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Vol. XIV 

JULY, 1915 


North Carolina Booklet 








Edward Strudwick, Surgeon 3 

By Htjbbbt A. Roysteb. 

Grace Greenlee, a Revolutionary Heroine 12 

By William Cabson Eevin. 

Number of North Carolinians in the Revolutionary 
War 28 

Was Lederer in Bertie County? 33 

Historical Book Reviews 39 

Biogi'aphical 44 


$1.00 THE YEAR 

Entered at the Posloffice at Raleigh. N. C, July 15, 1905, under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1 879 

The North CaroUna Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XV of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1915. 
The Booklet wUl be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor : 
Miss Maky Hilliabd Hinton. 


The Quakers' First Appearance in North Carolina — Catherine 

Number of North Carolina Troops in the Revolution. 

A Federalist of the Old School — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

A North Carolina Heroine : Grace Greenlee — Mr. W. C. Ervin. 

Thomas Godfrey, Poet and Dramatist — Dr. Ernest L. Starr. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part I : John 
Branch — Mr. Marshall Delancey Haywood. 

The Convention of 1861: (a) Its Personnel; (b) Its Failures; (c) 
Its Accomplished Results — Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

North Carolina's Pre-Revolutionary Printers — Dr. Stephen B. 

French Survivals in the Lowlands of North Carolina — Dr. Collier 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part II: George E. 
Badger — Mr. Peter M. Wilson. 

Our North Carolina Indian Tribes — Colonel Fred A. Olds. 

Some Old Libraries of North Carolina — Miss Minnie Leatherman. 

Reviews of historical works relating to the State's history will 
appear henceforth in The Booklet, contributed by Mrs. Nina Hol- 
land Covington. 

A Genealogical Department will be established in this volume of 
The Booklet, with a page devoted to Genealogical Queries and 
Answers, as an aid to genealogical research in this State. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffltt. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will print wills and abstracts of wills prior to 1825, 
as sources of biography, history, and genealogy. Mrs. M. G. McCub- 
bins will contribute abstracts of wills and marrriage bonds in Rowan 
County to the coming volume. Similar data from other counties will 
be furnished. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XV are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XIV for sale. 
For particulars address 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 

"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. C. 

jviorth Carolina Stafe Library 

Vol. XV JULY, 1915 No. 1 


North Carolina Booklet 

'Carolina I Carolina I Heaven' s blessings attend her I 
While zue live we will cherish, protect and defend her" 

Published by 



The object of The Bookjlet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editoe. 





Mbs. Hubert Haywood. De. Richard Dillabd. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W. OoNis;oB. Mr. James Spbunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mb. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walter Olaek. 

Oapt. S. a. Ashe. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Db. Chables Lee Smith. 

Miss Maetha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

biographical editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 






vice-regent : 


honorary regents : 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

recording secretary : 


corresponding secretary : 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 

treasurer : 


registrar : 


Mrs. JOHN E. RAT. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albeetson, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameeon, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyee, Regent. 

Founder of the Nobth Cabolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SE.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mes. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 


The North Carolii^a Booklet 

Vol. XV JULY, 1915 No. 1 

Edmund Strudwick, Surgeon* 

*Read before the N. C. Medical Society, June 12, 1907. 

By Hubeet a, Roystee, A. B., M. D., F. A. C. S. 


The most heroic figure so far recorded in the medical an- 
nals of ISTorth Carolina is Edmund Strudwick, of the County 
of Orange. His character, his work, his life and his death 
were each marked by courage of the supreme type. His was 
a masterful mind — and with it there was a physical earnest- 
ness and a moral heroism scarcely to he surpassed. Edmund 
Strudwick was bom in Orange County, l^orth Carolina, on 
the 25th da^ of March, 1802, at Long Meadows, about five 
miles north of HillsborO', the county seat. His lineage was 
ancient and long-established in the community, his father 
being an important political factor and distinguished for 
those qualities which afterward graced his son. 

Doctor Strudwick received under the famous Bingham, the 
elder, what would now be called a high school education, 
though he did not finish the prescribed course of instruction, 
"so impatient was he to begin the study of the science to 
which nature seemed especially to have called him, and which 
he pursued with undiminished ardor, literally, to the last 
moment of his conscious existence." What was lacking in a 
classical education he made up by native ability and assiduous 

His medical studies began under Doctor James Webb, who 
stood to him almost as a father and whose place in the hearts 
of his people Doctor Strudwick subsequently filled. He was 
graduated as a Doctor of Medicine at the University of Penn- 
sylvania on April 8, 1824. As a classmate of Doctor John 


K. Mitchell (the father of S. Weir Mitehell) and with him, 
an office student of the celebrated Doctor William Gibson, 
young Strudwick became imbued with the best medical 
thought of the time. He served for two years as resident 
physician in the Philadephia Almshouse and Charity Hos- 

Equipped with clinical experience, fired with enthusiasm 
and running over with energy, Doctor Strudwick in 1826 
returned to his native heath and began the practice of medi- 
cine in the town of Hillsboro. From the very beginning he 
achieved success, soon becoming the commanding officer of 
the profession in that region of country. Never was success 
more deservedly gained. Every attribute of his being con- 
tributed to the result, for not only was he blessed with a 
sound body and a warm heart, but he had a superior intellect. 

Doctor Strudwick never affiliated with any medical organ- 
ization except tho JSTorth Caroina State Medical Society. Of 
this he was a charter member and the first president. The 
Society thus honored itself by launching forth under the 
name of a man who had already risen to an eminence in his 
profession rarely attained in those days. At its meeting in 
Raleigh he delivered a striking address in which he urged 
education of the people to the necessity for autopsies. The 
following is a strong paragTaph from this address : "IST either 
the apathy of friends, the cold neglect and deep injustice of 
legislation, nor pampered quackery and empiricism can stay 
its onward course. True medical science will, like the ma- 
jestic oak, withstand the shock and storm of every opposition. 
It has been beautifully compared to a star, whose light, though 
now and then obscured by a passing cloud, will shine on for- 
ever and ever in the firmament of Heaven." He took a lively 
interest in the work of the Society to his last years, though he 
practically never contributed to medical literature. The 
only case he ever wrote up was a death from ether by paraly- 
sis of the respiratory centre. This paper was sent to his 
friend, Doctor I. Minis Hayes, then editor of the American 


Journal of the Medical Sciences^, but was either lost in transit 
or found its way to the waste basket — at least, it was never 
accounted for. So that, the first and only case that this busy 
man ever recorded was one of which he had no special reason 
to boast — a death from an anesthetic — ^but reported from a 
sense of duty and honesty, and that one was never published. 

The character of Doctor Strudwick's work was such as 
came to every country practitioner in his day. He was apoth- 
ecary, physician, obstetrician, surgeon. And though he per- 
formed those duties as other men had performed them before 
him, there seemed to stand out in him so-mething that was 
different — above and beyond the country doctor around him. 
It was the man behind the physician, the strong mental and 
moral force back of his activity. 

Though Doctor Strudwick was a well-rounded medical 
man, his forte was surgery and, had he lived in this day and 
generation, his name would be at the top of those who ex- 
clusively practice that art. Indeed, it is not saying overmuch 
to assert that no one man to this time in our State has made 
so enviable a reputation in surgery. When we consider the 
conditions under which he lived and labored, his work and its 
results were little short of miraculous. His reputation was 
not merely local, but during the '40's and long afterwards, he 
was doing operations in Raleigh, Wilmington, Charlotte, 
Greensboro — all the principal cities of the State. E^umerous 
patients were sent to him also, some of them, from long dis- 
tances. There was no general hospital in the State then, but 
he cared for his cases somehow and always gave them faith- 
ful attention. 'No modem surgeon in JSTorth Carolina has 
ever attained to such individual eminence. ISTor were his 
results less wonderful. He attempted not only the lesser cases 
but also those of magnitude and this fact gives greater color 
without losing an eye. Once as he was driving homeward 
to the results. All kinds of surgery attracted him and he 
sought for it. Scores of operations for cataract were per- 
formed by him, according to the now obsolete needle method, 


after a long trip in the country, he saw an old man trudging 
along heing led by a small boy at his side. Doctor Strudwick 
stopped, ascertained that the man had been blind for 12 years, 
made him get up into- the carriage and took him to his (the 
doctor's) home. One eye was operated on first and the other 
the next week, sight being restored to each. This case, as 
did all other similar ones, appealed to Doctor Strudwick very 

If there was any special operation for which Doctor Strud- 
wick was famous, it was that of lithotomy. Certainly he was 
the leading lithotomist of his time in I*Torth Carolina. There 
is no record of the exact number he performed, but it was 
large and his mortality was low. More calculi undoubtedly 
occurred then, and Doctor Strudwick lived in a section of the 
State where this affection abounded. His custom was always 
to do the lateral operation and to introduce no tube or other 
drainage unless 'there was hemorrhage. It is said that he 
did 28 consecutive lithotomies without a death. 

The most important operation of Doctor Strudwick's career 
was one about which, unluckily, the record is meagre. It 
was, however, probably in 1842, that he successfully removed 
from a woman a large abdominal tumor weighing 36 pounds. 
The nature of the growth is not made clear. 

Dr. Strudwick was married in 1828, two years after be- 
ginning practice', to Ann ISTash, whom he survived but two 
years. Their union was blessed by five children — two girls 
and three boys. The girls died in infancy. Of the sons, one 
(Frederick IsT.) was a well known lawyer, having been soli- 
citor of the! Fifth District before his death, and both the other 
two followed their father's profession. The youngest, Doctor 
Edmund Strudwick, Jr., became a practitioner of repute in 
Dayton, Alabama (where his son is now engaged in the drug 
business), and died at the age of 69 years. The eldest child, 
Doctor William Strudwick* is now living in Hillsboro, ]^. C, 
in the vigor of a ripe manhood and will apparently never 
♦Died at his home in Hillsboro since this paper was written. 


grow old. He is just at the age whidi his father attained — 
77 years — and embodies many of the traits which one feels 
were precious legacies from Edmund the Great. The present 
Doctor Strudwick is a fluent conversationalist, a most gracious 
host and withal a rare example of the fast-passing "doctor of 
the old school." May his shadow never grow less. 

It now remains to say something of the personality of Ed- 
mund Strudwick and to call up incidents in his life which 
show what manner of man he was. That he was a hero — 
morally, mentally and physically — can be attested by his 
deeds as they stand. Doctor Strudwick was built in a big 
mold. His soul could not conceive, his mind could not think, 
his body could not do a little thing. A study of his career 
indicates that his ways were not the ways of the ordinary 
man either in the medical profession or out of it. He was a 
master of men. And this was not an acquirenient of age, but 
he was all his life a leader. His moral force in the com- 
munity may be shown by his set determination never tO' allow 
doctors to quarrel. He simply would not let them alone until 
peace was made. A favorite way was to invite the warring 
ones to his home on a certain time without giving them an 
opportunity to know in advance that they were to meet. This 
done, he usually accomplished his purpose. He was deter- 
mined even to the point of stubbornness. Just after the 
Civil War, his most influential friends attempted vdth all 
their power to persuade him to take advantage of the honae'- 
stead law, which was designed to pennit Southern men to 
save a little during the reconstruction pillage — ^but he would 
not. Instead of this, he sold everything to pay his creditors, 
and lived in a two-room house without comforts till he died. 

In personal appearance Doctor Strudwick was attractive. 
His height was about 5 feet 9 inches, and he weighed 190 
pounds for the gTcater part of his life. He was exceedingly 
active and actually up to his final hours his energy was com- 
parable to that of a dynamo. There was about him an in- 
tensity that was of itself commanding and overpowering. 


Underneatli this exterior of rough force was a suppressed 
tenderness that came from a humane and sympathetic heart 
and that, let forth, was as gentle as the outward manner was 
firm. The physician in that time was of necessity also the 
nurse. Here Doctor Strudwick showed his strength. When- 
ever he wished, for instance, a foot-bath administered, he did 
not ask that it be done, but issued the order, "Get things 
ready," and then, with a detail almost unheard of, he impelled 
his untrained assistants to do his exact bidding. One of his 
special feats was what he called "lacing" a bed — making up 
an old-fashioned feather bed so as to render it a more com- 
fortable resting place for his patient. 

It was this sort of care that contributed largely to his suc- 
cessful work. He never neglected a case. 'No matter how insig- 
nificant the case, how poor the patient, how far the ride, he 
pursued it with the same zest. He never stopped for in- 
clement weather, or swollen streams. He braved the fonner 
and swam the latter. Obstacles only seemed to increase his 
zeal to press onward. 

His healthy body was a boon to Doctor Strudwick. Il^ever 
but once in the working period of his existence was he sick. 
He had gone with his son to perform an operation. On the 
way out he complained slightly and, having finished the task, 
he became quite ill, so that he had to be brought home lying 
down. He was nauseated, had a high fever ("calor mordax") 
and was delirious on reaching his room. It proved to be 
scarlet fever, though there was not a case then known in the 
county and, while he had been exposed tO' it many times, 
had never before contracted the disease. He was then about 
50 years of age. 

This fine condition of salubrity was aided also by his simple 
habits. He was not a big eater, and was extremely temperate. 
He never asked for a second portion of anything, but always 
took of each article what he thought was the proper amount 
for him to eat, finished it and would have no more. An oft- 
repeated saying was, "I have never swallowed anything that 


I heard of afterwards." He also had the gift of taking "cat 
naps" at any time or place — a habit that William Pepper, 
the younger, did so much to celebrate. Doctor Strudwick 
frequently slept in his chair. He was an early riser, his life 
long, the year 'round. And one of his invariable rules — 
which illustrates the sort of stuff of which he was made — - 
was to smoke six pipefuls of tobacco every morning before 
breakfast. He was a most insatiate consumer of tobacco, 
being practically never free from its influence. What liberal 
contracts nature makes with some mortals ! 

In politics Doctor Strudwick was an ardent Whig, though 
he never sought or held public office. His sense of humor 
was shown when, later in life he remarked to his son, "I 
don't know what I am coming to. Just to think I am wear- 
ing a slouch hat and a turn-down collar, and reading the New 
York Herald r 

In religion he professed the creed of the Presbyterians and 
was an elder in the church. His interest in life and its af- 
fairs was forever keen and live, particularly in any project 
for the public good. He was everybody's friend and an ab- 
solute paragon of cheerfulness. Even during his sudden re^ 
verse of fortune, his optimism never left him. But, while he 
was friendly and gentle, no one ever came down with more 
thundering tones upon those who were guilty of mean or un- 
worthy acts. 

Though his heart was chiefly in his surgery, yet Doctor 
Strudwick showed great fondness for every branch of the 
profession. He bought all instruments and books as they 
came out. All his spare time he spent in reading medical 
literature. He devoured all knowledge voraciously and thor- 
oughly digested it. His study of a subject was exhaustive. 
For a goodly part of his time he rode on horseback — and he 
was a superb horsemam to his last day. When he went in a 
vehicle he used a surry, with a boy in front, so that he could 
read along the road. Many hours a day did he spend thus, 
acquiring information which he was ready at a moment's 


notice to put to use. In a flap on the dashboard he kept a 
bag in which were stored a small library and a miniature 
instrument shop. And often he would return with his car- 
riage full of cohosh, boneset, etc., indicating his familiarity 
with medical botany. He prepared a good deal of his own 
medicine in this way. One of his favorites was a preparation 
of sheep sorrell (''sour grass") for lupus. The herb was in- 
spissated in a jDowter spoon by exposure to the air and sun, 
and the resultant mass applied to the ulcerated part. It is 
said to have been very efficacious. What reaction was pro- 
duced and what substance was formed cannot here be said. 

The crowning incident in the history of this great man 
happened when he was near the age of sixty years. JSTeither 
in fiction nor in real life has there been an example of firmer 
devotion to duty or of more daring fortitude. The glorious 
deeds of Willum MacClure exhibit nothing that can com- 
pare to this one achievement of Edmund Strudwick, He was 
called to a neighboring county to perform an operation. 
Leaving Hillsboro by rail at 9 o'clock in the evening, he ar- 
rived at his station about midnight and was met by the 
physician who had summoned him. Together they got im- 
mediately into a buggy and set out for the patient's house, 
six miles in the country. The night was dark and cold ; the 
road was rough; the horse became frightened at some object, 
ran away, upset the buggy and threw the occupants out, 
stunning the country doctor (who, it was afterwards learned, 
was addicted to the opium habit), and breaking Doctor 
Strudwick's leg just above the ankle. As soon as he had suf- 
ficiently recovered himself. Doctor Strudwick called aloud, 
but no one answered, and he then crawled to the side of the 
road and sat with his back against a tree. In the meantime 
the other physician, who had somehow managed to get into 
the biTggy again, drove to the patient's home, where for a 
time he could give no account of himself or his companion; 
but, coming out of his stupor, he faintly remembered the 
occurrence and at once dispatched a messenger to the scene of 


the accident. Doctor Strudwick was still leaning against the 
tree, calling now and then in hopes of making some one hear, 
when the doctor's biiggj came up at sunrise. He got in, 
drove to the house, without allowing his own leg to be dressed, 
and sitting on the bed, operated upon the patient for strangu- 
lated hernia, with a successful result, ''Greater love hath no 
man than this." 

What an inspiration is the life of such a man ! Viewing 
it even from afar one cannot help seeing the sublime soul that 
was back of it all. He would have been no uncommon man 
in any age, in any place. It is to his surgical skill that extra- 
ordinary tribute must be paid. Were he living today, Ed- 
mund Strudwick would be the surgical Samson of our State. 
Indeed, it is doubtful if any of us equal him in the work 
which he essayed to do. In these times of wide possibilities 
his fame as a specialist in surgery would rank high. Such es- 
timates are not overdrawn, for Doctor Strudwick's position 
in his period was such as to admit of them and more. 

The going out of this great man's life was as tragic and 
unusual as his career had been brilliant and useful. In 
possession of his customary good health, at the age of seventy- 
seven, he succumbed to a fatal dose of atropine taken by mis- 
take from drinking a glass of water in which the drug had 
been prepared for hypodermic employment in an emergency. 
An account says that "he was buried in the cemetery of the 
Presbyterian church at Hillsboro, the funeral being attended 
by almost the whole population of the town." But for the 
accident which terminated his life, Doctor Strudwick would 
by all reckonings have lived to an advanced age and some of 
us might have been privileged to know him. Priceless herit- 
age this— to have fellowship with these rare souls that stand 
apart in passing generations; eternal inspiration ours — to 
contemplate the life and character of Edmund Strudwick and 
to hold him forever in our memories as the very finest model 
of those whose days are spent in — 

"Battling with custom, prejudice, disease, 
As once the son of Zeus with Death and Hell." 


Grace Greenlee, a Revolutionary Heroine 

Bit William Caeson Ervin. 

This is a story of a beautiful woman. That she was brave as 
well as beautiful was a matter of heredity. That she was beau- 
tiful as well as brave is proven both by family tradition and 
by the canons of descent. Some of the most charming women 
of the South, bone of her bone and flesh of her flesh, are living 
witnesses of the truth of that tradition of loveliness which 
throws a glamour around the name of this gracious feminine 
figure of the Revolutionary period. 

To many of her descendants in ISForth Carolina her musical 
name is all that is remembered- — like a sweet note of some old 
melody that lingers after the song is forgotten. And yet, she 
was very real, this lady of long ago — wife of two soldiers and 
ancestress of brave men and fair women. The blood of the 
Scotch Covenanter and the English Puritan pulsed in her 
veins, with a wee bit of an Irish strain to quicken wit and 
mellow voice and darken the blue of the eyes. 

Our American pioneers were living so intensly in the pres- 
ent that they took little thought of the future, leaving very 
scant records of their lives for the enlightenment of their 
descendants. Burke County, so rich in historical interest, 
had the peculiar misfortune of having nearly all of its price- 
less court records destroyed at the close of the Civil War. One 
volume of the minutes of the old Court of Pleas and Quartei*- 
Sessions, covering the period from 1Y90 to 1808, remains. 
To depend, therefore, upon our records in writing a historical 
sketch is like the task of the botanist who would attempt to 
catalogue the flora of our mountains after inspecting a wither- 
ed bouquet of wild flowers gathered haphazard by a child. 

Happily for us, such men as Judge A. C. Avery and Colonel 
T. Geo. Walton, gathered from the lips of living witnesses 


much, of the history of this region, and preseiTed it in their 
historical articles. 

Such books as Foote's '^Sketches" of Virginia and North 
Carolina, Draper's "Kings Mountain," Greene's "Historic 
Families of Kentucky," the "Historical Papers" of Wash- 
ington and Lee University, Wheeler's "History of IlTorth Car- 
olina," and the "Reminiscences" of the same author, the 
"Colonial Records," Mrs. Boyd's the "Irvines and Their 
Kin," and Judge Avery's "History of the Presbyterian 
Churches at Moi'ganton and Quaker Meadows," serve to throw 
some light upon the subject of this sketch or upon those par- 
lous times in which she lived. 

The ancestry of Grace Greenlee can be traced to one Chris- 
topher Irvine, who fell at Flodden Field in 1513. It was 
Robert /r^dne, one of the descendants of Christopher, who 
married Elizabeth Wylie near Glenoe, in Ireland, and w^hose 
daughter, Margaret, became the wife of Ephraim McDowell. 
This Scotch-Irish soldier, who fought as a youth at Boyne 
River and in the seige of Londonderry, having buried his 
devoted wife, Margaret, in the old church yard at Raloo, in 
Ireland, brought his children, John, James, Margaret and 
Mary, to America about the year 1729, landing in Phila- 

Mary McDowell, one of the daughters of Ephraim, married 
prior to 1837, James Greenlee, whom Judge Greene styles 
"a Presbyterian Irishman of English descent." The Green- 
lees came from Philadelphia with Ephraim McDowell and his 
son, John McDowell, the latter of whom had married in 
Pennsylvania, Magdelena Wood, and became the first settlers 
on Burden's Grant of 500,000 acres in what is now Rock- 
bridge County, Virginia. They reached Virginia in 1837, 
James McDowell, eldest son of Ephraim, having, preceded 
them to that State. Hon. Hugh Blair Grigsby states that the 
excessive taxes imposed by Pennsylvania upon immigrants 
was the cause of the hegira of the Scots from Pennsylvania 
to Virginia and J^orth Carolina. 


Here, in the midst of that gi-ieat wilderness and hard by 
the cabins of James and John McDowell, the G-reenlees set up 
their home; and here, in 1738, their first child, John Green- 
lee, was bom. The second son, named James after his father, 
was born to the Greenlees in 1740, and Grace, the subject of 
this sketch, the only daughter of whom any record is left, 
Was born at the Greenlee home in Rockbridge County, Vir- 
ginia, on June 23, 1750. 

Of her early life in Virginia we have little knowledge. 
The Scotch-Irish Presbyterians of Aug-usta County, in which 
the Greenlees then lived aaid which included Rockbridge, had 
established, as early as 1749, the first school of high grade 
west of the Blue Ridge under the charge of Robert Alexander, 
a man of great learning, who had been educated at Edin- 
burgh. He was succeeded as principal of the Augusta Acad- 
emy in 1753 by Rev. John Brown, a Princeton graduate, who 
for more than twenty years taught the youth of the settlement. 
Washington and Lee University was the outgrowth of this 
great pioneer school. John and James Greenlee, brothers of 
Grace, were educated at Augusta Academy. Where she her- 
self obtained an education, we do not know; but she was 
reared in a community where education was highly prized, 
where there was a considerable number of men who had been 
educated in the best schools of Scotland or at Princeton, and 
where, doubtless, she had educational advantages equal to 
those enjoyed by her brothers. Hon. Hugh Blair Grigsby, in 
an address delivered at Washington and Lee University in 
1870, speaking of Augusta County at the time Grace Green- 
lee was in her girlhood, said : "It was a time when the proud- 
est building in the vast region sweeping from the Blue Ridge 
to the Mississippi, was built of logs and rough rocks ; when 
the rich and the poor — if indeed the word rich can be ap- 
plied to any of the brave and pious settlers of this region — 
lived in log cabins ; when the dwelling house, school house 
and the church were built of log's," Unbroken forests, in 
which bears, wolves, and deer abounded, and through which 


roamed bands of hostile Indians, stretched for hundreds of 
miles on every side. Communication between the settlers 
was carried on bj riding horse^back over rough trails, and 
merchandise was hauled hundreds of miles in rude wagons 
over almost impassable roads. 

Colonel John McDowell, an uncle of Grace Greenlee, had 
been killed bj Indians in the winter of 1743. Mrs. Estil, the 
sister of Colonel George Moffett (who had married Sarah Mc- 
Dowell, a first cousin of Grace Greenlee) had been captured 
and carried awaj by the Indians, and was rescued by her in- 
trepid brother. Colonel Moffett, in charge of a band of fron- 
tiersmen, after a long chase through the forests. Some of her 
relatives had tasted the bitterness of Braddock's defeat, and 
had shared with her neighbors the victory at Point Pleasant. 
There was hardly a family in that old Virginia settlement 
some member of which had not been killed or wounded in 
the French and Indian wars. Such were the scenes and sur- 
roundings in which the early life of this pioneer woman was 

About the year 1776 Grace Greenlee married in Virginia, 
Captain John Bowman, a grandson of Joist Hite, a wealthy 
German who owned 40,000 acres of land in Frederick County, 
Virginia. Hite and his son-in-law, George Bowman, father 
of Captain John Bowman, had come to Virginia in 1732 from 
Pennsylvania, and had purchased the 40,000-acre tract from 
John and Isaac Vanmeter. 

There is a tradition in the family that the father of Grace 
had arranged for her to marry a rich land owner of Virginia, 
well advanced in years ; that the wedding trousseau was pre- 
pared, the wedding feast in readiness, and that the wedding 
ceremony had actually progressed to the point where the 
bride-to-be was asked if she would take the ancient bride- 
groom for "better or for worse," when she electrified the as- 
sembled guests by a most emphatic "'NoJ' 

At any rate, she chose the young soldier', Captain Bowman, 
and in company with her husband and her brother James, 


set out for ^Nortli Carolina, where her relatives, the McDow- 
ells, and her second cousins, Margaret and Mary Moffett, 
who had married into the McDowell familj, had preceded 
her. Reaching the Moravian settlements at Salem, the Green- 
lees and Bowmans were informed that the Cherokee; Indians 
were on the war path in the upper Catawba settlements, and 
instead of coming directly to Burke, they went first to the 
home of their relatives, the Mitchells and l^eelys, in South 
Carolina. These Mitchells were children of Margaret Mc- 
Dowell, a daughter of Ephraim and an aunt of Grace Bow- 
man. Margaret McDowell had married James Mitchell in 
Virginia, and had moved thence to ISTorth Carolina and 
afterwards to South Carolina, where many of her descend- 
ants still reside. 

It was probably on this trip to South Carolina that James 
Greenlee wooed and won his cousin, Mary Mitchell, to whom 
he was married and whom he brought to Burke County. The 
exact date when the Greenlees and Bowmans finally reached 
the Catawba Valley cannot be definitely fixed. It was cer- 
tainly between the time of the battle of Point Pleasant in 
1774 and the year 1778 ; for as early as 1778 both James 
Greenlee and John Bowman made numerous entries of land 
in Burke County. The; McDowells, of Quaker Meadows and 
Pleasant Gardens, had made the first entries of their land in 
the ofiice of the agent of Earl Granville, and afterwards took 
out new patents from the State of ]Srorth Carolina ; and it is 
asserted by members of the Greenlee family that both James 
Greenlee and Captain Bowman also made their original 
entries of land with the Granville agent, probably on some 
visit made to North Carolina before they came here to live. 

It seems very probable that the time the Greenlees and 
Bowmans were deterred from coming direct to Burke by the 
news, which reached them at the Moravian settlements, that 
the Cherokee Indians were raiding the Catawba Valley, was 
during the summer of 1776, when the Cherokees crossed the 
Blue Ridge, murdered and scalped thirty-seven people on the 



upper Catawba, and surrounded the McDowells and ten of 
their men and one hundred and twenty women and children 
whom thej were protecting in a log fort, either in Turkey 
Cove or at the old Indian fort which stood where the village 
of Old Fort now stands. 

On their arrival in Burke, Greenlee and Bowman were en- 
tertained by their relatives, the McDowells, at Quaker 
Meadows. Learning of their desire to settle in the valley, 
General Charles McDowell took both of the men to see a fine 
tract of land embracing the lower valley of Canoe Creek and 
fronting on the Catawba Elver at the mouth of that stream. 
This tract, which adjoined the Quaker Meadows lands, ap- 
peared so desirable that both Greenlee and Bowman wanted 
to acquire it. At the suggestion of Joseph McDowell, Sr,, the 
question was settled by a wrestling match between these stal- 
wart frontiersmen, and James Greenlee won. Captain Bow- 
man then crossed the Catawba River, and on February the 
2nd, 1778, entered three adjoining sections of good land on 
Silver Creek, embracing 1,380 acres. Here at '^Hickory 
Grove," near the present station called Calvin, on the South- 
ern Railway, the Bowmans built their home and prepared 
their fields for cultivation. The lands on Canoe Creek and 
Silver Creek, granted to James Greenlee and Captain Bow- 
man in 1778, remained in the possession of their heirs until 
about ten years ago. 

It was at Hickory Grove, on March 22, 1779, that Mary, 
the only child of John and Grace Bowman, was born. The 
Revolution in the meantime was in full swing, and Captain 
Bowman soon had to leave his young wife to join the Mc- 
Dowells in their numerous forays against the Tories in South 
Carolina. He was killed at the battle of Ramseur's Mill, just 
outside of the present town of Lincolnton, on June 20, 1780. 

His wife, who was at Hickory Grove, heard that her hus- 
band had been desperately wounded and was lying at a house 



near the battlefield. A superb horsewoman and possessed of 
dauntless courage, she mounted a fleet horse, and taking her 
fifteen months old child in her arms, rode like the wind to the 
bedside of her husband, who exjiired a short time after her 
arrival. It was a fortj-mile ride through the South Moun- 
tains, over dim trails and through a country infested by bands 
of Tories smarting under their recent defeat, and it proved 
that the granddaughter of Ephraim McDowell had all of the 
courage of the old Londonderry soldier. Captain Bowman 
was buried on the battlefield where he fell, and a tombstone, 
erected by his widow, marks his last resting place. 

Wheeler relates that Mrs. Bowman, on one occasion during 
the Revolution, pursued some Tories who had plundered her 
home during the absence of her husband, and compelled the 
robbers, at the point of a musket, to give up her property. 
The same author vouches for the statement, confirmed by 
family tradition, that she aided her husband in making gun- 
powder for the Whigs. Another story current in the family 
is that on one occasion some of Tarleton's troopers carried 
away some of the Bowman horses. This courageous woman 
rode to the British camp some miles away, and demanded 
her horses from the ofiicer in charge, and was allowed to bring 
them back in triumph. It is also related that on another 
occasion, while riding alone on her favorite thoroughbred 
horse, she met a band of Tories, who insolently halted her and 
asked her the news. She told them there was nothing of 
interest to relate except that the McDowells were out with a 
large troop hunting for Tories, and were then approaching 
over the same road she had traveled. The Tories fled pre- 
cipitately, and left her to return home. 

In the fall of 1782, Grace Bowman married General 
Charles McDowell, and became the mistress of Quaker 
Meadows and its 2,000 acres of fertile land. With her little 
daughter Mary (or "Polly," as she was known to the family,) 
Bowman, she left Hickory Grove and moved across the Ca- 
tawba to Quaker Meadows, which, even at that early date 


had belonged to the McDowells for nearly half a century. 
Joseph McDowell, Sr., the husband of Margaret O'lsTeill, 
and the father of General Charles McDowell, had died there 
nine years before. It is probable that his good wife, Mar- 
garet, whom he had married in Ireland, had also passed away, 
though she was still living in 1780. Colonel Joseph Mc- 
Dowell, the brother of the General, was then settled on his 
fine estate at Johns River, with his wife, Margaret Moffett, 
the daughter of Sarah McDowell and a granddaughter of 

Hugh McDowell, ancestor of the Walton family of Burke, 
another brother of the General's slept beside his father, hav- 
ing died in 1772, when only thirty years of age. 

Her neighbors were the Erwins of "Belvidere" and 
''Bellvue," Waighstill Avery of "Swan Ponds," Captain 
Henry Highland, Robert Brank, James Greenlee, who resided 
near the present Walton residence at "Brookwood," John 
Henry Stevelie, who made his home on what is now known 
as the Magnolia Farm, and David Yance, ancestor of the dis- 
tinguished family of that name. 

Vance had come from Frederick County, Virginia, some 
time before the Greenlees and Bowmans reached Burke 
County. Foote mentions him as having administered the oath 
of office to eight magistrates in Frederick County in ISTovem- 
ber 14, 1743. James Vance, son-in-law of Samuel Glass, 
was one of the first settlers on the Hite Grant, in Frederick 
County, Virginia, where he arrived in 1732, and where he 
is buried at Opequon church. He was probably the father 
of Colonel David Vance, though this I have been unable to 
verify. Colonel Vance, after he came to Burke, married the 
daughter of Peter Brank, a Whig patriot, whose old dwelling 
still stands on the Presnall farm overlooking the Catawba 
river a mile north of Morganton, Robert Brank, the Revo- 
lutionary soldier, was a brother of Colonel Vance's wife. 

At the time of the marriage of Grace Greenlee Bowman 
and General McDowell, a little hamlet called "Alder 


Springs," had sprung up on the hills south of the Catawba, 
in full view of the Quaker Meadows home. The lands em- 
braced within the limits of the embryo town had been granted 
to James Greenlee, John Stringfield, James Jewell, Joseph 
Morgan and Robert Brank on September 20, 1779. By an 
act of the General Assembly held in Hillsboro in April, 1784, 
the town of ''Morgansborough" was established, and Waigh- 
still Avery, James Johnson, William Lenoir, Joseph Mc- 
Dowell and John Walker were appointed commissioners and 
authorized to purchase one hundred acres of land in the 
County of Burke, "as near the center thereof as may be con- 
venient;" to levy taxes, erect public buildings and lay off 
streets and lots. The act provided for a tax of one shilling on 
every hundred pounds valuation of property in Burke and of 
four pence per hundred pounds in the counties of Lincoln, 
Rutherford and Wilkes, to be used for erecting a court house 
and jail in Morgansborough. The site finally selected for the 
new town was the little hamlet. Alder Springs, on the south 
side of the Catawba where Morganton now stands. At the 
session of the General Assembly held at JSTewbem in October, 
1784, the commissioneTS reported that they had purchased 
235 acres for the town site; and a new commission, composed 
of General Charles McDowell, John Blanton and Alexander 
Erwin, was appointed to carry on the work of building the 
new town. 

The new county seat of the "State of Burke," then ex- 
tending from Wilkes to Buncombe and westward to the Ten- 
nessee line, was soon provided with a pretentious court house 
and jail, two or more general stores, an inn kept by David 
Tate and a number of licensed "ordinaries." The opening 
of the Superior Court brought judges and lawyers and liti- 
gants to "Morgansborough," or "Morgan," as the village was 
then called, and the hospitality of the McDowell home, a 
mile away, became proverbial throughout the State. There 
were routs and balls for the youth of both sexes, horse racing, 
fox hunting and deer driving for the men, and many a good 


"fist and skull fight" for the delectation of the populace. 
Morganton's merchants brought their goods from Charleston 
or Fajetteville in wagons, and silks, broadcloth, "Dutch 
blankets" and Jamaica rum, loaf sugar and silver shoe 
buckles were largely dealt in. 

Among the many guests who partook of the hospitality of 
General McDowell and his young wife at Quaker Meadows 
was that reckless blade. Colonel John Sevier, from the 
Watauga settlements beyond the Blue Ridge. Sevier was 
arrested in the fall of 1Y88 by his enemy. Colonel Tip- 
ton, and sent to Morganton in irons to answer to a charge of 
treason against the State of ISTorth Carolina. General Charles 
McDowell and his brother Joseph became bondsmen for their 
old comrade in arms, and entertained him royally until his 
sensational escape from the custody of Sheriff William Mor- 
rison, of Burke. 

In the social life of that period Grace McDowell was a 
leading figure. General McDowell was a member of the 
State Senate at the time of their marriage in 1782, a position 
which he held until 1788. For many years he was a justice 
of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. Besides, he was 
a commissioner for the new town of Morganton, went with 
General Grifiith Rutherford on his expedition against the 
Cherokees, was with Robert Henry and David Vance in es- 
tablishing the line between ISForth Carolina and Tennessee, 
and was, moreover, one of the largest land ov^iers of the 
State. His manifold duties, public and private, consequent- 
ly, kept him away from home much of the time, leaving to 
his capable wife the charge of his fine Catawba River plan- 

Slave traders were already hawking their "chattels" in the 
Catawba Valley, and the first United States Census, com- 
piled in 1790, shows that General McDowell had at that 
time ten negro slaves on his estate. His brother. Major 
John McDowell, who was settled on Silver Creek, had the 
same number, and Colonel Waighstill Avery owned twenty- 


four slaves, among them an Arab of great intelligence, learn- 
ed in mathematics and the lore of the Orient. 

In addition to her duties as the mistress of a large estab- 
lishment, Grace McDowell had to care for her six children: 
Mary Bowman, already mentioned, and Margaret McDowell, 
bom December 31, 1783 ; Charles McDowell, bom December 
27, 1785; Sarah McDowell, born December 16, 1787; Ethan 
Allen McDowell, born October 27, 1790, and James E. Mc- 
Dowell, born September 28, 1792. 

That the daughter of James Greenlee and Mary McDowell 
would espouse the Presbyterian faith and bring up her 
family in that church, went without saying. About the time 
of her marriage to General McDowell, the first Presbyterian 
church in the upper Catawba Valley was built about three 
miles north of the McDowell home, in the center of the Scotch- 
Irish settlements on Johns River, Upper Creek and in the 
Linville Valley. , It was styled the Quaker Meadows Church, 
and Grace McDowell was one of its first members, transfer- 
ing her membership to Morganton after the establishment of 
the Presbyterian church in that town some years later. Rev. 
James Templeton was pastor of the Presbyterian church at 
Quaker Meadows and Pleasant Gardens in 1784, and Rev, 
James McKamie Wilson, who married Mary, the daughter of 
Alexander Erwin, was pastor of the same flocks in 1799. 
James Greenlee, brother of Grace McDowell, was an elder at 
Quaker Meadows, and afterwards at Morganton. As these 
early Presbyterian ministers were often teachers as well as 
preachers, and as Mr. Wilson a short time later engaged in 
educational work in Mecklenburg County, it is probable that 
the education of "Polly Bovraian" and the McDowell children 
was entrusted to these Presbyterian divines. 

I have before me, as I write, an old account book, kept at 
"The Morganton Store," in 1791 and 1792, in which there 
are numerous charges made of merchandise sold to General 
McDowell and his neighbors. The entries are in pounds, 
shillings and pence, and here is one of the bills : 


June 12, 1791. 
L.— S.— D. 
Gen. Charles McDowell, Dr. 

I pen knife 4 

1 Pr. knee buckles 4 

1 ink stand 3 

3 childrens' knives & Jews Hrp 5 


From which it may be logically deduced that the General's 
goose-quill pens needed attention, that his pokeberry crop 
was good, that he was fond of music "that was music/' that 
he was a bit of a dandy, that he was an indulgent father, and 
that he was a man of letters and could have claimed the '^ben- 
efit of clergy" if occasion arose. As most of the other bills on 
the account book mentioned contained entries of "one pint 
Jamaica rum, 3 shillings," the absence of this item in the 
above account may be taken to prove either that "The McDow- 
ell" believed in encouraging home industries, or that his 
Presbyterian wife was along when he bought the goods. 

Mary Bowman, only daughter of Grace Greenlee and Cap- 
tain John Bowman, married in 1798 Colonel William Tate, 
who, in partnership with his brother Robert, during the year 
1795, obtained grants from the State of jSTorth Carolina for 
about 300,000 acres of land in the present counties of Burke, 
McDowell and Yancey, which they afterwards sold to Robert 
Morris of Philadelphia. Mary Bowman was a large land 
owner in her own right, possessing not only the Hickory Grove 
estate of 1,380 acres, but owning a half interest in numerous 
tracts on Swannanoa and Ivey rivers in Buncombe County, 
and on the "western waters," which had been entered by her 
father and her uncle, James Greenlee. The records at Ral- 
eigh show that the grants for these lands were issued to James 
Greenlee and Mary Bowman. 

Eight children were born to William and Mary Tate. 
They were, John D. Tate, born January 15, 1799 ; Samuel 
C. Tate, bom Jatiuary 30, 1801 ; Elizabeth Adeline, bom 
March 25, 1804; Mary Louisa, bom April 10, 1810; Mar- 
garet Allison, born IsTovember 13, 1812, and Robert Mc- 


Dowell Tate, bom August 17, 1814; and Eliza and William 
J. Tate, the date of whose birth I have been unable to ascer- 
tain. Of these, three Tates, John B., William J., and Eliza 
G. (who married Stanhope Erwin) died without issue. 

Samuel C. Tate, who married Eliza Tate, his cousin, was 
the father oi the late Captain Junius C. Tate of Hickory- 
Grove and ol Mrs. Mary Joe Adams, who married Mr. 
Laurence Adams of Augusta, Ga. 

Elizabeth Adeline Tate married William McGimsey. She 
is buried beside her husband at Quaker Meadows. They left 
one son, Robert Vance McGimsej, whose children are living 
in Louisiana. 

Mary Louisa Tat© married Rev. Thomas Espy and left 
one daughter, Harriet j^. Espy, who was the first wife of 
the late Senator Z. B. Vance, and the mother of Charles, 
David IST., Zebulon B., Jr., and Thomas Vance. 

Margaret Allison Tate married William C. Butler, and left 
one daughter, Sallie, who married Ephraim Greenlee, and 
who, at last account, was still living in Tennessee. She paid 
a visit to Morganton a few years since. The Butlers, hus- 
band and wife, are buried at Quaker Meadows. 

Robert McDowell Tate married Sarah R. Butler, a daugh- 
ter of Colonel John E. Butler, and left eight children, of 
whom Mr, Charles E. Tate of Morganton, is the only survivor. 

Of the McDowell children of Grace Greenlee, Margaret, 
the eldest, married William G. Dickson, who lived in what is 
now Caldwell County on Mulberry Creek, on June 1, 1801, 
when in her eighteenth year, and bore him twelve children, 
Charles McDowell Dickson, Grace Eliza, M. Isabella, Mary 
M., Joseph H., James E., Sarah E., Ann M., W. Athan, 
Robert M., Carolina C, and William W. Of these Dickson 
children, all died without issue except four. Eliza Grace 
Dickson married Moses T. Abernethey and left five children. 
Margaret Dickson married Dr. W. L. Glass. To them were 
bom eleven children, three of whom died in infancy. Joseph 
H. Dickson married a Miss Estes and left three children. 


William W. Dickson married a Miss Jones, of Wake Countj, 
IST. C, and left six children, a number of whom are still 
living in or near Raleigh. 

Charles McDowell, eldest son of Charles McDowell, Sr., 
and Grace, who represented Burke County in the Legislature 
from 1809 till 1811, married his cousin, Annie McDowell, 
a daughter of Colonel Joseph McDowell of Pleasant Gar- 
dens, and his wife, Mary Moffett. They had six children: 
Eliza, Mary, Samuel, Myra, James and Margaret. Of these, 
Eliza and Myra married the Woodfin brothers of Asheville; 
Mary married first the distinguished lawyer, John Gray By- 
num, Sr., and afterwards Justice Richmond M. Pearson of 
the ISTorth Carolina Supreme Court; James married Julia 
Manly, daughter of Governor Charles Manly ; Margaret mar- 
ried William F, McKesson, and Samuel died without issue. 

Ethan Allen McDowell, second son of General Charles and 
Grace, who served a number of times as sheriff of Burke, and 
as State Senator from the county in 1815, and fought in the 
Creek War, married Ann Gordon, a step-daughter of Colonel 
William Davenport. Of this marriage four children were 
born : Charles Gordon McDowell, who married Miss Emeline 
Jones of Henderson County; Louisa C, who married Col. 
James C. Harper of Caldwell County, and Mary A., and 
James McDowell, who died in infancy. 

Sarah McDowell, second daughter of Charles and Grace 
McDowell, married Colonel William Paxton, a brother of 
Judge Paxton, to whom were bom four children: John, 
William, James and Mary, Mary Paxton married Rev. 
Branch Merrimon, the father of the late Supreme Court Jus- 
tice and United States Senator, Augustus S. Merrimon, and 
of Judge James H. Merrimon of Asheville. 

James R. McDowell, third son of Charles and Grace, never 
married. He was a man of brilliant parts ; served two terms 
in the State Senate, and three in the House, and died in 1826 
when only 33 years of age, his early death closing what his 
friends had predicted would be a splendid political career. 


I would be glad to trace further the descendants of Grace 
Greenlee, but the lines are too numerous and divergent to 
make it possible in this sketch. Senators, judges, soldiers, 
lawyers, leaders in business and the professions, are her sons. 
Brilliant and beautiful women are her daughters. I have 
done what little I could, in the limited time at my disposal 
and with the many interruptions caused by the pursuit of an 
exacting profession, to rescue from obscurity some of the in- 
cidents of her most interesting career. 

A few days ago, I visited her grave where, on one of the 
noble hills of Burke, overlooking both Quaker Meadows and 
Hickory Grove and the town of Morganton a mile away, she 
sleeps beside the soldier consort of her maturer years. Close 
by her side repose Joseph McDowell, husband of Margaret 
O'l^eill; her brothers, James and John Greenlee; her sister- 
in-law, Mary Mitchell Greenlee; her daughter, Mary Tate; 
her sons, Charles, Ethan and James; Hugh McDowell, her 
brother-in-law, Tates, Butlers, Espys, Bytiums, McGimseys, 
Harbisons, her relatives, neighbors and nearest friends. 
Broad fields of wheat, ready for the harvest, waved in the 
fertile Catawba Valley, upon lands which the McDowells 
have held in freehold for more than one hundred and fifty 
years. My mission there was to copy from the ancient tomb- 
stones, as a fitting conclusion to this paper, the epitaphs 
below. The poetry, like the carving, is rude; but the story 
told by the stones is as eloquent as it is enduring : 


"Sacred to the memory 

Gen. Charles McDowell, 
a Whig officer in the Revolutionary- 
War, who died as he had lived — 
a Patriot, the 31st of March, 1815, 
aged about TO years." 

"Sacred to the memory of 
Grace McDowell, 
Consort of Gen. Chas. McDowell, who 
died May 18, 1823, in the 73rd year of her age. 
"Once engaged in scenes of life, 
A tender mother and loving wife; 
But now she's gone and left us here, 
The lesson bids us all prepare." 

Note. — The facts stated in the above paper were collated from the 
books and records mentioned and from data furnished by Mrs. Emma 
Harper Cilley, of Hickory, N. C. ; Miss Lizzie D. Glass, of Rufus, 
Caldwell Co., N C. ; Messrs. Charles Manly McDowell and Charles E. 
Tate, of Morganton, descendants of Grace Greenlee ; from Mr. John 
A. Dickson and Miss Mary F. Dickson, descendants of James Green- 
lee; and from Miss Margaret McDowell, of Morganton, N. C, a 
descendant of Colonel Joseph McDowell, of Pleasant Gardens. To 
all of them, thanks for the aid so kindly afforded me. 


Number of North Carolinians in the 
Revolutionary War 

By Makshaix DeLancey Haywood, 

Author of "Governor William Tryon and His Administration in ttie 

Province of North Carolina, 1765 1771," "Lives of the Bishops of 

North Carolina," "Ballads of Courageous Carolinians," etc. 

How many troops did ISrorth Carolina furnish to the Amer- 
ican cause during the War of the Revolution ? This is an 
interesting question, well worthy of consideration and study. 
The present writer, while recently serving as Historian of 
the United States War and ISTavy Departments for collecting 
ISTorth Carolina Revolutionary Records, made a close exam- 
ination of all the available archives in Raleigh and else- 
where throughout ISTorth Carolina, and the result of these 
researches convinces him that the State has never had credit 
for anywhere near the number of men she had on her rolls 
during that war. In taking up this subject we shall begin 
with the Continental Line, or regulars, and later speak of 
the l^ine Months Drafts, and the Militia — or Minute Men, 
as the last mentioned class was usually called in l^ew Eng- 
land and other JSTorthern localities. 

Most students of JSTorth Carolina history are familiar with 
the printed Roster of the Continental Line (regulars) which 
is given in the sixteenth volume of the State Records of 
l^orth Carolina, pages 1002 to 1196. This gives a list of 
Continentals to the number of about six thousand — or 5,997 
in exact figures. Many names, it is true, are given more than 
once on this Roster — owing to transfers from one regiment to 
another, as in the cases of promoted officers, etc., — ^but the sub- 
traction which we must make for this cause is counterbalanced 
by additions which might be made of mimerous names of 
^N'orth Carolina Continental soldiers which are given on the 


United States Pension Rolls, State Land Grant Lists, and 
other authentic records, but which do not appear on the above- 
mentioned Continental Roster. So we may safely assert that 
North Carolina furnished six thousand regulars to the Conti- 
nental Army. Indeed she* must have furnished an even greater 
number if her Continental regiments^ — ten in number — were 
ever recruited to anywhere near the full strength authorized 
by law and military usage. 

