Skip to main content

Full text of "The North Carolina booklet : great events in North Carolina history"

See other formats

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 


Vol. XVI JULY, 1916 No. 1 

North Carolina Booklet 











William Alexander Graham 3 

By Chief Justice Waxtee Clabk. 

James Cochran Dobbin 17 

By Henry Elliot Shepherd, M.A., LL.D. 

Selwyn 32 

By Violet G. Alexander. 

An Educational Practice in Colonial North Carolina 39 

By Edgar W. Knight. 

Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda 52 

Genealogical Department 59 


Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh. N. C, July 15. 1905. under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1879 

The North GaroHna Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XVI of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1916. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April, 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

Biographical Editor: 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


Isaac Shelby : Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero — Dr. Archi- 
bald Henderson. 

An Educational Practice in Colonial North Carolina — Edgar W. 

George Selwyn — Miss Violet G. Alexander. 

Martha McFarlane Bell, a Revolutionary Heroine — Miss Mary Hil- 
liard Hinton. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part III : William A. 
Graham — Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Historic Homes, Part VII : The Fountain, the Home of Colonel 
Davenport — Colonel Edmund Jones. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part IV : James 
Cochran Dobbin — Dr. Henry Elliot Shepherd. 

A History of Rowan County — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Edgecombe County History and some of her Distinguished Sons — 
Mrs. Jolin A Weddell. 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed by Mrs. Nina Holland 
Covington. These will be reviews of the latest historical works 
written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued, with a page de- 
voted to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical 
rosearch in the St.ite. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication in The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XVI are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XV for sale. 

For particulars address 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 

"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. XVI JULY, 1916 No. 1 


NORTH Carolina Booklet 

"Carolina I Carolina I Heaven' s blessings attend her I 
While we live zve will cherish, protect and defend her' 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 


commercial printing company 
printers and binders 


Mrs. Hubebt Haywood. De. Richaed Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Db. Kemp P. Battle. 

Me. R. D. W. Connoe. Me. James Speunt. 

Db. D. H. Hill. Me. Mabshall DeLancey Hay'wood 

De. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walteb Clabk. 

Capt. S. a. Ashe. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Hay'wood. 


Miss Mary Hilliaed Hinton. 

biogeaphical editoe : 
Mbs. E. E. Moffitt. 



eegent : 


vice-regent : 


honorary regents : 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

eecoeding secretaey : 


corresponding secretaey : 

Mbs. PAUL H. LEE. 

treasuber : 


begisteae : 


custodian of belics : 

Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent, 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. F. M. Allen, Regent. 

Mary Slocnmb Chapter Miss Georgie Hicks, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902: 

Mbs. D. H. HILL, SB.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 

Joseph Ruzickd 

Baltimore, ITld 


Qreensboro, R. 






- r 









jy...^ M^ 

William A. Gkaiia-u. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XVI JULY, 1916 No. 1 

William Alexander Graham 

By Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

William Alexander Graham, Speaker of the House of 
Commons, Governor of North Carolina, Secretary of the 
United States ^STavj, Senator of the United States and also 
of the Confederate States, nominee of the Whig Party for 
the Vice Presidency, was born at Vesuvius Furnace, the 
residence of his father. General Joseph Graham, in Lincoln 
County, jSTorth Carolina, 5 September, 1804. He sprung 
from that sturdy Scotch-Irish race which has furnished so 
many prominent men to the Republic. His mother was 
Isabella, daughter, of Major John Davidson, who was one of 
the signers of the famous ^'Mecklenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence" at Charlotte on 20 May, 1775, of which John 
Adams wrote: ''The genuine sense of America at that 
moment was never so well expressed before nor since." 

The father of Governor Graham, General Joseph Graham, 
merits more than a passing notice. At 18 years of age he 
entered the Continental Army in 1778, soon became Adjutant 
and was promoted to Major of 4 N"orth Carolina (Conti- 
nental) Regiment. He was in many engagements and was 
often wounded. At the capture of Charlotte by Cornwallis 
26 September, 1780, he received nine wounds (six of them 
with sabre) and was left on the ground for dead. He was a 
member of the State Convention of 1788 and also of 1789, 
served in several legislatures and in the war of 1814 com- 
manded a brigade from this State and South Carolina sent 
by President Madison to the aid of General Jackson in thf 
Creek War. William A. Graham was the youngest son in a 
family of seven sons and three daughters who o^ew to nia- 


tnrity. One of liis brothers, James Graham, was a member 
of Congress from this State, continuously from 1833 to 1847, 
except one term. One of his sisters married Rev. Dr. R. H. 
]\Iorrison, President of Davidson College, and was the mother 
of the wife of Stonewall Jackson. 

The subject of this sketch began his academic education 
under Rev. Dr. Muchat, at Statesville, a scholar of repute. 
Thence he was sent to Hillsboro, where he was prepared for 
college. He entered the University of North Carolina in 
1820. At school and college he envinced the characteristics 
which distinguished him in later life — studious, thoughtful, 
courteous, considerate of others, with great natural dignity 
of manner, and marked ability. His schoolmate. Judge Bre- 
vard, said of him at this early age: "He was the only boy 
I ever knew who would spend his Saturdays in reviewing the 
studies of the week." He graduated in 1824 with the highest 
honors of his class, which he shared with Matthias E. Manly, 
afterwards a Judge of the Supreme Court. 

After a tour of the Western States, made on horseback, 
as was then the most convenient and usual mode, he began 
the study of law in the office of Judge Ruffin, at Hillsboro, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1826. Though his family 
connections were numerous and influential in Mecklenburg, 
Cabarrus and Lincoln, he decided to locate at Hillsboro, 
among whose resident lawyers then were Thomas Ruffin, 
Archibald D. Murphey, Willie P. Mangum, Francis L. 
Hawks, and Frederick Nash; and among the lawyers regu- 
larly attending from other courts were George E. Badger, 
William H. Haywood and Bartlett Yancey. At this bar of 
exceptionally strong men, he quickly took first rank. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of the General Assembly 
from the Town of Hillsboro, one of the boroughs which up 
to the Convention of 1835 retained the English custom of 
choosing a member of the legislature. It is related that he 
was chosen by one majority, the last vote polled being cast 
by a free man of color, this class being entitled to the fran- 


chise till the Constitution of 1835. Being asked why he voted 
for Mr. Graham, the colored voter, a man of reputation and 
some property, replied: "I always vote for a gentleman." 

His first appearance on the floor of the House of Repre- 
sentatives was on a motion to send to the Senate a notice that 
the House was ready to proceed to the election of a Governor 
for the State, and to place in nomination for that office, 
David L. Swain, who had been his college mate at the 
University of ^orth Carolina. Two days later he had the 
satisfaction to report his election, and was appointed first on 
the committee to notify him of his election. The relations 
of these two distinguished men remained singularly close 
and cordial through life. In 1834 and again in 1835 he 
was re-elected for the borough of Hillsboro, and at both ses- 
sions he was Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, then as 
now, deemed the highest position, next to the Speaker. In 
1838, as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, he submitted 
the report of the Commissioners who had prepared the 
''Revised Statutes." 

It was to him that in 1831 Judge Gaston, who was a 
Roman Catholic, addressed his open letter in defence of his 
acceptance of a seat upon the Supreme Court, notwithstanding 
the provision in the old Constitution (repealed by the Con- 
vention of 1835) which declared incapable of holding office 
all those who ''deny the truths of the Protestant religion." 
With all deference to the writer thereof whose name will 
always command the highest respect, that letter will remain 
a plausible instance of special pleading whose defective logic 
has been pardoned by reason of the inherent opposition of 
all generous minds to the constitutional provision which gave 
rise to it, and the eminent public services, ability and popu- 
larity of its author. 

In 1838 and again in 1840, Mr. Graham was elected to 
the General Assembly from Orange County, and was Speaker 
of the House of Representatives in both. The journals, dur- 
ing his legislative career, attest his great industry and his 


leadership. He introduced the first bill that was passed to 
establish a system of common schools, and the bills introduced 
or supported, or reported by him on the subjects of banking, 
finance, education, and internal improvements, demonstrate 
the broadness of his views, and that he was one of the most 
progressive men of his time. 

In 1840, Judge Strange and Hon. Bedford Brown, the 
United States Senators from this State, resigned their seats 
rather than obey instructions which had been passed by the 
General Assembly. Willie P. Mangum, of Orange, was 
chosen to succeed Brown, and though Mr. Graham was from 
the same county and only 36 years of age, he was elected to 
fill Mr. Strange's unexpired term. This was a most emphatic 
testimonial to his commanding position in the Whig Party, 
which held so many eminent leaders, and in the State at large. 
He was among the youngest, if not the youngest member, of 
the United States Senate, when he took his seat. He com- 
manded the respect and attention of that body upon all occa- 
sions, and we are told by a member of that Congress that 
"Mr. Clay regarded him as a most superior man, socially 
and intellectually." 

The time of Mr. Graham's service in the Senate was a 
stormy period. President Harrison, who had gone into office 
upon a tidal wave, died just one month after his inauguration, 
and was succeeded by the Vice-President, Mr. Tyler, who soon 
placed the administration in complete opposition to the poli- 
cies of the party by which he had been elected. Upon all the 
most important measures which came before the Senate, Mr. 
Graham impressed himself by arguments which received 
general approbation and which drew forth specially com- 
mendatory letters from Clay, Webster, Chancellor Kent, aiid 

At the expiration of his term in March, 1843, Mr. Gra- 
ham resumed the practice of his profession, the Democratic 
Party having secured a majority in the General Assembly 
and chosen a member of that party, William H. Haywood, 


Jr., to succeed him in the Senate. In 1844 he was nomi- 
nated by the Whig Party for Governor. He had not sought 
nor desired the nomination. The salary of the office was 
small and its expenses great. In 1836 he had married Susan 
Washington, daughter of John AVashington of New Bern, a 
lady of great beauty of character and person, and a young 
and growing family made demands upon his income, which 
was impaired by the inroads which public life had made 
upon his law practice. But true as always to the calls of 
duty, he yielded to the representations of gentlemen of high 
standing in all parts of the State. His Democratic competi- 
tor was Hon. Michael Hoke, like himself, a native of the 
county of Lincoln. Mr. Hoke was about the same age, of 
fine presence, decided ability and great popularity. After 
a canvass whose brilliancy has had no parallel in the history 
of the State, save perhaps that between Vance and Settle in 
1876, Mr. Graham was elected by a large majority. His 
competitor died a few weeks after the election, his death 
having been caused, it was thought, by the great ]3hysical 
and mental strain of the campaign. On 1 January, 181:5, 
Governor Graham was sworn in, with imposing ceremonies, 
which, for brilliancy and the size of the audience, were till 
then without precedent. 

His inaugural address was especially noteworthy, not alone 
for its purity of style and elevation of thought, but in its 
recommendations. The Asylum for the Insane, and for the 
Deaf, Dumb and Blind, and the Emmons Geological Survey 
all had their genesis in this Inaugural, the first two being 
established by laws enacted during his administration and 
the latter just afterwards. Tie also laid special emphasis 
upon the Common School System, then lately inaugurated, 
and the first act in favor of which had been introduced by 
himself when a member of the legislature. Mr. Webster in 
a letter specially commended the address for its wisdom and 
progressiveness, as did Prof. Olmsted for its recommenda- 
tion in favor of the establishment of a Geological Survey. 


His aid to our uew and struggling railroads built by State 
aid was invaluable. 

In 1849 be delivered tlie address before the Literary Socie- 
ties at the University. This address remains to this day one 
of the very best of the long series delivered since the incipi- 
ency of the custom. Upon the success of his party in the 
election of President Taylor, Senator Mangum, one of the 
coniidential advisers of the new administration, wrote Gov- 
ernor Graham that he could make his choice between the Mis- 
sion to Russia and the Mission to Spain. Subsequently the 
Mission to S|)ain was tendered him and declined. 

Upon the accession of President Fillmore, Mr. Graham was 
tendered the appointment of Secretary of the jSTavy in a very 
complimentary letter from the President, who urged his 
accejDtance. In July, 1850, he entered upon the duties of 
the office. Such was his diligence that his first report, 30 
Xiovember, 1850, embraced a review of the whole naval estab- 
lishment with recommendations for its entire reorganization. 
Even an opposition Senator, Thomas H. Benton, joined in 
the commendation of his report, and wrote with special 
reference to the Coast Survey service : "T consider it one 
of the most perfect reports I ever read — a model of a business 
report and one which should carry conviction to every candid 
inquiring mind. I deem it one of the largest reforms, both 
in an economical and administrative point of view, which the 
state of our affairs admits of." 

His administration of the iSTavy Department was marked 
by one of the most remarkable enterprises, whose success has 
been of world wide importance — the organization of the Perry 
Expedition to Japan, which opened up that ancient empire 
to modern civilization. The success of that expedition con- 
stitutes one of the principal claims of Mr. Fillmore's adminis- 
tration to the admiration of posterity and was, indeed, an 
era in the history of the world, of which the events of the 
last few years are striking results. The expedition was con- 
ceived and inaugurated by Mr. Graham and was executed 


upon the lines laid down bj him, and the commander, Com- 
modore Perry, was selected by him, though the expedition 
did not actually set sail till after he had resigned. In 1S51 
Mr. Graliam also sent out under the auspices of the Xavy 
Department, an expedition under Lieutenant Herndon to 
explore the valley and sources of the Amazon. The report 
of this expedition was published by order of Congress in 
February, 1854, and was noticed by the London "Westmin- 
ster Eoview" of that year, which bestowed high praise upon 
the author for his conception, and the thoroughness and wis- 
dom of his instructions to the commander. 

The great compromise measures of 1850, which would have 
saved the country from the terrible civil war, if it could 
have been saved, received strong aid and support from the 
then Secretary of the I^avy, who was on terms of intimacy 
and personal friendship with Clay, Yv'^ebster and other leaders 
in that great movement to stay destructive tendencies, which 
proved, "alas, too strong for human power.'' When the Whig 
National Convention assembled in June, 1852, it i^laced in 
nomination for the presidency, Winfield Scott, and William 
A. Graham for Vice-President. With a delicacy which has 
been rarely followed since, he resigned "to relieve the admin- 
istration of any possible criticism or embarrassment on his 
account in the approaching canvass," and the President 
appreciating the high sense of delicacy and ]')ropriety "which 
prompted the act, accepted his resignation with unfeigned 

It may well l)e doubted if any of his predecessors, or suc- 
cessors, either in the office of Secretary of the ISTavy or Gov- 
ernor of E^orth Carolina, has shown as much progressiveness, 
and as large a conception of the possibilities of his office, in 
widening the opportunities for development of the country. 
Certainly none have surpassed him in the wisdom and breadth 
of his views, and the energy displayed in giving them suc- 
cessful result. It is his highest claim to fame that he was 
thoroughly imbued with a true conception of the possibilities 


and needs of the time and his whole career marks him as 
second to none of the sons whom North Carolina has given 
to fame. 

In 1852, after his retirement from the Cabinet, he de- 
livered before the Historical Society of New York his admir- 
able and instructive address upon "The British Invasion of 
the South in 1780-81." This address jDreserved and brought 
into notice many historical facts, which with our usual 
magnificent disregard of the praiseworthy deeds of our State 
had been allowed to pass out of the memory of men and the 
record proofs of which were mouldering and in danger of 
being totally lost. 

Mr. Graham was State Senator from Orange in 1854-55, 
took, as always, a leading part, and gave earnest sup- 
port to Internal Improvements, especially advocating railroad 
construction. He and Governor ]\Iorehead headed the delega- 
tion to the Whig Convention in 1856 at Baltimore, which 
endorsed the nomination of Mr. Fillmore. He was one of 
that number of distinguished men from all sections, who met 
in Washington in February, 1860, and who in the vain hope 
of staying the drift of events towards a disruption of the 
Union and Civil War, placed before the country the platform 
and the candidates of the "Constitutional Union" party. 

In February, 1861, he canvassed parts of the State with 
Governor Morehead, Judge Badger, Z. B. Vance, and others, 
in opposition to the call of a State Convention to take the 
State out of the Union, which was defeated by a narrow 
margin and doubtless by their efforts. But the tide of events 
was too strong. The fall of Fort Sumter 13 April, 1861, 
and the call by Mr. Lincoln upon North Carolina for her 
quota of 75,000 men — a call made without authority — 
changed the face of affairs. The State Convention met 20 
May, 1861, and on the same day unanimously pronounced 
the repeal by this State of the Ordinance of 1789 by which 
North Carolina had acceded to the Federal Union under the 
Constitution of the United States. Mr. Graham, Judge 


Badger, and others concurred in the result, after first offer- 
ing a resolution (which was voted down) basing the with- 
drawal of the State, not upon the alleged inherent right of 
the State to withdraw from the Union at its will, but upon 
the right of revolution justified by the action of the Federal 

One of Mr. Graham's most eloquent and convincing 
speeches was that made before the Convention in December, 
1861, in opposition to an ordinance requiring a universal 
test oath, which was defeated. While giving to the Confeder- 
ate Government his full support, he earnestly opposed arbi- 
trary measures which indicated any forgetfulness of the 
rights of the citizen, and in March, 1861, he procured action 
by the Convention which caused the return to his home of a 
minister of the Gospel in Orange County, who had been ille- 
gally arrested by military order and confined in prison at 
Richmond. His speech against the test oath was used by 
Reverdy Johnson in arguing ex parte Garicmd, in the United 
States Supreme Court. 

In December, 1863, Mr. Graham was elected to the Senate 
of the Confederate States by a vote of more than two-thirds 
in the General Assembly, and took his seat in May, 1861. 
It was at a troublous time and his counsel was, as usual, 
earnestly sought. In January, 1865, after consultation with 
General Lee, and with his full approval. Senator Graham 
introduced the resolution to create the Peace Commission, 
whose adoption caused the Hampton Roads Conference, 
8 February, 1865, and might have saved the brave lives so 
uselessly sacrificed after that date, but that President Davis 
declared himself without power to come to any terms that 
would put an end to the Confederacy. Thereupon Senator 
Graham gave notice that to save further useless eft'usion of 
blood he would introduce a resolution for negotiations looking 
to a return to the Union, but the notice was unfavorably re- 
ceived, and he decided that the introduction of the resolution 
would be unavailing. Had it passed, we miaht not onlv have 


saved iinu'li useless bloodshed, but have avoided the unspeak- 
able horrors of liecoustructioii. But blindness ruled those 
in power. His course has been thought like that of North 
Carolina — reluctant to leave the Union, opposed to unsurpa- 
tions by the new govermnent, willing to negotiate for honor- 
able lu-ace when hope was gone, but that being denied, hold- 
ino' out to the end. Five of his sons, all of them who were 
old enough, were in the Confederate Army to the end, and 
each of them was wounded in battle. 

The Confederate Senate adjourned 16 March, and on the 
20th he visited Ealeigh at request of Governor Vance, and 
in the conference told him that he left Richmond satisfied 
that all hope for the success of the Confederacy had passed ; 
that Mr. Davis had declared that he was without power to 
negotiate for a return to the Union; and that each State 
could only do that for itself ; but he advised Governor Vance 
that should he call a meeting' of the Legislature to consider 
such action, Mr. Davis should be apprised. To this Governor 
Vance assented. But before further action could be taken 
the approach of General Sherman made it useless. On 12 
April, lS(i5, Governor Vance sent ex-Governors Graham and 
Swain as Commissioners to General Sherman, then approach- 
ing Raleigh, with a letter asking a suspension of arms with 
a '^'iew to a return to the Union. The letter is set out in 
"Xorth Carolina Regimental Histories" Vol. I, page 58. 
General Sherman courteously received the Commissioners 
but declined the requested truce. Of course Governor Gra- 
ham's course in this trying time expressed the views of all 
those who saw the hopelessness of the situation, and who felt 
that the lives of the gallant men who had served their coun- 
try faithfully should now be preserved for its future service 
in days of jDeace. He was not wanting in this supreme hour 
in the highest fidelity to the people that had honored and 
trusted him. 

Of especial interest, showing his wisdom and foresight are 
his letters to Governor Swain, of this period, published in 


Mrs. Spencer's '^Last Ninety Days of the War." He was 
the trusted adviser of Governor Vance, who in his life of 
Swain says : "In those troublous years of war, I consulted 
him more frequently perhaps than any other man in the 
State except Governor Graham," adding, that ^'in him there 
was a rounded fullness of the qualities, intellectual and moral, 
which constitute the excellence of manhood in a degree never 
excelled by any citizen of ISTorth Carolina whom I have per- 
sonally known, except by William A. Graham." Governor 
Graham was also the sure reliance of Governor Worth, whose 
most important State papers are from his pen. 

In 1866 Mr. Graham was elected to the United States 
Senate with his former classmate and competitor at college, 
Hon. Matthias E. Manly as colleague, but the Republican 
majority in Congress was contemplating Reconstruction and 
they were refused their seats. When such legislation was 
enacted, a universal gloom fell upon the entire South. In 
its midst a Convention was called of all conservative citizens, 
irrespective of former party affiliations to meet in Raleigh, 
5 February, 1868, over which Mr. Graham was called by 
common consent to preside, as our wisest citizen. His earn- 
est, able and statesmanlike speech had a powerful effect, it 
aroused the people from despondency and infused into them 
that spirit of determination which continued to grow in 
strength till the State returned to the control of its native 
white population. In this speech, he was the first, in view 
of the recent Act of Congress, conferring suffrage upon the 
colored race, to lay down the necessity for the Whites to 
stand together, and he enunciated the dectrine of "White 
Supremacy" as indispensable for the preservation of civiliza- 
tion in the South. While others favored efforts to obtain 
control or guidance of the ISTegro, he, with a better knowl- 
edge of that race, insisted upon the solidarity of the Whites 
as our only hope. The event has proved the accuracy of his 
foresight. This speech while the Convention was in session 
was as brave as any act of the war. 


lie was prominent in asserting the right of the citizens to 
the writ of habeas corpus in 1870, when Judge Pearson 
declared the "judiciary exhausted'' ; and when Governor 
Holden was impeached in December of that year, his was 
the first named selected among the eminent counsel, who w^ere 
retained to assist the managers appointed by the House of 
Representatives in the prosecution. His speech was one of 
great ability, but singularly free from personal denunciation 
of those who had trodden under foot the Constitution and 
the laws. 

He was selected by the great philanthropist, George Pea- 
body, as one of the board of eminent men whom he requested 
to act as trustees in administering the fund donated by him 
to the cause of education in the South, which had been so 
sorely impoverished by the war, and attended its sessions 
with great regularity. 

He was also selected by Virginia to represent her upon 
the Board of Arbitration appointed by that State and Mary- 
land to settle the disputed boundary between the two States. 

On 20 May, 1875, he delivered an address at Charlotte 
upon the celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence and arrayed in a 
masterly mamier the historic evidence of its authenticity. 

Among his many valuable addresses is that delivered at 
Greensboro in 1860 upon the services of General ISTathanael 
Greene, and memorial addresses upon the life and character 
of Judges A. D. Murphey and George E. Badger and Chief 
Justice Thomas Puffin. His address at the State University 
and that upon the British Invasion of iSTorth Carolina in 
1780-81 have already been mentioned. Xotwithstanding his 
frequent public services, in the intervals he readily returned 
to his professional duties and to the last was in full practice 
at the bar. His argument before Judge Brooks in 1870 at 
Salisbury on the habeas corpus for release of Josiah Turner 
and others was a masterpiece. 


He was nominated by acclamation in Orange County to 
the State Constitutional Convention of 1S75. His declin- 
ing health prevented his taking part in the canvass. He 
issued a strong address to his constituents which was widely 
circulated throughout the State, with great effect. His elec- 
tion was a matter of course, but before he could take his 
seat, he had passed beyond earthly honors. He was at Sara- 
toga, X. Y., attending the session of the Virginia and Mary- 
land Boundary Commission when renewed and alarming 
symptoms of heart trouble appeared. The best efforts of 
medical science j^roved unavailing, and he passed away early 
in the morning of 11 August, 1875, being nearly 71 years 
of age. 

Numerous meetings of the Bar and public bodies, not 
only in North Carolina, but elsewhere, expressed their sense 
of the public loss, and the great journals of the country re- 
sponded in articles expressive of the national bereavement. 
The States of Maryland and Virginia took care that his 
remains should be received with due honor and escorted 
across their borders. At the borders of North Carolina they 
were received by a committee appointed by the Mayor and 
Common Council of Raleigh, a committee appointed 
by the bar of Raleigh, and another by the authori- 
ties of the town of Hillsboro, by officials and many promi- 
nent citizens of the State and conveyed by special train to 
Raleigh where they were escorted by a military and civic 
procession to the Capitol, in whose rotunda, draped for the 
occasion, they lay in state. Late in the afternoon of the 
same day, attended by the Raleigh military companies and 
by special guards of honor, appointed by cities and towns 
of the State, and by the family of the deceased, his remains 
were carried by sj^ecial train to Hillsboro, where they were 
received by the whole population of the toAvn and escorted 
to the family residence, where they lay in state till noon on 
Sunday, August 15th. At that hour they were conveyed to 
the Presbyterian Church, and after appropriate funeral serv- 


iees were interred with solemn ceremony, amid an im- 
mense concourse gathered from many counties, in its historic 
graveyard, where rest the ashes of William Hooper, A. D. 
Murphey, Chief Justice Xash, Judge ISTorwood, and many 
others, worthily prominent in the annals of the State. 

Governor Graham left surviving him his widow, who sub- 
sequently died 1 May, ISDO; seven sons, to wit: Dr. Joseph 
Graham, of Charlotte (died August 12, 1907) ; Major John 
W. Graham, of Hillsboro; Major W. A. Graham, of Lincoln; 
Captain James A. Graham (died in March, 1909), and 
Captain Robert D. Graham (died Jnly, 1904), both resident 
in late years in Washington City; Dr. George W. Graham, 
of Charlotte; Judge Augustus W. Graham, of Oxford; and 
an only daughter, 3nsan Washington, \vho married the 
author of this very imperfect sketch of his life and services. 
She died in Raleigh 10 December, 1909. 

Fortunate in his lineage and the sturdy race from which 
he sprung, strikingly handsome in person, of commanding 
appearance and stature, courteous in his bearing toward all, 
high or low, of high mental endowments, of a personal char- 
acter without spot or blemish, true to all men, and therefore 
true to himself, possessed of undaunted courage, moral and 
physical, with remarkable soundness of judgment, conserva- 
tive in his views, l)ut progressive in his public action, abun- 
dant in services to his State and to his country, holding the 
entire respect of all and the hatred of no one, I^orth Caro- 
lina has laid to rest in her bosom no son greater or more 
worthy than William A. Graham. His fame will grow 
brighter as the records are examined and weighed in the cold, 
clear, impartial light of the future. 

To ISTorth Carolinians, the name of William A. Graham 
is the synonym of high character and true service, and in 
rendering to him and his memory high honor, the people of 
the State have indicated those traits of character w^hich most 
strongly command their approbation. 

Stat nominis umhra. 

James C. Dohiux. 


James Cochran Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy 
in the Cabinet of President Pierce 


By Henry Elliot Shepherd, M.A., LL.D. 
Autbor "History of the English Language," "Study of Edgar Allan 
Poe." "Life of Robert E. Lee," "Commentary Upon Tennyson's 'In 
Memoriam,' " "Representative Authors of Maryland," Contributions 
To "The Oxford Dictionary," "The American Journal of Philology," 

The Dobbin family, a branch of which was founded in 
l^orth Carolina, not far from the middle of the eighteenth 
century, seems to have descended from a French Huguenot 
ancestry, the name, it is said, being a phonetic corruption 
of its original form, Daubigiie, into Daubin or Dobbin. 
The family to this day, has representatives in other States, 
sprung from the same source, but these lie beyond the scope 
of the researches contemplated in the present biography. 
During the relentless persecutions and proscriptions, which 
both preceded and succeeded the revocation of the Edict 
of Xantes, October, 1865, a large Huguenot element found 
refuge in England and in Ireland, in the latter country 
many being established in the region which includes 
Carrickfergus and Belfast. The Huguenot influences in 
America, above all in the South, forms part of our national 
record, and in relation to our present theme, demands neither 
elaboration nor enlargement at the hands of the historian or 
chronicler of the house of Dobbin. The first of whom we 
have definite knowledge as associated with ISTorth Carolina, 
was my great-grandfather in the maternal line, Hugh Dob- 
bin. The name is not unknown in our mountain region, and 
it was borne in a period not distant from the American 
Revolution by at least one of the evangelists who preached 
the gospel in a country then hardly rescued from the sway 


of the primeval forests in which "the groves were God's first 
teni])les." These, however, have assumed ahnost the shadowy 
form of tradition. The family acquires a clearly defined 
attitude in Xorth Carolina, with Hugh Dobbin, paternal 
grandfather of James C. Dobbin, Hugh Dobbin was en- 
gaged in commercial pursuits in both Carolinas. In addition, 
he was interested in the maritime trade of that age, and in 
vessels that frequented the port of Baltimore. The exact 
date of his settlement in the South I have not been able to 
ascertain, 1760 would constitute an approximation at least. 
The time of his death, was not distant from 1790 or 1795. 
About 1780 or 1782, he married Margaret Moore, of Ben- 
nettsville, S. C, who was a daughter of Gully Moore, a patriot 
of the Revolutionary era and a man marked by force of char- 
acter, as well as vigor of intellect. From this marriage 
sprang John Moore Dobbin (father of James C Dobbin), 
who died in 1837. His early years were passed in Person 
County; and not far from 1813 he married as his first wife, 
Miss Anness Cochran, mother of James Cochran Dobbin, 
whose middle name perpetuates the memory of his maternal 
ancestry. Miss Cochran's father had been a conspicuous 
figure in the political life of his time, having served in 
Congress during the critical era which embraced the second 
war with England. When in the years of dawning man- 
hood, John Moore Dobbin, born in 1784, established himself 
in Fayetteville, then an expanding commercial centre, its 
development not yet . arrested, nor its growth paralyzed by 
adverse and hostile combinations in the sphere of railway 
creation and extension. He became a leading factor, a potent 
element in the material growth of both Carolinas. In Fay- 
etteville, James C. Dobbin was born, January 17, 1814; 
when hardly beyond the age of six, his mother died, in the 
white flower of early womanhood; some three years later his 
father married a second time, Margaret MacQueen, of Chat- 


ham County.* The natal day of Mr. Dobbin is coincident 
with that of Benjamin Franklin, and two days removed from 
that of Edgar Allan Poe and Eobert E. Lee. The world, 
then as now, was enveloped in war, the combined hosts were 
pressing out the heart of France, and the overthrow of the 
first iSIapoleon was almost a foregone result. 

Of Mr. Dobbin's childhood years, no definite or continu- 
ous account has been preserved ; only a fragmentary reminis- 
cence, or a tradition of some boyish prank, rescued from 
oblivion by the loving memory of those that came after him 
in his own household, or recalled from forgetfulness when 
his co-mates of this dawning period contemplated with manly 
pride, unmarred by touch of envy, his rapid ascent from 
local celebrity to the lofty dignity of a national figure, ab- 
sorbed in the complex diplomatic negotiations with Japan 
(1854), the efi"ect of which has proved a potent agency in 
shaping the development of all subsequent history. His in- 
tellect ever normal in its attitude, was unmarked by the 
spectacular episodes and moving incidents that are the charm 
of the sensational biographer. If his genius "was nursed in 
solitude," its perfect accord and equilibrium were maintained 
to the last, as he lay on his deathbed on a serene August 
morning in 1857. The routine of his early life found variety 
and diversion by visits during the prolonged summer season, 
to the ancestral home in Person County. His scholastic 
career seems to have assumed a definite character in an 
academy at Fayetteville, conducted by the Rev. Colin Mclver 

*The reader will not fail to note that in the earlier phases of my 
narrative, I have been compelled to depend in a measvire upon family 
traditions and transmitted memories. Many invaluable records and 
letters were destroyed during the sacking of our home at Fayette- 
ville, March, 1865, by Sherman. Yet with these disadvantages to 
overcome, I do not think that I have fallen into any serious error, 
or marked variation from truth, either in reference to statements 
of fact, or in cases which involve questions of chronoiogy. In regard 
to the essential features of Mr. Dobbin's own life, there exists no 
shadow of doubt. 


(a notable ligure in the ecclesiastical aunals of his day) in 
strict conformity to the ancient classical standards prevailing 
in England and in Scotland ; the fame of its instruction 
had passed beyond the bounds of the State: among his asso- 
ciates was Judah P. Benjamin, of Charleston, S. C, a name 
linked with brilliant achievement in both Great Britain and 
America. We find young Dobbin at a time not much later 
than that which we now contemplate, a pupil of the Bingham 
School, then having its home at Hillsboro, a point distin- 
guished from an early period, as a centre of social and intel- 
lectual culture. In June, 1828, a lad of fourteen, he passes 
from the guardianship of Mr. Bingham and is admitted to 
the University of l^orth Carolina. Among his classmates 
was Thomas H. Haughton, whom in 1845, he defeated for 
Congress, and Thomas L. Clingman — memorable in peace 
as in war, for it was Clingman's jSTorth Carolina Brigade 
which was in large measure the agency that in June, 
1864, turned back the tide, and rescued Petersburg from 
the premature grasp of the invader and spoiler. Mr. 
Dobbin graduated in 1832, attaining scholastic distinction 
of the highest order. His ideal grace was resistless ; faculty 
and students alike, yielded to the magnetic influence ; to the 
lover of romance he might have been regarded as some Per- 
cival or Galahad, diverted from the quest of the grail and 
brought from dreamland into our grim world of austere 
realities. Dr. Caldwell cherished for him a genuine affec- 
tion, despite the college j^rank to which young Dobbin was 
a party, several lads taking possession of the Doctor's coach, 
conveying it under cover of night to a distance from his 
residence and leaving it concealed in a dense wood. As they 
were on the point of returning to their quarters, the coach, 
as they supposed, being securely disposed of, to their un- 
speakable amazement, the Doctor appeared at the window 
of the vehicle, and in his peculiar tone quietly observed: 
"Well, young gentlemen, you have brought me down here; 
now, you can carry me back." Carry him back they did, 


but the story had no sequel, as the Doctor seems to have 
entered heartily into the humorous phase of the incident. 
During Mr. Dobbin's college career, his tastes, sympathies, 
and aspirations were moulded and fashioned by his affection- 
ate devotion to the sovereign masters of literary and classical 
culture, not as illustrated in our native speech alone, but in 
the supreme lords of the antique world as well. His ''mental 
armor" as he himself described it, in his address to the liter- 
ary societies of the University (delivered when I was emerg- 
ing from childhood to boyhood) was bright and brilliant, 
even when he was fading from us, the victim of immitigable 
disease. With unabating zeal and diligence, he directed the 
education of his sons and nephews; whenever he visited his 
home during his official life in Washing-ton, a rigid inquiry 
into their progress was a marked feature of his coming. The 
academic record was thoroughly scrutinized, and the work 
accomplished in Csesar, Virgil, Cicero, during the term, was 
subjected to rigid, minute review. Among the treasures of 
my library, I reckon, with a consciousness of increasing 
pleasure, the Bible presented to him at the LTniversity in 
1831, the year preceding his graduation; his edition of 
Macaulay's "Miscellanies," and the account of Commodore 
Perry's Expedition to Japan, edited by Eev. Francis L. 
Hawks, D. D., the historian of North Carolina. Each of 
these contains the autograph of Mr. Dobbin; and the last 
I received as his special gift, September 10, 1856. N^ot long 
after the completion of his university course, he applied him- 
self to the study of the law, under the direction of Hon. 
Eobert Strange, a judge of the Superior Court, and one of 
the lights of the bar and the bench in the period of which 
he formed a part. In 1835, he was admitted to the practice 
of his profession. 

Fifteen years later (November, 1850) teacher and pupil 
were arrayed against each other in the trial of one of the 
most notable criminal cases associated with the history of 
the South: that of Mrs. Simpson, at Fayetteville, charged 


with having caused the death of her hiisbaud hy means of 
poison. Jndge Strange appeared for the defense, and Mr, 
Dobbin assisted the State, in the conduct of the prosecution. 
Two years after his admission to the bar, or in 1837, his 
father died, his ilhiess being brief, as well as sudden. His 
second Avife, as well as six children survived him, of whom 
James C. Dobbin was the eldest. In 1838, Mr. Dobbin 
married Miss Louisa Holmes, of Sampson, who died in 1848, 
leaving three children, of whom one only is still living. He 
nexeY again assumed the matrimonial relation. During the 
earlier stages of his professional career, Mr. Dobbin was 
guided by a wise and judicious conservation of mental and 
physical resources. There was no gratuitous expenditure of 
force, no dissipation of energy. His circuit was restricted to 
the counties adjoining his home, Cumberland, Kobeson, 
Sampson. The blare of trumpets, the quest of notoriety, 
entered not into his life, and to him, in its intensest signifi- 
ance, "fame was no plant that grows on mortal soil." With 
the increasing years, he attained unchallenged rank among 
the foremost advocates of an age, which numbered among its 
representatives such "men of light and leading" as Toomer, 
Eccles, Strange and Henry. His summary or synopsis of 
the evidence in the case of Mrs. Simjjson was a masterful 
illustration of ideal eloquence, "logic on fire," relentless in 
its vigor, remorseless in its conclusions, resistless in its 
I^ower. The coming of 1845, heralds the first period of Mr. 
Dobbin's development in the sphere of politics. During the 
campaign of this eventful season, he was nominated by the 
Democratic party as one of its candidates for congressional 
honors. He had just passed his thirtieth year, and the honor 
was not only unlooked for, but absolutely unsolicited. Yet 
he defeated his classmate, Mr. John H. Haughton, by a 
majority of 2,000 votes, a marked advance upon the numeri- 
cal results that had been attained by his successful predeces- 
sors in his own party, and one which implied an emphatic 
tribute to his personal charm, and his magnetism of charac- 


ter. Despite both youth and want of parliamentary experi- 
ence Mr. Dobbin speedily became a name to conjure with in 
the Twenty-ninth Congress. A place was assigned him upon 
some of the committees which involved delicate and critical 
functions, as that upon Contested Elections, and in some of 
their most complex procedures, he maintained a part as 
vigorous and elective as it was manly and. honorable. In 
the discussion of the Public Land Bill, in the debates upon 
the Oregon Question, which had engaged us in serious com- 
plications with Great Britain, we see him in the forefront 
of the battle. Above all, he was the inflexible and dauntless 
champion of the South, and whenever her claims were as- 
sailed, or her prerogative invaded, the very gaudium cer- 
taminis seemed to lighten his pale and classic features as if 
a radiance from an undreamed sphere had descended upon 
them. , His speech upon the repeal of the tariff of 1842, 
illustrates his eloquence in its purest and noblest form. Mere 
extracts or detached fragments, would tend rather to mar 
its unity, artistic and dialectic, than to convey an adequate 
impression of its power. Upon the expiration of his term, 
Mr. Dobbin declined a re-election, which he might have se- 
cured without doubt, or even without effort, and resumed 
the congenial pursuit of the law at Fayetteville. Yet the 
'^jealous mistress" was not suffered to absorb all his energies, 
or to assume an unchallenged monopoly of his versatile 
faculties. We find him in the Legislature of 1848-9, the 
most responsible positions of trust being assigned to his guid- 
ance. It was during this Legislature that a notable incident 
in the life of Mr. Dobbin, and in the history of jSTorth Caro- 
lina becomes the subject of an especial record. I refer to 
the creation of the Asylum for the Insane (State Hospital), 
at Raleigh, the abiding memorial of his genius, destined "to 
live with the eternity of his fame." It was during this ses- 
sion that Miss Dix, whose heroic labors in the sphere of 
philanthropy, are familiar to two continents, memorialized 
the Legislature to erect an asylum for the insane. The 


memorial being referred to a special committee, a bill was 
reported in favor of granting the prayer of the memorialist. 
At this stage, however, the chairman of this committee, 
whom at a later period we encounter as Governor Ellis, had 
retired from the Legislature in order to accept a judicial 
position, and the bill introduced by him, providing that 
$100,000 be appropriated for the erection of the institution, 
though advocated by Mr. Kenneth Rayner in an appeal 
marked by rare fervor and earnestness, was defeated by a 
vote of 44 ayes, 66 noes. Two days preceding, Mrs. Dobbin 
had been consigned to the grave, and Mr. Dobbin was absent 
from the sessions of the House. Miss Dix was naturally 
alarmed in reference to the fate of the bill, and having abso- 
lute faith in Mr. Dobbin's influence, and the power of his 
oratory, recalled to his memory the urgent request of his wife 
that he would advocate and champion the measure. The 
appeal was one that he could not disregard, and on the next 
day he was present in his place. The bill had been reconsid- 
ered, upon a motion to appropriate $25,000, but Mr. Dobbin 
introduced a substitute by which, in four years $85,000 
could be provided by the State for the institution. The j)ro- 
posed substitute he advocated with even more than his 
wonted grace and appealing power, the result being that it 
was adopted by an almost unanimous vote. In 1852, we 
find him in the Legislature for the last time, l^ominated 
in caucus for the Senate of the LTnited States, he failed of 
election, it was currently reported, through the perfidy of 
one of his own allies, a name long since effaced from the 
political heavens, but associated with a family by no means 
extinct in !North Carolina. It was in March, 1853, that Mr. 
Dobbin became Secretary of the ISTavy, succeeding in that 
capacity, John P. Kennedy, of Baltimore, who was chosen 
to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of William 
A. Graham, as soon as nominated for the Vice-Presidency 
upon the same ticket with General Scott, June, 1852. The 
nomination of Mr. Pierce bv the Baltimore Convention was 


in large measure the outcome of Mr. Dobbin's brilliant 
appeals in his behalf, and as an acknowledgment of his in- 
valuable services, the Naval Bureau was tendered to him by 
the incoming president upon his election in November, 1852. 
The Cabinet of Mr. Pierce was especially distinguished by 
its combination of varied and marked intellectual abilities — 
William L. Marcy, Jefferson Davis, Caleb Cushing, James 
C. Dobbin. It may be declared with no trace of hyperbole, 
that in this elect company which blended "all the talents," 
the modest and gracious gentleman from North Carolina, if 
not the most richly endowed with gifts of intellect or genius 
for administration, was the most attractive and fascinating 
figure. As a delegate from his native State, he had accom- 
plished the nomination of Mr. Pierce by the Democratic 
Convention, and that he possessed the special regard and 
admiration of his chief, I have ample reason to know, such 
as has never been brought into the fierce light of popular 
knowledge, or jjassed beyond the bounds of his domestic 
circle. His administration of the Naval Department was not 
merely marked by efficiency and excellence in detail ; it was 
crowned by episodes and incidents whose logical influence 
has tended in certain spheres of development, to direct and 
control the evolution of contemporary history. Foremost 
among these, stands the treaty with Japan, March, 1854; 
the construction of the steam frigates, of which one was the 
Merrimac, 1856, transformed at a later period, 1861-2, into 
the Confederate Virginia. In view of the maritime compli- 
cations which now prevail, the Martin Koszta incident, 1853, 
acquires a renascent interest. The student of North Carolina 
history, cannot fail to note that the Perry Expedition origi- 
nated in the creative brain of Governor Graham; that the 
fleet was dispatched by Mr. Kennedy, November, 1852, dur- 
ing his brief official term, June, 1852, to March, 1853; and 
that the treaty which represents the climax of this epoch- 
making movement, assumed definite form imder the au- 
spicious guidance of Mr. Dobbin. Four ''crowded vears of 

26 THE Koirni cakolina booklet 

glorious life" in AVasbiiigtou, the eli'ects of which are grow- 
ing from more to more with the increasing ages ; and for him 
the end is nigh at hand. To those who stood in intimate re- 
lation to Mr. Dobbin, it was evident that death had set his 
roval seal upon him not long after he had entered the Cabinet 
of Mr. Pierce; the malady had probably asserted its power 
in germinal form, ere he attained that stage. Five months 
after the close of his administrative period, he died at his 
home near Fayetteville, August 4, 1857, aged 44; his col- 
league, Mr. Marcy, preceding him to the grave by a single 
mouth. Of his three children, his daughter, Mary Louisa 
Dobbin (who married the late Colonel John H. Anderson), 
alone remains; for a series of jesivs Brooklyn, IST. Y., has 
been her home. James C. Dobbin, Jr., the elder son, died 
in August, 1869. Some of his father's richest gifts and 
graces descended upon him like golden showers, above all, 
that of eloquence, in whose mastery, his rank was in the fore- 
most files. The younger son, John Holmes Dobbin, died in 
18(35, a youth whose genial, lovable nature clung to him in 
sunshine and in shadow, in war as in peace, and failed him 
not even when he stood face to face wdth the last enemy that 
shall be destroyed. Mr. Dobbin was laid to rest in the 
Dobbin-Shepherd grounds, Cross Creek Cemetery, on the 
6th of August. The services were held at the Presbyterian 
Church, a eulogy, based upon the 37th Psalm, 37th verse, 
being delivered by the pastor. Rev. Adam Gilchrist. The 
tribute to the dead, was characterized by the urbanity and 
lucidity of expression wdiich formed the native vesture of his 
unstudied and habitual utterances. A happy accord in ideals 
both of life and language, linked into harmony, the eulogist 
and the subject of his eulogy. 

Mr. Dobbin's affability and magnetic charm were unabated, 
even when the long gra])ple with a relentless malady had re- 
duced him to a mere vestige of his former self. His habitual 
loveliness of expression remained with him, ]u-eluding, as it 
were, ''that sweet other-world smile, which will be reflected in 


the spiritual body among the angels." Just as the transition 
from death unto life, was reaching its final stage, a friend 
and kinsman watching at his bedside, asked, "Is Jesus pre- 
cious to you," to w^hich he replied in a tone not merely 
audible, but distinct and emphatic, ''O yes." Consciousness, 
as well as an unclouded intellect, remained with him as he 
was passing into "the twilight of eternal day." When a lad 
in my teens, I was wounded almost unto death at Gettysburg, 
July 3, 1863. I fell into the hands of the enemy and for a 
series of dreary months lay helpless in their hospitals, re- 
mote from home, in ceaseless contact with the djdng and the 
dead. Remembering Mr. Pierce's regard for Mr. Dobbin I 
wrote to the former president, fully aware that my letter 
had its origin in despair, and was not an inspiration drawn 
from hope. To my astonishment there came back a prompt, 
gracious, and cordial reply, containing a generous and en- 
thusiastic tribute to my uncle, as well as an assurance of 
sympathy for myself in the desolate situation which con- 
fronted me; closing with these notable words: "You could 
not commit a greater mistake than to suppose that I have 
any power for good with this government." To me it seemed 
incomprehensible, that this manly and defiant communication 
from such a source was suffered to pass into my hands, but 
it came unmarred by the shears of the censor, and I brought 
the letter with me when I returned to the South, a prisoner 
on parole. By a melancholy irony of fate, this historic me- 
morial was lost or disappeared from our home at Fayetteville, 
along with other precious household treasures associated with 
the name and achievements of our peerless kinsman. The 
havoc wrought by Sherman in March, 1865, accounts for 
much, as his spoiling of our goods was remorseless, but it 
does not resolve the mystery linked with the fate of Mr. 
Pierce's letter. A gold-headed cane, marked by rare beauty 
of workmanship, and presented to Mr. Dobbin during his 
official residence in Washington, was one of the trophies of 
Sherman's occupation of his native town. My personal recol- 


lections oi iiiv uncle are clear and distinct from the earliest 
period. When just five years of age, I was carried by an 
aunt to the ]\Iethodist Church at Fayetteville to hear his 
eulogy upon James K. Polk, who died in June, 1849. A 
child of eight, I listened to his speeches during the presiden- 
tial campaign of 1852, he being a candidate for elector. 
Among the master lights of modern oratory, his proper rela- 
tion and analogy must be sought in Fox, Hayne, Legare, 
Preston, by comparison with whom, even in their moments 
of supreme inspiration, his glory does not fade and his gar- 
lands do not wither. His voice was like the note of a clarion, 
''trumpet tongued," as was that of Shakespeare's appealing 
angels. A strange and all-prevading faculty of assimilation 
entered into his language; those who listened were drawn 
toward him by a magnetic power w^hich took possession of in- 
tellect, sensibility, will, and guided them without violence 
or passion to the assured result, by the exercise of a mysteri- 
ous and resistless charm. His diction was characterized by 
an almost ethereal chasteness and purity ; his invective or his 
appeals were bodied in words "headed and winged with 
flame." The grace and ideal form of an Augustan age, were 
fused into harmony with the fervor and passion of the South 
which died at Appomattox in the broadening spring-tide of 

"Who, but linns to hear 

The rapt oration flowing free 

From point to point, with power and grace 

And music in the bounds of law, 

To those conclusions when we saw 

The God within him light his face." 

The sovereign elegy of our literature, has glorified the 
memory and idealized the character of Arthur Henry Hallam, 
until the world adores the creation wrought by art and by 
poetic fantasy. Where is the biographer or eulogist of James 
C. Dobbin, in whose life and achievement were illustrated 
and revealed the fadeless figure and vesture of Lancelot, while 
within the mortal frame there breathed the soul of Arthur? 


"Wbatever record leap to light 
He never shall be shamed." 

Of the several portraits of Mr. Dolibiii, that in the i^avy 
Department, AYashington, seems to me most accurately to re- 
produce his features. There is a touch of flashiness and 
gaitv in the portrait in the hall of the Philanthropic Society 
at Chapel Hill, which was not characteristic of the man. 
The Washington portrait reveals the placid dignity and 
serenity that never failed to reflect themselves in his ex- 
pression. Apart from his speeches during his single term 
in Congress (1846-48), very few illustrations of his oratorical 
power remain in complete or available form. I am the fortu- 
nate possessor of a copy of the report of the celebrated Simp- 
son trial (JSTovember, 1850), but only fragments survive of 
Mr. Dobbin's numerous eulogies, orations and addresses, somie 
of which have never been excelled during any period in the 
history of modern eloquence. The extract that follows, is 
from his speech in Congress, advocating the repeal of the 
tariff of 1842. It presents a suggestive contrast to the type 
of parliamentary oratory prevailing in our own day. The 
diligent reader will not fail to note that an economical issue, 
associated with Carlyle's "dismal science," is presented with 
a charming lucidity of statement, and a range of historical 
acquirement illuminating complex details, which remind us 
of Macaulay, and bring back the memory of his brilliant 
feats in this sphere during his career in the British parlia- 
ment. I quote from the speech referred to : 

"Mr. Chairman. — It has fallen to our lot to become actors on the 
theatre of public life at a most remarkable era in the history of the 
world. The human mind evincing its mighty and mysterious capa- 
bilities is achieving triumphs at once wonderful and sublime. The 
elements of nature are playthings for it to sport with. Earth, ocean, 
air, lightning, yield subservient in the hands of genius to minister 
to the wants, the purposes, the pleasures of man. Science is fast 
developing to the meanest capacity tlie hidden secrets of nature, 
hitherto unexplored in the researches of philosophy. Education is 
exerting its mild and refining influence to elevate and bless the 
people. The control of electricity is astonishing the world. The 
power of steam is annihilating distance, and making remote cities 


and tdwiis and stran.icei's at oiu-e lu'i.iihhors and friends. Amid these 
mi,irbt.v movements in the fields of science, literature and pliilosophy. 
the liberal spirit of a free government, in its steady and onward 
progress, is heginnint; to accomplish much for the amelioration of 
the condition of the human family, so long the hoi>e of the statesman 
and philantliro])ist. The illiberal maxims of bad government, too 
long supported by false reverence for their antiquity, are beginning 
to give place to enlightened suggestions of experience. England, 
the birth-place, is proposing to become the grave of commercial re- 
striction. In that land, whose political doctrines are so often the 
theme of <_!ur denunciation and satire, with all the artillery of landed 
aristocracy, associated wealth, and party vindictiveuess levelled at 
him. there has appeared a learned, a leading Premier, Sir Robert 
Peel, who, blending in his character much of the philauthropy of 
Burke, the bold and matchless eloquence of Chatham, and the patriot- 
Ism of Hampden, has had the moral courage and magnanimity to 
proclaim that he can no longer resist the convictions of experience 
and observation, and that the system of commercial restriction and 
high protection is wrong, oppressive and should be abandoned. 
Already, sir, has much been done — already has the British tariff, 
so long pleaded as the excuse for ours, been radically reformed 
and in obedience to the persevering demand of an outraged i>eople, 
we hope that the next gale that crosses the Atlantic wall come laden 
with the tidings of a still greater triumph in the repeal of the corn 
laws, so oppressive to Englishmen, and injurious to Americans. 

