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Vol. XIX 



JULY- OCTOBER, 1919 



No. 1-2 



North Carolina Booklet 



GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 
BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 





DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 
RALEIGH. N. C. 



CONTENTS 

Calvin Jones Physician, Soldier, and Freemason 3 

North Carolina State Currency 36 

Dolly Payne Madison 47 

Bruce's Cross Roads 51 

The Raising, Organization, arid Equipment of North Caro- 
lina Troops During the Civil War 55 

Tar River (The Name) 66 

Antique China Water-pitcher, 1775, at Edenton 72 



THIS NUMBER 50 CENTS 



$1.00 THE YEAR 



Entered at the Poatoffice at Raleigh. N. C. July 15. 1905. under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1879 



The North CaroUna Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History 



Volume XIX of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the 
North Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1919. The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and 
AprU. Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor : 
Miss Maet Hilliaed Hinton. 

BlOGBAPHICAL EdITOE: 

Mes. E. E. Moffitt. 

VOLUME XIX. 

Social Life in the Sixties. 

William Boylan, Editor of The Minerva. 

History of Transportation in North Carolina. 

Services of the North Carolina Women in the World War. 

Literature and Libraries in the Nineteenth Century in North 
Carolina. 

Confederate Currency — William West Bradbeer. 

How Patriotic Societies Can Help to Preserve the Records of the 
World War. 

History of Some Famous Carolina Summer Resorts. 

History of Agriculture in North Carolina — Major W. A. Graham. 

The Old Borough Town of Salisbury — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Brief Historical Notes will appear from time to time in The 
Booklet, information that is worthy of preservation, but which if not 
preserved in a permanent form will be lost. 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed. These will be re- 
views of the latest historical works written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued with a page devoted 
to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical re- 
search in the State. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication in The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffit. 

Old Letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XIX are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XVIII for sale. 

For particulars address 

Miss Maey Hilliaed Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina BooJdet, 
"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. 0. 



North Carolina Sfafe Lfbrary 

Raleiah 



Vol. XIX JULY-OCTOBER, 1919 No. 1-2 



North Carolina Booklet 



"Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her! 
While tvc live we will cherish, protect and defend her" 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
Nortb Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editob. 



EALEIGH 

commercial printing company 
printers and binders 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



Mbs. Hubert Haywood. 
Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 
Mr. R. D. W. Connor 
Dr. D. H. Hill. 
Dr. William K. Boyd. 
Capt. S. a. Ashe. 
Miss Adelaide L. Fries. 



Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mr. James Sprunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Major W. A. Graham. 

Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 



editor : 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

biographical editor: 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 

1919-1920 



Mrs. Marshall Williams, 
Regent, Faison. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Honorary 
Regent, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Thomas K. Bruner, 
Honorary Regent, Raleigh. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 
1st Vice-Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Paul H. Lee, 2d Vice- 
Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. George P. Pell, Recording 
Secretary, Raleigh. 

Miss Winifred Faison. Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Faison. 



Miss Georgia Hicks, Historian, 

Faison. 
Mrs. Charles Lee Smith, 

Treasurer, Raleigh. 
Mrs. George Ramsey, Registrar, 

Raleigh. 
Mrs. John E. Ray, Custodian of 

Relics, Raleigh. 
Mrs. Laurence Covington, 

Executive Secretary, Raleigh. 
Mrs. Charles Wales, 

Genealogist, Edenton. 
Miss Catherine Albertson, 

Junior Director, Elizabeth City. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902 : 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Regent 1910-1917: 



♦Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 




MAJOR-GENERAL CALVIN JONES 
Grand Master of Masons. 1817-1820 



The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XIX JULY- OCTOBER, 1919 No. 1-2 

Calvin Jones* 

Physician, Soldier and Freemason 

By MABSHAiiii DeLancey Haywood 

Majok-Geneeal, Calvin Jones, an oificer of jSTorth Caro- 
lina troops throughout the Second War with Great Britain, a 
physician and scientist of marked ability, and Grand Master 
of the Masonic Grand Lodge of North Carolina, was born at 
Great Barrington, Massachusetts, on the 2d day of April, 
1775. His birthplace was in the Berkshire Hills. His 
father was Ebenezer Jones, a soldier in the Army of the 
Bevolution, and the maiden name of his mother was Susan- 
nah Blackmore. The family's earliest progenitor in America 
was Thomas Ap Jones, a Welchman, who settled at Wey- 
mouth, Massachusetts, in 1651. From him, Ebenezer Jones 
was fourth in descent. 

EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION 

Of the early life of Calvin Jones we know little. We get 
a slight glimpse of the surroundingo of his infancy in a letter 
to him from his father's sister, Mrs. Mary Collins, who says : 
"I came to your father's house to stay with your mother 
while your father and Uncle Joseph went to fight for their 
dear country. You were then 16 months old." A letter from 
his father declares: "Your mother "and I made slaves of our- 
selves that our children might have education." We are un- 
able to ascertain in what institutions Calvin Jones received 
his education, but that he was possessed of a varied store of 
knowledge in state-craft, medicine, surgery, science, history, 



* Reprint from Proceedings of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Nortth Carolina, 
A.D. 1919. 



4 THE NOKTH CA-ROLINA BOOKLET 

botany, and polite literature, there is ample proof. The study 
of medicine he began in boyhood, and he made such wonder- 
ful progress in that science that he was able to stand an 
examination on the subject at the early age of seventeen. A 
certificate, or medical license, now owned by his descendants, 
reads as follows : 

These may certify tliat Calvin Jones, on ye 19tli of June, 1792, 
offered himself as a candidate for examination in the Healing Art 
before the United Medical Society. He was likewise examined and 
approved of by the said Society as being well skilled in the Theory 
of the Physical Art, and by them is recommended to the Publick, as 
per Order of James Batten, president. 

DOCT. DAVID DOTY, Secretary. 

We have never been able to learn where this United Medi- 
cal Society was located. Before leaving New England, Dr. 
Jones practiced his profession with marked success, as we 
learn from general letters of recommendation and introduc- 
tion from physicians with whom he had been associated be- 
fore removing to l^orth Carolina. 

LEGISLATIVE, MEDICAL, AND JOURNALISTIC CAEEEE 

It was about the year 1795 that Dr. Jones settled in ITorth 
Carolina, locating at Smithfield, in Johnston County. He 
soon gained the esteem and confidence of the general public 
in his new home, likewise attaining high rank among the 
most progressive and enlightened medical men of ITorth 
Carolina. 

In the course of time. Dr. Jones was called into public life 
by the voters of Johnston County, being twice elected a mem- 
ber of the ISTorth Carolina House of Commons, serving in the 
sessions of 1799 and 1802. He was an active, useful, and 
influential member of these bodies. His speech (ISTovember 
20, 1802), against the proposed appropriation to establish a 
penitentiary, in the nature of a mild reformatory, was an 
argument of great force which was reported in short-hand by 
Joseph Gales, editor of the Raleigh Register, for the us© of 



CALVIN JOiSrES 5 

his paper (see issue of December 14th), and it was later re- 
published in a small pamphlet. In this speech Dr. Jones said : 

"The plan of lessening the frequency of crimes, by reforming in- 
stead of punishing criminals, has originated in principles that I 
revere ; but sure I am the advocates of this measure are mistaken 
in the effects it is calculated to produce. * * * This extrava- 
gant project, in other States, has been more to accommodate vaga- 
bond wretches whom the jails of Europe have vomited upon our 
shores, than native citizens, and this strongly increases my objec- 
tion to the measure. In New York, I am assured from authority 
on which I can rely, that two-thirds of the criminals in the State 
prison are freed negroes and foreigners. The prudent policy of this 
State [North Carolina], in refusing to liberate any of its slaves, will 
relieve us from one species of these pests of society, but we have no 
security against the other except in the rigor of our laws." 

Concerning emigrants from Europe to America, Dr. Jones 
added: "There are many of them who were an honor to 
their own country, and who are now an ornament to this. I 
object only to these vagrant wretches who have no trade or 
profession but thieving and sedition ; whose schools of educa- 
tion have been jails and armies, and who transport themselves 
here to avoid a transportation to Botany Bay, or to elude the 
pitiless noos© of the hangman." 

The session of 1802 ended the services of Dr. Jones as a 
member of the House of Commons from Johnston County, 
but, after his removal to Raleigh, he was honored with a seat 
in the same body as a representative from the county of 
Wake, as will be mentioned later on. 

So far as is known. Dr. Jones was the first physician in 
!N^orth Carolina to discard the old treatment by inoculation as 
a preventive of small-pox, and to substitute therefor the new 
process of inoculation now known as vaccination. So up-to- 
date was Dr. Jones that he was extensively practicing this 
treatment before the experiments of its discoverer (Dr. Jen- 
ner) were completed in England. In 1800, while still living 
in Smithfield, Dr. Jones announced through the newspapers 
that he would begin a general practice of vaccination — or 
inoculation as it was still called — in the Spring of the follow- 
ing year. Later he decided to postpone such action until he 



b THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

could get the benefit of reports of more recent experiments 
elsewhere; and he published in the Raleigh B&gister, of 
April 14, 1801, a card in the course of which he said: 

"The public have been taught to expect, from my advertisements 
of last j^ear, that I shall, in the ensuing month, commence inoculation 
for the Smallpox ; bvit I am prevented from doing this by the con- 
sideration of what is due from me to those who would have been my 
patients, whose ease and safety my own inclinations and the honor 
of my profession bind me to consult." 

In this card, Dr. Jones further said of Dr. Jenner's dis- 
covery that eminent practitioners in England, Scotland, Aus- 
tria, and France were using the treatment with success, while 
Dr. Mitchell, of IsTew York, and Dr. Waterhouse, of New 
Hampshire, were among the American physicians of note 
who had been engaged in the same work. 

In conjunction with a number of other well known physi- 
cians of the State, Dr. Jones was one of the organizers of the 
North Carolina Medical Society in the year 1799. On the 
16th of December, in that year, these gentlemen met in 
Raleigh and perfected an organization. Dr. Jones was 
elected Corresponding Secretary" or "Secretary of Corre- 
spondence," and served in that capacity during the life of 
the Society. This organization held meetings in Raleigh 
during the month of December in the years 1799, 1800, 
1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804. The meeting in the year last 
named adjourned to reconvene at Chapel Hill, the seat of the 
TJniversity of North Carolina, on July 5, 1805. I can find 
no record of the Chapel Hill meeting, though it may have 
taken place; nor can I find any notice of subsequent meet- 
ings. In the issue of the North Caroliista Booklet, of 
January, 1917, is a brief account which I wrote of this 
society. During its short-lived existence, many enlightening 
medical essays were read before it by its learned members, 
and much useful knowledge was thereby disseminated. 
Among other things, the society collected a botanical garden 
and natural history museum. Many years later, Dr. Jones, 
on the eve of his removal to Tennessee in 1832, turned over 



CALVIN JONES I 

to the University of jSTorth Carolina a collection of this 
nature, which may have been the same. Alluding to this 
gift in his History of the University of North Carolina^ Dr. 
Battle says: 

"About this time a prominent Trustee, of Wake County, about to 
remove to Tennessee, General Calvin Jones, presented to the Univer- 
sity Ms 'Museum of artificial and natural curiosities.' Probably 
some of these are somewhere among the University collections, but 
it is doubtful if they can be identified." 

This collection contained a gxeat variety and wide range 
of objects — ^from small botanical specimens to mastodon teeth 
and the bones of other prehistoric animals. 

Dr. Jones was not only an enlightened and accomplished 
physician, but practiced surgery with notable success, many 
of his operations being of the most delicate nature — on the 
eye, ear, and other sensitive organs, which are now usually 
treated by specialists. He was also the author of a medical 
work entitled A Treatise on the Scixrletina Anginosa, or what 
is Vulgarly Called the Scarlet Fever, or Cayiker-Rash, Be- 
plete with everything necessary to the Pathology and Prac- 
tice, Deduced from Actual Experience and Observation, by 
Calvin Jones, Practitioner of Physic. This work was pub- 
lished at Catskill, 'New York, by the editors of the CatsTcill 
PacTcetj Mackay Croswell and Dr. Thomas O'Hara Croswell, 
in 1T94. 

Being a mutual friend of the parties concerned, Dr. Jones 
deeply deplored the political quarrel between the Honorable 
John Stanly and Ex-Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight at 
ISTew Bern, in the early Fall of 1802. Together with other 
friends of those gentlemen, he earnestly sought to arrange 
their differences on a basis honorable to both. These com- 
mendable efforts were vain, however, and, when the code 
duello was resorted to, thinking his services as a surgeon 
might be of some avail, Dr. Jones was one of the party (not 
inconsiderable in number) which was on the ground when the 
hostile meeting took place, on September 5th. After several 



8 THE IS^OETH CAEOLUSTA BOOKLET 

shots were exchanged without effect, Stanly's fire brought 
down his antagonist, who was carried from the field in a dying 
condition and expired shortly thereafter. 

It was about 1803 that Dr. Jones left Smithfield and took 
up his residence in Raleigh. A few years later he was elected 
Mayor of the capital city — or "Intendent of Police," as the 
municipal chief magistrate was then called. Honors, too, 
came to him from the county of Wake, which he was elected 
to represent in the ISTorth Carolina House of Commons in 
180Y. His seat in that body was contested on the ground that 
(it was alleged) he did not own a one hundred acre freehold, 
as was then required of Commoners by the Constitution of the 
State; but the committee on privileges and elections, after 
hearing both sides, decided unanimously that "the allegations 
set forth in said petition are unfounded." Dr. Jones conse- 
quently kept his seat, and was a useful member of this Legis- 
lature, serving as chairman of the committee to preserve and 
perpetuate the paper currency of the State, as chairman of 
the committee to investigate the laws relative to slaves charged 
with capital offenses, and was a member of the committee on 
militia. He may have been a member of other committees in 
the same General Assembly. In connection with the con- 
tested election of Dr. Jones I may add that I do not know 
how much Wake County land he owned in 1807, but the 
court-house records show that he acquired extensive tracts in 
this county at a later date. 

For a while Dr. Jones devoted some (though not all) of his 
time to journalism. In the Fall of 1808 he became associated 
with Thomas Henderson, Jr., in publishing and editing the 
Star, under the firm name Jones & Henderson, and later 
Thomas. Henderson & Company. The files of the Star show 
the wide range of knowledge possessed by its editors in the 
various fields of science, art, history, and helles lettres, as 
well as in events (political and otherwise) then current. Hen- 
derson, like Dr. Jones, became an officer of l^orth Carolina 
militia in the War of 1812-15. On January 1, 1815, Dr. 



CALVIN JOA^ES 9 

Jones disposed of his interest in the Star to Colonel Hender- 
son, who thereupon conducted the business alone until Janu- 
ary, 1822, when he sold his paper and printing outfit and 
went to Tennessee. 

While Dr. Jones, otherwise known as General Jones, and 
Colonel Henderson were associated in the ownership and 
editorial management of the 8tar, the latter had a narrow 
escape from death by drowning, being saved by the heroism 
of Jacob Johnson, father of President Andrew Johnson. 
Captain William Peace, of Raleigh, an ej^e-witness of this 
occurrence, recounted it in writing half a century later to 
Ex-Governor Swain, who repeats it in an address on Jacob 
Johnson, delivered when a headstone was placed over his 
grave, June 4, 186Y. Captain Peace said: 

"At a large fishing party at Hunter's Mill Pond on Walnut Creek, 
near Raleigh, upwards of fifty years ago, the late Colonel Henderson 
proposed for amusement a little skim in the canoe on the pond. He, 
a young Scotch merchant named Callum, and myself, entered the 
canoe. Henderson was helmsman and knew that neither Callum nor 
myself could swim. He soon began to rock the canoe, so as at times 
to dip water, and just above the pier-head of the pond, bore so 
heavily on the end where he was sitting as to tilt and turn it over, 
throwing all three into the pond. Callum caught hold of me. I 
begged him to let go, as I could not swim. He did so, and seized 
Henderson, and both sank to the bottom in ten feet of water. I 
struggled and kept myself above water until they came to my assist- 
ance from the shore and carried me out. A cry was then made for 
Henderson and Callum. Jacob Johnson was standing on the pier- 
head. Without a moment's hesitation he leaped into the pond, dived 
in the direction of where he saw them sink, caught hold of Hender- 
son and brought him up. In an instant a dozen swimmers were in 
the water from the shore to assist in bringing Henderson out, and 
Callum with him, who was clinging to the skirt of Henderson's coat 
underneath, and at the moment invisible." 

Commenting upon the event just described in the account 
by Captain Peace, Governor Swain said: 

"Fortunately for the sufferers, the late General Calvin Jones, Hen- 
derson's partner, was on shore. He was an eminent and able physi- 
cian and surgeon, and the most efficacious means for the relief of the 
apparently drowned men were promptly applied. Henderson was 
soon able to speak, but life was, to ordinary observers, extinct in 



10 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

Galium, who was longer under the water. After an anxious interval 
of painful suspense, he exhibited signs of life, was restored, and 
lived to marry and rear a family. * * * Henderson suffered 
from the effects of the adventure during more than a year ; and 
Johnson, though he survived for a longer period, passed away eventu- 
ally, a martyr to humanity." 

Like nearly all otlier editors of his day, Colonel Henderson 
operated a book and stationery business in connection with 
his newspaper office, and Dr. Jones also owned an interest in 
that establishment. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century the American 
Colonization Society was organized by some of the foremost 
men of the United States for the purpose of thinning out the 
free negro population of the country by deporting to Liberia 
such members of the race as were willing to undertake the 
establishment of a republic of their own. The gradual eman- 
cipation of the slaves was also an event these gentlemen had in 
view. On June 12, 1819, the Eeverend William Meade, of 
Virginia, later Bishop, came to Raleigh and formed a local 
branch organization. General Jones was much interested in 
the movement, and was elected a member of the Board of 
Managers of the branch then formed. Among the officers 
were : President, Governor John Branch ; and vice presidents. 
Colonel William Polk, Chief Justice John Louis Taylor, 
Judge Leonard Henderson (later Chief Justice), and Archi- 
bald Henderson. This movement, as is well known, was 
eventually a failure, owing to the violent hostility it en- 
countered from the more radical abolitionists of the ITorth. 

After successfully devoting himself to the medical profes- 
sion for many years, and attaining a high reputation therein 
(as already shown). Dr. Jones finally abandoned active prac- 
tice in order to devote himself to the management of his agri- 
cultural interests. 

MILITARY CAEEEE. 

Interest in military matters was a life-long characteristic 
of Dr. Jones. Almost immediately after his arrival in l^orth 



CALVIN JONES 11 

Carolina, and before he removed to Raleigh, he was an officer 
of a regiment in Johnston County. Among the papers left by 
him is an autogTaph letter from President John Adams, dated 
Philadelphia, July 5, 1798, addressed to "The Officers of the 
Johnston Regiment of Militia in the State of ISTorth Caroina," 
and thanking them for their regiment's patriotic tender of 
services in the event of a war with France, then imminent, 
but which was happily averted. In the course of this letter 
the President bitterly declared : "Our commerce is plundered, 
our citizens treated with the vilest indignities, our Illation 
itself insulted in the persons of its ambassadors and supreme 
magistrates, and all this because we are believed to be a 
divided people." 

In 1807 began the mutterings which a few years later 
culminated in the second War with Great Britain. On June 
22d, the British man-of-war Leopard, in enforcing the alleged 
right of search through American ships for real or supposed 
deserters from the Royal ilSTavy, met with resistance from the 
American frigate Chesapeake, which it attacked and captured, 
killing and wounding many of the crew, at a time when the 
two countries were supposed to be at peace. In consequence 
of this outrage, all America was aflame, and mass meetings 
were heild in the more important ISTorth Carolina towns to pro- 
test against this insult to the ISTation. As early as 1806 Con- 
gress had passed an act authorizing the President, in cases of 
emergency, to call out the State militia to the number of 
100,000. Acting on this authority, President Jefferson or- 
dered the militia of all the States to "take effectual measures 
to organize, arm, and equip, according to law, and hold itself 
ready to march at a moment's warning." The quota required 
of ISTorth Carolina was 7,003, including artillery, cavalry, 
and infantry. The city of Raleigh and its vicinity were not 
backward at this juncture. Among the volunteer companies 
which offered their services was the Wake Troop of Cavalry, 
organized and commanded by Captain Calvin Jones. It held 
a meeting on July 4th and passed a patriotic and spirited set 



12 THE ISrOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

of resolutions, saying in part: ''The spirit of the patriots 
who eternalized the day we are now assembled to celebrate, 
our principles, our feelings, and the conviction of duty, re- 
quire that we offer to the President of the United States our 
services to protect the rights and avenge the wrongs of the 
JSTation." This day in 180Y, like all recurring anniversaries 
of American Independence, was celebrated with great pomp 
and ceremony by our ancestors assembled on the capitol 
grounds in Raleigh, "Captain Jones's Troop of Cavalry" 
and "Captain Peace's Company of Infantry" constituting the 
military feature. The Governor, State officers, the Judiciary, 
members of the bar, and a large concourse of citizens in gen- 
eral were in attendance. Among the toasts offered were the 
following : 

"The memory of Washington : may the services which he rendered 
to his country be forever engraven on the hearts of Americans." 

"The Government of the Union : may it always prove our sheet- 
anchor against domestic treason and foreign aggression." 

"The State Governments : free, sovereign, and independent." 