We now come to the Militia forces of ]^orth Carolina, 
which were far greater than the Continental troops of the 
State. In the Spring of 1Y82 there were no less than 26,822 
Militia troops enrolled in ISTorth Carolina, as shoiwn by 
returns from all the counties in the State made at that time. 
This most valuable document (now in the manuscript archives 
of the State, deposited in the collection of the IS^orth Carolina 
Historical Commission) we shall reproduce verbatim, in- 
cluding the certificate of Alexander Martin, Governor and 
Commander-in-Chief. Governor Martin's certificate, it will 
be observed, expressly states that this list does not include 
either Continental troops or jS^ine Months Drafts. Thb list is 
as follows : 



I— I 








I— I 


4002 Halifax District. 

Including both battalions. 
8792 Salisbury District. 



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OOOilOlOlOOOfOO 1 lTt<QO irtH 1 1 1 1 lOnClCD 


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tHt-I-iH 1-lllT-lrHI -r-i rH 


00 Oi (M tH O t- CD t- 1 1 iM CO ICO rH W O lO 

i-liHrH tHIIiHi-II llllli-l i-( 


OOOiiMiHOt-COt- 1 IC^CO ICO 1 1 1 1 IrHlOOlO 
T-lrHT-l r-llli-lT-ll lllllr-l iH 


(M (M (M (M C-1 iM (M (M 1 (M 1 C^ Tt< (M i i i 1 (M Ca M CI CI 


T-lTHiHi-lrHrHiHT-l li-l IrHCIi-t 1 1 1 ItHiHtHi-ItH 


iH tH rH iH tH rH 1-1 tH 1 tH iH i-l C5 tH 1 1 1 1 tH iH t-l r-l iH 








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Having thus shown from authentic documentary evidence 
that the North Carolina Continentals, or regulars, numbered 
6,000 or upwards, and that her Militia forces numbered ex- 
actly 26,822, the only remaining class of soldiery to be added 
(as Governor Martin said it was not included in the Militia 
returns) is what was known as the I^ine Months Draft. 

Unfortunately, we have been unable to find any record to 
show the exact numbers included in the Nine Months Drafts ; 
but, from the frequency with which they were called into 
service, and the reliance placed upon them, we think that 
2,500 is a very conservative estimate of their numbers. 

Hence, with 6,000 Continentals, 26,822 Militia, and 
2,500 (estimated) Nine Months Drafts, the belief is not un- 
reasonable that North Carolina had at her disposal, during 
the progress of the Eevolution, upwards of 35,000 soldiers. 
But this is a larger number than the great State of New 
York furnished,^ it may be said. In answer we have only to 
observe that when the first official Census of the United 
States was taken in 1790 North Carolina's population was 
53,631 in excess of the population of the State of New York, 
the former State having 393,751 inhabitants, and the latter 
only 340,120 ; and in this Census of 1790 Tennessee was not 
counted as a part of North Carolina, its mother. 


Was Lederer in Bertie County? 

By Captain S. A. Ashe. 

Dr. Hawks, in his valuable History of Nortli Carolina, 
gives, at page 43, Vol. II, some extracts from the Discoveries 
of John Lederer, a German, who was living in Virginia in 
1669 and 1670, and who made three journeys to the moun- 
tains. Dr. Hawks says: "The second of these expeditions 
was from the Falls of the James River, west and southwest, 
and brought Lederer into ISTorth Carolina." "Certain Eng- 
lishmen were appointed by Berkeley to accompany him ; these, 
however, forsook him and turned back. Lederer proceeded,, 
notwithstanding, alone; and on his return to Virginia (which, 
by the way, was never expected), met with insult and re^ 
proaches, instead of the cordial welcome to which he was 
entitled. * * * * Under these circumstances he went 
to Maryland, and there succeeded finally in obtaining a hear- 
ing from the Governor, Sir William Talbot, and in submit- 
ting his papers to him. The Governor, though at first much 
prejudiced against the man by the stories he had heard, yet 
found him, so he says, "a modest, ingenious person, and a 
pretty scholar." And the Governor himself took the trouble 
to translate from the Latin and publish Lederer's account of 
his joumeyings. The pamphlet with map was printed in 
London in 1672. Dr. Hawks makes extracts from this pam- 
phlet and reproduces two maps on which Lederer's route is 
indicated and from these it appears that Lederer explored 
the mountain section, but notwithstanding this. Dr. Hawks 
locates the explorations in eastern i^orth Carolina — especi- 
ally in Bertie County. 

We quote from the narrative : 

"The twentieth of May, 1670, one Major Harris and my- 


self, with twenty Christian horse and five Indians, marched 
from the falls of James River, in Virginia, towards the 
Monakins. * * * Here inquiring the way to the moun- 
tains, an ancient man described with a staff two paths on 
the ground, one pointing to the Mahocks and the other to the 
ISTahyssans. (Dr. Hawks locates the Mahocks at the junction 
of the Eockfish with the James River; and the iNahyssans 
west of them, and between them and the first range of moun- 

^'But my English companions, slighting the Indian's direc- 
tions, shaped their course by the compass due west. * * * 
Thus we, obstinately pursuing a due west course, rode over 
steep and craggy cliffs. In these mountains we wandered 
from the 25th of May till the 3rd of June. * * * 

"The third of June we came to the south branch of the 
James River, which Major Harris, observing to run north- 
wardly, vainly imagined to be an arm of the Lake of Can- 
ada. * * * Here I moved to cross the river and march 
on ; but the rest of the company were so weary of the enter- 
prise that, crying out, one and all, they would have offered 
violence to me. 

"The lesser hills, or Akonshuck, are here impassible, being 
both steep and craggy. James River is here as broad as it is 
about a hundred miles lower at Monakin. 

"The fifth of June, my company and I parted, good 
friends, they back again, and I, with one Susquehanna In- 
dian, named Jaclvzetason, only, in pursuit of my first enter- 
prise, changing my course from west to southwest and by 
south to avoid the mountains. 

"From the fifth, which was Sunday, until the ninth of 
June, I traveled through difiicult ways, without seeing any 
town or Indian, and then I arrived at Sapon, a town of the 
ISTahyssans, about a hundred miles distant from Mahock, sit- 
uate upon a branch of Shawan, alias Rovenock River. 

(Dr. Hawks says: "By Shawan, Lederer meant Chowan;" 
and he thinks Lederer struck the Staunton River.) 


"And though I had just cause to fear these Indians, be^ 
cause thej had been in continual hostility with the Christians 
for ten years, yet etc. But I, though with much ado, waived 
their courtesy and got my passport, having given my word to 
return to them within six months. 

"Sapon is within the limits of the Province of Carolina. 
* * * ]^ot far distant from hence, as I understood from 
the ISTahyssan Indians, is their king's residence, called Pin- 
tahal, on the same river, which my curiosity would have led 
me to see, were I not bound both by oath and commission to 
a direct pursuance of my intended purpose of discovering a 
passage to the further side of the mountains. 

"From hence, by the Indians' instructions, I directed my 
course to Akenatzy, an island bearing south and west and 
about fifty miles distant, upon a branch of the same river, 
from Sapon. * * * gj easy journeys I landed at Ake- 
natzy upon the twelfth of June. The Island, though small, 
maintains many inhabitants, who are fixed here in great 
security, being naturally fortified with fastnesses of moun- 
tains and water on every side. (Dr. Hawks locates this island 
in Halifax and ISTorthampton counties in l!^orth Carolina.) 
The fourteenth of June, pursuing a south-southwest course, 
some times by a beaten path and some times over hills and 
rocks, I was forced to take up my quarters in the woods ; for 
though the Onock Indians, whom I then sought, were not, in 
in a direct line, above thirty-odd miles distant from Akenatzy, 
yet the ways were such, and obliged me to go so far about, that 
I reached not Onock until the sixteenth, 

(Dr. Hawks says: "We are not without knowledge of the 
locality of the Ohanocks. They were in the present County 
of Bertie. It would, therefore, seem that Lederer traveled 
down from l!^orthampton, on the eastern side of the Roanoke, 
into Bertie, towards the Chowan.") 

"Fourteen miles, west southwest of the Onocks dwell the 
Shackory Indians. * * * X travelled until the nine- 
teenth of June, and then, after a two days troublesome 


journey through thickets and marsh grounds, I arrived at 
Watary, about forty miles distant; and hearing west south- 
west to Shakor. 

"I departed from Watary the one and twentieth of June, 
and keeping a west course for near thirty miles, I came to 
Sara. Here I found the ways more level and easy. I did 
likewise, to my no small admiration, find hard cakes of white 
salt among them ; but whether they were made from sea- 
water, or taken out of salt-pits, I know not, but am apt to 
believe the latter, because the sea is so remote from them. 
From Sara I kept a south-southwest course, until the five 
and twentieth of June, and then I reached Wisacky. * * * 
This nation is subject to a neighbor king, residing upon the 
bank of a great lake called Ushery, environed on all sides with 
mountains and Wisacky marsh. 

"The six and twentieth of June, having crossed a fresh 
river which runs into the lake Ushery, I came to the town, 
which was more populous than any I had seen before in my 
march. The water of Ushery Lake seemed to my taste a little 
brackish. * -^^ * j judged it to be about ten leagues 
broad, for were not the other shore very high, it could not be 
discovered from Ushery. How far this lake tends westwardly, 
or where it ends, I could neither leam nor guess. 

''I understood that two days' journey and a half from thence 
to the southwest, a powerful nation of bearded men were 
seated, who I suppose to be the Spaniards. 

"ISTot thinking fit to proceed further, the eighth and twen- 
tieth of June, I faced about and looked homewards. To 
avoid AVisacky marsh, I shaped my course northeast, and 
after a three days travel over hilly ways, I fell into a bai-ren, 
sandy desert, where I suffered miserably for want of water. 
* * * In this distress we traveled till the twelfth of 
July, and then found the head of a river, which afterwards 
proved Enico. We were led by it, upon the fourteenth of 
July to the town of Katearas, a place of great Indian trade, 
and chief seat of the haughty emperor of the Tuskaroras. 


Leaving Katearas, I traveled througk the woods until the 
sixteenth, upon which I came to KawitziokaUj an Indian 
town upon a branch of the Rorenoke River, which I have 
passed over continuing my journey to Mencharink, and on 
the seventeenth departing from thence, I lay all night in the 
woods, and the next morning betimes, going by JSTatoway, I 
reached that evening Apamatuck in Virginia, where I was 
not a little overjoyed to see Christian faces again." 

Dr. Hawks traces Lederer in his wanderings^ into the east- 
em part of ISTorth Carolina. That has always seemed to me 
unreasonable. The several statements of Lederer cannot be 
reconciled. He starts west to find a way across the moun- 
tains. He is accompanied by a force of forty horsemen 
under Major Harris, to the junction of the north and of the 
south branches of the James River, across the Blue Ridge, at 
about the JSTatural Bridge. There Major Harris and the 
horsemen leave him. From that point, according to his nar- 
rative, Lederer journeys to the southwest down the valley. 
In four days he reaches the Rorenoke River, now called the 
Staunton. From there he starts for an island Akenatzy, 
fifty miles distant, on the Rorenoke, naturally fortified by 
mountains, which he reaches in three days. After a journey 
to the southwest of about forty miles he reached Watary. 
Then he went a west course for thirty miles to Sara. And 
here he found salt cakes. Apparently two days later he 
reached the great lake IJshery, environed with mountains ; 
ten leagues broad and extending so far to the west that he 
could not gTiess its extent. And there he heard of ^'bearded 
men" to the southwest. The salt cakes doubtless came from 
salt springs in western Virginia. The lake was the product 
of his imagination. But doubtless the Indians told him of 
the great lakes, and of the French or Spaniards. Having 
determined to return, he took a northeast course on the 28th 
of June; on the 16th of July he crossed the Roanoke River. 

On the 17th of July he departed from Mencharink, and the 
next evening, going by l^otoway, reached Appomatox. Prob- 


ablj he struck the Appomatox near where Petersburg is — or 
still further to the west; having crossed the head waters of 
the Notawaj. Mencharink seems to have been an Indian 
town on the upper Meherrin southwest of Petersburg. Led- 
erer seems to have crossed the Poanoke a few miles south of 
the mouth of the Dan; and indeed he probably would have 
found some difficulty in crossing it lower down. A south- 
west line from there would take him south of the Dan, and 
he probably followed the ridge dividing the waters of the 
Dan from those of the Cape Fear Piver. 

As the physical conditions prove that a large portion of 
Lederer's narrative is the product of his imagination, Dr. 
Hawks discards his statements that he pursued a southwest 
course from the junction of the two branches of the James, 
where Major Harris left him, and brings him down into 
Bertie County. 

I surmise that aftfer Major Harris turned back, leaving 
Lederer to pursue his ov^oi course, with no witnesses, Lederer 
sought and reached an island in the Poanoke Piver, or 
Staunton Piver, just south of Lynchburg; which he called 
Akenatzy, and which Lawson in his map (1708) indicated as 
Oconeche — ^but with a very indefinite location. There is an 
island in the Roanoke near Weldon; but there is also Long 
Island much higher up which was probably that visited by 
Lederer, called by him Akenatzy. If he started from there 
on a southwest course he probably passed over the head 
waters of the Dan, and then returned south of the Dan, never 
crossing the mountains at all. He mentions finding the salt 
at Sara; a name that may be associated with the Sawra In- 
dians, and Sauratown, in Stokes County. 

On the whole, the entire narrative is deprived of historical 
interest or importance because of its obvious inaccuracies. 

On his return the Virginians treated him coldly — and ap- 
parently with good reason. Still it seems that Dr. Hawks is 
far out of the way when he localizes Lederer's wanderings in 
the eastern part of ]^orth Carolina. 


Historical Book Reviews 



By Archibald Henderson. 

In welcoming any new book dealing with phases of local 
history and tradition in ISTorth Carolina, I fear that I am 
quite incapable of maintaining on this subject a position of 
"strict neutrality." The fact is that I am a deliberate parti- 
san on this matter, for I am more eager than I can well ex- 
press to inspire and stimulate the writing of county and sec- 
tional history. This is, incomparably, the most important 
and pressing need which all of us, who are profoundly con- 
cerned for the unveiling of the truth about our people, now 
feel should be met and satisfied. 

I cannot omit any occasion which presents itself to press 
upon our people the need for preserving local history and, 
before it is forever lost, recovering and embalming in perma- 
nent form the accurate and intimate story of our local and 
sectional life, as distinguished from the story of the State as 
such and its part in national affairs. The innumerable con- 
tributions of North Carolina to the life of the nation have, in 
a measure at least, been sketched out; the exhaustive and 
detailed story, in many instances, has yet to be narrated. 
But this is not the case with our local history. Very few 
satisfactory county histories have been published in North 
Carolina — some are exceedingly slim and fragmentary. Yet, 
I welcome every one of them, as a sign of the growing interest 
of our people in local affairs, and as an effort, at least, to- 
ward a contribution to local history. I deplore the burial — 
which in some cases amounts to total loss — of countless articles, 
genealogical, traditional, and historical, in local newspapers 
in North Carolina. An examination of the files of these local 


newspapers would often result in the resurrection of valuable 
articles the contents of which are found in no book. The 
articles, once published in the local newspapers, are quickly 
forgotten and so permanently lost to view. 

Three works; recently brought to my attention, have given 
me great cheer and caused me to rejoice in the development 
of historical activity in our midst. All three deal with sec- 
tions of North Carolina, and are, on that score, particularly 
conspicuous, since there have been virtually no works of just 
this sort hitherto written and published by ISTorth Carolinians. 
I refer to The History of Western. North Carolina, by Mr. 
John P. Arthur; Chronicles of the Lower Cape Fear, by 
Mr. James Sprunt; and In Ancient Albemarle, by Miss 
Catherine Albertson. The works of Mr. Arthur and Mr. 
Sprunt are quite exhaustive and purport to give a general 
historical survey, down to the present time, of the sections 
studied. The treatment is topical and desultory, rather than 
strictly chronological and successive. Both are very full, in 
interest, subject matter and content, and very bulky. 

On the other hand, Miss Albertson's little book is a collec- 
tion of historical essays on subjects of particularly local inter- 
est clustering around a particular section, "the broad sound 
whose tawny waters wash the southern shores of this peninsu- 
lar (between the Perquimans and Little Rivers), as well as 
that tract of land lying between the Chowan Eiver and the At- 
lantic Ocean." These essays are quite devoid of pretension 
in either manner or method ; there is no fringe of foot-notes 
to distract the attention from the real story of human interest. 
Yet the writer bases her recitals on personal investigation and 
authentic records; and is always very particular to draw the 
line between delightful tradition, however romantic, and dis- 
illusioning documents, however prosaic. Yet she succeeds in 
imparting romantic glamour to her story in her descriptions 
of historic remains, such as that of "The Old Brick House." 
reputed to have been one of the many widely scattered haunts 
of Blackbeard, the Pirate, Edward Teach. "A small slab of 


granite, circular in shape ... is sunken in the ground 
at the foot of the steps and bears the date of 1709, and the 
initials 'E. T.' The ends of the house are of mingled brick 
and stone, the main body of wood. The wide entrance hall, 
paneled to the ceiling, opens into a large room, also paneled, 
in which is a wide fire-place with a richly carved mantel 
reaching to the ceiling. On each side of this mantel there is 
a closet let into the wall, one of which communicates by a 
secret door with the large basement room below. Tradition 
says that from this room a secret passage led to the river ; that 
here the pirate confined his captives, and that ineffaceable 
stains upon the floor in the room above hint of dark deeds, 
whose secret was known only to the underground tunnel and 
the unrevealing waters below." 

The story of this self-same "Brick House," as unearthed 
by Mr. Joseph Sitterson (pp. 64-5), is full of strange interest. 
And much of historic atmosphere still hovers about "Elm- 
wood," the old Swann homestead in Pasquotank County, for 
this family made almost incomparable contributions to the 
service of Colony and State. In the slight story of John 
Keen, we have the following suggestive passage: 

"According to Colonel Keen, who was with Washington 
on that momentous night (of the crossing of the Delaware), 
no boats were used. The river was frozen over, and the sol- 
diers, in order to keep their footing on the slippery ice, laid 
their muskets dowu on the frozen river and walked across on 
them to the Jersey shore. At times the ice bent so beneath 
the tread of the men that they momentarily expected to be 
submerged in the dark waters, but the dangerous crossing 
was safely made, etc." One of the most interesting and d^ 
tailed chapters is that one dealing with General Isaac Greg- 
ory; and one cannot repress a thrill of pride in reading the 
following passage from the account by Roger Lamb, a 
Britisher, of the ill-starred field of Camden: "In justice to 
IKorth Carolina, it should be remarked that General Gregory's 
brigade acquitted themselves well. They formed on the left 


of the Continentals^ and kept the field while thej had a cart- 
ridge left. Gregory himself was twice wounded hy bayonets 
in bringing off his men, and many in his brigade had only 
bayonet wounds." A remarkable exhibition of coolness and 
sheer bravery, accentuated just now when troops on the fields 
of France and Flanders have broken again and again, unwill- 
ing to endure the cold steel of the bayonet. The criminal 
hoax of Captain Stevens, the British officer, cast an utterly 
unmerited gloom over General Gregory's later years — cruel 
"reward" for conspicuous bravery and personal leadership on 
a stricken field. 'No wonder that the old General, in his later 
years lived a secluded life; and it is amusingly related of 
him that he ''knew so little of events beyond his own family 
circle that he addressed to a lady, the widow of Governor 
Stone, a letter making a formal proposal of marriage, full 
six months after her death." 

Many and quaint are the stories told by the charming author- 
ess; of the "teacher meeting" conducted by George Fox in 
October, 1672, in Perquimans ; of the thrice-wedded Samuel 
Ferebee, who, as the family chronicle notes, "was always 
married on Sunday and on the fourteenth day of the month ;" 
of the dilemma of Duckinfield over the law of 1719 that all 
baptised slaves should be set free, resolved only by the repeal 
of the law because all the darkies immediately clamored to 
receive the rite of holy baptism ; of the astute McKnight who 
neatly jockeyed the Chief of the Yeopims, John Durant, out 
of four hundred acres of land, by turning the tables of In- 
dian superstition upon him. A charming and delightful 
book, full of truth and fancy, of tradition and sentiment — 
stimulative of pride and patriotism. Three slight errors only 
are patent: mention of a History of North Carolina by Dr. 
"Hawk;" citation from some writing of a Dr. "Brickwell," 
and reference to the "Iredell Letters" of "McCree." 

Aside from its own merits, this work is important as the 
first of a series of historical vvorks which will be published 
by the North Carolina Society of the Daughters of the Rev- 


olution. These works will be the production solely of mem- 
bers of the society. Such an undertaking deserves the hearty 
support of all North Carolinians. The society is to be warmly 
congratulated upon the patriotic spirit which prompts it to 
embark upon this worthy undertaking. The present volume 
is appropriately dedicated to Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 
State Regent. A meritorious feature of the attractively 
bound and printed volume is that of the illustrations, repro- 
duced from pen and ink drawings by Miss Mabel Pugh. 


Genealogical and Biographical Memoranda 

By Mbs. E. B. Moffitt. 


The Booklet hails with pride the article on Grace Greenlee^ 
a Revolutionarj heroine, one of the many who figured largely 
in the independence of our country. Mr. Ervin has given 
this interesting sketch, thus perpetuating the service of a 
woman thus far too little known in the history of IsTorth 

William Oarson Ervin was born December 16, 1859, in 
the town of Marion, IST. C. He is the son of Rev. James S. 
Ervin, a native of South Carolina, and a minister of the 
Methodist Church. His mother was Matilda Car'son, a 
daughter of William M. Carson of McDowell County, !N". C, 
and a granddaughter of Colonel John Carson and his wife, 
Mary Moffett Carson (Mary Moffett Carson was the widow 
of Colonel Joseph McDowell of Pleasant Gardens, and a 
daughter of Colonel George Moffett of Virginia). 

William Carson Ervin was educated at Finlev High School 
in Lenoir, and at the University of North Carolina. Before 
taking his University course he read law under Judge Clinton 
A. Cilley of Lenoir; passed his examination before the Su- 
preme Court of l^orth Carolina in 1880, before attaining 
his majority, and has been engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession since 1881. He was for several years associated 
with W. W. Scott as editor of the "Lenoir Topic," and was 
editor of the "Mountaineer" and the "Herald" of Morganton, 
his editorial work covering a period of fifteen years. Since 
1889 he has been a member of the law finn of Avery and 
Ervin of Morganton; is president of the Realty Loan and 
Guarantee Co., and the Morganton Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation, and is connected with a number of corporations, 
making a specialty of corporation law. He has a largo 


practice, but being of a modest and retiring nature he has 
never contended for honors in the court room. He has never 
held public office except to serve as Major of Lenoir and 
Morganton and could have held this office continuously if the 
citizens could have had their way. 

Mr. Ervin is a man of splendid physique and command- 
ing appearance, with a countenance alert, indicating an ever 
present sense of humor. He is a delightful conversationalist 
and his mind teems with apt jokes, and his speech flavored 
with the wit that makes friends of all who come in contact 
with him ; largely due to his charitableness, which has no place 
for irony or sarcasm. In his business dealings he is deliber- 
ate; temperate in his mode of life; orderly and rational in 
his intellectual activities, therefore his advice is sought on 
all important matters affecting the town, and the community 
repose the most implicit confidence in his judgment and his 

Mr. Ervin's fondness for literature has made him ac- 
quainted with the best prose and verse in the language. He 
is fond of history, and this has induced him to perpetuate in 
attractive essays some of the early history of Burke County. 
He is especially fond of poetry and considers it one of his 
chief pleasures; he is the author of several beautiful poems, 
and through many of these the reader is able to see into the 
heart of nature with something of his own keen insight. 

The literary, poetical and historical essays of Mr. Ervin 
would make a volume of rare merit and one well fit to win 
the Patterson Cup. With all the good qualities and acquire- 
ments of Mr. Ervin he is a devoted church member, not only 
active and efficient in his own denomination, but liberal to- 
wards other denominations. 

Mr. Ervin married Miss Kate Sheets, daughter of a 
pastor of the Morganton Presbyterian Church. His home 
life is attractive, and he is the ideal husband and devoted 
father. He has two children, Morton S. Ervin and Miss 
Julia Ervin, the latter a devoted teacher of the Deaf in Berk- 


ley, California. Mr. Ervin is a rounded and complete man, 
and quoting the words of an admirer: "His character, his 
mental equipment, his professional training and his loveable- 
ness are the basis of the people's esteem and affection for 


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"In increased produdion and valuation of farm TTfr^ nDr\/^D17CCTl7'17 'CAD1U'17D 

and ^ock, the Progressive Farmer has made me 1 tlHi r KUUlVlLoal \ Cj F AlvMll/K 

$100 to every Dollar I have paid for it," says J. _. » ■, »^t^»» -^t ^ 

M. Parris. Jackson County, N. C. RALEIGH, N. C. 


"In Ancient Albemarle" 


With Five Illustrations 

Cloth, $1.25 net ; Postpaid, $1.35 

This beautiful volume is bound in buff and blue Vellum de Luxe, 
and in workmanship and design is a triumph of the printer's art. 


"I am delighted to hear that the fugitive historical papers of Miss 
Albertson are to be collected and published. All I have seen are 
written in a luminous style, are accurate and highly interesting. 
They will be appreciated by all who love to know the history of our 
State." — Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., President Emeritus, University of 
North Carolina. 

"I am very glad indeed to know that the historical articles which 
Miss Albertson has been writing for the State papers are to be put 
in book form. I feel that your Society will render a distinct service 
to the Albemarle section and to the whole State by giving Miss Albert- 
son this recognition and encouragement. She has done much to rescue 
from oblivion much of the tradition and history of a section that has 
been peculiarly rich in noble deeds and heroic service." — N. W. 
Walker, Professor of Secondary Education and State Inspector of 
PuMic High Schools, University of North Carolina. 

"I am very glad to know that Miss Albertson's Sketches and Essays 
in North Carolina History are to be put in permanent form. I know 
of nothing that has appeared in our newspapers more worthy of 
preservation in a book, following faithfully as they do our Colonial 
Records and embodying the best traditions of our State's history that 
have come down to us. Having read the papers as they originally 
appeared, I shall value the book all the more." — Collier CoJil), Pro- 
fessor of Geology, University of North Carolina. 





Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 

umited edition please obdeb at once 



We make all kinds of keys. Send sample by mail and we duplicate 
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A Big Factory for Maidng and Duplicating Keys Right Here in 

North Carolina 

Vol. XV OCTOBER, 1915 No. 2 

North Carolina Booklet 








John Branch, Secretary of the Navy 49 

By Maeshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Pre-Revolutionary Printers — ^Davis, Steuart, and Boyd . 1(M 
By Stephen B, Weeks. 

An Early Fourth of July Celebration 122 

By Adelaide L. Fries. 

An Appeal to the Daughters of the Revolution .... 128 

Resolutions of Respect 131 

Genealogical Queries and Answers 132 

Biographical Sketches * 133 


Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh, N. C, July 15. 1905. under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1 879 

The North CaroHna Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XV of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, begianing July, 1915. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor : 
Miss Maby Hilliaed Hinton. 


The Quakers' First Appearance in North Carolina — Catherine 

Number of North Carolina Troops in the Revolution. 

A Federalist of the Old School — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

A North Carolina Heroine: Grace Greenlee — Mr. W. C. Ervin. 

Thomas Godfrey, Poet and Dramatist — Dr. Ernest L. Starr. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part I : John 
Branch — Mr. Marshall Delancey Haywood. 

The Convention of 1861: (a) Its Personnel; (b) Its Failures; (c) 
Its Accomplished Results — Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

North Carolina's Pre-Revolutionary Printers — ^Dr. Stephen B. 

French Survivals in the Lowlands of North Carolina — Dr. CoUier 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part II: George E. 
Badger — Mr. Peter M. Wilson. 

Our North Carolina Indian Tribes — Colonel Fred A. Olds. 

Some Old Libraries of North Carolina — Miss Minnie Leatherman. 

Reviews of historical works relating to the State's history will 
appear henceforth in The Booklet, contributed by Mrs. Nina Hol- 
land Covington. 

A Genealogical Department will be established in this volume of 
The Booklet, with a page devoted to Genealogical Queries and 
Answers, as an aid to genealogical research in this State. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

The Booklet will print wills and abstracts of wills prior to 1825. 
as sources of biography, history, and genealogy. Mrs. M. G. McCub- 
bins will contribute abstracts of wills and marrriage bonds in Rowan 
County to the coming volume. Similar data from other counties will 
be furnished. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XV are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XIV for sale. 
For particulars address 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 

"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. XV OCTOBER, 1915 No. 2 


NORTH Carolina Booklet 

'Carolina I Carolina I Heathen's blessings attend her ! 
While zve live zve •will cherish, protect and defend her' 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 





Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillabd. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W. Conkor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Oapt. S. a. Ashe. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

biographical editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 






vice-regent : 

honorary regents : 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

recording secretary : 
corresponding secretary : 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 






Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter, 

Miss Catherine F. Seyton Albertson, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. Charles J. Sawyer, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SB.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

*Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 



Governor of North Carolina, United States Senator, Secretary of the Navy, 

Member of Congress, Governor of Florida, etc. 

The North Carolma Booklet 

Vol. XV OCTOBER, 1915 No. 2 

John Branch, Secretary of the Navy in the 
Cabinet of President Jackson, etc. 

By Maeshall DeLancey Haywood, 

Author of "Governor William Tryon and His Administration in the 
Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771," "Lives of the 
Bishops of North Carolina," "Ballads of Coura- 
geous Carolinians," etc. 

Before the office of Secretary of the l^avy was created, 
the functions which were later performed by the occupant of 
that office devolved upon the Chairman of the Committee on 
ISTaval Affairs in the old Continental Congress, and Joseph 
Hewes, of !N^orth Carolina — a Revolutionary statesman, who 
made his name immortal by signing the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence — was the first person who held that post. Since 
the Revolution, five North Carolinians have, at different pe- 
riods of our country's history, entered the President's official 
family in the capacity of Secretary of the ISTavy, viz. : John 
Branch, in the Cabinet of President Jackson; George Ed- 
mund Badger, in the Cabinet of the first President Harrison ; 
William Alexander Graham, in the Cabinet of President Fill- 
more; James Cochran Dobbin, in the Cabinet of President 
Pierce; and Josephus Daniels (present incumbent), in the 
Cabinet of President Wilson. It is the purpose of the writer 
of this sketch to give an account of the distinguished services, 
both State and IsTational, of the first of these five cabinet 

John" Beanch^ three times Speaker of the Senate of ISTorth 
Carolina, three times Governor of that State, a member of 
the United States Senate and ISTational House of Representa- 
tives, Secretary of the ISTavy, member of the IN'orth Carolina 


Constitutional Convention of 1835, last Governor of the Ter- 
ritory of Florida, and first Acting Governor of the State of 
Florida, was born in the town of Halifax, in Halifax County, 
ISTorth Carolina, on the 4th day of IsTovember, 1782, at a time 
when his father, Lieutenant-Colonel John Branch, was 
bravely participating in the War for American Independence, 
then drawing to a successful close. The services of the Revo- 
lutionary patriot, last mentioned, were useful and varied. 
He was High Sheriff of the County of Halifax at the outbreak 
of the war; and, while acting in that capacity, was a terror 
to the Tories in that vicinity. The records of the Committee 
of Safety tell us that he brought disaffected persons before 
the committee and "prayed condign punishment upon them." 
He was a Justice of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 
(a tribunal made up of all the magistrates of the county) 
from December 23, 17Y6, until after the close of hostilities. 
On February IX, 1Y80, he became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Halifax Regiment of ISJ'orth Carolina Militia; and, as such, 
served for a while in the army of General Greene. In 1781 
he was one of the State Auditors for the Halifax District. 
He was a member of the House of Commons at two sessions 
during the war, 1781 and 1782 ; and once in 1788, after the 
return of peace. He likewise served as a delegate to the Con- 
vention of ISTorth Carolina which rejected the proposed Con- 
stitution of the United States in 1788 — he voting with the 
majority to reject. For many years after the war he held 
a seat in the Council of State, during the administrations of 
Governors Richard Dobbs Spaight (the elder), Samuel Ashe, 
Benjamin Williams, and James Turner. Colonel Branch 
survived the Revolution nearly twenty-five years. He be- 
longed to the Masonic fraternity and was a member of Royal 
White Hart Lodge, ISTo. 2, in the town of Halifax. A con- 
temporaneous newspaper announcement of his death said : 

"Departed this life, on the 14th of March, 1S06, at Elk Marsh, in 
Halifax County, N. Carolina, Col. John Branch, a soldier of the 
Revolution. Of this good man, the voice of panegyric is wont to 


sound praises in the most exalted strain. As a man, lie was brave, 
open, and ingenuous ; as a citizen, active and useful ; as a husband, 
father, and master, he was kind, tender, and afCectionate. The child 
of sorrow found in him a protector ; the man of worth, a sincere 
friend ; the poor and needy sought shelter beneath his hospitable 
roof, and a numerous circle of acquaintances will partake of his 
glad cheer no more forever. His morning sun was fair and un- 
clouded ; its meridian, bright and effulgent ; and its descending rays 
insured him a glorious immortality." 

In the Will of Colonel Branch, he left (among other prop- 
erty) to his son Joseph "ten thousand acres of land in the 
State of Tennessee, on the waters of Duck River." By the 
same will, Joseph was given a 600-acre tract called "The 
Cellar," near Enfield. "The Cellar" or "Cellar Field" was 
afterward owned and occupied by Governor Branch, who 
probably purchased it from his brother. 

Colonel John Branch, Sr., was twice married : first, to 
Eebecca Bradford (daughter of Colonel John Bradford and 
his wife, Patience Reed), and left by her the following five 
children : 

I. James Branch, who was twice married and left an only 
child, who died young, upon which his property (by the 
terms of his Will) reverted to his brothers and sisters. 

II. Martha Branch, who married General Ely Benton 

III. John Branch, Jr., subject of the present sketch, who 
married (first) Elizabeth Foort, and (second) Mrs. Mary 
Eliza Bond, nee Jordan. 

IV. Joseph Branch, who married Susan Simpson O'Bryan, 
and removed to Tennessee, where he died in 1827, at the 
town of Franklin, leaving (among other children) Lawrence 
O'Bryan Branch, of ISTorth Carolina, who became a Brigadier- 
General in the Confederate Army, and was killed at the 
Battle of Sharpsburg, otherwise known as Antietam. 

V. Patience W. Branch, who married the Reverend Daniel 


The second wife of Colonel John Branch, Sr., was Eliza- 
beth ISTorwood, daughter of John ]S[orwood, and a sister of 
Judge William ISTorwood, of Hillsborough, ISTorth Carolina. 
By her he left the three following children : 

I. William Joseph Branch, who married Rosa Williams 

II. Washington Lenoir Branch, who married Martha Anna 

III. Elizabeth Ann Branch, who married (first) Gideon 
Alston, and (second) the Reverend William Burge. 

As already stated, one of the sons of Colonel John Branch 
was John Branch (known as John Branch, Jr., during his 
father's lifetime), and to the latter's career we shall now con- 
fine this sketch. 

It was in the General Assembly of ISTorth Carolina, which 
convened at Raleigh on the 18th of November, 1811, that 
John Branch, our present subject, made his first appear- 
ance in public life, having been elected State Senator from 
the county of Halifax. So acceptable were his services to 
the people of his county that he was repeatedly re-elected. 
Twice during the Second War with Great Britain, in 1813 
and 1814, he was State Senator; and, as such, was a firm 
supporter of the measures of the National and State admin- 
istrations in prosecuting that war. He was chairman of the 
Joint Legislative Committee which presented resolutions of 
censure (December 15, 1813) against the Honorable David 
Stone, in a tone so severe as to cause that gentleman to resign 
from the United States Senate, and make place for a more 
active supporter of the war measures demanded by the people 
of North Carolina. Mr. Branch had attained so high a repu- 
tation that when he was next sent to the State Senate, in 
1815, that body unanimously elected him Speaker — the pre- 
siding officer of the Senate then being called Speaker, instead 
of having the more recent title of President. He was again 
State Senator and again unanimously elected Speaker, at the 


two following sessions of 1816 and 181Y. On tiie 3d of 
December, 1817, while serving his third term as Speaker of 
the State Senate, Mr. Branch was elected Governor of IsTorth 
Carolina by a joint ballot of the General Assembly — the office 
of Governor then being annually filled by the Legislature, 
and not by popular choice. On the day after his election as 
Governor, Mr. Branch sent in his resignation, both as Speaker 
and member of the Senate, whereupon that body unanimously 
passed the following resolution: 

''Resolved, That the thanks of this House be presented to the late 
Speaker thereof, Colonel John Branch, for the able and impartial 
manner in which he has discharged the duties of the chair; and that 
a select committee of this House, composed of Mr. Murphey and Mr. 
Pickett, be appointed to wait on Colonel Branch and make known to 
him this Resolution." 

Mr. Branch was re-elected Governor on l^ovember 24, 
1818; and elected for the third time on ISTovember 25, 1819, 
serving until December 7, 1820. In his official correspond- 
ence, and messages to the General Assembly, we see evidences 
of sagacity and foresight, while the humaneness of his dis- 
position is shown by efforts to secure alterations of the over- 
severe penal laws of the time in which he lived. 

Though Mr. Branch was elected Governor in 1817, he was 
not inaugurated until December 6th in that year, when the 
General Assembly had transacted most of its business, and 
hence it was not until the Legislature of 1818 convened that 
he transmitted his views on public matters, in the shape of 
an annual message, on ISTovember 18th in that year. Concern- 
ing education he then said : 

"In a government like ours, where the sovereignty resides in the 
people, and where all power emanates from, and, at stated periods, 
returns to them for the purpose of being again delegated, it is of the 
last importance to the well being and to the existence of government 
that the public mind should be enlightened. Our sage and patriotic 
ancestors who achieved the liberties of our country, and to whom we 
are indebted for our present benign and happy form of government, 
duly impressed with the magnitude of the subject, and anxiously 
solicitous to impart stability to our institutions, and to transmit to 


posterity the inestimable boon for whlcb they fought and bled, have, 
as regards this subject, with more than parental caution, imposed the 
most solemn obligations on all of those who may be called to admin- 
ister the government. Permit me, therefore, to refer you in a par- 
ticular manner to this solemn injunction contained in the Constitu- 
tion of the State of North Carolina, Article XLI, 'that a school or 
schools shall be established by the Legislature for the convenient 
instruction of youth, with such salaries to the masters, to be paid by 
the public, as may enable them to instruct at low prices ; and all use- 
ful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more 
Universities.' Let it be recollected that by this chart we are bound 
as the servants of the people, under the solemnities of an oath, to 
steer the vessel of state; and when we connect this imperious duty 
with the luminous and impressive appeals which have so often been 
made to the Legislature for the last year or two, I apprehend that 
nothing that I could add would impart additional force. It surely 
will not be denied that it is a subject, of all others, in a republican 
government, of the most vital importance : for it is in this way, and 
this alone, that our republican institutions can be perpetuated, or that 
radical changes can be effected in the morals and manners of the 

In this message tlie Governor also commended the cause of 
internal improvements, dwelt upon the banking system of 
that day and other matters not of present interest, and earn- 
estly recommended that punishments under the criminal law 
should be made less severe. The desirability of establishing 
a penitentiary was also discussed, imprisonment therein to 
supplant the many capital punishments then imposed by the 

It is a fact not generally known that the Supreme Court of 
ITorth Carolina was established in pursuance of a recommen- 
dation contained in the above-mentioned annual message, 
which Governor Branch sent to the Legislature on November 
18, 1818, Before that time, the highest judicial tribunal in 
the State had been called the Supreme Court, but the Su- 
preme Court of North Carolina, in its present form, was not 
organized until the year just mentioned. In his message, 
Governor Branch dwelt at some length on the inconveniences 
of the court procedure then existing, and closed by saying: 
"I will take the liberty of recommending that three additional 


judges be appointed to preside in our Supreme Court, with 
sufficient salaries attached to the offices to command the first 
legal talents of the State." ]^o time was lost by the Legisla- 
ture in acting upon the Governor's recommendation, for Chap- 
ter I. at that session established the Supreme Court, and 
Chapter II. made some supplemental provisions defining its 
jurisdiction. The new Court first convened on January 1, 
1819, John Louis Taylor presiding as Chief Justice, with 
Leonard Henderson and John Hall as Associates — worthy 
fore-runners of the long line of eminent jurists who have 
since given l!^orth Carolina a rank second to none in the judi- 
cial annals of America. 

Governor Branch's interest in the cause of public education 
never flagged ; and, when the next session of the State Legis- 
lature convened, he renewed his former recommendations, 
saying in his annual message, dated I^ovember 17, 1819 : 

"In the first place, as claiming a pre-eminence above all others, 
allow me to call your attention to the subject of the education of 
youth, the only durable basis of everything valuable in a government 
of the people, and to press on your attention the moral and political 
obligations which you are under, created and imposed by the solemn 
injunctions of the Constitution, to patronize and encourage a general 
diffusion of knowledge ; for, when we advert to the languishing con- 
dition of some of our nurseries of science, and observe the apathy 
which prevails in regard to their advancement, it becomes a subject 
of no less astonishment than regret." 

In the same message Governor Branch speaks in terms of 

emphatic condemnation of one of the most oppressive and 

unjust laws of that day, as follows : 

"Imprisonment for debt must be considered as a kind of punishment 
which is inflicted at the mercy of the creditor, and must often be 
exercised upon objects where pity and not punishment is due. In 
truth it seems to be a remnant of that Gothic policy which prevailed 
during the ruder ages of society — a policy as barbarous as it is use- 
less, and it is to me strange that it should so long have been suffered 
to disgrace the code of laws of a State which might otherwise boast 
of its freedom and humanity." 

This message likewise refers to another law, then on the 
statute books, which provided that a person convicted of per- 


jury should have his ears cropped off and nailed to the pillory, 

in these words : 

"The cruel and sanguinary nature of the punishment inflicted on 
those guilty of perjury, and probably some other offences, without 
reference to the different degrees of criminality, are well worthy of 
legislative animadversion. The certainty of punishment, it is uni- 
versally admitted, has more influence in preventing the commission 
of crimes than its severity. Hence it is desirable to apportion, as 
nearly as practicable, the punishment to the enormity of the offence." 

Love for the memory of Washington by the people of ISTorth 

Carolina had moved a former Legislature to provide for the 

making of a marble statue of the Father of his Country, by 

the great sculptor Canova, to be placed in the rotunda of the 

Capitol, and to give an order to the artist Thomas Sully for 

two full-length portraits of the same great patriot — one to 

be hung in each of the two Houses of the General Assembly. 

In a special message, dated ISTovember 23, 1819, Governor 

Branch announced that the statue would soon be ready for 

delivery, and suggested that the State content itself with one 

portrait of Washington. He said : 

"However much we may be disposed to honor the virtue and perpet- 
uate the fame of the immortal patriot, yet it appears to me that it 
will look a little like overdoing the matter to have a marble statue 
and two portraits of the same person in the same building." 

The advice of the Governor was followed by the Legisla- 
ture, which procured one portrait instead of two. This por- 
trait (copied by Sully from Stuart's original) was saved 
from the burning Capitol in which Canova's statue was de- 
stroyed, June 21, 1831, and still adorns the walls of the 
House of Representatives in Raleigh. 

The wisdom and foresight of Governor Branch were strik- 
ingly displayed in his last annual message, November 22, 
1820, when he referred to impostors in the medical profession, 
and urged a system of regulation for the government of physi- 
cians. This was his language : 

"The science of medicine, so vitally interesting to our citizens and 
so well deserving of legislative attention, has as yet, with a few excep- 


tions, passed unnoticed and unprotected. And it must be admitted, 
however unpleasant the admission, that there are but few States in 
the Union, wliere medicine is in a less reputable condition than in 
North Carolina. The question naturally occurs, why is this the case? 
The answer is obvious. Because, in almost every other part of the 
country, a medical education, regularly acquired, and formally com- 
pleted at some public medical university, or satisfactory testimonials 
of professional ability from some respectable and legally constituted 
Board of Physicians, is essential to the attainment of public respect 
and public confidence. 

"Hitherto the time of our annual sessions has been almost exclus- 
ively devoted to the preservation and secvirity of property, while the 
lives, health, and happiness of a numerous and intelligent population 
have been left at the mercy of every pretender ; and thousands and 
tens of thousands of our fellow-citizens, I might say, have fallen vic- 
tims to the empirical efforts of a host of intruders. 

"The youth of our State who have been reared and educated for the 
profession, with that native modesty which I trust will ever charac- 
terize them, advance with becoming diffidence in their avocations, 
while the more adventurous quack, presuming on the ignorance and 
credulity of the people, runs off with the spoil. This certainly in no 
one instance can last long ; but, from the facility with which these 
persons change quarters, and from the eagerness with which aflHicted 
humanity seizes the offered relief, the first fruits are but too often 
gathered by the rash though ignorant practitioner. Under these cir- 
cumstances, what inducements have our young men to trudge up the 
rugged hill of science and spend their time and patrimony in laying 
the foundation for future usefulness? True, the intellectual triumph 
is exquisite ; but, of itself, it is insufficient to sustain the diffident and 
desponding youth who finds himself pressed by so many difficulties, 
and finds, too, that his very sustenance is taken from him by the 
characters above alluded to. 

"Again, it must be mortifying to see our young men constrained to 
abandon their native State in pursuit of medical science abroad, 
where, too often, in reaping the fruits of science, foreign principles 
and foreign habits are formed, not only opposed to the genius and 
spirit of our government, but measurably disqualifying them in other 
respects for useful life — thus exhausting, as it were, the last earn- 
ings of parental industry and frugality to obtain what might, with 
little effort, be as well obtained at home. Let me, however, observe, 
what may be deemed superfiuous, that this Medical Board will not 
prejudice the pretensions of any practitioner of the present day, for 
its operations must necessarily be prospective. 

"This subject presents so many interesting points, and in truth is 
so susceptible of illustration, that I must believe it is only necessary 


to interest the mind of the intelligent statesmen to perceive its im- 

"I am aware that some diversity of sentiment may be expected as 
to the manner in which the Medical Board, above alluded to, should 
be established ; but that it is not only practicable but highly exjye- 
dient, none, I think, can rationally doubt when they advert to the uni- 
form success which has attended the efforts of many of our sister 
States. Let me then entreat you, as the guardians of the people's best 
interests, to give this subject, of all others the most interesting, a 
full, fair, and dispassionate consideration." 

Under the State Constitution then in force, Governor 
Branch was not eligible for more than three terms in succes- 
sion, and in his last message he made (by way of conclusion) 
warm acknowledgments to the Legislature for past honors, in 
the following words: 

"I shall now, gentlemen, close this desultory address ; and, in doing 
so, permit me to tender you, and through you my fellow-citizens 
generally, the unfeigned homage of my respect and gratitude. If, in 
the discharge of the duties attached to the Executive Office, my con- 
duct has been such as to give efficacy to a government of laws — to 
impart in the smallest degree vitality and energy to the benign and 
happy institutions under which we live, and finally to meet the ap- 
probation of my fellow-citizens, I can confidently say that my highest 
ambition will have been gratified, and that my fondest and most 
ardent anticipations have been realized." 

While Mr. Branch filled the Executive Chair in Kaleigh, 
a little incident occurred (communicated to the writer by the 
Governor's granddaughter, Mrs. Eppes) which makes an in- 
teresting story. On going to his tailor's on one occasion, a 
small boy employed in the shop ran out and held his horse. 
After finishing his business, the Governor spoke kindly to the 
little fellow and tossed him half a dollar as he rode away. 
More than forty-five years thereafter, in June, 1865, when 
one of Governor Branch's daughters returned to her home in 
Tennessee, which she had left a few years earlier to be near 
her husband, Major-General Daniel S. Donelson, of the Con- 
federate Army, who had died in 1863, she found the place in 
a state of dilapidation and filth, with wood-work and furnish- 
ings wantonly broken and defaced, and the building occupied 
by a Federal officer, who refused to yield possession of the 


place, though the war was over. Mrs. Donelson had made 
the trip from Florida in wagons, accompanied by some of 
her former slaves, and under the escort of her brother-in-law, 
Mr. Arvah Hopkins. Having occasion to continue his jour- 
ney by rail to 'New York, Mr. Hopkins stopped in Washington 
and obtained an interview with President Johnson, to whom 
he explained the treatment Mrs. Donelson had received. 
After listening attentively, the President had an order issued 
and forwarded by telegraph to the occupant of the Donelson 
house to vacate it immediately, to have the premises cleaned, 
and workmen employed to repair such damage as the place 
had received. Then turning to Mr. Hopkins, he said : "I 
thank you, sir, for telling me of Mrs. Donelson's predicament. 
I woundn't have missed this opportunity of doing a favor to 
a member of Governor Branch's family for anything in the 
world. He gave me the first fifty-cent piece I ever owned." 
Then the "Tailor-Boy President" related to Mr. Hopkins the 
small act of kindness shown by the Governor of a gTeat State 
to little Andy Johnson, a penniless orphan in Raleigh nearly 
half a century before — an act which no doubt escaped Gover- 
nor Branch's own memory less than an hour after it occurred. 
Although Governor Branch's very soul abhorred the cruel 
laws of his day which inflicted punishments, severe out of all 
proportion, for many comparatively trivial crimes, and 
though he freely exercised the pardoning prerogative in such 
cases, no earthly power could move him to interfere where 
he deemed it proper and just for the law to take its course. 
During his term of ofiice, a case arose in Raleigh where an 
intoxicated young white man had stabbed to the heart an in- 
offensive negTO slave, and was sentenced to death therefor. 
A perfect avalanche of petitions and protests from practically 
the entire population of Raleigh was thereupon showered upon 
the Governor, asking a pardon. Among the many who sought 
clemency for the condemned were several State officers, ont 
hundred and twenty-three ladies, and young Frederick Ster- 
ling Marshall, owner of the slave who had been killed. The 
prisoner's youth, his belated contrition and penitence, his al- 


leged temporary "derangement of understanding," tlie in- 
solence and insubordination which the petitioners declared 
would be encouraged among the negroes by putting the life 
of a freeman and of a slave upon the same footing, and many 
other considerations were urgently set forth without avail, 
and the prisoner died on the gallows on the 10th of November, 
1820 — notice being thereby served on the world that all 
human lives, those of the humble and dependent slaves as well 
as of their masters, were under the protection of the law in 
JSTorth Carolina. 