"And shall we not reciprocate this liberal spirit? Shall republican 
America, so boastful of her greatness and freedom, be outstripped 
in her career in this cause of human rights by monarchial England? 
No sir, I do not, cannot, and mil not believe it. I have an abiding, 
unshaken faith in the ultimate triumph of so righteous a cause. 

"Mr. Chairman, we may suri>ass the nations of the earth in 
science, in arms and in arts ; the genius of our people may attract 
the admiration of mankind — may cause 'beauty and symmetry to 
live on canvas' — may almost make the marble from the quarry to 
'breathe and si>eak' — may charm the world with elegant attainments 
in poetry and learning, but much, very much, will be unaccomplished ; 
the beauty of our political escutcheon will still be marred, while 
commerce is trammeled, and agriculture and trade depressed by bad 

The extract which follows is taken from Mr, Dobbin's 
speech to the jury during the trial of Mrs. Simpson, at 
Fayetteville, jSTovember, 1850. I cannot forbear once more 
to express my regret that his numerous and brilliant oratori- 
cal creations, eulogies, tributes, literary addresses, exist only 
in fragmentary form, or by the desolation of war, have been 


lost beyond recovery. Mr. Dobbin introduces his speech with 
a graphic portrayal of the conditions, and the individuals 
associated with this notable tragedy, unsurpassed in celebrity 
in the annals of North Carolina. 

"You have been told, he said (iu replying to Hon. Duncan K. 
McRae, one of the counsel for the defense) of her beauty too, and 
my distinguished friend has held up before you the picture of her 
girlhood days — when her life glided on sweetly amid sunshine and 
flowers, and gay admirers and doting parents — now darkened and 
beclouded, a prisoner in the damp vaults of the dungeon with the 
light of heaven only reaching her througli iron grates — with the 
officers of the law now inviting you cruelly to consign her to an 
ignominious grave, and to hurry her into eternity ! The pictur-e was 
sketched with rare skill and beauty, and presented to you ^^tli the 
finished art of one who knew that your hearts could not fail to be 
touched by such an appeal. Gentlemen. I complain not of the coun- 
sel, but when lie spoke of 'hurrying one into eternity' witliout warn- 
ing, neitlier I, nor you, nor any one of this vast concourse, could 
avoid the contemplation of another, and if possible, a sadder, more 
touching iticture. A youthful stranger came among us, to seek our 
generous, Southern hospitality. Troops of friends cheered him on. 
'None knew him but to love him.' Perhaps the sun never shone on 
a kindlier youth. Captivated by the charms of one who seemed the 
lovely woman, he blended liis destiny witli hers. Ann K. Simpson 
became his bride. For a season, his pathway was checkered over 
with sunshine and clovid ; and then there was seated on his brow, 
care and gloom and anxiety ; and in a moment, umvarned, the grim 
tyrant lays his ley liands upon him. Poor Alexander C. Simpson 
is in his gra^'e. and his widow is the prisoner at the bar. And 
while I, too, warn you, not rashly and impetuously, to consign her 
to an untimely end, but to acquit her, if. in the language of the law, 
you have 'a reasonable doubt,' I also warn you, that if the testi- 
mony has convinced your minds, and points you to the hapless pris- 
oner, as the one wlio did the dreadful deed, in a moment when poor 
human nature yielded to the tempter, then — in the face of your 
countrymen — in the siglit of liigh heaven, you cannot, will not, dare 
not shrink from pronouncing the odvful doom. God forbid that / 
should, in a moment of ardor. api>eal to your passions. God forbid 
that you, in a moment of feeling, should forget your duty ! Let us, 
then, gentlemen of the jury, proceed in this investigation calmly and 
dispassionately, in tlie fear of God — not man." 



By Violet G. Alexander. 

The English name of Sehri/}i holds an interest today for 
the students of North Carolina's Colonial history, because as 
early as 1737, the British Crown granted to Colonel John 
Selwyn large tracts of land in Piedmont Carolina, and upon 
the death of Colonel J oh)) Selwyn and his oldest son in the 
year 1751, his younger son, George Augustus Selwyn in- 
herited the vast estates in America. 

In the Colonial Records of Xorth Carolina, Vol. V, page 
32, we read the following regarding the early land transac- 
tions in Carolina: '']\rcCulloh obtained enormous grants for 
land in North Carolina." . . . Dobb was one of the part- 
ners or associates of ]\rcCulloh in the venture. . . . On May 
9, 1737, the Cro^vn granted to Murray Cr^anble and James 
Huey, two merchants of London, warrants for 1,200,000 
acres of land in North Carolina, upon condition that they 
settled thereupon (3,000 Protestants and paid as Quit Rents 
four shillings (about $1) per 100 acres. These parties, how- 
ever, as they subsequently formally declared, were ^'trustees" 
for one Henry McCulloh, another London merchant, and his 
"'associates." The Surveyor-General of North Carolina in 
1744, in pursuance of an order in Council, surveyed and 
located the warrants on the head-waters of the Pee Dee, Cape 
Fear and Neuse rivei's ; the "associates" being allowed to 
take out separate grants, provided no grant should contain 
less than 12,000 acres. These lands it seems were laid out 
into tracts of 100,000 acres each, as follows: Tracts num- 
bered 1, 2, 3 and 5 on the waters of the Yadkin and Catawba. 
These tracts were subdivided into smaller parcels, 
containing 12,500 acres each. Tracts No. 1 and No. 3 were 
assigned to John Selwyn." . . . Vol. V, page 22. "The 
grants for these lands are recorded in Rook 10 of the Records 



of Grants in the office of the Secretary of State." . . . 
''Colonel Nathaniel Alexander, of Mecklenburg County, and 
John Frohock, Esq., of Eowan County, were appointed com- 
missioners to ascertain the number of white persons, male and 
female, young and old, who were, without fraud, resident upon 
each grant on the 25th of March, 1760, and make return of 
the same under oath to the Governor and Council, (iilso 
see Records of Rowan County.) It was further agreed that 
upon such returns being made, McCulloh and his 'associates' 
should formally surrender the unsettled lands to the Crown 
and be released from payment of back rents due thereon." 
Hunter in his sketches of Western jSTorth Carolina, pages 

19, 20, tells us that: "In 1766, George Augustus Selwyn, 
having obtained by some means, large grants of land from 
the British Crown, 2)roceeded to have them surveyed through 
his agent, Henry Eustace McChilloli and located. On some of 
these grants, the first settlers, by their own stalwart arms and 
persevering industry had made considerable improvements. 
For this reason, not putting much faith in the validity of 
Selwyn's claims, they seized John Frohock, the surveyor, and 
compelled him to desist from his work or fare worse." 
. . . "The original conveyance of the tract of land, upon 
which the city of Charlotte now stands, contained 360 acres 
and was made on the 15th day of January, 1767, by Henry 
E. McCulloh, agent for George Augustus Selwyn, to Abra- 
ham Alexander (Chairman of the Convention and Signer of 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 20, 
1775), Thomas Polk, (Colonel of Mecklenburg Militia and 
Signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 

20, 1775), and John Frohock, as Trustees and Directors 
and their successors. The consideration was 'ninety pounds' 
lawful money. The conveyance was witnessed by Matthew 
McLure (Signer of Mecklenburg Declaration of Independ- 
ence, May 20, 1775) and John Sample." 


The historian, Wheeler, in his History of North Carolina, 
})a<iv .jO, states: ''That soon after his (Governor Tryon) 
accession to ottice, the people of Mecklenburg County op- 
posed Ileiirv E. McCulloh, who was the agent of George A. 
Selwyn. Selwyn had obtained, b}^ some means, large grants 
from the English Crown. John Frohock was employed to 
locate these grants and survey them. The people in arms, 
seized the surveyor and compelled him to desist.'' 

We lind this statement in D. A. Tompkin's History of 
Mecklenburg County, page 16. "In 1757, the Selwyn tracts 
of land, one of which (No. 3) is now partly occupied by 
the city of Charlotte, contained something less than 400 
souls" (page 32). ''In the latter part of 1765, Henry E. 
McCulloh donated a tract of 360 acres of land to John Fro- 
hock, Abraham Alexander and Thomas Polk, as Commission- 
ers, to hold in trust for the County of Mecklenburg, on which 
to erect a Court House, prison and stocks. McCtilloh was 
the agent for George Augustus Selwyn who owned several 
immense tracts of land on a grant from the king; making it 
obligatoi'v upon him to settle one person to every 200 acres 
of land. He foresaw that the interests of his employer would 
be advanced l)y the locating of the county seat on his lands." 
The city of Charlotte was thus located on a portion of tract 
Xo. 3, of the "Selwyn Grant." ]\lecklenburg County, of which 
Charlotte is the capital, is located in tract No. 3, of the 
"Selwyn grant," and was created by act of the Colonial Legis- 
lature of 1762 ; it then included what are now the counties 
of ]\Ieckl('iilnirg and Caliarrus, and ]>arts of Union and Ire- 
dell counties. Henry Eustace McCulloh, so frequently men- 
tioned, w^as of Rowan County, a son of Henry McCulloh, 
the London merchant, and the agent and "attorney-in-fact" 
for George A. Selwyn in Carolina. 

Xcithoi- Colonel John Selwyn nor his son, George Augus- 
tus, ('\-er visited their vast possessions in the New World, 
but they evidenced some interest in them as is shown in 
their crirresp(»u(lence and through the activity of their agents. 


In George A. Selwyn's letters, there is frequent mention of 
Lord Cornwallis (whom he knew personally) and his move- 
ments in Carolina and, it is certain, he watched the military 
events of the Revolution as closely as was possible, considering 
the times and great distance. 

The home of the Selwyn family was a charming country 
estate near Matson, a small village on the spur of the Cots- 
wold hills overlooking the Severn Valley. Colonel John 
Selwyn was a man of education and ability, of large influence, 
ample means, and well known in the courts of the Georges. 
He was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough at the 
Battle of Blenheim and served his country in other official 
capacities. Sir Robert Walpole was one of his intimate 
friends, as well as other men of note, and yoimg Horace 
Walpole was a frequent visitor in his home. Colonel Selwyn 
married Mary, a daughter of General FarTington, of Kent; 
she was a woman of unusual beauty, vivacity and wit, and 
as a ''Woman of the Bed Chamber of Queen Caroline" was 
well known and much admired in court circles. Horace 
Walpole wrote of her as "Mrs. Selwyn, mother of the famous 
George, and herself of much vivacity and very pretty." It 
is said that George inherited his wit, for which he was 
famous, from his clever mother. Colonel Selwyn and his 
oldest son, died the same year, 1751, and through this double 
bereavement George Augustus, the younger son, inherited 
the large landed interests in Carolina, as well as the family 
estate in England. George Augustus was born at his father's 
country home, August 11, 1719. His early school days were 
spent at Eton, where among his classmates were Gray, the 
poet, and Horace Walpole. He went from Eton to Hart 
College, Oxford, but made no record as a student at either 
place. In 1745, he was forced to withdraw from Oxford 
without taking his degree, to escape expulsion for desecrating 
a chalice, using it for a drinking cup at a students' party. 


He entered ]>arliaiiieiit in 1747, where be remained nntil 
1780, a silent and inactive member, never giving himself 
seriously to affairs of State. He had fallen heir to the family 
es^tates in 17.")!, and bad sufficient income to support him 
handsomely, so never exerted himself over his business or 
landed interests, delegating this irksome work to agents. 

Selwyn obtained several sinecures, one of which was Regis- 
ter of the Court of Chancery at Barbadoes, and Surveyor- 
General of the works. He early became a member of the 
leading London clubs, where he was familiarly known as 
''Bosky." George Selwyn's fame seems to rest on his un- 
usual wit and humor, for which he was widely known and 
frequently quoted ; he filled a conspicuous place in the fash- 
ionable life of his day and was intimate with statesmen, 
politicians and literary men, as well as the court circle, and 
his wit and ho)i mots were enjoyed in the most exclusive and 
fashionable drawing-rooms of London, He frequently visited 
Paris and spent much time there. When the Duke of Bed- 
ford, with his large suite, spent some months in Paris while 
the Duke negotiated the treaty kno^vn as the "Peace of 
Paris," Selw^Ti was of the party and was such a close friend 
that the Duke presented him with the pen with which the 
treaty was signed. 

Horace Walpole, from their Eton school days, was a de- 
voted friend, their intimacy being life-long and to him we 
are much indebted for our knowledge of Selwyn. 

In his later years, Selwyn almost abandoned his country 
estate and spent much time in London, at Castle Howard, 
or visited some of the great houses which were always o]:»en 
to him, and where he met many of England's most brilliant 
men and women. 

Selwyn's life was in a sense lonely, for he never married 
and in his last years he had no near relatives. Some biogra- 
phers tell of a romance and of an unnamed child who filled 
his thoughts and life in his last years, but that peculiar story 
has no place in this Ijrief sketch of his life. 



One unusual trait of Selwjn was his strange passion for 
attending the executions of criminals, all of which were 
public in England at that time. He seldom missed an execu- 
tion, but in this gruesome pastime he was not alone, for Bos- 
w^ell, Walpole and other great men kept him company. 

Selwyn was a prolific letter writer, his most famous corre- 
spondence being preserved in what is known as the ''Castle 
Howard Collection." His spelling is not always above re- 
proach, nor is his mode of expression elegant, but he gives 
an interesting glimpse of that period of English life. Two 
interesting books have been published about George Selwyn ; 
one in four volumes is entitled, "George Selwyn and His Con- 
temporaries;" the other is entitled "George Selwyn, His 
Life and Letters." 

Selwyn has been called "the first wit and humorist of his 
day" ; many witticisms have been credited to him, but many 
of them appear flat and stale at this distant date, as the man, 
circumstances and time, gave them buoyancy and pith. One 
is quoted here as an example of his wit, and it will still bring 
a laugh. When Lord Farley crossed over the Channel to 
escape his many creditors, Selwyn remarked that "it was a 
passover not much relished by the Jews !" 

There are several portraits of Selwyn still to be seen in 
England, probably the most famous one is at Castle Howard. 
It was painted about 1770 by his friend, Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, and includes another friend of theirs, Frederic, Fifth 
Earl of Carlisle, and, also, Selwyn's much beloved dog, Raton. 
Once when it was rumored that Sir Joshua was a candidate 
for a political ofiice, Selwyn remarked: "He might very 
well succeed, for he is the ablest man I know o)i canvass!" 
The Reynold's portrait shows Selwyn a handsome man, with 
periwig, and dressed in the elegant and expensive style of 
that day, with velvet suit, silk hose, real lace frills and fine 
stock buckle. 

Several years before his death, Selwyn's health became 
impaired and he spent much time "taking cures" and con- 


suiting medical men. lie gradually grew worse and re- 
turned to London for the last time shortly before Christmas 
in ITUO, where he died at his home, Cleveland Row, St. 
James, on January 25, 1791. He was sincerely mourned 
h\ many warm friends, one of whom (Storr) wrote to Lord 
Aukland, "The loss is not only a private one to his friends, 
but really a public one to Society in general." 

The name of the large landowner, Selwyn, has disappeared 
from his former possessions in Carolina, except in Charlotte, 
where one of her finest hostelries and one of her most beauti- 
ful boulevards bears the name of ''Selwyn" in memory of 
the first recognized landowner in Charlotte and Mecklenburg 


An Educational Practice in Colonial 
North Carolina 

By Edgar W. Knight. 

Although ]!*^ovth Carolina developed before i860 the most 
creditable system of public education to be found in any of 
the states which seceded from the I^nion, her intellectual and 
educational growth was very slow during the colonial period. 
This tardy development was due to conditions under which 
the colony was settled and to others which lent themselves 
very sparingly to the encouragement of educational enter- 
prises. Especially was this true of the period from 1663, 
when settlements first began to be made in the region around 
Albemarle Sound, to 1728, when the transfer from proprie- 
tary to royal control of the colony was made. 

One of the conditions which retarded educational develop- 
ment was the slow growth of population. The earliest set- 
tlers in ^orth Carolina migrated from the northern colony 
of Virginia between 1650 and 1675, not as religious refugees, 
as has been supposed, but for economic advantage. After 
1663, however, when the intolerant and illegal government 
of Berkeley in Virginia was resisted, others came for politi- 
cal reasons, and the colony soon found itself accommodating 
"rogues, runaways and rebels" who refused to tolerate Ber- 
keley and his tyranny. In 1670 immigrants were encour- 
aged by the promise of the assembly of exemption from 
taxation for one year and protection for five years from 
suits for debts made before coming into the colony. But 
these attractions induced but few. When Drummond was 
appointed the first governor of Albemarle in 1663 his com- 
mission extended over 1600 square miles of territory which 
contained perhaps not more than fifteen hundred people. 
In 1675 there were probably 4,000 people in the colony, less 


than three to the square mile, and in 1728 the entire white 
popuhitiou probably numbered less than 13,000 

Fntm the beginning of the settlement the tendency was 
towards rural rather than urban communities, the mild cli- 
mate and the fertile soil both contributing to a stimulation 
of rural life. The earliest settlers took up large tracts of 
land on the watercourses, which furnished practically the 
only means of communication, and agriculture soon became 
the most promising pursuit of the colonists. The dangerous 
coasts and poor harbors made the colony ditficult of access 
and the commercial interests of the people were thus retarded. 
Moreover, there were frequent complaints against the unsatis- 
factory government and conflicts between the inhabitants and 
the proprietors or their representatives "who reckoned the 
lives of the colonists only in quit rents and taxes." Occa- 
sional religious dissensions were also unfavorable to educa- 
tional and intellectual activities, and the need for schools 
was not keenly felt by those in authority. The educational 
philosophy of Seventeenth century England, "that the great 
body of the people were to obey and not to govern, and 
that the social status of unborn generations was already 
fixed," was now and later widespread and persistent. Be- 
sides, the re-enactment for the colony of the English Schism 
Act of 1714, after it had been repealed in England, was 
unduly exasperating and added to other ecclesiastical evils 
which followed the establishment of the English Church in 
Xorth Carolina. 

In spite of these unfavorable conditions, however, there is 
occasional evidence of local effort to foster education, though 
there were but few early attempts to ]:»romote formal intel- 
lectual and literary training. The poor law and apprentice- 
ship system, which was so popular in Virginia where it was 
directly inherited from England, was in use in ISTorth Caro- 
lina also. In the latter colony, however, this system seems 
not to have been so extensive as in Virginia which was more 
nearly like the mother country. In Virginia it was so widely 


extended and such a popular practice that the ante hellimi 
educational system of that state seems a gradual evolution 
from it. This poor law practice and apprenticeship system 
form a unique educational scheme ; but in order to understand 
the popular mental attitude to the class of dependents en- 
trusted to its care — an attitude which the system itself re- 
flects- — it is necessary to consider that education is a term 
of varying meaning. The term now generally means an 
expansion of the mental faculties through a specific organ- 
ized course of a more or less literary nature. For the more 
prosperous part of society a "certain tincture of letters" has, 
in the popular mind, always been regarded as essential, but 
this particular form of training has not been held in high 
esteem for the poorer classes. The popular view has been 
that formal literary training was not requisite to the poor 
youth of the community, and parents or guardians of such 
youth appeared more concerned about a practical training 
iof their children or wards in those occupations and crafts 
through which they were later to maintain themselves than 
they were interested in "book learning." 

It is through the apprenticeship system that one form of 
local educational effort may be seen in N^orth Carolina in 
colonial times. That the system was in operation very early 
may be seen from the following records of February, 1695, 
and of April, 1698 : 

"Upon ye Peticon of Honell Thomas Harvey esqr Ordered 
yt Wm ye son of Timothy Pead late of the County of Albe- 
marle Deed being left destitute be bound unto ye sd Thomas 
Harvey esqr and Sarah his wife untill he be at ye age of 
twenty one years and the said Thomas Harvey to teach him 
to read." Three years later the records of Perquimans pre- 
cinct court show that Elizabeth Gardner, "ye Rellock Wil- 
liam Gardner desesed presented his selfe before ye Court to 
bind hir Son William Gardner to ye Honbl Govener Thomas 
Harvi or his Heires Thay Ingagen to Learn him to Reed 
Which In or to Was doon till he conies to ye Age of Twentv 


on yeares he being live years oukl now a fortnite before 

Four years later, at the January, 1G5)1>, term of the same 
court, we tind the following orders: 

"Jonathan Taylor And William Taylor Orfens Being Left 
destressed ordered that they be Bound to William Long And 
Sarah His Wife Till they Ck)me of Age." 

"Thomas Tailer Orfen being Left destresed ordered that 
He be bound to John Lawrence And Hannah his Wife till 
he Comes of age." 

"Mare Tayler Orfen being Left destresed ordered that 
Shee be bound to Mr Caleb Calleway And Elisabeth his 
Wife till Shee Comes of Age." 

"Thomas Hallom Orfen being Left destresed ordered that 
he be bound to Ifrancis tfoster And Hannah his Wife till he 
Conies of Age."" 

These four examples are the bare court orders and noth- 
ing is said about the maintenance and education of the chil- 
dren bound. Indentures covering each case were likely signed 
later by the guardian and the court which appointed him. 
Ordinarily these indentures called for the education and 
maintenance, according to his ''rank and degree," of the 
orphan bound or apprenticed. This meant to feed, clothe, 
lodge, and to provide "accommodations fit and necessary" 
for the child, and to teach or cause him to be taught to read 
and write, as well as a suitable trade. This was the custom- 
ary agreement required by the C(uirt. The absence in the 
cases above of these features is hardly ]n'oof that they were 
here neglected. The indentures were likely formally signed 
later, as appears to have been the case in the following agree- 
ment made in March, 1 703, in the same court : 

''T'pon a petition of Gabriell ISTewby for two orphants left 
him by ]\Iary Hancock the late wife of Thorns Hancocke and 
proveing the same by the oathes of Eliz. Steward and her 

1 Col. Rec, I. pp. 44S, 4m. 

2 Ibid., p. 522. 


daughter the Court doe agree to bind them unto him he 
Ingagen & promising before the Court to doe his endeavours 
to learne the boy the trade of a wheelwright and likewise 
give him at the expiration of his time one ear pld heifer and 
to ye girle at her freedome one Cow and Calfe besides the 
Custome of the Country and has promised at ye next orphans 
Court to Signe Indentures for that effect."^ 

At the October, 1704, term of the same court Xathan 
Sutton petitioned to be appointed guardian for Richard Sut- 
ton, the orphan son of George Sutton, who was probably 
Nathan's relative, but the petition was rejected. A year 
later, however, he was appointed guardian for the boy. The 
same court which apiDointed him guardian heard complaints 
made by the "orphans of George Sutton deced That Abyham 
Warren their Guardian hath given Imoderate Correccon & 
deprived them of Competent Sustenance." The result was 
that the court appointed Dennis Macclendon the guardian of 
Elizabeth and Deborah Sutton, and Xathan Sutton guardian 
for Richard.'* 

A few more examples of the system will throw additional 
light on its operation in North Carolina : 

"Upon petition of George Bell setting forth that he had 
two servts bound to him by the precinct Court of Craven in 
ye month of July 17, 12/13 namely Charles Coggdaile and 
George Coggdaile as by Indenture may Appeare. And fur- 
ther that ye Court afsd have pretended to sett ye said Servt 
at Liberty as he is informed by reason that they could not 
perfectly read and write when as the time of their servitude 
is not half expired And he further claimes that during the 
time they were with him they were well used and much time 
allowed them to perfect them in their reading and writeing 
and that he intended to instruct them in ye building of Ves- 
sells Therefore prays that in regard there is no other alle- 
gation made appeare agt him they may remain with him 

3 Ibid., p. 577. 

4 Ibid., pp. 61.3, 626. 


till ye time of the Iiuleiituve Specifyed be expired «&c. 
. . ." Jt was ordered that the servants remain with their 
master in accordance with their former indentures.^ 

The records of Chowan precinct for August, 1716, show 
the following: 

"I'pon Petition of John Avery Shewing that sometime in 
August ITlo ye said Avery being in Prince George's County 
in Virginia met with one John Fox aged abt fifteen years 
who being Dcsireous to live in ISTorth Carolina to learn to 
be a Ship C^arpenter bound himselfe an apprentice to ye said 
John Avery for Six years before one Stith Boiling Gent one 
of her Majties Justices of ye said County as is practicable in 
ye Governmt of Virginia whereupon ye said Avery brought 
ye said Fox into Xorth Carolina with him and Caused the 
sd John his said Apprentice to be Taught and Instructed to 
read and write and was at other Charges and Expenses con- 
cerning him and haveing now made him serviceable and use- 
full to him in ye Occupation of Shipp Carpenter to ye Great 
Content and Seeming Satisfaction of the said Foxes Mother 
and Father in Law one Cary Godby of Chowan Precinct But 
ye Said Cary intending to profitt and advantage himselfe by 
the Labour and usefulness of ye said John Fox hath advised 
the said Fox to withdraw himselfe from yor petitionrs ser- 
vice and to bring along his Indentures of apprenticeship & 
is now Entertained and harboured by the said Cary Godby 
and therefore prayes that the sd Fox may be apprehended 
and brought before this Board their to be dealt with accord- 
ing to law." Fox was ordered to return to his master.^ 

A record of Xovember, 1716, in Chowan precinct court, 
shows that the practice applied to girls as well as to boys : 
"Upon the Peticon of John Swain praying that Elizabeth 
Swain his sister an Orphane Girle bound by the Precinct 
Court of Chowan to John Worley Esqr may in the time of 

5 Ibid., II, p- !'-• 
6Ibi<l., II, p. 241. 


her service be taught to read by her said Master Ordered, 
that she be taught to read."^ 

These examples are sufScient to show the principal features 
of the system as it operated in the colony of North Carolina. 
If the records were complete earlier and more representative 
examples would doubtless be in evidence. By the practice in 
North Carolina poor children were bound to masters and 
guardians were appointed by the court for orphans, the mas- 
ters and guardians agreeing with the court, which had gen- 
eral care of this dependent class, to teach the wards a trade 
or occupation and also to read and write. When an orphan 
jDOSsessed an estate the guardian was entitled to remuneration 
for administering it, but if the estate yielded no profit the 
master agreed to maintain and educate him for his services. 
Under these conditions the child probably took his place in 
the household on an equality with the other children, and 
perhaps received similar educational advantages. 

Although the practice of apprenticing and binding orphans 
and poor children under the conditions described was more 
or less extensive in the colony at an early date, no legislation 
seems to have been enacted on the subject until 1715. In 
that year a law was passed by which no children w^ere allowed 
to be bound, except by the precinct court which was empow- 
ered to "grant letters of tuition or guardianship to such per- 
sons as they shall think proper" for caring for the "education 
of all orphans & for taking care of their estates . . ." 
The law required that "all Orphans shall be Educated & pro- 
vided for according to their Kank & degree out of the Income 
or Interest of their Estate & Stock if the same will be suffi- 
cient Otherwise such Orphans shall be bound Apprentice to 
some Handycraft Trade (the Master or Mistress of such 
Orphan not being of the Profession called Quakers) till they 
shall come of Age unless some of kin to such Orphan will 
undertake to maintain & Educate him or them for the in- 

7 Ibid., p. 266. 

4(> THE xonTir cakolina booklet 

tere-st nr iiu-Miuc of his or her Estate without Diminution 
of the Prineipal whether the same he e;reat or small . . .'"* 

The iirineijjal features of this legislation are similar to 
the features of a law on the same suhjeet in Virginia. Close 
contact with that colouy, from which many of the early set- 
tlers of North Carolina came and in which the poor and 
api)renticeshi}) laws formed practically the only educational 
system for the ])oorer classes, may have influenced the gradual 
introduction <^f ai)prenticeship practices into Xorth Carolina. 
In Virginia one of the lirst pieces of apprenticeship legisla- 
tion which has a public educational as})ect was that of March, 
1G48, when the county courts enjoined the overseers of the 
poor and guardians of orphans "to educate and instruct them 
according to their best endeavors in Christian religion and in 
the rudiuients of learning and to provide for them neces- 
saries according to the competence of their estates . . ."^ 

By an act of 1705, it was ordered that when the estate of 
any orphan was so small "that no person will maintain him 
for the profits thereof, then such orphan shall be bound 
apprentice to some handicraft trade, or mariner, until he 
shall attain to the age of one and twenty. And the master 
of each such orphan shall be obliged to teach him to read and 
write ; and at the expiration of his servitude, to pay and 
allow him in like manner as is appointed for servants, by 
indenture or custom. "^"^ 

Another example will serve to make clearer the similarity 
of legislation on this subject in the two colonies and the 
probable influence of the law of Virginia on the law in North 
Caroliua. In 174^ it was enacted in the former colony that 
whenever the profits of an orphan's estate were insufficient to 
maintain him, such an orphan was to be bound apprentice, 
"every male to some tradesuiau, merchant, mariner, or other 
person a])]>i'oved by the court, until he shall attain the age 

8 Ibid., XXIII. iMi. 70-71. 

» 18 Charles I. Heiiiiij;. Stututes. I. p. 261. 

10 4 Aline. Heuing, Statutes. Ill, p. .575. 


of one and twenty years, and every female to some suitable 
trade or employment, 'till her age of eighteen years ; and the 
master or mistress of every such servant shall find and pro- 
vide for him or her, diet, clothes, lodgings and accommoda- 
tions fit and necessary, and shall teach, or cause him or her 
to be taught to read and write, and at the expiration of his 
or her apprenticeship, shall pay every such, servant, the like 
allowance as is by law appointed for servants by indenture or 
custom . . ."^^ 

Seven years later, in September, 1755, there was enacted 
in North Carolina a law regulating the estates of orphans and 
their guardians. The preamble of the law explained the need 
for further legislation on this subject: "Whereas, for want 
of proper laws for regulating guardians, and the manage- 
ment of orphans, their interests and estates have been greatly 
abused and their education very much neglected, for preven- 
tion whereof for the future, be it enacted . . ." By this 
law the churchwardens of every parish w^ere to furnish to 
the justices of the orphans' court, at its annual session, the 
names of all children without guardians. Failure to perforin 
this duty was punishable by a fine of "ten pounds proclama- 
tion money each." The court was to appoint guardians for 
all such children and these guardians were to make reports 
to the court of their w^ards and apprentices. When the court 
"shall know or l)e informed that any guardian or guardians 
by them respectfully appointed, do waste or convert the money 
or estate of any orphan to his or her OAvn use, or do in any 
manner mismanage the same . . . or neglects to educate 
or maintain any orphan according to his or her degree and 
circumstances," the court was then empowered to establish 
other rules and regulations for the better management of 
such estate and "for the better educating and maintaining 
such orphans." When the profits of any orphan's estate 
"shall be more than sufficient to maintain and educate him,'' 
the surplus was to be invested on good and sufficient security. 

11 22 George II. Hening. Statutes, V, pp. 499 ft". 


But if till' est art' '\^liall he of so small value that no person 
Avill edncaU' or maintain him or her for the profits thereof, 
sueh orphan shall by the direction of the eonrt be bound ap- 
prentice, every male to some tradesman, merchant, mariner, 
or other person apitroved by the court, until he shall attain the 
ace of twenty-one years, and e>'ery female to some suitable 
employment till her age of eighteen years, and the master or 
mistress of every such servant shall find and provide for 
him or her diet, clothes, lodging, and accommodations fit and 
necessary, and shall teach, or cause him or her to be taught, 
to read and write, and at the expiration of his or her appren- 
ticeship shall pay every such servant the like allowance as 
is by law^ a])pointed for servants by indenture or custom, 
and on refusal shall be compelled thereto in like manner 
. . ." The act was to renuiin in force for five years from 

In xVpril, ITGO, a law similar to the law of 1755 was 
enacted, and two years later we find further legislation on 
the subject of the maintenance and education of orphans. 
Additional legislation was justified, according to the pre- 
amble, by the ''experience that the court of each respective 
county, exercising the power of regulating the education of 
orphans, and the management of their estates, have proved 
of singular service to them." This law differed from pre- 
vious legislation in one essential point. Formerly the 
churchwardens of every parish were required to report to 
the court the names of orphans and poor children without 
guardians and masters. By this act that duty w^as trans- 
ferred to the grand jury of every county. Provision was 
further made for an orphans' court to be held by the justices 
of every inferior court of pleas and quarter sessions. This 
court was to be held once a year when accounts of guardians 
were to be exhibited and complaints heard. 

The educational features of the act have a certain interest. 
The guardian of any orphan whose estate furnished the or- 
j)han an economic competency was to supervise his education 


and maintenance. When the estate was of such small value 
that ''no person will educate and maintain him or her for 
the profits thereof" the orphan was to be bound apprentice 
by the court, ''every male to some tradesman, merchant, 
mariner, or other person ajDproved by the court, until he shall 
attain to the age of twenty-one years; and every female to 
some suitable employment, 'till her age of eighteen years ; 
and also such court may, in like manner, bind apprentice all 
free base born children ; and every such female child being 
a mulatto or mestee, until she shall attain the age of twenty- 
one years ; and the master or mistress of every such appren- 
tice, shall find and provide for him or her diet, clothes, lodg- 
ing, accommodations, fit and necessary ; and shall teach or 
cause him or her to be taught to read and write ; and at the 
expiration of his or her apprenticeship, shall pay every such 
apprentice the like allowance as is by law appointed, for serv- 
ants by indenture of custom; and on refusal, shall be com- 
pelled thereto, in like manner; and if on comi)]aint made to 
the inferior court of pleas and quarter sessions, it shall appear 
that any such apprentice is ill-used, or not taught the trade, 
profession or employment to which he or she is bound, it 
shall be lawful for such court to remove and bind him or 
her to such other person or jDcrsons as they shall think fit." 

With the exception of certain vestry acts this remained 
until the national period practically the only legislation gov- 
erning apprentices and the poor in the colony of ISTorth Caro- 
lina. The chief of these acts was passed in January, 1764, 
and described the duties of vestrymen in making provision 
for the clergy and the poor. By this act the vestrymen of 
each parish were "directed and required" annually between 
Easter and IN'ovember "to lay a poll tax on the taxable per- 
sons in their parish, not exceeding ten shillings, for building 
churches and chapels, paying the ministers' salary, purchas- 
ing a glebe . . . encouraging schools, maintaining the 
poor, paying clerks and readers, etc."^- 'No important 

12 Col. Rec., XXIII, p. 601. 


fhano-es were made in this legislatiou until 1777 when an 
act was ]iass('(l transferring to "overseers of the poor" certain 
powers and diilics Avhich hitherto had devolved on the vestry- 

Here may he seen an important change in the conception 
of cdncational C(mtrol. By the act of 1702, already described, 
till' duly of reporting to the justices of the local court the 
luunes of or})hans and poor children without guardians or 
masters was transferred from the churchwardens to the county 
grand jury. I>y the vestry act of 1777 similar authority was 
transferred from the vestrymen to the "overseers of the poor." 
The educational significance of these changes is important ; 
now the authority for controlling the maintenance and educa- 
tinn of the poor is transferred from the church to the state. 
From this change is gradually developed the idea that caring 
for and ''educating" the poor of the community is a state 
function. This general change is also clearly marked in the 
legislation dealing with the poor in Virginia.-^'* 

In the main the foregoing describes the practice in Xorth 
Carolina of apprenticing poor children and orphans whose 
economic competency was insufficient to maintain and educate 
them. The custom was not so extensive and popular as in 
Virginia which was more directly influenced by conditions 
and practices in England. Scarcity of evidence on the sub- 
ject in Xorth Carolina may be accounted for by the fact that 
children a]i]irenticed by the court probably took their places 
in the homes of their guardians or masters on conditions of 
maintenance and education usually allowed other nunnbers 
of the household. The master was ]U'ol)ably required to give 
his a]»prentic(> ])racrically the same care and attenticm given 
his own childi-en; for when it a])])eared that the ap])rentice 
was ill-nsed, not ))ro])erly ])i'ovided with "accommodations fit 

i'; ihid.. XXIV. ].. !).-;. 

14 Sec Kiiij;ht. The Evolution of I'ublic Education iu Virgiuia— 
Colonial Theory ;nKl PiMcticc. in The Sewanee Review for January, 


and necessary," or not properly taught as agreed to in the 
indentures, he was removed and re-apprenticed to some other 
master approved by the court. This important feature of 
the apprenticeship practice seems to have been a regular 

A study of the system in North Carolina is not only sug- 
gestive but leads to certain interesting conclusions. From 
it we may see that as early as 1695 the practice required 
j^rovision for teaching the apprentice to read and write, and 
that the court released apprentices when "they could not per- 
fectly read and write." It is probable that this requirement 
was universal in the colony, though abundant evidence on the 
extent of the custom of apprenticing is unfortunately not 
accessible. We have also seen that the apprenticeship legisla- 
tion in the colony of Virginia influenced similar legislation 
in North Carolina, as the act of 1748 in the former, and of 
1755 in the latter colony are evidence. It also appeared 
that the practice in North Carolina applied to orphans, poor 
children, free illegitimate children, to girls as well as to boys, 
and to illegitimate female mulattoes and mestees. Moreover, 
by act of 1715, requiring that "all Orphans shall be Educated 
& provided for according to their Rank and degree," the 
existence of schools or other means of intellectual training is 
implied. The language of the law of 1755, "neglects to 
educate or maintain any orphan according to his or her de- 
gree and circumstance," and that of the law of 1762, "regu- 
lating the education of orphans, and the management of their 
estates, have proved of singular service to them," and "edu- 
cate and maintain," may be considered additional evidence 
that certain educational facilities, however meager they may 
have been, were available for this dependent class. It is 
hoped that future study of the local court records of the 
period will add to the evidence already gathered. 


Biographical and Genealogical Memoranda 

Compiled and Edited by Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


A sketch of Judge Clark is to be found in The Booklet^ 
Vol. IX, No. 3. 


Dr. Shepherd's article in this number of The Booklet is 
most opportune and serves to keep in mind the part played 
by North Carolina in the President's Cabinet. Among the 
five who have filled that important position the name and 
fame of James Cochran Dobbin will be memorable, as it 
was during his administration in 1854 that the treaty be- 
tween the American Government and Japan was consum- 

Dr. Shepherd hails from one of the oldest settlements in 
North Carolina, born at Fayetteville, N. C, the head of 
navigation on the Cape Fear, January 27, 1844. Llis father 
was the late Jesse George Shepherd, one of the most accom- 
plished lawyers, jurists and gentlemen that North Carolina 
has given to the world, who died in the flower of his man- 
hood in January, 1869, at the early age of forty-eight. 

His mother was Catherine Isabella Dobbin, sister of 
James C. Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy in the Cabinet of 
Mr. Pierce, 1853-1857, whose crowded years of glorious life 
have scarcely a parallel in the annals of our Southern civili- 
zation. j\Ir. Dobbin died August 4, 1857 at the age of forty- 

Besides the lines of Dobbin and Shepherd, other lines 
represented in the family of our subject are the McQueens 
of Chatham, the Elliots and Smiths of Cumberland and 
Harnett; the Whitfields, the Bryans and the Camerons, all 


of whom trace their origin to the Colonial period of our Caro- 
lina story. 

Mr. Shepherd spent his early days in Fayetteville under 
the care of most competent instructors, added to this 
his daily contact with father and uncle. Each of these gentle- 
men embodied in his life and character the purest ideals, 
the tenderest graces of a day that is dead. He was sent to 
Davidson College, from there to the Military Academy at 
Charlotte, which was established by Major D. H. Hill in 
the year 1859. At both of these institutions he was brought 
into relation with this strong, heroic soul, under whom he 
was to serve in more than one campaign during the great 
war drama of 1861-1865. 

In October, I860, he was admitted into the University of 
Virginia. Here he devoted his energies to the literary, classi- 
cal and historical courses, and in several of these he attained 
honorable and distinguished rank. 

When the image of grim-visaged war loomed upon the 
South in 1861, he was found in the field, though hardly 
seventeen. He served under his former teacher, General 
D. H. Hill, at Yorktown, in the Fall of 1861. He served as 
drill-master of raw recruits at Raleigh and other points. In 
the Spring of 1862 he was advanced to rank of first lieu- 
tenant of infantry in the Forty-third IS^orth Carolina Troops. 
He was probably at the time of his appointment the youngest 
commissioned officer in the armies of the Confederacy. 

The encouragement and commendation as soldier and 
scholar received from his great instructor and commander, 
General D. H. Hill, is held in sacred memory by Dr. Shep- 

He was dangerously wounded at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, 
and upon the retreat of Lee's army fell into the hands of 
the enemy. A long and cruel captivity followed. At last 
he found his way to his desolate home after Sherman's 
carnival of ruin had swept over Fayetteville. 


After the war ]\lr. Shepherd taught for one year a school 
at Louisbnr«r, N. C, iu connection with Mr. Matthew S. 
Davis, the honored head of this classical Academy. 

In the next year, 18GS, he made his way to Baltimore 
and in a short time was elected to the Chair of History and 
English in the City College, an institution that represented 
the highest or iinal stage of the public school system of 

In 1875 he was made Superintendent of Instruction, an 
executive position involving far-reaching care and responsi- 
bility. He resigned this trust in 1882 to assume the presi- 
dency of the College of Charleston, South Carolina, to which 
he had been called without the slightest solicitation on his 
part. He restored the College of Charleston to vigorous life 
at a time when it had fallen into absolute extinction and 
left it in a flourishing condition. He withdrew from this 
latter position in 1897 and returning to Baltimore engaged 
more earnestly than ever in intellectual pursuits — author- 
ship criticism, lecturing, original research in literary and 
historical spheres. 

As a College Professor, College President and Superintend- 
ent of Instruction his work has been marked from its earliest 
stages by the vital power of ceaseless progTess in all the higher 
phases of intellectual development. Dr. Shepherd has con- 
tribute to the literature of his vocation at least five or six 
volumes, several of which have won distinction, not in Amer- 
ica alone, but in countries beyond the sea. The History of 
the English Language ; Historical Reader ; Advanced Gram- 
mar of the English Language; Educational Reports and Ive- 
views ; "A Study of Edgar Allen Poe" ; Contributions to the 
American Journal of Philology ; Contributions to the N^ew 
English Dictionary, Oxford; A Commentary Upon Tenny- 
son's ''In ]\remoriam" ; Essays on Modern Language Notes; 
Life of Robert E. Lee. 

This enumeration by no means represents the total of Mr. 
Shepherd's creative work in history, literature and educa- 


tion. He has now in contemplation a life of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, designed especially to portray the intellectual and 
literary characteristics of his brilliant and versatile genius. 

(The above extracts from Ashe's Biographical History of 
ISTorth Carolina). 

"The Life of Robert E. Lee," one of the largest works of 
Dr. Shepherd, deserved especial emphasis, and in which the 
whole South must be interested. Having served honorably 
in the Confederate Army, and having known General Lee 
personally. Dr. Shepherd was in every way fitted to do this 
work, which is a notable contribution to the fast growing Lee 

ISTorth Carolina has reason to be proud of her son. Though 
transplanted to another State his love for the land of his 
nativity remains strong and loyal. We may predict that his 
work on Sir Walter Raleigh will awaken to greater activity 
the project of erecting in Raleigh a monument to this valiant 
knight and great colonizer. 

Dr. Shepherd is vigorous and robust in health, still pur- 
suing, still achieving, and whose work has been most cordi- 
ally recognized in both Europe and America. Shall not 
North Carolina hold fast to one whose supreme ambition has 
ever been to contribute to the glory of the South and especi- 
ally to his native State ? 


One will not be surprised to find the great-granddaughter 
of John McKnitt Alexander, playing the roll of patriot ; in- 
terested as she is, in research work, concerning the early his- 
tory of North Carolina. Her article on George Selwyn, that 
first disturber of the "Hornets Nest," the sting from which 
gave warning to the invader to our country's liberties, finds 
a welcome in the columns of The Booklet, the object of 
which is to preserve important facts in North Carolina his- 
tory not widely known. 


Miss Violet Alexauder was born in Charlotte, Xorth Caro- 
lina. She is the daughter of Sydenham B. Alexander; an 
A. 1>., of the University of Xorth Carolina, 1860, also a 
gallant Confederate who served in Company K, First Bethel 
Regiment, that noted aggregation of men of Mecklenburg 
and six other western counties. He was promoted several 
times in the army, was State Senator 1879, '83, '85, '87 and 
1001. He was the first advocate of road improvement in 
Xorth Carolina ; member of the Fifty-second and Fifty-third 
Congresses (1891-1895) ; President of State Grange and of 
Xorth Carolina Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union ; 
prominent in agricultural advancement, results in evidence 
all over the State. 

Miss Alexander is a descendant of many of the early set- 
tlers of Mecklenburg, and patriots who figured so largely in 
the War of the Bevolution, viz. : the Caldwells, Brevards, 
Davidsons, Osbornes, Grahams and Wilsons, whose names are 
recorded in history. She is the great-granddaughter of 
Samuel Wilson, who came to l^orth Carolina in 1740; a 
delegate to the Provincial Congress from Mecklenburg, 1773 ; 
delegate to the Convention of Mecklenburg, May 20, 1775, 
and a "signer" of that document which has made that county 

Miss Alexander was educated at the Mary Baldwin School, 
Staunton, Va., where she made a special study of History, 
Literature and French; she has traveled much in Europe, 
and in our own country. Western States, Old Mexico, Canada 
and Cuba. She is a frequent contributor to the "Charlotte 
Observer;" has compiled a "History of Spratt Burying 
Ground" (which dates back to 1765), published in Xorth 
Carolina Booklet, January, 1916. She has written the fol- 
lowing: "Confederate Kavy Yard, Charlotte, North Caro- 
lina, 1862-1865," published by Southern Historical Society, 
Vol. XL, Richmond, Va. ; "First Court in MeeMenhiirg 
County, North Carolina," published by Xorth Carolina So- 
ciety of Colonial Dames, 1914; "The Old Cemetery — A 


Revolutionary Grave Yard," published in Charlotte Observer, 
Jime, 1916; besides many other historical articles in news- 

Miss Alexander is a member of several patriotic organiza- 
tions, viz. : Charlotte Museum Association ; Korth Carolina 
Literary and Historical Association, Raleigh, IST. C. ; Colonial 
Dames of JSTorth Carolina ; Mecklenburg Chapter D. A. R. ; 
Signers Chapter (one of its organizers), charter member 
Stonewall Jackson Chapter IJ. D. C, and has held office in 
last three organizations. 

As will be seen Miss Alexander is not only interested in 
the Old Time, but in the ISTew. She was instrumental in 
placing a tablet on the site of the Confederate Navy Yard, 
Charlotte; and in placing tablet in Capitol at Raleigh, me- 
morializing the patriots of Mecklenburg; and chairman of 
both committees, and assisted in designing both tablets. She 
designed the pin of the "Signers Chapter," and it is proudly 
worn by its loyal daughters. 

Miss Alexander is a notable example of a continuity of 
qualities possessed by a noble ancestry, and as an exemplar of 
those timid but capable scions of a like nol)le race, who, con- 
tent with the achievements of their ancestors, are apathetic 
and timid in recording and transmitting to posterity, undis- 
puted traditions that would reflect on the glory of the State. 
May the pace set by Miss Alexander have many followers 
and thus aid the Daughters of the Revolution in its effort 
to preserve authentic ITorth Carolina History through its 
organ. The IvTorth Carolina Booklet, which so far has 
struggled through fifteen years without compensation to its 
editors, but upheld by the most intelligent, reliable, painstak- 
ing historians of this period. Through these The Booklet 
is encouraged and inspired to continue its valuable work now 
entering its sixteenth vear. 



Horn near Woodland, Northampton (\mnty, Xortb Caro- 
lina, April '.», ISSti; attended the public schools of Xorthau'}.- 
tou County and Trinity Park School (Durham, N, C); 
A. B., Trinity Colleoe, 11)00; A. ]\L, Trinity College, 1911; 
master in history and English, Trinity Park School from 
1901) to 1911; instructor in history in the East Carolina 
Teachers' Training School, summer 1910; Graduate Scholar 
Columbia University, 1911-1912; Fellow in Columbia Uni- 
versity, 1912-18; Ph. 1). Columbia, 1913; professor in the 
department of education in Trinity College since 1913. 
Author : 

"The Influence of Reconstruction on Education in the 
South,"' (jSTew York, 1913) ; "Some Principles of Teaching," 
(Boston, 1915). 

Frequent contributor to magazines on educational and his- 
torical subjects. Among his most recent articles which have 
attracted attention are : 

"Some Fallacies Concerning the History of Public Educa- 
tion in the South," "Reconstruction and Education in Vir- 
ginia" ; "The Evolution of Public Education in Virginia" ; 
"The Peabody Fund and Its Early Operation in North 
Carolina." These articles appeared in the South Atlantic 
Quarterly, and in the Sewanee Review\ 

The above recital of Prof. Knight's achievements is indeed 
remarkable for one not yet thirty years of age, and may we 
l>e allowed to ]n-edict even gTeater, as the years roll by. North 
Carolina may well reckon on this scholarly writer, who, so 
far, is I'eflectiui;' credit on his native State, 


Genealogical Department 

Compiled by Miss Sybil Hyatt. 


In 1736 or 37, John Parker moved to Craven County, 
probably to a place near the section, that is now Woodington, 
Lenoir County. The similarity of family names indicates 
that he came from the Chov^^au section. 

The Colonial Records mention two grants of land, one on 
September 10, 1737; the other February 20, 1739. 

All the records covering the name Parker in this section 
of the State have been examined. The most pertinent records, 
those of Lenoir Coimty, have been destroyed by fire. 

The following abstracts are from records of deeds in 
Craven County : 

December 25, 1756. — Jacob Blount to Joseph Parker, 
Between Little and Great Contentnea creeks. Test: John 
Benson, Jonas Griffin, 

July 26, 1757. — John Stanaland to Zenas Parker, ]^orth 
side of Trent River, Test : John Frank, Martin Worsley. 

December 2, 1758. — John Parker to Zenas Parker, North 
side of Trent, next John Parker's line. Part of patent sur- 
veyed for John Parker, November 26, 1736. Test: John 
Frank, Thomas Wood. 

February 10, 1759. — Zenas Parker to John Hudler. 
North Side of Trent River, near George Carnegee's land. 
Test : Samuel Colvel, John Parker. 

January 29, 1773. — John Parker, Planter to John 
Koonce. Part of a parcel of land, granted unto a certain 


John Parker on Fcbruarv 21, 1738. iS'ortli side of Trent 

Jannary 2o, 1790. — Martha Parker to James Meeks. 
West side of Xorth West Creek. 

The follDwiiiii' abstracts are from deeds in Duplin Conuty: 

Fehriiary 1(5, 17<)<\ — ]Mary Parker to Isaac Huggins. 
Grant to her, September 27, 1756, near John Yarborough's 
line. Test: John Yarborongh, Joseph Eason, James Snell. 
Clerk of the C(i.nrt : John Dickson. 

December 30, 1768. — William Roberts, of Duplin, to Ga- 
briel Parker, of Johnston County. East side of Great Co- 
heary. Test: Matthew Parker, Robert Parker, Providence 

February 17, 1770. — Amos Parker and wife Elizabeth to 
William Jones. East side of Muddy Creek. 

September 27, 1771. — Jeremiah Simmons to John Parker. 
Joins Parker's own land, west side of Little Coharie. Test: 
John Owens, John Davis. 

January 17, 1772. — Gabriel Parker, of Johnston County, 
to son, Matthew Parker. Deed of gift. East side of Great 
Coheary Swamp. Bought December 30, 1768. Test: David 
Holliman, Hubbard Parker. 

November 28, 1772. — Henry Fountain, planter to John 
Parker, planter. East side of North East River, north side 
of Muddy Creek. Test: Richard Williams, Stephen 


July 14, 1774. — Amos Parker to Solomon Parker. East 
side of northeast branch of Cape Fear, north side of Muddy 
Creek. Test: James Hollingsworth, Charity Goff, Stephen 

July 29, 1775. — Matthew Parker to Armager Hall. East 
side of Great Coharie. Deed of gift from father. Test: 
Jesse McEndon, Joseph Harris. 

1775. — John Parker to Ezekiel Allen. South side of 
Muddy Creek. Test: John Williams, Benjamin Brown, 
William Southerland. 

October 20, 1778. — Jonathan Parker to Matthew Powell. 
West side of Six Runs. Test : Joseph Register, Thomas 

There are several deeds recorded in Johnston County, 
which mention Gabriel Parker of Johnston, 

A will of John Parker filed at Wilmington devises land on 
main road from Wilmington to Raleigh, through Duplin and 
Sampson to sons, Owen and Robert Parker, to daughter, 
Julia Parker, and to second wife, Ann Maria. He states he 
leaves this to the second wife's children, as the first's had been 
provided for. 