"The memory of the Seamen who lately fell a sacrifice to British 
outrage : may the atrocity of this act produce the adoption of such 
measures as shall secure us from future violence, and establish our 
maritime rights on a firm foundation." 

"Good Neighborhood : may no religious or political difference of 
opinion interrupt the harmony of society ; however men may vary 
in sentiment, may they all agree to be kindly disposed to each other 
as Brethren of the same great family." 

Artillery was not lacking on this occasion, and a salute "in 
honor of the Union" — one round for each State — was fired, 
after which the company "partook of a plentiful and elegant 
dinner," a part of this being the above mentioned toasts. The 
old Raleigh Register, which gives us an account of these cere- 
monies, concludes the program by saying : "In the evening a 
ball was given to the ladies, which was kept up with equal 
spirit and decorum till near twelve, when Propriety , the best 
guardian of public amusements, moved an adjournment, 
which was immediately adopted." 



CALVIN JONES 13 

War with Great Britain being averted in 1807, the services 
of tlie cavalry company commanded by Captain Jones were 
not needed then, but he continued his labors in training this 
troop and brought it up to so high a state of discipline that his 
talents were recognized by his being promoted to succeed 
Adjutant-General Edward Pasteur, when that gentleman re- 
signed on June 7, 1808. That his capability was fully recog- 
nized is evidenced by the fact that he was reelected by suc- 
ceeding General Assemblies as long as he would hold the com- 
mission, serving under Governors Benjamin Williams, David 
Stone, Benjamin Smith, and William Hawkins. It was dur- 
ing the administration of the last named that the War of 
1812-15 came on. Soon after the beginning of that conflict, 
Adjutant-General Jones, seeking more active service, sent in 
his resignation on January 23, 1813, and accepted a commis- 
sion (dated December 14, 1812) as Major-General in com- 
mand of the Seventh iN^orth Carolina Division of Militia, his 
jurisdiction extending over the forces of eight counties. 
Under him were Brigadier-General Jeremiah Slade, com- 
manding the Fifth Brigade, being the forces of Martin, Edge- 
combe, Halifax, and ISTorthampton counties; and Brigadier- 
General John H. Hawkins, commanding the Seventeenth 
Brigade, being the forces of Wake, Eranklin, Warren, and 
]N^ash counties. In the Summer of 1813 the British forces 
made an extensive naval and military demonstration against 
the South Atlantic States, and it was thought that Virginia 
would be the first place attacked. Thereupon the Macedonian 
cry. Come over and help us, was sounded across the border by 
the Richmond Enquirer, which said: "If our brethren of 
ISTorth Carolina be exempted by the nature of their coast from 
maritime aggressions, will they not share with us the dan- 
ger ?" General Jones was not slow to heed this call, and be- 
gan raising a corps of mounted volunteers with which to 
march to the assistance of our sister State. Announcing this 
purpose, the Raleigh Register, of July 9th, said editorially : 

"We have pleasure in mentioning that General Calvin Jones, of 
this city, is about to raise a Corps of Mounted Volunteers, instantly 



14 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

to marcli to the assistance of the Virginians against the attacks of 
the British. * * * The citizens of the several counties are re- 
quested to meet at their Court Houses on Monday, the 19th instant, 
and such as are disposed to join this Patriotic Corps are to sign a 
writing to the effect. By the 25th it is expected the corps will be 
ready to march. The members are to equip themselves. A part are 
to be armed with rifles — the rest with muskets, the latter to be fur- 
nished by His Excellency the Governor." 

In the Star, a Raleigh paper published on the same date, 
appears a stirring and patriotic address issued by General 
Jones, setting forth the details of his proposed expedition. In 
part he said : 

"I propose to raise a corps of Mounted Volunteers for a three 
months' service, to march immediately to the shores of the Chesa- 
peake. The design has the favor and approbation of the Commander- 
in-Chief. All who burn with the ardor of patriotism, or feel a pas- 
sion for military fame, are now invited to rally around the standard 
of their country. * * * 

"It is required that each volunteer be strong, healthy, and capable 
of enduring fatigue ; that he be respectable for his character and 
manners — one whose sense of honor and love of fame will supply 
the absence or defect of rigid discipline ; that he be temperate in the 
use of strong liquors, and able to incur the expenses of equipments, 
travelling and other contingencies. Each must be well mounted on 
a strong, active horse, of about five feet or upwards in height. 

"The uniforms will be round jackets (double-breasted) and panta- 
loons of cotton homespun, dark blue and white, mixed ; round black 
hats, with blue cockades ; suwarrow boots* and spurs. Each will be 
armed with a broad-sword or sabre, or, for want thereof, a cut-and- 
thrust sword, slung over the shoulder by a white belt three inches 
wide, and a pair of pistols. As many as have rifles and are expert 
in their use, will be armed with them. The others will be furnished 
with muskets by the public. 

"Each volunteer will be provided with a valise, blanket, overcoat 
or cloak, with such body garments to be worn under his uniform as 
he shall choose. Care will be taken that all the equipments are in 
good condition. Where it is proposed to take servants, there will be 
such an arrangement made among the volunteers of each county so 
that the corps will be incumbered with as few as possible. 

"The officers will be selected by the Commander-in-Chief after the 
corps shall have been mustered at its rendezvous. The commandant 
will have the right of dismissing from the service any man who shall 
drink intoxicating liquors to excess, or be guilty of any other un- 
gentlemanly conduct. 



*A military boot taking its name from Field Marshal Suwarrow, of Russia. 

M. DeL. H. 



CALVIN JONES 15 

"North Carolinians ! an appeal is now made to your patriotism, 
your bravery, and your love of honorable fame. The character of 
your State depends on the success of this appeal. Arise, gallant 
spirits, and do justice to yourselves, and to the expectations of your 
country." 

Editorially commenting upon this address by General 
Jones, tiie Star said: "From the spirit manifested in this 
place when the intention was first announced, we feel confi- 
dent that, with proper exertions, a corps may be readily raised 
that will do credit to the State. Some of our first characters 
have already offered themselves." Upon being advised by 
General Jones of the enterprise he had in view, Governor 
Barbour, of Virginia, was not slow in conveying the thanks 
of his State, and wrote (July 5, 1813) saying: 

"I should do great injustice to our feelings weve I to withhold an 
expression of our grateful acknowledgments of your affectionate and 
magnanimous conduct. Nor do the emotions it inspires flow alto- 
gether from selfish considerations. We see, in the part you are act- 
ing, that spirit which bound us together as a band of brothers during 
the Revolution and carried us in triumph through that glorious con- 
flict, and which, can it be kept alive, will give, under Providence, 
immortality to our confederated republic — the last hope of man." 

Before General Jones could finish mustering in his corps 
of volunteers to aid Virginia there was need of his services 
nearer home, for the enemy unexpectedly landed on the coast 
of iN^orth Carolina at Ocracoke Inlet and the small hamlet of 
Portsmouth, at the inlet's mouth, also threatening the more 
important towns of Beaufort and !N^ew Bern. The Star^ of 
Friday, July 23d, made announcement of this startling fact 
as follows : 

"The news of the invasion reached this city on Saturday about 
eleven o'clock. On Sunday, General Calvin Jones, with his aides-de- 
camp, Junius Sneed and George Badger, and with Captain Clark's 
company of Raleigh Guards, consisting of fifty men, took the road 
for Newbern. On Monday morning. His Excellency Governor Hawk- 
ins, with Colonel Beverly Daniel, one of his aides. General Robert 
Williams and Major Thomas Henderson, with Captain Hunter's troop 
of Cavalry, moved off towards the same point. On Wednesday the 
requisition infantry from this county, amounting to one hundred men, 
accompanied by Colonel A. Rogers and Major Daniel L. Barringer, 



16 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

followed on. The Governor lias ordered the greater part of the de- 
tachment of militia to the several sea-ports of this State ; and, being 
almost destitute of munitions of war of every kind, he has ordered 
some of the United States arms now lying at Wilmington, to be sent 
to Newbern, and has caused to be purchased and sent thither all the 
powder and lead that could be procured In Raleigh, Fayetteville, 
Hillsborough and other places. He has for the present given the 
command of Newbern and on the sea-coast to Major-General CaMn 
Jones, but intends to conduct the general operations of the forces of 
this State in person, and to front the enemy in battle. We learn that 
great activity prevails among the militia in the lower parts of the 
State ; they are flocking in from all quarters to the standard of their 
beloved country. 

"Upon this occasion the ladies of Raleigh distinguished themselves 
for that love of valor and zeal of patriotism which characterizes 
their sex. They not only surrendered their husbands and sons to 
the dubious fate of war and encouraged the glorious enterprise by 
incentive persuasion, but were actively employed in fitting their 
brethren for an hasty march. In a few hours they made one hundred 
knapsacks." 

While the more active citizen soldiery were hurrying to the 
sea-coast, a company of older men was organized in Raleigh 
for home defense. Colonel William Polk, who had valor- 
ously fought seven years for American independence in the 
Revolution, and had declined a Brigadier-General's commis- 
sion tendered him by President Madison on March 25, 1812, 
now took command of this "City Corps" as Captain; and 
three other leading citizens, Judge Henry Seawell, William 
Boylan, and William Peace were Lieutenants. 

General Jones arrived in ISTew Bern on July 20th ; and, 
acting upon the authority conferred on him by Governor 
Hawkins, assumed the command of all the State troops mobil- 
ized in that vicinity. The Governor himself reached New 
Bern the next day. Pears being felt for the safety of Beau- 
fort, a large detachment was ordered to that town to garrison 
its fortifications, consisting of Port Hampton, Port Law- 
rence, Port Gaston, and Port Pigott. 

The British force landed at Ocracoke and Portsmouth on 
July 11th. It was a most formidable one, and was com- 
manded by no less a personage than Admiral Cockburn, who 
a year later was to play so conspicuous a part in the capture 



CALVlJSr JONES IT 

and destruction of our national capital. The fleet consisted 
of a seventy-four gun man-of-war, six frigates, two privateers, 
two schooners, and a considerable number of smaller vessels, 
including sixty or seventy barges and tenders. The entii^e 
force was estimated to be from one to three thousand seamen, 
marines, and infantry. This force captured the American 
barge AnacoTida^ of New York, the letter-of -marque schooner 
AtlaSj, of Philadelphia, and some smaller craft at Ocracoke, 
and pitched their tents on the beach. As soon as the fleet had 
been sighted, the collector of customs at Portsmouth, Thomas 
S. Singleton, packed his more important official records on 
board the revenue cutter Mercury^ commanded by Captain 
David Wallace, and sent that vessel to give the alarm in ISTew 
Bern, which (as was later learned) the British had intended 
to surprise and capture. Despite the superiority of their 
numbers, the enemy did not gain possession of Ocracoke and 
Portsmouth without resistance. Writing of the affair to 
Governor Hawkins in a letter dated July 24:th, Collector 
Singleton said: 

"The Anaconda and Atlas commenced firing very spiritedly, though 
it was of short duration, for the former had but fifteen men on board 
and the latter but thirty. They were therefore compelled to submit 
to overwhelming numbers, as there could not have been less than 
three thousand men at that time inside the bar and crossing it 
together. The men abandoned the brig [the Anacondal and schooner 
[the Atlas'] and betook themselves to their boats, most of whom 
escaped. The Captain of the Atlas remained in her and continued to 
fire at the enemy after all his men had forsaken him. Several of the 
barges proceeded in pursuit of the cutter [the Mercunj], thinking 
(as they afterwards said) if they could have taken the cutter, they 
would have precluded the possibility of information reaching New- 
bern until they arrived there themselves. The cutter very narrowly 
escaped by crowding upon her every inch of canvas she had, and by 
cutting away her long boat. The Admiral did not hesitate to declare 
that it was his intention to have reached that place [New Bern] 
previous to the receiving any intelligence of his approach. After pur- 
suing the cutter eight or ten miles through the sound, they gave out 
the chase and returned. Several hundred men were landed at Ports- 
mouth and I presume as many on Ocracoke. Among those landed at 
Portsmouth there were about three hundred regulars of the 102d 



18 THE NOETH CAKOLINA BOOKLET 

regiment under the command of Colonel Napier, and about four hun- 
dred marines and sailors. They had several small field pieces in 
their launches, but did not land them, finding no necessity for them." 

Later on in the letter, just quoted, Mr. Singleton gives an 
account of numerous depredations and robberies committed 
by tke invaders while on the North Carolina coast. They 
remained five days, and set sail on July 16th, without at- 
tempting to penetrate inland. Whether their departure 
was due to fear of the devious channels, which were so diffi- 
cult to navigate, or whether they learned from the current 
JSTorth Carolina newspapers- — of which they are known to have 
obtained a supply — what formidable measures were in prepa- 
ration for their reception, will probably never be known. The 
fleet sailed southward, and it was consequently surmised that 
the Cape Fear section might be the next point of attack. 
Large numbers of troops were therefore hurried to that local- 
ity, but the British never landed again in ISTorth Carolina at 
that time. They did, however, send a flag of truce back to 
Ocracoke, announcing that they had formally proclaimed a 
blockade of the coast of the State. 

Though not destined to have the opportunity of displaying 
their prowess in battle, no country ever had a more ready, 
vigilant and courageous class of citizen soldiery than those 
who hurried to the defense of IsTorth Carolina during the 
Summer of 1813. Many county detachments, more than a 
hundred miles from the prospective seat of war, marched 
down to the coast as soon as they could be gotten under arms, 
while the county seats and "muster-grounds" of more westerly 
sections of the State were soon teeming with patriotic volun- 
teers, ready and eager to aid in repelling the invaders of their 
country. 

In this campaign of 1813, Governor Hawkins remained on 
thei sea-coast about a month, making personal inspection of 
the defenses from Ocracoke Inlet to JSTew Inlet, and returned 
to Raleigh on the 16th of August. General Jones also re- 
turned when it appeared that there was no immediate likeli- 



CALVIN JONES 19 

hood of further trouble with the British in !N"orth Carolina. 
The Raleigh Register, of September 3d, said that a rumor 
had gained currency to the effect that a dispute had taken 
place between the Governor and General Jones, but the editor 
says: "We are authorized to state that the report is utterly 
destitute of any foundation in truth." That no coolness ex- 
isted between these gentlemen is evidenced by the fact that, a 
few months later, when the General Assembly of JSTorth Caro- 
lina sent a complaint to the JSTational Government of the neg- 
lect of the coast defenses of the State, Governor Hawkins 
designated General Jones for the duty of calling in person on 
President Madison and bringing this matter to his attention. 
The following item on that subject is from the Raleigh Regis- 
ter of December 3, 1813 : 

"General Calvin Jones has been appointed by His Excellency the 
Governor to present the Address of the General Assembly, lately 
agreed to, to the President of the United States, and yesterday set 
out on his journey." 

So far as I am able to learn the British never sent a formi- 
dable force against North Carolina after the year 1813, 
though small marauding parties came by sea on more than 
one occasion. So free, indeed, was the State from local dan- 
gers that large numbers of her troops could be spared for 
service further northward, on the Canadian frontier; also 
nearer home, in Virginia, and against the hostile Creek 
Indians. 

JSTorfolk and its vicinity, in Virginia, being again threat- 
ened by the British, President Madison, on September 6, 
1814, made a requisition on Governor Hawkins for a large 
force to be detached from the militia of ITorth Carolina and 
temporarily mustered into the service of the General Govern- 
ment. When it became known that this action would be 
taken. General Jones wrote the Governor, on July 31, 1814, 
asking for the command of that part of the militia which 
should be ordered to active service. This tender was not ac- 
cepted. A little later, however, on September 26, 1814, the 



20 THE WORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET 

Governor commissioned him Quartermaster General of the 
Detached Militia of North Carolina. In the letter accom- 
panying this commission, General Jones was informed that 
fifteen companies (containing in the aggTegate fifteen hun- 
dred men) had been ordered to rendezvous at Gates Court 
House, under the command of Brigadier-General Jeremiah 
Slade, and to march thence to Norfolk. This commission was 
accepted by General Jones, who at once repaired to the en- 
campment at Gates Court House, arriving there on the 30th 
of September. On October 1st, he wrote from the camp to 
Governor Hawkins, saying: "About one-third of the troops 
are under the shelter of houses, piazzas, &c., in the village, 
the remainder being encamped in the woods and fields adja- 
cent. Today a regular camp will be marked out, and brush 
defences against dews and slight rains will be raised." Later 
on he says, in the same letter : "Though the privations and 
exposures of the men, suddenly translated from ease and 
plenty to the face of a hastily formed camp, are considerable 
and must be felt, yet they have assumed so much of the 
soldier as to scorn complaint. The men are cheerful and 
generally healthy." He also said the troops would be marched 
in small detachments and by different routes, on account of 
the scarcity of water, and to ensure the accommodation of 
barracks. 

These troops were not armed until their arrival in Norfolk, 
where they were mustered into the service of the General 
Government. Writing from that city to Governor Hawkins, 
on October 8th, General Jones said: 

"I have the honor to inform you that four companies of our De- 
tached Militia arrived yesterday and encamped at Mooring's Rope 
Walk, the best encampment for health and convenience, I think, 
about Norfolk. A bridge, which had been broken down, is rebuilding 
and unites the peninsular, on which the Rope Walk is, immediately 
with the town. * * * 

"The appearance of our Militia, on their entrance into Norfolk, 
was such as I think did them considerable credit. It was generally 
commended by the citizens and military here. My gratification would 
have been heightened could they have presented themselves armed. 



CALVIN JONES 21 

"I accompanied Generals Porter and Taylor today to Forts Norfolk 
and Nelson, and to Craney Island, and rode round the lines of de- 
fense on the land side. The strength of this place is very formidable, 
and is daily increasing. 

"I am at the point of setting out on my return home, and expect 
to arrive at Gates Court House tomorrow." 

The early return of General Jones was due to the fact that 
his services as Quartermaster General were not needed after 
the ISTorth Carolina troops were mustered into the service of 
the General Government. 

The jSTorth Carolina troops remained in and around ISTor- 
folk for many weeks, and were not entirely disbanded until 
after the return of peace. The treaty of peace was signed at 
Ghent on Christmas Eve, 1814, but news of that event did not 
reach Raleigh until February 18, 1815. It caused great re- 
joicing and was celebrated by religious services as well as 
public demonstrations. As is well known, the bloody battle 
of ]^ew Orleans was fought more than a fortnight after the 
treaty of peace was signed at Ghent, but long before news of 
it was received. The day on which the news of victory at 
'N&w Orleans reached Raleigh was February 12, 1815. 

So efficient had been the efforts of General Jones at the 
time of the British invasion of North Carolina in 1813, that 
a strong effort was made bv his friends to secure for him a 
commission as Colonel in the regular army. Senator Stone 
claimed that he had received a promise of it from the Secre- 
tary of War ; and, in a letter to Jones, complained bitterly of 
the Secretary's failure to keep his word. 

His service with the ]!*Torth Carolina troops at ISTorfolk in 
the Fall of 1814 was the last active participation by General 
Jones in military affairs. Peace coming soon thereafter, he 
could now devote his talents to the more pleasing pursuits of 
a tranquil life. 

SERVICES TO MASONRY 

Possessed, as he was, of high educational attainments and 
fine sensibilities, Calvin Jones was not slow to appreciate the 



22 THE ISrOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

beautiful symbolical teachings of morality and charity em- 
bodied in the principles of Freemasonry, and he became an 
ardent devotee of that ancient fraternity. 

The first Masonic organization which existed in Raleigh 
was Democratic Lodge, JSFo. 21. A large portion of the mem- 
bership of that Lodge having imbibed some of the evil prin- 
ciples of the French Revolution, then in progress, it gradually 
fell into disfavor and finally passed out of existence. The 
city of Raleigh, however, did not long remain without a 
Lodge. On December 15, 1800, Grand Master William Polk 
issued a charter to Hiram Lodge, No. 40, theretofore operat- 
ing under a dispensation from Grand Master William R. 
Davie. Calvin Jones became a member of Hiram Lodge 
shortly after its establishment, and was elected Worshipful 
Master on the Feast of St. John the Evangelist, December 27, 
1805. He served in that capacity for one year. On Decem- 
ber 11, 1809, he was elected Junior Grand Warden of the 
Grand Lodge of ISTorth Carolina — or "The Grand Lodge of 
ISTorth Carolina and Tennessee," as it was called until 1813, 
when Tennessee became a separate Grand Lodge. General 
Jones had served as Junior Grand Warden only one year, 
when he was advanced to the station of Senior Grand War- 
den, holding the latter position from December 1, 1810, until 
December 8, 181Y. On the latter date he became Grand Mas- 
ter of the Grand Lodge of l^orth Carolina, succeeding the 
Honorable John Louis Taylor, who soon thereafter was to 
become first Chief Justice of the newly created Supreme 
Court. General Jones was three times elected Grand Master, 
his services as such ending on December 16, 1820. Few finer 
tributes to Masonry can be found than the one contained in 
the official address of Grand Master Jones to the Grand Lodge 
in 1819. In part he said : 

"The human family have enjoyed partial relief from the benign 
influence of our principles, without knowing the source of their bless- 
ings. The torch of science dissipates the darkness of one portion of 
the globe ; in another, the fetters of slavery are broken ; in one place, 
the infidel is converted ; in another, the Christian is taught to feel the 



\ 



CALVIN JONES 23 

spirit of his religion ; everywtiere men begin to regard each other as 
members of the same family, and to place in the rank of duties the 
virtues of universal benevolence. Be it so. Under whatever denomi- 
nation these happy effects are produced, it is our duty to rejoice that 
some seeds, scattered by our Order, have fallen on good ground. 
Were the principles of Masonry unveiled to those worthy men who 
direct their efforts to a single object, which they pursue with inade- 
quate means, they would find how comprehensively beneficent are the 
principles of the Craft. To point out to man the duty of loving his 
brother, of assisting him in difficulty, of comforting him in aMctions, 
and to do all that these duties enjoin without regard to difference of 
nation, religion or politics ; and further, to concentrate the lessons of 
experience as to the most effectual mode of performing these duties, 
and by the aid of an universal language to make our designs equally 
intelligible to the inhabitants of every clime — to do these things is to 
go beyond the powers of any society, however intelligent and esti- 
mable, whether Peace, Anti-privateering, or Colonization. 