Though always resentful of JSTorthern interference, thought- 
ful men throughout the South were seeking a solution of the 
slavery problem for nearly three-quarters of a century before 
the outbreak of the War between the States. One of the experi- 
ments tried was the organization of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society in 1816, with Judge Bushrod Washington, of 
Virginia, as president. The object of this society was to 
take charge of such negroes as might from time to time be 
emanicipated, and form a colony of them in Africa. Local 
branches of this association were formed in various cities 
throughout the South. On June 12, 1819, the Reverend Wil- 
liam Meade, afterwards Bishop of Virginia (who proved his 
sincerity by freeing his own negroes), visited Raleigh and 
organized a local society. Governor Branch presided over the 
session which was then held, and became first president of the 
Raleigh organization, which later made considerable contri- 
butions in money for the furtherance of the plans set forth in 
the constitution of the society, $1,277.50 being subscribed at 
the first meeting. The full list of officers was as follows : Gov- 
ernor Branch, President; and Colonel William Polk, Chief 
Justice John Louis Taylor, Judge Leonard Henderson, and 
Archibald Henderson, Vice-Presidents. The board of 
managers consisted of State Treasurer John Haywood, Judge 
Henry Potter, General Calvin Jones, General Beverly Daniel, 
the Reverend William McPheeters, Dr. Albridgton S. H. 
Purges, Dr. Jeremiah Battle, the Reverend John Evans, 


Secretary of State William Hill, Thomas P. Devereux, 
Joseph Eoss, and Moses Mordecai. The secretary was Joseph 
Gales, and Daniel Dii Pre was treasurer. This list of officers 
(to which some additions were later made) is set forth in the 
Raleigh Register, of June 18, 1819. 

In the General Assembly of ISTorth Carolina which con- 
vened on the 18th of ISTovember, 1822, Ex-Governor Branch 
was present as State Senator from Halifax County. On De- 
cember 14th, after a prolonged contest, that Legislature 
elected him United States Senator, for a term beginning 
March 4, 1823, as successor to Montfort Stokes, 

From the Annals of Congress, for December 2, 1823, we 
learn that, on that day "John Branch, appointed a Senator 
by the Legislature of the State of North Carolina, for the 
term of six years, commencing on the 4th day of March last, 
produced his credentials, which were read, and the oath pre- 
scribed by law was administered to him". 

It is not the purpose of the present writer to attempt a 
detailed account of Mr. Branch's career in the United States 
Senate. The records show that he was one of the leading de- 
baters in that august body — a body presided over by Calhoun, 
and made up of such men as Thomas H. Benton, Robert Y. 
Hayne, Martin Van Buren, John McPherson Berrien, Hugh 
Lawson White, William Henry Harrison, William P. King, 
l^athaniel Macon, and others of scarcely less note. While in 
the Senate, Mr. Branch advocated, as he had formerly done 
when Governor of IsTorth Carolina, the abolition of imprison- 
ment for debt. Of the pension bill which provided for the 
relief of Pevolutionary officers, to the exclusion of privates, he 
was a pronounced opponent, declaring that "he never would 
consent to place the officer, who had reaped the laurels of 
victory, on a different foundation from the private soldier 
who stood by the flag of his country, stimulated alone by 
patriotism." Internal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment he usually opposed, believing that this class of work 
should be done by the States wherein the improvements 


were made, while harbors, rivers, canals and other waterways 
should receive the care of Congress. It is said that Mr. 
Branch's opposition to the Senate's confirmation of Henry 
Clay as Secretary of State, in 1825, first won for him the 
friendship of Andrew Jackson, between whom and the great 
Kentnckian little love existed. 

When Senator Branch's first term was drawing to an end, 
the General Assembly of l^orth Carolina, on ISTovember 24, 
1828, unanimously re-elected him for six years more, to begin 
on March 4, 1829. He did not enter upon this second 
senatorial term, however, owing to a higher honor which 
fell to his lot a few days after his first term expired. 

On the 9th day of March, 1829, President Jackson sent to 
the United States Senate the nomination of John Branch, 
of l^orth Carolina, for the ofiice of Secretary of the ISTavy. 
This nomination being duly confirmed. Secretary Branch 
went to N^orth Carolina to arrange some private affairs and 
to tender his resignation, as United States Senator, to Gov- 
ernor Owen. The selection of Mr. Branch as a member of 
the President's Cabinet was naturally a source of great 
gratification to his friends in ISTorth Carolina and elsewhere ; 
and, in the month following his appointment, the citizens 
of his native county of Halifax were preparing in his honor 
a great public entertainment, but this proffered courtesy he 
was forced regTetfuUy to decline, owing to a promise to the 
President that he would return to his new post as head of the 
'No.yj Department with the least possible delay. 

In the latter part of December, 1834, while a member of 
the Legislature of 1834-'35, to which he was elected after 
the expiration of his term in Congress which followed his 
Cabinet service, Mr. Branch made a speech in which he gave 
an interesting account of his ofiicial association with Presi- 
dent Jackson. Concerning his appointment as Secretary of 
the i^avy he said : 

"Without solicitation on my part, he [President Jackson] desired 
me to become a member of his Cabinet, and take charge of the Navy 


Department. I returned him my wannest acknowledgments for so 
distixiguislied an evidence of his confidence, but remarked that I 
doubted my ability to discharge the duties of that Department, either 
to my own satisfaction or that of my country, and that I must ask 
time to consult with my friends. To this he consented, and I prom- 
ised to call and give him an answer next evening. The first person I 
asked counsel of was my friend and colleague, Governor Iredell, now 
perhaps within hearing of my voice, a gentleman whose high claims 
to confidence are universally acknowledged, and (to borrow a figure 
of the gentleman from Warren) whose inherent virtues and talents 
rendered him peculiarly fit to perform so delicate an oflice. He un- 
hesitatingly said that, inasmuch as it was the first appointment of 
that grade ever tendered to a citizen of North Carolina, and as it was 
an honor intended to be conferred on the State through me, I was 
not at liberty to decline. The next friend with whom I consulted was 
the Senator from Burke [Samuel P. Carson], then a member of the 
House of Representatives of the United States — a friend indeed I 
may call him, a friend while in favor, but still more a friend when 
in adversity. His merits and just claims on the State I will speak 
of elsewhere. His counsels were substantially the same as those of 
Governor Iredell. I then sought interviews with many others; and, 
finding there was but one opinion among my friends as to the course 
proper for me to pursue, I in due time signified my acceptance of 
the trust." 

On December 1, 1829, Secretary Brancli sent his first 
annual report to President Jackson. It told of the movements 
of various vessels in different parts of the world — the 
Mediterranean Sea, West Indian and South American 
waters, the Atlantic, Pacific, etc. It also gave a list of IsTavy 
Yards and Hospitals, and recommended in the strongest terms 
the establishment of a Naval School, where junior ofiicers 
might be given a finished education, with especial attention 
paid to modern languages. Such instruction, said he, would 
be of gTeat service during foreign cruises, while ofiicers were 
in contact with the representatives of other nations. Many 
of the older officers, the Secretary intimated, were more of a 
hindrance than a help to the service, and should be relieved 
from active duty. He observed, however, that as these officers 
had formerly rendered honorable and useful service to the 
Government, ample provision should be made for their main- 


tenance in retirement. He also recommended a revision of 

the laws respecting the Marine Corps. Piracy had not then 

been blotted out of existence, and he gave some account of 

operations against these depredators on American commerce. 

The pay of ISTaval officers, as compared with officers of relative 

rank in the Army, he said was unjustly inadequate, and 

should be increased. 

In the message to Congress from President Jackson, he 

called attention to the annual report of Secretary Branch, as 

follows : 

"The accompanying report of the Secretary of the Navy will make 
you acquainted with the condition and useful employment of that 
branch of our service during the present year. Constituting, as it 
does, the best standing security of this country against foreign aggres- 
sion, it claims the especial attention of the Government. In this 
spirit the measures which, since the termination of the last war, have 
been in operation for its gradual enlargement, were adopted ; and it 
should continue to be cherished as the offspring of our national expe- 

A few weeks before the entrance of Secretary Branch upon 
his duties as head of the ISTavy Department, Congress took 
its first action toward attempting to lessen the use of strong 
drink among junior officers of the liavy. On February 25, 
1829,* the House of Representatives passed a Resolution in- 
structing the Secretary of the ISTavy "to require three of the 
Medical Officers of the IsTavy, whom he shall designate, to 
report to him their opinions, separately, whether it is nec- 
essary or expedient that 'distilled spirits' should constitute 
a part of the rations allowed to Midshipmen." In pursuance 
of these instructions, Secretary Branch designated Surgeons 
Thomas Harris, William P. C. Barton, and Lewis Heerman ; 
and required them to give their opinions on this point. What 
these opinions were, the present writer has been unable to 
ascertain; but consideration of the same matter, with some 

* Strange to say, the reported proceedings of Congress for Febru- 
ary 25, 1S29, fail to mention this matter, but manuscript letters in 
the Navy Department quote the language of the resolution of that 


additions as to enlisted men, was again taken up by Congress 
one year (to the very day) after its first action. On February 
25, 1830, the Honorable Lewis Condict, a member of Con- 
gress from ISTew Jersey and a physician by profession, in- 
troduced the following resolutions in the House of Represen- 
tatives : 

"1. Resolved, That the Committee on Naval Affairs be instructed to 
inquire into the expediency of inducing the seamen and marines in 
the Navy of the United States voluntarily to discontinue the use of 
ardent spirits, or vinous or fermented liquors, by substituting for it 
double its value in other necessaries and comforts whilst in the ser- 
vice, or in money payable at the expiration of the service. 

"2. Resolved, also. As a further inducement to sobriety and orderly 
deportment in the Navy, as well as with a view to preserve the lives 
and morals of the seamen and marines, that said committee be in- 
structed to inquire into the expedience of allowing some additional 
bounty, in money or clothing, or both, to be paid to every seaman 
or marine, at the expiration of his service, who shall produce from 
his commanding officer a certificate of total abstinence from ardent 
spirits, and of orderly behaviour, during the term of his engagement. 

"3. Resolved, also. That the said committee inquire and report 
whether or not the public service, as well as the health, morals, and 
honor of the Naval officers would be promoted by holding out to the 
Midshipmen and junior officers some further inducements and incen- 
tives to abstinence from all intoxicating liquors." 

In introducing these resolutions. Congressman Condict 
said similar ones had already been before the Committee on 
Military Affairs, which recommended such action with respect 
to the Army; but had refused to make any recommendation 
concerning the 'Nslvj, as the latter branch of the service was 
considered outside of that committee's jurisdiction. What 
effect, if any, these resolutions had, the present writer is un- 
able to say. It was not until some years later that the use 
of liquor on ship-board by enlisted men was peremptorily 
forbidden. In 1914, Secretary of the ISTavy Josephus Daniels 
made a similar prohibitory order applicable to commissioned 
officers also. 

The second (and last) annual report of Secretary Branch 
bears date December 6, 1830, and is much similar in character 
to the first. It contains little matter which would be of 


present interest. ISTot including many antiquated vessels 
which were laid up for repairs, or discarded, the ships then 
actively in commission consisted of five frigates, ten sloops 
of war and four schooners — a very diminutive armament 
when judged by present standards. Indeed, Secretary Branch 
was an avowed opponent of the policy of maintaining a 
large ITavy in days of peace, which was an evidence of his 
wisdom when we consider the fact that he lived in the time 
of wooden vessels, when several hundred ship carpenters 
could build a fleet in a few weeks, as had been demonstrated 
on the Great Lakes during the War of 1812-'15. 

Soon after Jackson's inauguration, a small coterie of his 
personal friends was gathered about him, consisting of Gen- 
eral Duff Green, editor of the United States Telegraph, organ 
of the administration ; Major William B. Lewis, of Tennessee, 
Second Auditor of the Treasury; Isaac Hill, editor of the 
Neiu Hampshire Patriot; and Amos Kendall, Fourth Auditor 
of the Treasury, former editor of a Jackson paper in Ken- 
tucky. As these gentlemen were supposed to have more 
influence over the President's actions than did his official 
advisers, the opposition derisively styled them "the Kitchen 
Cabinet". Some time later, upon the rupture between 
Jackson and Calhoun, Green cast his fortunes with the latter. 
Thereupon, the elder Francis P. Blair came to Washington 
to establish a new administration organ, the Globe, and he 
was afterwards classed as a member of "the Kitchen Cabinet" 
as Green's successor. Of the newspaper war which followed, 
it has been truly said that "there were rich revelations made 
to the public." 

When first inducted into office. President Jackson had made 
up his official family as follows : Martin Van Buren, of 
iN^ew York, Secretary of State; Samuel D. Ingham, of 
Pennsylvania, Secretary of the Treasury; John H. Eaton, 
of Tennessee, Secretary of War ; John Branch, of ISTorth Caro- 
lina, Secretary of the ISTavy; John McPherson Berrien, of 
Georgia, Attorney General ; and William T. Barry, of Ken- 


tucky, Postmaster General. This first Cabinet was later 
dissolved, after a stormy controversy between the President 
and three of these gentlemen — not in consequence of any 
divergence of opinion or disagreements on the public policies 
of the day, but because Mrs. Branch, Mrs. Berrien, and Mrs. 
Ingham refused to pay social visits to Mrs. Eaton, or invite 
her to parties given in their homes. This Mrs. Eaton, wife 
of the Secretary of War, was the daughter of William O'lSTeal, 
a tavern-keeper in Washington, and grew to womanhood in 
her father's establishment. Peggy O'JSTeal, as she was fami- 
liarly known in her younger days, was vivacious, pretty, and 
apparently not possessed of as much prudence and decorum 
as might be desired, in consequence of which the Washing- 
ton gossips (male and female) had whispered light tales 
concerning her for many years past. Her first husband, 
Purser Timberlake of the JSTavy, had committed suicide while 
stationed in the Mediterranean, leaving her with two small 
children. Among the boarders who spent much time at her 
father's inn were General Jackson and Major Eaton. After 
her first husband's death, Major Eaton (then a widower) be- 
came so much enamored of Mrs. Timberlake that he con- 
sulted his friend General Jackson about the propriety of 
seeking her in marriage. The gallant General strongly ad- 
vised such a course. Major Eaton then mentioned — ^what 
was no news to Jackson — that many damaging reports had 
been spread broadcast concerning this lady, and that he him- 
self (Major Eaton) had been credited with being over-inti- 
mate with her. "Well," said Jackson, "your marrying her 
will disprove these charges and restore Peg's good name." 
Accordingly Major Eaton and Mrs. Timberlake were 
married in the month of January, 1829. All went well for 
a while; but, a few months later, when a rumor began to 
gain credence that Major Eaton would be taken into the 
new President's Cabinet, the horror and consternation of 
the ladies of Washington may well be imagined. The matter 
grew even tenser after Eaton's appointment had been an- 


nounced. With the exception of Secretary Van Buren — a 
widower with no daughters — all of the Cabinet officers were 
married men, whose wives were much given to hospitality, 
but their hospitality, even at public receptions, was never ex- 
tended to Mrs. Eaton. When Jackson wrote to John C. 
Calhoun, remonstrating about Mrs. Calhoun's action (or 
rather inaction) in this matter, the Vice President very 
sensibly replied that it was a quarrel among ladies, and he 
would have nothing to do with it. To much the same effect 
was the observation of the Secretary of the ISTavy, when 
first approached on this subject; and later, when President 
Jackson attempted to dictate to him the social course his 
family should pursue, he found a man as headstrong and 
determined as himself in the person of the official whom one 
of Jackson's biographers has (not over-accurately) described 
as "the weak-willed Branch." And it may be said in passing 
while referring to Jackson's biographies, that there seems 
to be no truth wha'tever in the oft-repeated assertion in those 
works that Branch owed his appointment to Eaton's influence. 
Branch was tendered the appointment while Jackson was still 
debating in his mind whether to make Eaton or Hugh Lawson 
White the Secretary of War — a point which he found so 
difficult to decide that he finally left the matter to be settled 
by those gentlemen themselves, when White generously with- 
drew in Eaton's favor. Concerning Branch's own opinion of 
Eaton's appointment, he said in a statement issued in 1831 : 
"Before the President had nominated Major Eaton for the 
War Department, and while the subject might be supposed 
to be under consideration, I took the liberty of stating to 
General Jackson candidly my reasons for believing the selec- 
tion would be unpopular and unfortunate." 

Even the Lady of the White House, Mrs. Andrew Jackson 
Donelson, wife of the President's nephew and private secre- 
tary, refused point-blank to call on Mrs. Eaton, whereupon 
she was promptly sent home to Tennessee, though later 
summoned back to Washington. Of his own family's con- 


nection with this matter, we are fortunate in being able to 

give an account by Secretary Branch himself. He said: 

"About the last of May, my family came on to mingle with a 
society to which they were strangers. They found the lady of the 
Secretary of War, a native of the city, excluded from this society, 
and did not deem it their duty or right to endeavor to control or 
counteract the decisions of the ladies of Washington ; nor did they 
consider themselves at liberty to inquire whether these decisions 
were correct or otherwise. Engaged, as I was continually, with all 
the engrossing affairs of the Navy Department, I did not know at 
night whom my family had visited in the day, nor whom they had 
not; and thus the time passed vnthout, I can confidently assert, the 
least interference on my part, with the matters that belonged 
exclusively to them." 

Though some bachelor members of the diplomatic corps 
(notably those from Great Britain and Russia) extended so- 
cial courtesies to Mrs. Eaton in the shape of dinner parties, 
etc., the wives of other foreign ministers were no more con- 
siderate of her than were the ladies of the Cabinet. Indeed, 
the President so far lost his head in his desperate efforts to 
force Mrs. Eaton upon Washington Society that he seriously 
contemplated sending home the Minister from Holland be- 
cause that diplomat's lady had withdrawn from a dinner at 
the Russian Embassy where Mrs. Eaton was a guest. Balked 
at every turn in his efforts to secure social honors, or at least 
social recognition, for Mrs. Eaton, the President now deter- 
mined to dissolve his Cabinet, and find advisers more sub- 
servient to his wishes in social matters — for no record of 
political disagreement, at that time, between Jackson and his 
Cabinet, can be found. 

The various letters, recorded interviews, newspaper com- 
munications, etc., brought forth by the affair of Mrs. Eaton, 
both before and after her husband's appointment, would 
fill a volume, and the present writer has no desire to weary 
the reader by attempting to set them forth. On April 8, 1831, 
Secretary of War Eaton sent in his resignation; and Secre- 
tary of State Van Buren did the same three days later. Sec- 
retary of the ]!^avy Branch resigned on April 19th ; and At- 


torney General Berrien, then absent from Washington, sent 
the President his resignation on June 15th — Postmaster Gen- 
eral Barry being the only member of the former Cabinet 
who remained in office. In fact the office of Postmaster Gen- 
eral was not included in the Cabinet list before Jackson's 
time. The resignations of Van Buren and Eaton were re- 
ceived with many expressions of regret by the President, who 
later honored both of these gentlemen with other appoint- 
ments. Indeed, it was Jackson's influence which afterwards 
elevated Van Buren to the Presidency as his successor. At 
the time of Branch's resignation, the President intimated his 
willingness to send him on a foreign mission. He also of- 
fered to appoint him Territorial Governor of Florida. These 
proffered honors were declined by Mr. Branch, though he be- 
came Governor of Florida some years later by appointment 
from President Tyler. Regarding his interview with Jack- 
son just before he tendered the President his resignation, 
Secretary Branch has left the following account: 

"He commenced by saying that he had desired my attendance to 
inform me of the resignations of Mr. Van Buren and Major Eaton, 
and then a solemn pause ensued. I could but smile, and remarked 
to him that he was acting in a character nature never intended him 
for ; that he was no more a diplomatist than myself, and I wished him 
to tell me frankly what he meant. This unrestrained manner of mine 
relieved htm ; and, with great apparent kindness, he spoke out his 
purpose, and asked me if there was anything abroad I wanted, adding 
that the commission for Governor of Florida was on his table, and it 
would give him pleasure to bestow it on me. To this I replied that 
I had not supported him for the sake of ofBce, and soon after 

After the close of the interview just mentioned, Secretary 
Branch lost no time in forwarding to the President his resig- 
nation in the following communication : 

Washington, April 19th, 1831. 

In the interview which I had the honor to hold with you this 
morning, I understood it to be your fixed purpose to reorganize your 


Cabinet ; and that, as to myself, it was your wish that I should retire 
from the administration of the Navy Department. 

Under these circumstances, I take pleasure in tendering to you the 
commission, which, unsolicited on my part, you were pleased to con- 
fer on me. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, 

Yours, &c., JOHN BRANCH. 

To the President of the United States. 

Upon receipt of this communication, President Jackson 
replied, upon the same day, in the following letter : 

Washington, April 19th, 1831. 

Your letter of this date, by your son, is just received — accompany- 
ing it is your commission. The sending of the latter was not neces- 
sary ; it is your own private property, and by no means to be con- 
sidered part of the archives of the Government. Accordingly I 
return it. 

There is one expression in your letter to which I take leave to 
except. I did not, as to yourself, express a wish that you should 
retire. The Secretaries of State and of War having tendered their 
resignations, I remarked to you that I felt it to be indispensable to 
reorganize my Cabinet proper ; that it had come in harmoniously, and 
as a unit; and, as a part was about to leave me, which on tomorrow 
would be announced, a reorganization was necessary to guard against 
misrepresentation. These were my remarks, made to you in candor 
and sincerity. Your letter gives a different import to my words. 

Your letter contains no remarks as to your performing the duties 
of the office until a successor can be selected. On this subject I 
should be glad to know your views. 

I am very respectfully yours, 

The Hon. John Branch, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Immediately upon receipt of the letter just set forth, Sec- 
retary Branch sent the President the following reply: 

Washington, April 19th, 1831. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of this date, 
in answer to mine of the same. 

In reply to your remark that there is one expression in my letter 
to which you must except, I would respectfully answer that I gave 


what I understood to be the substance of your conversation. I did 
not pretend to quote your language. I regret that I misunderstood 
you in the slightest degree. I, however, stand corrected, and cheer- 
fully accept the interpretation which you have given to your own 

I shall freely continue my best exertions to discharge the duties of 
the Department until you provide a successor. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, 

Tour obedient servant, 

To the President of the United States. 

The concluding letter of the official correspondence between 
President Jackson and Secretary Branch fully sets forth the 
former's reason for reorganizing the Cahinet, and bears 
testimony to the high opinion entertained by him of the man- 
ner in which the affairs of the l^avy Department had been 
conducted by the retiring Secretary. It was as follows : 

Washington, April 20th, 1831. 

Late last evening I had the honor to receive your letter of that 
date, tendering your resignation of the office of Secretary of the 

When the resignations of the Secretary of State and Secretary of 
War were tendered, I considered fully the reasons offered, and all 
the circumstances connected with the subject. After mature delibera- 
tion, I concluded to accept those resignations. But when this con- 
clusion was come to, it was accompanied with a conviction that I 
must entirely renew my Cabinet. Its members had been invited by 
me to the stations they occupied ; it had come together in great har- 
mony, and as a unit. Under the circumstances in which I found my- 
self, I could not but perceive the propriety of selecting a Cabinet com- 
posed of entirely new materials, as being calculated, in this respect 
at least, to command public confidence and satisfy public opinion. 
Neither could I be insensible to the fact that to permit two only to 
retire would be to afford room for unjust misconception and malig- 
nant representations concerning the influence of their particular pres- 
ence upon the conduct of public affairs. Justice to the individuals 
whose public spirit had impelled them to tender their resignations 
also required then, in my opinion, the decision which I have stated. 
However painful to my own feelings, it became necessary that I 
should frankly make known to you my view of the whole subject. 

In accepting your resignation, it is with great pleasure that I bear 
testimony to the integrity and zeal with which you have managed the 


concerns of the Navy. In your discharge of all the duties of your 
othce over which I have any control, I have been fully satisfied ; and 
in your retirement you carry with you my best wishes for your pros- 
perity and happiness. 

It is expected that you will continue to discharge the duties of your 
office until a successor is appointed. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

It has been said that the social controversy over Mrs. Eaton, 
which terminated in the dissolution of President Jackson's 
Cabinet, had an important bearing on United States history 
for many years thereafter, as it gained for Van Buren the 
Presidency, through the influence of Jackson, and widened 
between Jackson and Calhoun the breach which later resulted 
in the ISTuUification proceedings. 

After winding up his affairs in Washington, Mr. Branch 
returned to his home in Enfield, ISTorth Carolina. IsTot long 
after this, he vtrrote a full account of his experiences in and 
retirement from the Cabinet to his friend, Edmund B. Free- 
man, then residing in the town of Halifax and later Clerk of 
the Supreme Court of ITorth Carolina. This letter was 
first published in the Roanohe Advocate^ of which Mr. Free- 
man was editor, afterwards being copied in the Raleigh 
Register, of September 1, 1831, in Niles' Register, of Septem- 
ber 3, 1831, and other publications of that day. It is here 

given in full : 

Enfield, August 22, 1831. 
Dear Sir: 

Of the causes which led to the dissolution of the late Cabinet, I 
have never entertained a doubt. I will briefly state the reasons I 
have for my opinion, and leave you to judge of them as well or as 
ill founded. Before the President had nominated Major Eaton for the 
War Department, and while the subject might be supposed to be 
under consideration, I took the liberty of stating to General Jackson 
candidly my reasons for believing the selection would be unpopular 
and unfortunate. I reminded the President that he knew I was the 
friend of Major Eaton, and personally preferred him to either of the 
others proposed for his Cabinet; and, of course, nothing I should 
say on the subject ought to be construed into an intention to injure 


Mm (Major Eaton), but, on the contrary, to save Mm from infinite 
vexation and annoyance, which, it was too plain, were in store for 
Mm if he took a seat in the Cabinet under the circumstances in which 
he was placed. The President admitted that charges had been made 
against the character of Mrs. Eaton, but insisted on it they were 
slanders, and that he ought not to notice them. I did not perceive 
at the time that he was hurt by the frankness or nature of my com- 
munication, though I afterwards learned that he had become offended 
with, and had discarded from his acquaintance, several of his old and 
best friends who had used the like freedom of speech on this subject. 
My remonstrances, it is known, were without efi:ect, and Major Eaton 
was soon after formally appointed Secretary of War. Before this 
was done, however, I made an appeal to Major Eaton himself, and 
without reserve disclosed my apprehensions to him, adding that I 
did not pretend to intimate that there was the least truth in these 
reports ; but, if utterly false, they would still have an effect on the 
President's peace and quiet, as he must know what use the opposition 
wH>uld make of it ; that I believed it was impossible he could be willing 
to subject General Jackson to such a state of things ; that he could 
not have forgotten how much General Jackson had been distressed 
by the calumnies and ill reports which had been formerly circulated 
about Mrs. Jackson ; that, since the death of that lady, those reports 
had subsided, and would soon be heard of no more ; that General 
Jackson knew the same kind of reports and imputations had pre- 
vailed with respect to Mrs. Eaton; that if he (Major Eaton) entered 
into the Cabinet, the enemies of the President would not fail to make 
a handle of it, and thus revive, in the General's bosom, recollections 
which could not be but painful and distressing ; and which could not 
fail to disturb the tranquility and usefulness of his administration. 
My remarks were received apparently with the same kindness and 
courtesy which characterized my manner, but they no doubt laid the 
foundation of that hostility which afterwards became active and un- 
extinguishable. From the moment of Major Eaton's appointment, 
General Jackson began to use his utmost efforts to bring Mrs. Eaton 
into public favor and distinction. He frequently spoke of the neglect 
Mrs. Eaton received when she attempted to appear at public places. 
He did not fail to intimate that it would be a most acceptable service 
rendered him if the members of his Cabinet would aid in promoting 
this object. I felt greatly embarrassed by such appeals to myself. 
It was impossible for me to comply with his wishes on this point, but 
it was, nevertheless, painful for me to say so. In any other matter 
in which I could, with a proper respect for myself and the feelings 
of my family, have complied with an intimation of his desire, no 
one would have done so more cheerfully than myself. By way of di- 
verting his mind, I several times spoke of the difficulty he would 
experience in attempting to regulate the intercourse of the ladies; 


that they were, in matters of that kind, uncontrollable and omnipo- 
tent ; that he would find less difficulty in fighting over again the 
Battle of New Orleans. Soon after it was ascertained that Mrs. 
Eaton could not be received into the society of the families of the 
members of the Cabinet, Major Eaton's conduct to me discovered an 
evident change in his friendly feelings, and became cold, formal, and 
repulsive. I repeatedly threw myself into his company, and endeav- 
ored to assure him that I still had the most sincere desire to be on 
friendly terms with him, and wished for opportunities to convince 
him of the sincerity of my professions. In this course there was no 
guile — no view but that which my words fairly imported. I most 
sincerely regretted the state of public feeling towards Mrs. Eaton, 
but it was not within my power to control or soften It. It was a sen- 
timent resting in the breast of the female community of Washington 
City and the Nation, which was not to be suppressed or obliterated. 
After this. Major Eaton's enmity to myself became every day more 
and more apparent. I could hear frequently of declarations to this 
effect, and of his determination to be revenged. It is true these 
reports came to me circuitously and indirectly, but I could not, from 
circumstances, doubt their truth. 

At length came the mission by Colonel Johnson, the substance of 
which has already been given to the public by Messrs. Ingham and 
Berrien. I will only add to their statements that I distinctly under- 
stood Colonel Johnson to say that he came to us from the President 
of the United States, authorized by him to hold the interview ; and, 
unless our difficulties in reference to Mrs. Eaton could be adjusted, 
that Mr. Ingham, Judge Berrien, and myself must expect to retire. 
When he closed his remarks, I well recollect rising from my seat, and, 
with an earnestness of manner which the extraordinary character of 
the communication was so well calculated to produce, observed, 
among other things, that no man had a right to dictate to me and 
my family, in their domestic relations, and that I would submit to 
no control of the kind. The Colonel undertook to reason the matter 
with us by observing that, although it might be impracticable to 
establish intimate and social relations between our families and Mrs. 
Eaton, he could see no reason why she should not be invited to our 
large parties, to which everybody was usually invited, Tom, Dick, 
Harry, &c. With this concession, he said, the President would be 
satisfied. We protested against the interference of the President in 
any manner or form whatever, as it was a matter which did not 
belong to our official connection with him, soon after which Colonel 
Johnson expressed his deep regret at the failure of his mission, and 
we separated. 

I waited until Friday, a day having intervened, in expectation of 
hearing from the President ; but, receiving no message, I walked 
over, in hopes that an opportunity would offer to put an end to my 


unpleasant state of feeling. I found the President alone. He re- 
ceived me with his wonted courtesy, though evidently but ill at ease. 
In a few minutes the absorbing subject was introduced. Among other 
things, he spoke in strong language of the purity of Mrs. Eaton's 
character and the baseness of her slanderers, and presently men- 
tioned a rumor, which he said had been in circulation, of a combina- 
tion to exclude her from society. Several parties, he said, had been 
recently given, among others three by Mr. Ingham, Judge Berrien, 
and myself, to which she had not been invited ; and from this it was 
strongly inferred that we had combined to keep her out of society. 
I told him that, so far as I was concerned, I believed my family were 
doing no more than the members of Congress, the citizens of Washing- 
ton, and visitors to the seat of Government, had a right to expect from 
me as a member of his Cabinet. It was certainly in accordance with 
universal custom ; and that, as to a combination, I knew of none ; 
that I could never acknowledge the right of any one to interfere in 
matters affecting the private and social arrangements of my family ; 
and that, before I would be dictated to, or controlled in such matters, 
/ would abandon Ms Cabinet, and was ready to do so whenever he 
desired it, and added several other strong remarks of a similar char- 
acter. He assured me, in reply, that he did not desire it; that he 
was entirely satisfied ivith the manner in which I had discharged 
my official duty, and that he did not claim the right to dictate to us 
in our social relations, but that he felt himself bound to protect the 
family of Major Eaton, as he would mine under similar circum- 
stances. I then informed him that Colonel Johnson had formally an- 
nounced to Mr. Ingham, Judge Berrien, and myself, that it was his 
intention to remove us from office for the cause mentioned, and I had 
learned from Mr. I. the evening before, who derived his informa- 
tion from the Colonel, that he had gone so far as to make temporary 
arrangements for the Departments, viz., Mr. Dickins for the Treas- 
ury, Mr. Kendall for the Navy, and some one else for Attorney Gen- 
eral. This the President denied, and said he would send for Colonel 
Johnson, and for that purpose called for a servant. When the ser- 
vant came, I observed it was unnecessary to send for the Colonel — 
his word was sufficient. "Well," said he, "if you are satisfied." I 
told him I was. We continued our conversation for some time. I 
attempted, on that occasion, as I had done several times before, to 
convince him of the impropriety of his interfering at all in a question 
of such a delicate character, but his feelings were evidently too much 
enlisted to w^igh any reasons which might be offered. 

I have already informed the public that no paper was presented to 
me, or read to me, or alluded to, having reference to the future con- 
duct of the members of the Cabinet. On this head I cannot be mis- 
taken. I may add that the President constantly insisted on the neces- 
sity of harmony among the members of the Cabinet. Here I cannot 


refrain from a remark upon this injunction of the President, that 
Major Eaton was the only dissatisfied member of the Cabinet, the 
only one who carried complaints to the President of the conduct of 
others, the only one who employed his efforts to bring us to discredit 
with the public or the President. Among the others the utmost 
civility and sociability prevailed. No one annoyed him (Major Eaton) 
or made any effort to embarrass the operations of his Department 
or in any manner acted towards him as inimical or deficient in re- 
spect ; and yet we are to be punished for the discordances of the 
Cabinet. Can any decision be more arbitrary and unjust? 

A few days after this interview with the President, Colonel Johnson 
came into the Navy Department, and as he entered I rose to receive 
him. With his wonted cordiality of manner he expressed his satis- 
faction at the pacific aspect of our relations. I observed to him, with 
a smile, that the President denied having authorized him to make 
such a communication as he had made. He good-humoredly replied, 
"Let it pass ; I presented it to you in the most favorable light," and, 
as he was hurried, here the conversation ended. 

About the same time I had an interview with Major Eaton, in the 
presence of Judge Berrien and Major Barry. This was brought about 
by the President. Major Eaton, it seems, had complained to him, 
either directly or indirectly, that at a party given by my family the 
last of September or the first of October, 1829,* to the family of a 
most estimable friend and relation of mine, from Nashville, Tennes- 
see, who was on a visit to Washington City, the Rev. J. N. Campbell, 
then of that place, now of Albany, N. Y., was among the invited 
guests. The circumstances were these : Mr. Campbell, who had re- 
sided in the city for some years previous to General Jackson's inaugu- 
ration, was the pastor of a church, and such was his reputation that 
the President and three members of his Cabinet, viz., Mr. Ingham, 
Judge Berrien, and myself, took pews and became regular attend- 
ants at his church. In the course of his ministry he formed an 
acquaintance with my family, and occasionally visited them. He hap- 
pened there while my friend Hill and his family were with us, con- 
tracted an acquaintance with them ; and, when the party alluded to 
was given, my daughters invited him. He attended, and took the 
liberty of carrying with him his friend Dr. Ely, of Philadelphia, who 
had just arrived. I knew no more of his being invited than of any 
other person who happened to be present. He was, however, not the 
less welcome on that account, nor was his friend Dr. Ely. Neither of 
these gentlemen require a recommendation where they reside. Mr. 
Campbell is known to be a learned, pious, and most eloquent divine. 
Some short time after the party, I heard, very much to my surprise, 
that Major Eaton and some of his partisans were enraged with me. 

*Mr. Branch later corrected this statement, saying September 8, 
1829, was the exact date. M. DeL. H. 


and threatened my destruction, because Mr. Campbell and Dr. Ely 
were at my house as above stated. I could scarcely credit the report, 
until it was mentioned to me by the President, when 1 emphatically 
asked him who questioned my right to invite whom I pleased to my 
house? He testily observed, No person; but, as there was some mis- 
understanding between Major Eaton, Mrs. E., and Mr. Campbell, that 
he (Major E.) thought it evinced hostility to him. At the interview 
above alluded to, between Major Eaton, Judge Berrien, Major Barry, 
and myself, Major Eaton mentioned the circumstances of Mr. Camp- 
bell and Dr. Ely being at my house on the occasion referred to. I 
asked Major Eaton, in the most frank and friendly manner, if this 
was his only complaint, and if he would be satisfied, provided I 
convinced him he was in error, assuring him at the same time that 
he had no right to consider me as being under the influence of un- 
friendly feelings towards him ; that, on the contrary, he ought to know 
my personal attachment for him, before the Cabinet was formed ; 
and further, if he would obtain the consent of his brother-in-law, 
Major Lewis, to read a confidential correspondence which passed be- 
tween Major L. and myself, in the Winter of 1827-'28, on this disturli- 
ing subject, he would then be convinced of the disinterestedness and 
correctness of my course, and of its entire conformity to that friend- 
ship and good will which had so long subsisted between us. I might 
have gone further and said that Major Lewis, in the Winter of 
1827-'28, when there could be no unworthy motive to mislead either 
of us, considered Mrs. Eaton an unsafe associate for his daughter, 
although he was now endeavoring to induce General Jackson to drive 
me out of the Cabinet because I would not compel my daughters to 
associate with her. Major Eaton would not say whether he would 
be satisfied or not, and the explanation was withheld. But as we 
were about to separate, he offered me his hand in a more cordial 
manner than he had done for some months previous. I have no 
doubt that Major Eaton, in tendering his resignation, stipulated for 
the dismissal of the three offensive members of the Cabinet. Mr. 
Van Buren, also, I have reasons to believe, urged the adoption of this 
measure. This gentleman had discovered that the three members of 
the Cabinet (afterwards ejected) disdained to become tools to sub- 
serve his ambitious aspirings, and he determined to leave them as lit- 
tle power to defeat his machinations as possible. It is said to be a 
part of his character to tolerate politically no one who will not enter 
heart and soul into measures for promoting his own aggrandisement. 
He had become latterly the almost sole confidant and adviser of the 
President. How he obtained this influence might be a subject of 
curious and entertaining inquiry. But I shall not pursue it. I may 
add, however, that amongst the means employed, were tne most de- 
voted and assiduous attentions to Mrs. Eaton, and unceasing efforts 
to bring her into notice, especially with the families of the foreign 


Finally, when the President found that his efforts to introduce Mrs. 
Eaton into society proved abortive, he became every day less com- 
municative, and more and more formal in his hospitalities until there 
could be no doubt that, as to myself, an unfriendly influence had 
obtained an ascendancy in his private councils, and the result shows 
that he had determined to sacrifice me to gratify the feelings of those 
whom I had offended as stated above. 

I may at some future time add to these views. At present I take 
my leave, with assurances of great respect and esteem. 

Yours, &c., 
To Edmund B. Freeman, Esq., JOHN BRANCH. 

Halifax Town. 

P. S. — I have not considered it necessary to notice a charge made 
in The Globe, against Judge Berrien, of suppressing a material part 
of a letter which I wrote to him, and my substituting another iu its 
stead. If any person has been misled by this bold accusation of the 
editor of The Globe, and is desirous of obtaining correct information, 
he has my permission to read the whole letter, although it was not 
intended to be made public. 

'For some years the bitter feelings, caused by the disruption 
of the Cabinet, survived, and came near causing a duel be- 
tween Ex-Secretary Branch and Senator Forsyth, of Georgia, 
in the year following, while Mr. Branch was serving as a 
member of Congress, to which office he had been elected after 
his resignation from the Cabinet. The newspapers published 
what purported to be a speech made by Senator Forsyth, in an 
executive session of the Senate, on the nomination of Martin 
Van Buren as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary to the Court of St. James, in which Forsyth was quoted 
as referring to "a late Secretary" as a "volunteer repeater of 
confidential conversations with the Chief Magistrate." Upon 
having this called to his attention, Mr. Branch addressed the 
following communication to Senator Forsyth : 

Washington City, February 5th, 1832. 

I have read the printed report of your speech, prepared by you for 
the press, purporting to be the remarks which you made in the Senate, 
in secret session, on the nomination of Martin Van Buren as Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James. 


The notice which you take of a conversation referred to in the debate 
by Mr. Poindexter, Senator from Mississippi, requires that I should 
ask of you to state to me, explicitly, whether you did or did not know, 
or had reason to believe at the time you wrote out your speech for 
publication, that I was the "somebody, one of the late Secretaries" to 
whom you refer as the volunteer repeater of confidential conversa- 
tions with the Chief Magistrate? 

Your reply to this communication will regulate my future action on 
this subject. 

I am respectfully yours, &c., 

Hon. John Forsyth. 

This note was conveyed to Senator Forsjth by the Honor- 
able Samuel P. Carson, a Representative in Congress from 
]N^orth Carolina, who also had a verbal discussion of the sub- 
ject with the Georgia Senator, who did not consider it con- 
sistent with self respect to make any explanation while the 
implied threat, with which Mr. Branch's note concluded, was 
allowed to stand. By the hands of Congressman William S. 
Archer, of Virginia, he sent to Colonel Carson the following 

communication : 

Washington, February 5th, 1S32. 
Dear Sir : 

Although perfectly satisfied with your verbal declaration, on reflec- 
tion, since w« separated this morning, I think it indispensable that 
the concluding paragraph in the enclosed letter should be omitted, or 
that your remarks to me on the subject of it should be in writing 
before an answer to it is transmitted to you. 

I return it to you to adopt either course that may be most agreeable 
to you. 

I am, dear sir, very sincerely, 

Hon. Mr. Carson. 

After consultation with Colonel Carson, Mr. Branch con- 
sented to withdraw the objectionable paragraph, it being con- 
sidered immaterial, and Carson replied to Forsyth as follows : 

House of Representatives, February 6th, 1S32. 
Dear Sir: 

If the simple interrogatory contained in the letter of Governor 
Branch, would be more acceptable to you, without the paragraph 


with which it concludes, I am authorized, as his friend, to state to 
you that that paragraph may be considered as stricken from his note, 
not deeming it essential to the substance of his inquiry. 

Very respectfully, 
Hon. John Forsyth. SAM'L P. CARSON. 

P. S. — Tour note was not handed to me till this day, since the meet- 
ing of the House. 

Feeling now free to answer Mr. Branch's letter, Senator 
Forsyth sent this reply to the inquiry therein contained : 

Washington, February 6th, 1832. 

I have received your note by Colonel Carson. 

The remarks of mine, to which you point my attention, were made 
in answer to Mr. Poindexter, and intended to apply to the person 
referred to by him, without knowledge of that person, on my part, 
then, or at the time my remarks were prepared for the press. 

I am very respectfully yours, &c., 

Hon. Mr. Branch. 

On the day after Senator Forsyth's reply was written, 

another note from Mr. Branch was conveyed to him in these 

words : 

Washington, February 7th, 1832. 

In your answer to my note by Colonel Carson, you state that you 
did not know that I was the person referred to by Governor Poin- 
dexter as having held a conversation with the President. It being 
now made known to you that I was the person, I wish to inquire 
whether you feel yourself at liberty to disavow the application of 
those remarks to me? 

I am respectfully, &c., JOHN BRANCH. 

Hon. John Forsyth. 

The matter was concluded to the satisfaction of all parties 

when, on the same day, Senator Forsyth sent the following 

disclaimer : 

Washington, February 7th, 1832. 

Your note of this morning informs me that you were the person 
referred to by Mr. Poindexter in the observations alluded to in your 


former notes, and inquires whether I feel at liberty to disclaim the 
application to you of my remarks in reply. 

Having submitted the subject to some of my friends, who unite in 
thinking that the inference from the observations of Mr. Poindexter, 
under which my remarks were made, that the conversation referred 
to had been confidential, was not warranted, and satisfied that the 
view of the subject is correct, I have no hesitation in disclaiming the 
application to you of the charge, imported by these remarks, of hav- 
ing repeated a confidential conversation. 

I am respectfully, &c., 

Hon. John Branch, 

House of Representatives. 

The above correspondence, made public by Messrs. Carson 
and Archer, first appeared in The United States Telegraph. 
Later it was copied in Niles' Weekly Register, of February 
11, 1832. 

It was doubtless a source of satisfaction to the friends of 
both parties that the controversy between Mr. Branch and 
Senator Forsyth was adjusted in a manner honorable to both 
gentlemen, and probably to none so much as to Colonel Carson, 
who, less than fours years ibefore, in cons.equence of some as- 
persions cast on the honor of his aged father, had challenged 
and killed Ex-Congressman Robert Brank Vance — a circum- 
stance which marred his happiness throughout the remainder 
of his life. 

\A'liile speaking of the practice of duelling, it may be men- 
tioned that Mr. Branch, during his term as Senator, was one 
of the party of gentlemen who witnessed the famous duel be- 
tween Henry Clay and John Randolph in 1826. 

Upon the retirement of Secretary Branch from the Cabinet 
of President Jackson, he returned to ISTorth Carolina, and was 
received with every mark of consideration and honor by the 
people of his native State. Under date of August 18, 1831, 
the citizens of Bertie County, through a committee of their 
number, sent him an invitation to become the guest of honor 
at a banquet which they wished to give at the town of Windsor 
as a testimonial to his worth, or (to quote the language of the 


invitation) for the "purpose of expressing their high regard 
for his private virtues, as well as the high opinion which they 
entertained of his firm and undeviating course, prominently 
displayed in many important services rendered his State, 
and more especialy by his late demonstration of attachment 
to those principles which had always governed him." On 
August 20th, Mr. Branch replied that, under the most 
auspicious circumstances of his life, such marked kindness 
could not fail to be highly acceptable; but the fact of his 
having been recently expelled from the Cabinet of the Presi- 
dent by the ascendency of certain "malign influences" and 
of still being pursued in his retirement with a fiendlike 
vengeance, bent on the destruction of his good name, nothing 
could be more gTateful to his feelings than the generous con- 
fidence and support of those who had known him from his 
earliest entrance into public life. Sickness in his family, he 
said, now required his undivided attention and would soon 
render necessary a trip to another climate. Hence he would 
have to forego the high gratification he should otherwise 
experience in making his acknowledgments to friends gathered 
around the festive board. A few months after this, Mr. 
Branch went on a visit to Tennessee. On October 4th, he de- 
layed his trip in Raleigh long enough to call attention, through 
the Raleigh Register of October 6th, to the fact that in a 
lengthy statement recently issued by Ex-Secretary Eaton, 
the latter, in publishing a letter written by Mr. Branch to 
Jackson, had altered the date and thereby made it appear 
that Branch was so lacking in self-respect as to continue ex- 
pressing feelings of ardent friendship for the President two 
days after that official had shown him marked discourtesy 
in an interview on the all-disturbing topic of Mrs. Eaton. 
As a matter of fact, the letter was written two days before 
the interview took place, and at a time when Mr. Branch 
had every reason to count the President among his best 


While on his way to Tennessee, Mr. Branch passed through 
Asheville (where the Superior Court was in session), and 
his admirers in that vicinity tendered him a public enter- 
tainment, but circumstances rendered it impossible for him 
to accept the proffered courtesy. 

In August, 1831, a signal honor was paid Mr. Branch when 
the Honorable Jesse A. Bynum and other candidates for Con- 
gress in the Halifax District voluntarily withdrew from the 
race and caused his unanimous election to the I^ational House 
of Representatives. Mr. Branch entered upon his new duties 
at the first session of the Twenty-second Congress, which 
assembled on the 5th of the following December. Having long 
been a conspicuous figiire in ]!^ational politics, he at once took 
high rank in his new station. During the course of his service 
he was a debater on many bills and resolutions which came 
before that body, including banking laws, Indian affairs, 
the tariff, naval affairs, &c., all of which were important in 
their day but which would not be of interest if set forth at 
length in this sketch. 