Vol. XXII, page 318, of the Colonial Records, December 
10, 1754, Returns for Craven 1756, "The List of Gentlemen 
Solgers" gives the names John Parker, Tenes Parker. Vol. 
VII, page 263. A copy of Captain Richard Pierce's list 
from the General Muster on October 7, 1766, gives the names, 
Gabriel Parker, Martha Parker. 


There can be little doubt of Gabriel Parker's being the son 
of the John Parker, first mentioned. It is thought he lived 
near the line of Duplin and Lenoir. He was a slaveholder 
and was considered very prosperous. He made silk hats, and 
even at a recent date, there were some of his hat molds i't 
the home of his granddaughter, Mary Parker Miller. He 
served in the War of the Revolution. The records, which 
should give his services have been destroyed. He was 
wounded in the thigh in an engagement with the British at 
Burn Coat Bridge, near Sarecta, Duplin County. He was 
dead in 1790, as his name does not appear on the census of 

The census of 1790, of Dobbs County (now Lenoir) names 
the following heads of families: John Parker, Sr., John 
Parker, Jr., Joseph Parker, Lydia Parker, and Sarah Par- 
ker. In the family of Sarah there are herself and one slave. 
In the family of Lydia, there are herself, one other *'frcc 
white female," and four "free white males of sixteen years 
and upwards." 

Gabriel Parker is known to have had three children : John, 
Gabriel and a daughter. Gabriel and the daughter died with- 
out issue. 

Gabriel Parker (son) died intestate in Lee County, 
Georgia, May 14, 1834. His inventory taken by Owen Jen- 
kins, James Gay, William Tyson and Michael King amounrs 
to $30,744. His entire estate was heired by his brother John. 

John Parker (son of Gabriel Parker) was born in 1767, 
and died December 22, 1843. He lived on a farm, now 
owned by Joshua Dawson, about two and a half miles from 
the Wooding-ton Church. He owned a mill, was very well 
off and is said to have been a very kind, high-toned man. 
He married Angelina Loftin, daughter of Elkanah Loftin. 
Jr., and Ann Lovick. Her pedigree holds three "rights" to 
membershi]^ in the Society of Colonial Dames. She was born 
in f7f;0 ami die] Jidy 1, 1840. 

Members of the familv sav that John Parker and Ane-elina 


Loftin had children named IvTancy, Catherine, John and 
William, but if thej did, they were dead in 1840, because 
John Parker died intestate and his property was divided 
into six portions, one each to Winnafred, Letitla (wife of 
John Davis), Julia, Mary, Rachel, and the five children of 

A member of the family has a legal paper, which was 
drawn up but never filed, "The Bill of Complaint of Daniel 
Miller and Winifred, his wife; John Davis and Letitia, his 
wife; Inila N. Miller and Mary, his wife; against Rachel 
Cox, Julia Loftin, William A. Cox, executor of Owen B. 
Cox, deceased ; Stephen Gooding and Louisa, his wife ; 
jN^athan Parker, Xancy Parker, John Parker, and William L. 
Parker, the four last named infants, by their guardian, 
Joseph R. Croom." In this paper John Parker is called 
Senior, and it is a petition to the court of Lenoir County 
and states that the surviving administrators, John Davis and 
Imla J^unn Miller (Owen B. Cox, being deceased) are ready 
to settle the estate and are put off by part of the heirs. 

I. Zenas Parker died in Lee County, Georgia. He married 
Mary Davis, daughter of Benjamin Davis. She was born in 
1800 and died July 6, 1892, Their children were as follows : 
1. Mary Louiza Parker, born October 15, 1825; married 
Stephen Gooding ; lived near Woodington. 2. ISTathan Zenas 
Parker, born iSTovember 5, 1827. 3. John Gabriel Parker, 
born February 17, 1830 ; died in Wa\aie County, jSJ^orth Caro- 
lina. 4. ISTancy Ann Elizabeth Parker, born February 21, 
1832 ; died in Onslow County, ISTorth Carolina. 5. William 
Loftin Parker, born January 5, 1834; died in Lee County, 
Georgia. 6. Zachariah Davis Parker, born March 3, 1836 ; 
died in Georgia. 7. William Loftin Parker, bom September 
15, 1839, now living near Ambrose, Georgia. 

II. Winnafred Parker; born January 3, 1795; died Sep- 
tember 9, 1851; married March 11, 1813, Daniel Miller; 
died September 9, 1851, lived in Lenoir County. 


III. Eaehel Parker; born May 22, 1800; married Janu- 
ary 2, 1817, Owen Bryant Cox, bom November 2, 1796. 
They lived near Tuckahoe, Jones Connty. Their children 
were as follows: 1. Elany Ann Cox, born November 15, 
1817. 2. Nancy Jane Cox, born December 18, 1818. 3. 
Gabriel P. Cox, born July 2, 1820. 4. John P. Cox, born 
August 2!), 1823. 5. William B. Cox, born January 6, 
1826. 6. Delila E. Cox, born December 24, 1827. 7. 
Mary Susan Cox, born December 8, 1830. 8. Julia Cather- 
ine Cox, born November 29, 1835. 9. Edith Caroline Cox, 
bom January 21, 1838. 

IV. Mary Parker, born March 26, 1804; married May 6, 
1828, Imla Nunn Miller; died April 16, 1891. She was of 
unusual ability. She lived near Woodington and during the 
life of her husband on the "Old Place" of the Millers, which 
was left to her in fee simple, her husband stating in his will 
that she had done as much to earn his property as he had 
done. Their children were as follows : 1. Anderson Rosco 
Miller, born May 8, 1830; married September 19, 1857, 
Delia Maria Henry, of Waterbury, Vermont; died July 20, 
1905, Kinston, North Carolina. He had the degrees of M. D. 
and D. D. S. He served in the Confederate Army in Nether- 
cutt's Regiment, was in the Eighth Battalion, afterwards the 
Sixty-sixth Regiment, and later was appointed hospital 
steward. 2. Nancy Miller, bom August 15, 1832 ; died 
October 3, 1902, at the home of her niece, Mrs. H. O. Hyatt, 
Kinston, North Carolina. She was large, strong, active, and 
ran her farm in Woodington Township until two years be- 
fore her death. 3. John Parker Miller, born March 30, 
1834; married Elizabeth Jones Rouse; lived in Woodington 
To^vllship. Both of them were murdered by negroes in 
1867, during the Reconstruction. He served three, if not four 
years in Company F, Sixty-sixth Regiment. (Information 
furnished by John W. Simmons, of the Sixty-sixth.) 4. 
Francis Xavier Miller, born July 12, 1836; lives Gainsville, 
Florida; married October, 1864, Martha A. Williams, of 


Greene County, ISTortti Carolina. He enlisted in the Confed- 
erate Army in the spring of 1861, as a private in Company 
B, Tenth IvTorth Carolina Eegiment, at New Bern, was or- 
dered to Fort Macon and was in battle there as ordinance 
sergeant. They were besieged by Burnside in 1862, cap- 
tured and sent to Wilmington; he was on parole until ex- 
changed and then was in service in Eastern jS^orth Carolina 
until the close of the war ; was in the fights at Kinston and 
Goldsboro. 5. Julia Miller, born March 16, 1839; married 
October 13, 1869, William M. Dulin; lives at Statesville, 
X. C. 6. Mary Angelina Miller, born March 22, 1841; 
married October, 1864, Lovick Prather; lived principally in 
Arkansas. 7. Frances Elizabeth Miller, born March 17, 
1843; married, 1862, Jackson Fordham; lived Woodington 
Township. 8. Wiley Phillip Miller, born May 1, 1845; 
married Jennie Prather, of Guilford County; died July 2, 
1875 ; lived in Woodington Township. He served in the 
Confederate Army and was in Foscine's Brigade at the 
taking of New Bern. 

V. Julia Parker (daughter of John Parker), was born 
January 18, 1809 ; married Major Loftin. They lived and 
are buried at the clump of trees just across the Lenoir County 
bridge. Their children were as follows : 1. William Waight- 
still Loftin, born November 10, 1827; married Margaret 
Wilson. 2. John H. Loftin, born March 3, 1829 ; married 
Harriet Loftin, widow of John Nunn. 3. Mary Loftin, born 
July 7, 1831; married John Whitehead. 4. Winifred 
Loftin, born April 26, 1834; married Dr. Benjamin F. 
Cobb. 5. Martha Loftin, born November 29, 1836; mar- 
ried Dr. Lafayette Hussey. 6. Julia Angelina Loftin, born 
May 15, 1839 ; married Eichard Wooten. 7. Nancy Parker 
Loftin, born August 10, 1841 ; married first, Lemuel Korne- 
gay; second, Dr. S. B. Flowers. 8. James Major Loftin, 
born June 3, 1844; married Sarah Loftin. 



A Correction 

Ilathaway's Records state that Sarah Whitfield, the daugh- 
ted of William Whitfield, married Daniel Herring. This is 
a mistake. There was a Daniel Herring living in Duplin 
County, but Sarah Whitfield . married Stephen Herring, of 
Duplin County. The family records of Mr. Benjamin 
Franklin Grady, Clinton, North Carolina, so state her 

The following record appears on the Duplin County 
Records (in the Sampson County Court House) January 16, 
1773 : Stephen Herring, of Duplin, to Frederick Bell, of 
Duj^lin, £100. Plantation whereon John Bell now lives, 
south side of Beaver Swamp, joining John Moore, 267 acres. 
Part of Henry McCullock's plot. Stephen Herring and 
Sarah, his wife, the true, sole and lawful owner. Signed 
Stej)hen Herring, Sarah Herring. Test: William Dickson, 
Samuel Wood. 

Stephen Herring lived on Goshen Swamp, between Faison 
and Calypso. 

Vol. XVI 

OCTOBER, 1916 

No. 2 

North Carolina Booklet 








. 69 

Major General Stephen D. Ramseur 

By Chief Justice Clakk. 

Historic Homes — "The Fountain" 76 

By Captain Edmund Jones. 

Martha McFarlane Bell 88 

By Mary Hililiabd Hinton. 

Genealogical Department 97 

Biographical Sketches 103 


$1.00 THE YEAR 

Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh, N. C. July 15. 1905, under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1 879 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XVI of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1916. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

Biographical Editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


Isaac Shelby : Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero — Dr. Archi- 
bald Henderson. 

An Educational Practice in Colonial North Carolina — Edgar W. 

George Selwyn — Miss Violet G. Alexander. 

Martha McFarlane Bell, a Revolutionary Heroine — Miss Mary Hil- 
liard Hinton. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part III : William A. 
Graham — Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Historic Homes, Part VII : The Fountain, the Home of Colonel 
Davenport — Colonel Edmund Jones. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part IV : James 
Cochran Dobbin — Dr. Henry Elliot Shepherd. 

A History of Rowan County — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Edgecombe County History and some of her Distinguished Sons — 
Mrs. John A Weddell. 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed by Mrs. Nina Holland 
Covington. These will be reviews of the latest historical works 
written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued, with a page de- 
voted to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical 
research in the Stjite. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication in The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XVI are requcfitcd to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XV for sale. 

For particulars address 

Miss Mauy Hilliard Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 

"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. XVI OCTOBER, 1916 No. 2 


North Carolina Booklet 

' Carolina 1 Carolina I Heaven' s blessings attend her ! 
While zve live zve will cherish, protect and defend her' 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History, The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 





Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Capt. S. a. Ashe. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adeilaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

biographical editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 





vice-regent : 


honorary regents : 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

recording secretary : 



Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 






Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. F. M. Allen, Regent. 

Mary Slocumb Chapter Miss Georgie Hicks, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 : 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•Died November 25. 1911. 
tDied December 12. TJ04. 

.M A.I (in tiK.NEKAI, SlKI'lIKX I >. HA.MSI-.II; 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XVI OCTOBER, 1916 No. 2 

Major General Stephen Dodson Ramseur. 

An Address delivered at the Presentation of the Portrait of Major 

General Stephen D. Ramseur, by Chief Justice Clark, 

7 June, 1916. 

Ladies of the Memorial Association, Comrades of the Con- 
federacy, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

On 20 May, 1861, a date chosen because it was the anni- 
versary of our first Declaration of Independence, at Meck- 
lenburg, there assembled in the southern wing of the Capitol 
a Convention commissioned by the popular will to again de- 
clare the sovereignty of the State. In that Assembly were 
many of the foremost men of the State : Rufiin, Badger, Gra- 
ham, Bedford Brown, Amifield, Arrington, Ashe, Barnes, 
Biggs, Burton Craige, R. P. Dick, John A. Gilmer, Bryan 
Grimes, T. L. Hargrove, W. W. Holden, John Manning, 
Anderson Mitchell, Judge Osborne, Kenneth Raynor, David 
S. Eeid, A. W. Venable, E. J. Warren, Warren Winslow, 
IST. W. Woodfin, Weldon IST. Edwards, and many others. The 
sole survivor of the 120 men that day assembled on that high 
errand is the distinguished and venerable ex-President of our 
State University, Kemp P. Battle. 

There was small delay in organizing, for the war was 
already in motion, and after brief discussion the ordinance 
was quickly and unanimously passed, which repealed that by 
which we had entered the Union at Fayetteville in 1789, and 
I^^orth Carolina was again a sovereign and independent nation. 
Indeed on that day we were under three different govern- 
ments. Until noon we were a State in the Union of the 
United States, for a few hours we were a sovereign and inde- 
pendent people, and before night the Convention had passed 
the ordinance which made ISTortli Carolina one of the Con- 
federate States. 


As soon as the ordinance was passed Major Graliam Daves, 
the private secretary of Governor Ellis, threw open a window 
on the west side of the House of Representatives and an- 
nounced to the young captain of artillery who stood waiting 
on the lawn below with his battery of six gams and his men 
at their post, that this State had ceased to be one of the United 
States. Immediately a salvo of 100 guns announced to the 
world that North Carolina was a sovereigTi and independent 

The young captain of artillery, then not quite 24 years of 
age, a gTaduate of West Point in the previous year, who had 
resigned his commission in the United States Army to offer 
his sword to the South, was Stephen D. Ramseur, of Lincoln 
County. Somewhat small in stature, but brave, handsome, 
quick in his movements, ambitious, and accomplished, he was 
the beau ideal of a soldier. lie was destined in the next three 
years to rise from Lieutenant to Major General, and to die 
on the field of battle at the head of his division. The com- 
pany of artillery which he commanded became a part of the 
history of the immortal army of ISTorthern Virginia as 
Manly's Battery. Its officers, Basil Manly, Saunders, Guion, 
and Bridgers, knowing the need of an army officer to train 
the battery, asked Governor Ellis for the best soldier to 
command them. The Governor promptly replied, ''I know 
the man," and designated this young officer, who was then at 
Montgomery, Ala., where he had gone to tender his services 
to the President of the Confederacy. Under his instruction 
the battery soon attained supreme excellence, and held to the 
end a reputation surpassed by none. 

In AugTist Captain Ramseur was ordered with his battery 
to Smithfield, Virginia, and in the spring of 1862 it passed 
over to the Peninsula, where McClellan was landing his 
army, on York River, and this battery opened the battle at 
Williamsburg. Captain Ramseur on that day was promoted 
to Major, and placed in command of the artillery of our right 
wing, Basil C. Manly becoming Captain. Major Ramseur 


was soon tendered and declined the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of 
the Third ISTorth Carolina Regiment. Soon after he accepted 
the Colonelcy of the Fifty-Ninth North Carolina Regiment 
in Ransom's Brigade. In command of that regiment he 
shared in the seven days fights around Richmond, and was 
very severely wounded at the unfortunate battle of Malvern 
Hill on 1 July, 1862. 

After the death of the gallant George B. Anderson, who 
died of wounds received at Sharpsburg, Ramseur, at the age 
of 25, was placed in command 1 November, 1862, of that 
historic brigade, which was composed of the 2 N. C, 4 N. C, 
14 N. C, and 30 N. C. regiments — a brigade that fur- 
nished two Major Generals to the Confederacy, Ramseur and 
Bryan Grimes, besides Brigadier Generals W. R. Cox, from 
the 2 N. C. regiment, George B. Anderson and Bryan Grimes 
from the 1 N. C, and Junius Daniel, from the 14 N. C. 
Among its many other officers of note was Col. C. C. Tew, of 
the 2 N. C, who was killed at Sharpsburg, and Lieut-Col. 
W. P. Bynum, of the same regiment, afterward Justice of the 
Supreme Court. W. T. Faircloth, later Chief Justice, was 
Quartermaster in that regiment. In the 14 N. C. regiment 
Risden Tyler Bennett, of blessed memory, succeeded Junius 
Daniel as Colonel, and the 30 N. C. was conmaanded by that 
brave officer, Frank M. Parker. 

To recount the battles in which Ramseur shared would be 
to relate the history of the Army of Northern Virginia. At 
Chancellorsville on 3 May, 1863, Ramseur, at the head of his 
brigade, so greatly disting-uished himself that General Lee 
wrote a letter to Governor Vance, saying: ''General Ramseur 
was among those whose conduct was especially commended to 
my notice by Lieutenant-General Jackson in the message 
sent to me after he was wounded," adding, "I consider the 
brigade and regimental commanders of this brigade as among 
the best of their respective grades in the army." It was in 
this battle on 3 May, 1863, that Stonewall Jackson was 
wounded. He died a week later on 10 May, which day North 


Carolina still keeps in remembrance as its memorial day for 
the Confederacy. 

Ramseur's brigade belonged to Rodes' Division, Jackson's 
Corps in tliat great battle. It was in the famous Gettysburg 
campaign, and after the three days fight there, when Briga- 
dier-General Iverson, of Georgia, was removed from the 
command of his brigade. General Ramseur was given the 
unusual honor of being placed in command of both brigades. 
In the fall of that year, after the return from Pennsylvania, 
while our troops were in winter quarters near Orange Court- 
house, he was given a furlough, and was married to Miss 
Ellen E. Richmond, of Caswell County. 

In May, 1864, when Grant, with over 120,000 men crossed 
the Rapidau, Ramseur and his brigade were in almost daily 
battle with the enemy down to the James River. On 11 
May, at Spottsylvania Courthouse, Ramseur and his men 
went over our breastworks and drove the enemy from our 
front in a hand to hand engagement. On the next day the 
situation of our line at the ''Salient" having been made known 
to the enemy during the night by a deserter. Grant threw an 
irresistible force in overwhelming numbers on that exposed 
position, capturing Ed. Johnson's Division. Ramseur, 
Rodes, and the gallant men of those commands, charged the 
enemy and drove two successive lines of battle out of their 
works in a hand to hand encounter. In an address before the 
Army of Northern Virginia, Colonel Venable, of Lee's staff, 
says: "The restoration of the battle on the 12th, rendering 
utterly futile the success thus achieved by Hancock's corps at 
daybreak, was a wonderful feat of arms, in which all the 
troops engaged deserve the greatest credit for endurance, 
constancy, and unflinching courage. But without unjust dis- 
crimination we may say that Gordon, Rodes and Ramseur 
were the heroes of this bloody day. . . . Rodes and 
Ramseur were destined, alas, in a few short months to lay 
down their noble lives in the Valley of Virginia. There was 
no victor's chaplet more highly prized by the Roman soldier 


than that woven of the grass of early spring. Then let the 
earliest flowers of May be always intertwined in the garlands 
which the pious hands of our fair women shall lay on the 
tombs of Rodes and Ramseur, and of the gallant dead of 
the battle of twenty hours at Spottsylvania." 

Old soldiers of the army of I^orthern Virginia will tell 
you that during the whole war there was no contest bloodier, 
or in which more gallantry was displayed, than on the 12th 
of May at Spottsylvania Courthouse. After the war I saw 
in the porch of the war department at Washington City the 
trunk of a tree 12 inches in diameter that had been cut 
entirely through by minie balls from both sides. After the 
battle General Lee and Lieut.-Gen. Ewell, the corps com- 
mander, both thanked Ramseur in person and expressed their 
high appreciation of the conspicuous services and heroic dar- 
ing of his brigade. In further recognition, on 27 May, then 
not quite 27 years of age, he was made a Major General, and 
assigned to the conmiand of Early's Division. Truly, as 
Napoleon said of himself, "Men age quickly on the battle- 

After the battle of Second Cold Harbor on 3 June, so fatal 
to the Federal Army, Ramseur's division, together with Rodes' 
and Gordon's, were placed under the command of Early, and 
sent to the Valley of Virginia. They defeated Hunter's Army, 
crossed the Potomac, and on 11 July, 1864, were in sight of 
the Capitol at Washington, which they were preparing to take 
at daylight next morning, when the 6th and 19th corps of 
the Federal Army, which had been sent by Grant, arrived 
just in time to prevent the capture of the city. Sullenly and 
slowly retiring across the Potomac, our army was forced 
back up the valley, and at Winchester on 19 September Gen- 
eral Rodes, commanding one division, was killed. Just a 
month later, on 19 October, at Cedar Creek, we achieved a 
splendid success, the Federal Army had fled in a panic when 
Sheridan arrived on the field, and with reinforcements re- 
stored the battle. General Ramseur, in holding his line, had 


two horses killed under him, and was twice wounded, on the 
latter occasion fatally, and fell into the enemy's hands. 

Alanv of the Federal Generals were his former friends at 
West Point and in the old army, and the best attention was 
given him. He was taken to General Sheridan's headquarters 
where he had the service of both his own and the Federal 
surgeons, but in vain, and on the next day his bright and 
gallant spirit passed into the great beyond. 

General Sheridan had his body embalmed and sent it under 
a Hag of truce with an escort of honor to our lines, where it 
was received by Ixamseur's boyhood friend from his own 
county of Lincoln, General Robert F. Hoke. 

General Early in his report of the battle says, ''General 
Ramseur met the death of a hero, and with his fall the last 
hope of saving the day was lost. He was a soldier of whom 
his State has reason to be proud. He was brave, chivalrous 
and capable." 

The division which he was tirst assigned to conmiand con- 
sisted of Pegram's Virginia brigade (the 13, 31, 40, 52 and 
58 Virginia regiments) ; R. D. Johnston's N". C. brigade con- 
sisting of the 5, 12, 20 and 23 IST. C. regiments, and Godwin's 
X. C. brigade (the 6, 21, 54 and 57 X. C. regiments and 1 
!N". C. battalion). On the death of General Rodes he was 
transferred and placed in command of that division which 
consisted of Battle's Alabama l)rigade. Cook's Georgia bri- 
gade, Grimes' X. C. brigade (the 32, 43, 45, and 53 N. C. 
regiments and 2 X. C. battalion) and Cox's jS^. C. brigade 
(Ramseur's old brigade), composed of the 1, 2, 3, 4, 14 and 
30 N, C. regiments, the remnants of 1 and 3 I^. C. regiments 
having been added to this brigade after the capture of the 
bulk of these regiments at the Salient. 

Thus three short years sum up the career of this splendid 
young soldier who in four years from his graduation as a 
cadet at West Point had become a Major General, whose fame 
was kno\vn to both armies. He fell in battle at the head of his 
division, and was spared the anguish, the sorrow and humilia- 


tion of the failing days of the Confederacy and Reconstruc- 
tion — fortunate in the hour and manner of his death — as in 
his life. 

General Ramseur was a member of an old and respected 
family in the county of Lincoln, which, though small in area, 
has furnished many splendid men to the State in civil life, and 
among its gallant soldiers there were three Generals: Major 
General Stephen D. Ramseur, Major General Robert F. 
Hoke, and Brigadier General Robert D. Johnston. Hoke and 
Ramseur were about the same age, and Johnston still younger, 
i^o county in the State surpassed the record made by its sol- 
diers of every rank from private to General. 

Thus briefly has been summed up the story of this gallant 
young soldier, hardly more than a boy when he died. His 
fame belongs not alone to North Carolina, but to the whole 

IsForth Carolina has cause to be proud of the record of her 
soldiers in that great war. ISTo other State, North or South, 
furnished as many men in proportion to its population, and 
certainly none were better or braver soldiers. 

The day before he received his fatal wound. General Ram- 
seur received news of the birth of his daughter, his only 
child, and he went into battle wearing a flower in her honor. 
Soldiers, comrades, we have the honor to have her with us 
today — Miss Mary Dodson Ramseur. She is the donor of 
this portrait of her gallant and distinguished father which, 
honored by her request, I now present to the State to be 
hung on these walls in perpetual memorial that the genera- 
tions to come may remember what manner of man he was 
who knew how to die for his country and his duty. 

As was said of the greatest soldier of the centuries : 

"The lightnings may flash and the loud cannon rattle. 
He heeds not, he heai's not, he's free from all pain ; 
He sleeps his last sleep, he has fought his last battle. 
No sound can awake him to glory again." 


Historic Homes, Part VII : 


By Captain Edmund Jones. 

What manner (»f men they were, what their conceptions of 
public and social duty, and what advance, if any, our civiliza- 
tion has made over that represented by them, is, or should 
be the object of the review of the lives, character and times 
of the men of the past, prominent as the builders of our State 
and master workmen upon its foundations. Objects seen 
through a mist always appear larger than the reality ; but the 
outlines are blurred and indistinct. So viewed through the 
curtain of intervening years, our ancestors seem, to our partial 
eyes, to loom up to almost gigantic proportions. Filial 
respect, inherited veneration, and pride of ancestry, have 
buried with their bodies every fault and weakness and exag- 
gerated each virtue, until it is difficult to separate the shadow 
from the substance and arrive at the true dimensions of those 
long since gone, but whom we think "have deserved well of 
the Republic." 

The ISToRTH Carolina Booklet^ that ''Old Mortality" 
among all the State publications, whose gentle mission it is 
to keep clear and distinct the names on the moss-covered 
tombs of those deemed worthy to be remembered by posterity, 
has from time to time given to the public a series of charm- 
ing sketches of men, women and places, venerable in our 
annals, but whose history is all too unknown in this hurry- 
day age. The editor of the Booklet has deemed the subject 
of this sketch to be worthy of remembrance, and has asked 
the writer to prepare a paper on Colonel William Davenport, 
of "The Fountain," in the "Happy Valley" of the Yadkin. 

William Davenport was born in Culpepper County, Vir- 
ginia, October 12, 1769, and was one of the several children 
of Martin Davenport and his wife, nee Baker. The family 
came early to America from the South of Wales, probably 

('(m,(im:i. William I )a\ kximikt. 

''the fountain" 77 

during the emigration from England of the Royalists after 
the establishment of the ''Commonwealth" under Oliver 
Cromwell. The family was an old and respected one, but 
without any claim to noble or even knightly lineage. A feAv 
years before the breaking out of the Eevolutionary War, 
Martin Davenport removed from Virginia with his family to 
Burke County, North Carolina, and made his home on John's 
River, now in the county of Caldwell. Here in this border- 
land between civilization on the East and the great mountains 
full of unfriendly Cherokees on the West, this pioneer family 
were living in abundance and in such peace as their surround- 
ings permitted, when the news of the battle of Lexington 
aroused the colonists to a realization of the fact that the^y 
were looking into the face of war. He whose trusty rifle had 
ever protected wife, child, and home from prowling enemy 
and savage beast, was equally ready to repel alien foe, and 
among the very first, Martin Davenport aligned himself with 
the Whigs and became one of the bravest, boldest and most 
efficient of that wild band that rode with Old Ben Cleveland. 

When the boy William became of school-age, the whole con- 
tinent was in the throes of the Revolution. On this remote 
frontier there were no school book and no schools. Save what 
he may have learned from the instruction of a wise and pru- 
dent mother, it is to be doubted if he ever had any schooling 
until after the close of the war ; but from what appears sub- 
sequently, it is certain that even at that tender age, the intri- 
cacies of the rifle and the use of the hunting knife were no 
mysteries to him. At the age of twelve he killed on Toe 
River, in what is now Avery County, the last elk ever seen 
wild in North Carolina. He afterwards gave the splendid 
horns to General William Lenoir, who donated them to the 
University of North Carolina, where the writer saw them in 
the attic of the old South building when he was a student at 
Chapel Hill immediately after the close of the Civil War. 

As proof of the aphorism that "the child is father to the 
man," the following incident is well vouched for, and I give 


it as related in a sketch of Colonel Davenport, written by the 
late kelson A. Powell, of Lenoir, JST. C. : ''When William 
\vas abont ten years of ag'e, a noted Tory officer named McFall, 
rode np with a squad to Martin Davenport's home, he being- 
absent on military duty. The officer demanded dinner and 
ordered William to feed their horses. William answered, 'If 
you v\"ant them fed, do it yourself, for I shan't.' The order 
was repeated, accompanied by severe threats, but he per- 
sistently refused, sensible of the degTadation involved in it. 
Upon his repeated refusal the Tory whipped him cruelly, 
ordering him to feed the horses. The Tories entered the 
house to satisfy their own appetites ; but William fed no 
horses ; instead thereof, he secured a gun and followed the 
road they were to take, for some three-fourths of a mile from 
the residence, concealed himself behind some bushes on a 
liank overhanging the road, cocked the gun and waited for 
the officer and squad to approach his ambush, when he in- 
tended to shoot him. Providentially for William, and perhaps 
for the Tory, before the squad approached him, they turned 
from the main road and took a near cut by a bridle path. 
The boy waited until the sun began to set before he returned 
to eat his own dinner, and to see what had become of the 
unwelcome guests.'' McFall nevertheless did not escape ven- 
geance, for later he was among those captured at King's 
Mountain, and was among the thirty-two upon whom the 
death sentence w^as imposed, seven of whom only were actu- 
ally executed. McFall was among those whose sentence was 
commuted until Colonel Ben Cleveland, who was one of the 
court-martial, hearing McFall's name called, and remember- 
ing the incident above mentioned, spoke out, "That man 
McFall is not fit to live ; he went to the house of one of my 
best soldiers, Martin Davenport, while he was absent, in- 
sulted Mrs. Davenport and whipped his child. Hang him!" 
The sentence was carried out thereupon and forthwith. 

One can hardly realize in our time the obstacles in the way 
of acquiring even a rudimentary education in a remote section 

''the fountain" 79 

of the country during the period immediately following the 
close of the Revolution. But, that Colonel Davenport did 
acquire a very solid and substantial knov^ledge of our lan- 
guage, as well as excellent proficiency in mathematics, is 
evidenced from the fact that he was early recogTiized as one 
of the most accurate and reliable surveyors in all western 
Carolina. It is to be deplored that the identity of his teacher 
cannot now be established. Whosoever he was, he was an 
instructor of rare proficiency. School books were scarce and 
costly. The writer has several of William Davenport's school 
books. Among them a curious old geography with many 
quaint maps, and an arithmetic written out in full from 
cover to cover with pen and ink, with every letter and figure 
beautifully made, and the different headings flourished out 
in several colored inks, doubtless the product of the trees, 
shrubs and berries that were natives of the forests that sur- 
rounded his home. On the inside of the card-board cover in 
Colonel Davenport's handwriting, is the statement that ''W. 
Davenport made this book at school in the year 1787.'' The 
book is about the size of a merchant's day-book, and, in com- 
mon with several others on different subjects, is covered with 
buckskin from deer, doubtless the victims of his own rifle, 
and tanned with that beauty of finish and certainty of dura- 
bility, the method of which was so well known to the Indians 
and early hunters, but which in our day seems to be among 
the lost arts. 

In the year 1800 Colonel Davenport represented Burke 
County in the lower House of the General Assembly, and in 
1802 was the State Senator from that district. His sterling- 
worth and fine character even at the age of thirty-one had 
impressed itself upon his fellow citizens. Among the papers 
of Waightstill Avery, the sigTier of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion, was found addressed to the voters, a letter in which 
"young Billy Davenport" is recommended as a fit and proper 
person to represent the county in the General Assembly. 
Then, as now, politics had its rough side, for the Colonel 


becaiiu' involved in a controversy with General Bains Edney. 
Tlie matter led to a cliallenge from General Edney to Colonel 
Davenport. The challenge was accepted, and arrangements 
made by their seconds to meet at six o'clock the next morning 
at a designated spot near Morganton and settle the difficulty 
with rifles. Colonel Davenport was promptly on hand at the 
time and place with his deadly rifle, but his antagonist never 
showed up. Information of the meeting had somehow gotten 
to the otficers of the law, and General Edney had been placed 
under arrest, and the duel prevented. 

About this time he married Mary Gordon, widow of Major 
Charles Gordon, and eldest daughter of General William 
Lenoir. Major Gordon was one of the distinguished Wilkes 
C\iuntv family of that name, and was the uncle of General 
John B. Gordon, of Georgia, and also General James B. 
Gordon, commander of the famous ISTorth Carolina cavalry 
brigade of Lee's Army. After his marriage, he moved his 
residence to the ''Happy Valley" in order that his wife might 
remain near her family and kindred. In 1807 he completed 
"The Fountain," named from a beautiful spring near by, the 
fine old home where he spent the remainder of his days, and 
which is still the seat of a gracious hospitality at the hands 
of his great grandchildren. The sills of the house are of 
massive black walnut logs, hewed to a square. The pillars of 
the portico were of the same precious wood, and were painted 
ivhite to correspond with the rest of the house and as a matter 
of adornment. Black walnut was of no particular value 
then, while white paint was considered the limit of taste and 
elegance. ''The Fountain" was henceforth one of those fine 
old country homes of the ''Happy Valley," the occupants of 
which were all related, and where for a hundred years a 
gracious hospitality was, and still is, dispensed. 

The Fountain, as originally constructed, was along building 
lines generally in vogue at that day and time for residences 
on Southern plantations. Two stories in height, with a por- 
tico in front the entire length of the house, the corresponding 

"the fountain" 81 

side in the rear one-storj shed rooms built to and constituting 
a part of the main building. At each end were great, broad, 
massive chimneys, and on the inside fire-places in each room 
corresponding in size to the chimneys. There was not a pas- 
sage in the house ; their use and convenience seem not to have 
been known or were unappreciated. The staircase ran up 
ft'om the inside of the rooms, all of which, on the same floor, 
were connected by doors in the partition walls. Immediately 
under the roof was the gTeat garret ; that awful and myste- 
rious region where ghosts walked and where dire and fearful 
engines of torment were stored for the purpose of administer- 
ing punishment to delinquent children or those too daring or 
inquisitive in their investigations. The "big house" occupied 
one side of a quadrilateral. On another was the dairy, the 
loom-room and the kitchen ; opposite on the other side was the 
smoke-house, granary and carriage house. On the far side 
and in the rear across the road were the negro quarters in 
easy call of the master's voice, the whole constituting the 
typical planter's seat, as many of the passing generation re- 
member them. The outlook from the front commanded 
mountain and valley, and took in the entire scope of the broad 
acres that constituted the plantation. In the interior the 
inevitable grandfather clock, made in Morganton early in the 
nineteenth century by one of those wonderfully skillful wan- 
dering clockmakers, whose tribe machinery has caused to be- 
come extinct, still sits in the place where for so many years 
it ticked oft' the days, hours, minutes and seconds. 

At the close of the Civil War Captain William Davenport 
Jones, a grandson, returned from the battlefields and made 
"The Fountain" his home. Here he lived until his own 
death four years ago. Here sons and daughters were born 
unto him ; here some have "gone to the bridal, some to the 
grave" ; here some of them still reside, and here is the spot 
that they all, wherever located, call "home." 

About the year 1879, Captain Jones prevailed upon that 
accomplished Englishman, General Collett Leventhorpe, and 


his wife, to coiiie to "The Fouiitaiir' and make it his home. 
He and (reneral Leventhorpe had married sisters, daughters 
of General Edmund Bryan, of Rutherford. They had served 
through the war together, and were much attached to each 
other, brothers in affection as well as brothers-in-law. With 
him General Leventhropo brought many rare, curious and 
beautiful works of art; bronzes, vases, etchings and paintings, 
on canvas, on wood and on metal, collected in all sorts of 
places and in many climes, representing the Dutch, Flemish 
and Italian schools. None of them were less than a hundred 
years old, and many much older. Among them, peerless in 
its beauty, is a painting of the Madonna and Child that 
legend ascribes, and many good judges believe, is one of the 
earlier works of the gTeat Raphael. Be that as it may, it is 
wonderfully beautiful, and it shows for itself that it is very 
ancient. There are also in the collection many etchings of 
Rembrandt, and two paintings of Ostard, an exquisite copy 
of the Temperantia vase, and what is believed to be a crucifix 
in solid silver by Benvenuto Cellini. At his death General 
Leventhorpe left his rare collection to his wife, and when she 
died, having no children of her o^^m, she divided by will these 
art treasures among her nephews and nieces, children of Cap- 
tain Jones. The Raphael ( ?), together with many of the 
rarest and most valuable articles, is still to be seen at ''The 

In 1813 Colonel Davenport was sent to represent the 
county of Wilkes in the General Assembly, but thereafter 
could not be induced to accept another election. He was, how- 
ever, for a number of years register of the county, with his 
accomplished wife as his chief amanuensis. The books of that 
office made during the period of his incumbency, are well 
worth examining. The writer has never seen any records that 
in beauty and excellence were their equal. Whole volumes 
appear in the copper-plate hand of Mrs. Davenport without a 
scratch, blot or erasure. 

TnK F()r.\TA;.\." thk Homk of Cdloxki. I 


"the fountain" 83 

In 1821 he was appointed by the Commissioners on the 
part of ISTorth Carolina, as surveyor for the State, to join 
with the representatives of the State of Tennessee in surveying- 
out and establishing the dividing line between the two States 
from the point where another set of Commissioners left oft' 
in 1779, to the Georgia line, a stretch of near one hundred 
and twenty miles. The whole distance was through a wild, 
rough, densely wooded and almost uninhabited mountain 
country. This trying and difficult service was performed with 
the same particularity and fidelity that marked everything 
that fell in the line of his duty. Accurate reports, field notes 
and maps were made and deposited iii the archives of the 
State, where, unfortunately they were lost or destri)yed in 
the burning of the old Capitol. JSTearly a hundred years after- 
ward a great lawsuit sprung up between the claimants of 
many thousand acres of very valuable timber lands situated 
along the line that had been run. The plaintifi's claimed 
under grants from the State of 2sr()rth Carolina, the defend- 
ants by virtue of grants from the State of Tennessee. The 
Tennessee records were too incomplete to decide the location 
of the line, while those of ISTorth Carolina had been destroyed. 
The marks made on the trees at the time the survey was 
made had nearly "grown out," and the living witnesses had 
all passed away. In this dilemma the writer was applied to, 
to make a search among Colonel Davenport's old papers, to 
which he had ready access, and see if anything could be un- 
earthed that might throw light upon the troubled question. 
A mass of ancient papers was gone through, but without 
result. At last a gTcat, massive sideboard that had always 
in Colonel Davenport's day sat against the wall in the par- 
lor, was entered and searched. From its labyrinth of pigeon 
holes, concealed receptacles and secret drawers was at last 
abstracted a note book, and upon examination it was found 
to be the long lost field notes of Colonel Davenport, giving the 
course and distance of every part of the line. This was at 
once placed in the hands of Attorney General T. W. Bickett, 


and by him laid before the Supreme Court of the United 
States, where the case was then pending' on appeal. These 
notes decided the controversy, and Xorth Carolina won out, 
thanks to the forethought and careful business methods of 
(^olonel Davenport. 

lu personal appearance he was a most striking figure. Five 
feet and ten inches in height, with broad, massive shoulders 
and deep chest, he tapered from shoulder to the small foot 
encased in a number six shoe. The body was surmounted 
with a noble head covered by a snow-white, leonine mane, 
which curled down and rested on his shoulders. The face, 
of which a great Roman nose was the chief feature, was 
lit up by a pair of clean, clear, straight looking eyes, blue in 
color and set beneath an overhanging brow ; a firm, square 
jaw and straight, well set lips, the whole constituting a face 
and figure once seen was not easily forgotten. Great age was 
never able to bow his figure with the weight of years, and at 
near ninety he was as straight as a lance. He was remarkably 
neat in dress, and while his apparel was of good and simple 
material, it was the product of the best tailors of his day. 
He sometimes told with great relish an anecdote at his o^^^l 
expense as illustrative of the notable prominence of his chief 
facial feature. While dining on one occasion at the hospi- 
table residence of Hon. John Hinton, one of his fellow mem- 
bers of the Legislature from Wake County, Mrs. Hinton, im- 
])ressed and in a manner fascinated by the great eagle-beak, 
intended to ask him "to make a long arm'' and help himself 
to some dish on the ta1)le, but unconsciously speaking whai. 
was uppermost in her mind, asked him "to make long nose" 
and help himself to the salad, to the utter confusion of the 
gTacious lady, and the intense amusement of the company, 
Colonel Davenport included. 

Being of a quick and somewhat irascible temper, he kept 
a constant guard over it, and regulated his life in society, in 
business, in methods and in words, by rules of his own mak- 
ing, in the observance of which he was firm and even obsti- 

"the fountain" 85 

nate. He was the owner of a great and fertile plantation, 
and "The Fountain" was always the home of abundance. 
1^0 attention was paid by him to prevailing market prices 
for products of the farm. Intrinsic value alone was his guide. 
A bushel of corn was the synonym for fifty cents, and a bushel 
of wheat for a dollar. If the market price for either was 
above these figures he still sold for the same ; if below, he let 
it remain in his crib, unless he gave it away. This writer 
has seen one of his cribs containing a thousand bushels of two 
year old corn. "Davenport measure" was proverbial in his 
day, and the meaning is even now well understood by the 
older men of his community. A half bushel meant a measure 
upon which the contents must be piled as long as it could be 
heaped on, the result of which was that it took five pecks to 
make a Davenport bushel. 

As illustrative of the firmness with which he maintained his 
"rules," I was told more than twenty-five years ago, by one 
of his neighbors, himself then over ninety years old, the fol- 
lowing instance, which I give in his own language: "One 
year there was almost an entire failure of the wheat crop, and 
the quality was so poor that I did not think it was worth while 
to save any of it for seed. Some one told me that Colonel 
Davenport has raised some good wheat of a new kind. I 
went down to see him and get eight bushels to sow. Wlien 
I mentioned my business to him he said, 'Yes, Johnnie, I 
have some wheat that will do very well for seed.' Upon being 
asked the price, he replied that he always had one price for 
grain, 50 cents for corn and a dollar for wheat. I thereupon 
told him that I would take eight bushels, but that I did not 
have the money to pay for it right then. To this he replied, 
'That's all right,' but if not paid for in cash the price would 
be a dollar and five cents. I argiied the matter with him, but 
he was firm, saying that was his rule, and he couldn't break 
his rule for anybody. After a while I got a little piqued, and 
told him I wouldn't take it. This appeared to disturb him 
powerful, and he run his hands down in his breeches pockets 


and dropped his bead and seemed to study a long time. After 
a while he raised his head and says, 'Johnnie, I'll tell you 
how we can tix this. I haven't got any rule against lending 
a friend money, and I'll lend you the money to pay for the 
wheat, and you can pay it back whenever you get ready.' I 
told him that if that suited him better it was all right with 
me. He then ran his hand down into his pocket and pulled 
out eight dollars and handed them to me, and I handed them 
back to him and took the wheat." 

The writer remembers once being at "The Fountain'' when 
two great, four-horse wagons drove up and wanted 100 bushels 
of corn. The preceding year, owing to prolonged drought, 
had cut the crop to a point where, outside of the fertile bot- 
tom lands of the Yadkin, there was great scarcity in the sur- 
rounding counties, and the price was unusually high. On 
the occasion mentioned, the following conversation took place : 
"Good morning ! Is this Colonel Davenport ?" ''Yes." "Col- 
onel, we understand you have some corn to sell ?" "Yes, I 
have some that I could spare." "Well, we want to buy a 
hundred bushels, and we have the money to pay for it." 
"Where are you from V asked the Colonel. They told him 
from Gaston. "You say you have the money to pay for it ?" 
They told him they had. "Well," said the Colonel, "If you 
have the money to pay for it you can drive on down the river, 
where there is plenty of corn for sale. I am going to keep 
mine, for my poor neighbors that can't pay for it." This 
ended the negotiation. 

Soon after the completion of his residence, he erected in 
a beautiful grove on his plantation, and in a central and con- 
venient location, a large and roomy church with an aimex for 
negroes, and here during his life, whenever there was service, 
he and his relatives and neighbors, with their many slaves, 
might be found assembled for worship. He always retained 
the title to the property, for he would never permit it to be 
sectarianized, though he himself was a devoted Methodist. 
He was one of the foremost subscribers to all the churches 

"the foujn^taijst" 87 

erected in Lenoir during his lifetime, althougli he lived eight 
miles away in the country. He was one of the founders and 
the chief contributor to Davenport Female College, which 
was named in his honor, and in which he maintained a 
warm interest as long as he lived. He abhorred thriftlessness 
and waste, but no worthy poor or unfortunate man ever went 
away from his presence empty-handed. 

For sixty-five years he was a justice of the peace, and 
settled the controversies and contentions of his neighbors 
according to that patriarchal code, which, at that time, was 
the ''common law of the land." 

He loved the open-air life, and even after he had passed 
his fourscore years, could be seen every forenoon, when 
weather permitted, riding horseback over his broad acres, 
while the summer afternoons were passed on the portico doz- 
ing in his arm-chair, occasionally rousing to throw his cane 
at some impudent crowing rooster that was disturbing his 

So peacefully did his life pass away that he refused to take 
to his bed, and he died with loving eyes fixed upon the moun- 
tains that had been to him both companions and shelter 
through all the long years of his life. 


Martha McFarlane Bell. 

By Maby Hilliard Hinton. 

Some claim that ]S[ortli Carolina has had few women of the 
heroic type that by their phenomenal gifts have performed 
deeds that have attracted and held the attention of the world 
to such an extent as to win permanent places in her archives. 
This idea prevails through sheer ignorance. No State can 
show a longer list of Eevolutionary heroines and as loyal de- 
votion to the patriot cause as the dames and damsels of the 
Old North State. Caruthers himself says: 'Tt is believed 
that there w^ere as many females in the Old North State as in 
any other, who, for their sacrifices, their sufferings, and their 
patriotic services, deserve an honorable notice in history as 
in any one of the 'Old Thirteen.' " Think of a slip of a 
girl saving the Albemarle section from the invader's pillage ! 
Such was the service rendered her country by Betsy Dowdy 
when she warned General Skinner of the British plans, 
thereby making possible the victor}' of the Battle of Great 
Bridge. The defiance of the brave women of Edenton, 
spurred on by Penelope Barker, adds another gem to our 
rosary of patriotic achievements. To commemorate their 
heroic patriotism, the Daughters of the Revolution placed in 
the rotunda of the State Capitol the first memorial that has 
adorned that building. Doctor Dillard has told of them in 
the first volume of the Booklet. Little Virginia Dare's 
story was the first article contributed to our magazine, and 
that ideal type of the Old Regime, the late Major Graham 
Daves, was the author. Doctor Henderson has wa'itten for 
us the life of the brave Elizabeth Maxw^ell Steele; Mr. VV. C. 
Ervin has recounted the deeds of the beautiful Grace Green- 
lee ; the rides of Mary Slocumb and Rebecca Lanier have been 
described. Other names that deserve homage are forgotten, 
and facts concerning their chequered lives have not been 


collected. It is the object of the Blooinsbury Chapter to 
gather the names of ISTorth Carolina's notable women, to write 
sketches of their lives and to store them away among the 
archives of the State Society. 

Of the heroines of the Revolution none were braver than 
Martha McFarlane Bell, whose existence from the day of 
open hostilities till peace settled down on the ramparts of 
Yorktown was harassed by constant dangers. Hers was iiot 
the pyrotechnic display of a few honrs heroism ; it covered the 
expanse of the years that marked the period known as the 
American Revolution. The Reverend E. W. Caruthers, D.D., 
published his book, '^The Old oSTorth State in 1776," in 1856, 
and as late in the century as that, he states, the knowledge 
of her life was each year becoming more unreliable, and that 
his sketch of Mrs. Bell contains the reminiscences of indi- 
viduals who had the advantage of knowing her personally, 
and he can vouch for their authenticity. 

In historic Orange County Mrs. Bell was born and reared. 
Her home was situated in the southern part, or that section 
which later fell within the boundaries of the present county 
of Alamance. She sprang from Scotch or Scotch-Irish an- 
cestry, as her maiden name McFarlane indicates. She could 
at no time of life have been called a beauty, Init she possessed 
some fine features, and was considered "a good looking 
woman.'' Though by no means masculine, but ever deporting 
herself with modesty, she was gifted with a strong mind, an 
ardent temperament and gTeat firmness. She could love de- 
votedly and hate with equal intensity, which made her a 
valuable friend, but an undesirable enemy. She possessed a 
high sense of duty, and won and held the respect of the com- 
munities in which she lived. She feared her Maker, and 
nothing on earth. 

Some eight or ten years prior to the Revolution Martha 
McFarlane married a young widower, Colonel John McGee, 
with two children and an ample fortune. Their home was 
on Sandy Creek in the northern portion of Randolph County. 


Colonel McGee owned a vast landed estate, a mill, a country 
store, etc., and carried on a larger business than any other 
man in Kandolph. Dying about the beginning- of the Revo- 
lution, he left his wife with live little children, three boys 
and two girls, to struggle with the world. One son became a 
Presb\'terian, tlie other a Methodist, minister — all were in 
time church members. Being the richest widow in that 
locality, it is said many sought her hand in marriage, par- 
ticularly the frisky young widowers and the less matrimon- 
ially inclined bachelors of the prime, who evidently because 
she turned do^vn their attentions considered her "a little 
haughty." Finally William Bell, a widower, won her affec- 
tions, and on May (!, 1779, they were united in the holy 
bonds of matrimony. 

From the moment the ties were severed with the Mother 
Country, Mrs. Bell espoused the patriot cause. Many are the 
incidents related that tested her remarkable fearlessness and 
presence of mind. Danger, instead of intimidating her, 
merely inspired to greater exertion of mind and body. She 
desired above all things to be useful, and being by nature a 
nurse, she never let an opportunity pass to serve the sick and 
needy, going when called to any one, even long distances, by 
sun as well as moon and starlight. These acts of kindness 
were gTatuitous till the ravages of war depleted her one-time 
plentiful possessions, then a regular charge was made. To 
take such journeys this brave woman risked in those troub- 
lous times and to escape unharmed seems indeed a marvel. 
The country was but sparsely settled, the roads at times almost 
impassable, and cuthroats and desperadoes ubiquitous, yet 
this woman, mounted on a noble steed and armed with dirk 
and pistols like the knight of old, sallied forth on deeds of 
mercy. During the war she sometimes encountered insults 
and attacks at the hands of ruffians, but her wonderful self- 
possession always rescued her from harm. 

On one occasion, about the close of the devolution, she was 
traveling an unfrequented road, obeying an appeal for help, 


when she espied ahead a perfect desperado and outlaw by the 
name of Stephen Lewis, generally called Steve Lewis, a 
member of Fanning's Corps. When he beheld her approach- 
ing he dismounted, hitched his horse, set his gam against a 
tree and then took his stand in the middle of the road. As 
she approached he seized her horse by the bridle and ordered 
her to dismount, at which she drew her pistol and threatened 
to shoot him on the spot should he move a step. Woman's 
nature is not to take human life, though had Mrs. Bell fired 
and killed this notorious Tory, it would have been a Cordet- 
like act. However, she pursued the milder course and was 
content with taking him prisoner, driving him home before 
her at the point of the pistol, ready at any moment to fire. 
Since there was no man there to keep guard over him, he 
escaped to meet later by his own brother's hand death in his 
own house. 

After the profitless victory at Guilford Courthouse, Corn- 
wallis' Army on its way to Wilmington encamped for about 
two days at the Bell plantation. The troops arrived about 
the middle of the afternoon, the main division stacked arms 
at John Clarke's, the adjoining plantation. While Corn- 
wallis seized her house as headquarters, he knew the char- 
acter of the landlady, and treated her with marked respect. 
Cornwallis enquired the whereabouts of William Bell. 

She replied : "In Greene's camp." 

''Is he an officer or a soldier in the army ?" 

"He is not ; but thought it better to go to his friends than 
to stay and fall into the hands of his enemies." 

"Madam I must make your house my headquarters, and 
have the use of your mill for a few days to grind for my 
army while I remain here." 

"Sir, you possess the power, and, of course will do as you 
please without my consent ; but, after using my mill, do you 
intend to burn it before you leave ?" 

"Madam, why do you ask that question ?" 


"Sir, answer my question first, then I will answer yours in 
a short time." 