"Let us then. Brethren, pursue the noiseless tenor of our way, 
assisting every one engaged in the same cause, under whatever name 
or denomination known, according to the measure of his wants and 
our own ability, and be like the gentle but constant stream whose 
waters are concealed from the eye by the luxuriant plants upon its 
margin but whose effects are visible in the fertility it imparts to the 
various soils through which it meanders. 

"Let us improve in our minds a lively impression of the true prin- 
ciples of our association, remembering that religion and politics are 
never to be subjects of discussion ; that the religion of a Mason is 
love, veneration, and gratitude to the Supreme Architect of the Uni- 
verse; that the doing good to all His creatures, especially to those 
of the 'household of faith,' is the most acceptable service and the first 
of duties ; that the rights of conscience are inviolable, and that the 
Mussulman and the Christian, who love their brother and practice 
charity, are alike the friends of Masonry and of man." 

In addition to the Masonic services in the official capacities 
heretofore enumerated, General Jones was a useful commit- 
tee worker in the sessions of the G-rand Lodge. Together with 
John A. Cameron, Moses Mordecai, William Boylan, and 
Alexander Lucas, he was appointed on a Grand Lodge com- 
mittee which was authorized to cooperate with a similar com- 
mittee from Hiram Lodge, ISTo. 40, in erecting a Masonic 
Hall for the joint use of the two bodies on a lot which had 
been presented by a member of Hiram Lodge, Theophilus 
Hunter, the younger, and which lot stood on the northeast 
corner of Mor2;an and Dawson Streets. Half of the cost of 



24 THE JSTOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

building was paid by the Grand Lodge and half by Hiram 
Lodge. The corner stone was laid by Grand Master Robert 
Williams on the Feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24, 1813. 
This building served its purpose until some years after the 
War Between the States, and venerable Masons are still living 
in Kaleigh who received their degrees within its walls. The 
corner stone itself was exhumed by order of Hiram Lodge in 
March, 1880, and is now preserved in the ante-room of the 
Grand Lodge Hall in the Masonic Temple at Ealeigh. Un- 
fortunately it is a solid block, having had no compartment for 
the records which are usually contained in a corner stone. 
The old inscription on it reads : 

' The Grand Lodge of ISTo. Carolina and 
Tennessee 
Hiram Lodge, ISTo. 40, City of Ealeigh 
June 24, A. L. 5813, A. D. 1813. R. Williams, G. M. 

Grand Master Williams, who laid this corner stone, was at 
that time Adjutant-General of ]S[orth Carolina, succeeding 
General Jones, as already mentioned. He came to Raleigh 
from Surry County, and should not be confused with Dr. 
Robert Williams, of Pitt County, also a zealous Mason, who 
had formerly been a Surgeon in the Army of the Revolution. 

HOME AT WAKE FOREST AND EDUCATIOlSrAL ACTIVITIES 

Owning a larg'e number of slaves who could not be profi- 
tably employed within the limits of a town, General Jones de- 
termined to remove from Raleigh and take up his abode in a 
rural neighborhood. ISTorth northwest of Raleigh, about six- 
teen miles, on the old stagci road and mail route running 
northward via Oxford and Warrenton, llTorth Carolina, and 
Petersburg, Virginia, was a country neighborhood, of healthy 
altitude and fertile soil, known as the Wake Forest section. 
In that pleasant locality, about the year 1820, General Jones 
took up his abode on a plantation of 615 acres, which he had 
purchased from Davis Battle. There, for about a decade, he 



CALVIN JONES 25 

kept open house to friends from far and near, in his "hos- 
pitable mansion/' as Governor Swain describes it in his 
Tucker Hall address, referring to an occasion during his 
young manhood, in 1822, when he was nursed back to health 
within its walls, after a long and almost fatal attack of ill- 
ness. Though not occupying its former location on the 
campus, the old home of General Jones is still standing and 
in a good state of preservation, being a substantial structure 
built at a time when massive timbers, well seasoned, were in 
use. After having served as a residence for several members 
of the faculty in bygone years, it is now the home of a club of 
students. 

In the cause of public education, few more indefatigable 
workers than General Jones could be found in ISTorth Caro- 
lina. For thirty years, from 1802 until his removal to Ten- 
nessee in 1832, he was a member of the Board of Trustees of 
the University of ISTorth Carolina. That he was no figTire- 
head the old records of that institution fully attest. In the 
Raleigh Academy he also took a deep interest, and was a 
trustee of that school for some years. Dr. Battle, in his His- 
tory of the University of North Carolina,, gives an amusing 
extract from a letter written by General Jones in 1811, ex- 
pressing great dissatisfaction at an effort then being made 
to have some students, who had been expelled from the Uni- 
versity, admitted into the Raleigh Academy. General Jones 
said he was greatly astonished that Governor Stone, one of 
the trustees of the academy, should wish them admitted, but 
he was not at all surprised that the Governor should have been 
seconded in his efforts by another trustee, Mr. Sherwood Hay- 
wood, a "good, polite, clever, worthy man, who never con- 
tradicted any one in his life." As Mr. Haywood was my 
grandfather, and as "to err is human," I am glad to know 
that the substance of his sinning was the fault ascribed to 
Sir Lucius O' Trigger — "too civil, by half." 

For some years before Wake Forest College (first called 
Wake Forest Academy and later Wake Forest Institute) was 
established, there were several useful schools in the section of 



26 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

Wake County wbere tlie college now stands. On© of these 
was Forest Hill Academy, incorporated by Chapter 107 of 
the Laws of 1818 ; but, so far as we know, General Jones did 
not become connected with the governing body of that insti- 
tution after his removal to the neighborhood where it was 
located. In January, 1823, Samuel Alston and Calvin Jones, 
members of the Board of Trustees, sigTied the announcement 
of the beginning of a session, on February 1st, of Wak-e Forest 
Academy, situated "fifteen miles north of Kaleigh and within 
two miles of the Wake Forest Post Ofiice, in one of the most 
pleasant, healthy, and reputable districts of our country." 
The teacher in charge of this school was James Pheelan. 
When General Jones first advertised his Wake Forest plan- 
tation for sale in 182Y, he incidentally mentioned that there 
were three excellent schools (one classical) in the neighbor- 
hood. In the year following he gave notice of the opening 
of Wake Forest School, for both sexes, near his own residence. 
On June 26, 1831, he also announced through the papers 
that the Wake Forest Female School would be opened on the 
third Monday of the ensuing month of July, with Mrs. Phil- 
lips as principal and two "competent young ladies" as assis- 
tants. Mrs. Phillips was a IsTorthern lady, strongly recom- 
mended by Bishop Griswold, of Connecticut, and other well- 
known men. This academy for girls was operated in General 
Jones's residence, where both teachers and pupils were 
housed. In concluding the last mentioned announcement. 
General Jones said: "The pure air and water, healthful- 
ness, and good society of this place are too well known to re- 
quire mention. That the location of this Seminary is in every 
respect proper may be inferred from the fact that Wake 
Forest has, for a number of years past, supported excellent 
and prosperous schools." In a sketch of General Jones in the 
"Benefactor's I^Tumber" of the Wake Forest Student, Janu- 
ary, 1911 (this being a re-print of an earlier sketch), the late 
President Charles E. Taylor, of Wake Forest College, re- 
ferring to this school for young ladies, says that an aged lady, 
who had been educated there, had stated to him that it was 



CALVIN JONES 27 

the custom of the Bishop of the Episcopal Church to make 
annual visitations there for the purpose of confirmation. 

Several years before and for some time after General Jones 
sold his plantation at Wake Forest and removed therefrom, 
there was also located in that vicinity a school known as the 
Wake Forest Pleasant Grove Academy. Whether he ever 
had any connection with that institution does not appear. 

Having made large investments in land on the vast domain 
in West Tennessee which the Government had acquired from 
its Indian owners, and which was known as the ''Chickasaw 
Purchase," General Jones decided to remove with his wife 
and family to that locality in order to protect his interests 
there. As he had no intention of returning to ISTorth Caro- 
lina, he decided to dispose of his Wake Forest plantation. 
As money in that day had a larger purchasing power than 
now, and land was not costly, the price for which he held the 
plantation — with its great house, cabins, and other out-houses 
— was only $2,500. About this time the North Carolina 
Baptist State Convention instructed a committee of its mem- 
bers to purchase a sit© for an institution of learning which 
that denomination had determined to build, and this com- 
mittee opened up negotiations with General Jones with a 
view to acquiring his plantation and equipment. Describing 
the transaction which followed, in an address at the semi-cen- 
tennial of Wake Forest College, February 4, 1884, the Rev- 
erend James S. Purefoy said: 

"Elder John Purefoy was one of the above committee, and a near 
neighbor of Dr. Calvin Jones, who owned the farm where the college 
now stands. Dr. Jones held his farm of 615 acres at $2,500 ; but, for 
the cause of education, he proposed to Elder Purefoy to give the 
Convention (through the committee) $500, and sell the farm for 
$2,000. Elder Purefoy recommended the farm to the committee, and 
it was purchased by the Convention for $2,000." 

The committee which received the deed of transfer, Aug- 
ust 28, 1832, from General Jones, for the use of the Bap- 
tist State Convention, consisted of John Purefoy (or Purify, 



28 THE jstoeth caeolina booklet 

as it was then written), William E. Hinton, Simon G. Jeff- 
reys, Jr., and James J. Hall. 

General Jones always showed a kindly interest in the wel- 
fare, both moral and physical, of his slaves. They were com- 
fortably clad, well fed, and housed in such good quarters that 
their cabins were used as temporary dormitories for the stu- 
dents when Wake Forest Institute, the fore-runner of Wake 
Forest College, began operations. The first principal of 
Wake Forest Institute — also first president of Wake 
Forest College' — was the Reverend Samuel Wait, who 
wrote the following interesting account of the early days 
spent on the plantation which had been purchased from Gen- 
eral Jones : 

"The former owner of the premises we now occupied had en- 
countered much expense to provide for the comfort of his servants. 
I found seven good, substantial log cabins, made mostly of white oak, 
with hewn logs ; good doors, floors, roofs, and, with one exception, 
windows. These were washed out cleanly and white-washed. Good, 
new furniture was provided for each house. And, although it was 
known that the cabins were built originally for servants, and occu- 
pied at first by them, I never heard of the least objection to them 
from any student. * * * 

"The only place I could convene the students for morning and even- 
ing prayers, or lectures, was the building erected by Dr. Jones for a 
carriage house, 16 feet by 24 feet." 

From this small beginning of Wake Forest Institute (at 
first a manual training as well as classical school) has grown 
Wake Forest College, with its modern equipment, scholarly 
faculty, and fine student body — one of the most notable edu- 
cational achievements of the Baptist Church in America. 

I.IFE IINT TENNESSEE, DOMESTIC AND EELIGIOUS EELATIOiSrS AND 

coisrcLusioN 

It was about the year 1832 that General Jones removed 
with his family to Tennessee, though he had paid visits to that 
locality before. He owned about 30,000 acres of land -in that 
State. His home plantation in Hardeman County, near the 
town of Bolivar, contained 2,500 acres. On the northern part 



( 



CALVIN JONES 29 

of this tract lie built a kouse of moderate dimensions. To 
this he gave the name of Wake Park, in memory of the happy 
years he had spent in Wake County, JSTorth Carolina. A 
little later, wishing to have more commodious quarters for 
his household, he removed two miles further south, on the 
same estate, to a point where he had erected a spacious man- 
sion which he called Pontine, this name probably being de- 
rived from the Pontine Marshes, adjacent to the city of 
Rome. At Pontine the closing years of his life were spent, 
"retired from public emplojTnent, and enjoying, with ample 
wealth around him, the otium cum dignitate of the typpical 
Southern planter," to quote the language of his ardent ad- 
mirer Judge Sneed. The site of Pontine is now owned by 
the State of Tennessee, being occupied by the Western Hos- 
pital for the Insane. It was purchased by the State from. 
Colonel Paul Tudor Jones, younger son of the General. It 
is a remarkable circumstance, commented upon by President 
Taylor, of Wake Forest, in the sketch already quoted, that 
each of the two country estates occupied by General Jones in 
INTorth Carolina and Tennessee is now occupied by a great in- 
stitution — one for thei education of youth at Wake Forest; 
and the other, near Bolivar, as a home and hospital for the 
mentally afflicted. 

While a practicing physician in Raleigh, Dr. Jones had 
become engaged to be married to Kuina J. Williams, a young- 
woman of rare loveliness, who was the daughter of Major 
William Williams, of "The Forks," in Franklin County, not 
far from the county of Warren. Before the union could be 
consummated, however, she fell a victim to consumption, pas- 
sing away on the 20th of September, 1809, in the twenty-first 
year of her age. The beautiful faith and fortitude displayed 
in her last illness formed the subject of a small brochure en- 
titled The Power and Excellence of Religion, written by the 
Reverend Joel Rivers, and published by the Tract Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. ISTearly ten years later, 
on April 15, 1819, when forty-four years of age, Dr. Jones 



30 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

married the widowed sister of Miss Williams. This was 
Mrs. Tem.perance Boddie Jones^ nee Williams, widow of Dr. 
Thomas C. Jones, of Warrenton. This lady, by her first m.ar- 
riage, was the mother of Thom.as C. Jones, who was born 
in 1811 and died in Corinth, Mississippi, in 1893. The 
children of her marriage to General Calvin Jones were (in 
addition to several who died young) three in number as fol- 
lows: 

I. Montezuma Jones, born in 1822, at Wake Forest, who 
married Elizabeth Wood, and died near Bolivar in 1914, 
leaving issue. 

II. Octavia Eowena Jones, born in 1826, at Wake Forest, 
who married Edwin Polk, of Bolivar, and died in 1917, leav- 
ing issue. 

III. Paul Tudor Jones, born in 1828, at Wake Forest, 
who married (first) Jane M. Wood, and (second) Mary 
Kirkman; and died in Corinth, Mississippi, in 1904, leaving 
issue by both marriages. 

General Calvin Jones had a younger brother. Atlas Jones, 
who was a graduate of the University of ]Srorth Carolina in 
the class of 1804, was afterwards tutor of Ancient Languages 
at the same institution, and a Trustee from 1809 until 1825, 
He became a lawyer and practiced at Carthage, in Moore 
County, ISTorth Carolina, where he married Rebecca Street. 
He also lived for a while in Raleigh. He removed to Ten- 
nessee about the year 1825, and settled at Jackson, in that 
State. After his will was recorded in Tennessee, it was sent 
to Raleigh and again recorded, as he owned real estate in the 
latter city. In this will, his brother, Calvin Jones, and a 
nephew, Montezuma Jones, are named as executors. In his 
excellent History of the University of North Carolina, Dr. 
Battle is in error when he states that Atlas Jones was a son 
of Edmund Jones, one of the early benefactors of the Uni- 
versity. General Calvin Jones also had a sister, Mrs. Hig- 
bee, who lived in Raleigh for a while, and kept house for him 
there before his marriage. 



CALVIN JONES 31 

One distinguished Tennessean, Judge Calvin Jones, of 
Somerville (a graduate of the University of JSTorth Carolina 
in the class of 1832), though he bore the same name as Gen- 
eral Calvin Jones, was not related to him. He was, how- 
ever, his namesake — both families removing to Tennessee 
from N^orth Carolina, where thej had been friends. 

Though never an office-seeker, either in JSTorth Carolina or 
Tennessee, General Jones took a commendable interest in 
politics. In his younger days he was a [Federalist. After 
that party passed out of existence, and the Whigs and Demo- 
crats became contestants for the mastery of the Government, 
he alligned himself with the Whigs. He was one of the vice- 
presidents of the l!^ational Whig Convention at Baltimore 
in 1844, which nominated Henry Clay for President. 

After the adjournment of the convention last mentioned. 
General Jones made an extensive tour of Europe, being ac- 
companied by his daughter. At that time he was nearing 
his three score years and ten, but still active and in good 
health. 

In the final degree of Ancient Craft Masonry, the newly 
mad© Brother is exhorted so to live that in old age he "may 
enjoy the happy reflections consequent on a well-spent life, 
and die in the hope of a glorious immortality." The life of 
Past Grand Master Jones was a triumphont fulfilment of this 
precept. With the serene faith and humble hope of a Chris- 
tian, amid the beautiful surroundings of his estate at Pon- 
tine, near Bolivar, he peacefully came to the end of his 
earthly pilgrimage on the 20th day of September, 1846. A 
notice of him, published in the Somerville Herald, and later 
copied in the Raleigh Register, of October 16th, was as fol- 
lows : 

"Died. — At his residence near Bolivar, in Hardeman County, on 
the 20th instant. General Calvin Jones, in the 73rd year of his age. 
General Jones was a native of Connecticut, where he was educated. 
He removed in early life to Raleigh, North Carolina, where he estab- 
lished a high reputation for honor and probity, and was successful 
in winning the approbation of his fellow men in the pursuits of life. 
He emigrated to Hardeman County fourteen years since. In the 



32 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

region of the country in wliicli he spent his ripe old age, he was re- 
garded by all as a pious Christian, a gentleman in his deportment, 
full of the 'milk of human kindness' and a most valuable citizen. He 
sustained all the relations of life in the most unexceptionable man- 
ner ; and, though he had reached to that period of life of man when 
its end must hourly be anticipated, such were the consecrated ties of 
friendship and love which bound him to the hearts of his family and 
the circle of his acquaintances that none were prepared to surrender 
so rich a gem to the remorseless grave — they mourn for him as for 
the loss of their hearts' chief jewel ; and in their sorrow the whole 
community sympathize." 

Thougli General Jones may have been educated in Con- 
necticut, as stated in the notice just quoted, he was not a 
native of that State. As heretofore noted, he v^as born in 
Great Barrington, Massachussetts. His birthplace, how^ever, 
is not many miles from the Connecticut boundary. 

Many years after the death of General Jones, the State of 
Tennessee (as already mentioned) acquired by purchase his 
former plantation near Bolivar, and erected thereon the West- 
ern Hospital for the Insane. This institution was formally 
opened in July, 1890, when several addresses were delivered 
— one by the Honorable John Louis Taylor Sneed, formerly 
a Judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court.* Judge Sneed 
was a native ISTorth Carolinian, born in Raleigh. He was a 
son of Major Junius Sneed, who (as we have ali-eady seen) 
was one of the aides-de-camp of General Jones when the Brit^ 
ish landed in l^orth Carolina in 1813. Judge Sneed was also 
maternally a grandson, as well as a namesake, of Chief Jus- 
tice John Louis Taylor, of the N'orth Carolina Supreme 
Court, who was the immediate predecessor of General Jones 
as Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge of IN'orth Caro- 
lina. In the course of his remarks, Judge Sneed said : 

"In conclusion, fellow-citizens of Hardeman, allow me to indulge 
in a reminiscence of the long ago, which you, at least, will appreci- 
ate. * * * Yonder stood a cottage which was the abiding place 
of hospitality, charity, and all the golden virtues which decorate the 
higher Christian life. It was the home of filial affection and parental 
tenderness, the common resort of the most elegant and cultured 



* For sketch and portrait of Judge Sneed, see Green Bag magazine (Boston) 
May, 1893, page 233. . 



CALVIN JONES 33 

society, a place from which no poor man was ever turned comfortless 
away — the happy homestead of a happy household. The grand old 
master of that household has long since passed over the river, and 
his gentle and loving wife now sleeps by his side. In life both were 
loved and honored for all the graces that adorn human character 
and win human respect and admiration. In death, both are remem- 
bered by the rich and poor as examples of all that was noble, philo- 
sophic, gentle, and humane. * * * 

"I was for a long period of my student life an inmate of that cot- 
tage and treated as one of the children of the family. A thousand 
years of life's changes and revolutions could never efface the impres- 
sions I then received of the moral and intellectual character of the 
grand old man. He had been a deep student of science, history and 
philosophy. His mind was a treasure house of knowledge, gathered 
from books, from foreign travel, and from his close fellowship with 
the great men and statesmen of the country. And yet, with a splen- 
did capacity for the higher achievements of state-craft, he cared 
nothing for the tinsel of rank or the prestige of office, but preferred 
in his late years to tarry beneath his own happy roof-tree and to 
watch the development of his children ; to educate them in virtuous 
principles ; to do his duty well as a neighbor, a friend, a philanthro- 
pist, and to enjoy through the lengthening shadows of a useful life 
the sweet companionship of his loving wife. * * * 

"He was my Gamaliel, my oracle, from whom any docile youth 
could learn 'the wisdom of the wise, the strength that nerves the 
strong, and the grace that gathers around the noble.' In broad 
philanthropy and charity, in learning and culture, I thought him the 
greatest man I ever saw; and, in Roman virtue, severity of morals, 
and dignity of character, the most august and admirable. 