When men first began to make use of steam power, numer- 
ous conjectures were made as to what purpose it would serve ; 
and, in 1832, a bill was introduced in Congress to authorize 
the ISTavy Department to expend $111,704 in the fitting out 
of a steam frigate and the construction of two "steam bat- 
teries." On June 21st, in the year just mentioned, Congress- 
man Branch called up this bill and advocated its passage. 
He said that Secretary of the N'avy Woodbury wished the 
experiment made, to ascertain whether steam power might not 
successfully be introduced as a means of naval defense. With 
keen foresight he further declared: "It is admitted on all 
hands that, sooner or later, this newly discovered power will 
be introduced, if not in offensive, certainly in defensive war- 
fare, and I think the contemplated experiment worth mak- 
ing". These so-called "steam batteries" were small vessels, 
not much more than barges, propelled by steam and carrving 
small batteries, to be used chiefly for coast defense. Seven 


years later, in 1838, Secretary of the ISTavy Dickerson also 
recommended the construction and equipment of this type 
of defensive craft. 

At the expiration of his term in the ISTational House of 
Eepresentatives, Mr. Branch declined to become a candidate 
for re-election. This left the field open to the Honorable 
Jesse A. Bynum and Colonel Andrew Joyner; and, in the 
contest which followed, Mr. Bynum was victorious. 

In the year following his retirement from Congress, Mr. 
Branch made his last appearance as a member of the Legis- 
lature of ISTorth Carolina, taking his seat in the State Senate 
which convened in the month of November, 1834, and con- 
tinued its sittings into the early part of 1835. The General 
Assembly of the year just mentioned had many distinguished 
members, who were chiefly interested in the question of call- 
ing a State Constitutional Convention in 1835, which was 
accordingly done. In this Legislature was also a bitter fight 
over the proposition to instruct United States Senator Willie 
P. Mangum to vote for expunging the resolution of censure 
against President Jackson for removing from ofiice the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, William J. Duane, and withdrawing 
Government deposits from the banks. There was much dis- 
cussion among the ISTorth Carolina legislators as to the pro- 
posed instructions to expunge, and Mr. Branch (an ardent 
advocate of States' Rights, now allied with the Calhoun 
faction) made a notable speech opposing the proposed in- 
structions to Senator Mang-um. In this speech he gave a 
full narrative of his past connection with Jackson, and his 
remarks attracted wide attention. The Raleigh Star and 
North Carolina Gazette, of December 25, 1834, said Mr. 
Branch's speech was the "topic of conversation in every 
circle", and the same paper of February 12, 1835, gave the 
speech in full, remarking editorially: "It is an able pro- 
duction, and, as it comes from one whose sound republicanism, 
unimpeachable veracity, and sterling integrity, his bitterest 
political enemies would not dare to question, the extraordinary 


facts which he narrates cannot fail to produce a powerful 
effect upon the public mind." ISTotwithstanding the opposi- 
tion of the faction led by Branch, the Jacksonians were vic- 
torious, triumphantly carrying the resolution of instruction, 
which Senator MangTim refused to obey after it was passed. 

On the 4th day of June, 1835, the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of ISTorth Carolina assembled in Ealeigh. In this body 
were many of the State's ablest and most disting-uished 
citizens. John Branch was the delegate from Halifax 
County. On the opening day of the session he placed 
in nomination for President of that body the venerable 
ISTathaniel Macon, his old senatorial colleague, who was unan- 
imously elected. Mr. Branch took a prominent part in the 
deliberations and debates of the Convention. Annual sessions 
of the General Assembly he strongly favored. Of his position 
on this point the Convention Journal says: "He believed 
that annual sessions of the Legislature were well calculated 
to keep in check Federal usurpations. The powers of the 
General Government are constantly increasing and American 
liberty depends on the preservation of State Rights and State 
Powers." The speaker declared that he was no disorganizer, 
but favored keeping a constant watch on the Federal power. 
He advocated the abolition of borough representation in the 
Legislature though in his own county was one of the 
"borough towns." On the subject of the Thirty-second Section 
of the Constitution, aimed at Roman Catholics and providing 
a religious test for office-holders, he said he had risen 
from an attack of illness to vote for its repeal. He realized, 
as all men did, that this section had always been inoperative 
(Burke, Gaston, and possibly other Roman Catholics having 
held office without molestation on account of their religious 
views), but he declared that the section ought to be expunged 
from the Constitution as unworthy to remain in it. When, 
however, a Christian test was proposed to be substituted in 
its place, Mr. Branch declared that he could not conscien- 
tiously vote for the substitute. "Striking out the word 



Protestant and inserting the word Christian would not cnre 
the evil," said he, and asked: "Why are the Jews to be 
excluded from office ? They were the favored people of the 
Almighty. Our Savior and His disciples were Jews; and 
are there not men among the Jews as talented, as virtuous, aa 
well qualified to fill any office in our Government, as any 
other citizen in our community? A Jew may be appointed 
to any office under the General Government. He may be 
raised to the Presidency of the United States. And why shall 
we refuse to admit him to any office under our Government ?" 
The speaker added : "I am opposed to all religious tests for 
office, and shall therefore vote against this amendment." In 
this Convention, Mr. Branch opposed the proposition to de- 
prive free negroes of the right to vote, provided they possessed 
property, saying "he was willing to keep the door open to 
the most intelligent free men of color, but was unwilling 
to part with the freehold qualification." His membership 
in this Constitutional Convention was the last public office 
ever held by Mr. Branch in ISTorth Carolina, though he was 
once more a candidate before the people of the State. 

The amended State Constitution, which was duly ratified 
by the people in a general election, provided that the office 
of Governor should be filled by popular vote, and not by the 
Legislature as theretofore; and Edward B. Dudley, of Wil- 
mington, was elected by the Whigs over the Democratic 
nominee, Ex-Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight, (the younger) 
in 1836. In 1838, Governor Dudley, who had ably ad- 
ministered the affairs of his office, was a candidate for re- 
election, and Mr. Branch (still legally a citizen of the State 
though absent much of the time in Florida) was nominated 
by the Democrats to oppose him ; but the Whigs were again 
victorious. After this defeat, Mr. Branch was never again 
a candidate for public office in IN^orth Carolina, though a 
post of high honor in Florida was soon to be conferred on 
him — a post which had been tendered him before, in 1831, 
but which was declined at that time. 


In 1836, when Martin Van Buren was the nominee of the 
Democratic party for President, being given this honor 
chiefly through Jackson's influence, John Branch voted 
against that candidate ; but, by 1840, when Van Buren was 
again the choice of his party for President, Mr. Branch's 
resentment against his old associate in the Cabinet had so far 
cooled down that he returned to the Democratic ranks and 
gave him his unqualified support. 

The present sketch has heretofore dealt with the public 
career of Governor Branch in North Carolina and at the 
I^ational Capital, and it may be well now to say something 
of his personal history and domestic life before we treat 
of his later services as Governor of Florida. In telling of 
these private aspects of his life, the present writer wishes 
to make acknowledgments, for valuable assistance, to the 
Governor's granddaughter, Mrs. l^icholas Ware Eppes (nee 
Bradford), of Tallahessee, Florida, a lady of rare intelligence, 
who in childhood and youth was thrown into close association 
with her grandfather, and probably has a better first-hand 
knowledge of his life and character than any other person 
now living. 

Though born in the town of Halifax, Governor Branch's 
early childhood was spent at Elk Marsh, his father's country- 
seat near Enfield, in Halifax County. He is said to have 
been a slender, delicate little lad, very studious, and given 
to thinking deeply on any subject that interested him. After 
a preparatory education in a neighboring "old field school," 
he entered the University of ISTorth Carolina, at Chapel Hill, 
a few years after the establishment of that renowned insti- 
tution, and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts 
in 1801. His loyalty to his Alma Mater was lifelong. He 
was ex officio Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Uni- 
versity when Governor, from 181Y to 1820, and remained a 
member of that Board until absence from ISTorth Carolina 
in 1844 made him ineligible for further service. Time and 
again he attended the commencement exercises, and was 


probably tbe oldest living graduate for some years prior to 
his death, which occurred sixty-two years after the com- 
pletion of his University course. 

After his graduation from the University of ISTorth Caro- 
lina, young Branch returned home, and soon went to the 
neighboring county of Franklin, where he became a student 
of law under Judge John Haywood, a native of Halifax 
County, who then held a seat on the Superior Court Bench 
of !N^orth Carolina and was afterwards a Judge of the 
Supreme Court of Tennessee. Law, however, seems not to 
have been to the liking of Mr. Branch, and he soon entered 
the more active field of politics, also taking a deep interest in 
the management of his extensive landed estates. His first 
wife (the mother of all his children), to whom he was married 
on April 6, 1803, was Elizabeth Foort, daughter of John 
Foort, Jr., a gentleman of Scottish descent, residing in Hali- 
fax, whose wife, Margaret Randolph, was a daughter of Dr. 
Richard Randolph, of Virginia. At the time of his marriage 
Mr. Branch was only twenty years old, and his wife sixteen, 
she having been born on January 1, 1787. The youthful 
pair took up their abode on the "Cellar Field" plantation near 
Enfield. In worldly possessions they were not lacking, Mr. 
Branch having inherited a good estate from his mother and 
later from his brother James, and Mrs. Branch being a 
woman of wealth in her own right — her father having died 
before her marriage. Mrs. Eppes, whom we have already 
mentioned, says of her grandparents: "The young couple 
were almost children, yet they were happy children and 
devoted lovers throughout more than forty years of their 
married life. IsTever was there a more hospitable home, and 
besides the nine sons and daughters who came to them, two 
orphan nieces of Mrs. Branch's and five of Joseph Branch's 
children, as well as several cousins, found a home and a 
father's and mother's loving care beneath their roof." One 
of the orphan children of Joseph Branch, here alluded to, was 
Lawrence O'Bryan Branch, in after life distinguished as 


railroad president, Congressman, and Confederate General, 
who was slain in 1862 at the battle known to the Federals 
as Antietam and to the Confederates as Sharpsburg, Besides 
three daughters. General Branch left an only son, William 
Augustus Blount Branch, who saw service in the Confederate 
Army before reaching manhood, as a courier on the staff of 
Major-General Robert F. Hoke, and afterwards was a member 
of the fifty-second and fifty-third Congresses, 1891-'95. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Branch was indeed a woman qualified by 
nature, training, disposition, and intellectual endowments, to 
share the fortunes of her distinguished husband in the various 
high stations to which he was called. In the capitals of both 
ISTorth Carolina and Florida, her gracious hospitality, when 
wife of the Chief Executive, won for her the esteem and ad- 
miration of the refined circles in which she moved, and, while 
sojourning among the notables of Washington, she was fully 
equal to the task of upholding the social responsibilities rest- 
ing upon the lady of a cabinet official or national legislator. 
Indeed, if the traditions of old Washing-ton be true, the 
Branch home surpassed all others in the fashionable yet 
wholesome character of its entertainments. So elaborate and 
largely attended, too, were these social affairs, that a lady of 
that day, in a letter, spoke of one of them as "Governor 
Branch's crush-party." 

As already stated, Mrs. Elizabeth Branch, the first wife of 
Governor Branch, was the mother of all of his children. They 
were nine in number, as follows : 

I. Martha Lewis Henry Branch, born September 29, 1806, 
who married Dr. Edward Bradford, on JSTovember 10, 1825, 
and left descendants. 

II. Rebecca Bradford Branch, iborn August 25, 1808, who 
married Robert White Williams* on April 19, 1831, and left 

*After the death of his first wife, Rebecca Bradford Branch, Mr. 
Williams married her first cousin, Susan Simpson Branch, sister of 
General L. O'B. Branch. 


III. Margaret Branch, born Aiigust 4, 1810, who was mar- 
ried on October 18, 1830, to Daniel S. Donelson (a nephew of 
Mrs. Andrew Jackson), who distinguished himself in the War 
with Mexico and the War between the States, holding the 
rank of Major-General in the Confederate Army when he 
died in 1863, leaving descendants. 

IV. James Branch, born ISTovember 17, 1812, who married 
Ann Eliza Belton on February 20, 1839, and left an only 
child, who died in infancy. 

V. Sarah Harris Branch, born on February 14, 1814, who 
married Dr. James Hunter on July 15, 1833, and left de- 

VI. Mary Eliza Branch, born on July 21, 1815, who was 
first married to General Leigh Read on May 17, 1838, and 
after his death to General William Bailey, leaving by her 
first marriage an only daughter, who died young, and by her 
second marriage, an only son. 

VII. John Richard Branch, born September 28, 1819, 
who married Josephine Woods in ISTovember, 1841, and left 

VIII. William Henry Branch, born October 9, 1823, who 
married Mary Eliza Horton on October 11, 1848, and left 

IX. Susan Branch, born January 8, 1826, who married 
Arvah Hopkins on December 13, 1849, and left descendants. 

Through the nine children just enumerated. Governor 
Branch has a large number of descendants now living. Their 
homes for the most part are in Florida, though some are 
residents of Halifax County, ]!^orth Carolina, as well as of 
other localities. To Governor Branch's second marriage, 
which occurred after he had passed his three-score years and 
ten, reference is made elsewhere in this sketch. 

Governor Branch, whose business (both public and pri- 
vate) demanded his presence for prolonged periods of time 
in various localities, necessarily had many different domi- 


ciles during the course of his life. In infancy or early child- 
hood he was removed from his native town of Halifax to Elk 
Marsh, his father's plantation in the same county. After 
reaching manhood, he took up his abode on the Cellar Field 
tract near the town of Enfield. The first house occupied by 
him on that tract was later burned, and he afterwards built 
on or near its site a handsomer and more commodious struc- 
ture, to which we shall refer more at length later on in this 
sketch. While serving as Governor of ISTorth Carolina, his 
official residence in Raleigh was the building known by the 
imposing title of the "Governor's Palace," then recently com- 
pleted, and of which his immediate predecessor in office. Gov- 
ernor William Miller, was the first occupant. This "palace" 
was a large brick building with a front portico supported by 
massive white pillars and stood across the southern end of 
Fayetteville Street, about a mile from the Capitol. It was 
used as a home for the Governors of ISTorth Carolina until 
the close of the War between the States, then being aban- 
doned, and about ten years later transformed into the Cen- 
tennial Graded School. It was afterwards demolished to 
make room for a more modern school building. While occu- 
pying this official residence in Raleigh, Governor Branch also 
had a summer home near Wake Forest, in the same county. 
His residence, of course, was in Washington during his ser- 
vice as United States Senator, Secretary of the ISTavy, and 
member of Congress. Of his home in Florida, and the cir- 
cumstances which led to the removal of himself and family 
to that State about the time of his retirement from public 
life in North Carolina (in which latter State he always 
retained his citizenship), we have the following account in the 
narrative of Mrs. Eppes, heretofore quoted: 

"In the meantime, Dr. Edward Bradford, who married Governor 
Branch's eldest daughter, Martha Lewis Henry, had moved to Florida. 
The glowing accounts he gave of the new country tired all the family 
with enthusiasm, so one after another they wended their way south- 
ward ; and the year 1836 found Governor and Mrs. Branch, with 
three sons and two daughters, settled at Live Oak, three miles from 
Tallahassee — Dr. Bradford practicing medicine in the little town, 


Daniel S. Donelson surveying the new Territory, Robert W. Williams 
serving as Surveyor-General, and Dr. James Hunter and his wife 
(Sarah Branch) newly arrived from the Old North State. 

"Governor Branch was deeply interested in his new estate. He 
had purchased several thousands of acres in Leon County, where the 
primeval forests, as yet untouched by the hand of man, covered lofty 
heights and lovely valleys, and he selected as a site for his dwelling 
a magnificent grove of live oaks crowning a high hill overlooking the 
blue waters of Lake Jackson. Here he built a large and handsome 
residence in colonial style, and had a landscape gardener from France 
to lay out the grounds. A steep declivity led from the garden to a 
grove of magnolias, and in their midst was a beautiful spring which 
from its boiling depths sent forth an immense volume of sparkling 
water. Here Governor Branch installed a ram, which carried this 
delightful water to his dwelling, supplying bath-rooms and giving 
irrigation to the beautiful gardens surrounding the house, where rare 
flowers, collected from all parts of the earth, were to be found." 

Before his family removed to Florida in 1836, Governor 
Brancli had visited that Territory more than once, and had 
purchased land there. The first tract which he acquired (De- 
cember 27, 1833) was from the Marquis de Lafayette, it 
being part of a township in Leon County, which township 
had been granted by the United States Government to the 
illustrious Frenchman on the occasion of his visit to America 
in 1824-'25. In 1834, Governor Branch was again in 
Florida, and, as already stated, settled there in 1836, but 
legally he remained a citizen of l^orth Carolina to the day 
of his death, going to Enfield to vote, and retaining the pos- 
session of his home there. 

Amid the delightful surroundings of his beautiful Florida 
home. Governor Branch spent many of the happiest years of 
his life — sorrows, too, coming at intervals through the sev- 
eral deaths which occurred in his family while he resided 
there. His health being somewhat impaired in 1843-'44, he 
was persuaded to try a change of scene, and spent much time 
in travel. During the course of his journeyings, he met his 
old friend President Tyler, and the two found it pleasant 
renewing their former acquaintance. Though Mr. Tyler had 
been elected Vice-President as a Whig on the ticket with 
President Harrison (upon whose death he succeeded to the 


Presidency) , he was not now in sympatliy with the policies of 
his party, a fact which drew to him many Democratic leaders 
and estranged many of his old Whig associates — Secretary of 
the l^avy George E. Badger, a North Carolinian, being among 
the several members of his Cabinet who resigned. Before 
President Tyler and Mr. Branch parted, the latter was ten- 
dered the office of Governor of the Territory of Florida, and 
accepted the appointment. As already stated, he had declined 
to assume this post in 1831, when it was offered him by 
President Jackson. 

The nomination of John Branch as Governor of the Terri- 
tory of Florida was sent by President Tyler on June 4, 1844, 
to the United States Senate, and was duly confirmed by that 
body eleven days thereafter, on June 15th. The appointment 
was to take effect on August 11, 1844, that being the date 
when the commission of Governor Richard K. Call, who then 
filled the Executive Chair, would expire. 

The office of Territorial Governor of Florida was no sine- 
cure, and this was fully realized by Mr. Branch before he 
accepted the commission tendered him by President Tyler. 
The bloody and destructive war with the Seminole Indians 
in that Territory had scarcely drawn to a close ; business was 
demoralized by an unsound financial system, made worse by 
the machinations of non-resident speculators; and yellow 
fever had gotten in its deadly work among many of the set- 
tlers. The Twenty-third Territorial Legislature, or "Legis- 
lative Council," met amid such unfavorable surroundings at 
the beginning of 1845 ; and, on the 10th of January, in that 
year, Governor Branch sent his official message to these law- 
makers, advising ways out of the difficulties by w^hich the peo- 
ple were beset, and complaining of the unjust course pur- 
sued with reference to the Territory, by the General Govern- 
ment. In the course of this message he said : 

"It must be admitted that Florida has rights to maintain, as well 
as wrongs to redress, of such a character as to demand our undi- 
vided energies. With these convictions, I should be wanting in a 


proper discharge of my duty were I to shrink from the high responsi- 
bility of recommending them, not only to your favorable notice, but 
to your efficient action. 

"If ever there existed a community with well-founded claims on its 
Government for indemnity, it is to be found in Florida — a country 
highly favored by Providence, but laid waste by a ferocious and im- 
placable foe — provoked and goaded on, not only without a provident 
preparation for such an occurrence, but in the prosecution of a war, 
to say the least, of doubtful policy. It is painful, as it is unnecessary, 
for me to dwell on the manner in which it was conducted and pro- 
tracted. It is enough to know, as our citizens but too sensibly feel, 
that, by this ill-advised measure, Florida has become, through no 
agency of her own, an almost blood-stained wilderness, and that half 
a century will scarcely suffice to place her where she would have 
been but for the mismanagement of her Federal Trustee. Would that 
this were all — but not so ! Through the same agency, an unwise and 
ruinous legislation has been inflicted on her, worse, if possible, than 
war, pestilence, and famine. I mean the blighting influence of a cor- 
rupt and corrupting paper system, so utterly rotten that I cannot un- 
dertake its dissection. * * * 

"It is true that all parties now denounce the banking system, as it 
has existed in Florida, as a Pandora's box, and cry aloud for the 
nuisance to be forthwith abated. In this I concur. But let us take 
care that we do not involve the innocent with the guilty in one indis- 
criminate wreck ; for, in critical operations in surgery, the utmost 
caution and skill are necessary. 

"In addition to all this, Florida has had indignities superadded to 
injuries. She has been charged with repudiating her just debts. 
Nothing can be more libelous ; and, in her behalf, I feel it to be my 
duty to repel the charge. On the contrary, it is her anxiety to pay 
her honest debts that induces her to scrutinize the spurious demands 
of speculators and bank-swindlers, generated and fostered by irre- 
sponsible Federal rulers. * * * 

"In making the foregoing remarks on our Federal relations, it is 
not my intention to question the motives or patriotism of any ad- 
ministration, either past or present, but to do justice to a people over 
whom I have the honor and responsibility of presiding as their Chief 
Magistrate, by a plain narrative of facts, which I believe to be incon- 
trovertible ; and to hold those responsible, and those only, who have 
been the cause of your insufferable ills. On the contrary, I should 
do violence to my own feelings were I not to acknowledge the debt of 
gratitude we owe to the patriotic officers and soldiery, both of the 
regular army and militia, who periled everything in this inglorious 
war — and that, too, under the most discouraging circumstances. And 
I may further add that I sincerely sympathize with them, that, from 


the character of the enemy with whom they had to contend, and the 
country in which their operations were carried on, so few laurels 
have been won, though doubtless merited." 

On a previous page we have shown that, during his three 
terms as Governor of ISTorth Carolina, Mr. Branch repeatedly 
urged upon the State Legislature the importance of foster- 
ing public education. His interest in this subject never 
abated ; and, in the above mentioned message to the Legisla- 
ture of Florida, he used this language : 

Allow me to impress upon you the sacredness of your obligations, 
to the rising generation and to posterity, to extend every facility in 
your power to the acquisition of a liberal education. This can only 
be done by establishing schools in every ijart of your territory, to the 
extent of your ability." 

The inefficiency and inadequate equipment of the militia 

of the Territory, and the unprotected state of the sea-coast, 

were sources of misgivings to all thoughtful men in Florida, 

and Governor Branch dwelt upon these matters as follows : 

"The proper and efficient organization of the militia cannot be a 
subject of indifference when it is borne in mind that on this species 
of force we have mainly to rely for the defense of this, the most 
exposed portion of the United States. Permit me to urge its import- 
ance, and respectfully to recommend a revision of your laws so far 
at least as to ensure prompt and accurate returns to the Adjutant Gen- 
eral of the United States. For the want of such returns, our citizens 
are comparative unarmed, and so have been for the last thirteen years, 
although engaged in a bloody war for more than half that time. 
Having done our duty, we may then confldently rely on the Federal 
Government for the fortification of our extended seaboard. This, 
I am gratified to learn, is now attracting the attention of Congress, 
and I cannot doubt that everything will be done that money and the 
Indomitable spirit and energy of our fellow-citizens can achieve to 
render our exposed frontier impregnable to a foreign foe." 

The honor of statehood was not accorded the Territory of 
Florida so soon as she thought herself entitled thereto, and 
Governor Branch expressed himself with his wonted force on 
this matter in his message : 

"Under the Providence of God, Florida earnestly desires to carve 
out her own fortunes in her own way. She asks to be permitted to 


appoint her own officers, and to make and administer her own laws ; 
and, in thus asking, she feels that she seeks nothing but what she is 
justly entitled to, and what she would be recreant to her best interests 
antT posterity were she not to insist on. She demands the rights of 
a sovereign State, so long withheld from her, though guaranteed by 
the Constitution of the United States and the Treaty of Cession. 
With a solitary Delegate in Congress, without even a vote to oppose 
aggressions on your rights, how can you expect successfully to con- 
tend for equal participation in the benefits of this glorious confeder- 
acy? Allow me, then, to advise you to gird on the armor of State 
sovereignty — to shake off the old hoy, and put on the new man ! 

"To those of our fellow-citizens who believe that we are incapable 
of sustaining the expenses of a State Government, I would respect- 
fully say that, if the estimates of our able and indefatigable Delegate 
are to be accredited — of which I cannot doubt — your fears are ground- 
less. Instead of being a loss of a few dollars and cents, it will be a 
gain of thousands and tens of thousands. But, I would remark, that 
we ought not to be deterred from the pursuit of the great prize by 
such considerations. T"lie right of self-government is inestimable to 
freemen, and ought not to be abandoned for light and trivial causes." 

Toward the conclusion of his message, Governor Branch 
took a brighter view of the future of the Territory over which 
he presided, saying: 

"With a virgin soil, a genial climate, and a wise and paternal gov- 
ernment to develop and foster her resources, Florida may yet promise 
herself a prosperous and happy future. Although causes beyond her 
control, as previously remarked, have retarded her growth and cast 
a shade over her teiTitorial fortunes and good name; and, although, 
at the moment of throwing off the degrading yoke of vassalage, her 
difficulties may seem to be appalling — yet, when calmly viewed, and 
impartially weighed by intelligent, patriotic, and honest statesmen, 
Florida will have nothing to dread." 

As Mr. Branch was Governor of Florida for less than a 
year — from Augaist 11, 1844, until June 25, 1845 — the mes- 
sage from which we have made the extracts set forth above, was 
the only one which he sent to the "Legislative Council," or 
General Assembly of the Territory, except a few brief special 
messages which would not be of general interest if quoted in 
the present sketch. 


The Territory of Florida was admitted as a State into the 
American Union by an Act of Congress passed on the 3d of 
March, 1845. In order to make an even balance of the power 
thus added to the South in the Halls of Congress, another 
Territory (of opposite political tendencies) was raised to 
statehood by the inclusion of Iowa within the provisions of 
the same Act. There was great rejoicing when news was 
brought to Tallahassee that the Territory of Florida had been 
created a State. This action of Congress was especially grati- 
fying to Governor Branch, who gave a large and brilliant 
reception at Live Oak in honor of the event, and invited all 
residents of that vicinity, as well as visitors from other parts 
of Florida, to attend. There is still preserved a letter from 
the Governor's youngest daughter, written tO' a schoolmate at 
Georgetown, near Washington City, in which is this descrip- 
tion of the entertainment: 

"Oh, I wish you could have seen Live Oak last night! All the 
world and his wife were bidden to help us celebrate, and everything 
possible was done to add to the occasion. Bonfires blazed on the edge 
of the grove, and lanterns were hung in the shrubbery. The house 
was brilliantly lighted, and from top to bottom was thrown open to 
the public. Across the front entrance, in large letters of living green 
on a white banner, was 'State of Florida,' and inside the house all 
was jollity and congratulation, feasting and music." 

Soon after receiving official advices that Florida had been 
admitted into the Union, Mr. Branch (who had thus become 
Acting Governor of the new State) issued a proclamation, on 
April 5, 1845, fixing upon the 26th of May as the time when 
a general election should be held for the purpose of choosing 
a Governor, a Legislature, and a Representative in CongTess. 
Governor Branch, being the foremost Democrat in Florida, 
was urged by his friends to enter the lists as a candidate for 
Governor of the State against the Whig candidate, Ex-Gov- 
ernor Call. To this proposition Mr. Branch declined to assent. 
Already he had "sounded all the depths and shoals of honor,'' 
and was not only willing, but anxious to return to the walks of 
private life. Other considerations moving him to decline fur- 


ther participation in politics were Mrs. Brancli's continued 
ill health and a set determination on his part never to relin- 
quish his citizenship as a North Carolinian. William Dunn 
Moseley, a personal and political friend of Mr. Branch, was 
thereupon nominated by the Democratic party as Governor, 
and was duly elected. In the new State government, Gover- 
nor Branch's nephew, Joseph Branch, became Attorney-Gen- 
eral. The first session of the Legislature of the State of 
Florida met on the 23d of June, 1845, and two days later, 
on June 25th, Governor-elect Moseley was inducted into 
office. This inauguration of a successor closed the career 
of Governor Branch as Governor of the Territory and 
as Acting Governor of the State of Florida. Between the 
careers of Governor Branch and Governor Moseley, we may 
add, there was a striking similarity: both were native iTorth 
Carolinians, both were graduates of the University of Korth 
Carolina, both had been Speakers of the State Senate of 
ISTorth Carolina, both had served as Governor of Florida, and 
both died on the same day. 

After the expiration of his term of office as Governor of 
Florida, Mr. Branch remained a citizen of Tallahassee. He 
also spent much of his time at Enfield, his old home in jSTorth 
Carolina. He likewise paid frequent visits to the fashionable 
summer resorts of that day. On the 19th of January, 1851, 
he suffered the loss of his beloved wife, who passed away 
in the sixty-fourth year of her age, after a happy married life 
of nearly haK a century. In referring to the devoted minis- 
trations of Governor Branch during the last illness of his 
wife, his granddaughter, Mrs. Eppes, says : 

"Mrs. Branch's health grew steadily worse. I have said that they 
were lovers to the last. She was very fond of flowers, and every 
morning Governor Branch plucked a few pink blossoms — clove pinks, 
if he could find them, but of a rosy hue always — and with his own 
hands pinned them in the dainty folds of the sheer white kerchief, 
which the fashion of that day prescribed for a married lady's adorn- 
ment. When at last she slept peacefully in her casket and he was 
called for a last look at the face which was so beautiful to him, he 


turned away with a heart-broken sob, and in a few moments was back 
again with a cluster of tiny pink rosebuds, which he pinned on with 
trembling hands. As long as he lived he never failed at every visit 
to adorn her tomb with the bright-hued blossoms which she loved." 

After the death, of Mrs. Branch, Governor Branch returned 
to his native State, and again took up his abode at Enfield. 
In depicting the closing years of his life, we again quote the 
narrative of Mrs. Eppes, who writes of her grandfather as 
follows : 

"Governor Branch never resigned his citizenship in North Carolina ; 
and, after his wife's death, he spent most of his time at the old home 
in Enfield, coming to Florida each winter for a short stay. Though it 
was the old home [at Enfield], it was a new house, the original build- 
ing with all its contents having been destroyed by fire. It was a most 
comfortable and commodious dwelling on a hill overlooking the sta- 
tion. A smooth lawn, with many shade-trees, led up to the house. On 
the right was a garden, a veritable bower of beauty ; and, on the left, 
a very fancy stable and barn were outlined against a splendid orchard 
of peaches and apples, while at the back, among other buildings, was 
an icehouse, all combining the beauties of fairy-land with practical 

"Here he entertained his friends, for to him hospitality was one 
of the cardinal virtues, and here he made his children warmly wel- 
come, and urged strongly that some of them should live with him ; 
but, at last, even his widowed daughter, Mrs. Read, married again 
and left him, so in the Winter of 1853 he was married to Mrs. Mary 
E. Bond, of Bertie — a lovely woman, who proved an admirable com- 
panion for his declining years. 

"Governor Branch's religious convictions were of the strongest, and 
he had the deepest respect for all things sacred. Late in life he 
united with St. John's Church in Tallahassee, and his confirmation 
service was a beautiful sight. Just before the morning service he 
walked alone up the aisle — tall, spare, and erect, with eyes of clear- 
est blue, and abundant hair of snowy whiteness. At the altar he 
was met by the Bishop of Florida, the Right Reverend Francis H. 
Rutledge. He, too, had snow-white hair, and in his robes was most 
imposing. The morning sun came stealing softly in ; and, when 
Governor Branch knelt and the venerable Bishop placed his hands 
upon his head, the rays of the sun crowned them both with a halo 
of glory, and we, the spectators, felt that it was God's own benedic- 
tion on His good and faithful servants," 


As might be expected ol a States' Rights Democrat of the 
Calhoun school, Governor Branch stood loyally by his native 
State when it seceded from the Union, and became a faithful 
citizen of the Confederate Government. He ministered un- 
ceasingly to the needs of those who had enlisted in defense of 
the South, and his purse was ever open to relieve the necessi- 
ties of the dependent ones they had left at home. By the 
hand of death he was spared the horrors of Reconstruction, 
but did not escape altogether the afflicting consequences of the 
war, for his favorite nephew (General Lawrence O'Bryan 
Branch) was slain early in the conflict, and other members 
of his immediate family were sharers of the dangers by which 
the land of their birth was beset. 

Governor Branch died at Enfield, in his native county of 
Halifax, l^orth Carolina, on the 4th day of January, 1863. 
It was his good fortune to retain his mental and physical 
vigor to the last. The brief illness, which terminated his 
earthly career, was pneumonia, contracted while riding horse- 
back to direct the operations of an ice-plow, Kt a time when 
countless messages, by telegraph and mail, bore tidings of the 
death in battle of hundreds of the youngei generation of 
Southerners, the peaceful passing away of "an old man, 
broken with the storms of State," may not have attracted the 
attention of the country at large to such an extent as it would 
in more peaceful days, but his death was mourned sincerely 
by those who had known his worth. In commenting upon this 
event, the Raleigh Register^ of January 14, 1863, said : "He 
bore the weight of years with more elasticity than any man 
we ever saw; for, when he had passed four-score years, his 
person was more erect and his step more springy than many 
a man of half his years could boast of. It may be truly and 
emphatically inscribed on his tombstone that he was a man 
of the most sterling integi'ity." In a Florida newspaper, pub- 
lished at the time of Governor Branch's death, there iy a 
tribute from an old acquaintance, who said : "Born at the end 
of the American Revolution, this aged patriot lived to wit- 


ness the dissolution of the Union then formed, and to pass 
away amid the convulsions which now shake the continent." 
The same writer said of Governor Branch's political tenets : 
"A strict constructionist, he was ever sternly opposed to all 
encroachments upon the rights of the States and the people; 
and, though retired from public life, the influence and weight 
of his moral character and intellect were always given in re- 
sistence to the spirit of ISTorthern fanatacism and lust of 
power, and in upholding the rights and liberties of his native 
South. A patriot of the early days, reared in an age made 
illustrious by the virtues of Macon, the genius of Randolph, 
and the patriotism of the associated statesmen of their day, 
he soon acquired a correct knowledge of the Constitution of his 
country and the structure of her Government, which, under 
the guidance of his liberal mind, enabled him to sustain him- 
self with honor in every contest and in every station he was 
called upon to fill." 

Several likenesses of Governor Branch are in existence. 
The one accompanying this sketch is from an oil portrait, in 
the Navy Department at Washington, which was copied from 
a minature painted by Anna C. Peale in 1818, during Mr. 
Branch's term as Governor of North Carolina. Another por- 
trait, painted later in life, hangs in the Hall of the Philan- 
thropic Society at the University of North Carolina. 

It is not the purpose of the present writer to attempt a 
eulogy, or even a studied portrayal of the character of John 
Branch. The foregoing pages give some record of his official 
actions in the various high stations which were conferred 
upon him, and those actions speak for themselves. They 
show that he was no time-serving politician, but a fearless, 
firm, wise, and patriotic statesman, whose fidelity to a public 
trust was never shaken by thirst for office (though many 
offices he had) or by any other selfish consideration. It may 
be truly said of him that — 

"He would not flatter Neptune for his trident, 
Or Jove for his power to thunder." 


At one time it was the expressed wish of Governor Branch 
that he should be buried in Florida by the grave of the wife 
of his earlier years; but later, when his life's long journey 
was Hearing its end, he declared his utter indifference on 
this point. "I am convinced," he said, ''that this body is but 
as a worn out garment which we cast aside ; and that in the 
world of spirits, to which I am going, there are no limitations 
of time and space." And so, when the end came, the mortal 
remains of John Branch were laid to rest in the family burial 
gTound at Enfield, within the bounds of the historic county 
which gave him birth. 

" 'Tis little : but it looks in truth 
As if the quiet bones were blest 
Among familiar names to rest 
And in the places of his youth." 


The Pre-Revolutionary Printers of North Car- 
olina : Davis, Steuart, and Boyd 

By Stephen B. Weeks. 

I. James Davis. 

The biography of James Davis, the proto-typographer of 
l^orth Carolina, is practically the history of the Is^orth Caro- 
lina press for the first generation of its existence. There 
were other printers and one other press, but Davis was pre- 
eminently the founder of the art in the colony, and to him 
belongs not only the honor of introducing, but also of estab- 
lishing this great civilizing and educating agency. 

With the exception of Georgia, North Carolina was the 
last of the original thirteen colonies to receive the printing 
press. The reasons for this are numerous and obvious. The 
Southern colonies tended to reproduce the landed gentry of 
England, not her village communities. The form of govern- 
ment interfered ; the ISTew England colonies were practically 
self-governing bodies from the beginning, but not so with 
those at the South ; they were under either royal or proprie- 
tary governments, and few privileges were accorded them. 
No American colony saw her efforts for autonomy, or what- 
ever seemed an approach to self-government, more often or 
more rudely interfered with than did North Carolina. 

The first settlements in North Carolina were made by indi- 
vidual immigrants, who roved over a vast and fertile region 
and took up land where fancy dictated, and not by immi- 
grants coming in a body, as was the case in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut. This method of settlement was favored by the 
mildness of the climate, the fertility of the soil, and the com- 
parative peaceableness of the Indians. 

Nor were the first, settlers educated, in the broadest sense. 
There were educated men and gentlemen among them, but 


these, like all others, were remoulded by the democracy of 
toil to break the wilderness, and this made the first genera- 
tion of natives much inferior in intellectual attainments to 
their fathers, the immigrants. Not only was the province a 
frontier community, but there were no towns of any size, and 
as towns have been the birthplace of political freedom, so 
they are also the generators and developers of intellectual 
life. The population was not homogeneous and social soli- 
darity was unknown. In these rural and primitive conditions 
there were necessarily few schools and churches, and little 
demand for the labors of the press. The laws were never 
printed, so far as known, before 1751. The Revisal of 1715 
was published by being read in the courts, and perhaps at 
other public places on stated occasions, but it was never 
printed in full (or nearly so) till the year of grace 1904. It 
seems that in 1740 the "JSTarrative of the Proceedings of the 
I^^orth Carolina House of Burgesses" was printed in Wil- 
liamsburg, Va. It is said that printing was done for the 
colony in Virginia, South Carolina and London, but if so, 
I have found little contemporary records of such. 

But as the colony grew in extent, in numbers and in wealth 
a printing press became a vital necessity. The immediate 
cause of its introduction was the desire to revise and print 
the laws which had not been codified since 1715. In 1736 
Governor Johnston addresses the Assembly on the condition of 
the laws as follows : "Upon the strictest inquiry I can't find 
that there is one complete copy of them in any one place, 
neither have I yet seen two copies of them that perfectly 
agTee . . . most of them either appear under ridiculous 
titles, are full of contradictions, or their language and stile 
is childish, ridiculous and against the common rules of 
grammar. As the happiness of every private man depends 
upon the laws, I think that it is a grievance which can never 
too soon be redressed." The Assembly agreed with the Gover- 
nor's remarks, and did nothing. In 1739 Governor Johnston 
returned to the charge, and a committee of revision — which 


did nothing — was appointed. Again in 1740 and 1744 John- 
ston speaks of the "shameful condition" of the laws. In 1746 
Edward Moseley, Samuel Swann, Enoch Hall, and Thomas 
Barker were appointed "to revise and print the several acts of 
Assembly in force in this province." They were allowed 
60£ proc. money out of the duty on wine, rum and distilled 
liquors and rice for their trouble, and 100£ more for print- 
ing, furnishing and delivering the books. The revision was 
completed in 1749, confirmed and declared to be in force 
(chap. 6, Oct. sess., 1749). 

This revisal had brought the committee face to face with 
the question of publication. The April session of the Assem- 
bly, 1749 (chap. 3), had passed an act under which James 
Davis was encouraged to remove to N^orth Carolina. He 
was paid a salary of 160£ proc. money to "begin and com- 
mence from such time as the said James Davis shall have set 
up his press at ]^ewbern . . . and be ready to proceed 
on his business of printing." The contract was for five years, 
while the services required were the printing of legislative 
journals and proceedings, laws, proclamations, and other 
official matters. Davis was required to reside in J^ewbern, 
was given absolute copyright on all government documents 
published by him, and his salary was to be raised by a levy of 
four pence on every taxable. 

Davis imported and set up his press and entered upon his 
contract June 24, 1749. This is tlie birthday of the fourth 
estate in ISTorth Carolina. He came from Virginia, and most 
probably from Williamsburg, as there were then presses at no 
other place. He was born in Virginia, October 21, 1721, and 
was probably brought up at the printing trade, but of his 
early life we know nothing. His mature years were all spent 
in l^orth Carolina, where his work for the advancement of 
the commonwealth will give him a place among the men 
whose lives have been worth while. 

His first work seems to have been to print the proclama- 
tion money and the journals of the Assembly for 1749 and 


1750, and this he probably continued as long as he remained 
a printer. His first important publication was Swann's Re- 
visal, which had been prepared by the commissioners ap- 
pointed in 1746. He could hardly have begun work on this 
publication before the formal ratification of the compilation 
by the Assembly at October session, 1749, but Governor 
Johnston, writing to the Board of Trade, December 21, 
1749, says the revised laws ''are now in press, and I expect to 
be able to send your Lordships a copy of them by the middle 
of June next." I have never heard of a copy with the 
imprint 1750, however. Until recent years it was thought 
that 1752 was the only date of publication, but at least five 
copies are known with the imprint 1751. These are dis- 
tributed as follows : One each in the libraries of Congress, 
Pennsylvania Historical Society (Charlemagne Tower Col- 
lection), jSTew York Public Library (Lenox), New York His- 
torical Society, and my own copy. Of these five copies my 
own is clearly the first published, for it ends with the laws 
for 1750. All the other copies have the laws for July session, 

1751, which shows that my copy was published before July 
session, 1751. The 1751 edition is followed by an eight page 
table, while that for 1752 has a two-page table and a new 
title page. An imperfect copy without title page, also in my 
possession, is doubtless a 1751 issue, for page 330 shows an 
offset of the word "Table." This indicates that it was bound 
and ready for sale, but as it was not immediately disposed oi, 
the table was removed and the laws of 1751 added. It is prob- 
able that the sheets of the 1752 issue are the same as those 
of the 1751, with possibly a few changes and corrections here 
and there. Of the 1752 issue nine copies are known to me, 
seven of them being in public libraries. 

This first printed revisal of the laws of ISTorth Carolina is 
worthy of the attention here given it because it is the first 
book printed in jSTorth Carolina, is, so far as known, the first 
book printed by James Davis, and is the corner-stone of the 
history of the State and of her domestic literature. With 


age, and because of imperfect tanning, the leather binding 
assumed a yellowish hue, and this gave it the popular name 
bj which it is still known, '^ Yellow Jacket." 

After the publication of this revisal Davis continued to 
print the session laws, the journals, the paper currency and 
the miscellaneous matters of the colony. He served the colony 
and State as public printer for about 33 years, 1749-'82. But 
his path was not always a smooth one, nor was his work always 
satisfactory. His original contract was for five years. It 
was renewed in 1754, 1757, 1760. In 1762 he asked for 
reappointment, but it was rejected by the council, for this 
involved the larger question of the struggle between the gov- 
ernor and the council on one side and the house of commons 
on the other. McCulloh brought in a bill in the council to 
appoint Alexander Purdie as public printer. It seems that 
Davis had not given entire satisfaction to the lower house, 
but it was necessary to have a printer, and he was reappointed 
for six months, "and from thence to the end of the next ses- 
sion of Assembly and no longer." In 1764 his nomination 
was again defeated in the council. Then follows a bit of spicy 
correspondence between the governor and the lower house, 
which shows what manner of men these colonial Carolinians 
were, and proves that they well deserved Bancroft's appella- 
tion of the freest of the free, and is too delicious to be para- 
phrased. Under date of March 5, 1764, Governor Dobbs writes 
to the lower house : "I can never approve of the late printer ap- 
pointed by the Assembly, upon account of his negligence. 
. . . I must therefore recommend it to the Assembly to 
encourage a printer to reside where he can attend 
the government and Assembty, and do his duty to the public, 
and not barely consider his own profit and conveniency." The 
lower house thereupon appointed a committee to employ a 
public printer at 200£ per annum, and this committee in- 
vited Andrew Steuart, of Philadelphia, to come to ISTorth 
Carolina. On N'ovember 21, 1764, Dobbs informed the house 
that as a bill to appoint a printer had failed in the council, 


he had, with the consent of the council, appointed Andrew 
Steuart as public printer for eighteen months, "from the 
24th day of June last, the time of his arrival here." This 
angered the commons, and they resolved that "the appoint- 
ment of a printer under the sounding appellation of his 
Majesty's printer . . . is of an unusual nature, truly 
unknown either to our laws or constitution, and as it appears 
to us, a most extensive stretch of power, and may, in its ten- 
dency, establish a new office to exact new fees. . . . We, 
the Assembly of this province, therefore, to guard the liber- 
ties of the subjects and our indubitable rights Do Resolve, 
That we know of no such office as his Majesty's printer of 
this province ; and of no duties, fees or emoluments annexed 
or incident to such office ; and that the said appointment is of 
a new and unusual nature unknown to our laws, and is a vio- 
lent stretch of power." In answer to this patriotic outburst 
Dobbs replied two days later by appointing, "in support of 
his Majesty's Just Prerogative," Andrew Steuart to be his 
Majesty's printer. On the same day the house resolved to 
pay Steuart 100£ for his "voyage, trouble and expense" in 
coming to the province, and resolved that James Davis be 
reappointed to the office and made his election doubly sure by 
ordering that the treasurer pay out no money "by order of 
the governor and council without concurrence or direction of 
this house." 

But, however angrily the house might fulminate, we know 
that Steuart retained his appointment and printed the session 
laws for 1764, for I have a copy in my Collection of Carolin- 
iana. Whether he was ever paid for his labor is another 

Davis prepared, and in 1764 published, a "Revisal of the 
Laws of the province, 1751-1764." In 1765 he issued a "Col- 
lection of all the Acts of Assembly" then in force, from 1715, 
and including what he had published in the edition of 1764. 
In 1773 he published "A Complete Revisal" (it appeared 
prior to October 8, 1773) ; in 1774 he compiled and pub- 


lished his "Office and Authority of a Justice of the Peace," 
the first book of its kind issued in ISTorth Carolina. The 
"Eevisal" of 1764 is the rarest of all ISTorth Carolina revis- 
ions, but four copies being known; that of 1765 is the next 

The editions of these two revisals, as well as that of the 
1751 and 1752 revisal and of the session laws, must have 
been very small, for as early as 1773 Governor Martin writes 
Earl Dartmouth that "the laws of this province are more 
rare than any book can be named." 

It is believed that Davis printed the session laws with regu- 
larity from 1749 to 1782 (except 1764), for he was re-elected 
public printer in 1766, 1770 and 1774. At the April session, 
1777, the Assembly saw fit to drop Davis as public printer, 
and chose in his stead John Pinkney, a bankrupt printer of 
Williamsburg, Va., for those were the days when any out- 
grown garment or outworn creed was good enough for circu- 
lation in ISTorth Carolina if it but had the Virginia brand, and 
the public printing office was transferred from I^ewbern to 
Halifax. Contemporary accounts give us the remainder of 
the story. Caswell writes Hezekiah Alexander under date 
of September 15, 1777 : "The Assembly thought proper to 
remove an old servant (the printer) for neglect of duty, and 
appoint one who resided in Virginia who, after long delay, 
removed to Halifax about five or six weeks ago, where he 
died." Willie Jones tells us more of the successor of the 
faithful Davis. He writes Caswell under date of August 
29, 1777: 

"Mr. Pinkney is dead ; his death is not regretted by a single person 
who knew him in this part of the world. His conduct was so scanda- 
lous that we only regret that he did not die before he had an oppor- 
tunity of abusing this state in the gross manner he has done. I used 
every means in my power to stimulate him to his duty, and to enable 
him to perform it ; but all to no purpose. When I went to Williams- 
burg after my return from Newbern, I found he was so involved there 
that his creditors would not let him depart without money or security, 
and to expedite the public business, I advanced him money and be- 


came his security to the amount of upwards of 400£, for which I have 
no kind of security. His types were brought to Halifax and I think 
of detaining them until I am made secure." 

What did Davis now do when the State was without a 
printer? He carried the acts through the press at his own 
expense, relying on the justice of the Assembly for reimburse- 
ment. Had his purpose been to defend his career in the eyes 
of posterity, no man could have made a more overwhelming 
reply to his detractors than did Davis by this patriotic act. He 
was reappointed public printer in ISTovember, 1777, but from 
then till the end of his public career he seems to have had 
hard fortunes, due to the stress of the times. From a petition 
that seems to belong to 1780 we learn that he was sustaining 
heavy losses by reason of the rise in printing materials, by 
depreciation of currency, and the slowness of payment. He 
had applied to the Assembly from time to time for relief, 
"but was unhappy enough to receive no other consolation than 
being again appointed printer to the State." The Assembly 
continued to neglect him ; paper rose to 100£ per ream, and 
he determined to resign, but was dissuaded by appeals to his 
patriotism. The Assembly on February 9, 1781, requested 
him "to continue in the business of public printer." May 
18, 1782, his son Thomas Davis was appointed public printer 
in his place. The latter had removed his press to Halifax in 
February, 1782, and the laws for April session, 1782, bear 
the Halifax imprint, as do those for April session, 1784, 
while those for October session, 1784, show him again in 
ISTewbern. This seems to have been the last issue with a 
Davis imprint, for Arnett and Hodge became public printers 
in December, 1785. James Davis was then dead. His son 
Thomas seems to have gone out of business, and died about 

Besides his work as public printer there was little for 
James Davis to do in the colony of ]S[orth Carolina in the 
line of his trade, but he was not idle. He aided in building 



the commonwealth in many ways, and was always a useful 
and progressive citizen. 

Besides his official publications, laws, revisals, journals, 
proclamations and similar matters, and such semi-public 
works as his "Justice of the Peace" of 1774, he published in 
1753 Clement Hall's "Collection of Christian Experiences," 
the first book or pamphlet so far as known to be compiled by 
a native of JSTorth Carolina; in 1756 he printed a sermon, 
another in 1761, and another in 1768 ; in 1778 appeared 
Euddiman's "Eudiments of the Latin Tongue," and Dyche's 
"Spelling Book." Such were the feeble beginnings of lit- 
erary life in ]*^orth Carolina. 

Besides the revisals made and published by him in 1764, 
1765 and 1773, he was appointed December 1, 1777, to revise 
the Acts of Assembly, and was to lay a fair copy of "the 
w^hole compilement" before the next session of Assembly, and 
four days later he was allowed 500£ for the work. Again on 
May 12, 1783^ a bill was brought in to authorize him "to 
revise, print and publish all the laws now in force and use." 
This bill was in answer to an offer from him, but like the 
proposal of 1777 came to naught. (See chap. 46, laws 1783, 
and chap. 4, laws of 1787.) 

To Davis also belongs the honor of establishing the first 
newspaper in the colony. This was the North Carolina 
Gazet e, with the freshest advices, foreign and domestic. 
Number one probably appeared in the spring of 1755, as ISFo. 
103 is dated April 15, 1757. It was published Thursdays, 
on a sheet post size, folio, often on a half sheet, and bore the 
imprint : "Newborn : Printed by James Davis, at the Print- 
ing-Office in Front-street ; where all persons may be supplied 
with this paper at Sixteen shillings per Annum: And where 
Advertisements of a moderate length are inserted for Three 
Shillings the first Week, and Two shillings for every week 
after. And where also Book-binding is done reasonably." 
This newspaper venture succeeded perhaps better than was to 
have been expected. The Gazette was published about six 


years and then suspended. The American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, Worcester, Mass., has iive copies of this Gazette, of 
which 'Eo. 200 bears date October 18, 1759. (See full size 
fac simile in Ashe's "Narrative History of I^orth Carolina," 
Vol. 1.) 

In 1764 Davis issued the first number of the North Caro- 
lina Magazine, or Universal Intelligencer. It was printed on 
a demy sheet in eight pages, quarto, with a view to its being 
bound, and was divided into two columns without rules, and 
the printed page was eight by five and a half inches. It was 
jejune and vapid. The want of regular mail facilities ren- 
dered the news department very insufficient. The first num- 
ber was from Friday, June 1, to Friday, June 8, 1764. We 
may take the fifth issue as a fair specimen. The first article 
is a non-original one on the different ages of the world ; then 
comes a scrap of the history of Eome just after the death of 
Csesar ; the next two pages and a half give us the third part 
of the discourse of the Bishop of Salisbury on the use and 
intent of prophecy in the sevaral ages of the world ; an article 
headed '^JSTews, London, East India House, April 4th," fills 
a column. The remaining page and a haK is given to adver- 
tisements, which were inserted at three shillings the first 
week and two shillings for every continuance. Single copies 
were sold at four pence. At the close of 1764 a new volume 
was begun, with a diminution of one-half in size, and nothing 
in price. It is unloiown how long the Magazine continued to 
be published, but it was succeeded by the North Carolina 
Gazette, which appeared again on May 27, 1768. It was 
numbered one, and was enlarged to a crown sheet folio. It 
is probable that there was no suspension in the publication 
between 1764 and the reappearance of the Gazette in 1768, 
and that the reappearance of this paper at this time simply 
marks a return by Davis to the name first used by him in 
1755. The copy of the Gazette for July 4, 1777, is numbered 
883, and has as its motto, '^ Semper pro Libertate et Bono 
Publico." It is a small folio of four pages, two broad col- 


umns to the page, with a sheet twelve by sixteen inches. On 
June 20, 1778, it was reduced to a quarto, and so continued 
until N'ovember 7, when it resumed its former size. The 
last number in the volume here described is that for JSTovem- 
ber 30, 1778. It was suspended perhaps soon after that date, 
for Davis writes the Governor, ISTovember 2, 1778, that his 
son Thomas had been drafted into the army, that he was his 
chief hand in the printing office and that without his aid it 
would be impossible to carry on the newspaper ; and the pros- 
pectus of another North Carolina Gazette started in August, 
1783, says "there has not been a newspaper published in 
North Carolina for several years." The paper used on the 
Gazette was fine, heavy and water-lined, but as the war ad- 
vanced it became of an inferior quality. The impression is 
somewhat blurred, but Davis's work is generally very good. 
There are no column rules and no head rules. There is no 
editorial matter and very little local news. The body of the 
paper was filled with reports from the seat of war and from 
Congress, and that the pressure on his columns was some- 
what greater than he could meet we learn from the fact that 
at times he omits his own advertisements and even his 

Davis's work as a printer made him prominent in l^ewbern 
affairs. He was appointed postmaster there in 1755 ; in that 
year he contracted to carry the mails from Suffolk, Va., to 
Wilmington, IST. C, and was still doing this work in 1758, 
He was elected to represent the town in the Assembly in 175-1, 
but as he was then sheriff, was pronounced ineligible ; he was 
elected again in 1755 and then took his seat; he was also a 
member in 1756, in 1757; and in 1760 represented Craven 
County. He was a J. P. in 1768, 1771, 1774, 1776 and 
1778 ; was foreman of the gTand jury in 1771 ; commissioner 
of Harlow's Creek canal in 1766 ; signed the Craven County 
address on Liberty in August, 1774; was on the committee 
to arm and fit out a vessel of war in 1775, and in March, 
1776, was a commissioner of exports for N^ewbern; was a 


member of the Provincial Convention which met in IvTew- 
bern in April, 1775, and of the Hillsboro Congress of August, 
1775, as a representative of IsTewbern, and in the latter was 
on the committee to prepare plans for the regulation of in- 
ternal peace, order and safety of the province; was a mem- 
ber of the Council of Safety of ISTewbern in March, 1775 ; 
was elected a judge of the oyer and terminer court for ISTew- 
bern District in 1777, and in January, 1781, was a member 
of the council of state. 

Although it is thus evident that he was an ardent Whig 
in the Revolution he had his enemies and did not escape the 
charge of Toryism; he was also a man of strong passions, 
and these were not always under control. He accumulated 
large property in negroes and real estate, and died in New- 
bern in February or March, 1785, as his will is probated at 
March Term, 1785. We learn from this will that his presses 
and other printing material then in JSTewbern were in the 
hands of Robert Keith and Company. All the printing ap- 
paratus and the book bindery was given to his son Thomas, 
who had been as early as I^ovember 2, 1778, "chief head in the 
office," and in 1782 had succeeded his father as public printer, 
but after 1784 the name Davis disappears from the history 
of l^orth Carolina typography, his material and apparatus 
being probably absorbed by Francois Xavier Martin. 

Davis married Prudence Herritage, a connection of the 
wife of Governor Caswell. He had four sons: James, the 
eldest, married in the West Indies and died in Havana, 
Cuba ; John, the second son, served in the patriot army, was 
captured and imprisoned at Charleston, was later transferred 
to a British man-of-war, refused to do menial service on ship- 
board and died under the lash (see State Records, XV, 
377-78, for the details of this infamous cruelty) ; William, 
the third son, also saw service in the patriot army; Thomas 
was the youngest son. If there were daughters no record has 
reached this writer. 


II. Andrew Steuart. 

Short and sad are the annals of Andrew Steuart, the second 
ISTorth Carolina printer. He was an Irishman, born in Bel- 
fast, and served his apprenticeship there. He came to Amer- 
ica and in 1758 or 1759 set up a printing press in Laetitia 
Court, Philadelphia, but soon removed to the Bible-in-Heart 
in Second street. His business seems to have been confined 
to small jobs, such as pamphlets, ballads and almanacs. The 
particular course of events which induced him to migrate to 
iJ^Torth Carolina, and the exact time of his arrival have been 
mentioned already in the sketch of James Davis. Steuart 
settled in Wilmington, then practically the capital, and 
it appears that he became officially public printer on June 
24, 1764, the date of the expiration of Davis's contract with 
the province. Record of but two imprints of Steuart has 
come down to us, the first of these being his edition of the 
session laws for 1764, of which there is a copy in my Collec- 
tion, and Moore's Justice and Policy of taxing the American 
Colonies (1765), of which there is a copy in the John Carter 
Brown Library. 

In September, 1764, he began the publication of The 
North Carolina Gazette and Weekly Post Boy, which was 
the second newspaper in the colony, if we count Mr. Davis's 
effort in 1764 as a revival and continuation of the original 
publication of 1755. Steuart's Gazette is said to have been 
suspended in 1767. 'No copies are known to be in existence. 
He tried to sell out in 1766 to Isaiah Thomas, then on a visit 
to Wilmington, as he was anxious to return to Philadelphia, 
where his business was still being conducted, but Thomas and 
Steuart failed to come to terms, and the latter was drowned 
in the Cape Fear in 1769. 

III. Adam Boyd. 

The third and last of the pre-Revolutionary printers was 
not a printer at all. He was what we should call in this day 
a publisher. He seems to have purchased Steuart's outfit 


after the death of the latter, and about October 13, 1Y69, 
issued the first number of The Gape Fear Mercury. We have 
record of one or two other publications as coming from Boyd's 
press, but his business was confined mainly to the publication 
of the Mercury. This seems to have been continued with more 
or less regularity down to 1775, and in that year earned for 
itself large posthumous fame by its publication of certain 
"Mecklenburg Resolves" which, while yet unseen, were con- 
fidently appealed to by faithful believers as able to establish 
the genuineness of the Declaration of Independence of May 
20, 1775. At last a copy was found and the article to which 
such trusting appeal had been made was found to be the 
Resolves of May 31. 

The Mercury does not seem to have survived the year 1775, 
iior did Boyd appear again as a printer and publisher. He 
devoted himself to the ministry and spent a part of his last 
years (1790-1799), in charge of the Episcopal Church in 
Augusta, Georgia. Later he was in ISTashville, Tennessee, and 
ISTatchez, Mississippi, where he seems to have died. 

Adam Boyd married in 1774, the widow of Moses John 
DeRosset. The late Colonel William L. DeRosset sent me 
nearly twenty years ago copies of some letters written by 
Boyd in his declining years to members of the family. They 
are perhaps worth publication as pictures of the times and 
of the fortunes of a man who served well his adopted State : 

Augusta, Ga., April, 1798. 
My Deab John : 

* * * And now I am on the subject of self, wonderful appears 
to me the events that have continued me in this place. Last year 
I was determined on leaving it and this year the same. Now I am 
not able to travel; but if I were, it appears improper. The regard 
with which I am treatea and the provision made for my support 
appear, with many other circumstances, as if Providence had de- 
signed this for my charge. The provision is not what it should be, 
but it is nearly twice as much as it has yet been, except part of last 
year. These and such things attach me to the place (in a moral 
view). And yet after all, my heart breathes many a sigh for Wil- 
mington. In W. I could not breathe. Had I continued there, I have 


no doubt but the grave would have closed over me long ago. Here 
I have escaped gout, asthma and much of a cough which there used 
to harass me alternately. Besides, in my professional character I 
think I have been more useful here than I could have been there. 
With respect to the money much the same I suppose, except in this. 
There the non-payment of the Parish would not have distressed 
me as it did here. I have been in real want of clothing, and as to 
board I live chiefly at others' tables. In this distress I attempted to 
relieve myself by selling certificates at about one-fourth of their 
value. I was cheated out of the whole. 

I got lots then in demand but it soon appeared the whole were 
mortgaged to the public. My certificates funded about f 1000, and I 
lost all. The man went away and died, a bankrupt. A friend of 
mine was on his return to Ireland, so he called to see me. Talking 
of my situation he observed "you need not wish to be in better esteem 
than you are. All this increases my attachment, but still I wish to 
be with Maggy and you * * * Recollection fails me very often. 
I was always an absent man. * * * 

Yours affectionately, 


Feby. 8, 1799. 
My Deae Friend i 

My strength returns so slowly that I am not yet able to write you 
as I wish. Yet the mercies which I enjoy demand infinitely more 
thanks than I can give. I hope this little attempt at justice will 
please. If it be approved and engraved it will give me pleasure. 
Should it be thought proper to publish it, I submit. If published, 
below is the proper introduction. Hoping that Heaven will regard 
us with an eye of mercy I have much pleasure in thinking we shall 
meet again. I am extremely anxious to be amongst you, but I fear 
I shall not be able to breathe that air, and to be a burden to you 
would distress my mind. It is astonishing, weak tho' I be, almost 
a child, I am enabled to preach more to the satisfaction of the audi- 
ence than I could four years ago, and with more satisfaction to 
myself. Adieu. 

The Almighty in his great goodness preserve us all. 

Affectionately yours, 


Nashville, Tenn., April IS, ISOO. 
Dear Doctor : 

Nothing can be said in opposition to your reason and yet I feel 
the disappointment. My situation is extremely unfortunate. I believe 
it worse by the neglect of some cross-posts. I know four letters have 


been lost, that is they have been out six months and no account of 
them yet. This has made me ignorant of things I should have 
known about my own afCairs. I also believe it is owing to some 
accident in that way that I have not had a little relief from Charles- 
ton. I had hoped from the benevolent exertions of a few, a sum to 
be refunded, but without interest. These disappointments will I fear 
compel me to accept terms which will do little more than give me 
present relief. A deception in the survey will oblige me to com- 
mence a suit or to petition your assembly. Both of these I dislike. 
Yet it is hard to lose so much, especially as my journey hither has 
been so unfortunate and expensive. However, I shall not repine and 
hope to preserve such a sense of the goodness of God as shall secure 
to my mind that calmness which is natural to a trust in that Power. 
Yet with grief and shame I confess I am not as tranquil as I was. 
Continual disappointments and losses, I now fear, have an influence 
I did not expect. If you knew all, or one-half you would say to be 
serene. Under such a mountain requires more strength of mind than 
is commonly the lot of man. Indeed, I do not think it attainable 
without superior aid. Perhaps I failed in this, in being too secure or 
too confident in myself ; the first I think the cause, as to the last I 
know I have no strength. I am too thoughtless in everything, hence 
all or nearly all the evils of my chequered life. You know Fielding's 
Parson Adams. 

My sermon on Feby 22 was so well received that a subscription was 
directly opened for its publication. But such triflers are our Printers 
that I know not when they will be able to publish it. The name of 
Washington may recommend it, but such has been their negligence 
that the time for selling is lost. The story is growing old and two 
courts have passed. 

I am afraid my dear Magdalen will suspect my affection for her. 
I did write her once but I felt so much I did not like to write her 
again. Her happiness is very dear to me. I have sent some little 
pieces of mine to Mr. Wilkings with design that Mrs. Toomer should 
have a copy if she desired it. Perhaps they may assist her medita- 

My capacity for travel is not to be boasted of. A stiff inflexible 
knee that deprives me of the use of one leg, a dislocated hip and a 
leg at least four inches shorter than nature made it. So helpless that 
I cannot put on my own clothes. I must go in a carriage, but into 
that I must be lifted. On my way hither often did I descend from 
my car to avoid jolts. But on crutches I cannot contend with rocks 
nor walk over them. So I shall get jolting enough for a life of one 
hundred years. The worst is — rocky bottoms of rivers and steep 
banks. Terrible are the many things in the perspective; yet if life 
be spared I mean to make the attempt as soon as possible. I hope 


to be with you in October. Is it possible to get anything for preach- 
ing in your town? But I fear the asthma will find me out there. 
However, I propose to try it. I wish very much you could get $50 
on loan, and even on interest to be transmitted to Dr. Say, of Phila- 
delphia. It is for a very particular purpose and can be replace 
within the year. I had sent some money there, but my last sum- 
mer's misfortune obliged me to recall it. I have no douDt that Major 
McRee would lend it. Please tell the Major I am glad to find he is 
so well settled and that I wish him to write me. 

I have heard our Cousin James Moore made a sale of land to 
Gov. Blount, who is dead. I fear James made a bad bargain. How- 
ever I think he should write without loss of time to Willie Blount, 
Esqr. I take him to be a man of candor and he will probably secure 
the property. The heir of Col. Wm. Davies should likewise appear or 
employ some attorney. Lands are not saleable but so many tricks 
are played that great attention is necessary to prevent chicane. Two 
of my horses have died and another is runaway, tho. I hope he may 
be recovered. So according to the old saying one single misfortune 
rarely happens to a man. If I think of Wilmington, I must be often 
at the sound — and I must endeavor to be concerned in some little 
business. I can eat your meat but must wear my own clothes. I 
must also have a servant and should keep a horse for exercise as I 
cannot walk much' through the sand. In your letters you rarely men- 
tion any of my old friends. What has become of Lillington's family? 
Shaw ; Jno. Moore ; Major Sam Ashe, the General's son, and my old 
friend Gov. Ashe, Mr. Heron, etc., etc. If it please God, I shall have 
not a little pleasure in seeing my old friends once more. 

Yet, I know not why, I feel as if I should never reach that place. 
I lament very much that I can so seldom declare the Word of God 
in public. A clergyman who reasons admirably, preaches here every 
other Sunday. The house he preaches in has an earthen floor, so I 
am afraid to go into it either to speak or hear. I did preach in a 
tavern the other Sunday, but the Methodists have taKen the alarm 
and as the house is theirs, they preach every other Sunday, so that 
I am cut off. This silence grieves me. Yet I am not idle. I weekly 
publish some moral essay or advice in the papers. More serious 
pieces I attempted but they have been laid aside as too solemn for 
their readers, that is, their publishers. So I try always that I can 
do some good. My carriage is so shattered by the fall, and worn 
out like myself by time, that to buy another I suppose will be cheapest. 
Heavy, heavy, are my losses, but they do not depress my spirits. I 
still have a hope that I shall be supported so as not to suffer want. 
Yet it is not long since a clergyman was suff'ered to languish out of 
the world in an * * * Pray beg Mr. Wilkings to enquire if Mr. 
Jno. Caldwell, lately from Ireland, merchant, be in New York or not. 


He had ten Guineas for me, sent by my cousin in Ireland. I drew 
for the money to pay my surgeon, and I have written him three times 
but no answer can I yet obtain. God of his infinite mercy grant us 
all his protection and blessing that we may all meet around his 
throne in the fulness of eternal joy. Amen. 

Alfecty. yours, 


The orator of Congress makes a vacancy of happiness in Heaven. 
Is it possible that such a body could pass unnoticed such a denial of 
everything sacred? 

The last of this series of letters is dated ISTatchez, December 
30, 1802. It requests Dr. DeRosset to send him (Boyd) his 
certificate of membership with the Masonic Lodge — states 
that he was initiated in January, 1764. It is evident then 
that he died after the date of that letter or later than the date 
assigned in my Press in I^Torth Carolina in the Eighteenth 


An Early Fourth of July Celebration 

By Adelaide L. Fbies. 

If any one should ask you when the Fourth of July be- 
came a national holiday, what would you say ? From the very 
first, or at least as soon as American Independence was es- 
tablished ? Well, you are wrong, for the ^'Glorious Fourth" 
is not and never has been a national holiday ! As a matter 
of fact, the United States has no national holiday; neither 
the Fourth of July nor Washington's Birthday, nor any 
other, for to make it national in a strict sense, would mean 
that Congress had so declared it, and that Congress has never 
done. In early years it set apart certain days as Days of 
Fasting and Humiliation, or Days of Thanksgiving, according 
to circumstances, but these were for the special occasion only, 
though the custom lingers in the annual Proclamation of the 
President appointing Thanksgiving Day. But to make the 
President's Proclamation effective rests with each State, 
which has either provided for it by legislative enactment, or 
follows it with a Proclamation from the Governor. Legal 
holidays as affecting the Post Office and National Banks ? 
Set apart by State Law, the national Government having 
recognized them by providing that the legal holidays of each 
State should apply to Post Offices and Banks therein. 

The actual age, therefore, of the Fourth of July observance 
varies with each State, and here again a great surprise awaits 
us. In the city of Philadelphia, the birthplace of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, the anniversary was celebrated from 
1777 on, but the State of Pennsylvania did not make it a 
legal holiday until 1873. No, that is not a printer's mistake 
— it was actually one hundred years, less three, before Penn- 
sylvania formerly recognized her most highly prized anniver- 
sary, and the legislatures of other States took the same step 


even later, though each State and Territory now has the 
Fourth of July as one of its legal holidays. 

So far as is known, the first celebration of the Fourth of 
July by legislative enactment, took place in North Carolina 
in 1783. That was the year in which peace began to smile 
once more upon the war-weary but victorious colonies. In 
ISTovember, 1Y82, the Commissioners of the Colonies and of 
England had met in Paris, and (most reluctantly, no doubt) 
"his Britannic Majesty acknowledged the United States of 
America free. Sovereign and Independent, and for himself, 
his Heirs and Successors, relinquished all claims to the Gov- 
ernment, proprietary and territorial rights of the same;" 
hostilities to cease as soon as England and France had come 
to terms on their own account. jSTews travelled slowly in 
those days, the Atlantic cable had not been dreamed of, and 
a "wireless" was beyond the reach of the wildest imagination, 
so we may imagine the courier carrying his dispatches to the 
nearest sailing vessel, the slow progress of that little craft 
across the storm-tossed wintry Atlantic, the copying of the 
dispatches, and their transmission by courier again to each 
of the thirteen States. When the word finally reached N"orth 
Carolina, on April 19, 1783, the Legislature was in session, 
and with great gratification Governor Alexander Martin com- 
municated the good news to that body. 

Eleven days later another dispatch arrived, this time a 
Proclamation from Congress "declaring the cessation of arms 
as well by sea as land;" and orders were given for the release 
of prisoners of war, etc, 

A great wave of rejoicing and gratitude thrilled through 
the Legislature, and before it adjourned it recommended the 
Statewide observance of the Fourth of July, "as a day of 
Solemn Thanksgiving," and called upon the Governor to issue 
a Proclamation to that effect. A MS. copy of this Proclama- 
tion has recently been found: 


"State of ITorth Carolina, 

By His Excellency Alexander Martin, Esquire, Governor 
Captain-General and Commander-in-Cliief of the State 


"Whereas the honorable the General Assembly have by a 
Resolution of both Houses recommended to me to appoint 
the fourth of July next being the anniversary of the declara- 
tion of the American Independence, as a Day of Solemn 
Thanksgiving to Almighty God, for the many most glorious 
interpositions of his Providence manifested in a great and 
signal manner in behalf of these United States, during their 
conflict with one of the first powers of Europe : For rescuing 
them in the Day of Distress from Tyranny and oppression, 
and supporting them with the aid of great and powerful 
allies: For conducting them gloriously and triumphantly 
through a just and necessary War, and putting an end to the 
calamities thereof by the restoration of Peace, after humbling 
the pride of our enemies and compelling them to acknowledge 
the Sovereignty and Independence of the American Empire, 
and relinquish all right and claim to the same : For raising 
up a distressed and Injured People to rank among independ- 
ent nations and the sovereign Powers of the world. And 
for all other divine favors bestowed on the Inhabitants of the 
United States and this in particular. 

"In conformity to the pious intentions of the Legislature 
I have thought proper to issue this my Proclamation direct- 
ing that the said 4th Day of July next be observed as above, 
hereby strictly commanding and enjoining all the Good Citi- 
zens of this State to set apart the said Day from bodily 
labour, and employ the same in devout and religious exer- 
cises. And I do require all Ministers of the Gospel of every 
Denomination to convene their congregations at the same 
time, and deliver to them Discourses suitable to the important 
occasion recommending in general the practice of Virtue and 


true Religion as the great foundation of private blessing as 
well as National happiness and prosperity. 

Given under my hand and the gTeat Seal of the State at 
Danbury the 18th day of June in the year 1783 and seventh 
year of the Independence of the said State. 


God save the State." 
By his Excellency's Command. 

P. Henderson Pro Sec." 

In October, 1783, the representatives of the United States 
in Congress assembled, issued a Proclamation calling upon 
the people to observe a Day of Thanksgiving, for the Lord 
"has been pleased to conduct us in safety through all the 
perils and vicissitudes of the War," and "in the course of the 
present year hostilities have ceased, and we are left in the 
undisputed possession of our liberties and Independence." 
But to these causes for gratitude were added thanks "for plen- 
tiful harvests," "the light of the blessed Gospel," and "the 
rights of Conscience in faith and worship," and the date 
appointed was not the Fourth of July but the second Thurs- 
day in December, that being the month in which the annual 
Thanksgiving Day was then celebrated. 

^Nowhere was the news of Peace more gladly received than 
in little Salem, IST. C, and Governor Martin's Proclamation 
for the Fourth of July was willingly obeyed. On the time- 
yellowed page of Pastor Peter's diary stands the full account 
of the observance of the day, no gunpowder, no accidents, 
but a "sane Fourth" that left the little village refreshed and 
strengthened for the new life just beginning. 

Early in the morning the sleeping people were aroused by 
the sweet strains of trombones, playing appropriate chorals. 
Then a large congregation assembled in the prayer-hall, 
where the "Te Deum Laudamus" ^vas chanted, the minister 
preached a beautiful sermon on the blessing of peace, and the 
choir sang "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 


good will toward men." In the afternoon another service 
was held, largely choral, and the full text is preserved in the 
:old diary aforesaid. Picture to yourself that large upper 
room, with its sanded floor, and the men and women seated 
on opposite sides, in the old-fashioned way. In front, to the 
minister's right, would be the little girls, with their white 
caps tied under the chin with pretty pink ribbons. Behind 
them the older girls, wearing white linen caps and cherry 
ribbons ; behind them again the older women, their linen 
caps tied with light blue or pink or white as circumstances 
required. To the left were the boys and men; and for this 
occasion two choirs led the singing, many of the stanzas 
being composed expressly for this day. Listen ! 

FiKST Choie. 

Peace is with us ! Peace is with us ! 

People of the Lord. 

V Second Choie. 

Peace is with us ! Peace is with us ! 
Hear the joyful word ! 


Let it sound from shore to shore ! 
Let it echo evermore ! 

Peace is with us ! 

Peace is with us ! 

Peace, the gift of God ! 

Let the heavens rejoice and the earth be glad ; 
Let all the land pray to Him and sing praises to His name ; 
For He hath done glorious deeds ; 
He hath done mighty deeds ! Selah ! 


Full of joy our hearts are singing 
And to our God thank-offerings bi-inging, 

For His great miracle of Peace ! 
Far and wide the war was spreading, 
And terror by its side was treading, 

To daunt us and our woe increase, 
And little else was heard 
Than foe and fire and sword, 

Need and sorrow. 
How often I cried, anxiously : 
"Look down, oh God ! and pity me !" 

The Lord is a mighty warrior ; Jehovah is His name. 
He causeth war to cease in all the earth. 
Because the miserable are distressed, and the poor cry, 
I will arise, saith the Lord ; all soldiers must drop their hands. 
For I will arise, saith the Lord ; they must put dowm their 

Oh, Rest that softly cometh. 

So gracious and so blest ! 
We hail it with rejoicing. 

For we in Peace may rest! 
Redeemed from present sorrow, 
And trusting for tomorrow. 
Secure from every foe 
Thy flock may come and go. 

Pour out Thy richest blessings now 

Wide as the clouds of heaven ; 
From churches, homes and governments 

Be every evil driven ; 
Give blessed peace in Christendom, 
Let godly fear and concord come 

To reign in every nation. 

Oh God of all creation! 

These and other hymns were sung by choirs and congrega- 
tion, and at length a stately Hallelujah Chorus closed the 
celebration of the Fourth of July, one hundred and thirty 
years ago. 

Winston-Salem, I^. C, April, 1913. 



An Appeal to the Daughters of the Revolution 

The Daughters of the Revolution, and those interested in 
raising the Ellen Wilson Memorial Fund, should feel most 
sympathetic towards one another. It is the noble object of 
both to perpetuate the goodness of the human race — and what 
could be more beautiful or glorious ? 

As it has been stated at numerous times since the Ellen 
Wilson Memorial Fund was first agitated, the object of the 
Fund is to establish scholarships which may be used by those 
mountain boys and mountain girls whose parents have located 
in such places where the population is thin, and the advant- 
ages for getting on, almost lacking. Mrs. Wilson sympa- 
thized with these youths, and through her own efforts estab- 
lished scholarships, that is, as far as she was able to do it. 
And it is peculiarly fitting for the splendid organizations 
such as that fdstered by the Daughters of the Revolution to 
be turned to, in the general appeal to enlarge this Fund, and 
make it a factor in strengthening and the upbuilding of our 

It may interest the Daughters of the Revolution to know, 
in trying to incur their good will and high favor, that those 
striving to raise the Fund wish each contributor to feel a 
part of the Memorial. On this account, it has been decided 
to make it possible to have private memorial scholarships 
given and named by the contributor, but being a part of the 
Ellen Wilson Memorial Fund, so that the Memorial will be 
the dominating spirit which will exert influence, not only 
for the time being, but forever. A contributor to this fund 
is one of the powers who will help to make of us a civilized 
nation, and by lending one's energy and time to this project 
one necessarily becomes a world-wide influence, which will 
be good so long as the civilized world maintains the right 
standards and ideals. And that is also one of the obligations 
that we shall all have to recognize and shoulder. 


If tlie Daughters of the Revolution will manifest their 
interest by contributions, and kindly speaking a good word 
for the cause, it will not be a surprise to those who make 
this appeal — the Daughters of the Revolution have always 
maintained a stand of this sort. It is on this account the 
appeal is made with a genuine feeling that it will be met 
with co-operation and hearty response. 

In regard to the organization of the Ellen Wilson Memo- 
rial, a word may be said. The Honorary President is Mrs. 
Thomas R. Marshall; the Honorary Vice-Presidents: 

Mrs. W. J. Bryan. 
Mrs. L. M. Garrison. 
Mrs. T. W. Gregory. 
Mrs. A. S. Burleson. 
Mrs. J. Daniels. 
Mrs. F. K. Lane. 
Mrs. D. P. Houston. 
Mrs. W. C. Redfield. 
Miss Agnes Wilson. 
The Administrative Board is : 

Mrs. W. S. Elkin, Chairman. 
Mrs. Preston Arkwright, Vice-Chairman. 
Mrs. Thomas H. Latham, Secretary. 
Mrs. Archibald Davis, Treasurer. 

The Memorial Committee is composed of State Presidents, 
as follows : 

Mrs. John B. Knox, Alabama. 
Mrs. Fred AUsop, Arkansas. 
Mrs. Thomas P. Denham, Florida. 
Mrs. H. C. Cunningham, Georgia. 
Mrs. Edmond S. Delong, Kentucky. 
Miss Ella F. Hardie, Louisiana. 
Mrs. Harris E. Kirk, Maryland. 


Mrs. Charlton H. Alexander, Mississippi. 

Mrs. Wade Childress, Missouri. 

Mrs. R. J. Reynolds, ISTorth Carolina. 

Mrs. Kibben Warren, Oklahoma. 

Miss Euphemia McClintock, South Carolina. 

Mrs. David Fentress, Tennessee. 

Mrs. E. T. Rotan, Texas. 

Mrs. W. C. Marshall, Virginia. 

Mrs. Stewart W. Walker, West Virginia. 


Resolutions of Respect to the Memory of Mrs. 
Annie Moore Parker, wlio died June, 1915 

In Memoeiam. 

Whereas, God in His all-pervading love and wisdom, lias 
removed from the blessings and sorrov^s of the earthly home 
to the greater joys of the higher life, our beloved member 
Mrs. Annie Moore Parker: 

Therefore Be It Resolved,, That the ISTorth Carolina So- 
ciety, Daughters of the Revolution deplores the loss sustained 
by her removal from our midst. 

That they realize the immensity of their loss in the death 
of such a faithful and loyal member, vt^hose noble example, 
^vhose exceptional bravery, will ever be an inspiration to all 
other members. Her home was ever at the disposal of the 
Daughters, where we frequently gathered in counsel, and her 
patience at all times knew no flagging. 

That her absence will be felt in our meetings and her guid- 
ance missed. 

To her family in this hour of affliction we offer our warm- 
est sympathy. 

That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the 
Society and a copy sent to the family. 




Genealogical Queries and Answers 

Hill — Hopkins. I am anxious to find out the names of 
Margaret Hill's father and mother. Margaret Hill married 
Alexander Joyce about 1790, and they lived in Eockingham 
County, N'orth Carolina, after their marriage, but I think 
she came from Stokes County, ISForth Carolina. Alexander 
Joyce's mother was a Miss Hopkins, a descendant of Stephen 
Hopkins, of Ehode Island, and I am anxious to trace to that. 
If any one can give me any information on this line I shall 
greatly appreciate it. Address Mrs. J. W. Jones, Martins- 
ville, Virginia. 

Howell — Lewis. Can anyone give any information of the 
present hereabouts of the portrait of Mary Howell, mother of 
Howell Lewis, of Granville County, North Carolina? She 
was the daughter of John Howell, Gentleman, and wife of 
Colonel Charles Lewis, of ''The Byrd," Goochland County, 
Virginia. This was taken when she was sixteen and was 
at one time in the possession of the mother of Miss Mildred 
Lewis Rutherford, of Georgia, her lineal descendant, then it 
was later at "Wyanoke," the home of her descendants, the 
Douthats, in Virginia. A picture of it is to be found in 
"The Barons of Potomac and the Rappahannock," by the 
late Dr. Moncure D. Conway. Also can any reader of The 
Booklet furnish the names of the children of James Lewis, 
son of Colonel Lewis and Mary Howell, his wife, who set- 
tled in Granville County, !North Carolina, in Colonial days ? 
He married a Miss Taylor. Any information on these sub- 
jects will be gratefully accepted. Send reply to Editor of 
The North Carolina Booklet, Raleigh, North Carolina. 


Biographical Sketches 

Biographical Sketches of the following writers, whose 
articles appear in this issue of The Booklet, have been written 
by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt and published in the order given below : 

Marshall DeLancey Haywood, The BooUet, Vol. VIII, 1. 

Stephen B. Weeks, The Booklet, Vol. IX, 1. 

Adelaide L. Fries, The Booklet, Vol. IX, 4. 


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Vol. XV JANUARY, 1916 No. 3 

North Carolina Booklet 




ifs^a^M HISTORY 





George Edmund Badger, Secretary of the United States 

Navy 137 

By Petee M. Wilson. 

The Spratt Burying-Ground 152 

By Violet G. Alexander. 

Ingleside, Home of Colonel John Ingles 158 

By Maey Hilliaed Hinton. 

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Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh, N. C. July 15, 1905, under the Act of 
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Vol. XV JANUARY, 1916 No. 3 

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Jndse of the Superior Courts of North Carolina, 

United States Senator, Secretary 

of the Navy, p]te. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XV JANUARY, 1916 No. 3 

George Edmund Badger, Secretary of the 
United States Navy 

By Peter M. Wilson. 

This paper is written by request and in the character of 
an impression rather than a chronology. It may go with- 
out saying that no statement of fact has been made without 
examination, and no expression of opinion as to his features 
of official reputation given without a careful reading of the 
printed or manuscript history bearing upon it. It has been 
kept in mind that in the counting-house of the modern his- 
torian traditions are at a discount and facts at a premium. 
The acts and orders on which the most important measures of 
his administration of the ^ayj rest have, therefore, been set 
forth at leng-th. They tell the tale. Governor Graham empha- 
sizes Mr. Badger's devotion to truth in its broadest and high- 
est meaning, and to trifle with it for the purpose of making 
the world think him other than he was would be an imperti- 
nence to his memory. 

In a service of ten years in the Senate, whenever ISTaval 
matters were under discussion he took an active part in it, 
and the proceedings show that his views were sought and his 
opinions deferred to. There could hardly be better proof 
that he had acquired a great range and vast quantity of infor- 
mation as to the theory and practice of naval administration, 
and that he held it at the disposal of his brother Senators. 
This made him an authority. If his connection with the 
iN'avy had been of that perfunctory character which the mere 
holding of the Secretaryship renders unhappily possible, when 
he became a legislator he would not have been suggestively 
associated in the public mind with his former dignity. 


George E. Badger was the thirteenth Secretary of the 
United States Navy. He was appointed on March 5, 1841, 
confirmed and took office on March 6th, and on the dissolu- 
tion of the Harrison Cabinet resigned September 13th of the 
same year, the anniversary of his forty-sixth birthday. On 
March 19th he was called to his home in Raleigh to welcome 
into the world his youngest daughter, and for one month was 
absent from the seat of Government on that account. The 
brief period of five months therefore measures his active 
service as the head of the Navy Department. What he did in 
that time to give him a place in its annals can best be learned 
from the records and the literature which interprets them, 
but it will also help us to know the man and his work if we 
can learn what those who saw him and knew him say that he 
was. They seem to agree that he was not only by tempera- 
ment and appearance in harmony with his office, but that the 
same intellectual superiority which set him in a place of his 
own in all the stations he ever filled gave him in this one a 
commanding character. 

Governor Graham says in his "Discourse in Memory of 
the Life and Character of the Hon. George E. Badger," that 
Mr. Badger reluctantly accepted the naval portfolio when 
President Harrison tendered it. He had done notable work 
on the hustings in the picturesque and, in some respects, gro- 
tesque campaign of 1840, and perhaps as much as any other 
orator had been at pains to give a sane gTavity to the popular 
uprising into which the presidential contest converted itself. 
It was largely in recognition of these services that President 
Harrison invited him into the Cabinet. Certain it is that he 
was not inclined to abandon the successful pursuit of his 
profession, and it is safe to assume that whatever ambitions 
he may have harbored, he had not dreamed of ruling the seas. 
He had never sat in the National Legislature, and his fame 
as a lawyer of broad learning, and as an advocate of 
most persuasive and compelling power, was known beyond 
his own State only to the better informed section of his pro- 


fession. We need not wonder then that more than one Mem- 
ber of Congress when his name was sent to the Senate asked, 
"Who is George E. Badger?" A decade later when in the 
same Senate, ranking with Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Benton, 
Jefferson Davis and John Bell, he was helping to mould a 
great compromise and delivering his great speech of March 
18th and 19th on the slavery question, such a query would 
have been impossible. 

Deciding to accept the office he took it in good conscience, 
and he set about with a devouring greed of mind to absorb 
all that was to be known about the duties it carried with it. 
His associates all bear testimony to his industry and his 
intuitive perception in discarding what was unnecessary, 
and his capacity for assimilating essentials in dealing with 
large affairs. So, pursuing a natural bent and a cultivated 
habit of intense application, he almost at once came into 
possession of the technical details of the Department and 
comfortably settled himself into its routine. He memorized 
its history, worked out the elements of its personnel and 
materiel, and became saturated with its ideals. It is not 
mere praise to say that he knew as few could know the 
relation of the military marine to the life of the govern- 
ment. He understood that it was bottomed on the Constitu- 
tion in the power which that instrument granted Congress 
to provide and maintain it. Believing the ISTavy, in the 
words of Admiral Dewey, "must ever remain our first and 
best line of defense," the mobile outworks of our fortifica- 
tions, the floating bulwark of our coasts and of all that our 
coasts' outline embraces, be set to work to make it such. 

Knowing in all its correlations the great force with which 
he had to deal, he looked with faith to the good uses to which 
it was to come. He projected a ISTavy, not necessarily superior 
in size to that of any other power, but sufficient for the high 
purposes of a nation situated like the United States. The 
main feature of his plan was to make good the doctrine of 


defense as opposed to the doctrine of aggression, and to carry 
abroad an unmistakable guarantee of tbe country's com- 
mercial rights. 

In Ms report of May 29tb, submitted to the session of 
Congress called to meet on the last day of May, he brought 
forward the policy, and committed the administration to it, 
of a gTeater INTavy, a better I^avy, and a ISlavy primarily for 
home defense. This is what is meant by his proposal to 
establish a "Home Squadron," a "sufficient supply of suitable 
munitions" and "a reorganization of the IsTavy to fit it to the 
changing methods of construction and propulsion." The 
"home squadron" proposed by him grew to be the Atlantic 
fleet of today; the prime necessity for abundant ordnance 
and education in its uses is the preparedness advocated today ; 
the reorganization of the iSTavy is its enlightened and enlarged 
adaptation to what has been found to be best suited to its 
purposes. The report is not only comprehensive, but sug- 
gestive. Its statements of the needs of this branch of the 
service were the arguments which secured the adoption, at 
least of its most material recommendations, before that Con- 
gress adjourned, and as it would lose in attempt at condensa- 
tion, it answers the better purpose to submit it in full : 

"It is presumed Congress will scarcely be willing to give attention 
to general matters unconnected with the objects for which the extra- 
ordinary session of that body was convoked, yet recent events induce 
me to bring to your notice, with a view to the action of Congress, 
two subjects as worthy of present consideration. Tlie first is the 
establishment of a home squadron. While squadrons are main- 
tained in various parts of the world for the preservation of our 
commerce, our own shores have been left without any adequate pro- 
tection. Had a war with Great Britain been the result, as was at 
one time generally feared, of the subjects of difficulty now in a 
course of adjustment between that power and the United States, not 
only would our trade have been liable to great interruption, and our 
merchants to great losses abroad, but a naval force, comparatively 
small, might, on our very shores, have seized our merchant ships 
and insulted our flag, without suitable means of resistance or imme- 
diate retaliation being at the command of the Government. To 
guard against such a result, to be ever ready to repel or promptly to 


chastise aggressions upon our own shores, it is necessary that a 
powerful squadron should be kept afloat at home. This measure is 
recommended by other considerations. There is no situation in which 
greater skill or seamanship can be exercised and acquired than on 
the coast of the United States ; and in no service would our officers 
and seamen become more thoroughly initiated in all that is neces- 
sary for the national defense and glory. In that service, aided hy 
the coast survey now in progress, a thorough acquaintance would be 
gained with our own seacoast, extensive but imperfectly known, the 
various ports would be visited, the bays, inlets, and harbors care- 
fully examined, the uses to which each could be made available 
during war either for escape, defense, or annoyance, be ascertained, 
and the confidence resulting from perfect knowledge would give to 
us, what we ought surely to possess, a decided advantage over an 
enemy on our own shores. Should it be thought desirable that such 
a squadron be put in commission immediately, and kept constantly 
on duty, an additional appropriation may be necessary, for the 
amount of which, as well as the force deemed proper to be employed, 
I beg to refer to the accompanying report on the subject, prepared 
under my direction, by the Board of Navy Commissioners. 

"The attention of Congress has been heretofore earnestly invited 
to the state of our ordnance and ordnance stores, and I deem it 
worthy of immediate consideration. A sufficient supply of suitable 
arms and munitions of war is indispensable to the successful opera- 
tion of the bravest officers and men, and taken not from the nature 
of the case, but provided upon a svidden emergency. Sailors may be 
hastily collected from our commercial marine, ships may be pur- 
chased, but ordnance cannot be supplied on such an emergency, nor 
can some of the materials for the preparation of ammunition be pro- 
cured either by purchase or manufacture. Hence the ordnance 
should, by a timely foresight, be provided in advance and the mate- 
rials be secured, from which a supply of ammunition can be speedily 
prepared. The accompanying report from the Board of Navy Com- 
missioners shows the amount of expenditure which will be required 
under this head. Should the object be deemed of such importance 
and urgency as to require the immediate attention of Congress, I 
respectfully recommend that an appropriation of one-third of the 
estimated amount be now made. 

"The opinion seems to have become general, as well in the service 
as in the nation at large, that a thorough reorganization of the navy 
is demanded by consideration connected with the defense and honor 
of the country, and in this opinion I heartily concur. Yet I am 
fully aware that any plan for this purpose should be the result of the 
most careful deliberation, and that it be at once unwise and inju- 
rious to submit to Congress and the country any proposed arrange- 
ments which should be liable to the charge of haste and inconsidera- 


To have rested on the oars of recommendation might have 
argued a very enlightened grasp of the work to be done, its 
scope and its magnitude, but it would have been an incom- 
plete performance. The new Secretary proceeded hot-haste 
to impress his views on Congress. In the House, Henry A. 
Wise, Chairman of the Committee on I^aval Affairs, brought 
in the bills carrying into effect the new policy; he had as 
committee associates Mallory of Florida, afterwards Secre- 
tary of the ISTavy of the Confederate States; Clifford of 
Maine, afterwards Mr. Justice Clifford of the Electoral 
Commission ; Mr. Stanly of 'North. Carolina, and other nota- 
ble men. In the Senate, Mr. Mangiim, afterwards its Presi- 
dent pro tempore, was Chairman of the Committee on ISTaval 
Affairs, and giiided these bills to a safe and successful pas- 
sage. Before Mr. Badger resigned his portfolio, the special 
provisions for the home squadron and the ordnance supplies 
had become law,^ and the foundation laid for the appropriation 
for the years i841-'42 of the sum of $8,272,977.10, the 
most generous provision for the naval establishment which 
Congress had ever voted. As on these two acts depend the 
definition of his conception of a naval policy, it will be best 
to set them forth in full: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of tlie 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the sum of 
six hundred thousand dollars be paid out of any moneys in the 
Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of purchasing 
ordnance and ordnance stores for the use of the Navy of the United 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the Secretary of the Navy 
is hereby authorized to apply a part of the sum herein and hereby 
appropriated, not exceeding fifty thousand dollars, to the purpose 
of making experiments to test the value of improvements in ord- 
nance, in the construction of steamers, and other vessels of war, in 
other matters connected with the naval service and the national 
defense ; and also to the purpose of defraying any charges left un- 
paid on account of experiments of the like character heretofore made 
by authority of law. 

Approved September 11, 1841. 


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That for the pay, 
subsistence, increase and repairs, medicines and contingent expenses 
of two frigates, two sloops, two small vessels and two armed steamers 
to be employed as a home squadron, the sum of seven hundred and 
eighty-nine thousand three hundred and ten dollars is hereby 

Approved August 1, 1S41. 

Secretary Badger did not belong to the school which be- 
lieves that only those things which have been can and should 
be. He had possessed himself of full and accurate informa- 
tion as to the improved methods of armament, transportation, 
equipment and propulsion in use in European warships, and 
was in sympathy with the younger men of the IsTavy who 
were hopeful of every invention and much enamoured of the 
then new doctrines of steam and steel. As he expressed it, 
he ''had anxiety for, but confidence in, these new elements in 
naval affairs." He found the vessels driven by sail; he 
ordered the ships Mississippi and Missouri to be fitted with 
steam, and they became the nucleus of the home squadron. 
Under the act of Congress to enable Lieutenant Hunter to 
try the merits of a submerged horizontal wheel, he ordered 
"a steam vessel of war to be built on your plan, not to exceed 
300 tons burthen." On September 11, 1841, he directed 
that the "Gem" be put at Lieutenant Hunter's disposal. On 
June 1st he directed Commodore Stewart, in command of the 
noYj yard at Philadelphia, to prepare drafts and explanation 
of machinery of a steamer to be driven by a screio propeller 
and ordered Captain Stockton to superintend the work. The 
construction of the steamer was entrusted to Captain Stockton 
in the following order: 

"The Department has directed the Commissioners of the Navy to 
cause a steam vessel of war to be built on your plan, not to exceed 
600 tons burthen. You will superintend the building of the said 
steamer under the direction of the Commandant of the Navy Yard at 
Philadelphia, making to him from time to time during the progress 
of the work such suggestions as you may think proper." 


The vessel put on the ways for this purpose became the 
"Princeton," the flagship at Vera Cruz and of Commodore 
Perry at Tokio. Secretary Badger had appreciated the abil- 
ity of Stockton, who was offered the Secretarj^ship in succes- 
sion, but declined it rather than interrupt his career. He 
also ordered built three steamers of medium size to be driven 
by the Erricsson ijropeller. In these ways he showed his faith 
in American capacity to do equally well what other nations 
had done and were doing, and he planned to proceed upon the 
line of consistent development. 

He despatched the sloop of war "Yorktown" to the Sand- 
wich Islands to protect American whalers, and he advocated 
the establishment at Honolulu of a naval depot. Just half a 
century later the United States on "naval gTOunds" saw its 
true interest in annexing these islands. 

Without tedious detail the policies of increase and expan- 
sion of the ISTavy through the addition of the home squadron, 
the adoption of the latest improvements in the building and 
propelling of warships, both as to material and kinds of 
power; the furnishing forth of an abundance of war muni- 
tions, and the encouragement of practice in the most effective 
use of them; the forecasting of the strategic value of the 
Sandwich Islands as a base for our naval operations on our 
Pacific seaboard, might be said to lay the even keel on which 
the frame of his services in the ISTavy have their foundation. 
They show what he initiated, what he contrived as best for 
the E^avy as he found it and for the ISTavy of the future. It 
would be hard to deny the conclusion that he had successfully 
devoted himself to the work of making the JSTavy better 
than he found it. 

In the larger matters of policy, the head of the uSTavy 
had to deal, on behalf of his department, with the legis- 
lative organ of the government, to which he had to look 
to make effective his best laid plans. It was, it will be 
remembered, a time of profound peace. There could be no 
brilliant sea-faring exploit. It was difficult to excite popular 


atteution to the ISTavy. He seemed wise, then, in engaging 
the support of the people through their representatives. But 
this support could not be had, or when had could not be 
relied on if the ISTavy did not show itself to be worthy of 
it. He planned to make it so, and whether or not he did 
much to bring this about can be judged by studying his 
methods of managing its internal affairs. To get a discern- 
ment of value into these methods it is necessary to go to the 
letter-books and order books, which set forth the daily life of 
the department. From this source can be obtained the real 
view of his relation to the department itseK. 

In one of his earlier letters he exhibits his jealousy of the 
ISTavy's dignity and his hostility to influences which could 
affect its morale. He was not a jurist turned head of the 
Admiralty only for place and power, but the tone of his let- 
ters show that he became a sailor of the sailors. 

The politics, even of those halcyon days, was not above 
burrowing into the ITavy. Complaints were made to him 
that the navy yard in ISTew York had been made use of in an 
election. He at once addressed a letter to Captain Matthew 
Calbraith Perry, a brother to Commodore Perry, which is 
such a complete exposition of the attitude of the jSTavy to 
such pernicious practices and his condemnation of them that 
it is even now a precedent much respected. After notifying 
Captain Perry that he had appointed him to the command 
of the navy yard from confidence in his ability to discharge- 
delicate duties, and that the appointment had not been sought 
by him either directly or indirectly, and calling his attention 
to the complaints about politics being allowed to control its 
operations and influence thereby freedom of elections, he 

"It is deemed alike necessary to the honor of the Navy and to th(. 
welfare of the country that this evil should be corrected, and from 
you I feel assured that no countenance will be given to a system 
alike injurious and disreputable to the service. But in order to 
accomplish this desirable reform, it is highly important, if not 
indispensably necessary, that those should be removed from stations 


of subordinate authority in the yard who have in any means abused 
their power for electioneering purposes. I request therefore that the 
changes may be made. It is my earnest desire that no person in the 
service shall be either the better or the worse off in consequence of 
his political opinions — merely that he shall feel himself at perfect 
liberty to exercise the elective franchise according to the dictates of 
his own judgment and conscience, and that no agent of the Govern- 
ment shall be allowed to impose any restraint upon him for any 
party or political purposes, and that it be made manifest that as the 
Navy belongs to the nation, so its stations are established, their 
officers appointed, their laborers employed and their whole opera- 
tions directed solely for the honorable and efficient service of the 

In more than one letter can be read the determination 
above all things to be just to those under him. 

He was strict in exacting obedience, and did not dally 
"udth punishment, whether it had to be meted to the gTeat or 
to the humble. But he was ready, and even eager, to repair 
a wrong when he knew of it, even v/hen the doing so was to 
his own hurt. In regular course, and upon apparently good 
reasons, he ordered the dismissal from the service of a petty 
officer. The man, conscious of his innocence and tenacious 
of his good name, came to the Secretary in person and 
pleaded his own cause. He convinced him that his order had 
consummated a real wrong. Immediately thereupon Secre- 
tary Badger wrote to Commodore Perry unreservedly con- 
fessing his belief that he had done a grave injustice, and 
invoked his aid in righting its effect as fully as possible by 
either reinstating the man in his former place, if that were 
possible, and if not, to provide some equally honorable post, 
for him. 

He showed customary consideration for others when impos- 
ing his affairs on them by apologizing to the Commodore for 
the inconvenience he was giving him in this instance. 

The anxiety of a great minister to do an act of justice to 
a petty officer is not so commonplace a phase of official life 
as to preclude its setting forth in a paper of this sort. It 
lends a pleasant expression to the face of stern authority. 


There are many sentences in his letters which leave no 
doubt that his temper was least dangerous when it slept. 
But one respects it more when one sees that when aroused it 
usually fell on the higher heads. Sometimes it scorched 
subordinates when they were delinquent. His impatience 
with those who were loose in money matters, whether through 
dilatory habits or design, is shown in many instances in the 
cases of petty officers who owed debts of various sorts, and to 
pursers who had misapplied moneys for expenses of voyages. 
The reprimands evidently carried terror, as replies to them 

He was mildly tolerant of foibles and venial offences, and 
when reproving them often added a line of fatherly advice 
to the erring against "being seduced into conduct unworthy 
of their state," and urging them to make the talents ascribed 
to them useful to the country and honorable to themselves. 
Even in these formal letters a touch of humorous irony once 
in a while crops out, as when he wrote to an officer who had 
assumed that his request had been granted, and acted on the 
assumption : "Here things asked and not granted are deemed 

He did not brook for an instant any disloyalty to or secret 
criticism of the service by members of it, and the half dozen 
lines to Commodore Wilkinson, commander of the West 
India fleet, at Boston, touching some anonymous newspaper 
correspondence, meant to be a warning, as well as an effective 
method of uncovering the guilty, read in this wise: "Your 
communication of the 5th inst. inclosing a publication taken 
from the New York Herald, has been received, and you are 
hereby authorized to require each officer under your com- 
mand to answer on honor whether or not he be the author of 
that publication, which is herewith returned to you." 

His pride in the ISTavy was as great as if he had been born 
into it, and. he was sensitive to any criticism of it. When the 
"Brandywine" returned to America from the Mediterranean 
at a time when there were stiff rimaors of impending war 


between Great Britain and the United States, he showed and 
expressed mnch disappointment and displeasure at the lack 
of discretion displayed by the officer in connnand. He did 
not wish it in the critic's mouth to say aught about one of his 
ships. Happily, there was nothing more than a small blow, 
which expended itself in a rather insignificant tempest in the 
Senate. The confusion in the dates of certain information 
which occasioned the departure of the ship was satisfactorily 
cleared up, and the investigation which had been asked for 
was dropped. Senator Preston, of South Carolina, restored 
the calm with the observation that so long as the administra- 
tion had so amiable a Secretary of State as Mr. Webster, our 
ships could feel free to sail without consulting the fears of 
diplomats. All of which smacks of the criticisms of today. 

Affain, when the "Constellation" came out of the navv 
yard at Boston, ill-fitted for her cruise, he expressed to those 
whom he held responsible for the condition of the ship his 
intense mortification that such a thing could happen in the 
Nav;)^ He was ever alert to the needs of the ships and their 

It must not be supposed that he was over given to the haliit 
of fault-finding, because quite as many of his letters are filled 
with praise when it was merited, as with censure when de- 
served. He gave warm commendation to the officers and 
men for the punishment of what he called an act of 
horrible piracy in the mouth of the Mississippi. Especially 
commending them for the promptness which they exhibited 
and which, he added, the American people had a right to ex- 
pect from the naval force of the country. 

He was unremitting in his interest in behaK of the per- 
sonal welfare, not only of the officers, but of what are some- 
times called the mere sailors. In this welfare he embraced 
their physical, mental, and moral fitness for their profession. 
To illustrate this, in many letters he insists that the chap- 
lains perform the duties for which they were appointed and 
which the regulations clearly set forth. He shrewdly sus- 


pected that there was a lull in the activities of the commis- 
sioned parsons against the evil one. He took advanced 
grounds in demanding high moral character and thorough 
scientific acquirements on the part of physicians appointed 
to the Department. Looking upon the ship as a home and the 
crews as its family, he planned to have its medical officers, in 
the first place, gentlemen, and then physicians and apothe- 
caries. One of these last named prerequisites was that they 
understand the modes of preparing those "poisons called 

In a letter to Commander Morris he catalogues quite a 
list of books, which he ordered to be purchased and put in 
the ships' libraries, among them several Universal Histories, 
The Writings of Washington, Story's Commentaries, dic- 
tionaries, both English and classical, besides technical books 
adapted to improvement and perfection in the profession. 

It is not difficult to find in his interest in this form of con- 
tinued education the crude germ of the "school idea" aboard, 
which is now accepted by authorities of experience as calcu- 
lated to make the highest type of officer, sailor, and even 

It is not altogether disagTeeable to us to read that thost 
in authority, in what were called the better days of the 
Republic, as all days that are gone are fancied to be, were 
not averse to impressing those holding the purse-strings by 
object lessons or by what may without disrespect be called 
"junkets." The Secretary writes to Commodore Morris that 
he wanted the "Delaware" brought to Annapolis in order 
that many distinguished members of Congress, probably the 
President of the United States, might have an opportunity 
of inspecting a line-of -battle ship. 

At heart Mr. Badger was honestly democratic, and many 
a good story is still current in his home of his familiarity 
with people in much humbler stations. He delighted to have 
the good woman who brought his weekly supply of eggs sit 
at his table and have a hot breakfast with him, but as the 


Secretary of the ISTavy he could be as ceremonious as the 
most imposing Commodore, and rather liked the forms of 
martial observances. 

Our country has always delighted in a splendid hospitality 
to the representatives of France, that superbly unselfish land 
which fought to give America a Republic before it gave one 
to Europe. When, therefore, the Prince de Joinville arrived 
in our ports no courtesy on the part of the ISTavy, with sails 
filled and banners flying, was omitted. The order to effect 
this runs in this wise : 

"You will show the usual and appropriate civilities to him and the 
vessel, and afterwards on proper notice of the presence of the Prince, 
should he visit the Navy Yard, you will give him a royal salute of 
21 guns and show him all the usual civilities due a person of his rank. 
Should the vessel on her arrival hoist the royal standard, which is 
not anticipated, your first salute will be that of 21 guns." 

These letters and orders reveal in an imperfect way the 
internal or domestic life of the department, if it may be so 
called. They show that he was jealous of the ISTavy's integ- 
rity, just in his administration, parental almost in his solici- 
tude for its personnel. They are just such words as a modest, 
able, painstaking, broad-minded official could and would 
write. They show a sympathetic personality and a high 
character that cabals and political intrigue could not swerve 
from faithful service. These lines seem to imprint minor 
shades which go to complete the picture of a man who did 
much in six months time to make the ISTavy greater. He 
left it better in every way than he found it. 'No man of his 
day perhaps did more to win for it a favoring and growing 
public sentiment. He convinced Congress that it did well to 
vote the largest allowance it had ever made up to that time. 
Under this and subsequent grants the naval force came to be 
well enough equipped for the capture of Vera Cruz and the 
taking over of our great California possessions. The report 
made to Congress in December, 1841, although made by his 
successor, carries many of the proposals devised by Mr. Bad- 


ger for the future welfare of the Navy. It is proof that he left 
undone much that he would have done. But if he had done 
nothing more than begin the home squadron and get the most 
generous money grant for a really growing l^avy, he would 
have deserved to rank as a great Secretary. 

His last of&cial act was a request that a worthy mechanic 
should have employment in the navy yard. It is in these 
words: "In consideration of the long and faithful services of 
John Ford in the ISTavy, I request that you will give him 
emplojTnent in the yard under your command if you can find 
any suitable for him." 

This parting thought for the welfare of a comrade of the 
lowest rank leaves a kindly touch on the conclusion of a high 

It is a cause of satisfying pride to the people of lISTorth 
Carolina to reflect that for three-quarters of a century no 
name has led that of Badger on the register of the Navy in 
loyal, lofty, and conspicuously efficient service. It has been 
borne by a Secretary, a Commodore, who more than once 
received the thanks of Congress for disting-uished bravery, an 
Admiral, who as the commander-in-chief of our greatest fleet, 
made it admirable and welcome in the ports of all the great 
powers as well as a safeguard against our turbulent neighbors, 
and is now safe in the hands of a young Ensign, who has re- 
cently been handsomely mentioned in the Official Gazette for 
gallantry in action in protecting his men and punishing the 
enemy under a grilling fire from the house-tops of the streets 
of Vera Cruz. 


"The Spratt Burying-Ground'*— A Colonial 

By Violet G. Alexander. 

This graveyard is one of the oldest burying places in ISTorth 
Carolina and is known as the ''Spratt burying-ground." The 
historian, C. L. Hunter, in his "Sketches of Western North 
Carolina" (pages 17 and 78) writes: 

"]^ear the residence of Thomas Spratt, where was held the 
first court in Mecklenburg County, is one of the oldest private 
burying-grounds in this country, in which his mortal remains 
repose. Here are found the gravestones of several members 
of the Spratt, Barnett and Jack families, who intermarried ; 
also, those of the Binghams, McKnights and a few others. 
On the headstone of Mary Barnett it is recorded she died 
on the 4th of October, 1764, aged 45 years. A hickory tree, 
ten or twelve inches in diameter, is now growing on this 
grave, casting its beneficent shade. The primitive forest 
growth, once partially cut down, is here fast assuming its 
original sway, and is peacefully overshadowing the mortal 
remains of these early sleepers in this ancient graveyard." 

The historian Foote, in his "Sketches of ISTorth Carolina" 
(page 510), says: "Thomas Spratt removed to the spot, near 
to Charlotte, where he died and lies buried in the angle of the 
woods, near his dwelling. There appears to have been at this 
place a burying-ground as old as that at Sugar Creek (the 
first one) now entirely grown over with trees." 

This property, in recent years, was owned by Mr. Thomas 
Vail and his heirs, and today this sacred spot lies unnoticed 
and unmarked, in a new residential suburb of Charlotte, 
known as "Colonial Heights." It is situated, today, on a new 
street, "Vail Avenue," and has been divided into building- 
lots, now owned by Mrs. S. M. Johnson, a daughter of Mr. 
Vail, and Mr. Eobert Glasgow. The old graveyard was grad- 


ually neglected in former years and was in a great state of 
dilapidation when Mr. Vail became the owner of it some years 
ago, for it was included in the sale of many acres of land 
which he purchased in this locality. The relatives of those 
buried here were either deceased or had moved to other sec- 
tions of the country, so for many years no one interested was 
left to give tender or reverent care to this "God's Acre." The 
graves were fast disappearing and the tombstones falling 
down and breaking into bits, and so great was the desecration 
that the negroes in the neighborhood, laying aside their cus- 
tomary superstition, were known to have used several of these 
hallowed stones as hearthstones in their cabins ! 

Miss Cora Vail, a daughter of Mr. Thomas Vail, often 
went to the little graveyard, and was much troubled over its 
neglect and this vandalism, and realizing that it would soon 
disappear from the sight and the knowledge of the people of 
today, determined to take some steps to preserve a record of 
it. She consulted Mr. George F. Bason, a well-known and 
prominent member of the Charlotte bar, who advised her that 
as the graveyard was private property, and no means had 
been provided for its "perpetual care," her best course was 
to carefully and accurately take the names and inscriptions 
on all the tombstones, have this record filed in some public 
building in Charlotte and to level and hury all the tombstones. 
Miss Vail followed his advice and carefully made a complete 
copy of all names and inscriptions then visible and filed a 
copy of the same at the Charlotte Carnegie Library with the 
librarian, then Mrs. Annie Smith Ross, since married to Mr. 
Horey ; this valuable paper is now in the custody of the pres- 
ent librarian. Miss Mary Belle Palmer. A full and com- 
plete copy of this paper is incorporated here as follows : 

Paper is entitled : 

"Burying-Ground East of Charlotte, IST. C, near Elizabeth 


College. Inscriptions on old headstones in Colonial Grave- 
yard on Vail Farm." 

"Here lies ye body of 
Hugh Bingham who 
departed this life 
Nov. ye 4th 1765, 

nearby lies ye body of 
Joseph Bingham, a child." 

"Here lies the body of 
Mary Bingham who deceased 
Jan. 18th 1772 aged 55 years." 

'Here lys the body of 
Samuel Bingham junr. 
who departed this life 
April 25th 1774 aged 33 years. 

"Here lies the body of 

Jean Barnett who 

deceased April 20th 1776 

aged 20 years." 

"Here lies the body of 

Thos. Barnett who deceased 

May the 3rd 1776 

aged 22 years." 

"Here lys the body of 

John Jack Barnett who deceased 

Jan. 14th 1778 

aged 9 months." 

"Here lies the body of 

Esther Johnston who deceased 

Oct. 22nd, 1775 

aged 31 years." 


"In memory of Andrew Sprot 
who died Nov. 29, 1772 

aged 64 years 

also here lys his wife 

Mary Sprot who died 

June 7th 1771 aged 64 years." 

"Here lies the body of 
James McKnight who deceased 
Oct. ye 23rd 1764 aged 60 years." 

"Here lies the body of 
Robert McKnight who deceased 
Oct. ye 19 1778 aged 60 years." 

The above is a complete list of all the inscriptions found 
by Miss Vail, which she carefully copied as to wording and 
spelling. The reader will be struck by the similarity and 
formality of the style of all the inscriptions — closely re- 
sembling inscriptions found today in many old churchyards 
of England and Scotland, and, doubtless, these early settlers 
in writing inscriptions conformed to the accepted style of 
that day in the land from which they had come. 

The earliest date given by Miss Vail is that in the inscrip- 
tion of James McKnight and 1764 is the year. It is stated 
that James McKnight was 60 years old when he died, so he 
must have been a man in middle life when he came to this, 
then remote, part of ISTorth Carolina. We have no means of 
knowing how many years before 1764 he came to his new 
home or how long he had resided here, but we know he must 
have been a man of action and of sturdy qualities and of 
strong characteristics, as were, also, that small company who 
had traveled this far with him. It will be noted that the 
grave of Thomas Spratt, referred to by Hunter and Foote, 
had disappeared, as no record of it was found on any of the 
headstones by Miss Vail. Other names of individuals or fam- 
ilies known to have been buried here were given the writer 


by Miss Yail, who found no stones commemorating them, but 
tradition still points out the location of some of the most im- 
portant graves. 

John Jack, supposed to be a brother of Captain James Jack 
— the fearless patriot, who was the bearer of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence to Philadelphia — is buried here. 
He seems to have a little namesake, and probably relative, 
buried near, for we find the record of the grave of a baby boy 
— John Jack Barnett— who died at the age of nine months. 
Of especial interest is the fact that Ann Spratt, the first white 
child born in Western ISTorth Carolina, lies buried in this 
old graveyard, known as the "Spratt burying-ground." Again 
we quote Hunter (page 77), who says: ''Thomas Spratt is 
said to have been the first person who crossed the Yadkin 
River with wheels ; and his daughter, Ann, was the first white 
child born in this beautiful champaign country between the 
Yadkin and Catawba Rivers." 

Ann Spratt became the wife of John Barnett, and their 
daughter married James W. Jack, a son of Captain James 
Jack (see Hunter's Sketches, page 74.) Mrs. Ann Spratt 
Barnett's grave has almost disappeared and no stone now 
marks the last resting place of Mecklenburg's first white child. 

When a committee from the Colonial Dames, composed of 
Miss Yiolet G. Alexander, Miss Cora Vail, and Mrs. Lucy 
Alexander Halliburton, visited the burying-ground in March, 
1914, Miss Yail was able to point out its location and, also, 
that of several other important graves. Other persons known 
to have been buried here were : Thomas Spratt, a man of large 
influence and means, at whose home the first court was held 
in Mecklenburg County; Mary Spratt, Mary Barnett; and 
members of the families of Osbourne, Johnston, Barnett, 
Spratt — spelled Sprot on the tombstones; Polk, relatives of 
Mecklenburg's only President, James Knox Polk; Bingham, 
McKnight, Jack and others, whose names and graves have 
been lost, lie buried in this forgotten place. 

A great wave of sadness sweeps over the soul of one as he 
stands in this little graveyard, situated on a lovely wooded 


knoll and lets fancy fly back to those first days in Mecklen- 
burg's splendid history, when the brave men and braver wo- 
men and tender little children, whose dust hallow this sacred 
spot, lived and moved and had their being in the very begin- 
ning of our glorious history and "acted well their part" in its 

It may not be inappropriate to recall to mind those beau- 
tiful and significant words from the pen of the loved English 
poet Gray : 

"Beneath those rugged elms, that yew tree's shade, 
Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, 
Each in his narrow cell forever laid 

The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid 

Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire; 

Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed, 
Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre. 

Yet e'en these bones from insult to protect, 

Some frail memorial still erected nigh 
With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture decked. 

Implores the passing tribute of a sigh." 

May the citizens of the Queen City, moved by gratitude 
and patriotism, see to it that this colonial graveyard, hallowed 
by the sacred dust of the first settlers of Mecklenburg County, 
is properly and appropriately marked. 

Charlotte, ^. C. 


Historic Homes, Part VI : Ingleside, Home of 
Colonel John Ingles 

By Mart Hilliaed Hinton. 

A certain eminent Colonial Dame who, like the immortal 
Scott, keeps a note-book and jots down every bit of antiqua- 
rian knowledge encountered, particularly that imparted by 
our oldest inhabitants, has performed a good service for her 
own State of Maryland in particular and her country in gen- 
eral in preserving in permanent form many vanishing facts 
of American history and set an example that all who are 
historically inclined might well afford to emulate. One never 
knows when the engrossing story of an apparently common- 
place habitation that is hastening to its ruin may be un- 
earthed, some ghostly legend retold after half a century's 
silence, an unmarked grave located, or some hidden treasure 
brought to the world's attention. 

During the frequent drives to Raleigh, ISTorth Carolina, 
over the Tarboro Road, my interest in the quaint house that 
crovtTied the summit of one of Wake County's highest hills, 
that rose gradually from the picturesque bend of Crabtree 
Creek, has been keen ever since memory and imagination have 
asserted themselves. N"othing bearing on the past could be 
ascertained — the names of the place and the earlier owners 
were alike shrouded in mystery. So imagination played an 
active part and around the antique abode fancy wove number- 
less marvelous stories; one that is still remembered was a 
startling ghost tale. Of course there must be a ghost around, 
for does not every very old and striking house claim such an 
appendage, doubtless in imitation of ancestral homes in older 
lands? Time passed and not until the summer of 1915 did 
facts about the plantation come to light. 

It was known that this tract of land had formerly been the 
property of Governor Charles Manly and his name is still 



recalled through the nomenclature of that locality. "Manly's 
Spring" furnishes water to some of the inhabitants of Ealeigh 
who are suspicious of the purity of Walnut Creek (the source 
from which the city receives its water supply) and "Manly's 
Branch" has impressed every individual living two miles 
east of the capital by the unmannerly way it had of intercept- 
ing traffic after heavy rainfalls. ''Manly's Hill/' with its red 
mudj that on winter days came to the very hub of the wheel, 
was the dread of travelers over the Tarboro Road, for its 
steepness was a tax on any animal's strength. The better 
road system has eliminated both of these stumbling blocks to 
the wayfarer ; one can no longer assuage the thirst of the pass- 
ing steed, as a bridge closes the stream to him, while the other 
has disappeared at the edge of the shovel. Who were the 
original owners ? Who are they that sleep in those graves 
long since disturbed by the plow and can no longer be located 
save by perhaps one person only ? Are they the earlier land- 
lords ? These questions received only silence as answers. 

During the summer of 1915 the early history of the sum- 
mer home of Governor Charles Manly was revealed. In the 
spring of that year Mr. W. Plummer Batchelor, of Raleigh, 
feeling the call of the country to the extent that he wished 
to give up the delights of a residence in town for a home amid 
the charms l^ature offers, after an inspection of all the farms 
in the market around the capital, at last showed excellent 
taste by deciding upon one of the finest, if not the finest, site 
obtainable in Wake County — the Manly home — which he pur- 
chased, with the surrounding two hundred and sixty acres. 
As one travels east, after passing "ISTorwardin," the artistic 
home of Mr. James Moore, what a fair landscape picture 
greets the eye ! Standing in clear relief, facing the setting sun, 
amid the grove of locust trees (that shade tree which was so 
popular with the colonists and is fast passing) , bathed in the 
golden sunshine, stands the new home, nearing completion, 
which appears all the more radiant when viewed from the 
deep shadows of the thoroughfare, the dark green foliage on 


each side forming a soft frame for the faraway vista. An 
attractive view indeed, an ideal location which commands an 
extensive view of the surrounding countryside. 

Upon investigation among musty, time-dimmed records for 
the ''clear title" that must accompany each conveyance of 
landed estate, Mr. Batchelor learned that one Colonel John 
Ingles took possession of the estate in 1800. At that time there 
were three hundred acres in the tract. Here, on the highest 
eminence on the plantation, by the road that has for genera- 
tions been one of the State's main highways. Colonel Ingles 
built his home to which he gave the name of "Ingleside." It 
faced the road; the style of architecture was similar to that 
followed in building other residences of that period in the 
county, like "The Oaks," "Beaver Dam" and others. The 
house was well built, with handwrought nails, heart timber 
and hewn oaken beams, that were in such an excellent state 
of preservation that Mr. Batchelor renounced the resolution 
to cast these away in destroying the old in order to erect the 
new house, and resolved to utilize the same stalwart scantling 
and beams for the frame work of the latter. There were three 
rooms downstairs and four upstairs, with a back and a front 
porch, both of which were quite small. Like all homes of that 
time the front entrance was through the parlor. Back of this, 
the largest room of the house, was a small hall from which an 
enclosed staircase ran to the half story above. The outside 
brick chimneys were of generous proportions and the roof 
was so steep that it shed water with such rapidity that a leak 
was an impossibility. The low-pitched roofs of today explain 
why so many coverings are unsatisfactory. With a due rever- 
ence for things antique, Mr. Batchelor retains the euphonious 
name of "Ingleside," although a clever friend insisted on 
substituting one that was in every way appropriate. The 
condition of the structure generally caused it to be torn down. 
A member of the Societv of the Cincinnati, on hearing of the 
demolition, remarked that it should never have been done, 
that it should have been restored. Our forefathers built well, 


but the twentieth century excels in conveniences that fre- 
quently compel the neutralization of sentiment for the 
antique. The erection of handsome homes in the county in- 
dicates a revival of ante-bellum tastes, and it is hoped more 
may feel the call of the country. 

Colonel John Ingles was born in 1739 and was a citizen of 
Edgecombe County. Like other inhabitants of that section 
he must have been attracted by the salubriousness of the cli- 
mate of Wake. During the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury many persons from Edgecombe spent the summer 
months in Raleigh to avoid the malaria of the lower counties. 
Colonel Ingles had served through the Revolution in the Con- 
tinental Line, Second Regiment. He first entered as First 
Lieutenant on May 3, 1776. On October 24, 1777, he was 
promoted to the rank of Captain. The following year he was 
taken prisoner and carried to Charleston, May 1st. Thirteen 
months later — in June, 1781 — he was exchanged. Erom that 
time to the close of the conflict he was in active service. He 
became Brevet Major September 30, 1783. The commis- 
sioned ofiicers of his Regiment were John Patten, Colonel; 
Henry ("Hal") Dixon, Lieutenant-Colonel; Reading Blount, 
Major; Captains: Robert Raiford, Clement Hall, Benjamin 
Coleman, Robert Fenner, John Ingles, Thomas Armstrong, 
John Craddock, Benjamin Carter, Charles Stewart. It has 
not been discovered how John Ingles won the title of Colonel. 
At the time of the first census, in 1790, his household num- 
bered five, which included himself as "head of family" and 
four "free white females" who were Mrs. Ingles, his wife, 
and three nieces and wards. At that date he owned the small 
number of nine slaves. Eor twenty-one years Colonel Ingles' 
family dwelt at "Ingleside." He came to a country that was 
divided into immense estates, some containing several thou- 
sand acres each. Wake had been a county only thirty years ; 
there was but one town within its boundaries, which eight 
years before had been selected for the site for the state capital 
of N'orth Carolina. He died in 1816, and was buried in the 


graveyard by the orchard in front, or north, of "Ingleside." 
Here, by his side, five years later, Mrs. Ingles was laid at 
rest. His will, bearing the date, February 27, 1816, was pro- 
bated on September 8th in the same year. Therein he be- 
queathes property to his wife, Courtney, and leaves legacies 
to nieces, daughters of Dennis O'Bryan. Annie O'Bryan be- 
came the second wife of Dr. Thomas Falconer. He left no 
children, so with him the name became extinct in Wake. 

As late as the seventies, the burying-ground was still sur- 
rounded by a Maryland rock wall. In time this was removed 
to furnish the foundation for a gin-house that stood near 
Manly' s Branch, and the graves were desecrated by the plow. 
No trace remains to locate them in the cultivated field. The 
fate of the gin-house was pronounced by some to have been a 
judgment for vandalism. It was demolished by a terrific 
storm that swept over the land afterwards. To locate and 
mark the grave, of this Revolutionary Patriot of the Conti- 
nental Line is a work that could worthily engage the atten- 
tion of the Daughters of the Revolution. May they soon 
honor the memory of one who faithfully served our country. 

"Ingleside" became in 1821 the property of the Honorable 
Charles Manly. The first fifty acres were presented to him 
by his father-in-law, Mr. William Henry Haywood, Sr., in 
order to secure for him the privilege of the ballot under the 
property qualification clause. This law, which then required 
the possession of at least fifty acres of land to become a voter, 
is of especial interest today to those advocating restricted, 
and opposing extended, suffrage. Governor Manly was elected 
in 1848, inaugurated January 1, 1849, retired from oifice 
January 1, 1851. He was the last governor elected under the 
qualification clause, which was deranged by the Democrats. 
His brother-in-law, Edward B. Dudley, was the first governor 
of the State elected by the people. It was during 1848, when 
he was engrossed with the campaign, having been nominated 
by the Whigs for the office of governor, that Governor Manly's 
family stayed at "Ingleside." This was the only season that 


they spent there, though it is called his summer home. It 
was the plantation from which the bounteous supplies were 
brought to maintain the lavish hospitality that was dispensed 
at his town residence and later at the Governor's Palace. 
Here the hundred and fifty slaves were comfortably housed 
in the quarters nearby the ''Great House." Beautiful sheep 
— Southdowns — grazed in the meadows ; the pastures were 
filled with fine blooded horses that were the pride of the Gov- 
ernor's heart, for he loved a thoroughbred and raised some 
fine specimens at "Ingleside" that became noted. The wool 
of the Southdowns was cleaned and carded and dyed there, 
then sent to the mills of Chatham to be woven into cloth for 
the negroes. Their cotton clothes were woven on the planta- 
tion from cotton produced on the place. Chickens and turkeys 
in abundance were raised to fill the demand at the town resi- 
dence. The old South lived extravagantly, but the planta- 
tions met the requirements of a bountiful hospitality. 

There was quite an amusing incident related about Gover- 
nor Manly's fondness for the turf. He had recently been 
confirmed at Christ Church, Raleigh, and felt that presence 
at the race-track, with its consequent gain and loss of money 
on the winners and losers, was not consistent with Church 
membership, when some exciting races were scheduled to 
come off at the old Fair Grounds, then on Hargett Street, 
south of the Soldiers' Home. He could not, however, forego 
the pleasure of beholding the spectacle at a distance, so climb- 
ing to the top of a poplar by the spring in what was 
called "the white field," he prepared to enjoy the races. His 
plans were frustrated by a fall from his lofty seat that came 
near resulting in serious injuries. Taken as a warning, he 
renounced racing henceforth. 

The spring by the roadside, alluded to above, known yet as 
"Manly's Spring," was the scene of the ghostly vision. There 
Governor Manly sat one dreamy autumn day gazing upon the 
fair landscape, thinking doubtless of some improvement his 
beloved ISForth Carolina greatly needed, of a way by which it 


could be brought about, or of the possibilities of his State, 
his county or estate. The warmth, the radiance of the sun, 
the sleep-inviting atmosphere were conducive to the building 
of air castles, the entree of fairies and all the glorious train 
of the realm of fancy. The hour was auspicious, and seizing 
the opportunity, a radiant vision^ with gentle tread, appeared 
before him ; the gracefully draped figure of the inhabitant of 
the spirit land, pausing but a few moments, vanished, leaving 
him dazed and motionless. A member of the family in re- 
counting this incident added that of course the Governor 
must have fallen asleep and dreamed of the vision, and that 
a partridge or rabbit scudding through the thicket at hand 
made the noise that wakened him. Anyhow there is another 
version of the haunted visitor. Darkies aver that on dark 
nights an object mounted hurries over the road past the 
spring, "Ingleside," over branch and hill, disappearing in 
the denser gloom beyond. So, after all, the old place did 
possess a ghost. 

To "Ingleside" retired John H. Manly, son of Governor 
and Charity (Haywood) Manly, to study law, being confi- 
dent that the quiet of the retreat was inviting for the gain of 
knowledge. His popularity, that evidenced itself by a constant 
flow of company, made a failure of the venture. Here Majoi 
Basil C. Manly, a younger son of Governor Manly, lived both 
prior to and after his marriage to Miss Lucy Bryan. He was 
Captain of Manly's Battery and Major of Artillery in the 
Confederate Army. After the surrender he was Mayor of 
Raleigh. A true cavalier of the old regime, a brave soldier 
and genial Southern gentleman. Major Manly, like his dis- 
tingTiished father, was loved by all who knew him. 

In April, 1865, Sherman's Army invaded '"Ingleside," 
but did not demolish the buildings or apply the torch as they 
had done a few miles away. In 1870, after the death of 
Governor Manly, the plantation was sold for division and has 
since passed into a number of hands. At that time the tract 
contained one thousand and sixty acres. 


A Federal officer with Sherman's army when "Ingleside" 
was ransacked, buried there twenty thousand dollars in silvei 
and gold coin he had appropriated. He made a map of the 
spot, thinking he would return after peace was restored, but 
ill-health prevented, and nearly thirty years after he sent a 
friend to unearth the buried treasure. The place had changed 
and the fortune was never located. After several weeks of 
hard work, digging daily, he relinquished the search. That 
sum, as far as is known, has never been found but still re- 
mains hidden where the soldier placed it in 1865. 

So after the passage of many years, "Ingleside" is again 
to become the abode of life as well as "a thing of beauty" 
when Mr. Bachelor's plans have materialized. It will be one 
of the attractions of the county, and those who know the 
cordial owner, his charming Kentucky wife and interesting 
young family look forward to the hospitality that will be dis- 
pensed there. 

In preparing this article the writer is indebted to Mrs. 

John G. B. G-rimes (who was Miss Helen Manly), Mr. W. P. 

Batchelor and Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood for infor- 

.mation furnished. Beferences used were: Colonial Records, 

Heitman's, ISTewspapers of that time. Will of Colonel Ingles. 


Historical Book Reviews 


By Nina Holland Covington. 

"From early youth I have loved the Cape Fear, the ships 
and the sailors which it bears upon its bosom. As a boy I 
delighted to wander along the wharves where the sailing 
ships were moored with their graceful spars and rigging in 
relief against the sky line, with men aloft, whose uncouth 
cries and unknown tongues inspired me with a longing for 
the sea, which I afterwards followed, and for the far-away 
countries whence they had come." 

So says Mr. James Sprunt in his foreword to the interest- 
ing and valuable volume, "Chronicles of the Cape Fear 
River," which is one of the recent additions to the books 
dealing with the history of certain sections of iSTorth Caro- 
lina, other volumes of like character being Miss Albertson's 
"In Ancient Albemarle" and "The History of Western jSTorth 
Carolina" by Mr. John P. Arthur. 

It is eminently fitting that Mr. Sprunt should have under- 
taken to collect in book form the many historical and roman- 
tic incidents in which Wilmington and the surrounding Cape 
Fear region are so rich. For Mr. Sprunt, with, as he says, a 
deep love for this section in which he has lived for a number 
of years, having watched closely the growth and development 
of this portion of the State, and having also played a promi- 
nent part in the business life of "the city by the sea," is well 
qualified to compile such a book as this, and to make it both 
attractive and valuable. 

He has collected in the volume legends, descriptions, his- 
torical articles and anecdotes of the Cape Fear section. 

First, there is given a full account of the exploration and 
settlement of the region, and included in this part of the 
book is an interesting discussion of the Indians of the 
Cape Fear and of the Indian mounds of the section. Then 


comes a review of the historical facts in connection with the 
colonial life of the Cape Fear and of the very active part 
taken by the people in the American Revolution. There is 
given also a list of the colonial members of the General 
Assembly and a description of the battles taking place near 
Wilmington. There is an excellent account of the settling 
of the Highlanders in ISTorth Carolina and a valuable selec- 
tion, "Plantations on the Northeast River," by Dr. John 
Hampden Hill. 

In the description of the building of the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad there are some delightfully quaint and 
amusing statements, such as "Timid apprehensions of danger 
were allayed by the official assurance upon the time-table, that 
under no circumstances will the cars be run after dark." 

Under the section of "Notable Incidents," there are de- 
scribed the visits of Washington, Monroe, Polk, Fillmore, 
Taft and other celebrities. Old letters, diaries and news- 
paper clippings are quoted from to give contemporary descrip- 
tions of the visits of these famous persons, and particularly 
of the social functions which the hospitable and aristocratic 
Wilmingtonians gave in their honor. 

Wilmington's famous duel is told in all its exciting detail, 
and decidedly one of the most attractive sections of the 
volume is "Old School Days in Wilmington," which is a de- 
scription of one of the select schools for boys which used to 
be so numerous in the South. One paragraph is exceptionally 
interesting, for it gives the names of the boys who attended, 
and who as men were, and are, well known in the literar^', 
commercial, and legal life of the State. 

"Wednesday was given up to lessons and exhibitions in 
declamation. Bob McRee in 'Robert Emmet's Defense,' and 
Eugene Martin in 'The Sailor Boy's Dream' headed the list 
and melted us to tears. Clarence Martin, Junius Davis, Gil- 
bert and Fred Kidder, Alexander and John London, Cecil 
Fleming, Duncan and Richard Moore, Piatt D. Walker, John 
D. Barry, John Van Bokkelen, Willie Gus Wright, Levin 


Lane, Griffith McRee, Jolm Rankin, Tom Meares, Sam Peter- 
son, Sonny West, Eddie and Tom DeRosset, Stephen and 
Willie Jewett, Willie Meares, Willie Lord, and others not 
now recalled, gave promise of undying fame in their fervid 
renditions of 'Sennacherib,' 'Marco Bozzaris,' Patrick 
Henry's 'Liberty or Death,' Mark Anthony's Oration over 
Caesar's Dead Body, 'Kosciusko,' 'The Burial of Sir John 
Moore,' 'Hamlet's Soliloquy,' and 'Hohen Linden,' and John 
Walker and big Tom Wright divided honors on the immortal 
'Casablanca.' Henry Latimer and the writer were tied on 
the same speech, and when the judge. Colonel Hall, decided 
in the former's favor, the unsuccessful contestant withdrew 
permanently from the arena." 

In the section, "War Between the States," the troubles of 
the distressed seaport town, which played an important part 
in this struggle also, are clearly and pathetically told, with a 
touch of humor here and there to break the grimness of the 

"Cape Pear Pilots" gives an account of the pilots who were 
among the very bravest men in the War Between the States, 
and of the exciting incidents in their life histories. 

"Blockade Running" (with all its dangers and thrilling 
adventures) is the subject of another interesting chapter, 
while the volume closes with a well told account of the resto- 
ration of peace, the development and gxowth of Wilmington 
and of the section of the Cape Fear, showing the rapid strides 
made by this important port during the years following the 
Civil War. 

Dr. Henderson, in his review in the July Booklet of 
Miss Albertson's "In Ancient Albemarle," voices the feelings 
of all true North Carolinians when he says in regard to the 
three books mentioned above : "These works, recently brought 
to my attention, have given me great cheer and caused me to 
rejoice in the historical activity in our midst." Surely liter- 
ary activity in ISTorth Carolina seems to be on the increase, 
and headed by such a writer as Dr. Henderson himself, and 


many others who are gaining fame in the State, and also out- 
side of the State, we can all feel encouraged, and can begin 
to indig-nantly challenge the statement of the bard J. Gordon 
Coogler — a statement quoted sadly sometimes in the past, I 
believe by Dr. Henderson himself, that "The South never 
was much given to literature" — and proudly point to our 
recent productions and the promise of other works which are 
now in preparation, and which will soon also be given to an 
expectant reading public. 



Genealogical Department 

In this Department will appear hereafter the genealogies 
of ISTorth Carolina families. Letters bearing on this line of 
research are received constantly by The Booklet^ therefore 
space will be devoted to this subject with the hope that many 
may be benefited thereby. 

Lewis, of Granville County, ISTorth Carolina : 

Arms — Argent, a dragon's head and neck, erased vert, hold- 
ing in the mouth a bloody hand, ppr. 

Crest — A dragon's head and neck, erased vert, holding in 
the mouth a bloody hand. 

Motto — Omne solum forti patria est. 

Howell Lewis was born in Goochland County, Virginia, 
and removed to Granville County some years prior to the 
Revolution.*, He was the youngest child of Colonel Charles 
Lewis of "The Byrd Plantation," Goochland, and Mary 
Howell, his wife. He married Isabella, daughter of Colonel 
Henry Willis (the Founder of Fredericksburg,) Virginia, 
and his second wife, Mildred Washington. Their home near 
Oxford, North Carolina, is still standing. This "became the 
center of one of the most cultured and patrician circles of the 
State" (Watson). His will was probated at the February, 
1814, term of the Granville Court. In it he mentions his 
children as follows (his wife died several years before) : 

1, Charles Lewis ; 2, Willis Lewis ; 3, Mildred Lewis, who 
married John Cobbs (changed later to Cobb). They moved 
to Georgia (Their children were: Howell Cobb, Secretary 
of the Treasury under Buchanan ; Mary Willis Cobb ; Mildred 
Cobb; Susannah Cobb; John Addison Cobb); 4, Isabella 
Lewis, who married a Jeffries ; 5, Anne Lewis, who married a 
Morton; 6, Frances Lewis, who married Samuel Bugg and 
left, among other descendants, Mrs. Charles F. Farnsworth 

*About 1756. 


and Miss Frances Church, of Memphis, Tennessee, and Mrs. 
Richard Cheatham Plater, of IsTashville, Tennessee; 7, Jane 
Lewis, who married David Hinton ; 8, Mary Lewis, who mar- 
ried a Kennon. Howell Lewis, who married Betsy Coleman, 
of Goochland County, Virginia, is not mentioned in his 
father's will. 

The Lewis family came originally from Wales to Virginia 
and by marriage came into possesion of "Warner Hall," in 
Gloucester County, the famous seat of the Warners. The 
children of James Lewis, who married a Miss Taylor, also 
settled in Granville. Their line will appear in a later issue. 

The Coat-of Arms borne by the Willis family of Fredericks- 
burg is : 

Argent, three griffins passant sable; a bordure engrailed 
gules and besantee. 

Crest — A griffin segreant holding a spear piercing a boar's 
head, sable. 

Motto — Defende rectum. 


Genealogical and Biographical Memoranda 

Compiled and Edited by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


Mr. Wilson's article in this number of "The North Car- 
olina Booklet/'' entitled "George Edmund Badger, Secre- 
tary of the United States Navy," throws more light on a sub- 
ject which will be read with interest by all our readers and to 
render it more interesting is to know something more of our 
native North Carolinian who has, years ago, removed to 
Washington City. He is now in the service of the United 
States Senate, where he has been since 1893, and is now its 
Chief Clerk. 

Mr. Wilson was born at Warrenton, N. C, in 1848. He 
was the eldest son of Thomas Epps Wilson of Virginia, and 
Janet Mitchel, his wife, who was the great-granddaughter of 
Colonel William Person of Bute County, and a great-great 
niece of General Thomas Person, who was appointed, for his 
patriotic services, one of the first brigadier generals by the 
State Congress, and was complimented afterwards by having 
a county named for him. His liberality towards the Uni- 
versity, in bestowing a munificent donation, caused a hall to 
be erected at Chapel Hill, which still bears his name. 

Mr. Wilson received his early education in the Warrenton 
Male Academy and the Bingham School until they were closed 
by the instructors becoming captains in the Confederate 
Army; he was two years at the University of North Caro- 
lina just before its suspension ; he took the degree of M. A. 
at the University of Edinburgh. He was Reading Clerk of 
the State Senate in 1876-'Y7 ; was city editor of the Ealeigh 
Observer under E. J. Hale, William L. Saunders and Capt. 
Sam'l A. Ashe, filling all these positions satisfactorily. For a 
time he was Secretary to the State Board of AgTiculture, and 


under it represented the State at the Atlanta, Boston, ISTew 
Orleans and Chicago Expositions. Through his efficiency, 
stalwart honor, exactness and affability, Mr. Wilson's services 
were continually in demand. After his appointment as As- 
sistant Clerk of the Disbursing Office of the United States 
Senate he found the work suited to his taste, therefore, he 
settled at Washington. 

Mr. Wilson married Miss Ellen Williams Hale, eldest 
daughter of the late Peter M. and Mary Badger Hale, and 
they have one daughter, Mary Badger Wilson. 

Mr. Wilson's advantages for education were unusually 
good; with parents ambitious for the best the State afforded, 
Warrenton Male Academy, Bingham's, the University, and 
Edinburgh, he improved his opportunities and the positions 
he has held attest his success. The schools which he had the 
privilege of attending were among the oldest in the State. 
Warrenton Male Academy dates from 1Y86, when an Act was 
passed by the Legislature for erecting an Academy for tho 
education of youth ; Bingham's School began as early as 1800, 
and continues to this day, and the University was provided 
for in the Constitution of 1776, and chartered in 1789. The 
growth of all these institutions has been steady and sure, ex- 
cepting a shortage of students during the period of the War 
Between the States. Mr. Wilson is an ardent advocate of 
these ]S[orth Carolina institutions, and uses his influence for 
their continued success. 


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have their ancestry traced. 

Fee for Such Researches, $7.50 to 
According to Difficulty of Research 

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Book plates designed. 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp, 

Miss Maby Httj.tard Hinton, 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, North Carolina 


Historical Commission 



(1) To collect, (2) to preserve, (3) to publish original sources 
of North Carolina History 

Your Co-operation Invited 

The Commission occupies the only modern, fireproof depository 
for historical records in North Carolina 


J. BRYAN GRIMES, Chairman.-RALEiGH, N. C. 

W. J. PEELE Raleigh, N. C. 

T. M. PITTMAN- Hendeeson, N. C. 

M. C. S. NOBLE Chapel Hh-l, N. C. 

D. H. HILL Raleigh, N. O. 

R. D. W. CONNOR Raleigh, N. C. 

Address all Communications to the Secretary 


and mention the North Carolina Booklet, 
we will send you 

Three Free Sample Copies of The Progressive Farmer 

The Progressive Farmer should be read by every North Carolina man 

or woman who owns or operates a farm, and every farm 

owner should see that all his tenants read it. 

"In increased production and valuation of farm tO'E? DU/^^DfCCnT'l? UADTUfPD 

and ilock, the Progressive Farmer has made me 1 tlli' r IvUliKH/SOi V 11/ r AIvMHiK 

$1.00 to every Dollar I have paid for it," says J. r. » x i^t^—it -^t >-, 

M, Parris, Jackson County, N. C. RALEIGH, N. C. 


"In Ancient Albemarle" 


With Five Illustrations 

Cloth, $1.25 net ; Postpab), $1.35 

This beautiful volume is bound in buff and blue Vellum de Luxe, 
and in workmanship and design is a triumph of the printer's art. 


"I am delighted to hear that the fugitive historical papers of Miss 
Albertson are to be collected and published. All I have seen are 
written in a luminous style, are accurate and highly interesting. 
They will be appreciated by all who love to know the history of our 
State." — Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., President Emeritus, University of 
North Carolina. 

"I am very glad indeed to know that the historical articles which 
Miss Albertson has been writing for the State papers are to be put 
in book form. I feel that your Society will render a distinct service 
to the Albemarle section and to the whole State by giving Miss Albert- 
son this recognition and encouragement. She has done much to rescue 
from oblivion much of the tradition and history of a section that has 
been peculiarly rich in noble deeds and heroic service." — N. W. 
Walker, Professor of Secondary Education and State Inspector of 
Public High Schools, University of North Carolina. 

"I am very glad to know that Miss Albertson's Sketches and Essays 
in North Carolina History are to be put in permanent form. I know 
of nothing that has appeared in our newspapers more worthy of 
preservation in a book, following faithfully as they do our Colonial 
Records and embodying the best traditions of our State's history that 
have come down to us. Having read the papers as they originally 
appeared, I shall value the book all the more." — Collier Cobb, Pro- 
fessor of Geology, University of North Carolina. 


Midway Plantation, Raleigh, N. C. 


Vol. XV APRIL, 1916 No. 4 

North Carolina Booklet 








The Secession Convention of 1861 177 

By Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

Tlie Cupola House and Its Associations 203 

By Mack Chappell. 

Greek, Roman and Arabian Survivals on the North 

Carolina Coast 218 

By CoLLiEE Cobb. 

Appeals for Clothing for Destitute Belgians 227 

Historical Book Reviews 229 

Biographical Sketches 233 

Table of Contents, Vol. XV 234 


Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh. N. C, July 15, 1905. under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1879 

The North CaroUna Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XVI of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
CaroliQa Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1916. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor : 
Miss Maby Hilliaed Hinton. 


Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Isaac Shelby : Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero— Dr. Archi- 
bald Henderson. 

An Educational Practice in Colonial North Carolina — Edgar W. 

George Selwyn — Miss Violet G. Alexander. 

Martha McFarlane Bell, a Revolutionary Heroine — Miss Mary Hil- 
liard Hinton. 

North Caroliniaijs in the President's Cabinet, Part III : William A. 
Graham — Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Historic Homes, Part VII : The Fountain, the Home of Colonel 
Davenport — Colonel Edmund Jones. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part IV: James 
Cochrane Dobbin — Dr. Henry Elliot Shepherd. 

A History of Rowan County — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Edgecombe County History and some of her Distinguished Sons — 
Mrs. John A Weddell. 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed by Mrs. Nina Holland 
Covington. These will be reviews of the latest historical works 
written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued, with a page de- 
voted to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical 
research in the State. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. MoflBtt. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XVI are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XV for sale. 

For particulars address 

Miss Maby Hilliaed Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 

"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. XV APRIL, 1916 No. 4 

NORTH Carolina Booklet 

'Carolina! Carolina ! Heaven's blessings attend her ! 
While zve live zve will cherish, protect and defend her ' 

Published by 



Tlie object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 





Mes. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. De. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W. Conk or. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Capt. S. a. Ashe. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Maey Hilliaed Hinton. 

biographical editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 





vice-regent : 


honorary regents : 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

recording secretary : 


corresponding secretary : 

Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 

treasurer : 


registrar : 


custodian of relics : 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameeon, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. F. M. Alljsn, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.t 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

*Died November 25. 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 


The North Carolma Booklet 

Vol. XV APRIL, 1916 No. 4 

The Secession Convention of 1861 

By Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 
(The last survivor.) 


I have experienced a melancholy interest in preparing this 
summary of the proceedings of the ''Secession Convention" 
of 1861. A more able and high-toned body of men has never 
been assembled in the State. They were among the leaders 
in their counties and "given to good works." Many had won 
high distinction in the service of the State. All in the de- 
cision of the most difficult questions acted, I am persuaded, 
with a sincere desire to do right. My friend John Gilchrist 
McCormick, while at our University, with commendable in- 
dustry and accuracy prepared sketches of the delegates, 
those first elected and those who filled vacancies, including 
the principal officers, 139 in number. They are published 
in a pamj)hlet, ISTo. 1, of the James Sprunt Historical Mono- 
gTaphs, by the University of I^orth Carolina. Of all the 
number only two survive, as I am informed.* William S. 
Battle and myself, "Battle of T]dgecombe" and "Battle of 

In the MonogTaph, Mr. McCormick makes the following 
interesting statement, "Out of the total enrollment sixty-seven 
had the advantage in whole or in part, of a college education. 
If we add sixteen physicians, who had taken a professional, 
but not a literary course, the total number reaches eighty- 

The following is a full and, I feel sure, an accurate state- 
ment of the work of this important body, as gathered from 
the Journal and my memory. 


* Since writing the above William S. Battle died, leaving myself the 
only survivor. 

178 the north carolii^a booklet 

Call of the Convention and Organization. 

Between 1850 and 1860 it became evident that a minority 
of the people of ISTorth Carolina intended to break the con- 
stitutional compact of 178Y. Thej believed that to secure 
this it was necessary to secede from the Union and set up a 
separate government. They were known as ''Original Seces- 
sionists." The majority of our people, while they viewed 
with indignation the resolve of the majority of the IsTorthern 
States to deprive citizens of the slave-holding States of the 
right to carry their property into the common territory and 
to disregard the constitutional right to recover runaway 
slaves, they were of the opinion that there was no legal right 
to secede from the Union, and secondly, that the rights of the 
South could be secured without resort to measures which 
would lead to war. War, they contended, would cause not 
only the usual horrible results but would end in the destruc- 
tion of slave property. They were called Union men. They 
argued, however, that there was no constitutional right to 
coerce by force of arms a seceding State back into the Union, 
and that if such attempt should be made they would fight 
against it. 

The Secessionists, Governor Ellis being a chief leader, as 
early as December, 1860, agitated to induce the General As- 
sembly to call a Convention of the people with full powers, 
so as to be ready for all contingencies. The Unionists were 
afraid of giving to a small body of 120 men the power over 
such tremendous issues, especially as the Secessionists were 
exceedingly active, and they therefore provided for a vote 
of the people on the question of Convention or no Convention. 
The Act was passed January 1, 1861, and on the 28th of 
February the people by a majority of less than one thousand 
refused to call the Convention and the election of delegates 
was void. 

On the 15th of April, President Lincoln called for troops 
to enforce United States laws in the South. Governor Ellis 


refused and summoned the General Assembly together. On 
the 1st day of May that body called an unrestricted Conven- 
tion to be elected on the 13th, to meet on the 20th, a notable 
date in the history of the State. The members of the Assem- 
bly were under great excitement. Battle, of Wake, in a 
speech, as member of the Convention, showed that they con- 
ferred on Governor Ellis the power to appoint 565 officers, 
including a Major and three Brigadier-Generals, 14 Colonels, 
13 Lieutenant-Colonels, 34 Majors, 133 Captains, etc., etc., 
their salaries amounting to $769,344 per annum. 

When the roll was called on May 20, 1861, 117 answered 
to their names, only three being necessarily absent, but 
afterwards allowed to vote as if present. There were at 
first practically three parties. 1. The Original Secessionists. 
2. Those who had been Union men, but temporarily, so angry 
against the war party of the !N^orth that they for many days 
acted with the Secessionists, and 3. "Old Union Men," who, 
although they had resolved to aid in resisting coercion to the 
fullest extent, could not admit that secession was a remedy 
authorized by the Constitution. They too believed that 
President Davis and Governor Ellis in appointment of offi- 
cers had largely discriminated against those of their way 
of thinking. The Act of Assembly for raising ten regiments 
gave the appointment of all the regimental officers to the 

The first act of the Convention was, of course, the election 
of a President. The Original Secessionist nominated was 
Weldon IST. Edwards, whose middle name was in honor of 
his radically States-rights relative l!^athaniel Macon. The 
old Union man nominated was William A. Graham. Ed- 
wards was elected 65 to 48, nearly all of the minority belong- 
ing to the third class above mentioned. The first and second 
classes were of the majority. The expression, "let us show 
a united front with the Confederate States" was commonly 
heard. A few were sanguine enough to hope that by such 
a imited front the jN^orthern people would do justice in order 


to avoid war. And some wrongheaded men said: "Show 
we will fight and the ISTortherners will back down; they are 
cowards." But these were not delegates. 

Passage of Ordinance of Secession. 

Immediately after the election of President and Secretary, 
Col. W. S. Steele, Mr. Badger, on behalf of those who did 
not believe in the legal right of secession, offered an elaborate 
Ordinance of Revolution, entitled, "An Ordinance declaring 
the Separation of ISTorth Carolina from the United States of 
America." The hot words of the preamble show how the 
Republican party at the jSTorth had alienated and angered 
the people of the South. The whole paper bristles with 
vituperation and hate. Omitting much verbiage I quote 
enough of its language to give an idea of its spirit. The 
Republican party, it was alleged, is hostile to the institutions 
of the Southern States. ISTorth Carolina "remained 
in the Union hoping to obtain security for our 
rights and to keep all the States in a fraternal union. 
While indulging this hope Lincoln called upon the States, 
under false pretense of executing the laws, to march an army 
into the seceded States, with the view of their subjection, 
under military authority without legal or constitutional 
right." "It is the fixed purpose of the government and 
people of the non-slaveholding States to wage a cruel war 
against the seceded States, to destroy the finest portion of 
this continent, and to reduce its inhabitants to abject 
slavery." Lincoln "in violation of the Constitution declared 
our ports under blockade, seeking to cut off our trade. His 
course has been marked by a succession, of false and treacher- 
ous acts and declarations, proving that in his dealings with 
Southern States and Southern men he is void of faith and 
honor." "In all his wicked and diabolical purposes, in his 
unconstitutional, illegal and oppressive acts, and in his posi- 
tion of usurper and military dictator, he is supported by the 
great body of people of the ISTorth." 


The foregoing abusive ephithets, all the more notable be- 
cause Mr. Badger was of a conservative temperament gener- 
ally, were the preamble to the Ordinance, not of Secession, 
but of Revolution, the right that the Colonies exercised when 
they broke off from Great Britain. It was declared that "the 
connection between ISTorth Carolina and the United States 
was dissolved. This State is free, sovereign and independ- 
ent, owing no obedience or other duty to the United States, 
and has full power to do all things which independent States 
may do. Appealing to the Supreme Governor of the world 
for the justice of our cause we will to the uttermost of our 
power uphold this declaration." 

]\Ir. Badger demanded a vote on this ordinance, as soon as 
the President and Secretary, Walter L. Steele, were elected. 
This was objected to because the Sergeant-at-Arms and other 
officers had not been chosen, but he contended that no rules 
of order had been adopted, and therefore the Convention was 
ready for business as soon as there was a head to direct and 
a hand to record. This view prevailed but by general con- 
sent the vote was not taken until after Leonidas C. Edwards 
became Assistant Clerk ; James Page, Principal Doorkeeper, 
William R. Lovell, John C. Moore and Drury King, Assist- 

Mr. Burton Craige offered as a substitute for the Badger 
Ordinance, one approved by those who had faith in the con- 
stitutional right of secession, said to have been drawn by 
Judah P. Benjamin for Louisiana. As it is short I copy it 
in full. 

An Ordinance Dissolving the Union Between the 
State of jSToeth Carolina and the Other States United 
With Her Under the Compact of Government, En- 
titled "The Constitution of the United States." 

"We, the People of the State of ISTorth Carolina, 
IN Convention Assembled, Do Declare and Ordain, Etc. 

"That the ordinance adopted by ISTorth Carolina in the 
Convention of 1789, whereby the Constitution of the United 


States was ratified and adopted; and also all acts and parts 
of acts of the General Assembly, ratifying and adopting 
amendments to the said Constitution, are hereby repealed, 
rescinded and abrogated." 

"We do further declare and ordain, that the Union now 
subsisting between the State of ISTorth Carolina and the other 
States, under the title of the United States of America, 
is hereby dissolved, and the State of ISTorth Carolina is in full 
possession and exercise of all those rights of sovereignty 
which belong and appertain to a free and independent State." 

It will be noticed that here are no abusive epithets. The 
ordinance is a clear, bold, statesmanlike exercise of sovereign 

The proceedings were interrupted by the introduction of 
the Delegate from South Carolina, Hon. Franklin J. Moses, 
commissioned to lay before the Convention the Ordinance of 
Secession of that- State. It differs from the Craige ordinance 
in omitting the words declaring the possession of right of 
sovereignty belonging to independent States. 

Mr. Moses made a strong speech from the South Carolina 
point of view. He was a man of high standing, but was the 
father of F. J. Moses, who gained a bad reputation as Gover- 
nor of South Carolina in Reconstruction days. 

After the address of Mr. Moses, ex-Chief Justice Ruffin 
moved that both ordinances be referred to a committee to 
report an Ordinance of Separation. This failed by five 
votes, 44 to 49. 

The next motion was to strike out the Badger Ordinance, 
which passed by a large majority, ^2 to 40. 

Judge Ruffin then offered as a substitute, an ordinance, 
penned by himself, ordaining that the Union be dissolved, 
and that the State is free and independent, but not repealing 
the ordinance of 1789 and acts of Assembly amending the 
Constitution. This failed by 49 to 66. 

The old Union men, and those who thought secession as a 
constitutional right a legal heresy, having thus recorded their 


views iu their votes on the Badger "Ordinance of Revolution" 
and the Ruffin amendment, not claiming the right to repeal 
the measures of adhesion to the Federal Constitution, deem- 
ing it patriotic to present an undivided front, waived their 
scruples and voted for the Craige Ordinance, passing it by 
a majority of 115 to 0. 

Mr. Badger yielded with reluctance, left the hall and with- 
held his vote until next day. The result was celebrated by 
the firing of cannon in Capitol Square. Many expressed 
their rejoicing in jubilant terms, but there were not lacking 
faces gloomy from the consciousness of the momentous task 
on which we had entered. 

Mr. Whitford moved the adoption of a State Flag. A 
blue field with a white V thereon, and a star, encircling which 
shall be the words, surgit astrum, May 20, 17Y5. Referred 
to a committee of seven. 

Mr. Thomas P. Meares then offered a resolution that the 
Convention at once should adopt the Provisional Constitu- 
tional of the Confederate States, which had been agreed to 
February 8, 1861, by South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Mr. Graham, in behalf 
of those who thought best not to enter into a new government 
without proper safe-guards, moved to adjourn. Lost, 39 to 
6-1. Mr. R, P. Dick moved to refer it to a vote of the peo- 
ple, but the Convention refused to concur, 34 to 72. 

It was then passed unanimously. 

Hon. Abram W. Venable then offered an ordinance pro- 
viding that "iSTorth Carolina assents to and ratifies the Con- 
stitution of the Confederate States of America, adopted at 
Montgomery, Alabama, March 11, 1861, by Conventions of 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South 
Carolina and Texas, and agrees to enter into a Federal asso- 
ciation of States on the terms proposed." This by consent 
was laid over for further consideration. A night session 
was held on the 21st, when, in presence of many spectators, 
all the members, by counties signed the Secession Ordinance, 
elegantly enrolled on, parchment. 

184 the north cakolina booklet 

Joining the Confedekacy. 

The ordinance to adopt the permanent Constitution of the 
Confederate States v/as passed on the 6th of June, 1861. 
Ex-Governor Graham's motion to adopt a proviso that due 
representation should he given to this State in Presidential 
and Congressional elections was negatived hj a two-thirds 
vote, the majority thinking that it would imply distrust of 
the fairness of the new government, Mr. Dick's motion to 
submit the question of adoption to a vote of the people failed 
by nearly the same vote. An amendment offered by Hon. 
W. S. Ashe claiming the right to secede if the powers con- 
ferred should be used to the injury of jSTorth Carolina was 
lost by 88 to 24. After the ordinance was unanimously 
passed the Ashe declaration was brought up again. A motion 
to lay it on the table failed by a tie vote. It was not called 
up again, probably because Mr. Ashe was appointed by Presi- 
dent Davis to take charge of the railroad svstem and resigned 
his seat. 


It is impossible for want of space to give a full history of 
the general legislation. A mere outline is only practicable. 
Rules of Order, based on those of 1835, but with material 
additions were adopted. Mr. Badger was the leader in Par- 
liamentary law. IsText to him was Mr. Graham. President 
Edwards was also an expert. He was overruled only twice 
during his term. First, where a day's notice of a motion to 
adjourn had been given, a motion to rescind it did not re- 
quire an additional day's notice. He ruled to the contrary. 
Second. A motion to rescind a resolution of adjournment 
did not require three readings, as the President decided. 

The following rulings, the reason for which were clearly 
given by Mr. Badger, are useful. While the motion to recon- 
sider must by the adopted rules only be made by one of those 
who passed the measure, if the yeas and nays have not been 
called, any member may move a reconsideration. That is, 


if the record does not show the names of those voting, for 
and against, all are presumed to vote aye. We must go by 
the journal. 

The presiding officer, if he thinks a motion unobjection- 
able, and no one demands a second, may presume it, and put 
the motion without it. 

On the SYth of June, 1861, the State troops, etc., were 
transferred to the Confederate Government. Also forts, light- 
houses, mint in Charlotte and arsenal in Fayetteville. Fifty 
dollars bounty was offered for volunteers for three years of 
the war. Various other provisions were made which I will 
not enumerate. 

A State Flag was adopted. A red field with a white star 
in the centre. Above the star May 20, 1775 ; below it May 
20, 1861. Two bars of equal width, the upper blue, the 
lower white. 

May 21, 1861, Governor Ellis reported 10,717 volunteers. 
The ten regiments enlisted for the war had not been entirely 
raised. He estimated 15,350 troops needed for defence to 
cost $6,625,000 per annum. It was certain that the Confed- 
erate Government will accept and pay twelve regiments of 
infantry, one of artillery and one of cavalry, leaving $3,120,- 
968 to be paid by this State. 

Of the officers of the United States, 35 were appointed 
from ISTorth Carolina ; 14 tendered their services to this State. 

Major T. H. Holmes, Captain R. C. Gatlin, R. G. Camp- 
bell, Robert Ransom, First Lieutenants: George B. Ander- 
son, W. D. Pender, R. H. Riddick. Second Lieutenants : 
Joseph R. Jones, Sol Williams, Alexander McRaei, Lawrence 
S. Baker, Gabriel H. Hill, S. D. Ramseur, R. C. Hill. 
Besides these, Captain John C. Winder, Major James A. 
Bradford and Lieutenant W. G. Robison had already ten- 
dered their services. 

Of the cadets of the Military Academy A. S. Moore, J. E. 
Craige, G. S. Lovejoy, O. C. Petway, P. H. Faison, G. W. 
Clayton, R. B. Cowan, J. W. Lee; of those in the Naval 


Academy W. F. Moore, T. S. Galloway, Fish; of 

the officers of the United States ISTavy, Commanders John 
Manning and W. T. Muse; Lieutenants J. T. Cook, W. E. 
Boudinot, J. ]\t. Maffit, P. U. Murphy, Paymaster J. John- 
son, Professor A, W. Lawrence, Lieutenant of Marines, W. 

W. Kirkland and Master Kerr ; Third Lieutenant in 

Revenue Service M. W. Brown. "^'^ 

Steamers Albemarle and Ellis were purchased and Kena- 
bee chartered for the State. 

Early in June, 1861, ex- Judge Puffin and ex-Governor 
Graham were appointed a committee to arrange for the trans- 
fer of the forces of the State. There was a difference of 
opinion as to the right of appointing officers but the claim of 
the President prevailed. The ordinance of transfer was rati- 
fied June 27, 1861. 

Provision was made for calling for volunteers to meet the 
requisition of th-e Confederate authorities but these were all 
superseded by the conscriptions acts of Congress. 

On motion of an "old Union" man, Hamilton C. Jones, 
on December 6, 1861, the Convention passed a resolution of 
confideoice in the Confederate cause, readiness to submit to 
all sacrifices and denouncing the cruelty and barbarism of 
our adversaries. 

The Friends (Quakers) were allowed exemption from mili- 
tary service on payment of $100 each. 

Three million, two hundred thousand dollars was appro- 
priated to meet the demands of the Treasury for two years. 
Three million of treasury notes were authorized, one-half 
$5s, one-fourth $10s and one-fourth $20s. In 1863, $2,- 
000,000 more were authorized, $8,000,000 $5s ; $7,000,000 
$10s; $500,000 in $20s, and in addition $10,000 in five 
cents and $10,000 in ten cents. The manufacture of spiritu- 
ous liquors was prohibited after February 21, 1862, not 
as a temperance measure, but to save grain for food. 


A Board of Claims against tlie State was created. Messrs. 
B. F. Moore, S. F. Phillips and Patrick Henry Winston, of 
Bertie, all Old Union men, were chosen. 

The manufacture of salt out of sea water was undertaken. 
Dr. John M. Worth, was elected Superintendent. State 
Geologist Dr. Emmons reported that the French consume 
fourteen pounds to each individual per annum, the English 
twenty-two, and ISTorth Carolina comes between the two. 
Employees were exempt from military duty. The products 
were distributed freely by the County Justices. Any one 
re-selling State salt was gTiilty of a misdemeanor. Power of 
impressment of free negroes was given to the Superintendent, 
also the power of condemning the necessary land. 

The ordinance proposed by ex-Governor Graham as a sub- 
stitute, offering one dollar a bushel for 1,000 pounds, failed 
to pass. 

An ordinance carefully drawn by Mr. Badger endeavored 
to put a stop to speculation in the necessaries of life, i. e., 
forestalling and regrating. It was passed with the exception 
of the clause dispensing with gTand juries. If it had any 
effect it was not known. 

Railroads from Washington, I^orth Carolina, to Tarboro; 
from Florence, South Carolina, to Faj^etteville, and Greens- 
boro to Danville, were chartered, and amendment to the rail- 
road from Fayetteville to the coal fields of Chatham, and 
from Raleigh to the same, were granted. The Sapona Iron 
Company was allowed to mine iron in the same valley. 

The Convention accepted from Colonel Wharton J. Green 
a marble bust of John C. Calhoun. 

Resolutions discountenancing party spirit, aimed at the 
supposed partiality of the Confederate and State adminis- 
trations in favor of original secessionists, v/ere offered but 
failed. Mr. Gilmer moved a resolution to appoint Colonels 
G. E. B. Singletary and Z. B. Vance Brigadier-Generals, but 
did not press to a vote. 


Much excitement was caused by the report that the Con- 
federate Government contemplated seizing the arms of the 
people. Also that Isaiah Respass and other citizens, not in 
the military service, had been removed to Richmond. Mr. 
Badger offered strong resolutions against both movements. 
There was hot discussion. Effort was made to cut off this 
discussion by a motion to adjourn, but it failed by a two- 
thirds vote. After divers excited speeches made, adjourn- 
ment was agreed to, and satisfactory action being taken by 
the authorities, the subjects were dropped. 

Authority was given to cities and towns to prohibit the 
sale of spirituous liquors within the corporate limits or within 
a mile thereof, probably the first prohibition law in our State 

ISTotwithstanding the vigorous opposition of Colonel Wil- 
liam H. Thomas, the agent of the Cherokees, the Act allow- 
ing Indians to testify for or against whites, was repealed by 
a two-thirds vote. 

The Commissioners of Wilmington were authorized to bor- 
row money for fortifying the city and obstructing the river, 
with the consent of the Confederate officer in command. The 
same privilege was extended to ISTew Berne and Washington 
and to any other town which might ask for it. 

Authority over the acts of the General Assembly was 
claimed and exercised. 

On motion of W. W. Holden the Convention gave the first 
official recognition of the "patriotic ardor of the ladies of the 
State, which they have exhibited in behalf of the country in 
the prosecution of the war." 

Members of Congress. 

Under the Provisional Constitution: of the Confederate 
States the Convention elected the following delegates. For 
the State at large, William W. Avery and George Davis. 
For tlie Districts, William IsT. H. Smith, Colonel Thomas 


Ruffin, of Wayne ; Thomas S. D. McDowell, Abram Venable, 
John M. Morehead, Richard C. Puryear, Burton Craige and 
Allen T. Davidson. 

The old Union men had before this election become dis- 
satisfied with the attitude of the original secessionists and 
their recruits. The old proverb, "politics make strange bed- 
fellows" was never more clearly proved to be true than when 
a caucus was held in Holden's parlor, with ex-Governor Gra- 
ham presiding. Those of us who attended recalled in mem- 
ory the many hard things The Standard had said of the public 
acts of the distinguished Chairman. The caucus nominated 
Bedford Brown and H. W. Miller for the State at large, and 
W. ]Sr. H. Smith, George Green, W. F. Leak, Archibald 
Arrington, J. M. Morehead, R. C. Puryear, W. R. Myers, 
R. T. Davidson, for the Districts. The original Secessionists 
nominated AV. W. Avery and George Davis for the State at 
large and R. H. Smith, Thomas Ruffin, of Wayne ; T. S. D. 
McDowell, A. Venable, J. W. Cunningham, R. L. Patterson, 
B. Craige and IST. W. Woodfin. There were enough inde- 
pendent members to elect men from both tickets. Those 
chosen were Messrs. W. W. Avery and George Davis, for the 
State at large, and W. JST. H. Smith, Thomas Ruffin, of 
Wayne; T. S. D. McDowell, Abram Venable, J. M. More- 
head, R. C. Puryear, Burton Craige and A. T. Davidson, 
for the Districts. 

Secret Sessions. 

Secret sessions were sometimes held, mainly concerning 
the danger to the tide-water sections. There was fear of a 
stampede of the slaves to the Federal Army, as soon as there 
was an invasion of our coasts. Complaints were vigorous 
of the withdrawal of troops from threatened points. Some 
counselled the removal of slaves from the coastal countries, 
Mr. William Pettigrew stated that when he called up his 
slaves for transportation to the up-country they fled to the 
swamps. He afterwards persuaded them to change their 


abode and, after the close of the war, was utterly unable to 
assist their return. Much mournful speech was uttered in 
the secret sessions, but little effectual was done; nothing- 
could be done. The chief speakers were Messrs. Speed, F. B. 
Saterthwaite, K. Eayner, E. H. Smith, Spruill, Pettigrew 
and Woodfin. These were good speakers and being intensely 
in earnest, were eloquent in depicting the dangers threatening 
their counties. But the duty of protection had been trans- 
ferred to the Confederate Government. The members were 
sympathetic but waited in vain for practical proposals of 

Defeated Oedinai^ces. 

The following proposed ordinances failed to meet favor. 
Some of them show the excited spirit among many members. 

1. Allowing free negroes to enslave themselves. 

2. *Debtors in prison bounds to go free during the war. 

3. fSelling cotton yarns for over $1.50 for five pounds a 

4. Creating a Minister of War. 

5. To repeal the Stay Law, passed by the General Assem- 
bly. The vote was close, 54 to 52. 

6. To deprive the courts of all civil jurisdiction during 
the war. Also to give the Superior Court judges the power 
of calling criminal courts at their pleasure for the trial of 

7. A self denying ordinance, prohibiting a member of the 
Convention from holding any office. 

A committee, of which Judge Asa Biggs was Chairman, 
reported an ordinance which reminds us of the stern temper 
of the days of Cromwell. This was to make seditious lan- 
guage criminal, and requiring a stringent test vote to be 

^Debtors could be released unless fraudulently concealing tlieir 

tThis was introduced by Major W. A. Smith, who whispered to 
me, "That is for Johnston County. You will never hear of the 
d d thing any more." 


taken of all males, except volunteers in. tlie army, under a 
penalty of banisliment or disfrancliisement. Judge Biggs 
was leader for the affirmative and ex-Governor Graham for 
the negative. 

Each of the following offenses was declared a high misde- 
meanor, punishable with fine and imprisonment, with obliga- 
tion to give good security for three years. 

1. Attempting to convey intelligence to the enemy. 

2. Publishing and deliberately speaking or writing against 
our public defense. 

3. Maliciously and advisedly endeavoring to excite the 
people to resist the Government of this State or of the Con- 
federate States. 

4. Or persuading them to return to a dependence on the 
United States. 

5. Knowingly spreading false and dispiriting news. 

6. Maliciously and advisedly terrifying and discouraging 
the people for enlisting into the service of the Confederate 

7. Stirring up or exciting timiults, disorders, or insurrec- 
tions in this State. 

8. Disposing the people to favor the enemy. 

9. Opposing or endeavoring to prevent the measures carry- 
ing on in support of the freedom and independence of the 
Confederate States. 

Two or more credible, or "other sufficient evidence," were 
sufficient to convict. 

One witness could charge a person with the commission 
of any of the foregoing offenses, and a Judge or Justice of 
the Peace must bind him to appear at Court, or for want of 
security commit him to prison. 

It shows deep bitterness of feeling against those supposed 
to be favorable to the United States. When we note these 
proposed laws, capable of tyrannical suppression of free 
speech, and even of free thought, as evil as the laws of the 
most despotic and cruel governments, received the votes of 


twenty-nine good men, who in quiet times were lovers of 
liberty and as muck opposed to despotism as the forty-five 
who voted to indefinitely postpone the whole subject, we real- 
ize the hot temper of the times. 

The next proposition to rid the State of opponents of the'. 
Confederate Government was to require an oath, called 
the Test-oath, of all free males, except volunteers in the army, 
idiots, lunatics and prisoners of war, first of allegiance to the 
State, secondly, that they will defend the independence of 
the Confederate States ; third, renounce allegiance to the 
United States ; fourth, to support the Confederate States and 
this State. If they should refuse, the Court may order him 
to leave the State within thirty days. If allowed to remain 
they would be disqualified to hold office. If they should not 
leave the State when ordered, they were to be sent at their 
own expense. If they should return they would be guilty of 
treason, punishable with death. 

The speech of ex-Governor Graham against this proposal 
was very able and was published in pamphlet form. The 
best on the other side was perhaps that of Mr. Biggs. Only 
twenty-two voted aye against forty-five noes. Mr. Rayner 
then moved an ordinance to define and punish seditious lan- 
guage, which failed by forty-five to twenty-nine. 

A proposal to confiscate the property of those abandoning 
the State, or being residents of another State should not re- 
turn, was also willed. 

The proposal to have an Executive Council with dictatorial 
powers over persons and property was also voted down. 

Among the propositions of an interesting nature which met 
with no favor, was one to have no amendment to the Con- 
stitution except by a Convention, so that there shall be no 
submission of a legislative amendment to the people. 

The requirement of viva voce voting instead of by ballots, 
received only the vote of the mover, Mr. Howard. 

Mr. Bridgers' motion that no law should be passed except 
by a majority of all the members of each house, received 
thirty-seven votes, but there were forty-four against it. 


Mr. Woodfin's motion to make Federal population, instead 
of taxation, the basis of the Senate obtained nineteen votes^ — 
sixty-two against it. 

The ordinance to elect judges by the people was voted 


Some amendments to the Constitution were adopted from 
time to time. 

1. The definition and punishment of treason, following 
the Tederal Constitution. 

2. Taxation of slaves according to value. 

3. Poll tax on free males, between the ages of twenty-one 
and forty-five, and that to be the same as the tax on $300 
value of land. 

4. Jews were allowed to hold office. The prohibition was 
confined to those denying the divine authority of both the 
Old and IsTew Testament. 

5. One-fifth of members of Conventions and General As- 
semblies required to call for a vote by yeas and nays. Two 
members could do this under prior constitutions. 

6. Six months' residence in counties required of voters for 

Besides there were others to end with the war. First. To 
allow soldiers of the State to vote wherever they might be. 
Secondly. Also refugees to vote in any county. Thirdly. 
Requirement of election for Governor on first Thursday in 
August, 1863, was of course only for one occasion;, the first 
election of Governor Vance. 

Abortive Effoets to Revise the Constitution. 

A considerable number of the delegates endeavored to se- 
cure important amendments to the Constitution. To that 
end they procured the appointment of strong committees to 
report the changes that should be made. The final adjourn- 
ment of the Convention prevented the consideration of their 


reports, but they are interesting as showing the views of able 
lawyers and men of business. The Committee on the Decla- 
ration of Eights, Mr. W. J. Ellison, Chairman, and Badger, 
Holmes, Ruffin, of Alamance, and Dick, made a few recom- 
mendations, "on account of the reverence and veneration due 
to it." They opposed any alterations in regard to the free 
negroes. They added what many supposed was already a 
part of it, "nor shall any person be subject for the same 
offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb." 

Also, "ISTor shall right or justice be sold, denied or delayed 
to any one, nor shall private property be taken for public use 
without just compensation." 

They recommended the striking out of the section relating 
to the boundary of the State, as it was inaccurate ; moreover 
such description is out of place in a declaration of principles. 

On the Legislative Department were Messrs G-raham, 
Chairman; Rayner, Smith, of Halifax; Strong, Meares, 
Brown, Foster, of Randolph ; Caldwell, of Rowan, McDowell, 
of Bladen ; Woodfin. 

Among their recommendations were the following: 

The General Assembly may disfranchise for bribery. 

JSTo high officer of a corporation, in which the State is a 
stockholder to be member of the General Assembly. ISTor 
shall anj^one not entitled to vote be a member. 

A majority of all menibers of each house necessary to ap- 
propriate as much as $500. 

The public debt limited to $20,000,000, unless in war or 

Jews may hold office (already adopted). 

Treason against the State defined. 

The Committee on the Executive Department consisted of 
Messrs. Howard, Chairman; Dillard (Richard), Green, 
Leak, of Richmond; Arrington, Gilmer, Headen, Miller, 
Galloway, Greenlee. They reported that the Governor should 
own at least $5,000, of which $2,000, should be realty. The 
term of office to be three years, not to be eligible to a second 


consecutive term. To have veto power over revenue and 
appropriation bills, two-thirds required to pass over veto. 
The office of Lieutenant-Governor to be created. 

The Committee on the Judicial Department were Messrs. 
Ruffin, of Alamance ; Biggs, Battle, of Edgecombe ; Sanders, 
Strange, Bridgers, Kittrell, Johnston, Mitchell, McDowell, 
of Madison. They recommended that the Supreme Court be 
a Chief Justice and three Associate Justices; two terms at 
Raleigh; the General Assembly may provide for more than 
two terms of the Superior Courts in a county, and if so they 
may increase the terms of Courts of Pleas and Quarter Ses- 
sions, their name to be changed to County Courts. Three 
Justices of the Peace for one thousand inhabitants, to be 
elected by the County Courts, to own in the county a freehold 
assessed for taxes for $100. Justices to be removed for con- 
viction of infamous crime, corruption or misdemeanor iu 
office. The General Assembly may establish Courts in cities 
and towns with civil jurisdiction. 

The Committee on Taxation, Revenue and Public Debt 
were Messrs. Ruffin, of Alamance ; Smith, of Halifax ; Petti- 
grew, Thomas, of Jackson,; Bridgers, Biggs, Mitchell, Mc- 
Dowell, of Madison. They recommended taxation of slaves, 
the same as land, the limitation of the public debt to be $20,- 
000,000, except in war, etc. ISTo public debt without taxa- 
tion to pay interest and create a sinking fund. 

Finding that the Convention would not consider a general 
revision, of the Constitution, ex-Governor Graham proposed 
a Special Convention for the purpose, but he obtained only 
twenty-four votes. 

Oeatoey and Behavioe. 

According to my recollection, ex-Governor Graham's 
speech on the Test-oath was the ablest delivered in the Con- 
vention. A short attack by Mr. Saterthwaite against Soldiers' 
Suffrage, and one by Mr. C. R. Thomas, on his resolution 
discountenancing Party Spirit had the clearest ring of elo- 


qiience. Other strong and frequent speakers were Messrs. 
G. E. Badger, D. A. Barnes, Asa Biggs, K. P. Dick, D. D. 
Ferebee, George Green, George Howard, William Lander, 
J. W. Osborne, W. S. Pettigrew, K. Rayner, Rufiin, of Ala- 
mance; D. Scbenck, F. B. Satertbwaite, R. H. Smith, R, K. 
Speed, S. B. Spruill, E. A. Thompson, E. J. Warren, IT. W. 

The following spoke occasionally, some of them ably, all 
interestingly and to the point. Messrs. K. P. Battle, B. 
Brown, B. Craige, W. J. Ellison, J. A. Gilmer, R. Gorrell, 
T. R. Hargrove, J. H. Headen, H. C. Jones, W. F. Leak. 
W. J. Long, T. S. D. McDowell, R. S. Donnell, J. Manning, 
G. Mebane, W. J. F. Miller, W. M. Shipp, W. A. Smith, 
R. Strange, G. V. Strong, C. R. Thomas, J. W. Tracy, A. W. 
Venable, J. D. Whitford. 

It must be admitted that too much time was consumed in 
debates Quite Sb number of members were so much experi- 
enced in public business, with such reputation in the State 
that, without working for any personal object, they felt bound 
to express their views on almost every question coming up. 
This very great supply of oratorical power led to lengthened 
debates, the speakers feeling bound to maintain their reputa- 

The discussions were generally in good temper. One clash 
however created amusement to all but the participants. Two 
venerable men, ex-Judge Rufl&n and ex-Senator Bedford 
Brown, had a short interchange of angry sarcasm. They 
had adjoining seats and when their passage at arms was over, 
they sat back to back, irritation being apparent on their coun- 
tenances. Their friends during the recess made explanations 
and friendship was renewed. 

At another time a prominent delegate used to an eminent 
elderly member loud and hectoring language, in fact, irri- 
tated by interruption, ordered him to take his seat. The 
latter indignantly, but without threatening a blow, strode 
towards his adversarv. There was a eeneral shudder at the 


possibility of two distinguished men disgracefully coming to 
blows. Judge W. M, Shipp quickly, but firmly, stepped be- 
tween the two and gave the needed moment for reflection. 
I feel sure that the offended delegate did not intend a blow 
but only resentment against the improper language which 
had been addressed to him. The offender afterwards ten- 
dered an earnest apology, explaining that a sick headache 
caused intense nervousness. 

The usual temper of the members was of a serious nature. 
The members were impressed with the magnitude of the task 
the State had assumed, and the uncertainties of the future. 
On one occasion, however, there was an outburst of merri- 
ment. A delegate, a preacher, made a speech with the 
mournfulness of utterance and excited gesticulation usual at 
old-fashioned camp meetings. Another delegate, an amiable 
and able man, wdio had recently more than usual inter- 
views with old John Barleycorn, at the close of the war ser- 
mon, stepped forward and shouted, ^'Mr. Speaker: I move 
that the front benches be set apart for the mourners !" There 
was a universal roar, and for several minutes the responsibili- 
ties of legislation were forgotten. 

There were two occasions when, the general excitement 
caused a cessation of business for several minutes. This first 
was General D. H. Hill's dispatch to the Governor announc- 
ing the victory of Big Bethel, with the loss of one killed and 
six wounded on the Confederate side, while the enemy stated 
their loss at 150. Men who went wild over this skirmish, 
as if its success would bring the Union, authorities to terms, 
learned to be camparatively cool over the great victories of 
Manasses and Chancellorsville. The report was made to 
Governor Ellis because the troops had not been transferred 
to the Confederacy. General Hill piously adds: "Our 
Heavenly Father has wonderfully interposed to shield our 
heads in the day of battle." Governor Ellis in transmitting 
the victory asked and obtained the privilege of thanking the 
gallant commander and the brave ofiicers and men. On 


motion of Colonel Spruill a committee was appointed to 
illuminate the capitol and grounds in honor of the "brilliant 
victory," which project was not carried out. Long after- 
wards the patriotic ardor of the ladies caused a bronze statue 
of the slain private to be erected in the Capitol Square. 
Countless orators have paid tribute to iN^orth Carolina as 
"First at Bethel and last at Appomattox." 

The second occasion when the members lost their heads 
was when Koanoke Island was captured. There was a mild 
panic for a few minutes. Some advocated an immediate 
adjournment. Some looked as if there was imminent danger 
of Burnside's cavalry making a dash on Baleigh. But the 
cooler-headed members soon brought the rattleheads to re- 
spectable order. Colonel E. R. Bridgers was the first to 
show coolness. 

It is surprising to note the ignorance of even intelligent 
Southerners of the power and resources of the United States. 
The Convention requested of Governor Ellis information as 
to the alleged "landing of foreign troops on the coast of 
ISTorth Carolina." On June 10, 1861, he answered that the 
rumor was untrue and then added, "If our batteries are prop- 
erly served, a fact of which I could entertain no doubt, the 
power of the United States l^avy is not sufficient to effect 
an entrance into anyone of the harbors of the State." 

"In the following December the Convention expressed 
their undiminished confidence in the ofiicers and soldiers, 
who, after a long and severe bombardment, were compelled to 
surrender to an overwhelming force, the inadequate defenses 
of Hatteras." The Convention thought that the batteries were 
well served, but the defences were not adequate. The truth 
is that the batteries were well constructed under the super- 
vision of Colonel Elwood Morris, a very able civil engineer, 
but could not resist the tremendous artillery of the great 
fleets of the United States. 

the secession convention of 1861 199 

Sessions and Dissolution. 

The large majority of the more distinguished members had 
the public confidence. The legislation was conservative and 
wise. And yet evidently the people had come to the conclu- 
sion that they ought to give way to the General Assembly, the 
regular constitutional law-making body. The ultra-secession- 
ists favored dissolution, partly because they had lost control 
of the Convention, and partly because they thought that the 
majority were somewhat disposed to criticise too severely 
the action of the Confederate authorities. The argument 
that the majority of the people desired dissolution was fatal 
to longer continuance. 

There were four sessions of the Convention. First. May 
20 to June 28, 1861 ; second, ]^ovember 18, 1861 to Decem- 
ber 13, 1861; third, January 20 to February 26, 1862; 
fourth, April 21 to May 13, 1862. There was no adjourn- 
ment sine die on this latter date, but a resolution was passed 
allowing President Edwards, and in event of his death, 
Messrs. Graham, Howard, Badger, Smith, of Halifax; and 
Eayner, or a majority of them, to call the Convention to- 
gether at any time prior to ISTovember 1, 1862, and that, if 
not so called prior to that date, it should stand adjourned 
sine die. It was known that the President was opposed to 
another meeting, and that, if he should not die, May 13, 
1862, was practically the day of final adjournment, but 
legally the Convention did not expire until the first day of 
;N'ovember, 1862. 

EoLL OF Delegates Elected to the Convention of 1861 
AND OF Those Who Filled Vacancies. 

Alamance — Thomas Ruffin, Giles Mebane. 
Alexander — Azariah C. Stewart (died), Alexander M. 

Ashe and Alleghany — Joel E. Foster. 

Anson — Albert Myers, M. D., James A. Leak. 


Beaufort — William J. Ellison (died), Edward J. Warren, 
Eicliard Spaight Donnell. 

Bertiei — Samuel B. Spruill, James Bond. 

Bladen — Thomas S. D. McDowell (resigned), N'eill Kelly. 

Brunswick — Thomas D. Meares. 

Buncombe — ISTicholas W. Woodfin. 

Burke — John C. McDowell. 

Cabarrus — Caleb Phifer. 

Caldwell — Edmund W. Jones. 

Camden — Dennis D, Eerebee. 

Carteret — Charles R. Thomas, 

Caswell — Bedford Brown, John A. Graves (resigned, 
James E. Williamson. 

Catawba — Bev. Polycarp C. Henkel, D. D., George Sitzer. 

Chatham — John Manning, Leonidas J. Merritt (re- 
signed), James H. Headen. 

Chowan — Richard Dillard, M. D. 

Cherokee — Allen T. Davidson (resigned), James H. 

Cleveland— William J. T. Miller, M. D., James W. 
Tracy, M. D. 

Columbus- — Richard Wooten. 

Craven — George Green, John D. Whitford. 

Cumberland — David McISTeill, Warren Winslow (re- 
signed), Malcolm J. McDuffie, Archibald S. McN'eill. 

Currituck — Henry M. Shaw, M. D. (resigned), John B. 
Jones (resigned), Daniel McD. Lindsay. 

Davidson — Benton C. Douthitt, Benjamin A. Kittrell. 

Daviei — Robert Sprouse. 

Duplin — William J. Houston (resigned), James Dickson, 
James T. Rhodes. 

Edgecombe — William S. Battle, George Howard. 

Eors3i;h — Rufus L. Patterson (resigned), Thomas J. Wil- 
son, Darius J. Starbuck. 

Gaston — Sidney X. Johnston, M. D. 

Franklin — Archibald D. Williams. 

Gates — Andrew J. Walton. 


Granville — Tazewell L. Hargrove (resigned), Stephen S. 
Royster, Abram W. Venable (resigned), Thomas B. Lyon. 

Greene — William A. Darden. 

Guilford — Robert P. Dick, John A. Gilmer, Ralph Gorrell. 

Halifax— Richard H. Smith, Charles J. Gee, M. D. (re- 
signed), Littleberry W. Batchelor, M. D. 

Harnett— Archibald S. McNeill. 

Haywood — Rev. William Hicks. 

Henderson — William M. Shipp. 

Hertford — Kenneth Rayner. 

Hyde — Edward L. Mann. 

Iredell — Andrew Mitchell, Thomas A. Allison. 

Jackson — William H. Thomas. 

Johnston — Claudius B. Sanders, William A. Smith. 

Jones — William Foy. 

Lenoir — John C. Washington. 

Lincoln — William Lander (resigned), David Schenck. 

Macon — Rev. Conrad D. Smith. 

Madison — Joseph A. McDowell, M. D. 

Martin — Asa Biggs (resigned). Doctor Warren Bagley. 

Mecklenburg — William Johnston (resigned), James W. 
Osborne, Pinckney C. Caldwell. 

Montgomerv — Samuel H. Christian. 

Moorei — Hector Turner, M. D. 

Nash — Archibald H. Arrington (resigned), Lucien N. B. 

New Hanover — William S. Ashe (resigned), Robert H. 
Cowan (resigned), Robert Strange, John L. Holmes. 

Northampton — David A. Barnes, John M. Moody. 

Onslow — Edward W. Ward, M. D. (resigned), Andrew J. 

Orange — William A. Graham, John- Berry. 

Pasquotank — Rufus K. Speed. 

Perquimans — Joseph S. Cannon. 

Person — John W. Cunningham. 

Pitt — Bryan Grimes (resigned), Eeimer B. Saterthwaite, 
Peyton A. Atkinson. 


Randolph — William J. Long, Alfred G. Foster. 

Richmond — Walter F. Leak. 

Robeson — John P. Fuller, John C. Sutherland. 

Rockingham — David S. Reid, Edward T, Brodnax. 

Rowan — Burton Craige (resigned), Hamilton C. Jones, 
Richard A. Caldwell. 

Rutherford — Jason H. Carson (died), Micajah Durham. 
George W. Michal. 

Sampson — Thomas Bunting, Robert A. Moseley. 

Stanley — Eben Hearne. 

Stokes — John Hill (died), Alexander H. Joyce. 

Surry — Thomas V. Hamlin. 

Tyrrell— Eli Spruill. 

Union — Hugh M. Houston. 

Wake — George E. Badger, Kemp P. Battle, William W. 

Warren — Weldpn IsT. Edwards, Frances A. Thornton. 

Washington — William S. Pettigrew. 

Watauga — James W. Councill. 

Wayne — George V. Strong, Ervin A. Thompson. 

Wilkes — James Galloway, Peter EUer. 

Yadkin — Robert F. Armfield (resigned). 

Yancey — Milton P. Penland. 

Roll of Officers of the Convention" of 1861. 

Weldon E". Edwards — President. 

Principal Secretary — Walter L. Steele, Rockingham 

Assistant Secretary — Leonidas C. Edwards, Granville 

Principal Doorkeeper — James Page, Randolph County. 

Assistant Doorkeeper — Filliam R. Lovill, Surry County. 

Second Assistant Doorkeeper — John C. Moore, Wake 

Third Assistant — Drury King. 

Printer to the Convention. — John W. SjTtie, Wake County. 

The Cupola House and Its Associations 

By Mack Chappell. 

In the town of Edenton, ISTorth Carolina, there are three 
distinct types of old buildings that were completed about the 
same time. They are the Court House, St. Paul's Church, 
and the Cupola House. These are monuments of wealth, 
taste and architecture. They are still efficient, symmetrical 
and pleasing in their surroundings. The subject of this essay 
is the last named house; and first something should be said 
of its history. 

On September 17, 1744, Francis Corbin(a), builder of 
the Cupola Hoiise was appointed land agent by John, Earl 
Granville, the only one of the Lords Proprietors who retained 
his interests in jSTorth Carolina. A few days later, Corbin 
left England for the Carolinas on a man-of-war ; and arriv- 
ing in Chowan County, took charge of the Earl's affairs — 
having as an associate agent, Edward Moseley, appointed in 

Corbin was very unjust in his dealings, and thus became 
unpopular. Twice he was seized by a mob(c), but always 
escaped with a light loss, in most instances his deputy agents 
being the ones who suffered. Once he endeavored to bring 
suit against the rioters (t^), but being warned by Thomas 
Child, Granville's attorney, that he would be the loser, he 
withdrew his suit. Xotwithstanding his harshness he had 
great power. Edward Moseley, Colonel James Innes, Benja- 
min Wheatley and Joshua Bodley were each in their turn 

(a) Francis Corbin appointed land agent Sept. 17, 1744 (N. C. His- 
torical and Genealogical Register, Vol. Ill, No. 2, page 239). 

(b) Edward Moseley, agent in 1743, associated with Corbin (same 
reference ) . 

(c) Corbin and Ms fellow agents oppressors, assailed by mob (Vol. 
VIII, Pref. notes, page IX, Colonial Records). 

(d) Corbin endeavored to punish rioters (Col. Records, Vol. V, page 


fellow agents of Corbiii(e) ; yet, while each was dismissed, 
he remained in office. A probable aid to his power was his 
influence in the church. At a vestry meeting in Edenton, 
the vestry and church wardens appointed Corbin to agree 
with some one to have the church finished (/). Therefore he 
must have been a member of the Episcopal Church and a man 
of business ability. 

Francis Corbin built the Cupola House in 1758, and as is 
indicated by the interior of the house was probably several 
years in completing it. Most statements err concerning Cor- 
bin's marriage and death, but it is a fact that in 1761 he 
married Colonel James Innes' widow, Jean(^). ISTo one 
knows the date of his death. That he was living on AugTist 
2, 1766 (/i) is certain, for on that date he was recommended 
for the Governor's Council. That he was dead by December 
11, 1767 (t), we know, for on that day his administrators 
were allowed £80 for a negro that had been executed. 
Francis Corbin left no will, but made a deed on October 28, 
1761, ''subjecting the Cupola House on Lot 'No. 1, to him- 
self and his heirs until the solemnization of the then intended 
marriage between himself and Jean, Innes, after this to Jean 
Innes for her lifetime, and then to his heirs." Jean Corbin 
died in 1775 (j), and then the property descended to Edmund 
Corbin (A-), brother of Francis Corbin. 

(e) Fellow agents of Corbin : 

Edward Moseley (Col. Records, Vol. IV, page 924) ; 
Col. James Innes (Col. Records, Vol. V, page 778) ; 
Benj. Wheatley (Col. Records, Vol. V, page 779) ; 
Joshua Bodley (Col. Records, Vol. V, page 779) ; 
Thomas Child (Col. Records, Vol. VI, page 293) ; 

(f) Vestry St. Paul's Church appointed Corbin to have church 
finished. (N. C. Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. 1, No. 4, 
October, 1900, pages 605 and 606.) 

(g) Corbin married Jean Innes (Col. Records, Vol. V, page XIX). 
(h) Corbin living August 2, 1766 (Col. Records, Vol. VII, page 


(i) Corbin dead by December 11. 1767 (Col. Records. Vol. XXII. 
page 850). 

(j) Jean Corbin died 1775 (Abstract of N. C. Wills by Grimes, 
page 82). 

(k) Descent of Cupola House to Edmund Corbin (Record or Deeds 
Chowan County, Vol. R, page 41). 


Dr. Samuel Dickinson(Q, the next owner of the house, 
was born iu Connecticut in 1743, and died in 1802. He 
graduated in some foreign school, probably Edinburg, as that 
was then the medical center of the world. He located at 

On February 7, 1777, he bought the Cupola House(m) 
from Edmund Corbin for £400. Dr. Dickinson's office was 
on the corner of the same lot. He had associated with him 
a young doctor, Beasley by name. Dr. Dickinson was a 
man of wealth and had a wide practice. He met his death 
from exposure in crossing the Albermarle Sound to see some 
member of the Armistead family. 

Dr. Dickinson willed the property to his daughter, Pene- 
lope Barker Bond(n) in 1802. 

In 1858, Mrs. Penelope Barker Bond willed the Cupola 
House to her daughters, Elizabeth, Sarah, Anne and Mar- 
garet Bond(o). 

Miss Margaret Bond, who survived her three sisters, left 
no will, but her niece. Miss Tillie Bond now possesses the 
property by right of inheritance. 

The Cupola House is situated about the middle of Lot 
ISTo. 1, of West Broad Street; and, like several other houses 
of that period, faces the water on the south. It is said that 
there was a heavy T\'all around the lot, and it is known that 
there was a very high hedge of Euonymus, probably inside 
the wall. If there was a wall the gate must have been on 
the southern side, for there are indications of an old walk 
to the house from that part of the lot. On each side of this 
path there are old fashioned flowers ; Deutzia, Weigela, 
White Spirea, Toad-flax or Butter-and-Eggs, and some Jon- 

(1) Life of Dr. Dickinson (N. C. Booklet or "Great Events in 
History of N. C," Vol. XI, July, 1911, No. 1, page 24) . 

(m) Dr. Dickinson bought Cupola House for 400£ (Record Deeds 
Chowan County, Vol. R, page 41). 

(n) Property descended to Penelope Barker Bond (Record of 
Wills, Book "B," page 277). 

(o) Descent of property to Miss Margaret Bond and sisters 
(Record of Wills, Book "D," page 43). 



quils, said to have been set out by Dr. Dickinson's wife over 
one biinidred and thirty-five years ago. 

Strictly speaking, the house has three stories for there is 
a large attic. In front, the second story projects twelve 
inches over the first story, and the projection is decorated 
with brackets. This was not done with a view to more space, 
but to break the perpendicular surface and thus ornament 
the house. There are two large chimneys on the western 
side and one on. the eastern. The house has thirty large win- 
dows, showing that light and ventilation were much desired, 
even in Colonial days. All the windows of the first story 
have solid shutters and fasten with a large-headed bolt and 
slotted stick. The windows of the second and third stories 
are lower boarded and fasten with hooks. The house was 
painted v/hite with green shutters and trimmings. The roof, 
which is nearly square pitched and has ornaments in the 

gables, has been covered several 
times, and is said to have been 
originally covered with shingles 
cut round at the ends. There 
is a gable at the front, and on 
the gable ornament there are in 
raised letters : F. G. — 1758. 

There is no doubt that the 
whole house, with few excep- 
tions, is built from native white 
and yellow pine (p), especially 
since that wood was most abund- 
ant here and most used (q). It is certain that the timber was 
not cut in England and imported, for we had water-power 
sawmills in America as early as 1634 (r). Indeed we had 

(p) White and j^ellow pine in N. C. (Lawson's History of N. C, 
page 56). 

(q) Pine most used at that time (same reference). 

(r) Sawmills in America before in England (Encyclopedia Ameri- 
cana, Vol. XIV). 


sawmills here capable of cutting two thousand feet per day be- 
fore there were any in England. The bricks were also native 
made, for Lawson in his history, mentions that bricks and 
tiles were made here in 1Y14, and that in building with 
bricks, the people used lime made from oyster shells (s). The 
nails are hand wrought and were probably made here. Even 
the glass was probably made in America, for there were glass 
works in Virginia in 1608, and in Pennsylvania in 1683 (^). 

The house has eight by ten inch heart sills, resting on 
brick piers eight inches thick and twenty inches high ; three 
by ten inch joists in first story and two by ten inch joists 
in second story — all joists being spaced twenty-four inches 
apart. The principal rafters are six by eight inches, and 
the ordinary ones are two by four and three by four inches. 
The plates and purlins are six by eight inches, and the cor- 
ner posts are six by six inches. The window and door studs 
are three by four inches and all other studs are three by four 
and two by four inches. All the flooring of the house is six 
inches wide and one and one-half inches thick. The house 
is weather-boarded with six-inch bevel edged siding. The 
corner boards, window and door casings are of heart pine, 
one and one-eighth inches thick and five inches wide. The 
entire outside of the house was designed in the Colonial 

The only external addition to the house is the front. It is 
a little portico or porch about seven feet wide and ten feet 
long. The approach to the porch is three stone steps. The 
porch has four posts or columns. The two front posts are 
seven and one-half inches square at the bottom, and taper to 
five inches square at the top. The rear posts are set in the 
weather-boarding and are eight inches square. The vaulted 
ceiling of the porch is plastered. 

(s) Brick made in N. C. in 1714; lime from oyster shells (Law- 
son's History, page 46). Carpenters, joiners and brick masons in 
N. C. in 1714 (Lawson's History, page 98). 

(t) Glass works in America in 1608-'83 (Encyclopedia Americana, 
Vol. VIII). 











The front door is very heavy, being one 
and three-fourths inches thick, three and 
one-half feet wide and seven feet high. 
It has six panels with parquetry in curi- 
ous shapes beneath. The heavy English 
hinges are nailed with wrought iron 
spikes. The door is fastened by a large! 
iron lock — over ten inches long — with a 
peculiarly shaped key. All the fixings 
of the lock are brass. There is a heavy 
brass knocker, one of the several of the 
same pattern now in the community. The threshold is 
twelve inches wide, and there is a stationary transom of four 
panes above the door frame. 

The lower hall is nine feet high and has six exits, but only 
two of the exits — the back and front doors — to the outside. 
The wash-boarding is six inches wide. Above this there is 
wainscot of one row of horizontal panels upon the stiles of 
which quirk molding is placed, surmounted by a five^inch 
chair-rail or stool cap. The remainder of the wall is plas- 
tered to the ceiling. The crown molding is large and has 
bands of ogee and cymatium molding. The back door and 

the doors to the two back rooms 
are plain with six panels and 
set in molded frames. The 
doors to the two front rooms are 
alike and have frontals placed 
over and about the frames. 
These frontals have a sub-base 
upon the wash-boarding, then 
two needed columns with mold- 
ed base. The columns have 
molded capitals upon which 
rests an entablature with a plain architrave and a frieze 
ornamented with small carved colonnades. The cornice is 
molded and the pediment above it has a gable made of the 



crown molding. The ceiling is plastered and in it are two 
hand-carved rosettes to receive hanging lamps. Only one of 
the lamps is now there. It has an, oval globe, brass band and 
chains, and is raised and lowered by means of two pulleys. 

The dining-room, or the first room to the right as we enter 
the hall is the most handsomely finished part of the house. 
The door frontal on the inside has two quilled and reeded 
columns with their bases iipon the molded wash-board. Upon 
the capitals of the columns there is an entablature with plain 
molded archatrave, frieze and cornice. Above the cornice 
is an arch, which has corbels and square billet molding be- 
neath it, made of heavy band and foliated molding. The door 
has a brass lock and hanging handles. Around the wall 
there is a row of horizontal panels upon which is molding, 
and a five-inch chair-rail. This supports the upper row of 
panels, set vertically. The panels are certainly of soft wood 
and are probably of white pine, with stiles of yellow pine. 
The crown molding is very heavy, about eight by eight inches, 
and is nearly similar to the molding of the arch above the 

door. The room has four win- 
dows with egg-and-anchor mold- 
ing set in broken lines, to give 
a Roman appearance. On one 
of the panes of a window in this 
room there is scratched the 
name "Samuel Dickenson." 
The fire-place is of hand-carved 
Italian marble, and it is said 
that the hearth was of the same 
material, but has been de- 
stroyed. The mantel-piece, not 
in harmony with the door frontal, is surmounted by a pedi- 
ment without columns. The lower part of this pediment has 
two panels with roses carved upon them. The cornice has 
brackets below it and the low gable is made of the crown 
molding. The mantle-piece, as well as the door frontal, is 



made of white pine, for no hard wood could have been carved 
so regularly. Both were too high for the room, and the ceil- 
ing was cut away for their tops. On each side of the iDack 
of the room there is a small door opening into a separate 
butler's pantry. Between the doors there is a china closet 
built in the wall. The lower compartment is the same height 
as the chair-rail, and has two doors. On each side of this 
compartment stands a pedestal or sub-base. The chair-rail 
supports two quilled and reeded columns with Corinthian 
capitals, holding up a projection of the crown molding. Be- 

n,eath this molding and between 
the columns there is an arch 
with carved keystone and span- 
drels. Under the arch is the 
main part of the china closet, 
which has two paneled doors 
and three oddly carved shelves. 
In the china closet there is 
almost a complete set of gilt and 
pink flowered china for twelve 
persons, It is interesting to note that the china is probably 
of the period of 1800 (u), and at that time cost about fifteen 
dollars. There is one china candle-stick with two pairs of 
snufFers and a tray. A complete set of jelly glasses and wine 
glasses, one ale mug with the initials S. D., and a cut glass 
decanter or "bitters bottle" are on the shelves. There is 
also a large milk jug and an earthenware pitcher with the 
signs of the zodiac upon it. In a closet stands a lamp, said 
to be the first in Edenton. It is a small cut glass whale-oil 
lamp of the period of 1760. There is a Sheriton side-board 
that has six lion-clawed feet, four compartments, nine draw- 
ers and two serving trays. It is a massive piece of furniture 
made of mahogany, veneered, and is said to have been in the 
home one hundred and thirty-two years (r). There are upon 


1 1 
1 1 

1 1 
1 1 



.•r_ J 


(u) China wares made in America in 1S30 and cost of same (En- 
cyclopedia Americana, Vol. XII). 

(v) Furniture (Schedule of the Margaret E. Bond furniture for 
sale by her Executor, W. D. Pruden, Edenton, N. C). 



this side-board two very large cut glass candle shades or 
stands, one cut glass finger bowl and tray, made in wate;r-lily 
pattern, a berry bowl and a celery stand. In the room there 
stands a piano made by E. JST. Scherr, of Philadelphia, about 
1810. There is a Colonial dining table in three pieces, the 
center piece being drop-leafed and the end pieces rounded. 
The table when put together is nine feet long. A duck-foot 
tea-table, drop-leafed and made of solid mahogany once stood 
in this room. There was here a serving tray made of mahog- 
any about 1700, a butler's stand and two enameled serving 
trays, and possibly six Chippendale chairs, made about 1710 
to 1750. The fire utensils are brass-handled and have brass 

holders. On one side of the 
room a Colonial mirror with a 
picture of George Washington 
painted on the top, is fastened to 
the wall. The portraits of sev- 
eral noted people hang upon the 
walls, among them Thomas Bar- 
ker, a lawyer, and his wife, 
Penelope Barker, the president 
of the Edenton Tea-Party in 

The lower front room to the 
left as we enter the hall was used as a drawing room. The 
door frontal is similar to the one in the dining room except 
that the arch has a carved wooden keystone. The door frame 
is plainly molded and the door has a brass lock like the one 
across the hall. The wash-boarding is six inches high, upon 
which there is no wainscot, only plastered walls. Three 
feet from the floor there is a five-inch chair-rail with quirk 
and ogee molding beneath it. The crowm molding is set on 
a beaded board, and is composed of bands of ogee, square- 
billet, band and cymatinm. The walls and ceiling are plas- 
tered and have recently been murescoed green. The two 
front windows have eighteen panes and two shutters each 



and set in egg-and-anchor molding. The two end windows 
have twelve panes and one shutter each. The hearth is of 
nnpolished marble. Below the mantle shelf there is heavy 
molding on each side of which there are two long tapering 
brackets or corbels, hand-carved in, beautiful foliations. 
There is a long panel above the mantel, and on each side of 

it inverted brackets support a 
pediment with a cornice like 
the crown molding. The tym- 
panum is scalloped, and instead 
of a gable or arch, on each side 
there is a molded ^'Line of 
Beauty" with rosettes on the 
end of the volutes. 

In this room there is a Calen- 
dar Grand Father Clock, made 
in London by William Foote, 
and about one hundred and 
fifty years old. The clock is veneered and very beautifully 
carved at the top. It has a brass face and silvered dial with 
an engraving of Father Time upon it. There were also two 
Chippendale corner chairs, 1Y50-1775, and seven Chippen- 
dale side chairs of the same period. A Chippendale tea-table 
with a raised rim and made about 1750 is said to have been 
in the drawing room. On the walls there is a small painting 
of Miss Penelope Dickinson, a certificate that ISTathaniel 
Bond had received the degree of Master Mason, and the 
Master Mason's apron, of the same man. The fire utensils 
are brass-handled and there are two very old hand-paiuted 
china vases, and one of the two old candle-sticks. Over the 
mantel-piece there is an interesting cartoon of the Boston 
Tea-Party, in which the men are nearly as large as the Con- 
tinents, and certainly larger than the tea ships, and in which 
England and America are drawn with their natural positions 
interchanged. Above this cartoon the Dickinson coat-of-anns 



The rear room to the right on the lower floor was merely 
used as a butler's pantry. It has several rows of shelves, 
and here may be seen the back of the china closet. 

The rear room on the left was used as a bed room. It is 
the only room of the house that had curtains over the door. 
It is about eleven feet wide and has a six-inch wash-board, 
a chair-rail thirty-seven inches from the floor, and a large 
crown molding. There are two windows and two six-paneled 
doors, one of them opening into the drawing room. Over 
the fire-place is a large plain mantel-piece, and above this 
there was a long mirror in three sections. ISTothing definite 
is known about this furniture. 

A beautiful Chippendale stair winds from the first floor, 
through the second and to the third story. The treads are of 
heart pine, and some of them are worn to the risers (w). 
Under the projections of the steps there are brackets orna- 
mented with rosettes and foils. The newel or end posts with 
caps and pendants, and the balusters which are placed three 

to a step, are turned out of 
solid mahogany. The material 
probably came from the West 
Indies. The hand-rail on the 
lower flight of stairs, because 
of the right turn of three steps, 
drops to the floor of the landing 
above and to the middle of the 
newel post. The hand-rails are 
of some soft wood. The reason 
for this is simple ; the lathe is 
a very old machine, and the 
harder the wood the better can 
the work be done, but in Colonial days all the carving had to 
be done by hand, and the softest possible wood was 
selected (.r). The wainscoting of the staircase, like the wain- 


(w) White pine formerly most extensively used soft wood in 
America (Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. XVI). 

(x) Carving on large scale was with white pine, fir, etc. (Encyclo- 
pedia Americana, Vol. XVI). 


scot of the hall, is stained dark to match the balusters. At 
the first turn the panel is larger than the others, and here 
it may be seen that they are made of white pine. The 
stair makes one and three-fourth turns, and when ascending 
we may see the heavy wall plates, at least twelve inches thick, 
between the floors. These plates, like the rest of the frame, 
are pinned together with wooden pegs. 

The hall on the second floor is seven feet nine inches high. 
It has four exits to rooms. The door to the room above the 
back right room of the first room is only twenty-three inches 
wide, the three other doors are thirty inches wide. This hall 
has a six-inch wash-boarding, no wainscotting, and a plain 
molded chair-rail. The crown molding is smaller and less 
elaborate than in the hall below. Of the two windows of the 
hall, the front one is average size, but the rear window has 
twenty-eight panes and is very large that it may light the 
halls of the second and third stories. In the plastering of 
the ceiling there is one rosette for a hanging lamp, but the 
lamp is missing. 

In this hall there stands a Chippendale clothes press, built 
about 1750, It is made of solid mahogany and the top is 
carved in the shape of a shell. There is also a Colonial secre- 
tary of solid mahogany. 

The door to the room above the dining room is set in a 
plainly molded frame, is one and one-half inches thick, hangs 
on heavy English hinges and has a brass lock and fixings. 
Above the six-inch wash-boarding are horizontal panels, on 
the stiles of which is placed a molded chair-rail. An upper 
row of panels, set vertically, reaches the ceiling. A six by 
six-inch cornice of ogee, ovolo, band and quirk molding rests 
upon the wainscoting. There are four large windows, each 
set in plainly molded frames. The fire-place has a marble 
hearth and is set in heavy molding. Above the mantel-shelf 
is one long panel between two inverted brackets or consoles. 
These backets support a pediment with a plain cornice and a 
low gable made of the crown molding. This mantel-piece. 


like the one in the other room below, was too high for the 

This room was probably for gTiests, and in it there was a 
Sheriton bed, made about 1775. It was built of solid mahog- 
any, was possibly a four-post bed and carved in the pine-apple 
and acanthus-leaf design. The feet of the bed had brass 
tips, and it had a rail at the top for a canopy. The other 
articles of furniture were; a Colonial chest of drawers, 
veneered, and built about 1800, and a Colonial wash-stand 
made about the same date. 

The large bedroom above the drawing room has no paneled 
wainscot, but a plain wash-board, chair-rail and crown mold- 
ing. There are two large windows at the front and two 
smaller ones at the side. The hearth is cut from marble 
and the mantel-piece is plainly molded. Over the mantel- 
piece there is a molded cornice and gable supported by two 
brackets, foliated and curling over at the top. 

There are only a few known articles of furniture that have 
been in this room for any length of time, namely: A bed, 
a chest of drawers, and a beautifully carved secretary and 

The room back of the on,e just mentioned is very small 
and plainly finished. It has only one window and a plain 
mantel-piece and fire-place. There is a door opening into 
the room in front. 

The room above the butler's pantry is similar. JS^othing 
definite is known about the furniture in either room. 

Since the entrance or passage on the third floor is near the 
roof of the house, it has no regular shape and can hardly be 
called a hall. There are three exits to rooms and one to the 
Cupola. It has a plain wash-board, but no chair-rail or crown 
molding. Here may be seen the gTeat plates, rafters, purlins 
and other timbers in the frame of the house. 

On both left and right of the third floor there is a small 
well finished room. Each is plastered and has only one win- 


dow. In each room there are two small recesses or closets 
for linen. 

There is a small unfinished room under the gable over 
the front part of the house. Its only window is the oval or 
elliptical window in the gable. This room was probably used 
for storage purposes. 

The staircase to the cupola is enclosed in a circular frame. 
The eighteen steps in the stairway wind aroimd an octagon- 
shaped newel post. The small trap-door at the top is fas- 
tened below with a padlock. 

The Cupola, whence the house derived its name, is octagon 
shaped and has four windows. There is a four-inch wash- 
boarding, a chair-rail and a four by five-inch crown molding. 
The walls and ceiling were plastered, but much of the plaster 
has fallen. This gives us a good opportunity to view the 
hand-split laths fastened by hand-wrought nails, the thick 
plaster and the hair in it. The hair is very short, fine and 
brown and must have been obtained from the deer. It is said 
that there was a veranda around the Cupola, but since this 
cannot be proved, no correct statement can be made concern- 
ing it. The southeastern side of the Cupola has never been 
plastered, and it is said that this was the door to the veranda, 
but the place could have been left plain with only the inten- 
tion of putting a veranda around the cupola at some future 
time. The roof of this cupola, unlike the roof of other 
cupolas, is in the shape of an ellipse cut through the longer 

There is in the cupola a spy-glass with the body, made of 
mahogany and brass ends. The glass is forty-eight inches 
long, two inches thick, and is octagon-shaped. 

In the above description the following articles of furniture 
are left unplaced in the house: Five mahogany l}T:e back 
chairs, seven plain chairs and one arm chair to match, one 
ball-and-claw foot arm-chair made of mahogany, one mahog- 
any hand-carved rocking chair, one Colonial tilt-table about 
one hundred and forty years old, one small writing table of 


cherry, two Colonial candle-stands, one candle-stand of 
Chinese pattern, and made of foreign wood, two marble-top 
and one plain wash-stands, three towel racks, a Colonial chest 
of drawers and a Colonial mahogany secretary. In the home 
may be seen the medicine scales of Dr. Dickinson and a large 
medicine chest. This chest was made solid to endure the 
voyage over the ocean. There are in the house some of the 
medicine bottles and china labels for those bottles. 

It is a very interesting and absorbing study to walk through 
the building, thinking of the noble persons who have gTaced 
its spacious halls in olden times, noticing the elaborate and 
varying styles of architecture, and the valuable old furniture. 
Surely such a wonderful landmark should be perpetuated by 
the town, and county, if not by the State. 


Greek, Roman, and Arabian Survivals on 

the North CaroUna Coast — A 

Preliminary Sketch 

By Collier Cobb. 

During an acquaintance with our coast dunes and our coast 
people, extending over more than two score years, I have 
been impressed by the seeming familiarity of our "'Bankers," 
with Greek and Roman mythology, and with what I early 
took to be Bible stories with a local setting. I always re- 
garded them, however, as tales that were the common prop- 
erty of our race, that had suffered a sea-change when handed 
down, among isolated and unlearned people whose English 
ancestors in Elizabeth's time had been very much such people 
as the best of us today. 

In 1902 there came to the University of ISTorth Carolina 
from one of our coast counties, two youths, speaking a singu- 
larly pure and idiomatic English, in which one sometimes 
detected words and expressions not uncommon in the writ- 
ings of Shakespeare. 

One of these youngsters offered to our University Maga- 
zine a story of the coast, entitled, ''Old ISTepkin," which was 
promptly rejected ; but I have never seen in any of our col- 
lege publications freshman work comparable to this. I repro- 
duce the story. 


In the spring of 1894 my father, who was a member of the life 
saving crew at one of the stations of the government along the coast 
of North Carolina, moved his family, consisting of my mother, baby 
brother and me, over to the beach at Oregon Inlet Station. At that 
time this branch of the government service was more confining than 
it is today, there being no liberties granted during the stormy 
season. And it was for this reason that a number of the crew 
moved their families to the station to be with them for the few 
rough months. In several instances two families lived in one house, 
as comfortable buildings were scarce. This was the case with us. 


and to my great delight our family took up quarters with a family 
in whicli there were two boys about my age. 

The entire beach was ours, and every day when it was not too 
cold or rainy, we roamed over the great stretch of sand at our 
pleasure, each day going farther and farther from home, until we 
had become familiar with almost every acre of ground for several 
miles around. Probably it was a fear on the part of our parents and 
others that we might venture too far or get into the ocean that 
prompted them to tell us tales of various forms of animals that 
might capture us and never let us return, a dragon that ate little 
boys, and a sea monster that caught and ate a little girl for breakfast 
every morning. 

The most interesting to us of all the beings they warned us 
against was one creature, "Nepkin," as they called him, or by some 
referred to as "Old Nep." We were told in answer to our numerous 
questions, that he was the god of the sea, and that he objected most 
seriously to any intrusion upon his rights or territory ; that we must 
not dare step into the waters of the sea, else we would be taken by 
him and carried down to his watery home. We were told that he 
had a house in the ocean, and often times various objects along the 
coast were pointed out to us as his home. Our young minds could 
not see anything but truth in the story, and for a short while our 
explorations and wanderings from home ceased. But the spirit of 
venture was strong within us, and as the days grew into weeks and 
no animal of unusual proportions or of frightful appearance visited 
us, and the tales of such creatures ceased, we resumed our wander- 
ings. It was just after one of our longest trips that the following 
thing happened : 

A nor'wester was blowing, and the wind was "Irish," in the lan- 
guage of the fishermen, who had come to sit a while with us, 
gathered around the fire on this particular night in March. The shrill 
whistle of the wind around the corner of the wooden house made us 
hover closer to the stove as the night hours wore on. Just for the 
moment conversation had waned, and the crackling of the fire and the 
noise of the wind was all that disturbed the silence. 

■ "It's a great night for Nepkin," said one of the men. "He is alius 
aloose sich a night as this. The cold, high wind attracts him from 
his ocean house to the land for a while to see what's going on." 

"Yessir, and I jes' feel like he's comiii' here, too," said another of 
the fishermen. "How'd ye like to see Old Nep tonight, boys?" This 
he said to us three little fellows, hovered close together near the fire. 

"I'm not afraid," I said ; but my face, already anxious with fear, 
belied my words, and while I was making the boast a blast of wind 
blew the shutters on the window against the house with great force, 
and I turned ghastly pale as I jumped in fright. Lance, the younger 
of my friends, said nothing, but was apparently as scared as I, for he 
jumped when I did. 


But Jim, about ten, the oldest of the three, and, naturally the 
bravest, held his nerve. He had often told Lance and me, when we 
were discussing among ourselves the tales that we had heard, that 
he did not believe in such a thing as Old Nepkin, and bragged that 
he would never run from him. And now, even though afraid, we 
felt an approaching pleasure in that we hoped to see Jim take back 
his boast. 

"I'll not run," said Jim, to the questions of the fishermen. "And 
what's more, if he comes here tonight I'll punch his eyes out." 

"Never mind, young feller, ye'll be sorry ye said that afore this 
midnight," said an older man, whose serious attitude foretold no 
joke. 'Old Nep's a-comin' shure this time.' " 

"Now don't scare the children," said our mothers in almost the 
same breath, seeing that two of us, at least, were scared almost 
out of our wits. "Neptune isn't coming here a night like this." 

"Jes' the kind o' night he wants," replied the persistent old fisher- 
man. "And, by the gods, it's the 13th, too. 'Pears like I've hearn 
the old folks say he alius crawls out on the 13th. If it's cold and 
blust'ry, with a forty er fifty knot gale like tonight, he roams about 
a while. My 'pinion is that this's the kind o' night he's lookin' fer." 

By this time I was almost helplessly frightened. The movement 
of a chair or of a fpot on the floor drove my heart almost out of my 
mouth. And my playmate. Lance, was suffering the same feelings. 
But Jim still maintained that he was not frightened, and stuck to 
his boast that he would not run. The fishermen seemed to get much 
delight from our evident terror, and attempts on the part of our 
mothers to change the subject failed several times. 

A spell of quiet had fallen over the entire crowd. The wind 
sounded louder and more shrill than it had for an hour. Not a 
word had been spoken for several moments, and it seemed that 
every one waited in expectant quiet for the enactment of some- 
thing unusual. And in the midst of this strained silence, when even 
the nerves of the hardy fishermen seemed tense with excitement — 
rap ! rap ! rap ! sounded loudly on the door, and a coarse cough was 
heard from vrithout. Enough for me. I jumped and ran to my 
mother. Lance ran to his. Both of us, I believe, were too scared to 
scream. I could not have made a noise had I tried. 

"That's Old Nep now," said one of the men. "I said he was 
a-comin', and he's here shure as day. Oi>en the door. Bill." 

The door flew open in answer to three more raps, louder than the 
first, and in rushed a gust of the northwester. But I felt it not. 
The only sense which I had at the time was that of sight, and 
what I saw in the doorway would have any child of my age out of 
his senses. There stood what looked to be a man, dressed in heavy, 
black oilclothes. He was wearing boots, and water was dripping 
from him as if he had just come out of the sea. His face was very 


hairy and dark, the features almost hidden by the beard. Two 
ghastly looking eyes viewed the room over, and the large, black 
mouth opened in speech, saying : "Ah, there's the three little boys 
who have been wandering at large on this beach, which borders on 
my sea. I want one of them, and as I was ashore, thought I would 
stop in for him." 

Quiet was supreme and intense. Except for the pounding of my 
heart, I heard nothing. The beating breakers on the beach, the roar- 
ing wind around the chimney, the sound of the sand, blown by the 
wind, striking the window panes, touched not my ear. I saw only 
this horrid monster, as he looked from one to another of us boys, 
apparently deciding which one to take. I did not question, in my 
mind, his power to take any one of us he wanted. I felt sure no 
hand would be raised in opposition to this god of the sea. My only 
hope was a selfish one, that he might take one of the other boys. 

Neptune advanced toward the center of the room, and in following 
his movement, my gaze fell upon the place where I last saw Jim. 
It was vacant. Anxious lest he should get away and make my chance 
of selection one to two. instead of one to three, I turned for the 
first time, since Old Nep's arrival, and looked around. What I saw 
almost chilled the blood in my veins. Jim, whom I had termed a 
braggart, Jim, the boastful, had now become Jim, the daredevil, and 
was advancing toward Old Neptune with a stick of wood. The 
fishermen warned him ; his mother told him to sit down, but Jim 
advanced in a warlike attitude. I just knew he was doomed. 

Old Nep viewed his bravery with seeming satisfaction. "Aha, 
youngster, you're pretty brave. I think I'll take you to live with me 
in my home under the sea. Come along," he said, and reached for- 
ward. But Jim was not to be taken without a fight, and interest in 
the oncoming battle got keen. 

"I'U gouge your eyes out," said Jim, and made a lunge at the 
intruder that was not to be scorned. Neptime jumped to one side to 
avoid the lick, and at the same time made a grab for my young 
friend. Jim was too quick. Jumping to one side, he began to wage 
an offensive battle, striking so rapidly with the stick that Old Nep 
necessarily took a defensive stand, trying only to get hold of the 
would-ebe giant killer. Several passes failed, but the spirit of 
youth was afire, and he gained grit as he fought. But he was too 
small against his larger and more powerful adversary, and was 
gradually forced to a defense. Chances looked slim for Jim, as he 
was pressed into a corner striking now wildly as he dropped back. 
Realizing that he could not hit effectively from a side angle or from 
above, Jim changed his war tactics, and before Old Nep knew what 
had happened, a straight-out thrust of the stick caught him in the 
face. His attempt to brush it aside only aided the little fighter. De- 
velopments were rapid. The thrust, the attempt to foil it, the 


result in an instant. Before us stood a somewhat abashed and well 
known member of the life saving crew, his mask hanging from the 
end of the stick. And Jim, triumphant, said : "I told you there 
weren't no Nepkin, and now I know there ain't." 

No explanation of how that was just a make-up, but that the real 
Neptune did exist, had any future effect upon us, and after that we 
roamed at large, led by our hero and comrade, Jim. 

The boy left his story with me and has recently given me 
permission to publish it. He remained at the University 
only two years, taught school for sometime, and is now on 
the staff of a Virginia newspaper. It is to be hoped that he 
will retain and strengthen the simple, straighforward style 
of his youth. 

For many years I have written down the tales and songs 
of our coast, and I soon satisfied myself that most of them 
were of old world origin. I^Teptune and Vulcan were both 
there, but both frequently under other names. Perseus and 
Andromeda were there^, but usually as St. George and the 
King's Daughter. Lamia was there, but as a sweet young 
girl who had been turned into a wicked old witch by a jealous 

I have also heard such songs as ''The Three Fishes," "The 
Fruit of the Apple Tree," "The Black-Eyed Maid," "Dimes 
and the Turkish Girl," "The Wounded Deer," "The Death 
of Marko Botsaris," and Greek folk songs of the past three 

There is also heard on Hatteras a "Frog's Concert," that 
may be a survival from Aristophanes ; but, if from Aristo- 
phanes, it has undergone great change. 

Then there are stories of "The Healing Balm," The Foun- 
tain of Youth," or "The Water of Life," such as one finds 
in Oriental folk-tales generally, whether of Christian or 
of Moslem origin, 

A distich or tw^o wall illustrate a type of verse not un- 
common : 

"Thy lips are coral red, thy neck is crystal white. 
The mole that's on thy rosy cheek is made of diamond bright." 


And this : 

"Before thy doorway as I pass, thy footprint there I know ; 
I bend and fill your track with tears, that as I kiss it flow." 

The Harvard student who wrote: 
"Whenever she comes I am ready to kiss the mud from her rubbers," 
did not show greater devotion. 

This bashful lover is found on, Shacklef ord Bank : 

"What a simple fool I be, 
To let you slip away from me! 
I found you all alone I wot ; 
With kisses sweet I fed you not; 
I gazed on you unsatisfied, 
And thus I sat by love tongue-tied. 
Your mother mild, where then was she? 
Tour father stern, where then was he? 
Your mother at the church did pray. 
Your dad at Ocrocock did stay. 
And by you sat this idiot meek. 
Whose downcast eyes the earth did seek." 

The man who gave me this was named Physioc, and told 
me that his forebears had been Greek slaves in JSTew Smyrna, 
Florida, having been brought to Florida in 1767 with a num- 
ber (about 1,500) of Greek, Italian, and Minorcan laborers, 
to work on an indigo plantation owned and controlled by Dr. 
Trumbull, of Charleston, who reduced them to slavery and 
treated them cruelly. This slavery lasted nine years, or 
until 1776, when a new governor of Florida, just arrived, 
heard their complaints and released them from the tyranny 
of Trumbull. Hardly a third of their number survived, and 
most of these made their way to St. Augustine, where some 
of their descendants live to this day, and some moved north- 
ward along the coast as far as Cape Hatteras. Among names 
he gave me, as belonging to these people, were Joseph Gur- 
ganus, Theophilus Man, ISTicholas Blackman, Moses Baros, 
Matthew Adomes, and told me that Metrah was a very com- 


mon Christian name among them, being a diminutive of 
Demetrius. I myself know three men named Metrah, but 
the name of one of them is traced to a dream his mother had, 
and not to any Greek origin. 

But all the names he gave me are found in abstracts of 
wills made in ISTorth Carolina before 1767 and 1776. They 
are found in every census we have ever had, and are oh the 
voting lists of several of our eastern countries. It is thus 
very evident that if Greeks came from l\ew Smyrna to our 
Banks they found here many men like themselves in name 
and probably also in origin. 

I have several stories that are clearly Oriental in origin, 
that I have also traced to a possible source: 


The good God had permitted Satan to tempt Job ; and the Evil 
One sent a swam of flies against him, so that the holy man was 
smitten with sore boils from the crown of his head to the sole of 
his feet. When the good God saw the wretchedness of his servant 
Job, he sent his messenger, Gabriel, to comfort him ; and Gabriel, 
swooping down suddenly, scooped out the sand with his wing. 
Soon the hollow in the sand filled with the water of life, and the 
angel Gabriel told Job to go dip himself seven times in this. Job 
did so, and his flesh came to him again as the flsh of a little child. 
Out of each boil came a grub ; and the grubs were sore afraid, and 
climbed the mulberry trees and spun for themselves cocoons that they 
might hide from the wrath of God. You may know that this story 
is true, for you have all heard of Job, and you may see the lake and 
the mulberry trees on Ocrocoke to this day. 

Another Oriental story with a local setting is, "How Mack 
Williams Pulled the Moon Out of the Lake" ; and still an- 
other is, "How Dr. Closs (the Methodist minister whose cir- 
cuit was "Islands and Banks") divided the fish." 

The most elaborate story, however, is about 


King Solomon had heard that a lake of living water lay in the 
center of Africa, a year's journey across the burning desert, and he 
sent a trusted lieutenant to look into the truth of the story and mark 
out a way to this water of life. 


After two years the messenger returned with the report of a suc- 
cessful trip. He had found the great sea of living water whose 
boundaries were out of sight. The borders of this sea were inhabited 
by a swarthy race, vigorous men and fruitful women, none of them 
above midddle age. 

The king inquired of his servant if he himself had tested the 
virtue of the waters. "No, my Lord and King," he answered, "I 
would not think of bathing in the lake before my master ; but the 
efficacy of the waters is proven by the inhabitants of the region." 
Solomon forthwith began preparation for the journey. He ordered 
to be got ready sheep and oxen, and he-asses and men-servants, and 
maid-servants and she-asses and camels, with ample supplies of corn, 
wine and water for the pilgrimage. 

The day before the time for his departure, his favorite wife, 
Number 999, said to him, "My Lord, are you willing to go bathe in 
the Fountain of Youth to remain young forever, and see me grow 
old and wrinkled by your side?" 

"Surely not, for you are going with me," her lord replied. 

"Indeed, I cannot," said the favorite ; "I could never stand the 
journey across the desert." 

"Then I'll not go," the king announced ; and that is why we do 
not know to this day where the fovmtain of youth may be. 

Again we have to turn to local tradition to account for 
these survivals, if such they are. We are told that some 
years before our Revolutionary War, a party of Protestant 
Mohammedans — Warhabi, they were called — going as mis- 
sionaries to the West Indies, were blown far out of their 
course by a storm and wrecked on Diamond Shoals, just 
south of Cape Hatteras. Most of them escaped drowning 
and found refuge on Hatteras and on, Ocracoke Island. John 
Hawks, a Moor of Malta, who had been educated in England, 
was passing on a ship bound from 'New York to New Bern, 
and rescued from this wreck a lady who afterwards became 
his wife. Hawks was the arcitect of Try on' s Palace at 
New Bern, and his descendants have been and are today, 
people of great ability, usefulness and prominence. 

The Wahabis were a strict sect who opposed all practices 
not sanctioned by the Koran, and denounced all commenta- 
ries, and all such modern innovations as the worship of relics. 
By some writers they have been styled Mohammedan Purl- 


tans, and others liave called them Mohammedan Methodists. 
We soon find the Wahabis of ISTorth Carolina affiliating with 
the Methodists, who were so active in all good works about 
this time, and our Wahabs have for a hundred and fifty 
years been useful and highly valued citizens. 

Another family name whose presence in the Carolinas 
dates back to the shipwreck of these Arabian Wahabis, is 
Dargan, which like Wahab at that time was a group name. 
The Dargan was a priest, a saint, a man of singularly pure 
character, and this family has numbered among its members 
many Christian ministers true to the ancestral type. 

This paper cannot be called a study ; it is hardly more than 
a hurried sketch; but the writer hopes that it may lead to a 
careful study of many features of our anthropogegraphy. 


Appeal for Clothing for Destitute Belgians and 

Northern French Meets Nationwide 


There are in the occupied areas of Belgium and IsTorthem 
France about nine millions of people. More than one-third 
are either totally or partially destitute, and nearly all are 
urgently in need of clothing. In behalf of these unfortunate 
civilian victims of the war the Commission for Relief in 
Belgium has issued an urgent appeal to the people of the 
United States for new clothes, for the material to make them, 
for shoes, or for money to purchase either of these necessities. 
If they are not forthcoming there will be intense suffering. 

We are going to put the American people to the test by 
asking for cloth, and for brand new clothes and shoes. 

"^Any kind of cloth, any kind of yarn, any kind of blankets, 
so they are new. All of these clothes will go straight to 
human beings. 

"All the cloth will be made up into garments by Belgian 
women, who will be paid decent wages in food to take home 
with them. And while they work they will be able to sit in 
warm rooms, where there is some small comfort, which they 
are not likely otherwise to have. 

"And yet, and yet, where are all of the pieces of cloth to 
come from? Three million people! It takes a lot of cloth." 


All persons wishing to contribute wearing apparel or cloth, 
or funds to be used in the purchase of cloth, for the destitute 
WOMEN AND CHILDREN of Belgium and Northern 
France are asked to communicate with Dr. S. Westray Battle, 
Chairman, or E. Alexis Taylor, Field Secretary, North Caro- 
lina Commission for Relief in Belgium, 23 Haywood Street, 
Asheville, North Carolina. 


The North Carolina Booklet will receive funds or clothing 
for the destitute in Belgium and I^Torthern France. Send 
to the Editor of the ISTort Carolina Booklet, "Midway Planta- 
tion," Raleigh, IsTorth Carolina, and every contribution will 
be forwarded to the ISTorth Carolina Commission for Relief 
in Belgium, 'Asheville, l^orth Carolina, and acknowledged in 
these columns. 


Historical Book Reviews 


By Nina Holland Covington. 

The watcliman on the watch-towers o£ ISTorth Carolina 
literature has every reason to rejoice at the many signs of 
promise for a greater State Literature. The recent announce- 
ment that the State Legislature has voted a goodly sum of 
money for the writing of an accurate history of ISTorth Caro- 
lina's part in the Civil War is surely one of these signs ; and 
other indications of literary activity are the numerous re- 
cently published books by IsTorth Carolinians. 

The latest of these books is the ''Literature of the Albe- 
marle," which is just from the press, and which is by Miss 
Bettie Freshwater Pool, of Elizabeth City, Miss Pool is one 
of the well known writers of the State, being the author of 
various volumes of prose and poetry. The book consists of 
brief sketches of the chief writers of the Albemarle section, 
and several selections from the writings of each one of these 
are given. Frankly, there are perhaps few people in the 
State who knew, or realized, that Albemarle could lay claim 
to so many of the talented men and women of ISTorth Caro- 
lina; but, considering how many famous names are in the 
index of the volume, Albemarle deserves to be called our 
literary "hub." 

Those included in the book are the following : Dr. Richard 
Dillard, Catherine Albertson, Frank Vaughn, Dr. Stephen 

B. Weeks, Col. R. B. Creecy, William Temple, Walter Pool, 
Charles Carroll Pool, Bettie Freshwater Pool, Ralph Pool, 
Lilla Pool Price, Cecil Pool, Dollie Freeman Beeler, Hon. 

C. L. Cobb, John M. Matthews, Rev. Solomon Pool, Theo- 
dore A. Pool, Senator John Pool, Lila Sessford, Dr. William 
G. Pool, William E. Dunstan, William M. Hinton, Judge 
Francis D. Winston, and Judge William A. Moore. 


Tlie first writer given in tlie volume is Dr. Ricliard Dil- 
lard, who is so well known in State literary and historical 
circles. The selections given from Dr. Dillard's writings 
consist of prose poems, historical sketches, and two poems. 
Dr. Dillard's style is graceful, and he uses to great advantage 
and with most excellent taste a wealth of allusion to literary 
and historical subjects, while his thorough knowledge of the 
history of his section of the State make his historical sketches 
very valuable and important. 

The work of Catherine Albertson, who has recently gained 
fame as the writer of the historical book, "In Ancient Albe- 
marle," is represented by several poems, which show that 
her poetical talent is of a very high order. Indeed, it is the 
opinion of the writer of this review that Miss Albertson's 
poem, "The Perquimans River," which is given among these 
poems, contains lines that are among the most beautiful in 
our Southern Literature: 

"The wild swan floats upon my breast; 

The sea-gulls to my waters sink ; 
And stealing to my low green shores, 

The timid deer oft stoops to drink. 
The yellow jessamine's golden bells 

Ring on my banks their fairy chime 
And tall flag lilies bow and bend, 

To the low music, keeping time. 

Between my narrow, Ayinding banks, 

Full many a mile I dream along 
'Mid silence deep, unbroken save 

By rustling reed, or wild bird's song; 
Or murmuring of my shadowed waves 

Beneath the feathery cypress trees. 
Or Pines, responsive to the breath 

Of winds that breathe sea memories." 

Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, whom N'orth Carolina has lost as a 
resident, since he is now mth the United States Bureau of 
Education in Washington, is another famous Albemarlian. 
Dr. Weeks is perhaps as well Imown outside the State as he 


is in it, for he has written so much on historical subjects, his 
writings showing such accuracy and giving evidence of such 
painstaking research, that he is looked upon as an authority 
on the subjects upon which he has written. The selections 
from Dr. Weeks' writings given in this book are good ex- 
amples of the terse, clear, straightforward style which makes 
his books not only attractive to the casual reader, but also 
the delight of the student of historical facts and the literary 

Still another well known IS^orth Carolinian who is in- 
cluded among the Albemarle writers is Judge Francis D. 
Winston, the witty and distinguished jurist from Bertie 
County. The selection given from Judge Winston's writings 
is the poem on Masonry, which is characterized by dignity 
of tone and a deep reverence, and is justly considered one of 
the most beautiful and stately poems even written on the 
subject. Judge Winston's ability as a speaker is noticed 
in the sketch of his life, and it seems a pity that selections 
from one or more of his speeches are not included in the 

The biographical sketch of Bettie Freshwater Pool is 
written by W. M. Hinton. The selections from her writings 
include the well known and justly famous "Carolina," and 
quite a number of other poems, the most beautiful, perhaps, 
of these being the "Angel of My Gethsemane." Among the 
prose selections from her pen is given "The iJ^ag's Head 
icture of Theodosia Burr," which is a well written article 
on a curious and little known bit of history. 

The other writers of the volume include orators, essayists 
and poets all of the selections given showing literary merit. 

The warm welcome which has met the volume since its 
publication is most encouraging to writers of the present gen- 
eration, while the matter contained in the book will, no doubt, 
be an inspiration to future State authors. 


Miss Pool's poem, ''Harp of the South," is a very beautiful 
and fitting introduction to the book: 

"Harp of the South, too long hast thou been 
Thrill with new life I Awake! Mute, 
Let thy rich notes, as sweet as Rizzio's flute, 
Fill every heart with fire. 
Rouse valor, honor, truth, divine desire 
For higher things. Harp of the South, awake! 

Harp of the South, too long this land of ours, — 

Home of the free, the brave — 

So rich in story, bright with honor's flowers, 

Behold thy strings unstrung. 

Her noblest deeds no golden cords hath rung, 

Sound glorious praise ! Harp of the South, awake !" 


Biographical Sketches of Contributors 

Compiled and Edited by Mks. E. E. Moffitt. 


A Biographical Sketch of Dr. Battle appeared in the 
Booklet, Vol. VII, No. 2. To this issue he contributes the 
valuable article entitled "The Secession Convention of 1861." 
He is now eighty-four years of age, sound in mind and body, 
and is the last survivor of that notable Convention. 


Dr. Cobb has contributed many interesting papers to the 
BooTclet. A sketch of him appeared in the Booklet, Vol. XI, 

m. 3. 


Mr. Chappell has never before contributed to this publica- 
tion. His article on "The Cupola House and Its Associa- 
tions" is of such value, showing such painstaking research, 
that members of the Advisory Board decided that it should 
be published. Mr. Chappel is a young man whose ambition 
urges him to make his life a success by his own efforts. He 
graduated at the Edenton Academy, May, 1915, and is now 
at Mars Hill, ISTorth Carolina. This paper was one of a 
number written and presented in the contest for the Colonel 
John Hinton medal at the Edenton Academy in May, 1915. 
This medal is given in memory of this Revolutionary hero, 
who was a native of Chowan Precinct for the finest essay 
on some given local historical subject and is one of the lead- 
ing feautres of each commencement at the Academy. This, 
however, did not win the medal, which shows of what high 
order the essays are. It was considered worthy of recog- 
nition, so for the first time a second prize was given. 

We shall watch with interest Mr. Chappell's progress and 
sincerely wish him all success. 



July, No. 1. 

Edmund Stradwick, Surgeon 3-11 

By Hubert A. Rqystee, M.D. 

Grace Greenlee, a Revolutionary Heroine 12-27 

By William Carson Ervin. 

Number of North Carolinians in the Revolutionary War __28-32 

Was Lederer in Bertie County? 33-38 

By Captain S. A. Ashe. 

Historical Book Reviews — "In Ancient Albemarle" 39-43 

By Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Biographical Sketches : William Carson Ervin 44-46 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Illustration : Edmund Strudwick. 

October, No. 2. 

John Branch, Secretary of the Navy 49-103 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Pre-Revolutionary Printers — Davis, Steuart and Boyd 104-12 

By Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

An Early Fourth of July Celebration 122-127 

By Adelaide L. Fries. 

An Appeal to the Daughters of the Revolution 128-130 

In Memoriam — Mrs. Annie Moore Parker 131 

Genealogical Queries and Answers 132 

Illustration : John Branch. 

Januaey, No. 3. 

George Edmund Badger, Secretary of the United States Navy-137-151 
By Peter M. Wilson. 

The Spratt Burying-Ground 152-157 

By Violet G. Alexander. 

Ingleside, Home of Colonel John Ingles 158-165 

By Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

Historical Book Reviews — "Chronicles of the Cape Fear" 164-169 

By Nina Holland Covington. 

Genealogical Department 170 

Biographical Sketches: Peter Mitchel Wilson 172 

By Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

April, No. 4. 

The Secession Convention of 1861 177 

By Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Cupola House and Its Associations 203 

By Mack Chappell. 

Greek, Roman and Arabian Survivals on the N. C. Coast 218 

By Collier Cobb. 

Appeal for Clothing for Destitute Belgians, etc 227 

Historical Book Reviews 229 

Biographical Sketches 233 


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