His lordship then assured her that the mill should not he 
burnt or injured ; hut that he must use it to prepare provisions 
for his army, and further added : That by making her house 
his headquarters he would be a protection to herself, her 
house, and everything in or about it; "for," said he, "no sol- 
dier of mine dare to plunder or commit depredations near my 

To this she replied : "Now, sir, you have done me a favor 
by giving me a satisfactory answer to my question, and I will 
answer yours. Had your lordship said that you intended to 
burn our mill, 1 had intended to save you the trouble by burn- 
ing it myself before you derived much benefit from it ; but 
as you assure me that you will be a protection to me, and to 
the property about the house, I will make no further objec- 
tions to your using our mill, and making my house your 
headquarters while you stay, which I think you said would 
be only for a few days." 

This compact was kept literally by both parties. 

When Cornwallis entered the house he announced his 
annihilation of Greene's Army, and that henceforth thev 
could do no more harm. In a few moments, by the command- 
er's action, it was learned that this was mere bravado. The 
vernal equinox was approaching, which caused the cold, high 
wind. On that account the back door, that overlooked the 
Martinsville-Fayetteville road, was kept shut. Cornwallis 
opened this and stood a few moments gazing up the road, then 
again took his seat by the fire. Mrs. Bell immediately shut it. 
The British peer again opened it, and returned to his chair, 
showing extreme restlessness, being unable to stay in one posi- 
tion five minutes. When Mrs. Bell closed the door the second 
time, he insisted that the door be left open. When asked the 
reason, he said General Greene might be comiug down the 


''Wbj," said she, "I thought you told me a little while 
ago that you had annihilated his army, and that he could do 
you no more harm." 

To this he answered: "Well, madam, to tell you the truth, 
I never saw such fighting since God made me, and another 
such victory would annihilate me." 

Mrs. Bell was much vexed to have her house occupied by 
imperious, profane men, though the commander's presence 
protected her to a certain extent and she escaped the insult 
hurled at Mrs. Caldwell's head seven days before. They 
seized her grain, cattle, provisions and whatsoever they chose, 
without compensation. At a distance she could hear the 
soldiers cursing her as a rebel and uttering maledictions. 
Through all she bore herself with dignity and without fear. 
One day a man in passing her door hurled at her some insult- 
ing language. She expressed a wish that the horse might 
throw him and break his neck. In several minutes her wish 
was granted. Dashing headlong down the steep bank of the 
river the rider was thrown and his head crushed amid the 

Being warned of the approach of the enemy, she employed 
every means to hide her coin and bacon. The pork she 
secreted in rocks across the river, the money — divided chiefly 
in "guineas and half Jos" — she placed under a huge rock, 
which formed the bottom step at the entrance. This was a 
favorite depository for the Whigs' cash, and knowing that, the 
enemy frequently lifted the steps in search of hidden treasure. 
Knowing she ran the risk of losing the savings of years, she 
tried one day by going through the camp to divert the atten- 
tion of the enemy, after lingering there till all became in 
some way engaged, then she walked boldly to the step, lifted 
the rock, took up her coin and went about her own affairs. 
A man named Stephen Harlin had been employed by the 
Bells in the capacity of miller for several years. He had the 
reputation of being a rascal and a Tory, as his conduct proved, 
letting the British have orain and meal out of the mill and 


rovealing tlic liidiiii>' place of lier bacon, all of which tliev 
stole. For this theft she never forgave him, declining henee- 
fortli to speak to him. On the arrival of the British he threw 
his caj) in the air, shouting, "Hurra for King George!" Har- 
lin was not dismissed until a miller could l)e hired that gave 
jiultlic satisfaction. 

The evening that C^ornwallis' forces retreated, Mrs. Bell 
visited the camp, ostensibly on some errand, but in truth to 
ascertain the real condition to report to Colonel Lee and 
C'olonel Washington, who, hanging on the rear of the Red- 
coats, gave considerable trouble. General Greene must know 
the force of his enemv, who was heavily encumbered with the 
Avounded, who were dying all along the highway. Donning 
her husband's uniform and arming herself well, she rode 
forth into the British camp, then at the Walker plantation on 
Sandy Creek, on the pretext of a claim for depredations com- 
mitted that were unknown till the soldiers departed, she was 
keenly alert, and returned bearing information to the Patriots. 

There is another exploit that even surpassed in daring the 
reconnoissance of the British camp. That was the night she 
rode the entire night in company with a Whig in order to 
ascertain the movements of the Tories said to have been form- 
ing across the river fourteen miles distant from her house. 
The perils of such a journey were indeed great. At each 
house she was the "spokesman." She would enquire the road 
to a certain point, and on to another, etc. She made such 
enquiries as, "Were there any Royalists embodied in that di- 
rection ?" "Where was their place of meeting?" "How far 
was it ?" "What was their number ?" "What were they going 
to do ?" "Would they molest her ?" In this way she learned 
satisfactorily of the enemies' movements since the informa- 
tion led to Colonel Lee's successful raid the following night. 

Mrs. Bell's staunch patriotism invited attacks from the 
Tories. In such constant danger did they live, her husband 
daretl not lodge there at night. On one visitation they burned 
the bam and its contents, wounded one of her sons and threat- 


ened to shoot another, because they protested against such 
depredations. Another night they attempted to murder her 
aged father then on a visit to his daughter's family. When 
two desperate characters approached him with drawn swords, 
seeing she must act quickly, Mrs. Bell seized a broad-axe 
tightly with both hands, raised it above her head, exclaimed 
with gTeat sternness, "If one of you touches him I'll split 
you down with this axe. Touch him if you dare !" Her 
earnestness and defiant attitude overawed them to such an 
extent they left the house. In the fall of 1781, after a trip 
jS^orth, Mr. Bell attempted to sleep beneath his own roof. The 
Tories, learning of his presence, called promptly with inten- 
tions of hanging him. Finding the house securely closed, 
they prepared to apply the torch. When they were passing 
around the house Mr. Bell thrust his head out of the window 
to see if they had applied the torch, and in case they did, to 
fire upon them. A Tory very near to the window inflicted such 
a wound on his head that he was completely overcome. Mrs. 
Bell summoned her youthful sons — lads in their teens — from 
their beds upstairs and ordered them to get the old musket, 
ready to fire from the upper windows, and going to the win- 
dows near the kitchen yelled to their servant Peter, "Run as 
hard as you can to Jo. Clarke's and tell him and the light 
horse to come as quickly as possible, for the Tories are here." 
Mr. Clarke had a troop of mounted men at his command, but 
of their whereabouts at that moment Mrs. Bell was then 
ignorant. So, apprehensive of shots from above, and of Jo. 
Clarke's "light horse," the Tories concluded to retreat was the 
wiser course. 

Of Mrs. Bell's trip to Wilmington in company with Mrs. 
Dugan to visit the latter's son. Colonel Thomas Dugan, lonii: 
confined on a prison ship, and condemned to be hung, space 
forbids more than passing mention. With perilous adven- 
tures like these Mrs. Bell's remarkable career was filled. She 
loved peace, and with sincere rejoicing laid aside the pistol 
and the dirk, and took up again her domestic duties and mis- 


sions of mercy that multiplied as practice enhanced her skill. 
A peaceful reign contains but few events to record, so it is 
with individuals, therefore of Mrs. Bell's latter days we can 
learn but little. Just when Mr. Bell died is not known, but 
Mrs. Bell was many years a widow. Though constantly per- 
forming acts of kindness, and leading a most exemplary life, 
she did not connect herself with the church until 1800. About 
the eighty-fifth year of her age, on September 9, 1820, her 
spirit passed peacefully over the Bar, Hers was an unusual 
character, endowed with many sterling qualities, that, con- 
sidering her few advantages, enabled her to act nobly her part 
in times that tried men's souls. 



Genealogical Department. 


Compiled by Sybil Hyatt, Kinston, N. C. 

Generation I — William Robbins. 

Will. April 7, 1779. November Court, 1781. Eldest son: 
Arthur. Sons : William, Jethro, Thomas, John. Grandson : 
Jesse Green. Daughters: Luraney Horn (great grandmother 
of Martha C. Home, second wife of Jesse Battle Hyatt), 
Elizabeth, now wife of Thomas Williams ; Charity, now wife 
of David Sears ; Milly. Executors : John Williams, John 
Robbens. Witnesses: Benjamin Weaver, Jacob Robbins, 
Mary Robbens. 

Inventory August 24, 1781 : William Robbens, 662 acres, 
11 negroes, etc. Executors : John Williams, John Robbens. 

William Robbins' wife may have been a Battle. The 
Homes were kin to the Battles. The Battles were Baptists. 

Generation II — William Bobbins. 

William Robbins md. 1st Martha (or Patsey) Farmer, 
daughter of Isaac Farmer, Jr.; md. 2d Phebe. His 
daughter Mary Robbins, wife of Joab Hyatt, was by his first 
wife. It is thought Phebe had no children. 

Deed, October 16, 1802, Isaac Farmer to daughter Pat- 
sey Robbins, one negro girl. Penny. Test : Jesse Farmer, 
Elizabeth Thomas. 

Will. October 2, 1826. Feb. Court, 1831. William Rob- 
bins, Senr. Lends to wife Phebe, "plantation I live on" ; at 
her death it is to go ro grandsons: M<>?es Robbins, son of 
Elijah Robbins, and Wiley Robbins, ?cn of Eli Ivobbins. 
Residue divided between 3 sons and one daughter: Stephen, 
Elijah, Eli and Charity Braswell, v/ife of Isaac Bra swell, 
Senr. Son : William Robbins. Executor : Son, Stephen Rob- 


bins. Tost: I'ritaiii Williford, Caleb Davis, Mary Ann 

I Tbis will omits tbe names of tbe daughters, Mary Hyatt 
and Milly Moore. They probably received some property at 

William Robbins was a Baptist preacher and a soldier of 
the Revolution. [For services, see Vol. XVII, page 243.] 

The line between Edgecombe and I^ash counties was 
changed by legislative enactment in 1872. This put the old 
William Robbins (d. 1831) homestead in southeast Nash. 
Of the older Robbins, Jacob lived in Edgecombe, near Joy- 
ner's Depot until the formation of Wilson County ; Eli lived 
in Wilson County, near Moore's Church ; Arthur lived in 
Wilson County. 

GenerxVtion III — Maey Robbins (Hyatt). 

Mary Robbins md. 1st Joab Hyatt, b. Xov. !>, 1787, son 
of Elisha and Elizabeth Hyatt. She md. 2d a Savage, lived 
at Tarboro, N. C, and died there April 16, 1871. Her throe 
children were Jesse Battle Hyatt, b. July 1, 1820, d. Dec. 
9, 1886 ; Henry Hyatt d. when 14 years old ; Elizabeth Hyatt 
(b. about 1815, d. Oct., 1860) ; md. Isaac Braswell (b. 
about 1800, d. May, 1873), son of Isaac Braswell, a soldier 
of the Revolution. She had 13 children, four of whom are 
now living. 

A Century of Population Growth [1790-1900] gives the 
information that in 1790 there were in the United States 
354 families, numbering 1,690 persons named Robbins, Rob- 
bin, Robens, Robin, Robins, Robons, 36 of these families 
were in IST. C. The names of the Heads of Families living in 
Edgecombe were as follows : 

John Robbins: 1 Free white males of 16 yrs. and up, in- 
cluding heads of families, 1 Free white males under 16, 3 
Free white females, including heads of families, 15 slaves. 
Roland Robbins: 1 Free white males of 16 yrs. and up, 5 
Free white nuiles under 16, 3 Free white females. Sarah 
Robbins: 1 Fi-eo white males of 16 yrs and up, 4 Free white 


females. Wm. Robbins: 2 Free white males of KJ yrs. and 
up, 4 Free white males under 16, 4 Free white females. Wm. 
Eobbins : 1 Free white males of 16 yrs and up, 3 Free white 
males under 16, 2 Free white Females. 

[The following miscellaneous records include all wills and 
one record under each name to 1827.] 

Will. Thomas Robins. Dec. 4, 1775. Jan. Court, 1776. 
Wife: not named, ^'plantation 1 now live on," and other 
property during her widowhood, then to son, William. Other 
sons: Rowland, "land and plantation he lives upon, which I 
bought of Boyett," and other property; Simon, "plantation 
bought of Mills Barefield," and other property. Remainder 
to be divided among "all my daughters." Executors : Son, 
Rowland Robins, William Blackburn. Witnesses: William 
Robins, Robert Rogers. Clerk of Court : Edward Hall. 

Will. Sarah Robbins. April 29, 1809. August Court, 
1809. Son: Roland Robins. Daughters: Ledy Regers, Milly 
Rogers, Zilley, Elizabeth. Grandson: Simon Parker. Ex- 
ecutor : Friend, Joseph Barnes. Witnesses : Thomas Dixon, 
James Barnes. Clerk of Court : E. Hall. 

Will. John Robbins. Feb. 20, 1819. May Court, 1819 
Daughters: Elizabeth D. Pender, £25; Nancy Amason, £25; 
Beedy, "the whole of my land and plantation, with still and 
blacksmith tools and 8 negroes." Granddaughter : Catherine 
Williams, 3 negroes and 2 cows and calves. Other legatees: 
Thomas Amason, 1 negro and note for $350, rest to be sold 
and division made of lands and rest of negroes "hired until 
grandchildren are of age." Executors: John Mercer, John 
Bridgers, Thomas Amason. Witnesses: E. Bullock, Henry 
Dixon, Bursell Barnes (contested by Thomas Amason and 
Nancy, his wife, Elizabeth Pender and Catherine Williams, 
an infant by Egbert H. Williams, her next friend. 

Other Wills: Roland Robbins (1832), Jacob liobbins 
(1841), Isaac Robbins (1847), Simon Robbins (1848). 



Nov. iM;, 1T()1.. Grant. William Robens, next John Wil- 
liams' corner, ')'2S acres. 

17(51. Grant, lioland Robhins. 

Feb. 15, 1701. Grant. John Kobius. 

Jnnc 1*2. I70i'. Deed. William I\obbins to George Gard- 

Jan. 7, 170;;. Deed. John Kobins, planter, to Thomas 
White, south side of To^vll Creek. 

April 12, 1705. John Jones to Jacob Robins. 

June 12, 1705. Charles Jones and Patience, his wife to 
Jacob Robbins. 

April 12, 1705. Charles Jones to Jacob Robins. 

Jan. IS, 1771. William Boyett to Thomas Robins. 

Oct. 21, 1777. William Robbins to Shadrack Proctor, 
south side of Town Creek, absolute estate of inheritance. 

Dec. 21, 1781. Grant. Stephen Robbins. 

Oct. 28, 1782. Grant. Roland Robbins. 

Dee. 2, 1782. Jacob Robbins to Richard Lee. 

May 15, 1782. Simon Robins to Spencer Ball. 

April 2, 1780. Tliomas Brand to John liobins. 

May 11, 1787. Grant. Roland Robens. 

Oct. 28, 1782. Grant. Sarah Robins. Fairfield, north 
side Toisnot Swamp, joins Caleb Williams and Roland 

Oct. !), 178:]. Grant. William Robins. 

March 20, 171)3. John Robbins to Cullen Andrews. 

Dec. 1, 1700. Jordan Williford to ]\lills Robbins, on Town 

Aug. 21, 1707. Jonathan Gardner to stills (or Wells) 

July 24, 1709. Peter Slaughter to Stephen Robbins. On 
Town Creek. Test: J. Williams and William Robbins, Jr. 
Grant. William Tiobbins on Tyancoca Swamp. [On the 
nortli side of Coca Swamp, about a thousand feet west of the 


A. C. L, Railroad is a spring of water. Near by there was 
once a very large poplar tree, hollow on the south side, and 
charred inside, an evidence of its having been used as a 
camping place. This place is said to have been used as a 
rendezvous for Tories during the Revolution.] 

Feb. 20, 1800. Lancelot Verrett to Roland Robbins, south 
of Town Creek. 

Jan. 16, 1802. Stephen Robbins and his wife Julian to 
Andrew Battle, adjoining William Robbins, estate of inherit- 

Dec. 13, 1804. Deed of Gift (a negro boy) Jacob Rob- 
bins to son Elisha. 

July 20, 1804. Roland Robbins to Thomas Robbins. 

ISTov. 3, 1805. Benjamin Williams to Kinchen Robbins. 
Test: Stephen Robbins, William Robbins. 

Feb. 21, 1806. William Robbins, Senr., to Joseph Lee. 
Test : Wm. Robbins, Junr., Kynchen Robbins. 

Feb. 16, 1808. Sarah Robins to Elizabeth Robins, 92 

Sep. 27, 1808. Jacob Robbins to son Frederick, negro and 

ISTov. 29, 1812. Jonathan Gardner to Priidy Robbins, 
south side Town Creek. 

Jan. 29, 1813. Thomas Robbins to David Forehand, one 
tract where said Robbins now lives. 

Jan. 20, 1812. Division of William Robbins, deceased. 
iSTo. I, to Thomas Robbins ; ISTo. II, to Lemuel Robbins. 

Feb. 12, 1812. Lemuel Robbins to Frederick Robbins. 
North side of Toisnot Swamp. Test : Joseph Barnes, Eat- 
man Flowers. 

Jan. 10, 1812. Amos Johnston to Frederick Robbins. 

Feb. 8, 1813. William Robbins, of Nash, to Arthur Rob- 
bins, of Edgecombe, where he formerly lived. 

May 15, 1816. Deed of Gift. Elizabeth Robbins to 
brother, Roland Robbins. 


Jan. 24, 181(5. Hardv Flowors to Elisha Robbiiis, on 
Town Creek. 

Aug". 15, 181(!. Eli Robbins and his wife Prudence to 
Lamon Dunn, south side Town Creek. 

March 1, 1819. Stephen Robbins to son, John Robbins. 

March 1, 181!). John Robbins, Jr., to William White, 
east side Gay's Branch. 

Aug. 10, 1821. Arthur Robbins to John R. Robbins. 
Test : F. F. Robbins, Simon Robbins. 

Dec. 0, 1823. William Robbins to John Mills. 

Sept. 11, 1825. Haymon Mann and wife Temperance, and 
Jesse Barnes to Arthur and Simon Robbins. Fell to Tem- 
perance by her father, William Dew, dec'd. Test : F. F. Rob- 
bins, Jas. W. Barnes. 

Feb. 1, 1824. William Robbins, Senior, to Piety Robbins, 
granddaughter. Test : Stephen Robbins, Sr., Stephen Rob- 
bins, Jr. 

Dec. 19, 1827. Obedience Robbins to John Batts, tract 
left by father, John Robbins, dec'd. 

Feb. 1, 1827. Jonathan Gardner to Eli Robbins. 

Jan. 30, 1827. Obedience Robbins to sister, Elizabeth 

July 15, 1829. William Robbins, Jr., to John S. Robbins. 
Test: Stephen Robbins, Senr., William Robbins, Sr. 

Oct. 20, 1830. John S. Robbins to Stephen Robbins, Sr. 

Sept. 13, 1833. Tract belonging to heirs of Elisha Rob- 
bins, sold and bought by elacob Robbins. 

[Later compilations will cover the names Amason, Barnes, 
Battle, Davis, Farmer, Howell, Hyatt, Marn, Morris, South- 
erland, Sugg, Woodard, all of Edgecombe ; ISTunn, of Lenoir, 
and Stokes, Herring, of Craven, Duplin and Lenoir.] 


Biographical Sketches. 

Compiled and Edited by Mks. E. E. Moffitt. 


The subject of this sketch, and the author of the article 
in this uumber of the Booklet^ ''The Fountain and Its 
Builder," comes from a long line of ancestry, residents of 
Western North Carolina. He was born on April 15, 1848, 
at the family residence, Clover Hill, in the Happy Valley, 
Caldwell County. He is the third of the name in direct 
descent from father to son. He was fourth child of Edmund 
W. and Sophia C. Jones, nee Davenport. He was educated 
at Bingham School, the Finley High School, and the Uni- 
versities of North Carolina and Virginia. 

In 1864 he left college and enlisted in Lee's Army as a 
private soldier, notwithstanding the mandate of Mr. Seddon, 
the Confederate Secretary of War, who had issued an order 
to the effect that youths under eighteen would be allowed to 
continue their studies. These orders were issued by com- 
mand of President Davis, who had declared that he "would 
not grind up the seed corn." Although two of his brothers had 
already given their lives to the Confederacy, and another was 
still in the service, he dropped everything else at his country's 
cry of distress and went forth. After several months of hard 
service, never having missed a day from duty, he was sur- 
rendered at Appomattox before he was sixteen years old. 
A few days after the surrender, the soldiers were paroled, 
and each took up his march homeward, making their way as 
best they could. Among them was young Edmund Jones, 
who after many days got back to the Happy Valley, to the 
great joy of his friends, to whom it had been reported that 
he had been killed on the retreat from Petersburg. 


With unabated loyalty to his Alma Mater, he entered the 
University to eompletc his education, and there for three 
years pursued his studies. He then took a course at the 
University of Virginia to prepare himself for his chosen 
profession of the law. 

At the early age of twenty-two, in 1870, he was elected a 
member of the House of the General Assembly. The country 
was in a deplorable condition, and it was a great compliment 
and a great trust to impose upon so young a man. He was 
again elected in 1872. Again in 1879 he returned for no 
other purpose than to aid his personal and family friend 
Governor Vance in his race for United States Senator. In 
1892, when Populism first made its appearance, he was 
nominated by acclamation against his protest, and had to 
make the race in order to make the county safe against the 
new foe. He was elected by a great majority. At this ses- 
sion of the Assembly he was chosen one of the trustees of the 
University he loved so well. 

In 1898 his sjanpathies became deeply aroused in behalf 
of the Cubans struggling for independence, and he raised a 
company of men which afterwards became Company C of 
the Second !N. C. regiment U. S. V., with Mr. Jones as its 
Captain. He remained with his company until the close of 
the war and the muster out of the regiment. 

In recent years he has given his whole time to his profes- 
sion, steadily declining to enter politics, except to advance the 
fortunes of his party's candidate, until in the present year 
he became a candidate in the primary, along with three 
others, for the ofiice of Attorney General, and was defeated 
by Hon. James S. Manning, running second in the race. 

Captain Jones resides in Lenoir, the county seat of Cald- 
well County, in the northw'estern part of the State, named 
for the revolutionary patriot, General William Lenoir, Cap- 
tain Jones' great grandfather. 

Captain Jones comes of a long line of ancestors who have 
served their country faithfully. The progenitor of the family 


in America was a Welch knight by the name of Sir Charles 
Jones, who, either because he had made himself obnoxious to 
the "Round-heads," or because he refused to live as a citizen of 
the ^^Commonwealth/' left his country and came to America. 
When Charles the Second ascended the throne, he bestowed 
upon Sir Charles Jones an estate near Annapolis, Maryland, 
a part of which, now a suburban pleasure ground, is still 
known as "Jones' Wood." I^ater, the family removed to 
Orange County, Virginia, where there are still many of them 
resident. At the close of the Revolutionary War, George 
Jones came to Wilkes County, ISTorth Carolina, and settled in 
the Valley of the Yadkin. His son Edmund was for many 
years a member of both Senate and House from Wilkes, and 
his grandson, Edmund W. Jones, was likewise State Senator, 
and during the trying times of the Civil War was one of the 
members of the Governor s Council. 

Xone of the name have ever been politicians in the gener- 
ally accepted meaning of the word. Whatever distinction 
may have come to them has come through the unsought pref- 
erences of their fellow-citizens, and a sense of duty well per- 
formed has been their sufficient reward. 

Captain Jones' first wife, and mother of his children, was 
Miss Eugenia Lewis, of Raleigh, X. C, who died in 1897. 
In 1907 he married Miss M. W. Scott, of Petersburg, Vir- 
ginia. He is still engaged in the practice of his profession, 
of which he has always been a zealous disciple. 

"Raleigh's Shopping Center" 










We make all kinds of keys. 

Send sample by mail and we 
duplicate and return the same 
day. We are prepared to make 
any quantity — one or one 
thousand. Yale, Sargent, Cxir- 
bin. Lockwood, Norwalk, Rus- 
sell and Erwin, Branford, 
Eagle, Reading, Penn, and all 
other makes. 

A Big Factory for Making and Duplicating Keys Right Here in 

North Carolina 

H. STEINMETZ, Florist 


Beautiful Cut Flowers for all occasions. 

Exquisite Wedding Bouquets and Floral Designs. 

Palms, Ferns, and all other kinds of House and Out Door 

Bedding Plants. A large collection of 


and Other Nice Bulbs for Fall Planting 

^11 orders given prompt and personal attention. Write for quotations 

Vol. XVI JANUARY, 1917 No. 3 

North Carolina Booklet 









Portrait — Isaac Shelby Frontispiece 

Matthew Haehis Joxjett. 

Isaac Shelby 109 

By Abchibald Hendeeson. 

The Old Cemetery, Charlotte, N. C 145 

By Violet G. Alexandeb. 

The North Carolina Medical Society of 1799-1804 154 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Proceedings N. C. Society Daughters of the Revolution. _ 159 


Entend at the Postoffice at Raleigh. N. C, July 15. 1905. under the Ad of 
Congress of March 3, 1879 

The North CaroHna Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volume XVI of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the North 
Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 1916. 
The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and April. 
Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editoe : 
Miss Mary Hilllaud Hinton. 

Biographical Editor: 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


Isaac Shelby : Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero — Dr. Archi- 
bald Henderson. 

An Educational Practice in Colonial North Carolina — Edgar W. 

George Selvpyn — Miss Violet G. Alexander. 

Martha McFarlane Bell, a Revolutionary Heroine — Miss Mary Hil- 
liard Hinton. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part III : William A. 
Graham — Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Historic Homes, Part VII : The Fountain, the Home of Colonel 
Davenport — Colonel Edmund Jones. 

North Carolinians in the President's Cabinet, Part IV : James 
Cochran Dobbin — Dr. Henry Elliot Shepherd. 

A History of Rowan County — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Edgecombe County History and some of her Distinguished Sons — 
Mrs. John A Weddell. 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed by Mrs. Nina Holland 
Covington. These will be reviews of the latest historical works 
written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued, with a page de- 
voted to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical 
research in the State. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication in The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XVI are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XV for sale. 

For particulars address 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 

"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. XVI JANUARY, 1917 No. 3 

NORTH Carolina Booklet 

'Carolina] Carolina I Heaven's blessings attend her! 
While zve live zve will cherish, protect and defend her' 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editor. 





Mus. Hubert Haywood. Dk. Richakd Dillakd. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mu. R. D. W. CoN^OB. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Capt. S. a. Asm:. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Frles. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

biographical editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 




regent : 



honorary REGENTS : 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

recording secretary : 



Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 






Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. F. M. Allen, Regent. 

Mary Slocumb Chapter Miss Georgie Hicks, Regent. 

Colonel Thomas Robeson Chapter Mrs. Annie Buie, Regent. 

Founder of tpie North Carolina Society' and Regent 1896-1902 ; 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902 : 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

'Din(\ November 2^), 1911. 
t Died December 12, 1904. 

Isaac Suki.hy 


From his most famous portrait, never before reproduced, owned by 
William R. Shelby, Esi|., of Grand Rapids, Michigan 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XVI JANUARY, 1917 No. 3 

Isaac Shelby 
Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero 

By Archibald Henderson. 

xlmong that group of early pioneers whose intrepid daring 
and superior sagacity, tested in the crucible of border warfare 
and frontier conflict, were potent agencies in laying the foun- 
dation stones of the republic, Isaac Shelby occupies a position 
of conspicuous leadership in both martial and civil life. De- 
ficient in the vision of a Richard Henderson or the craft of a 
Daniel Boone, Shelby possessed much of the glorified common 
sense which distinguished James Eobertson, Temperamen- 
tally more phlegmatic than his comrade in arms, the impetu- 
ous John Sevier, he exhibited in the crucial moments of his 
career a headlong bravery and an unwavering self-control 
which marked him as a trustworthy leader of men. In per- 
sonal bravery the match for his friend, George Rogers Clark, 
Shelby was a born fighter ; and although not endowed with 
the tactical brilliance of the conqueror of the Northwest, he 
exhibited such unerring judgment in battle and such poise in 
leadership as to inspire the confident faith which procures 
ultimate victory. His contribution to the cause of American 
independence is an integral part of the history of the Revolu- 
tion. This chapter which to this very day, in any adequate 
sense, remains unwritten, the present monogTaph purposes to 

It was from a line of Welsh ancestors that Isaac Shelby 
derived the phlegTiiatic temperament and cautious balance 
which stood him in such good stead throughout his eventful 
and turbulent career. His father, Evan Shelby, was born in 
Wales in 1720 ; and with his father and mother, Evan and 
Catherine Shelby, he emigrated to Maryland about 1735. The 


family settled in the ueig'hborhood of Hagerstown, near the 
i^orth Monntain, then Frederick County. Strength of charac- 
ter and an iron constitution, reinforced by the qualities of 
tenacity and approved courage, express the dominant charac- 
teristics of this famous border character, Evan Shelby, Isaac's 
father. In the French and Indian wars which began in 1754, 
he served with distinction, first it is presumed, as a private 
soldier; but in 1756 his recognized skill as a hunter and 
woodsman, acquired in patrolling the border and guarding 
the frontier, as well as his bravery, led to his appointment as 
Lieutenant of Maryland troops. It is related that on Forbes' 
campaign, ''he gave chase to an Indian spy, in view of many 
of the troops, overtaking and tomahawking him.'"^ The fol- 
lowing letter is like a ray of light Hashed into the dim ob- 
scurity of the mid-period of the eighteenth century. It is a 
letter of Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, to General Forbes •? 

1st of August. 1758. 
To General Forbes: 

Sir : — This serves to introduce to you Capt. Slielbj', wtio waits on 
your Excellency with his company of volunteers to receive your com- 
mands. He has served as a Lieut, more than two years in the Mary- 
laud troops & has always behaved well, which encourages me to hope 
that he and his company will be found useful on the present occasion. 
The expense I have been at in furnisliing his men with blankets, leg- 
gins, moccasins & camp kettles is £82-3-2 pens currency, & as Capt. 
Shelby & his lieut., who was likewise an officer in our Troops until 
the end of May last, found themselves under some Difficulties by not 
being paid the arrears that were due them, I have let each of them 
have £15 out of the £510 currency, which, with Your Excellency's ap- 
probation, Mr. Kilby is to advance towards paying the Maryland 
Forces. I most sincerely wash Your Excellency the perfect Recovery 
of Your Health & a successful Campaign, & I am &c. 

Serving as Captain of Maryland troops, in the provincial 
army destined for the reduction of Fort Duquesne, Evan 
Shelby was engaged in a number of severe battles in the 
course of Braddock's war. In 1758, in pursuance of Governor 
Sharpens orders, he reconnoitred and marked out the route 

iDraper's King's Mountain and, Its Heroes, 411. 
^Maryland Calendar State Papers, ii, 1757-61, 237. 


of a road to Fort Cumberland ; and following his report to 
the Governor that "three hundred and fifty men might open 
such a road as he proposed in three weeks/' as it was not 
more than sixty miles in length, the road was laid out by him 
with the assistance of the desired quota of men, by order of 
Governor Sharpe.^ As a soldier he was conspicuous for gal- 
lantry in the battle fought at Loyal Hanning (now Bedford), 
Pennsylvania; and he led the advance guard of General 
Forbes, when he took possession of Fort DuQuesne in 1758. 
Early in the 'sixties, it is reasonable to suppose, he removed 
with his family to Pennsylvania — perhaps as the result of un- 
certainty in land titles in consequence of the dispute over 
territory between Maryland and Pennsylvania. For some 
years thereafter he engaged in trade with the Indians of the 
ISTorthwest. During the conferences with the Indians, held in 
connection with the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, lasting from 
October 24 until jSTovember 6, 1768, an extensive gTant of 
land was made by the Six ISTations of Indians to twenty-three 
Indian traders, most of them from Pennsylvania, to recom- 
pense them for very large losses incurred during the war of 
1763. In the list of the twenty-three names is found that of 
Evan Shelby, along with such other well known names as 
William Trent, David Franks, John Baynton, Samuel Whar- 
ton, and George Morgan. This grant included all that part 
of the present state of West Virginia lying between the Ohio, 
the Little Kanawha, and the Monongahela rivers, the Laurel 
Ridge, and the South line of Pennsylvania extended to the 
Ohio. Trent and Wharton, two of the traders, went to Eng- 
land, to endeavor to obtain a confirmation of the gTant, which 
was named Indiana by those who wished to erect it into a 
colony ; but while there they were induced to throw in their 
interests with Thomas Walpole, Benjamin Franklin, and 
others, in securing the gTant of Vandalia, which included the 

3Cf. Sharpe to Capt. Evan Shelby, June 15, 1758; Maryland Calen- 
dar State Papers. Letter Book III, 206; Sharpe to Calvert, Letter 
Book I, 358-9. For Capt. Evan Shelby's report from Frederick, June 
25. 1758, cf. also Maryland Calendar State Papers, Letter Book III, 


grants to the Ohio Company and to William Trent and his 
associates, and extended to the mouth of Scioto. Although 
the draft of the royal grant had actually been prepared in 
the spring of 1775, it ultimately failed of confirmation by 
the Crown.'* 

During the third quarter of the eighteenth century, ranches, 
or "cow-pens" were established at many places in the Pied- 
mont region of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Caro- 
lina. The more adventurous farmers, taking advantage of 
the fertile pastures of the uplands, pressed far beyond the 
ordinary farmer's frontier, and herded in large flocks of cat- 
tle and stock. Many of these ^vere \vandering wild upon the 
country ; as a contemporary observer says, "notwithstanding 
every precaution, very great numbers of black cattle, horses 
and hogs — run at large, entirely wild, without any other pro- 
prietors than those of the ground they happened to l^e found 
upon.''"' In 1771, according to the best authorities, Isaac 
Shelby, the son of Evan Shelby, was residing in Western Vir- 
ginia, living the life of the rancher, and engaged in the bus- 
iness of feeding and attending to the herds of cattle over the 
extensive ranges of the uplands.*^ And in this same year, as 
Draper states, the Shelby connection removed to the Holston 
country, in that twilight zone of the debatable ground between 
North Carolina and Virginia.^ Evan Shelby settled on the 
site of the present Bristol, Tennessee ; and in conjunction 
with his friend, Isaac Baker, purchased the Sapling Grove 
tract, of 1946 acres, Bobert Preston dividing it equally be- 
tween them. 

iPlnin Facts, Philadelphia, 1781. 'New Governments West of the 
Alleghanics Before n<sO, by G. H. Alden, Madison. Wis., 1897. Cl'. 
also, Ilanna's The Wilderness Trail, ii, 59-60. 

•'^.T. F. I). Smyth: A Tour in the United t^tates of America, ii. 143-4 

CL. C. Draper: Kings Mountain and Its Heroes, 411. 

"Summers, in his South vest Virginia, 190.3, 671-2, states that "in 
the yenr 1765 or shortly thereafter, Evan Shelby and Isaac Baker left 
their homes in Maryland and came to the Holston country." The 
facts, as stated above, would indicate that the date, 1765, is incorrect, 
with reference to the mijjcration to the Holston country of Evan 
Shelby, at least. It may be that Isaac Baker preceded Evan Shelby 
to the Holston country, and induced him to remove thither. 


Isaac Shelby was born near the JSTorth Mountain, in the 
vicinity of Hagerstown, Maryland, on December 11, 1750, 
being the eldest son of Evan Shelby and his first wife, Letitia 
Scott, of Frederickstown, Maryland. The intimacy between 
Evan Shelby and his friend Isaac Baker is shown by the fact 
that Shelby named one of his sons Isaac and Baker named 
one of his sons Evan. Endowed, like his father, with an iron 
constitntion, and reared in a martial atmosphere, Isaac early 
adapted himself to the strenuons life of the pioneer and be- 
came expert in the arts of hunting and woodcraft. Even be- 
fore he reached man's estate he served as Deputy Sheriff of 
Frederick County, Maryland — a tribute to his self-control 
and personal prowess. '^ 

Despite the fact that the country was continually harrassed 
with a succession of Indian wars, young Isaac nevertheless 
succeeded in obtaining the rudiments of a plain English edu- 
cation. After the removal of the Shelbys to Kings Meadows 
(near Bristol), Evan Shelby and his four sons, Isaac, Evan, 
Moses, and James, continued to herd and graze cattle on an 
extensive scale along the Virginia border, about forty miles 
north of Watauga. '^ 

An authentic account of the career of Evan Shelby and his 
services to the cause of American independence would con- 
stitute an extended chapter in the history of Indian battles 
and border warfare. As indicative of the high estimation in 
which he was held in his former home, one may cite the fol- 
lowing fragment of a letter to Captain Evan Shelby from 
General William Thompson, bearing the address, ''Carlyle, 
6th July, 1775." 

"Had General Washington been sure you could have joined 
the army at Boston without first seeing your family (you) 
would have been appointed Lieut. Colo, (of the) Rifle Battal- 
ion and an express sent by you being so the 

STliis statement is made on the authority of Cecil B. Hartley, in 
his sketch of Isaac Shelby, published in 1860, along with The Life and 
Adventures of Louis Wetzel. 

9James R. Gilmore : The Rear Guard of the Revolution, 1903, 64. 


iieiieral conehuled it (would not be — ) for you to take the 
field before seeinii your family. L leave for Boston on Mon- 
day uijilit.'' 

Upon his Sapling Grove plantation Evan Shelby built a 
fort named Shelby's Station, where hundreds were sometimes 
forted during- the Revolution. At this fort the Shelbys 
kept a store, which supplied the pioneers with ammunition, 
dress stuffs, articles of food and drink. Daniel Boone pur- 
chased supplies here in preparation for his ill-timed and ill- 
fated expedition in 1773. The stout old Welshman, stern 
though he may have been, was evidently not averse to con- 
viviality ; on an old ledger, dated Staunton, Va., Nov. 22, 
1773, conspicuous in the account against Evan Shelby are 
such entries as: "1 Bowl tody," "1 Mug cider," ''1 Bowl 
Bumbo," ''To Club in Wine." His first wife, Letitia Cox, 
died in 1777, and is buried at Charlottesville, Va. Late in 
life he was married to Isabella Elliott ; and the records show 
that this prudent lady required one-third of his estate to be 
deeded to her before marriage. In 1794 Evan Shelby died, 
at the age of 74, and his widow afterwards was married again 
to one Dromgoole. His remains now repose in Bristol, Tenn., 
on the lot now occupied by the Lutheran Church, on the corner 
of Fifth and Shelby streets. ^^ 

It w^as not long after the settlement of the Shelbys at Sap- 
ling Grove that they formed the acquaintance of such leading 
men of the border as James Robertson, John Sevier, Daniel 
Boone, and William Russell. A little incident indicative of 
the experience of even the most expert pioneers of the day at 
the hands of the treacherous and furtive red men is recorded 
in that valuable repository of historical lore, Bradford's Notes 
on Kentucky. "In 1772," records Isaac Shelby in one of 
these notes, although we know from other sources that he 
should have said 1771, "I met Daniel Boone below the Hol- 
stcin settlement, alone ; he informed me that he had spent 
the two years preceding tliat time in a hunt on Louisa river 

iiCf. Oliver Taylor: Tlintoric tSuIIivan, 1909. Also L. P. Summers; 
,Soiithivest Virginia, 1903. 


(now Kentucky), so called by all the Long Hunters; that he 
had been robbed the day before, by the Cherokee Indians, of 
all the proceeds of his hunt." 

It was at the instance of the Shelbys that Sevier moved to 
the Holston settlements. In 1772 John Sevier attended a 
horse race at the Watauga Old Field, and witnessed the theft 
of a horse by a burly fellow named Shoate. Sevier was about 
to leave, disgusted by the incident — for the thief pretended 
that he had won the stolen horse as the result of a wager — 
when Evan Shelby remarked to him : ''Xever mind the rascals ; 
they'll soon poplar" — by which he meant, take a canoe and 
get out of the country. One of the first measures taken by the 
Watauga settlements was the passage of laws to protect them 
from horse thieves. The following year the Seviers removed 
to Keywood, about six miles from the Shelbys, later settling 
in Washington County.-^" 

It was not long before Isaac Shelby, young though he was, 
came to be regarded as a man of promise in the frontier set- 
tlement. In 1774 he was appointed Lieutenant in the militia 
by Colonel William Preston, the County Lieutenant of Fin- 
castle County. The anecdote is related that, when Isaac 
thoughtlessly sat down instead of remaining at attention 
while his commission was being written out by Col. Preston, 
his father, with characteristically imperious manner, sternly 
admonished him : 

''Get up, you young dog, and make your obeisance to the 

Whereupon the young officer, considerably abashed, arose 
and made the amende honorable to his superior officer. In 
time to come the graceless ''young dog" was to prove himself, 
as soldier and statesman, the superior of his bull-dog father, 
the grizzled veteran and Indian fighter. 

Endowed, like his father, with an herculean frame, though 
built on a somewhat larger scale, he presents a formidable 
and impressive appearance in the portraits that have come 

i2Draper Mss. ; also cf. F. M. Turner : Life of General John Sevier, 


down to lis — with firm, compressed lips, heavv oliiii, massive 
features, bcetliiiu' brows over fixed, deep-set eyes — a man of 
"uncommon intelligence and stern, unbending integrity." 


Daniel Boone's attempt, without shadow of title, to make a 
settlement in Kentucky, in September, 1773, had met with a 
bloody repulse on the part of the Indians. In a letter to 
Dartmouth, Dunmore said in regard to the ''Americans,'' the 
pioneer settlers : "They acquire no attachment to place : But 
wandering about Seems engrafted in their Xature ; and it is 
a weakness incident to it that they Should for ever Imagine 
the Lands further off, are Still better than those upon which 
they are already Settled. "-^'"^ The continued encroachments of 
the white settlers upon the Indian hunting grounds fanned to 
flame the smouldering animosity of the red man. The Six 
Xations, at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, had sold to 
the Crown, through Sir William Johnson, their unwarranted 
claim to a vast stretch of territory extending as far to the 
southward as the Kentucky River. The Southern Indians, 
the aboriginal occupants of the soil, indignantly denied the 
right of the Six Xations to this Territory. The Indians along 
the border were aroused to a pitch of excessive hostility by the 
continued incursions of the whites. A succession of attacks 
by the Indians upon outlying and scattered settlements soon 
led to bloody reprisals on the part of the whites. The open 
letter of Conolly, Governor Dunmore's agent, calling upon 
the backwoodsmen to prepare to defend themselves from the 
attacks of the Shawnees, was issued on April 21, 1774, and 
the barbarous murder of Logan's family at the mouth of Yel- 
low Creek on April 30, by one Greathouse and a score of 
carousing white companions, rendered the conflict inevitable. 
Yet actual hostilities were slow to commence, and it was not 
until the summer of 1774 that Daniel Boone and Michael 
Stoner were dispatched by Dunmore to Kentucky, to conduct 

I31)raper Mss., 1.5.74-48. 


into the settlements the various parties of surveyors scattered 
about through the Kentucky area. The war was now begun, 
and Lord Dunmore, hoping to reconcile the differences be- 
tween the colonists and England by a successful campaign 
against the Indians, proceeded vigorously to carry the war 
into the enemy's country. 

There were two divisions in Lord Dunmore's army, one of 
fully twelve hundred men under the command of the earl in 
person, the other of about eleven hundred strong, under the 
command of General Andrew Lewis, a stalwart backwoods 
fighter. For some inexplicable motive, which has been sus- 
pected, no doubt, erroneously, as an attempt at treachery to 
the Americans, Dunmore decided not to unite his force with 
that of Lev/is ; and after a long march he took up his position 
at the mouth of the Hockhocking, erected a stockade styled 
Fort Gower, and awaited news of Lewis's brigade. The divis- 
ion of Lewis reached the mouth of the Great Kanawha River 
on October 6 and encamped at Point Pleasant. On the ninth 
the order came to Lewis from Dunmore to join him at the 
Indian towns near the Pickaway Plains. The sagacious 
Cornstalk, the Indian leader, divining the plan of the whites, 
resolved to hurl his entire force of one thousand warriors upon 
the sleeping army at Point Pleasant. 

Of the several commands under Lewis one was composed of 
the Fincastle men, from the Holston, Clinch, Watauga, and 
New River settlements, under Col. William Christian. The 
Holston men were the advance guard of civilization at this 
period, the most daring settlers who had pushed farthest out 
into the western wilderness. In Col. Christian's command 
were five captains, Evan Shelby, Russell, Herbert, Draper, 
and Buford ; and under Evan Shelby were his sons, Isaac, a 
lieutenant, and James ; and James Robertson and Valentine 
Sevier, orderly sergeants. 

The battle which ensued has been described in such accurate 
and graphic terms in a letter to John Shelby, by Isaac Shelby, 


\vho plavcnl an important part in the fierce engagement, that 
his letter is given here in full:^'* 

Camp Opposite to the Mouth of Great Caxaway, 

October 16th. 1774. 

Di!. I'.ncle: — I Gladly imhrace this opportunity to Acquaint You 
that we arc all threeis yet alive th(r)o Gods Mercies & I Sinceerly 
wish that this may find you & your Famil5^ in the Station of Health 
that we left you. I never had anything Worth Notice to quaint you 
with since I left you till now, the Express seems to be Hurrying 
that I Cant write you with the same Coolness & Deliberation as I 
would: we arrived at the mouth (of) Canaway Thursday 6th. Octr. 
and incampd on a fine piece of Ground with an intent to wait for the 
Governor & his party but hearing tliat he was going another way we 
Contented our selves to stay there a few days to rest the troops &c, 
when we looked upon our selves to be in safety till Monday morning 
the 10th Instant when two of our Compys. went out before day to 
hunt. To wit Val. Sevier & Jas Robison & Discovered a party of 
Indians ; as I expect you will hear something of our Battle before 
you get this I have here stated this aflrair nearly to you. 

For the Satisfaction of tlie people in your parts in this they have a 
true state of the Memorable Battle faught at the mouth of the Great 
Canaway on the 10th. Instant ; ^Monday morning about half an Hour 
before Sunrise two of Capt. Kussells Compy. Discovered a large party 
of Indians about a mile from Camp one of whicli men was killed the 
Other made his Escape »& brought in his iutilligenee ;i6 in two or three 
minutes affter two of Capt Shelbys Compy. Came in and Confirmed 
the Account. Colo. Andrew Lewis being Informed thereof Immediately 
ordered Colo. Charles Lewis to take the Command of 150 men from 
Augusta and with him went Capt. Dickison. Capt. Harrison. Capt. 
Willson. Capt. Jno. Lewis from Augusta and Capt. Lockridge which 
made the first division. Colo. Fleming was also ordered to take the 
Command of one hundred & fifty more Consisting of Botetourt Fin- 
castle and Bedford Troops Viz. Capt. Buford of Bedford Capt. Love 
of Botetourt Capt. Shelbj^ & Capt. Russell of Fincastle which made 
tlie second Division. Colo. Lewis marched with his Division to the 

i4The copy here used is made directly from the original in the 
Draper Mss., 7 ZZ 2. The text used by Roosevelt {Wi)nii>ig of the 
Wcf<t) is drawn from a manuscript copy of Shelby's letter, in the 
Campliell Mss. 

i''('aptain Evan Shelby and his two sons, Isaac and James. 

icThese were .loseph Hughey, of Shelby's company, and James 
Mooney, of Russell's. The former was killed by a white renegade, 
Tavenor Ross, while the latter brought the news to camp. Mooney 
was a former neighbor of Daniel Boone, upon the Yadkin in North 
Carolina, and had accompanied him upon the disastrous Kentucky 
hunting exjiedition of 17(>D. He was killed at Point Pleasant. Cf. 
Dunmorc'a War, edited by Thwaites and Kellogg. 271-2. 


Right some Distance up from tlie Ohio. Colo. Fleming with his 
Division up the banck of the Ohio to the left : Colo. Lewiss Division 
had not marchd. little more than a quarter of a mile from Camp ; 
when about sunrise, an Attact was made on the front of his Division 
in a most Vigorous manner by the Uni^ ,d tribes of Indians — Shaw- 
nees ; Delewares ; Mingoes ; Taways,i7 and of several Other Nations 
in Number not less than Eight Hundred and by many thaught to be a 
thousand ; in this Heavy Attact Colonel Charles Lewis received a 
wound which soon after Caused his Death and several of his men 
fell in the Spott in fact the Augusta Division was forced to give way 
to the heavy fire of the Enemy. In about a second of a minute after 
the Attact on Colo. Lewiss Division the Enemy Engaged the Front of 
Colo. Flemings Division on the Ohio ; and in a short time Colo. Flem- 
ing reed, two balls thro his left Arm and one thro his breast ; and 
after annimating the Captains and soldiers in a Calm manner to the 
pursuit of Victory returned to Camp, the loss of the Brave Colonels 
was Sensibly felt by the Officers in perticular, But the Augusta 
troops being shortly Reinforced from Camp by Colonel Field with his 
Company together with Capt. iM'Dowel, Capt. Mathews & Capt. 
Stuart from Augusta, Capt. John Lewis, Capt. Paulin Capt. Arbuckle 
& Capt. M'Clanahan from Botetourt, the Enemy no longer able to 
Maintain their Ground was forced to give way till they were in a 
Line with the troops left in action on Bancks of Ohio, by Colo Flem- 
ing in this precipitate retreat Colo. Field was killed, after which 
Capt. Shelby was ordered to take the Commd. During this time 
which was till after twelve of the Clock, the Action continued Ex- 
treemly Hott, the Close underwood many steep bancks & Loggs 
favoured their retreat, and the Bravest of their men made the use 
of themselves, whilst others were throwing their dead into the Ohio, 
and Carrying of(f) their wounded, after twelve the Action in a 
small degree abated but Continued sharp Enough till after one 
oClock Their Long retreat gave them a most advantages spot of 
ground ; from whence it Appeared to the Officers so difficult to dis- 
lodge them ; that it was thought most adviseable to stand as the line 
then was formed which was about a mile and a quarter in length, and 
had till then sustained a Constant and Equal weight of fire from wing 
to wing, it was till half an Houx* of Sun sett they Continued firing on 
us which we returned to their Disadvantage at length Night Coming 
on they found a safe retreat. They had not the satisfaction of scalp- 
ing any of our men save One or two straglers whom they Killed be- 
fore the ingagement many of their dead they scalped rather than 
we should have them but our troops scalped upwards of twenty of 
those who were first killed ; Its Beyond a Doubt their Loss in 
Number farr Exceeds ours, which is Considirable. 

Field Officers killed Colo. Charles Lewis, and Colo. Jno. Fields, 
Field Officers wounded Colo. Willm. Fleming ; Capts. killed John 

i7The Ottawas, a Northwestern tribe. 

120 THE NOirnr Carolina booklet 

.Murray Capt. Saml. Wilisou C'apt. Kobt. MfClanahan. Capt. Jas. 
Ward. Captains WdunikMl Tlios lUiford John Dickison & John Scid- 
more. Snlibalti'iiis Kill(>d Lieutenant Hu.!,'li Allen, Ensi.un Matliew 
Krakin i:nsi^'n ("undiff. Sul)t>alterns wounded, Lieut. Lard; Lieut. 
Vauee Lieut. (Joliiuian Lieut. Jas. Kol)ison aliout 46 killed & 

al)out SO wounded from this [Sir you may Judge that we had a 
\"ery hard day its reall.v Impossible for me to Express or you to 
Coneieve Aeelamations that we were under. sometimes, the Hidious 
Cries of the Enemy and the groans of our wound (ed) men lying 
around was Enough to shuder the stoutest hart its the general Opin- 
ion of the Ottieers that we shall soon have another Ingagemeut as we 
have now got Over into the Enemys Country ; we Expect to meet the 
Governor about forty or fifty miles from here nothing will save us 
from another Battle I'nless they Attact the Governors Party, five 
men that Came iu Dadys (daddy's) Company were killed, I dont 
know that you were Acquainted with any of them Except Marck Wil- 
liams who lived with Roger Top. Acquaint Mr. Carmack that his son 
was slightly wounded thro the shoulder and arm & that he is in a 
likely way of Recovery we leave him at mouth of Canaway »& one 
^'ery Carefull hand to take Care of him ; there is a garrison & three 
Hundred men left at that place with a surgeon to Heal the wounded 
we Expect to Return to the Garrison in about 16 days from the 
.Shawnj- Towns. 

I have nothing more Perticular to Acquaint you with Concerning 
the Battle, as to the Country I cant now say much in praise of any 
that I have yet seen. Dady intended writing to you but did not know 
of the Express till the time was too short I have wrote to Mam(m)y 
the not so fully as to you as I then expected the Express was Just 
going, we seem to be all in a Moving Posture Just going from this 
place so that I must Conclude wishing you health and prosperity till 
I see you and Your Family in the meantime I am yr truly Effectionate 
Friend & Humble Servt Isaac Shelby. 

To Mr. John Shelby Holstons River Fincastle County favr. by Mr. 
Benja. Gray. 

This recital, written by the joung Isaac Shelby, modestly 
omits any mention of the very important part which he him- 
self played in the battle. Upon the death of Colonel John 
Field, Captain Evan vShelby was ordered to the command, 
and npon so doing he gave over the command of his own com- 
pany to his son, Isaac, who, while only holding the rank of a 
lieutenant, acted in the capacity of a captain during about 
half the battle. Cornstalk, Logan, Red Eagle, and other 
brave chieftains, fighting fiercely, led in the attack ; and above 
the terrible din and clangor of the battle could be heard the 


deep, sonorous voice of Cornstalk encouraging his warriors 
with the injunction : "Be strong ! Be strong !" The Indians 
led by Cornstalk adopted the tactics of making successive 
rushes upon the whites by which they expected to drive the 
frontiersmen into the two rivers, ''like so many bullocks," as 
the chief later explained. So terrific were the onslaughts of the 
red men that the lines of the frontiersmen had frequently to 
fall back ; but these withdrawals were only temporary, as they 
were skillfully reinforced each time and again moved steadily 
forward to the conflict. About half an hour before sunset 
General Lewis adopted the dangerous expedient of a flank 
movement. Captains Shelby, Matthews, Arbuckle, and Stuart 
were sent with a detachment up Crooked Creek, which runs 
into the Kanawha a little above Point Pleasant, with a view 
to securing a ridge in the rear of the enemy, from which their 
lines could be enfiladed. Concealed by the undergrowth along 
the bank they endeavored to execute this hazardous move- 
ment ; and John Sawyers, an orderly sergeant, was dispatched 
by Isaac Shelby with a few men of the company to dislodge 
the Indians from their protected position. This fierce attack 
from an unsuspected quarter alarmed the Indians. Cornstalk 
leaped to the conclusion that this was the advance guard of 
Christian's party, and giving the alarm hurried his forces to 
the other side of Old Town Creek. The battle continued in a 
desultory way until sunset, and no decisive victory had been 
achieved. But Cornstalk and his warriors had had enough, 
and withdrew during the night. -"^^ 

In this remarkable battle, the most stubborn and hotly con- 
tested fight ever made by the Indians against the English, it 
was the flanking movement of the detachment in which Isaac 
Shelby took a leading part that turned the tide and decided 
the victory for the whites. This battle, which brought about 

isCompare tlie account given by Withers in his Chronicles of Border 
Warfare, edited and annotated by R. G. Thwaites ; Cincinnati. 190S. 
See also Stuart's Narratlrc, in Virginia Historical Collections, vol. I. 
The most exhaustive account of tlie entire campaign is embodied in 
Dunmore's War, edited by Thwaites and Kellogg. IMadison, 1905. An 
excellent map is found in Avery's History of the United States, vol. 
5, p. 1S3. 


an early conclusion of peace, was from this standpoint com- 
pletely decisive in character; and it should not be forgotten 
that Isaac Shelby, the twenty-four year old captain, thus 
played an important role in this thrilling scene of warfare 
preliminary to the great drama of the Revolution. "This 
action," comments Isaac Shelby in his Auioljiography, ''is 
known to be the hardest ever fought with the Indians and in 
its consequences was of the greatest importance as it was 
fought Avhile the first Congress w^as sitting at Philadelphia, 
and so completely were the savages chastised, particularly the 
Shawnees and Delawares (the two most formidable tribes) 
that they could not be induced by British agents among them, 
neither to the Xorth nor South, to commence hostilities 
against the United States before July, 1776, in which time the 
frontiers had become considerably stronger and the settle- 
ment of Kentucky had commenced." 

Indeed it was this victory of the Great Kanawha, with its 
temiDorary subjugation of the savages, which made possible 
Colonel Kichard Henderson's gallant advance into Kentucky 
in March-April, 1775, ultimately eventuating in the acquisi- 
tion of Kentucky and the vast trans-Alleghany region to the 
territory of the United States. Shelby's comment is signifi- 
cant in its emphasis, as he was present at the ''Great Treaty" 
at the Sycamore Shoals of the Watauga in March, 1775, and 
a little later was serving as surveyor in the employ of the 
Transylvania Company. Without the impetus given to the 
colonization of the trans-Alleghany region by Richard Hen- 
derson and the Transylvania Company, there would have been 
no bulwark on the west against the incursions of savages from 
that (juarter during the Revolution ; and at the conclusion of 
peace in 1783, the western boundary of the Confederation of 
States would doubtless have been the Alleghany Mountains 
and not the Mississippi River. Isaac Shelby was a hero of the 
first l)attle preluding the mighty conflict which was ultimately 
to end victoriouslv at Yorktown.-^^ 

isCf. Hale's Trans-AUpghanji Pioneers, Cincinnati, 1886. ch. XXXII. 
Also Todd's Life of tihcJhij, in National Poi'trait Gallery, I, 1835. 


At the close of the campaign, if not immediately following 
the battle, a small palisaded rectangle, about eighty yards 
long, with block houses at two of its corners, was erected at 
Point Pleasant by order of Lord Dunmore. This stockade, 
entitled Fort Blair, was strongly garrisoned, and the chief 
command was given to that splendid border fighter, Captain 
William Pussell. The young Isaac Shelby, in recognition of 
his valued services in the recent bloody battle, was made 
second in command."'^ It was here, says tradition, that the 
Indian chief, Cornstalk, came to shake the hand of the young 
paleface brave, Isaac Shelby, who had led the strategic flank 
movement which stampeded his army.^-^ 

The following interesting letter, addressed to "Mr. Isaac 
Shelby, Holston," explains the state of affairs which then ex- 
isted in that region, and the movements being set on foot. It 
is a double letter, for at the end of Col. William Christian's 
letter to Isaac Shelby, which Shelby had forwarded to Colo. 
William Russell, the latter wrote a supplementary letter, and 
returned the whole to Isaac Shelby. 

DuNKABD Bottom, February IS, 1775. 
Dear Sir : — I have lately been at Williamsburg, aud applied to his 
Excellency the Governor to know what was to be done with the garri- 
son at point pleasant. His Lordship has been disappointed in getting 
the consent of the Assembly for the continuance of the Company, but 
he desired me to acquaint Captain Russell that he was to return to 
his post and remain there until the treaty with the Indians, which is 
to be at Fort Dunmore in may, or until further orders. I think it 
will be in June before that treaty is finished & also that his Lordship 
wishes that the garrison could be kept(?) up from a desire he has to 
serve the Frontiers. I have wrote to Captain Russell to come down in 
order to take the charge of one of the Shawnese Hostages who was 
sent up with me. The design of sending him is to satisfy the Indians 

20isaac Shelby's AutoMography. Cf. also Dtinmorc's War, p. ,310 n; 
Chas. S. Todd's Life of SheWy, National Portrait Gallery, vol. I. 
Thwaites says that General Lewis, who reached Point Pleasant on 
October 28, left there a garrison of fifty men under Captain Russell. 
Cf. Withers's Chronicles of Border Warfare, 1908, p. 176n. 

^'i^^outhern Heroism in Decisive Battles for American Independ- 
ence, by Charles Henrv Todd, in Journal of American History, vol. II, 
No. 2. 


i>f our friendly inteiitioiis, in contradiction to several rejxjrts spread 
among them by pensilvania Traders intimating that we designed fall- 
ing on them next spring. The reports it was feared might set on foot 
a general t-onfederacy among the Shawnese «& their neighbors. 

1 expect t'aptain Kussell will contrive to be as far as McGavocks 
the Tth. of March on his way to the post and I now write to you 
thinking it may reach you much sooner than Captain Kussell could 
send to you, thereby to give you more time to prepare for joining 

I saw Jno. Douglass this evening & he thinks that near 50 men of 
those now on duty will agree to continue & perhaps that will be 
enough. If you get this letter quickly would it not be well for you 
to ride over and consult with the Captain what is to be done. It is 
certain that you or him must set of (off) soon with the Indian, or I 
think it may (mutilated) to come the time I have mentioned. 

A convention of delegates is to be held at Richmond the 20 of 
?ilarch to consist of two members from each county »& corporation, 
what is to be the consequence of the present disputes is yet uncer- 
tain, but nothing pacifick is expected. The lowland people are gen- 
erally arming and preparing themselves. 

Please to give my compliments to your Father »& tell him that it is 
most probable that the Committee will meet the day of our Election 
"A'hich is to be the 7 of March & that if he can make it convenient he 
may as well come up. 

I am Sir Your friend & servant, 

Wm Cheistiax 

On the next sheet occurs the following, in the handwriting 

of William Russell : 

My Dear Sir : 

I just Reed, this letter of yours and one of my own. It seems 
Captain Morgan of the Shawanees is sent up for us, to guard out to 
the Shawanees Towns upon Business of Importance, therefore re- 
quest your goodness to meet me on Sunday next at Mr. Souths about 
Night in order to go together to McGavocks against Tuesday next to a 
meeting of the Committee either to Proceed from there or to return 
by my House, if so, you can return Home (mutilated) I start. I am 
Dear Sir. 

Your most obedt Humble 

Servt W. RussEiLL 

Tuesday the 27th, 1775. 
To Mr. Isaac Shelbey Holston. 

When Daniel Boone and his friend, Captain William Kus- 
sell, the leading pioneer in the Clinch Valley, at the head of a 
party of emigrants, attempted their settlement of Kentucky in 


1773, they were driven back by the Indians on September 25, 
and abandoned the enterprise. For years, in fact since 1764, 
Daniel Boone had been making exploring expeditions to the 
westward in the interest of the land company known as Eich- 
ard Henderson and Company.^^ Another explorer for Kich- 
ard Henderson, who later made hunting tours and explora- 
tions in Kentucky, was Henry Skaggs, who as early as 1765 
examined the lower Cumberland region as the representative 
of Richard Henderson and Company and established his sta- 
tion near the present site of Goodletsville, in Davidson 
County, Tennessee. ^^ With the Western country thoroughly 
disturbed and infested with bands of hostile red men, during 
1773 and 1774, Col. Henderson recognized the signal unwis- 
dom of attempting a western settlement on an extended scale. 
It was Daniel Boone's impatience to reach the West and his 
determination to settle there, regardless of legal right and 
without securing the title by purchase from the Cherokees, 
which led to his disastrous setback at Walden's Ridge in 
1773. This entire episode exposes Boone's inefficiency as an 
executive and his inability to carry through plans made on a 
large scale. It was not until the remarkable legal mind of 
Judge Henderson and his rare executive ability were applied 
to the vast and complex project of western colonization that 
it was carried through to a successful termination. 

Two momentous circumstances now intervened to make 
possible the great western venture, upon which Judge Hen- 
derson, during a decade and more, had staked all his hopes. 
Correspondence with the highest legal authorities in England 
assured Judge Henderson that despite the Royal Proclama- 
tion in 1763 he would be entirely within his rights, as a Brit- 
ish subject, to purchase the western lands from the Cherokees 
and secure authentic title thereto. The victory of the back- 
woodsmen over the red men at the Battle of the Great Kana- 

22Compare the author's The Creative Forces in Westward Expan- 
sion: Henderson and Boone, iu the American Historical Review, 
October, 1914. 

23Albright's Early History of Middle Tennessee, Nashville, 1909, 
p. 23. 


wha greatly reduced the dangers incident to a visit to the 
Kentnrky -wilderness, and in 1775 warranted the bold venture 
which, in 1773, Boone, upon his own responsibility alone, had 
found so disastrous. Following the Battle of the Great Ka- 
nawha, Judge Henderson, accompanied by his friend and 
neighbor, Colonel Nathaniel Hart, visited the Indians at their 
towns and, upon inquiry, learned that the Cherokees were 
disposed to sell their claims to the Kentucky territory. The 
agreement was made to meet the entire tribe of the Cherokees 
in Treaty Council at the Sycamore Shoals, on Watauga River, 
early in the next year. On their return to the settlements 
Judge Henderson and Colonel Hart were accompanied by the 
Little Carpenter, a wise old Indian Chief, and a young buck 
and his squaw, as delegates to see that proper goods were pur- 
chased for the proposed barter. These goods were purchased 
in December, 1774, at Cross Creek, near Fayetteville, North 
Carolina, and forwarded by wagons to Watauga. 

Since his repulse at Walden's Ridge, in September, 1773, 
when the sons of both Russell and himself had been slaugh- 
tered by Indians, Boone, together with his family, had been 
residing in a cabin upon the farm of Captain David Gass, 
seven or eight miles from Russell's, upon Clinch River. He 
was now summoned to Watauga, instructed to collect the en- 
tire tribe of Cherokee Indians and bring them in to the treaty 
ground. The news of the purposes of the Transylvania Com- 
pany became public property when Judge Henderson and his 
associates, in January, 1775, issued their '^Proposals for the 
Settlement of Western Lands," which, in the form of broad- 
sides, were distributed widely along the fringe of settlements 
upon the Indian border line. News of the proposed treaty 
quickly reached young Isaac Shelby at Fort Blair; and his 
pioneering instinct unerringly drew him to the focus of in- 
terest, the treaty ground. We are fortunate in having handed 
down to us, from that early time, a description of the treaty 
on tlie part of the young Isaac Shelby, who was an eye-witness. 
Following the confiscation of the Transylvania Company's 
claims liv the State of Virc-inia, a series of extended investiffa- 


tions in regard to the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals were made 
by order of the Virginia Legislature. The points that were 
in great need of being settled were: First, whether the de- 
ponents were financially interested in lands under the Tran- 
sylvania Company ; second, whether the treaty was conducted 
with entire fairness ; and third, whether the deeds taken by 
the Transylvania Company were identical, in regard to the 
metes and bounds of the territory purchased, with the verbal 
statement of the negotiators of the treaty, made to the Chero- 
kees. As it was subsequently proven, as a result of the inves- 
tigations of the Virginia Commissioners, that the treaty was 
conducted with scrupulous fairness by Judge Henderson and 
his partners, it is interesting to read the following extract 
from the deposition sworn to on December 3, 1777, before 
Edmund Randolph and Jo. Prentiss, by Isaac Shelby: 

"That in March, 1775, this Deponent was present at a 
Treaty held at Wattaugha between the said Henderson and 
the Cherokee Indians : that the deponent then heard the said 
Henderson call the Indians, when the deed by which the said 
Henderson now claims was going to be signed, and declared 
that they would attend to what was going to be done : that the 
deponent believes the courses in the said Deed contained, to 
be the very courses which the said Henderson read therefrom 
to the Indians and were interpreted to them. That the said 
Henderson took the said Deed from among several others lying 
on a table, all of which appeared to the Deponent to be of the 
same tenor with that which he read — That at the time of this 
Treaty, one Read who was there and suspected that the 
said Henderson intended to purchase some lands which he 
himself had his Eyes on, desired the said Deed to be read 
before it was signed, which was accordingly done, and the 
said Read objected not thereto." 

It was doubtless at some time during the course of the 
treaty — a treaty universally conceded to have been unparal- 
leled for honesty and fair dealing with the Indians on the 
part of the whites — that Judge Henderson, attracted by the 
sterling qualities of the young Shelby and by his manifest 


eag'erness to eonncet liinisolf with Henderson's plans of 
colonization, secured the promise of his services in the future, 
followinii' the expiration of his term of enlistment, as surveyor 
for the Transylvania Company. The garrison of Fort Blair 
was not disbanded until July, 1775 ; and immediately Shelby 
journeyed to Kentucky and engaged in the business of land 
surveyor for the proprietors of the Transylvania Company, 
who had established a regular land office as the result of their 
purchase of the Kentucky area from the Cherokees. ITere he 
renuiined fV»r nearly twelve months, surveying numerous 
tracts of land for the Transylvania proprietors, and likewise 
making a number of entries of land for himself in Judge Hen- 
derson's land office.-'* His health finally became impaired, 
owing to continued exposure to wet and cold, combined with 
the frequent necessity for going without either bread or salt. 
On this account he w^as compelled to return to the settlements 
on Holston, 

In July, 1776, during his absence in Kentucky, Shelby was 
appointed Captain of a minute company by the Committee of 
Safety in Virginia. x\s described by Shelby this was "a 
species of troops organized for the first emergency of the War 
of the Revolution, which, however, was not called into actual 
service from the extreme frontier on which he (Shelby) 
lived." On December 6th of this year, the General Assembly 
of Virginia passed an act dividing the county of Fincastle into 
three distinct counties, to-wit : Montgomery, Washington, and 
Kentucky. In this act the bounds of Washington County 
were defined as follows : 

"That all that part of said county of Fincastle included in 
the lines beginning at the Cumberland Mountains where the 
line of Kentucky county intersects the North Carolina (now 
Tennessee) line; thence to the east along the said Carolina 
line to the top of Iron mountain; thence along the same east- 

-•iln liis (k'posiUon, referred to above, Isaac Shelby stated : "This 
Deponent has made several Entries for lands in Mr. Henderson's 
Office, but does not conceive himself to be in any manner interested in 
the Event of the dispute, between the Commonwealth of Virginia and 
the said Henderson." Cal. Va. Htate Papers, I, 29G-7. 


erly to the source of the South Fork of the Holston river; 
thence northwardly along the highest part of the highlands, 
ridges, and mountains that divide the waters of the Tennessee 
from those of the Great Kanawha to the most easterly source 
of Clinch River; thence westvv^ardly along the top of the 
mountain that divides the waters of the Clinch river from 
those of the Great Kanawha and Sandy Creek to the line of 
Kentucky county and thence along the same to the beginning, 
shall be one other distinct county and called and known by 
the name of Washington." 

The eastern boundary of Washington County as thus de- 
fined was altered by Act of the General Assembly at its ses- 
sion in the month of May, 1777, as follows : 

"■Beginning at a ford on Holston river, next above Captain 
John Campbells, at the Royal Oak, and running from thence 
a due south course to the dividing line between the States of 
Virginia and JSTorth Carolina ; and from the ford aforesaid 
to the westerly end of Morris's Knob, about three miles above 
Maiden Spring on Clinch, and from thence, by a line to be 
drawn due north, until it shall intersect the waters of the 
Great Sandy river."-'^ 

The officers of the county commissioned by Governor Pat- 
rick Henr}' on the 21st day of December, 1776, were as fol- 
lows: James Dysart, sheriff; Arthur Campbell, county lieu- 
tenant ; Evan Shelby, Colonel ; William Campbell, lieutenant- 
colonel ; and Daniel Smith, Major. Among the names of 
those on the same day commissioned justices of the peace was 
that of Evan Shelby. The first court assembled at Black's 
Fort (now Abingdon) on the last Tuesday in January, 1777. 
On the second day of the court, being the 29th of January, 
Isaac Shelby was recommended, with others, to be added to 
the Commission of Peace for the county, and was accordingly 
commissioned. It may be interesting to record that, when, on 
February 26, 1777, the court recommended to the Governor 
of Virginia the militia officers for Washington County, both 

25Hening's Statutes, 1776. 


John Shelby, Sr., and James Shelby were duly commissioned 
witli the rank of Captain. l)urin<i' some portion of this time 
Isaac Shelby was busily engaged in acting as commissary of 
supplies, a post to which he was appointed l^y Governor Henry, 
for a large body of militia posted at several garrisons for the 
purpose of giiarding the back settlements. Of his activity we 
have evidence in the great distances which he travelled. For 
instance, in September of this year, we find him at Harrods- 
burgh, in Kentucky, swapping horses with the future brilliant 
and meteoric figure, the conqueror of the Northwest. In 
Clark's diary one finds the following terse entry : 

"Harrodsburgh, September 29. — Bought a horse, price 
£1-2 ; swapped with I. Shelby, boot £10." 

I have often wondered w^ho got the ''boot" — the phlegmatic 
Welshman or the mercurial Virginian ! 

During this same year, Isaac Shelby w^as likewise in- 
structed to lay in supplies for a grand treaty, to be held at 
the Long Island of Holston River, in June and July, wdth the 
tribe of Cherokee Indians. 

''These supplies could not possibly be obtained nearer than 
Staunton, a distance of near three hundred miles," says 
Shelby, writing in the third person, "but by the most inde- 
fatigable perseverance (one of the most prominent traits in 
his character) he accomplished it to the satisfaction of his 

It is necessary for us to recall that in 1772 Colonel John 
Donelson, of Pittsylvania County, acting as commissioner for 
Virginia, had established with the Cherokees the western 
boundary line of that colony, viz : a course running in a 
direct line from a point six miles east of the Holston River 
toward the mouth of the Great Kanawha River, until the line 
struck the Kentucky River, and thence along that river to its 
junction with the Ohio."^ 

-•'-A price was nfjrreed upon and promised, but not then paid, for the 
l;irj,'(' scftion of Kciituclvy iioi-th and east of the Kentucky river thus 
alienated to Vir;j;inia. Considerable doubt still prevails as to whether 
the price promised by Donelson was ever paid over to the Cherokees. 


In 1777 Governor Henry, of Virginia, notified Governor 
Caswell, of ISTorth Carolina, of a treaty to be had with the 
Cherokees. The object of Virginia was to alter the boundary 
line as run by Colonel Donelson, and to have the road to and 
through the Cumberland Gap, the gateway to Kentucky, in- 
cluded in the cession. The commissioners chosen to represent 
Virginia were Col. William Preston, Col. Evan Shelby, and 
Col. William Christian, or any two of them. The commis- 
sioners chosen to represent ISTorth Carolina were Col. Waight- 
still Avery, Col. William Sharpe, Col. Robert Lanier, and 
Colonel Joseph Winston. The treaty lasted from the 26th of 
June until the 20th of July, when it was concluded to the 
satisfaction of both Virginia and Xortli Carolina. The line 
established by Donelson in 1772 was not materially altered ; 
but the alteration involved the lands claimed by the Transyl- 
vania Company under their purchase from the Cherokees in 
March, 1775. For reasons of policy and because of lack of 
instructions from their respective governments the commis- 
sioners refused to take account of the memorial presented by 
Judge Henderson and his associates. The treacherous and 
wily Indian Chiefs characteristically sought to convince the 
commissioners that Judge Henderson had treated them hardly 
in maintaining the provisions of the ''Great Treaty" of 1775 ; 
but the deposition of Isaac Shelby (already quoted from in 
part) is conclusive on the point : 

"That being present at the late Treaty at Long Island, this 
deponent remembers to have heard Occunostoto or the Tassel 
(but which he does not recollect) say that ever since he had 
signed the paper to Mr. Henderson, he was afraid to sign 
one, and that Mr. Henderson ever since he had signed the 
Paper, deprived him of the privilege of catching even Craw 
fish on the land. That this deponent was present at the time 
of signing the said Deed at Wattaugha, when everything was 
conducted fairly on the part of the said Henderson, who after 
signing, desired the Indians to go and take the goods which 
he designed for them.""^ 

i^Cal. Va. State Papers, I. 


This was a lucniorable gathering of the leading pioneer 
tigures of the day. Revolntion was the bnrning topic of dis- 
enssion. and the spirit of independence, so long held in leash, 
foniid nni\ersal ('X})ression. In the characteristic phraseology 
of the patriotic Putnam : 

"Here were Robertson and Sevier, Boone and Bledsoe, 
Shelby, Henderson, Hart and others — all men of worth, of 
nci-ve, of cnter])rise — 'men who feared God, but obeyed no 
earthly king.' 

'■They talked freely of the Declaration of Independence, as 
it had been announced at Mecklenburg, in ISTortb Carolina, by 
Patrick Henry and the Virginians, and by the Continental 
Congress just twelve months before. They did not think of 
giving notoriety out there to the Fourth of July ; but they all 
heartily concurred in the renunciation of allegiance to the 
King of Great Britain, and in the resolution to make 'these 
States free and independent.' "-^ 

In 1778, as we learn from Shelby's account, he was still 
engaged in the commissary department to provide supplies 
for the Continental Army, and also for a formidable expedi- 
tion by the way of Pittsburg against the I*forthwestern In- 
dians. This was the expedition of General Mcintosh against 
the Ohio Indians. On Dec. 12, 1778, the Virginia Council 
issued instructions to John Montgomery ''to put on Foot the 
recruiting of men to reinforce Colo. Clarke at the Illinois 
and to push it on with all possible expedition."-^ 

George Rogers Clark was in desperate straits for men and 
supplies in view of the fact that General Mcintosh's proposed 
expedition from Fort Pitt against Detroit had to be aban- 
doned. John ]\rontgomery was given a very free hand in re- 
cruiting for Clark ; and the following entry shows to what ex- 
tent Isaac Shelby w-as relied upon to fit out with supplies 
various expeditions along the frontier : 

As soon as the state of Affairs in the recruiting business wiU per- 
mit you are to go to the Ilinois Country and join Colo Clarke. I need 

-^Ilixtorii of Middle Tennessee, 617. 
-'•>(' larks Mss., Va. f^tate Archives. 


not tell you how necessary the greatest possible dispatch is to the 
good of the service in which you are engaged Our party at Ilinois 
may be lost together with the present favorable disposition of the 
French & Indians there unless everj^ moment is improved for their 
preservation & no future oppertunity if the present is lost can ever be 
expected so favorable to the interest of the Commonwealth. I there- 
fore urge it on you to exert yourself to the utmost to lose not a 
moment to forward the great work you have in hand & to conquer 
every difiiculty in your way arising from inclement season, great 
distances, want of many necessaries, opposition from enemies & 
others I cant enumerate but must confide in your virtue to guard 
against and surmount. Capt Isaac Shelby it is desired may purchase 
the boats but if he cant do it you must get some other person 

You receive 10000 £ Cash for Col : Clarke's corps which you are to 
deliver him except 200 £ for Capt Shelby to build the boats & what 
other incidental expeuces happen necessarily on your way which are 
to come out of that Sum. I am &c. 

A. Blair C C30 

In the beginning of the year 1779 Isaae Shelby was ap- 
pointed by Governor Henry of Virginia to furnish supplies 
for a strong campaigTi against the Chiekamauga Indians. 
Owing to the poverty of the treasury, not one cent could be 
advanced by the government and the whole expense of the 
supplies and the transportation was sustained by his own in- 
dividual credit. In the spring of that year he was elected a 
member of the Virginia Legislature from Washington 
County, for at that time it was supposed his residence was 
within the chartered limits of l^orth Carolina. 

Following the Treaty of Long Island in 1777, already 
spoken of, it was apparent to the Commissioners from North 
Carolina that the settlements, having projected so far west- 
ward of the point to which the dividing line had been run, it 
was highly desirable that the line be extended. In a letter 
from Waightstill Avery and William Sharpe, to Governor 
Caswell, August 7, 1777, they express the conviction that 
'*the extension of the line between the two States is now be- 
come an object worthy the immediate attention of govern- 
ment — it would be the means of preventing many great dis- 

sociark Papers, SS. 


putes."'"^ In 177S the Assenil)l_v of Virginia and, a little 
later, the Assembly of oSTorth Carolina, passed similar acts 
for extending and marking the boundary. The acting Com- 
missioners for Xorth Carolina were Col. Richard Henderson, 
his cousin. Col. John Williams, of Granville County, and 
Cajitain William Bailey Smith. The Commissioners repre- 
senting Virginia were Dr. Thomas Walker, who had made the 
remarkable exploration of Kentucky in 1750, and Daniel 
Smith, the map maker, who was afterwards promoted for 
his services along the Cumberland. The task of running the 
boundary line was regarded as a dangerous one, on account 
of the hostile intentions of the Indians ; and each state com- 
missioned a detachment to guard the Commissioners while 
they were engaged in the arduous enterprise. The Virginia 
Commission was provided with a military escort of twenty- 
fi^-e men, under the command of Isaac Shelby, commissioned 
a Major for that purpose by Governor Jefferson. ^^ As the 
result of the extension of the boundary line, the county of 
Sullivan was erected, and Isaac Shelby, who had recently 
served in the Virginia Legislature and received a military 
commission from Governor Jefferson, was appointed Colonel 
Commandant of this new county of Sullivan. 

In 1770 a court of commissioners with plenary powers was 
created by the commonwealth of Virginia to adjudicate with- 
out appeal upon the incipient land titles of the country. Wil- 
liam Fleming, Edmund Lyne, James Barbour, and Stephen 
Trigg, citizens of Virginia but not of the county of Ken- 
tucky, were appointed as commissioners. This court had 
alternate sessions at St. Asaph, Harrodsburg, Boonesborough, 
the Kails of the Ohio, and Bryan's Station. The court was 
opened at St. Asaph on October 13, 1779 ; and at Harrods- 
burg on February 26, 1780, the court announced that its 

3i.S7«fe Records of Xorth Carolina, vol. II, pp. 567-S. Cf. also Sum- 
mers .S'. W. Virgin'm, pp. 695-6. 

32Cf. .Tournal of Daniel Smith, edited by St. George L. Sioussat, Ten- 
ncHSCc Ilintoricdl Magaziuc, :March, 1915; Kentucky-Tennessee Bound- 
ary Lino, hy J. Stoddart .Johnston, Register Kv. State Hist'l. Soc'y. 
Sept., 1!:M).S. 


powers had elapsed and accordingly adjourned sine die. 
Thousands of claims, of various kinds, were granted by the 
court during its existence. It was quite fitting, and in itself 
an event worthy of commemoration, that the first claim pre- 
sented for adjudication was that of Isaac Shelby, among the 
first on the ground as surveyor under Henderson and Com- 
pany, and later to become the first governor of the Common- 
wealth of Kentucky. The entry was as follows : 

"Captain John Logan for and in behalf of Isaac Shelby 
this day produced a claim, and making a Crop of Corn for 
the same in the year 1778 Lying on a branch that heads at the 
Knob Lick & about a mile and a half or two Miles from the 
said Lick a southeasterly course, proof being made satisfac- 
tory to the court they are of Opinion that the said Shelby has a 
right to a settlement & Preemption according to law and that 
certificates issue for the same."^^ 

The amount of land thus granted was fourteen hundred 
acres ; prior to this time it would seem, Isaac Shelby had per- 
fected no claims for western lands. It is worthy of note that 
in his deposition before Edmund Eandolph and Jo. Prentiss, 
on December 3, 1777, regarding the Transylvania lands, 
Isaac Shelby states he had "made several entries for lands in 
Mr. Henderson's olfice, but does not consider himself to be in 
any manner interested in the Event of the dispute, between 
the Commonwealth of Virginia and the said Henderson."^'* 
This place. Knob Lick, in what is now Lincoln County, Ken- 
tucky, was settled in 1776 by Isaac Shelby while a surveyor 
under Henderson and Company. In the early spring of 
1783, it may be remarked in passing, Shelby built his house 
upon the very spot where he had camped in 1776, on the tract 
of land he had preempted, and upon which he planted a crop 
of corn, which he left to be cultivated by a tenant, when he 
himself went to Williamsburg, then the Capital of Virginia, 
for his appointment by Governor Patrick Henry as a Captain 

33For this copy I am indebted to Judge Samuel M. Wilson, of Lex- 
inijton, Ky. 

sWal. Va. State Papers, I, pp. 296-7. 


of the Pr(ivisit)iial Arinv.'*'' Ppon this preemption in August, 
ITSCt, Governor IShelby built the first stone house over erected 
in Kentucky. This was the famous residence known as 
"Traveler's Rest.'' It is recorded that the late Col. Nathaniel 
Hart, of Woodford County, used to say that when it was re- 
ported that Col. Shelby had found stone suitable for building- 
purposes, he received many letters from various portions of 
the Tnited States inquiring if it could possibly be there; as 
well as many visits to verify the fact, some from as great a 
distance as Mason County. The real scarcity of stone then 
seems almost incredible now — in view of the unlimited supply 
visible on all sides ; but was doubtless due to the luxurious 
growth of cane, and to the heavy foliage which so thoroughly 
covered the ground when it fell.^^ 

During the summer of 1780, while he was locating and se- 
curing his claims made under the Transylvania Company, 
Shelby with his company spent some time among the North- 
western Indians — Piankeshaws, Pottawattamies, and Miamis. 
In his Memoir, George Rogers Clark makes the following 
amusing entry : 

''The ensuing summer (1780), Captain I. Shelby, with 
his own company only, lay for a considerable time in the 
heart of their (the Indians') country, and was treated in the 
most friendly manner by all the natives that he saw, and was 
frequently invited by them to join and plunder what was 
called 'the King's Pasture at Detroit.' What they meant was 
to go and steal horses from that settlement."*^' 

What a lark that would have been for the staid and phleg- 
matic Shelby ! 

While still in Kentucky, in the summer of 1780, Shelby 
received intelligence (June 16) of the surrender of Charles- 
ton and the loss of the army. lie made haste to return home 
(the first part of July), as he himself says, "determined to 
enter the service of his country, until her independence was 

3ni)ra]M'r's I<in<ix Mountdin, 412; Shelby's Aiitohiography. 
3(!C«)llin.s' IliHtorii of Kcntuclcy (1882), i. 514. 
3"Eiifi;lisli's VonqufHt of the Northwest, I, 549. 



secured ; for he could not remain a cool spectator of a con- 
quest in which his dearest rights and interests were at stake." 
The story of the events which immediately succeeded this de- 
termination is best told in his own words : 

"On his arrival in Sullivan he joined a requisition from 
General Charles McDowell, ordering him to furnish all the 
aid in his power, to assist in giving a check to the enemy, who 
had overrun the two Southern States and were then on the 
border of ISTorth Carolina. Col. Shelby assembled the Militia 
of his County, called upon them to volunteer their services 
for a short period on that interesting occasion, and marched 
in a very few days with near two hundred mounted riflemen 
across the Alleghany Mountain. 

''Shortly after his arrival at McDowell's camp the army 
moved to near the Cherokee Ford of Broad River,, from 
whence Col. Shelby and Lieut. Col. Clark of Georgia were 
detached with hundred mounted men^^ to attack a British 
Fort, about twenty miles to the South, which was garrisoned 
principally by Loyalists. Col. Shelby left McDowell's camp 
late in the evening and arrived at the enemies Post just after 
daylight the next morning^^ which he found to be enclosed by 
a strong Abbatus (abatis), and everything within, indicating 
resistance. He however made a peremptory demand of a sur- 
render, when Capt. Patrick Moor, who commanded returned 
for answer that he would defend the Post to the last extrem- 
ity.^^ Our lines were then drawn to within a distance of 
about two hundred yards around the Garrison, with a determ- 
ination to storm it. He however sent a messenger a second 
time to demand a surrender before he would proceed to ex- 
tremities. To this the enemy agreed to give up the Post, on 
their being Paroled not to serve again during the war; or 
until they were regularly exchanged. In it were found ninety- 

ssshelby's figures are never conspicuous for accuracy. The detach- 
ment in this instance consisted of some six hundred horsemen. 

39Sunday, July 30. Cf. Allaire's Diary. 

40The person sent in to demand the surrender of the post was 
Captain William Cocke, who made the daring ride for Col. Richard 
Henderson in April, 1775. 


Two Loyalists, with one British siibbolten (subaltern) officer 
left there to discipline them, also two hnndred and fifty stand 
of arms, Avell chariied with ball and Imekshot and well dis- 
posed of at the diii'erent port holes. This was a strong post 
built for defense in the Cherokee war of '70 and stood on a 
branch of a small river called Pacolet. 

"Shortly after this atfair and his return to McDowell's 
camp Shelby and Clark were again detached with six hun- 
dred mounted men to watch the movements of the Enemy, 
and if possible to cut up his foraging parties. Ferguson who 
commanded the Enemy about two thousand five hundred 
strong,'*^ composed of British and Tories, with a small squad- 
ron of British Horse, was an officer of great enterprise and 
although only a Major in the British line, was a Brigadier 
General in the royal militia establishment made by the enemy 
after he had overrun South Carolina, and esteemed the most 
distinguished partisan ofilcer belonging to the British army. 
He made several attempts to surprise Col. Shelby, but his de- 
signs were always bafiled. On the firsf*" of August however, 
his advance, about six or seven hundred strong, came up with 
the American Commander at a place he had chosen to fight 
him, called Cedar Spring; when a sharp conflict ensued 
which lasted about half an hour ; when Ferguson came up 
with his whole force. The Americans then retreated, carry- 
ing off the field of battle about twenty prisoners and two 
British Subalterns."*'^ Their killed was not ascertained. The 
Americans lost eight killed and upwards of thirty wounded, 
mostly with the sabre officers. The Enemy made great efforts 
for several miles to regain the prisoners, but by forming fre- 
quently on advantageous gTound apparently to give them 
battle the enemy were retarded in their pursuit, so that the 
prisoners were pushed out of their reach. General McDowell 

4iSlioll).v's orifriiial stateuu-nt in Haywood's Tennessee is that the 
enemy numliered about two thousand ; it may have been as small a 
nunilii'i- as eiirhteen hnndred. 

•i-Tlie date is correctly ^'iven in Allaire's Diaii/ as Augiist eighth. 

43in Todd's Memoir of Shelby the number of prisoners taken is 
increased from twenty to liftv. 


having by some means got information that a party from four 
to six hundred Loyalists were encamped near Mnsgrove's 
Mill, on the South Side of the Enoree River, about forty 
miles distant; he again detached Col. Shelby, Williams and 
Clark with about seven hundred horsemen,^'* to surprise and 
disperse them. Ferguson with his whole force was encamped 
at that time on their most direct route. The American com- 
manders took up their line of march from Smith's Ford on 
Broad river (where McDowell's army was then encamped) 
just at sundown on the evening of the ISth*^ August 1780 — 
marched through the woods till after dark, and then took a 
road leaving Ferguson's camp about three miles to the left. 
They rode very hard all night, the greatest part of the way in 
a fast travelling gait, and just at the dawn of day, about half 
a mile from the Enemy's camp, met a strong patrol party, a 
short skirmish ensued, and several of them were killed. At 
that juncture a countryman living immediately at the spot, 
came up and informed, that the enemy had been reinforced 
the evening before, with six hundred regular troops (the 
Queens American regiment from New York) under Col. 
Ennes, destined to reinforce Ferguson's army ; and the cir- 
cumstances attending this information were so minute and 
particular, that no doubt was entertained of its truth although 
the man was a Tory.'*^ To march on and attack the enemy 
then seemed improper. To attempt an escape from the enemy 
in the rear appeared improbable, broke down as were the 
Americans and their horses ; for it was well known to them 
that the enemy could mount six or seven hundred infantry 
with horses of the Loyalists. They instantly determined to 

44 It is probable that the American forces numbered only from two 
hundred and fifty to three hundred and fifty. Probably the British 
originally numbered approximately six hundred. 

45The weight of authority favors the seventeenth, the battle occurr- 
ing on the eighteenth. 

46it is probable that this statement with respect to the number of 
British was a considerable exaggeration. Gov. Abner Nash, writing 
Sept. 10. 1780, gives Williams' force as two hundred and the British 
as four hundred. The name of the commander of the British re- 
inforcement was Inne.s, not Ennes. 



form a breastwork of old logs and brush near the spot, and 
make the best defense in their power; for by this time the 
drums and bugle horns of the enemy were distinctly heard in 
their camp on the high ground across the river, and soon in- 
dicated their movements. Captain Inman was sent with 
twenty-five men, to meet the enemy and skirmish with them, 
so soon as they crossed the Enoree River Capt. Inman was 
ordered to fire on them, and retreat according to his own dis- 
cretion. This strategem (which was the suggestion of the 
Capt. himself) drew the enemy forward in disorder, believing 
they had driven our w4iole party; and when they came up 
within seventy yards a most destructive fire commenced from 
our Ririemen who lay concealed behind their breastwork of 
pine logs and brush, w^iich was near half a mile long.'*" It 
was one wdiole hour before the enemy could force our Rifle- 
men from their slender breastwork. Just as they began to 
give way in some parts. Col. Ennes was badly wounded ; and 
all the other British officers except one being previously killed 
or wounded ; and Capt. Hawsey a considerable leader among 
the Loyalists being shot dow^n; the whole of the enemy's line 
began to give way, the Americans pursued them close, and 
beat them across the river with slaughter.*^ In this pursuit 
Capt. Inman was killed bravely fighting the enemy hand to 
hand. In this action Col. Shelby commanded the right 
wing, Clark the left and Williams the center. The Americans 
returned to their horses and mounted wdth a determination to 
be in Ninety-Six (at that time a weak British Post) before 
night ; it being less than thirty miles distant according to in- 
formation then received. At that moment an express from 
Gen'l McDowell (one Francis Jones) came up in great haste 
with a short letter in his hand from Governor Caswell, dated 
on the battle ground near Camden apprising McDowell of 

■iTThe Americans had been cautioned to reserve their fire "till they 
could see the buttons on the enemies' clothes." 

4HWiniam Smith of Watauga, whose bullet had struck down Innes, 
exultantly exclaimed : "I've killed their commander." whereupon 
Shelby "rallied his men who raised a regular frontier Indian yell and 
rushed furiously upon the enemy, who were gradually forced back 
before the exasperated riflemen." Cf. Draper's Kings Mountain, 108. 


the defeat of the American grand army under Gen'l Gates, on 
the 16th near that place, advising him to get out of the way, 
for that army would no doubt endeavor to improve their vic- 
tory to the greatest advantage by cutting up all the small corps 
of the American armies within their reach. It was fortunate 
that Col. Shelby had some knowledge of Governor Caswell's 
handwriting and knew what reliance to place upon it ; but how 
to avoid the enemy in his rear, broke down with fatigue as his 
men and horses were, with upwards of two hundred prisoners 
(mostly British) taken in the action — was a difficult task. 
The loss in killed of the enemy was not ascertained owing to 
the sudden manner in which the Americans were obliged to 
leave the battle ground, but must have been very great, from 
the incessant fire that was poured upon them by our Riflemen 
for considerably more than an hour. Our loss did not exceed 
nine or ten, as the enemy generally overshot the breast- 
work.^^ The prisoners were distributed amongst the com- 
panies, so as to make about one to every three men, who car- 
ried them alternately on horseback directly towards the moun- 
tains. We continued our march all that day, the night follow- 
ing and the next day until late in the evening, without ever 
stopping to refresh. ^^ This long and rapid retreat saved the 
Americans, for it is a fact that, De Peyster second in com- 
mand of Ferg-uson's army, pursued them with seven hundred 
mounted men to the place where they had foraged and re- 
freshed themselves in the evening of the second day after the 
action; and having arrived there half an hour after our de- 
parture, at dusk, so broke down by excessive fatigue in hot 
weather, he gave up the chase. ^^ Having seen the party and 

•iSDraper says : "four killed and eight or nine wounded." The 
British loss, according to the same authority, was eighty-three killed, 
about ninety wounded, and seventy prisoners — a total of two hundred 
and twenty-three out of between four hundred to five hundred — an 
unusually high percentage of loss. 

soThis is an admirable illustration of the indomitable persistence 
and strenuous energy of Shelby. 

siNote B at end of Shelby's Ms. is as follows : "This information 
Col. Shelby received from De Peyster himself after he was captured 
at Kings Mountain in October following." Draper pronounces this an 
error on the authority of Fanning, the Tory annalist, who asserts that 
on the night after the battle De Peyster accompanied him from Mus- 
grove's Mill to Ninety Six. 


the prisoners out of all danger Col. Shelby retreated over the 
Western waters with his followers, and left the prisoners w^th 
Clark and Williams to carry them on to some place of safety 
in Virginia. So great was the panic after Gen'l Gates' de- 
feat, and Gen, Sumpter's disaster, that McDowell's whole 
army broke. Some retreated west of the mountains, and others 
went to the Xortli, This action which lasted one hour and a 
half and fought so shortly after the defeat of our grand army, 
is scarcely known in the history of the Revolution. '"^^ Fergu- 
son too, made a hard push with his main army to intercept 
and retake the prisoners before they could reach the moun- 
tains, but finding his efforts vain, he took post at a place called 
Gilbert Town." 

Xews of the disastrous reverse to General Gates and the 
American army at Camden, on AugTist 16, 1780, and of the 
defeat of General Sumter which followed shortly afterwards, 
produced the immediate effect of spreading universal conster- 
nation and alarm. The various bodies of Whig Militia were 
forced to scatter in all directions. From his post at Gilbert 
Town, Ferguson paroled a prisoner, one Samuel Philips, a 
distant relation of Isaac Shelby's, and ''instructed him to in- 
form the officers on the Western waters, that if they did not 
desist from their opposition to the British arms, and take pro- 
tection under his standard, he would march his army over the 
mountains, and lay their army waste with fire and sword."^*^ 
Immediately following the affair at MusgTove's Mill, Shelby, 
with the approbation of Major Robertson, had proposed that 
an army of volunteers be raised on both sides of the moun- 
tains for the purpose of resisting Ferguson's advance. At 
the time the concensus of opinion heartily favored Shelby's 
prriposal. As soon as Shelby received Ferguson's threatening 

■""'-Shelby elsewhere describes the battle as "the hardest and best 
foii^rht action he ever was in" — attributing this valor and persistency 
to "the great number of officers who were with him as volunteers." 

•'iSGeneral .Joseph Graham's account in General Joseph Graham and 
His Revolutionary Papers, by W. A. Graham. 1904. This account 
originally ar)peared in the ^Southern Literary Messenger, September, 
184.5. Compare, also, Draper's Kings Mountain, p. 169. 


and insulting message, he set in train a course of events 
which were the reverse of the result aimed at by Ferguson. 
The letter instead of having a deterrent and intimidating 
effect upon Shelby, only fired to immediate execution the de- 
termination which he had already reached to arouse the fierce 
mountain men to action. Without delay, Shelby rode off 
about forty miles to see John Sevier, the efiicient commander 
of the militia of Washington County, at his home near Jones- 
borough, Here, after his ride in feverish haste, he found Se- 
vier in the midst of great festivities — a horse race was in 
progress, and the people in crowds were in attendance at the 
barbecue. Angered by the insolent taunt of Ferguson, Shelby 
vehemently declared that this was a time, not for a frolic, but 
for a fight. Sevier, the daring and adventurous, eagerly 
seconded Shelby's proposal to arouse the mountain men, to 
cooperate with other forces that might be raised, and to make 
an effort to attack, by surprise, and to defeat Ferguson in his 
camp ; if this were not practicable, to unite with any corps of 
patriots with which they might meet and wage war against 
the enemies of America ; and in the event of failure, with the 
consequent desolation of their homes, to take water, float down 
the Holston, Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers and find 
a home with the Spaniards in Louisiana.^'* For two days 
Shelby remained in consultation with Sevier; the Sycamore 
Shoals of the Watauga was agreed upon as the rendezvous for 
their forces, and the time of meeting the twenty-fifth of Sep- 
tember. A small force of one hundred and sixty men, under 
Colonel Charles McDowell and Colonel Andrew Hampton, 
driven before the enemy, had encamped at Watauga on Sep- 
tember 18th; and their "doleful tale," as Col. Arthur Camp- 
bell expressed it, still further "tended to excite the resentment 
of the western militia." Sevier undertook to bring this force 
into the movement ; and Isaac Shelby sent his brother Moses, 
who held the rank of Captain, with a message to Colonel Wil- 
liam Campbell, of the neighboring county of Washing-ton, 

54Li/e of General John Sevier, by F. M. Turner ; pp. 108-9. Draper's 
Kings Mountain, p. 170. 


urgently requesting his cooperation. Campbell had other 
plans on foot ; but upon the receipt of a second and more 
urgent message from Shelby, he acquiesced in the latter's plan 
for the attack on Ferguson, Shelby likewise despatched a 
messenger, a Mr. Adair, to the County Lieutenant of Wash- 
ington County, Colonel Arthur Campbell, the cousin and 
brother-in-law of William Campbell, requesting his coopera- 
tion. Arthur Campbell had just returned from a conference 
with Governor Jefferson, and was in a mood to act, as the 
Governor had pressed upon him the need for a more vigorous 
resistance to the enemy. Campbell sent word back that *'if 
the western counties of North Carolina could raise a force to 
join Col. McDowell's men, that the officers of Washington 
County would cooperate." ^^ 

5nKings Mountain — A Fragment, by Col. Arthur Campbell. 


The Old Cemetery, Charlotte, N. C. 

Some Unusual Notations Concerning this Ancient 

Burial Place, which Holds the Dust of Many 

Patriots of Fame in North Carolina 

By Violet G. Axexakdek. 

A complete record of this ancient burial ground is not ex- 
istant todaj, but it is known to be one of the oldest graveyards 
in North Carolina, guarding in its bosom the dust of many 
patriots, men and women, with their little children, once 
prominent in the life of the county and the State. 

It has been called "the graveyard of the Presbyterian 
church" (Hunter's Sketches of Western North Carolina, 
pages 50-59) and there is probably a reason for this title, for 
in the early days of this community, what is today the First 
Presbyterian Church was the only church in Charlotte, and 
was built for all denominations ; but at that date the Presby- 
terian denomination was the only one in evidence, so after 
some years of so-called "general use" the Presb}i;erians paid 
a small debt of $1,500 and took over the church and beautiful 
oak grove occupying a city square. As was the custom in those 
early days, a graveyard was laid oif adjacent to the church 
and was used as a common burying ground. This one lies im- 
mediately in the rear of the Presbyterian church occupying 
almost a city square and as it was laid off in connection with 
the church has frequently been called "the graveyard of the 
Presbyterian church." 

The "Old Cemetery," as it is now more generally called, 
was the first graveyard in Charlotte, the "Spratt Burying 
Ground" antedating it some years, was a private one outside 
the town limits in early days. The "Old Cemetery" was used 
as the "town" cemetery until a few years prior to the War 
Between the States, about 1854, the date of the first inter- 
ment in "Elmwood," the present large city cemetery, when, 


on account of its small size and crowded condition, it was 
closed for burials, and ''Elmwood" was opened. 

Interments ''bv special permit" to allow members of fam- 
ilies to be buried bv tbose of tlicir name, liave taken place as 
late as during the '70s. One of the last was that of Mrs. 
Sophie Graham Witherspoon, widow of Dr. John Wither- 
spoon and daughter of General Joseph Graham, a beautiful, 
gifted, and beloved woman, worthy of her splendid ancestry, 
who today has a host of relatives in Charlotte to "rise up 
and call her blessed." 

Xo complete list of those who have been buried here is 
available, as no record was kept, and the tombs of many have 
disappeared from age or neglect, but a partial list has been 
gleaned from the tombstones still standing, which contains the 
names of the following well-known and honored families : 
Alexander, Davidson, Graham, Witherspoon, Polk, Irwin, 
Carson, Orr, Harty, Clayton, Houston, Berryhill, Blair, Cald- 
well, Dunlap, Watson, Lowrie, Wilson, Gillespie, Elms, 
Trotter, Ray, Woodruff, Britton, McLelland, Howell, Sloan, 
]\rorrow, Cook, Lemmuel, Badger, Sterling, Jones, Owens, 
Thomas, Mcliee, Tredinick, Kearney, Caruth, Asbury, Hos- 
kins, Boyd, Springs, Laurey, Meacham, Dixon, McCombs, 
Edwards, Howie, Wheeler, and Dinkins. 

This incomplete list is one of the "honor-rolls" of Mecklen- 
burg County, recording the fair names of some of her bravest 
sons and loveliest daughters, who in their brief day acted well 
their part and laid the safe foundation of Church and State 
which is today the goodly heritage of Charlotte. Lack of 
space prevents individual mention of many whose names and 
lives are indelibly linked with North Carolina's history nor 
are we permitted to quote the quaint epitaphs and inscrip- 
tions found on many of the tombstones. 

Three men of considerable fame and who stand large in 
Xorth Carolina history arc buried in the "Old Cemetery" 
and deserve a more extended notice: Governor Xathaniel 
Alexander, Colonel Thomas Polk, and General George Gra- 


Governor N^athaniel Alexander is the only Governor Meck- 
lenburg County has ever had and his last resting place should 
be gTiarded with affection and pride, for he was honored and" 
beloved by his contemporaries as is attested by the many 
positions of trust he filled. Foote, in his History of Western 
North Carolina, page 267, has the following: 

"l^athaniel Alexander, late Governor of North Carolina, 
was a native of Mecklenburg. He was a physician by profes- 
sion and was elected a member of the House of Commons 
from Mecklenburg in 1797, a member of the Senate in 1801, 
and reelected in 1802. In 1803-1805 he was a member of 
Congress, and in 1805 elected Governor of the State. He 
married a daughter of Colonel Thomas Polk. He left no 
children. He was a man of much personal worth and re- 
spectable talents. He died and lies buried in Charlotte." 

Governor Alexander was a son of Colonel Moses Alexander, 
a distinguished Revolutionary patriot, who also rendered 
large services to his country. Governor Alexander's wife 
(Margaret Polk), was also of patriotic blood, a woman of 
many fine traits and splendid characteristics, as is evidenced 
by the fact that she was one of that brilliant company of young 
ladies of Mecklenburg County who drew up and signed the 
famous patriotic Resolutions and sent them to Salisbury to 
the Committee in session there representing Rowan and 
Mecklenburg counties on May 8, 1776. For a full account of 
this patriotic deed read Hunter's Sketches of Western- North 
Carolina, pages 144-145. It would appear from this action 
of the women of Mecklenburg County in May, 1776 — still 
some months prior to July 4, 1776 — that they were fired with 
the same fearless patriotism which prompted the men of 
Mecklenburg County to draw up and sign the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence on the previous May 20, 1775 ! ! 

Governor Alexander and his wife are buried in the "Old 
Cemetery" and we find the following inscriptions on their 



To the Memory of 

Doc'r Nathaniel Alexander 

Late Governor of No. Carolina 

who departed this life on the 

7th day of March 1808 
in the 52nd year of his age. 

By his side lies buried his wife, with this inscription on 

her tomb: 


To the Memory of 

Margaret Alexander 

Wife of 

Doctor Alexander 

and daughter of 

Thomas and Susannah Polk 

who departed this life on the 

12th day of Sept. 1806 

in the 42nd year of her age. 

Turning now to Colonel Thomas Polk, we again quote from 
the historian, Foote, pages 5-10, who says : "Col. Thomas 
Polk and his wife Susanna Spratt Polk, lie buried in the 
graveyard of the village (Charlotte)." Colonel Polk was one 
of the ablest and most patriotic men Mecklenburg County — 
famous for her patriots — has ever borne. He was a member 
of the Colonial Assembly in 1771 and again in 1775. In 
1775 he was Colonel of the Mecklenburg Militia and issued 
orders to the Captains of the several ''beats," or districts, to 
send two (2) delegates each to the Convention held in Char- 
lotte on its regular day of meeting, May 19, 1775. It was on 
this day, while the Convention was in session, that the news of 
the Battle of Lexington (Mass.) reached Charlotte, and the 
citizens, already aggrieved and incensed, became so indignant 
that Resolutions were drawn up and signed on May 20, 1775, 
declaring independence of Great Britain. Colonel Polk was 
a delegate to the Convention and was one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence and had the honor by right of 
his official capacity as Colonel of the Militia, of reading the 
famous document publicly from the courthouse steps to the 


assembled citizens. Colonel Polk was appointed Colonel of 
the Fourth Regiment, Continental Troops by the Provincial 
Congress at Halifax, E". C, April 4, 1776. After the death 
of General William Lee Davidson at Cowan's Ford, he was 
appointed Brigadier- General in his stead. Mrs. Polk was a 
daughter of Thomas Spratt, one of the earliest settlers of 
western North Carolina, who was the first man to '^cross the 
Yadkin River on wheels" — vehicles in those primitive days 
being rare ; he was one of the wealthiest and most influential 
citizens of Mecklenburg and it was at his home where the 
first court was held prior to the building of the first court- 
house. Mrs. Polk's sister, Ann Spratt, was the first white 
child born in Western North Carolina, and her gTave is in the 
old ''Spratt burying ground." Colonel and Mrs. Polk had an 
interesting family, many of whose descendents are prominent 
in the life of the community today. Himter's Sketches of 
Western North Carolina, page 55, tells us that ''he (Colonel 
Polk) died in 1793, full of years and full of honors, and his 
mortal remains repose in the graveyard of the Presbyterian 
Church, in Charlotte." 

Their son, William Polk, also a distinguished patriot, 
erected a memorial marble over the last resting place of his 
parents as a tribute of filial love and esteem. On it we read 
this beautiful testimony : 

Here lies inter'd 

The Earthly remains of 

General Thomas Polk 

and his wife 

Susanna Polk 

who lived many years together 

justly beloved and respected 

for their many virtues 

And universally regretted by all 

who had the pleasure of their 


Their Son 

William Polk 

As a token of his filial regard 

hath caused this stone to be 

Erected to their Memory. 


Some vears ai;o it was the custom on each 20th of May for 
a "Special Committee" of citizens to visit the ''Old Cemetery" 
and decorate Colonel Polk's iirave with flags and flowers in 
loving- niemorv of his patriotism as Siguier and Public Reader 
of ^lecklenburg's Declaration. Today this loyal tribute has 
fallen into disuse, but the writer hopes to sec it revived and 
again become an annual custom. 

General George Graham is the third distinguished patriot 
buried in the "Old Cemetery" of whom we shall write. He 
was one of the most conspicuously brave and daring men 
Xorth Carolina has ever produced, a man with a notable 
record for heroism as is strikingly recounted in the remarkable 
inscription on his tombstone. He was the son of Scotch-Irish 
parents, James and Mary Graham, and was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, December 5, 1752, moving to Xorth Carolina with his 
widowed mother when about ten years of age. His mother 
was a woman of strong character and fine patriotism, aiding 
her countrymen in their struggle for freedom and giving to 
the cause two sons, General Joseph Graham and General 
George Graham. She is buried in the ''Old Cemetery," near 
the grave of her son, George. He was one of the students of 
"Queen's Museum" (afterwards Liberty Hall) and was in 
Charlotte and present at the reading of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration, on May 20, 1775, as is attested by his affidavit 
given when he was 61 years of age. In May, 1775, when it 
was rumored that Captain James Jack, bearer of the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration to the Continental Congress in Philadel- 
phia, was about to be detained in Salisbury by two Tory law^- 
yers, Dunn and Booties, young George Graham, then about 23 
years of age, "was one of the brave spirits who rode all night 
to Salisbury," seized the offenders and brought them both to 
Mecklenburg for trial. George Graham took an active part 
in the campaign against Cornwallis in 1780, and was one of 
the twelve (12) brave men wdio dared attack a foraging party 
of four hundred (400) British soldiers at Mclntire's Branch 
on the Beattie's Ford road, seven miles from Charlotte, com- 
pelling them to retreat with a considerable loss of dead and 


wounded. Scarcely has a braver or moie daring deed been 
written in the annals of American historj' ! 

After the war George Graham was elected Major-General 
of the Korth Carolina Militia ; for many years he was Clerk 
of the Court of Mecklenburg County and he was a member of 
the House of Representatives during 1793-94:-95, and was a 
member of the State Senate during 1703-01-05-06-07-08-09- 
10-11-12. Again we quote from Hunter's Sketches of West- 
ern North Carolina, page 99 : 

"He (George Graham) lived more than half a century on 
his farm two miles from Charlotte. He died on the 29th of 
March, 1826, in the 68th year of his age, and is buried in the 
graveyard of the Presbyterian Church in Charlotte." 

A more extended and interesting account of George Graham 
may be found in that valuable contribution to history, the life 
of his brother Joseph, entitled General Joseph Graham and 
His Revolutionari) Papers, written by General Joseph Gra- 
ham's distinguished grandson, Hon. Wm. A. Graham. 

The inscription on George Graham's tombstone is a gTate- 
ful recogTiition by his fellow-countrymen of his splendid 
bravery in times of war and of his sterling qualities in times 
of peace, a most unusual and striking tribute ! 

As we stand by his grave we read : 


to the 

Memory of 

Major-General George Graham 

who died 

on the 29th of March. 1S26 

in the 68th year of liis age. 

He lived more tlian half a century 

in the vicinity of 

This place and was a zealous and 

active defender of his 

Country's Rights 

in the 

Revolutionary War 

and one of the Gallant Twelve who 


dared to attack and actually 

drove 4(X> British troops 

at Mclutire's 

7 miles north of Charlotte 

on the 3rd of October, 1780. 

George Graham filled many high 

and responsible Public Trusts 

the duties of wliich he discharged 

with fidelity. 

He was the people's friend not their 


and uniformly engaged the 

Unlimited Confidence 

and respect of his 

Fellow Citizens. 

The site of the encounter with the British at Mclntire's has 
been marked by a boulder and inscription as a memorial to 
George Graham and the "Gallant Twelve." 

In the north and east corner of the ''Old Cemetery" a 
space was set apart for the burial of the slaves who died in 
the homes of their masters. Many faithful men and women, 
with their little children, found sepulture here, near the last 
resting place of those they had loved and faithfully served, 
and who in return were held in affection and esteem. No 
tombstones mark these graves and most of them have disap- 
peared from sight, so today only a rolling greensward greets 
the eye of the casual passerby, giving no intimation that be- 
neath its turf lie the dust of many of an alien race who had 
found home and friends in Charlotte. 

Strangers and visitors to Charlotte often visit the ''Old 
Cemetery" to search for graves ^f relatives, or to copy inscrip- 
tions, or, from a reverent love of studying at first-hand a 
people's history, to stroll through its shady walks under its 
ancient oak trees and read the quaint epitaphs. Unfortun- 
ately this historic burial place has not been put in "Perpetual 
Care," and the city gives only a small appropriation for its 
upkeep. A fine hedge has been planted around it and a 
splendid rock wall built on the front side. At its entrance 
on West Fifth Street we find a beautiful old wrought-iron 


gate of historic interest. The iron was mined by John Gra- 
ham, a son of General Joseph Graham, at one of the General's 
iron furnaces, ''Rehoboth Furnace," in Lincoln County, and 
was made ''by hand" by the slaves and is a beautiful specimen 
of their work. The gate was owned by various members of 
the family in succession and has been donated to the "Old 
Cemetery." This sacred "God's Acre" now lies close to the 
throbbing heart of the modern "Queen City," and is one of 
her priceless heritages from her early patriots, who bestowed 
on her her splendid history which is today her greatest 


The North CaroUna Medical Society 
of 1799-1804 

By Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Author of "Governor William Tryon and His Administration in the 

I'rovince of North Carolina, 1765-1771," "Lives of 

the Bishops of North Carolina," "Ballads 

of Courageous Carolinians," etc. 

The present splendid organization, known as The Medical 
Society of the State of North Carolina, had its origin, as 
many know, in the year 1849 ; but the fact is known to very 
few that just half a century earlier a society of almost the 
same name — The North Carolina Medical Society — 
was projected in the city of Raleigh by leaders of the medical 
profession then residing in the Old North State. 

By perusing old files of the Raleigh Register, now pre- 
served in the North Carolina State Library, we are able to 
catch glimpses of the earlier organization and its promoters. 
In the issue of that paper of November 12, 1799, it is stated 
that "it is contemplated by several Gentlemen of the Faculty, 
in the State, to form themselves into a Medical Society, and 
that they intend to convene for that purpose in this city some 
time in the month of December." The editor adds: "Such 
an association of scientific men must be highly useful to them- 
selves and to the community." Commenting still further it 
is editorially stated that such a society could be made ex- 
tremely useful "by the interchange of sentiments which it 
would occasion ; by the discussion of medical subjects, which 
would awaken the spirit of inquiry; by directing the pur- 
suits of the pupil ; by giving sanction to the medical skill and 
ability of candidates for practice; by establishing among the 
Faculty a friendly intercourse; by enabling the community 
to distinguish the true Physician from the ignorant Pre- 
tender ; and by discountenancing, and possibly suppressing 
the fatal and criminal practices of Quacks and Empyrics." 


The term "Faculty," above mentioned, we may add in 
passing, is not used in the same sense as we now generally 
understand that word, but is an obsolete term to denote a 
learned profession or occupation. 

In the Ealeigh Register of December 10, 1799, Dr. Calvin 
Jones, '^Secretary of Correspondence," published notice that 
the Medical Society would hold its meeting in Raleigh on the 
16th of the same month. It is briefly announced in the afore- 
mentioned newspaper of December 17th that the "Medical 
Society met this day [probably meaning the preceding day] 
when Dr. Hand was appointed to the chair, and the Society 
proceeded to business." 

The State Legislature convened in Raleigh about this time, 
and legally incorporated The ISTorth Carolina Medical So- 
ciety by Chapter 38 of the Private Laws of 1799. 

The list of officers was announced as follows in the Baleigh 
Register of December 24th : Richard Fenuer, President ; 
ISTat Loomis and J. Clairborne, Vice-Presidents ; Sterling 
Wheaton, James Webb, John J. Pasteur, and Jason Hand, 
Censors ; Calvin Jones, Corresponding Secretary ; William B. 
Hill, Recording Secretary ; and Cargill Massenburg, Treas- 
urer. This meeting adjourned, with a resolution that the 
next annual convention should be held in Raleigh on Decem- 
ber 1, 1800. It met at the appointed time, and elected as new 
members Drs. John C. Osborne, Thomas Mitchel, John Sib- 
ley, Armistead, and French. A success- 
ful examination before the Censors was passed by Charles 
Smith. Quite a number of essays was read, and discussions 
were participated in by many of those present. The State 
was then divided by the Society into medical districts, and 
the physicians residing in these districts were urged to hold 
periodical meetings. Dr. James Webb, of Hillsborough, read 
a paper on the causes and prevention of gout and rheumatism. 
Prizes in money were offered by the Society for certain quan- 
tities of plants and medicinal articles produced in North 
Carolina, as follows: fox-glove, opium, rhubarb, castor oil, 


and senna. Cholera infantum was fixed upon as the special 
subject of study for the succeeding annual meeting, and 
Drs. Pasteur, Wheaton, Loomis, and Hand were appointed 
essayists for the said forthcoming meeting, to be held in the 
year following, with liberty to choose the subjects of their 
dissertations. Before this meeting of 1800 adjourned, officers 
were elected as follows : John C. Osborne, President ; Thomas 
]\ritchcl and Richard Feuner, Vice-Presidents; James Webb 
and John Sibley, Censors ; Sterling Wheaton, Recording Sec- 
retary; Calvin Jones, Corresponding Secretary; and Cargill 
Massenburg, Treasurer. 

The next annual meeting duly convened in the city of 
Raleigh on Monday, December 1, 1801, and held a three-day 
session. The newspaper account says that "a considerable 
number of respectable Physicians from various parts of the 
State were present." The president, Dr. Osborne, delivered 
the opening address which was editorially described in the 
Baleigli Begister as *'a cursory narrative of the progress of 
the science of Medicine, from the earliest ages." An "in- 
genious practical treatise on General Dropsy" was read by 
Dr. Wheaton. A committee was appointed to take steps to- 
wards establishing a botanical garden, for the cultivation of 
medicinal plants, and it was also resolved to found a medical 
library. The officers of the preceding year were reelected, 
with the exception of the fact that Dr. Clairborne succeeded 
Dr. Sibley as a Censor. The subject of infantile diseases 
was designated as a special study for the next annual meeting. 

In the newspapers of ISTovember, 1802, a call for the Society 
to meet on December 1st, was issued by Dr. Calvin Jones, 
Corresponding Secretary ; but, if the meeting took place, as it 
probably did, the present writer can find no record of its pro- 

The annual meeting at Raleigh, on December 3, 1803, 
brought a new accession of members in the persons of Drs. 
Robert Williams (of Pitt), John McFarland, John McAden, 
Elias Hawes, Hugh McCullough, and Thomas Henderson. 
jSTo change of officers was made except the election of Dr. 


Williams as a Censor, vice Dr. Clairborne. The details of this 
meeting are not given in the newspaper report. 

The Society met in Raleigh on December 10, 1804, re- 
elected all officers of the preceding year, with the exception of 
Treasurer — Dr. Hawes succeeding Dr. Massenburg — and re- 
solved to hold its next meeting in the town of Chapel Hill, 
the seat of the University of North Carolina, on the 5th of 
July, 1805. Whether this meeting took place the present 
writer is unable to say, nor can he find any further record of 
proceedings of this Society in the old newspaper files or else- 

To illustrate how thoroughly abreast of their time these 
physicians in the ISTorth Carolina Medical Society were, it 
may be recalled that while Dr. Jenner's experiments, in Eng- 
land, on the subject of vaccination against smallpox were still 
in progress the ISTorth Carolina practitioners were making a 
study of his dissertations and applying the process to their 
patients. Jenner's first published treatise on the subject ap- 
peared in England in 1798, and his experiments were not 
completed till several years later. Yet as early as 1800 Dr. 
Calvin Jones published in the Raleigh Register an announce- 
ment that soon he hoped to begin the treatment in North 
Carolina. A long treatise on this subject, from the pen of 
Dr. Jones will be found in the Raleigh Register of April 14, 
1801, in which he made reference to an announcement on the 
subject, by him, in the preceding year, but stated that he had 
decided to postpone the treatment until further experiments 
had been perfected in Europe and America. He says : 

"The public have been taught to expect, from my advertise- 
ments of last year, that I shall, in the ensuing month, com- 
mence inoculation for the Smallpox ; but I am prevented 
from doing this by the consideration of what is due from me 
to those who would have been my patients, whose ease and 
safety my own inclinations and the honor of my profession 
bind me to consult." 

Further on in this communication Dr. Jones refers to emi- 


iient practitioners in England, Scotland, Austria, and France, 
who bad successfully used the treatment, and adds : 

"Dr. ]\Iitcliell, of Xew York, and Dr. Waterhouse, of New 
Ilampsliire, have both received the matter of the disease from 
England, and propose inoculating early in the present season, 
so that we may expect it will soon become common in the 
United States." 

The practice of vaccination, we may add, came into use in 
parts of Xorth Carolina other than the vicinity of Raleigh 
about the time the above experiments were being made by Dr. 
Jones and his associates. The historical researches of Miss 
Adelaide L. Fries have recently brought to light the fact that 
in the old Moravian community of Salem, North Carolina, 
eighty persons (mostly children) were successfully treated in 
the Summer of 1802, by Dr. Samuel Vierling, the town phy- 
sician, for whose use the parents in that place ("house-fathers" 
and "house-mothers") had obtained, by a special messenger 
whom they had sent to "a certain doctor in Raleigh," speci- 
mens of the cow-pox virus, with instructions for its proper use. 
When Dr. Vierling undertook this work at Salem he refused 
to say what compensation he would demand, as he did not 
know what trouble and expense the process would entail. He 
did state, however, that he would do the work as cheaply as 
possible ; and we must credit him wath keeping this promise to 
the letter, as the record concludes wath the remark that Dr. 
Vierling '^declined to accept any pay for his services." 

Returning to the subject of the North Carolina Medical 
Society, little remains to be added. xVs already noted, we can 
find no record of its meetings after 1804. We may state in 
conclusion, however, that as the Society had made a collec- 
tion of natural history specimens, etc., and as Dr. Calvin 
Jones w^as its secretary ; and furthermore, as Dr. Jones turned 
over a '^museiun of artificial and natural curiosities" to the 
University of North Carolina, about twenty years later, on 
the eve of his removal to Tennessee, this gift to the University 
was ill all probability the last remaining possession of the de- 
funct North Carolina Medical Societv. 


Proceedings of the North CaroUna Society 
Daughters of the Revolution 

Held in Edenton, October 24-26, 1916 

At the annual meeting of the State Society D. R., held in 
Raleigh in 1915, on motion of the Vice-Regent, Mrs. Mar- 
shall Williams, it was voted to hold the annual meeting of 
191 G in some of our historic old towns where the Society has 
a Chapter. So when Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent of the 
Penelope Barker Chapter, extended an invitation to the 
Daughters to visit Edenton, the invitation was accepted with 
delightful anticipation and without deliberation, for Edenton 
of all towns in the State is very near to the hearts of the 
Daughters of the Revolution. It was in studying the history 
of this Revolutionary hot-bed that they were inspired to 
commemorate the Edenton Tea Party of 17T4 with a hand- 
some bronze tablet, which was placed in the rotunda of the 
State Capitol at Raleigh in October, 1908. In order to raise 
funds for that purpose the ISTorth Carolina Booklet was 
launched in May, 1901, at the suggestion of Miss Martha 
Helen Haywood, who, with Mrs. Hubert Haywood, was one 
of the first editors ; and the Penelope Barker Chapter was the 
first Chapter organized by the ISTorth Carolina Daughters. 

The Twentieth Annual Meeting of the ISTorth Carolina So- 
ciety Daughters of the Revolution was held in the form of a 
pilgrimage to the historic "Borough Towne" of Edenton, 
variously called "ye Towne in Queen Anne's Creek," "ye 
Towne in Mattermacomock Creek," and "Port of Roanoke" in 
the oldest records. The Penelope Barker Chapter filled the 
role of hostess most charmingly October 21, 25 and 26. 

The delegates arrived at noon Tuesday, October 24, and 
were met at the station by members of the Chapter and Mr 
Richard D. Dixon, representing his uncle. Dr. Richard Dil- 
lard (who was unavoidably absent) and driven to their desti- 
nations. That afternoon the gentlemen of the Historical 
Society gave a sail in honor of the visiting Daughters. The 


weather was ideal and the famous Bay of Edenton, that has 
been so often compared to the Bay of Naples, never looked 
fairer than it did under the mellow rays of the radiant autumn 
sun, while Mattermacomoek Creek was a veritable reproduc- 
tion of fairyland with the rich tints of the changing forests, 
the waving Spanish moss and the vivid reflections borne on 
the smooth surface of its limpid waters. The dying of a 
perfect day and the brilliant afterglow amid such surround- 
ings were watched intently by the guests, all of whom, save 
two, were enjoying the attractions of Edenton for the first 

On landing, the party strolled to the home of Mr. Frank 
Wood, where they were entertained at tea by Miss Caroline 
W. Coke, Vice-Regent of the Penelope Barker Chapter. In 
the grounds of Mr. Wood's home, facing the court house green, 
stood the residence of Mrs. Elizabeth King, where the Eden- 
ton Tea Party was held, October 25, 1774, the site of which 
has been marked by Mr. Frank Wood with a pedestal mounted 
with a bronze tea pot. China that was owned by the distin- 
guished President of the Tea Party, the stately Penelope 
Barker, was used, and delicious tea cakes, made from the 
recipe she had so frequently found useful, were served. On 
departing, each guest was presented with a typewritten recipe, 
rolled and tied with bufi^ and blue ribbon, the Society's colors. 

The recipe is : 

Pexelope Barker Tea Cakes. — 1 quart flour, 3^ cup but- 
ter and lard, mixed ; 2 large cups brown sugar, 3 eggs, 1 
rounded teaspoonful soda. Beat eggs together well, adding 
sugar; next, soda, dissolved in 1 tablespoonful warm water 
(not hot). Flavor with vanilla. Lastl}' add quickly the flour, 
into which butter and lard have been well worked. Roll out 
as soft as possible and cut. Bake in a hot oven. 

The parlor was tastefully decorated with trailing vines and 
pink roses. Miss Tillie Bond, the nearest living relative of 
Penelope Barker, was a guest of honor. 

On Tuesday evening the Daughters met in the Colonial 


court house, which had been appropriately dressed with yellow 
flowers and banners, carrying out the colors of the Daughters 
of the Revolution, Dr. Dillard presiding. The address of 
welcome, was delivered by the Regent of the Penelope Barker 
Chapter : 

Mme. Regent, Daughters of the Revolution, Ladies and Gen- 

The first page of American history was written when 
Columbus appealed to the Court of Spain for a fleet with 
which to set sail upon that long, perilous voyage which termi- 
nated in his planting the Cross upon the Island of San Salva- 
dor, 1492. 

From that time to the establishment of the Sir Walter 
Raleigh Colony on Roanoke Island to the settlement of the 
Chowan Precinct was but a short chain of events, but perfect 
in continuity. 

Here, where the giants of the forest stood deep-rooted on 
the shores of this grand body of water, which is now known as 
the Albemarle Sound, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, con- 
necting the Old World with the New, was "Ye Little Towne 
on Queen Anne's Creek." With but a handful of people it 
set up its own government with its laws, court, customs, 
church, and thus early laid the foundation for an important 
centre of trade. 

Surrounded by the Red Men, who soon became friends, 
they reduced to cultivation fertile fields which afforded the 
barter for the vessels which sailed into the harbor. 

Without recorded explanation the name was changed to 
"Port of Roanoke," and here increased high life of Church 
and State, industries grew, wise patriots became known 
abroad, the capital of the State was here located, laws made, 
and her fame spread like the branches of the grandeur of the 
forest primeval. 

Her commerce increased, ships multiplied in numbers, and 
the Old World wondered at her great possession. 

In 1722 Governor Charles Eden died, and from that date 


the iiaino oi' the tcnvn lias been Edenton, thus eonvincing us 
that it was named in nieniorv of that distingiiished statesman. 

After years of servitude and discontent, with no represen- 
tation in parliament, the cries of resentment grew pitiful, but 
the determination of resistance came from the women of 
Edenton in that document, The Edenton Tea Party, which 
shook the foundation of British rule in America, and sounded 
the tirst alarm at the court of St. James. Women have 
always been powerful, but the mighty stroke of independence 
was wielded by the pens of the immortal fifty-one wdio signed 
their names to that document, which w^as the key-note of the 
War of the Revolution. 

So, Mme. Regent and Daughters of the Revolution, we bid 
you welcome to the home of our ancestors, the land of King 
Iloyle, the last sovereign ruler of the Choanokes, a man whose 
lovely character made the white people live in harmony with 
his tribe, and who gave his two sons to be taught to receive 
Christianity, for in his savage breast there beat a heart which 
knew that a greater God than their Great Spirit was Lord 
over the w^orld and he wanted his sons to take up their cross 
and follow Him. 

With your advent in our midst you receive the freedom of 
Edenton, and to one and all w^e bid you come to our houses, 
partake of our bounty, welcome you to our firesides, make you 
our friends, for be it ever so lowly '^There's no place like 

The following response was made by Miss Mary Hilliard 
Hinton, the State Regent : 

Officers and DaugJiters of the Revolution: 

It is a pleasure inexpressible for the North Carolina So- 
ciety Daughters of the Revolution to assemble for the Twen- 
tieth Annual Meeting in this historic ''Borough Town," 
variously referred to in the oldest records as the "Towne in 
(^ueen Anne's Creek," the "Towne in Mattermacomock 
Creek," "Port of Roanoke," and later permanently and so 
appropriately named Edenton, though it must be admitted 


the serpent is conspicuous through absence. It is a joyous 
privilege indeed to acknowledge the gracious words of this 
very cordial welcome, and to you, Madam Regent, and the 
Penelope Barker Chapter, we extend our warmest expres- 
sions of appreciation and gratitude. 

Particularly dear to the hearts of the Daughters of the 
Revolution are Edenton and the Penelope Barker Chapter, 
for it was the noble history of this fair town which first in- 
spired this Society to commemorate the ^'Edenton Tea 
Party" by placing a handsome bronze tablet in the State 
Capitol at Raleigh, the first to adorn that stately edifice, and 
as a way to raise the means necessary the ]*^orth Carolina 
Booklet was launched. May 10, 1901. In every important 
event in our past since then Edenton has been prominently 
represented, and some of the Booklet's most valuable con- 
tributions have been from the pen of her versatile writers, 
even to the youngest generation. The Penelope Barker Chap- 
ter has been our heart's pride, because it was the first Chapter 
organized, and its record can only arouse interest and stimu- 
late ambition in historic research and patriotic achievements. 
It is an honor to have such a band of members respond to its 
roll call. 

As we gather here today, some visitors for the first time to 
this Revolutionary hot-bed and centre of culture and refine- 
ment, naturally our thoughts revert to those stirring times 
that shook a great kingdom and a vast continent to their very 
foundations. We feel the sacred presence of the famous 
statesmen and the brave, fascinating women who moved in 
that long ago, for here they lived, labored and won laurels for 
the Patriot Cause that can never fade. These beautiful, 
historic buildings of the Colonial period have been rendered 
more interesting from the fact that they have resounded with 
the echoes of their voices and the fall of their footsteps. They 
pass before us in mental review. Foremost in that distant 
throng are Judge James Iredell, who, by his letters, has be- 
queathed to posterity such vivid delineations of the social life. 
Colonial and Revolutionary, of Edenton; Governor Samuel 


Johnston, the builder of "Hayes," and his sisters, Hannah and 
Isabella ; Joseph Hewes ; James Wilson, of Pennsylvania ; 
Thomas Barker, and his fair spouse, the immortal Penelope, 
and that beauty and belle, Betsy Barker, whose likeness 
present-day iconoclasts wish to confound with that of her 
noted step-mother, Imt whose separate portraits exist in 
middle Carolina, one of the President of the Tea Party 
l(iancJ to the Hall of History at Raleigh and the other in 
the home of a descendant at Ridgeway, painted, it seems, by 
the same artist, but showing not one trace of resemblance. 
Each of the fifty-one signers of the Tea Party stand forth as 
clearly as though the mist of intervening years had vanished. 
Many, many, many others pass in the distingiiished assemb- 
lage. We offer our homage to their hallowed memories and 
imbibe inspiration to aspire to higher ideals and the perform- 
ance of deeds worth while. 

Of all the towns of North Carolina none have preserved 
that ideal, restful Colonial atmosphere, all too rare in this age 
of perpetual unrest and dangerous commercialism, as has this 
sweet haven of rest, and nowhere else can be brewed as delic- 
ious a cup of tea, which proves that the fifty-one ladies that 
met at Mrs. King's house on the Court House Green one hun- 
dred and forty-two years ago tomorrow, understood the full 
meaning of self-denial ! To Edenton we come to receive fresh 
impetus to proceed with extensive plans for a future of rose- 
tinted promise. 

Six and a half years have passed since you entrusted to 
your Regent the highest office in the gift of the Society. It 
has been a pleasure to serve the order that is closest to her 
heart, even though in so doing she has been overworked with 
the requirements of the office, in addition to the demands of 
the Booklet, therefore she fully realizes her shortcomings 
and at all times, in glancing over the past, she trusts you will 
do so with kind indulgence. 

During that space of time five Chapters, the Bloomsbury 
at Raleigh, the Roanoke at Windsor, the General Francis 
Xash at Hillsboro, the Mary Slocumb at Faison, and the 


Thomas Robeson at Red Springs, have been organized, and 
two Junior Chapters, the Virginia Dare and Ensinore, at 
Elizabeth City, have been formed. The set of one hundred 
and nine lantern slides, most of which are colored, and the 
lecture, '^Stories from North Carolina History," have been 
made and presented in Raleigh, Elizabeth City, Washington, 
Edenton, Windsor, and Winston-Salem. Eight tablets have 
been erected by the Chapters. A room has been furnished by 
the Chapters in Elizabeth City, called the ^'Virginia Dare 
Room." The chart and key of St. Paul's Churchyard has 
been presented this historic church, the painstaking work of 
the Penelope Barker Chapter. Twenty gold medals have been 
presented in the public schools in towns in North Carolina. 
Miss Catherine Albertson's book, "In Ancient Albemarle," 
has been published by the Society. Every annual meeting of 
the General Society, save that at Brooklyn in 1915, has been 
attended by delegates from North Carolina. The Booklet 
has been published and some brilliant social functions are 
some of the matters that have engaged the hearts and hands 
of the North Carolina Daughters. 

Today the North Carolina Society is as loyal to the parent 
Society as she was in the pioneer days — aye, more so. We 
stand for the things she advocates and we are happy and con- 
tent in being under her fold. Loyalty is one of the noblest 
traits that has been implanted in the nature of man. Would 
we be worthy of the great heroes whose deeds we commem- 
orate were we untrue to the cause we have espoused '^ Our 
ranks are constantly being strengthened by the best, and we 
rejoice that we can face the future with confidence and hope 
of greater achievement. 

To our beloved founder, Mrs. Fannie DeBerniere Hooper 
Whitaker, we turn in loving remembrance, and we feel North 
Carolina has been richer for the influence she wielded and 
her memory continues to exert. 

To the officers and members of the North Carolina Society 
your Regent extends her sincerest thanks for this list of good 


works and for the whole-hearted support you have bestowed in 
times of hibor and toil, in times of clouds and sunshine. 
Each of you has become dearer for the associations which 
shall be cherished always. 

An address, giving the historical facts of this building, 
around whii-h has centered so much of the past of Edenton, 
from Dr. Dillard, was enjoyed by the audience. The interior 
is modeled after the ancient basilica, and here the House of 
Burgesses assembled and guided the affairs of the Colony of 
Xorth Carolina. Mrs. E, E. Moffitt, Honorary Regent of the 
Xorth Carolina Society D. R., also talked on subjects of vital 
importance for the preservation of our State history. 

October 25th — the anniversary of the Tea Party — dawned 
bright and clear. In celebration of that event four tablets 
were unveiled by the Penelope Barker Chapter. By 10 
o'clock the citizens of Edenton had gathered in St. Paul's 
Church, the school children had marched from the Academy, 
bearing the banners of the Chapter, which on entering were 
placed at the church door, and the Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion had taken the seats reserved for them along the main 
aisle, to take part in the impressive service that was con- 
ducted in the absence of the beloved Rector, Reverend Robert 
Brent Drane, D.D., by the Reverend B. F. Huske, Rector of 
Christ Church, Xew Bern, ]^orth Carolina. Here was un- 
veiled by Richard Xorfleet Hines, Jr., the marble tablet in 
the rear of the church to the sigTiers of the "Test," who com- 
posed the vestry of St. Paul's at that time, renouncing alle- 
giance to the crown. The text of the document and the names 
of the sigTiers are engraved on the memorial in black letters. 
Mr. Iluske's address was most interesting, and it is regretted 
by the Daughters that it was almost entirely extemporaneous. 

Erom the church the throng repaired to the home of Judge 
James Iredell, where the marble tablet in the gTeat outside 
brick chimney, the gift through the Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion of the present owners and occupants, Mr, and Mrs. Wil- 
liam T. Gordon, was unveiled by William Elliott and Ethel 


McMullan. Colonel J. Bryan Grimes, President of the 
North Carolina Society of the Sons of the Revolution, made 
the speech of presentation. He spoke of the man, his life and 
splendid services to the State and the Union, of his influence 
on the Supreme Court of the United States and the Constitu- 
tion. It was here that James Wilson, signer of the National 
Declaration of Independence from Pennsylvania, visited, and 
here he breathed his last. His remains were interred in the 
burying-ground at ''Hayes" and later — several years ago — 
were removed to Philadelphia. Dr. Dillard accepted in his 
happiest manner for the town of Edenton : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

Prehistoric man built cairns or heaps of stone to commem- 
orate important events ; the ancient Egyptians emblazoned in 
hieroglyphics the deeds of their illustrious Pharoahs upon 
the faces of the everlasting pyramids ; the history of the 
ancient Aztecs is written amid the picturesque mines of 
Mitla and Cholula, and Joshua set up twelve stones at Jordan, 
so that when the children should ask their fathers in times to 
come, "What mean ye by these stones ? ye shall answer them 
that the waters of Jordan were cut off before the ark of the 
covenant of the Lord." And so on through all the ages, man- 
kind has seen fit to mark in brass, or bronze, or graven stone, 
whatever was valuable for posterity— they are the hall-marks 
and symbols of immortality. We have had presented us today 
a tablet in honor of Edenton's most illustrious son ; like Socra- 
tes he was "the perfection of earth's mental beauty, and the 
personification of all virtue" ; the fairest star that glitters in 
the firmanent of our history ! And now, in behalf of the citi- 
zens of Edenton, and the Sons and Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion, this tablet is most graciously accepted. Here let it stand, 
a perpetual inspiration to noble deeds, and virtuous actions I 
To the souls of fire let it give more fire, and to those who are 
slothful, let it give a might more than is man's ! For who 
shall say that fame is but an empty name ! 


"In thinking of the honored dead 
The youth shall rise from slothful bed 
And now, with uplifted hand and heart, 
Like him to act a noble part." 

At the Academy a bronze tablet to the Founders of the 
original AcadeniV;, on the exterior, near the entrance of the 
stately, pillared new structure, is placed, which was unveiled 
bv Caroline Privott, daughter of a trustee. Colonel J. Bryan 
Grimes presenting, and Mr. J. Norfleet Pruden accepting on 
behalf of the Board of Trustees. Colonel Olds also addressed 
the throng, speaking of the duty that rested upon the children, 
the future makers of Edenton and the keepers of her splendid 

To the court house the children marched, followed by the 
audience, to witness the presentation by Colonel C. S. Vann, 
who, in speaking, paid a high tribute to womanhood, and the 
acceptance of Mr. F. W. Hobbs, Clerk of the Court, of the 
bronze tablet, unveiled by daughters of county officers, Fran- 
ces Brownley Evans, Elsie Goodwin, Cornelia Harrell, and 
Sadie Hobbs, on the exterior of the edifice to the fifty-one 
sigTiers of the Edenton Tea Party. 

Mr. Hobbs said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Although I am no speechmaker I wish to assure you that 
it aifords me a peculiar pleasure to accept the tablet commem- 
orative of one of the most important historical events recorded 
upon the annals, embracing the history of our grand old town, 
county, and commonwealth. 

The Daughters of the Revolution deserve the highest com- 
mendation at our hands for the splendid work they have ac- 
complished in placing tablets here and there in our town, 
which Col. R. B. Creecy said was the most historical of all 
the towns in the State. These matters of history will always 
be recognized as most important, for frequently they are the 
source of inspiration to succeeding generations, and I believe 
to have them carved upon enduring metal, or other lasting 



material, and placed where they can, on all public occasions, 
be seen, will have a tendency to elevate the ideals of our citi- 
zenship, make them more patriotic, and lovers of our grand 
old State and glorious Nation. 

I thank these ladies for their manifested interest in these 
matters, and again state with great pleasure I accept, on be- 
half of the Board of Commissioners and the citizenship of the 
County of Chowan, this splendid tablet which commemorates 
such glorious courage and patriotism of our women of the 
Revolutionary War. To read these resolutions is enough to 
make us proud of our women of this stirring period of our 
country's history, and to make us glad that we are to the man- 
ner born. 

We welcome to the county the iSTorth Carolina Society 
Daughters of the Revolution, and have placed at their dis- 
posal this court house, within whose walls have presided and 
pleaded statesmen and men who were giants in their profes- 
sion and times, honored and esteemed by their fellow country- 

The ''Resolves" signed two hundred and forty-two years 
ago and the names of the patriotic signers are given thereon. 

On the conclusion of these instructive and enjoyable exer- 
cises the Daughters of the Revolution were cordially invited 
by Dr. Dillard to visit "Beverly Hall." Here amid the rare 
plants, flowers and ornamentation of his Italian garden, and 
in the library, where each recorded her name in the guest 
book, time flew, and soon the Daughters were rushed off to 
charming luncheons with Mrs. William D. Pruden and Miss 
Sophie Martin Wood, at historic "Hayes," conceded by Vir- 
ginia authorities to be the most interesting home in the South. 

The afternoon was devoted to the transaction of business 
in the court house. Miss Hinton presiding. Reports from the 
State ofiicers and Chapter Regents were read and plans dis- 
cussed for entertaining the General Society in Raleigh in 
April, 1917. Twenty-five dollars for the publication of the 
minutes of this meeting in the Booklet were donated by the 


visiting delegates, and it \vas voted to have a handsome silk 
banner made this winter, such as the other State Societies 
possess. This will bear the State flag and will be adorned 
with the hornet's nest, emblems of the Edenton Tea Party, etc. 
Seventeen new members have joined during the year 1916, 
and thirty-two more are filling out their papers. Two new 
Chapters, the Mary Slocumb at Faison, of which Miss Geor- 
gia Hicks is Regent, and the Colonel Thomas Robeson, at 
Red Springs, have been organized, while another of young 
girls is being formed. A motion was carried that the Society 
request Colonel Charles Earle Johnson to reprint the "Life 
and Letters of James Iredell," by McRee, now out of print. 
This cast such light on the grave questions of the Colonial, 
Revolutionary, and post-Revolutionary periods and on the 
delightful social life of Edenton of Judge Iredell's day that 
it is needed in our public and private libraries. 


The jSTorth Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution 
have, during the year 1915-1916, done substantial, good work. 
The Society has maintained its high standard of patriotic zeal 
and worth-while accomplishments. 

Quite a number of energetic, ambitious members have been 
added and they are already taking up the work of the Society 
with vigor and zeal. It behooves those of us who have been 
members for some years not to lag behind these new members 
in zeal ; and, in fact, we should endeavor to inspire and en- 
courage them to the most energetic service. Social, domestic, 
and often literary duties are pressing upon us and the tempta- 
tion is to leave the hardest work to the most willing ones ; but, 
remembering that we are descended from the men who took 
upon themselves unselfish, faithful service to their country, 
we cannot bo faithless to the trust of ours, to keep their mem- 
ory and green, to erect from time to time tablets and 
memorials so that heroes and heroic deeds may not be forgot- 


ten ; and, above all, to inspire in the present generation a love 
for their country and their country's heroes. 

Perhaps the most important work that our l^orth Carolina 
Society has done and is doing is the publication of the North 
Carolina Booklet, begun some years ago by Miss Martha 
Haywood and Mrs. Hubert Haywood and now continued by 
Miss Mary Hinton and Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. The most val- 
uable historical papers are, in the Booklet, collected in 
tangible, enduring form ; well known authorities give accu- 
rate, carefully written articles; and, under Miss Hinton's 
wise editorship, the North Carolina Booklet has become a 
storehouse of information, and, to the Booklet, scholars, 
teachers, and students are constautly referring for facts of 
historical importance. The recent series of articles on the 
North Carolina Secretaries of the Navy have received more 
attention and have been most favorably reviewed by the press 
in different sections of the State. 

During the recent Convention of the General Society, held 
last May in New York, the North Carolina Society was repre- 
sented by Miss Hinton, Regent ; Mrs. Paul Lee, Correspond- 
ing Secretary; Mrs. Marshall Williams, Vice-Regent, and 
Mrs. C. C. Phillips of New York. The invitation was ex- 
tended by the North Carolina Society through Miss Hinton 
to have the General Society hold its meeting in Raleigh in 
1917. The invitation was accepted and Raleigh will be 
hostess some time next year, either in April or May, to a dis- 
tinguished gathering of women. There has been appointed by 
Miss Hinton a Ways and Means Committee to arrange for 
expenses incident to this meeting, and plans are being formu- 
lated as to the program of entertainment, etc. 

Mrs. Covington then quoted from The Patriot, a part of 
Miss Hinton's report, read at the New York Convention in 
April, 1916. 

The report from Mrs. Chas. Lee Smith, Treasurer, was 
read, showing receipts amounting to $161.33, and disburse- 


ments amouutiug to $118.59, leaving a balance on hand of 
$45.74. It was moved and carried that this report be ac- 

!Miss Ilinton, Regent, and editor of the Booklet, reported 
for vohimcs XIII, XIV, XV, extending from July, 1913, to 
July, 1910. Moved and carried that this report be approved. 

The Eegistrar, Miss Sarah W. Ashe, reports these new 
members : 

]\Irs. Fannie Yarborough Bickett, Louisburg, IST. C. (wife 
of Attorney-General [now Governor] Hon. Walter Bickett). 

Mrs. Mary Davis Holt, Burlington, N. c. (wife of Mr. 
Erwin xVllcn Holt). 

Miss Elizabeth Ireland, Faison, 'N. C. 

Mrs. Mary Lou Brown Hill, Warsaw, N. C. (wife of Mr. 
William L.Hill). 

Mrs. Annie H. Witherington, Faison, IST. C. (wife of Mr. 
B. B. Witherington). 

Mrs. Xyda H. Weatherby, Faison, X. C. (wife of Mr. 
Carleton E. Weatherby). 

Miss Winifred Faison, Faison, X. C. 

Miss Georgia Hicks, Faison, X. C. 

Mrs. Janie Hicks Phillips, Xew York City (wife of Mr. 

Miss Louise Phillips, Xew York City. 

Mrs. Lila H. Hines, Faison, X. C. (wife of C. Shaw 

Mrs. Mary Franklin Pass Fearingtou, Winston-Salem, 
X. C. (wife of Dr. J. P. Fearingtou). 

Miss Faith Fearing-ton, Winston-Salem, X. C. 

]\rrs. Elizabeth R. F. Croom, Wilmington, X. C. (wife of 
Mr. Avery Burr Croom). 

Miss Mary Perrett, Faison, X. C. 

Mrs. Ruth Huntington Moore, Raleigh, X. C. 

Mrs. Annie Ramsey, Raleigh, X. C. (wife of Dr. George 
J. Ramsey). 

Report from Mrs. Matthew, Regent of the Penelope Bar- 



ker Chapter, which report, she said, was written on bronze 
and marble, the four tablets unveiled today bespeaking the 
work of this chapter. A fine work in necrology has also been 
done. It was moved and carried that this report be accepted. 
Report from Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Regent of the Sir Walter 
Raleigh Chapter: 


Miss Catherine Albertson, former Regent of the Sir Walter 
Raleigh Chapter D. R., resigned her office as Regent last 
October, as her duties as Principal of the High School prevent 
her from carrying on the work of the Chapter. 

Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Vice-President, then became Regent. 

The pupils of the High School manifested unusual interest 
in the competition for the medal oft'ered by the State Society 
D. R. last spring. The subject chosen was ''The Life of 
John Harvey," and the medal was won by Miss Ida Owens, a 
member of the Senior Class of '16. 

Miss Albertson presented the medal to Miss Owens on 
Thursday night, June 1st, during the graduating exercises of 
the High School Senior Class, and took occasion to make a 
short address to the audience, commemorating the services of 
John Harvey to the State of IsTorth Carolina. 

On June 11th, a meeting of the Sir Walter Raleigh, Ense- 
nore, and Virginia Dare Chapters was held at the residence of 
Mrs. I. M. Meekins, for the purpose of arranging for a D. R. 
float to take part in a parade on July 4th, in which the various 
civic and patriotic organizations of the town were asked to 

July Fourth a seven passenger automobile was decorated 
with the D. R. colors and filled with members of the Junior 
D. R., dressed in Colonial costumes. 

The three D. R. Chapters still hope to erect the memorial 
fountain to Virginia Dare, and as the Juniors grow to woman- 
hood to erect in our county the memorial tablets to preserve 
her history. 



The Blooraslniry Chapter D. E. was formed April 9, 1910 
Although young' in age it has, under the leadership of Mrs. 
Hubert Haywood, its Eegent, marked several historical 

The first one being the site of the old town of Bloomsbury, 
or Wake Court House. 

The memorial was a bronze tablet placed on a natural 
boulder of Wake County granite, and located at the corner of 
Boylan Avenue and Morgan Street. 

The second : The Chapter presented to the City of Ealeigh 
a beautiful bronze tablet to the memory of Col. Joel Lane. It 
was placed on the left hand side of the entrance to the City 
Municipal Building, 

In the near future the Chapter expects to mark Tryon's 
Eoad (Eamsgate Eoad). This road was used by Tryon on 
his march against the Eegiilators at Alamance. It is situated 
south of Ealeigh. 

jSTearly seventy dollars is in the treasury for this purpose. 
Several of the members have contributed to this cause, and 
forty-six dollars and thirty-five cents ($16.35) were made 
from a moving picture benefit. 

The Chapter decided that it would take the noted women 
of North Carolina during the Eevolutionary period as the 
topic for this year. 

In addition to the regular business meetings held during the 
year there were two especially enjoyable occasions. 

On New Year's day the Chapter met with Mrs. James E. 
Shepherd. After the business of the Chapter was dispatched 
several historical places and noted women of the Colonial 
period were discussed. During the afternoon Mrs. Shepherd 
served delightful refreshments typical of the New Year. 

Washington's birthday was celebrated this year at the home 
of Mrs. Geo. P. Pell. 


The decorations of the house, the papers read and the songs 
sung were all suggestive of the occasion. 

Then followed delightful refreshments which carried out 
the patriotic idea. Grace H. Bates, 

Secy Bloomshury Chapter D. R. 

Report from the Gen. Francis IS^ash Chapter, Miss Rebecca 
Cameron, Regent, was read and approved. This Chapter has 
done no active work in the past year, but has maintained or- 
ganized membership. With infinite sorrow they report the 
death of one of their beloved members, Mrs. Annie RufRn 
Collins (Mrs. George P. Collins). 

Miss Georgia Hicks, Regent of the Mary Slocumb Chap- 
ter, read the report from this Chapter : 


The Mary Slocumb Chapter was organized March 20, 
1916, in the home of Mrs. Marshall Williams, State Vice- 
Regent. Mrs. Williams presided and read the Constitution 
and By-laws, and object of the Society. Officers elected were: 
Regent, Miss Georgia Hicks ; Vice-Regent, Mrs. W. L. Hill, 
Warsaw; Secretary, Miss Elizabeth Newton Ireland. 

The name of the Chapter, "Mary Slocumb," was selected by 
a unanimous vote. Fifteen ladies now constitute the member- 
ship and we will probably have more before very long. Mrs. 
Williams and Miss Hicks entertained the Chapter at the 
June meeting. Mrs. Williams gave a most interesting ac- 
count of her visit to New York as delegate to the National 
D. R. Convention. Miss Hicks read a sketch of Nathaniel 
Macon, and Mrs. Witherington an article on Colonial hospi- 
tality. This winter we will probably study Revolutionary 
history, beginning with sketches of the men and women of 
those times. As our Chapter is probably one of the most re- 
cently formed in the State it may not be amiss to give a little 
sketch of the heroine for whom it is named, ''Mary Slocumb." 
Among the brave men who took part in the Battle of Moore's 


Creek Bridge was Capt. Ezekiel Slocumb, of Wayiie County, 
whose home was near tlie iSTeiise Eiver, He left his home on 
Sunday, previous to the battle, in high spirits, with eighty 
men to join the forces under Col. Richard Caswell, and to do 
battle against the Tories, Mrs. Slocumb, the wife of the 
Captain, said she kept thinking about her husband all day, 
when he was going with his men, and the Tories they would 
meet, and though she worked hard all day the situation of 
Captain Slocumb and his men could not be banished from her 
mind. That night she had a ''dream that was not all a 
dream." She saw distinctly a body wrapped in her husband's 
guard cloak, bloody and dead, and others dead and wounded 
on the ground. She felt she must go to her husband, and in a 
few minutes after awakening she saddled her horse and rode 
at full speed in the direction the men had taken. All night, 
with scarcely a break in the pace, she rode through Duplin 
and New Hanover counties, through the lone pine woods. 
About sunrise she passed groups of women and children on 
the road-side exhibiting equal anxiety to hear from the battle, 
but she paused not until, after riding 65 miles, she came 
into swampy ground and heard the thunder of the cannon. 
To use her words, she said, 'T stopped still, the battle was 
fighting then, I could hear the muskets and the shouting, I 
spoke to my mare and dashed on in the direction of the 
firing," The shouts grew louder as she drew nearer, and she 
said, *T saw, a few yards away from the road, under a cluster 
of trees perhaps twenty men lying — they were wounded, I 
knew the spot as if I had seen it a thousand times, and the 
position of the men, I had seen it all night. In an instant 
my whole soul was centered on one spot, for there, wrapped in 
his bloody guard cloak, was my husband's body. How I 
passed the few yards from my saddle to the place I never 
knew. I remember uncovering his head and seeing a face 
clotted with Ijlood from a dreadful wound across the temples. 
I put my hand on the bloody face, and an unknown voice 
begged for water — it was Frank Cogdell. Just then, I looked 


up and mv husband, bloody as a butcher, and muddy as a 
ditcher, stood before me." Her husband was wounded, but 
not seriously. She spent the day in tenderly nursing the 
wounded and dying, then returned home. 

Captain Slocumb survived the varying fortunes of the 
Revolution, and he and his courageous and devoted wife lie 
buried beneath modest slabs on their old plantation home. 
Some of us have heard the story of this brave woman from 
our earliest years, and to this day, though we frequently pass 
the old burying ground, we always look for the white tomb- 
stones, and think of the heroism of Mary Slocumb. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Georgia Hicks. 

The Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Paul H. Lee, of 
Raleigh, gave an interesting report of the annual meeting of 
the General Society, held in ISTew York last April : 

According to a pleasant custom the New York State So- 
ciety was hostess to the E^ational Society Daughters of the 
Revolution for the Convention of 1916, at the Waldorf- 
Astoria, the Convention of this year commemorating the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the Society. The Silver Jubilee 
being an occasion of great significance brought together rep- 
resentatives from all parts of the country. 

The formal opening of the Convention was on Tuesday 
morning. May 2d, at 11:30. A procession, led by juniors, 
with past and present officers and especially invited speakers, 
marched to the rostrum and took their places. Rev. Dr. 
Robert Clark, Chaplain of the l^ew York Society, offered an 
invocation, then the salute and pledge to the flag was given by 
the gathering. The regular program was an address of wel- 
come by Miss Carville, Regent of the ISTew York State Society, 
and was brim-full of hearty expressions of welcome, and was 
received with much applause. Mayor Mitchell was to have 
spoken the words of greeting from the city, but was unable 
to attend at the last moment, and was represented by Hon. 
Cabot Ward, Park Commissioner. Mr. Ward bade the dele- 


gates a hoarty welcome in the name of the Mayor and the 
City of New York. The President-General's address spoke 
for itself, ringine; clear the keynote of patriotism. This was 
followed i)y the annual reports of the dill'erent officers. 

The afternoon session was given over to the report of the 
standing committees and reports of the State Regents. Break- 
ing the regular routine of the program for the afternoon the 
Convention was entertained by Madam Archtowska, an Amer- 
ican, whose husband, a native of Poland, made an address in 
behalf of the suiferers of Poland, and spoke of the appropri- 
ateness of an organization like the Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion, whose forefathers had fought l)eside Kosciusko and 
Pulaski, repaying the debt of gratitude by material help to 
the country from which these two men came to aid the Colon- 
ies in their time of need. "The Star Spangled Banner" was 
then sung with enthusiasm. 

The morning session of the second day of the Convention 
opened with the recital of the Lord's Prayer in unison. The 
minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
The i^ominating Committee having been chosen on the prev- 
ious day the election of officers for the next two years was in 
order. There were two candidates for President-General : 
Mrs. Keay, from Pennsylvania, and Mrs. Eaynor, of New 
York. A number of speeches were made setting forth the 
qualifications of each candidate. When the ballots were 
counted the ISTominating Committee reported that Mrs. Pay- 
nor had received the majority vote and was therefore de- 
clared the President-General for the next two years. While 
the ballots were being counted reports were still being read 
from the State Chapters. Miss Ilinton, Regent of the l^orth 
Carolina Society, gave a very complete and gratifying report 
of the work done by the State Society. It was very pleasing 
that there was a good representation from the "Old North 

The opening feature of the afternoon session of May 3d 
was a telegram from West Virginia announcing a gift of $2.5 


as a silver jubilee present. Two vocal solos were rendered ; 
then several announcements were made, the most important 
being an invitation extended to the General Society by Miss 
Ilinton, reading: ''The North Carolina Society cordially in- 
vites the General Society Daughters of the Revolution to hold 
the annual meeting of 1917 in Ealeigh, North Carolina." On 
motion of Miss Carville, of New York, seconded by Mrs. 
Berry, of Long Island, the invitation was accepted. The 
yearly volume of the Nokth Carolina Booklet was pre- 
sented most graciously by the Vice-Regent, Mrs. Marshall 
Williams. The gift was acknowledged by the President- 

A very pleasant departure from business was a visit from 
Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., a member of the Woman's Sec- 
tion Committee of the Preparedness Parade, who came to 
extend an invitation to the Daughters to take part in the Pre- 
paredness Divisions of the patriotic Societies. 

Now we will turn to the numerous entertainments planned 
for the pleasure of the delegates. There was a reminder of 
New Amsterdam in the selection of the Holland House for 
the reception of welcome given by the New York State Society 
to officers, delegates, and visitors, from four to six o'clock on 
Monday afternoon. May 1st. A continuous procession passed 
down the line, headed by Miss Carville, Regent of New York, 
and the general officers. The Hospitality Committee looked 
after the serving of refreshments and making every one feel 
welcome. When the last strains of the orchestra died away 
one could feel ''The End of a Perfect Day." 

On the following afternoon the Board of Managers of the 
General Society gave a tea in the East Room of the Waldorf 
in honor of those on roll of the first two hundred and fifty 
members of the Society. An invitation was extended to all 
delegates and visitors to pay their respects to these pioneer 
members. Conspicuous among the pioneer members present 
was Mrs. Joseph J. Casey, one of the incorporators and for 
nineteen years Registrar-General. 


The principal social function this year was a luncheon, 
which was a reversion from the reo:ular custom of a banquet. 
The business being over, everv one was ready for the function, 
which meant a good time. The luncheon was served in the 
Astor gallery, the hall being resplendent with decorations of 
flags and flowers, amid its gorgeous hangings of gold. The 
menu, lists of guests of honor, and program of toasts were 
enclosed in a cover of buif, adorned with a water-color repro- 
duction of an old print of the inauguration of George Wash- 
ington, at Federal Hall, Wall Street, April 30, 1789. The 
giiests were entertained by an address on Preparedness, from 
Major-General Leonard Wood, of TJ. S. A. Mrs. Chas. S. 
Whitman, the wiie of the Governor of New York, was also a 
guest of honor. 

After a group of German songs, Mrs. Kent, the toastmis- 
tress, introduced the speakers, who were seated on a dias 
banked with flowers. Each toast given was a retrospect of the 
twenty-five full years of the Society. When Mrs. Bleakley, 
the retiring President-General, rose to give her parting word 
she was visibly affected. She spoke briefly of the activities of 
the past four years, and urged all to work for the Society 
under the new leadership. 

The three toasts that followed the President-General's were 
given by ex-Presidents-General, the toasts being as follows : 
''The Woman of the Past," by Mrs. D. Phoenix Ingraham ; 
"The Woman of the Present," by Mrs. Adeline F. Fitz, and 
"The Woman of the Future," by Miss Adaline W. Sterling, 
The final toast was given by Mrs. Nathaniel S. Keay, Vice- 

At the close of the feast gifts were bestowed on each past 
and present President-General, in the order of her service, 
a beautiful pin of platinum and gold in the form of a friend- 
shijj \vi-eath, to which was attached the Society Pibbon, bear- 
ing in silver letters, "1891-1916," as an expression of love 
from the State Societies. This testimonial came as a com- 
plete surprise, all recipients were present and much appro- 


ciation was shown by the past officers as evidence of the strong 
tie that binds the Daughters together. 

At the coffee stage of the luncheon two ushers passed from 
table to table, placing beside each guest a box tied with buff 
and blue ribbon, containing a souvenir in the form of a 
dainty silver teaspoon of Revolutionary pattern, inscribed 
"D. R., 1891-1916." 

Friday, May 5th, was set to show the visitors New York's 
wonderful park-way system. The weather did not smile upon 
us; instead showers and clouds fell, but a few glimpses of 
sunshine insured the excursion. Automobiles were found at 
the 34th street entrance of the Waldorf, and when the tourists 
had been placed the start began. The route led through Fifth 
Avenue, thence by Pelham to Travers Island, where the party 
was scheduled to lunch at the New York Athletic Club. The 
luncheon was served on the enclosed balcony of the Club, and 
was quite refreshing. After luncheon the Daughters re- 
turned to their respective vehicles and started for Yonkers, 
through parks along historic roads. Automobiles sped until 
we reached the doorway of the hospitable home of Mrs. 
Bleakley, who gave the delegates a cordial welcome; the re- 
freshments were as bountiful as the greeting was hearty. 
Reluctantly the visitors turned toward New York, carrying 
with them the memory of a charming day. 

On Saturday morning. May Gth, a pilgrimage was made 
around historic low^er New York, winding up at Frances Tav- 
ern for refreshments and rest. 

A glorious May afternoon formed the beautiful setting for 
the last event of the Convention, when a large company as- 
sembled to attend the opening of Fort Independence Park, 
and to witness the unveiling of two bronze memorial tablets, 
the gift of the General Society Daughters of the Revolution. 
These tablets adorn the gate-posts that stand at the entrance 
of Fort Independence Park, which includes the exterior de- 
fences of the Revolutionary Fort. The erection of this splen- 
did memorial is due to the untiring efforts of Mrs. Raynor, the 


newlv-ekvtcd rresident-General. The retiring President- 
General made a stirring address, taking as her theme the 
dedit-aticni of the Park as an inspiration to the youth of our 
nation. When the last strains of "The Star Spangled Ban- 
ner" had died away, the last chapter of the Convention of 
10 1() had passed into history. 

^liss Georgia Hicks, of Faison, was elected Historian. 
There will be no change in the officers until the next annual 
meeting, which will be held in Raleigh, after the meeting of 
the General Society, the invitation extended by the Blooms- 
bury Chapter being accepted. In the absence of Mrs. L. E. 
Covington, Mrs. Charles P. Wales (Duncan Cameron Win- 
ston), formerly a Vice-Eegent of the Society, acted as Re- 
cording Secretary. 

The evening of the 25th a tea party w^as given by the Re- 
gent of the Penelope Barker Chapter at her lovely Colonial 
home that dates back to 1722, which was the scene of beauty, 
wit, and chivalry. Flowers — golden blossoms predominat- 
ing — were banked here and there. The hostess, assisted by 
the Vice-Regent of the Chapter, Miss Caroline W. Coke, re- 
ceived the gTiests in the front drawing-room with charming 
grace. She wore a handsome creation of white chiffon, with 
train of black velvet, and trimmed with rare lace, an heirloom 
handed down in Mr. Matthew's family in Scotland for genera- 
tions, that had been the bridal veil of a relative in the long- 
ago — the Countess of Campbelldown. A feature of the even- 
ing was the tea party tableau — a table and several chairs of 
the Revolutionary period were arranged in the centre of the 
front drawing-room, around which sat and stood the members 
of the Penelope Barker Chapter, each in turn signing another 
document expressing the friendship and good-will of this 
province by the descendents of the Tea Party signers of the 
distant past. Mrs. Selby Harney, a descendant of Winifred 
Hoskins, acted as Secretary of the Tea Party of 1916. 

Telegrams of greeting, congratulations, and good wishes 
from Mrs. Cordelia Armstrong Raynor, President-General 


Daughters of the Revolution; Mrs. Alfred Moore Waddell, 
President North Carolina Society of Colonial Dames ; the 
North Carolina Society Sons of the Revolution, and Colonel 
and Mrs. Charles Earle Johnson, were read by Miss Hinton, 

as follows : 

New York, October 24, 1916. 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton: 

The President-General sends greetings to tlie Nortti Carolina 
Society, its Regent and members. Would like to be with the Pene- 
lope Barker Chapter. The report from North Carolina was inspiring 
last Monday. We are working for a great ideal : Liberty, Home, and 
Country. Cordelia A. Raynor. 

Miss M. H. Hinton, Regent of the North Carolina Society Daughters 
of the Revolution: 

Wilmington, N. C, October 24, 1916. 
The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America send greet- 
ing. May continued success attend your efforts to keep in remem- 
brance the glorious deeds of the past. G. Waddell, 

President N. C. S. C. D. A. 

Raleigh, N. C, October 24, 1916. 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, State Regent of the Daughters of the Rev- 
The Society of Sous of the Revolution extends congratulations to 
the Daughters of the Revolution on this occasion of their annual 
meeting in the historic borough of Edenton, and wishes your organi- 
zation all the success which the patriotic labors of its members so 
richly deserve. Marshall DeLancy Haywood, 

Sec'y. of the Sons of the Revolution. 

Raleigh, N. C, October 24, 1916. 
Miss Hary Hilliard Hinton, State Regent D. R.: 

Mrs. Johnson and I wish to express to you, and thi-ough you to the 
Daughters of the Revolution, our appreciation of the noble work being 
done by your patriotic Society, and to voice our regret that we cannot 
be present with you today in person, as we are in spirit and in 
thought. Chas. E. Johnson. 

The State Vice-Regent, Mrs. Marshall Williams, oifered a 
resolution of thanks most gracefully expressed for the many 
courtesies extended by the local Chapter Daughters of the 
Revolution and citizens of Edenton : 


"Scarcely had we arrived in historical Edenton before we 
realized that coupled with patriotism was unbounded hospi- 

To the iicntlenicn of the Historical Society for the inter- 
estint;; and delightful boat ride, the joy experienced as we 
glided along that 'river of dreams,' reflecting and mirroring 
the beauties of lavish nature, is inexpressible. 

Then the cup of refreshing tea and delicious cakes served 
at the home of Mr. Frank Wood, Miss Carrie Coke, the Vice- 
Kcgent of the local Chapter being hostess, and allow us to re- 
peat our thanks for the recipe of the famous Penelope Barker 
tea cakes, useful souvenirs indeed. 

Welcome evening made us feel very much at home through 
the courtesy of your Regent, Mrs. Patrick Matthew, who 
greeted us in her own charming way and then a welcome from 
that prince of gentlemen, Dr. Dillard. Indeed we were en- 
tranced to feel ourselves seated in the House of Burgesses 
and hear the history of the famous judges who sojourned 

The exercises in St. Paul's Church were an inspiration, 
and we rejoice with the Edenton people in having Mr. Huske 
of ISTew Berne to present the tablet. We were glad to see so 
many school children present to witness this eventful cere- 

We enjoyed the address of Colonel Grimes when the Iredell 
tablet was unveiled and the acceptance by the silver tongiied 
orator. Dr. Dillard. Of especial interest was our visit to the 
home of Mrs. Gordon. 

It w^as pleasant to visit the artistic and beautiful new 
Academy and again witness another tablet unveiled and ac- 
cepted by Mr. Pruden, Chairman of Trustees. 

Long to be remembered was the unveiling of the tablet at 
the court house to the women of the Edenton Tea Party, and 
Colonel Vann\s tribute to womanhood and the acceptance by 
Mr. F. W. Hobbs, Clerk of the Court. 

The Society of the visiting Daughters is greatly indebted 


to Mrs. Pruden and Mrs. John Wood for a real peep into the 
fireside and social life of the charming and cultured homes of 
Edenton — rich in rare and interesting relics. 

Our Society was honored by the presence of Colonel Olds, 
State Historian. 

Last, but by no means least, were our delightful moments 
spent in the Italian garden of the genial host. Dr. Dillard, 
where we walked with Milton in a Paradise and dreamed with 
Dante of Beatrice. 

All good things must end save one. Among the choice 
things of earth there is nothing so fair as memory ; without it 
there would be no history, no friendship, no love of patriotic 

So we will take with us in memory's storehouse this de- 
lightful occasion, showered with intellectual gifts and gracious 
hospitality, and will count it another pearl in our rosary of 
gTateful thoughts." 

Witty toasts by Mrs. Williams and Mrs. Matthew were 
given. Delicious refreshments in two courses with the cup 
of tea, brewed as nowhere else on this side of the Atlantic, 
were served. Miss Hinton and Mrs. Williams presided at the 
tea table. After reading a list of the achievements of the 
ISTorth Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution, the Re- 
gent expressed, on behalf of the Society, appreciation of the 
cordiality and delightful hospitality of the Edentonians and 
good-nights were said. 




Raised funds through the publication of the ISTorth Caro- 
LiNA Booklet to erect a bronze tablet, cast by Gorham and 
Company, to the memory of the fifty-one signers of the Eden- 
ton Tea Party, in the State Capitol at Raleigh, the first mem- 
morial to adorn that building, in October, 1908. 

Since May, 10, 1901, has published the N^orth Carolina 
Booklet, an historical magazine, devoted to North Carolina 


History — "Great Events in North Carolina History." It 
has just entered upon the sixteenth vohime. The editors 
and contributors have always served without remuneration. 
There is no capital stock, the periodical being run on faith, 
as it were, but more than five thousand dollars have been 
spent in publishiuii' it and about a thousand dollars have been 
cleared, all made from the subscriptions and advertisements. 
More than three hundred articles have been contributed by 
one hundred and five writers, thirty-two of these being women. 
It goes to all the libraries of our greatest Universities and 
the great libraries of the country, and to many colleges. It 
has subscribers in twenty-eight States of the Union, Great 
Britain, and India. 

The site of the meeting of the Grand Albemarle Assembly, 
February 0, 1665, was located and marked by a handsome 
tablet, June 11, 1910, by the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter of 
Elizabeth City. 

A marble tablet has been placed in the High School of 
Elizabeth City, containing a record of the great events in the 
history of Pasquotank County, the work of the Sir Walter 
Raleigh Chapter. 

A room bearing the name ''Virginia Dare Room," in the 
hospital at Elizabeth City, has been furnished by the two 
Junior Chapters of that town— the Virginia Dare and Ensi- 

On April 26, 1911, the Bloomsbury Chapter erected a tab- 
let and boulder to mark the location of the site of the old town 
of Bloomsbury, where our capital city now stands. 

On April 23, 1913, the Bloomsbury Chapter placed a 
Ijronze tablet on the City Municipal Building, to the memory 
of Colonel Joel Lane, who was instrumental in locating the 
capital at Raleigh. 

The set of one hundred and nine lantern slides, ninety-four 
of which are colored, and the lecture that accompanies them, 
"Stories From Xortli Carolina History," is the work of the 
entire State Society. 



The Penelope Barker Chapter, at Edenton, has erected the 
following tablets: 

A tablet on the exterior of St. Paul's Church. 

A tablet on the exterior of the court house. 

A bronze tablet on the east side of the court house, contain- 
ing the Tea Party Resolutions and the names of the fifty-one 

A bronze tablet on the south side of the Edenton Academy, 
dedicated to its founders. 

A marble tablet in the interior of St. Paul's Church, dedi- 
cated to its vestrymen who sig-ned the ''Test" for American 

A marble tablet in the great brick chimney of Judge James 
Iredell's home. 

A complete map and key of St. Paul's churchyard have been 
made by the Penelope Barker Chapter, and presented to the 
said Parish. 

Twenty-five gold medals have been presented in the public 
schools of ISTorth Carolina to pupils writing the best essays on 
some given historical subject, North Carolina history being 

The jSTorth Carolina Society assisted in collecting, install- 
ing, taking care of, packing and recording the North Carolina 
Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition in 1907. 

The Society has contributed liberally towards funds used 
in erecting monuments by the General Society at Valley 
Eorge, Cambridge, Massachusetts, where General Washing- 
ton took command of the American Army under the historic 
elm on Cambridge Common, and the bronze tablet to the sea- 
men of the American ISTavy during the Revolution that was 
placed in Bancroft Hall, Annapolis, in May, 1910, 

Marking the grave of Sergeant Koen, of the Revolution, 
by the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter. 

Placing a tombstone over the grave of General Isaac Greg- 
ory, in the Gregory burying ground at "Fairfax." 



Publishing the original historical papers of Miss Catherine 
Albertson, in a book entitled, ''In Ancient Albemarle." 

The tablet erected by the Red Men, through the Penelope 
Barker Chapter, on the exterior of the court house, Eden- 
ton, X. C. 

Thursday morning was devoted to sight-seeing. The 
Cupola House, where Miss Bond requested the Daughters to 
register in the guest book that only contained the autographs 
of the Society of the Cincinnati when they visited this Colo- 
nial mansion, St. Paul's churchyard, and ''Hayes" were 
visited. The grave of Penelope Barker, in the burying- 
ground at "Hayes," where she sleeps beside her husband, 
Thomas Barker, was strewn with golden flowers by the 

The delegates left at noon, carrying the happiest recollec- 
tions of their Twentieth Annual Meeting, of the one-time cap- 
ital of North Carolina and her hospitable inhabitants, w^orthy 
inheritors of her glorious past and noble men and women. 

The officers of the Society are : Regent, Miss Mary Hilliard 
Hinton; Vice-Regent, Mrs. Marshall Williams; Honorary 
Regents, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt and Mrs. T. K. Bruner ; Record- 
ing Secretary, Mrs. L. E. Covington; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Mrs. Paul H. Lee ; Treasurer, Mrs. Charles Lee Smith ; 
Registrar, Miss Sarah W. Ashe. 

Vol. XVI APRIL, 1917 No. 4 

North Carolina Booklet 


^^^^^ HISTORY 






General D. H. Hill as a Teacher and Author 191 

By De. Henry Elliot Shepherd. 

The Voyage of Verrazzano 209 

By R. D. W. Connor. 

Blrst Secession Flag 219 

By General W. A. Smith. 

Genealogical Department 227 

By Sybil Hyatt. 


$1.00 THE YEAR 

Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh, N. C. July 15. 1905, under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1 879 

The North CaroUna Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 

Volmiie XA'II of The Booklet will be issued quartei-ly by the 
North Carolina Society, Daufjhters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1917. The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and 
April. Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

Biographical Editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 


Isaac Shelby : Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero — Part II — 
Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Revolutionary Heroines of Mecklenburg — Miss Violet Alexander. 

Glimpses of Plantation Life in the Old South — By an Eye Witness. 

History of Rowan County — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

History of Agriculture in North Carolina — 

Hospital Service in the War Between the States — 

Historic Homes, Part VIII : "Bookwood" — Mr. William C. Ervin. 

Historic Homes, Part IX : "Creek-Side" — Mr. William C. Ervin. 

Shqcco and Jones' Springs : Old-fashion Resorts in Warren County 
— Judge Walter A. Montgomery. 

History of the Continental Line of North Carolina — Mr. Frank 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed by Mrs. Nina Holland 
Covington. These will be reviews of the latest historical works 
written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued, with a page de- 
voted to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical 
research in the State. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Old letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. ^Tien necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XVI nre requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XVI for sale. 

For particulars address 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 
"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. C. 

Vol. XVI APRIL, 1917 No. 4 

NORTH Carolina Booklet 

'Carolina I Carolina I Heaven's blessings attend her! 
While "we live zve will cherish, protect and defend her' 

Published by 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editor. 





Mrs. Hubert Haywood. Db. Richard Dillabd. 

Mks. E. E. Moffitt. Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor. Mr. James Sprunt. 

Dr. D. H. Hill. Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood 

Dr. William K. Boyd. Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Capt. S. a. Ashe. Major W. A. Graham. 

Miss Adelaide L. Fries. Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 

Miss Majbtha Helen Haywood. 

editor : 
Miss Mary Hilliaed Hinton. 

biographical editor : 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 








Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 
Mrs. T. K. BRUNER. 

recording secretary : 


Mrs. PAUL H. LEE. 






Mrs. JOHN E. RAY. 


Bloomsbury Chapter Mrs. Hubert Haywood, Regent. 

Penelope Barker Chapter Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent. 

Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Regent. 

General Francis Nash Chapter Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent. 

Roanoke Chapter Mrs. F. M. Allen, Regent. 

Mary Slocumb Chapter Miss Georgie PIicks, Regent. 

Colonel Thomas Robeson Chapter Mrs. Annie Buie, Regent. 

Tuscarora Chapter Miss Annie Montague, Regent. 

Founder of the North Carolina Society^ and Regent 1896-1902 : 


Regent 1902: 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 


Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

•nied November 25, 1911. 
tDieti Deiember 12. 1904. 

The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XVI APRIL, 1917 No. 4 

General D. H. Hill as a Teacher and Author 

An Educational and Literary Review 

By Dr. Henky Elliot Shepherd. 

In a preceding connection I have given a brief account of 
the work of Gen. D. H. Hill in the educational sphere, my 
narrative being in large measure drawn from the memory of 
my youthful experiences as a student at Davidson College 
and a cadet at the ISTorth Carolina Military Institute. Of the 
results accomplished by General Hill during the last eleven 
or twelve years of his life, while devoting himself to new 
fields of labor in Arkansas and in Georgia (1876-1889), I 
am not able to express a judgment or form an estimate based 
upon immediate knowledge of the conditions and circum- 
stances which characterized his novel and, as the result proved, 
his latest phase of educational enterprise. We may rest 
assured that, despite his gTadually failing physical health, the 
same inflexible purpose, the same heroic ideals, and the same 
singleness of aim, marked him to the final stage, in Sep- 
tember, 1889, when 

"Meekly he did resign this earthly load 
Of death called life, which us from life doth sever." 

*The career of Gen. D. H. Hill, as teacher, during the 
period preceding the War Between the States, falls into three 

*In my review of the literary work accomplished by General D. H. 
Hill, I have drawn both illustrations and comments, almost entirely, 
from his two distinctive and characteristic productions, "The Sermon 
on the Mount," and "The Crucifixion." Much that is excellent might 
have been gathered from "The Land We Love," and "The Southern 
Home," but I selected the books named as best adapted to the pecu- 
liar end I had in view. 


well-defined divisions : Professor of Mathematics at Washing- 
ton College (afterwards Washington and Lee University), 
from 1849 until 1854; Professor of Mathematics at Davidson 
College, 1854-1859; Superintendent North Carolina Mili- 
tary Institute, Charlotte, from October, 1859, until April, 
18G1. He was twenty-eight years of age when he assumed 
the chair of mathematics at Washington College, and not 
quite forty, in April, 1861, when he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the camp of instruction near Raleigh, and was soon 
to become Colonel of the historic first North Carolina, or 
Bethel Regiment. In the three educational capacities with 
which Hill was associated during the eventful years from 1849 
to 1861, he was in each instance at the head of the department 
of mathematics. Yet it would involve a serious error to infer 
that his power as teacher, his faculty of instruction, was 
absorbed by this one subject, or expended upon it. There was 
hardly a feature of the curriculum which he did not touch at 
some point, and he touched none that he did not illuminate. 
In his special sphere he was wont to track ''suggestion to her 
inmost cell" ; his patience was boundless, and he approached 
very nearly the lofty standard set up by that famed master of 
his art, "who taught as if every scholar was the only scholar." 
When I withdrew from the Military Institute, in order to 
enter the University of Virginia, during the summer of 
1860, he gave me a most kindly and cordial letter of com- 
mendation to the faculty, concluding with this significant 
sentence: "Cadet Shepherd has a strong passion for litera- 
ture and the languages, and no taste whatever for mathe- 
matics." That I never developed a faculty for his specialty, 
can in no sense be laid to his account. Pie was the most labo- 
rious, exact, lucid, of teachers, and while I have ofttimes 
deplored my weakness, I was never able to triumph over the 
strong propensity of temperament, even under the guidance 
of so masterful an instructor. To that end I could have sub- 
scribed myself, as Macaulay did when writing to his parents 
during his undergraduate days at Cambridge, "Your miser- 


able and mathematical son." Hill has assumed a justly 
acquired rank, not only among the foremost interpreters of 
his science in the educational world of the South, but in the 
country, without regard to geographical or sectional limita- 
tions. His treatise upon Algebra, published about , 

1857, was compared in its luminous method and skill in 
demonstration, to the work of Euler,* whose fame is not pre- 
served alone in the esoteric circles of a mathematical cult, but 
is perpetuated in his native city on the Rhine by visible 
memorials, attesting alike the grateful appreciation and abid- 
ing reverence of the community from which he went forth into 
remote and barbarous empires, carrying with him the glory 
of Basel and the inspiration of his chosen science. Yet, in the 
State of his adoption^ with which his name and fame are for- 
ever blended, no monumental stone^ no image wrought in 
marble or bronze, not even a modest, half -concealed tablet, in 
some niche in a chapel wall, recalls the genius, suggests the 
heroism, or intimates in temperate phrases, the unsurpassed 
idealism which crowned the life of D. H. Hill. I have at 
times indulged myself in innocent speculation with reference 
to the possibilities of Hill in the higher ranges of modern 
mathematical development, in conditions more congenial to 
his tastes and sympathies, as well as richer in inspiration to 
his native powers, than the sad mechanic exercise of unfold- 
ing the elements of algebra and geometry to callow and fledg- 
ling lads, many of whom, as attested by himself, had never 

*Iu the ninth volume of the Encyclopaedia Britanuica there may be 
found an admirable outline of the life of Euler (1716-1783), as well 
as an accurate and discriminating estimate of his I'ank as a mathema- 
tician. His Algebra, to which Hill's has been compared, although 
published in 1770, still maintains its place as a work of authority. 
His varied researches in his special field, embraced from sixty to 
eighty quarto volumes. From Russia, Prussia and France he received 
marked honor and distinctions, in royal as well as scientific circles. 
More than this, Euler was endowed with that versatility of intellect 
which was characteristic of D. H. Hill, and in addition to his mathe- 
matical attainments, was an accomplished classical and literary 
scholar. In his native city of Basel there is a leading hotel wliich 
perpetuates his name. Thus far no monument or memorial recalls 
the genius and the achievements of the man who twice rescued the 
Southern Confederacy, not from imminent peril alone, but from 
seemingly inevitable destructioiL 


mastered the fundamental laws of simple arithmetic. Di- 
vested of the grievous daily burden of empirical teaching, 
might he not have attained the transcendental heights of the 
school of Higher Algebra^ and entered into that mystic fellow- 
ship, of which in English speaking lands Sylvester and Cayley 
were the acknowledged oracles ? Had he been able to cast off 
the incubus of class-room routine, crushing nervous energy 
and absorbing mental vitality, might he not, in his mathe- 
matical sphere, have been one of those chosen and rare spirits 
whose high vocation is 

"To follow knowledge like a sinking star, 
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought." 

Major Hill combined with his native reserve and dignity 
a strong element of caustic wit, as well as a keen apprecia- 
tion of the ludicrous and the humorous. Upon a certain 
occasion a somewhat venturesome student wrote ASS in large 
chalk letters upon the back of a class-mate, who was absorbed 
in his demonstration at the blackboard. His quick eye at 

once observed it, and he remarked, "Mr. somebody 

has been writing his name on your back." The rift within 
the mathematical lute was immediately healed, and tran- 
quility' reigned supreme. Upon another occasion he said to 
a student who was transcending the limits of propriety: "Mr. 

if you do not conduct yourself properly I shall be 

obliged to put the door between us." His teaching was ideal, 
his discipline unsurpassed. ISTothing was too minute to escape 
his vigilance, or so trivial as to be unworthy of his regard. 
He knew the weakness and the strength of every pupil, and 
as his classes never exceeded a rational number, he was 
acquainted with the special characteristics, mental and moral, 
of the crude and self-appreciative lads who were entrusted to 
his keeping.* He understood our shallow intellects, our 
minimum of attainments, and his teaching; descended to the 

*I have learned from an authoritative source tliat during his asso- 
ciation with Davidson College, 1854-59, Major Hill introduced a reso- 
lution, which was adopted, requiring the meetings of the faculty to 
be Oldened with prayer. 


plane of our merely dawning or embryonic stage of develop- 
ment. With the mode of instruction by lectures, which 
obtained in the University of Virginia, he had no sympathy, 
or hardly a sentiment of toleration, for he understood only 
too thoroughly the dissipation of mental and physical energy 
which it involved, under the conditions that existed in the 
prevailing system of elementary education. "Yes," he said 
in one of his emphatic moods, "that's the way at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia; everything done by lectures." I have, 
in another connection, pointed out the essential fact, that 
although Major Hill was the chief of the mathematical depart- 
ment, both at Davidson College and at the Military Institute, 
his genius as a teacher was not expended in that sphere alone. 
On the contrary, nearly every feature of the curriculum was 
touched by his pervading influence. He was what Tennyson 
would have described as a "diffusive power," Above all, his 
far-ranging vitality of intellect was brought to bear upon the 
interpretation and elucidation of Holy Scripture. His daily 
comments upon the Psalms, the Gospels, or the Epistles, are 
wrought into my memory ; despite the process of the suns, 
and the increasing years, I can, in part, recall them as clearly 
and vividly as if I had listened to them but yesterday. To 
the mind of D. H. Hill a system of education which knew not 
God and did not rest upon a moral foundation as its inspiring 
principle, would have seemed not an anomaly, but a mon- 
strosity, contemplated from the viewpoint of religion or that 
of reason and logic. The Book of Psalms was apparently his 
favorite field of research and interpretation ; his minute and 
critical study of the master lyrics revealed itself whenever he 
read them in the morning or evening service. His wide range 
of scientific attainment stood him in good stead, and his illus- 
trations were drawn with admirable judgment from the works 
of nature as exhibited in astronomy or displayed in the 
lowliest manifestations of creative power, the lily-of-the- 
valley, or a modest violet, beneath some mossy stone, half 
hidden from the eye. Yet his two distinctive treatises, "A 


Consideration of the Sermon on the Mount/' and "The Cruci- 
fixion/' upon which his fame as an author will principally 
abide, are devoted to the central and surpassing fact of Scrip- 
ture history, the nature of the kingdom of Christ, as unfolded 
in his inaug-ural discourse; and the sublime tragedy of his 
atoning death, his analysis of which I regard as his crown of 
glory in the province of Scriptural exegesis, as well as in the 
sphere of literary achievement. It is an almost unknown or 
unimagined circumstance, even for the boldest or most irrev- 
erent student, to venture on a liberty with the Major or to 
propose quizzes or "catch" questions, in order to test his 
knowledge in regard to abstruse and subtle problems in mathe- 
matics or in physical science. I can recall but a single 
exception to this prevailing rule, that of Cadet Winslow, who 
entered the lists against him upon a point involving the rela- 
tion of wind to light, but the experiment, so far as I am 
aware, was never repeated. The same spirit did not obtain 
in student circles at the University of Virginia, and I am 
familiar with more than one instance in which a professor of 
languages was brought to grief by his own pupils upon ques- 
tions of translation, of idiom, and of construction. ISTot so 
with D. H. Hill in his special sphere. Our feeling of con- 
fidence was absolute, and the most youthful cadet felt assured 
that while mathematics "was his forte," "his foible was omni- 
science." During the period that Major Hill was in charge 
of the Military Institute (October, 1859, to April, 1861), 
there was but a single commencement celebrated, July, 1860. 
A year passed, commander and cadets were in the field, and 
his relation to the institution was never resumed with the 
restoration of peace. The commencement exercises were held 
in the Presley terian Church, Major Hill presiding. Thomas 
L. Clingman had been invited to deliver the formal ad- 
dress, but he failed to appear, and in his stead we listened 
to an admirable, informal discussion of the school, its work 
and its power for noble and beneficent ends, by Judge James 
W. Osborne, of Charlotte. Orations were delivered by Cadet 


Houston B. Lowrie, wlio fell at Sharpsburg; Cadet Graham, 
of Alabama; and bj the author of this narrative. Lowrie's 
theme was a eulogy upon ISTorth Carolina, having special 
reference to three of her sons, Macon, Gaston and Dobbin. 
The oration of Cadet Graham was patriotic in its scope ; the 
third speaker devoted himself to the literature of Scotland, 
his principal characters being Burns and Sir Walter Scott. 
Despite the invincible aversion I cherished for the peculiar 
science in which Major Hill excelled every teacher with whom 
I was brought into contact^ I have never failed to regard him 
as one of the vital forces, one of the purest inspirations that 
quickened the crude and inchoate life of my boyhood, both at 
Davidson College and at Charlotte. With the attitude of Sir 
William Hamilton in reference to the disciplinary value of 
the mathematics, I have never been in accord. My weakness 
revealed itself in an inability to overcome the strong pro- 
pensity of nature. Major Hill was in no sense accountable 
for my failure to develop an affection even for his algebra, 
with its touches of Southern fire and sentiment encroaching 
upon the calmness and serenity of abstract reasoning and 
subtle generalization. Though I stood at the pole of contrast 
in all my predilections and affinities, in the light of broaden- 
ing years, and after having seen and heard such modern ora- 
cles of the kingdom of mathematics as Sylvester, Cayley and 
Kelvin, I rank him higher than ever in the foremost ranges of 
his chosen field. It has been my specific aim thus far to make 
clear his right to an undisputed place among the leaders of 
our armies, and the guides of our intellectual development in 
the South. In each of these relations, soldier and teacher, his 
iame has passed beyond the region of controversy. The 
boldest iconoclast would no longer venture to question his 
title, or impeach his two-fold claim to assured renown. 

It may be fairly assumed that if Hill had never devoted 
himself to the art of war, had never become a professional 
soldier, but on the contrary had dedicated his energies to 
literature as a calling, a life work, he would have won an 


assured rank among- American authors. I use the term 
American advisedly, for his reputation, I am confident, would 
not have been circumscribed by sectional or geographical 
limitations. It may, upon first reflection, create a feeling of 
surprise, that a soldier by profession, like Hill, should have 
entered the field of authorship, and that, above all, he should 
have selected as the most congenial sphere for the exercise of 
his gifts, the department of scriptural exegesis. 

Among the most notable contributions ever made by a 
Southern layman in this department, was the work of George 
E. Badger, of j^orth Carolina, issued in 1849, during the 
"Anglo-Catholic" or Bishop Ives controversy, then moving 
towards its critical stage of development. The ^'examina- 
tion''"of Mr. Badger combines the subtlety of i^ewman with the 
far-reaching and critical acquirement of Bishop Lightfoot. It 
may be assumed without fear of exaggeration, that no layman 
of the present age in any Protestant communion could rival or 
reproduce this work of the jurist and statesman ; and even in 
the clerical order, it would be a difiicult task to suggest his 
peer in acuteness of intellect or clearness and skill in presen- 
tation of the truth. One who is familiar with the genesis and 
evolution of the Hill family might be disposed to attribute 
our hero's predilection for theological investigation and scrip- 
tural analysis to ancestral influences and rigid Calvinistic 
training. Apart from purely religious forces and tendencies 
developed by education, there was apparently a literary strain 
or clement inherent in the blood of the Hills, This claim of 
transmitted faculty on the part of D, H. Hill is confirmed by 
the valuable contribution made to our revolutionary history 
by his grandfather, Colonel William Hill, in his "ISTarrative 
of the Campaig-n of 1780, in South Carolina, Under General 
Thomas Sumter, Together with an Account of the Battle of 
Musgrave's Mill, and the King's Mountain Expedition." This 
work may have been resting in the memory of D. H. Hill 
when he introduced as corroborative testimony a reference to 
the battle of King's Mountain. "The Crucifixion," page 192. 


The literary susceptibility, even in the form of poetry, may 
reveal itself in natures nurtured in the most austere modes of 
religious culture. A vein of poetic sensibility has been 
traced in the creations of Calvin, and in his years of dawn, 
D. H. Hill at times was wont "to meditate the thankless 

JISTo purer or more vigorous English ever flowed from the 
pen of Hill than may be found in his contributions to the 
editorial columns of "The Southern Home," when his spirit 
was touched and kindled by some exalted and inspiring issue. 
Above all, does this generalization hold good of the editorial 
elicited by the formal dedication of the Foley statue of Jack- 
son in Richmond during the month of October, 1875, 

We turn now to a specific analysis of the two works upon 
which in the sphere of literature at least, his fame will abide. 
Each of these, "A Consideration of the Sermon on the 
Mount," 1858, and "The Crucifixion," 1859, was probably 
written during the Davidson period of the author's life, that 
is, between 1854 and 1859. "The Crucifixion" appeared as 
a serial, being published in the weekly issues of the "ISTorth 
Carolina Presbyterian" at Fayetteville, during the year 1858- 
1859. I recall with perfect distinctness the interest that the 
gradually expanding work inspired and the animated discus- 
sion which was sometimes evoked by the views of Major Hill in 
regard to certain aspects of the consummate tragedy involved 
in the death of our Lord. In its present form it must have 
been issued not far from the date at which he assumed charge 
of the Military Institute, September or October, 1859. I am 
at a loss to understand why the preface contains no reference 
to the circumstances, in part, at least, of its original appear- 
ance. There is a pathetic interest associated with the first of 
the two books — the commentary upon the Sermon on the 
Mount. The origin and inspiration of the work are seem- 
ingly revealed in the dedication to the memory of two of his 
children who lie in the little cemetery at Davidson College, 
where both father and mother now rest beside them. The 


spirit of the dead broods over the volume — it is, in a measure, 
an elegy in }>rose. Thus runs the dedication: "To The 
^[ouiorv of ]\rorrison and Willie Hill, With The Prayerful 
Hope That This Little Book May Do Some of That Good 
Which Their Fond Parents Had Hoped That They Would 
Have Done Had They Been Spared to Labor in the Vine- 
yard of the Lord." It is evident from the tenor of the lan- 
auaire, that these two "little ones" had been devoted in thought 
and }iurpose to the ministry of the gospel. They were de- 
signed to follow in the footsteps of their maternal grandfather, 
and one of them bore the name of his ancestor who outlived 
him for nearly, if not quite, a third of a century. No feature 
of General Hill's character was more intensely developed than 
his affection for his children ; it pervaded every phase of his 
nature while they were with him, and when God took them, 
he dedicated the creations of his genius and scholarship, as a 
monument to their memory. That the two works, devoted to 
the treatment of scriptural themes, were the productions of a 
layman, was a circumstance which from some points of view 
might tend rather to contribute to their popularity than to 
detract from it. The ventures of laic skill and scholarship in 
this field have, in notable instances, been crowned with assured 
success. Wilberforce's "Practical View of Christianity" will 
readily suggest itself, and one of our author's special topics, 
the Sermon on the Mount, had been the subject of a commen- 
tary by Henry Thornton, M. P., in 1840, while Hill was a 
cadet at West Point. The labors of the non-clerical author in 
the Biblical sphere, will be accepted by many as the result of 
genuine piety and consecration of spirit, not as a mere com- 
pliance with an official or professional obligation. ISTo man 
who is associated with the development of theological opinion 
in Scotland during the nineteenth century exerted a more 
potent influence than Erskine of Linlathen, a mere layman. 
All the essential conditions were combined in Hill — the fervor 
of his Scottish ancestry, a moral temperament that was never 
invaded by the spectre of doubt, a subtlety of judgment stimu- 
lated by his rigorous mathematical training, and a range of 


historical and literary acquirement, unequalled by any of the 
foremost soldiers in the armies of the South. More than this, 
his acquaintance with Scripture was minute, exact, compre- 
hensive. The Psalms were his chosen field above all, a cir- 
cumstance which possibly finds its explanation in the ancient 
and now unhappily obsolete custom in Presbyterian house- 
holds, of requiring them to be committed to memory and 
recited by the children. The treatise upon the Sermon on 
the Mount contains 282 pages, and is topical in arrangement, 
rather than characterized by formal division into chapters. 
Every essential feature of our Lord's inaugural discourse is 
reviewed as it presents itself in the order adopted by the 
Divine speaker, who was unfolding the vital principles which 
were to guide the destinies of the kingdom that He came to 
establish. The formalism of the Pharisees, the Lord's prayer, 
censoriousness, covetousness, needless anxiety, every phase 
of the unique discourse is discussed in its proper relation, with 
a lucidity and perspicuity of lang-uage which reveals the 
mathematical culture of the author, as well as a simplicity 
and directness that appeals to the humblest intelligence. 'No 
trace of scholastic pedantry or esoteric method, is discernible 
at any point in the expanding thought of the commentator. 
At the same time, his theological equipment is ample, his 
knowledge comprehensive and critical, his English vigorous 
and undefiled. Technical terms drawn from the nomen- 
clature of the schools do not darken the understanding of the 
unlettered intellect; the book, in Baconian phrase, comes 
home ''to men's business and bosoms." ]S[ot the least of the 
sources of its power lies in the fact that it was not the 
product of a mind nurtured in seclusion or bred in the cloister, 
but the creation of one who blended with exact attainment a 
knowledge of the world of realities, who had tasted the sweet- 
ness of home, the bitterness of war, had borne sore trials, had 
"seen life thoroughly and seen it whole." Each of the two 
works now under review is a suggestive illustration of the 
intellectual and ancestral influences by whose agency its 
author was developed. The critical student will not fail to 


note that the literary illustratious, varied as is their range, 
are drawn in great measure from the masters of English 
thought and expression during the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, or from those who do not descend to a later period 
than the earlier decades of the nineteenth. There is hardly 
to he discovered a reference to an historian later than Macau- 
lay, Arnold, ISTielmhr, or Sir Archibald Alison, or a poet who 
is subsequent to the time of Byron and Southey. In his 
literary record, no allusion appears to the mighty company of 
master spirits, Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley, Tennyson, Brown- 
ing, all of whom were contemporaries, and one of whom out- 
lived him, being laid in the Poet's Corner, three years after 
Hill had been borne by loving hands to his grave among his 
children at Davidson College. To the lover of literature in 
our modern day, it sounds as if an echo of the vanished past 
had fallen upon our ears as we read Hill's elaborate quota- 
tion from the "Botanic Garden," page 24, published in 1791. 
The author was the grandfather of the renowned naturalist 
whose name is for all time associated with the doctrine of 
evolution. Another illustration of the strong literary con- 
servatism which marked our ancestors of the South may be 
discovered in Hill's quotation from PoUok's ''Course of 
Time," page 108, and from Young's "Night Thoughts," page 
09. Yet each of these was a favorite classic in the homes of 
our forefathers, and rare editions, w^hich survived the deso- 
lation of war, may be found on ancient shelves in many a 
Virginia and Carolina manor unto this day. In the quota- 
tion from Pope's "Universal Prayer," page 44, we have, it 
may be, an example of the dominant classical spirit trans- 
mitted from the eighteenth century, or the survival of mater- 
nal influence in the development of literary tendency. It has 
been explained that Mrs. Solomon Hill was thoroughly at 
home with this master light of our Augustan age. The quo- 
tations from Shakespeare are rare and isolated. "The Cruci- 
fixion" suggests a possible preference for "King Lear," among 
the creations of the sovereign dramatist. Among the leaders 
in the sphere of fiction. Hill's comments, page 53, indicate a 


strong aversion to the heroes who have been wrought into 
form by the genius of Charles Dickens, his dislike being justi- 
fied by the salutary and admirable reason that "they have no 
regard for the Sabbath, none for the Bible, none for the 
preached word."* This distrust of the literature embodied 

*In order to illustrate the rigid views entertained by men of ttie 
school to which Hill and Jaclison belonged, in regard to the sanctity 
of the Sabbath, as contrasted with the laxity that prevails in our 
modern life and practice, I insert the following extract from a letter 
written by General Jackson five days before his brilliant flank move- 
ment against Hooker at Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863. The letter was 
one of the last that came from his hand. In less than two weeks 
from the day on which it was written, .Jackson died at Guinea Sta- 
tion, Virginia, May 10, 1863. The letter was addressed to his friend 
and colleague. Colonel J. T. L. Preston, of Lexington, Virginia : 

"Near Fredericksburg, April 27th, 1863. 
Dear Colonel : 

I am much gratified to see that you are one of the delegates to the 
General Assembly of our Church, and I write to express the hope that 
something may be accomplished by you at the meeting of that infiuen- 
tial body towards repealing the law requiring our mails to be car- 
ried on the Christian Sabbath. Recently, I received a letter from a 
member of Congress, expressing the hope that the House of Repre- 
sentatives would act upon the subject during its present session ; 
and from the mention made of Col. Chilton and Mr. Curry, of Ala- 
bama, I infer that they are members of the Committee which recom- 
mend the repeal of the law. A few days since I received a very grati- 
fying letter from Mr. Curry, wliich was entirely voluntary on his part, 
as I was a stranger to him and there had been no previous corres- 
pondence between us. His letter is of a cheering character, and he 
takes occasion to say that divine laws can be violated with impunity 
neither by governments nor individuals. I regret to say that he is 
fearful that the anxiety of members to return home, and the press of 
other business, will prevent the desired action this session. I have 
said thus much in order that you may see that congressional action 
is to be looked for at the next Congress, and hence the importance 
tliat Christians act promptly, so that our legislators may see the 
current of public opinion before they take up the subject. I hope and 
pray that such may be our country's sentiment upon this and kindred 
subjects, that our statesmen will see their way clearly. Now appears 
to me an auspicious time for action, as our people are looking to 
God for assistance. 

Very truly your friend, 

T. J. Jackson." 

The General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church met at 
Columbia, S. C, on the seventh of May, and three days after Jackson 
entered into rest. At this time General Hill was in command of the 
Department of North Carolina. He would have been heartily in 
accord with the views of General Jackson in reference to the observ- 
ance of the Sabbath. Upon the very day on which this letter was 
written, Hooker began his Chancellorsville campaign, a large part of 
his army crossing the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, April 27th, 1863. 


in the novel and the romance, reveals itself in the letters of 
Robert E. Lee, and of his father, each of whom warns his 
children aiiainst the dissipation of moral^ as well as mental 
energy involved in the readinp,' of fiction. So far as we are 
enabled to form an intelligent judgment of our author's liter- 
ary tendencies, he was not, even in early years, a devotee of 
fiction. The most notable exception to this comprehensive 
statement is probably to be found in the historical romances 
of Sir Walter Scott. Yet in this special field we find him at 
one with Guizot and Ruskin in the conviction that Scott had 
not succeeded in his endeavors to recreate the past and to 
present not an idealized portraiture, but the very "form and 
pressure" of the vanished ages. The range of illustration 
drawn from history is far-reaching in character. The eras 
in the development of the modern world are, above all, the 
fearful carnival of crime and blood involved in the French 
Revolution, the days of the St. Bartholomew, the critical era 
of Henry VIII^ that of the first Napoleon, the troublous time 
of the War of The Roses. These, however, by no means 
exhaust his fertility ; he may be said to take all historic 
knowledge as his province. In the light of present compli- 
cations with the Republic of Mexico, Hill's comments, page 
159, upon its former crises and revolutions, its episodes 
of anarchy and its intervals of calm, will prove rich in sug- 
gestion to those discriminating minds which interpret the 
present in the retrospect of the past. One supreme motive 
and aim pervades the work, fashions its form and determines 
its spirit — to "assert eternal providence and justify the ways 
of God to man." To this pre-eminent purpose of vindicating 
the Divine attitude^ as revealed in the evolution of our race 
in its varying stages, his wealth of illustration is dedicated. 
It need hardly be intimated that from their first to their 
final utterance, a tone of invincible orthodoxy is character- 
istic of both of these works. No shadow of doubt seems ever 
for a moment to have fallen upon the spirit of their author. 
Had the Son of ]\lan come. He would have found faith upon 


the earth concretely illustrated in the life and walk of D. H. 
Hill. In an age when the foundations of belief are appar- 
ently dissolving under the incubus of an all-prevailing unrest, 
and the ceaseless "questioning of invisible things," the con- 
trast exhibited in the attitude of Hill is grateful, as well as 
inspiring, like a voice calling from the vanished days of un- 
challengeable trust in the eternal verities. There is the abso- 
lute confidence, the urgent warning directed against needless 
anxiety, the "taking thought," which conveys a possible re- 
flection upon the Divine omniscience and the Divine provi- 
dence. When v/e recall our author's broad and accurate 
acquaintance with the classic literature of the Elizabethan 
era, one almost awaits to hear him cite Shakespeare and 
Bacon, in confirmation of his interpretation of the expres- 
sion. Hill was familiar with the fact, known to every stu- 
dent of English, that the contemporary masters of our lan- 
guage, in many well defined instances, present the most simple 
and satisfactory rendering of seemingly obscure passages in 
the standard versions of Holy Scripture. His varied and 
troublous life in war, and during the saturnalian period of 
reconstruction, alforded him an admirable field for the appli- 
cation of his own teachings in the daily gra]3ple with new 
problems, novel conditions, a new earth, not a new heaven, 
into which fate had cast him. Yet, unto the end, his faith 
failed not, and he endured as seeing Him who is invisible. 
When we recall the ceaseless and multiform activity which 
was characteristic of Hill and his technical training as a pro- 
fessional soldier, it is difiicult to explain the process by which 
he acquired so broad and accurate a knowledge of literature 
and history, in nearly all their stages save the periods that are 
subsequent to the first half of the nineteenth century. In this 
regard he displays a striking resemblance to his favorite his- 
torian, for Hill, like Macaulay, was in the essential features 
of his intellectual development, a type and in large measure 
a product, of the culture and ideals which prevailed during 
our Augustan age, when Addison, Swift, Steele and Pope 
were the recognized and indisputable standards. To the 


modern reader, the refereiiee to Cudworth, page 136, seems an 
echo from worlds no longer realized, but the citation serves to 
illustrate Hill's versatile knowledge and bis discursive rang- 
ing among the forgotten masters of the seventeenth century. 
The introduction of the Swedish hero, Gustavus Adolpbus, 
page 170, is rich in historic suggestion, for Gustavus presents 
a striking resemblance in genius and in character, in life and 
in death, to our own Stonewall Jackson. The supreme mili- 
tary career of each extended over the same length of years: 
Gustavus from 1630 to 1032; Jackson from 1801 to 1863; 
both died at nearly the same age; Jackson at 39 ; Gustavus at 
38, and both fell in the moment of victory, the one at Lutzen, 
the other at Chancellorsville. Had Hill's book been written 
five or six years later, his eye would have recognized the 
parallel, and his hand would have traced it in every one of its 
distinctive features. On page 212, we read the reference to 
Bishop Beveridge, the subject of Browning's ghastly witti- 
cism, but turned to good account by our author, who in com- 
mon with nearly every scholar of the South during the past 
generation, had no part in the poetry of Browning. 

As the work expands, we cannot fail to observe how effectu- 
ally the mathematical habitude of the author preserves its 
unity and guards it from unmethodical or desultory treat- 
ment. The element of system entered into every detail of 
his daily life. The book abounds in passages whose concise- 
ness and lucidity adapt them to the purpose of quotation, so 
that we cannot forbear to draw from its varied wealth in the 
hope of rendering it, at least in a measure, familiar to the 
student of his life, who has been accustomed to contemplate 
him principally, if not in every sense, from the viewpoint of 
his genius as a soldier and his career in the armies of the 
Confederacy. I am endeavoring to demonstrate that his 
character and his achievement, if faithfully scrutinized, will 
reveal a literary and scholarly feature, not only worthy of 
critical analysis, but contributing in no small measure to the 
"eternity of his fame." In the light of contemporary de- 
velopment in the sphere of education. Hill's comments, page 


228, assume a peculiar interest : "To the contaminating power 
of sympathy with evil doers, is to be ascribed the awful de- 
pravity of large cities. Hence, too, the low standard of morals 
among soldiers and sailors. Hence, also, the gTeater amount 
of wickedness in State Universities and in colleges overflowing 
with numbers, than in those less known and less celebrated." 
During the ten years that Hill was associated with Washing- 
ton College and with Davidson College as professor of mathe- 
matics (1849-1859), the numerical attendance in either 
probably did not exceed one hundred students. He spoke 
from the viewpoint of his own experience, and his judgment 
is amply sustained by the records of that period, as well as by 
the living voices of many who bear in memory the academic 
life of the South during the years that preceded the coming 
of the conflict which destroyed the continuity of educational 
development. JSTor was there more thorough and admirable 
teaching, though its range was restricted, to be found in that 
day than was received in these two modest and unaspiring 
colleges, the one encompassed by the mountain walls of Vir- 
ginia, the other remote, difficult of access, and nursing its 
strength in tranquil solitude. 

On page 200, we are met by a passage which seems almost 
an echo of one of Newman's Oxford sermons. Despite the 
likeness, no two characters were ever marked by more sharply 
defined antitheses than D. H. Hill and the Anglo-Catholic 
leader. "How cheering and comforting it is to know that 
God is more ready to send this renewing, sanctifying, inter- 
ceding Spirit, than parents are to give good things to their 
children. Here is the great encouragement to prayer — the 
promise of the Spirit. We are dark, ignorant, short-sighted, 
and know not how to frame our petitions aright. He has all 
wisdom and will enlighten our understandings. Our hearts 
are cold and dead, but He will give them warmth and life. 
Grod, because of our sins, 'has covered Himself with a thick 
cloud, that our prayers should not pass through.' But when 
His Spirit has enabled us to believe on His Son, He will say : 
'I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions, and 


as a cloud tliv sins ; return unto me, for I have redeemed thee.' 
Our prayer will then be unto thee, O Lord, in an acceptable 
tinuN 'and God, even onr own God, shall bless lis.' " On page 
8, wi' liuvc an illustration drawn from Hill's memories of his 
experiences in Mexico. ''Let the soldier be too proud to 
studv the principles of military science, and he will be but 
too likely to imitate the examples of one of the mushroom 
o-enorals of the Mexican war, and place his ditch on the ivrong 
side of tJie fortification/' The reference is to General Gideon 
J. Pillow, and the celebrated entrenchment at Camargo. At 
a later period. Hill did not hesitate to apply the same unspar- 
ing criticism to the "mushroom" type of generals developed 
during the War between the States. 

The tone of fervid piety which, at every point, pervades 
the work, is a grateful contrast to the prevailing spirit iu the 
same sphere during the contemporary age. It is inspiring to 
be carried back, even for an hour, into a realm of thought 
in which faith reigns supreme, and where the mere sugges- 
tion of doubt has apparently never entered. The same atti- 
tude reveals itself in the comments on page 69. "The com- 
mand to 'pray always' implies that the heart may be lifted up 
in secret devotion amidst the most pressing duties of active 
life. Still, all should have and all might have special seasons 
of private prayer. Colonel Gardiner could find such seasons 
amidst the exciting scenes of civil war and domestic dissen- 
sion. Washington could find such on his most arduous and 
active campaigns. David could lind such even when hunted 
down by his enemies. Above all, the Son of God, when 
engaged in His glorious mission on earth, could find time to 
sj^end whole nights in secret prayer. JSTo man can say that he 
is more diligently or more usefully employed than were Gar- 
diner, Washington and our blessed Redeemer. Let no one 
then dare to say that he has no time for secret prayer." Had 
this passage been written in later years, Jackson would have 
been added to this enumeration of generals who have glorified 
God by lives consecrated to His service in secret prayer. 



The Voyage of Verrazzano 

The First Exploration of the North CaroHna Coast 
by Europeans 

By R. D. W. Connor, 
Secretary of the North Carolina Plistorical Commission. 

The first European to visit, explore, and describe the coast 
of ]S[orth Carolina was Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine 
navigator in the service of France. It is trne some historians 
suppose that the Cabots preceded Verrazzano to this region 
by more than a quarter of a century; but the voyages of the 
Cabots are involved in so much obscurity and present so many 
points for controversy that it is impossible to ascertain with 
any degTee of certainty just what parts of JSTorth America 
they visited. It is doubtful, to say the least, whether or not 
their explorations brought them as far south as our latitude; 
at any rate no report of their explorations describing the 
country and its people is now extant. Verrazzano, on the 
contrary, submitted to the King of France, a long and detailed 
report of his discoveries, dated July 8, 1524, which is the 
earliest known description of the coast of the United States. 
He coasted from Cape Fear to Newfoundland, and his account 
of the country and its people is one of the most interesting 
documents that has come down to us from the era of dis- 
covery. And yet, strange as it may seem, his exploits have 
almost entirely escaped the attention of North Carolina his- 
torians. Williamson and Martin dismiss his voyage with 
scant notice, while Hawks, Wheeler, Moore, and Ashe ignore 
it altogether. It is true his discoveries led to no settlements ; 
nevertheless they form an important link in the chain of dis- 
coveries which were slowly but gradually revealing to Europe 
the truth about the New World; and as his report was in- 
cluded by Hakluyt in his ^'Divers Voyages," in 1582, it 


probably Avas not without influence in turning the attention 
of Sir AYalter Ealeicli toward America as a field for coloniza- 
tion. I propose, therefore, to relate the story of this first 
visit of Europeans to the shores of l^orth Carolina. 

The story of the great voyage of Columbus in 1492 was 
heard with wonder and delight in France and in England, 
but these feelings were promptly turned into a feeling of 
disgust at the cupidity of Spain and Portugal in laying claim 
to all the undiscovered regions of the earth and at the zeal 
with which Pope Alexander VI hastened to confirm their pre- 
tentions. France and England, however, were not prepared 
to admit the Spanish and Portuguese titles, "'If Father Adam 
has left the earth to Spain and Portugal," said Francis I of 
France, ^'let them show me the will." In the course of a few 
years, therefore, French and English ships were sailing the 
waters of the Atlantic far and wide disputing the claims of 
Spain and Portugal and taking possession of various portions 
of the iSTew World in the names of their sovereigns. 

The first French expedition sent to the New World under 
royal auspices was the expedition of Verrazzano in 1524. 
But little is known of Verrazzano's career. He was born in 
Florence about the year 1470, and at an early age entered the 
maritime service of France. He seems to have performed for 
France about the same kind of service, though perhaps not so 
effectively, that Hawkins and Drake performed for England. 
We hear of him first as a French corsair ravaging the posses- 
sions of Spain and Portugal in the East Indies and the West 
Indies. On one of his privateering expeditions, 1522, he cap- 
tured the rich treasure ship which Cortez had dispatched from 
Mexico to Spain laden with the vast spoils of the Montezuma. 
It is estimated that this prize yielded gold and silver bullion 
worth more than one and a half million dollars. 

But the daring Florentine was not merely a corsair. The 
next year ho turned his attention, for awhile at least, from 
privateering to the work of scientific exploration. King 
Francis fitted out for him four ships with which "to discover 


new lands by the ocean." ^ A storm drove him with two of 
these vessels, the Norman and the Dauphine, to seek refuge 
in a port in Brittany ; what became of the other two we do 
not know. Having repaired the damages sustained from the 
storm, Verrazzano made a successful descent upon the coast 
of Spain from which the king derived some profit. Then 
with the Dauphine alone, he says, 'Sve determined to make 
discoverie of new Countries, to prosecute the navigation we 
had already begun." His purpose was to find a way to Cathay 
(China) by a westward route. Accordingly, with a crew of 
fifty men, well provided with 'Victuals, weapons, and other 
ship munition" for an eight-month voyage, he set sail Janu- 
ary 17, 1524, from a "dishabited rocke by the isle of Madera" 
and turned his prow toward the unknown world. 

For twenty-five days Verrazzano's little caravel sped along 
for 500 leagues before "a faire Easterly wind," but on the 
twenty-sixth day he was "^overtaken with as sharp and terrible 
a tempest as ever saylers suffered." Weathering this storm, 
as he said "with the divine helpe and mercifull assistance of 
Almighty God, and the goodnesse of our shippe, accompanied 
with the good happe of her fortunate name," he again fell in 
with a '^prosperous winde," and pursued his course west by 
north for a little more than 400 leagues. When in the thirty- 
fourth parallel of latitude, he reached a low-lying coast, "a 
newe land," he declares, "never before scene of any man either 
ancient or moderne." This landfall was off the coast of 
what is now North Carolina near Cape Fear. 

Perceiving by "the great fires" on shore that the country 
was inhabited, Verrazzano followed the coast southward for 
fifty leagues in search of "some convenient Harborough 
wherein to anchor and have knowledge of the place." Fail- 
ing in his search, he says, "we resolved to returne backe againe 
towards the ISTorth, where wee found our selves troubled with 
the like difficultie. ... At length being in despaire to 

1 Quotations in this article from Verrazzano's report are from 
Hakluyt's translation printed in his "Voyages," reprint of 1810, Vol. 3. 


tinde any Porte, wee cast auelior iipou the coast, and sent our 
Boate to shore, where we saw great store of people which came 
to the Sea side : and seeing us approach, they fled away, and 
sometimes would stand still and looke hacke, beholding us 
with great admiration ; but afterwards being animated and 
assured with signes that we made them, some of them came 
luu'd to The Sea side, seeming to rejoyce very much at tho 
sight of US, and marveling greatly at our apparel, shape and 
whitencsse, shewed us by sundry sigiies where we might most 
commodionsly come aland with our Boate, offering us also of 
their victuals to eate/' 

Thus for the first time the red men of our Carolina coast 
came in contact with the wdiite race. It was a wonderful 
occasion for both. And yet, how much more wonderful it 
would seem if the red men could have imitated the example 
of their pale-face visitors and left for us their impressions of 
the strangers as the white men did of them. In Verrazzano's 
report of his voyage we have the earliest description of these 
natives that has come down to us. That some of his state- 
ments are erroneous is not to be marveled at ; rather ought we 
to wonder that, considering all the circumstances, his obser- 
vations of these people, as strange to him as he was to them, 
should approach so nearly to accuracy. Here is what he says 
of them : 

^'Xow I wil briefly declare to your Maiestie their life and 
nianers, as farre as we could have notice thereof: These peo- 
ple goe altogether naked, except only that they cover their 
privie parts with certaine skins of beasts like unto Marterns, 
which they fasten unto a narrow girdle made of grasse very 
artificially wrought, hanged about with tayles of divers other 
beastos, which round about their bodies hang dangling downe 
to their knees. Some of them weare garlands of byrdes feath- 
ers. The people are of colour russett, and not much unlike the 
Saracens : their hayre blacke, thicke and not very long, which 
they tye together in a knot behind and weare it like a little 
taile. They are well featured in their limbes,of meane stature, 


and commonly somewhat bigger than we: broad breasted, 
strong armed, their legs and other parts of their bodies well 
fashioned, and they are disfigiired in nothing, saving that they 
have somewhat broade visages, and yet not all of them: for 
we saw many of them wel favoured, having blacke and great 
eyes, with a cheerefull and steady looke, not strong of body, 
yet sharpe witted, nymble and exceeding great runners, as 
farre as we could learne by experience, and in those two last 
qualities they are like to the people of the East partes of the 
world, and especially to them of the uttermost parts of 
China. We could not learne of this people, their maner of 
living, nor their particular customs, by reason of the short 
abode we made on the shore, our company being but small, 
and our ship ryding farre off in the Sea." 

After these observations on the people Verrazzano describes 
the country itself. It should be borne in mind that Verraz- 
zano thought that he was on the coast of Cathay and there- 
fore imagines that the forests which he saw at a distance 
would be not "altogether voyd of drugs or spicery, and other 
riches of golde, seeing the colour of the land doth much argue 
it." Such errors are common to the narratives of most of 
the early explorers who, thinking themselves in an oriental 
country, attribute to America many of the features and prod- 
ucts of the Orient. So does Verrazzano in the following 
description of the Carolina coast — the first description of this 
region ever written — fall into similar errors. He says : 

''The shoare is all covered with small sand, and so ascendeth 
upwards for the space of 15. foote, rising in forme of litle 
hils about 50. paces broad. And sayling forwards, we found 
certaine small Rivers and armes of the Sea, that fall downe 
by certaine creekes, washing the shoare on both sides as the 
coast lyeth. And beyond this we saw the open Countrey ris- 
ing in height above the sandie shoare with many faire fields 
and plaines, full of mightie great woods, some very thicke, 
and some thinne, replenished with divers sorts of trees, as 
pleasant and delectable to behold, as is possible to imagine. 


And your Maiestie may not thinke that these are like the 
woods of Herevnia or the wilde deserts of Tartarv, and the 
Northerne coasts full of fruitless trees : But they are full of 
Palme trees. Bay trees, and high Cypresse trees, and many 
other sortes of trees unknowen in Europe, which yeeld most 
sweete savours farre from the shoare, the propertie whereof 
we could not Icarne from the cause aforesaid,^ and not for any 
difficulty to passe through the woods, seeing they are not so 
thicke but that a man may passe through them. ISTeither doe 
we thinke that they, partaking of the East world round about 
them, are alti^gether voyd of drugs or spicery, and other riches 
of o'olde, seeing the colour of the land doth so much argue it. 
And the lande is full of many beastes, as Stags, Deere, and 
Hares, and likewise of Lakes and Pooles of fresh water, with 
great plentie of Fowles, convenient for all kinde of pleasant 
game. This land is in latitude 3-i. degrees,^ with good and 
wholesome ayre, temperate, betweene hot and colde, no vehe- 
ment windes doe blowe in those Regions, and those that doe 
commonly reigne in those coasts, are the jSTorthwest and West 
windes in the summer season, (in the beginning whereof we 
were there) the skie cleere and faire with very little raine: 
and if at any time the ayre be cloudie and mistie with the 
Southerne winde, immediately it is dissolved and waxeth 
cleere and fay re againe." 

Sailing northward, Verrazzano found the coast "to trend 
toward the East'' and "saw every where very great fires, by 
reason of the multitude of the inhabitants." An incident 
soon occurred, tragic enough in its possibilities as viewed by 
tlie horrified Frenchmen, but merely amusing as we now read 
it in Verrazzano's narrative, which shows how difficult it was 
for the visitors and the natives to understand each other at 
their first contact. Verrazzano tells the story in the follow- 
ing passage: 

~"l',y roiisoii of the short ahode we made ou the shore, our company 
bciiiK liut small, and our ship ryding farre off in the Sea." 
■"iA few miles south of Wilmington. 


"We departed from this place, still running along the coast, 
which we found to trend toward the East, & we saw every 
where great fires, by reason of the multitude of the inhabi- 
tants. While we rode on that coast, partly because it had no 
harborough, and for that we wanted water, we sent our boat 
ashoare with 25. men: where by reason of great and continuall 
waves that beat against the shoare, being an open Coast, with- 
out succour, none of our men could possibly goe ashoare with- 
out loosing our boate. Wee saw there many people which 
came unto the Shoare, making divers signes of friendship, and 
shewing that they were content we should come aland, and by 
trial we found them to very courteous and gentle, as your 
Maiestie shal understand by the successe. To the intent we 
might send them of our things, which the Indians commonly 
desire and esteeme, as sheetes of paper, glasses, bels, and such 
like trifles ; we sent a young man one of our Mariners ashoare, 
who swimming towards them, & being within 3. or 4. yards of 
the shoare, not trusting them, cast the things upon the shoare ; 
but seeking afterwards to returne, he was with such violence 
of the waves beaten upon the shoare, that he was so bruised 
that he lay there almost dead : which the Indians perceiving, 
ranne to catch him, and drawing him out, they carried him a 
little way off from the sea. The yong man perceiving they 
caried him, being at the first dismaied, began then greatly to 
f eare, and cried out piteously : likewise did the Indians which' 
did accompany him, going about to cheere him and to give him 
courage, and then setting him on the ground at the foote of a 
litle hil against the sunne, they began to behold him with 
great admiration, marvelling at the whitenesse of his flesh: 
and putting off his clothes, they made him warme at a great 
fire, not without our great feare which remayned in the boat, 
that they would have rested him at that fire, and have eaten 
him. The young man having recovered his strength, and 
having stayed a while with them, shewed them by signes that 
he was desirous to returne to the ship : and they with gi-eat 
love clapping him fast about with many imbracings, accom- 


panviiiLi- him unto the sea, and to put him in more assurance, 
Icavlim' him a lout', went unto a high ground and stood there, 
lichohliii-- him until he was entred into the boate. This yong 
man oljserved, as we did also, that these are of colour inclin- 
ing to Hlacke as the other were, with their flesh very shining, 
of mcaue stature, handsome visage, and delicate limmes, and 
of very little strength, hut of prompt wit: farther we ob- 
served not. . . ." 

Proceeding still farther northward, Verrazzano coasted the 
shores of Virginia and IMaryland, looked in at the bay of 
Xew York, and following the coast of Rhode Island, entered 
the harbor of Newport, where he rested at anchor for fifteen 
tlays. Ever^^v^here the natives welcomed the French with 
signs of great joy and friendship. But after leaving the 
harltor oi Newport the voyagers noted a decided change in the 
attitude of the natives. The Indians were willing enough to 
trade, but showed a determination to have no further inter- 
course with the strangers. At times the attempts of the 
French to land were met with wild war-whoops and showers 
of arrows which speedily drove them back to their ship. 
Coasting the shores of Maine, Verrazzano pursued his voyage 
as far north as Newfoundland. His supplies now beginning 
to run short, he set sail for France, and cast anchor in the 
harbor of Dieppe early in July. There on July 8, 1524, he 
wrote and dispatched to the King, Francis L, ''the earliest 
description known to exist of the shores of the United 

Verrazzano was eager to return to the New World, plant 
a colony there, and become the bearer of the Christian religion 
to the savage tribes of America. But the situation of 

4 The autlKPi-itics for Verrazzano's voyage are his letter of July 8, 
1024, to the Kiuj,', u niup of the world drawn by his brother in 1529, 
and certain I'eferences to his voya^'e in early French. Spanish. Portu- 
guese and Kn^'lish writers. Within recent years the authenticity of 
Vernizzaiio's letter has been called inttj (luestion. It has been 
asserted that the letter is a for.^ery, ini,'eniously prepared in France 
with tbe connivance of the Kin?,' to serve as a basis for a claim to 


territory in America, and that Verrazzano never came to America 
at all. 

Tlie original of Verrazzano's letter to the King is not known to be 
in existence. There are two copies of it extant, both of which are 
Italian translations. One of these was printed by Ramusio in 1556. 
Ramusio asserts that he had conversed with many persons who had 
known Verrazzano, and he prints a paper in which Verrazzano's 
voyage is mentioned by a contemporary. Parkman : The Pioneers of 
France in the Neiv World, p. 2.31-32. (Note.) 

From Ramusio's copy Hakluyt made the English translation for 
his "Divers Voyages," pnblished in 1582. Hakluyt also makes several 
references to Verrazzano's discoveries in the dedication to his 
"Divers Voyages" and in his "Discourse on Westerne Planting." — 
Winsor : Narrative and Critical History of America, IV., 17. 

The other copy of Verrazzano's letter was found in the Strozzi 
Library in Florence and published with an English translation by the 
New York Historical Society in 1841. Along with this copy was 
found a letter written from Lyons, Aug. 4, 1.524, by Fernando Carli 
to his father in Florence. Carli writes of the arrival of Verrazzano 
at Dieppe and sends a copy in Italian of his account of his voyage 
which Carli thought would interest the people of the navigator's 
native city. — Winsor : Nar. and Grit. Hist. IT., 17. 

In 1529, Hieronimo da Verrazzano. brother of Giovanni da Verraz- 
zano. made a large map of the world, now preserved in the College of 
the Propaganda at Rome, on which the discoveries of Verrazzano are 
laid down. That part of North America explored by him bears the 
following legend : "Verrazzano. or New Gaul, which was discovered 
five years ago by Giovanni da Verrazzano. of Florence, by the order 
and command of the most Christian King of France." — Winsor : Nar. 
and Crit. Hist. IV.. 18-19. 

There are numerous references to Verrazzano's voyage in the early 
Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English authorities. Among them 
is a letter from the Portuguese ambassador to France written in the 
spring of 1523 which shows that Verrazzano had announced his inten- 
tion of making a voyage to "Cathay." References to the fact that he 
did actually make such a voyage are found in the writings of histo- 
rians as earlv as 1537. — Parkman: The Pioneers of France in the 
New World, 232. (Note.) 

The first suggestion that the letter of July S, 1524, was not genuine 
was made by Mr. Buckingham Smith in a paper which he read before 
the New York Historical Society in October, 1864. This view was 
further supported by Henry C. Murphy, in liis "Voyage of Verraz- 
zano." published in 1875, whose work is the strongest statement of 
the case against Verrazzano. Its chief importance arises from the 
fact that it caused Mr. Bancroft to omit any reference to Verraz- 
zano's vovage in his last revision of liis "Historv of the United 

Justin Winsor reviews the entire controversy in the fourth volume 
of his ''Narrative and Critical History of America.'" and seems effect- 
ually to dispose of the arguments of Mr. Murphy. .John Fiske also 
declares that "Mr. Murphy's conclusions have not been generall.v siis- 
tained." — Discovery of America, II., 493 (Note). Since the publica- 
tion of Murphy's work, new evidence discovered in European archives 
still further substantiates the genuineness of the Verrazzano letter, 
so that at present the conclusion of Francis Parkman appears to 
represent generally the attitude of modern investigators and histo- 
rians. Says he. after reviewing the controversy, "A careful examina- 
tion of these various writings convinces me that the evidence in favor 
of the voyage of Verrazzano is far stronger than the evidence against 
it." — Pioneers of France in The New World, 232 (Note). 


Fvaiu'c at that time was unfavorable. ''The year of his 
voyaiic" says Parkmaii, 'Svas to France a year of disasters — 
defeat in Italy, the loss of Milan, the death of the heroic 
IJayard; ami, while Verrazzano was writing his narrative at 
Dieppe, the traitor Bourbon was invading Provence. Prepa- 
ration, too, was soon on foot for the expedition which, a few 
months later, ended in the captivity of Francis on the field 
of Pavia. Without a King, without an army, without money, 
convulsed within, and threatened from without, France after 
that humiliation was in no condition to renew her transat- 
lantic enterprise."^ 

We know but little of Verrazzano's subsequent career, and 
his fate is involved in much obscurity. Ramusio states that 
he was killed and eaten by savages ; while Biddle thinks that 
it is impossible from references in Hakluyt, to withstand the 
conviction that Verrazzano later entered the service of Henry 
VIII of England. But the best modern opinion, based on 
documents recently brought to light, is that, in 1527, he was 
captured by the Spaniards and condemned and hanged as a 
pirate. Still, as another writer has said, "All that we know 
with certainty is, that one great action distingiiished him 
from the mass of adventures, in an age which had produced 
a Columbus and a Cabot ; while doubt and mystery have envel- 
ojDed the rest of his career, leaving us uncertain whether we 
should lament the untimely fate which gave him a prey to the 
barbarous appetite of cannibals, or execrate the ingTatitude 
which compelled him to sacrifice to a struggle with the daily 
necessities of life, a mind formed for daring and successful 

•"irarkmau : The I'ionccrs of France in the New World, 201. 
ociroeii, George W. : "Life and Voyages of Verrazzano," North 
American Review, October, 1837. 


First Secession Flag 

The Raising and Taking Down of the Flag at 
Ansonville in February, 1861 

By Generai. W. A. Smith. 

In Ansonville, North Carolina, on the morning of the 
second of February, 1861, the citizens of the village beheld a 
flag, whose folds were flapping in the wind blowing from the 
Southeast betokening rain and brewing up foul, disagxeeable 
weather, foreshadowing dark, impending war clouds. 

On and before February 1st, seven States had passed ordi- 
nances of secession from the Union, and withdrawn their 
Congressional delegations from Washington. South Carolina 
led on December 20, 1860. Mississippi followed January 7, 
1861; Florida, Janiiary 10, 1861; Alabama, January 11, 
1861; Georgia, January 19, 1861; Louisiana, January 26, 
1861; Texas, February 1, 1861. 

February 1st the electric telegraph flashed over the land 
that Texas had joined her Southern sisters, which so enthused 
Adolphus A. Waddell, John B. Waddell, W. A. Threadgill 
and Jas. M. Wright that they determined to become more 
active in the cause of secession. These young men of the 
village were very desirous to have I^orth Carolina follow the 
seven States, and during the night of February 1st prepared 
a flag which they hoped would prove an incentive and aid 
in determining the State of ISTorth Carolina to secede from 
the Union. Having no bunting, they made the flag of calico, 
with two large stars at the head marked S. C. and Miss., ab- 
breviations for South Carolina and Mississippi, the first two 
States severing their relations with Washington, From these 
stars led stripes of alternating red, white and blue ; and in the 
lower corner at the tail end was another star of like propor- 
tions half turned down marked N, C, representing ]^orth 
Carolina faint and drooping, hanging her head in dishonor, 


sluiiiie and disuraee. In larg-e letters at the top of the flag 
was t\w word "S(>c'ession." TJiideriieath was this motto: "Re- 
sistaiico to ()}>})ressiou is in Obedience to God." 

This lla,u' was fashioned in the Garrett store after business 
honrs. On the opposite side of the street was the wooden 
framework of an nnlinished store. The flag, size 6x9 feet was 
attached to a pole and secnrely fastened to the studding and 
rafters forming the comb of this building. 

On the morning of the 2nd of February the citizens of the 
village took notice of this Secession flag which had been given 
to the breeze during the dark hours of the night. Almost 
unanimous was the sentiment of opposition. Indignation 
prevailed and talk of cutting it down freely indulged, the 
makers not daring to disclose themselves. Two or three rati- 
fied the act and commended the unknown makers, and as the 
day wore on a few were converted, declaring themselves, 
and were added to the number of Secessionists. Among these 
was Prof. Gilliam, a teacher in the college, from the State of 
Virginia. Emboldened by these accessions, the makers of the 
flag openly avowed their sentiments and their handiwork in 
fashioning the flag. 

Misses Kate Smith and Winnie Watkins made four rosettes 
of silk and pinned them on the lapels of the makers of the 
flag, which, said one of them, ''made us very proud, and we 
walked the streets as vain as strutting peacocks." 

During the night of the 2nd, Col. John J. Colson and 
Washington Threadgill climbed to the comb of the storehouse 
frame, cut the fastenings, and the flag fell to the sidewalk. 
In descending, Colonel Colson's foot slipped and he fell 10 to 
15 feet, with only a slight sprain, landing on his feet. Dr. 
William A. IngTam, in his office near by, heard the noise and 
came out to ascertain the cause. Colson, pointing to the flag, 

said, "We cut down that d d Secession flag." Doctor 

Ingram replied, "You did right. It ought not to have been 
made and put up to insult the intelligence of the community. 
I'll never tell who did it." He respected his word. This flag 
was never more seen. 


The morning of the 3rd dawned fair. Balmy breezes from 
the South stirred the hot blood of the young Secessionists of 
both genders to indignation and contempt of the dastardly 
act, on finding the flag of their pride torn down and de- 
stroyed under the cover of darkness. Undismayed, bunting 
was procured, taken to the residence of Mrs. Garrett, an 
enthusiast in the cause of secession. She, assisted by the 
young ladies of the village, made a larger flag, similar in 
design, and with like stars and same motto. This flag was 
unfurled in the afternoon at the same place. Seemingly the 
destruction of the flag added to the number of Secessionists, 
for believing in a square deal the people condemned the 
dastardly act of tearing it down under the cover of darkness. 
A few walked underneath its folds with hats off, others and 
far the greater number, would not pass underneath or even 
allow its shadow to fall on them. 

]^ews of the first Secession flag raised and destroyed, and 
the making of another, larger and of finer material having 
been made and given to the breeze, was circulated in the 
country. A large number of citizens assembled in the village 
the afternoon of the 3d of February, many, very many, ap- 
proving the destruction of the first flag, taking this one down 
and tearing ''the damn Secession rag to pieces." 

One of the makers of the original flag, and the only one 
now living, from whom many of the facts herein set dovsoi 
were obtained, writing of the occasion, says: "About ten 
young men fell in with us, all armed with guns, and told the 
crowd that we would fight for that flag, and this was a free 
country, and that it should not be torn down." Professor Gil- 
liam was in the crowd, and was called on for a speech. Stand- 
ing above the crowd, he made a fine, instructive and impres- 
sive address in favor of secession, arraigning the ISTorth for 
its aggressions against the South, and their repudiation of 
the States' rights, for their contempt for the Constitution — 
that sacred bond of Union — saying : "By the treaty of Paris, 
made in 1783, England acknowledged the independence of the 


thirteen eolonies bv name, and each one became a sovereign, 
independent State" ; that these States entered into a Union 
forming the United States of America by their own choice 
and motion, each one reserving its independence, and its State 
right to withdraw from the Union when laws adverse and 
hurtful to its welfare should be made by the General Con- 
gress; that the Xorthern States, being commercial and manu- 
facturing, antagonized the agricultural Southern States, 
whose people were content and prosj)erous, and therefore 
envied ; that law after law had been enacted inimical to our 
welfare, encroachment after encroachment was borne by the 
South, compromise after compromise was broken and nulli- 
fied by the States of the ISTorth, dominated by a party which 
declared the Constitution — that sacred bond of Union — 'Svas 
in leagTie with the devil and a covenant of hell" ; that our only 
safety lay in separation and withdrawing from a compact 
repeatedly broken ; that having reserved the right to secede, 
we would withdraw in peace ; that they would not attempt 
coercion ; they would not dare bring on a fratricidal war ; they 
would not dare bring on a war among brothers, for that would 
mean a war to the knife — a war in which no quarter would be 
sh(jwn; that they would not dare attempt to make vassals of 
free and independent States. 

"iSTo," said he, "we will go in peace and pursue our own 
ideas of progress and advancement and live under laws en- 
acted by ourselves, conducive to our own interest and to our 
happiness" ; that the ISTorth were merchants and shoemakers, 
who would not fight ; they were shade-seekers and counter- 
jumpers, unacquainted with firearms, inexperienced in horse- 
manship and manly out-of-door sports ; no, they would not 
dare meet the chivalry of the South on the battlefield. "Isn't 
the Lord on our side, the side of equity, justice and right? 
He says in holy writ: 'Five shall chase an hundred, and an 
hundred shall put ten thousand to flight' ; and, again, 'the 
sound of a leaf shall chase them.' I will drink all the blood 
shed by the pusillanimous abolitionists." Turning to the 


little band under arms, he commended the makers of the flag 
and the heroism behind it, and fully endorsed the motto, "Re- 
sistance to oppression is in obedience to God." 

He closed with discreet, well-chosen phrases complimentary 
to those whose patriotic sentiments were opposed to secession 
and to the raising of the flag, advising calmness and due con- 
sideration of the opinion of others who differed with them; 
advising against rashness and hasty action, counseling due 
deliberation, and, withal, admonishing them to maintain the 
dignity of the law and preserve the reputation of the good 
people of the community by keeping the peace. 

His speech had a very happy effect. It emphasized and 
clarified the intellectual vision of his audience, and one by 
one they wended their way home with thoughtful mien and 
contemplative spirit. 

E^evertheless, the flag was guarded that night and every 
night until the sentiment against it had cooled down. Day by 
day accessions were made of those of secession aspiration and 
patriotic sentiments. No further attempts were made against 
the flag. 

Cheered only by the smiles of the young ladies and daily 
accessions of young manhood, the Secessionists proposed plac- 
ing the flag in a more conspicuous position. By permission 
of Colonel Colson (they knew not that he had cut down and 
destroyed the first flag), they procured from his land a very 
tall, beautifully straight, but small pine, upward of 80 feet 
long. The bark was peeled off and the long tapering white 
pole was raised in front of the college building amidst the 
jibes of observers on the one hand, and the cheers of the many 
boy participants on the other. The flag was then run up to 
the top of the pole by the young hot-bloods with no thought 
that it foreshadowed four long years of disastrous war and 
devastation of the fair Southland. The older and old men did 
not approve of the sentiments typified by this secession flag. 
They deemed it wrong, rash and inconsiderate. Col. William 
G. Smith, William Little, Dr. John B. Cortrell and others 


spoke their disapproval of this exhibition of disloyalty to the 
Union. These old gentlemen thoroughly believed in the right 
of a State to withdraw from the Union, a right guaranteed 
North Carolina by the CongTess of the United States before 
she entered the Union, but did not think secession the proper 
remedy to correct the wrongs which the ISTorth was perpetrat- 
ing against the South and the whole body politic. Therefore, 
these men opposed the raising of this secession flag by the 
hot-headed, fire-eating boys, who gave little heed to the counsel 
of the old and no thought to the responsibilities of the future. 
These older men said: ''Fight for our rights if needs must, 
but fight in the Union, under the flag made glorious by 
the blood of our Revolutionary fathers — the flag of love and 
veneration — the stars and stripes." Had their advice been 
taken and followed, the North would not have been able to 
stir the hearts of their people so profoundly and rouse them 
to unanimity against the South by the heartrending but coura- 
geous cry, "The Union and Old Glory Forever." 

Early in February the question of calling a convention for 
the purpose of passing an ordinance of secession was defeated 
by the people by a majority of 30,000, indisputable evidence 
that the prevailing sentiment in North Carolina was for the 
Union. When President Lincoln called for troops to coerce 
the seceeding States back into the Union, and the question 
again submitted, it was ratified almost unanimously; for he 
was transcending his authority, attempting to force an inde- 
pendent State and free people to live under laws inimical to 
their welfare. Sentiment crystalizes rapidly in times of great 
excitement, even on questions of momentous issue. 

On the 20th of May North Carolina elected to stand with 
her sister Southern States in defense of her rights by passing 
the ordinance of secession. Then the turned down star, rep- 
resenting North Carolina, was displayed in full; complete, 
strong and clear. iVs one man her sons sprang to arms and 
attested her devotion by giving 130,000 of her bravest to the 
cause, more than 40,000 of whom never came back, whose 


blood flowed out, enriched and made sacred the soil of many 
States. From the war records we know more men fell in 
battle from ISTorth Carolina than from any three other States, 
a fact of pride, not of boast. The secession of North Caro- 
lina was preceded by Virginia, April 17, 1861; by Arkansas 
May 6, 1861, and followed by Tennessee June 5, 1861. 

When the Anson Guards, which was the first company in 
the State to ofi^er its services to Governor Ellis, left for the 
front this secession flag was committed to John Birdsong Wad- 
dell, a member of said company, to be by him presented to 
Governor Ellis. John Birdsong Waddell was the great grand- 
son of John Birdsong, of Chatham County, who was noted for 
his patriotism in the day '"that tried men's souls," was promi- 
nent in the councils of the colony. He was a delegate at 
Hillsboro, August 21, 1775, and member of Congress at Hali- 
fax November 12, 1776. 

Search among the State archives so far has failed to find 
this flag. This is not surprising, however, considering an 
army under General William T. Sherman, famed by the de- 
vastated homes on his march to the sea, evidenced by the 
blackened chimneys standing as monuments amid waste and 
desolation wrought by his army. 

The sentiment against the secession flag, sometimes desig- 
nated "Secesh" flag, was violent and uncompromising. Many 
would not walk under its folds nor allow its shadows to fall on 
them, often crossing the street to avoid the possibility of being 
contaminated thereby. These were probably actuated by sim- 
ilar feelings which animated the ladies of New Orleans, who 
refused to walk under the Federal flag displayed by the order 
of B. F. Butler, known to the South and to history as "Beast" 
Butler and "Spoon" Butler. Sam Christian, a prominent 
citizen, drove five miles out of his way going to Wadesboro, 
the county's capital, rather than pass underneath its folds; 
and the Reverend William (Uncle Billy) Knight refused to 
visit the village during his life because of his dislike and con- 
tempt for the secession sentiment manifested by "that hole," 


as he expressed it. In the language of the only one of the 
inmiortal four now living, ''Old Aunt Polly Ingram came to 
Ansonville to sLop. She always traded with me. On enter- 
ing the store she noticed the beautiful rosette on my coat lapel 
and she blessed me out and took herself across the street to 
Garrett's store. There she saw W. A. Threadgill with a 
rosette on. In no gentle language she gave him a piece of her 
mind, and out she came. Indignant and in disgust, she left 
the village and drove to Wadesboro, ten miles distant, and 
did her shopping." 


Genealogical Department 

Edgecombe County Records— Farmer 

Compiled by Sybil Hyatt, Kinston, N. O. 

Generation I — Isaac Farmer^ Senior. 

Colonial Records, Vol. IV, page 644. Council held at 
Edenton, Nov. 16, 1743. The following persons were ad- 
mitted to prove their Rights in order to their taking up of 
land — viz : Isaac Farmer, Edgecombe, 3 whites. 

Isaac Farmer md. Elizabeth. Their son, Samuel, was born 
May 13, 1754. Other sons were Isaac and Benjamin. He 
died prior to 1790. 

Deed. Feb. 25, 1770. Isaac Farmer, Senr. to Isaac Far- 
mer, Junr., 200 acres, north side of Toisnot. Test: William 
Blackburn, Zachariah Lee, Jesse Farmer. 

Generation II — Samuel and Isaac Farmer^ Junior. 

Samuel Farmer md. Jerusha Tyson, b. Feb. 20, 1756, 
daughter of Aaron and Alsey Tyson. Their son, Moses, was 
born July 11, 1791. 

Will. Samuel Farmer. March 21, 1814. August Court, 
1817. Sons: Samuel, Moses (tract on Miry Swamp called 
Parish place), Isaac (land I live on at his mother's death). 
Daughters: Rhoda Shary, Anna Sharp. Wife: Jerusha. 
Rest of estate to be equally divided between wife and all other 
children. Executors: Sons, Samuel and Moses. Test: J. 
Farmer, Isaac Farmer. Clerk of the Court: E. Hall. 

Will. Isaac Farmer. Nov. 13, 1800. Feb. Court, 1805. 
Sons: John (plantation I now live on, 200 acres, and 200 
acres adjoining), Josiah, Isaac, Azeal Barnes. Daughter: 
Patience. Wife: Not named, her interest to go at death to 

228 THE NORTH cakolina booklet 

the child she is supposed to be pregnant with, and also to that 
child the land John Ross lives on. ^'Remainder of estate to 
he divided among all my children. The property my wife 
brought with her when we were married may be sold to pay 
her debts, and the remainder to be her right." Executors: 
Brother, Benjamin Farmer; son, Azeal Farmer. Test: Wm. 
Blackburn, William Dew, Jeremiah Baleman. Clerk of the 
Court: E. Hall. 

Deed of gift. Jan. 12, 1804. Isaac Fanner to daughter, 
Bashaba Beal, of Johnston Co., negi'o girl. 

Deed of gift. Dated Mar. 15, 1800. Recorded May 
Court, 1805. Isaac Farmer to son, John Farmer, "planta- 
tion I live on," but if John dies without will or sale it goes 
to son Isaac. 

Deed of Gift. Oct. 16, 1802. Isaac Farmer to daughter, 
Patsey Robbins, one negro girl Penny. Test : Jesse Farmer, 
Elizabeth Thomas. 

Generation III — Moses Farmer. 

Moses Farmer md. 1st Elizabeth Dew, b. April 9, 1796, 
daughter of John and Sally Dew. Their children were Larry 
Dew Fanner, b. Oct. 31, 1816, and Moses Farmer, b. Oct. 
23, 1829. Moses Farmer (III) md. 2d Elizabeth Barnes, 
b. April 15, 1815 (a niece of his first wife), daughter of John 
Barnes and Mary Dew. Their children were : Samuel Barnes 
Fanner, b. Dec. 20, 1835 ; Jerusha Fanner, b. Jan. 16, 1838, 
Walter Farmer, 1). Sept. 9, 1844 (killed at Appomattox). 

Generation IV — Jerusha Farmer (Woodard). 

Jerusha Farmer md. in 1856, William Woodard. The 
following sons survive them: Walter F. Woodard, b. Sept. 
14, 1864; James E. J. Woodard, b. Oct. 31, 1866; David 
Woodard, b. March 8, 1869; Charles Warren Woodard, b. 
Aug. 16, 1874. 


A Century of Population Growth (1790-1800) states that 
in 1790 there were in the United States 136 families (Far- 
mer, Farmar, Farmor) of 616 persons, 42 families in Vir- 
ginia, 29 in ISTorth Carolina, 11 in South Carolina, 8 in 
Maine, 8 in Vermont, 20 in Massachusetts, 4 in Connecticut, 
2 in JN^ew York, 5 in Pennsylvania, 7 in Maryland. In 
ISForth Carolina were the following heads of families: Anson 
Co., James; Bertie Co., James, Joseph; Caswell Co., Cassan- 
dra, William, Dan'l, Joseph, Thomas, Sr. ; Dobbs Co., Jesse ; 
Edgecombe Co., Benjamin, Isaac, Jesse, Joseph, Joseph, 
Joshua, Samnis (Samuel), Thomas; Franklin Co., John; 
Granville Co., Sarah, John, Othniel; Johnston Co., Nicholas, 
William ; Orange Co., Thomas ; Randolph Co., Frederick, 
John ; Rutherford Co., Nathan ; Stokes Co., John ; Wilkes 
Co., Thomas. 

Wills — Edgecombe County 

Thomas Farmer. Nov. 16, 1784. Feb. Court, 1785. 
Sons: Thomas ("plantation I now live on"), Jesse and 
Joseph ("new entered land"). Perishable estate to be sold 
and equally divided between all my children. Executors: 
Joshua Farmer, Joseph Farmer. Test : Joshua Farmer, 
Aziel Barnes, Daniel Highsmith. Clerk of the Court: Ed- 
ward Hall. 

Jesse Farmer. July 9, 1808. Augxist Court, 1812. Wife: 
not named (lend to her 1/3 "manner plantation I live on" 
and one negro man, 2 negro women, etc., at her death or mar- 
riage to son, Joseph Farmer), son, Joseph Farmer ("all the 
rest"). Executors: Friend, Charles Coleman; son, Joseph 
Farmer. Clerk of the Court : E. Hall. 

Benjamin Farmer. March 16, 1825. Feb. Court, 1827. 
Wife: Elizabeth ("including the Deloach tract"). Sons: 
William (land on north side of Hominy Swamp), Braswell 
(214 acres, north side of Toisnot Swamp, joining Moses Far- 
mer and Arthur D. Farmer, "it being part of a tract of land 


drawn bv lue and my wife Elizabeth by death of William 
Dew), Absalom, Dew, Jacob, Arthur D., William D. Daugh- 
ters: Sally Hollowcll, Beedy White, Nancy Dew, Elizabeth 
Amason. Other legatees: Heirs of John Barnes (Toit, 
Thomas, Betsy, Sally, Beedy, Dempsey and l^ancy). Exec- 
utor: William D. Farmer. Test: Isaac F. Wood, Hansel D. 

Elizabeth Farmer. January 29, 1844. Nov. Court, 1852. 
Daughter: Elizabeth Amason ("tract north side Toisnot 
Swamp; ("joining Moses Farmer and Arthur D. Farmer, 
deceased, it being part of land fallen to me by the death of 
my brother, William Dew"). Rest to be sold and divided 
between lawful heirs. Executor : Friend, Larry D. Farmer. 
Test : Jas. D. Barnes, Larry Dew. Clerk of the Court : Jno. 


Oct. 1, 1765. Joshua Lee. Deed of Gift to son-in-law, 
Thos. Farmer, "on little swamp." 

March 2, 1761. John Stevens to Isaac Farmer, north side 
of Toisnot Swamp. 

Sept. 13, 1773. Richard Bracewell of Dobbs Co. to 
Thomas Farmer of Edgecombe. Heired from father Richard 
Bracewell, Senior. Hatcher Swamp. 

July 4, 1778. Thomas Farmer to Solomon Bracewell. 
Grant to William McDaid, Augaist 4, 1762, from him to 
Ponder, from Ponder to Richard Bracewell, Senior, and 
descended to son, Richard Bracewell, Junr., and sold by him 
to Thomas Farmer. 

Jan. 14, 1778. William Hatcher, Junr., to Jesse Farmer, 
south side of Toisnot Swamp. Test: George Ezell, Isaac 
Farmer, Benjamin Farmer. 

Jan. 30, 1779. William Gay to Joseph Farmer. Town 


March 12, 1782. Joshua Morris to Samuel Farmer. On 
Hominy Swamp. Grant to Thomas Hall, 1761. Test: Wm. 
Blackburn, Joseph Farmer, Isaac Farmer. 

March 30, 1782. Jesse Farmer to Benjamin Farmer. 
Miry Swamp. Test : Isaac Farmer, Joseph Farmer. 

April 11, 1783. Samuel Farmer to Isaac Farmer, north 
side of Toisnot Swamp. Test: Joseph Farmer, Benjamin 

Nov, 16, 1784. Thomas Farmer to son, Joshua. Deed of 
gift. Little Swamp, granted to Thomas Farmer by Joshua 
Lee in 1765. Test: Aziel Barnes, Thomas Farmer, Senior. 

Jan. 1, 1785. Salathiel Parish to Samuel Farmer. On 
Miery Branch. Signed: Salathiel Parrish, Sukey Parrish. 
Test: Jesse Farmer, Benjamin Farmer. 

Sept. 29, 1785. John Deloach to Benjamin Farmer. 
On Llominy Swamp. Test : Jesse Farmer, Isaac Farmer. 

June 29, 1788. Elisha Ellis to Jesse Farmer. 

Jan. 30, 1790. Joshua Farmer and his wife Susanner, to 
James Barran, west side Great Branch. 

Feb. 1, 1790. Thomas Farmer and his wife, Elizabeth, to 
James Barran, west side Great Branch. 

December 5, 1791. Joseph Farmer to William White. 

Dec. 8, 1792. Asa Arnold to Jesse Farmer. 

March 2, 1793. Ephriam Philips to Joseph Farmer. 

Dec. 7, 1793. Andrew Greer to Benjamin Farmer. 

Nov. Court, 1795. Feb. 28, 1796. Joseph Farmer, dec'd. 
Infant sons, Asia, Enos, Joseph. 

Feb. 6, 1798. John Mewborn to Benjamin Farmer. 
Hominy Swamp. Grant to William Forkes, Apr. 1, 1763. 

Dec. 2, 1802. Deed of Gift. Jesse Farmer to son, Josepli 

Dec. 21, 1802. Deed of Gift. Jesse Farmer to son, Joseph 

Feb. 9, 1805. Benjamin Farmer to Absalom Farmer. 
Grant to William Folk's corner, Apr. 1, 1763. 


180<i. Joseph Fanner sold out to Jesse Farmer, it seems, 
and probably moved. 

October 1, 1807. Joseph Farmer to Jacob Horn. Joins 
Isaac Farmer, dec'd. 

Jan. 1, 1807. Benjamin Farmer and Elizabeth, his wife, 
to Dew Farmer. Hominy Swamp. 

Jan. (i, 1808. Elizabeth FaiTner of Edgecombe ; John Wal- 
ton of Oglethorpe, Ga. ; Mica j ah Pettiwary and Sarah, his 
wife of Edgecombe to Enos Tart. Toisnot Swamp. 

Mch. 15, 1811. Enos Farmer to Zilpha Farmer. 

March 12, 1809. Jesse Farmer to son, Joseph Farmer. 
Deed of gift. 3 negToes. 

March 12, 1809. Jesse Farmer to gTanddaughter, Eliza 
Farmer. Deed of Gift. One negro boy child 5 mo. old. 

Mch. 23, 1812. Anna Law of Williamson Co., Tenn. Ap- 
points Absalom Farmer, attorney, ''to sell my right of dower 
to certain parcel in Wayne Co." On Black Creek, 

Oct. 24, 1812. Amos Johnston to Isaac Farmer. Town 

Dec. 15, 1812. Asa Farmer to Joseph Farmer. 

Feb. 22, 1813. William Coppage, Aseal Farmer and Mar- 
tin Thorne to Benjamin Sharp. ISTegro boy. 

Aug. 22, 1814. Aseal Farmer, and Charlotte Farmer, 
Martin Thorn and Polly Thorn appoint Benjamin Grantham 
attorney to sell tract in Northumberland Co., Va., which 
descended to wives by brother^ Griffin Coppage, died intestate. 

March 25, 1814. Senath Farmer to Willie Coleman, on 
Contentnea Creek. Bequeathed to Senath and her two broth- 
ers, Zepthah and John Bearfoot by their grandfather, Zep- 
thah Bearfoot, Senr., dec'd. Fell to her on division. 

August 30, 1815. Division of Arthur Dew No. 1. Polly 
Barnes' heirs. No. 2, William Dew. No. 3, Elizabeth Far- 
mer. No. 4, John Dew's heirs. No. 5, Martha Simms. No. 
C, Arthur Dew. 

Feb, 22, 1816. Joseph Farmer to William Ellis. Con- 
tentnea Creek and Tarborough Koad. 


March 18, 1816. Joseph Fanner to Joseph Barnes. 
Hominy Swamp. Test : Joseph Barnes, Jesse Barnes. 

Dec. 13, 1815. John Barnes, ISTancy Farmer and Thomas 
Barnes to Arthur Dew. Interest in land inherited from 
grandfather, Arthur Dew. 

Feb. 22, 1817. Samuel Farmer to Moses Farmer. 

Dec. 29, 1817. Samuel Farmer to Washton Killibrew. 
Tyancocoa Swamp. Fell to Moses More from death of his 
brother, John Moore. Fell to Wanecy Waller by said John 
Moore, with division not made. 

Feb. 22, 1817. Samuel Farmer to Isaac Farmer, Jr. 
After the death of said Samuel Farmer and wife, Jerusha. 
Hominy Swamp. Granted to Thomas Hall, March 9, 1761. 

Feb. 22, 1820. Jacob Farmer to Moses Farmer. 

April 5, 1821. Zilpha Farmer to son, Joseph Farmer. 
Deed of gift. 

Oct., 1822. Division of lands of William Dew, dec'd. 
Heirs of John Dew, Elizabeth Farmer, Mary Barnes' heirs, 
Martha Simms' heirs. 

Feb. 28, 1823. Benjamin Farmer and Elizabeth, his wife, 
to the heirs of John Dew, dec'd, Mary Barnes, Jonathan Dew, 
John Dew, Larry Dew, David Dew, Teresa Ellis, Duncan 
Dew, Elizabeth Farmer, Patsy Rountree, Sally Carpenter, 
ISTancy Wiggins, Beedy Wilkinson. "Interest we drew in a 
division of Arthur Dew, dec'd, our father." Lot ISTo. 3. Paid 
for by William Dew. 

June 4, 1823. Deed of Gift. Benjamin Farmer to grand- 
children, Thomas and Elizabeth Barnes, Sally Barnes, Beedy 
Barnes, Dempsey Barnes, Nancy Barnes. 

May 25, 1824. Jubal Carpenter and Sally, his wife of 
Greene Co., Ala., to Moses Farmer. Interest in land heired 
from William Dew. 

May 25, 1824. Jubal Carpenter and Sally, his wife of 
Greene Co., Ala. Tract fell to us by death of father, John 


Feb. 4, 1824. John Dew of Cumberland Co. Lands heired 
from William Dew. 

Feb. 2;}, 1824. Benjamin Wilkinson and wife, Beedy 
(Obediciu'e) to Moses Farmer. Interest in estate of William 

Ana'. 1, 1823. Jonathan Dew, Mary Barnes, Larry Dew 
and David Dew to Moses Farmer. All right in lands which 
fell by the death of William Dew. North Toisnot Swamp. 

]\[ay 20, 1824. Benjamin Farmer to daughter, Nancy 
Dew and her husband Jonathan Dew. Deed of gift. 

Aug. 21, 1824. Benjamin Farmer to son William Farmer. 

Nov. 19, 1824. Willie Eountree and Patsy, his wife, to 
Moses Farmer, right in lands from William Dew by heirship. 

March 16, 1825. Benjamin Farmer and Elizabeth, his 
wife to son, Arthur D. Farmer. Deed of Gift. Tract fell 
to them by death of William Dew. 

Aug. 16, 1827. William D. Farmer, executor of Benja- 
min Farmer and Elizabeth Farmer, widow of said dec'd, to 
Larry Dew, 14 of Amason tract, which fell to said Elizabeth 
by death of William Dew. 

Mr. Larry Dew Farmer used to say there were three dis- 
tinct sets of Farmers in Edgecombe County who were not 




: DUE 

JAN 1 7 1919 


jIn 1 7 19]