"I particularly remember his tender sympathies for that unfortu- 
nate class whose reasons were overthrown, and his theories upon the 
treatment of mental diseases. And now, as I look upon the splendid 
pile which has taken the place of that happy homestead and reflect 
upon the noble and Christly purposes to which it is today dedicated, 
I can but think if that grand old man, with all his tender solicitude 
for a better and holier treatment of the mind diseased, could revisit 
the ground on which his happy homestead stood and see the changes 
for himself, he would rejoice that things are just as they ara All 
honor to the memory of General Calvin Jones !" 

The beautiful address by Judge Sneed, just quoted, first 
appeared in the Evening Democrat, of Memphis. For a copy 
I am indebted to the sketch in the WaJce Forest Student, by 
President Taylor, to which allusion has already been made. 

General Jones was a deeply religious man and a conununi- 
3 



34 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

cant in the Episcopal Churcli. During tlie time lie resided in 
Raleigh, there was no house of worship owned by his Church, 
the parish of Christ Church not being organized until August 
21, 1821. He was similarly situated at Wake Forest. On 
April 17, 1834, not long after his arrival in Tennesee, he was 
one of the founders of the parish of St. James, in Bolivar, an 
organization having for its first rector the Reverend Daniel 
Stephens, and formed during the Episcopate of Bishop Otey, 
a disciple of the great Bishop Ravenscrof t, of JSTorth Carolina. 
Two of the clerical friends of General Jones, Bishops Otey 
and Green (the latter elevated to the Episcopate after the 
General's death), had been students and later tutors in 
the University of North Carolina when Jones was a trustee. 
General Jones enjoyed the companionship of thoughtful 
clergymen of all creeds. In addition to association with such 
leaders of his own Church as Bishops Ravenscroft, Otey, 
Polk, and Green, he had been one of the many Episcopalians, 
in the early days of Raleigh, forming a part of the congrega- 
tion of the scholarly "pastor of the city," the Reverend Wil- 
liam McPheeters, of the Presbyterian Church. A strong 
friendship also sprang up between himself and Elder John 
Purify, a forceful leader of the Baptists of IsTorth Carolina. 
As heretofore mentioned. General Jones and Elder Purify 
were residents of the same country neighborhood in the north- 
©astern section of Wake County, where Wake Forest College 
was later established. 

General Jones was a man of striking appearance. He was 
5 feet 1014 inches in height, deep-chested, and weighed 
about 240 pounds. His eyes bore a kindly expression and 
were hazel in color, his hair was brown, his forehad high, 
his nose slightly Grecian, and his mouth clearly portrayed the 
firmness and decision which marked his character through 
life. Viewed from any standpoint, he was a strong man — 
strong morally, mentally, and physically. Three portraits of 
him are now in Wake County : one in the Grand Lodge Hall, 
and one in the office of the Adjutant General, at Raleigh ; and 



CALVIN" JONES 35 

one at Wake Forest — the last mentioned having been pre- 
sented to the college by Wake Forest Lodge, now ^o. 282, 
but originally 'No. 97. 



I have now told what I have been able to learn of the up- 
right life and honorable career of Calvin Jones. His memory, 
it is true, does not stand broadly emblazoned on history's page 
as: 

"One of the few, the Immortal names, 
That were not born to die" — 

but we do no violence to truth in portraying him as consis- 
tent Christian, a vigilant patriot, an accomplished physician, 
a versatile scholar, a loyal Mason, and a hospitable gentle- 
man, well worthy to be classed "among those choicest spirits 
who, holding their consciences unmixed with blame, have 
been in all conjunctures true to themselves, their country, 
and their God." 



36 



THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 



North Carolina State Currency 

(From Confederate and Southern State Currency) 
By William West Beadbeer 



By Act of May llth, 1861. $3,250,000. 
Dated Oct 1st. 1861. 



Ptd. hy "F. W. Borneman, Charleston, 8. C. 



Figure "2" within circle at lower 
left. "2" at upper right. 
Printed on N. C. broken bank 
bills of $3, $4, $5, $10, $20, $50, 
$100. (The $50 and $100 are 



Serial 
Letter 







conjoined). 


A 


2 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


B 


3. 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 





4 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


D 








Dated Oct. 2nd. 1861. 




5 


$2. 


Same 


as last, 


A 


6 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


B 


7 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


C 


8 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 

Dated Oct. 2nd. 1861. 


D 


9 


$2. 


Same 


type as last. Printed on 








back of N. C. $1000. bond. 








Coupons of bond payable "At 








the Bank of The Republic" 








New York. "Two Dollars" in 








red on back. 


A 


10 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


B 


11 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 





12 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


D 








Dated Oct. 2nd. 1861 




13 


$2. 


Same 


type as last. Plain back. 


A 


14 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


B 


15 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


C 


16 


$2. 


Same 


as last. 


D 



Rarity 



NOETH CAKOLINA STATE CUKEEIirCY 37 



Dated Oct. 2nd. 1861. 
17 $2. Same type as last. "Two Dollars" 





in red on back. 


A 


18 $2. 


Same as last. 


B 


19 $2. 


Same as last. 


C 


20 $2. 


Same as last. 


D 



Serial 

Letter Rarity 



Dated Oct. 4tli. 1861. 
21 $2. Same type as last. Plain back. A to E 



Dated Oct. 6th. 1861. 
22 $2. Same type as last. Plain back. A to E 



"N. C. Inst. Deaf & Dumb Print." 
Dated Oct. 2nd. 1861. 
23 $2. Watch dog and safe at lower 

centre. Liberty standing at 
left end beside the American 
eagle. Printed on back of 
N. C. bond. No serial letter. 
This is an exceedingly rare 
type. 



'W. C. Inst. Deaf & Durnb Print." 
Dated Oct. 1st, 1861. 
Without Serial Letter. 
24 $1. Watch dog and safe at lower 

centre. Statue of Minerva at 
left end. Printed on backs of 
N, C. broken bank bills of $3. 
(Black) .$3. (Red) $4. $5. 
(Black) $5. (Red) $10. 
(Black). $10. (Red) $20. 
$20-50. (Conjoined) $50-100. 
(Conjoined). "Two Dollars" 
in red on back of each. 



Dated October 2nd. 1861. 
25 $1. Same as last. 



38 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

Serial 

Letter Rarity 

Dated October 3rd. 1861. 

26 $1. Same as last. 2 



Dated October 4th, 1861. 
27 $1. Same as last. 



Dated October 5th. 1861. 

28 $1. Same as last. 

Dated October 5th. 1861. 

29 $1. Same type as last. Printed on 

back of N. C. bond. 



Without printer's name. 

30 $1. Small ship at lower centre. Statue 

of Minerva at left. Consecu- 
tive dates Oct. 10th. to Oct. 
21st. 1861. Plain backs. A 2 

31 $1. Same as last including dates. B 2 

32 $1. Same as last. With red overprint. 

Also "One Dollar" in red on 

back. Plain paper. A 2 

33 $1. Same as last. B 2 



Paper watermarked "TEN." 

34 $1. Same type as last. Consecutive 

dates. Oct. 16th. to Oct. 21st. 

1861. Plain backs. A 4 

35 $1. Same as last. B 4 



Paper tcatermarked "T. C. & Co" 

36 $1. Same type as last. Consecutive 

dates. Oct. 16th. to Oct. 21st. 

1861. Plain backs. A 4 

37 $1. Same as last. B 4 

Paper watermarked "TEN" 

38 $1. Same type as last. Consecutive 

dates. Oct. 16th. to Oct. 21st. 
1861. Red overprint on back 
of each. Also "One Dollar" in 
in red on backs. A 4 



NOETH CAROLINA STATE CUKEENCT 



39 



39 $1. Same as last. 



Serial 
Letter 
B 



40 $1. 



41 



59 50c. 

60 25c. 

61 20c. 

62 10c. 

63 5c. 



Paper watermarked "T. C. & Co' 
Same type as last. Consecutive 
dates. Oct. 16tli. to Oct. 21st. 
, 1861. Red overprint and "One 
Dollar" in red on backs. A 

Same as last. B 







By Act of June 28th. 1861. $200,000 






"J. Spellman, PuMic Printer." 








Dated Oct. 1st. 1861. 








Size about 1^4 by 3 inches. 








Without any serial letter. 


42 


50c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. 


43 


25c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. 


44 


20c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. 


45 


20c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper tinted blue. 


46 


20c. 


Type set. 


Printed on back of 






N. 0. bond. 


47 


10c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. 


48 


5c. 


Type set. 
J 


Plain paper. 




''aper watermarked "TEN". 








Without any serial letter. 


49 


50c. 


Type set. 




50 


25c. 


Type set. 




51 


20c. 


Type set. 




52 


10c. 


Type set. 




53 


5c. 


Type set. 






With serial letters. 


54 


50c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. A 


55 


25c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. A 


56 


20c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. A 


57 


10c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. A 


58 


5c. 


Type set. 


Plain paper. A 



Type set. 
Type set. 
Type set. 
Type set. 
Type set. 



Plain paper. 
Plain paper. 
Plain paper. 
Plain paper. 
Plain paper. 



B 
B 
B 
B 
B 



Rarity 
4 



40 



THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 









Serial 








Letter 






Paper watermarked 


"TEN." 


64 


50c. 


Type set. 


A 


65 


25c. 


Type set. 


A 


66 


20c. 


Type set. 


A 


67 


10c. 


Type set 


A 


68 


5c. 


Type set. 


A 



Paper watermarked "TEN." 

69 50c. Type set. B 

70 25c. Type set. B 

71 20c. Type set. B' 

72 10c. Type set. B 

73 5c. Type set. B 



74 



By Act of Dec. 1st. 1861. $3,000,000. 
Eng'd. hy "J. Manouvrier. N. Oris. La." 
WRITTEN DATE JAN'Y. 16th. VRFB. 
$100. Agricultural tools and products. 
Commerce seated at right. 
Printed on back of N. C. bond. A 



75 $20. 



76 $20. 

77 $20. 



78 $20. 



79 $20. 



WRITTEN DATE FEB. 15th. VRFB. 

Ceres volant. "Fundable in six 
per cent coupon bonds" printed 
on upper and lower edge. 
Plain back. A to D 

Note — Most of the notes of 
this year are stamped fundable 
etc. in red on their face. 

Same as last. Printed on back of 

Bill of Exchange. A to D 

Same as last. Printed on back of 
Bill of Exchange. "Fundable 
in six per cent" bonds on ui> 
per edge only. A to D 



WRITl'EN DATE MARCH 1st. 1862. 
Same type. Printed "Fundable in 
eight per cent" bonds on upper 
edge only. Plain back. A to D 

Same as last. Printed on back of 

Bill of Exchange. A to D 

Eng'd hy J. T. Paterson. & Co. Augusta, Qa. 
WRITTEN DATE MAY 1ST. 1862. 



Rarity 

5 
5 
6 
4 
6 



WOETH CAEOLIKA STATE CUKEENCY 41 

Serial 

Letter Rarity 

80 $20. Railway train. Stalks of corn 

and wheat at left. Both edges 

trimmed close to eliminate 

"Fundable in eight per cent 

coupon bonds". A to D 6 



Eng'd by "J. Manouvrier. N. Oris. La." 
WRITTEN DATE JAN'Y. 1st. 1862. 
81 $10. Railway train. Printed at lower 
right "Bearing interest at the 
rate of six per cent per an- 
num." Also printed on back of 
N. C. bond ; the coupons of 
which are made payable at the 
Bank of the Republic. N. Y. A to D 



WRITTEN DATE FEB. 15th. 1862. 

82 $10. Same type as last. But printed 

"Fundable in six per cent cou- 
pon bonds" at lower right. 
Plain back. A to D 

83 $10. Same as last. Printed on back of 

Bill of Exchange. A to D 



WRITTEN DATE MARCH. 1st. VRFB. 
84 $10. Same type as last. Printed "Fund- 
able in eight per cent coupon 
bonds" on lower right. Paper 
watermarked "TEN." A to D 



WRITTEN DATE. FEB. 15th. 1862. 

85 $5. Ceres seated. Ship at left of 

centre. A to D 

WRITTEN DATE. MARCH 1st. VRFB. 

86 $5. Liberty standing. Ceres seated. 

Railway train at right end. A to D 



WRITTEN DATE. JULY 1st. 1862. 
Eng'd hy J. T: Paterson & Co. Augusta. Oa. 
87 $5. Steamship at sea. Ceres at left 

end. A to D 



42 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



Serial 

Letter Rarity 



LITHOGRAPHIC DATE. SEP. 1st. 1862. 

88 $1. Figure "I" in circle at lower left. 

Small serial letter at upper 

left. A to E 

89 $1. Same type as last. Large serial 

letter. A to K 



90 50c. Ship at sea. No serial letter. "No" 

written at left end. Serial 

number over "1866" at right. 

Plain back. 2 

91 50c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

N. C. bond. 2 

92 50c. Same type. Without "No" at left. 

Number over "1866". Plain 

back. 2 

93 50c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

N. C. bond. 2 

94 50c. Same type. Without "No" at left. 

Serial number at lower left. 

Plain back. 2 

95 50c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

N. C. bond. 2 

96 50c. Same type. Without "No" at left. 

Serial number at lower right. 

Plain back. 3 

97 50c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

N. C. bond 3 



98 50e. Same type. "No" written at left. 

Number over "January." 

Serial letter at right centre. A to N 

99 50c. Same type. Without "No" at left. 

Number at left end. Serial 

letter at right centre. A to O 

100 50c. Same type. Large serial letter at 

left end. Number at right 

centre. A to N 

101 50c. Same as last. But much smaller 

letter at left. A to N 



102 25c. Ceres at left end. Large serial 

letter at left of "25 Cts." A to O 



ISrOETH CAKOLINA STATE CURRENCY 



43 



103 25c. Same type. Small serial letter at 

left of "25 CTs." 

104 25c. Same type. Serial letter at upper 

right corner. 

105 25c. Same type. Serial letter at right. 

106 25c. Same as last. Priated on back of 

N. C. bond. 

107 25c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

bond issued to amend the char- 
ter of the Wilmington, Char- 
lotte & Rutherford Railway 
Co. 

108 25c. Same type. No serial letter. Num- 

ber below "Raleigh". 

109 25c. Same as last. Number at right of 

"1866". 

110 25c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

N. C. $1000. bond. 

111 25c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

N. C. $500. bond. 

112 25c. Same as last. Printed on back of 

N. C. $200 bond. 

113 10c. Hornets nest. 

114 10c. Negro plowing. 

115 10c. Same type. Serial letter written 

at left end. 

116 10c. Same type. Without serial letter. 



Serial 




Letter 


Rarity 


A to 


5 


A to 


5 


A to O 


2 



A to O 



A to O 



A to U 
A to U 

A to U 



AUTHORIZED BY ACT OF DEC. 20TH. 1862. 

$3,000,000. in large notes. 

$1,400,000. in small notes. 

Eng'd and Lith'd hy J. T. Paterson & Co. Augusta. Ga. 

LITHOGRAPHIC DATE. 1st JAN. 1863. 

117 $50. Bust of Gov'r. Zebulon Vance. 

Justice at left. Plain paper. 

118 $50 Same type. Paper watermarked 

"J. Whatman. 1864." 

119 $20. Bust of Gov'r Zebulon Vance. 

Hornets nest at left end. Plain 
paper. 

120 $20. Same type. Paper watermarked 

"J. Whatman. 1864." 
Eng'd hy J. T. Paterson & Co. Augusta. Oa. 



A to K 


5 


A to K 


6 


A to K 


5 


A to K 


6 



44 



THE SrOETH CAEOUNA BOOKLET 



Serial 
Letter 

WRITTEN DATE JAN. 1ST. 1863 



Rarity 



121 $20 

122 $10. 

123 $5. 

124 $5. 

125 $3 

126 $3. 

127 $3. 

128 $3. 

129 $3. 

130 $3. 

131 $2. 

132 $1. 



133 $1. 

134 75c. 



135 50c. 

136 50c. 

137 50c. 

138 50c. 



Railway train. (Same type as 
number 80.) 

State capital at Raleigh. Bust of 
D. W. Courts at lower right. 
"X" and "TEN" in red. 

View of harbor and City of Wil- 
mington. N. C. Bust of D. W. 
Courts at right. Liberty at 
left end. "FIVE" in red. 

Steamship at sea. Ceres left. 
Same type as No. 87. 

Liberty standing. Ceres seated. 
Serial letter at right. Plain 
paper. 

Same type. Paper watermkd. 
"TEN". 

Same type. Paper watermkd. 
"FIVE" 

Same type. Serial letter at left. 
Plain paper. 

Same type. Paper watermkd. 
"TEN". 

Same type. Paper watrmkd. 
"FIVE." 

State Capitol. Figure "2" at each 
upper corner. 

Figure "1" supported by Com- 
merce and Industry. Fac- 
tories and shipping in the 
background. 

Same type. Double serial letters. 

Industry standing beside beehive. 
Emblems of Commerce in the 
background. 

Sailing vessel. Serial letter at 
upper left. Serial number at 
right centre. 

Same as last. Serial number at 
left centre 

Same type. Serial letter and num- 
ber at right centre. 

Same as last. Serial number at 
lower left corner. 



A to D 



A to H 



A to H 


3 


A to H 


3 


A to H 


3 


A to H 


4 


A to H 


4 


A to H 


5 


A to H 


5 


A to H 


5 


A to M 


3 



A to M 
AB to AM 



A to O 



A to 


2 


A to 


3 


A to O 


3 


A to 


3 



NORTH CAROLINA STATE CUEEENCY 45 

Serial 

Letter Rarity 

139 25c. Ceres standing at left end. Plain 

back. A to O 2 

140 25c. Same type. Printed on back of 

N. C. $50. of 1863. A to U 5 

141 25c. Same type. Printed on back of 

$20 of 1863. A to U 5 

142 25c. Same type. Printed on back of 

N. C. $3. of 1863. A to O 4 

143 25c. Same type. Printed on back of 5c. 

Mechanics Bank of Augusta. 

Ga. A to O 4 

144 25c. Same as last. Figure "5" in red 

below "Mecbanics Bank." A to O 4 

145 25c. Same type. "One" in green on 

back. A to O 5 

146 25c. Same type. "25 Cts." in red on 

back. A to O 5 

147 10c. Hornets nest. A to U 2 

148 5c. Liberty and Peace, within circle. A to U 2 



BY ACT OF DEC. 12th. 1863. $400,000. 
DATED JAN'Y. 1ST. 1864. 

149 50c. Sailing vessel. "50 Cts." in red on 

face of note. A to P 

150 25c. Ceres standing at left end. "25 

Cts." in blue on face of note. 
(Serial letter I is unknown on 
the last two types.) A to P 



Sec. 2495. Scale of depreciation of Confederate currency estab- 
lished. Ord. of Convention, 1865. 1866, c. 39, s. 1. 

WHEREAS, by an ordinance of the convention, entitled "an ordi- 
nance declaring what laws and ordinances are in force, and for other 
purposes," ratified on the eighteenth day of October, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, it is made the 
duty of the general assembly to provide a scale of depreciation of 
the Confederate currency, from the time of its first issue to the end 
of the war ; and it is further therein declared that "all executory 
contracts, solvable in money, whether under seal or not, made after 
the depreciation of said currency before the first day of May, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, and yet unfilled (except offi- 
cial bonds and penal bonds payable to the estate), shall be deemed 



46 



THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 



to have been made with the understanding that they were solvable 
in money of the value of said currency," subject, nevertheless, to 
evidence of a different intent of the parties to the contract. There- 
fore, 

The following scale of depreciation is hereby adopted and estab- 
lished as the measure of value of one gold dollar in Confederate 
currency, for each month, and the fractional parts of the month of 
December, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, from the first 
day of November, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, to the 
first day of May, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, to wit: 

Scale of depreciation of Confederate currency, the gold dollar being 
the unit and measure of value from November first, one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-one, to May first, one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-five : 



Months 




1861 


1862 


1863 


1864 


1865 


January 






$1.20 


$3.00 


$21.00 


$50.00 


February 






1.30 


3.00 


21.00 


50.00 


March 






1.50 


4.00 


23.00 


60.00 


April 






1.50 


5.00 


20.00 


100.00 


May 






1.50 


5.50 


19.00 




June 






1.50 


6.50 


18.00 




July 






1.50 


9.00 


21.00 




August 






1.50 


14.00 


23.00 




September 






2.00 


14.00 


25.00 




October 






2.00 


14.00 


26.00 




November 




$1.10 


2.50 


15.00 


30.00 




December 

11 


1st to 


1.15 
10th, inclusive 


2.50 


20.00 


35.00 




(( 


10th to 20th, inclusive 






42.00 




" 


20th to 30th, inclusive 






49.00 





DOLLY PAYNE MADISON 47 

Dolly Payne Madison 



By J. A. HosKiNS 



The most famous personage born within the coniines of 
historic Guilford County was undoubtedly Dorothy Payne 
Madison, wife of our fourth President. She first saw the 
light of day May 20, 1768, near old 'New Garden Quaker 
meeting house, (Guilford College.) The records of this meet- 
ing show that "John Payne was born ye 9 of ye 2 Mo., 1740 
(old style), Mary, his wife, was born ye 14 of ye 10 Mo., 
1743. Walter, their son, was born ye 15 of ye 11^ Mo., 1762. 
William Temple, their son, was born ye 17 of ye 6 Mo., 1766, 
Dolly, their daughter, was born ye 20 of ye 5 Mo., 1768." 
This from the jSTew Garden monthly meeting minutes, which 
also show: "1765 11 Mo. John Payne produced a certificate 
for himself and his wife from the Monthly Meeting of Cedar 
Creek in Virginia, dated the 12th of 10 Mo., 1765, which 
was read and accepted." 

"1768, 11 Mo., jSTew Garden Preparative Meeting informs 
this Meeting that John Pa\Tie requests a certificate to the 
Monthly Meeting at Cedar Creek in Virginia. Richard Wil- 
liam and B. Bales are appointed to enquire into the life and 
conversation and affairs and if they find nothing to hinder 
prepare one and produce it to next meeting." 

"1769, 2 Mo. The Friends continued last Mo. to correct 
the certificate of John Payne having complied therewith and 
produced it to this meeting, which was read and signed." 

Thus it appears clear, unmistakable and unimpeachable 
that John Payne and family settfed at New Garden in iN^ov- 
ember, 1765, and that he returned to Cedar Creek, Hanover 
County, Virginia, in February, 1769. In the meantime 
William Temple Payne was bom in 1766, and Dolly, May 
20, 1768. She, as an infant, lived at I^ew Garden, Guilford 
County, l!^orth Carolina, less than one year. (Guilford was 
formed from Rowan and Orange 1771.) Tradition has it 



48 THE JSrOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

that the exact spot of the Payne home was just south of the 
residence of Dr. M. F. Fox, and near thereto. 

John Adams, writing to his wife from Philadelphia, said, 
"I dined yesterday with Madison. Mistress Madison is a 
fine woman. Her sisters equally so. One of them is married 
to George Steptoe Washington. The ladies are of a Quaker 
family, one of North Carolina." Agnes Carr Sage says, ''She 
was born in an old iSTorth Carolina homestead." 

Sarah K. Bolton says, "Dolly Madison was born May 20, 
1172, on a North Carolina plantation." EUett says, "John 
Payne removed to North Carolina where was situated the 
plantation his father had given him," and that "Dorothy 
Payne was born May 20, 1772." Appleton says, "Dorothy 
Payne was born in North Carolina May 20, 1772." Thus we 
are confronted with a discrepancy of even four years as to 
her birth. This is accounted for by the vanity of this great 
and good woman.' Her early biographers got her age wrong 
and the others followed. Edna Kent Bernard, in "Dorothy 
Payne. Quakeress," (1909) sets this matter right quoting 
records of North Carolina, Virginia and Philadelphia 
Friends' Meetings and sketches her career in a most charm- 
ing manner, throwing many sidelights on her brilliant life 
and the early history of Virginia and the Quaker settlement 
at Cedar Creek as well as the early slavery question. 

The first publication setting forth the true facts of her 
birth at New Garden, North Carolina, appeared in the Amer- 
ican Friend, April 12, 1906, and was written by Miss Julia 
S. White, the very capable librarian of Guilford College. It 
is certain that she was the first writer to give the true recorded 
facts. There had been traditions as to her birth here. I 
heard of these as far back as 45 years ago, but had no tangible 
proof until Miss White gave the record and minutes of the 
New Garden Meeting in her article in the American Friend. 
Dorothy Payne was the granddaughter of John Payne, an 
English gentleman of wealth and education, who migrated to 
Virginia early in the 18th century. He married Anna Flem- 



DOLLY PAYNE MADISON 49 

ing, granddaughter of Sir Thomas Fleming^ one of the early 
settlers of Jamestown, and a great granddaughter of the Earl 
of Wigton, Scotland. His son, John Payne, Dorothy's father 
married the beautiful Mary Coles, first cousin of Patrick 
Henry. She was the daughter of William Coles, of ''Coles 
Hill," Hanover County. Jefferson had been her ardent ad- 
mirer, and in earlier years the rival of John Payne. She 
had met at "Enniscorthy," the home of her cousin. Col. John 
Coles, of Albemarle County, many of the great men of Vir- 
ginia, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Randolph. Patrick 
Henry, Wirt, Edmunds, Henry Lee, the Winstons, and many 
others. This place was 10 miles from "Monticello." The 
Paynes were descended from a brother of Sir Robert Payne, 
M. P., for Huntingdonshire. 

John Payne was a member of the house of delegates of 
1780. He removed to Philadelphia in 1783. He had manu- 
mitted his slaves prior thereto. He was among the first to 
do so in Virginia. Dorothy Payne married John Todd, at- 
torney at law, of a prominent Quaker family of Philadelphia. 
They were married in old Pine Street meeting house, accord- 
ing to the solemn marriage ceremony of the Eriends. Her 
sister, Lucy Payne, married George Steptoe Washington, 
nephew, namesake and ward of President Washington. Her 
sister, Anna, married Senator Richard Cutts, from Maine, 
then part of Massachussetts, in the year 1804. Adele Cutts, 
their granddaughter, married Senator Stephen A. Douglas. 
She was his second wife. She afterwards married Gen. 
George R. Williams. Dorothy Payne Todd married James 
Madison in 1794 at "Harewood," the home of her sister, 
Lucy Pajoie Washington. She died in 1849, surviving her 
distinguished husband 12 years. Many of her letters are 
undated. She was whimsical as to her age. She ignored 
birthdays. She greatly preferred to forget them. This was 
one of her foibles. As William Temple Payne, her brother, 
was a Tar Heel and a Guilfordian, I will add that he died in 

1795. He never married. 
4 



50 THE ]SrOKTH CAEOLIJSTA BOOKLET 

Dorothy Payne Madison during 11 administrations was the 
intimate friend of our Presidents and their families. She 
knew well Washington, Jefferson, Monroe, the Adamses, 
Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler and Taylor, Hamilton, 
Clay, Calhoun and Douglas. 

Burr had the honor of introducing Madison to the charm- 
ing Mistress Todd. There were no more cultured people, nor 
polite society in Virginia than was to be found at Cedar 
Creek. Clay was born near there in Hanover County, as was 
Patrick Henry. Patrick Henry and the Winstons had 
Quaker ancestors. 

Mistress Madison wore the plain dress and "pretty Quaker 
cap" until her advent as mistress of the White House, and 
used the plain language of Friends, the soft "thee" and 
"thou" all her days. Her manner was irresistably charming. 
She was loved and honored during many years. The simple 
country maiden, rieared by conscientious Quaker parents, was 
transformed into the queen of American society, and one of 
the greatest of women. She was a gTaceful, tactful leader of 
society. She was named for her mother's friend and cousin, 
Dorothea Spottswood Dandridge, the granddaughter of Gov- 
ernor Spottswood. This lady married first ISTathan West 
Dandridge and afterwards became the second wife of Patrick 
Henry. 

The ISTew Garden Monthly Meeting was set up 1754. The 
colonists from JSTew Garden, Pa., and the Island of l^Tan- 
tucket, were a sturdy, thrifty people and from them have 
sprung many good and great men and women. 'New Garden 
boarding school was established in the year 1837. It was 
succeeded by Guilford College. Prior thereto the Friends 
maintained monthly meeting schools of a high order. 'New 
Garden boarding school and Guilford college have always 
stood high as educational institutions. 

Summerfield, IT. C, Sept, 25, '19. 



betjce's ckoss eoads 51 

Bruce's Cross Roads 



By Joseph A. Hoskins 



The name of Charles Bruce is deserving of mention in con- 
nection with Bruce's Cross Eoads (now Summerfield). In 
colonial times, and up to 1832 when he died, aged almost 100 
years, he lived here. 

Charles Bruce was a remarkable man. He was a strong 
whig and ardent patriot. Was member, together with Ralph 
Gorrell, Joseph Hines, Isham Browder and David Caldwell, 
of the Halifax Congress (l^ovember, 1Y76) that framed our 
constitution and organized the state. Was appointed agent, 
with Daniel Gillespie, by the Provincial Congress (April, 
1776) to purchase firearms and ammunition for the troops. 
Was made a member of the Committee of Accounts by the 
Halifax Congress. Appointed general recruiting officer (Sep- 
tember, 1777) by council of state. Member House of Com- 
mons 1782. State Senator 1783. Appointed 1782, together 
with Fraugott Bagge and James Hunter, auditor for Salis- 
bury District for settlement of claims against the state. 1784 
was mad© Commissioner of Confiscated Property. Member 
of Council of State under Governor Alexander Martin, 1790, 
and was councillor at the time of General WashingtonSs sou- 
thern tour, 1791, and had the honor of entertaining the Presi- 
dent on his reutrn trip north after leaving Salem. Was jus- 
tice of peace for many years and postmaster for thirty years. 
Was Chairman of County Court for many years and on 
Boundary Commission, 1785, for dividing Guilford County. 
Was on commission to build courthouse and jail at Greens- 
boro. County seat moved 1808. He married Elizabeth Ben- 
ton, stated to be a sister of the father of Senator Thomas 
Hart Benton, of Missouri. (Bruce had lived in Orange 
County, ]Sr. C, before settling in Rowan (now Guilford), as 
had Mr. Benton.) 



52 THE NOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

Mr. Bruce's home was a center of the revolutionary spirit 
and a meeting place for the organization, Friends of Liberty. 
He was a large land owner and slaveholder, merchant and sur- 
veyor. He obtained grants from Granville and State of 
North Carolina for thousands of acres in what is now Guil- 
ford and Rockingham Counties. Bruce's Cross Roads was a 
general muster ground. In 1776 Captain Dent was killed 
there at a general muster, being one of the first l^orth Caro- 
linians to fall in the struggle. Ashe says : "In Guilford, 
Colonel James Martin assembled the Whigs at the Cross 
Roads, but the Tories resolutely pressed against theni. A 
company of which Samuel Deviney, one of the former Regu- 
lators, was the head, on being opposed by Captain Dent, shot 
him." It was at Bruce's Cross Roads that the encounter be- 
tween Light Horse Harry Lee and Colonel Tarleton occurred 
February 12, 1781. Lee was encamped at Bruce's house on 
Greene's retreat to the Dan. He was attacked by Tarleton 
and Lee's bugler boy, Gillis, was killed in cold blood. In the 
counter attack Lee avenged the death of the devoted bugler 
by slaying seven of the dragoons. Greene and his army con- 
tinued the retreat, pursued by Cornwallis. That night part 
of the British army under GeneralO'Hara camped at Bruce's. 
He had fled with Colonel Lee across the Dan and was with 
him at the Battle of Guilford March 15. The Charles Bruce 
home plantation is now owned by Joseph A. Hoskins. The 
Bruce house stood where now stands the Lloskins home. It 
is traditionary that the Bruces were exiles from Scotland, 
and that antipathy to the house of Hanover partly accounts 
for Charles Bruce's extreme Whig principles and great acti- 
vity in the Revolution. 

Two other names are worthy of mention in connection 
with Bruce"s Cross Roads. It was here that Hezekiah Saun- 
ders kept a wayside inn and where the stage coaches north to 
south changed horses. In the autumn of 1822 two young 
men from 'New England journeying to South Carolina and 
Georgia, respectively, alighted from the stage coach to break- 



brltce's cross roads 53 

fast with Mr. Saunders. The young men were Sidney Porter 
and IsTathanial Boyden. Impressed by the attratcions of the 
locality and the bountiful repast, they decided instanter to 
end the journey and cast in their fortunes with the people of 
the Old jSTorth State. This decision changed the whole course 
of their lives. 

The Saunders house still stands and is the home of Mrs. 
Catherine Brittain. Nathanial Boyden taught school here 
fall and winter of 1822, boarding with Mr. Saunders. He 
became famous as eminent lawyer. Whig Congressman and 
Supreme Court Judge, and the ancestor of the distinguished 
family of that name in this state. Colonel A. H. Boyden ,of 
Salisbury, is a son of Judge ISTathaniel Boyden. 

It is probably not too much a stretch of imagination to con- 
jecture that Sidney Porter lingered many days at this hos- 
pital hostelry, before finally locating in Greensboro. He 
became the ancestor of the distinguished Porter family of 
Guilford. The versatile genius, William Sidney Porter (O. 
Henry), is probably the most famous offspring of this Porter 
family. 

Referring to Charles Bruce. His son George represented 
Guilford in the House of Commons 1798-99 and 1801, and 
was a member of the State Senate, 1802. He was a soldier 
of the Revolution. Another son of Charles, Abner, was 
Clerk of the Court of Orange County for many years. Hon. 
Willis Dowd, of Charlotte, was a grandson of Abner, as is 
Prof. Jerome Dowd, of the University of Oklahoma, and 
great-gTandsons of Charles Bruce. 

Charles Bruce, Jr., settled in Darlington, S. C, and became 
ancestor of the family of that name there and at Camden. 
Alfred and Pelix settled in Caroll County, Tennessee, on the 
lands of their father, Charles Bruce. James Allen lived at 
Summerfield in the old days prior to 1840. William E. 
Allen, of Gi-eensboro, is a grandson. The postoffice was called 
Bruce's Cross Roads in colonial times and up to about 1820. 
It was one of the important settlements in the county, ante- 



54 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

dating Martinsville (Guilford Courtliouse) , It was on the 
great stage road north to Piedmont and Western I^orth Caro- 
lina, upper South Carolina and Georgia. This continued the 
leading thoroughfare till the coming of the IsTorth Carolina 
Railroad. 

When Greene withdrew after Battle of Guilford, he sent 
his baggage via Bruce's Cross Roads to the Dan. This road 
is still called Baggage Road. The late Charles H. Wilson 
was a garndson of Hezekiah Saunders, as is John B. Ogburn. 
Mrs. J. Thomas Rhodes is a granddaughter. 



]Sr. C. TKOOPS DUEIJSTG THE CIVIL WAE 55 

[Reprinted from the Proceedings of the N. C. Historial Association, 1917] 

The Raising, Organization and Equipment 

of North Carolina Troops During 

the Civil War 



By Walter Clark, 
Chief Justice of North Carolina Supreme Court 



Wlien Sir Walter Scott issued the first of his novels in 
1805 it dealt with the war of 1745, the last attempt of the 
Stuarts to regain the throne, and he entitled it "Waverley, 
or 'Tis 60 Years Since." It is almost sixty years since our 
great struggle began in 1861, and it would be far easier for 
a great writer like Scott to clothe the palpable and familiar 
with the glamor of romance than it is for me to present to 
this generation an accurate, lifelike picture of the supreme 
effort of JSTorth Carolina in 1861-5. 

As compared with the great world struggle now in progress 
the War of 1861-5 seems small, but up to that time it was the 
greatest which the world had known. It lasted for four years, 
and the Federals first and last put into line 2,850,000 sol- 
diers. On the Southern side there were between six hundred 
and eight hundred thousand. The exact number cannot be 
settled, for our records have been largely lost. It is safe to 
say that no war was ever entered into with greater unpre- 
paredness on both sides. When the South went in she had no 
government but had to form one. It had not a soldier but had 
to call out an army, clothe, arm, and discipline it. It had no 
treasury and not a dollar to put in it. It was without fac- 
tories to make munitions or arms and without adequate facili- 
ties to clothe or feed the troops, for we had relied for years 
upon the IsTorth for manufactured articles and upon the 
I^orthwest for meat and corn and flour. 

The i^orth had as a nucleus a small army and a navy, an 
organized government and a treasury. But the state of un- 
preparedness on both sides was beyond description. After 



56 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

the first battle of Manassas the Confederate Government 
notified the Governor of this State that there v^'-as not enough 
powder in the Confederacy for another day's battle. This 
may be one of the reasons why the Confederates did not pur- 
sue their advantage by capturing Washington. So little 
aware was the E^orth of the magnitude of the struggle that 
many of their regiments then, and even later, were "100 days 
men," enlisted for that period, with the impression that the 
Rebellion could be put down in that time, and by undrilled 
men. In North Carolina the first regiment we sent out, 
the "Bethel Regiment," of glorious memory, commanded by 
Col. (later Lieut. General) D. H. Hill, was enlisted for six 
months, and the rest of our regiments for twelve months, ex- 
cept the ten State regiments which, with a foresight not shown 
probably by any other Southern State, were enlisted for 
"three years, or the war." These regiments were officered by 
appointment of the Governor, while the others, which were 
volunteer regiments, elected their own officers. 

The condition of things in the spring of 1861 would be 
hard to describe. Though South Carolina seceded on 20 
December, and other Southern States followed in January 
and February, and the new hostile government inaugurated 
its president at Montgomery, 22 February, 1861, General 
Lee accepted a commission from Abraham Lincoln in the 
latter part of March, and did not resign till after Virginia 
seceded on 23 April. In the meantime hostilities had been 
begun by the attack on Fort Sumter on 12 April, and prior 
to that time the Star of the West had been fired on in an at- 
tempt to enter Charleston harbor. Indeed there were officers 
afterwards prominent in the Confederate Army who did not 
leave the United States service till May. General Martin, 
afterwards so conspicious in organizing men and material 
for ]^orth Carolina, did not resign from the United States 
Army till our Ordinance of Secession was enacted, 20 May. 
And on his way home from his distant post in Kansas he met 
on thei train his old army friend, U. S. Grant, and traveled 



]Sr. C. TROOPS DURING THE CIVIL WAR 57 

amicably with him through Illinois and Indiana to Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

The utter inability of the people of both sections to fore- 
see the magnitude and duration of the struggle before them, 
added to the utter lack of preparedness on both sides, is shown 
by a common saying by speakers on both sides in raising 
volunteers, that they would "contract to wipe up the blood 
that would be spilled with a silk pocket handkerchief." This 
was true of the Confederate Government, which persistently 
refused, in the summer of 1861, to negotiate a loan of six 
hundred millions of dollars which was tendered by capitalists 
in Europe, and President Davis gave positive instructions 
that in no event should more than $15,000,000 be accepted. 
If the loan had been taken, of the magnitude offered, the Con- 
federacy would early have been supplied with ammunition, 
arms, provisions, and a navy, and the blockade later, to which 
we owed our defeat, would have been impossible. It is quite 
clear that it was the failure of the Confederate officials to take 
this step of preparedness, even at that late date, which ren- 
dered vain the valor of our troops and the genius of our 
generals. Indeed, aside from the preparedness which we 
could even then have made, the European governments would 
have intervened, if necessary, to have preserved the invest- 
ment of their capitalists in the $600,000,000 loan which 
would have been taken if secured on cotton. 

There can hardly be found an instance in history of equal 
want of preparedness except in our War of 1812, when a 
force of 4,000 British soldiers, returning from the West 
Indies, landed at Point Lookout at the mouth of the Potomac, 
2,500 of whom defeated the American Volunteers at Bladen- 
boro, when President ]\Iadison (a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 178 Y) and the Secretary of War, Mon- 
roe (a soldier of the Revolution), were present. It is said 
that 250 men of the British Army composed the force which 
captured Washington, burned the Capitol and the White 
House and destroyed public property, and that our Capital 



58 THE NOBTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

City was held that night by one single British soldier as a 
sentry on Capitol Hill. 

In ISTorth Carolina, though we did not secede till 20 May, 
1861, the Legislature which met 1 May provided for the 
raising of ten regiments "for three years, or the war," for the 
raising of volunteers and organization for the coming strug- 
gle. In a short time General Martin was made Adjutant 
General, Major John Devereux, Quartermaster, and Major 
Thomas D. Hogg, Commissary. At once steps were taken to 
procure supplies. Horses for the cavalry and transport service 
were brought from Kentucky, which was then still neutral 
gTOund, and were hurried in droves through the mountains. 
Saddles and harness material were secured by special agents 
in ]^ew Orleans and rushed to Raleigh by rail. Powder works 
and arsenals for the manufacture and remodeling of arms 
were created. Thirty-seven thousand muskets were taken pos- 
session of by the State in the capture of the arsenal at Fay- 
etteville. These were mostly flint and steel, and skilled work- 
men were secured to turn them into percussion weapons, but 
even then so scarce was the supply of gTins that we manufac- 
tured a large number of pikes, which were wooden poles shod 
at one end with iron (samples of which can be seen in our 
Historical Museum), and with these some organizations were 
equipped while others were entirely unarmed. Indeed, it 
was not until after several victories that, by the capture of 
arms and munitions, especially by the careful gathering up 
of the arms thrown away by the ISTorthern troops in flight, we 
were able adequately to equip our soldiers. In fact, it was 
not until after the "Seven Days Battles Around Richmond," 
in June and July, 1862, that, by means of the large captures 
of guns and cannon, the South was at all able to adequately 
equip its soldiers. During the entire war a large part of our 
equipment of arms and munitions consisted of those taken 
from the enemy. 

In May, 1861, the State established camps of instruction 
at various points, and skilled armorers were gradually edu- 



N. C. TKOOPS DURING THE CIVIL WAE 59 

cated, by the aid of the few we had, to make sabres, bayonets, 
and swords. Eor a long while percussion caps were made by 
a private firm (Kuester) in Ealeigh. Shoes and clothing 
factories were located at several points in the State. Quar- 
termaster, commissary, and ordnance stores were collected, 
and cannon were provided for the artillery largely by melt- 
ing down the church bells, which source of supply was sup- 
plemented from time to time by captures from the enemy. 

The energy and ability shown by ]S[orth Carolina in these 
preparations were very remarkable, and showed the innate 
ability of our population. 

The most remarkable instance in this line was the pur- 
chase by the State in 1862 of the Ad-Vance and three other 
vessels and thei sending by this State of Mr. John White of 
Warrenton and Col. Duncan K. McEae to sell cotton and 
purchase supplies for our soldiers. No other State did this, 
nor did the Confederate Government. It is doubtful whether 
the State could either have clothed or fed its people but for 
this enterprise. The list of importations is a curious one 
and reflects the needs of the State. From the records now 
being complied by Dr. D. H. Hill we find that ordnance 
stores to the amount of $488,000 and cotton cards to the 
value of $594,000 was brought into Wilmington. It was 
through these cotton and wool cards that the women of the 
State were able to clothe their families during the last two 
years of the war. Even the tacks with which these cards were 
fastened to the wooden handles had to be imported with 
them. Among the importations were cloth for uniforms, 
overcoats, jackets, trousers, caps, shoes, boots, sacks, angora 
skirts, oil cloth, oil tape, thread, button, paper, calf skins, 
leather, medicines, dyes, belting, cobbler's awls, needles, 
bleaching powders, buckles, scythe blades, iron, copper, wire, 
nails, and many other articles. 

Most of the imported cloth was manufactured into uni- 
forms for the men or sold to the officers. This work was 
done in a most systematic manner. The manufacturing es- 



60 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

tablishment at Ealeigh was presided over by Capt. J. W. 
Garrett, and afterwards by Major W. W. Pierce and Major 
H. A. Dowd. It was in the Quartermaster's Department, 
of whicb Major John Devereux had general supervision. Th© 
clothing was cut by expert tailors and then given out to 
women to be made into garments. Some of the material was 
shipped to various towns in the State and made up by clubs 
of women and shipped back. Blockade running was not only 
an absolute necessity to the State but was a success financi- 
ally, for on 9 March, 1865, near the end of the war, the busi- 
ness showed a profit of $1,325,000. This was largely mad© 
of course by the difference between the price paid by the 
State for cotton and the value of the articles brought back by 
the steamers on their return voyages to the State. The 
steamers ran the blockade from Wilmington nearly due south 
to ]*«[assau, in the Bahamas, to which point the supplies were 
brought without risk from England and stored. 

ISFot only were the l^orth Carolina troops supplied with 
uniforms but a very large part of the cloth and the uniforms 
were sold to the Confederate Government. When Long- 
street's corps were sent to the west, where it enabled the army 
to win the victory at Chicamauga, it was furnished with new 
clothing entirely from ISTorth Carolina, both for the men and 
officers. 

The greater portion of the medical supplies for the South- 
em army was thus brought in by the I^orth Carolina block- 
ading steamers, and was unobtainable otherwise. 

Major T. D. Hogg, who was head of the Ordnance De- 
partment and later of the Commissary Department of the 
State, kept on hand, as he said, "Everything from frying 
pans to cannon," and the department supplied every con- 
ceivable article to the army. In the Ordnance Department 
the State was constantly manufacturing or remodeling arms 
and i-epairing and putting into condition those captured 
from time to time from the enemy or picked up on the bat- 
tlefield. ITitre for gunpowder was obtained mostly by dig- 



K. C. TKOOPS DURING THE CIVIL WAK 61 

giug up the ground in the smokehouses throughout the State 
and leaching out the nitre. 

The State contracted with the Confederate Government to 
make all the clothing for the North Carolina troops after 
they were turned over to the Confederacy. During the first 
winter of 1861-1862 there was so large a rush of men to arms 
that the soldiers suffered considerablv from cold. So o-reat 
was the destitution that the women of the State, as patriotic 
then as now, took up the carpets from their floors, cut them 
up and lined them with coarse cloth and sent them on to the 
troops for use as blankets. Agents were sent as far South as 
K©w Orleans, and these also scoured the State, to buy blank- 
ets and wai-ni clothes for the North Carolina troops. 

Not only did the State make clothing it went into the 
manufacture of arms, and at the Fayetteville arsenal thous- 
sands of good rifles were made. Later, rifle factories were 
established as private enterprises at Jamestown, Greensboro, 
and other points, and a firm in Wilmington made sabres and 
bayonets. A boring machine was devised by which smooth- 
bore muskets were turned into rifles, and thousands of anti- 
quated muskets were changed from flint and steel to per- 
cussion locks. 

The State also arranged with manufacturers at many 
points in this Stat© to go into the manufacture of shoes. To 
some of these the State furnished the hides, and in many 
cases the State bought green hides and had them tanned on 
shares. Agents were sent into all the western counties to 
buy hides, leather, and wool. These were collected and 
hauled to the manufacturers, to a very large amount in wag- 
ons, or accumulated in warehouses, for it must be remem- 
bered at that time we had not more than a third of our pres- 
ent railroad mileage. 

To keep on hand a large supply of cotton goods, the State 
agreed to take the total output of many of the cotton mills 
and pay them 75 per cent profit. The lack of clothing among 
the people at home became so severe that certain days were 



62 THE NORTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

set apart on which the output of the mills might be sold, and 
on those days large numbers of women came from all quar- 
ters to buy the cotton yarns or cloth. In some cases they 
walked even ten or twelve miles and carried their yarn and 
cloth home on their backs, and sometimes in carts or wag- 
ons. 

Time fails me to go into all the various enterprises which 
the State inaugurated to support its armies in the field. De- 
tails are largely given by Major A. Gordon and Major W. A. 
Graham of the Adjutant General's Deperatment in the First 
Volume of the "JST. C. Regimental Histories." A committee 
was appointed in 1867 to ascertain the amount expended by 
this State in aid of the war, composed of J. C. Harper, R. H. 
Battle, and H. W. Husted, whose report shows that the State 
expended for military purposes alone, to carry on the war 
(leaving out the last three months, for which the records 
were lost), more than $37,000,000. While part of this was 
in Confederate currency it is fair to estimate that full $20,- 
000,000 was furnished by this State for that purpose. This 
was exclusive of the amounts which were spent by the several 
counties for the relief of the widows, wives, and children of 
the soldiers and to relieve distress among the old and infirm. 
The State established salt works on the coast and also took 
part in the manufacture of salt at Saltville, in Southwest Vir- 
ginia. By this means the State, and especially the country- 
districts, were supplied with that indispensable article. 

In addition to these expenditures the State used a large 
sum in the blockade business. In that business the State 
imported $5,947,000 of goods, in addition to the cost of the 
steamer Ad. Vance and our three other vessels, the Dorij the 
Hansa, and the Annie. 

These various enterprises were largely suggested by and 
due to the energy of Gen. James G. Martin, who had seen 
service in the Quartermaster's Department of the United 
States Army, but h© was most ably seconded by Major John 
Devereux, Major T. D. Hogg, and the other officials under 



jy. c. tkoops dueiis'g the civil wae 63 

]iim. Governor Vance, being the Governor of the State at 
that time, assuined the responsibility for the Ad Vance and 
the entire system by which the State imported these necessary 
articles, and he did so against the advice of eminent counsel 
who assured him that such action would make him. liable to 
impeachment. He reaped his reward in the approval of the 
soldiery, whom he kept warm and supplied with clothing, 
food, and other necessaries, and in the remembrance of the 
people at home whom he supplied with salt and other neces- 
sary articles, and he won the lasting gratitude of the women 
to whom he furnished the cotton cards which enabled them to 
clothe themselves and children, and this made him after the 
war invincible in the hearts of the people of N^orth Carolina. 

The "blockade-running-" enterprise of this State was not 
adopted by any other Southern State nor, strange to say, by 
the Confederate Government, to whom the State turned over 
a large part of the supplies it received by these methods. 
When the war ended ]^orth Carolina still had on hand here 
and in London many thousand bales of cotton which it had 
bought for this trade and the largest supply of English cloth 
for soldiers and officers, which were stored at Greensboro. 
The enterprise was successful till September, 1864, when the 
Confederate Government, having taken for a cruiser the sup- 
ply of anthracite coal brought from England which the Ad. 
Vance* had stored up in Wilmington for her own use, she 
was forced to use the bituminous and inferior coal from Chat- 
ham County, and the black trail of smoke that she made and 
a lowered speed caused her capture. 

As to provisions, so large a part of Virginia was occupied 
b ythe enemy and the other Southern States being less fitted 
for raising corn and farther from Lee's army, more than half 
of the supplies of that army came from l^orth Carolina. 
Major Hogg, the Commissary of this State, said that in the 
spring of 1865 ISTorth Carolina was feeding more than half 
of Lee's army. 



* This was a double pun. The vessel was primarily named Ad- Vance, i.e., 
"to-Vance," and the "Advance" or first — not A. D. Vance. 



64 THE jstoeth caeolina booklet 

It is to be remembered that the taxes of the Confederacy 
were largely levied in kind by the tithing bureau which re- 
ceived from each farm one- tenth of all the meat, corn, and 
other provisions raised which were put into the tithing ware- 
houses and thence transported to the army from time to time 
as needed. There were tithing agents in each neighborhood 
who saw to it that the farmer turned over to the Government 
one-tenth of his produce^ and over him was a tithing agent 
in each county. In a time of depreciated currency, and of an 
imperative demand for provisions by the army, no better 
system probably could have been devised. 

The Confederate conscript law was adopted early in 1862 
by which all men between 18 and 35 were taken for the army, 
with certain exemptions, on account of disability and public 
service. The age later was changed from 18 to 45. In the 
spring of 1864 the necessity of filling the ranks was such 
that boys from 17 to 18 were conscripted and formed into 
regiments and batalions of Junior Reserves, and those from 
45 to 50 were likewise formed into Senior Reserves. 

ISTor should mention be omitted of the large supplies which 
were sent by the women of the State from their scanty stores 
to their relatives in the army. During the last three months 
of 1864, as Pollard's History states, $325,000 worth of sup- 
plies passed through the office in Richmond sent by the wo- 
men of this State direct to our soldiers in our time of 
greatest destitution, in addition to what the State Govern- 
ment was officially sending to the troops. 

Throughout the war it was noted, without contradiction, 
that the best supplied, best clothed and equipped soldiers of 
the whole army were from ISTorth Carolina. 

I cannot undertake in the brief space of this article to 
narrate what would require a volume, in order to set out 
adequately the support which ]SForth Carolina furnished to 
the Confederacy. It must be recalled that while now the 
State has 2,500,000 people, by the census of 1860 she had 
only 992,622, of whom full onei-third were negroes. These 



N. C. TEOOPS DUEING THE CIVIL WAE 65 

latter did their share in faithfully furnishing provisions 
raised on the farms for the support of the soldiers and of the 
people at home. To their credit there was not a single at- 
tempt, recorded in the four years, of insurrection or law- 
lessness. Out of less than 700,000 white population the State 
sent 125,000 splendid soldiers to the front besides the Home 
Guards, who preserved order, g-uarded bridges, and at times 
strengthened our lines in IsTorth Carolina. Many thousand 
negroes were also drafted from time to time to build breast- 
works and forts. 

The proportion of soldiers furnished by this State to the 
Confederate cause was nearly one in every five of the total 
white population. This is a larger ratio than is now being 
furnished by Germany in her strenous efforts, though that 
country is largely aided by the enforced work of prisoners 
and of the population drafted fro mBelgium and other oc- 
cupied territory, contrary to all the rules of civilized war- 
fare and the express stipulations of the Hague treaties. 

It is safe to say that of the armies of the thirteen Con- 
federate States, more than one-sixth were soldiers from this 
State. This State also furnished fully one-fifth of the pro- 
visions and other supplies for the Confederate armies. 

Unlike Germany, with its thirty years preparation for 
war, I^Torth Carolina went into the war totally unprepared. 
But she grappled the task which came to her, and no state on 
either side, and probably no state in history, furnished from 
its population a larger proportion of soldiers, nor from its 
material resources a larger support, to the cause in which it 
embarked than this Commonwealth. If the cause finally 
failed no blame can be laid upon a state which went into that 
war reluctantly but which, when it once entered, stinted 
neither in men, in courage or in supplies in its ardent sup- 
port to the side which its people had espoused. 



Q6 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 



Tar River (The Name) 



By Beuce Gotten 



It seems to be well established, both by tradition and by 
official documents that this river was once sometimes called 
Taw River. Most of our North Carolina histories have so 
stated and there are numerous wills, deeds and other papers 
preserved which refer to it as Taw or Tor River. 

Lawson in his thousand miles journey in 1701 appears 
to have crossed Tar River a few miles below the present 
town of Greenville. However, he calls it the Pampticough 
and neither in his text nor on his map does the name Tar, 
or Taw, appear. 

Williamson calls it Taw River wherever referred to in his 
work, and says that in the Indian language the word Taw 
sigTiifies the river of health. 

Dr. Hawks repudiates this assertion of Williamson and 
says: 

"Its name is not Tar, though Col. Byrd called it by that 
name more than one hundred years ago. Others have sup- 
posed its original Indian name to be Taw or Tor, which 
Williamson with his customary dogmatism, ignorantly states 
means 'Health.' It never had such a meaning in any dia- 
lect of the Algonquin or Iroquois that we have met with (and 
these were the two mother languages of the Indians of the 
eastern side of IsTorth Carolina) nor was there any such 
Indian Word as far as we can discover; though such a syl- 
lable formed from an Indian word, is found in the compo- 
sition of Indian words, according to the knovra. polythinseti- 
cism of our Indian tongues. But the river was notwith- 
standing, called Taw, for we find (as I am informed by a 
friend*) that name applied in a patent of 1729. 



• H. T. Clark, Esq., of Edgecombe. 



TAK KIVER 



67 



"Wheeler, Sinrnis, Emmons and Cook, all modern authori- 
ties, repudiating 'Tar' call it 'Tau.' 

"Mr. Clark thinks that from analogy, it should be written 
'Taw' and cites the names Haw, Catawba, Chickasaw, Choc- 
taw, where the syllable terminates with w. 

"But the fact is that in the orthography of Indian names 
and words it is important to know to what country the indi- 
vidual belonged who first wrote them down for the eye of 
civilized man ; otherwise the pronunciation may be mistaken. 

"For ourselves while we are quite sure the river's true 
name never was Tar, we doubt whether Taw is the original 
word. 

"Words of one syllable are exceedingly rare in the Indian 
languages, and especially in the name of places. They are 
almost invariably compounds. 

"Its Indian name was Torpaeo and we think it should be 
so called now. Taw is but a corruption of the first syllable 
Tor. W© have tried in vain to discover the meaning of the 
compound Tor-paeo." 

Dr. Hawk's assertion that its Indian name was Torpaeo 
rests solely upon a map and an account of a journey accredi- 
ted to John Lederer, a German, who claimed to have traveled 
far into the country south of Virginia in 1670. 

Lederer, it seems, with certain Englishmen, was commis- 
sioned by Governor Berkely of Virginia to make the jour- 
ney, for the purpose of exploration and for the purpose of 
discovering a pass over the mountains. His English com- 
panions deserted him on the upper James and Lederer claims 
that he made the journey accompanied only by an Indian 
guide named Jackzetavon. 

Upon his return to Virginia he was received with insults 
and with such reproaches that he believed his life in danger ; 
the Virginias very frankly disbelieving his statements as to 
his travels and discoveries. 

Whereupon Lederer betook himself to Maryland where he 
succeeded in interesting the governor, Sir William Talbot, 



68 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

wlio having been convinced that he w&& "a. modest and in- 
genious person and a pretty scholar" himself translated, 
from the Latin into English, his account of his journeyings 
and printed the whole, with a map in London in 1672. 

This account of Lederer, as translated and published by 
Talbot, sets forth geogTaphic conditions which we know 
could not have existed in North Carolina and the impression 
gained is that the Virginians were entirely right in their 
estimate of the man'h worth. 

From the text it is impossible to recognize, positively, any 
part of ]^orth Carolina and the conviction is strong that Led- 
erer never made the journey claimed, but has set forth, both 
in his text and on his map his impressions and idea of what 
that country was, as understood perhaps from Indians and 
frontier reports. 

South of the Roanoke two rivers are shovsm, the Torpaeo 
and the Errico. Both are erroniously made to flow into 
Roanoke river. 

The Torpaeo is undoubtedly intended for what is now Tar 
river and the Errico either the Neuse or Contentnea Creek. 
This arrangement of these streams is likewise shown on a 
map prepared for the Lords Proprietors in 1671, which for 
the interior of the country is the same as the Lederer map ; 
one being a copy of the other so far as they relate to the in- 
terior of the country called Carolina. 

This name Torpeaeo does not appear in any other de- 
scription or map preserved of the country, but several Indian 
names compounded with the sound of '^tor" subsequently ap- 
pear on the map and in the records as well and are generally 
located on Tar River, or in the vicinity of Contentnea Creek. 

Tauhunter was an Indian town either on the Tar, or on 
Contentnea Creek, more likely on the latter and the name 
seems to have been preserved in Nahunter Creek in Greene 
County. 

Toisnot is the beautiful name of a creek and swamp in 
Wilson County and was the name of a pretty village in the 



TAB KIVEK 69 

same county, until changed into the homely compound of 
Elm City. 

Other Indian names in that section had sounds that might 
have led into a corruption of Taw, or Tor. Lawson in de- 
scribing his crossing of what seems to have been Contentnea 
Creek says it was called by the Indian Chattoukau. This 
name also appears to have been the Indian name for the 
point of land whereon l^ew Bern stands, and is said to have 
been taken to ITew York by the Tuscarora Indians and as 
Chautauqua became the name of a lake, town and county in 
that state from which is called our modern Chautauqua. 

Just how the Indians applied these names, whether to a 
stream, a location, to a general section or tribe cannot be 
said, but at least there were some words or names in the 
Indian dialect of the section between Tar River and the 
ISTeuse which could have been suggested to the early settlers 
to call this river Taw after their own Taw River in England 
from the vicinity of which many of them came. Indeed this 
seems a probable explanation of the early efforts to call it 
Taw. 

Taw River in England is a beautiful little stream, having 
its source among the "Tors^' of Dartmoor in Devonshire and 
flowing north into Bidiford Bay. These Tors, or huge 
blocks of granite that crown most of the hills, are a striking 
characteristic of the landscape in the county where Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh was born and the name Tor and Taw has been 
very plentifully applied to the topography of the surround- 
ing country. 

There are many prominent Tors such as Yes Tor, Back 
Tor, High Tor, Cor Tor and Hare Tor while besides Taw 
River we have Tawton, Torquey, Tor Bay and many other 
names that trace their origin directly to the Tors. The word 
is also spelled Tor and Taw just as to the river was in 
ISTorth Carolina. 

The word is of Saxon origin though some say it was ap- 
plied by the Romans to these hill tops in Devon because they 



70 THE NOETH CAEOLINA BOOKIiET 

sometimes present a shape resembling the Greek letter tau 
( ?). However the word is applied in Devonshire to any ele- 
vation that has rocks on its summit, just as "scar" is used in 
Yorkshire. It is also said that the first marbles were made 
from the stone of these Tors, hence the game Taw, and the 
position of Taw is still a prominent position in the playing 
of that most scientific of all juvenile games now called 
marbles. 

Very many of the early settlers who came to Virginia and 
!North Carolina came from the vicinity of Taw River and 
the Tors of Devonshire. Indeed after the battle of Sedg- 
moore in 1685, Devonshire was almost depopulated so great 
was the exodus, enforced or otherwise, to different parts of 
the new world. Very many of these people found their way 
to Virginia and into ]S[orth Carolina. 

Coming first upon Tar River in what is now Edgecombe 
or JSTash County, there is reason to believe that these early 
settlers did not know that it was the same stream that lower 
down was called Pamlico. The impression being that it was 
tributary to the Roanoke as set forth in the maps of Lederer 
and Ogilby. Indeed some Scotch families having early 
settled south of the Roanoke in what is now lower Halifax 
County, the section was called "The Scotland IsTeck" under 
the impression it would seem, that it was on a neck formed 
by the confluence of these two streams, or by Fishing Creek 
and the Roanoke. 

So these people christened this river, or attempted to 
christen it. Taw River after their ovsm Taw River in far off 
Devonshire just as Englishmen have always wanted to carry 
their place names with them. We know of course, that the 
attempt failed and the river was called Tar almost as soon as 
it was called Taw. If there was something in the Indian 
dialect of the section that suggested Taw, Taw itself at once 
suggested Tar, in honor of the then principal commodity of 
the country through which it flows. So Tar River it has 
been called exclusively for many years now and vdll no 
doubt continue by that name always. 



TAB EIVEE 71 

Those settlers who pushed their way down the river called 
it Tar while those who pushed their way up the river, from 
old Bath County called it Pamlico, and it was known as 
Pamlico far up into what is now Pitt County. Finally as 
the up stream settlement dominated, the town of Washing- 
ton became the dividing line, below which it is called Pam- 
lico, above which it is called Tar Piver. 



72 THE NOETH GAUOJANA BOOKLET 

Antique China Water-Pitcher, 1775 
at Edenton 



Its Masonic And Poetic Decorations 



In the Masonic Lodge at Edenton, JSTorth Carolina, which 
was established in 1775 under a chart from the Duke of 
Beaufort, then grand master of Masons in England, there 
is a very old and unique china pitcher, supposed to have been 
purchased as a water-pitcher when the lodge was first organ- 
ized. It is beautifully decorated; on one side is a ship un- 
der full sail, on another some scene connected with the ex- 
ploits of the Knights Templar, and on the third the following 
verses interwoven with the different emblems : 

"No sect in the world can with Masonry compare, 
So ancient, sp noble the badge which they wear, 
That all other orders however exteemed. 
Inferior to Masonry justly are deem'd. 

We always are free, 

And forever agree, 

Supporting each other, 

Brother helps brother, 
No mortals on earth are so friendly as we. 

The greatest of Monarchs, the wisest of men. 
Freemasonry honoured again and again, 
And nobles have quitted all other delights. 
With joy to preside o'er our mystical rites. 
We always are free, etc. 

Tho' some may pretend we've no secrets to know. 
Such idle opinions their ignorance show. 
While others with raptures cry out they're revealed, 
In Freemasons' bosoms they still lie concealed. 
We always are free, etc. 

Coxcombical pedants may say what they can, 
Abuse us, ill use us, and laugh at our plan, 
We'll temper our mortar, enliven our souls. 
And join in a chorus o'er full flowing bowls. 
We always are free, etc." 

Edenton, Noeth Carolina. Richard Dillaed. 



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A CALL TO DUTY! 

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as the South's leading agricultural weekly. In 
season and out it has emphasized the importance 
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Editor North Carolina Booklet 
Midway Plantation Raleigh, N. C. 



DIAMONDS WATCHES 



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PERTAINING TO JEWELRY SUITABLE FOR 

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128 Fatetteviixe Street RALEIGH, N. C. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA 

Historical Commission 



DEPARTMENT OF WORLD WAR RECORDS, ESTAB- 
LISHED BY CHAPTER 144, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1919 

PURPOSES 

(1) To collect as fully as possiblee data bearing upon the 
activities of North Carolina and her people in the Great 
World War. 

(2) To publish a complete history of North Carolina in the 
World War. 

WANTED 

Printed matter, manuscripts, photographs and souvenirs of 
all sorts showing the activities of soldiers, sailors, airmen, 
welfare workers, war workers, communities and individuals. 

YOUR CO-OPERATION SOLICITED 

You have the materials. The Commission has the only 
organized agency for collecting, and the only modern fire- 
proof depository for historical records in North Carolina. 

MEMBERS 

J. BRYAN GRIMES Raleigh, N. C. 

T. M. Pittman Henderson, . C. 

FRANK WOOD Edenton, N. C. 

M. C. S. NOBLE Chapel Hill, N. C. 

D. H. HILL Raleigh, N. C. 

SECRETARY 

R. D. W. CONNOR Raleigh, N. C. 

COLLECTOR OF WAR RECORDS 

R. B. HOUSE Raleigh, N. C. 

Address all communications referring to War Records to 
The North Carolina Historical Commission, Department of 
War Records, Raleigh, N. C. 



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RALEIGH. N. C. 

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Art Novelties, Window 

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Embroidery Materials, Wools, Zephyrs, Mirrors 

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Books You Haven't Got 

WRITE TO 

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RALEIGH. N. C. 

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Office Supplies 

ESTABLISHED 1867 
50 Years Service Record 



Established 1879 

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(incorporated) 



QROCERIES 



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RALEIGH, N. C 
Rexall Agency Huyler's Candy 



COATS-OF-ARMS 

PAINTED 



Coats-of-Anns painted, decorated with helmet, lambre- 
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Same style and size, unframed, ranging from 10.00 upwards 

A painted Coat-of-Arms, without helmet, lambrequin, 
etc., unframed, ranging from 5.00 upwards 

India Ink drawing of Arms 5.00 

Searches for Coats-of-Arms, including (if found) a 
small sketch of the arms 8.00 

Book plates designed. 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp. 

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"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, Nokth Cabolina 



Notice to Reader:— When you finish reading this magazine place a one cent stamp on this 
notice, mail the magazine, and it will be placed in the hands of our soldiers, sailors or marines. 
No wrapping, no address. A. S. Burleson, Postmaster General 



w 



Vol. XIX 



JANUARY, 1920 



No. 3 



North Carolina Booklet 



GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
fflSTORY 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 
BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 
RALEIGH. N. C. 





CONTENTS 

Preservation of North Carolina's World War Records— 81 
Some Autographic Writings of General Joseph Graham 89 

Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Sr.* 92 

George Washington in Guilford 107 

The Most Distinguished Member of the Guilford Bar__ 116 



THIS NUMBER 50 CENTS 



$1.00 THE YEAR 



Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh. N. C. July 15. 1905. under the Act of 
Congreuo/March3. 1879 



The North CaroUna Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History 



Volume XIX of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the 
North Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beguming July, 
1919. The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and 
April. Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editor: 
Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton. 

Biographical Editor: 
Mrs. E. E. Moefitt. 

VOLUME XIX. 

Social Life in the Sixties. 

William Boylan, Editor of The Minerva. 

History of Transportation in North Carolina. 

Services of the North Carolina Women in the World War. 

Literature and Libraries in the Nineteenth Century in North 
Carolina. 

Confederate Curr^cy— ^WilUam West Bradbeer. 

How Patriotic Societies Can Help to Preserve the Records of the 
World War. 

History of Some Famous Carolina Summer Resorts. 

History of Agriculture in North Carolina — Major W. A. Graham. 

The Old Borough Town of Salisbury — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

Brief Historical Notes will appear from time to time in The 
Booklet, information that is worthy of preservation, but which if not 
preserved in a permanent form will be lost. 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed. These will be re- 
views of the latest historical works written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued with a page devoted 
to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical re- 
search in the State. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication in The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Old Letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will In the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who \yish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XIX are requested to give notice at once. 

Many numbers of Volumes I to XVIII for sale. 

For particulars address 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 
"Midway Plantation," Raleigh, N. 0. 



Vol. XIX 



JANUARY, 1920 



No. 3 



H6e 

North Carolina Booklet 



"Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her" 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



The object of The Booklet is to aid in developing and preserving 
North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
will be devoted to patriotic purposes. Editoe. 



RALEIGH 

COMMERCL&L PRINTING COMPANY 

PRINTERS AND BINDERS 



ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



Mrs. Hubeet Haywood. 
Mes. E. E. Moffitt. 
Me. R. D. W. Con nob. 
Dr. D. H. Hell. 
De. William K. Boyd. 
Capt. S. a. Ashe. 
Miss Adelaide L. Fries. 



Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Dr. Richaed Dillaed. 

Mb. James Sprunt. 

Mr. Marsh all DeLancey Haywood. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Major W. A. Graham. 

Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 



EDITOR : 

Miss Maey Hilliaed Hinton. 
biographical editor : 
Mes. E. E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 

1920-1922 



Miss Mary Hilliaed Hinton, 
Regent. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Honorary 
Regent, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Thomas K. Beunee, 
Honorary Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Thomas W. Bickett, 
1st Vice-Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Paul H. Lee, 2d Vice- 
Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Laurence E. Covington, 
Recording Secretary, Raleigh. 



Mrs. George Ramsey, Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Raleigh. 

Miss Geobgia Hicks, Historian, 
Faison. 

Mrs. Charles Lee Smith, 
Treasurer, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Charles P. Wales, 
Registrar, Edenton. 

Mrs. John E. Ray, Custodian of 
Relics, Raleigh. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 

Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902 : 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.t 

Regent 1902-1906 : 

Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Regent 1910-1917: 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 

Regent 1917-1919. 

Mrs. MARSHALL WILLIAMS. 



*Died November 25, 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 



The North Carolina Booklet 

Vol. XIX JANUARY, 1920 No. 3 

Preservation of North Carolina's World 
War Records 



By R. B. House, 



Collector of War Records for North Carolina Historical Commission 
One of the first acts of the ISTorth Carolina Council of De- 
fense was the appointment of a Historical Committee under 
the leadership of Mr. R. D. W. Connor, Secretary of the 
ISTorth Carolina Historical Commission. Thus, at the very- 
beginning of the war, the State of ITorth Carolina organized 
the work of preserving its history. 

The Historical Committee strove by means of circular ap- 
peals to all citizens of the State, and by the appointment 
of representatives in the several counties, to preserve docu- 
ments illustrating every phase of IsTorth Carolina's participa- 
tion in the war. 

The culmination of the Historical Committee's work was 
the enactment by the General Assembly in 1919 of the fol- 
lowing provision for the collection of war records, and the 
preparation of a history, being sections 3-6 of Chapter 114, 
Public Laws of 1919. 

"Section 3. That for the purpose of putting in permanent and ac- 
cessible form the history of the contribution of North Carolina and 
of her soldiers, sailors, airmen, and civilians to the Great World War 
while the records of those contributions are available, the North 
Carolina Historical Commission is hereby authorized and directed to 
employ a person trained in the study of history and in modern his- 
torical methods of investigation and writing, whose duty it shall be, 
under the direction of said Historical Commission, to collect as fully 
as possible data bearing upon the activities of North Carolina and 
her people in the said Great World War, and from these to prepare 
and publish as speedily as possible an accurate and trustworthy illus- 
trated History of North Carolina in the Great World War. 



82 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

Sec. 4. The said history shall give a reliable account of the: 

(a) Operations of the United States Government in North Caro- 
lina during the war ; 

(&) Operations of the North Carolina State .Government in war 
times ; 

(c) Operations of county and local government in war times; 

id) War work of volunteer organizations; 

(e) Military, naval, and air service of North Carolina units and of 
individual North Carolina soldiers, sailors, and airmen ; 

(/) Organization and services of the Home Defense; 

ig) A roster of North Carolina soldiers, sailors, and airmen in 
the war ; 

(h) Services of North Carolinians in national affairs during the 
war; 

(i) Effects of the war on agriculture, manufacturing, transporta- 
tion, finance, trade and commerce in North Carolina ; 

ij) Social and welfare work among the soldiers and their de- 
pendents ; 

(fc) Contributions of schools and churches to the war and the 
effect of war on education and religion ; 

(Z) Such other phases of the war as may be necessary to set forth 
the contributions of the State and her people to this momentous event 
in the world's history. 

Sec. 5. That after the preparation of such history the said Histori- 
cal Commission shall have the same published and paid for as other 
State printing, and said Historical Commission shall offer such his- 
tory for sale at as near the cost of publication as possible : Provided, 
that one copy of such history shall be furnished free to each public 
school library in North Carolina which shall apply for the same: 
Provided also, that said Historical Commission may exchange copies 
of said history for copies of other similar histories of the war ; and 
Provided further, that all receipts from the sale of said history shall 
be covered into the State Treasury." 

The North Carolina Historical Commission appointed R. 
B. House to direct the work of collecting war records. The 
Collector of War Records took up his duties June 16, 1919, 
under the foregoing Chapter enjoining on him the two-fold 
task of collecting all data concerning North Carolina in the 
World War, and the preparation of a history of North Caro- 
lina in the World War. The collection of data is at present 
the paramount purpose of the department. 

In the chapter of the law outlining his duties, the plan for 
collecting war records extends from that of collecting data 



PEESEEVATION OF N. C^S WORLD WAE KECOED 83 

about the government of the United States, the government 
of North Carolina, the local government of counties and 
communities, down to the records of individual soldiers, 
sailors and civilians. The first step taken by the Collector was 
to make a survey of official records produced by the war. 
About this time representatives from other State War History 
Organization met in conference in Washington, D. C, to 
organize some general plan of surveying the archives of the 
national government and finding out what records were neces- 
sary for use by the States. The outcome of this conference 
was a committee to work with the Adjutant General and with 
the JSTavy Department to systematize the transcript of service 
records that will be given to the Adjutant Generals of the 
various States, and in the second place, the formation of an 
association with a membership of $200 a year, which asso- 
ciation maintains a bureau of research in Washington for the 
purpose of assuring to each State its quota of records in the 
national government. 

The next step was a survey of record-producing agencies 
in the State Departments. The records of the State Council 
of Defense, the State Food Administration, and the State 
Fuel Administration have been turned over to the Depart- 
ment of War Records. The Adjutant General is in constant 
cooperation with the Collector of War Records in regard to 
the preparation of a roster of all ISTorth Carolina men in the 
service. The departments of State, Education, Health, Agri- 
culture, and Labor and Printing have been canvassed, and 
they are holding in reserve their correspondence until the 
Collector of War Records can go through these files and take 
out what pertains to the World War. 

The official records of government organizations in the 
counties and the records of volunteer war work organizations 
are in a somewhat chaotic condition. Repeated circular let- 
ters to practically every such agency in the State, visits to 
them here and there, and the work of volunteer representa- 
tives of the Historical Commission in the various localities 



84 THE NOETH CAKOLIJSTA BOOKLEB 

reveal the fact that in some cases records have been destroyed, 
in other cases that no records have been kept, and yet again 
that where records are kept the officials of the various organi- 
zations are lax in responding to the request of the Collector 
for these records. 

In an effort to stimulate local interest in the various lo- 
calities, the Collector of War Records has endeavored to se- 
cure in each county a representative for the white race and 
one for the colored race to organize and direct the work for 
the various counties. White collectors have been secured in 
sixty-four counties and colored collectors have been secured 
in sixty-two counties. The work of these collectors has been 
spasmodic and somewhat ineffective, and just now plans are 
maturing for a conference of these collectors to be held in 
Raleigh for the eastern collectors and in Salisbury for the 
western collectors, in an effort to put on a drive for war ma- 
terial in North Carolina and to organize a State association 
for the collection of war records. 

Various organizations, however, have offered their coopera- 
tion to the Collector of War Records in getting together data 
concerning the war, notably the Red Cross, the American 
Legion, the D. A. R., and the North Carolina Division of 
the U. D. C. All of these organizations have passed resolu- 
tions approving the work of the Historical Commission and 
pledging themselves to appoint local committees to carry on 
the work. The J). A. R. is especially interested in compiling 
military records. The U. D. C. is also supplementing this 
work. The American Legion is preparing a type of blank 
which will be filled out in duplicate by each member of the 
Legion joining, one copy of which shall be sent to the His- 
torical Commission. Also, after some efforts by correspon- 
dence, the ISTorth Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs has 
pledged its support to the work, and they are preparing re- 
ports of their work. It seems that these war work organiza- 



PKESERVATIOlSr OF W. c/s WOKLD WAK EECOKD 85 

tions will eventually enable the Collector of War Records to 
secure individual reports from each community organiza- 
tion. 

Response from local draft boards and coimty councils of 
defense has been so meager as to make a change of tactics 
necessary, and as yet no definite system of obtaining these 
records has been devised. It is hoped that an examination 
of the records of the State Council of Defense will open up 
ways of securing clues to information in the various counties 
that will supplement references to these counties in the gener- 
al reports of the State Council of Defense. 

Through the publicity given to this work and the efforts 
of particularly active collectors in various sections of the 
State and by correspondence with individuals possessing col- 
lections, a valuable collection of letters, photographs, scrap 
books, and other individual material is being brought to- 
gether. 

The general duties of the Collector of War Records may be 
divided under the heads of administrative work in the office, 
field work, publicity, and research. Under the head of ad- 
ministration comes the conduct of a voluminous correspon- 
dence, both by the writing and answering of individual let- 
ters and by the sending out of circular letters, several thou- 
sand of which have been issued from the office. The task of 
administration has somewhat overbalanced the other three di- 
visions of the work. Field work on the whole has been un- 
satisfactory, because at present the general nature of the work 
is not sufficiently advertised in the various counties to make a 
trip very profitable, and better results have been accomplished 
by the securing of local organizations from the office. How- 
ever, valuable clues of various material have been collected 
by trips in Pitt County, Halifax, Warren, Guilford and 
Orange counties, by a trip to the reunion of the Old Hickory 
Division in Greenville, S. C, and by a trip to the Confer- 
ence of State War History Organizations in Washington, 
D. C. 



86 THE NORTPI CAROLINA BOOKLET 

In the department of publicity three bulletins have been 
issued by the office, which have been included in letters ; one 
arguing for the preservation of materials as a civic duty, and 
two outlining in some detail the materials wanted and the 
methods by which they can be collected. 

Research work has in general been devoted to answering 
questions coming in from various individuals, furnishing 
lists of soldiers in various communities, and in general acting 
as a clearing house of information about the State in the war. 

Concrete results of this system may be shown by the follow- 
ing digest of materials on hand : 

Of l^orth Carolina units we have nine official histories and 
collections of official papers. 

By correspondence with officers of the army and navy, 
twenty collections of individual records have been secured. 
Eleven collections of individual soldiers' letters, three diaries, 
official records of Distinguished Service Cross citations, some 
300 photographs. 

Histories of 33 chapters of the Red Cross, reports from 
the County Council of Defense in 14 counties, official re- 
ports on the five Liberty Loan drives, and a valuable collec- 
tion of letters and reports showing individual features of 
these drives. 

Lists of drafted men from every county in the State, com- 
plete records of the Food Administration, complete records 
of the Fuel Administration, complete records of the North 
Carolina Council of Defense. 

Program of cooperation with the American Legion insur- 
ing all the records made by them up to date, complete records 
of the War Camp Community Service, fragmentary collec- 
tion of material about the work of women in the war. 

Five collections of county history, complete records of 
Jewish military service in !North Carolina, and a miscel- 
laneous collection on economics, education, religion ; the New 
York Times war volumes, 20 in all ; complete files of the 



PKESERVATION OF If. c/s WOKLD WAE EECOED 87 

Army and Navy Journal through the years of the war; files 
of the Stars and Stripes, with the exception of about 20 num- 
bers; and miscellaneous periodicals, pamphlets and publica- 
tions not kept in the State Library. 

While this digest of material attempts to outline the nature 
of documents on hand, nevertheless no elaborate system of 
cataloguing and digesting this material has been attempted, 
and therefore it is quite possible that information more than 
is mentioned in the above digest may be found. 

The materials in hand are very fragTuentary and the work 
is unsatisfactory from the standpoint of publication. This is 
due to three causes : First, the fact that most of the docu- 
ments desired are not yet mature enough for collection, most 
of them being in the hands of the organization preparing 
them. In the second place, the people are not yet educated 
to the full value of preserving war records and are corre- 
spondingly unresponsive to pleas for help. In the third place, 
the force of the Department of War Records is entirely inade- 
quate to a speedy survey and canvass of so large a State as 
Korth Carolina. 

On the other hand, it is extremely doubtful whether a 
larger force and an attempt to speed up the work would pro- 
duce paying results, for the simple reason that the collecting 
and digesting of this material is entirely a matter of time and 
study. 

A more extensive and hearty cooperation of the people of 
l^orth Carolina, however, is absolutely essential to success in 
this undertaking. The people possess the records to do with 
what they will, and the success of the Collector of War Rec- 
ords waits on their pleasure. If they choose to pay no atten- 
tion to the need of prompt and speedy action in preserving 
records that are speedily being destroyed, the history of the 
war must be consequently incomplete. But if they choose 
to cooperate with the Collector, both in giving him records 
in their personal possession, and in urging like action on their 



88 THE NORTH CAKOLIJSTA BOOKLET 

neiglibors, then nothing can prevent the history from being 
full and accurate, for the work has started in ample time. 

The Collector of War Records urges, therefore, that all 
patriotic citizens of ISTorth Carolina donate enough of their 
time and attention to finding out what is wanted of them. A 
postal card to the Collector of War Records will bring full 
particulars. And there is no citizen of the State who cannot 
be of service in preserving the history of these times. 



AUTOGRAPH WRITINGS OF GEN. JOSEPH GRAHAM 89 

Some Autograph Writings of General 
Joseph Graham 

Miss Hinton : — I hand you for publication in the Booklet 
some autograph writings of Gen. Joseph Graham, which I 
did not have until two or three years after the publication of 
the book, "Gen. Joseph Graham and his Revolutionary Pa- 
pers." 

1st. Autobiography of Gen. Jos. Graham. 

"I was the third son by a second wife; my father lived 
in the State of Pennsylvania in Chester County near a mill 
on White Clay Creek, then belonging to the Hon. Judge 
Evans. I was born on the 13th of October, 1759, at said 
place, about five years after which my father died leaving 
behind him three sons and two daughters, the oldest of which 
was but nine years of age. He had a lease of the land of said 
Evans which expired about a year after his decease. This 
induced my mother at that period to remove to Carolina, 
as she had been encouraged to do by a distant relation who 
lived there. She removed in the autumn of the year 1765 
to Mecklenburg County in ISTorth Carolina, and the winter 
following moved as far to the south as Tyger River. The land 
she settled on not being her own and the situation being almost 
a frontier to the Indians, together with the weakness of the 
settlement so that no prospect offered for the schooling of her 
children, induced her to return to Mecklenburg in the year 
1767 after residing two years on Tyger. Having procured 
a tract of land nigh Charlotte a servant man whom she 
brought out together with us cleared some land, got up a cabin 
and not long after sent us to school. My oldest brother by 
this time having acquired more steadiness from his age than 
the rest of us, or perhaps his capacity was better, made con- 
siderable progress in v^o-iting, arithmetic, etc., in so much 
that she was generally advised by the neighbors to send him 
to the grammar school which together with his own inclina- 



90 TTIB NORTH CAEOLIjSTA BOOKLET 

tion periisaded her to agree he began in the year — 74. The 
interest due on the money coming to us of my father's estate 
was the only fund promised to support his education, her 
finances by this time would not admit of any aid and that was 
not more than sufficient for that purpose. He having the ad- 
vantage of a number of books besides those of Greek and 
Latin I did not fail to read them with attention, especially 
History, GeogTaphy and the Sciences, still had it in view 
to go to the grammar school if circumstances would admit." 

'^He never realized his anticipations to attend Queen's 
College or the grammar school as it was generally called. 
About the time he and George would have been ready to enter 
the school, they entered the American Army and served dur- 
ing the war, George entering in December, 1775, and Joseph 
on May 18, 1878. ISTot having sufficient money from the 
funds designated for the education of himself and his broth- 
ers, he and George concluded that as John was the oldest 
they would give him the first opportunity, that it was better 
to have one boy well educated than three with only a partial 
education. John graduated at Queen's College in 1778, and 
afterwards attended Jefferson Medical College at Philadel- 
phia, having read medicine with Dr. Rush, one of the most 
noted physicians of that time, who took him into practice with 
him. He afterwards became a surgeon in the Revolutionary 
Army. 

2. There was also found in his own handwriting two pieces 
of paper, "James Graham," who was his father, and "George 
Graham," who was an elder brother. 

James Graham. 

"At the age of eighteen he emigrated from the Carlingford 
Bay, in the County of Down, Ireland, in the year 1733, to the 
then province of Pennsylvania. 

"By tradition in the family he was a grandson of a follower 
and kinsman of the celebrated Montrose, who made such a 



AUTOGRAPH WRITINGS OF GEJST. JOSEPH GRAHAM 91 

figure in the civil wars in Scotland in the reign of Charles I, 
and when the English Army prevailed in Scotland, Montrose 
fled to Holland, and his adherents, among whom was a clan of 
the Grahams, and others, passed over into the north of Ire- 
land, where many of their descendants yet reside. James 
Graham dying when his children were young, his widow 
moved with the family to Mecklenburg, JST. C, when his son 
George was ten years old." 

Gen. George Graham. 

"He was the son of James Graham, who at the age of 18 
migrated from Carlingford Bay in the County of Dawn, Ire- 
land, in the year 1733 to the then province of Pennsylvania. 
By a tradition in the family he was grandson of a follower 
and kinsman of the celebrated Montrose, who made such a 
figure in the civil wars in Scotland in the reign of Charles the 
First, and when the English Army prevailed in Scotland Mon- 
trose fled to Holland and his adherents, among whom was a 
clan of the Grahams and others, passed over into the north of 
Ireland, where many of their descendants yet reside. James 
Graham dying when his children were young, his widow 
moved with the family to Mecklenburg, ]^orth Carolina, 
when George was 10 years old." 

In "Gen. Joseph Graham and his Revolutionary Papers" 
there are accounts of James and George Graham to which the 
reader can refer for further notice of them. 

March 1, 1920. W. A. Graham. 



92 THE jSTOKTH CAEOLIjSTA BOOKLET 



Colonel Philemon Hawkins, Sr.' 



By John D. Hawkins 



Colonel Philemon Hawkins, of Pleasant Hill, Warren County, North 
Carolina, in the seventy-seventh year of his age, having for many 
years entertained the desire to call together his descendants and con- 
nexions, as well as those of his late father, Col. Philemon Hawkins, 
senior, deceased, at his late residence in Warren county, with the 
view, thus assembled, to unite in bearing testimony to his worth and 
to his memory, and to cement together more closely the whole family 
union, did, on the 28th day of September, 1829, thus assemble them, 
as well as health and circumstances permitted; and he invited many 
respectable friends to associate upon the occasion, having previously 
caused the old family Mansion House of the deceased to be fitted up. 
When thus assembled, he called upon his grandson, Leonidas Polk, 
and great grandson of the deceased, to offer up to the Throne of 
Grace a prayer upon the occasion, who delivered an elegant and a 
very appropriate prayer. And he called upon his son, John D. 
Hawkins, and grandson of the deceased, to deliver an oration com- 
memorative of his history, and his virtue; when he delivered the 
following : 

My relatives and respected hearers: 

I am called upon bj Col. Philemon Hawkins, now the 
elder, to fulfil a trust, which his great desire to greet his rela- 
tives and friends, influenced at the same time by the most 
profound filial veneration, has induced him to impose. It is 
for me to attempt on this day to do justice to the character 
and memory of Col. Philemon Hawkins, senior, deceased. 
The task is a novel one, and the theme requires abler efforts 
than, I fear, I can bring to the discharge of it. It is there- 
fore with great distrust I attempt to approach it. An assem- 
blage of this sort, and upon such an occasion, is not only new, 
but unprecedented in our section of country. But, notwith- 
standing its novelty, what can be more justifiable, or more 



*This address was delivered by the late Colonel John D. Hawkins, at a 
family reunion in Warren County on September 28, 1829. Together with 
above preamble it was published in pamphlet form in 1829. Pamphlet was 
republished in 1906 by Dr. A. B. Hawkins, of Raleigh, a son of John D. 
Hawkins. 

Editor Booklet. 



COL. PHILEMON HAWKINS^ SK. 93 

interesting than to witness a large assemblage of relatives and 
friends, called together by the venerable head of his family 
association, to pay homage to the gTeat worth of a departed 
ancestor, who, when living, stood pre-eminently at its head ? 
It is an effort, although a feeble one, to arrest from oblivion 
the recollection of one, whose memory is fast fading away, 
and ere long will be forgotten, because all who knew him will 
soon have passed by and be forgotten also. 

To hold up to view the successful enterprise, the patriotism 
and the virtues of the departed dead, is the province of biog- 
raphy, which acts as a mirror to reflect upon the living, ex- 
amples of wisdom and of worth, from whence may be derived 
the most salutary lessons. If biography in general produces 
these conceded results, its benign influence will operate in an 
increased ratio upon relatives, when contemplating the en- 
viable character of a departed and beloved ancestor. 

Col. Philemon Hawkins, senior, deceased, was born on the 
28th of September, 1717, on Chickahominy river, near Todd's 
bridge in Charles City county and State of Virginia, this 
day 112 years ago. He was the oldest child of his parents, 
Philemon and Ann, and his father died when he was of 
tender years, leaving three children, Philemon, John and 
Ann. Although Philemon the elder died, leaving to his 
children a scanty patrimony, he seemed to have entertained 
peculiar notions of predilection in regard to them. He felt 
towards them an unusual confidence; for, by his will, he de- 
sired that they should come to the control of their patrimony 
at the age of 18 years; and this confidence, as regarded the 
subject of this memoir, was not misplaced. 

The widowed mother Ann afterwards intermarried with 
a native of Ireland; and by the time her son Philemon had 
reached the appointed age of 18, his celebrity for industry 
and manly deportment excelled all his associates, even those 
of riper years, and was of extensive circulation, a sure prog- 
nostic that he would rise above his then condition. Col. 
Lightfoot, of Williamsburg, a gentleman of great wealth and 



94 THE KOKTH CAEOLIKA BOOKLET 

discernment, had three plantations in Charles City county 
and the fame of our then youthful ancestor had reached him, 
though he lived 60 miles distant, and had deeply impressed 
him with a desire to place these three estates under his 
youthful control. He sent for him to come to Williamsburg, 
and on getting there, they made a contract, the stipulations 
of which showed at once the confidence of the employer and 
the great reputation for good management and great ability 
in the employed. But his mother was unhappily married. 
It was her misfortune not to find in her husband that con- 
jugal tenderness, affection and forbearance, which the wedded 
estate should assure to those who enter into it. The ill 
treatment of her husband had rendered the protection of her 
son Philemon necessary to her safety. And her husband's 
embarrassments and difficulties had fixed in him a deter- 
mined resolution to remove to ISTorth Carolina. This was a 
trying time for the mother. To accompany her husband she 
was compelled to do ; but to leave her son would bereave her 
of that protection which had not only stayed the arm of 
cruelty, but was further necessary to aid her with the neces- 
saries of life, and to dispel the sad gloom of a cheerless fire- 
side. She entreated her son to accompany her, and he 
pleaded his engagement, and the necessity he was under hon- 
orably to fulfil it. Under these distressing and conflicting 
embarrassments, the unhappy mother repaired to Williams- 
burg to entreat Col. Lightfoot to let her son off from his 
bargain, that he might accompany her to l^orth Carolina. 
When she named the subject to him, he peremptorily refused 
to let him off, saying, although he was but a boy, he had long 
desired his services and the pay he was to give him was 
ample; and that he should not only injure himself, but her 
son, by letting him off from the contract. With this morti- 
fying and most distressing rebuff the distracted mother 
retired to a neighboring place to spend the night, having 
been unwilling to expose to Col. Lightfoot's views the secret 
motives which so much prompted her to desire the company 



COL. PHILEMON HAWKINS^ SR. 95 

of her son. There melancholy, with all its accompaniments 
of distress, harrowed up her soul, and she resolved to try Col. 
Lightf oot once more, though mortifying, to tell him the cause 
of her importunities. She gained his presence the next 
morning, and found upon his brow that peculiar look, which 
indicated unwillingness to hear any more from her upon the 
subject of her errand. But she entreated him to listen to her 
motives, and unfolded to him her situation; that although 
her son was but a boy, he was her gallant protector and de- 
fender. This changed the scene. Col. Lightfoot, as a man 
of chivalry, could not permit his interest to weigh against a 
woman's safety and a mother's safety too, when that was to 
be secured by the presence of her son. He instantly said, "Go 
madam, and take your son. His great worth had caused me 
to desire much his management of my business; but your 
need is entitled to the preference; and those rare qualities 
and powers, which he possesses, and which had gained him 
my confidence and esteem, will ensure your protection." 

Philemon, together with his brother John and his sister 
Ann, accompanied his mother and her husband to North 
Carolina, and they settled upon Six Pound creek, then Edge- 
combe, now Warren county. Nearly the whole country was 
then a wilderness inhabited by Indians and the wild beasts 
of the forest. This country was then called a frontier, where 
civilization had shed abroad but little of its influence, and 
where the first settlers had to share, in a great degree, the 
privations which attended the first settlers of these United 
States. Persecution conduced to the first settlements of 
America, and that though of a different sort, fixed the destiny 
of this branch of the Hawkins family in this country. 

There were other branches from the Charles City stock, 
which migrated to other parts of the Union ; one went to the 
State of Kentucky, which produced Joseph Hawkins, form- 
erly a member of Congress from Kentucky, and who after- 
wards died in New Orleans. That gentleman traced his con- 
nexion with our family in a conversation with our distin- 
2— 



96 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

guished and venerable fellow citizen Nathaniel Macon, Esq., 
who now contributes by his presence to commemorate this 
occasion, and this day. 

This branch of the family came here headed by Philemon, 
who was but a youth a little turned 18 years of age, poor in 
purse, but rich in spirit. By the sweat of his brow he sus- 
tained his mother, his sister and his brother with all the 
comforts their wants required. He cheered the drooping 
spirits of his mother, and, by every effort in his power, con- 
tributed to her wants and her wishes. His filial affection is 
recounted the more willingly, because it is a virtue he not 
only practiced, but because his course was such as to inspire 
his descendants with his kindred spirit; and it is that spirit 
which gave rise to this assemblage, and it is one of the mani- 
fold evidences of its analogy to the parental stock which gave 
it birth. May its influence descend to the remotest family 
generation in parallel with this laudable example ! 

In the year 1743, he intermarried with Delia Martin, the 
daughter of Zachariah Martin, Esq., who lived in an upper 
county of Virginia. But she lived with her brother, Capt. 
John Martin, on Sandy Creek, then Edgecombe, now Erank- 
lin county. They were married in Virginia at a church in 
the county of Brunswick, by Parson Beatty. By her he had 
Fannie, who intermarried with Maj. Leonard Bullock, Col. 
John Hawkins, Col. Philemon Hawkins, Col. Benjamin 
Hawkins, late Superintendent of Indian affairs. Col. Joseph 
Hawkins of the Continental army, and Ann, who intermarried 
with Mica j ah Thomas, Esq. All of whom have long since 
passed to the tomb, except our venerable host Col. Philemon 
Hawkins who is also the only survivor of the signers of the 
Constitution of ISTorth Carolina ratified in the year 1776 ; 
and whose laudable desire to see all together the descendants 
of his worthy father, as well as his collateral kindred, has 
invited us here this day that his history may be told over, to 
excite us to inculcate his virtues, and to profit by his exam- 
ples, at the same time we attempt to do honor to his memory. 



COL. PHILEMON HAWKINS, SE. 9Y 

Our worthy ancestors lived at the mouth of Six Pound 
creek on Roanoke river, about ten years. They then removed 
to this tract of land, and not many years afterwards to this 
place, which was then in the county of Edgecombe. The prov- 
ince of North Carolina was divided at an early period of our 
history as suited the then Lords Proprietors, and their gov- 
ernment, into eight precincts, as they were called, to wit: 
Beaufort, Carteret, Chowan, Craven, Currituck, Hyde, Per- 
quimans and Pasquotank, to which Bertie precinct was after- 
wards added, by a division of Chowan. These precincts em- 
braced the whole province and were afterwards called coun- 
ties, and were divided and sub-divided and other counties 
erected as the population extended and the reasons and neces- 
sities of the province developed themselves. The first settle- 
ments were made upon the seashore and they extended west- 
wardly, as they increased. The metes and bounds of these 
counties or precincts were but little known, and, owing to the 
savage inhabitants of the country, their geography could not 
be better ascertained at that time. Legislative acts were fre- 
quently resorted to, to settle occurring disputes about bound- 
ary and to form new counties, where the interest, of the in- 
habitants required them. This section of country, as well as I 
can now ascertain it, was comprehended within Beaufort pre- 
cinct, and Edgecombe county spread largely within its limits. 
From Edgecombe the county of Granville was taken in the 
year 1746, and the dividing line began at the mouth of Stone 
House creek, on Roanoke river. Thence to the mouth of 
Cypress swamp, on Tar river and from thence across the 
river in a direct course to the middle ground between Tar 
river and ISTeuse river, being the dividing line between Edge- 
combe and Craven counties. The uncertainty of this latter 
line now forms the subject matter of an unsettled dispute 
as to boundary between the counties of Wake and Franklin. 
In 1Y64, the county of Bute was taken from the county of 
Granville; and in 1779 the county of Bute was divided into 
the counties of Warren and Franklin. 



98 THE NOKTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

I have been thus circiunstantial in the detail of the change 
and formation of counties, because our ancestor figured in 
many of them, living the greater part of the time at the same 
place. In the year 1757 he was elected High Sheriff of Gran- 
ville county, which then consisted of what Granville now is, 
added to all Franklin, and all that part of Warren lying to 
the south of Roanoke river. In this extensive country, where 
civilization was far from being complete, and where the arm 
of the law was weakened by an habitual insubordination, 
great energy of mind as well as personal bravery was required 
to perform the duties of sheriff. These qualities he possessed 
in an eminent degree; and when his deputies were overpow- 
ered, as was sometimes the case, by those who threw off the 
restraints of the law, he repaired at once to the scene of ac- 
tion, and, even when threatened to be mobbed would person- 
ally attack the leader, having the address at the same time 
to win over his followers to a more correct course. This once 
occurred in the Little river settlement now in the county of 
Franklin, where one Bud Kade headed a mob to avoid pay- 
ing taxes. And in the year 1759 when Robin Jones was 
considered the most eminent lawyer in this country, many of^ 
the suitors in Granville court, whose misfortune it was not to 
get him on their side, lost their causes, as they supposed, by 
his superior knowledge, and they fixed the determination to 
drive him by violence from the court. A threat to this effect, 
it was hoped, would deter him from attending the court ; but 
Mr. Jones was not thus to be alarmed. He felt that he was 
shielded by his duty to his clients and the laws of the country ; 
and that if the deputies could not enforce subordination, he 
relied upon the High Sheriff. To that end, he privately ad- 
vised the High Sheriff of the machinations planning, and so- 
licited his personal attention early at court, prepared for 
events, and to keep order. Accordingly the High Sheriff at- 
tended court at an early hour, armed to meet any occurrence. 
Robin Jones informed the court of the danger which threat- 
ened him, urging at the same time that he was an officer of the 



COL. PHILEMON HAWKINS^ SE. 99 

court, and entitled to its protection. The court ordered the 
sheriff to keep out of the court house all persons disposed to 
produce a riot. Thus protected by the constituted authorities, 
and firmly supported by his own inclination, he met at the 
courthouse door the ringleaders, and some of them were bold 
and conspicuous characters; for among them was Col. Ben- 
ton, the grandfather of Col. Thomas H. Benton, the present 
Senator from Missouri, who felt himself aggrieved and justi- 
fied in the course he took. The threatening rioters assembled 
at the courthouse door, armed and made a show to enter ; but 
were prevented by the determined spirit of the High Sheriff 
whose look, with arms in his hands, was too convincing that 
the entrance would be too costly; and, therefore, they de- 
sisted from their purpose and dispersed. 

The construction of the government which existed at this 
period of our history was one of such discordance between the 
governors and the governed, that that moral force which is 
essential to its well being, and to the cementing together of 
all its parts, did not exist. The idea of subjection to a for- 
eign yoke, of a tributary obligation, even of the mildest form-, 
is repugTiant to the choice; and although the idea might not 
at that time have been entertained to throw it off, yet a rest- 
lessness and a dissatisfaction prevailed and a slight matter 
was calculated to produce a popular ferment. We can trace 
this jealous discontented spirit through our history for a long 
time before it broke out in the Revolution which cured us of 
that grievous disquietude. It was that disquietude, but more 
systematically kept up, which had increased to an unprece- 
dented height, and caused the RegTilators to assemble in the 
year 1T71 and which ended in the battle of the Alamance on 
the 16th day of May of that year. Gov. Tryon, the then 
Governor of the colony of JSTorth Carolina, resided at ITew 
Bern and finding that the Regulators were trampling down 
everything like government, and, if not resisted, would throw 
the whole country into anarchy and misrule, and being by 
education a military man, and of great personal bravery, he 



100 THE NORTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET 

resolved to inarch against them, and called to his assistance 
a considerable military force. He at the same time called to 
his assistance as many of the most respectable citizens of the 
colony as he could, thereby calculating to add to his military 
the moral force of the country. His assemblage on this occa- 
sion was large. It contained many of the first characters of 
the colony and it had, as was expected, the calculated impos- 
ing effect. The number on the side of the Regulators was the 
largest; but they lacked discipline or unity of action. Upon 
this occasion his Excellency selected our venerated ancestor 
as his chief Aid-de-Camp and assigned to him the hazardous 
duty to read to the Regulators his Proclamation, which he 
did promptly. And after the battle commenced, he was the 
bearer of the Governor's commands throughout the whole 
action. This so exposed him to the fire of the enemy, that 
his hat was pierced by two balls, various balls passed through 
his clothes, and one bullet and two buck shot lodged in the 
breech of his gun, which he carried and used during the 
action. But he had the good fortune not to be wounded. 
After the battle was over, he was complimented by the Grov- 
ernor for the very efficient aid he gave him, and for the brav- 
ery and ability he displayed during the engagement. 

The spirit of dissatisfaction, which had so often mani- 
fested itself, although apparently quieted for the time, con- 
tinued to increase until it burst in open opposition to the 
British Government, about four years after the battle of the 
Alemance, and terminated in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. It is a little remarkable that 
during his arduous struggle for our independence, those who 
had been found, during minor conflicts, arrayed against the 
government and laws, were never found acting conspicuously 
in support of it. On the contrary, many of them were Tories ; 
and those who fought bravely under the banners of George 
III, against the Regulators, were, during that great struggle, 
the true Whigs of the country. The reason for this difference 
seems to have arisen from the circumstance that many of the 



COL. PHILEMON HAWKINS^ SB. 101 

Regulators were enemies to good order and to government 
generally, and for these causes were unwilling to unite in any 
systematic efforts to shake off the British yoke. 

During this gTeat struggle for American liberty, our an- 
cestor being three score years old, did not render himself 
conspicuous in a military point of view, except by pushing- 
forward his sons in aid of the good cause, by supplying them 
with all the money and other means which they required for 
that purpose. But he was offered the command of a Briga- 
dier General, which he declined, preferring to act in a civil 
capacity. Although he was thus old, he had the industry, 
activity and enterprise of a younger man, and preferred that 
his sons should go forth in personal defence of the country, 
while he stayed at home and made and supplied them with 
the necessary funds; and this he did largely, as occasions 
required them, feeling and acting for the good cause more 
eflficiently than he could have done in the field. But after 
the adoption of the Constitution in 1776, and upon the elec- 
tion of Richard Caswell, who was the first Governor of the 
State of ]^orth Carolina, he was elected by the General As- 
sembly one of the Counsel of State; which station he filled 
for some time, not only with Governor Caswell, but subse- 
quently with Governor Alexander Martin. 

Col. Philemon Hawkins, our ancestor, was a man about 
five feet nine inches high, very compactly built, and, when 
in vigorous health, weighed about one hundred and fifty-eight 
pounds. He possessed uncommon muscular powers and 
bodily activity, and a strength of constitution, which enabled 
him to bear fatigue and fitted him for hardships. His early 
education had been scanty, owing to his poverty and the loss 
of his father ; but his natural mind was vigorous and compre- 
hensive, well fitting and qualifying him for correct judgment, 
for which he was conspicuous. This made him seem to be 
correct by intuition; although he would make very logical 
deductions, showing at the same time the possession of strong 
reasoning powers. His buoyant and enterprising spirit al- 



102 THE JSTOKTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

ways kept him one of the first men of his time. This, added 
to his extensive business, gave him the great knowledge of 
men and things, which he so eminently possessed, and were 
the great sources of his general intelligence. Not having had 
the benefit of a more early and liberal education, and feeling 
great need of it, and particularly for its concomitants, good 
langTiage and the free use of words, he resolved at a very early 
period to acquire the means, and to give his sons good educa- 
tions. He soon obtained by his assiduity the money, but the 
patrons of literature were so few, and seminaries of learning 
so scarce, that there was not a classical school in all this 
country to which he could send his two first sons. Col. John 
and Col. