaped the ravages of fire and sword.
The people of the South from the establishment of the
Federal Union had been loyal to the government and had
furnished a large proportion of the men who gave it stability
and character among the family of nations. They held to
the doctrine of '^States' Rights" as guaranteed to them by
the Constitution. They delegated to the general government
those powers named in the compact and stood firmly by the
compromises made by the men who arranged the govern-
ment. They were proud of the ''Stars and Stripes," and
were jealous for the good name of the Republic. They felt
secure in the great Union and prospered in their private and
state affairs. Culture and refinement were the boast of
southern life. Hospitality was open and unbounded by state
lines and social conditions. The broad plantations were
aglow with prosperity and master and servant felt the stimu-
lating influence of thrift and industry. All worked together
in harmony to make a people happy. Truely it was the
The people of other sections, jealous of our standing and
influence in the shaping of national affairs, had in the early
years of the nineteenth century determined to crush the
South by any means that could be devised. The most plaus-
ible pretext that could be presented to strike a popular senti-
ment was the abolition of slavery in the South. They had
found that the slave could not be made profitable in IS^ew
England and the isrorth, so the slave dealers carried him to
the farmers of the South and sold him for full value. With
the money they returned to their homes in the l^orth and
immediately were seized with an unbounded sense of phil-
anthropy and love for the down-trodden negro, whom their
ship masters had stolen from the jungles of Africa. The
MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 201
southern people were not seafaring people and owned no sea-
Songs and stories were written to inflame the minds of
the people ready to he aroused to a most frenzied agitation.
As a result the war came on and the nation was torn asunder
in deadly conflict.
Deliberately the ^^Torth planned to humiliate the South in
every particular. Regiments of liberated slaves were organ-
ized to fight their former masters. Confederate prisoners
were placed under negro guards whose language and actions
toward them were brutal in the extreme. The helpless men
were tortured by the cruel soldiers in black, and if a high-
strung prisoner dared resent their insolence by word or look,
he was put to tortures unbearable. Handling guns careless-
ly, they were frequently discharged among the prisoners,
then, reports were made that it was done to quell insurrec-
tion. The ISTorth refused to exchange prisoners. They freely
admitted that it was bad policy to let the men get away from
them, as each man they let go was equal to four of their
own. With every facility for taking care of the Confederate
prisoners they were ill treated and poorly fed, while the
South was exhausted in her resources and had but little to
maintain the soldiers and the Federals held in southern
prisons. When Gen. Lee was asked to order that the scant
rations be given to the soldiers and let the prisoners go
without, he rose to the greatness of a true man and said,
''While we have a crust we will divide with our prisoners."
The historic "Sherman's march to the sea" has never had
its equal among civilized nations. Indeed Hell did break
loose in Georgia and continued to engulf in its sulphurous
smoke and ashes all the region it touched through the Caro-
linas. Sherman himself declared that "A buzzard could not
follow in his wake without taking his rations with him." Old
men, women and children were treated in the most horrible
202 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
manner and no effort was made bj the officers to restrain the
brutal men. It was an invasion for plunder. In my father's
home no article of value that could be moved was left.
Clocks, pianos, furniture of every kind was hewn to pieces,
beds were ripped open and the feathers were carried away
by the winds. Choice pieces of bed-covering of beautiful and
rare designs made by my mother in her girlhood days were
roughly folded and put upon the sore-backed mules for saddle
blankets. The counterpanes upon which she had spent so
ranch care and labor making them rare and dainty were torn
from the beds and used for every rough and foul purpose.
Precious heirlooms which were so highly prized for the asso-
ciation of loved ones in the long ago were torn into shreds
or carried away. Dresses and all wearing apparel fared no
better fate. The soldier seemed to take delight in abusing
and demolishing before her eyes those things upon which she
had bestowed especial care in trying to make home com-
fortable and attractive. ]Srot a piece of bedding was left
except the heavy mattresses and one quilt which in the
rummaging had fallen behind an old chest. Every piece of
table ware of any value was gone. The soldiers set fire to
the house and would have succeeded in burning it had not
my mother followed them and put out the flames.
My father was a minister and had not been called into
the army. His library was pillaged and depleted. The
soldiers took his hat from his head, his watch from his vest
pocket, his purse of Confederate money; they carried away
all of his clothes except those he had on. These desperadoes
were not camp followers, they were the regular soldiers in
blue uniforms, and were marched up in line with flag and
music, the officers were with them. My father tried to get
some protection, but they swore at him and told him to send
for Wheeler's cavalry if he wanted protection. They com-
pelled him at the point of a bayonet to shoulder a heavy
MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 203
wagon wheel and carry it about two hundred yards and put
it on a wagon which was broken down so they could load it
with corn to carry to the camp. Previous to this they had
hung him to a tree to make him tell where the horses were
concealed ; as they had found them in the meantime they let
My father and Mr. Gray Culbreth had hidden their horses
in a dense marsh or swamp with briars and matted under-
brush. The mud and water was a foot or more deep and
almost impassable on account of its roughness. It was
a dark densely tangled place nearly a mile through. The
Yankees came to Mr. Culbreth's home first. They demanded
the horses but no one would tell where they were. After a
number of threats the ofiicers said, "We will make you tell" ;
they then placed a rope around his daughter, a beautiful girl
of seventeen, and mounting their horses and with a stroke of
a keen whip drove her through the mud and briars to the
hiding place of the horses. It was months before she re-
covered from the harsh treatment and exposure.
The cattle were ruthlessly shot down in the lots and left
otherwise untouched. J^ot a living thing of value was left
on the place, except one hen which had made her escape
under an old bam. When the army came to the place on
the 15th of March, 1865, we had plenty of provisions such
as were found on a well-proivided farm to last the family for
two years. They left the granaries and bams empty ; no
scattered corn was left that might serve to feed the children.
I was a boy and proud of a beautiful little horse that my
father had given me. A Yankee made me hold my horse for
him to mount and ride away. I never saw my horse again.
I had a small beautifully bound Bible which I had as a
present from my father ; a soldier put it into his pocket and
carried it away.
My mother and sisters were made to hear the vilest oaths
204 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
and the most insulting language that foul-mouthed men
could utter. The wearing apparel of the young ladies was
taken out and after rude jests were thrown into the mud for
the horses to trample. It had been very difficult to secure
silks and other fancy goods for the ladies to wear, but the
girls had saved some from the old dresses of their mothers
with jealous care for special occasions, even these did not
escape the savage hands but were either carried away or were
torn to shreds. The children's toys and keepsakes and play-
things fared no better.
One of Sherman's staff officers, Major George Wade
l^ichols, who was an eye witness to such scenes, playfuly de-
;scribes their habitual acts of plunder and rapine. He de-
scribes the soldiers searching for hidden treasures, poking
•every foot of soft ground to find the hidden plate, jewelry,
and other rich goods. He says that watching these proceed-
ings was one of the pleasurable excitements of the long
march. He gives a full page picture of one such scene; the
men have found the hidden box of jewelry, a lone woman is
standing on a porch begging for the watch that had been
her mother's while the cruel jests are playing upon the faces
and lips of her tormentors. These acts of plunder took place
in full view of the commissioned officers and no restraints
In one place a gentleman found a marauding Federal sol-
dier trying to outrage his daughter. For the protection of
his daughter he killed the soldier with blue coat and brass
buttons on. The father was soon apprehended and hanged.
The system of tortures practiced was not for obtaining
provisions and sustenance for the invading army, but mainly
for the purpose of securing the valuables of the people along
the way. Dr. Bachman presents the following picture:
"When Sherman's army came sweeping through Carolina, leaving
a broad track of desolation for hundreds of miles, whose steps were
MEMOKIES OF 1865-18Y1. 205
accompanied with fire and sword and blood, reminding us of the
tender mercies of the Duke of Alva, I was near the home of a Mrs.
Ellerbe, a lady seventy years old. I witnessed the barbarities in-
flicted on the aged as well as the young and delicate females.
Officers high in command were engaged in tearing from the ladies
their watches, their wedding rings and other mementoes of those
they loved and cherished. A lady of declicacy and refinement was
compelled to strip before them that they might find watches and
other valuables concealed under her dress."
Species of torture known only to the Spanish Inquisition
were brought into play to force the poor negroes to tell what
they knew concerning the valuables of their white people.
Coolly and deliberately those hardened men proceeded on
their way as if they had perpetrated no crime, for they were
sustained by the officers with Federal commissions in their
It is not pleasant to rehearse the scenes of actual occur-
rence of those unhappy days, but they made history and led
to serious conditions which followed in their effort to re-
store our homes in peace. These things are facts, and why
should not our children know the facts ? Of course there are
those who would like to have the veil drawn across this
period. They may well blush to have their deeds brought to
light. The facts ought to be known. What have we to be
ashamed of ? Those who committed the crimes are hailed as
heroes, while those who suffered they would call traitors.
Attila, the Scourge of God, led the savage Huns from the
north of Europe and devastated the sunny plains of Italy.
Cortez and Pizarro dealt out cruelty and treachery upon the
unlettered and barbarous inhabitants of Mexico and Peru.
The frenzied leaders of the French Revolution were men of
low origin and were determined to destroy the better classes.
But here in a civilized land we see a great army, commanded
by officers commissioned by the United States government,
with the Stars and Stripes in one hand and fire and sword in
206 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
the other, devastating the homes of a defenseless people, pour-
ing out bitter denunciations and wreaking their vengeance
upon helpless women and children.
Sunday morning, March 19, 1865, was the dreariest day
I ever saw. The sky was hazy with smoke and the sun ap-
peared to come through the red-tinged atmosphere with diffi-
culty. All nature seemed charged with the bodings of evil.
We were cold and hungry. The little children were crying
for food. It was a Sabbath morning, but there was no peace-
ful rest in our home. All was distress, for there was nothing
from which our mother could prepare the morning meal. The
Yankee cavalry came again early. They were looking to
see if anything had been left that could be of use in preserv-
ing life. This was the fourth day of their pillage and every
thing was gone.
Suddenly they stopped their plundering, for the drum
sounded. We heard the roaring of cannon in the distance.
I heard an officer say "There is trouble ahead." We after-
ward learned that it was the battle of Bentonsville, twenty
miles distant. The men wheeled into line and dashed away.
The incessant roar of cannonading produced a feeling of awe
in our young minds, that the succeeding years have not
During the years prior to the Civil War and up to its
close there had been a kindly feeling of friendship between
the negro slaves and the white people. They had been faith-
ful and true to the white people in all those trying times.
Hundreds of young men in the Southern army had their
faithful servants who stood by them and protected them, often
at the expenses of their own lives. The negroes on the planta-
tions managed the farms well and furnished supplies for the
southern army. They talked fondly and eagerly about our
soldiers in the camps and at the front.
MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 207
If they had been let alone there would have been no
hostility between the races to this day. It was only when
instigated by designing men who were really enemies to both
white and black that antagonism began to disturb the friend-
liness that was almost universal between the races in the
South. There were exceptions it is true, but the masses of
the negroes even when they knew that they were freed from
bondage felt kindly toward their former masters.
But even this condition was too good to be allowed to exist
in the South. The ISTorth had determined to humiliate the
people and make the yoke galling and bitter. The negroes
were taught that the white people of the South were their
enemies and must be hated as such. They were encouraged
to become insolent and assert their equality and demand
immediate social recogTiition. They were made to believe
that if their demands were not welcomed and acceded to that
it was their duty to burn or otherwise destroy the property
of their fonner masters. Emissaries by the thousands came
among them to inflame their minds and passions and to work
upon their superstitious natures and lead them to acts of
violence. Before the war they had as a rule been faithful to
every trust and outrages such as have so often happened
since were unknown. The white people felt kindly toward
them. There was no antipathy toward them because they
had been freed, it was not of their doing and no one blamed
them. The men of the South would have sympathized with
them and they would have lived side by side in peace. But
this could not be, for it was decreed at Washington that the
South should drink to the bitter dregs and no device or plan
that could humiliate must be left unenforced.
Seeing the dark shadows that overhung the South, hundreds
of the best men sought security and opportunity in the far
distant West. Those who remained felt the pall darker
days to come.
208 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Even under these adverse conditions we managed to get
along with a semblance of peace until white men of the baser
sort, men who had been deserters or ^^bushwhackers" during
the war, combined with the negroes and organized what was
known as the "Union" or "Loyal League." Just what was
carried on in their meetings we could only judge by results.
The negroes became insolent and unbearable, but the white
men who were with them were ten times worse. The negroes
were encouraged to acts of violence, to theft, to become loud
in their demands, to acts of outrage upon helpless women —
a thing never before known among them. We feared the
negroes where they were in large numbers but much more
the men who led them on. We never knew when it might be
our turn to see the midnight sky lighted up by the blazing
barn, the mills burned to the water line, or even the dwellings
burned to ashes — frequently done by spiteful men and
charged to an innocent negro.
The presence of the Federal soldiers in every community
encouraged the negroes, who had now become insolent, to acts
of violence and outrage, and if the sufferers complained were
answered with a sneer or an oath and dared to touch the
negro or interfere with his liberties. There was no appeal.
The courts were powerless, the administration of affairs was
a farce, because the officers were themselves of the baser sort
or dared not antagonize the Yankee soldier who was ready
at all times to interfere against the better citizens. The mili-
tary is usually a protection to the proper welfare of a com-
munity, but here was a spectacle of the military being de-
liberately used to suppress the good and protect the vile.
Property, life or honor was not secure at any time.
Those were times that tried men's souls. How well do I
remember the intense anxiety of my parents if the girls
were out of their sight without protection.
The brave men of the South had laid down their arms at
MEMOKIES OF 1865-1871. 209
Appomattox, they had been paroled and made to swear not
to take up arms again. In fact they were almost without
arms or any means of defense. But the vilest reptile will
strike when he is imposed upon. Could the men in whose
veins flowed the blood renowned at Alamance, and Mecklen-
burg, and Manassas, and the Wilderness, lie still like be-
labored hounds while every species of insult was heaped upon
them ? Must they let every spark of manhood vanish and
see their homes ruined ! The conditions must be met and
their families and property saved. But how! The Yankee
soldiers were quartered in every community and what could
our people do ? Open resistance would be useless as they
would be immediately apprehended as rebels and insti-
gators of treason as was often done.
Every white man who had taken any part in the Civil War
was disfranchised and not allowed to participate in the ad-
ministration of civil affairs. Only the class known as de-
serters and desperadoes were left to cooperate with the
negroes in running the local, county, and state affairs.
Orders were issued from Washington to the soldiers quar-
tered in each locality to "forbid and prohibit the assembling
of bodies of citizens under any pretense." Military gover-
nors were set up over the States as foreign satraps had been
placed over conquered nations in the heathen days of old.
Irresponsible men came from the jSTorth as adventurers to
take advantage of our misfortune and usurp authority and fill
the time honored stations of trust and honor and despoil the
remaining resources of revenue.
Then came the period of Reconstruction so called. Vol-
umes have been written about the horrors of this period.
It was not my purpose to add to the volume of literature on
the subject, but to give the experience of one who passed
through the times as a boy.
Here was an example of the people who had been instru-
210 THE JSrOBTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
mental perhaps more than any other section of the Union
in making a great Republic, who had furnished its share of
the strongest statesmen of all time, who had furnished the
finest examples of statecraft and legal ability, where civiliza-
tion and culture had reached their highest perfection, — a
people foremost in sending the light of the Gospel to the
hungering souls of the earth, a people whose ancestry was of
the purest stock, whose hospitality had been open to all good
men everywhere — a people from sheer hatred and malice to
be blotted politically from the face of the earth, and to be
reconstructed by such a mongrel set as was collected in
Washington and those sent to the South to perform the great
transformation. The annals of history have never presented
a greater farce.
The sanctity of the church service was invaded. During
the existence of the Confederate Government the Episcopal
Church inserted in its Book of Common Prayers a prayer
for the President of the Confederacy. After the war closed
the prayer for the President was left out altogether, where-
upon Major-General Wood issued an order by which all the
Clergy of that Church "were suspended from their functions
and forbidden to preach or perform divine service," unless
they should pray publicly for the President of the United
States. This took place in Alabama.
On a cold ISTovember day in 1871 I witnessed an occur-
rence in Mayesville, S. C, which caused my blood to boil in
my veins. I recite this because it was an example of what
was going on all through the Southland.
Old Colonel Mayes was one of the most cultured and
polished gentlemen whom I ever knew. He was an old-time
planter with broad plantations around him. His sons were
successful men, he had given them beautiful homes around
his plantation. Before the war he had been a member of
the United States Congress. He was a public spirited man
MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 211
and had been honored by his State. He was quiet, reserved,
and dignified — an old-time gentleman. He had furnished
succor and help during the war. A large number of the
negroes were freed on his plantations ; among them was one
who had given a great deal of trouble as the worst among
the lot. On the i!Tovember day above referred to an election
was being held on the platform of the railroad station. This
special negro who had given Colonel Mayes so much trouble
was conducting the election. The general amnesty bill had
just been passed by Congress and this was the first effort the
old man had made after the close of the war to cast a ballot.
The negro ordered him to take off his hat and hold up his
right hand. There was the picture. The old gentleman, tall
and straight, full of honors and the weight of years, the cold
^N^ovember winds driving the long locks of his white hair,
his hand raised repeating the oath after the negro.
One day I was busy in the store when a negro came in and
read to me a summons to go with him as a witness in a petty
trial. I went and found a little renegade Yankee holding a
magistrate's court. I and the magistrate were the only white
The negroes were urged to make advances and demand
social equality. With a few exceptions, however, they dis-
played better judgment than their advisers ; and refrained
from what would have brought on a war between the races.
The counsel of the well trained and better class of negroes
prevailed to a great extent among them.
These are a few of the scenes and memories that still linger
with me. Michael Angelo decorated the walls of St. Peter's
with his immortal picture of "Crownless Desolation," in
which he portrays the purgatorial griefs of those subjugated
by the ruthless cruelty of war. Could the artist have visited
our Southland after the smoke of battle had cleared away
a new impetus might have touched his brush. Cities de-
212 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
stroyed ; towns and villages laid waste ; churches, schools, and
other public buildings rotting; every industry destroyed;
landscape horrors and flame-scarred wastes ; all of these were
the evidences of a once prosperous and happy people.
Fostered by the dominant powers at the jSTorth, the Union
League had gathered into its ranks all of the lower class of
the people as well as the newly liberated negroes who were
thus encouraged to take part in public affairs and lord it
over their former masters. Conditions were beyond descrip-
tion and were growing more tense every day. There was no
help to be expected from the magistrates or the courts, for all
were of the same character.
But the spirit of the men of the South again asserted itself
and those who had surrendered at Appomattox and the
younger men saw that something must be done to protect the
honor of the home. We knew not whence it came but the
order known as the Ku Klux Klan came to our relief. Others
have discussed the origin and merits of the great movement.
Memory takes us back to the time when there seemed to be a
lifting of the dark clouds along the horizon and hope again
beckoned our loved ones to take courage and calm their fears.
In the first volume of The Booklet, Mrs. T. J. Jarvis
presented two most excellent papers on the Ku Klux Klan.
William Garrott Brown in the May number of the Atlantic
Mo7ithIy for 1901, gives a most delightful article on the
subject. In 1877 James Melville Beard wrote a very read-
able book entitled "The Ku Klux Klan." His book came out
so soon after the Congressional investigation of affairs in the
South that he wrote very cautiously, but it is easy to read
between the lines.
The Congressional reports of the Commission sent to the
States where the order existed are very full of interesting
matter but nearly all filled with venom toward those impli-
cated. Prof. Hamilton, of the State University, has written
MEMORIES OF 1865-1871. 213
a book on the Reconstruction period which promises to be a
valuable addition to our literature on the subject.
Tom Dixon's books, while fanciful and dramatic, revealed
conditions as they existed in many sections. Many other
publications have been presented through papers and maga-
iznes, but none have given the history in full of the great
movement. Many valuable articles have been printed in our
state papers, but there should be a specific treatise put up in a
more permanent form. The experiences of Judge Kerr, Joe
Turner, and Randolph Shotwell, and perhaps a hundred more
should not be forgotten.
214 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
By Mrs. J. G. Boylin.
On account of the distance from the Bladen Court House,
where the settlers, all of the Pee Dee section who numbered
between two or three hundred tithables, had to go to return
their taxes, the distance being a hundred miles or so, the
following act was passed in 1749 for the establishing of a
county, and St. George Parish, and appointing a place for
court house, and prisons, and stocks.
This act was passed by the council, and General Assembly,
numbering fifty-four members, held at jSTew Bern courthouse.
The ast was read as follows :
"We pray that it may be enacted by his excellency, Gabriel John-
ston, and the General Assembly of this Province, and by the authori-
ty of the same. That Bladen county be divided by a line, begin-
ning at the place where the South line of this Province crosseth the
Westernmost branch of Little Pee Dee river, then by a straight line
to a place where the commissioners, for the running of the South-
ern boundary of this line crossed that Branch of Little Pee Dee
called Drowning Creek, then up the branch to the head, then by a
line to run as near as may be equidistant from Saxapaw river, now
near Chatham, and Great Pee Dee river and that the upper part of
the said county, and Parish, so laid off and divided be erected into
a county, and parish by the name of Anson County, and St. George
Parish and that all the inhabitants to the Westward, shall belong,
and appertain to Anson County, and that said Anson County shall
enjoy all and every privilege, which any other county, or parish in
this province holds or enjoys."
This new County was named for Lord George Anson, a
famous English ISTavigator, who was bom in April, 1697, and
died in June, 1762. Between the years 1724 and 1735 he
was engaged in active service along the coast of the Carolinas.
To conunemorate his daring deeds and protective sendee to
the colonists, this county of Anson, and a town, Anson-
borough, in South Carolina preserve his name. His long
ANSON" COUNTY. 215
service on tlie coast of the Carolinas, however useful, was in
no way brilliant, but be was popular with the colonists.
At this time Anson County included all of Western ISTortb
Carolina from 'New Hanover and Bladen, on the East, to the
state line on the West.
Anson county is one of the oldest counties of the state.
On a map dated 1783 it shows this county to have been the
fifteenth county that was founded. Little Pee Dee river ex-
tended to Bladen and the Saxapaw formed a part of the
boundary of what is now Chatham County.
From Anson County were formed the following counties,
and for the same reason that Anson was taken from Bladen.
The settlers were becoming more numerous, and too, they
were now being called to attend the courts, either to attend
to their own business, and sometimes as jurors and witnesses.
An act was passed to establish Rowan County in 1753. At
this time Rowan extended to Virginia. Mecklenburg was
taken from Anson in 1762. Montgomery County in 1778
and on account of the high waters of the Pee Dee Richmond
was taken in 1779.
In the year 1754 at a general assembly held at Wilming-
ton an act was passed for laying out a town on John Jenkins's
place on the south side of the Pee Dee river to be known as
Gloucester. Charles Robinson, Caleb Howell, Thomas Tom-
kins, William Forbes and Edmond Cartlege were appointed
commissioners with full power and authority to lay off the
fifty acres of land. It was to be divided into lots of one half
acre each, with convenient streets, and squares, a lot for a
court house, jail, church, churchyard and market to be re-
served. Any person had a right to take up one of these lots,
upon the payment of forty shillings proclamation money, to
be paid to the treasurer if he intended to become an inhabi-
tant. Thomas Tomkins was appointed treasurer. Each
owner was required to build a good frame store or brick
216 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
house no less than twentj-four feet in length, and sixteen
feet in width.
This town was situated where the road leading from
Cher aw crosses the road leading from Maskes Ferry to Cam-
den in Anson County. This land was bought from William
Best by Captain Patrick Boggan, In the year 1786, some
of the commissioners having died, James Marshall, Stephen
Pace, Jonathan Jackson, Frederick Wilobey were appointed
commissioners who were to build the public buildings.
In 1787 the name of the new town was changed to Wades-
boro, taking this name from Col. Wade of Eevolutionary
An academy was founded in 1800 for the town of Sneeds-
boro, with William Pegues, Thomas Godfrey, Allen Chap-
man, William Pierce, Isaac Jackson, Laurence Moore and
John Battle as trustees.
In 1802 an act was passed to establish an academy in
Wadesboro. The trustees were as follows: James Marshall,
Robert Troy, James Goodrich, Joseph Ingram, Sr., Tody
Robinson, Pleasant May, John Jennings, Esq., the Rev.
William Taylor, Rev. John Culpepper, and Rev. Daniel
Gould, Joseph While, William Threadgill, Jesse Beverly,
James Coleman, James Hough and Augustus Shepherd.
In 1781, August 4th, Col. Wade called out half of his
regiment, and was joined by parties from Richmond, and
Montgomery, and proceeded against the Tories, numbering
between four and five hundred on Drowning Creek, who were
engaged in disarming the settlers within twenty miles of the
Pee Dee and carrying off men, who were fit for service across
Downing Creek, into what they called the protected land.
After a sharp engagement at Beatler's Bridge on Drowning
Creek, lasting until twelve o'clock at night the Tories drew
off, A dozen Tories having been killed, while Wade only
ANSON COUNTY. 217
On Fanning's return from Wilmington he heard that Wade
was going to attack McNeill, who held the protected ground.
There was a narrow causeway, through which Wade would
have to cross. At Wade's first attack eighteen of Tanning's
horses were slain, but the Tories at once dismounted and
made a deadly assault, firing as they advanced. In this en-
counter Wade lost nineteen men, with fifty-four prisoners
taken, and two hundred and fifty horses, while Fanning only
lost one man, with a few wounded.
Another interesting event was the massacre at Piney Bot-
tom and the revenge taken by the Whigs.
When Gates was defeated at Camden, the British overran
South Carolina, and many of the Whigs fled from the Pee
Dee section into ISTorth Carolina. Among them was Col.
Wade. He with Col. Culp decided to return home, and
having loaded their wagons with salt and such other articles
as were needed in the Pee Dee section. Having crossed the
Cape Fear, at Mcl^eil's Ferry, night approaching they took
up Camp. That night John MclTeil having learned where
this company of Whigs were camping sent runners out to
collect the Tories, many of whom were lying out in the
swamps and other places, with directions to meet at Long
Street to pursue Wade the next night.
Just a little before day they came upon Wade and his party
encamped on Piney Bottom, a branch of Rockfish, all being
apparently asleep. The Tories fell upon the Whigs, killing
five or six of them. The rest escaped leaving everything
A motherless boy who had been taken by Col. Wade, being
aroused by the firing of the guns, not being fully awake cried
"Parole me. Parole me." Duncan Furgeson, a renegade
deserter, told him to come he would parole him. He dropped
on his knees begging for his life, but seeing this man ap-
proaching him he jumped up to run. Furgeson overtook him
218 THE NORTH CAHOLINA BOOKLET.
and split his head open with a broad sword, so that one half
fell on one shoulder and one on the other. The wagons were
plundered, the officers taking the money, the men whatever
thej could carry away. The Tories burned the wagons, and
pretended to bury the dead, but the bodies were afterwards
found scratched up by the wolves, but were buried by Whig
scouts. As soon as Gulp and Wade reached home they col-
lected about a hundred men, all swearing that they would
never return until they avenged the death of the motherless
boy. On Thursday they camped on the land of Daniel Pat-
terson, the piper, on Drowning Creek. They caught him and
whipped him until he gave the names of all those who were
at Piney Bottom. They then entered into Moore County
and captured and murdered all who had been connected with
the massacre. Gen. Wade had John Mcl^eil tried for his
life on account of the robbery and murder committed at
Piney Bottom. He was acquitted on account of not having
Gov. Tryon says that the first trouble that grew into the
war of the Regulation began in Anson and spread to Orange.
At this time Samuel Spencer was Deputy Clerk of the pleas
for Anson. In the year 1768 a mob tried to take possession
of the court house (at this time the court house of Anson was
old Mt. Pleasant, now called the Hooker Place, owned by
the heirs of the late T. J. Ingram). Col. Spencer went to
the door and demanded what they would have. They an-
swered that they had some matters to settle and wanted the
use of the court house. Col. Spencer read them a clause in
the act of Parliament of George the First against riot and
unlawful assemblies, at which the mob became very much en-
raged and threw up their clubs and threatened to tear down
the court house and jail. They then proposed for a few of
their company to represent them and set forth their griev-
ANSON COUNTY. 219
ances. Col. Spencer retired to his desk for transaction of
his business, whereupon the whole mob entered, demanding
the reason for their being taxed.
Col. Spencer explained to them the necessity of reasonable-
ness of taxation. In this time one of them took Mr. ISTeed-
lock, a magistrate, aside and another took the other justices
off the bench and entirely obstructed the proceedings of the
court. They held consultations among themselves and de-
cided to let the court house stand, and passed resolutions
to resist the sheriff in collecting taxes. Before they dis-
persed they elected Mr. Charles Eobinson as representative
to the General Assembly in place of Mr. John Crawford,
without giving the Governor the trouble of issuing a new writ
of election on that vacancy.
Each member of the mob took oath that in case any officer
made distress on any goods or the estate that he with other
assistance would go and take it from the officer, and restore
it to the party from whom taken, and in case any one who
joined this company of regulars for the nonpayment of
taxes should be in prison or under arrest or otherwise con-
fined that he would immediately raise as many of said sub-
scribers as necessary to set said person and his estate at lib-
All these troubles were represented to Gov. Tryon in a let-
ter written by Col. Spencer. In reply Gov. Tryon gave Col.
Spencer authority to raise the Anson regiment of militia to
enable him to secure and bring to trial the ringleaders and
suppress any future trouble. On the 17th of May, 1Y68, Gov.
Tryon issued a proclamation to the county of Anson com-
manding and requiring all persons interested in any way or
connected with this insurrection to disperse and retire to their
respective homes. In case they refused he commanded all
officers, both civil and military, to use all lawful means of
suppressing the same.
220 THE WORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
This outbreak on the part of Anson County seems to have
been the first open resistance, to the oppression of the officers
of the crown. Even as early as this date the great principle
was laid dov^n "that taxation and representation" should
always be associated, that neither Parliament, nor the Gover-
nor, nor any other power had the right to tax the people
without their consent freely given through their representa-
tives in the General Assembly.
On March 19, 1T71, Governor Tryon called for fifty volun-
teers from Anson to march against the insurgents. There
were 2,550 volunteers called from the Province.
The delegates from Anson to the first Provincial Congress
held at New Bern were Samuel Spencer and William Thomas.
Delegates to the third Congress, which met at Hillsboro, 1775,
^ere Thomas Wade, Samuel Spencer, William Thomas,
David Love and William Pickett. The field officers were
^appointed at this Congress. The regimental muster was held
sat the home of Griffith Lacy. Samuel Spencer was Colonel ;
-James Auld was Major.
Samuel Spencer, one of the State's most prominent men of
Kevolutionary times, is buried on the land of his relative,
Mr. S. P. Spencer, on Smith Creek about a mile from the
Pee Dee River, with no slab to mark his grave.
This is what the Fayetteville Gazette of 1794 says of his
"At his seat in Anson County on the 20th circuit the Hon.
Samuel Spencer, LL.D., one of the Judges of the Superior
Court of this State. His Honor's health having been declin-
ing about two years, but he has performed the last circuit
three months since, and we imderstand he intended to leave
home in a few days for this town where Superior Court is
now sitting had it not been for the following incident.
"He was sitting on his piazza with a red cap on his head,
when it attracted the attention of a large turkey gobbler.
ANSOX COUNTY. 221
The Judge being sleepy began to nod. The turkey mistaking
the nodding and the red cap for a challenge to battle made
so violent and unexpected attack on his Honor that he was
thrown from his chair on the floor and was so beat and
bruised that he died in a few days."
Samuel Spencer is the progenitor of some of the most
prominent people in the State, namely Londons and Jack-
A Philadelphia paper at the time of this occurence makes
this (Zhi deppre) criticism :
"In this degenerate age,
What host of knaves engage,
And do all they can to fetter braver men.
Dreading that they should be free.
Leagued with scoundrels pack,
Even turkey cocks attack
The red cap of liberty."
I am greatly indebted to Col. F. J. Coxe for a gTeat part
of this interesting data, which he collected while a student at
the University of ]S[orth Carolina, which I have used in
this paper. I have consulted Wheeler's and Ashe's histories^
also Colonial Records.
222 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
By Adelaide L. Fries.
It was a mere matter of business that set me delving among
the memoirs in the Salem Archives. From the beginning — ,
that is to say, from 1753, — it has been the custom in Wa-
chovia at the funeral of a member, to read an account of the
life of the deceased, and many of these memoirs, autobiog-
raphies in their major part, were deposited on the Archive
shelves, where they have rested until this present, as forgot-
ten as the men and women of whom they spoke. When some
impulse of patriotism, love of order, — what you will, — led
me to undertake the making of an Index, it was with the
expectation that the work would be monotonous in the ex-
treme. Except to fill a gap in a genealogical table, who
cares where Johann Schmidt was born and when he died, or,
indeed, whether he died or was born ? And yet now and
again there came a surprise, and some tim&-yellowed page
would outline a life so typical of the period, so full of human
interest, that all the old longing for the story-writer's gift
welled up afresh, and its absence seemed almost a tragedy —
the threatened reburial of men and women who lived again
after a lapse of more than a century.
When I was a child I read a story of which only the mys-
terious title remains in memory, "The Story That Wouldn't
Be Told." Why it did not wish to be told, or how it avoided
the telling, is long since forgotten, but in contradistinction to
that shy tale the memoirs have haunted me and insisted upon
relation, and reluctant obedience is at last given. ITo attempt
is made to weave a modem-style romance, — that is left for
some more gifted pen, — but the simple life of a real woman
*See Biographical Sketch, Vol. IX, p. 236, April Booklet, 1910.
THE PFLEGEEIN. 223
18 presented, as she moved through the scenes of a country
village a century and more ago.
It was a perfect day in late October, 1766, hut the slight,
fair-haired girl, seated on the trunk of a fallen tree, gazed
with unseeing eyes upon the masses of gold and crimson
leaves that hid all but a hundred or two feet of the road over
which she had but lately come. So far as foliage was con-
cerned it had been a royal progress, that journey southward
from Pennsylvania, for day after day the slowly-moving
heavily-laden wagons seemed just in the wake of the first
sharp frost of the season, and the forests all along the way
had flung out their red and yellow banners as though to give
the travellers glad greeting.
The little company, however, was royal only in the faith
which was leading them to a new home in a distant colony.
In outward seeming they were simple enough, — the sturdy
drivers of the stout horses, a minister of the Gospel and his
wife, three women and a dozen young girls, several of whom
were now busily putting away the remains of the midday
meal, preparatory to the start on their further journey.
To them J ohanna gave as little heed as to the beauties of
the autumnal landscape, for the weeks of travel had devel-
oped an almost military precision of life, and each served
in turn with the deftness born of experience. To-day she was
free, and something in the surroundings of the noon rest
had taken her back to the hills of IS^ew Jersey, where her
eyes had first consciously seen the autumn glory ; the removal
thither from Connecticut having taken place w:hen she was
little more than an infant.
How well she remembered that day in 1Y56 when the
rumors of months crystallized into definite news of Indian
war, and preparations were made for hasty flight; and a
Moravian, coming to her father's mill for meal, cheerfully
224 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
returned without his intended freight in order to convey the
Colvers and their effects to ISTazareth and to safety. Her
parents, who had long awaited an opportunity to join the
Moravians, gladly accepted a position in a neighboring vil-
lage, an older sister was sent to Bethlehem, and Johanna and
a younger sister were placed in a little school just being
started in Nazareth to care for children who like herself
had been driven in by the war from unprotected districts.
The lessons taught in the school were of the simplest. She
learned to speak German, to read and write in German and
English, to cipher, to knit, to sew, and to share in the varied
activities of the household. Religious instruction was also
carefully given, and not until she was older would she see
the real pathos of her inner life during that time. Of imagi-
native mind and emotional temperament, the tenderly told
stories of the Saviour's love and care had at first the strange
effect of driving her almost frantic with terror, for her father,
unwilling to have his child baptized by other than a Moravian
pastor, and unable to secure the services of one in his far-off
Connecticut home, had neglected the rite altogether, and being
unbaptized she became obsessed with the idea that she was
wholly in the power of the Evil One, and beyond the reach
of the love which her soul craved. Too shy to hint her
trouble the poor little thing struggled on, and at last light
began to break in on the eager mind, and she found courage
to pray, to hope, and finally to speak to the kindly woman
in charge of the children, who dispelled her fear, comforted
the tender little heart, and promised that when she was older
she should receive adult baptism, and assured her that mean-
while she was perfectly safe in the Saviour's keeping.
A year in the Bethlehem school gave opportunity for more
study, and of this she gladly availed herself; then her long
cherished wish was granted, and she was baptised, admitted
to the Choir of Older Girls and placed with other young
THE PFLEGEEIN. 225
girls of tbe congregation in the Sisters' House, there to learn
the serious business of self-support. An interruption came
in the form of a severe illness, through which she went to the
very gates of death, hut they did not open, health and strength
returned, and now she was one of those selected to go to the
new little Moravian settlement in ITorth Carolina, there to
begin a Choir of Older Girls, as the older women of the
company were to form the nucleus of the Choir of Single
Sisters. Would she like the new home ? Would the work
be harder or easier than in Bethlehem ? Would she, per-
chance, be asked in marriage? There were many more
brethren than sisters in Wachovia so far, and all the young
women who had come with earlier parties had been quickly
wedded. And if an oifer came would she wish to accept it,
or would she rather be Vorsteherin of the Single Sisters
like Sister Krause, and manage the money, or better yet,
be Pflegerin, like Sister Schmidt in Bethlehem, and have all
the Sisters look up to her, and listen to what she said, and
have even the minister consult her ? On the whole that
sounded attractive, and — But Sister Krause's voice was
calling her to take her place in the wagon, and air-castles
vanished in the wearily impatient wish that the journey was
over and she could rest.
Very cheerful the little village looked next day as they
drove into it, and were warmly welcomed, bountifully fed,
and conducted to the house which had been set apart for their
use. And how interesting it was in the morning to go here
and there, seeing the places already familiar through letters,
and hearing retold the stories of early experiences in the
wilderness. Here was the cabin to which the first settlers
came on that chill l^ovember day in 1753, and in which they
held their first lovefeast while the wolves howled in the forest
near by. Well might they howl, for their day was done !
Some were to fall before the hunter's gun, and the rest would
226 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
vanish before the onmarching civilization of which that care-
fully selected group of colonists was the sign. Here was the
church, center of the village and of the village life, with its
bell, whose daybreak peal had more than once startled lurk-
ing Indians into believing themselves discovered, and had
so averted the attack. The substantial walls and loopholed
attic made the church almost a fort, and beside it was the
stockade, whose protection had been shared by many a fright-
ened farmer, coming to the village for shelter during the
troubled years of Indian warfare. High on the hill lay the
little graveyard, and at its foot the garden of medicinal herbs,
eloquent reminder of the good Dr. Kalberlahn, whose fame
had spread far and wide, but who, alas ! had been one of the
first victims of the epidemic of 1759. Then there were the
shops for the tailor and the shoemaker, the homes of married
people, the newly-opened Sisters' House, and the Brothers'
House occupied by the unmarried men. There was also the
village kitchen, a source of surprise to the casual visitor, but
the quite-to-be expected thing in the eyes of the new arrivals
for the pioneer Moravian settlers had been quick to realize
the value of practical cooperation, and it was their system
of community organization, "the labor of all for the good of
all," which made possible the almost phenomenal industrial
success of the earlier years in their first villages. Then
there was the mill a mile or two away, the farm and the
dairy, — plenty of work for willing hands ; and when the fa-
tigue of their trip was over the Sisters and Older Girls were
assigTied to tasks suited to their strength and ability. In
that little village, if nowhere else in the world, all work was
honorable, the cow-herd and the cook were as carefully se-
lected as the merchant or the minister, and all met together
in the conference which made the plans and gave to each his
share of labor.
It seemed to Johanna that everybody was happy except
THE PFLEGERIN. 22Y
herself, and that she was not made her the more unhappy.
The fact is that the sensitive nature, which would later make
her so dearly beloved for her quick sympathy and ready aid
of all who came to her for advice or help, was now finding
temporary expression in a morbid craving for approval, and
a tendency to droop — and, it must be confessed, to pout, —
under real or fancied reproof, to her own sorrow and to the
annoyance of all about her. She did not understand herself,
and no one fully understood her, but they were patient with
her ; and by and by she learned the hard lesson of self-control,
and was admitted to the Holy Communion. In those days
privilege of the Sacrament was highly prized and carefully
guarded, and each Communion-day was preceded by heart-
searchings, deep though tender; and it happened not infre-
quently that quite an interval elapsed between the taking of
vows in baptism or confirmation and admission to the Lord's
Table. To Johanna the granting of this privilege was the
sign and seal that her strivings after a higher life had found
favor with God and man, and from that hour she "thanked
God and took courage."
But she never learned to really like Bethabara, and her
thoughts turned with ever increasing longing to the new town
being built six miles to the south. Salem — "Peace" — the
very name seemed to her a prophecy! When she came to
Wachovia the work was just begun; since then she had lis-
tened eagerly to every word concerning it, as the young men
who had gone thither from Bethabara and the hired laborers
built first a Brothers' House, then homes for married people,
and, ultimately, a CongTegation House, with the meeting-
hall in its second story. There was something fascinating
about a town all prepared as to houses before the people came.
How happy the Brethern must be when their own particular
house was finished, and the company of builders could wel-
come into it the young men and boys who had remained in
228 THE JSrOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
Bethabara. Perhaps even happier were the four who hav-
ing toiled earnestly at town-building, were now to be wedded,
three to move into three of those empty waiting houses, while
the fourth went to the farm near by. Who before had ever
attended a quadruple wedding ? 'All Bethabara was inter-
ested, but Johanna, who knew all the brides, and was warmly
attached to two of them, was in a tingle of excitement from
the day when her friends told her of their acceptance of the
proposals to the hour of the solemn bethrothal service, and the
still more solemn exchange of marriage vows in the presence
of the entire population of the village.
Later there followed the consecration of the meeting-hall
in Salem, organization of the new congregation, and installa-
tion of the pastor and other officers, and at last, at last, word
was received that the rooms for the Single Sisters were ready.
The breath of Spring was in the air and in Johanna's soul
that April day, and when their few possessions were arranged
in the new rooms, and they knelt for their first evening prayer
in Salem, her throbbing heart chanted joyfully: ''Home —
peace, home — peace!"
And peace remained with her through all the following
years, despite difficulties and hardships not a few. At first
it was a struggle to provide the bare necessaries of life, for
remunerative work was scarce; but the Sisters tilled their
garden, sewed, and washed, and knit, and spun, and helped
in the homes of married people, and by their united effort the
hardest years were safely passed. Then came the Revolution,
with its manifold anxieties, which in their turn passed away.
And Johanna was like a plant, rooted in the shadow and
coming rapidly into blossoming when brought to the light.
Appointed assistant to Sister Pflegerin Quest, she was so
helpful, and showed so much tact in her relation to the other
Sisters and Older Girls, that she was soon made "house dien-
erin," and charged with the supervision of all household af-
THE PFLEGERIN. 229
fairs. This position also made her a member of the Congre-
gation Council, composed of the leading men and women of
the congregation, for in those days the women were accorded
a much more active voice in matters of the town and Church
than they were permitted to have in later times.
Johanna threw her whole heart into her work, dedicating
her life to the service of her Church among the Sisters, and
in 1780 she was received as an Akoluthe. She now began ac-
tively to plan for the erection of a separate house for the
Single Sisters, as their rooms in the Congregation House
were becoming overcrowded, in spite of the fact that each
year some Sisters married and moved into other homes. It
had, indeed, always been the intention that there should be a
Sisters' Hoiuse, but while their Choir was small and poor it
seemed wiser to wait. Money was still very scarce, but a
few hundred dollars were held in reserve for that purpose,
and Johanna began to collect small offerings from the Sisters
and little girls, and cherished them in faith that a way would
open. Then permission was given to ask aid from congrega-
tions elsewhere, as well as of friends in the village; and in
1783 preparations were begun for building.
But her faith was not so soon to be rewarded. On a cold
winter night in January there rang through the sleeping town
the weird, piercing cry of "F-i-r-e ! F-i-r-e!" Hastily
dressing, men and women seized their buckets and hurried to
the scene, there to form in two long lines, the men passing
full buckets of water, and the women returning them empty
to be refilled. But it was in vain, and when morning came
the tavern was a smoking ruin, and Jacob Meyer and his
family were without a roof over their heads. Every house
in the village was already full, but place was cheerfully made
for the accommodation of the Meyers, and quite as promptly
it was decided that the tavern must be at once rebuilt, the ma-
230 THE NORTH CAROLIICA BOOKLET.
terial already gathered for the Sisters' House being used as
far as it would go.
For another year, therefore, Johanna and her associates
waited, with what patience they could command, and at last
the tavern was completed, work on the Sisters' House was re-
commenced, the cornerstone was laid with appropriate cere-
monies, the walls were raised, and the day of dedication ap-
It so happened that just at this juncture Bishop Watteville
visited Salem, as the representative of the Unity's Elders'
Conference. The Revolution had left many problems for
which his wise counsel was much needed, but details of the
congregational life were just as carefully considered. One
point discussed was that Sister Pflegerin Quest and Sister
Vorsteherin Krause were growing old and scarcely able to
conduct the affairs of the growing Choir. Sister Quest was
asked whether she would relinquish her position and go to
Bethabara, there to teach the school for little girls as long as
her health permitted, to which she cheerfully agreed. Sister
Krause was retired, with the understanding that she would
help as much as she could, and the mantles of both fell on
Johanna Colver, the timid child, the moody girl, now the
ablest and best beloved Sister. Humbly but trustfully she ac-
cepted the call, and was installed by Bishop Watteville a few
days before the Choir House was finished.
The 5th of April, 1786, was probably the happiest day of
Johanna's life. At the head of her Choir, surrounded by
sympathizing friends , she moved from the Congregation
House to the new Sisters' House, which was opened with im-
pressive and appropriate ceremonies. There, a few days
later. Bishop Watteville solemnly consecrated her a Deacon-
ess of the Moravian Church, and she entered upon eleven
years of earnest and successful service.
The duties and responsibilities of her position were mani-
THE PFLEGEEIN. 231
fold. According to the Principles laid down, the Single Sis-
ters' Choir was to be "a garden of the Holy Ghost," wherein
girls and women were to be trained "for all kinds of service;
it might be for marriage, or for work in the Choir, among
children, or in families, or as Choir Sisters passing their days
in quiet and union of heart with the friends of their souls,
thinking with deep interest on the things of the Lord, and
praying for them." As Pflegerin Johanna was charged with
"the care of the inner or soul life of her Choir Sisters," not
only those of adult years, but even wee maidens just growing
out of babyhood. Dearly she loved these little folk, and sought
to win their confidence, so that even in tender years she might
draw them into communion with her Saviour. In modern
times there is no one person in the community who quite takes
the place that Johanna Colver filled. Many of the mother's
duties, of the Sunday School teacher's opportunities, of the
pastor's responsibilities, were hers, and, as the girls grew
older, she helped them to find means of self-support, and was
their trusted confidante in all the perplexing problems of
young womanhood, while to the older Sisters she gave her af-
fectionate interest, and to the aged her tender care.
As Vorsteherin she was the treasurer, the business manager
of the Choir, — a 230sition bringing many difficulties and anxie-
ties, for to complete their House the Sisters had been obliged
to borrow a considerable sum from the Salem Congregation,
from potter Gottfried Aust and tanner Johanna Herbst, and
to keep up the interest and pay off the principal was no small
task, even with the help of all the Sisters, and the unfail-
ing support of tanner Herbst, who would never accept any
interest on his loan, and finally gave them the principal as
'Not to every one is it given to see the end as well as the be-
ginning of an undertaking, but one year before Johanna died
she had the joy of knowing that the debt was fully paid, and
232 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET,
that her cherished House would pass unencumbered into other
hands, — for that she would soon leave it she knew full well.
One of the marvels of Johanna's life was that she accom-
plished so much despite her bodily weakness. In the very
month in which she became Pflegerin the first attack of lung
trouble manifested itself, though for some years an occasional
hemmorhage seemed to have little effect upon her strength.
A vacation in Pennsylvania refreshed her after the strain
incident to an epidemic from which many of the Sisters suf-
fered in 1792, but in 1795 the disease took firm hold on her,
and her streng-th gradually but steadily failed. Toward the
end she suffered much, and oh, how she longed for rest!
''Dear Saviour, pity me, and bring these painful hours to a
close. I am ready to go, and there is naught to keep me
here," so she prayed in an hour of utter weariness, though as
a rule she waited with utmost patience for the final summons.
Asking a friend to read her the Daily Texts for some days
ahead, that for March 5th was reached, "The Lord shall be
unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory," Isa.
60:19. "Oh, that I might go home on that day," she ex-
claimed; "think of the joy and wonder, to go out into the sun-
shine, into the day that shall have no end." And even so it
was. On the 5th of March, 1797, she peacefully fell asleep,
while her weeping Sisters, gathered in an adjoining room,
sang hymns wherewith to comfort their aching hearts. Soon
the trombonists gathered in front of the House, and through-
out the village people paused to listen to the message floating
out on the evening air:
A pilgrim, us preceding,
Departs unto her home,
The final summons heeding,
Which soon to all must come,
joy! the chains to sever
Which burden pilgrims here,
To dwell with Christ forever
Who to our souls is dear.
THE PFLEGERIN. 233
The second stanza, tbough used at the departure of any un-
married Sister, might have been Johanna's own statement of
her life's ideal, and many an eye grew moist as the tune was
My happy lot is here
The Lamb to follow;
Be this my only care
Each step to hallow,
And thus await the time
When Christ, my Saviour,
Will call me hence, with Him
To live forever.
Once more the sweetly solemn strains stole over the village,
this time breathing a prayer that each who listened might in
turn find ready entrance into that heavenly mansion ; and as
the last note sank into the evening silence quivering lips
whispered with sorrow and yet in perfect trust: "Sister
Pflegerin Colver has indeed gone home."
234 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF MRS. SPIER
WHITAKER nee HOOPER
By Mks. E. E. Moffitt.
Mrs. Spier Whitaker was born in Chapel Hill, iSTorth Caro-
lina, and lived there during a large part of her girlhood.
Prior to her marriage she was Miss Fanny DeBerniere
Hooper, the second daughter of Professor John Deberniere
Hooper of the University, who was the son of Archibald Mac-
laine Hooper, the well-known editor and writer of Wilming-
ton, North Carolina — a contributor on historical subjects to
various journals — who married Miss Charlotte DeBerniere.
Fanny DeBerniere Hooper's mother was before her marriage
Miss Mary Elizabeth Hooper, daughter of William Hooper,
D.D., LL.D., scholar and litterateur, a Professor in the Uni-
versity of ISTorth Carolina, later President of Wake Forest
College, and the author of Fifty Years Since, Force of Kahit,
Sacredness of Human Life, Imperfections of Primary
Schools, and many other sketches. He married Frances Pol-
lock Jones, daughter of Colonel Edward Jones, Solicitor-Gen-
eral of JSTorth Carolina, who was born in Ireland, and Mary
Mallett Jones who was the daughter of Peter Mallett, member
of one of the Committees of Safety in the Revolution and
Commissary of the fifth and sixth regiments of the Conti-
nental Line. Mary Elizabeth Hooper was the great grand-
daugher of the William Hooper who was one of the signers of
the Declaration of Independence, son of Reverend William
Hooper, second rector (1747-1767) of Trinity Church, Bos-
ton. She (Mary Elizabeth Hooper) was the granddaughter
of William Hooper, son of the "Signer," who married Helen
Hogg, daughter of James Hogg of Hillsborough, ISTorth Caro-
lina, a native of Scotland who came to America in 1774, was
influential in the Revolutionary period, and married Miss
FANNY DeBERNIERE HOOPER WHITAKER
This picture is a copy of a daguerreotype taken about the time of her
marriage. There is no good recent picture.
MRS. SPIER WPIITAKEE. 235
Alves. J. DeBerniere Hooper was the grandson of the "Sign-
er's" brother George — who married Katharine Maclaine,
daughter of Archibald Maclaine of Wilmington, prominent
among Revolutionary patriots. The one son of this marriage,
Archibald Maclaine Hooper — father of Professor J. De-
Berniere Hooper, before mentioned as the father of Fannie
DeB. Whitaker — married, as has been said, Charlotte De-
Berniere who was the daughter of Colonel John DeBerniere
of the British army who had married near Belfast, Ireland,
Miss Anna Jones, daughter of Conway Jones of Rostrevor,
and whose grandfather, Jean Antoine DeBerniere, a Hugue-
not of noble birth, had fled from French persecution and set-
tled first in Ireland/
It will be seen from the foregoing that Mrs. Whitaker was
descended from those who bore a considerable part in the pe-
riod of the American Revolution — William Hooper, Archi-
bald Maclaine, Peter Mallett. Karnes might be cited to
show that patriotic interests and military records are to be
found also in collateral branches and that force of talent has
been evident in these lines. Among these names there is that
of an ancestral uncle, Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General
Thomas Clark of the Revolutionary army. A brother of J.
DeBerniere Hooper was Johnson J. Hooper, lawyer, Secre-
tary of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, a
conspicuous and influential editor, one of the most successful
humorous writers of the day — author of "Simon Suggs,"
"Widow Rugby's Husband" and "Other Tales of Alabama/'
The late Mrs. C. P. Spencer, in a memorial of J. DeB,
Hooper in 1886, says:
"The Hooper family is one long and well known In Nortli Caro-
lina and other Southern states. Wherever known they are strongly
marked by certain family traits; a high-toned, passionate sense of
1 The genealogical data for this sketch was furnished by Miss Bessie Lewis Whitaker.
236 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
honor, a quick and generous sensibility, a love of letters, combined
with intellect of a fine and flexible quality. In many of them these
mental gifts are accompanied by a rare strain of subtle humor,
imparting to their conversation and writings the real Attic flavor
Miss Fanny Hooper imbibed much of great educational
value from the atmosphere of her home. Her father, revered
by all who knew him, was "justly dear to learning, to social
life, to the cause of education, and the Church of God,"-"- her
mother a "sweet, high-minded, 'other-worldly' woman. "^ She
has said that her parents instilled into their children^ a love
of learning and, at a time when such matters were compara-
tively ignored, imbued them with a knowledge of and admira-
tion of a worthy ancestry. She was formally educated at the
■Chowan Female Institute, Murfreesboro, IvTorth Carolina— a
ischool well known at this period for thorough scholarship and
iigh standards — where she graduated at the head of her class
and was the valedictorian. Her essay, a humorous produc-
tion entitled "Lucifei" Matches" was written in verse and is
jDreserved today as a happy effort of the girl whose mind
showed at this early age the vivacity and brilliant tendencies
retained and developed through life.
She married July 31, 1866, Mr. Spier Whitaker, son of
Colonel Spier Whitaker, of eastern ISTorth Carolina — a lawyer
learned and widely successful, essentially a "gentlemen of the
old school," Attoxney-General of l^orth Carolina for four
years, later a resident of Davenport, Iowa. Spier Whitaker,
the son, was, at the time of his marriage to Miss Hooper, an
alumnus of the University of North Carolina, one of the
fifty-seven of the members of the historic class of 1861 who
1 William Mercer Green, Bishop of Missiasippi.
2 Dr. E. A. Alderman in an address on William Hooper.
' The children of J. DeBerniere Hooper and Mary E. Hooper:
Helen DeBerniere Hooper (deceased), who married James Wills.
Fanny DeBerniere Hooper ( deceased ), who married Spier Whitaker.
Henry DeBerniere Hooper ( deceased ), who married Jessie Wright.
Julia Charlotte Hooper, who married Ralph Graves.
MES. SPIEK WHITAKEK. 237
left the University for the battlefield a few weeks before the
end of the course that was crowned nevertheless, through the
University diplomas, by an alma mater ready to yield ap-
proval and award degrees to honorable sons^ He was First
Lieutenant and Adjutant of the Thirty-third North Caro-
lina Regiment, Lane's Brigade, Hill's Division, Jackson's
Corps, Army of jS'orthern Virginia. As a Confederate sol-
dier, he served with distinguished gallantry during the four
years of the war — literally from Bethel to Appomattox. He
was caj)tured at JSTew Bern by Burnside and was a prisoner
of war for about four months at Governor's Island, the ''Rip
Raps," and Fort Delaware. He was at Harper's Ferry,
Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilder-
ness, Spottsylvania, Gettysburg — in fact in every battle of
his regiment except one. His services were conspicuous
many times during the war and the commendation accorded
him after Gravelly Hill has been often quoted. He after-
wards became one of ]^orth Carolina's ablest lawyers, "his
reputation extending far beyond State bounds."' He ren-
dered able and important service to the State as Chairman
of the Democratic State Executive Committee in 1888 when
he conducted a campaigTi "with a skill and success that were
phenomenal."^ As a Judge of the Superior Courts of the
State he has left an enviable record — a record bearing close
investigation and study. "He brought to the Bench a mind
well stored with legal learning and his decisions showed him
equipped for determining knotty points of the law continually
arising.'* During the time he served as Judge he concen-
trated the great force of his will and effort upon the ameliora-
1 "Commencement day was on the first Thursday in June, 1861. Only thirty out of
the eighty-seven graduates were present. The diplomas of the absent were forwarded to
them. Very likely some of them reached their owners on the battle-field, but I never
heard of it-"— Dr. Kemp P. Battle. (See Battle's History of the University, Vol. I ). The
foregoing note may account for the statement, sometimes heard, that the diplomas of the
class of 1861 were delivered on the battle-field.
2 Daily Call, Raleigh, 1889.
3 Daily Call, Raleigh, 1889.
< News-Observer Chronicle, 1894.
238 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
tion of conditions in the jails and county homes of the State.
He was appointed Major of the Sixth Regiment United States
Volunteers in the war with Spain, 1898-99, which regiment
though on active duty in this country and Porto Rico, was
never engaged in battle.
An esteemed friend and college-mate and Confederate
army comrade of Judge Whitaker's thus referred to him af-
ter his death : ^"He possessed an excellent mind which was
of a philosophic turn and cultivated in many fields of litera-
ture. He was an able lawyer and was distinguished as a
logician. He was a man of a high sense of honor and to his
intimates was a most delightful companion, whose quaint
himior added piquancy to their enjoyment of his company. -*■
In reference to his wife, the subject of the present sketch,
another valued friend of the early days of strong associa-
tions, recently said : "She was indeed an unusual woman —
and as a young maiden, so lovely in person, so bright and fas-
cinating. She developed into a woman of rare intellectual
gifts and doubtless her intelligent husband by his association
with her stimulated her mental powers and gave them play
so that they were not repressed, notwithstanding her house-
hold cares. "^ The homage he accorded her, the stimulus he
gave through his own need of intellectual sympathy in life's
mental interests, and his influence that caused her yielding
to the solicitations of friends — these did contribute much to-
wards her being known beyond her home. For finely
equipped as she was, she shrank from all initiative and from
being to the slightest extent before the public.
After her marriage, she lived in Raleigh, IsTorth Carolina,
for some months, but as her husband soon became engaged in
much practice in eastern North Carolina, they, within a
year, began residence in Enfield, Halifax County, North
1 Major E. J. Hale in Fayetteville Observer 1901.
2 Captain S. A. Ashe of Raleigh, N. C.
MRS. SPIER WHITAKEE. 239
Carolina, which place was their home until the year 1882
when they came with their five children^ to Raleigh. Here
she lived until the death of her husband in July, 1901. Af-
ter some intervening years spent partly with her sisters in
Chapel Hill and partly in Raleigh, she and her daughter in
1907 folloTved her two youngest sons to Birmingham, Ala-
bama, where she resided until her death on ISTovember 28,
1911. This brief statement, covering the period of her mar-
ried life and another decade of thought and love and service
can only suggest the real biography. Her intense delicate,
sensitive nature knew no compromise in life's duties. There
is not much more to say than that, as was said by one who
loved her, "her large heart and large mind were given in
large, unstinted service," this service given first in accord-
ance with the heart's first dictates but shutting out none of
the wide and universal sympathies. Mental and spir-
itual activity was necessary for her — that activity that tends
to development and benefit if not to absolute rest of mind
and the happiness of the unquestioning.
Literary, historical, patriotic interests played a part in her
life. The I^orth Carolina Society of the Daughters of the
Revolution, founded by her and made up even now of her
personal friends, desires to pay a tribute to her and to trace
at the same time the history of the society by showing some-
thing of her work in connection with it during her long resi-
dence in Raleigh and by pointing out her contributions to the
history of the State and her efiicient patriotic interests.
In 1894 — September 10th — she was asked by the ISTational
iThe children of Fanny DeBerniere (Hooper) Whitaker and Spier Whitaker are:
DeBerniere Whitaker, University of North Carolina, Engineer. Vice-President
and General Manager Juragua Iron Company, Santiago de Cuba.
Bessie Lewis Whitaker, A.M., University of North Carolina: Teacher. Present
address, Bertram Hall, Cambridge, Mass.
Percy duPonceau Whitaker, B.S., University of North Carolina. Advertising
Counsel, Denver, Colorado.
David Spier Whitaker, University of North Carolina. Merchandise Broker,
Vernon Edelen Whitaker, University of North Carolina. General Agent A. B. &
A. R. R., Atlanta, Georgia.
240 THE NOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET.
Society of tbe Daughters of the Revolution, through the Sec-
retary of the ISTorth Carolina Society of the Sons of the Revo-
lution, to consider the position of regent for the Society in
the State of JSTorth Carolina, the reason for the request being
based, said the Secretary, ■*■ on her "interest in such matters as
well as ancestral and other qualifications." She became a
member of the JN^ational Society of the Daughters of the Rev-
olution December 18, 1894. She was appointed State Regent
for jSTorth Carolina for a term extending from January 7,
1895, to January 1, 1899. She was retained as Regent by
the jSTorth Carolina Society until her resignation, formally
tendered July 6, 1902.
Her work in creating conditions for the establishment of
a State Society began immediately after her appointment.
Gradually, constantly, and persistently she interested her
friends in the work and the objects and, on October 19, 1896,
the anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis, she organized
the JSTorth Carolina Society. Her work in effecting the
organization was accomplished under difficulties ; for, even
so recently, women were not as easily aroused as now to a
sense of the importance of an opportunity for preserving
family records and contributing to the cause of historical re-
search and the inculcating of historical interests. Before
beginning this work, she had made a careful study of the
history and standards of the National patriotic societies and
it was the strict and unvarying requirement of membership
through lineal descent that determined her allegiance to this
particular society. In January, 1897, the JSTorth Carolina
Society of the Daughters of the Revolution adopted a pro-
visional State Constitution and By-Laws, the objects as stated
in this constitution being to ^'perpetuate the patriotic spirit
of the men and women who achieved American independence ;
to commemorate Revolutionary events — especially those con-
iMr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood, Raleigh, N. C.
MRS. SPIER WHITAKEE. 241
nected with North Carolina ; to collect, publish and preserve
the rolls, records and historic documents relating to that pe-
riod ; to encourage the study of the country's history ; and
to promote sentiments of friendship and common interests
among the members of the Society." It was through the zeal
and ability of Mrs. Whitaker as regent and the able coopera-
tion of other women that the growth of the Society became
assured and that its influence steadily widened.
In the North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Regis-
ter, October, 1900, Vol. 1, there is an outline by Mrs. Whita-
ker of the activities of the society, in which she shows that
it had labored steadily to promote the objects for which it
was established as set forth in its constitution, in line with
which, among other activities, a hall had been rented for busi-
ness meetings where historical and other papers were read
and these and other matters germane to the Society were dis-
cussed and where were kept its nucleus of a library and a
collection of relics ; a genealogical department established as
an adjunct to the Society ; a gold medal offered to a pupil of
the Raleigh Graded Schools for an essay on an assigned his-
torical subject; steps taken towards marking hitherto neg-
lected graves of soldiers of the Revolution in Wake County ;
resolutions sent (in 1898) to United States Senators and
Representatives from North Carolina (at request of the Ti-
conderoga Historical Society, Ticonderoga, New York), ad-
vocating the passage of a bill for the Government ownership
and preservation of old Fort Ticonderoga ; an appeal made
through a circular letter (May, 1898) to the House of Rep-
resentatives in Washington for the appropriation of ten
thousand dollars to carry into eifect two resolutions of the
Continental Congress in 1778 and 1781 for the erection of
monuments to Brigadier-General Francis Nash and William
Lee Davidson of North Carolina ; a movement inaugurated
May 4, 1898, when troops were being organized for the Span-
242 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET.
ish War for the formation of a Soldiers' Aid Society, etc.
The movement that has proved perhaps of most lasting bene-
fit to the State is referred to as the "publication of TiiElSroRTH
Caeolina Booklet, containing articles of great historic
value, for the most part contributions from distinguished
writers of the State." "This," she continues, "formerly un-
der the able management of its first editors. Miss Martha
Helen Hayveood and Mrs. Hubert Hayv^^ood, with the former
of whom the idea of its publication originated — palmam qui
meruit ferat — is now in the hands of Miss Mary Hilliard
Hinton and Mrs. E. E. Moffitt." As late as May 12, 1912,
Captain S. A. Ashe wrote of The Booklet thus: "I recall
the origin of The Booklet. A noble oak has grown from
the acorn. What an advantage it has been to the State ! How
many subjects have been explored— how many historical inci-
dents have been rescued from oblivion — what a medium it
has been of thought — what a stimulus to writing for the pub-
lic to read. Our jDoople before The Booklet began were not
in the habit of writing for the public. N^ow many use the
pen as if they had been brought up in JSTew England. I re-
joice in the good it has brought our people."
Mrs. Whitaker was the very heart of The Booklet enter-
prise. It was she who gave it living force, she who seem-
ingly not active in its publication was the vital spark that
gave it action.
As stated by Mrs. Whitaker in the outline in the Histori-
cal Register, the direct object of The Booklet was to "begin
a fund for the rearing of a monument to the first signers of
an American Declaration of Independence — the patriotic
ladies of the famous Edenton Tea Party of October 25,
1774, whose declaration antedated by nearly two years that of
the vestry of St. Paul's Church in the same town, by seven
months that of Mecklenburg, and by a year and eight months
the ISTational Declaration at Philadelphia." It was Mrs.
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 243
Whitaker who proposed that the Society attempt to create a
fund for the "purpose of commemorating the heroism of the
women of the Revolution by erecting a memorial to the tocn
much-ignored ladies of the historic Edenton Tea Party of
1774." Correspondence retained by her attests the interest
and response on the part of prominent men who cooperated
with her and the Society in the work of securing historic
testimony as to the occasion of the Edenton Tea Party. She
also appealed directly to persons in England who had access
to records there. Evidence of the incident alluded to —
casually mentioned by Wheeler in his History of North
Carolina — ^was secured in an authoritative record which had
been published in the Morning Chronicle and London Ad-
vertiser in England and she also obtained directly from Eng-
land a list of the fifty-one ladies who signed the Edenton
document, endorsing on October 25, 1774, the resolves of the
provincial deputies who had held a Congress in ITew Bern,
JSTorth Carolina, the preceding August. After some years
the object proposed was accomplished by the Society through
the publication of The JSTorth Carolina Booklet, referred
to in the foregoing — the publication devoted to developing
and preserving incidents in the history of the State which pre-
viously had not received sufficient recognition and notice, the
publication that achieved success through the work and skill
of members of the Society who volunteered to take charge
of it, and through the historical contributions of educators
and historians of the State. The first issue appeared in
May, 1901. On October 24, 1908, a bronze tablet was
erected in the Capitol in Raleigh which bears this inscrip-
tion : "Erected by the !N"orth Carolina Society of the Daugh-
ters of the Revolution to the fifty-one ladies of Edenton who
by their patriotism, zeal and early protest against British
authority assisted our forefathers in the making of this Re-
public and our Commonwealth." Considerable thought
244 THE ]N"ORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
was given to the form of the memorial. There is this refer-
ence to it in a letter from the writer of the present sketch,
who is a member of the Society, to Mrs. Whitaker: "Your
idea of the memorial that, instead of a shaft or statute or
painting, it should have the educational form is an admirable
one. You formulate ideas. Would that they could ma-
terialize ! And I think they will, though a long time after
Mrs. Whitaker was one of the charter members of the
State Literary and Historical Association, organized in Ra-
leigh October 23, 1900. She became a member of the Colo-
nial Dames of America, May 27, 1897; in 1900 she was
second vice-president of that society in North Carolina.^
On January 3, 1901, she organized the Raleigh local circle
of Colonial Dames. She was a member of the recently or-
ganized National Society known as the Descendants of the
Signers. She evidently considered membership in the
Huguenot Society of America— though we have obtained no
record of the membership — as there is correspondence rela-
tive to her eligibility through the lines DeBerniere and
Crommelin. Although she did not actually and directly
engage in work for the Daughters of the Revolution after
the death of her husband in 1901, her influence and her name
never ceased to be connected with it. Pier formal resigna-
tion was tendered July 6, 1902. The record of the meeting
of that date has the following statement in regard to it:
"The resignation was received with profound regret and the
Secretary requested to express the sentiments of the Society
in the loss they sustain in her withdrawal. She has been
Regent from the organization of the Society, and to her un-
tiring zeal and labors the Society owes its existence today. ''^
After her removal to Birmingham she was made an honorary
iSee North Carolina Colonial Dames Directory for 1900.
iRaleigh News and Observer, July 6, 1902.
MRS. SPIEK WHITAKEK. 245
life member of the Society. A clipping from the Raleigh
paper, the date of which is missing, states that "Mrs. Spier
Whitaker, founder of the Society of the Daughters of the
Revolution in North Carolina, was elected Honorary Regent
for life by a unanimous standing vote."
Mrs. Whitaker's tenderest allegiance was always with the
old Southern Confederacy. Her name was among the first
on the roll of the Daughters of the Confederacy in Raleigh,
for on April 14, 1896, she became a member of the Johnston
Pettigrew Chapter of that Society. Her feeling for the cause
may be found in her own expression, in reference to various
organizations in which she was interested — "the Daughters
of the Confederacy being by far the closest to my heart."
In response to requests of compilers and editors she from
time to time showed the facile pen and the work of the stu-
dent and scholar. Her writing, unfortunately, must be sought
where it was placed not on her own account but solely in the
interest of some. cause or to record some life she knew. Her
circular letter written to enlist the first interest in the forma-
tion of the ISTorth Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolu-
tion — prepared first upon the request for a contribution to
the Monumental, or Ladies' Edition of the News and Ob-
server on the occasion of the unveiling of the Confederate
monument in Raleigh, May 20, 1895 — is still extant and is
an appeal replete with fine distinctions, delicate touches, and
fervid feeling. The purport may be seen in these words:
"In our devotion to these unsuccessful, tear-crowned heroes
ajid that Confederacy, unique and radiant, which is in eccen-
tric orbit through stormy skies descending, blazed for a brief
space among the constellations of the nations and went out in
darkness, let us not forget those who participated in the trium-
phant struggle of the Revolution, from whom our Southern
Chivalry derived and inherited that splendid courage and
246 THE JNTORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
heroism which have forever glorified both themselves and the
cause for which thej fought." Traces of her pen may be
found among various papers and circular letters issued by
the Society from time to time. And we find preserved oc-
casional newspaper and pamphlet articles from her pen, the
titles of which being somewhat as follows: "ISTorth Carolina
Society Daughters of the Revolution," March 25, 1901, in
North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register.
"Daughters of the Revolution," in Literary and Historical
Activities, 1900-1905. "Just to the South" (Letter) in the
Democrat, Clinton, ISTorth Carolina, June, 1905. "Xorth
Carolina Descendants of Signers of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence," Raleigh News and Observer, July 3, 1907. "Wil-
liam Hooper and His Descendants" (answer to communica-
tion), ISTorfolk Virginian^Pilot, July 3, 1907, and AsJieville
Gazette, August 14, 1907. "Colonel (or General) Thomas
Clarke" — article not signed, Raleigh News and Observer,
July 31, 1892.
She was called upon to supply family book-plates for use in
publications ; apparently the Hooper and Maclaine plates
were included in some elaborate book on the public, semi-pub-
lic, and private libraries of the Thirteen Colonies, compiled
by James Terry in 1904. As a close student of family history,
she was asked to contribute a number of biographical
sketches of historical and genealogical interest, embodying
fruits of her research for family data, to the Cyclopwdia of
American Biographies (Lamb's Biographical Dictionary of
the United States), edited by John Howard Brown, published
by the James H. Lamb Company, Boston, Massachusetts,
1901. These articles include as titles the names Archibald
Maclaine Hooper, George DeBerniere Hooper, John DeBer-
niere Hooper, Johnson J. Hooper, William Hooper, Clergy-
man ; William Hooper, Signer Declaration of Independence ;
William Hooper, Educator, Edward Jones, Johnston Blake-
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 247
ley Jones, Abraham Rencher, Joseph Caldwell. The eleven
sketches, not signed, and apparently not credited on any list
of contributors, are acknowledged in part through a statement
which appears in the published sketch of J. DeB. Hooper, as
follows: "The data used in preparing the sketches of the
Hooper family which appear in this work were furnished by
Mrs. Spier Whitaker, a careful student of the annals of the
family." The editor also acknowledges this extensive ma-
terial relating to the Hooper family in a private letter of
January 22, 1900, in which he speaks of her "invaluable as-
sistance" in the matter of preparing the sketches, referring
at the same time to the necessity for utmost conciseness and
the final making of the sketches as nearly like those she sent
as consistent with the scope of the Encyclopsedia. Private
memoranda establish the fact that there was also personaly
acknowledgment of the Jones, Rencher, and Caldwell
sketches. For The ISTorth Carolhsta Booklet of July,
1905, she contributed a valuable account of the life and times
of William Hooper, the "Signer," vdth a genealogical ac-
count of the Hooper family. She wrote by request for the
Biographical History of North Carolina a life of Thomas
Clark of the Revolution, which sketch, however, is still held
by the editors, awaiting publication in one of the later vol-
umes to be issued within the next few years. In an early
volume of the same work, a part of her sketch of her husband.
Spier Whitaker, is published. The full sketch and another
separate account of the Whitaker family are still unpub-
Obviously it has been difficult to locate some of her writ-
ing. Probably some of her work is not to be found at all.
Her object in writing was clearly not for personal recogni-
tion; it may be understood from her owa remark in corre-
spondence of 1894 with some editor or publisher, when she
says "I hope I am not too late, being exceedingly anxious that
248 THE NOK.TH CAROLINA BOOKLET.
the facts should he accurately stated." As some one has re-
cently said, "It is characteristic of her that she should have
last herself and her name and the credit due her in the work.
She was so self-effacing — or rather so unaware — so uncon-
scious of herself and her rarity."
A robust constitution gradually weakened under the strain
of disease too insidious to be recognized until its work had
become advanced. Death was not expected until a few days
before the end. The calamity to her family was felt as a dis-
tinct shock by the many friends in her own State of Xorth
Carolina, in Alabama, and elsewhere, for she was widely
known and loved. The funeral was held from Christ [Epis-
copal] Church, Raleigh, ISTorth Carolina, to which congrega-
tion she had belonged. The interment was in Oakwood Cem-
etery by the side of her husband.
Hers was a rare mind, of many gifts and marked original-
ity. A too highly sensitive nature, and, for many years, a
slight lameness due to rheumatism, had made her for some
time almost a recluse. But far from being self-centered, she
was always appreciative of friends, always thoughtful of oth-
ers, much occupied with correspondence, full of interest in
all that went on about her in home and town, an accurate
and comprehensive reader, an indefatigable student, and a
close observer of current events. Her remarkable fund of
information was evident both in her speech and writings and
her quick perception, unusual memory, and originality made
her delightful in conversation. Interested to the last days
of her life, when she was well-acquainted with pain, in de-
tails of home-making, full of broad, genuine sympathy and
great charity — with a mind and heart occupied with great
subjects and with great depths of affection — she was a
womanly woman whose greatest weakness was an under-
estimation of herself and an unwarranted reserve. Keenly
interested in all intellectual movements and problems and
MRS. SPIER WHITAKEB. 24:9
strongly favoring the saner, quieter efforts of women to take
part even in legislation and government, she herself, endowed
as she was with beauty of person and beauty of mind and
heart and soul, wished to live the simplest life of greatest re-
tirement. As said by one who knew her for many years,
''She was a noble woman, one of the best God sends to this
The picture of Fanny Hooper as a girl of seventeen, still in
possession of her children, is loveliness itself. The glimpses
of her girlhood, as pictured in words by those who knew her
then are not less beautiful. In this youth she married Spier
Whitaker, the young soldier and law-student who proved his
worth and nobility as she did hers. Her life was primarily
given to the love and sacrifice and the work and the joys of
wife and mother. Incidentally she contributed much
thought and influence where it was of value in her time.
Her friends as well as her five children "rise up and call her
blessed" while mourning her loss and grieving that she was
not spared longer for love and service and for the blessing of
her presence for those who can not understand her going.
iDr. Kemp P. Battle, University of North Carolina.
TABLE OF CONTENTS, Vol. XIII
Christmas at Buchoi, A North Carolina Rice Plantation 3-10
By Rebecca Cameron.
General William Lee Davidson 11-39
By Major W. A. Graham.
An Old Graveyard in the Historic Town of Hillsboro 40-44
By Anna Alexander Cameron.
Roanoke Island (poem) 45-46
By Marshall DeLancey Haywood.
Presentation of Joel Lane Tablet to the City of Raleigh 47-56
By Emily Benbury Haywood.
Deed of Joel Lane for Site of City of Raleigh 57-59
Rowan County Marriage Bonds 60-61
By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins.
Illustration: The Joel Lane Tablet.
Sir Walter Raleigh 65-ll«
By Marshall DeLancey Haywood.
Abstract of Volume I of Battle's History of the University of
North Carolina 117-124
By Dr. Kemp P. Battle.
The Naming of Wake County (poem) 125
By Dr. William Cameron.
Captain James Iredell Waddell 126-142
By Captain S. A. Ashe.
Rowan County Marriage Bonds 143-146
Illustration: Elizabeth Throckmorton — Lady Raleigh.
New Year's Shooting, an Ancient German Custom 147-157
By Major W. A. Graham.
Early Times on the Cape Fear 152-174
By Captain S. A. Ashe.
Abstract of Volume II of Battle's History of the University
of North Caroina, 1868-1912 175-191
By Dr. K. P. Battle.
Rowan County Marriage Bonds 192-195
By Mrs. M. G. McCubbins.
Memories of 1865-1871 197-213
By Professor J. T. Alderman.
Anson County 214-221
By Mrs. J. G. Boylin.
The Pflegerin 222-233
By Adelaide L. Fries.
Biographical Sketch of Mrs. Spier Whitaker 234-249
By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt.
Illustration: Mrs. Spier Whitaker.