Skip to main content

Full text of "The North Carolina booklet : great events in North Carolina history"

See other formats

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2011 witii funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 


The Bookplate of Goverxok Gabriel Johxstox. 

Vol, XIV JULY. 1914 No. 1 


fioHTH CflRowfifl Booklet 

** Carolina! Carolina! Heaven^ s blessings attend her ! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her.'' 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editor. 


Mbs. Httbebt Haywood. Db. Richaed Dillaed. 

Mbs. E. E. Moffitt. Db. Kemp P. Battle. 

Me. R. D. W Connoe. Me. James Spbunt. 

Db. D. H. Hill. Me. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Db. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Claek. 

Me. W. J. Peele. Majoe W. A. Geaham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fbies. Db. Chaeles Lee Smith. 

Miss Maetha Helen Haywood. 

Miss Maby Hilliabd Hinton. 


vice-eegent : 


mes. e. e. moffitt. 


Mes. clarence JOHNSON. 

coeresponding secretary: 

Mes. PAUL H. LEE. 





custodian of relics: 

Mes. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubeet Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mbs. Patbick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catheeine P. Seyton Albebtson, Regent 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameeon, Regent 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Chaeles J. Sawyeb, Regent 

Foundee of the Nobth Cabolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 

Mbs. spier WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 

Mbs. D. H. HILL, SB.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mbs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died December 12, 1904. 
tDied November 25, 1911. 


Vol. XIV lULY, t9t4 No. J 


By Maby Hilliabd Hinton 

(Heraldic Artist, North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution; Historian- 
General, Daughters of the Revolution, 1912-1914; Chairman Committee 
on Historic Research, National Society Colonial Dames 
of America, 1912-1914, etc.) 

In this age of materialism, in a land thoroughly democratic, 
it is a marvel that there shonld be a revival, so to speak, 
of an important science of the mediaeval era, indissolubly 
linked with the days of Chivalry. Its popnlarity has in- 
ci eased to such an extent that persons attaining sudden emi- 
nence have been known to order Arms to be designed at great 
cost. Some later repose beneath tombs adorned with the 
assmned badge of distinction. Others, without authority, 
appropriate those that belong lawfully to persons of the same 
surname, between whom there is no known connection. 
Cases can be cited where people have displayed on their sta- 
tionery certain crests because they were more pleasing to be- 
hold than their own. 

In preparing this paper it has been considered advisable to 
first speak of the origin and history of Heraldry and its uses 
and abuses before touching upon its relation to the Colony of 
JSTorth Carolina. 


Heraldry is a science. These notes relate only to the Eng- 
lish acceptation of the fascinating study. The French and 
Germans have different rules. They are more confusing and 
far less rigid. The handsomest works bearing on this sci- 


©nee are prepared by the French — they are very costly and 
the styles are so ornate with all their gorgeous embellishment 
that one is reminded of the overcrowded interior of the 
Italian palaces — too loaded down to be in good taste. 

Most erroneous ideas prevail regarding this branch of Art. 
The thought that one who uses armorial bearings, to which he 
is rightfully entitled, is a snob is simply ridiculous. A 
Coat of Arms is as much one's personal property as his name. 
It comes in the same way — ^by inheritance. To discard the 
one would be as sensible as to reject the other. In mediaeval 
times Coat Armor was the sole means of distinguishing a 
knight. Consider the warrior armed cap-a-pie, mounted 
on a charger similarly encased in armor; unless one beheld 
the crest and Arms there was no means of recognition. 

The origin of this very fascinating science is veiled in 
obscurity. Some armorists allow fancy to play no small 
part in their solutions and eagerness to claim a greater 
antiquity for "this once cultivated study." One has as- 
serted that Adam bore a red shield with a silver escutcheon 
thereon, showing that Eve was an heiress. Others say that 
laws regarding it came from heaven. Mr. Charles L. Camp, 
the noted Connecticut armorist, claims a most ancient origin 
for this science. Many of us are familiar wdth his beautiful 
work shown in the Connecticut Building at Jamestown 
Exposition and the decorations on some of the covers of the 
Journal of American History. 

Not granting that Heraldry's origin was divine, it must be 
admitted that Moses ordered each of the twelve tribes and 
their families to bear their own separate standard and en- 
sign, in order that they might be distinguished in their wan- 
dering through the wilderness. In the Book of Daniel we 
find reference to symbols — when it is written that "the king 
sealed it with his own sig-net and the signet of his Lords," 
while it is recorded in the Book of Kine-s that Jezebel 


"wrote letters in Ahab's name and sealed them with, his seaL" 
Other allusions can be found therein, but it is to the signs of 
ancients thej bear analogy, not the Heraldry of the present, 
A similar instance can be found in a Greek tragedy of twenty- 
five centuries ago, where a soldier bore a shield containing a 
torch with the words, "I will fire the city," which evidently 
related only to that occasion — nothing is said to prevent the 
thought that he used other devices at other times and did not 
hand it down to posterity. On the contrary Heraldry, as we 
know full well, is permanent and hereditary. 

We will consider a few later authorities on this subject. 
Sir John Feme claims that we took Arms from the renowned 
hieroglyphics of Egypt. Sir William Dugdale states that 
Arms were first used by great commanders in war to distin- 
guish different personages and their foUovdngs. Alexander 
ISTisbet in writings on Heraldry declares that the genesis of 
Arms extends to the primitive ages deriving its origin from 
IsTature — that all people in all ages employed signs and 
marks to distinguish the noble — the ignoble being conspicuous 
by absence. The heroes of Homer, Ovid and Virgil bore 
various signs on their shields as badges for recognition. 
Alexander the G-reat bestowed badges on his ofiicers and sol- 
diers for deeds of bravery and to aronse ambition in his army. 
These were to be borne on banners, pennons and armor, at 
the same time order was issued in his dominions that he 
alone should take or bestow such emblems. The precedent 
then established has held good throughout the succeeding 
ages with sovereign princes in their possessions. Some ar- 
morists trace the beginning of Heraldry to the Romans, some 
of their customs resembling the later use of Arms. Their 
civil and military laws will ever attract attention and those 
familiar with their history clearly see their ardent patriot- 
ism and excite their emulation, the desire to win laurels and 
afterwards present them to the public gaze. 


Mucli comment lias been given ttie descriptions of tlie 
emblems borne by the various Roman families which show the 
propensity of the human race for "decorative embellishment" 
• — the Romans indulging in the inclination as means of per- 
petuating any glorious action or attainment. As has been 
said the genesis of Heraldry has been shrouded in mystery, 
but of one thing we are positive. All nations in all ages 
have used fignres of creatures, vegetables, and symbols to 
express the bravery and prowess of their leaders or nations, 
just as names are employed. We learn from the discourses 
on science by C. Agrippa that various countries adopted em- 
blems of distinction, for instance, an ox was the badge of the 
Egyptians, the Romans bore the renowned eagle and the let- 
ters S, P. Q. R. ; the Goths a bear ; the Athenians an owl ; 
the Franks a lion; the Saxons a horse. This custom of 
bearing a national emblem has been retained to our own 

Symbols, emblems and devices were used from earliest 
times. Hieroglyphics expressed thoughts. The first ships 
had signs on the foredeck, for instance, the vessel in which 
St. Paul sailed bore the badge of Castor and Pollux. The 
tribes of Israel used emblems that adorned the entrance to the 
tents. The contentions that the Romans used the eagle on 
their ensigns and the Egyptians the ox, was a branch of 
Heraldry was without foundation. There is no connection 
between this and the present science. 

The last of the eleventh century seems to have been the 
date upon which reliable heraldic authorities, such as Wil- 
liam Cambden, Sir Henry Spelman and others have settled 
as the time when families assumed hereditary iVrms. They 
were so called from the fact that military men wore these 
symbols of honor in martial engagements and at tournaments, 
or jousts. On the helmets and shields, as well as other war- 
like implements appeared the armorial bearings of the 


owner. The term '^Coat of Arms" was derived from tlie cus- 
tom of embroidering the same on a coat worn above the coat 
of mail, as Heralds have done to the present day. The Ger- 
mans and French were the first to regard Heraldry as a 
science. It was introduced into England about the twelfth 
century and into Scotland at an earlier date. When the vast 
armies of Christendom assembled on the plains of Palestine it 
was essential to have some means of recognition for the 
knights encased in armor, so at that early period it can be 
stated the use of Coat Armor was established. 

The tournaments of the Middle Ages greatly encouraged 
Heraldry. These engagements were contests of strength and 
skill and contestants were knights of patrician birth, no one 
could become a candidate unless he could prove four lines of 
gentle birth, including paternal and maternal sides of his 
house. It was called a tournament when many engaged, a 
joust when there were but two contestants. Both man and 
horse were encased in armor. The lance was used till broken 
or lost, then the sword, mace, or battle-ax was taken up. 
If a man was unborsed, the play was resumed on foot — fair 
play was the distinctive feature of these pastimes. 

The candidates for the contest visited the lists some days 
before, perfectly armed, displaying the armorial bearings 
on the shield. The esquires of each respective knight pre- 
ceded him on horseback, bearing the helmet and lance, to 
which was attached a small flag with the armorial bearings 
thereon. The sound of trumpet heralded the approach. The 
presiding judges accepted or rejected the candidates. The 
mode of challenge was thus : The admitted knight touched 
the shield of his opponent with the reverse of his lance, or 
the sharp point. The first required the arms of courtesy; 
the spear had a ball attached to its point and blunt weapons 
were used ; the latter demanded the same arms as those re- 
quired in actual warfare. Often fatal wounds ended the 


jousts. Some noble ladj presented the prize, a chaplet, or 
a similar ornament, to the victorious knight. As has been 
shown, the Arms were the sole means of identifying the com- 

The church approved of Heraldry. Banners were brought 
by the Crusaders for the treasured blessing of the priests. 
These, carrying additional honorable charges won in Pales- 
tine, were hung in the churches, and the more permanent 
means of preserving the same distinctions were preserved 
in the glass of the windows, the frescoes of the walls, the 
tombs, the tiles of the floor or the carved stone itself. 

Heraldry attained the zenith of its popularity in the 
fourteenth century and flourished till the passing of armor 
when the armorial bearings were no longer essential to recog- 
nition. The use of Arms has still been retained by the 
leading nations of tlje world showing alliance and noble birth. 
"The Iron Cross" of the present cannot be more prized than 
the heraldic trophy bestow^ed upon the mediaeval warrior for 
valiant service on the field of battle. 

The devices used in the Middle Ages were so simple any 
one^ — ignorant or learned — could decipher the meaning. The 
mansions, almost without exception, were ornamented with 
the family Arms — these are still seen in foreigTi lands. The 
window was a favorite point for decoration. The followers 
each bore the master's badge on his sleeve. The inns hung 
out the crests and badges, along with its name, of the 
nobility, such as: "Bear and Eagged Staff," the "Eagle and 
Child," the "Rose and Portcullis," the "Chequers." Inns 
near abbeys assumed ecclesiastical devices, such as the Cross 
Keys of St. Peter. 

In "Looksley Hall Sixty Years After," we find this allu- 

"Here is Locksley Hall, my grandson, here the lion-guarded gate 
There is one old Hostel left us where they swing the Locksley shield 
Till the peasant cow shall butt the lion passant from the field." 


Reference is liere made to the Dymoke crest, a "lion pas- 
sant," which is above the quaint gateway of Scrivelsby 
Court, while there is a "leaden cow" in these ancient grounds. 

The arms assumed were frequently indicative of the profes- 
sion of the armiger (bearer of arms) for example, the three 
little round balls one sees on many places in Florence were 
the devices of the haughty Dukes of Medici, so chosen because 
they were originally apothecaries. 


Having given a brief outline of the origin and history, we 
shall proceed to explain its sigTiificance as applied in mod- 
em times. 

The ignorant invariably ask, "ISTow do tell me the mean- 
ing of this ship, or that snake, or ragged lion's head ?" To 
understand the true meaning an armorist tnust be acquainted 
with the history of a house. 

The modem uses are given below. Heraldry is employed 
in various ways. The chief one being engraving the armo- 
rial bearings on silver, on seal rings and bookplates. They 
can be cast in bronze, carved on wood, painted in oils or 
water colors, sketched with pen and ink, or India ink, framed 
and hung in the hall, library or dining-room. They can be 
embroidered on the household, or personal linen, painted on 
china and carriages, chased on cut glass, engTaved on rings, 
and last, but by no, means least, adorn the stationery, visiting 
cards, and wedding invitations. The late Empress of 
Austria, simply had her name "Elizabeth" engraved on 
her card beneath the imperial crown. In Colonial days 
they were carved on tombs, which has greatly aided the 
genealogist to-day. In the reigns of Henry VII and Henry 
VIII it was customary in England to paint the Coat of 
Arms in the upper right-hand corner of portraits. In 
In some of the masterpieces of Holbein is shown this fashion. 


While only armigers can display these devices on their per- 
sonal possessions, any one is allowed the right to hang paint- 
ings, etc., of these ancient reminders of the age of Chivalry, 
worn by any ancestor, whether of the same name ot not, in 
their habitations. In Virginia the custom is universally 
adopted, so it is in New England, but in ISTorth Carolina, one 
rarely finds in sight these mementoes of by-gone days. 

A slight knowledge of Heraldry is requisite to a thorough 
understanding of the works of Scott, Shakespeare and Tenny- 
son. An armorist must know something of French and a 
little Latin and interpret Old French which is frequently 

Abbotsford affords an illustration of the ideal baronial 
hall. There in "the Great Hall," in the exquisite carving of 
the woodwork, the delicately tinted stained glass of the win- 
dows, in a border running around, are the Coats of Arms of 
the ancestors of Sir Walter Scott, who were entitled to use 
them. On the three beams overhead are car\^ed shields, each 
bearing charges in the appropriate tinctures and metals. The 
last three of the middle beam are plain. These the faithful 
guide points out and announces that Scott said they would 
have belonged to his ancestors, but had never been found. 

Heraldry has been of great assistance in archaeological 
pursuits; it can be called the "Handmaid of History," and 
in genealogical research proves indispensable. The work 
recently issued in the Bowles family was easily compiled 
through the aid of tombs, brass tablets and armorial bearings 
as found in old English churches. 

To-day we see the Arms of extinct noble families adopted 
by those of a similar name without authority. Herbert 
Spencer, in one of his essays published in the "Westminster 
Eeiview" in 1854, says: "Coats of arms which served to 
distinguish men in battle, now figure on the carriage panels 
of retired tradesmen. Once a badge of high military rank, 
the shoulder-knot has become on the modem footman, a mark 


of servitude. The name Banneret, which once marked a 
partially-created Baron — a Baron who had passed his mili- 
tary "little go' — is now, under the modification of Baronet, 
applicable to any one favored by wealth, or interest, or party 
feeling. Knighthood has so far ceased to be an honor that 
men honor themselves by declining it." 

Mr. S. Gough ISTichols says : "In the early days of Her- 
aldry, if a man adopted the arms belonging to another family 
he was proceeded against by the rightful owner as a man 
would be now were he to steal the property of another," and 
he quotes the case of Sir Richard Scrope and Sir Robert 
Grosvenor in August, 1385. 

There has been in the past few years a marked revival of 
this ancient custom of using Coats of Arms in this country. 
It does not partake of a monarchical tendency, for a land 
whose flag was designed from the Arms of her greatest hero, 
and where orders are organized with a view to perpetuating 
her history and instilling the duty of patriotism, which 
encourage a regard for Heraldry, cannot claim citizens who 
are not loyal to dearly-bought liberty, principles and stand- 
ards. The fact that Tiffany employs regularly four armor- 
ists in his Fifth Avenue establishment, shows the demand 
for such delicate workmanship. 

Mrs. Roger A. Pryor in her work, "The Mother of Wash- 
ington and Her Times," writes of Heraldry in the Old 
Dominion: "Virginia families used the Arms to which they 
had a right with no thought of ostentation — simply as some- 
thing belonging to them as a matter of course. They sealed 
their deeds and contracts with their family crest and motto, 
displayed their Arms on the panels of their coaches, carved 
on their gate-posts and on the tombstones of their people ; for 
such had been the custom in the old country which they 
fondly called 'home.' " 

There is but one dishonorable charge in Heraldry. This 


must be borne for all time. The noble, not the ignoble, 
deeds are recorded. 

Do you remember the scene in ^'The Monastery," where 
soldiers are descending upon the village of Kennequahair, the 
present town of Melrose, when the Abbot of St. Mary's as- 
cended to the battlements of the lofty monastery, followed 
by Edward Glendenning, for a sight of the approaching 

"Look at the banner," said the Abbott; "tell me what are 
the blazonries ?" 

"The arms of Scotland," said Edward, "the lion and its 
treasure, quartered, as I think with three cushions — can it 
be the royal standard ?" 

"Alas! no," said the Abbott, "it is that of the Earl of Mur- 
ray. He hath assumed with his new conquest the badge of 
the valiant Randolph, and hath dropped from his hereditary 
coat the bend which indicates his own base birth." 

ITo one could read "Kenilworth" without remembering the 
queer old character — Master Michael Mumblazon, who was a 
stationary griest of Sir Hugh Robsart at his ancient seat. of 
"Lidcote Hall." Scott thus describes him: "He was an 
old bachelor of good family but small fortune, and distantly 
related to tbe House of Robsart; in virtue of which connec- 
tion Lidcote Hall had been honored with his presence for 
the last twenty years. His company was agreeable to Sir 
Hugh, chiefly on account of his profound learning, which 
though it only related to heraldry and genealogy witb such 
scraps of history as connected themselves with these subjects, 
was precisely of a kind to captivate the good old knight; 
besides he found in having a friend to appeal to when his 
memory as frequently happened proved infirm, and played 
him false concerning names and dates, which and all similar 
differences Master Michael Mumblazon supplied with due 
brevity and discretion. And indeed in matters concerning 


the modem world he often gave his enigmatical and heraldic 
phrase, advice which was well worth attending to, or in Will 
Badger's language, started the game while others beat the 

When young Tressilian started on his second search for 
the choice of his heart, the unfortunate Amy, the herald 
addressed him thus : "You are going to court. Master Tres- 
silian, you will please remember that your blazonry must be 
argent and or — ^no other tinctures will pass current." 

"Mumblazon produced a bag of money containing three 
hundred pounds in gold and silver of various coins, the sav- 
ings of twenty years, which he now without speaking a sylla- 
ble upon the subject dedicated to the ser^dce of the patron 
VT'hose shelter and protection had given him the means of 
making this little hoard." 

Some families have their surnames handed down on their 
shields — for instance, the Rye, Sparrow, Swann, Bullock, 
Roosevelt families, as well as hosts of others, have Arms of 
this kind. Occasionally the charges of the Arms are a pun 
on the bearer's name, as in the case of Miles Standish, whose 
shield was adorned with three standing dishes. Instead of 
armorial bearings being taken from the surnames in some 
cases the surnames trace derivation from the charges of the 
shield, for example. Sir Simon Lockhard of Lee, accoan- 
panied the Black Douglas with the heart of the Bruce on that 
fatal journey to Palestine. After the death of that great 
soldier in Spain he was appointed to take charge of the 
sacred trust on the return homsward. On account of that 
mission Sir Simon's name was changed from Lockhard to 
Lockheart and a man's heart with a padlock was painted on 
his shield. In memory of that ill-fated expedition the 
Douglases added to their escutcheon a heart vnth a crown 
upon it. 

The colors have great significance and are connected with 


the family history, therefore unless familiar with the annals 
of a house the armorist cannot decipher the full meaning. 
The Draytons of "Drayton Hall," South Carolina, hear this 
Coat of Arms, "Argent, a cross engrailed gules," while the 
Warners of "Warner Hall," Virginia, bear the same Arms 
with diiferent tincture and metal — "Vert, a cross engrailed 
or." There is a vast difference of course in the meaning, 
but one who is not conversant with the past g'lory of each 
line could only interpret that each original Grantee made a 
crusade as the cross ever indicates. No one could surmise 
the significance of the Pollok crest, borne by Thomas Pollok, 
Colonial Governor of JSTorth Carolina, unless familiar with 
the incident in the life of his remote ancestor, Pollok of Bal- 
gray. When one of the retinue of James IV of Scotland, 
during one of those hunts in the Highlands, that that mon- 
arch keenly enjoyed, the said Pollok of county Renfrew 
beheld a furious wild boar bearing do^^ni upon the king, and, 
realizing his danger, shot an arrow that killed the animal 
instantly. For this delivery the king bestowed upon his pro- 
tector, a crest consisting of a wild boar pierced with an 
arrow and the motto, "aiidacter et strenue." Had this nar- 
row escape occurred in France a, fleur-de-lis would have been 
granted as a charge on the shield. When a deBemiere saved 
the life of Louis XI of France recognition of the service 
was the addition of a. fleur-de-lis in the center of his shield, 
which charge has been retained ever since by the deBernieres. 
A progenitor of the Lenoirs of "Fort Defiance," in the Happy 
Valley, North Carolina, won the silver fleur-de-lis on a can- 
ton gules, in the upper left-hand corner of their x\rms by 
serving France or the French king. 

The manner in which American women of prominence dis- 
play the crest and motto on their personal belongings is 
ludicrous. Some English women are not more careful. Crests 
and mottoes, because they partake exclusively of a military 


character can only he used hy men and never by luomen. A 
woman cannot transmit Arms unless she is an heiress, or co- 
heiress, a term which merely implies she was the represen- 
tative of her father and does not indicate that she is the owner 
of property. She may have had brothers who died without 
issue and still be the heiress of her father at his death. The 
husband of an heiress or co-heiress places her Arms over his 
own in an escutcheon of pretense and their children inherit 
the privilege of quartering their father's with their mother's 
Arms. A notable example in history of quartering is the 
Coat of Arms of the Dymokes, Hereditary Champions of the 
kings of England, which displays fifteen quarterings, indicat- 
ing fourteen marriages with heiresses. These alliances ren- 
dered that house one of the wealthiest in Great Britain at one 
time. A maid bears her father's Arms on a lozenge, after 
marriage. If not an heiress, she uses her husband's Arms on 
the bachelor's shield, and when a widow bears the same on a 

In 1483 the College of Heralds was established in Eng- 
land to verify and register Grants of Arms. Many abuses 
were found which eventually demanded the Herald's Visi- 
tations early in the following century. These were for the 
purpose of revising and recording genealogies of families who 
could claim Arms. All persons who can trace descent from 
those progenitors whose Coat Armor was accepted at a Her- 
ald's Visitation, inherit Arms. 

With this guarantee it matters not whether the War of the 
Revolution or the War between the States has swept over 
our country, destroying innumerable proofs of such an inheri- 
tance, the dearly bought heirloom belongs as much to the 
American as to the English branch rejDresenting the knight 
who in the long ago won a sovereign's favor with some 
valiant deed. 

The ruling of William Dugdale, Garter King of Arms, 


dated 18 June, 1668, is of such importance that it is here- 
with given: 

"It is incumbent that a man do look over his own evidences for 
some seals of armes, for perhaps it appears in them, and if soe 
and they have used it from the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's 
reigne, or about that time, I shall then allowe thereof, for our 
directions are limiting us soe to doe, and not a shorter prescrip- 
tion of usage." 

To-daj Ulster King of Anns observes this heraldic law and 
accepts any Arms by Patent, borne continuously for three 
generations, or for a century. The attempt by a certain his- 
torical society to abolish the usage of Coat Armor in America 
on the grounds that the connecting link between the British 
and the American lines can seldom be authentically estab- 
lished is unwarrantable, with the high authority in favor 

The Arms-bearing Americans are chiefly those who have 
descended from the Knickerbocker families of New York, 
the Cavaliers of the South, the Quakers of Pennsylvania, the 
Puritans of 'New England and the Huguenots. These have 
the same title to Arms as have their cousins over the sea. 
The fact that such eminent Americans, builders of the nation, 
as the Washingtons, Adamses, Livingstones, Van Rensselaers, 
Lees, Jays and others established the precedent of using 
armorial bearings, prove their descendants are heirs to the 
same heritage, therefore no objection can be raised on the 
grounds that it is an unsuitable proceeding for inhabitants of 
a republic of the ISTew World. 

As to the use of Heraldry in America Washington ex- 
pressed himself thus on the subject and his opinion should 
overrule all prejudice in the matter: 

"It is far from my design to intimate any opinion that Heraldry, 
Coat Armor, etc., might not be rendered conducive to public and 
private use with us, or that they can have any tendency unfriendly 
to the purest spirit of republicanism. On the contrary, a different 
conclusion is deducible from the practice of Congress and the 


states, all of which have established some kind of Armorial devices 
to authenticate their official instruments." 

There lias probably never been an armorist in America 
who possessed such a thorough knoiwledge of the science of 
Heraldry as the late William H. Abbott. An Englishman 
by birth he became identified with his adopted State of New 
York and his death leaves an unfilled place. His workman- 
ship was excellent and his "Heraldry Illustrated" is a vol- 
ume that is indispensable to the student of this ancient 
branch of Art. The recently published work on Heraldry 
by Arthur Huntington Nason has been pronounced a remark- 
able production and has won high praise from authorities 

At this present day genealogy is at the zenith of its popu- 
larity in America. Statistics reveal the fact that there is 
constantly a greater demand for books on this subject in the 
Library of Congress than for any other. As this study 
arouses and leads to a similar interest in Heraldry, it seems 
an unwise omission that our public libraries are poorly 
equipped in heraldic literature. Private libraries can be 
cited that are better provided with such works. That of 
Mr. Joseph J. Casey of jN^ew York is wonderful in this 
special line. He probably owns the most extensive and com- 
plete collection of volumes on Heraldry and genealogy in 
this country. It has been the dream realized of a lifetime, 
securing and preserving these choice tomes, many of which 
are in French. Through, his wife the General Sociefty 
Daughters of the Revolution has been enriched by these rare 
treasures, Mrs. Casey having for more than twenty years 
filled the responsible ofiice of Registrar-General of that 

What is true of our great libraries, is more pronounced 
in the public libraries of North Carolina. There is not one 
of these that possesses a collection of this kind that can com- 


pare with the heraldic library of Mrs. Charles Beall of 
Arden, Buncomhe Coimtj, who is an armorist as well as 
artist of great talent, having had the advantage of studying 
for a long period under Bonguereau at Paris. 

The popularity of Heraldry has awakened the enthusiasm 
and talent of several daughters of the Old North State, who 
today are accomplishing good results in armorial painting. 
The late Mrs. Annie Iredell Robertson, whose recent death is 
deeply lamented by a large circle of friends and acquain- 
tances, and which is indeed a loss to the State, was an heraldic 
artist of considerable note. Each year at the State Fair 
there are exhibited samples of this line of Art. 


Some historians, of whom Fiske was one, assert that iSTorth 
Carolina was settled by indentured servants, the undesirable 
overflow of Virginia and other unenviable sources. That 
may be true in part, as it was in other Colonies, but the entire 
population was not of that class. Some who came hither 
from Virginia in quest of grants of land were the younger 
sons of prominent families, the elder sons falling heir to 
landed estates and the ancestral seat while many, coming 
directly from a foreign land, were of the best type. There 
exist proofs to-day showing these founders of the Colonies 
were armigers. On Colonial documents extant can be seen 
their armorial seals, and again on the tombs of some of the 
Colony's most distinguished statesmen are found engraven 
Arms almost obliterated by time and vandalism, like that of 
Governor Charles Eden, removed from its first resting place 
to St. Paul's Churchyard, Edenton, ISTorth Carolina. Scat- 
tered throughout the State are treasured silver heirlooms 
that bear either the crest and motto, or the entire Coat of 
Arms. Then there are those who came to this from other 
Colonies who have never displayed any desire to continue 


the use of an heritage that without doubt the founder of the 
American branch of these families regarded as his very own. 
Bookplates also adorned the libraries of soime of the most 
prominent leaders of this Province. William Hooper's book- 
plate appeared in the July, 1905, issue of The Booklet. 
Col. Cadwallader Jones', also that of Major Cadwallader 
Jones, is exhibited in the Hall of History at Raleigh, also 
that of Governor Gabriel Johnston, which forms the 
frontispiece of this number of The Booklet, a photograph 
of which is in the Johnson collection in the same building. 
There are many more in existence. 

As the reader glances over CrOizier's General Armory he 
finds only the five following families of the Old ISTorth Stat«, 
viz. : Burg-win, Hunt, Morehead, Johnstone and McFarland, 
who are included in the list of nearly two thousand Ameri- 
cans entitled to bear Coat Armor. While Crozier did an 
excellent work in Heraldic research, this volume can by no 
means be regarded as exhaustive even though he does state it 
is the most comprehensive work of the kind published. But 
few volumes of this nature have been printed in America. 
With the many famous names linked with the genesis of tbis 
Colony it does seem strange that they should not have been 
deemed worthy of enrollment with those of the other notable 
Colonists. In another later work, ''Virginia Heraldica," 
published in 1908, in a limited edition, there appear the 
names of two hundred and seventy-five families who settled 
in the Old Dominion entitled to Armorial bearings, and 
there are many more who can claim a similar distinction that 
have been omitted. 

Although North Carolina may not have possessed as long a 
roll of armigers among her settlers, one who has made a 
study of the subject has discovered that a goodly number 
came from English antecedents who were granted Arms 
scores of years ago, perhaps centuries since. 


The list given in these brief notes by no means comprises 
the names of all the families in the Old ISTorth State who have 
inherited the right to bear Coat Armor. The following, 
generations ago, in distant lands over the sea, for valiant 
deeds of service to king or country were rewarded with Coats 
o£ Arms, and their descendants of the same name, to-day can 
rightfully use their inheritance: 


(Saxham Hall, Suffolk, and Odell, County Beds., England.) 
Azure, ten etoiles or, four, three, two, one. 
Crest — A crescent argent, charged with an etoile or. 
Motto — Immotus. 
Battle (Battayll, or Battaille.) 
Purp. a griflBn segreant, with a bordure engrailed or. 
Crest — Out of an antique crown or, a dexter arm ppr. holding a 
cross crosslet fitchee in pale gules. 

Barry, nebuly of six, or and sable. 
Crest — An armed foot in the sun. 
Motto — Lux tua mea via. 

(A photograph of the original Grant of this Coat of Arms is in 
the possession of descendants in Florida, but the proper heraldic 
description so far is unknown.) 
Bryan. (Ireland.) 

Argent, three piles gules. 

Crest — A Saracen's head erased at the neck sable. 
BoDDiE, or Body. (Nash County.) 
(Essex, England.) 

Argent on a fesse azure three pelicans, or, vulning their breasts 
gules; on a canton argent, two staves raguly, in saltire of the 
fourth, a ducal coronet, or. 
Crest — On the middle of a staff raguly gules a ducal coronet, or. 

(Arborfield County Berks., England; an ancient family in that 
shire several members of which served the office of sheriff in 
the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.) 
Gules, a chevron between three bulls' heads cabossed argent, 

armed or. 
Crest — Five Lochaber axes, handles or, blades ppr. bound with an 
escarf gules, tassels or. 



BuKGWiN. (John Burgwin, New Hanover County, 1760.) 

(Hereford, England.) 

Per fesse indented or and gules, three escallops counterchanged. 

Crest — A sword and key in saltire. 
BuRWEUL. (Granville County.) 
Cameron. (Orange County.) 
Carb. (Edgecombe County.) 

Azure, on a chevron argent three mullets of the first. 

Crest — A lion's head erased, or. 

(Adderbury, County Oxford, and Sindringham, County Norfolk, 

Sable, a chevron, gules, between three dolphins embowed naiant 
argent, a chief or. 

Crest — An elephant, or. 


Gules, a fesse ermine. 

Crest — ^An ermine argent. 

Motto — Sine labora nota. 


(Devon, England.) 

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Argent a wivern, wings displayed and tail 
nowed, gules; 2nd and 3rd, Sable, a fesse wavy, between two 
polar stars argent. 

Crest — An eagle displayed, gules. 

(West Auckland, County Durham, England.) 

Gules on a chevron argent between three garbs or banded vert, as 
many escallops, sable. 

Crest — A dexter arm in armour embowed, couped at the shoulder 
ppr. the hand grasping a garb bendways, as in the arms. 

Motto — Si sit prudentia. 

Argent, a fesse ermines between three martlets or. 

Crest — On a ducal coronet argent, a tiger passant or. 

(Much Waltham, Essex, England.) 


Gules on a fesse wavy between three etoiles, argent a mullet of 

the field. 
Crest — A Moor's head couped at the shoulders, sidefaced ppr. 

wreath about the temples argent and azure. 


Barry of six, sable and or. 

Azure, a chevron between two fleur-de-lis in chief or; and in base 
a writing pen full feathered, argent, with the badge of Nova 
Scotia as Baronet. 
Crest — A garland of laurel ppr. 
Motto — Perseveranti darbitur. 

Argent on a chevron between three columbines azure stalked and 

leaved vert, a mullet of six points or. 
Crest — A talbot's head erased. 
Motto — Turpiter desperatur. 
HiNTON. (Chowan Precinct.) 

(Chilton Foliot and Earlscott, County Wilts, England.) 
Per fesse indented, argent and sable, six fleur-de-lis counter- 
Crest — (An eagle's leg erased entwined by a serpent. 

Gules a fesse wavy betweeen three fleur-de-lis, or. 
Crest — A buck's head couped at the shoulders or, gorged with a 

chaplet of roses gules. 
Motto — Tout en bon heure. 
HoiiiDAY, or HoLLADAY. (Chowan Precinct.) 
(Bromley, Middlesex, England.) 
Conferred upon Sir Walter Holladay by Edward IV in 1470, and 

brought to America by Captain John Holladay in 1702. 
Sable, three helmets, argent, garnished, or, a border of the last. 
Crest — A demi-lion, ppr., rampant, resting his paws on an anchor, 

Motto — Quarta salute. 
Holt, or Holte. 

(Lancashire and London, granted 18 June, 1582.) 

Argent, on a bend engrailed sable three fleur-de-lis of the field. 


Crest — A dexter arm embowed in armour ppr., garnished or, hold- 
ing in the gauntlet a pheon sable. 


(Durham, England.) 

Sable, in chief a crescent, argent, and in base an etoile of eight 
points (or) between two flanches ermine. 

Crest — A wolf passant, or. 

Motto — Vincit amor patriae. 
Hunt. (Thomas Hunt, Pasquotank County, 1659.) 

(Bucks., England.) 

Azure, on h fesse argent between three cinquefoils or. a lion pas- 
sant gules. 

Crest — A boar's head couped and erect between two ostrich 
Johnston. (Gabriel Johnston, 1734.) 

(Dumfries, Scotland.) 

Argent on a saltire sable; on a chief gules three cushions or. 

Crest — A winged spur or. 

Motto — Nunquam non paratus. 
Jones. (Willie Jones.) 

Argent ermine, three lions rampant sable. 

Crest. — Unicorn sejant, argent. 


Sable on a chief argent, three wheat sheaves, vert. 

Crest — A ruined castle in flames, ppr. 

Motto — Ich dien (I serve). 
Lenoir. (Caldwell County.) 


Azure, three chevronels or.; on a canton gules a fleur-de-lis argent. 

Motto — Le noir de Nantes. 
Lewis. (Granville County.) 


Argent, a dragon's head and neck, erased vert, holding in the 
mouth a bloody hand, ppr. 

Crest — A dragon's head and neck erased vert. 

Motto — Omne solum forti patria est, 
LiNDSEY, or Lindsay. 


Quartered. 1st and 4th: Gules, a fesse chequy, argent, and azure. 
2d and 3d: Or., a lion rampant gules, the shield debruised of a 
ribbon, in bend sable over all. 


Crest — A cubit arm in armor, in pales, holding in the hand a 

sword erect argent on the point a pair of balances of the last. 
Motto — Recta sed ardua. 

(Norfolk, England.) 

Argent, three crosses — crosslet in bend, cottised gules. 

Crest — An armed arm holding a sword ppr., hilt and pommel or, 

between two dragons wings, argent. 
Motto — Fidelis et audax. 

(Hampshire, England.) 

This Coat of Arms is composed of the Arms of the Loves of Nuton 

and the Arms of the Loves of Basing. 
Loves of Nuton: 
Vert, a lion rampant, or., charged on the shoulder with a cross 

patee gules. 
Crest — Out of a ducal coronet (or) a cross formee, gules, thereon 

a bird argent. 
Loves of Basing: 

Argent, three bars 'gules, in chief three lions' heads erased gules. 
Crest — A cross formee, fitchee, gules, thereon a bird, argent. 
Motto — Amor ab amando. 
Azure, a bend between three etoiles, or. 
Motto — Dadextram misero. 
McFarland. (John McFarland, 1770.) 

Argent, a saltire wavy between four roses gules. 

Crest — A demi-savage grasping in his dexter hand a sheaf of 

arrows, and pointing with the sinister to an imperial crown, or. 
Motto — This I'll defend. In a compartment above the crest the 

word "Lochsloy." 


(Myrtaun, Scotland.) 
Ermine a fret engrailed, gules. 
Crest — A hand throwing a dart ppr. 
Motto — Vi et animo. 
MoBEHEAD. (Guilford County.) 
Argent, on a bend azure three acorns, or., in chief a man's heart 

ppr., within a fetterlock sable. The whole surrounded by an oak 

wreath ppr., acorned or. 
Crest — Two hands conjoined grasping a two-handed sword ppr. 
Motto — Auxilio dei. 



Quarterly, 1st and 4tli, Sable a chevron between three battleaxes 

displayed, argent. 2d and 3d: or., a fesse between three eagles 

displayed, sable. 
Crest — An eagle displayed sable. 
Motto — Mos legem regit. 
Needham, 1625. 

(Viscount Kilmorey, Ireland.) 

Pearl, a bend, sapphire, between two buck's heads cabossed and 

attired, diamond. 
Crest — On a wreath a phoenix in flames ppr. 
Motto — Nunc aut nunquam. 

Supporters — The dexter, a horse pearl. The sinifler, a stag ppr. 

(Hampshire, England.) 

Ermines (black) on a chief or., three griffins sejant sable. 

Crest — A griffin sejant d'or, the dexter claw raised beaked and 

membered or. 


(Balgray, county Renfrew, Scotland.) 

Vert, a saltire argent between a buglehorn in each flank and an- 
other in base or, stringed gules; in chief a mullet of the second. 

Crest — A boar passant quarterly, or. and vert, transpierced with an 
arrow ppr. 

Motto — Audacter et strenue. 


(Misterton and Drayton, county Leicester, England; seated at 
former place so early as 1277, and at the latter in the year 1397. 
The derivative branches were the Purefoys of Caldecote, Bar- 
well, Wolvershill, Shalleston, Wadley, etc.) 
Azure, three stirrups, or. 
Crest — A dexter gauntlet, or, the inside azure, fingers grasping a 

broken tilting spear of the second. 
Motto — Purefoy ma joy. 

Or, three water bougets, azure. 
Crest — A hawk ppr. 
Motto — Audio. 
Sea WELL. 

(Warwickshire, England.) 

Sable, a chevron between three bees argent. 

Crest — A bee or. 


M ; f ' 



(Southfleet and Denton Court, county Kent, England. 
Azure, a chevron ermine, between three swans, argent. 
Crest — A demi-talbot salient gules, collared or. 


(Thorveston, Devon, England.) 

Sable, a chevron, ermine, between three fers-demoline or; on a 
chief argent, a lion passant gules. 

Crest — A lion passant gules, holding in the dexter paw a laurel 
branch vert. 

(Northampton, England.) 

Argent, two bars gules, in chief three mullets of the second. 

Crest — (1) Out of a ducal coronet or, a raven wings endorsed ppr. 
(2) Out of a ducal coronet or an eagle, wings endorsed sable. 

Motto — Exitus acta probat. 

Argent, a bend plain between two cottises engrailed, sable. 

Crest — A stag's head, or, coming out of a palisado coronet, argent. 

Sable, a lion rampant argent, armed and langued gules. 

Crest — A fighting cock. 

Mottoes — (1) Cognosce occasionem. (2) Yeynodwy fydd. 

Argent, three griffins passant sable; a bordure engrailed gules and 

Crest — A griffin segreant holding a spear piercing a boar's head, 

Motto — Defende rectum. 

As will be observed some of the surnames in this list 
belonged to our Colonial governors who were in the Colony a 
short while, others lived and died here but left no descend- 
ants. Again some of the names were represented in the Col- 
ony by the spindle side of the house, like Willis, Crawford, 

In publishing these notes the writer has not endeavored to 
delve into a science that has been handled by scholars who 
have made it a study and about which they have given vol- 
umes to the public. This has only been an effort to present 


a brief outline of its history and usage, especially in our own 
Province of JSTorth Carolina, with the ho:pe that some light 
may be thrown on a topio about which, as a rule, we know 
comparatively little and that it may interest the readers of 
The Booklet. Heraldic research has produced in her mind 
an ambition to gather material for a volume on "Carolina 
Heraldica." All l^orth Carolinians who can aid in this 
undertaking are requested to furnish what data they may 
have in their possession, which will be gratefully received. 

References: Abbott's "Heraldry Illustrated"; Boutell and Ave- 
ling's "Heraldry Ancient and Modern"; Crozier's "General Armory"; 
Burke's "General Armory"; "A Royal Lineage"; "Genealogical Col- 
umn" of Richmond Times-Dispatch; "A Corner in Ancestors" of 
The Democrat, Nashville; various unpublished private papers of 
North Carolina families, etc. 



By Captain S. A. Ashe.* 

(Extracts from the 2d volume of Ashe's History of N. C. Mss.) 

On August 21, 1776, the Council of Safety of ^N'orth Caro- 
lina, whicli was invested with the functions of government 
when the Provisional Congress was not in session, met at 
the house of Mr. Joel Lane in Wake County. A petition 
was received from the settlements on the Watauga and Hol- 
ston, called by the inhabitants there "The Washington Dis- 
trict," setting forth that about six years earlier they had 
begun to locate in that territory, and finding themselves out- 
side of Virginia, had formed a court and adopted the Vir- 
ginia laws, and had enlisted a company of riflemen under 
Capt. James Robertson, stationing them on the frontier to 
guard against an attack by the Indians. They asked that 
they might be annexed to North Carolina, promising to be 
governed, by the Council and to lack nothing in the glorious 
cause of America. The petition was signed by John Carter, 
John Sevier, William Bean, and others as a committee, and 
to it were attached more than a hundred names of settlers on 
the Watauga and ISTolachucky, among them being David 
Crockett The Conncil directed that they should hold an 
election on October 15th, and choose five delegates to repre- 
sent Washington District in the Congress of the State to 
meet at Halifax on ISTovember 10th.. This was the first 
connection between the settlement beyond the mountains and 
the Province or State of North Carolina. In 1767, under 
instructions from the Crown, Governor Tryon had established 
a line rimning along the crest of the Blue Ridge, beyond 
which the whites were not to settle — but some adventurous 

*A Biographical Sketch of Captain S. A. Ashe, by Mrs. E. E. MoflStt, appeared in the 
Booklet, Vol. IX, No. 4. 


men had pressed down from Virginia to the waters of the 
Watauga, and others from North Carolina had joined them, 
and by 1776 the settlement had extended south of the line 
dividing Virginia territory from that of !Rorth Carolina. 
Those in Virginia were under the law of that Province ; those 
south of the Virginia line established a local government 
for themselves, and adopting Virginia laws, called their settlo- 
ment, "Washington District." They followed the directions 
of the ISTorth Carolina Coimcil, and in October, 1776, elected 
delegates to the !North Carolina Convention, who took part 
in framing the State Constitution. That fall treaties were 
made with the Indians by which they surrendered their right 
to the lands on the ISTolachucky, Watauga and New rivers, and 
the dividing line between Virginia and North Carolina was 
extended beyond the settlements ; and Washington District 
became a county of North Carolina. 

Further to the west, Kentucky had received many acces- 
sions, and in 1779 James Robertson had established a camp 
at a salt-lick on the Cumberland River, separated by impas- 
sable mountains from the Watauga settlements. The next 
year others followed in boats down the Tennessee to the 
Ohio, and then ascended the Cumberland to Robertson's 
cabins. Although much harassed by the Indians, they held 
their ground, and so increased in numbers that in 1783 the 
North Carolina Assembly incorporated that region into a 
county, calling it Davidson, and naming the central settle- 
ment Nashville. At the same session. North Carolina made 
some provision for her soldiers now returning to their homes, 
wearing the laurel leaves of victory. There was set aside as 
a bounty for the veterans of the war an extensive domain 
from the point where the Cumberland River crossed the 
Virginia line, sonth fifty-five miles — then westward to the 
Tennessee, and Martin Armstrong was appointed the sur- 
veyor to locate their grants, and on the east of the Cumber- 


land Mountains, in the valley of the Powell River, in ex- 
tinguishment of their claims for lands purchased from the 
Indians, more than 200,000 acres were allotted to Richard 
Henderson and his associates. 

And now the soldiers crossed the mountains to take pos- 
session of their bounty lands, and population flowed in with 
a rush tO' occupy the fertile tracts along the Powell and the 
Clinch, while others passed on to the distant Cumberland. 
The old Washington District was subdivided into Washing- 
ton, Sullivan and Greene counties. 

The State was burdened with a heavy debt, while the Con- 
federacy of the States was on the point of falling to pieces 
because of its inability to pay its debts. 

In its sore straits. Congress had urged the States to cede 
their unsettled western territories for the benefit of the 

The ISTorth Carolina Legislature, adopting the suggestion. 
offered to cede her entire territory beyond the mountains, 
although it was thought to contain one-tenth of her popula- 
tion. The proceeds of the unoccupied lands thus ceded were 
to be for the payment of the creditors of the United States. 
This measure was deemed by some as unjust, weakening 
the security of the creditors of the State and depriving the 
inhabitants of a chief asset for the payment of their i:)ublic 
indebtedness. William R. Da^de made vigorous opposition, 
and under his leadership General Person and thirty-six other 
members filed a strong protest against it. In particular it 
met with the disfavor of the representatives of the interior 
counties, and even some of those from beyond the mountains 
strenuously objected. But the purpose to contribute to the 
common fund of the Union was strong, and, besides, there 
were both political and economical reasons for the cession. 
The inhabitants of the territory were entirely segregated, and 
the administration of public affairs, rendered difiicult as well 


as expensive by the remoteness of the region cut off by impas- 
sable mountains, had been so unsatisfactory that many of the 
people were discontented and desired separation. And so, 
despite much earnest opposition, the bill was hastily passed 
without the subject having been discussed at all among the 
people of the State. There were, however, several condi- 
tions attached to the donation. It was to be accepted by 
Congress within twelve months. As a provision for orderly 
government, the territory was to have the l^orth Carolina 
Constitution, until the inhabitants themselves should change 
it ; and there was to be no regulation made by Congress tend- 
ing to the emancipation of slaves, other than should be di- 
rected by the new State itself. This last condition was 
inserted because Congress had already manifested a disposi- 
tion to legislate against slavery. When an ordinance was 
being framed for the government of the ITorthwest territory, 
a provision prohibiting slavery in that region failed only by 
the vote of Richard Dobbs Spaight, one of the I^orth Carolina 
delegates, much to the irritation of Thomas Jefferson, who 
ardently urged the provision. Three years later, in 1787, 
when a second ordinance was passed, Jefferson was successful 
and slavery was forever prohibited in that extensive region. 

There was a further provision in the act of cession that 
until Congress shoiuld accept the gift, the sovereignty and 
jurisdiction of North Carolina, in and over the territory and 
the inhabitants thereof, should remain in all respects as if the 
act had not been passed. So with respect to government in 
the territory, the existing government was not disturbed ; nor 
was it to be disturbed until Congress should accept the 
gift; and then it was provided that the Constitution under 
which the people had lived should continue to be their funda- 
mental law until changed by themselves. 

Subject to the condition mentioned jSTorth Carolina in 
June, 1784, made the tender of one^half of her territory. 


already somewhat settled, and with population pouring into 
it, for the benefit of the Union. Truly it bespoke a high 
patriotism. ISTo other State had been so liberal in sustaining 
the common government. If during the war ISTorth Caro- 
lina's contributions foi* the cause had been unsurpassed, now 
in time of peace she again set an example for her sisters to 

Some unexpected events, however, quickly followed the 
passage of the act. When the measure was being considered 
some of the represemtatives from the counties embraced 
favored its passage, while others stoutly opposed it. The 
sentiment of the leaders was divided, but the people for the 
most part hailed it with satisfaction. For some time courts 
Ihad not been regularly held beyond the mountains, and the 
laws were not fully enforced. Settlers were daily encroach- 
ing on the lands of the Indians, who had become irritated be- 
cause of prolonged delay in delivering tO; them goods, agree- 
ably to a treaty stipulation, in compensation for territory 
already relinquished. These circumstances aroused a spirit 
of hostility and several of the encroaching settlers were 
murdered. A feeling of unrest, perhaps of insecurity, 
began to pervade the settlement. And, so, when the news 
was received of the act of cession among the greater number 
of people it fell on willing ears. It was urged that the 
State had neither sufficiently enforced law nor given ade- 
quate protection ; and soon the people numbering some thirty 
thousand, hardy and self-reliant, moved forward with eager- 
ness to assume the function of self government. Doubtless, 
also, the vista of public honors in a separate and independent 
commonwealth was pleasant and alluring to aspiring leaders 
and quickened them to action. There was some objection; 
but the voices of those who doubted were drowned in the gen- 
eral commotion. Although not authorized under the act of 
the legislature, a movement was made to hold a popular con- 


vention. Without delay tlie counties of Washington, Sulli- 
van and Greene elected delegates, who assembled at Jones- 
boro in August, 1Y84. 

It is the first step that always costs. This irregular action, 
not anticipated nor authorized by North Carolina, was the 
beginning of events that led to grievous disappointments and 
deplorable anarchy. The idea of independence had been 
urged with great zeal and had taken strong hold on the public 
mind. The proceedings of the Convention were opened by 
reading the Declaration of Independence; the act of cession 
was approved ; and initial steps were taken to establish a new 
government; and an association was adopted and signed to 
maintain independence. John Sevier presided over the Con- 
vention and gave direction to affairs. One of the heroes of 
Kings Mountain he had long been the most important per- 
sonage in that region, and was esteemed for his capacity and 
character, no less than for his bravery and vigorous action. 
Under his direction it was determined to call a second con- 
vention for the purpose of framing a constitution, and in the 
interim it was resolved that the new State should establish 
a government similar to that of ISTorth Carolina. 

In August the election was held under the new law and in 
October the ISTorth Carolina Assembly met at ISTew Bern. As 
Governor Martin's term was to expire in the spring, a suc- 
cessor was now to be chosen. Caswell and ]^ash were the 
aspirants, the former becoming the victor by twenty votes. 
Caswell was in full sympathy with Martin in regard to the 
Union ; ISTash stood with Rutherford in regard to the Tories. 
There were divergences, but as yet no well defined parties. 

The people had not generally approved the act of cession. 
Davie and his followers had been sustained at the election, 
and the new Assembly was in sympathy with that faction. 
Besides, a new cause of dissatisfaction was now brought to 
the attention of the members. 


Virginia and New York had in December, 1783, agreed to 
convey to Congress the unsettled territory beyond the Ohio; 
but Massachusetts and Connecticut had set up a claim for a 
part of that region for themselves ; and these and other States 
were makings demands on Congress for the repayment to 
them of bounties paid to their troops, and were presenting 
claims for other military expenses incurred for local pur- 
poses. These demands, so at variance with North Carolina's 
liberality, excited disgust and aroused indignation. The 
Assembly directed the Governor to make up ISTorth Carolina's 
expenditures and to insist on payment; and, it appearing that 
other States had not passed acts levying taxes for the Union 
similar to those passed by jSTorth Carolina, money collected by 
these acts was directed to be turned into the State treasury ; 
and further, since Congress had not yet accepted the gift of 
the western territory, the Assembly repealed the act of ces- 
sion, the vote in the House being 37 to 22. So within six 
months after the offer was made, it was withdrawn. Hav- 
ing determined to retain the territory, the Assembly created 
a new judicial district, called the District of Washingi:on, ' 
covering the four western counties, and appointed John Hay- 
wood to preside, and Da,vid Campbell an associate judge; 
and John Sevier and was appointed brigadier general of the 

Sevier had been the central figure in the movement to 
establish a new State, but on learning of this action of the 
ISTorth Carolina Assembly he was satisfied with it and urged 
that no further steps ought to be taken looking to separation. 
A majority of the inhabitants, however, determined to per- 
sist, and Sevier's advice was disregarded. Nevertheless he 
exerted his influence to such good purpose as to prevent the 
election of delegates to the approaching convention in two of 
the counties. Elsewhere his opposition was ineffectual, and 
finding the popular current for separation too strong to be 


stemmed, he at length yielded to it and became a member of 
the new convention and presided over it. That body framed 
a constitntion similar to that of jSTorth Carolina, which was 
submitted to the peoiple for their consideration, to be rejected 
or ratified by a convention to assemble thereafter; and it 
ordered an election for members of Assembly. The Assembly 
so elected convened in March, 1785. At its first session it 
elected Sevier governor of the State for a term of three years, 
and David Campbell presiding judge of its courts ; and also 
appointed State and county officers. The old county ofiicers 
who had been commissioned by E^orth Carolina were for the 
most part retained in their respective offices. The county of 
Greene was divided, and two new counties erected, one named 
Se\der, and the other in compliment of General Caswell ; 
while an academy was incorporated, called in honor of Gov- 
ernor Martin, as the State itself had been called Franklin in 
compliment of Dr. Franklin, then of great influence in the 
Continental Congress. The salaries* of the officers were fixed 
at moderate amounts ; and, there being a scarcity of currency, 
it was enacted that the produce of the country should be 
received at certain fixed values in payment of all taxes, public 
debts aoid salaries. This was entirely similar to the early 
practice of Albemarle and IsTorth Carolina ; and the same 
custom had prevailed in some other States and communities. 
Good flax linen was rated at 3s. and 6d. per yard, linsey at 
3d., beaver and other skins at 6s., raccoon and fox skins Is. 
3d., woolen cloth at 10s., bacon 6d. per lb., good distilled rye 
whisky 2s. 6d. a gallon, peach or apple brandy at 3s. a gallon, 
country made sugar at Is. per lb., deer skins 6s., good to- 
bacco 15s. the hundred, etc. 

On learning that the people were taking steps to form a 
separate State, Governor Martin in 1Y85 dispatched a special 
messenger to General Sevier notifying him of the repeal of 

*The word salary had its origin in the practice of paying the old Roman soldiers their 
stipends in salt. 


the act of cession and warning him and the people to desist 
from their revolutionary proceedings and be obedient to the 
laws of JSTorth Carolina. But the admonition was disre- 
garded. The legislature of Franklin was then in session 
and made a formal reply, as also did Governor Sevier, declar- 
ing their purpose to proceed; and Colonel William Cocke 
was directed to hasten to Philadelphia and solicit Congress to 
admit the State of Franklin into the Union. Korth Carolina, 
they said, had cast them off and they did not mean to return. 

On receiving these replies Governor Martin convened his 
council, and on April 25 published a manifesto requiring the 
inhabitants beyond the mountains to abandon their purpose to 
form a new State, and to return to their allegiance. He de- 
clared that the people of l^orth Carolina were unwilling to 
part with them — as indicated by the result of the recent elec- 
tion for members 6f the Assembly ; that all their grievances 
had been remedied ; that a military district had been created 
for them, and a brigadier general appointed ; and also that a 
resident associate judge had been appointed to hold their 
courts. But both his entreaties and warnings were equally 
unheeded. Undismayed by the Governor's proclamation, 
Sevier and his associates, although denounced as being in 
revolt, held fast to their new constitution and revelled in the 
delights of independence. Evan Shelby, now appointed 
brigadier in the place of Sevier, and John Tipton, the colonel 
of his county, and Colonel James Martin, the Indian agent, 
all men of great influence, exerted their utmost power to 
arrest the progress of events, but without avail. Finding 
that the western counties persisted in their course and defied 
the authority of the State, Governor Martin issued a call for 
tile Assembly to meet in ]^ew Bern on June 1. 

In the meantime the people of Franklin were not inactive. 
They proceeded to administer the affairs of the new State 
with resolution and determination. Colonel Cocke, on reach- 


ing Philadelphia about the middle of May, met with much 
favor at the hands of Congress, and that body, with scant 
courtesy to the ISTorth Carolina delegates, manifested its 
sympathy in his mission by urging ISToirth Carolina to retrace 
her steps and annul the repealing act and execute a convey- 
ance of the western territory to the Union. Thus matters 
stood at the opening of June when Martin''s term expired 
and Caswell entered on the administration. Although the 
legislature had been called to meet with the new Governor, 
a quorum did not attend, and Caswell was left to deal with 
the novel situation without the aid of the Assembly. 

And, indeed, conditions beyond the mountains became 
more acute and claimed his anxious attention. Affairs there 
were rapidly assuming an alarming aspect. To placate those 
who were insisting on independence he wrote letters and ad- 
dresses kindly in their tone, holding out the hope of an early 
separation, when the people should be sufficiently strong to 
maintain a government and protect themselves from the In- 
dians ; and as indicating his good will, he declared that he 
himself expected to lay his bones on the western waters. 
But at the same time he sent forward the civil and military 
commissions ordered by the legislature and insisted on a 
loyal obedience to the authority of the State. In some of the 
counties these commissions were accepted ; in others they were 
refused. The two factions, that sustaining the independent 
government called Franks by themselves and rebels by the 
others, were almost on the point of coming to blows. Each 
represented and sustained the authority of a government 
that the other opposed. Clashing between the two courts 
and county officers was inevitable. To avert trouble, in 
March General Evan Shelby, acting in behalf of those adher- 
ing to Ilorth Carolina, and Governor Sevier entered into an 
agTeement that while the respective courts might try criminal 
cases they should not proceed to any civil business except to 


prove wills and deeds, and that the inhabitants might pay 
their taxes either to JS'orth Carolina or to the State of 
Franklin as they might select; and further, that the sheriffs 
and jailors under the Franklin government should receive 
felons committed by the IsTorth Carolina courts. This agTee- 
ment, tolerating JSTorth Carolina authority, was, however, 
immediately repudiated by the Franklin Legislature, then in 

That body, rejecting every purpose of temporizing, acted 
with vigOir and vehemence. It passed an act punishing, with 
fine and imprisonment, any person who should act as a mag- 
istrate, or in any other civil capacity, under the authority 
of jSTorth Carolina, and it directed the Governor to raise the 
militia and oppose by'force the operation of any Xorth Caro- 
lina law, authorizing a bounty of 400 acres of land to those 
who would enlist; and, to draw the wavering to their side, 
a land office was opened where gTants were to be obtained on 
very easy terms. Sevier's attitude, which had been moder- 
ate, now was completely changed. He wrote to Caswell : 
^'We shall continue to act independent and would rather 
suffer death, in all its various and frightful shapes, than con- 
form to anything that is disgraceful." The purpose to main- 
taia independence was fixed and strong, while those who ad- 
hered to North Carolina were equally resolute and deter- 
mined. The division between the two parties among the in- 
habitants was clearly drawn, and the circumstances of every 
day intensified the estrangement. Toleration gave way to 
bitterness. In May the situation was so acute that General 
Shelby notified Caswell that hostilities were about to begin, 
and, unless the government interfered, bloodshed would at 
once take place. It was no part of Caswell's policy to pre- 
cipitate a situation where he would have to subjugate the 
inhabitants, although in revolt. He hastened to urge the 
officers holding North Carolina commissions to use the utmost 


moderation. To dampen their ardor and restrain their 
action, he declared that he could not send them any assistance, 
and he begged them not to engage in a civil war. His infor- 
mation was conflicting. David Campbell assured him that 
nineteen-twentieths of the inhabitants favored separation, 
while Thomas Hutchins reported that, although the people of 
Greene were much divided, in the other two counties two- 
thirds were willing to return to their allegiance. In the 
meantime the force, which the Assembly had directed to be 
raised to cut the road to Davidson, was being recruited ; and 
Colonel James Martin, the Indian agent, went among the 
Indians to prevail on them to desist from hostilities. At 
length towards the close of April, General Shelby called to- 
gether Tipton, Maxwell and Hutchins, the Colonels of the 
three coimties, and they united in urging that the only hope 
of averting bloodshed was for IvTorth Carolina to send from 
Burke a thousand men to uphold her authority. Intent on 
the supremacy of their faction and on the suppression of 
their opponents, they sought to strengthen their cause by a 
display of force that would deter the Franks from persisting 
in their defiance. But it must not be forgotten that they 
held commissions from the State charging them with the duty 
of upholding and maintaining her supremacy. Caswell, 
however, relied on gentler means of persuasion and hoped 
for the healing influence of time. In the meanwhile, further 
in the interior the savages were murdering the settlers. The 
Mississippi was claimed by the Spaniards, who, from their 
strong-hold at Mobile, had free communication with the tribes 
in the interior, while the Frenchmen on the upper Mississippi 
had trade relations with the Indians, which bred a jealousy 
of the encroaching pioneers. The savages were thus influ- 
enced to continual warfare. In June, from the Cumberland 
came a cry for immediate help. Anthony Bledsoe wrote: 
"Xothing but the distress of a bleeding country could induce 


me to trouble you on so disagreeable a subject. * * * 
Inclosed you have a list of the killed in this quarter since our 
departure from this country to the Assembly. This, with 
the numbers wounded, with the large numbers of horses 
stolen from the inhabitants, has in a degree, flagged the 
spirits of the people." And the next month, James Robert- 
son advised Governor Caswell that there had been a hot war 
with the Chicamauga Indians ; that he had raised 130 men 
and gone to the front, where he found that the Indians had 
been joined by Frenchmen from Detroit who were inflaming 
them to hostility. In one of the encounters, three French- 
men and a French woman had been killed. He urged the 
Governor to hurry on the force the Assembly had ordered 
for their protection. The commander of that detachment. 
Major Thomas Evans, had met with such obstacles that the 
middle of August found him still east of the Blue Ridge, and 
Caswell indignantly ordered him to proceed, not delaying to 
open the road to Nashville but pressing on to the relief of the 
people. Evans, however, could not scale the Alleghany 
Mountains. Diverted from the direct course, he passed 
through Cumberland Gap and made his way into Kentucky, 
his men cheerfully enduring their march through the wilder- 
derness where no supplies could be obtained. In Kentucky 
he coidd purchase no provisions either on public or private 
credit, and was driven to furlough his men until by their 
labor they could procure suiRcient food to last them to ISTash- 
ville. At Icng-th, in the middle of October, he reached 
Davidson County, after a toilsome journey of 400 miles. 
There he found the inhabitants were being daily murdered, 
and he hurried advices home that he himself was hourly 
expecting attack. 

While such was the critical condition on the Cumberland, 
on the Watauga influences were silently at work, undermin- 
ing the foundations of the new State. The moderation and 


firmness of the I^orth Carolina Assembly, its tender of 
oblivion and remission of taxes, together with the hope held 
Oiut of eventual consent to the separation, had a softening 
influence on the public mind. But for a period there was 
so much bitterness, and the current was so strong for sepa- 
ration, that General Shelby himself yielded to it, resigned his 
commission as brigadier, retired from the service of North 
Carolina, and recommended to Governor Caswell that separa- 
tion should be conceded. Yet notwithstanding his defection, 
and despite the strenuous efforts of Sevier to sustain his gov- 
ernment, the enthusiasm that had attended the first move- 
ments for independence gradually disappeared. When the 
August elections came on, only two counties failed to elect 
representatives to the I^orth Carolina Assembly. In Greene, 
David Campbell, the presiding judge of Franklin State, and 
in Washington, where the Sevier party had been strong, 
Colonel Tipton were elected to the Senate. Sullivan elected 
General Joseph Martin and Hawkins sent to the House of 
Commons Henderson and Marshall ; all of whom and their 
coUeagnes had at one time been adherents of the new State. 
Only Sevier and Caswell counties, well on the frontier — 
where land had been occupied contrary to the ISTorth Carolina 
laws, stood faithful. The former lay between the Little Ten- 
nessee and the French Broad within the Indian reservation, 
where more than 1,000 families had located, and the latter 
in the forks of the French Broad and Holston. Still there 
were many Who yet adhered to Franklin ; and in all the coun- 
ties confiicts were continually arising between the courts held 
under the authority of the two different States. In Wash- 
ing-ton County particularly these clashings reached a gTeat 
height, being colored by personal enmity as well as political 
antagonism. In that coimty resided both Governor Sevier 
and Colonel John Tipton, neighbors and once friends ; but 
when on the repeal of the Act of Sessions Colonel Tipton 


abandoned the new government whicli he had aided to frame 
and renewed his allegiance to North Carolina, withdrawing 
his support from Governor Sevier, a bitter personal feud 
sprang up between them. And this was intensified bj the 
circumstance that, while Colonel Tipton was the clerk of the 
North Carolina County Coiirt, James Sevier, a son of the 
Governor, became clerk of the Franklin Court, and each 
dominated the justices and officers of their respective courts. 
In August, 1787, Colonel Tipton, at the head of some 
fifty men, undertook to take the records of the Franklin 
Court, and quickly two hundred of the Franks embodied 
to oppose him. A rumor was then spread that the purpose 
was to seize Governor Sevier, and fifteen hundred of his 
followers rushed to protect him. The error, however, was 
made known, and no blood was shed ; but there were personal 
encounters between Tipton and the Seviers. 

About that time Governor Sevier, seeing that the tide was 
turning against the continuance of his government, deter- 
mined on strengthening his cause with the people by prose- 
cuting an Indian war. Far to the south the Creeks were 
giving troiuble, and Governor Sevier entered into arrange- 
ments with the Governor of Georgia for their conquest. In 
September, with some difficulty, a quorum of the Franklin 
Assembly met at Greeneville, but confidence in the new State 
had ebbed so fast that Sevier was able to secure the passage 
of an act providing the means for carrjnng on the projected 
war only by a compromise. He agreed that two delegates 
might be chosen to attend the North Carolina Assembly and 
make sUch representations as they should thinli p)roper. 
Judge Campbell and Landon Carter were elected delegates 
for this purpose, the former having been already chosen to 
represent Greene County in the State Assembly. This action 
indicated that the last stage was being reached in the exist- 
ence of the new State. Gradually the Commonwealth of 


Franklin was passing away. Hardly had the Assembly ad- 
jonmed, and it was the last Assembly of Franklin that met, 
before Governor Sevier began to prepare for his campaign. 
In the great bend of the Tennessee, in the Creek country, lay 
some very desirable land, and it was arranged that this should 
be reserved for the Franklin volunteers. On ISTovember 28 
Grovernor Sevier announced that every private should have 
640 acres in the great bend, and officers in proportion ; and 
the work of enlistment went briskly on. 

The General Assembly met at Tarboro on November 19, 
and both the representatives elected by the counties beyond 
the mountains and the delegates chosen by the legislature of 
Franklin, attended the session. The former were admitted to 
seats, and the latter given a respectful hearing when they 
urged the continued desire of the people for separation. The 
Assembly, however, held steadfast to its purpose. James 
Martin was appointed brigadier of the district, and a special 
committee was directed to report measures to quiet the dis- 
order in the western counties. They advised a further exten- 
sion of the act of pardon, and that all suits for nonpajanent 
of taxes should be discontinued ; and these measures were 
adopted. The policy of mediation and conciliation was 
bearing its fruits and JSTorth Carolina was supplanting the 
State of Franklin, whose legislature had ceased to exist, whose 
judicial officers were no longer acting, and whose Executive 
after March would have no claim for the exercise of authority. 
Governor Sevier's term was to end on March 3, and no suc- 
cessor had been chosen ; and, there being no Assembly, none 
co.uld be chosen. The State of Franklin was about to expire 
by a natural dissolution, and without any great convulsion 
or bloodshed. But now an incident occurred attended by 
unfortunate consequences. 

During the fall of 1787, a judgment having been obtained 
against Governor Sevier in one of the local Carolina courts. 


an execution against his property was put in the hands of 
the sheriff. The levy was made on some of his negroes on 
his plantation, and for fear of interference, the sheriff re- 
moved the negToes to the premises of Colonel Tipton for safe 
keeping. It was a great error in judgment and an improper 
exercise of power. Necessarily it inflamed Governor Sevier 
and was a personal affront that he would not brook. Had 
no such incident occurred the State of Franklin would prob- 
ably have faded away, leaving, doubtless, a memory of dis- 
appointment but without pangs of bitterness. At the mo- 
ment, Sevier was in Greene County collecting volunteers for 
the expedition against the Creeks. On learning of this seiz- 
ure of his property and the removal of his negroes to the 
premises of Colonel Tipton, he dispatched a messenger to 
Caswell County, February 15, saying that the Tipton party 
had got very insolent; and that he had ordered fifteen men 
out of every company to turn out. He was "satisfied 
that a small exertion will settle the matter to our satisfac- 
tion." Tipton, on being informed of Sevier's action, wrote 
on February 25, "The rebels are again rising. Sevier is 
now making his last effort. * * * This day they are to 
meet at Greene. To-morrow at Jonesboro, and Wednesday, if 
not before, they push here." And he called for aid. A few 
friends reached him in time. But soon the Governor with 
150 men and a small cannon appeared on the scene and de- 
manded an unconditional surrender. Tipton valiantly de- 
fied him. Truly Sevier's situation was embarrassing. He 
had no desire for bloodshed. His commission as Governor 
was to expire within three days, and his State had virtually 
ceased to exist. Stigmatized as a rebel by the Carolina 
ofiicers, he doubtless comprehended that to use military force 
against the Carolina authorities placed in jeopardy the lives 
of himself and his followers. It was le\'ying war and high 
treason. For nearly four years two conflicting governments 


had been carried on in that wilderness ; and despite personal 
enmities, despite the clashing of the courts and the antagonis- 
tic authority of the militia officers, there had been no serious 
collision. This of itself is high evidence of the wisdom, 
courage and moderation of Sevier, as well as of the forbear- 
ance of the inhabitants generally. Now circumstances 
springing from his personal affairs brought the Governor 
face to face with an emergency threatening bloodshed. He 
had probably hoped to redress his wrongs by a show of 
superior strength; but a hard fate had brought him into; a 
position from which he could not retreat with credit, nor 
proceed without hazarding consequences for which he had 
no heart. He became a prey to conflicting emotions — sad 
and dejected. There was no assault made on the house; but 
some firing took place, not in Sevier's presence. Those pass- 
ing into Tipton's premises were fired on, and one or two killed 
and wounded, but there was no engagement. At length, in 
the early morning of February 29, Colonel Maxwell of Sulli- 
van County, to whom Tipton had appealed for aid, ap- 
proached with his militia. He had made a night march. 
The weather was very cold, and there was a blinding snow 
storm. As he neared the scene about sunrise, Maxwell saw 
Sevier's men advancing, and a collision occurred. Maxwell's 
militia discharged a volley and raised a gTeat shout, which 
led Tipton to sally out, taking Sevier's party in the rear or 
flank. As it probably had never been Sevier's purpose to 
engage in battle, he and his men quickly dispersed, followed, 
but not aggressively, by the militia. On March 3 Sevier 
sent a verbal message that if his life was spared, he would 
submit to I^orth Carolina. Tipton, in reply, offered to cease 
hostilities, giving Sevier and his party until the 11th to sub- 
mit to the laws. The Council of the Franklin State made 
reply that they would be obedient to the laws of the Union, 
and they wished a convention of the people called at once. 


As for Grovernor Sevier, they stipulated that he should be left 
at liberty to act for himself; and he, with some anxiety, re- 
quired a plain understanding- as to what he could depend on. 
Ten days later General Joseph Martin, the brigadier of the 
district, appealed to General Kennedy to bring about a 
reconciliation. He declared that he would be sorry to imbrue 
his hands in the blood of his countrymen, but "nothing t^II 
do but a submission to the laws of ISTorth Carolina," This 
is the only way, he urged, that would relieve Governor Sevier 
from a very disagreeable situation. He offered Kennedy 
a commission under ISTorth Carolina, and urged him to pre- 
pare for action, as a general Indian war was expected. Mar- 
tin's conciliatory steps and firm action had a very salutary 
effect. All opposition ceased, every trace of the State of 
Franklin disappeared. 

In the meantime Sevier, no longer Governor, left Wash- 
ington County and took shelter in the distant settlements. A 
period of repose now set in ; but in June Sevier, having 
gathered some forty bold and daring men, fell on the Indians 
on the Hiwassee and killed twenty of them, following this 
with another raid and bringing in fourteen scalps ; and then, 
in July, he made a third invasion of the Indian country 
which precipitated an Indian war. 

Notwithstanding that the State of Franklin had fallen, 
Sevier and his friends indulged a hope that the State Con- 
vention, which was to meet at Hillsboiro in July to consider 
the proposed Federal Constitution, might cede the western 
territory, or otherwise provide for a separation, but that 
body adjourned without action favorable to their desires. 
On the other hand Governor Johnston, because of advices 
from General Martin called his council to meet at Hills- 
boroi in July, and on receiving information of Sevier's 
battle with Maxwell while the Convention was still in ses- 
sion, he wrote to Judge Campbell: "It has been repre- 


sented to the Executive tJbat John Sevier, who styles himself 
Captain General of the State of Franklin, has been guilty 
of high treason in levying troops to oppose the laws and gov- 
ernment of this State, and has with an armed force put to 
death several good citizens. If these facts shall appear to 
yon by the affida^at of credible persons, you will issue your 
warrant to apprehend him." Judge Compbell, however, 
took no action. Later, Judge Samuel Spencer crossed the 
mountains to hold court at Jonesboro, and he issued a war- 
rant for the aiTest of Sevier. On the evening of October 9 
Sevier with a number of men had a violent altercation with 
one Deadricks in Washington County, and Colonel Tipton, 
armed with the bench warrant and doubtless feeling that his 
hour of triumph had arrived, hastened in pursuit with a 
body of horsemen. At early dawn the posse surrounded the 
premises of Widow Bro^wn, where Sevier lodged that night, 
and at sunrise the arrest was made. Sevier was taken to 
Jonesboiro, and then was conveyed to Morganton for trial. It 
is said that he was treated with great discourtesy and malevo- 
lence, and for a time was subjected to the indigTiity of being 
handcuffed, but the details are obscure, and the circumstances 
were such as to require unusual care on the part of those 
charged with his safe keeping. In a letter to the General 
Assembly he alleged that he ' Vas treated with wanton cruelty 
and savage insult," and he complained of being ''borne off o,ut 
of the district" for trial. Arrived at Morganton he was re- 
leased on parole to visit a brother-in-law in the vicinity. 
The court being convened, he attended agreeably to his 
parole. In the meantime, two sons and other friends had 
followed to rescue him. "At night, when the court broke, 
and the people dispersed, they with the Governor, pushed 
forward towards the mountains with the greatest rapidity 
and, before morning, arrived at them, and were beyond the 
reach of any who might think proper to pursue." Appa- 


reiitly no further effort was made to capture him. At the 
JSTovember session of the Assembly following, the act of par- 
don and oblivion was again passed, but it was provided that 
Sevier was so far excepted that he should not be entitled to 
hold any office under the State. But the act operated to par- 
don his alleged offense of high treason, and put a stop to the 
proceedings in court against him. 

Congress and the States of Georgia and ISTorth Carolina 
had taken measures with the view of quieting the hostility of 
the Indians ; and on a conference a firm peace was agreed to. 
But shortly afterwards, Sevier with a considerable force 
made his way to one of the Indian towns, and finding all the 
braves absent on a hunt, he brought away twenty-nine women 
and children, and again the people on the frontier realized 
the necessity of taking measures for protection. On Janu- 
ary 12, 1789, some twenty of the prominent men of Greene 
County met in convention and "resolved to petition North 
Carolina to divide the State and cede the territory west of 
the mountains to Congress, and that John Sevier keep the 
command of the inhabitants." On being informed of these 
proceedings Governor Johnston wrote to General Martin 
that ^'Sevier appears to be incorrigible; and I fear we will 
have no peace in your quarter till he is proceeded against to 
the last extremity" ; but he directed Martin to act with 
prudence and conciliation both in regard to the inhabitants 
and the Indians. Before summer came, however, Sevier had 
abandoned his opposition to the State of ]^orth Carolina. 
At the August election he was chosen to represent his county 
in the State Senate, and he appeared along with the other 
members when, in November, the Assembly met at Fayette- 
ville. His disabilities had not been removed ; but during 
the session he presented a memorial to the body. On No- 
vember 30 a committee, drawing a veil over his particular 
offense, reported that "when the people in the western coun- 


ties first attempted to subvert the government, Sevier op- 
posed them and prevented elections from being held in two 
of the counties ; and that he was not as highly reprehensible 
as many others." A bill was therefore passed including 
him in the general pardon; and he took his seat in the As- 
sembly, and further, it was declared that he still held the 
office of brigadier general under his original appointment in 
1784. And thus the last vestige of the State of Franklin 
was, by conciliation and moderation, buried out of sight, 
without the punishment of any person for engaging in the 
insurrection, and Sevier, who for years had been the central 
figure in the revolt was, on his first submission to the laws 
of the commonwealth, admitted to a seat in the Assembly 
and restored to the honors and emoluments of military com- 
mander in his district. 




By Marshall DeLancet Haywood. f 

Sir Richard Everard, Baronet, of Much Waltham, in the 
county of Essex, England, was the last Governor of ISTorth 
Carolina under proprietary rule. His administration was 
brought to a close in 1731, two years after the sale of that 
province to the Crown, by the Lords Proprietors, in 1729. 
He came of ancient lineage in the land of his nativity. 

From Betlianis Baronetage of England'^, we learn that the 
family's earliest ancestor, of whom any record is preserved, 
was Ralph Everard, who flourished in the thirteenth century, 
during the reign of Henry III. His descendants lived at 
Much Waltham — or Waltham Magna, as we first find it 
written — and were among the landed gentry of the shire. 
Sir Anthony Everard received the honor of knighthood in 
1603, and was succeeded by his brother, Hugh, who held the 

* From Publications of Southern History Association (Washington, D. C.) October, 
1898, pp. 328—339. 

t A Biographical Sketch of Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood, by Mrs. E . E. Mof- 
fitt, appeared in The Booklet, Vol. VIII, No. 1. 

t Vol. 1, 368, 369. 


office of High Sheriff, in 1626. The latter's son, Sir Rich- 
ard, was advanced to the dignity of Baronet, in 1628, and 
beecame the father of another Eichard, who inherited his 
title and estate. Sir Hugh Everard, a son of the last named, 
"sigTialized himself" in the Flemish Wars, and was the 
father of Governor Everard, fourth baronet. 

Wright, in his History of Essex,^ says that Governor Ev- 
erard sold the family's ancestral estate, Langleys, to dis- 
charge debts with which it was encumbered, and afterwards 
purchased a much smaller one at Broomfield. 

To avoid confusing the similar surnames, it may be well 
here to observe that there was likewise a family of Everard 
(seated at Ballybay, county of Tipperary, Ireland), which 
included a line of baronets whose title was created in 1622, 
and finally became extinct, f Several of these also bore the 
name Eichard, but no relationship seems traceable between 
them and the Everards of Much Waltham, in Essex. 

In 1725, Governor George Burrington, who had made 
things a trifle too hot for his adversaries in ISTorth Carolina, 
was removed from office by the Lords Proprietors. There^ 
upon a memorial was presented by Sir Eichard Everard, of 
Essex, asking that he might be appointed to the vacancy. 
This request being granted, he set out for America, and on 
the 17th of July was swum in, before the Provincial Council 
at Edenton, as governor, captain-general, admiral, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the colony, "t 

On the 1st of jSTovember, 1725, the Assembly of the Pro- 
vince met at Edenton, and was prorogued by Governor Ev- 
ei ard until April, in the following year. Upon inquiry from 
the burgesses, as to his reason for such a course, Sir Eichard 
refused to discuss the question ; and replied that, since they 
had seen fit to dispute his authority, he v/ould stand by the 

* Vol. I, 196. 

t Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage (1844 edition), p. 604. 

t Colonial Records of North Carolina, II, 559, 556. 


decision. It was thereupon unanimously resolved, by the 
memhers of the Assembly, that their pretended prorogation 
was illegal, contrary to the laws of the jDrovince, and an in- 
fringement upon the liberties of the people. It was further 
resolved that, at its next meeting, the House would proceed 
to no further business until the privileges, then withheld, 
were restored and confirmed. The Assembly further pro- 
ceeded to make itself pleasant by sending a memorial to the 
Lords Proprietors, wherein the loss of Burrington was 
greatly deplored and deep concern expressed at the prospect 
of so vile an administration from the new Governor, who was 
declared to be entirely influenced by a few irreligious persons 
of immoral character.* 

Soon after this Sir Richard became involved in a dispute 
with the Eev. Thomas Bailey, on account of some praise be- 
stowed by the latter upon the recent administration of Gov- 
ernor Burrington and that gentleman's "vast character." A 
riot resulted, led by the Burrington faction, which carried 
Bailey in triumph to the court house, where he was pre- 
vailed upon to favor his friends with a sermon. After this, 
Everard had the pleasure of paying his respects to the Rev. 
Thomas, in a letter to the Bishop of London, wherein he de- 
scribed the missionary as a riotous individual, much given 
to drunkenness, . whose vile actions had caused him to be run 
out of Philadelphia into Virginia, v;hence he escaped to 
North Carolina. But the vestries of Hyde and St. Thomas 
soon came to the rescue of their parson's reputation, and de- 
clared him to be a most pious and exemplary minister, well 
deserving of encouragement. f 

The Assembly^ v/hich had been prorogiied to meet in 
April, 1726, convened at the appointed time, and was ad- 
dressed in a spirit of conciliation by the Governor, who 
sought to impress upon it the necessity of harmonious ac- 

* Colonial Records II, 576, 577, 578. 

t Colonial Records II, 579, 580, 581, 604, 624. 


tion. The reply to this expressed pleasure at the good inten- 
tions avowed, but declared that the most effectual method 
of seeking redress would be to lay aside all formalities of 
speech. Then followed a catalogue of grievances, entitled 
"Exclamations of the Injured & Oppress'd." Shortly after 
receiving these "exclamations" the Governor became ill and 
again prorogued the Assembly, which was not much im- 
proved in humor thereby.* 

Governor Burrington had lingered in the province, after 
his removal from office, and was an interested observer of 
these occurrences. Before the Assembly met, he had made 
himself rather disagreeable to Everard, by going to that gen- 
tleman's house and calling for satisfaction, also indulging in 
some questionable language, which the writer, having 
quoted in two previous sketches, does not deem it necessary 
here to repeat. Suffice it to say, that Sir Kichard's "damn*^ 
thick skull," as Burrington politely termed it, remained un- 
scalped, contrary to the charitable intentions of his assailant, 
who soon found it convenient to leave Edenton.f 

A few months later, Edmond Porter was also taken with 
a fit of belligerency and attacked Secretary Lovick, but fared 
worse; for the latter was joined by Governor Everard, At- 
torney General Little, Colonel Worley^ and a few more offi 
cial digTiitaries, who soon gave the aggrieved Mr. Porter 
more satisfaction than he knew what to do with.t 

The next bellicose individual, who ran amuck of the Gov- 
ernor, was Dr. George Allen (or Allynn, as he signed him- 
self), a "Chyrurgeon" or "Practicer of Physick & Surgery." 
This gentleman was generously donated to I^Torth Carolina 
by the city of Williamsburg^ Virginia, where an indictment 
had been found against him for cursing King George and 
Governor Drysdale. After his arrival in Edenton, he was 

* Colonial Records II, 609, 613, 622. 
t Colonial Records II, 647 et seq. 
t Colonial Records II, 659. 


again brought before the courts for damning the King 
"while a drinking of clarett." But, from the nature of an 
undertaking he had in view, one might suppose it was some- 
thing stronger than claret which Dr. Allynn drank; for he 
wanted to go to Hanover and get King George's estate, as 
that monarch owed him money ! Being offended by Gov- 
ernor Everard, the worthy chirurgeon armed himself with 
a sword and two pistols '^loaden with powder and baJl," 
wherewith he went in search of his adversary. Sir Eichard 
disarmed him of his horse pistol, but he then resorted to a 
pocket pistol "and did continue to raise sedition & mutiny" 
till driven off by numbers. On being summoned to court, 
he increased his arsenal by the acquisition of a gun, and it 
was some time before the provost marshal could get him into 
custody. When his trial came off, he plead guilty and was 
released upon the payment of costs.* 

Even this did not close the list of Everard's quarrels, for 
he afterwards figTired in another altercation, with John 
Lovick; and had to defend his house against a motley as- 
semblage described by him as being composed of Major Jo- 
seph Jenoure, Thomas Betterly, Peter Osborne, Tom y^ 
Tinker alias Cockram, Robert Robinson, Peter Young, 
Charles Cornwall, James Roe, Richards Robbins, a carpen- 
ter, two foreigners, a tall Irishman, and divers others, who, 
when commanded to depart, refused to do so, and struck one 
of the Governor's servants, breaking his head.f 

In addition to his disputes within the colony. Governor 
Everard had to contend with enemies in England, who repre- 
sented him as too much given to intoxicants. J Thereupon, 
the Provincial Council was requested to express itself as to 
the truth of this allegation, and unanimously declared that 
he had never come before the public "disguised in drink." 

* Colonial Records II, 653, 710, 718, 824; III, 220, 223. 
t Colonial Records II, 824. 
t Colonial Records II, 724. 


It is little to be wondered that, after a few years of ex- 
perience with the civil discords of North Carolina, Sir 
Richard was even melted into expressing some sympathy 
for his old enemy^, Burrington, who had undergone a similar 
ordeal. Such, indeed, is the tone of a letter written by him 
in 1729, in which he deplores his hard lot in being sent to 
rule so incorrigible a people, whose Sole occupation in life 
seemed to be the abuse of their official superiors.* 

The only event of importance, which marked Everard's 
administration, was the settlement of the long disputed 
boundary question with Virginia, by commissioners ap- 
pointed from the two colonies for that purpose, f Colonel 
Byrd's famous History of the Dividing Line gives a humor- 
ous account of the party's experiences ; and a more modern 
discourse, from North Carolina's standpoint, will be found in 
the able address, delivered November 26, 1879, before the 
Historical Society, in Wilmington, by the Honorable George 
Davis, of that city. 

When appointed Governor of North Carolina, in 1725, Sir 
Richard was somewhat advanced in age. In December, 
1705, he had married Susannah Kidder, a daughter and co- 
heiress of the Right Rev. Richard Kidder, Lord Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, who was killed in his Episcopal Palace at 
Wells, by a falling chimney, during the gTeat hurricane, in 
November, 1703. Governor Everard left four children. His 
sons, Richaxd and Hugh, both succeeded him, in turn, and 
died without issue, whereupon the baronetcy became extinct. 

The younger Sir Richard, fifth baronet, was an attorney- 
at-law, while in North Carolina, and remained there after in- 
heriting his father's title. He was a representative in the 
Provincial Assembly from Beaufort county, in 1739 ; and 

* Colonial Records III, 19. 
t Colonial Records II, 740. 


from Bladen, in 1T40.* His death occurred two years later, 
on the 7th of March, 1742. 

Sir Hugh, sixth baronet, succeeded his brother and re- 
sided for a time in Georgia, where he married, but left no 
issue, f 

As to the Governor's two daughters: Susannah married 
David Meade, an American gentleman who will be men- 
tioned later; and Anne became the wife of George Lath- 
bury. J Of Mr. Lathbury and his descendants — if he left any 
— the writer knows nothing. 

Governor Everard's family does not seem to have made 
a very favorable impression on the people of j^orth Caro- 
lina, and his ''pack of rude children who gave oifence daily" 
were the objects of special complaint. The Provincial Coun- 
cil declared that he had set up a sort of Inquisition, and 
would order servants of the colonial gentry to appear at his 
house, where they were questioned upon oath as to whether 
any disrespectful remarks had ever been privately made, by 
their masters, concerning the Governor's household. § In 
addition to his immediate family, the name of James Everard 
— possibly a relative — also appears in the records, as an at- 

One charge, more creditable than the average in its na- 
ture, stated that Sir Richard was an ardent Jacobite, who 

* Colonial Records IV, 346, 493. 

t So says Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage (1844 edition), p. 190. The 
Secretary of State, however, writes from Atlanta, Georgia, as follows: "The name 
'Everard' does not appear anywhere in the records of this office. If Sir Hugh ever 
came to Georgia, he never owned any land or held any official position." Though 
Burke gives 1745 as the date of Sir Hugh's death, it would seem that the title was 
thought to be still extant by Betham (in 1801) and by Kimber (in 1771), when 
those authors compiled their baronetages ; for the works here mentioned, do not 
treat of extinct titles. Kimber speaks of Sir Hugh Everard as "the present baronet, 
who now enjoys the title and estate." Vol. I. p, 348. All three of these works 
refer to Sir Hugh as residing in Georgia, but neither Betham nor Kimber mention 
Lis marriage. 

t Betham's Baronetage I, 369. 

§ Colonial Records II, 660. 

^ Colonial Records III, 4. (As Richard, Jr., was an attorney, this name may 
ave been erroneously entered for his.) 


had figured in the Preston Rebellion of 1715, and desired to 
celebrate the Old Pretender's birthday (June 10th) in North 
Carolina.* When the death of George I. was announced, he 
is said to have exclaimed, ^'Then adieu to the Hanover fam- 
ily, we have done with them !" 

As heretofore mentioned, Everard's administration was 
brought to an end by the sale of ISTorth Carolina to the 
Crown, by the Lords Proprietors, in 1729. During that 
year, Burrington was again appointed Governor, but did not 
qualify until the beginning of 1731, f and Sir Eichard con- 
tinued in office for the space intervening. 

After his removal. Governor Everard went to Nansemond, 
Virginia, and thence to England. At Nansemond, his 
daughter, Susannah, was married to David Meade, by whom 
she became the mother of seven children. They were : 

I. David Meade, of Macox, in Prince George county, Vir- 
ginia, who afterwards removed to Kentucky. He married 
Sarah Waters, only child of Col. William Waters, of Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia. 

II. Eichard Kidder Meade (an aide-de-camp, during the 
Eevolution, to General Washington), who married, first, 
Elizabeth Eandolph, daughter of Eichard Eandolph, the 
elder of Curies; secondlj^, Mrs. Mary Eandolph, nee Grymes, 
widow of William Eandolph, of Chattsworth, and daughter 
of Benjamin Grymes. 

III. Everard Meade (an aide-de-camp during the Eevo- 
lution, to General Lincoln), who married, first, Mary Thorn- 
ton, daughter of John Thornton, of ISTorth Carolina ; secondly, 
Mrs. Mary Ward, nee Eggleston, widow of Benjamin Ward, 
and daughter of Joseph Eggleston, of Egglestetton, in 
Amelia county, Virginia. The distinguished Eevolutionary 
officer, Major Joseph Eggleston, of Lee's Legion, was Mrs. 
Meade's brother. 

* Colonial Records III, 4. 
t Colonial Records III, 211. 


IV. Andrew Meade, of Octagon, in Brunswick county, 
Virginia, wlio married Susannah Stith, daughter of Captain 
Buckner Stith, of Rockspriug, in the same county. 

V. John Meade, who died young. 

VI. Anne Meade, who married Richard Randolph_, the 
younger, of Curies. 

VII. Mary Meade, who married Colonel George Walker. 
It is not within the scope of this brief biogTaphy to give an 

account of Governor Everard's more remote offspring. From 
his grandchildren, just named, many of the most noted fami- 
lies in Virginia, Kentucky, and throughout the Southern 
States in general, trace their descent. 

The marriage of Susannah Everard to David Meade, of 
Nansemond, is mentioned in Betham's Baronetage, and some 
of the other works on heraldry that we have had occasion to 
quote, and also in 'Campbell's History of Virginia/^ which 
contains the following: 

"Andrew Meade, first of the name in Virginia, born in County 
Kerry, Ireland, educated a Romanist, came over to New Yorli, and 
married Mary Latham, a Qualieress, of Flushing, on Long Island. 
He afterwards settled in Nansemond, Virginia, and for many years 
was burgess thereof; from which it appears that he must have re- 
nounced the Romish religion. He was prosperous, affluent, and 
hospitable. He is mentioned by Colonel Byrd in his Journal of the 
Dividing Line run in 1728. His only son, David Meade, married, 
under romantic circumstances, Susannah, daughter of Sir Richard 
Everard, Baronet, Governor of North Carolina. Of the sons of David 
Meade, Richard Kidder Meade was aide-de-camp to General Wash- 
ington; Everard Meade aide to General Lincoln." 

The same authority also says : 

"The name of Richard Kidder is said to be derived from a bishop 
of Bath and Wells, who was from the same stock with the Meades of 

This personage will easily be recognized hy the reader as 
Sir Richard Everard's father-in-law^ Bishop Kidder, whose 

* History of Virginia, by Charles Campbell (1860), p. 690. 


death in the great cyclone lias already been mentioned. To 
have called him an ancestor of the Meades would be more 
explicit. As David Meade was an only son of the family's 
progenitor in America, all members of the connection who 
bear the name, as well as many other of his descendants, are 
also descended from Governor Everard. But Andrew Meade 
also left a daughter, Priscilla, who married Wilson Curie, 
of HamptoiU, Virginia, and her descendants, of course, are 
not of the Everard stock. 

During the Revolution it was Colonel Richard Kidder 
Meade's painful duty to superintend the execution of Major 
Andre. In recounting that tragic event to Colonel Theo- 
dorick Bland, junior, under date of October 3, 1780, he wrote: 
"Poor Andre, the British adjutant-general, was executed yes- 
terday; nor did it happen, my dear sir (though I would not 
have saved him for the world), without a tear on my part. 
You may think this declaration strange, as he was an enemy, 
until I tell you that he was a rare character. From the time 
of his capture to his last moment, his conduct was such as did 
honor to the human race. I mean by these words to express 
all that can be said favorable of man. The compassion of 
every man of feeling and sentiment was excited for him be- 
yond your conception."* 

Both Colonel Richard Kidder Meade and Major Edward 
Meade were original members of the Virginia Society of the 

In his well-known work on Old Churches and Fa/milies 
in Virginia,] the Right Rev. William Meade, late Bishop of 
that State, who was a son by the second marriage of Colonel 
Meade, t of Washington's staff, gives an account of the union 

* Bland Papers II, 34. 

t Vol. I, Article XXIV, p. 292 (edition of 1872). 

J Col. R. K. Meade left no surviving children by his first marriage. For the issue 
of his second marriage, see Memoir of Bishop Meade, by Bishop Johns, p. 10, note. 


of his ancestor, David Meade with Susannah Everard, as 
follows : 

"The God of Love was present at their first interview, and made 
them feel the effects of his disposition at the same moment. But 
there was a considerable lapse of time between their first meeting 
and marriage. Her father was Governor Everard, of North Caro- 
lina, then living with his family in Edenton, and was unwilling to 
leave his daughter in the wilds of America when he should return 
home. When about to sail — the ship in which they were to embark 
lying in Hampton Roads, then called Nansemond River — there was 
no other house at that time, convenient to the place of embarkation, 
at which they could be well accommodated but Andrew Meade's. To 
this they went; and, being detained some weeks by adverse winds, 
or other causes, the earnest entreaties of a most affectionate father, 
almost distracted with the thought of parting with his only son 
(who was determined to follow her) at length prevailed, and they 
were immediately married." 

Here endeth the ''Story of Susannah," and, with it, we 
close our account of the descendants of Governor Everard. 
In returning to the old baronet's personal history, little re- 
mains to be said. As his successor qualified on the 25th of 
February, 1731, Sir Eichard probably left Virginia during 
the following Summer, though history fails to give us the 
exact date. His death occurred on the 17th of February, 
1733, in London, two years after his retirement from office. 

The Daily Journal, for Monday, February 19th, contains 

the following obituary : 

"On Saturday morning at 6 o'clock, died at his house in Red Lyon 
street, Holbourn, Sir Richard Everard of Much Waltham in Essex, 
Bart: late Governor of North Carolina, descended from a very 
ancient family in the county of Essex. Sir Richard married 
Susanna, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Dr. Richard Kidder, 
formerly Bishop of Bath & Wells, by whom he has left two sons 
and two daughters, and is succeeded in his honours and estate by 
his eldest son, now Sir Richard Everard." 

In its issue of Wednesday, February 21st, the Daily 

Courant says : 

"On Tuesday, the corpse of Sir Richard Everard was conveyed 
from his late dwelling house in Red Lyon street, Holbourn, with 
great solemnity to be interred at Much Waltham, Essex." 


At his old home in Essex, here mentioned as the burial 
place of Sir Richard, many memorials of the family were 
preserved, including recumbent effigies of Sir Anthony Ever- 
ard and his lady, who lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Among other persons of note, there interred, are 
also Sir Hugh Everard, Baronet — father of the Governor — 
who died in 1706, and Sir Richard Everard, Knight, who 
died in 1611. 

Again reverting to North Carolina, it must be confessed 
that little good accrued to the province from Governor Ever- 
ard's administration. He had been born and reared in the 
upper class of English society and was too far advanced in 
age to adapt himself to a change of situation. In a colony 
which required more than ordinary activity to develop its 
resources, he sought to preside with dignified ease ; and, when 
aught unclean came '^betwixt the wind and his nobility," 
dignity and temper, alike, were too quickly cast aside. But, 
before indulging in overmuch adverse criticism, we should 
remember the difficulties with which he was forced to contend. 
Though endowed with less patience than the average mortal, 
his trials and vexations were indeed sufficient to test the for- 
bearance of a saint. 

"So may he rest; his faults lie gently on him!" 

Some North Carolina Booklets for Sale 

Address, EDITOR, Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. I 

"Greene's Retreat," Dr. Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Vol. II 

"Our Own Pirates," Capt. S. A. Ashe. 

"Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Moravian Settlement in North Carolina," Rev. J. E. Clewell. 

"Whigs and Tories," Prof. W. C. Allen. 

"The Revolutionary Congresses," Mr. T. M. Pittman. 

"Raleigh and the Old Town of Bloomsbury," Dr. K. P. Battle. 

"Historic Homes — Bath, Buncomb Hall, Hayes," Rodman, Blount, 

"County of Clarendon," Prof. John S. Bassett. 
"Signal and Secret Service," Dr. Charles E. Taylor. 
"Last Days of the War," Dr. Henry T. Bahnson. 

Vol. Ill 

"Volunteer State Tennessee as a Seceder," Miss Susie Gentry 
"Colony of Transylvania," Judge Walter Clark. 

"Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina," Col. Alexander Q. 
Holladay, LL.D. 

"Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 1776," Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 
"North Carolina and Georgia Boundary," Mr. Daniel Goodloe. 

Vol. IV 

"Battle Ramsaur's Mill, 1780," Major Wm. A. Graham. 
"Quaker Meadows," Judge A. C. Avery. 
"Convention of 1788," Judge Henry Groves Connor. 
"North Carolina Signers of Declaration of Independence, John Penn 
and Joseph Hewes," by T. M. Pittman and Dr. E. Walter Sikes. 
"North Carolina Troops in South Carolina," Judge Walter Clark. 
"Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians," Capt, S. A. Ashe. 
"Changes in Carolina Coast Since 1585," Prof. Collier Cobb. 
"Highland Scotch Settlement in N. C," Judge James C. MacRae. 
"The Scotch-Irish Settlement," Rev. A. J. McKelway. 

"Battle of Guilford Court-house and German Palatines in North Car- 
olina," Major J. M. Morehead, Judge O. H. Allen. 

Vol. XIV OCTOBER, 1914 No. 2 


North Carolina Booklet 

"Carolina I Carolina I Heaven's blessings attend her I 
While Vie live voe will cherish, protect and defend her" 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 


Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr, R. D. W. Connoe. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha PIelen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 



regent : 



honorary regent : 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 


Mrs. (Clarence johnson. 


Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 


Mrs. frank SHERWOOD. 




Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 : 

Regent 1902: 
Mfis. D. H. HILL, SR.t 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Regent 1906-1910: 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XIV OCTOBER, 1914 No. 2 

Extracts from Remarks Delivered at Roanoke 
Island Celebration August, 1914 

By De. Howabd E. Rondthalee 

The interest attaching to this historic spot may be thought 
to express itself in a three-fold direction : it is an interest in 
place, an interest in time, and an interest in people. 


Few spots could be found throughout the length and 
breadth of our land which would furnish a fairer and more 
striking setting for the wonderful scene which history has 
placed upon this fair island. There is here a rare combina- 
tion of climate, soil, verdure, and expanse of sea which pro- 
duces upon the visitor a lasting impression. As I looked 
over the deck of our steamboat last night just after sunset, 
when the shadows were beginning to gather around the 
promontory of this island, I rejoiced in the conviction that 
in all these centuries there could have been practically no 
change in this landscape, and that what we saw last night 
was essentially the same sight which greeted the eager eyes 
of Sir Walter Ealeigh's Expedition 330 years ago. 

I know of few places of historic interest where the natural 
features must have changed so little. Strange to say, this is 
largely true because the record of Roanoke Island and of 
Fort Raleigh is written in the sand. We have perhaps been 
taught that the rock with its flinty face is the most imperish- 
able and changeless of monuments, and that the sand is a 
very synonym for shift and change. I venture to challenge 
this conception and to prove my claim. May I remind you 
that those are the most ancient mountains in our land which 


have changed the most. Weathered by time and corroded by 
the passing of the years, the iron face of the rock suffers 
steady but certain modification, whereas, the sands of this 
island, showing as they do the actual bastioned outlines of 
Fort Raleigh, have preserved unchanged a record which, if 
built in stone, would long ere this have crumbled into ruin. 
In addition, the comparative isolation of this portion of Roan- 
oke Island, and the density of forest just here, preserves for 
us intact every landscape detail as it was in the days of the 
first settlement. 

In the introductory remarks and the hearty words of 
welcome to which we have just listened, you will have noted 
the genial allusion to the varied products of field, forest, vine- 
yard and sea which have contributed always to making this a 
favored spot, and a place of comfort and attractiveness. It 
was, in a sense, on this very account that the early pioneers 
sought it out, for, if I have read their record correctly, they 
sailed during the last few days of the voyage guided rather 
by their nostrils than by their compass. May I recall to you 
the very words from the diary of Barlowe: ''The second of 
July (1584) we found shoal water, where we smelled so 
sweet and so strong a smell as if we had been in the midst of 
some delicate garden abounding with all kinds of odoriferous 
flowers, by which we were assured that land could not be far 

It is probably difficult for us to fully appreciate the his- 
toric reach of this remarkable spot. In the span of three 
centuries it stands the very foundation of our civilization. 
When the first explorers climbed these sandy slopes, planted 
the British flag where we shall shortly fly it again, and built 
this fort upon the very spot where we are now met, the world, 
as we think of it to-day, was but little known, and beyond the 
continent of Europe and portions of the East, and certain 
islands of the sea, all other lands were unmapped, largely 
unl<nown, and barely, if at all, visited by even the pioneers 
of civilization. 


It is not without significance that the spot selected for the 
first Anglo-Saxon settlement should be mid-way between the 
rigors of the North and the enervating influences of the 
extreme South. Here where we are gathered there is an ex- 
traordinary climatic condition, due to the proximity of the 
Gulf Stream, which gives this section, and notably this par- 
ticular island, such a combination of favorable climate that 
if Sir Walter Ealeigh had been furnished with every geo- 
graphical resource of the present day, with a map complete 
in all details of the whole of Eastern United States, with a 
botanical survey of the Eastern States, and with a climatic 
report from the weather bureau, he could not have discovered 
anywhere along our coast any other spot whatever where all 
conditions are so extraordinarily combined in so favorable a 

When in years to come the settlement of Roanoke Island 
is everywhere recognized, as it undoubtedly will be, and this 
place is honored with those memorials which sooner or later 
our nation will place here, the visitor will continually rejoice, 
as do we to-day, in this rare blending of place and historic 
occasion and in this most favorable setting for the pioneer 
scene of American history. 


It is of course difficult in the midst of these genial sur- 
roundings, when families have assembled from so many ad- 
joining counties, when there are, I am told, visitors from so 
many distant points, and when we have already obtained 
promising glimpses of overladen picnic baskets — it is, 1 repeat, 
difficult to achieve the historic reach of time which belongs 
to this particular spot. We must drop back, not one nor yet 
alone two, but even three and one-third centuries. We must 
think ourselves back into the days when the minds of men 
were engaged with dreams of heroic adventure, and when 
particularly the Englishman, inspired by Queen Elizabeth, 
was seeking to make himself the master of even the most 
distant lands. 


Events happening in times so far remote are likely either 
to be SO far removed from the thought and experience of 
present days that they cease to be living and real events, or 
else they are surrounded of necessity with so much historic 
obscurity that their very dimness of outline tempers the 
quality of our interest. 

It is a matter of profound satisfaction that we are so ex- 
cellently furnished with accurate data relative to the story 
of this island and that out of what is, at least for America. 
a most remote past, every detail is preserved for us with clear 
and clean-cut accuracy. 

Happily the story of the settlement of Roanoke Island 
carries with it the marks of absolute accuracy, and we need 
not fear lest some day some more penetrating historian may 
be able to dismiss it as a myth. 

It is absolutely true, therefore, that three and one-third 
centuries ago these very events which we are celebrating 
to-day transpired on this very spot, and every aid which will 
assist us to turn back our thoughts and re-people this island 
with its first settlers will serve to deepen our delight and 
interest in this remarkable page of American history. 

ISTot alone the State of North Carolina, but the whole 
nation, owes a debt to this organization, namely, the Roanoke 
Island Memorial Association. Yonder memorial stones, ap- 
propriately modest and in quiet keeping with these forest 
surroundings, mark indeed the foundation stone in the story 
of the history of our nation. To us these days are our ancient 
history. From them we trace the growing story of our 
people and to them we must ever return when we seek the 
cradle of our nation's birth. 

As in every movement which lies at the foundation of 
some enterprise, things, in themselves apparently small, often 
come to have great and lasting import. I stood the other day 
on a mountain ridge far to the west of us where a falling 
rain drop might by the divergence of a fraction of an inch 


have its whole future course determined either into the 
Atlantic to the east or into the Mississippi to the west. So 
in the first moments of the history of our civilization a slight 
divergence of circumstance might, and probably would, have 
caused changes astonishing in their present import. Had not 
Columbus, over-persuaded by his sailors, and contrary to his 
own best judgment, swung his tiller through fifteen degrees 
of the circle, he himself would first have sighted land perhaps 
at this very spot, certainly not far from here, and the civili- 
zation which would have sprung up in the historic heart and 
gateway of the United States — for I take this spot to be the 
heart and gateway of our nation — would have been Spanish 
and not Anglo-Saxon, and the bloody story which charac- 
terizes the early history of Central America and Mexico 
would have been instead the strange story of our own land 
and country. 

So, too, in these first beginnings 330 years ago, events, ap- 
parently insignificant, become momentous in their ultimate 

It is, I believe, within the bounds of historic fact to state 
that because of the mere breaking of a cable rope the ultimate 
story of the Roanoke Island settlement is destined to be for- 
ever shrouded in mystery. 

I quote from Governor John White's diary of his fifth and 
last voyage, 1590, when he was returning to the colony he 
had left on this island : 

"We came over against the north side of the island and 
sounded with a trumpet a call, and afterwards many familiar 
tunes of songs, and called to them friendly; but we had no 
answer ; we therefore landed at day break, and coming to the 
fire we found the grass and sundry rotten trees burning 
about the place. From hence we went through the woods 
to that part of the island directly over against Dasamongue- 
peuk, and from thence we returned by the water side round 
about the north point of the island until we came to the place 
where I left our colony in the year 1586. In all this way 


we saw in the sand the print of the savage's feet of two or 
three sorts trodden in the night; and, as we entered up the 
sandj bank, upon a tree, in the very brow thereof were curi- 
ously carved these fair Koman letters, C. R. O., which letters 
presently we knew to signify the place where I should find 
the planters seated, according to a secret token agreed upon 
between them and me at my last departure from them ; which 
was, that in any way they should not fail to write or carve on 
the trees or posts of the doors the name of the place where 
they should be seated ; for at my coming away they were pre- 
pared to remove from Roanoke fifty miles into the main. 
Therefore at my departure from them in Au., 1587, I willed 
them, that if they should happen to be distressed in any of 
those places, that then they should carve over the letters or 
name a cross (''') in this form; but we found no such sign 
of distress, . . . and one of the chief trees or posts at 
the right side of, the entrance (to the fort) had the bark 
taken off, and five feet from the ground in fair capital letters 
was graven C R O A T A IST without any cross or sign of dis- 

. . . I was greatly joyed that I had safely found a 
certain token of their safe being at Croatan, which is the 
place where Manteo was born, and the savages of the island 

our friends. 

* * * 

The next morning it was agreed by the captain and myself, 
with the master and others, to weigh anchor, and go for the 
place at Croatan where our planters were. ... So then 
they brought the cable to the capstan, but when the anchor 
was almost aport the cable broke, by means whereof we lost 
another anchor, wherewith we drove so fast into the shore 
that we were forced to let fall a third anchor, which came so 
fast home that the ship was almost aground by Kendrick's 
Mounts ; so that we were forced to let slip the cable, end for 
end. . . . Being thus clear of some dangers, and gotten 
into deeper waters, but not without some loss ; for we had but 


one cable and anchor left us of four, and the weather grew to 
be fouler and fouler; it was therefore determined that we 
should go to St. John or some other island to the southward 
for fresh water, and it was further proposed that if we could 
anyways supply our wants of victuals and other necessaries 
at Hispanolia, St. John or Trinidad, that then we should con- 
tinue in the Indies all the winter following, and at our return 
visit our countrymen at Virginia." 

Had therefore White's ship ridden out the passing storm 
of that night, he and his men would doubtless have landed 
shortly upon the mainland, and in a little while would have 
solved for all time the disappearance of the settlers, and 
would have written for us in clear characters the whole 
chapter in this strange and fascinating story. 


These men and these women were English, and this flag 
which we shall soon hoist is the English flag, flown then as 
now over many lands and many seas. I have read with 
amazement the record of the personnel of this party of set- 
tlers. There were sailors ; there were soldiers of fortune ; 
there were sons of nobility; there were men of culture, stu- 
dents of literature and of the arts and sciences. 

This little island was trod by the feet of a notable group 
of men whose names have left their wide and lasting imprint 
upon the world's civilization: Cavendish, the bold and dis- 
tinguished sailor who circumnavigated the globe; Thomas 
Hariot, highly distinguished as a mathematician and scien- 
tist; John White, explorer, artist and scientist, whose maps 
and drawings still preserved furnish invaluable material for 
early studies in native American life, and the great Sir 
Frances Drake, destroyer of the Spanish Armada. 

We must think today of the sturdy seamen who, with stir- 
ring triumph, first climbed these sand-hills and planted this 
flag. His successor to-day flies the English flag from the 
rising to the setting of the sun. I have thought this very week 


how proudly would be stirred the heart of old Sir Walter 
Raleigh could he have read that calmly raasterful declaration 
issued less than forty-eight hours ago when the Lord High 
Admiral of the English Navy declared to the world that the 
English flag had cleared the seas lying yonder to the east 
of us, and that traffic and travel were now safe from the 
Bermudas to the Arctic because the English Admiralty de- 
clared it so. They who first trod these island shores were 
the ancestors of the sea-loving Englishman of to-day. 

When night falls on this quiet island it is perhaps easier 
to people these forests with the ninety-six men, seventeen 
women, and nine children of the past. But of all those whose 
vision hovers about us here, and whose memory we seek to 
honor on this Anniversary Day, there is one who is peculiarly 
enshrined in the very inner heart of the story of Roanoke 

If we stand in splendid admiration at the courage and 
high chivalry of those early men of pioneer endeavor, what 
shall we say when we think of that gentle woman, Eleanor, 
daughter of Governor White and wife of Ananias Dare ? 

Into her heart what thoughts of the quiet scenes of old 
England in the midst of these forest solitudes, what emotions 
must have strained her eyes when the last ship sailed home- 
ward, and when the last tie had been severed with the old and 
beloved homeland? This foundation story in the history of 
our nation is a story of fearless men, of courageous women, 
and last and most of all it is the story of an infant child. 
Into the shadows of that night, Tuesday, the 17th day of 
August, into the stillness of this great and noble forest, into 
the loneliness of this isolated island there came that plaintive 
sound of which the poet Tennyson speaks : 

"An infant crying in the night, 
An infant crying for the light, 
And with no language but a cry." 

Where in all history of our land, yea and of other lands, is 
there a story which surpasses this in its appeal of natural 


beauty, of heroic chivalry, of motherly courage and of 
shrouded mystery. The shrine of the new-born American 
nation, as we view it here, is indeed the shrine of an infant 
child, and in a sense, as was once the case centuries ago, we 
and succeeding generations ever stand with reverent awe 
about the birth-place of a little child, and in this spirit we 
read with tender interest on yonder simple granite stone these 
gentle words : 

Near this place was born on the 18th of August, 1587, 

ViBGiNiA Dare, 
The first child of English parents born in America — 
Daughter of Ananias Dare and Eleanor White, his wife, 
members of another band of colonists sent out by Sir 
Walter Raleigh in 1587. 


General Francis Nash 

An Address by Hon. A. M. Waddell 

Delivered at the Unveiling of a Monument to General Nash, 

Voted by Congress, at the Guilford Battle Ground, 

July 4, 1906 

Mr. President and Geyitlemen of the Guilford Battle Ground 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

An ancient maxim declares that Republics are ungrateful. 
We are to-day in the presence of a noble and enduring proof 
of its falsity. A gTeat statesman declared that no monument 
ought to be erected to a public character until a hundred 
years after the period of his active services, for there could 
be no absolute assurance of their permanent value until the 
lapse of that time. 

To this supreme test the public character and services of 
which I shall speak on this occasion have been subjected, and 
they have gained additional lustre in the alembic of the 
years. Those services ended, and he who performed them 
closed his earthly career more than a century and a quarter 
ago upon one of the battlefields of the American Revolution, 
and to-day we are assembled to witness the final execution of 
his country's long-declared purpose to perpetuate his mem- 
ory by the erection of this solid and beautiful work of art. 

Such a tribute by a great nation to an unselfish patriot, a 
brave soldier and accomplished gentleman who sacrificed his 
life for the establishment and maintenance of the liberties of 
his country, is honorable to it, and, if the dead be conscious 
of the deeds of the living, must be grateful to his spirit. 

Little did he dream when death confronted him on that 
bloody field in Pennsylvania that, in the far distant future, 
on the ground where another battle was fought in the same 
cause, and within fifty miles of his own ISTorth Carolina home. 


assembled thousands would witness the unveiling of a nation's 
monument to his memory. His only hope and aspiration, as 
his letters prove, was that his country would be victorious, 
and that he would soon return to his loved ones to pass the 
remainder of his days in the peaceful enjoyment of domestic 
life. The full realization of this hope was denied him, in 
common with many another hero and patriot who gave his life 
to the cause, but the larger hope prevailed, and his country 
triumphed. Great indeed and far-reaching was that triumph, 
for it revolutionized human history and established forever — 
at least among people of Anglo-Saxon origin — the doctrine 
of government by the people. There have been lapses in the 
practical enforcement of this doctrine, but it has always 
persistently asserted itself and will continue to do so to the 
end of time. It is our inheritance from which we can never 
be divorced, and for the priceless possession we are indebted 
to the heroic men who in an apparently hopeless contest of 
seven years duration finally forced its acceptance at the point 
of the bayonet and proudly proclaimed it to an astonished 

The man with the blood of the American Revolution in his 
veins who can regard with indifference the career of any sol- 
dier of that struggle who gave his life for his country is 
unworthy of the privilege which he enjoys as an American 
citizen. If whenever that glorious era of the birth of liberty 
is celebrated, he does not feel a thrill of admiration and rev- 
erence for the men who by their valor and patient sacrifices 
made it immortal, he is a degenerate. 

Some years ago an American statesman declared that the 
government of the American Colonies by George III was the 
best government then existing on earth, and he was right in 
his judgment, for there was no government on earth at that 
time which fully recognized the rights of the people, and the 
British government came nearer to it than any other. So 
much more honor to the American subjects of that govern- 
ment for their demand for the fullest rights and privileges of 


British subjects, and, when these were denied, to assert the 
right of resistance to oppression. They began it in ISTorth 
Carolina long before the Kevolution, and even after their 
open resistance to the Stamp Act in 1765 for nearly ten years 
they declared again and again — George Washington being a 
leader in such declaration — that they did not desire, or con- 
template a separation from the British crown, but when 
finally driven to the wall they turned and deliberately de- 
clared themselves independent. The first Declaration of In- 
dependence was made at Charlotte on the 20th May, 1775, 
and the first instruction to representatives in the Continental 
Congress to declare for independence was given by the Con- 
vention at Halifax on the 12th April, 1776. 

How these bold declarations were sustained by North Caro- 
lina people when the issue of battle was presented, is a story 
that ought to be made familiar to every school child in the 
State. The duty assigned to me today can only embrace a 
fragment of it, but that fragment covers a career of which 
every ISTorth Carolinian should feel proud. 

A few miles below Farmville, in Prince Edward County, 
Virginia, and in the forks of the Appomattox and Bush 
rivers, there was in 1732 a large landed estate of more than 
5,000 acres, which had been settled by a gentleman from 
Tenby, Pembrokeshire, South Wales, who from the time of 
his arrival in Virginia to the day of his death was prominent 
and active in affairs, both of church and State. The county 
of Prince Edward was a part of Henrico County prior to 
1754, and therefore the earlier record of this gentleman is 
credited to the latter county. 

He was presiding Justice of the county, and is said to have 
attended the sessions of the court in great state, with a coach 
and four, being received by the sheriff at the door very cere- 
moniously. He had been sheriff of Henrico County, and 
after the formation of Prince Edward County was the first 
member of the house from that county. He was associated 
with the leaders of the Colony and helped to build old St. 
John's Church in Richmond, where Patrick Henry after- 


wards delivered his celebrated philippic, and in 1757 was 
appointed colonel of a regiment that was sent to protect the 
frontier against the Indians. 

This gentleman, John Nash, before coming to Ameri'ca 
with his brother Thomas, had married Anna Owen, daughter 
of Sir Hugh Owen of Tenby, and he named his estate in 
the forks of the Appomattox and Bush rivers, ''Templeton 
Manor," after the town of Templeton, near Tenby. On this 
estate he lived in the style and with the abounding comforts 
that characterized the life of a wealthy Virginia planter of 
that period, and there brought up the four sons, and four 
daughters who were born to him, all of whom personally, or 
in their children, reflected honor upon his name and their 
own. Indeed it may be safely asserted that there are few 
families in the country that produced, in proportion to their 
numbers, more distinguished men in civil and military life 
than his. The oldest of his sons. Col. Thomas ITash, married 
Mary Reade, and removed first to Lunenburg County and 
represented that county in the House of Burgesses and thence 
to Edenton, 'N. C, where he died in 1769, leaving an only 
daughter, Anna Owen Nash, who married in 1771 the Rev. 
John Cameron, of Petersburg, Va. Their children were 
Judge Duncan Cameron, of Raleigh, Judge John A. Cam- 
eron, of the United States District Court of Florida; Dr. 
Thomas Cameron, of Fayetteville, N. C, and William Cam- 
eron, of EUersly, Orange County, 

His second son was Col. John Nash, the second, who was a 
colonel in the Revolution in 1781, represented Prince Edward 
County in House of Delegates in 1778, was the founder and 
a member of the Board of Trustees of Hampden Sidney Col- 
lege, inherited the estate of Templeton by devise from his 
father, and died in 1803. 

The third son of Col. John Nash, was Abner Nash, who, 
after succeeding his father as representative from Prince 
Edward, moved to New Bern, N. C, and was a member of the 
Provincial Congress at Halifax in the years 1774-'5-'6, which 
body appointed him, among other committees, on one to pre- 


pare the constitution of the new State. He was an able law- 
yer, the first Speaker of the first House of Commons, and 
the second Governor of the State, 1779-'81, and a member of 
the Continental Congress, 1782-'86, and died in New York 
during the session of Congress, December 2, 1786. He was 
the father of the late Chief Justice Frederick Nash, of our 
Supreme Court. 

And now we come to the fourth and youngest son of Col. 
John Nash (original owner of Templeton Manor) General 
Francis Nash, in whose honor this memorial arch has been 

Like his brothers Thomas and Abner, he too removed to 
North Carolina, but selected his residence in a different part 
of the State — Hillsborough — a town which even then had 
begun to be historic. He came there a young lawyer seeking 
his career, and soon made his mark. He had never held any 
office, but some time after settling there he was appointed 
Clerk of the Superior Court of Orange County, and also a 
Captain under the Crown. He commanded his company in 
the battle of Alamance in 1771, and his steady conduct 
attracted attention. He was a member of the Provincial 
Congress that met at Hillsborough in August, 1775, and was 
elected by that body September 1, 1776, Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the First Regiment of the Continental Line, of which 
James Moore was elected Colonel. 

That regiment, with the militia under Caswell, Lillington 
and others, won the first victory of the Revolution at Moore's 
Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776. Colonel Moore having 
been appointed brigadier-general immediately after that fight, 
Nash became colonel, his commission dating from April 10, 
1776. On the first of June, Sir Henry Clinton's fleet with 
Cornwallis's forces, left the mouth of the Cape Fear for 
Charleston, and immediately the first and second regiments 
under General Moore started for that place, arriving on the 
11th. The British fleet opened fire on Fort Moultrie on the 


28th of June, and Cornwallis's troops tried to land, but were 
beaten off by Colonel Thompson's South Carolina Rangers 
and a battalion of two hundred picked men from Nash's regi- 
ment under Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, and these ISTorth Caro- 
lina troops received high praise from the commanding general 
(Charles Lee) for their conduct. 

After the defeat of the British the JSTorth Carolina regi- 
ments were concentrated at Wilmington, where they were 
rigidly drilled and disciplined until about the middle of 
I^ovember, at which time they were ordered to the North to 
re-enforce General Washington's army. They marched as far 
as Halifax on the way, but were kept there for three weeks, 
and were then counter-marched to the vicinity of Charleston 
again to meet another threatened attack by the British, who 
were near St. Augustine, Florida. On the 5th of February, 
1777, Colonel Nash was promoted to the rank of brigadier 
general, and assumed command of the brigade. 

The States of Georgia and South Carolina were endan- 
gered, and because of the urgent request of those States the 
North Carolina troops were kept for their defense until 
March 15, 1777, when they were again ordered to join Gen- 
eral Washington, who was retreating through New Jersey 
with great loss, and in extreme danger. They resumed their 
former route, passing through Wilmington, Halifax, Rich- 
mond, Alexandria and Georgetown to Philadelphia. Their 
splendid reputation had preceded them, and the result was 
that their march through Virginia and Maryland was a suc- 
cession of enthusiastic receptions by the people. 

After a few days stop in Philadelphia, some of the regi- 
ments arrived at Washington's camp at Middlebrook, New 
Jersey, about the last of June, 1777. The brigade was held 
at Trenton for about ten days in July, and from there General 
Nash wrote one of the two or three letters of his that are 
still in existence. It was a letter to his wife dated July 25th, 
and shows that he was thoroughly competent, and understood. 


the strategy of the commander-in-chief, although they were 
both at that time uncertain as to the British commander's 
real point of attack. ''When I left Philadelphia, which was 
a week or ten days ago," he says, "I expected that we should 
have proceeded directly to headquarters. However, I received 
a letter from General Washington directing me to remain at 
this place until further orders, under a supposition that the 
late movements of the enemy might probably be only a feint 
in order to draw our army as far to the north as possible, and 
then by a forced march endeavor to gain Philadelphia, before 
the necessary succor could be afforded. In which case, we 
being directly in their route, should probably have it in our 
power to retard their progress, until our army could get up 
with their rear. However, from some accounts received this 
morning (to-wit, that a considerable part of their fleet had 
been discovered moving up the jSTorth River), I think there 
cannot remain a' doubt that their operations are intended 
against that quarter. General Washington, in consequence 
of this intelligence, has moved with his whole army within 
twenty miles of Fishkilns, about one hundred miles from 
hence, where he means to remain until the designs of the 
enemy are reduced to a certainty. I have been re-enforced 
since I came here by one regiment of Virginians and an artil- 
lery corps with six brass field pieces, making the strength of 
my brigade, in the whole, about 2,000." 

''This morning for the first time I have seen a general 
return of the state of our army, and it is with pleasure I 
inform you that we have now on the field, of continental 
troops, effective, upwards of 20,000, exclusive of those in 
Canada, which I suppose amount to 4,000 or 5,000 more ; add 
to this a most admirable train of artillery, and 700 Light 
Horse equal at least to those of the enemy in discipline, 
equipage and everything else, is it possible with such an army 
and a Washington at their head that Americans can have 


anything to fear? 'No, dear Sally, I now feel the fullest 
assurance that can be founded in human events, that nothing 
less than the immediate interposition of Providence (which 
I will not suppose to be excited in favor of tyranny and 
oppression) can prevent us from the invaluable blessings of 
liberty, freedom and independence. With these assurances 
I rest satisfied, with the blessing of Heaven, of returning to 
you ere long crowned with victory, to spend in peace and 
domestic happiness the remainder of a life, which, without 
you, would not be worth possessing." 

This accession of force, so greatly needed and longed for 
by Washington, not only served to stop his retreat, but stimu- 
lated him to assume the aggressive against his opponent, Sir 
William Howe, who had embarked his forces by water to the 
head of Elk, in Maryland, with the intention of moving on 
Philadelphia. Washington and Howe fought at Chadd's 
Ford on the Brandywine, September 11, 1777, and Howe won 
the battle and took possession of Philadelphia. The ISTorth 
Carolina troops at Brandywine had to oppose the flanking 
movements of Lord Cornwallis, and although compelled with 
the rest of the division to retreat, they did so not only in 
good order, but with repeated attacks on the enemy, and they 
aided in bringing off the field the artillery and baggage of the 
division to which they were attached. 

In less than a month after Brandywine, namely, on the 4th 
of October, 1777, the battle of Germantown was fought, in 
which ISTash led the ISTorth Carolina troops. They behaved 
splendidly and won great praise from Washing-ton. They 
were in the reserve force under Major-General Stirling, and 
were thrown into the attack on the right. General ISTash was 
leading them into action down the main street of German- 
town, when a round shot shattered his thigh, killing his horse 
and throwing him heavily to the ground. He tried to conceal 
the extent of his hurt by covering the terrible wound with his 
hands, and cheered on his men, saying: "Never mind me. I 


had a devil of a tumble; rusk on, my boys; rush on the 
enemy; I'll be after you presently." But he was mortally 
wounded, and was carried to a private residence, where after 
lingering in greatest agony for three days, he died on the 7th 
of October, 1717. His last words were : "From the first dawn 
of the Revolution I have been ever on the side of liberty and 
my country." He was buried in the Mennonist graveyard at 
Kulpsville, with military honors, and General Washington 
issued the following order for the funeral: 

"Headquarters, Toamensing, October 9, 1777. 
"Brigadier General Nash will be interred at 10 o'clock this 
forenoon, with military honors, at the place where the road 
where the troops marched on yesterday comes into the great 
road. All officers, whose circumstances will admit of it, will 
attend and pay this respect to a brave man who died in de- 
fense of his country. 

"Geokge Washington/' 

The shot that killed him also killed his aide. Major Wither- 
spoon, and was a stray one fired by a retreating enemy who 
had been driven for two hours or more, and were, as they 
themselves supposed, hopelessly defeated, when an accident 
saved them, and reversed the situation. There was a heavy 
fog and no breeze to dispel it or the smoke from the guns 
which so completely enveloped the field that it was impossible 
to see more than fifty yards. Two of the American columns 
mistook each other for the enemy, and each thought the other 
a re-enforcement with which it was unexpectedly confronted, 
and so, as Washington expressed it : "In the midst of the most 
promising appearances, when everything gave the most flatter- 
ing hopes of victory, the troops began suddenly to retreat, and 
entirely left the field in spite of every eft'ort that could be 
made to rally them." In the same letter, however, he says: 
"In justice to General Sullivan and the whole right wing of 
the army whose conduct I had opportunity of observing, as 


they acted immediately under my eye, I have the pleasure to 
inform you that both officers and men behaved with a degree 
of gallantry that did them the highest honor." 

More than once he referred to the death of General Nash 
as a deplorable loss to the army and to the cause for which 
he fought, and letters from the most distinguished citizens of 
the State and country, and newspaper articles on the subject 
justify the belief that General ISTash was very highly esteemed 
as a soldier and gentleman, and that both in his military and 
civil life he won the affections of his associates by his generous 
and unaffected conduct. Thos. Burke, then a member of 
Congress, and afterwards governor of the State, writing to 
Governor Caswell, says he was "one of the best, the most 
respected and regretted officers in the Continental Army," 
and Governor Caswell himself said that he "left no equal 
among the officers who survived him." 

George Washington Parke Curtis, in his "Recollections of 
Washington," speaking of General Il^J^ash's death and burial, 
uses the following language: "He lingered in extreme torture 
between two and three days and died, admired by his ene- 
mies — admired and lamented by his companions in arms. 
On Thursday, the 9 th of October, the whole American army 
was paraded by order of the commander-in-chief to perform 
the funeral obsequies of General ISTash, and never did the war- 
rior's last tribute peal the requiem of a braver soldier or 
nobler patriot than that of the illustrious son of ISTorth Caro- 

Many traditions of his physical comeliness, especially when 
mounted, have been preserved among his descendants, and 
one in particular I remember as told to me by a venerable 
man who said that one of General ISTash's soldiers told him 
that the general was the handsomest man on horseback that he 
ever saw. Colonel Polk, who was one of his officers, was fond 
of reciting his attractive qualities, and (as another venerable 
gentleman told me) , when describing the wound that crushed 


his leg, invariably concluded his eulogium by saying, "and he 
had the finest leg that was ever hung on a man!" But his 
physical beauty seems to have been only the complement of 
his moral and intellectual attributes, for he was one of the 
most enlightened, liberal, generous, and magnanimous gentle- 
men that ever sacriiiced his life for his country. 

And here it may not be inappropriate to record an incident 
of minor importance, but of some interest in connection with 
the events occurring on this battlefield of Guilford Court- 
house and with which the name of General ISTash is associated. 
The incident is one which rests on a family tradition and is 
as follows : Judge Maurice Moore, his father-in-law, had 
imported from England a thoroughbred horse named ''Mon- 
trose," and a mare called "Highland Mary," and had given 
to General jSTash their colt, a splendid bay named "Round- 
head." When General ISTash went into the army he left this 
favorite horse at his residence in Hillsborough, and during 
his absence David Fanning, the Tory leader, made a raid on 
Hillsborough and stole the horse. After Nash's death his 
body servant Harry, who was with him at Germantown, where 
he was killed, came home, and at the urgent request of Gen- 
eral Wm. R. Davie, who had been made commissary general, 
was turned over to him as his servant. Harry had been dis- 
tressed at the loss of his master's favorite horse, and at the 
battle of Guilford Courthouse he had suddenly exclaimed: 
"Look yonder at that ofiicer riding Roundhead !" The officer 
was Lord Cornwallis, and very soon after this the horse was 
killed under him. Cornwallis had two horses killed under 
him that day, according to all accounts, and some say three. 
The tradition to which I refer says the servant Harry not 
only recognized the horse at first, but after he was shot went 
to him and identified him. The faithful servant saw his 
master killed four years before in Pennsylvania by the 
British, and now within fifty miles of his home witnessed the 
death of his favorite horse on this battle ground by the 


Americans, who were shooting at his rider, the commander 
of the British army. 

General I^ash married Miss Sally Moore, daughter of 
Judge Maurice Moore, and sister of Judge Alfred Moore, 
afterwards of the Supreme Court of the United States, and 
had only two children. These were girls, the elder of whom^ 
Ann, died at the age of 13, and the younger of whom, Sarah, 
married Mr. John Waddell, a rice planter on the lower Cape 
Fear River. 

Some time after his death his widow married Gen. Thomas 
Clark, who had succeeded him as lieutenant-colonel a^d 
finally as brigadier-general in the Continental Line, but they 
left no children. 

One month after General Nash's death the Continental 
Congress, on the 4th of ISTovember, 1777, expressed its appre- 
ciation of the heroic services he had rendered, and directed 
that a monument should be erected to his memory. The 
resolution of Congress was in the following words : 

"Resolved, That His Excellency, Governor Caswell, of 
I^orth Carolina, be requested to erect a monument of the 
value of $500 at the expense of the United States in honor of 
the memory of Brigadier General Francis ISTash, who fell in 
the Battle of Germantown on the 4th day of October, 1777, 
bravely contending for the independence of his country." 

That resolution remained unexecuted because the State of 
ISTorth Carolina was then, and for some years afterwards, en- 
gaged in a life-and-death struggle for self-preservation, and 
had no time to expend in the erection of monuments to her 
heroes. ISTo monuments were erected, so far as I know, either 
by the general government or any State until long after the 
Revolution was ended, and therefore no blame could be justly 
attached to our State for not complying with the resolution at 
that time. 

But the patriotic spirit of a stranger to our State and peo- 
ple, John F. Watson, Esq., of Philadelphia, prompted him 


seventy years ago to induce the citizens of Germantown and 
Norristown to erect a monument over the grave of General 
]Srash, which v^as done, and for this deed his name should be 
gratefully remembered by every true IsTorth Carolinian. 

There have been persistent efforts for fifty years to have 
this resolution of Congress carried into execution by Con- 
gress, but from different sources opposition has with equal 
persistency interposed until these efforts ceased, from sheer 
desperation, to be made. But the patriotic Society of the 
Cincinnati, when re-organized in ISTorth Carolina, took charge 
of the matter, and from their meeting in 1896 annually 
pressed it upon Congress through the senators and represen- 
tatives from our State until 1903, when the bill was passed 
making the appropriation asked for. It would be an act of 
injustice, however, while accrediting the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati and the North Carolina senators and representatives 
fully with their action, not to record the fact that by his un- 
remitting labors and fortunate acquaintance with leading 
senators and representatives from all parts of the country, 
the chairman of the committee of the Cincinnati, Col. Benne- 
han Cameron, is entitled to a larger share of credit for this 
legislation than any other individual, and it gives me great 
pleasure to make public acknowledgment of the fact. After 
a careful examination of the whole history of these efforts 
and their final success this award of merit to Col. Cameron 
as the chief instrument in accomplishing the result cannot 
be justly withheld. And in this connection I wish to say 
that the design for this noble arch and its construction is at- 
tributable to the skill and taste of another ISTorth Carolinian, 
Capt. K. P. Johnston, of the Engineer Corps of the United 
States Army, who gave much time and care to the work, and 
has just reason to be proud of its final accomplishment. 

Of course it goes without saying that in all these efforts to 
secure this monument the devoted and patriotic President of 
the Guilford Battle Ground Company, Major Morehead, has 


been an indefatigable and active ally of the Cincinnati* and 
of the senators and representatives of our State, and that his 
services in that behalf merit and should receive the fullest 
recognition. It was only in keeping, however, with his whole 
record as president of the company to which he has unselfishly 
devoted so large a part of his time for some years past. 

And a nobler work these gentlemen never did, for from 
his first appointment as lieutenant-colonel to the time of his 
death. General ITash enjoyed the confidence of all his superior 
officers and the affection of the soldiers under his command 
to a remarkable degree. His career was a brief, but brilliant 
one, and ended on the field of glory, when he was only thirty- 
five years old. It is unquestionably true, and therefore just, 
to say that there was no officer of the American Revolution 
who acquired in the same period a more solid reputation for 
soldierly qualities, or who died more universally regretted 
than he, and that therefore his country for which he willingly 
gave his life has never erected a monument to a Revolution- 
ary hero and patriot that was more richly deserved than this 
which has been unveiled to-day. 


We concede the right of private opinion, of course, and we 
appreciate the speaker's very complimentary words grace- 
fully spoken of us. But since after its usual custom these un- 
veiling ceremonies were held upon its grounds by the Guilford 
Battle Ground Company, and since this pamphlet is edited 
and published by the company, silence here would be con- 
strued into acquiescence in the opinion here expressed, from 
which the company emphatically dissents. The Continental 
Congress voted appropriations for monuments to Generals 
Francis ISTash and William Lee Davidson which were never 
erected. In 1841-'2 the late Governor W. A. Graham, then 
senator in Congress from IsTorth Carolina, and in 1888 Sen- 
ator Vance, we are told, and in 1896 the l^orth Carolina 


Society of the Cincinnati, endeavored to revive these appro- 
priations, but failed in their efforts, and the inference is that 
a pursuance of the same method and advancement of the same 
arguments would have continued to fail. But in 1902 the 
Guilford Battle Ground Company furnished the Hon. W. W. 
Kitchin arguments and considerations which enabled him — 
to whom beyond all others merit is due for work done in 
Washington — to secure the appropriation by a two-thirds 
majority in the house, where a majority could never be 
secured, though attempted for sixty years. This was effected, 
too, over the objection of Speaker Cannon and his active oppo- 
sition. Mr. Kitchin told the House that the Battle Ground 
Company (or Association as it ought to be called) of ISTorth 
Carolinians had purchased, redeemed, beautified and adorned 
the famous Revolutionary Battlefield of Guilford Court 
House; that in its poverty it was continuing its struggle of 
fifteen years for its continued adornment, and that Congress 
should therefore, among other reasons, vote the appropriation 
and place the monuments at Guilford, Mr. Kitchin was then 
addressing many members of Congress who knew that thus to 
aid the Battle Ground Company was not only to honor jSTorth 
Carolina's noble dead, but that it was also to make of this 
battlefield for all time, a monument to troops for their 
respective States who fought here under Greene in 1781. 
This two-thirds majority illustrated the difference in effect 
upon Congress between the mere introduction of bills and 
resolutions and the reclamation, after vast toil and expendi- 
ture, of this famous battlefield. 

The resolution, as adopted, placed the disbursement of the 
funds, erection of the monuments, etc., in the hands of the 
Secretary of War, who should, however, act jointly with the 
Governor of JN'orth Carolina "in the selection of a location 
for the said monuments." The authority was soon placed by 
the Secretary of War in the hands of Hon. C. B. Aycock, the 
then governor, exclusively, and very soon a bitter contest arose 


before the governor between the Society of the Cincinnati 
and the Battle Ground Company — the Cincinnati desiring to 
locate the monument elsewhere than on the Guilford Battle 
Ground. Full evidence as to who secured the appropriation, 
and whose wishes were therefore entitled to prevail in their 
location, was laid before the Governor, the legally constituted 
and final authority in the matter, and after patient, painful, 
conscientious consideration, the Governor put them at Guil- 
ford, where they now stand. 

The supposed influence of Colonel Cameron, Chairman of 
the Committee of the Cincinnati, is here ascribed to his 
acquaintanceship with different members of Congress, and in 
this connection we have heard the name of Senator Wetmore, 
of Rhode Island, mentioned specifically. We now re-publish 
and append two letters which show that the company had its 
representative in Washington ; that he labored among influen- 
tial members, and that his labors were effectual: 

United States Senate. 

WASHiNaTON, D. C, Feb. 24, 1903. 
Deak Sir : 

Since receiving your letter of February 16, I have con- 
ferred with Senators Pritchard and Simmons, as well as Mr. 
W. W. Kitchin, and find that all are in favor of erecting the 
statues of Generals Nash and Davidson on the Guilford Bat- 
tle Ground. I have today addressed a letter to the Secretary 
of War, a copy of which is herewith transmitted, enclosing 
your letter to me on this subject. 

Very truly yours, 

Geoege Peabody Wetmoke. 
Colonel Joseph M. Morehead, Greensboro, IST. C. 

90 the noeth carolina booklet. 

United States Senate. 

' Washington, D. C, Feb. 24, 1903. 
Deae Me. Seceetaey: 

I desire to call your attention to the enclosed letter dated 
February sixteenth, addressed to me by Colonel Joseph M. 
Morehead, President of the Guilford Battle Ground Com- 
pany, who, during the consideration of the bill for the statues 
of Generals Nash and DaAddson, both in the House and Sen- 
ate, manifested the greatest interest in it. You will notice 
that he is very much exercised lest another site be chosen than 
the Guilford Battle Ground. I have conferred with Senators 
Pritchard and Simmons, of North Carolina, as well as with 
Mr. W. W. Kitchin, member of the House from that State, 
who all agree that the statues should be erected on the Guil- 
ford Battle Ground. I might also add that the Guilford Bat- 
tle Ground was t^he only place mentioned when the bill was 
under consideration in the House. 

Believe me. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Geoege Peabody Wetmoee. 
Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of War. 

Joseph M. Moeehead, 
President Guilford Battle Ground Company. 


Early English Survivals on Hatteras Island 

By Colliee Cobb 

l^otwitiLstanding the uniformity of American life, which 
has impressed the European visitor to this land as our coun- 
try's most serious drawback, there are still a few secluded 
spots, isolated land areas around the borders of our continent, 
whose inhabitants have escaped the blighting influence of 
predigested breakfast foods, Associated Press dispatches, syn- 
dicated stories, trust made school books, and that great de- 
stroyer, the schoolmaster. 

Physiographic features here present such uniformity over 
vast areas that the few unique spots of land which might 
produce inhabitants of varying types are set apart as state or 
national parks, or forests, to be used as playgrounds for the 
people. Even the mountain section of JSTorth Carolina, which 
Southerners are fond of calling ''The Switzerland of Amer- 
ica," probably because it possesses not one feature of Swiss 
scenery, has become thoroughly modernized and American- 
ized, and there is not another town of its size in our country 
so thoroughly cosmopolitan as Asheville, our mountain me- 
tropolis, has become during the last two decades. The arts 
and crafts of the mountains had practically disappeared dur- 
ing that time, and had to be taught anew to the women of the 
Biltmore estate, whose mothers and grandmothers, less than a 
score of years ago, were skilled weavers of exquisite tapestries. 

In a land where journeys are made from the plains of the 
interior to Longwood or Atlantic City for a summer's outing, 
or from Carolina to the geysers of the Yellowstone for a 
fortnight's holiday, and all this with as much ease and comfort 
as staying at home, there is little left but the monotony of 
American life that so deeply impressed Mr. James Bryce 
when he was writing his "American Commonwealth." 


The sand reefs of the ISTorth Carolina coast before the ad- 
vent of motor boats in that region just a decade ago, afforded 
a large measure of seclusion, and that safety which comes 
from isolation, safety from the incursions of tourists and 
pleasure seekers, and from exploitation by magazine writers. 

The most interesting of these reefs was then three days' 
journey from almost any point, but when you had made the 
journey yo.u had gone back three centuries in time. Though 
known to every one by name, and dreaded by all seafaring 
men as the graveyard of American shipping, hardly a score 
out of our eighty millions of population had ever set foot on 
this island. Even all the fingers of one hand were not needed 
to count the dwellers on the mainland who were personally 
acquainted with this dangerous sand-reef and its mild-man- 
nered people. To most men it is a sort of world's end, as 
indeed it has been to many a poor mariner; and even to the 
few who know it best it is a veritable foreign land at home. 

Hatteras Island is an elbow-shaped sand-spit, forty miles in 
length measured around the elbow, and from half a mile to 
five miles in width. It lies along the very border of the conti- 
nental shelf, a hundred miles beyond the normal trend of the 
coast, and almost within the Gulf Stream. It occupies the 
center of the quadrangle made by the parallels 35 degrees 
and 36 degrees, north latitude, and the meridians 75 degrees 
and 76 degrees, west longitude. 

The geological history, physiographic features, and climatic 
conditions of this island have been made a subject of special 
investigation by the writer for something like a score of years. 
But since geography is a study of the earth as man's physical 
environment, and geology a study of the earth as a field for 
the devolopment of organic life, the geologist must of necessity 
have an interest in the influence of environment on the human 
organism. The purpose of this paper is to deal with this 
human interest in one of its phases, the influence of isolation 
as it shows itself in the preservation of old English words and 


the ancient, forms of speech once common to our group. On 
this island, in spite of J^ature's changes, with all her storms 
and buffetings, we find words in daily use that have never 
here drifted from their mediaeval moorings. 

When I reach any point on the island, my friends who have 
not seen me land invariably ask : "How did you come ? Did 
you come in a boat, or did you travel ?" Travel, in this case, 
means to walk. Once I was told that I could reach a certain 
sand dune by traveling about two acres, across a palmetto 
swamp, an acrCj in this case, being a furlong, or eighth of a 
mile, an old English use of the word. 

"How do you go home when you get to the country ? Do 
you go by boat up the river, do you go by train, or do you 
travel ?" I was asked by a man who knew my fondness for 
walking. "I do not know what I should do if we lived in the 
country where we could not hunt or fish, for I had rather 
starve than have my husband dig potatoes," one good woman 
said to me. By country they mean the mainland opposite the 
island, this woman explaining it to me as, "some such place 
as ISTorth Carolina, or even New York, or Norfolk, or Raleigh, 
or Chapel Hill; anywhere off The Banks," meaning by The 
Banks, the line of sand reefs along the North Carolina coast, 
and using the word country very much as Britishers would 
say "the continent." On The Banks, then, a traveling sales- 
man would be a tramp peddler. 

Now this use of travel, as meaning to walk, to move along 
on foot, was common in England in the days of Queen Eliza- 
beth, and I have found it used several times in Hakluyt's 
Voyages. It is used with a somewhat different pronunciation, 
but in exactly the same sense, to-day, in corners of Ireland, of 
Yorkshire, and of Scotland. I have never met with this use 
of the word in North America except on Hatteras Island; 
though among the Sioux Indians of the North and Northwest 
there is in use a kind of trailer made of two lodge poles 
attached to a horse, like shafts, having a sack of skins lashed 


to the cross-bars behind the horse, and used for carrying 
goods, or for sick or wounded persons. The Indian name for 
this vehicle is travay, but the word used in this way is more 
nearly related to working than to walking. 

This Hatteras Island use of country is the original use of 
the word, as meaning the "land opposite." It occurs in this 
sense to-day nowhere else, so far as my observation goes. 
Continejit is used for the mainland on some of the islands 
farther north, as on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The 
lady who used country in this way had been but recently 
married, and the bridegroom had furnished the trousseau, an 
ancient custom that prevails to-day nowhere else in ^orth 
America, and one that is falling into disuse here. 

I have always taken a kodak with me when visiting the 
island, and the chief pleasure derived from its use has been 
the taking of pictures of my friends there. On one of my 
early visits to Hatteras a young man asked : 

"Won't you make a picture of my may and me ?" 

"I'll be delighted to," I replied; "but what does your lady-" 
love look like ?" 

"You may not think her pretty, but she's a coutliy girl, and 
canty too." 

Here were words I had never heard before, but I soon came 
to understand their meaning, after I had met many of the 
island people who were "couthy women and trusty men." I 
have often met the word may in old English love songs, mean- 
ing a maid, a fair woman, a cousin, a sweetheart. It is used 
most often as meaning maid, of which it is really a contracted 
form, and dates back to the middle of the fourteenth century 
or beyond that time. 

Couthy, besides meaning tender, sympathetic, motherly, as 
applied to these good women, or affable, pleasant, agreeable, 
like a familiar friend, has another meaning, which is well 
illustrated by the statement, "Will Watkins looked so kind 
and couthy-like to Lucy Lowe." 


Canty means merry, brisk, lively, as in the old couplet, 

A cozy house and a canty wife 
Keeps aye a body cheerly. 

Cant was the first form of this adjective, and trusty ^ of coursei> 
means trustworthy. This is a use familiar to us. 

I promised to meet the young people at nine o'clock the 
following morning to make the picture. At nine the young 
fellow came alone. When I asked why he had not brought the 
lady, he said: "She scooped me," meaning that she had got 
the better of him, run away from him, scampered off at the 
last moment. "And," he added, "she could fleech you, young 
man." Fleech is from the French, flechir; it passed into Mid- 
dle English, as to bend, then to flatter. Here again were 
words that I had never heard before; but I found that he 
meant she could flatter me into loving her, and then run away 
from me. JSTothing so remarkable about that girl after all ! 

Another time the young man described her to me as 
smicker. I took it to mean that she was neat in her person 
and elegant in her manners, as he did mean, and rightly; 
but his friend told me that it really meant that "she was soft 
on him." What a strange mixture of mediseval English and 
modern slang! I inadvertently mentioned the young man's 
name to the lady's mother, who said, "Oh, he scunners me," 
meaning "He disgusts me," which would seem to be a causa- 
tive use of what meant "to loathe." 

Here a kelpie is a water-sprite, an animal of the sea, a 
water-dog of some kind. "A kelpie is a sly devil; but you 
might possibly catch one, for he always roars before a storm 
at sea." A Hatteras man looking on a seal in a ISTorfolk park 
told me he had never seen a kelpie, but he imagined that a 
seal looked very much like one; and all along this coast 
kelpie is a common given-name for a dog, especially for a 
water spaniel. In the Scotch he appears to be more like a 
horse, and foretells drowning. 


All of the words mentioned so far are found in old Englisii 
or Scottish ballads, and several of them occur in one of the 
three mermaid songs heard occasionally along The Banks. 
These songs are now rarely heard except from the older 
women, and they seem ashamed to be caught singing them. 
It has been with the greatest difficulty that I have ever per- 
suaded them to repeat the words of an old song for me while 
I took it down from their dictation. 

I have constantly met with other words in the speech of 
these good people, which I was inclined to regard as careless 
or slovenly pronunciations, believing that '^indolence doth 
much corrupt our language." In this class I place the pro- 
nunciation of words with the omission of certain letters ; as, 
daugher (daughter), waer (water), buer (butter), leer (let- 
ter), and a host of others; faute (fault), fause (false), 
wanut (walnut), plead (pleased) ; others of unusual pro- 
nunciation, as trod (trot), throcked (thronged), leuch 
(laugh), birk (birch, sixteenth century form), egal (equal, 
like the French), thoct (thought, Scotch spelling, O. E.), 
sweet (sweetheart), fant (infant), wonders (wondrous), 
wharrel (quarrel, in Middle English, but French in origin), 
know (knoll), fole (fool) ; and others whose origin is not so 
evident, as throddy (plump), sleek, in good condition, as 
applied to a steer or to a mullet; cracker (boaster, cf. Burns 
and our "cracking jokes"), in which case Mr. Roosevelt's 
^'cracker jack" would not be a "bully chap," but a boasting 

There are other words in which there seems to be the inser- 
tion of a letter; as bloast or bloust for brag, and still others 
with which we are familiar, but used here in an unfamiliar 
sense, as blabber, "a great blabber" meaning simply a great 
chatterer (goes back to fourteenth century and miracle 
plays) ; bloater, a chubby child ; cant, gossip ; cap, surpass, in 
"I can cap you at that," or "I can cap your story," like our 
"cap the climax," or the game of "capping verses" ; accord, 
agree, in "Let's accord before we eat." 


Abash means bring discredit on, and was used by a student 
from the coast in a speech made in a literary society at the 
University of ISTorth Carolina, in the sentence, "Shall we 
abash our national honor ?" 

Abrade may mean to sicken or nauseate: as "Combread 
and fish abrade his stomach," said by my hostess when I was 
really sick from too much tramping over dunes in an August 

Many of the words in my list are used with meanings 
other than those we now associate with them. Fause means 
a tidal creek or a ditch, as well as false. Wwnut, used in 
warnit-know and warlock-knot, means a knot in timber or a 
particular knot in a rope, a very tight knot, and it is also 
used as a verb meaning to tighten, as the rope in rigging. 
Birh also means a smart young fellow, one who needs the 
birch, no doubt; and an interdune area, wet and grov^ra up 
with aspen or cottonwood switches, was described to me as 
hirhy. Birkie in old Scotch has this meaning, and the verb 
hirlc in Scotland means to answer sharply. In the broadest 
part of the island near Buxton there are knows of sand cov- 
ered with tall pines. 

These words may be mere slovenly pronunciations, but if 
they are due to mere indolence, it is an indolence that affected 
our ancestors when they were laying the foundations of the 
English language, as many of them date back to the age of 
Chaucer; and they show as diverse origins and as fine a 
blending of different characters as the Englishman himself. 
Some of these pronunciations are natural musical variations. 

In a Methodist church at Kinnakeet, on Hatteras Island 
to the north of the Cape, a young mother nursing two chil- 
dren sung to them a mermaid's song. 

Follow, follow through the sea, 
To the mermaid's melody, 
* * * 

the tune harmonizing very well with that of the hymn. 
Come Thou fount of every blessing, 


which the congregation was singing. This was in 1895, and 

yet the tune was essentially the same as that of Ariel's song 

in The Tempestj 

Full fathom five thy father lies, 

Of his bones are coral made — 

* * * 

sung in the days of Queen Elizabeth, and the music written 
out in the middle of the seventeenth century by John Banister. 
I have also heard Rosalind's Madrigal (1590) sung from the 
rigging of a ship, the sloop Loreda, 

Love in my bosom like a bee, 

Doth suck his sweet ; 
Now with his wings he plays with me, 

Now with his feet. 

In the third line the singer said '"he tickles me" instead of 
''he plays with me." 

But the question naturally arises: How came this Eliza- 
bethan and other English here ? In any one of several ways, 
or in several different ways. There are strong reasons for be- 
lieving that the lost colony of Roanoke fled to the protection of 
its friends, the Hatteras Indians. This question was dis- 
cussed by the writer many years ago. Then there are records 
of wrecks off Hatteras from 1558, when a ship was cast away 
near Secotan, manned by white people, and some of its crew 
preserved by the natives, and 1590, when Captain Spicer, 
Ralph Skinner, Hance, the surgeon, and others, eleven all 
told, were washed overboard from the ship of Raleigh's ad- 
venturers, to the present time, when many of the inhabitants 
of the island are there because their forefathers were wrecked 
there and preferred to remain on the island and make it their 
home. The language of the island, particularly the older 
forms of speech found there, is that of the better classes, or 
at least the middle classes in England in the days of Queen 
Elizabeth. The Raleigh voyagers having counted among 
their number gentlemen adventurers from all parts of the 
kingdom, it is not difficult to imagine that these forms were 
introduced by them. 


The fact is interesting in itself, however we may account 
for it, and it will soon be a thing of the past, as the traveler 
and the tourist, the schoolmaster and the trader, are fast mak- 
ing even Hatteras like the rest of the world. The writer's 
acquaintance with the island began in his early childhood, 
and he has noted greater changes in the speech of the people 
since the coming of the daily mail in motor boats, just ten 
years ago, than he had observed in the preceding thirty years, 
and the songs of the mothers and the grandmothers are well 

nigh forgotten by the daughters. 
Janxjaey, 1910. 


The Weather 

By Col. R. B. Creacy. 

Of all things terrestrial the weather is the most fickle, vari- 
able and uncertain. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and 
no man knoweth whence it cometh, or whither it goeth, said 
the inspired writer, and the wind is the most potent factor 
in the government of the weather. The weather prophet is 
often an object of derision, and the weather bureau, one of 
the most expensive pets of the government, as often contra- 
dicts as it confirms its predictions. 

The seasons come and go, spring follows winter, and sum- 
mer spring, when one season differs from another — and win- 
ter sits smiling in the lap of spring, men put on their over- 
coats and cry out aghast, "they never saw the like." 

But yet in the ordering of Providence some general laws 
govern the tides of times. Tradition hands down to us sea- 
sons that have been without precedent in the memory of man. 

The year 1816 has left a memory still memorable; every 
month of that famous year had a killing frost, no fruit 
matured, and the great staple of Indian corn was a withered 
product, and when gathered readily commanded seven dollars 
a barrel in the market, and was hardly to be had at that price. 
The winter was one of unprecedented severity. Albemarle 
Sound was frozen over, and old Parson Pettigrew crossed the 
ice from Mackey's Ferry to Edenton on foot, having a canoe 
drawn behind him for greater security. There has been but 
one season since that time when the Albemarle Sound was 
solidly frozen over. In the early twenties the citizens of 
Edenton barbecued an ox on the bay, and Dr. James ISTor- 
com,* a leader in festive sports, and a prominent citizen, led 

*Dr. James Korcom was a skilled surgeon of the War of 1S12. recommended by 
Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia and appointed bj' Nathaniel Macon, of North Caro- 
lina. A handsome portrait of him by Reynolds, an American artist, is now owned by 
his descendant, Miss Penelope C. Hoskins Norcom, of Hertford, North Carolina.— The 


the minuet with the belles of Edenton in a dance on the ice 
around the smoking roast. 

But these were exceptional seasons. There are certain 
laws which generally govern and which all men understand. 
The north wind has a ball of ice in its breath and the "sweet 
South" comes to us breathing on a bank of violets, "giving 
and taking odor." The tides rise and fall, and when they 
rise wiseacres shake their heads, put on their weather caps 
and predict rain, and when it f alleth dry weather is predicted, 
but yet often the reverse is true. So let us take comfort and 
take time and tide and circumstance with a welcome hand 
and thank God for his omnipotent government. 


The Gary WiU. 

11^ THE 'NAME OF GOD AMEl^. I, Mary Gary, of 
Virginia Surry Gounty do hereby make my last will and tes- 
tament, that is to say, principally, and first of all I give 
recommend my sonl into the hands of almighty god that gave 
it, and my body I recommend to the earth to be buried in 
decent christian burial at the direction of my executor: 
nothing doubting at a general resurrection I shall receive the 
same agein by the mighty power of god, and as touching such 
worldly estate wherewith it has pleased god to bless me in 
this life, that is to say, I give and bequeath unto my brother 
Shemuel Kearne my gold studs, a pair of silver mounting 
spectacles double jointed, and one hundred dollars, also I give 
and bequeath unto my nephew, Henry Grafford, all my 
money, that is in the bank of England, the four per cent 
bank, six silver table spoons, two salt spoons, a case of bottles, 
one small deal box with papers, and a book or two, one pair of 
weight and scales, also I give and bequeath unto my neice 
Grafford my blue satin quilt and ten dollars. Also I give and 
bequeath unto my neice Leah Hilliard a pair of silver mount- 
ing spectacles, single jointed, a set of china and a silver 
cream pot, one tea tray, one work basket, two napkins and ten 
dollars. Also I bequeath unto my neice Elizabeth Pettway 
my watch without the seal, a pair of silver buckles set with 
stones with some of the stones mist out of them, one floor 
carpet, one deal chest, a bread basket, two napkins, one shift, 
a striped lute string coat and habit, a muslin apron and hand- 
kerchief, a cap ribons all knotted and edging upon them, 
one pair of silk stockings, one pair of cotton ditto ; one 
pair of new stays, my large black satin cloak, a pair of 
gloves, my horse and chair gears, one homespun habit striped 
with red paint, and fifty dollars, my silver chain and pin- 
cushion rim and hook, a spice morter and pestle. Also I 


give and bequeath unto me neice Martha Arlington a muslin- 
net habit and a dimity coat, a muslin apron handkerchief, a 
linen apron, one trunk that my sister had put her clothes in, 
one lute string orange colored habit, one home spun habit, a 
pair of sheats, my yellow grounded habit, cap, a pair of 
gloves and twenty dollars. Also I give and bequeath unto my 
nephew Crafford Kearne, twenty dollars, also I give and be- 
queath unto my two neices Ruth and Drusiller Kearnes two 
twins, one feather bed, bolster, two pillows, two pillow cases, 
one pair of brown sheats, one pair of cotton sheats, blue and 
whit€ counterpain, two blankets, one small cap trunk, two 
upper coats two under coats, two shifts, two pair of stockings, 
two muslin aprons, two handkerchiefs, four habits and twenty 
dollars. Also I give and bequeath unto my neice Barbara 
Kearne my new feather bed and bolster; two pillows and 
mattress, four pillow cases one set of bed curtains two window 
curtains of the same, one base three blankets four sheats, one 
check counter with red in it, one bed quilt, one bed side car- 
pet, my round top clothes trunk and flat top clothes trunk, 
my walnut box and all that is in it, after the Legacies is taken 
out, my looking glass, dressing table, and glass soap box, tea 
chest and cannisters, six silver tea spoons and silver tea tongs, 
a mourning ring with William Bennett wrote on it, a blue 
lute string body of a habit, a striped lute string body of a 
habit, one muslin apron, two two handkerchiefs cap ribins 
with edging, my short black' silk coat, a garnet necklace, one 
pair of silk stockings, one pair of gloves, one Bible a prayer 
book with a green cover, a young mans companion, a box iron 
and heaters, a tea kettle, and a copper kettle, six knives and 
forks, six napkins, two table clothes marked number one and 
two, one tin pot with two handles and twenty dollars. Also 
I give and bequeath unto my nephew Adam Kearne one 
Dictionary and twenty dollars. Also I give and bequeath 
unto my neice Leah Kearne twenty dollars. Also I give and 
bequeath unto my neice Sarah Kearne, twenty dollars. Also 
I give and bequeath unto my neice Suzanna Mary Kearne, 


twenty dollars and a ring witli one stone in it. I lend unto 
my neice Eve Bradley twenty for her own use, — it is my 
desire that all my land in North Carolina and South Caro- 
lina factory and what property soever can be found in South 
Carolina be sold and equally divided amongst all mentioned 
in my will, also I do give and bequeath unto my dear nephew 
Henry Crafford, one hundred dollars and after my funeral 
charges is paid I leave all the remainder that is not men- 
tioned in my will to be equally divided amongst all named in 
my will. I do leave my dear nephew Henry Crafford exec- 
utor to this my last will and testament. — IN WITNESS 
whereof I set my hand this six day of November 1801 and 
fixt my seal 

Signed, seal'd and deliver- 
ed in presence of 
John Judkins, M^ry Pettway 

Ann X Amy 

At a court held for Surry County June the 26th, 1804. 

The within written testament and last will of Mary Cary 
deceased was presented in court by Henry Crafford the exec- 
utor therein named, and the same being proved by the oaths 
of John Judkins Gt. Mary Pettway and Ann Amy witnesses 
thereto was by the court ordered to be recorded. And on the 
motion of the said executor, who made oath and gave bond 
with Josiah Wilson Gt. his security in the sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars conditioned as the Law directs, certificate is 
granted him for obtaining a probate thereof in due form. 

A copy teste 

A. S. Edwards, Clk. 

Mary Cary was the widow of James Cary. In May, 1780, 
he was appointed a major by Lord Cornwallis, and shortly 


afterwards by Lord Rawdon lie was made Colonel of Militia 
of the Province of South Carolina, and served under them 
and General Stewart until the evacuation of South Carolina, 
December, 1782. He served in the forts of Wateree and Con- 
garee rivers. Being a Tory, of course his American posses- 
sions were confiscated. His possessions thus seized consisted 
of 2262 acres of land, 14 negro slaves, 26 horses, 109 head 
of black cattle, 35 head of sheep, 363 head of hogs, also tools, 
plate, furniture, provisions, flax, indigo, madder and cotton; 
a library valued at £50 ; the whole valued at £6304-8-0, for 
which he sought compensation from Parliament. He received 
a small allowance for the same. His lands were situated in 
South Carolina, and his residence was there during the Revo- 
lutionary War. 

Mary Cary was before her marriage Mary Kearne, or 
Kearney, of Virginia. She married first William Bennett, 
of JSTorthampton County, ISTorth Carolina. She was the sister 
of Elizabeth Kearney, who married Carter Crawford, or 
Crafford, of Virginia. The Crawfords come of a distin- 
guished line that has been traced far into the shadowy past 
and through Sir Ronald Crawford, the grandfather of Sir 
William Wallace. 

The following legatees mentioned in the Cary will, viz.. 
"my neice Leah Hilliard," "my neice Elizabeth Pettway," 
"my neice Martha Arrington," and "my dear nephew Henry 
Crafford" were the children of Carter Crawford and Eliza- 
beth Kearney, born August 27, 1745 ; died October, 1825. 
The eldest, Leah, married Isaac Hilliard, of I^ash County, 
:N'orth Carolina, born July 28, 1738; died June 25, 1790. 
Their home was "Woodlawn," on Swift Creek, about eleven 
miles from Rocky Mount. The tract of land consisted of 
20,000 acres. Among old letters found in the family there 
have been found some addressed to "Major Isaac Hilliard." 
He must have served in the Revolution. 

The silver and furniture of Leah Crawford Hilliard can 
be found now in the possession of her descendants scattered 


throughout JSTorth Carolina. Her miniature is now owned by 
a member of the Perry family. Martha Crawford married 
Joseph Arrington, and has many descendants in this State. 
Her portrait belongs to Miss Rowe Wiggins, of Wilmington, 
JSTorth Carolina. Captain Henry Crawford (the brother), 
of Bacon Castle, Surry County, Virginia, never married. He 
died in 1825, leaving a large estate. 


Biographical Sketches of Contributors. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Biographical Editor, has been pre- 
vented from preparing a sketch of Dr. Howard Rondthaler 
for this issue of The Booklet. 

A sketch of the late Hon. Alfred Moore Waddell, by Mrs. 
E. E. Moffitt, appeared in The Booklet of July, 1907, Vol! 
VII, i^o. 1. 

Biographical sketches of Prof. Collier Cobb, by Mrs. E. E. 
Moffitt, appeared in the January, 1912, and the October, 
1912, issues of The Booklet. 

The readers of The Booklet will have the pleasure of 
another article from his gifted pen in this number entitled, 
"Early English Survivals on Hatteras Island." It has been 
printed five times, and has had a very flattering reception 
across the water. There is hardly a European university in 
which it has not been put to some use. 

This paper was a talk delivered for the first time to the 
English Literature class at Peace Institute, Raleigh, in Janu- 
ary, 1910, and published in the University Magazine from a 
report furnished the author by one of the young ladies of the 
class. 'Professor Cobb, of course, has made some corrections 
in the report. The paper appeared in the North Carolina 
Review, February 6, 1910, with the title, "On the Island of 
Hatteras," given it by Mr. R. D. W. Connor. It was com- 
mented on by a number of papers at a distance, and reviewed 
in The Geographical Journal (London: The Royal Geo- 
graphical Society), September, 1910. Several reprints have 
been made to meet the European and British demand. Our 
readers will be pleased to learn that Professor Cobb has on 
hand material for other studies in anthropogeography, as 


Frencli Survivals in the Lowlands of ISTortli Carolina, Tlie 
German Element in Up-conntrj Carolina, Scottish-Higliland 
Survivals in the Carolina Highlands, etc. 

Professor Cobb has done excellent work. Few North Caro- 
linians enjoy the international reputation that he has won, 
and The Booklet is always honored in securing contribu- 
tions from him. 

Vol. XIV JANUARY, 1915 No. 3 


NORTH Carolina Booklet 

"Carolina I Carolina i Heaven's blessings attend her I 
While zve live zve will cherish, protect and defend her" 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editoe. 





Mrs. Hubeet Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillabd. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor, Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancet Haywood 

Dr. E. W. Sikes. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliabd Hinton. 








Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 




Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 






Mrs. JOHN E. RAY, 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent, 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent, 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent, 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 

Regent 1902: 
Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.t 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Regent 1906-1910: 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XIV JANUARY, 1915 No. 3 

The Creative Forces in Westward Expansion: 
Henderson and Boone^ 

By Archibald Henderson. 

As focus of the old West, Kentucky has always loomed 
large in the national imagination as the habitat of the Ameri- 
can border hero. Boone and Kenton, Harrod and Clark, Cal- 
laway and Logan, lurk vast in the wings of the national 
theatre, dramatic protagonists magnified to almost super- 
human proportions in the mist of a legendary past. About 
them floats the aureole of traditional romance. Wrought with 
rude but masterly strength out of the hardships and vicissi- 
tudes of pioneer life, the heroic conquest of the wilderness, 
the mortal struggles of border warfare, this composite figure 
of Indian fighter, crafty backwoodsman, and crude surveyor 
has emerged as the type-figure in the romance of the evolu- 
tion of American character. This model, with its invincible 
fascination and predominantly heroic attributes, has over- 
shadowed and obscured the less spectacular yet more fecund 
instrumentalities in the colonization and civilization of the 
West. To-day, in the clarifying light of contemporary re- 
search, illuminating social and economic forces, the creative 
and formative causes of colonization and expansion, the indi- 
vidual merges into the group ; and the isolated effort assumes 
its true character as merely a single factor in social evolution. 
We have come to recognize that the man of genius obeys a 
movement quite as much as he controls it, and even more than 
he creates it. In the pitiless perspective of historic evolution, 

lA paper read at the meeting of the American Historical Associa- 
tion at Charleston, S. C, December 30, 1913. It is reproduced here, 
with the permission of the editor, from the American Historical 
Review, October, 1914. 


the spectacular hero at first sight seems to lessen; but the 
mass, the movement, the social force which he epitomizes and 
interprets, gain in impressiveness and dignity.^ 

The hero of the pioneer West, Daniel Boone has played 
the lofty role of exemplar of the leadership of the hinterland 
movement of the eighteenth century. At the hands of that 
inaccurate and turgid amanuensis, John Filson, Boone has 
been apotheosized, in approved Scriptural fashion, as the in- 
strument of Providence, ordained by God to settle the wilder- 
ness. Nor was this superstitious delusion confined to Filson. 
"An over-ruling Providence," says Boone, in speaking of him- 
self, "seems to have watched over his life, and preserved him 
to be the humble instrument in settling one of the fairest por- 
tions of the new world."^ Fancy has played erratically 
about this sane and simple figure, envisaging him in countless 
disguises, from the primitive man returning to nature (after 
Pousseau) to the genius of modern communism (after Spen- 
cer). At the hands of the earlier biographers, Boone has 
taken on the hue and tone of an unsocial and primitive figiire, 
as unreal as an Indian from the pages of Chateaubriand, per- 
petually fleeing from civilization in response to the lure of 
the forest and the irresistible call of the wild. At the hands 
of later biographers, Boone is fantastically endowed with the 
creative imagination of the colonizer and the civic genius of a 
founder of states. In the face of such disparities of romantic 
distortion, wrought upon the character and role of Boone, the 
true significance of the westward expansionist movement suf- 
fers obscuration and eclipse. Scientifically historic investiga- 
tion must relegate to the superstitious and the gullible, to the 
panegyrist and the hero-worshipper, the providential inter- 
pretation of our national history. 

Meantime, there remains to narrate the just and authentic 
story of westward expansion, and to project the true picture 
of Boone as the typical figure of the expert backwoodsman in 

2 Cf. Henderson, "The Beginnings of American Expansion," North 
Carolina Review, September and October, 1910. 

3 Memorial to the Legislature of Kentucky, January 18, 1812. 


the westward migration of the peoples. Only thus shall we 
secure the correct perspective for the social, political, and 
economic history of the colonization of the West. Such a 
recital must unmask the forces behind Boone, the chain of 
social causation, the truly creative forces in the expansionist 
movement. In such recital, Boone is shorn of none of those 
remarkable powers as explorer, scout, pathfinder, land-looker, 
and individual Indian fighter which have given him a secure 
niche in the hall of national fame. It involves the recogni- 
tion, nevertheless, that his genius was essentially individual 
rather than social, unique rather than communistic. In the 
larger social sense, it involves the further recognition that 
those of Boone's achievements which had the widest bearing 
on the future and ultimately effected national results were 
accomplished through his instrumentality, not in the role of 
originative genius and constructive colonizer, but in the role 
of pioneer and way-breaker. Boone's pioneering initiative 
and his familiarity with Indian temperament found the best 
field for their most effective display under the giiidance of 
the constructive mind and colonizing genius of Henderson. 
Boone acted as the agent of men of commercial enterprise and 
far-seeing political imagination, intent upon an epochal poli- 
tico-economic project of colonization, promotion, and expan- 
sion. Boone may have been the instrument of Providence, as 
he so piously imagined ; but it is inbubitable that he was the 
agent of commercial enterprise and colonial promotion. 

The exploration and colonization of the West, with the 
ultimate consequence of the acquisition of the trans- Alleghany 
region, was not the divinely appointed work of any single 
man. In reality, this consummation flowered out of two 
fundamental impulses in the life of the period, the creative 
causes of territorial expansion. Intensive analysis reveals the 
further cardinal fact that it was two racial streams, the one 
distinguished by unit-characters, individualistic, democratic, 


the other corporate in interests, communistic, with aristo- 
cratic attributes — their temporary co-ordination and subse- 
quent sharp mutual reaction — which constituted the instru- 
mentalities for the initial steps in the westward expansionist 
movement. The creative forces which inaugurated the terri- 
torial expansion of the American people westward found 
typical embodiment, the one in a great land company intent 
upon carving out a new colony, the other in the supreme pio- 
neer and land-looker of his day. 

The prime determinative principle of the progressive Amer- 
ican civilization of the eighteenth century was the passion 
for the acquisition of land. After the peace of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle (1748), which left the boundaries of France and Eng- 
land in America unsettled, Celeron de Bienville was des- 
patched in the spring of 1749 to sow broadcast the seeds of 
empire, the leaden plates symbolic of the asserted sovereignty 
of France. Throtigh a grant to the Ohio Company, organized 
in 1748, and composed of a number of the most prominent 
men of the day in Virginia, England proceeded to take pos- 
session without the formal assertion of her claims ; and Chris- 
topher Gist, summoned from his remote home on the Yadkin 
in North Carolina, made a thorough reconnaissance of the 
western region in 1750-1751. Almost simultaneously, the 
Loyal Land Company of Virginia received a royal gi^ant of 
eight hundred thousand acres, and in the spring of 1750 des- 
patched Thomas Walker westward upon his now well-known 
tour of exploration.^ The vast extent of uninhabited trans- 
montane lands, of fabled beauty, richness, and fertility, ex- 
cited dreams of grandiose possibilities in the minds of English 
and colonials alike. England was said to be ^'jSTew Land 
mad, and everybody there has his eye fixed on this country."^ 
To Franklin and Washington, to the Lees and Patrick Henry, 
to Lyman and Clark, the West loomed large as the promised 
land- — for settlement, for trade, for occupation — to men brave 

4 J. S. Johnston, First Explorations of Kentucky (Filson Club Pub- 
lications ) . 

5 Jobnson MSS., XII., No. 127. 


enough to risk their all in its acquisition. The royal procla- 
mation of 1763 gave a new impetus to the colonizing spirit, 
dormant during the early years of the war, and marks the 
true beginning of Western colonization. The feeling of the 
period was succinctly interpreted by Washington, who, in 
describing the "rising empire" beyond the Alleghanies, de- 
nominates it "a tract of country which is unfolding to our 
view the advantages of which are too great and too obvious, 
I should think, to become the subject of serious debate, but 
which, through ill-timed parsimony and supineness, may be 
wrested from us and conducted through other channels."® 

The second determinative impulse of the pioneer civiliza- 
tion was Wanderlust— the passionately inquisitive instinct of 
the hunter, the traveler, the explorer. A secondary object of 
the proclamation of 1763, according to Edmund Burke, was 
the limitation of the colonies on the West, as "the charters 
of many of our old colonies give them, with few exceptions, 
no bounds to the westward but the South Sea."^ The Long 
Hunters, taking their lives in their hands, fared boldly forth 
to a fabled hunters' paradise in the far-away wilderness, be- 
cause they were driven by the irresistible desire of a Ponce de 
Leon or a De Soto, a Stanley or a Peary, to discover the truth 
about the undiscovered lands beyond the mountains. The 
hunter was not only thrilled with the passion of the chase in 
a veritable paradise of game: he was intent upon collecting 
the furs and skins of wild animals for lucrative barter and 
sale in the centres of trade. Quick to make "tomahawk 
claims" and assert "corn rights," the pioneer spied out the 
rich virgin lands for future location, there to be free from the 
vexatious insistence of the tax-gatherer. "The people at the 
back part of those [ISTorth Carolina and Virginia] and the 
neighboring colonies," writes Dunmore to Hillsborough as 
late as 1772, "finding that grants are not to be obtained, do 
seat themselves without any formalities wherever they like 

6 Cf. Hulbert, Washington and the West. 

7 A7inual Register, 1763, p. 20. 


best."^ To exploit the land for his individual advantage, 
eventually to convert the wilderness to the inevitable uses and 
purposes of civilization : such was the mission of the pioneer. 
Acting-Governor ISTelson, of Virginia, referring in 1770 to the 
frontier settlements, significantly remarks: "Very little if 
any Quit Rents have been received for his majesty's use from 
that Quarter for some time past; for they [the settlers] say, 
that as His Majesty hath been pleased to withdraw his pro- 
tection from them since 1763, they think themselves bound 
not to pay Quit Rents."^ The axe and the surveyor's chain, 
along with the rifle and the hunting-knife, constituted the 
armorial bearings of the pioneer. Again, with individual as 
with corporation, with explorer as with landlord, land-hunger 
was the master impulse of the era. 

In a little hamlet in ]^orth Carolina in the middle years 
of the eighteenth century, these two determinative principles, 
the acquisitive and the inquisitive instincts, found a conjunc- 
tion which may justly be termed prophetic. Here occurred 
the meeting of two streams of racial tendency. The explora- 
tory passion of the pioneer, given directive force in the in- 
terest of commercial enterprise, prepared the way for the 
westward migration of the peoples. That irresistible South- 
ern migration, which preceded and presaged the greater wan- 
dering of the peoples across the Alleghanies a quarter of a 
century later, brought a horde of pioneer settlers from the 
more thickly populated sections of Pennsylvania, and a group 
of gentlemen planters from the Old Dominion of Virginia, to 
the frontier colony of I^orth Carolina — famed afar for her 
fertile farm lands, alluvial river bottoms, and rich hunting 
grounds. The migratory horde from Pennsylvania found 
ultimate lodgment for certain of its number in the frontier 
county of Rowan; the stream of gentlemen planters from 

S "State Paper Office, America, Vol. 192, No. 7," is tlie reference 
attached to ttie transcript in ttie A^irgiuia State Library, Aspinwall 
Collection, pp. 77-81. Presumably the modern reference to the origi- 
nal is, Public Record Office, C. O. 5 : 989. 

9 Nelson to Hillsborough, October 18, 1770. Bancroft Transcripts, 
Library of Congress. 


Virginia came to rest in the more settled regions of Orange 
and Granville. From these two racial and social elements 
stem the fecund creative forces in westward expansion.^*^ 


In the first half of the eighteenth century, Pennsylvania 
felt the impetus of civilization from the throngs of immi- 
grants who flocked into the ISTeshaminy Valley, the Cumber- 
land Valley, eastward to the Delaware, up the river to the 
Lehigh, and into the twilight zone of uncertain title towards 
Maryland. ''These bold and indigent strangers," says Logan, 
Penn's agent, in 1721, "gave as their excuse when challenged 
for titles that we had solicited for colonists and they had come 
accordingly."^^ Aside from these bold squatters, who asserted 
that "it was against the laws of God and nature that so much 
land should be idle while so many christians wanted it to work 
on and to raise their bread," came innumerable bona fide pur- 
chasers of land, fleeing from the traditional bonds of caste 
and aristocracy in England and Europe, from religious per- 
secution and favoritism, to a haven of refuge, where they 
received guarantees of full tolerance in religious faith and 
the beneflts of representative self-government. From East 
Devonshire in England came George, the grandfather of 
Daniel Boone, and from Wales came Edward Morgan, whose 
daughter Sarah married Squire, Daniel Boone's father — con- 
spicuous representatives of the Society of Friends, drawn 
thither by the representations of the great Quaker, William 

10 In the history of this epochal movement there is one of the most 
singular of lacunae — a gap almost unprecedented in a period of Ameri- 
can life so industriously studied. Close scrutiny of the Draper Collec- 
tion, generally presmned to be the court of last resort for the career 
of Boone, as well as of Draper's correspondence, reveals the signifi- 
cant fact that the voluminous records of Rowan, where Boone lived 
for a quarter of a century prior to his removal to Kentucky, eluded 
the watchful eye, if not the curiosity, of the indefatigable Draper. 
An intensive study of these county records, the Draper MSS., the 
Henderson, Burton, Hogg, Hart, and Benton papers, taken In con- 
junction with a wider research into the careers of Daniel Boone and 
Richard Henderson, made by the writer, effects a new distribution of 
perspective and affords a rational expose of the early expansionist 

11 Hanna, Scotch-Irish, II. 60, 63. 


Penn, with his advanced views on popular government and 
religions toleration. ^^ Hither, too, came Morgan Bryan from 
Ireland, where he had gone from Denmark, settling in Ches- 
ter County prior to 1719 ; and his children, William, James, 
and Morgan, the brothers-in-law of Daniel Boone, were inti- 
mately concerned in the subsequent westward migration. -"^^ 
In 1720 the vanguard of that gTeat army of Ulster Scots, 
with their stern, rugged qualities of aggressive self-reliance, 
appeared in Pennsylvania. In September, 1734, Michael 
Finley, from County Armagh, Ireland, presumably accom- 
panied by his brother Archibald, landed in Philadelphia ; and 
this Archibald Finley, a settler in Bucks Coimty, according 
to the best authorities, was the father of John Finley or Find- 
ley or Findlay, Boone's guide and companion in his famous 
exploration of Kentucky in 1769-1771.-^^ Hither, too, came 
Mordecai Lincoln, great-gTandson of Samuel Lincoln, who 
had emigTated fronl England to Hingham, Massachusetts, as 
early as 1637; and this Mordecai, who in 1720 settled in 
Chester County, Pennsylvania, was the father of Sarah Lin- 
coln, who married William Boone, and of Abraham Lincoln, 
who married Anne Boone, William's first cousin. ^° Early 

12 George Boone, with his wife, emigrated to Pennsylvania in 
1717 ; and his son George, on his arrival, produced a certificate from 
Bradnich meeting in Devonshire. Edward Morgan was a member of 
Gwynedd monthly meeting. Cf. Original Minutes of Abington and 
Gwynedd Monthly Meetings, Pa. 

13 Cf. Bryan's Station (Filson Club Publications. No. 12) ; also 
W. S. Ely, The American Ararat (Publications of the Bucks County, 
Pa., Historical Society) ; MS. History of the Bryan Family, owned 
by Col. W. L. Bryan, Boone, N. C. 

14 Ely, The Fiiilei/s of Bucks (Publications of the Bucks County, 
Pa., Historical Society) ; also Ely, "Historic Associations of Nesha- 
miny Valley," Daily InteUigencer (Reading, Pa.), July 29, 1913. 
While Archibald, the father, spelled the surname Finley, it appears 
from an autograph in the possession of the Wisconsin State Histori- 
cal Society (Draper MSS., 2 B 161). that the explorer spelled it 

15 Mordecai Lincoln was the great-great-grandfather of President 
Lincoln. There was another connection between the Boone and Lin- 
coln families: Mary Lincoln, daughter of Abraham Lincoln (1736- 
1806) and Anne Boone Lincoln, married a Joseph Boone. For data 
concerning the Boone and Lincoln families. I am indebted to Mr. An- 
drew Shaaber, the librarian of the Histoi'ical Society of Berks County, 
Pa. Cf., also, The Early Life of Abraham Lincoln, by Tarbell and 


settlers in Pennsylvania were members of the Hanks family, 
one of the descendants being Abraham Hanks, grandfather 
of the Abraham Hanks of Prince William County, Virginia, 
who accompanied William Calk on his journey with Richard 
Henderson over Boone's trail in 1775.^^ 

The rising scale of prices for Pennsylvania lands, changing 
from ten pounds per hundred acres and two shillings quit- 
rents in 1719 to fifteen and a half pounds per hundred acres 
with a quit-rent of a half-penny per acre in 1732, soon turned 
the eyes of the settlers southward in the direction of new and 
cheaper lands, the prices for which decreased in inverse ratio 
to their distance from Pennsylvania. In Maryland, in 1738, 
lands were offered at five pounds sterling per hundred acres. 
Simultaneously, in the valley of Virginia, free gTants of a 
thousand acres per family were being made ; and in the Pied- 
mont region of North Carolina, the proprietary of Lord 
Granville through his agents was disposing of the most desir- 
able lands to settlers at the rate of three shillings proclama- 
tion money for six hundred and forty acres, the unit of land 
division, and was also making large free grants on the condi- 
tion of seating a certain proportion of settlers. The rich lure 
of these cheap and even free lands set up a vast migration 
southward from Pennsylvania in the second quarter of the 
eighteenth century. In 1734 the Bryans migrated to Vir- 
ginia, obtaining a gTant near Winchester, whence they re- 
moved to the Forks of the Yadkin in ISTorth Carolina about 
1750.^''^ In 1750 the Boones, soon followed by the Hanks and 
Lincoln families, migrated southward to Virginia ; and 
shortly afterwards. Squire Boone, Sr., with his family, settled 
at the Forks of the Yadkin in Rowan County. From 1740 
there was a ceaseless tide of immigration into the valley of 
the Yadkin, of the Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsyl- 
vania. In a letter to the Secretary of the Board of Trade 

16 The original manuscript diary of William Calk is now in the 
possession of one of his descendants, who permitted me to examine 
it. William Calk's companion, Abraham Hanks, was the maternal 
grandfather of President Lincoln. 

17 Kercheval, History of the Valley of Virginia. 


from Edenton, JSTorth Carolina (Feb. 15, 1750-1), Governor 
Gabriel Johnston says, "Inhabitants flock in here daily, 
mostly from Pensilvania and other parts of America, who 
are overstocked with people and some directly from Europe, 
they commonly seat themselves towards the West and have 
got near the mountains." Writing from the same town on 
September 12, 1Y52, Bishop Spangenburg, of the Moravian 
Church, says that a considerable number of the inhabitants 
of North Carolina have settled here "as they wished to own 
land and were too poor to buy in Pennsylvania or 'New Jer- 
sey"; and in 1753 he observes that "even in this year more 
than 400 families with horse wagons and cattle have migrated 
to this State. . . . "■'■^ The immensity of this mobile, drift- 
ing mass is demonstrated by the statement of Governor Wil- 
liam Tryon that in the summer and winter of 1765 "upwards 
of one thousand wagons passed thro' Salisbury with families 
from the northward^ to settle in this province chiefly." 

This southward-moving wave of migration, predominantly 
Scotch-Irish and English, with an admixture of a AVelsh 
element, starting from Pennsylvania in the first quarter of 
the eighteenth century, swept through Maryland, and in the 
middle years of the century inundated the valley of Virginia 
and the Piedmont region of E^orth Carolina. About Salis- 
bury, the county seat of Rowan, now rapidly formed a settle- 
ment of people marked by strong individuality, sturdy inde- 
pendence, and virile self-reliance. The immigrants, follow- 
ing the course of the Great Trading Path, did not stop at 
Salisbury, but radiated thence in all directions. The Morgans, 
Quakers and Baptists, remained in Pennsylvania, spreading 
over Philadelphia and Bucks counties; the Hanks and Lin- 
coln stocks found refuge in Virginia ; but the Boones and the 
Bryans founded their settlement at the Forks of the Yadkin. 
A few miles distant was the tiny hamlet of Salisbury, con- 
sisting of seven or eight log houses and the courthouse 

18 For these several statements, cf. N. C. Col. Rec, IV. 1073, 1312; 
VII. 249. 


(1755).^^ The Boones and the Bryans, quickly accommo- 
dating themselves to frontier conditions much ruder and more 
primitive than those of their Pennsylvania home, immediately 
began to take an active part in the local affairs of the 
county. ^^ The Boones quickly transferred their allegiance 
from the Society of Friends to the Baptist Church, worship- 
ping at the Boone's Ford Church on the Davie side of the 
Yadkin ; the Bryans, on the other hand, moved perhaps by the 
eloquence of the gentle Asbury, who often visited them, 
adopted Methodist principles.^ -"^ In this region, infested with 
Cherokee and Catawba Indians, Captain Anthony Hampton 
with his company of rangers actively patrolled the frontier; 
and Daniel Boone won his spurs as a soldier under the saga- 
cious Indian fighter, commander of Fort Dobbs, Hugh Wad- 
dell. ^^ Through the wilderness to the westward, across the 
mountains, and into the valley of the Holston, the nomadic 
Boone roamed at will, spying out the land, and hunting and 
trapping to his heart's content. In such an environment was 
bred the Pennsylvanian, Daniel Boone, of Quaker stock, with 
Baptist proclivities. Humble in origin, but strongly marked 
in his individual democracy, Boone learned the stern frontier 
lessons of frugality, self-repression, and self-reliance. Here 
he tasted the sweets of freedom and developed the roving in- 
stinct which later marked him out as the supreme pioneer of 
his time. Chafing under the hampering restrictions of com- 

19 N. C. Col. Rec, V. 355 et seq. 

20 Squire Boone, shortly after his arrival in the neighborhood, was 
chosen justice of the peace ; and Morgan Bryan was soon appearing 
as foreman of juries and director in road improvements in the county. 

21 Says the Rev. Francis Asbury in his Journal, in speaking of his 
frontier congregations : "In every place the congregations were large, 
and received the word with all readiness of mind. I know not that I 
have spent such a week since I came to America. I saw everywhere 
such a simplicity in the people, with such a vehement thirst after the 
word of God, that I frequently preached and continued in prayer till 
I was hardly able to stand" (I. 174). Gf. also Sheets, History of 
Liberty Baptist Association, and J. T. Alderman, The Baptists at the 
Forks of the Yadkin (Baptist Historical Papers.) 

22 Archibald D. Murphey, "Indian Nations of North Carolina," 
MSS. Collections, N. C. Historical Commission. Cf. also Alfred Moore 
Waddell, A Colonial Officer and his Times; and Draper's manuscript 
Life of Boone. 


munity life and realizing himself to be unsuited to the mo- 
notonous routine of farming, he was irresistibly impelled by 
his own nomadic temperament to seek the wider liberty of the 
wilderness. It is measurably more than surmise to say that 
he sought wider fields in the vague hope of enjoying there a 
larger degree of individual freedom under the impulse of pio- 
neer democracy. Virginia and Pennsylvania contributed 
liberally to the formation of the national character in the 
cradle of the West. At this precise moment in history was to 
emerge, out of jSTorth Carolina, after a sojourn of a quarter 
of a century, the incarnation of the individual democracy 
which afterwards was to exert such a profound effect upon 
the development of American civilization, and to produce in 
time an Andrew Jackson and an Abraham Lincoln."^ 


Simultaneous with the streaming of the peasant Quakers 
and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians into the Piedmont region of 
ISTorth Carolina,^'^ having as consequence the gradual evolu- 
tion of the embryonic forms of pioneer American democracy, 
was proceeding another movement into the counties of Orange 
and Granville, of families of quality and superior position, 
destined to exert in equally distinctive ways an ineffaceable 
impress upon the development of the West. In the middle 
years of the eighteenth century, attracted by the lure of rich 
and cheap lands, many families of Virginia gentry, princi- 
pally from Planover County, settled in the region ranging 
from Williamsborough on the east to Hillsborough on the 
west. Hither came the Hendersons, the Bullocks, the Wil- 

23 Cf. Turner, "The Significance of the Frontier in American His- 
tory," Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1893. 
In this same frontier environment whicli shaped the Boones and the 
Bryans, was born a few years later Andrew .Jackson ; and Mr. Wil- 
liam Jennings Bryan is descended from a brother of the Bryan whose 
daughter was married to Daniel Boone. 

24 S. B. Weeks, Southern Quakers and Slavery; also William and 
Mary College Quarterly, XII. 129-134 ; Henderson, Life and Times of 
Richard Henderson; Biographical Hist, of N. C. 


liamses, the Harts, the Lewises, the Taylors, the Bentons, the 
Penns, the Burtons, the Hares, and the Sneeds.^^ There soon 
arose in this see<"ion of the colony a society marked by intel- 
lectual distinction, social graces, and the leisured dignity of 
the landlord and the large planter. Here was forming a new 
society, constituting the social link between the wealthy and 
predominant asistocracy in the East and the rude frontier 
democracy in the West. A similar type of society, that of 
Piedmont Virginia, produced such champions of the new 
democracy as Jefferson and Patrick Henry — a society compo- 
site of independent yeomen and their leaders, the large 
planters. It was sharply differentiated from the colonial 
society of the coast, being inherently democratic in instinct 
and aristocratic in tone. "]^ever scarcely in England have I 
seen more beautiful prospects," writes James Iredell in testi- 
mony of the beauty of the lands of Granville,^ ^ and its rich- 
ness and productivity as agricultural and grazing land were 
demonstrated by the yield of great crops of Indian corn and 
other grain, and the vast droves of cattle and hogs. So con- 
spicuous for means, intellect, culture, and refinement were 
the people of this social group — a people with ''abundance cf 
wealth and leisure for enjoyment," says the quaint old diarist, 
Hugh McAden^''^ — that Governor Josiah Martin, passing 
through Granville and Bute counties on his way from Hills- 
borough in 1772, significantly remarks : "They have great 
pre-eminence, as well with respect to soil and cultivation, as 
to the manners and condition of the inhabitants, in which last 
respect the difference is so great that one would be led to think 

25 W. H. Battle, "Memoir of Chief Justice Leonard Henderson," 
N. C. Univ. Mag., November, 1859 ; T. B. Kingsbury, "Chief Justice 
Leonard Henderson," Wake Forest Student, November, 1898; R. W. 
Winston, "Leonard Henderson," Frank Nash, "Hillsborough, Colonial 
and Revolutionary," Nash, "History of Orange County," N. C. Book- 
let. The author has also had the privilege of examining the valuable 
collection of Hart-Benton MSS., kindly placed at his disposal by Miss 
Lucretia Hart Clay, of Lexington, Ky. 

26 McRee, Life and Correspondence of James Iredell, I, 434. 

27 Foote, Sketches of N. C. 


them people of another region."^^ From this society came 
such eminent democratic figures as the father-in-law and pre- 
ceptor of Henry Clay, Thomas Hart; his grandson, the "Old 
Bullion" and "Great Pacificator" of a later era, Thomas Hart 
Benton; Richard Henderson, president of the colony of 
Transylvania, known to his contemporaries as the "Patrick 
Henry of !N^orth Carolina" ; John Penn, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence; William Kennon, eloquent advocate of 
the Mecklenburg Resolves of May 31, 17Y5 ; and others 
almost equally distinguished. Like the society of the Virginia 
Piedmont, it was, to employ the words of Turner, "a society 
naturally expansive, seeing its opportunity to deal in unoccu- 
pied lands along the frontier which continually moved toward 
the West, and in this era of the eighteenth century dominated 
by the democratic ideals of pioneers rather than by the aristo- 
cratic tendencies of slave-holding planters."^^ From the 
cross-fertilization of this society of gentry, of innate qualities 
of leadership, democratic instincts, economic cast, and ex- 
pansive tendencies, with the primitive, pioneer society of the 
frontier, frugal in taste, responsive to leadership, ready and 
thorough in execution, there was evolved the militant expan- 
sive movement in American life. Out of the ancient breeding- 
ground of ITorth Carolina, from the co-operative union of 
transplanted Pennsylvania and Virginia stocks, came at the 
same moment the spirit of governmental control with popu- 
lar liberty, and the spirit of individual colonization, restive 
under control. In the initial co-ordination of these two in- 
stincts, with the subsequent triumph of the latter over the 
former, is told the story of the beginning of American ex- 

Soon after his arrival in Rowan, Squire Boone, Sr., resid- 

28 iV^. 0. Col. Rec, IX. 349. Martin comments: "These advantiiges 
arise I conceive from the vicinity of Virginia, from whence I under- 
stand many, invited by the superior excellence of the soil, have imi- 
grated to settle in these counties." 

29 Turner, "The Old West," Wis. Hist. Soc. Proc, 1903. 

30 See Henderson, "The Pioneer Contributions of North Carolina to 
Kentucky," Charlotte Observer, November 10, 1913. 


ing at the Forks of the Yadkin some twelve miles from Salis- 
bury, was chosen as one of the worshipful justices of the 
county court. From the earliest sessions of the court, three 
years before the erection of a court-house, he acted in this 
capacity, deciding the many simple questions arising under 
frontier conditions : registering the branding marks for cattle ; 
selecting constables and road-overseers, and their routes; de- 
termining the scale of prices of foods and liquors for the 
licensed hostelries; and the like. By the end of 1756 he was 
presiding in the new courthouse — a frame-work structure, 
thirty feet long and twenty feet wide, provided with an oval 
bar and ''cases" for the attorneys. One of the attorneys who 
occupied one of these "cases" and argued suits before Squire 
Boone was a young man of G-ranville County, whose geniality 
had won him many friends and whose ability had won him a 
large legal practice.^-*- "Even in the superior courts where ora- 
tory and eloquence are as brilliant and powerful as in West- 
minster-hall," says an English acquaintance of Henderson's,, 
"he soon became distinguished and eminent, and his superior 
genius shone forth with great splendour, and universal ap- 
plause." Wedded to the daughter of an Irish lord,^^ and 
moving in the refined circle which included a Richard Benne- 
han, an Alexander Martin, a John Penn, a William Hooper, 
and their compeers, he was nevertheless conspicuously demo- 
cratic by conviction and in practice. His law partner, who 
married the widow of Lord Keeling, was John Williams — a 
stout exponent of the principles of democracy. Among his 
intimate friends was that "aristocrat in temperament, but 
democrat in politics," Thomas Hart, whom an acquaintance, 
Dr. J. F. D. Smyth, described as "an accomplished and com- 
plete gentleman." Henderson was well acquainted with 
Squire Boone, frequently appearing on legal business before 

31 The earliest court records of Granville County show that he and 
his first cousin, John Williams, enjoyed the most extensive practice: 
in the court. 

32 Kingsbury, "Chief Justice Leonard Henderson," loc. cit. 



him; and likewise formed the acquaintance of his son, Daniel, 
the nomadic spirit, hunter, and trapper, who occasionally 
told him bizarre and startling tales of his wanderings across 
the dark green mountains to the fair valleys and boundless 
hunting grounds beyond. These stories of Western explora- 
tions Henderson heard from the lips of Daniel Boone him- 
self, who was eager to remove to the ^Yest at the first conven- 
ient opportunity,^^ 

Daniel Boone was an explorer of remarkable individual 
initiative. Prior to 1769 he had already traveled as far as 
Florida on the south and as far as Kentucky on the west. 
During the period from 1763 to 1769, doubtless through his 
long extended absences and his enforced neglect of afi^airs at 
home, he became deeply involved financially. His nomadic 
instincts, with the consequent neglect of the work on his 
farm, seem to have prejudiced even his father against him. 
The heavy indebtedness which he incurred — indeed the en- 
tire career of the simple-hearted pioneer demonstrates his 
constitutional carelessness in business and financial transac- 
tions — involved him in suits instituted against him by some 
of the most prominent citizens of Salisbury — John Lewis 
Beard, the philanthropist and devout churchman; Dr. An- 
thony ISTewnan, the active Whig; Hugh Montgomery, the 
wealthy landlord of Wilkes; John Mitchell, and others.^* 
In this hour of his poverty and distress, Boone turned to his 
friends, the law partners, Henderson and Williams. "A per- 
son so just and upright" as Boone could have become in- 
volved in such financial difficulties only through a certain 
naive indifference to the forms of law and heedless neglect of 
customary business precaution. In reference to this gloomy 
period in Boone's career, Thomas Hart wi'ote his brother 
]S[athaniel in 1780 : "I have known Boone in times of old, 
when poverty and distress had him fast by the hand ; and in 

33 Draper's MS. Life of Boone. 

34 Court records. 


these wretched circumstances I have ever found him of a 
noble and generous soul, despising everything mean."^^ 

In the earlier years of Boone's residence in Rowan, at some 
time prior to 1763, Richard Henderson first formed the 
acquaintance of Boone. The fact of cardinal importance is 
that he knew Boone in a two-fold capacity— not only as 
hunter, trapper, and explorer, but also as surveyor and 
road-maker. IsTot without distinct historic significance was 
it that in the year 1763, and so, at the same time with 
England's futile proclaimed estoppel of purchase of lands 
from the Indians by individuals or corporations without 
crown grants, ^^ Richard Henderson one day arose from his 
"case" in the tiny courthouse of Rowan, and facing the "oval 
bar" which supported the elevated bench from which Squire 
Boone, as one of the "worshipful justices," had for a decade 
dispensed rude justice, moved the following: 

It is ordered that a Waggon Road, the best and nearest, 
be built from the Shallow Ford upon the Yadkin River to the 
Town of Salisbury, and the following persons are appointed 
to lay off and mark the same, to wit, Daniel Boone, Morgan 
Bryan, Samuel Bryan, and James Bryan , . . and accord- 
ingly they appear upon ISJ'otice and be qualified before the 
nearest Magistrate for their Faithful discharge of their 
office, etc. 

When the time was ripe for the defiance of the edict of 
crown governors against purchases from the Indians without 

35 Morehead's Address, at Boonesborough (1840), p. 105, note. 

36 The royal proclamation of October 7, 1763, avowed it to be His 
Majesty's "fixed determination to permit no grants of lands nor any 
settlements to be made within certain fixed Bounds . . . leaving all 
that territory within it free for the hunting grounds of those Indian 
subjects of your majesty." Text in Michigan Pioneer and Historical 
Collections, XXXVI. 14-19 (1908). In his elaborate papers on the 
subject of British Western policy, Professor C. W. Alvord, however, 
successfully maintains that the royal proclamation of 1763 did not 
set permanent western limits to the colonies, and that it was the in- 
tention of the Board of Trade to promote westward expansion by the 
peaceful purchase from time to time, under royal authority, of land 
situated in the Indian reservation. Cf. "The Genesis of the Procla- 
mation of 1763," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Vol. 
XXXVI. ; "The British Ministry and the Treaty of Fort Stanwix," 
Wisconsin Historical Society Proceedings, 1908. 


royal grants, upon the basis of tke royal proclamation of 
1763, it was but natural that Henderson should engage as the 
man best fitted to spy out the wilderness of Kentucky and 
later to cut out a passage thereto through the dense and 
tangled laurel thickets — a passage far-famed in history as the 
Wilderness Road — his friend ''Dan Boone/' as he famil- 
iarly called him, whom he had known for many years as a 
most competent scout and expert road-cutter in the frontier 
county of Rowan. 


The designs which Henderson and his associates cherished 
for the acquisition of Western lands found early expression 
in some form of organization. After the proclamation of 
1763, which assured the lands at least temporarily to the 
Indians, these men realized that these lands must eventually 
be thrown open to colonization.^^ They accordingly organ- 
ized themselves into some sort of company, for the purpose of 
engaging an expert scout and surveyor to spy out the Western 
lands, and later to examine into the feasibility of making a 
purchase ultimately from the Indians. Their original inten- 
tion, indubitably, was to colonize the territory thus to be 
acquired. But when the clouds of war finally gathered and a 
clash with Great Britain loomed threatening and imminent on 
the horizon, their original plan of extensive colonization inevi- 
tably assumed momentous political consequences; and in the 
event they endeavored to found a fourteenth American colony 
in the heart of the Western wilderness. 

This company, so far as known, has left no documentary 
record of its activities in the earlier stages of its existence. 

37 The chief object of the proclamation of 1763 was to allay the 
alarm of the Indians ; and in pursuance of this idea the colonists 
were positively prohibited from making settlements on the Indian 
lands. Nevertheless the roving bands of determined settlers along 
the Indian border rendered the situation critical. In the very pre- 
amble of the proclamation, the Lords of Trade describe the sovereign 
as "being desirous that all Our loving subjects, as well of Our King- 
dom as of Our Colonies in America, may avail themselves with all 
convenient Speed, of the great Benefits and Advantages which must 
accrue therefrom, etc." The veiled intent of the Board of Trade, it 
would appear, was to control, not to prevent, expansion westward. 


All the evidence points to the fact that it consisted of three 
partners only: Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, and John 
Williams. The organization first bore the name of ''Richard 
Henderson and Company." Some years later, after the plans 
for colonization had passed the stage of preliminary investiga- 
tion, new partners were successively added. The name of the 
organization, "Richard Henderson and Company," was al- 
tered, first to the "Louisa Company," and then to the "Tran- 
sylvania Company."^^ 

The first exploration which Daniel Boone ever made on 
behalf of Richard Henderson and Company was in the year 
following the royal proclamation of 1763. The partners evi- 
dently anticipated Washington in the realization that the 
proclamation was only a temporary expedient to quiet the 
minds of the Indians. Boone was vastly impressed by the 
Western territory as a field for settlement, and was eager 
on his own account to move his family to this new region. It 
is clear that he anticipated removal to the West with his 
family, as the immediate result of his first exploration in the 
interest of Henderson and Company.^^ Boone's enthusiastic 
descriptions of the Western wilderness retailed to Henderson 
and his associates, Hart and Williams, doubtless aroused in 
their minds the first suggestion of the larger opportunities 
for settlement and investment afforded by the rich but tenant- 
less West. Accordingly they engaged Boone, who upon all 
his pioneering and hunting expeditions continued to penetrate 
further and further westward, to do double duty upon his 
next expedition. Boone was instructed, while hunting and 
trapping on his own account, to make a wider cast than he had 
ever made before, to examine the lands with respect to their 
location and fertility, and to report his findings upon his 

38 Kentucky MSS., I ; Draper MSS. Cf. Alden, New Governments 
west of the Alleghanies before 1180 (Madison, Wis.) 

39 The county records sliow that in the early part of this same 
year, viz., on February 21, 1764, Daniel Boone and his wife "Re- 
beckah" sold all their property in North Carolina — consisting of a 
home and 640 acres of land. 


The expedition must have been transacted with consider- 
able circumspection. In 1767 George Washington, writing 
to his agent, Crawford, with reference to threatened future 
competition for the best Western lands, shrewdly counsels : 
'^All this may be avoided by a silent management, and the 
operation carried on by you under the guise of hunting 
game."^^ With a business sagacity like that of Washington, 
who was later to learn of Henderson's desire to found an inde- 
pendent colony in the West, Henderson fully realized that 
the exploration must be conducted with circumspection, if the 
lands were to be secured.*-^ Boone proved himself a thor- 
oughly satisfactory agent for the examination of the country, 
his trustworthiness being in no small measure due to his in- 
grained taciturnity and his faculty of keeping his own 
counsel. It is obvious, however, that Henderson gave to 
Boone, as Washington gave to Crawford, discretion to trust 
the secret of his errand to those in whom he could confide and 
who might assist him in making further discoveries of land. 
In one instance, at least, the circumspect Boone deemed it 
prudent to communicate the purpose of his mission to some 
hunters in order to secure the results of their information in 
regard to the best lands they had encountered in the course of 
their hunting expedition. In the autumn of 1764, during the 
journey of the Blevins party of hunters, to their hunting 
ground on the Rock Castle River, near the Crab Orchard in 
Kentucky, Daniel Boone came among the hunters, at one of 
their Tennessee station camps, in order, as expressed in the 
quaint phraseology of the day, ''to be informed of the geog- 

40 Washington to Crawford, September 21. 1767. Sparks. Life and 
Writings of Washington, II. 346-350. In the same letter, Washington 
admonishes Crawford to "keep the wliole matter a secret, or trust 
it only to those in whom you may confide, and wlio can assist you in 
bringing it to bear by their discoveries of land." 

41 The meagreness of our information on the subject of this initial 
exploration may thus be naturally explained. An acquaintance of 
Henderson mentions that the latter preserved the strictest secrecy 
about his earlier land ventures. Repeatedly taxed afterwards with 
having acted as the agent of the land company. Boone consistently 
and most honorably refused to violate Henderson's confidence. 


rapliy and locography of these woods, saying that he was em- 
ployed to explore them by Henderson and Company."*^ In 
this tour of exploration, Boone hunted and scouted through 
the valleys of the Tennessee and the Holston, but did not 
penetrate to the fabled region of Kentucky. His companion 
on this expedition was his relative, Samuel Callaway, and 
together they accomplished a two-fold object: hunting and 
trapping on their own account, and secretly prospecting and 
exploring on behalf of the land company. ^^ 


Just why Henderson and his associates did not act immed- 
iately upon the report brought back by Boone and Callaway — 
a report doubtless highly favorable, as was the case with all 
the "news of a far country" brought home by the pioneers — 
there is no extant explanatory evidence. Henderson and Wil- 
liams, as law partners, were engaged in an extensive and 
lucrative law practice ; and in the prosecution of their profes- 
sion spent a large proportion of their time in traveling from 
one end of the extensive colony of ISTorth Carolina to the 
other.'*^ The heavy obligations of this extensive and rapidly 
enlarging law business in all probability sufficed to delay the 
immediate prosecution of the Western enterprise. 

42 Haywood, Tennessee, p. 35(1823 Ed.) The accuracy of Haywood's 
testimony in this instance must be recognized as indisputable. Judge 
John Haywood was intimately associated, both personally and legally, 
with Richard Henderson's two sons, Archibald and Leonard ; and his 
successor to the post of reading clerk to the North Carolina House of 
Commons, in 1789, was his friend. Major Pleasant Henderson, Rich- 
ard's brother, and pioneer with Boone at Boonesborough, and with 
Robertson at the French Lick. On his removal to Tennessee, Judge 
Haywood formed the personal acquaintance of many of the pioneers, 
from whom he received innumerable accounts of their personal expe- 
riences. Notable figures among the pioneers in Tennessee, such as 
James Robertson, John Sevier, and Timothee de Monbrun, were per- 
sonally known to the Tennessee historians, Haywood and Putnam. 

43 Ramsey [Annals of Tennessee) unearthed the fact that Boone, 
while acting as the secret agent of the land company, was accom- 
panied by Callaway — a fact which Ramsey, with his intimate knowl- 
edge of the pioneers and their history, probably derived directly from 
Callaway or his immediate descendants. 

44 Cf. McRee, Life and Correspondence of James Iredell, I. 96-97 ; 
Henderson, Life and Times of Richard Henderson, Ch. II. 


It was not, indeed, until several years later that Henderson 
and Company once more actively interested themselves in the 
problem of Western investment and colonization. In the 
Virginia Gazette of December 1, 1768, a newspaper in which 
he advertised, Henderson must have read with astonishment 
not unmixed with dismay, that "the Six Nations and all their 
tributaries have granted a vast extent of country to his 
majesty, and the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, and settled 
an advantageous boundary line between their hunting country 
and this, and the other colonies to the southward as far as the 
Cherokee River, for which they received the most valuable 
present in goods and dollars that was ever given at any con- 
ference since the settlement of America." It was now gener- 
ally bruited about the colony of jSTorth Carolina that the 
Cherokees were deeply resentful because the Northern In- 
dians at the treaty of Fort Stanwix had been handsomely 
remunerated for territory which they, the Cherokees, claimed 
from time immemorial.*'^ Henderson, who had consulted 
often with Boone and reflected deeply over the subject, fore- 
saw that the Western lands, though ostensibly thrown open for 
settlement under the aegis of Virginia, could only be legally 
obtained by extinguishing the Cherokee title. His prescience 
was directly confirmed by royal action, when Stuart, Superin- 
tendent for Indian affairs in the Southern Department, at the 
treaty of Hard Labor, October 14, 1768, acknowledged the 
Cherokee title by establishing the western boundary as a line 
running from the top of Try on Mountain (now in Polk 
County, North Carolina, on the South Carolina line) direct 
to Colonel Chiswell's mine (now Austinville, Virginia), and 

45 Cf. Ranck, Boonesborough (Filson Club Publications, No. 16) ; 
also Henderson, "Forerunners of the Republic : Richard Henderson 
and American Expansion," Neale's Monthly, January, 1913. 


thence in a straight line to the mouth of the Great Kanawha 

It was at this crucial moment that the horse peddler, John 
Findlay, Boone's old friend of the Braddock campaign, wan- 
dered into the valley of the Yadkin. Findlay had actually 
been successful in reaching Kentucky in 1752 ; and now de- 
lighted Boone with his stories of the desirability of the coun- 
try and the plentifulness of the game. The conjunction was 
a fortunate one in many respects. Boone was heavily in debt 
to his attorneys, the firm of Williams and Henderson, for 
legal services, and to other prominent citizens of Rowan 
County. Indeed he had been summoned to appear in Salis- 
bury at the March term of court. John Findlay, John Stuart 
and Daniel Boone all came to Salisbury to attend court. Judge 
Henderson arriving on March 5.^^ The attested presence at 
Salisbury of Boone, Findlay and Stuart, three of the six ex- 
plorers of Kentucky in 1769, simultaneous with Henderson, 
only a short time before the departure of Boone's party on 
their tour of exploration, makes it certain that the final con- 
ference to devise ways and means for the expedition was 
held at this time and place. Certain it is that on May 1, 
1769, Daniel Boone as the confidential agent of Richard 
Henderson and Company, accompanied by five companions, 

46 A^. C Col. Rec, VII, 851-855. "Should they [the Cherokees] 
refuse to give it up," writes Johnson to Gage (December 16, 1768), 
with reference to the action at the treaty of Fort Stanwix, "it is in 
his majesty's power to prevent the colonies from availing themselves 
of the late session in that quarter, till it can be done with safety and 
the common consent of all who have just pretensions to it." Cf. 
Stone, Life of Sir Willim Johnson, II, 307 ; Journals of the House of 
Burgesses of Virginia, 1770-1772, preface, p. xix. 

47 Court records. See also "Diary of Waightstill Avery." N. C. 
Univ. Magazine, 1856. Judge Henderson left Salisbury for Hills- 
borough on March 16. 


left his ''peaceable habitation" on the Yadkin for a two 
years' exploration of Kentucky.*^ 

Boone and Findlay visited Kentucky in 1769, not only to 
hunt and trap, but "for the purpose of examining the coun- 
try."*^ Boone himself relates that he and Stuart, after get- 
ting settled in their camp, "proceeded to take a more thorough 
survey of the country" ;^*^ and the entire course of Boone's 
actions during this period demonstrates that some powerful 
influence held him in Kentucky until his work of exploration 
was completed. Had Boone desired merely to discover a 
location for his own and neighboring families living at the 
Forks of the Yadkin, he might easily have discovered such a 
location in Madison and Garrard counties, which he first 
visited, or in the neighborhood of Station Camp Creek, in 
Estill County. Had he desired merely to hunt and fish and 
trap, he might well have found satiety in the proximity of his 
first camps. But 'there was a motive deeper than the desire 
to discover a location for a few families, or to range far and 
wide in search of game which was bounteous in plenty in his 
immediate vicinity. This motive was, assuredly, to employ 
Boone's own words, "to recruit his shattered circumstances" ; 
and his financial obligations were to Williams and Henderson 
for legal services, and to other prominent citizens of Rowan 
County. The prosecution of the task of exhaustively explor- 
ing the Kentucky area was indubitably undertaken by Boone 
in the effort to meet these financial obligations. 

48 Aside from numerous authorities, from Peck, who studied 
Boone's career during Boone's own lifetime, down to the author of 
The Winning of the West, there is the testimony of those historical 
students who were fortified by the contemporary documents— Lossing, 
who examined the Transylvania papers lent him by President D. L. 
Swain, of the University of North Carolina, in 1856 (Swain's original 
letter to Lossing is now in the writer's possession) ; Hall, who ex- 
amined the vast mass of evidence in the Hogg Papers, chiefly letters 
of the partners of the Transylvania Company ; and Putnam, authen- 
tically informed through his intimate personal acquaintance with the 
early pioneers as well as through his unrivalled collection of pioneer 
documents. Thus, independently, from North Carolina, Kentucky, 
and Tennessee, the fact is related in identical form, from dociunentary 
evidence, as well as from personal record. 

49 Filson. 

50 "Memorial to the Legislature of Kentucky." 


Disheartened by his disasters, his two captures by the In- 
dians and the loss of all his peltries, Boone would otherwise 
have welcomed the opportunity to return to J^orth Carolina 
with his brother Squire, who came out with supplies. ^-'- It 
is extremely likely, in the light of subsequent events, that 
Squire Boone bore a message from Henderson to Daniel 
Boone, urging upon him, now that he was in the country, to 
remain in it long enough to secure a more detailed knowledge 
of its geographical and topogTaphical features. With Squire 
Boone, John Stuart and Alexander !Neely as companions, 
Daniel Boone at once began that elaborate series of explora- 
tions ranging from the Kentucky River on the north to the 
Green and Cumberland rivers on the south. By the first of 
May, 1770, the exploration of Kentucky had only just begun ; 
so that Boone, fixed in the resolve to accomplish the under- 
taking upon which he had been despatched, preferred to re- 
main alone in Kentucky while Squire returned home. From 
this time forward, Daniel Boone ranges far and wide through 
north-central Kentucky, visiting the Big Lick and the Blue 
Lick, exploring the valleys of the Kentucky and the Licking, 
and traveling as far down the Ohio as the Falls, the present 
Louisville. In July and again in September, following a 
second return to the settlement for supplies. Squire rejoined 
Daniel in Kentucky, and from December, 1770, until March, 
1771, they scouted through the southern and western portions 
of Kentucky, exploring the valleys of the Green and Cumber- 
land rivers, and hunting in company with the Long Hunters, 
among whom were Kasper Mansker, who discovered the lick 
that bears his name, and Henry Skaggs, who, because of his 
knowledge of the Cumberland area, as reported by Boone to 

51 Gf. Boone's Autobiography (Filson). It is problematical, but not 
unlikely, that Squire Boone was sent out with these supplies for 
Daniel Boone and party by the land company. It is noteworthy that 
Squire Boone was accompanied on his journey by one of the Neely 
family, Alexander, for whom Henderson had hitherto acted as legal 


Henderson, was subsequently engaged to act as the agent of 
the land company, fixing his station at Mansker's Lick.^^ 

On his return to ]S[orth Carolina in 17Y1, Boone's glowing 
description of Kentucky ''soon excited in others the spirit of 
an enterprise which in point of magnitude and peril, as well 
as constancy and heroism displayed in its execution, has never 
been paralleled in the history of America."^^ In 1772, the 
Watauga settlers secured from the Cherokee Indians, for a 
valuable consideration, a ten years' lease of the lands upon 
which they were settled. Boone, who had established friendly 
relations with James Robertson, communicated to Henderson 
the details of the leases and purchases which Robertson, 
Brown, and Sevier had made of the rich valley lands. After 
consulting with the Indians, Robertson informed Boone, act- 
ing as Henderson's confidential agent, that he believed, if the 
inducement were large enough, the Indians would sell. Fol- 
lowing his own disastrous failure to efl^ect individual coloniza- 
tion without attempting to secure by purchase the Indian title, 
in 1773, Boone in 1774 advised Henderson and his associates 
that the Cherokees were disposed to sell the Kentucky area.^^ 
Having previously assured himself of the legal validity of 
the purchase, and after personally visiting the Cherokee 
chiefs in their principal village to secure their consent to the 
sale, Henderson proceeded to reorganize the land company, 

52 An exhaustive study of Boone's itinerary has been made by the 
present writer, in order to fix the exact route which he followed. In 
addition to the wealth of local materials, the Draper MSS., including 
Draper's Life of Boone, are rich in information on the subject. 
Through the personal investigations of Mr. John P. Arthur, of Ashe- 
ville, N. C, who went over Boone's route iu North Carolina, as well 
as the researches of the present writer, this portion of the route has 
recently been marked by the Daughters of the American Revolution 
under the direction of Mrs. J. Lindsay Patterson, of Winston- Salem, 
N. C. Cf. Home and Country, April, 1914 ; Sky-Land, September, 

53 Morehead's Address, at Boonesborough (1840). 

54 In a little newspaper. The Harbinger, published at Chapel Hill, 
N. C, in 1834, the venerable Pleasant Henderson, brother of Richard 
and fellow-pioneer with Boone at Boonesborough, writing from Ten- 
nessee, relates that in 1774 Richard Henderson was "induced to at- 
tempt a purchase of that country (the Kentucky area) from the 
Cherokee Indians through the suggestions and advice of the late Col. 
Daniel Boone." 


first into the Louisa and then into the Transylvania Com- 
pany. With the aid of his associates he carried through the 
treaty of Sycamore Shoals, purchased for £10,000 sterling the 
Indian title to the greater portion of the Kentucky area, and 
commissioned Boone to cut out a passage to the heart of 
Kentucky. Boonesborough became the focus of the great 
struggles for predominance on the Western frontier. ^^ There 
was the struggle of the white man against the red man, of 
the colonial against the Briton. There was the struggle of 
the Transylvania Company, first against Royal authority, and 
then against the authority of Virginia. But deeper than all 
was the struggle between the spirit of individual colonization 
as embodied in the pioneers, and the spirit of commercial en- 
terprise as embodied in the Transylvania Company. The 
conflict between the individualistic democracy of the pioneer 
and the commercial proprietorship of the Transylvania Com- 
pany was settled only when George Rogers Clark, with iron 
hand, forced upon Virginia his own selection as virtual mili- 
tary dictator of the West. The drastic settlement of that con- 
flict also made possible the most spectacular and meteoric 
campaign in Western history — closing only when Clark and 
his unterrified frontiersmen grounded their arms in Kaskas- 
kia and Vincennes.^^ 

55 Cf. the writer's Life and Times of Richard Heyiderson; "The 
Beginnings of American Expansion" ; and "Forerunners of the Re- 
public : Richard Henderson and American Expansion," loc. cit. In a 
supplementary paper, the present writer purposes to detail, in ex- 
tenso, the history of this expansionist movement from 1772 onward. 
All the accounts hitherto given of this momentous episode in our na- 
tional history are singularly fragmentary and inaccurate. The recent 
discovery by the present writer of many documents not hitherto acces- 
sible to historical students clarifies the entire situation. Only now 
for the first time is it possible to throw into true perspective Boone's 
abortive effort to invade Kentucky in 1773, his relation to the Transyl- 
vania Company in the capacity of confidential agent, Henderson's 
prudent procedure in securing the highest legal sanction for the pur- 
chase, the details of the "Great Treaty" of Sycamore Shoals, the 
invasion of Kentucky in 1775, and the subsequent history, both gov- 
ernmental and corporate, of the Transylvania Company. 

56 Henderson, "Forerunners of the Republic: George Rogers Clark 
and the Western Crisis," Neale's Monthly, June, 1913 ; James, George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781 (111. Hist. Soc. Publications, Vol. 
VIII) ; Turner, "Western State-Making in the Revolutionary Era," 
American Historical Review, I, 70-87, 251-269. 


In his appeal to the Kentucky legislature, the octogenarian 
Boone says that he ''may claim, without arrogance, to have 
been the author of the principal means which contributed to 
the settlement of a country on the Mississippi and its waters, 
which now (1812) produces the happiness of a million of his 
fellow-creatures ; and of the exploring and acquisition of a 
country that will make happy many millions in time to come." 
The present research compels us to discount the high-flown 
language of the ancient petitioner for land. Boone was the 
pathfinder and way-breaker — wonderful independent explorer 
and equally skilled executant of the desigTis of others. ^''^ But 
to Henderson, Hart, Williams, and their associates, animated 
by the spirit of constructive civilization, rather than to Boone, 
with his unsocial and nomadic instincts, belongs the larger 
measure of credit for the inauguration of the militant expan- 
sionist movement of Western colonization. The creative 
causes of the Westward movement were rooted, not in 
romance, but in economic enterprise, not in Providence, but 
in political vision. It was the Transylvania Company which 
at its own expense successfully colonized the Kentucky area 
with between two and three hundred men ; and with true revo- 
lutionary ardor defying the royal authority as expressed 
through the crown governors of the colonies of JSTorth Caro- 
lina and Virginia, exhausted all means, through appeals to 
the Continental Congress, to Patrick Henry, Jefferson, and 
the Adamses, and finally to the legislature of Virginia, in 
their ultimately fruitless efforts to create a fourteenth Ameri- 
can colony. And yet, despite this failure, Henderson and his 
associates furnished to the world "one of the most heroic dis- 
plays of that typical American spirit of comprehensive ag- 
gTandisement of which so much is heard to-day."^^ It is a 
coincidence of historic sig-nificance that just one day after 
the dropping musketry at Lexingion and Concord was heard 
round the world, Henderson and his little band reached the 

57 Cf. Henderson, "Forerunners of the Republic : Daniel Boone," 
Neale's Monthly, February, 1913. 

58 Hulbert, Pilots of the Republic. 


site of the future Boonesborougli. Here the colonists reared 
a bulwark of enduring strength to resist the fierce incursions 
of bands of hostile savages during the period of the American 
Revolution. Unquestionably the strenuous borderers, with 
their roving instincts, would in any event ultimately have 
established impregnable strongholds in the Kentucky area. 
But had it not been for the Transylvania Company and Daniel 
Boone, no secure stronghold, to protect the whites against the 
savages, might have been established and fortified in 1775. 
In that event, the American colonies, convulsed in a titanic 
struggle, might well have seen Kentucky overrun by savage 
hordes, led by English officers, throughout the Revolution. In 
consequence, the American colonies at the close of the Revolu- 
tion would probably have been compelled to leave in British 
hands the vast and fertile regions beyond the AUeghanies. 


The Old North State 

( Carolina) 

By Mbs. Julia E. Cain. 

Grand "Old North State," we love thee, we love thee, 

From the blue skyland to the waving sea. 

We love thy hills, thy streams, thy mountains grand — 

Thy golden, waving fields, all o'er the land. 

We are proud of thy forests, towering high. 

Lifting their peaks aloft to the sky — 

The sturdy oak, the long leaf pine. 

The walnut, the maple, and the trumpet vine — 

Thy luscious fruits and flowers rare. 

With all the world beyond compare. 

Oh ! grand Old North State, we love thee, we love thee, 

From the mountain top to the billowy sea ! 

We are proud of thy sons — aye, every one. 

Who fought our battle and victory won. 
Who stand fo? the right, who crush the wrong. 
While bursts from their hearts sweet liberty's song ; 
Who justice and honor and truth proclaim. 
Writing in history thy fair, good name. 

Oh ! grand Old North State, we are proud of thee, 
From the mountain top to the billowy sea — 
From Currituck to Cherokee ! 

We are proud of thy daughters, thy women grand, 

Who bless our homes, all over the land, 

In peace, in war, a patriotic band. 
Working, giving, with true heart and hand. 
Oh ! grand Old North State, we bless thee, we crown thee, 
From the blue skyland to the waving sea. 

Thy flag doth wave all o'er the State, 

Our hearts beat true, to liberty great. 

And I'eady are we, at our country's call. 

To defend our homes — our land, aye all. 

Oh! grand Old North State, we crown thee, we bless thee, 

From mountain top to the waving sea — 

From Currituck to Cherokee ! 


The Contributions of North Carolina to the 
Development of American Institutions* 

Commencement Address at Wake Forest College, May 21, 1914, by 
Simeon E. Baldwin, M.A., LL.D., Governor of Connecticut; Professor 
of Law in Yale University ; formerly President of the American His- 
torical Association and of the American Political Science Association. 

There is no State of the Union which has not done some- 
thing, good or bad, towards the development of American 
institutions; but the part thus taken by those of them who 
wear the proud title of the Old Thirteen is the most con- 
spicuous. It is they in whose honor were devised the thir- 
teen stripes upon our flag. The older and the newer States 
are alike represented by its stars : the stripes perpetuate the 
memory of the Old Thirteen alone. 

It is they only who have a background of ancient history. 
I say ancient; for the creation of one of our newer States, 
born into purely American and republican surroundings, is 
separated from the first settlement of Plymouth or the Caro- 
linas, under English and monarchical auspices, by a tract of 
time of whose length years are no measure. 

One of our American historians has said, and not untruly, 
that the men of the colonial era undertook "to develop thirteen 
autonomous States out of as many land companies."^ This 
was a harder task for the people of the two Carolinas than 
for those of any other of the colonies. Their charter scheme, 
as developed by the Proprietaries, was vitally un-English and 
un-American. So far as it bore the stamp of any nationality, 
it was Roman. 

The first Earl of Shaftesbury who, as Lord Ashley, was 
one of the 2,Tantees in both the charters from Charles II., 

♦Published in Bulletin of Wake Forest College, October, 1914. Re- 
printed by special request. 

1 Chamberlain, John Adams, etc., 150. 


was the author of the English Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, 
which has done so much to secure the freedom of the indi- 
vidual against the power of government. It is one of the 
paradoxes of history that he, ten years before, with the aid 
of his private secretary, the philosopher, John Locke, pre- 
pared the original constitution for the government of the 
Carolinas adopted by the Proprietaries, which, had the free- 
men ever really accepted it, would have set up here forever 
a formidable bar to the growth of republican institutions. 

By its terms, you will recollect, a territorial nobility was 
set up, the highest in rank bearing the German title of Land- 

There was to be a parliament, meeting in one chamber, 
but by Article 79, ''To avoid multiplicity of laws, which by 
degrees always change the right foundations of the original 
government, all acts of parliament whatsoever, in whatso- 
ever form passed, or enacted, shall, at the end of a hundred 
years after their enacting, respectively, cease and determine 
of themselves, and without any repeal become null and void, 
as if no such acts or laws had ever been made." 

One provision which, if in force to-day, would be unpopular 
with some of this audience, was directed against lawyers. "It 
shall be," reads Article 70, ''a base and vile thing to plead 
for money or reward; nor shall any one (except he be a near 
kinsman . . . ) be permitted to plead another man's cause 
till before the judge in open court he hath taken an oath that 
he doth not plead for money or reward, nor hath nor will 
receive, nor directly or indirectly bargained with the party 
w^hose cause he is going to plead, for money or any other 
reward for pleading his cause." 

By Article 95, no one could hold an estate or become a 
freeman, or even reside in the province, who did not acknowl- 
edge a God and that he is to be publicly and solemnly wor- 
shipped. This, no doubt, is the inherited cause for the clause 
in the present Constitution of North Carolina, debarring 


atheists from office. But two other States now hold to that 

All elections, under the Locke scheme (Article 32), were 
to be by ballot. In 1760, this regulation, which had been 
continued in force until that time, was repealed and viva voce 
voting substituted. This brought ISTorth Carolina in line with 
England and most of the Southern colonies.^ A few years 
later, however, she reverted to her original plan, and it was 
made the subject of a constitutional provision in 1776. Her 
Constitution of that year was the first which, in any State, 
required the ballot.^ 

In one respect, however, she differed from all these. Free 
negroes, born in the State, who paid public taxes, were held 
to be citizens, and entitled to vote at elections, if not before, 
certainly after the Constitution of 1776.^ It was this, in 
fact, more than anything else, that occasioned the calling of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1835, by which their right 
of suffrage was taken away. 

There is little else in the "Fundamental Constitutions" of 
1669 of which any substantial trace survived the Revolution. 
They never went into full effect, and were substantially abro- 
gated by the Lords Proprietors, in 1693. The division of the 
Carolinas into two provinces, followed by the surrender of 
the Proprietary title to the Crown, early in the eighteenth 
century, put an end to the aristocratic government devised 
by Shaftesbury and Locke. From that time on till 1776, the 
problems of ISTorth Carolina were the same with which the 
other English colonies had to contend. 

As the tension of the bonds between them and the mother 

2 Arkansas and South Carolina, Report of American Historical 
Association 1899, I, 121. 

3 McKinley, The Suffrage Franchise in the Thirteen Colonies, III. 

4 It had been a feature of the West Jersey Concessions of 1676-7, 
and of Penn's Frame of Government, promulgated in 1683. 

5 Thorpe, Constitutional Hist, of the U. S., I, 176 ; State v. Manuel, 
4 Dev. & Battle Law Rep., 25; Report of Am. Hist. Association for 
1895, 276. 


country increased, jSTorth Carolina was the first to declare 
herself in favor of throwing off allegiance to the British 

We may or may not take the view that the story of the 
Mecklenburg County resolutions of May 20, 1775, is a myth.^ 
Legends are the foundations of history, and the date solemnly 
placed upon the great seal of North Carolina ought not lightly 
to be disregarded. But were we to accept all that has ever been 
claimed for the time of that action and the words in which 
it was expressed, Mecklenburg County could only speak for 
itself. On April 4, 1776, the provincial congress at Halifax 
spoke for the State at large. This body unanimously em- 
powered the delegates from North Carolina in the Continental 
Congress to concur in action by that body, should it be taken, 
"in declaring independency and forming foreign alliances." 
She was thus, in the words of Bancroft. '' "the first colony to 
vote an explicit sa'nction to independence." 

In the Convention at Hillsborough, in the latter part of 
1775, a further step had been advocated by many. Dr. 
Franklin's scheme for a permanent confederacy of all the 
colonies was brought forward by one of the delegates, but it 
was decided that such an organization ought only to be set up 
in the last necessity, and then only after consultation with the 
Provincial Congress. 

Soon after the Declaration of Independence had created 
the United States of America, North Carolina elected a Con- 
vention to frame a Constitution. One of her most prominent 
citizens. Governor Burke, consulted John Adams, the leading 
authority in the country on the subject, in regard to the proper 
form to adopt. Adams advised placing the State on the foot- 
ing of an independent sovereigii ; having a bicameral legis- 
lature ; requiring annual elections ; but choosing judges for 

6 See the paper of Messrs. Salley and Ford, Am. Hist. Keview, 
April, 1906. 

7 Hist, of the U. S., V, 238. 


life. It was a maxim of public science, he wrote, that "where 
annual elections end, there slavery begins."^ 

In general his recommendations were followed, and with 
the result that the Constitution for North Carolina outlasted 
every other of the Revolutionary period except that of Mas- 
sachusetts, which was also modeled largely upon Adams' 

]^orth Carolina had, under the Fundamental Orders (Art. 
75), biennial elections. When these were superseded by Royal 
authority, annual elections were substituted, and this con- 
tinued to be the scheme until 1836, when an amendment to 
the Constitution reestablished the original system. 

In thus abandoning annual sessions, jSTorth Carolina led 
the way for the whole country. They are now retained in 
only two States. 

On this anniversary day of one of her collegiate institu- 
tions, it is not to be forgotten that JSTorth Carolina was the 
first State of the American Union to put into her Constitu- 
tion a provision for public education. Article XLI of that 
instrument, adopted December 18, 1776, declares ''that a 
school or schools shall be established by the Legislature, for 
the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the 
masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct 
at low prices, and all useful learning shall be duly encour- 
aged and promoted in one or more universities." Only 
three other of the constitutions of this period contain any 
provisions on this subject.^ 

The establishment of the University of ISTorth Carolina, 
towards the close of the eighteenth century, was followed, in 
1822, by the appointment of one of the Professors as State 
Geologist and Mineralogist. His report, as such, published 
in 1824 and 1825, on the Geology of the State, presented the 
first survey of such a nature made by any of the States,^^ and 

8 Life and Works of John Adams, I, 209, 211 ; IV, 195. 

9 Hildreth, Hist, of the U. S., Ill, 385. 

10 Dexter, Yale Biographies, VI, 593. 


thus became the beginning of a long series of studies which 
have revealed to the country its natural sources of wealth. 

The Constitution of 1776 required the chief officers of the 
State to be Protestants, or, at least, not to deny the truth of 
the Protestant religion. It also declared that all officers must 
acknowledge the inspiration of the Old and 'New Testaments. 
Only one other State did that. As time went on and the 
Roman Catholic church became stronger, some of its mem- 
bers were appointed to high office. They took the ground that 
a Roman Catholic, simply by being such, did not deny the 
truth of the Potestant religion : on the contrary, they said, he 
believed most of its doctrines, though adding more. William 
Gaston, when appointed to the bench, took this ground, and 
it was approved by Chief Justice Marshall and Chief Justice 
Ruffin, whom he consulted. To put the matter beyond the 
limits of question, the Constitutional Convention of 1835, 
after full debate, siibstituted for Protestant the broader term, 

Few now seriously dispute that under our system of gov- 
ernment the courts have implied power to test the validity 
of every statute by the touchstone of the Constitution. We 
inherited this doctrine from the era of the Confederation, and 
the courts of North Carolina early came to its support. Her 
Constitution of 1776 guaranteed the right of trial by jury 
in all controversies at law respecting property. The General 
Assembly passed a statute requiring suits against purchasers 
of confiscated estates to be dismissed on motion. Such a 
motion was made in such a suit in 1786, and the court, a 
year later, denied it, on the ground that the law violated this 
constitutional guaranty, and was therefore void. The de- 
cision thus rendered was the second ever rendered in the 
English-speaking world to the point that if a written statute 

11 Great American Lawyers, III, 72, 76, 111. 


conflicts with a written constitution, the statute must give 

ISTorth Carolina Avas the first State to affirm the principle 
of freedom of incorporation for the promotion of a business 
enterprise. By an Act passed in 1795, she allowed any per- 
sons, who desired, to incorporate themselves for the purpose 
of building and maintaining canals. ^^ This was the first 
legislation of the kind since the beginnings of the Roman 
empire. •'^■^ Other of the American States had before allowed 
individuals to incorporate themselves for certain charitable 
purposes. It was the far-sighted policy of North Carolina, 
which extended this principle to organizations for business 
purposes. They builded better than they knew. Soon fol- 
lowed elsewhere, in and out of the United States, it was 
destined, during the next century, to work a world-wide eco- 
nomic revolution. 

In one respect ]!^orth Carolina, in my opinion, has exer- 
cised an unfortunate influence on our judicial institutions. 
The English-speaking nations stand alone in the world in 
their division of the functions of a decider of civil causes 
between one man, whom we call a judge, and a dozen others 
whom we call a jury. By the common law of England, from 
whom we derived this practice, the judge had a double duty : 
to decide any points of law that might be raised, and to guide 
the jury on the path to a right conclusion on the facts. Legal 
questions on which counsel seriously diftered seldom occurred ; 
but disputes as to the facts of the case were incident to every 
jury trial. The English judge was accustomed to express his 

12 Bayard v. Singleton, Martin's Reports, 48 ; Baldwin on The 
American Judiciary, 100, 110 ; Coxe on Judicial Power and Unconsti- 
tutional Legislation, 248. Tlie court also relied on tlie supremacy of 
the Articles of Confederation. The next Legislature (November, 
1787) enacted that the treaty with Great Britain was part of the 
law of the land, and to be enforced in all courts accordingly. Stat., 
Rev. of 1819, I, 559. See the history of the first decision (given in 
New Jersey in 1780, in the case of Holmes v. Walton), in the Ameri- 
can Historical Review, IV, 456. 

13 Chapter 432, Laws of North Carolina, Ed. 1821, I, 769. 

14 Report of the American Historical Association for 1902, I, 274. 


own opinion, if he thought it would promote a proper decision 
as to what facts really had been established by the proofs, and 
how far these were, if found by the jury to exist, controlling 
in their eifect. In 1796, ISTorth Carolina, which, down to that 
time, had followed in this respect the rule of the common law, 
abrogated it. Chief Justice Ruffin, soon afterwards, in a well- 
known case, did what he could to minimize the effect of this 
statutory prohibition of an ancient practice. ■'^'^ But legisla- 
tures are stronger than judges. The Act of 1796 in ISTorth 
Carolina set up one of the early precedents in support of di- 
minishing judicial power, which have gradually, in most of 
our States, made the American jury a very different thing 
from the jury of the common law\ 

The courts of North Carolina rendered an important ser- 
vice to the country, in leading the way towards placing the 
American law of charities on a broad foundation. It was 
long a question of warm dispute at the bar, whether our courts 
of equity had the jurisdiction over charitable trusts possessed 
by the English Chancellors, independently of the ancient 
statute of charitable uses, passed in the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth. In 1819, the Supreme Court of the United States, in 
an elaborate opinion by Chief Justice Marshall, took the 
negative view. If this precedent were to be generally fol- 
lowed, and the statute made the sole test of what was a lawful 
charity, many bequests for worthy purposes would be sure to 
fail. The next year, after full argument, the English doctrine 
as to equity jurisdiction was recognized in the Supreme Court 
of iSTorth Carolina. -^*' Other States followed the reasoning 
which had led to this result. Horace Binney, one of the 
greatest of American lawyers, by his researches in the rolls 
of the English Chancery, demonstrated before the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in the Girard College case, that 
Marshall was wrong. The 2:reat Chief Justice's decision was 

15 state V. Moses, 13 North Carolina Law Reports, 452. 

16 Griffin v. Graham, 8 North Carolina Law Reports, 96. 


finally overruled, and the JSTorth Carolina doctrine of charities 
established in its place. ^^ 

North Carolina was the last of the States represented in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1787 to ratify its work. She 
was also the last State to become a member of the Southern 
Confederacy. The cause of delay, in both cases, was, at bot- 
tom, the same. It was her conviction that, in large affairs, 
existing political relations ought not to be disturbed without 
strong cause. It was political conservatism. It was the 
quality which made her and South Carolina, her early sister, 
the only States which maintained a general property qualifi- 
cation for ofiice until after the Civil War.^^ 

When the Federal Convention met, in 1787, North Caro- 
lina was in territory the largest State but one^^ of the Old 
Thirteen. Her geogTaphical conditions justified the state- 
ment, in the ofiicial report of her delagates to the Gopernor 
of the doings of the Convention, that North Carolina was 
doubtless the most independent of the Southern States, for 
her people were able to carry her own produce to market. ^^ 
Being thus independent in her position, she offered the fairest 
field for the last battle ground against those who in 1787 
were for the entire reconstruction of the government of the 
United States. She naturally stood for State sovereignty in 
everything where it was not vitally necessary to accord supre- 
macy to the States acting together, or to the people of all of 
them,^^ speaking in each. 

At the time when North Carolina was to express her judg- 
ment on the merits of the new Constitution, two great men 
were contending for the mastery in the arena of theoretical 
politics : Jefferson and Hamilton. North Carolina sided from 
the first with Jefferson. He was representing us abroad in 

IT Rusaell V. Allen, 107 United States Reports, 163, 167. 

18 Report of the Am. Historical Association for 1899, I, 114. 

19 Georgia. 

20 Farrand, Records of the Federal Convention, III, 84. 

21 Report of ttie American Historical Association for 1905, I, 104; 
see State Records of N. C, I, 390. 


1788, but wrote to his friends here that he favored the ratifi- 
cation of the new Constitution by nine States, which would 
insure an organization under it, and rejection by the other 
four, unless and until it was strengthened by a bill of rights.^^ 
Under the leadership of Willie Jones, the first Constitutional 
Convention, held in that year at Hillsborough, substantially 
followed this advice. Without either ratifying or rejecting 
the new Constitution, it declared that bill of rights and twen- 
ty-six amendments ought to be laid before Congress and a 
new Convention of the United States that should or might be 
called for such purposes of amendment. The most important 
of the principles thus put forward were incorporated in the 
Constitution, on the recommendation of the first Congress, 
secured largely by the action of North Carolina in refusing 
an unconditional ratification. 

Hardly had the Supreme Court of the United States been 
organized when suits were brought in it against several of 
the States to collect debts due from them to citizens of other 
States. Chief Justice Marshall, as a member of the Virginia 
Convention, had declared that the Constitution gave no au- 
thority for such actions. Hamilton had taken the same 
ground in the Federalist.^^ With only one dissenting opinion, 
however, the Justices of the Court took the other view. This 
dissent was by Mr. Justice Iredell of North Carolina. The 
States, he said, were sovereign as to all matters concerning 
which sovereignty had not been granted to the United States. 
It was the settled law that a sovereign could not be sued in 
court. Consequently the States, being sovereign, could not 
be so sued, except in the few cases specially authorized in the 
Constitution of the United States. The plaintiff in the case 
at bar was a private citizen suing for a contract debt. There 
was no special authority for such a suit, and therefore, in his 
opinion, it should be dismissed. 

22 Jefferson's Writings, Library Ed., XVIII, 14 ; Bancroft, History 
of the Constitution, II, 459, 460 ; Elliott's Debates, IV, 226. 

23 Thorpe, Constitutional History of the United States, II, 266, 
et seq. 


A storm of protest swept over the United States when the 
decision of the Court was announced. Governor Hancock, of 
Massachusetts, one of the States that had been sued, called a 
special session of the Legislature to consider the matter, and 
declared that this new doctrine tended to a consolidation of 
all the States into one government "which would at once en- 
danger the nation as a Republic, and eventually divide the 
States united."-'* The speedy result was the adoption of the 
Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution, which prevented 
any such suits for the future, and struck out of existence those 
already brought. 

The United States, under the Articles of Confederation, 
were what a recent English writer has declared that every 
independent nation is — ''the organization of organizations."^^ 
They were a feeble organization of thirteen strong organiza- 
tions. The ordinary nation has for its constituents all its 
people, but they are organized politically in various territorial 
divisions, such as counties, towns, and cities, and socially in 
various business, or ecclesiastical, or institutional divisions. 
Some of them are associated in the form of banks, or rail- 
roads ; others as or around universities ; as churches and dio- 
ceses ; or as societies of a less formal character for promoting 
particular theories of human conduct. 

The constituents of the United States of the Revolution 
and of the Confederation were thirteen peoples, not one. 
Each of these peoples were grouped in different forms of 
organization, under a local government of their own ; but the 
United States, as such, claimed no authoritative jurisdiction 
over any of these groups in any State, and had none over the 
State itself. 

The Constitutional Convention of 1787 attempted a com- 
promise between those who were for abandoning this system 
of government entirely, and those who thought it could be 
strengthened and preserved. It is certain that the great 

24 Thorpe, Constitutional History of the United States, II, 290. 

25 Lindsay, The Political Quarterly, I, 140. 


majority of the people of !North Carolina were originally 
opposed to the ratification of the Constitution. The Hills- 
borough Convention of July 21, 1788, would probably have 
voted it down without debate, had it not been for the influence 
of James Iredell.^^ She had found herseK strong enough, 
alone, to handle a very serious insurrection by the suppression 
of the ^^Eeg-ulators," and later to put down the rising designed 
to found the new State of Franklin, and to convict, in 1787, 
its leader, John Sevier, of high treason. During the Revolu- 
tion, she had seen most of the Regulators siding with the 
British, and feeble as the government of the United States 
then was, she had found herself, with the aid of that govern- 
ment, still able to cope with any invading force, and all their 
Tory auxiliaries.^'*^ Her worst enemy was her own over-issues 
of paper money, and with that problem, she, like Rhode 
Island, preferred to deal for herself. Why then should she join 
the States which Avere seceding from a confederation which 
by its terms, to which each had solemnly agreed, was to last 
perpetually ? 

The leaders of ISTorth Carolina so far had held its course 
steadily, from the first, in one direction : away from aristoc- 
racy ; towards popular institutions. They endeavored to 
make, and they did make, the new government more closely 
a government of the people, before accepting its authority. 

Any strongly marked national characteristic that makes for 
good is a national asset. It endears the State to its people. 
It is their voice. It speaks the habit of their mind. In the case 
of a private business concern, long establshed and well re- 
puted, a part of its property, well recognized by law, is the 
good will of those who know on what principles it has been 
conducted. Much more is the good will of its people of value 
to a State. That spirit of conservatism which has always 
marked ISTorth Carolina has helped to steady the course of 

26 Elliott's Debates, IV. 4. 

27 Life and Works of John Adams. VII, 308; Report of Am. Hist. 
Association for 1894, 180, 209: Wiusor, Narrative, etc., Hist., VII, 190; 
Tarleton's Campaigns, 119. 270 ; State Records of N. C, I, xiv, xviii. 


American government. It was fostered by the circumstances 
of her earlier history. It was strengthened by the nature of 
her main industry. Agriculture binds the man to the land, 
and in the land there is something of the eternal and un- 
changeable. Conservatism detaches itself from the transi- 
tory. It makes for unity in political action. It is unwilling 
to have untried forms of government imposed upon it. It 
distrusts abstract philosophies, unripened by time. 

There is a certain unity in the history of North Carolina. 
The Royal province, of which she originally formed a part, 
soon broke in two; South Carolina followed the ways of 
cities ; North Carolina those of the country and the farm. 

Half a century later North Carolina broke in two. The 
people of the mountains pushed the frontier Westward and 
laid the foundations of Tennessee. For the people on the 
Atlantic slope, the current of industry followed the waters 
toward the sea. Agriculture added to itself commerce and 

The twentieth century came. It found North Carolina 
still mainly a State of the country and the farm, but, towards 
the West, of a rough country and rocky farms. The ever- 
lasting hills still stood as they were two hundred years before, 
the home of sturdy mountaineers, largely reflecting the man- 
ners and the ideals of the American of two centuries before. 

It is no bad thing for a State to have representatives of 
the thought of the eighteenth century uniting for the shap- 
ing of her institutions with representatives of the twentieth. 
On the one hand, it assures the permanence of popular gov- 
ernment: on the other, it guarantees the benefit of whatever 
new means time brings to make popular government more 
truly by the people and for the people. 

I come from a State which calls itself the Land of Steady 
Habits. North Carolina and Connecticut were alike char- 
tered by Charles the Second. He gave to North Carolina a 
charter of aristocracy, and to Connecticut a charter of de- 
mocracy. He gave to North Carolina the harder task. She 


must win for herself what was the birthright of Connecticut, 
How has she marked her progress to the goal ? 

Let me recapitulate what seems to me the highest of her 
achievements. In what great things did she press forward 
first, and set the pace ? 

1. In declaring for independence of Great Britain, in April, 

2. In providing by her Constitution of December, 1776, 
for a secret ballot, and for public education at public cost. 

3. In passing, in 1795, the first general incorporation law 
for business purposes since the time of the Roman empire. 

4. In discarding annual for biennial elections, in the 
amendments to her Constitution in 1835. 

The first step, if anything, it costs something to make. 
These five steps that I have mentioned, each in its day, worked 
a great innovation in American institutions, and one of 
them — that towards freedom of incorporation — in universal 
political science. 

We of other States are glad in these things to recognize 
the primacy of North Carolina, and to congratulate her on 
the public service she thus has done to the country and the 


Sir Walter Raleigh as a Poet 

By Nina Holland Covington. 

When that gorgeous Pageant, the Age of Elizabeth, comes 
upon the stage of history, there is no more splendid figure 
among the actors than that of Sir Walter Raleigh, who makes 
his spectacular appearance before the queen by throwing his 
velvet coat upon the muddy ground so that she may walk over 
dry-shod. Characteristic indeed of the man and of the age is 
this anecdote of Kaleigh's young years. The romantic cour- 
tier lived in a period well suited to his varied talents and 
accomplishments, for it was an age of war, of exploration, of 
colonization, of learning, of wit, of extravagance in speech 
and dress, and an age which gave fullest encouragement to 

Perhaps the most important thing in Raleigh's career as 
it affected history was the fact that he made numerous at- 
tempts to establish settlements in America, and although 
these settlements were not permanent, nevertheless, as has been 
so well said,* "You cannot measure great events with a yard- 
stick. Men die, ideas are immortal. The idea of another 
England beyond the Atlantic, conceived by the master mind 
of Sir Walter Raleigh, was the germ from which, through 
the development of three centuries, has evolved the American 
nation of the twentieth century. There is a vital connection, 
both physical and spiritual, between Roanoke and Jamestown. 
Among those who founded Jamestown were ten of the men 
who had co-operated with Raleigh in the settlements at Roan- 
oke. In these men we have the physical connection between 
the two, while to the idea conceived by Raleigh and to the 
spirit of conquest and colonization which his attempts on this 
island called into existence, the English race in Europe, in 
Asia, Africa and Australia and the islands of the sea, and in 
America, owes the world-wide prominence which it to-day 

*R. D. W. Connor "Sir Walter Raleigh and His Associates," Book- 
let, Vol. X 1, No. 3. 


enjoys among the races of mankind. Nothing can be clearer, 
therefore, than that we, in looking back over the events of the 
last three centuries, can hail the Roanoke settlements as the 
beginning of English colonization in America and throughout 
the world." 

But though Sir Walter Raleigh is most important as a 
colonizer, that was but one side of this versatile hero of his- 
tory, for he was also a courtier, soldier, manager of men, 
explorer, business man, historian and poet. Perhaps his 
poetry has not been, after all, very important in English liter- 
ature, and he certainly is not well known as a poet, nor can he 
be ranked as one of the great poets of England, but still there 
is merit enough in his verse to lift it far above mediocrity. 

The poems of Raleigh that have come down to us are not 
numerous. The "Cynthia" has long been lost, and there are 
only about twenty other poems which can be correctly ascribed 
to him. JSTo attempt was made in Raleigh's lifetime to col- 
lect his poems, and, for some time after his death, his poetry 
was not considered important enough to be preserved. In the 
first collection of his poems there were only three poems ; in 
the second there were only nine. It has taken careful 
research work to gather together these long neglected poems 
of Raleigh, and there is still dispute among critics and literati 
as to whether certain poems generally accepted as Raleigh's 
are really his or not. It is not often that men of action have 
either time or inclination to write verse. It is the man who 
has leisure to dream dreams, and to think deeply over the 
mysteries of nature and humanity who usually gives the 
world its great poems. But still. Sir Walter Raleigh, busy 
as he was during the years in which most of his poetry was 
written, wrote, besides the long poem "Cynthia," about 
twenty other poems which are of interest and literary value. 
The poem "Cynthia" itself must have contained, it is thought, 
about ten thousand lines — equal in length to two books of the 
"Faery Queene." 

Spenser, who acknowledges that he owed much to his inter- 


course with Kaleigh (they were neighbors in Ireland), and 

who was most grateful for Raleigh's encouragement as the 

"Faery Queene" was being written, dedicated the first three 

books to Raleigh with the sonnet which begins : 

"To thee that are the summer's nightingale 
Thy sovereign Goddess's most dear delight." 

And Raleigh appended to these first three books of the 

"Faery Queene" the sonnet which begins: 

"Methought I saw the grave where Laura lay, 
Within that temple where the vestal flame 
Was wont to burn : and, passing by that way, 
To see that buried dust of living fame, 
Whose tomb fair Love and fairer Virtue kept. 
All suddenly I saw the Faery Queene, 
At whose approach the soul of Petrarch wept ; 
And from thenceforth those graces were not seen 
For they this Queen attended, in whose stead 
Oblivion laid him down on Laura's hearse, 
Hereat the hardest stones were seen to bleed. 
And groans of buried ghosts the heavens did pierce ; 
When Homer's spright did tremble all for grief 
And cursed the access of that celestial thief." 

a sonnet which, though it is far too extravagant in sentiment, 

nevertheless contains some fine lines. Milton admired it, and 

imitated it in his sonnet beginning : 

"Methought I saw my late espoused saint 
Brought to me like Alcestis from the tomb." 

Marlowe's well known pastoral poem, "The Passionate 
Shepherd to his Love," called forth a reply from Raleigh that 
was musical, bright and clever, with that touch of bitterness 
that so many of the Elizabethan lyric poets affected. It was 
written probably in 1599, and mentioned and quoted in Wal- 
ton's "Complete Angler" in 1653 as a poem "made by Sir 
Walter Raleigh in his younger days." 

Belonging also to Raleigh's younger period is the beautiful 
elegy on Sir Philip Sidney, which would alone give him a 
place in English literature. Edmund Gosse says of it: "It 
blends the passion of personal regret with the dignity of public 
grief as all great elegiacal poems should. One stanza might 
be inscribed on a monument to Sidney: 



"England withhold thy limits, that bred the same ; 
Flanders thy valour, where it last was tried. 
The camp thy sorrow, where the body died ; 
Thy friends thy want : the world thy virtue's fame." 

The poem over the authorship of which there has been so 
much dispute, ''The Lie," is, like all of Raleigh's poems, dig- 
nified in tone, and has that independent, spirited air which 
doubtless Puttenham meant to describe when he said, in his 
''Art of English Poetry," "For ditty and amorous ode, I find 
Sir Walter Raleigh's vein most lofty, insolent, and passion- 
ate." It is not known exactly when "The Lie" was written, 
but it seems probable that it belongs to that period of his first 
imprisonment in the Tower after his secret entanglement with 
Elizabeth Throckmorton. The first two stanzas will show the 
character of the piece. Bitter, haughty, defiant in tone, 
smooth and rippling in measure, it easily takes its place 
among the striking poems of our language, and is important 
as being representative of the poetry of the period. For, ex- 
travagance of expression, smoothness of phrase and rhythm, 
with a slight cynicism, were the characteristics of the lyric 
poetry of this age of English literature : 

"Go, Soul, the body's guest, 
Upon a thankless arrant : 
Fear not to touch the best ; 
The truth shall be thy warrant. 
Go, since I needs must die, 
And give the world the lie. 

Say to the court, it glows 
And shines like rotten wood : 
Say to the church, it shows 
What's good, and doth no good : 
If church and court reply 
Then give them both the lie." 

And particularly interesting to us, because it seems rather 
bold on Raleigh's part, and more openly defiant that he ever 
expressed himself elsewhere, is the third stanza : 

"Tell potentates, they live 
Acting by others' action. 
Not loved unless they give — 
Not strong, but by a faction : 
If potentates reply 
Give potentates the lie." 


Entirely different from this is "Sir Walter Raleigh's Pil- 
grimage," which is perhaps the best known of his poems. 
The poem is very beautiful and full of striking metaphors. 
The last stanza is especially interesting and startling, and 
from what is implied there this poem is often said to have 
been written the night before he died. But most critics seem 
to agree that it belongs to the time following the trial at Win- 
chester when Raleigh, having been convicted of treason, 
thought that the king would have him immediately executed. 
And Raleigh's supposed accomplices, Markham, Gray and 
Cobham, were actually led out before his (Raleigh's) very 
eyes for their execution, and then, on the scaffold, their lives 
were saved by the king's pardon. This was on the tenth of 
December, 1603. Gosse, Archdeacon Hannah and others 
think that the "Pilgrimage" was written on the night of the 
ninth of December. 


Give me my scallop-shell of quiet, 
My staff of faith to walk upon, 
My script of joy, immortal diet, 
My bottle of salvation. 
My gown of glory, hope's true gage; 
And thus I'll take my pilgrimage. 

Blood must be my body's balmer; 

No other balm will there be given ; 

Whilst my soul, like quiet palmer, 

Travelleth towards the land of heaven; 

Over the silver mountains. 

Where spring the nectar fountains : 

There will I kiss 

The bowl of bliss ; 

And drink mine everlasting fill 

Upon every milken hill. 

My soul will be a-dry before ; 

But after, it will thirst no more. 

Then by that happy blissful day, 

More peaceful pilgrims I shall see. 

That have cast off their rags of clay. 

And walk apparelled fresh like me. 

I'll take them first 

To quench their thirst 

And taste of nectar suckets. 

At those clear wells 

Where sweetness dwells. 

Drawn up by saints in crystal buckets. 


And when our bottles and all we 

Are filled with immortality, 

Then the blessed paths we'll travel, 

Strowed with rubies thick as gravel ; 

Ceilngs of diamonds, sapphire floors. 

High walls of coral and pearly bowers. 

From thence to heaven's bribeless hall. 

Where no corrupted voices brawl ; 

No conscience molten into gold. 

No forged accuser bought or sold. 

No cause deferred, no vain-spent journey. 

For there Christ is the king's attorney, 

Who pleads for all without degrees, 

And He hath angels, but no fees. 

And when the grand twelve million jury 

Of our sins, with direful fury, 

Against our souls black verdicts give, 

Christ pleads His death, and then we live. 

Be thou my speaker, taintless pleader, 

Unblotted lawyer, true proceeder ! 

Thou givest salvation even for alms ; 

Not with a bribed lawyer's palms. 

And this is mine eternal plea 

To Him that made heaven, earth, and sea. 

That since pay flesh must die so soon, 

And want a head to dine next noon, 

Just at the stroke, when my veins start and spread, 

Set on my soul an everlasting head ! 

Then am I ready, like a palmer fit. 

To tread those blest paths which before I writ. 

Of death and judgment, heaven and hell, 
Who oft doth think, must needs die well." 

The references to his trust in God that occur in the "Pil- 
grimage" are found in all of the writings of the latter part of 
Raleigh's life. Beginning his career as gay courtier, with so 
little care or reverence for religion and God that people spoke 
of him as an atheist, the troubles of his last years seem to 
have made him deeply religious. In that remarkable un- 
finished attempt of his, "The History of the World," we have 
frequent passages to show how prominent a part reliance upon 
God was playing in Raleigh's life during those thirteen long- 
years of his imprisonment. 

In regard to the lost poem "Cynthia," written to Queen 
Elizabeth, and in her praise, Gosse says, "The long passage 
which we have in Raleigh's poem. The Continuation of 
Cynthia, is, I think beyond question, a canto almost com- 
plete of the lost epic of 1589. It is written on the four line 


heroic stanza adopted ten years later by Sir John Davies for 
his Nosce teipsum, and most familiar to us all in Gray's 
"Elegy." Moreover it is headed "The Twenty-first and Last 
Book of The Oceayi to Cynthia." Another note in Raleigh's 
handwriting styles the poem "The Ocean's Love to Cynthia," 
and this was probably the full name of it. Spenser's name 
for Ealeigh, the Shepherd, or pastoral hero, of the Ocean is, 
therefore, for the first time explained. The twenty-first book 
suffers from the fact that the stanzas, but apparently not 
many, have dropped out in four places. With these losses, 
the canto contains 130 stanzas, or 526 lines. Supposing the 
average length of the twenty preceding books to have been 
the same. The Ocean's Love to Cynthia must have contained 
at least ten thousand lines. Spenser, therefore, was not exag- 
gerating, or using the lang-uage of flattery towards a few 
elegies or a group of sonnets, when he spoke of Cynthia as 
a poem of great importance. As a matter of fact, no poem 
of the like ambition had been written in England for a cen- 
tury past, and if it had been published, it would perhaps have 
taken a place only second to its immediate contemporary, 
"The Faery Queene." Archdeacon Hannah places the poem, 
The Continuation of Cynthia, in his volume of Raleigh's 
poems, as belonging to the era of 1603-1618 — Raleigh's years 
of imprisonment — and includes, with the "long passage" men- 
tioned by Gosse, two fragments which lead him to this con- 
clusion. Gosse thinks the fragments were written in this pe- 
riod, but that they have nothing to do with "Cynthia," since 
the meter is entirely different. Gosse is probably correct in his 
view — the meter proof being almost conclusive evidence that 
the fragments do not belong to the "long passage." However 
that may be, the long passage of "The Continuation of Cyn- 
thia" is in the same vein and meter as the lost part of 
"Cynthia," and gives us a good idea of the character of that 

To describe, then, this part of "Cynthia," is to describe the 
whole poem. Soft and subdued in tone, worshipful, but not 
merely flattering in sentiment, with the gentle, sad movement 


of the elegiac meter and containing some of the most beau- 
tiful imagery we can find in his poems, the fragment that we 
have makes us regret deeply the loss of the whole. 

In August, 1618, the year of his death, Raleigh wrote his 
"Petition to the Queen, Anne of Denmark." Anne made an 
effort to save him^ but in vain. On October 28 he was exe- 
cuted. The poem is the last appeal of a doomed man to his 
queen, and the sad, resigned tone of his petition seems to indi- 
cate that he feared the appeal would be in vain. It closes 
with these pathetic lines : 

"If I have sold my duty, sold my faith 
To strangers, which was only due to One ; 
Nothing I should esteem so dear as death. 

But, if both God and time shall make you know, 
That I, your humblest vassal, am oppressed, 
Then cast your eyes on undeserved woe ; 

That I and mine may never mourn the miss 
Of Her we had, but praise our living Queen, 
Who brings Tis equal, if not greater bliss. 

On the night before his execution Raleigh wrote the last 

poem of his life after bidding farewell to his faithful wife, 

the Elizabeth Throckmorton, for whose love he had forfeited 

his place as one of the favorites of Queen Elizabeth*. 

"Even such is time, that takes in trust 
Our youth, our joys, our all we have. 
And pays us with but earth and dust ; 
Who, in the dark and silent grave. 
When we have wandered all our ways. 
Shuts up the story of our days ; 
And from this earth, this grave, this dust. 
My God shall raise me up, I trust." 

On the chill morning of October the twenty-ninth, 1618, 
Raleigh went out so bravely to his death that those who wit- 
nessed it have handed down to posterity in words of admira- 
tion and praise the account of the glorious end of Sir Walter 

And so died on the scaffold one of England's bravest, most 
progressive, patriotic and learned men. Upon the history of 
France is the stain of the blood of Joan of Arc. The darkest 
blot upon England's pages of history is the execution of Sir 
Walter Raleigh. 


Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda 

Compiled and Edited by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


A biographical and genealogical sketch of Dr. Archibald 
Henderson appeared in the October number of The Booklet 
in 1912. Since that time the subject of this sketch has added 
volumes to literature. It becomes necessary and highly 
proper that the continued activity be noted in The Booklet 
of any one of our contributors, many of whom are young — 
not yet in the zenith of life. Dr. Henderson's contribution this 
month is his brilliant historical essay: ''The Creative Forces 
in Westward Expansion : Henderson and Boone." Like other 
of his creations, it will be hailed with delight by our readers. 
It is due to Dr. Henderson to record here the various activi- 
ties that have won for him the distinguished place he holds 
in the literary world. 

The literary passions of his childhood were Joel Chandler 
Harris ("Uncle Remus") and Samuel L. Clemens ("Mark 
Twain"). Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, the latter his 
favorite of all others, he came almost to know by heart. He 
happened one day to read that William Archer, the great 
English critic, said that "Huckleberry Finn was the best 
story written on either side of the Atlantic in the preceding 
twenty-five years." This dictum so expressed his own delib- 
erate, if immature, conviction that it awakened in him a 
genuine respect for literary criticism. The incident marks 
the beginning of his concern for literary criticism. 

He read Cooper's and Scott's works, and in fact read almost 
everything coming under his eye in his father's extensive 
library, except "Les Miserables," that enormous tome which 
looked too formidable to tackle. Later it appealed to him on 
a rainy day as the last resort. He read uninterruptedly until 
the word "Finis" stared him in the face ! Well for him ; its 
moral purpose and uplifting idealism made a profound and 


lasting impression upon him. For the future he resolved to 
judge a book not by its physiognomy, not solely in terms of 
literary art, but also in terms of humanistic purpose. 

With a father's influence as a churchman, instilling into 
him the principles of honor, uprightness and truth ; a mother's 
and grandmother's influences as idealistic preceptors, the 
young lad grew up under such examples as laid the founda- 
tion for manhood's success. 

This sketch would be incomplete if there were omitted men- 
tion of an occurrence that had much to do with shaping his 
career. After marriage in 1903, at which time he received 
only the meagre emoluments apportioned an associate pro- 
fessor in a university, he realized the need of adding to his 
exchequer, and accordingly he resorted to his pen in the effort 
to balance the deficit. He wrote for the clever magazine. 
The Readers, an essay two and a half pages long entitled 
''The Present Vogue of Mr. Shaw/' Imagine his surprise 
shortly afterwards to receive a check for $25.00. In his 
heart he never really dreamed that any one would look at his 
writings. Thus encouraged by this tangible recognition, he 
began writing under the no7n de guerre of "Erskine Steele" 
essays for different papers. These essays awoke great curi- 
osity and provoked high tributes for the unknown author. 
It was some years before the original of ''Erskine Steele" 
became known to the public. During that period he had 
won a place for himself in the national magazines over his 
own signature. 

With the best advantages for a fine education, a retentive 
memory, patient industry and deep penetration, Dr. Hender- 
son may be justly described an exceptionally erudite man. 

As publicist, he has worked unremittingly, and often at 
considerable financial sacrifice, for the uplift of his State 
and the South. 

As scientist, he has made important contributions to mathe- 
matical journals, and won the recognition of such famous 


institutions of learning as Cambridge University (England) 
and the University of Chicago. 

As man of letters, he has won the reputation of being the 
leading critic of the modern drama in the United States. 

As public speaker, he is sought all over the country; a 
leader in this line. 

As historian, he is the acknowledged authority on the 
movement of Westward Expansion during the period from 
1750 to 1800. 

Dr. Henderson raised the funds to erect a great memorial 
to "O. Henry," ISTorth Carolina's greatest man of letters. He 
has labored to honor ]!^orth Carolina and her genius always ; 
and has written appreciations of Christian Reid, John 
Charles MclSTeill, Margaret Busbee Shipp, O. Henry, etc. 

He has been a pioneer in ISTorth Carolina in advocacy of 
woman suffrage. His writings on suffrage have attracted 
national attention. He has made able speeches in ISTorth 
Carolina on the subject. 

He has written much since October, 1912. His article, 
"The Creative Forces in Westward Expansion," appeared in 
the American Historical Review ^ October, 1914. He has 
been invited to be a contributor to the Mississippi Valley His- 
torical Review. His article, "The Invasion of Kentucky" 
(1775), appeared in the last issue of that magazine (1914). 
His article on George Washington and the Declaration of 
Independence appeared in the North Carolina Review, Feb- 
ruary, 1912. 

"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," Jour- 
nal of American History, Vol. VI, No. 4 (October-December, 

"Forerunners of the Republic," Neales Monthly (E". Y.), 
January- June, 1913. 

"Richard Henderson: His Life and Times," Charlotte 
(IST. C.) Observer, Sunday issues, March 9 to June 1, 1913. 


"Daniel Boone and the Wilderness Trail," published in 
Salisbury Evening Post, July 4, 1914. 

"The Inauguration of Westward Expansion," in News and 
Observer (Raleigh), July 5, 1914; Charlotte Observer 
(Charlotte), July 5, 1914. 

"European Dramatists" came from the press on December 
20, 1913. This work consists of a collection of essays which 
treat of six representative modem dramatists outside of the 
United States, some living, some dead — Strindberg, Ibsen, 
Maeterlinck, Wilde, Shaw and Barker. For this work Dr. 
Henderson has received the highest tributes from scholars, 
dramatists, newspapers and magazines. Edwin Markham's 
recent pronouncement that Archibald Henderson "stands to- 
day as the chief literary critic of the South and in the fore- 
front of the critics of the nation," calls especial attention to 
the new book. The Pall Mall Gazette, of London, says : "Dr. 
Henderson is one of the most vivacious of the younger writers 
of the day on matters of the theatre, and here he is at his 

Dr. Henderson keeps entirely abreast with the times. He 
is a member of the "American Historical Association," "Mis- 
sissippi Valley Historical Association," "Ohio Valley His- 
torical Association," "North Carolina State Literary and 
Historical Association," "JSTorth Carolina Sons of the Revo- 
lution," and although entitled to membership in, he has not 
yet joined, the "North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati." 

Dr. Henderson was recently honored by being chosen na- 
tional representative of the "Drama League of America" for 
the States of North Carolina and South Carolina. He is a 
member of the Drama League of America, the Poetry Society 
of America, and the Author's Club of London. 

During the last ten years, in addition to the books which 
he has published. Dr. Henderson has published consider- 
ably over one hundred essays. These have appeared in five 
different languages, in great magazines and representative 
journals throughout the world. This great productivity and 


publication in so many countries have contributed much to 
building up his European reputation as a literary critic. 

Dr. Henderson's latest achievement was the materializa- 
tion of his efforts to commemorate the work of "O. Henry" 
(William Sidney Porter), a native of Greensboro, N. C, 
considered the greatest American short-story writer of his day. 

It was December 2, 1914, when, under the auspices of the 
State Literary and Historical Association of ]^orth Carolina, 
there was presented to the State a bronze memorial tablet to 
"O. Henry," designed by the famous American sculptor, 
Lorado Taft, and purchased with funds raised by popular 

It has recently been stated that there are States in the 
Union which buy twenty-five copies of Dr. Henderson's books 
for every one copy sold in North Carolina. His writings 
are doubtless better known in Boston, New York, Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Philadelphia than they are known in Raleigh, 
Charlotte, Greensboro, Wilmington, and Winston-Salem ; and 
they are more widely read in England, Germany and Norway 
than in North Carolina. 

Dr. Henderson's latest book is "The Changing Drama." 
The reputation won by him as a dramatic critic — in particu- 
lar of the modern drama — is evidenced by the fact that many 
hundreds of copies of "The Changing Drama" were sold in 
advance of publication (October 31, 1914). Already this book 
is hailed by critics as the ablest and most brilliant book on 
the modern drama ever written by an American, and regarded 
by many as "the standard work on the subject." 

On the 23rd of June, 1903, Dr. Henderson was married to 
Miss Minna Curtis Bynum, of Lincolnton, N. C, a lady of 
rare accomplishments, having been awarded the degrees B. A. 
and M. A. from the University of North Carolina in June, 
1902. She is the daughter of the late Rev. Wm. Shipp 
Bynum, a noted Episcopal preacher of his day. Mrs. Hen- 
derson, herself a woman of brilliant literary attainments, is 
the helpmate of her husband in his literary work, and indeed 
"the sum of all that makes a just man happy." 



Hon. Simeon Eben Baldwin, Governor of Connecticut, 
was born at New Haven February 5, 1840, the youngest son 
of Roger Sherman Baldwin, Governor of Connecticut and 
United States Senator. On his mother's side he is a descend- 
ant of Governors Haynes, Wyllys and Pitkin, of Connecticut. 
He was educated at Hopkins Grammar School of jSTew 
Haven, Yale College, the Yale and Harvard Law Schools, and 
was admitted to the bar at New Haven in 1863, where he prac- 
ticed his profession before both the State and the United 
States courts for thirty years. 

In 1893 was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Errors, and in 1907 Chief Justice. Has since held 
places of honorable distinction. 

He has been president of the New Haven Colony Historical 
Society, the American Historical Society, the American Bar 
Association, the Association of American Law Schools, the 
International Law Association, the American Social Science 
Association, and is now (1912) president of the American 
Political Science Association, the American Society for the 
Judicial Settlement of International Disputes, the Connecti- 
cut Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Trustees of Hopkins' 
Grammar School, and the Connecticut Society of the Archse- 
logical Institute of America, and Director of the Bureau of 
Comparative Law of the American Bar Association. He is a 
member of the American Antiquarian Society, the American 
Philosophical Society, and the N^ational Institute of Arts and 
Letters, a Fellow of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, a corresponding member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, the Colonial Society of Mas- 
sachusetts, and the Institut de Droit Compare of Brussels. 

*Facts from Legislative History and Souvenir of Connecticut, Vol. 
VIII, 1911-1912. 
Also Review of Revieivs; Who's Who in America. 


He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Harvard in 
1891, and from Columbia in 1911. 

He has published a "Digest of the Connecticut Law Re- 
ports," ''Modern Political Institutions," "American Railroad 
Law," "Illustrated Cases on Railroad Law," and "The Amer- 
ican Judiciary." He is also one of the authors of "Two Cen- 
turies' Growth of American Law." He has contributed nu- 
merous articles to magazines in United States and foreign 

Governor Baldwin has long been the dean of the Yale Law 
School, and represents the best element of the old-line Eastern 
Democracy. He is a lecturer and writer on subjects vital to 
the interests of his state and country. 

Governor Baldwin has won for himself the character of a 
just man, a respecter of law as the basis of civil society, and 
is a firm believer in the precepts of Christ. Richard Hooker, 
that great philosophical prose writer of the sixteenth century, 
has given its best definition : "Of law no less can be acknowl- 
edged than that her seat is the bosom of God; her voice the 
harmony of the world ; all things in heaven and earth do her 
homage; the very least as feeling her care, and the greatest 
as not exempt from her power." 


The De Luxe Clothier 226;FayettevilIe Street 

Guaranteed Clothing, Shoes, Hats, Furnishings 
Uniforms, Leather Goods 



Dobbin-Ferrall Company 

123-125 Fayetteville Street 

North Carolina's Leading and Largest 
Dry Goods Store 

Dry Goods of all Kinds and Kindred Wares. Ready-to-Wear Gar- 
ments for Women, Misses and Children. House FurnisMng Goods, 
Carpets, Rugs and Curtains. Shoes and Millinery. 






Insurance and 

No. J30 Fayetteville Street 

Vol. XIV APRIL, 1915 No. 4 

NORTH Carolina Booklet 

"Carolina I Carolina I Heaven's blessings attend her I 
While ive live zve will cherish, protect and defend her' 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 





Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mb. R. D. W. Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Capt. S. a. Ashe. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 




regent ■: 

vice-regent : 

honorary regents : 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 
Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

recording secretary : 
' Mrs. L. E. COVINGTON. 


Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 






Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 : 
Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902: 
Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Regent 1906-1910: 
Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

♦Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XIV APRIL, 1915 No. 4 

The Fisheries of Eastern Carolina 

By William J. Leaby, Se. 

The eastern part of the territory lying north and north- 
east of the Albemarle Sound is hemmed in by the sand shore 
of the ocean, which is usually called the "Banks/' which 
defends it from the violence of the mighty storms, and the 
great billows of the Atlantic. Think of the million of grains 
of sand which receives the shock of the storm-driven waves, 
whose force is gTadually spent among them, without harm, or 
loss to the "Banks." The "Banks" form the eastern bound- 
ary to various and vast sounds, which receive the flowing 
waters of useful and navigable rivers, draining pleasant and 
fertile lands, filled with the most hospitable people. These 
sounds and rivers abound in the finest fish on earth, affording 
food for millions of people. From the earliest dawn of civili- 
zation the people of this earth have been feeding on the 
fishes of the waters, both small and great. We feel sure of 
this, because from the earliest times we find undisputed evi- 
dence of their existence; and that they were used as food. 
The methods employed in catching them seem to have been, 
in the start, of the crudest sort; but no doubt they were just 
as toothsome as they are now. We wish that the evidence of 
fish and the fisheries were not quite so meager as we now find 
it; so little value is generally placed upon present every-day 
affairs, that current events relating thereto pass without being 
recorded, or noticed in any substantial manner. 

It seems that the earlier colonists found the Indians catch- 
ing fish in weirs, as well as with hooks made from bones and 
other hard substance or material ; and that they caught them 


very rapidly. We suppose the earlier settlers brought with 
them from the old country the methods of fishing which they 
had been taught ; and no doubt used them successfully in our 
waters, as we do now. 

There have been serious contentions of late years as to who 
started, or introduced, the seine for shad and herring fisheries 
on the Albemarle and its tributaries. There are statements, 
on both sides of the question, from respectable authorities 
regarding the matter. We shall therefore endeavor to treat 
each side in a conservative manner, and do them justice as 
we see it. It seems that Richard Brownrigg, of Wingfield, 
on the Chowan River, an emigrant from Ireland, was the 
first man who fished with a seine for shad and herring on the 
Chowan River. "As early as 1769, and probably earlier, 
Richard Browmrigg was engaged in catching herring, packing 
them and shipping them salted to foreign parts." The follow- 
ing copy of a letter taken from "The Life and Correspond- 
ence of James Iredell," written by Thomas Iredell, of St. 
Dorothys, Jamaica, to his nephew, James Iredell, then the 
Collector of Customs for Edenton, N. C, would seem to sus- 
tain and support this statement: 

"St. Dorothys, Jamaica, July 10, 1769. 

"Dear Kephew : I have already wrote you by this convey- 
ance. I have determined of a runaway negTO I send to you. 
His name is Spencer. Dispose of him as you can, and by 
first opportunity remit net proceeds in red-oak hogshead 
staves, and about twenty barrels of herrings. ... I am 
told the gentleman who carries on the herring fishing is a Mr. 
Brownrigg, a brother to Councillor Brownrigg, of this Island, 
with whom I am intimately acquainted. He is a gentleman 
greatly esteemed here, and married into a very genteel fam- 
ily — the widow of a man of fortune. 

"Your Affectionate Uncle, 

"Thomas Iredell." 


Dr. Richard Dillard, a relative of the Brownriggs, states 
that Thomas Brownrigg succeeded his father, Eichard 
Browurigg, iu this profitable business, and later on, estab- 
lished fisheries on the Albemarle Sound, at Belvidere, and 
perhaps at other places. 

In the Episcopal Church, St. Paul's, at Edenton, jST, C, 
there is a tablet to the memory of the Rev. Daniel Earle, its 
rector in 1759. He was the clergyman who established the 
first classical school for boys in the State, at his home near 
the Chowan River, called Bandon. About the time of the 
Revolution the church had become somewhat dilapidated, 
the worshippers few in number. Parson Earle was a faith- 
ful minister and also a successful herring fisherman. It is 
related that one Sunday when he arrived in Edenton by way 
of his one-horse gig to conduct services he found chalked upon 
the church door, the following doggerel, to-wit : 

"A half built church, 
And a broken down steeple ; 
A herring-catching parson 
And a dam set of people." 

He was afterwards styled "The herring-catching parson." 
Parson Earle fished at his home place, Bandon, on the 
Chowan River and was a contemporary of Richard Brown- 
rigg. During this period seine fishing was considered hazard- 
ous and impracticable in the broad and tempestuous waters jf 
the Albemarle Sound. Col. R. B. Creecy stated, "Towards 
the close of the 18th century, about 1790 or 1795, it is 
thought a seine fishery was established by Lemuel Creecy 
just within the mouth of the Yeopim River, and in full view 
of the Albemarle Sound." Before the death of Lemuel Creecy 
a fishery was established at old Sandy Point Beach, on the 
Albemarle Sound by Joshua S. Creecy, Thomas Benbury and 
General Duncan McDonald, a connection by marriage. This 
we think was the first venture of seine fishing on the Albe- 
marle Sound, and we think this was in 1814. It was fol- 
lowed, probably next year, by a fishery at Skinner's Point, 
about three miles from Edenton, established by Charles W. 


Skinner and Josiah T. Granberry, both of Perquimans 
County. These ventures proving safe and profitable, were 
soon followed by the establishment of other fisheries on the 
Albemarle Sound and its tributaries. 

Probably the next fishery established was at Eden House on 
the Chowan River by Joseph B. Skinner, Capt. Paine and 
William D. Lo\vther. There could not be found three men 
more unlike. Mr. Skinner was a cool-headed, clear-headed, 
intelligent, retired lawyer. Capt. Paine was a roarer, the 
embodiment of energy, and carried things by storm without 
calculation of cost or consequences. William D. Lowther 
was a quiet, modest, diffident,, imperturbable gentleman, deli- 
cate as a girl and too unselfish and gentle for this rough 
world. Once when a storm was raging, the boats out and 
everything in peril, Capt. Paine was full of vim. He had 
several times passed Mr. Lowther, sitting on a log, whis- 
tling a soft monotone and gazing at the sky. Capt. Paine 
passed him at a run, stopped be,fore him, slapped him on his 
bald head and squalled : "Mr. Lowther you are fit for nothing 
but the kingdom of heaven." 

Other seines came quickly. The writer in the Fisherman 
& Farmer refers to the Greenfield fishery as established by 
R. B. Creecy half a century ago. It was established by him, 
but not a half century ago, as the writer unkindly insinuates. 
It was established in 1848. "Mr. Josiah Collins, the elder, 
also established, about the beginning of this century, a fishery 
on Edenton Bay, but it was comparatively small, and was 
probably located at Collins' Point, or what is now called 
Cherry's Point." Mr. Joseph B. Skinner was also a fisher- 
man in his time; he was born January 18, 1781, and died 
December 22, 1851. He was a very remarkable man in a 
great many respects, and his business methods brought to him 
a considrable estate. He resided on his plantation just beyond 
the limits of the town of Edenton ; the property now owned 
by Mr. R. E. Chappell. When Mr. Skinner lived there we 
believe it was called the Manor House. He was an able law- 


yer, with excellent judgment and business foresight. Among 
the important things he did, it is stated, he first started the 
fishing of seines on the waters of the x\lbemarle Sound, and 
the first tO' perceive their great importance, and the first, by 
his energy and enterprise to bring this knowledge to the use 
and benefit of the community at large, and to develop this 
great natural industry. In the spring of 1807 he began a 
fisheiy at Eden House, on the Chowan River, and as he ac- 
quired knowledge and experience in seine fishing, his broad 
and active mind grasped the greater problem of fishing upon 
the broader and gTeater waters of the Albemarle Sound. The 
seines fished before this were much smaller, and did not com- 
pare with the seines attempted by Mr. Skinner on the Albe- 
marle Sound. After he had thought the matter out and saw 
success ahead of him, he needed funds to carry out the pro- 
jected scheme. He knew Mr. Josiah Collins well, for he had 
been a client of his for many years. Mr. Collins was, per- 
haps, the wealthiest man in the community, and to him he 
applied for such money as he desired. Mr. Collins was also 
a successful business man, and when Mr. Skinner approached 
him on the subject, he did not take much stock in the project, 
but expressed himself frankly, and said he thought the scliemo 
visionary and impracticable. As stated above, Mr. Collins 
was wealthy and had some experience in seine fishing, as he 
had a fishery on Edenton Bay, a most beautiful sheet of water. 
However, Mr. Skinner had the courage of his convictions, 
and proceeded with his plans and the purpose to establish a 
fishery on the Albemarle Sound, which he finally did, and met 
with great success — such success that his example was fol- 
lowed by others. He created at that time a new source of 
wealth, and added annually hundreds of thousands of dollars 
to the industrial products of the country. 

Before this time the herring and shad fisheries had been 
confined to the Chowan River, the Roauoke River and their 
tributaries, and it is said were few in number and of small 
extent. Mr. Skinner was a most deserving citizen of our 


State. It is a pity that there are so few facts recorded of our 
largest interests and of the people who have given them im- 
petus and promoted them by their great skill and ability. To 
sustain the statements relative to Mr. Joseph Blount Skinner 
stated above, we give very respectable authority, to-wit : In a 
letter to the Reverend Thomas H. Skinner, a brother of Mr. 
Joseph B. Skinner, Judge H. ISTash, in writing o;f Mr. Skinner 
from Hillsborough, IT. C, Is^ovember 29, 1852, stated: 'To 
your brother, I have always heard, the residents on the 
Chowan and the Albemarle section are, in a great measure, 
indebted for their fisheries. Not that he was the first to spread 
the seine in their waters, but that he was the first to perceive 
their gTeat national importance, and the first, by his enterprise 
and energy, who brought that knowledge to the use and bene- 
fit of the community at large. To him the State is indebted 
for having led in developing this great national interest." In 
a brief obituary notice by Governor Iredell, written in Janu- 
ary, 1852, on Mr. Joseph Blomit Skinner, he stated: ''Mr. 
Skinner also gave the first impulse to that valuable branch of 
industry in that section of the State, the herring and shad 
fisheries. The fisheries had been confined to the Roanoke and 
Chowan Rivers and their tributary streams, and were few in 
number, and of small extent. Mr. Skinner, with his charac- 
teristic energy, first ventured upon the experiment, then 
deemed visionary and impractical, and launched his seines 
upon the wide and oft-vexed Albemarle itself. His example 
has been followed until the northern shore of the sound is 
literally studded with fisheries, creating a new source of 
wealth, and adding annually hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars to the industrial products of the country. Such a man 
may emphatically be styled a gTeat public benefactor. 
Richly did Mr. Skinner earn the distinction. Deep should 
be the gratitude of the public, and ever should his tomb be 
encircled by a garland of merit, more precious than the war- 
rior's laurel." 


Governor Iredell certainly used strong words in setting 
forth the merits of Mr. Skinner in relation to his connection 
with the fishing interest. The Reverend Mr. Thomas H. 
Skinner, in referring to the statement of Jndge Nash above 
set out, says: ''The Judge is right in saying that 'he was not 
the first to spread the seine in their waters,' if he uses the 
plural form 'waters' by analogy, or continuity of the two 
waters which he mentions, but he was first, as Governor Ire- 
dell says in his obituary notice of him, to spread the seine on 
the Albemarle Sound. I know this well, for I was a member 
of his family when, in the spring of 1807, he began his 
fishery at Eden House." 

The nearest approach to a fishery on the sound before this 
date was one the first Mr. Collins established on Edenton Bay ; 
but this was comparatively very small ; was not on the sound, 
and when my brother informed Mr. Collins of his project in 
which he was about to engage, and inquired if he would let 
him have a loan to facilitate its execution, the venerable man 
frowned on the undertaking as venturous, if not impracti- 
cable. Independently of all men, he proceeded ; one of his 
friends, a man of much executive tact and force, he associated 
with himself in the management of operations, but he pro- 
vided all the means and kept the chief superintendence of 
everything in his own hands. It was the writer's fortune to 
serve as a sort of subaltern clerk, being in his sixteenth year, 
in this the first of the fishing season on the shores on the 

Some amusing things are told of Mr. Skinner even to this 
day. On one occasion the Episcopal church was repaired, and 
Mr. Skinner attended the auction sale, when the pews were to 
be let out to the highest bidder ; he had assessed the pews at 
a rate which would secure at least enough to cover the ex- 
penses. But, except himself, there were no bidders at the 
price he set. All the most desirable pews were pronounced 
his by the auctioneer. One of the wealthy parishioners ap- 
proached Mr. Skinner and asked him what he was going to do 


with those pews. Among the pews he had rented was one 
this gentleman had been occupying with his family. Mr. 
Skinner replied : "God hless me, sir; I am going to bring my 
negroes to church." The gentleman said : "You are not going 
to put them in the best pews in the church where the elite 
sit, are you ?" His prompt answer was : "Yes, sir." They 
soon got around him, and the pews were sold again, at the 
price he had assessed. It is unnecessary to state that he 
turned the amount received into the Parish treasury. 

The following is from the pen of that versatile writer, Dr. 
Richard Dillard, of Edenton, ]^. C. : "The herring fishing 
seems to have been a very old industry even in Great Britain. 
Some authorities say it was going on during the time of the 
Spanish Armada, and Swinden, in his history of the Antiqui- 
ties of Great Yarmouth, says that 'herring fishing' began 
there as early as 495. It is now one of the most important 
industries in the United Kingdom, and the herring fisheries 
of Scotland and Ireland are still world famed. Richard 
Brownrigg having emigrated from Wichlow on the coast of 
Ireland, it is very natural that he should have undertaken in 
his adopted home the pursuits of his native section. So, not 
long after reaching this country he cleared his first fishery at 
Winfield on the Chowan River, and I am quite sure he was 
the father of the fishing industry in the Albemarle section, 
at least he is the earliest of whom there is any authentic 
record. Colonel Creecy, in his criticism, has confounded 
him with his son, Thomas Brownrigg, who fished later at the 
same place, and also on the Albemarle Sound, The earliest 
mention of fisheries on the court house records here is in the 
wills of Richard Brownrigg and Rev. Daniel Earle. Richard 
Brownrigg's, dated October 7, 1775, recommends to his ex- 
ecutors that "due attention be made in carrying on the mills 
and fisheries in all their branches," and a section from Parson 
Earle's, dated 1785, reads thus : "I give to my beloved wife, 
Charity Earle, the plantation on which I now live, for the 
period of her natural life, except the fisheries and the houses 


built for the use of said fisheries." From 1774 to 1775, says 
Iredell in one o,f bis notes, 6,325 barrels and two quintals of 
herring were exported from Edenton to Southern Europe, 
Africa and West Indies. In 1787 there is record of 5,328 
barrels having been exported from here, to say nothing of home 
consumption. The catch must have been large, as the price 
was low. There seems to have been a premium paid to every 
one who exported fish from here, from the old records of the 
custom house. I extracted the following: "February, 1798, 
paid Stephen Carpenter $3.96 for premium on 22 bbls. of 
fish exported by him," and "Feb. 28, 1798, paid John Little 
$124.00 for premium on 694 bbls. fish exported by him." 
There are also a number of similar items. 

In speaking of fish and the introduction of seines into our 
waters, Moore, our historian, says: "At that time (1815) two 
ISTorthern men had introduced a long seine worked by wind- 
lass and horse power at Lawrence's Point on the Chowan, six 
miles below Colerain ; soon others were put in, two thousand 
yards in length, requiring six horses and fifty men and women 
in their handling. Prior to this time the spring catch had 
always been by the means of short float nets and weirs." 
Major Moore further says : "The fishing business had received 
an enormous impetus since 1815." See the edition of 1880^ 
page 17 of his history. 

There has been considerable discussion as to who was the 
first man that introduced seine fishing in these waters, and it 
strikes me that the sworn statement, of Mr. Joseph B. Skinner, 
which we shall quote in this paper, will settle the question, so 
far as he is concerned. We know that he was an honorable 
man, and would not claim anything but what was right. And 
then, again, it seems that there is no conflict in the conten- 
tions made by the several persons to the controversy; each 
statement may be true, without coming in conflict with the 
other. The evidence given by Mr. Skinner is clear and to the 
point and sustains his reputation for ability, learning and 
vigor of thought. His reputation as a lawyer at the ibar was 


most excellent. The fact that Mr. Josiah Collins employed 
him in a professional way, was strong evidence o^ this. We, 
therefore, believe that his statement, when conservatively con- 
sidered and analyzed, will, beyond question, throw so much 
light on the question at issue, that we shall hear no more from 
anyone as to who did use first the large seines in use in the 
Albemarle Sound. 

In Collins vs. Benbury, Iredell's Law, Volume Y, page 
118, which by chance we have just laid our hands on, we find 
a statement under oath from Mr. Skinner himself: "The 
plaintiff then called upon Joseph B. Skinner, who stated that 
in 1807 he, in connection with another gentleman, established 
the first large fishery on the waters of the Albemarle Sound; 
that at the place which the plaintiff fished, a small seine was 
employed in 1798, but was, after that time discontinued; that 
in 1817, a company of gentlemen employed a seine at the same 
place, about three' hundred yards long, but it was small in 
comparison with the length of the seines now used in the^e 
waters of the Albemarle ; that a seine about the same length 
was employed at this beach for several years in succession, 
but how many he could not state ****** Upon 
cross examination Mr. Skinner stated that according to the 
usage, by which the right of fishing was enjoyed on the Albe- 
marle Sound, if the owner of any of the land on the sound 
wished to establish a fishery and he found it necessary to his 
interest to fish the waters opposite the lands of the next pro- 
prietor, he had a right to do so provided no fishery was then 
established and used by such proprietor. But if the owner 
of the adjacent lands afterwards established a fishery on his 
lands, then the owner of the land had the right to fish the 
water opposite his lands, though the water had been before 
occupied by the seine of another person ; that in the case of 
two fisheries established near the line dividing two tracts of 
land, each one of them had the right to shoot his seine into 
and fish the water opposite the land of the other, whenever 
it became necessary to do so by reason of the current running 


lip or down ; that in the case last mentioned, when the current 
was running down, the owner of the lower fishery would shoot 
his seine into, and fish the water opposite the land of the 
owner above; and so, when the current was running up, the 
owner of the upper fishery would shoot his seine into the 
waters opposite the land below ; that until the OAvner of land 
lying on the Albemarle Sound established a fishery by build- 
ing the necessary houses, clearing the water of stumps, logs, 
etc., and providing a seine, every citizen of the State had a 
right to fish the water opposite the land, and between the 
shore and the channel; and after a fishery had been estab- 
lished, whenever the owner ceased to fish it, the citizens of the 
State had the right to fish the waters which had been occupied 
by the seine. The witness was enquired of, if he knew any 
custom regulating the rights of fishing, where two fisheries 
were so situated upon an indented position of the shore of the 
sound that each would be obliged to occupy the same water 
in fishing the water opposite their respective shores. He said 
he did not know of any custom regulating the rights of fisher- 
men whose fisheries were so situated, as he knew of no fisehries 
so situated. In such a case, he supposed they would have to 
come to some understanding." 

Testimony of John H. Leary was about the same as Mr. 
J. B. Skinner's as to the establishment of Sandy Point 
Fishery, and he stated that in consequence of the facilities 
^or shipping produce, all the lands on Albemarle Sound were 
more valuable than lands of the same fertility, at a distance 
from the sound. 

Porte Crayon visited our fisheries in the early part of the 
year 1857, when the seines were placed out in the waters of 
the Albemarle Sound by the means of flats, called bateaux, 
propelled by oars, handled by men, and drawn in from the 
waters of the sound by means of windlasses drawn by mules 
or horses. Most of our people recall this means of bringing 
in and carrying out the seines. He gives this graphic descrip- 
tion of the beach and the fishery, to-wit : 'Tn the f oregTOund 


was the landward boat moored to the beach, while her swarthy 
crew were actively engaged in piling up the seine as it was 
drawn in by the exertions of four lively mules at the windlass 
hard by. In the centre, upon a bank a little elevated above 
the water, rose a group of sheds and buildings, alive with 
active preparation. Beyond these the seaward boat appeared, 
while upon the surface of the water, enclosing the whole 
beach in a grand semi-circle, swept the dotted cork line of 
the seine. To complete this scene of bustle and animation on 
land and water the air furnished its legions of fierce and 
eager participants. ISTumerous white gulls, fish-hawks, and 
eagles hovered over or sailed in rapid circles over the nar- 
row cordon of the seine, at times uttering screams of hun- 
gry impatience, then darting like lightning to the water 
and bearing away a struggling prize in his beak or talons. 
It was wonderful to observe the brigand-like audacity with 
which these birds follow up the nets and snatch their share 
of the prey, sometimes almost within arm's length of their 
human fellow-fishermen and fellow-robbers. But we must 
not tarry too long at the table. The approaching cries of 
the mule-drivers at the windlasses warn us that the seine 
is gathering in, and on sallying forth we perceive that the 
dotted semi-circle of cork line is narrowed to the diameter 
of fifty paces. Both boats are at hand, their platforms 
piled high with enormous masses of netting, like great stacks 
of clover hay. The windlasses have done their part, and 
the mules discharged from their labors, as they are led 
away by the conductor, to celebrate the event with their 
cheerful braying. All hands now leave the boats, and, at a 
signal from the chief, dash into the water waist deep to man 
the rope. A train of women, armed with knives and bearing 
larger tubs, is seen hastening down the bank. Within the 
circuit of the net one may already see a thousand backs and 
fins swimming rapidly over the surface of the water. Every 
eye is lighted with excitement. ^Hard cork!' shouts the cap- 
tain. 'Mind your lead, thar!' yells the lieutenant. 'Hard 


cork, mind lead! ay, ay, Sir!' roar the fifty black dripping 
tritons as they heave the heavy net upon the beach. Behind 
the cork line where the seine bags the water now is churned 
to foam by the struggling prey, and the silvery sides of the 
fish may be seen flashing through the strong meshes. The 
eager gulls shriek at the sight, and sweep unheeded over the 
busy fishermen. One more hurrah, and the haul is landed, 
a line of wide planks is staked up behind, the net withdrawn, 
and the wriggling mass is rolled upon the beach — ten or fif- 
teen thousand voiceless wretches, whose fluttering sounds like 
a strong rushing wind among leaves. ^To the boats! to the 
boats !' and away go the men ; now the boys and women rush 
knee-deep into the gasping heap. The shad are picked out, 
counted, and carried away to the packing-house. The rock 
are also sorted, and then the half-savage viragos seat them- 
selves in line, and begin their bloody work upon the herring. 
With such unmerciful celerity they work, that the unhappy 
fish has scarcely time to appreciate the new element into 
which he has been introduced ere he is beheaded, cleaned 
and salted away. If you now raise your eyes to look for the 
boats, you will see them already far on their way out in the 
sound, the voice of their captain mingled with the cries of 
the disappointed giills. In the operations of the fisheries 
there are no delays. Success is in proportion to the promp- 
titude and energy displayed in every department, and from 
the beginning of the season to the end they are driving night 
and day without intermission. The powers of endurance are 
as heavily taxed as in the life of a soldier campaigning in an 
enemy's country. 

"About midnight Porte Crayon was aroused by the hand 
of the manager on his shoulder : "If you wish to see a night 
haul, now is your time, sir ; we will land the seine in fif- 
teen or twenty minutes." Mr. Crayon sprung to his feet, 
and hastily donning his vestments, repaired to the beach. 
Here was a scene similar to that which he had witnessed 
during the day, except that the picturesque effect was greatly 


enhanced by the glare of the fires that illuminated the land- 
ing. The wild swarthy figures that hurried to and fro carry- 
ing pine torches, the red light flashing over the troubled 
waters, the yelling and halloing suggested the idea that these 
might be Pluto fishermen dragging nets from the Styx, or 
maybe a dance of the demons and warlocks on Walpurgis 

''The product of these fisheries constitutes a most important 
item in the wealth of this section, and during the fishing sea- 
son (which begins about the middle of March, and lasts until 
the middle of May) their success is a bright subject of as 
general conversation and all-absorbing interest to the inhabi- 
tants as is the yearly overflow of the Nile to the Egyptians. 
To establish a first-class fishery requires from five to ten 
thousand dollars of outlay ; and the management employs 
from sixty to eighty persons, all negroes except the managers. 
These are for the most part free negroes, who live about 
in Chowan and the adjoining counties, and who, as the season 
approaches, gather in to the finny harvest as to an annual 

''At Belvidere, the seine used was twenty-seven hundred 
yards long and twenty-seven feet deep, which -is packed upon 
the platforms laid on the stems of two heavy ten-oared (flat) 
boats (known by us as bateaux) which are rowed out to- 
gether to a point opposite the landing beach, about a mile 
distant. Here the boats separate, moving in opposite direc- 
tions, and the seine is played out from the platforms as they 
row slowly toward their destined points — the eastward boat 
following a course down the stream and parallel to the beach, 
the landward boat curving inward towards the shore at the 
upper end of the fishery, thus heading the shoal of fish as 
they journey upward to the spa^vning grounds. The top line 
of the seine is buoyed with numerous cork, while the bottom, 
which is attached to the lead line, sinks ^vith its weight. 
When the seine is all played out, heavy ropes, made fast 
to the staves at the ends, are carried in to the o-reat wind- 


lasses at either end of the fishing ground, at this place about 
eight hundred yards apart. The aggregate length of the 
seine with these ropes is not less than two miles and a half, 
the process of winding being now continued by lines tied to 
the lead line of the seine, which, as they successively appear, 
are attached to consecutive windlasses nearing the centre. 
The boats follow to receive the net until they arrive at the in- 
nermost windlasses of one-mule power, which are not more 
than sixty or eighty yards apart. Here, as before described, the 
men handle the rope themselves, land the haul, take up the 
intervening net, and put out immediately to do it all over 
again. The whole process takes from five to seven hours, 
averaging four hauls per day of twenty-four hours. The shad 
and the herring are the staple crop for packing. The mis- 
cellaneous fish are sold on the beach, eaten by the fishermen 
and plantation negroes, or are carted with the offal to manure 
the adjoining lands. The refuse fish commonly taken are 
sturgeon, rock, cats, trout, perch, mullet, gar, gizzard-shad or 
ale-wife, hog-choke or flounder, lampreys, and common eels. 
The bug-fish is sometimes taken; in its mouth it carries a 
sort of parasitical bug." 

The article from which we have so extensively quoted was 
published in Harper's Monthly Magazine, 'No. LXXXII, 
March, 1857, Vol. XIV. It is a most excellent article and 
will repay anyone for the time spent in reading it, and 
looking at the illustrations, which are good. We have given 
his description of the beach, because it covers the ground 
thoroughly ; and we do not believe this paper would be com- 
plete without such a description — in fact it is a part of the 
history of the fishing interest. If Mr. Porte Crayon could 
visit us again, in our day, he would find a different state of 
affairs ; new methods of taking fish, caring for them, manner 
of shipping, and the kind shipped — which embraces the most 
of them mentioned by him as refuse fish, the rock and 
sturgeon especially. 


The idea of shipping fish in ice to the northern markets 
was first adopted bj Mr. G. J. Cherry, who shipped shad 
and herring in barrels covered with bagging. Later on Col. 
E. G. Mitchell introduced fish boxes, which are extensively 
used by all classes of our fishermen, in making shipments of 
iced fish for the market. 

In 1869 Captain Peter M. Warren, a resident of Chowan 
County, applied steam as a motive power to drive windlasses 
used at fisheries for drawing in seines — this was a great 
help to the fishermen, and a decided advance in such methods. 
In 1879 Captain Warren extended the application of steam 
as a motive power to the bateaux used by fishermen at their 
fisheries. 'No one but a fisherman could really appreciate 
the advantages thus afforded. Our recollection is that this 
scheme was tried out at Drummond's Point Fishery near 
the mouth of Yeopim River, now owned by John G. Wood, 
Jr., but then owned by J. L. G. Smith from Long Island, 
ISTew York, a member of the Bull Smith family of that island. 
He stated his family got this name from a trade by a member 
of it, with some Indians for a tract of land. Por a certain 
consideration he was to have all the land he could ride a bull 
around in a given time. By his ride he won a considerable 
tract of land, and his family the name and distinction of the 
Bull Smith family. It was currently reported at the time 
that Mr. Wiley Eea, a carpenter, was the man who first sug- 
gested to Captain Peter M. Warren the idea of applying 
steam as the motive power to windlasses and steam flats for 
hauling in seines. We know that it was currently reported 
at that time, during which Captain Warren and Mr. Pea 
were together a great deal.' There cannot be any doubt of 
the fact that Captain Warren put the schemes or methods 
into operation. An idea stillborn is of no value at all, and 
as far as the world is concerned amounts to very little; it 
is the advance or progress made that tells ; and judged by the 
practical results accomplished. Captain Warren deserved all 
the credit he ever got for the work he did. 


In connection with: the fishing done at Drummond's Point 
fishery, it is said that four hundred thousand herring were 
caught at a single haul. It was impossible to land so many 
fishes at one time, and the seine had to be anchored out and 
smaller seines used until the most oi them were landed before 
the haul could be finally made. We have been at fisheries 
when between one and two hundred thousand herrings were 
caught, and at that time we do not think it was unusual. 
Some years ago at Greenfield fishery there was a haul of 
75,000 herring; and it was said the several hauls before and 
after this haul were few in comparison with it. It was sup- 
posed the seine caught the entire shoal of herring, which 
shows fish must swim together in the water like birds flock 
together in the air. There are no seines fished on the shores of 
Chowan County at this time, liaving been supplanted by a 
cheaper method of fishing, which is known by the name of 
''Dutch IsTet." This net is called the "Dutch ^et" because 
it was introduced into the water of the Albemarle Sound in 
1869 by Captain John P. Hettrick and his brother, William 
Hettrick, Pennsylvania Dutchmen, who had been fishing 
with these nets in the Great ISTorthern lakes for whitefish. 
During the Civil War Capt. John P. Hettrick came down 
here as a Federal soldier and seeing the sound, and inquiring 
about the fish which abounded in its waters, he concluded he 
would come down with his nets as soon as the war was over 
and he could do so. The first of these were fished at Sandy 
Point, about ten miles below Edenton, IST. C, on the north 
side of the sound. They were cheap, as stated, and proved a 
great success, and were readily adopted by our people, with, 
the result that the seine fisheries on our side of the sound 
are not fished any longer. Skinner's Point Fishery was con- 
sidered the best shad fishery we had in Chowan ; and Green- 
field was considered the safest as the seasons run, and the best 
herring fishery on the sound. 

Avoca has always been considered the best shad fishery on 
the Albemarle Sound and the largest rock-fish fishery. At a 


single haul as many as forty-six thousand shad have been 
taken, and one hundred and eighty thousand herring, and 
thirty eight thousand pounds of striped bass, which are con- 
sidered very large catches of these kinds of fish. In an 
article recently written by Mr. J. H. Etheridge, of Colerain^ 
N. C, the statement is made that in 1878 a haul was landed at 
Colerain that counted out over a half million (of herring), 
and in 1882 one of two hundred and sixteen thousand. He 
also states there are a crowd of witnesses who can and will 
testify to these facts ; and from 1878 to 1883 the average 
catch was fifteen million per season. The Dutch nets which 
have changed the method of catching shad and herring are thus 
described : The stakes are about three by six inches in size, 
separated by short intervals in a line; the stakes are driven 
some four or five feet into the bottom or bed of the sound, 
and the nets are stretched out and fastened to them with 
several pounds or inclosures in which the fish are arrested 
in their migratory movements up the waters, hunting for the 
spawning grounds, and seeking an outlet, enter the net and 
being unable to find their way out are taken up with dip nets. 
The line of nets may extend in the sound a thousand or 
more yards. The fish follow the leads and finally get into 
the hearts or pounds from which they are taken as stated. 
The boats used are flat bottomed, so that they can easily cross 
the line at the top of the heart, pound or pod, A great 
many herring are caught in these nets^ but not so many shad 
in proportion to the numbers that come into our waters. We 
have advanced some in looking after the by-products, hereto- 
fore wasted or used for fertilizers. We have two canning"^ 
factories for the roe from the herring that are cut for salt- 
ing and packing down. And it is convenient for the house- 
keeper to have in her pantry; in fact we know of nothing 
more convenient or handy to have around. The roe makes 
a most delightful dish for breakfast or supper. 

The fishing business for years back has been one of the 
largest (conducted) in this section of the State; millions of 


shad, h6n:'ing, rock, perch, and other fish are shipped from 
Edenton alone ; and many other thousands and millions from 
Dare Coimtj, Hertford and Elizabeth City, jST. C, during 
the annual spawning season of these fish. This business 
gives employment to hundreds oi people, both male and 
female. The fishing season lasts about seventy-five days, 
beginning in March and ending about the middle of May 
in each and every year. It is an interesting sight to be at 
one of these fisheries and witness what is called a "haul." 
The seines extend out from one to two miles and then are 
pulled in as stated by Porte Crayon. The cutting and pack- 
ing of these fish is most interesting, and it is wonderful to 
see how rapidly the men and women accustomed to this kind 
of work can cut and clean these fish — as many as two or three 
thousand an hour. We believe our seine fisheries when in 
full blast were the most extensive inland fisheries in the 
world, as well as the most profitable. The seine fisheries 
in Dare County, located at Croatan and elsewhere, were 
among the best, and were generally fished by the Da vises, 
Palins and others of Elizabeth City. Sheriff W. T. Brink- 
ley, a native of Chowan County, was the owner of one of 
these fisheries for years, during which period he was a resi- 
dent of Dare, and lived in Manteo or neanby. 

The fish-catching in the east of ISTorth Carolina in 1897 was 
142,326,000, valued at $1,583,600.00, and we are satisfied 
that earlier records will show a much larger catch. In 1873 
under the direction of IJ. S. Fish Commissioner Baird, about 
45,000 shad were hatched out at ^ew Bern, and 100,000 
striped bass at Weldon, IST. C, and all of these were planted 
in local waters. In 1875 shad hatching was attempted at 
^ew Bern by Mr. Milner on behalf of the general Govern- 
ment but no noteworthy results were obtained. In 1877 the 
State of North Carolina began fish cultural operations on its 
own account. In May Mr. Frank M. Clarke, of Michigan, 
was engaged, through Professor Baird, to superintend shad 
hatching on the l^euse; little success was obtained owing to 


unfavorable seasonal conditions. In the fall of 1877, a trout 
and salmon hatchery was constructed at Swannanoa Gap hy 
Mr. W. F. Page, assisted by Mr, S. G. Worth, who enlarged 
and improved the hatchery, and the incubation of brook trout 
eggs and California salmon eggs was begun shortly thereafter. 
The shad hatching in 1878 was noteworthy. The site of the 
operations was Salmon Creek, at the head of the Albemarle 
Sound, and the season was most successful, a million of fry 
being produced. In 1879 a hatchery was built by the State 
at Morganton, at which salmon, trout and carp were hatched 
and distributed, but was abandoned in 1882. Shad hatching 
was continued by the Government at the mouth of Chowan 
River, the steamer Lookout being employed in this work. In 
1880 the State had a fish hatchery at Avoca, and secured the 
eggs from the Sutton and Scotch Hall beaches ; the operations 
proved successful, and the State continued to operate the 
hatchery at Avoc^ until 1884, and during the year 1882 of 
this period adopted the McDonald hatchery jar, being the first 
State to employ this most important device. In 1884 Mr. 
S. G. Worth, at a place on the Roanoke River, aided by the 
U. S, Commissioner of Fisheries, took over four millions of 
striped bass eggs, since which time a great many eggs have 
been hatched and distributed in the waters of this State and 
others. At Edenton there is a most successful fish hatchery, 
under the superintendency of Mr. W. E. Morgan, One hun- 
dred and forty millions of shad eggs have been incubated in 
one season; this was in the year 1913. One of our citizens 
said of Mr. Morgan, who is a cultured gentleman : "I wish 
to say something relative to the efiicient management in which 
the shad eggs and fry have been handled. ]*«J'ever during my 
stay have things been kept in such perfect shape and neatness ; 
all due to the skillful management of our worthy and esteemed 
friend. Superintendent W. E. Morgan, who was sent to 
Paris, France, by the IT. S. Fish Commission, to look after 
our Government's interest, and to other expositions, thus giv- 
ing him much and varied experience. He is always nice and 


has pleasing manners, and is capable of handling help with 
great ease. The percentage of incubations have been much 
greater than any previous year; all due to Mr. Morgan's 
skillfulness and attention to the business in which he is un- 
tiring, and it leads to the greatest success." We know Mr. 
Morgan personally, and this gentleman has not said any more 
in commendation of him than he deserves. He is on the job 
at all times. 

Sturgeon fishing was first introduced by Capt. A. T. Cann, 
in 1889 ; he came from the State of Delaware. The nets used 
for catching these fish are from 600 to 1,000 yards long, and 
are made of large cotton twine with meshes from 12 to 16 
inches. Only one of them is usually fished to a boat carrying 
two men. They have no stakes, as they are not required, 
anchors being mostly used. One time the sturgeon were quite 
numerous, but they have so thinned out that it hardly pays to 
fish for them in our waters at this time. It is a great pity, 
and the State ought to take some action in the matter, so that 
their utter extinction will not be accomplished. A large stur- 
geon is worth about one hundred dollars. These fish are from 
five to nine feet in length, and weigh from one hundred and 
twenty -five to three hundred pounds. As many as three hun- 
drd of these fish have been taken during a season of about 
sixty days, from one net, but it is said one hundred and fifty 
a season was considered good. The roe is used for cavier, a 
great Germgm dish, and is highly prized; as well as most 
valuable. The roe from four or six sturgeon will fill a keg. 
The offal has great fertilizing property and is said to be more 
valuable than shad or herring offal. 

We have endeavored to secure data that could be consid- 
ered accurate and reliable, and we have selected only such 
data as we have considered of historical value. We have just 
received a letter from Mr. E. H. Walke, who fished for many 
years at the famous Avoca fishery, a cut of which we hope 
will accompany this article. Mr. Walke states : "That on the 
6th of May, 1876, we made two hauls of Eock fish ; the first 


was 38,000 lbs., the second was 13,000 lbs., both in one day. 
In 1877 we made a haul of herring of 188,000 by actual 
count, or 60 stands that held 3,000 herring to, the stand. In 
1901 I made three hauls of shad, to-wit: 45,000, 46,000 and 
44,000 respectively; making 135,000 in the three hauls. This 
is the largest fishing we ever done. In 1886 I caught 105 stur- 
geon at three hauls." We are very glad that Mr. Walke let 
us have these figures, as they show the actual catch at the 
AvO'Ca fishery during the years stated, and are, therefore, of 
historical value. The statement of the figures sustain the 
importance of legislation for the protection of the young fish, 
and for their propagation, as the catch of these fish of today is 
nothing like the hauls Mr. Walke writes of. 

We feel greatly indebted to Dr. Joseph Pratt, State Geol- 
ogist, and Dr. Hugh M. Smith for facts secured from their 
written works, and Dr. R. B. Drane, Dr. Richard Dillard, 
Mr. John G. Wood, Sr., Mr. W. H. Walke, and others, for 
the facts upon which we have based the statements in this 


Fiscal and Economic Conditions in North 
Carolina During the Civil War 

By William K. Boyd, 
Professor of History in Trinity College. 

The hard task of war is not confined to the battlefield, nor 
its heroism to the soldier and sailor. Upon non-combatants 
rest the duties of repleting the ranks decimated by mortality, 
of providing supplies with a diminishing number of laborers, 
and of keeping open the channels of trade and commerce. 
War is therefore a test of economic resources as well as of 
military force and skill. In the light of this fact the contest 
ibetween the Union and the Confederacy was an unequal one ; 
for in the N^orth during that conflict, agTicultural produc- 
tivity was but slightly impaired, manufactures prospered, 
the inventive genius flowered, and the crisis in the currency 
was met by the jSTational Bank act. On the other hand, in the 
South, cotton, the staple crop, declined from 4% million bales 
in 1860 to approximately Yo million bales in 1864, while 
the blockade so interfered with export trade that the price 
on the local markets declined with the decrease in produc- 
tion. Manufactures did not increase sufiiciently to meet de- 
mands and there was no stroke of genius to prevent a col- 
lapse of the currency. Yet the supreme test of the Con- 
federacy was not its inferiority in resources, but the ways 
and means by which the odds were met. Surely the temper 
of the Southern people from 1861 to 1865 cannot be fully 
comprehended without some acquaintance with the methods 
by which the non-combatants contributed to the "Lost Cause." 
The subject must be approached from two angles : one is 
that of the government of the Confederate States and its poli- 
cies, the other the measures of the State governments. Of 
these the former has been more widely treated. In the fu- 
ture larger account must be taken of war legislation in the 


several States and its effect on the people. It is therefore 
hoped that the present discussion of fiscal and economic con- 
ditions in North Carolina from 1861 to 1865 may not bo 

A. — The State Finances. 

There were three financial problems in North Carolina in 
1861. One was the inequalities in the system of raising 
revenue. Land, personal property, income from professional 
services, dividends and profits were taxed according to value 
at different rates, while slaves were taxed as polls, and slaves 
below the age of twelve and above fifty were exempt. Thus 
land valued at $97,672,975 in 1860 yielded $195,124, while 
slaves valued at $162,866,763 (valuation of 1863) through 
the poll tax paid only $122,148. In the gubernatorial cam- 
paign of 1860 the issue of ad valorem taxation o,f all property, 
including slaves, had been raised by the Whig party and its 
defeat was due very largely to the excitement of national 
issues. How far a war in defense of the slave system would 
affect the question of taxing slave property at its real value, 
remained to be seen. The second problem was that of the 
State debt. From 1848 to May, 1861, $9,749,500 of bonds 
had ibeen issued. These were mainly for aid to railroads 
and other works of internal improvement. During the war 
$1,370,000 previously authorized were issued. For the re- 
demption of the bonds a Sinking Fund had been established 
in 1856, consisting of the State stock in the Raleigh and 
Gaston and the North Carolina railroads. Whether the fund 
would be preserved for its original purpose or used in sup- 
porting the new debt created by the war was a matter of im- 
portance. The Literary Fund, from which the public schools 
were supported, consisting of approximately $3,000,000 
worth of securities in 1860, was likewise threatened. Finally 
there was the problem of finding ways and means for the 
equipment and support of the State troops, and of meeting 
other expenditures incurred by the war. The mag-nitude of 
this task may be realized by contrasting the public fund, 


which met the regular expenses of the goverxunent, in 1861 
and the years immediately following. For the fiscal year 
ending October 31, 1861, it was $3,523,981.25. By the same 
day in 1862 it was $13,297,973.60, a year later it was 
$16,208,440.88, while in 1864 it declined to $6,936,672.08. 
This expansion of income was the paramount fiscal problem 
of the war. Its solution also shaped the policy toward taxa- 
tion, the Sinking Fund, and the Literary Fund. It there- 
fore demands careful consideration. 

A. I. — Revenue. 

The principal measure iby which the increase in the State's 
income was accomplished was the issue of treasury notes. 
These were authorized by two bodies, the legislature and 
the Secession Convention which, after four sessions, finally 
adjourned in May, 1862. The first extra session of the leg- 
islature authorized the alternate issue of treasury notes and 
six per cent, bonds to the amount of $5,000,000, of which 
$2,750,000 were to be treasury notes. ■'■ At the second extra 
session $1,800,000 of notes were authorized.^ The first ses 
sion of 1862 authorized $1,500,000 more, fundable in six 
per cent, twenty year bonds, and the treasurer was given lib- 
erty to increase the issue by $3,000,000.^ At the adjourned 
session of 1863, $400,000 were also authorized.* Likewise 
the regular session of 1864 authorized $3,000,000, and the 
adjourned session of the same year, $3,000,000.^ 

Thus $15,450,000 of treasury notes were authorized by the 
legislature. The convention was also liberal in the matter. 
At its first session it authorized $200,000 of notes.^ This 
was followed at the second session by $3,000,000 six per 
cents exchangeable for six per cent, bonds. ^ At the third 

1 Laws, 1860, I Extra Session, ch. 4. 

2 Laws, 1860, II Extra Session, ch. 18. 

3 Laws, 1862-3, ch. 29. 

4 Laws, Adjourned Session, ch. 35. 

5 Laws, 1864, ch. 23 ; Adjourned Session, ch. 18. 

6 Ordinance, I Session, 34. 

7 Ordinance, II Session, 16. 


session $1,500,000 were autHorized which, as well as the 
notes of the former session, were fundable in eight per cent, 
bonds.'^ At the fourth session $2,000,000 more was authorized, 
also fundable in ibonds.^ Thus $6,700,000 in notes were 
authorized bj the convention, making, with those authorized 
bj the legislature, $22,150,000. Moreover the convention 
assumed the State's quota of the Confederate tax, to be funded 
in seven per cent, notes. 

The total amount of notes issued was left to the discretion 
of the Treasurer and the Governor. They were guided by the 
legislative appropriations and the amount formerly in the 
treasury. According to the Treasurer's report at the end of 
the war $8,507,847.50 had been issued and $3,261,511.25 
had been retired, leaving in circulation $5,246,336.25. To 
insure the circulation of the notes the Treasurer was directed 
not to accept in payment of obligations to the State the notes 
of those banks that would not honor the treasury notes. ■'■'' 

A second method iby which the vast increase in revenue 
was attained was the issue of bonds. The legislature at the 
first extra session authorized the issue af $2,250,000, and the 
convention also authorized $3,000,000.^1 Banks purchasing 
the bonds were relieved of the obligation of specie payment 
so long as any portion of the bonds remained unredeemed 
and were allowed to issue their notes of less denomination 
than one dollar to the extent of five per cent, of their capital 
stock paid in, provided such action did not infringe upon their 
charters. In 1862 $5,000,000 additional were authorized, 
and in 1863, $2,000,000.1^ Moreover the State assumed 
its proportion of the Confederate war tax; to meet it notes 
were to be issued, convertible in seven per cent, bonds, the 
amount of bonds actually issued being $1,384,500, the as- 

8 Ordinance, III Session, 35. 

9 Ordinance, IV Session, 39. 

10 Laws, II Extra Session, cli. 18. 

11 Laws, I Extra Session, ch. 4; Ordinance, I Session, 34. 

12 Laws, 1862-63, eh. 29 ; Adjourned Session, cli. 26. 


sumption expiring after 1862, ^^ Finally aid in the con- 
struction of the Chatham Railroad was given to the extent 
of $249,000 in bonds.^^ Thus the total bond issues for war 
and allied purposes were $13,120,500. There were also 
issued $1,370,000 of bonds authorized prior to 1861, making 
a bonded debt at the close of the conflict of $24,240,000. 

The market value of bonds and notes is one of the interest- 
ing phases of war finance. The notes depreciated, and in 1865 
the following scale of depreciation was adopted :^^ 

Month. 1861. 1862. 1863. 1864. 

January $1.20 $3.00 $21.00 $50.00 

February 1.30 3.00 21.00 50.00 

March 1.50 4.00 23.00 60.00 

April 1.50 5.00 20.00 100.00 

May 1.50 5.50 19.00 

June 1.50 6.50 18.00 

July 1.50 9.00 21.00 

August 1.50 14.00 23.00 

September 2.00 14.00 25.00 

October 2.00 14.00 26.00 

November 1.10 2.50 15.00 30.00 

December 1.15 2.50 20.00 

December 1-10 35.00 

December 10-20 42.00 

December 20-30 49.00 

Depreciation was naturally accompanied by speculation in 
the securities, which was especially notable during the first 
two years of the war. ISTotes were purchased by the specu- 
lators and exchanged for bonds, yet in 1862 the price of six 
per cent bonds ranged from 112 to 120, and actual deprecia- 
tion of bonds does not seem to have set in until the latter 
part of 1864, when a $1,000 bond was worth $1,850 in Con- 
federate treasury notes, or $74 in specie. -"^^ Several influences 
checked the depreciation of notes from influencing to any 
great extent the value of bonds; one was that the treasurer 
in 1862 adopted the policy of issuing bonds in certiflcate 
rather than the coupon form, thus requiring the holder to 

13 Ordinance, III Session, 21. 

14 Private Laws, 1860-61, ch. 131 ; Ordinance, III Session, 7. 

15 Laws, 1866, ch. 39. 

16 Treasurer's Report, 1864. 


travel to the treasurer's office to secure his interest. •^'^ An- 
other was the custom of paying the expenses as far as pos- 
sible in Confederate, rather than North Carolina notes. -^^ 
Also the State went into the market for its own bonds, and 
also bought from itself. For this purpose the Sinking Fund 
was used. Thus in 1863, it was reported that the Sinking 
Fund had transferred to the treasury, $719,000 for bonds 
whose face value was $602,000, and the next year it was 
reported that the Sinking Fund had bought in the market 
$131,050 of bonds at a premium of $171,495.26.19 It is 
also interesting to notice that the State bonds issued prior to 
1861, and held by the Fund were transferred to the treasury. 
Some Confederate bonds were also purchased by the Fund 
and some were paid in as dividends of the ISTorth Carolina 
Railroad. Consequently at the close of the war the securi- 
ties of the Sinking Fund, with the exception of the railroad 
stock, were Confe/ierate and State war bonds. The ante- 
bellum debt, for which the fund has been created, remained 
an obligation of the State, and by 1866, $364,000 were due 
and unpaid.^^ 

A similar use was made of the Literary Fund. Since this 
fund was used for educational purposes and was therefore of 
vast social importance, its history during the war justifies 
a more extended notice than the Sinking Fund. I therefore 
quote from a study of the Literary Fund elsewhere pub- 
lished.^-^ "In order to meet the increase in expenditures 
made necessary by military affairs, there was a feeling that 
the fund should be used. This peril was averted by the efforts 
of Dr. Calvin H. Wiley, who had been elected Superintend- 
ent of Common Schools in 1852. He persuaded the Gover- 
nor and the Council of State to oppose such a measure, se- 
cured the support of the iN'orth Carolina Educational Associa- 

17 mandard, June 25, 1862. 

18 Ordinance, I Session, 35. 

19 Comptroller's Report, 1863, 1864. 

20 Treasurer's Report, January, 1866. 

21 Finances of the North Carolina Literary Fund, South Atlantic 
Quarterly, July and October, 1914. 


tion, which had been organized in 1857, and of many of the 
county boards of education. Consequently a bill to use the 
Literary Fund for other than educational purposes was de- 
feated in the Legislature. However, the counties were re- 
lieved from the duty of levying local taxes for education, 
with the result that some counties used the educational tax 
for military purposes, and others suspended collection of 
school taxes until the war should end. Also no distribution 
from the Fund was made in the fall of 1861, nor in the 
spring of 1862, and from evidence of a later date it seems 
that the income of the Fund was temporarily used to meet 
the financial crisis brought about by the war. Yet the school 
system did not collapse during the war; in the spring of 
1865 the Superintendent was receiving reports from every 
section of the State. 

"As the resources of the Fund were not diverted and as 
the expenditvire for school purposes diminished, the deficit 
of $22,137.17 at the close of 1861 was wiped out by the 
end of 1862. Also in the latter year the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad redeemed $50,000 of its bonds held by the 
Fund. In 1863 a State loan of $96,086 was repaid, the 
dividend of the Wilmington and Weldon quadrupled, and 
that of the Wilmington and Manchester Railway — for stock 
in which 2,000 shares of the Wilmington and Weldon stock 
had been exchanged in 1852 — also yielded a dividend of 
twenty-five per cent. Consequently in spite of increased 
appropriations for the deaf, dumb, and blind, at the close of 
the fiscal year 1863, there was a balance of $250,974 to the 
credit o^ the Fund, and the matter of investments again 
became of importance. 

"In 1862 the new trustees of the Literary Fund were 
appointed by Governor Vance. These were William E. Pell, 
Professor Richard Sterling, and William Sloan. Careless- 
ness and inefiiciency on the part of their predecessors were 
soon disclosed. 'No stock certificate for the 5,404 shares of 
the Bank of Cape Fear could be found ; notes for loans to in- 


dividuals had been allowed to run until wortUess ; bonds of 
the State had not been endorsed, and a payment on the bond 
of the Clinton Female Institute had not been credited. In 
1863 a new office, Treasurer of the Literary Fund, was cre- 
ated by the Legislature, and Mr. Richard H. Battle was 
appointed to fill it. This activity of the trustees was not long 
lived. It proved difficult to get the members to meet as 
often as seemed necessary, and for this reason in 1863 the 
matter of investments was referred to a committee of Gover- 
nor Vance and Mr. Pell, with power to act. They made 
no written account of their work, but from the reports of 
the Comptroller it is evident that they invested $651,575.59. 
Of this, $476,675.59 was invested in State bonds, as follows: 
In six per cents, $112,500 in April, 1863; $31,000 in No- 
vember and December, 1863, and January, 1864, at a pre- 
mium of $49,490 and accrued interest of $705.75, and 
$110,250 in March, 1864, with accrued interest of $437.50: 
in eight per cents, $15,000 in ISTovember, 1863, at $24,000 
premium and $279.29 interest; in December, $9,000 at 
$15,070 premium and $203.74 accrued interest; in January, 
1864, $3,000 at $5,610 premium; in February, $36,000 at 
$62,925 premium and $1,027.31 interest. Moreover, in JS"©- 
vember, 1863, $175,000 was invested in Confederate bonds. 

''These investments are among the most interesting ever 
made by the trustees. The purchases were made in paper 
currency while the bonds were redeemable in gold ; hence the 
high premiums. But from this standpoint the investments 
were unwise, for in November, 1864, the Treasurer reported 
that a North Carolina State bond of $1,000 brought $1,850 
in Confederate currency, and only $74 in specie. An inven- 
tory of the securities of the Literary Fund late in 1865 
showed a shrinkage of $153,583.06, compared with the 
amount held in 1860." 

No consideration of the value and depreciation of the State 
bonds and treasury notes would be complete without refer- 
ence to the attitude of North Carolina toward the funding: 


policy of the Confederate Government. In March, 1863, 
Congress provides for the funding of outstanding Confeder- 
ate notes ; those above the denomination of $5 to be accepted 
at their face value for bonds, until April, 1864, after which 
they were to be taxed one-third ; notes less than $5 were fund- 
able in bonds until July, after which they were to be taxed 
likewise; and those of $100 or above, if not funded by April, 
were to be no longer receivable by the government, and were 
to be taxed one-third of their face value. ^^ ISTow the ISTorth 
Carolina convention had made Confederate notes receivable 
for taxes and obligations to the State. Two problems there- 
fore arose. One was for the State to outlaw or continue to 
receive the notes in question ; the other was to fund the notes 
in the treasury. The legislature of Virginia set an example 
by repudiating the notes for the payment of taxes, while the 
Richmond banks refused to accept them in the discharge of 
debts. A similar policy was recommended by the treasurer 
of ISTorth Carolina.^^ However, it met the opposition of 
Governor Vance. "If one issue of Confederate notes is 
good," said he, "then all are good, since the same honor is 
pledged for their ultimate redemption." He also held that 
the policy of repudiation would bring endless confusion if 
adopted by the State. The legislature followed the advice 
of the Governor. ^^ It condemned repudiation, either direct 
or indirect, and provided for an earlier collection of the 
taxes, so that the treasurer could exchange as many notes as 
possible for bonds and new notes.^^. However, in 1864, the 
policy of repudiation was adopted, following the Confederate 
law of February 17, of that year.^^ Undoubtedly the rapid 
depreciation of the ISTorth Carolina notes in 1863 and 1864 

22 Schwab, The Confederate States, p. 52. 

23 Treasurer's Report, June 29, 1863. 

24 Governor's Message, Extra Session of 1863. 

25 Report of Committee on Currency ; Laws, 1863, called session, 
ch. 13. 

26 Laws, 1864, Adjourned Session of 1863, ch. 15. 


was caused to a large degree by the repudiation and deprecia- 
tion of the Confederate notes, with which they were ex- 

The final means of meeting the increase in the expendi- 
tures was taxation. The first tax policy was to adopt the 
principle of ad valorem taxation, which had been rejected 
in the campaign of 1860. The first step to this end was made 
by an act of September, 1861, but its thorough application 
was in the law of 1863. According to the statute of that year 
an ad valorem tax of two-fifths of one per cent was levied 
on all real estate, slaves, money and solvent credits, invest- 
ments, manufacturing establishments, household and kitchen 
furniture, plate and carriages ; two per cent on dividends 
from manufactures, steamboats and railways; ten per cent 
on the receipts of non-resident insurance companies and 
brokers, also all manufacturers were required to pay into the 
treasury net profits above seventy-five per cent over the cost of 
production.^''' The interesting feature of this legislation was 
the taxation of slaves at their value. The first oflicial valua- 
tion of slave property was therefore made, amounting to 
$162,866,763; the income yielded, $642,973.83; whereas the 
value and income from land were $131,513,732 and $513,- 
799.82. In 1864 the ad valorum rates were changed, re- 
spectively, to one-fifth o,f one per cent, two and one-half per 
cent and five per cent. Another method of increasing the 
revenue was to raise the rates on the poll and licenses, the 
poll being raised from eighty cents in 1860, to one dollar 
and twenty in 1863, and three dollars in 1864.^^ The result 
of the new tax laws was to increase the revenue from taxes 
from $696,763 in 1860 to $1,873,004 in 1863. 


Expenditures as well as revenue vastly increased, leaping 
from $3,536,687.67 in 1860 to $3,750,039.74 in 1861, to 

27 Laws, 1862-3, ch. 57. 

28 Laws, passim. 


$12,167,734.72 in 1862, to $15,078,922.97 in 1863, and 
declining to $6,368,573.57 in 1864. By far the largest item 
in these expenditures was that for military purposes, being 
$2,198,038.02 in 1861, $6,751,920.30 in 1862, $8,942,724 
in 1863, and $3,865,272.92 in 1864. These expenditures 
were divided among three departments as follows. 

First was the Quartermaster's. Its duty was to purchase, 
manufacture and transport supplies, and also to pay the 
troops. It was not organized until late in 1861, the expecta- 
tion at the opening of the war being that the Confederate 
Government would equip the troops. As the task proved too 
great, it was assumed by the State, with the provision that 
there should be reimbursement for expenditures. Soon there 
was conflict between the operations of the Department and 
that of the Confederacy, well stated by Governor Vance in 
1862 : "During the administration of my predecessor an 
arrangement was entered into, according to a resolution of 
the General Assembly, with the Quarter Master's Depart- 
ment of the Confederate Army by which ITorth Carolina was 
to receive commutation for clothing her troops and clothe and 
shoe them herseK. And in our agreeing to sell to the Con- 
federate States all the surplus supplies that could be pro- 
cured in the State, they agreed to withdraw their agents from 
our markets and leave the State the whole field without 
competition. This would have enabled the State to clothe 
and shoe her troops comfortably, and it could have furnished 
to the Confederate States all that was to be had at reason- 
able rates; but it was immediately violated. The country 
was soon and is still swarming with agents of the Confeder- 
ate States, stripping bare our markets and putting enormous 
prices upon our agents. This is especially the case in regard 
to shoes and leather. The consequence has been our troops 
could not get half supplies from home, and nothing at all 
from the Confederate Government, because of our agTeement 
to furnish them ourselves."^^ The commutation plan was 

29 Message, November, 1862. 


abandoned in 1862 ; thereafter the State sent supplies directly 
to its troops. 

Undoubtedly the most interesting enterprise of the State 
in securing supplies was the direct trade between Wilming- 
ton and Liverpool, carried on by vessels purchased by the 
State, in the face of the Federal blockade. This enterprise 
was conceived by Adjutant-General Martin, who made the 
suggestion to Governor Vance soon after Vance's inaugura- 
tion in 1862. Vance took the matter under advisement. 
Vance, a few days later, held a lengthy conference on the 
matter. '^The Hon. B. F. Moore took very strong grounds 
against the State entering into the blockade business, and 
finally told Vance and General Martin that if they engaged in 
the business they would both be liable to impeachment. Gen- 
eral Martin took the ground that the laws of the State made 
it his duty to supply clothing to the troops then in the field ; 
that a large sum of money was appropriated for the purpose 
without any restriction as to where purchases were to be 
made ; that the supplies of the State were not adequate ; that 
the Confederate States were paying the State large sums of 
money for clothing; that the Confederate notes could be 
turned into cotton and with cotton bonds buy the ship and 
clothing without any additional expense to the State, the cot- 
ton bonds and cotton itself to be used simply as bills of 
exchange, where neither the State notes nor Confederate cur- 
rency would be available. As to the purchase of a ship, 
General Martin took the ground that he had as much right 
to do that as to purchase many other articles not mentioned 
in the law, it being well known that transport ships are a 
part of the equipment of all modern armies. The Governor 
reserved his decision, but next morning, when called for it, 
decided to support General Martin in his effort to sustain 
the army."^*^ When the Legislature met it approved the 
Governor's action by appropriating $2,000,000 for the pur- 

30 Gordon, in History of the Regiments and Battalions from North. 
Carolina in the Great War, 1861-1865, I, 28-29. 


chase of a vessel and clothing. ^^ Accordingly the British 
steamer Lord Clyde was purchased for $175,000, and its 
name was changed to the Advance. In 1863 one-half inter- 
est in the vessel was sold, and one-fourth interest was pur- 
chased in four other vessels, the Don, the Hansa, and two 
others in course of construction, one of which, the Annie, 
was completed. Hon. John White was sent to England as 
State agent. He made a contract with Alexander Collie & 
Co., of Liverpool. According to this the State issued cotton 
and rosin bonds, which were promises to deliver cotton and 
naval stores within thirty days after the end of the war. 
These bonds were given a ready market value by redemption 
in cotton and naval stores, which were shipped through the" 
blockade, and by the deposit of $1,500,000 of State bonds. 
The actual amount of cotton and rosin bonds sold is unknown. 
In 1863 Governor Vance reported that 2,010 bales of cotton 
had been sent to Liverpool, and in 1864, that 228,000 bar- 
rels of rosin were pledged by warrants.^^ The sale of the 
bonds was so successful that the $1,500,000 of State bonds 
had not been used in 1864. 

The imports from the blockade were extensive and varied. 
Blankets, cloth, shoes, socks, flax, thread, sheet iron, paper, 
leather, wool, cards, bluestone, copperas, belting, flannels, 
needles, buttons, trousers, bleaching powder, awls, envelopes, 
and caps were brought in. The amount sold was estimated in 
1864 at $2,672,990, the amount forwarded to the Ordnance 
Department at $488,870.45, and the value of goods on hand 
at $3,274,691.33 

But the blockade operations were destined to failure. In 
their very nature there was a large element of chance, well 
defined iby Treasurer Worth: "We raise money in Europe 
under the disadvantages always attaching to a borrower of 
doubtful credit — buy with gold thus obtained and sell what 

31 Resolution of November 27, 1862. 

32 Message, 1863 and 1864; Treasurer's Report, 1864, 

33 Blockade Statements, Documents of 1864. 


costs a dollar in gold for four dollars in Confederate cur- 
rency, the four dollars being worth about twenty cents in 
the currency we pay. This is speculation with a vengeance 
and exhibits about as much common sense as has been usual 
for three years past." ^* Moreover, during the last year 
of the war adversity overtook the blockade runners. The 
cordon of Federal ships guarding the coast became tighter, 
and as early as July, 1863, the captain of the Advance ad- 
vised White, the State Agent, to sell the vessel to the Con- 
federate Government. ^^ The policy of the Confederate Gov- 
ernment was also restrictive. It required that one-third the 
space in all outbound vessels be reserved for its own trade. 
Vance appealed to President Davis in behalf of the vessels in 
which the State had an interest, without result. Congress 
was then addressed and an act repealing the law was passed, 
but it was vetoed by the President. A new act exempting 
vessels owned by states was passed ; it also met a veto. How- 
ever the Advance was excepted from the operation of the law 
by executive action. The other vessels had to submit. The 
law was fatal to them, for by contract the State had only one- 
fourth of the outbound cargo and when the law was applied 
this was reduced to one-sixth,^^ Finally, the Advance was 
captured by the Federal blockading squadron in the summer 
of 1864. 

This misfortune was due to the seizure of the supply of 
foreign coal reserved for it on the dock at Wilmington by 
the Confederate authorities for use of the cruiser Tallahassee. 
The Advance put to sea with ISTorth Carolina coal, which 
raised such a dark column of smoke from the furnaces that 
the vessel was easily located by the Federals. 

By these influences the blockade operations were so re- 
stricted that they were no longer profitable. The accounts 
were handled exclusively by the executive, without auditing 

34 Correspondence of Jonathan Worth, I, 275-276. 

35 Andrea to Vance, July 30, 1863 (Vance Mss.). 

36 Vance to Davis, March 77, '64; March 26; Vance to Collie, Aug. 
5, '64; Seddon to Vance, Jan. 14, '64 (Vance Mss.). 


by the treasurer or comptroller. In 1864 Governor Vance 
estimated the profits at $2,495,187.57, but Treasurer Worth 
doubted the accuracy of this statement. ^^ Early in 1865 
Vance ordered White to settle up the accounts with Collie & 
Co., but the Confederacy collapsed before this could be done. 
Collie &, Co. were deeply interested in the fortunes of ISTorth 
Carolina, and at one time sent $20,000 for use among the 
unfortunate non-combatants. In August, 1865, W. Collie 
suggested to Vance that a cotton contract be made between 
his company and the State similar to that in force during 

The total expenditures of the Quartermaster's Department 
reported were $16,212,853, of which $4,000,217 were for 
pay and bounties of soldiers, $2,150,998 for cotton, and the 
remainder for supplies of various.^® 

The second department of military expenditures was that 
of Ordnance. Its activities were not so full of interest as the 
Quartermaster's, but they were of equal importance. In 
1861 the manufacture of arms was undertaken. The arsenal 
at Fayetteville, which had belonged to the United States, 
became an arsenal of construction, for which $200,000 was 
appropriated. Contracts were also made with private com- 
panies. A Wilmington corporation manufactured swords 
and bayonets, another in Guilford County filled one contract 
for 300 rifles per month, and supplied approximately 10,000 
rifles. The Governor was authorized to subscribe to the stock 
of companies manufacturing gunpowder. He thereupon sub- 
scribed $10,000 to a mill at Raleigh, and when it was burned, 
$20,000 towards rebuilding. The investment was successful, 
for $500,000 worth of powder was sold to the Confederate 
Government, in addition to that supplied to the State. The 
total expenditures of the Ordnance Department were 

37 Message, 1864; Worth Correspondence, passim. 

38 W. Collie to Vance, August, 1865 (Vance Mss.). 

39 Comptroller's Reports, passim; Regimental History, I, p. 

40 Regimental History, I, 43 ; Laws, 1860, First Extra Session, eh. 
Second Extra Session, cli. 2 ; Comptroller's Reports. 


The third department of military expenditures was that 
of Subsistence, which furnished food supplies. Its opera- 
tions were very effective. In the first months of the war a 
large amount of foodstuffs were purchased in Kentucky 
before embargoes were established by the railroads. In the 
latter part of 1862 the counties in the northeastern part of 
the State, which were soon about to be overrun by the Fed- 
erals, were stripped of cattle, vegetables and forage in co- 
operation with the Subsistence Department of the Confeder- 
ate States. Also a corps of agents were employed who were 
always ready to purchase supplies from the civilians. Wrote 
the Chief Commissary, "I made up my mind that if the peo- 
ple would part with their commissary stores and take paper 
money for payment, General Martin should have what he 
called for. The consequence was that my supplies grew 
during the whole war, and at the close of it I was feeding 
about half of Lee's army." However, in March, 1865, Gov- 
ernor Vance reported that the Subsistence Department had 
broken down, and urged that as many people as possible con- 
tribute to the support of one soldier for six months with a 
ration of eighty pounds of bacon and 180 pounds of flour. 
The total expenditures of the Subsistence Department were 

The military expenditures thus far outlined extended ap- 
proximately to May, 1864, and amounted to $19,553,886. 
By ISTovember, 1864, the total amount was estimated at $21,- 
923, 407. 73^^. According to agreement the State was to be 
reimbursed by the Confederate Government. By IsTovember, 
1864, $8,091,892.23 had been received, leaving a balance 
due of $13,831,515.50.43 

The financial burdens of the war were not confined to 
military expenditures. Suffering among the people and de- 
moralization of economic resources made necessarv State aid 

41 Regimental History, I, 37; Northup to Yance, Nov. 2, 1862; 
Vance to Northup, Nov. 8, 12; Vance, Proclamation, March 1, 1865. 

42 Treasurer's Report. 

43 IMd. 


to the imfortunate and large appropriations for general 
necessities of life. Most prominent of these expenditures 
were those for the manufacture of salt. The Convention 
authorized the expenditure of $100,000 for this purpose, 
and the appointment of a State Salt Commissioner. Works 
were erected at Morehead City, and after the capture of that 
place by the Federals the works were transferred to Wil- 
mington. There they were suspended when yellow fever 
broke out in 1862, but were later reopened. In 1864 their 
productivity was diminished by the policy of the Confederate 
authorities which impressed some of the laborers for the de- 
fense of the city. An attack by the Federals did some injury. 
Another source of salt was the mines of Saltville, Virginia. 
Governor Vance made a contract with Stuart Buchanan & 
Co., of that place, by which the State of iSTorth Carolina 
could mine salt for a consideration of $30,000. His action 
was unauthorized, but was approved by the legislature when 
it convened. The salt manufactured or mined under State 
supervision was apportioned among the counties and sold 
for less than market prices; for example, in 1864, the State 
price was $7.50 per bushel, while the market price was $19. 
The total appropriation for salt was $38,258.93.^'* 

The total number of men in the Confederate armies from 
]!^orth Carolina has been estimated at 125,000, while the 
census of 1860 gave the State a male population between the 
ages of 20 and 60, of 128,889. The support of the wives and 
children at home became a problem and a public duty. For 
this purpose large appropriations were made in 1862, '63 
and '64, totalling $5,000,000, but only $1,947,141.59 were 
reported spent. This sum was apportioned among the coun- 
ties according to white population, and the distribution within 
each county was left to the county courts.^^ For hospital pur- 
poses $600,000 were appropriated, but only $25,000 was re- 

44 Ordinance II, Session No. 6 ; IV, Session No. 18 ; Laws, 1862-3, 
ch. 22 ; Governor's Message, passim; Report of Salt Commissioner ; 
Wortli Correspondence, Vol. I, passim. 

45 Comptroller's Reports, passim. 


ported as spent. For vaccination, $7,628 were spent. For 
the relief of the people of Washington $50,000 were appro- 
priated and $30,000 were spent.^^ 

The expenditures for salt, the support of soldiers' families, 
medical and relief work, were $2,048,028.52. If this sum 
be added to the military expenditures, a total of $23,971,- 
436.25 is derived, which may be considered the financial 
burden of the war in North Carolina. 

By the end of 1864, although the expenditures for the year 
ending October 31, were less than for 1863 or 1862, the 
condition of the treasury was serious. There were outstand- 
ing obligations amounting to $5,100,780.34, consisting of 
$2,668,365 of coupons unpaid, $94,000 of principal, tempo- 
rary loans amounting to $508,473,$682,685.72 for the sup- 
port of soldiers' families, $908,006.62 for military purposes, 
$24,300 for the Surgeon General, $185,000 for sick and 
wounded soldiers, and $20,000 for the people of Washington. 
To meet these obligations there were in the treasury $1,526,- 
412.86, leaving a deficit to be supplied of $3,576,367.48. 
Treasurer Worth recommended turning the entire support of 
the army over to the Confederate Government and an increase 
of taxation rather than the further issue of treasury notes. 
The measure adopted by the legislature was the authoriza- 
tion of $3,000,000 of treasury notes and a reduction in the 
ad valorem schedules. The finances of the next few months 
remain a closed page, for in the spring the Confederacy 
collapsed, and the Convention of 1865 repudiated the notes 
and bonds issued during the war. 

B. — General Economic Conditions. 

The strain of the war upon the life of the people in- 
creased year by year. During the first year the chief econ- 
omic evils were those rising from speculation and the lack 
of sufficient manufactures. The suspension of specie pay- 

46 Treasurer's Report ; Laws, 1864, eh. 23. 


ments by the banks in December, 1860, and the issue of a 
vast amount of treasury notes naturally inflated prices. The 
demand of supplies for the armies and the withdrawal of 
men from civil to military life had a similar effect, by 
diminishing production. Speculation, therefore, became rife 
at an early date. Said an editorial in the Raleigh Standard, 
"We have repeatedly said, that the extortion and speculation 
now practised in the South are doing more to hasten our 
subjugation than anything else beside. Every thoughtful 
person in the country not involved in the high crime of 
beggaring the people and the government must see it. Look 
at the deadening, chilling effect of this speculation mania 
upon the large masses of the people whose sons and brothers 
are in the army. Everyone is melancholy and dejected, not 
at the ill success of our arms, but at the certain disaster 
which is being brought upon the country by the speculators. 
The worst enemies of the Confederacy are those who specu- 
late upon salt, flour, bacon, corn, leather, cotton and wollen 
goods. Many have become suddenly rich, both Jews and 
Gentiles, and they have no concern except to keep the war 
raging that they may make money. "^^ 

A number of measures were taken to minimise the evil of 
speculation. The convention made engrossing, forestalling, 
or conspiracy to control prices a misdemeanor.^^ The Gov- 
ernor issued a proclamation prohibiting the exportation for 
thirty days of salt, bacon, pork, beef, corn, meal, flour, 
potatoes, shoes, leather, hides, cotton, cloth, yarn and wollen 
cloth, except for military or public purposes. It was re- 
newed from time to time.^^ To the same end were an ordi- 
nance of the convention and laws of legislature prohibiting 
the distillation of spirituous liquors from gTain, sugar cane, 
molasses, rice, dried fruit or potates.^^ The Governor was 

•il Standard, November 5, 1862. 

48 Ordinance, II Session, 19. 

49 Such a proclamation was issued by Governor Clarke ; also by- 
Vance, which was renewed from time to time, the last renewal that 
I have noted being in July, 1863. 

50 Ordinance, III Session, 24 ; Laws, 1862, ch. 10. 


authorized to appoint agents to purchase provisions and store 
them for sale to the people. Governor Vance reported in 
1863 that 50,000 bushels of corn, 250,000 pounds of bacon, 
and a quantity of rice were thus secured in the fall of 1862.^^ 
The Confederate Government also attempted to check specu- 
lation by exempting from military service the employees of 
these factories whose owners would agree to sell their pro- 
ducts at not more than seventy-five per cent above the cost 
of production. In IN'orth Carolina only a few corporations 
responded. Vance worte as follows to one manufacturer : 

"If the standard of patriotism was no higher in the great 
mass of the people, we might treat with the enemy tomorrow 
and consent to be slaves at once and forever. Poor men, 
with large and often helpless families, go forth to suffer 
at $11 per month, supporting their wives and children God 
knows how, with flour at $20, shoes and cotton goods at 
fabulous prices, and yet men who stay at home in protected 
ease reap a harvest of wealth, which might be truly called a 
harvest of blood from the necessities o,f the country, and can 
not afford to take seventy-five per cent above the cost for the 
garments for which their protectors stand guard and do battle 
for their liberties." 

The Confederate Government proposed that the govern- 
ment take over the mills, but Vance would not consent. °- 

Futile but interesting was the action of a convention of 
appraisers representing all States of the Confederacy which 
met in Augusta, Georgia, in 1863. It recommended that 
the legislature of each State levy a tax on all articles sold 
over the price fixed by the appraisers of the State, equal to 
the difference between the price fixed and the actual price. ^^ 

How deep was the feeling among the people on the matter 
of speculation is shown by many letters written to Governor 
Vance. One from a soldier's wife reads as follows: 

51 Laws, 1862-63, ch. 15; Vance, Message, Nov., 1863. 

52 Vance to Fries, Oct. 10, 1862. 

53 Document 13, 1864-5. 


"I have four little children and myself. The government 
allows me $19 per month. I have to pay from $28 to $30 
per barrel for corn, $1 per pound for bacon and I cannot 
live at such rates. I have had to pay fifty cents per pound 
for salt all this year and the very highest prices for every- 
thing until I have paid out. My husband has been in the 
army 16 months. He has toiled and undergone hardships 
not only for me and my children but for those poor timid 
chicken-hearted speculators who are afraid to go themselves ; 
then when I get out of something to eat and want to buy 
they would take the last cent for ibreadstuff enough to last 
me one week." ^^ 

The following prices, based on the Raleigh market, illus- 
trate the high cost of foodstuffs during the war : 

1862. 1863. 1864. 1865. 

Bacon, lb. $ .33 $1.00 $5.50 $7.50 

Beef, lb. .12 .50 2.50 3.00 

Pork, lb. — 1.60 4.00 5.50 

Sugar, lb. .75 1.00 12.00 30.00 

Corn, bu. 1.10 5.50 20.00 30.00 

Meal, bu. 1.25 5.50 20.00 30.00 

Potatoes, bu. 1.00 4.00 7.00 30.00 

Sweet Potatoes, bu. 1.50 5.00 6.00 35.00 

Wheat, bu. 3.00 8.00 25.00 50.00 

Flour, bbl. 18.00 35.00 125.00 500.00 

The second economic problem was to procure manufactured 
goods. According to the census of 1860 there were in ISTorth 
Carolina 3,689;facturing establishments. They were 
mostly small ones, for the employees numbered 14,217. 
Thirty-nine of the factories were cotton mills, seven were 
woollen mills, while turpentine, flour, meal, and lumber 
formed by far the largest number of industries. Evidently 
much of the manufactured products used in the State came 
from the North and the West, and interference with 
trade by the war was seriously felt. The deficiency 
was supplied, to some extent, in three ways. One 
was that of State activity through the blockade and the 

54 Sally A. Long to Vance, August 20, 1863. 


manufacture of salt, already received; second, was the 
establishment of new factories. In February, 1861, nearly 
three months before the ordinance of secession, twenty-two 
manufacturing and mining companies were incorporated — 
evidence that the prospect of war stimulated industry; 
and after the opening of hostilities until the end of the war 
thirty-five other mining and manufacturing companies were 
chartered,^^ Especially notable was the development of the 
coal and iron industry in the Deep River section, whose re- 
souces had been made known prior to the war. To afford 
transportation facilities for that section the Chatham Rail- 
road was incorporated with State aid to the extent of $249,- 
000.^^ The inventive genius of the people was also awakened 
by the necessities of the war. Soap was made from turpen- 
tine, rabbit fur and cotton were used in place of wool in 
the manufacture of blankets. Drugs and chemicals were 
also manufactured vitriol in Chatham County, blue mass 
at Chapel Hill ; potash at Fayetteville. Finally home manu- 
factures, which had been carried on extensively prior to the 
war, were relied on to supply the deficiency of factory-made 
products. The memory of the heroic efi:orts in the mansion 
and the cottage are a part of the Southern traditions of the 
war, and need no elaboration. In 1863 Governor Vance 
reported that ''the resources of our State and the Confeder- 
acy have developed to such a degree that we have every 
assurance of being able to clothe our troops with our own 
goods. '"^^ Eighteen months later, however, the supply of 
manufactured goods was exhausted. Says the author of the 
Last Ninety Days of the War, "Children went barefoot 
through the winter, and ladies made their own shoes over 
and wore their own homespuns; carpets were cut into blan- 
kets and window curtains and sheets were torn up for hospi-, 
tal use." 

55 Private Laws, passim; Ordinances of the Convention, passim. 

56 Vance to White, July 10, 1863. 

57 Vance to Seddon. 


The difficulties above outlined were the inevitable result of 
the resources too slender to support a prolonged war. They 
were intensified by the policies of the Confederate Govern- 
ment. Food supplies were diminished by the impressment 
law, which allowed military authorities to seize staple pro- 
ducts and pay for them at prices fixed by the government. 
There were frequent complaints that the prices were too low, 
that the officials engaged in speculation, and mistreated the 
civilians. ''If God Almighty," wrote Governor Vance, "had 
yet in store another plague for the Egyptians, worse than 
all others, I am sure it must have been a regiment or so of 
haK-starved, armed, half-disciplined Confederate cavalry."^^ 
The Confederate tax in kind also bore heavily on the people, 
while the amount of Confederate tax in currency yielded in 
^Torth Carolina is estimated at $10,000,000. In the fall of 

1863, a large number of worn-out cavalry horses were sent 
to the western counties to recuperate, and owing to the lack 
of fences they injured the crops. Slaves were also impressed 
by the Confederate Government for work on the railroads 
from Charlotte to Danville and from Petersburg to Weldon. 
The Confederate authorities also impressed railroad iron of 
the Wilmington, Charlotte and Rutherford road for use in 
ship building and equipping other lines. ^^ The conscript 
law was also demoralizing those counties where there were 
few slaves; enforced military service left the farms in the 
hands of women, boys and old men.^^ Much suffering en- 
sued. Desertion showed a marked increase during 1863 and 

1864. In some of the central and western counties the 
deserters lived in camps and became outlaws, rendering travel 
dangerous and property insecure. ^-"^ 

It is difficult to form an estimate of the effect of the war 
on commerce and business within the State. Specie pay- 
ments were suspended by the banks late in 1860, but the 

58 Vance to Seddon, Dec. 1, 1863. 

59 Vance to Seddon, Feb. 21, 1864. 

60 Letter of Pearson, Fayetteville Observer, Jan. 12, 1863. 

61 Worth Correspondence I, passim. 


issue of bank notes was not excessive, the amount of notes in 
circulation in 1864 being approximately $1,000,000 more 
than in 1860. However, counties, towns, and corporations 
issued scrip, the amount of which cannot be estimated. In 
1861 a stay law was enacted preventing execution for debts 
excepting official debts, and those of non-residents.®^ It was 
declared unconstitutional because it prevented any interfer- 
ence by the courts. The statute of limitations was also sus- 
pended.^^ Under these conditions the amount of business 
enterprise seems to have steadily increased, for the number 
of manufacturing ^establishments chartered in 1864 was 
larger than in the preceding years. 


How thorough was the support of the war by the non-com- 
batants ? How wise were the measures by which money and 
supplies were raised ? What were the real burdens of those 
who did not enter the battlefield ? The evidence concerning 
these questions is somewhat conflicting, but the following 
conclusions are in the main correct. 

In financial policies there were radicalism and conserva- 
tism. The authorization of a large amount of treasury notes 
was radical to the extreme; that -less were issued than au- 
thorized is evidence of conservatism on the part of the Treas- 
ury and the Governor. Likewise the large part played by the 
Executive in financial measures is impossible in days of peace. 
How efficient were the executive measures cannot be deter- 
mined, for the accounts were not audited nor were all of them 
published. In fact it is not possible to make a detailed state- 
ment of all expenditures during the first two of the 
war, while the expenditures during the last few months were 
never made public. Lack of wisdom and inefficiency are cer- 
tainly clear in the management of the Literary Fund and the 
Sinking Fund. 

62 Laws, 1860, 1 Extra Sess., eh. 16. 

63 Laws, 1862-63, ch. 50. 


An interesting feature of war finance was the conflict be- 
tween the State and Confederate authorities in the matter of 
repudiation and procuring supplies. This parallels tlie con- 
flict in military and constitutional questions. 

Economic conditions among the people illustrate heroic 
sacrifice and unheroic profits. The collapse of the Confeder- 
acy did much to bring to a common level the pauper and the 

Finally the military conquest came soon after the crisisf- 
in finances and economic exhaustion. The final crisis in 
finances came in the latter part of 1864, exhaustion of re- 
sources is evident in March, 1865, and the surrender of 
Johnston occurred in the following April. 


Was Esther Wake a Myth ? 

By R. D. W. CONNOE. 

In his "Defense of j^orth Oarolina" Jo Seawell Jones at- 
tributes the passage of the bill to erect the Governor's Palace 
at l^ew Bern in 1766 to the influence with the members of 
the Colonial Assembly of the beautiful and charming Esther 
Wake, sister-in-law of Governor Tryon; and also states that 
Wake County was named in her honor. But later historians 
have repudiated Jones' statement and insist that Esther Wake 
is a creature of his fertile imagination. 'No reference, they 
say, is found to any such person among the contemporary let- 
ters and papers of the period in which she is alleged to have 
lived either in N^orth Carolina or New York, and inquiries 
among the members of the Tryon and Wake families in Eng- 
land reveal the fact that neither family has any record of her 
existence. Mr. Haywood, in his "Governor Tryon of ISTorth 
Carolina," who thoroughly investigated the subject, says : 

"But after all said and done, no one has been able to find 
any trace in the old records of this 'rare and radiant maiden' 
whom the Tar Heels call Esther. ISTone of the letters of the 
colonial period mention her. ISTo known documents of any 
sort in either North Carolina or New York have a word to 
say of her. When the Governor's House in Fort George, 
New York, was burned, her name is not given among those 
of its inmates, though the members of Tryon's household are 
enumerated. Nor is she mentioned in the will of Mrs. 
Tryon, who left no children on whom to settle her fortune, 
and therefore divided it among her friends. 

"So all this about settles the fact that Esther Wake — that 
vision of loveliness which for so many years has been the idol 
of North Carolina romancers — was none other than a creature 
of fancy, brought forth from the realms of Fairyland by the 
pen of a sentimental writer. Many historians, otherwise 


accurate, have been firm believers in her existence, and no 
one can regret more than the author of this biography that 
our beautiful and fascinating heroine has failed to material- 
ize. Queen of Love and Beauty, farewell! — and peace to 
your ashes, if you left any." 

But may there not have been letters in existence when 
Jones wrote his ibook that have since been lost? This ques- 
tion becomes interesting and pertinent, in view of the finding 
among the papers of the North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion, in Jones' own handwriting, of an account, hitherto un- 
published, of Esther Wake in which he quotes references to 
her found in letters of the period said to be in his possession. 
The account was found enclosed in a letter from Jones to 
William A. Graham, dated "Xew Berne, February 28, 1836," 
and is as follows : 

"Miss Esther Wake, by Jo. Seawell Jones. 

"The city of Kaleigh is the capital of the county of Wake, 
as well [as] of the State of ISTorth Carolina. In the year 
1788 the people of the State in convention assembled, 
ordained that the beautiful eminence, now crowned with the 
ruins of Canova's Washington and the new Capitol, should 
be in all future time the headquarters of the State govern- 
ment. It is a spot consecrated to the genius of Raleigh and 
was appropriately chosen in a county founded in honor of a 
beautiful woman. 

"Miss Esther Wake was the sister of Lady Tryon, and 
<3ame with Governor Tryon to xsTorth Carolina in the year 
1764. She was, I have been told, at the early age of fifteen 
on her arrival, and during the six years of her residence in 
the State, she was truly and emphatically adored by all who 
Iiad the distinction of her acquaintance. Even the people in 
their assembled majesty, bowed to the supremacy of her 
charms and the Assembly of 1770 erected the county of Wake 
to commemorate her name. Such was ,the influence o,f beauty, 
virtue and wit, among a chivalrous and hospitable people. 


"The secret history of our country is as little known as 
are the secret motives of the human heart. The legislator 
often acts from a more ignoble impulse than the pleasure of 
a lovely woman, and then continues to hide even this fair 
reason under specious considerations of State policy. In the 
years 1767, 8 and 9 the Assembly voted sixty thousand 
dollars, to build a Palace for the Governor and the historian 
of the State will pause an age for any higher inducement for 
this profligacy of expenditure, than the gratification of this 
celebrated lady. She was ambitious enough to desire mag- 
nificent parlours and bourdoirs, wherein to receive the hom- 
age of her numerous admirers, for the Governor previous 
to the building of the Palace, was compelled to provide his 
own establishment, which was usually rented from some of 
the gentlemen of the borough. The heavy taxes levied to 
complete the edifice contributed to inflame the rebellion of 
the Regulators, and was more than any other cause the im- 
mediate inducement of the famous battle of Allemance on the 
16th o;f May, 1771. But what were the horrors of war to 
the youthful members of the Assembly, when compared with 
those of a lady's displeasure ? The Palace was built, the 
Regulators were conquered and Miss Esther Wake was 

" 'The proverbial influence of the fair sex in matters of 
State was well sustained by Lady Tryon and her lovely sister 
and the enthusiastic spirit of a warm-hearted people esti- 
mated even the character of their Governor by the grace, 
beauty and accomplishment that adorned the domestic circles 
of his Palace.' The story of Miss Esther will serve for a 
beautiful episode in the history of North Carolina. Amidst 
the petty caucuses of a Province under the government of a 
subordinate militar)^ officer, it is gratifying to discover the 
secret source of power, even in the volition of a virtuous 
woman. It is better than an irresponsible cabal of intrigue- 
ing politicians and when properly watched, will but subserve 
the interest and honor of a people. 


"I have a numiber of private letters illustrative of the 
power of Miss Esther, which are almost too romantic for sober 
reality of historical detail. According to their authority she 
ruled without an effort or design, though it [is] easy to im- 
agine that the cunning of the Governor could continue to use 
it for the advancement of his own interest. The younger 
members unquestionably yielded more easily to her known or 
expressed wishes from an ambitious hope of gaining her in 
marriage, but says Colonel John Harvey in a letter of date 
the 20th of January, 1771, 'what can be said in defense of 
those Gentlemen of age and experience who to gratify a 
Governor's wife and to be sure [of] her pretty sister should 
vote fifteen or twenty thousand pounds to build a palace, 
when the people were not able to pay even their most ordi- 
nary taxes, and what is still worse, then go to war with their 
countrymen, to enforce the unjust law.' Isaac Edwards, the 
private Secretary of Tryon, in a letter to Judge Williams of 
date the 6th of November, 1770, says, 'the Palace is finished, 
and we are in it. The Governor is much pleased with it and 
the ladies are now ready to give entertainments in a stile 
suitable to their rank and deserts. Miss Wake is in fine 
humour and is every day planning her party. She has a 
complete set of new and splendid robes just from home, and 
when she gets them on, and gets the young assembly-men in 
the big parlor, she can get a grant of money to build another 
house for herself.' 

"Among those who paid court to the beauty of Miss Esther 
was Sir William Draper, the conqueror of Manilla and the 
antagonist of the celebrated Junius. He was the guest of 
Governor Tryon in the Palace, a circumstance to which the 
Governor often alluded with evident satisfaction and pride. 
The Palace itself was dedicated to Sir William, whose name 
was inscribed on the vestibule, at the head of a few Latin 
verses of his own composition. It should have been dedi- 
cated to Miss Esther Wake, for I learn such was the original 


and higher destiny. Here is a letter of Sir William Draper 
to Sir Nathaniel Duckinfield, of ISTorth Carolina : 

'^Dear Sir Nathaniel — I send one of the Governor's ser- 
vants all the way to your house to bear this apology for not 
coming myself, agTeeable to your very polite invitation and 
my own promise. I might appeal to my ingenuity and frame 
you a hundred excuses, which you could but accept, but the 
generosity of the lover, if not of the soldier, must forbid all 
such subterfuges. So then My Dear Sir Nathaniel take the 
truth as a great secret, I am in love, and Miss Esther Wake 
has graciously — " 

Here the MS. abruptly ends ; the rest is lost. 

Unless our modern historians are prepared to charge Jones 
with inventing the letters of Harvey, Edwards and Draper, 
from which he quotes with so much circumstantiality, as he 
is said to have done the character of Esther Wake, they will 
have to revise their histories and do the lady the justice of 
restoring her to her place of pre-eminence among the heroines 
of North Carolina history. 



Colonel John Hinton* 

By Mary Hilliabd Hinton. 

The subject af this sketch was an American: so is the 
writer, dwelling in the ''land of the free" — a land so free 
that we are not even burdened with the custom of cherishing 
the records of our ancestors, as are our cousins over the sea. 
When called upon to write of some person who flourished in 
the Colonial period or at the time of the Revolution, an 
American does not appear to advantage unless her subject is 
an eminent one. Yet many excuses may she rightly claim, 
for, though people have now awakened to an appreciation of 
our noble Revolutionary history, and Ave are striving to collect 
and preserve the same, in many cases we are helpless. The 
following is some account of an early pioneer who lived not 
many miles from the present capital of x^orth Carolina. 

Colonel John Hinton, o.f the parish of St. Margaret, County 
of Wake, province of ISTorth Carolina, was a Revolutionary 
soldier and statesman, whose military career began in the 
internal troubles of iSTorth Carolina, lYGS-lTTl. Many years 
of his life were devoted to the service of his country and 
State. Frequently his name appears in the public archives 
and high praise is there accorded him. He was the son of 
John Hinton, of Chowan precinct, who died about the year 
lY32.f The part of Chowan in which he lived is now Gates 
County. Tradition claims that John Hinton, the younger, 
was born in London, though it is now believed that he was a 
native of Chowan precinct, born at the Hinton homestead. 

Much light has been thrown on the Hinton genealogy in the 

*A paper read before the North Carolina Society Daughters of the 
Revolution, being one of the "Ancestral Papers" prepared by the 
members of that organization and preserved by the Society. It was 
published in The South Atlantic Quarterly, "Vol. I, No. 2, and is repro- 
duced in The Booklet with the permission of the editor. Since it 
has been impossible to supply orders for copies of the magazine con- 
taining this article, because all the early numbers were destroyed by 
fire, it has been considered advisable to reprint the paper in The 
Booklet, adding certain data that has been obtained since the pub- 

tThe will of John Hinton, of Chowan precinct, dated 21 June, 1730, 
probated 25 April, 1732, is filed in the office of the Secretary of State 
in the Capitol, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 


last decade and a half. Mr. Wharton Dickinson, of iSTew 
York, one of the finest authorities on English genealogy in 
this country, has authentically traced the line back to the 
Norman Conquest. "Earlscott" and "Chilton Foliot" were 
seats of this family in the County Wilts, England. One of 
the first of this name to appear in American records was that 
of Sir Thomas Hinton, knight; it is claimed that he visited 
the colony of Virginia, which is quite probable, as he was a 
member of the London Company. He was the first Gentle- 
man of the Bedchamber to James I. of England and Privy 
Councillor to Charles I. The father of Sir Thomas was 
Anthony Hinton, Gentleman, born 1532, died 7 May, 1598, 
who married Martha, daughter of Sir Giles and Lady Est- 
court* His monument, erected by his grandson, Sir 
Anthony Hinton, son of Sir Thomas Hinton, is in the south 
aisle of St. John's Church, Wanborough, County Wilts, and 
bears this inscription : 

"Anthony Hinton Esqr. 
OB May 7, 1598, aged 66, 
grandfather to Mr Hinton 
Privy Councillor to Charles I." 

Sir Thomas Hinton was born 1574, died 1 February, 
1635. By his first wife, Catherine Palmer, he had five sons 
and two daughters, four of whom married and left issue, viz. : 
Sir Anthony married Mary Gresham; Sir William married 
Mary Popham; Sir John (born July 10, 1603, died October 
10, 1682) married Catrina Vander Ruckle; Mary married 
Captain Samuel Mathewsf afterwards governor of Virginia, 

*The Coat of Arms borne by the Estcourts was : "Erm. on a chief 
indented gu. three etoiles, or. Crest-Out of a mural coronet az. a 
demi eagle, wings expanded or". 

tFiske, in "Old Virginia and Her Neighbors," gives this picture of 
the home of the "worthy Capt. Mathews" : "He hath a fine house, 
and all things answerable to it ; he sows yearly store of hemp & flax, 
& causes it to be spun ; he keeps weavers. «& hath a tan house, causes 
leather to be dressed, hath 8 shoemakers employed in their trade, 
hath 40 negro servants, brings them up to trades in his house, he 
yearly sows abundance of wheat, barley, &c., the wheat he sellth at 
4 shillings the bushel, kills store of beeves, & sells them to victual 
the ships when they come thither ; hath abundance of kiue. a brave 
dairy, swine great store, & poultry ; he married the daughter of Sir 
Thomas Hinton, &, in a word, keeps a good house, lives bravely, & a 
true lover of Virginia, he is worthy of much honour." 


and is the ancestress of the Witherspoons of Kentucky. Sir 
John Hinton came to Virginia with his brother-in-law, Cap- 
tain Mathews, in 1622, remaining two years; his brothers, 
Thomas and Sir William Hinton, came to the colony in 1634, 
but returned to England in 1637. 

In 1666 there came to Maryland the first, fifth and sixth 
sons of Sir John Hinton (son of Sir Thomas Hinton, of 
"Earlscott," and "Chilton Foliot") — Thomas, Clement and 
Richard Hinton. From Thomas descend the Hintons of i*iew 
York and Philadelphia; Clement died unmarried and Rich- 
ard, it is claimed, was the progenitor of the Hintons of Vir- 
ginia and J^orth Carolina. 

In Burke's General Armory of Great Britain are described 
the Coats of Arms of no less than twelve families of Hinton. 
The name was sometimes written Hynton. The Arms of the 
Hintons of "Earlscott" and "Chilton Foliot" are, "Per fesse 
indented argent and sable, six fleur-de-lis counterchanged. 
Crest — An eagle's leg erased, entwined by a serpent." These 
armorial bearings correspond with those used by the Chowan 
ibranch of the family, the founder of which was John Hinton, 
father of Colonel John Hinton of Wake County. 

This John Hinton, the elder, of Chowan precinct, was "a 
man of prominence, wealth and widely spread connection" 
and was traditionally called "Colonel." Just how he won 
this military title is not known. On i\.pTil 4, 1722, he was 
granted 350 acres o,f land on Bonnet's Creek in Chowan. Ho 

married Mary , who survived him, and, two 

years after his death, married Thomas Holliday, also of 
Chowan precinct, but a member of the family of that name 
in ISTansemond and Isle of Wight Counties, Virginia. To 
John and Mary Hinton were born four sons and seven daugh- 
ters, as follows: John, Hardy, William, Malachi, Rachel, 
Mary, Sarah, ISTancy, Charity, Rose and Judith. Of this 
large family 'few records have been preserved and efforts to 
trace the genealogy seems at this late date quite a hopeless 
task. Of the eleven only five have been traced beyond youth, 


viz: John, the subject of this sketch; Malachi, who served in 
the Revolution with the rank of lieutenant; he married an 
English lady whose name is unknown ; among his numerous 
descendants are the Slocumbs and Pous of Johnston County ; 
Nancy, or Ann as she is called by genealogists of today, mar- 
ried Solomon Alston and is the ancestress of the Hon. James 
Alston Cabell, of Richmond, Virginia, a member of the ISTorth 
Carolina Society of the Cincinnati^ and of Mrs. William 
Ruffin Cox, for twelve years President of the National So- 
ciety of Colonial Dames of America; Mary married Wiley 
Jones and Sarah manned Benjamin Blanchard, all of whom, 
with the exception of Ann, have descendants living in Wake 
County. There is a tradition that all the seven daughters of 
John Hinton, the elder, of Chowan, married Alstons, but this 
needs to be verified. 

During the first half of the eighteenth century, John Hin- 
ton, the younger, removed to what was then Johnston County. 
Later, when Wake was erected, his lands fell within the 
boundaries of the new county. In 1768, when Governor 
Tryon held a consultation at Hillsborough to consider what 
steps should be taken to circumvent the movements of the 
Regulators, John Hinton, then a major of provincial troops in 
the County of Johnston, was one of the gentlemen who at- 
tended the conference. When Wake County was erected by 
act of Assembly in 1770 (act not to take effect till 1771), 
Major Hinton became colonel o;f the colonial forces of the 
new county. When Tryon raised the forces of the province 
in 1771 to march against the Regulators, there was much dis- 
affection in Colonel Hinton's county, yet the Colonel himself 
was a firm friend of the government and finally succeeded 
in raising his quota. Tryon's military journal shows that 
Colonel Hinton and his men participated in all of the duties 
incident to the campaign, the Colonel on one or more occasions 
acting as president of courts martial for the trial of delinquent 
soldiers in the army of which his detachment formed a part. 
He personally participated in the battle of Alamance, May 


16, 1771, and his bravery on the occasion was a,fterwards re- 
ferred to by Governor Caswell in a message to the legislature 
during the Revolution. 

Colonel Hinton selected as a site for his new home in the 
wilderness a piece of land six miles east of the present town 
of Raleigh. Here, near the banks of the ISTeuse, he built a 
log cabin. The entrance was in the upper nortion of the 
dwelling, and was reached by means of a ladder, as was the 
case in many of the habitations of the early settlers. He had 
Indians for neighbors and wild beasts for nocturnal visitors. 
Of robust constitution and possesing great bravery, he was 
capable of wielding the axe and paving the way for the more 
timid and indolent. Stories of his encounters with ferocious 
animals are still related. Upon one occasion he sauntered 
forth with his gun and two dogs for a hunt. Weary and 
footsore he sat down by a tree to rest and soon fell asleep. In 
the meanwhile his dogs had a desperate struggle for their 
lives, and for the protection of their master, with a panther. 
He was awakened by the fray and escaped uninjured. On one 
occasion he discovered a panther's lair among some large 
rocks. Two cunning little cubs were snoozing peacefully 
away, ignorant of the close proximity of an intruder. Struck 
with their beauty, he resolved to carry them home for domes- 
tication. Taking both in his arms he proceeded but a short 
distance, when their mother, finding her babies gone, started 
after him with great fury. Seeing her in pursuit, Hinton 
put down one of the cubs, which she carried back to its den 
and then returned to renew the chase. Just as the hunter re- 
gained the top of his ladder the mother of his captive again 
came in sight, but too late. She was shot, and the cub he 
succeeded in taming. 

Colonel Hinton took up many thousands of acres of land 
by grant from Earl Granville. Grants were given for va- 
rious tracts at different times. They followed the course of 
]^euse River, beginning some distance above Milbumie and 
extending far into Johnston County, a distance of many 


miles. In some places the property ran four miles botli to 
the east and west of the river. One tract which is known as 
"The River Plantation," taken in grant by him, is yet owned 
by a descendant of the name. There is no deed in existence 
for this parcel of land, the direct line of descent being suffi- 
cient. The Hintons, Hunters and Lanes originally owned 
most of the County of Wake. The two families last named 
were allied with the Hintons by marriage. 

As civilization advanced, Colonel Hinton erected a resi- 
dence, considered handsome in those primitive days — a type 
of colonial architecture — near his old log cabin. It was u 
frame building, and the bricks used in the foundation and 
chimneys were of a curious design — perfectly square. This 
house long since 

"Has gone to decay, 
And a quiet now reigns all around." 

Only a heap of brick remains to mark the spot where it 
stood. Many old homes built by Colonel Hinton's sons and 
their children in Wake County are still in a fairly good state 
of preservation. Conspicuous among these are "The Oaks" 
and "Clay-Hill-on-the-Neuse." The latter, the home of 
Major John Hinton, Jr. (son of Colonel Hinton), was broken 
into both by the Tories during the Revolution and the Federal 
troops during the War between the States. A secret drawer 
in a desk was found and robbed of treasure in each case. 

Colonel Hinton was among the first to offer his services to 
his country when the British yoke could no longer be borne. 
He was a delegate from Wake County when the Provincial 
Congress of l^orth Carolina met at Hillsborough in August. 
1775. There preparations began for the conflict which was 
brewing. On the 9th of September, the assembly appointed 
officers for the minute men in the various counties. Por 
Wake County the following officers were selected : John Hin- 
ton, colonel ; Theophilus Hunter, lieutenant-colonel ; John 
Hinton, major; Thomas Hines, second major. Colonel Hin- 
ton also represented Wake County in the Provincial Congress 


at Halifax in April, 1776, and was elected a member of the 
Committee of Safety for the Hillsborough district, of which 
Wake County was a part. 

On the 27th of February, 1776, was fought the Battle of 
Moore's Creek Ridge, after a brilliant campaign o,f about one 
month's duration. This fight saved the Southern colonies. 
Some two or three thousand loyalists, under the leadership 
of General McDonald, were that day completely defeated, 
and many taken prisoners on their way to join the British 
fleet at the mouth of the Cape Fear River. Colonel Hinton 
took an active part in this engagement, and his body-servant, 
old Uncle Brisco, accompanied him through the campaign. 
This ancient family favorite lived as late as the middle of the 
nineteenth century. Nothing pleased the old darkey so much 
as for others to listen to his stories of the time when "me and 
marster wnz in de war." His description of this particular 
battle was both graphic and amusing. After Colonel Hin- 
ton's death, this old servant came into the possession of his 
youngest son, David Hinton. He had the honor of driving 
the first carriage brought into Wake County, as well as of 
hitching a horse to the last "gig" driven within its boundaries. 
The first time he drove this carriage to the front door, his 
"mistis," a stately dame, was greatly shocked to find the in- 
terior of the vehicle filled with fodder ! "Where do you 
expect me to sit, Brisco ?" she exclaimed. "Up here wid me, 
mistis," was the confident reply. 

Colonel Hinton lived but a short while to enjoy the liberty 
he had fought for and aided in winning for the States. He 
passed away in the spring of 1784. His remains were in- 
terred near his home in the family burying-ground,* He 
married Grizelle Kimbrough, who was born about 1720, 

*The grave of Colonel Hinton is unmarked, neitlier can it be located 
exactly ; for this reason a descendant, wishing to mark his last rest- 
ing place, was prevented from perfecting the intention. However, 
instead, as a memorial to him, a gold medal is offered annually in 
the Academy at Edenton, in his native county of Chowan, to the 
pupil writing the best essay on some given historical (local) subject. 
This will be presented each commencement during the life of the 



daughter of Buckley and sister of ISTathaniel Kimbrough. 
Eight children survived him, viz. : 

1. John Hinton, Jr., a major in the Revolution and a rep- 
resentative from Wake County in the legislature both during 

and after the war. He married Ferebee Smith, daughter of 
the founder of Smithfield in Johnston County, and lived at 
"Clay-Hill-on-the-]Sreuse." Some of his descendants, bearing 
the name, removed to Georgia. Both Major Hinton and his 
wife are buried at "Clay Hill." 

2. James Hinton, also a Revolutionary officer in active 
service, who married Delilah Hunter, daughter of Colonel 


Theophilus Hunter, of "Hunter's Lodge," in Wake County. 

3. Sarah Hinton, who married ISTeedham Bryan^ Jr., of 
Johnston County. 

4. Mary Hinton, who married Colonel Joel Lane, of 
"Bloomsbury," in Wake County, on whose old plantation 
stands the present city of Raleigh. 

5. Alice Hinton, who married Captain John James, an offi- 
cer in the North Carolina Continental Line. One of the chil- 
dren 0;f this marriage was Hinton James, the first graduate of 
the University of ^N'orth Carolina. The Bakers of Jackson- 
ville, Florida, trace descent from them, 

6. Elizabeth Hinton, who married Thomas James. 

1. Kimbrough Hinton, who was married, but the name of 


whose wife is not known. His home was called "The Red 
House." Most of his descendants removed west. The only 
ones of whom anything is now known are the Yates family of 

8. David Hinton, of "The Oaks/' who married Jane Lewis, 
daughter of Howell and Isabella (Willis) Lewis, of Gran- 
ville County. The only son of this marriage was Major 
Charles Lewis Hinton, for eleven years State Treasurer of 
I^orth Carolina. 

All of the above children are mentioned in Colonel Hinton's 
will, though his two youngest sons were minors at the time he 
made it. From this large family have sprung many descend- 
ants, but few of whom bear the name of their brave ancestor. 
His will, recorded in the courthouse at Raleigh, is here 
given in full : 

In the name of God Amen, I John Hinton, Senr. of Wake 
County and State of ISTorth Carolina, being of a sound mind 
and disposing memory, tho in low state of Health, and know- 
ing that it is appointed for all men once to die, do make 
constitute & ordain this my last Will and Testament in man- 
ner and form following: 

IMPRIMIS, It is my earnest will & desire that my Wife 
Grizeal Hinton shall after my death have the sole use and 
occupation of all my Estate Real and personal that I shall be 
possessed of at that time, during her natural life and no 
longer ; and after her decease to be disposed of in the follow- 
ing manner, and that no Legacies be paid in money unless by 
the consent of my Wife, till her Death — 

ITEM, I give and bequeath to my son John Hinton all 
the lands lying above Farmer's Creek that I am possessed 
of, to him, and his Heirs and assigns forever — And that my 
said Son John Hinton may enter upon, and take possession 
of said Land whenever he pleases — 

ITEM, I give and bequeath to my Son James Hinton Ten 
pounds current money of the State of ISTorth Carolina — 


ITEM, I give and bequeath to my Daughter Sarah Bryant 
Wife of Needham Bryant a ]S[egro fellow called Abraham or 
to her heirs and assigns forever — To receive him at my 

ITEM, I give and bequeath to my Daughter Mary Lane 
Wife of Joel Lane ten pounds current money of the State of 
North Carolina. 

ITEM, I give and Bequeath to my Daughter Alice James 
wife of John James ten pounds current money of the State of 
North Carolina — 

ITEM, I give and bequeath to my Daughter Elizabeth 
James wife of Thomas James ten pounds current money of 
the State of North Carolina. 

ITEM, The land that I have in Johnston County I leave 
to be sold by my Executors, to discharge the aforesaid Lega- 
cies of ten pounds, that is to say not to be sold without my 
Wife's consent^ — 

ITEM, I give and Bequeath all the remainder of my 
Estate Real & personal to my two Sons Kimbro and David 
Hinton ; the Land equally to be divided between them by a 
dividing line ; no regard being had to the quality of the Land, 
but to the number of acres. An East and West Course to be 
the dividing line — The lower part to my son Kimbro with 
the Manor Plantation- — The upper part to my son David 
Hinton — To them and to their heirs & Assigns forever — Also 
my Personal Estate to be equally divided between the said 
David and Kimbro after their mother's death as before men- 
tioned — But in case one or both of my two last mentioned 
sons should die without issue (viz Kimbro and David), that 
the Lands that I have devised to them to be equally divided 
among all my surviving sons in fee simple — And the personal 
Estate of the aforesaid Kimbro & David Hinton should one 
or both die without issue to be divided in equal proportion 
among all my Daughters then living — ^of him that died — 

ITEM, I constitute and appoint my Son John Hinton and 
James Llinton sole executors to this my last Will and Testa- 



nient Eevoking bj this will all my former Wills and Testa- 
ments whatever — 

LASTLY, it is my Will and desire that should my wife 
die before my two sons Kimbro and David Hinton arrive at 
the years of discretion to manage for themselves, that the 
lands not to be rented and negroes hired out, but to remain 
upon the plantation and work the Land for the Benefit of my 
said two Sons viz Kimbro and David Hinton — In witness 
whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed my 
seal this 9th of January A. D. 1Y84. 

In presence of : 


Note, before signing we observed the interlineations of — 
all of him that died — David & Kimbro — 



Though a striking figure in Wake County's early history, 
and the commander of her military forces in the first part of 
the War for Independence, little is known o^ Colonel Hinton 
at the present time among the generality of people, even in 
the section which he aided in building up. To preserve in 


some measure, the record of his services is the object of this 
sketch ; for, as has be-en said iby a worthy North Carolinian : 
"If history immortalizes those who, with the cannon and the 
bayonet, through blood and carnage, establish a dynasty or 
found a State, surely something more than mere oblivion is 
due those who, forsaking all that is attractive to the civilized 
mind, lead a colony and plant it successfully, in harmony and 
peace, amid the dangers of the wilderness and under the war- 
whoop of the savage." 


Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda 

Compiled and Edited by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


William James Leary, Sr., the author of the article in this 
number of The Booklet on "The Fisheries of ISTorth Caro- 
lina/' was bom on the 2nd day of January, 1854, at the 
Mount Auburn plantation in Chowan County, about five miles 
from Edenton, I^orth Carolina. The son of William J. 
Leary, M. D., and his wife, Elizabeth K., daughter of Gen- 
eral Peter Ihrie and wife, Camilla Ross, of Easton, Pennsyl- 
vania, and grandson of Thomas Haughton Leary and wife, 
Parthenia Standing, of Chowan County, JST. C. His ances- 
tors were early settlers, and came to Eastern Carolina about 
1700. In 1718 Thomas Swann executed a bond for one 
thousand pounds to William Leary, recorded in Book B., page 
577, in the office of the Register Deeds. His father, Dr. 
William J. Leary, was a man of influence and highly re- 
spected for his ability in his profession, integrity, real worth 
and kindness to people. He died February 12, 1890, leaving 
children as follows : John L., Walter Ihrie, William James, 
Mrs. W. H. Skinner, Mrs. James D. Bateman, Ross Ihrie, 
and Thomas Haughton Leary, and since his death John L., 
Walter I., and Thomas H. Leary have died. 

William James, the subject of this article, received his 
early education at the primary schools of Edenton, IST. C, and 
from a private school teacher, employed by his father, when 
he resided on his plantation. Afterwards at his request his 
father permitted him to attend Calvert College, Mainland, 
and there he carried off first honors in his Latin classes, and 
was prepared for Lehigh University, Pennsylvania ; and here 
he ran for the presidency of his class, only losing it by one 


vote. After leaving the University he farmed and fished 
a large seine on the Albemarle Sound for several years, and 
later took up the study of the law, receiving his license from 
the Supreme Court January Term, 1878 ; and later settled 
in Edenton, N. C, where he began the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1894 was elected Solicitor of the First Judicial 
District, and successfully discharged the duties of that office. 
He was also Mayor Pro Tem, and a member of the Board 
of Councilmen for some years. He was chairman of the 
finance and street committee for a 'good portion of eight years. 
He established the method of sending in a written report 
^vering work, with all vouchers attached thereto. These re- 
ports were filed as matters of record. There was a committee 
appointed to investigate the work of the old board, when it 
went out. The chairman of that committee requested him to 
write the report of the investigation, and how matters stood^ 
which he did in a fair and honorable manner. In 1880 Mr» 
Leary married Miss Emma Woodard, the daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. James A. Woodard, of Edenton. They have at 
this date (April, 1915) six children, one daughter and five 
sons, two of whom are married and each has a little girl. 
Their home is on the shore of the beautiful bay of Edenton^ 
with its sparkling waters stretched out before them — a sheet 
of water surpassingly beautiful. Mr. Leary is also a member 
o.f the Improved Order of Red Men, and other fraternal or- 
ganizations, and in 1911 was Great Sachem of the Reserva- 
tion of ISTorth Carolina, and a Great Representative to the 
Great Council of the Improved Order of Red Men of the 
United States. He writes occasionally for his town papers^ 
and contributes to other publications. 


For a biographical sketch of Dr. Wm. K. Boyd, seei- 
Booklet, January, 1908, p. 237. Since that was written he 
has contributed the following articles to periodicals and 
books : 


"Intellectual Aspects of the Thirteenth Century" (South 
Atlantic Qvxirterly, July, 1908). 

"Battle of King's Mountain" (Booklet, April, 1909). 

"North Carolina, 1775-1861" (8outh in the Building of 
the Nation, Vol. I., 1909). 

"Interstate Controversies in the South" (Ibid, Vol. 4). 

"Two Studies in Southern Biography" (South Atlantic 
Quxirterly, July, 1909). 

"Antecedents of the jSTorth Carolina Convention of 1835" 
(Ibid., January and April, 1910). 

"Three Studies in Southern Problems" (Ibid., October, 

"I^orth Carolina on the Eve o;f Secession" (Report of the 
American Historical Association, 1910). 

"Gideon Welles on War, Politics and Reconstruction" 
(South Atlantic Quarterly, April, 1912). 

"ISTeglected Aspects of i^orth 'Carolina History" (Minutes 
of the North Carolina State Lit. and Hist. Soc, 1912.) 

"Military Criticisms, by Gen. W. R. Boggs" (South Atlan- 
tic Quarterly, April, 1912). 

"Finances of the Xorth Carolina Literary Fund" (South 
Atlantic Quarterly, July and October, 1914). 

"Early Currency and Banking in iSTorth Carolina" (Papers 
of the Trinity College Historical Society, 1914). 

"Some Phases of Educational Progress in the South Since 
1865" (Essays in Southern History and Biography Inscribed 
to William A. Dunning, 1914). 

Dr. Boyd has also edited The Historical Papers of the 
Trinity College Historical Society and the John Lawson 
Monographs of the same organization, which include "Auto- 
biography of Brantley York" (1910) ; "Memoirs of W. W. 
Holden" (1911), and "Military Reminiscences of Wm. R. 
Boggs" (1913). In 1910 and 1912 he was Lecturer in His- 
tory in the Summer School of ITew York University. For 
the years 1913 and 1915 he was appointed a member of the 
General Committee of the American Historical Association, 


and in 1912, 1913 and 1914 lie was a member of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the State Literary and Historical Society 
of North Carolina. 


Biographical sketches of Mr. R. D. W. Connor appeared in 
The Booklet in January, 190Y, and April, 1912. 

Table of Contents 

Volume XIV 

Heraldy and Its Usage in the Colony of North Carolina 3-27 


The State of Franklin 28-49 


Sir Richard Everard, Baronet, Governor of the Colony of 
North Carolina, 1725-1731, and His Descendants in Vir- 
ginia 50-61 


Illustrations : The Bookplate of Governor Gabriel Johnston. 
Coat-of-Arms of Sir Richard Everard. 

Extracts from Remarks Delivered at Roanoke Island Cele- 
bration August, 1914 65-78 


General Francis Nash 74-90 


Early English Survivals on Hatteras Island 91-99 


The Weather 100-101 


The Cary Will 102-106 

Biographical Sketches of Contributors 107-108 

Illustration : The Boyhood of Sir Walter Raleigh. 

The Creative Forces in Westward Expansion : Henderson 

and Boone 111-139 


The Old North State— Carolina (Poem) 140 


The Contributions of North Carolina to the Development of 

American Institutions 141-154 


Sir Walter Raleigh as a Poet 155-162 


Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda — Dr. Henderson, 

Governor Simeon E. Baldwin 163-169 


The Fisheries of Eastern Carolina 173-194 



Fiscal and Economic Conditions in North Carolina During 

the Civil War 195-219 


Was Esther Wake a Myth? 220-224 


Colonel John Hinton 225-2.36 


Biographical Sketches — Mr. William J. Leary, Sr., Dr. Wil- 
liam K. Boyd 237-240 


Boating a Shad Seine, Albemarle Sound Frontispiece 

Illustrations : The Hinton Coat-of-Arms between pages 224-225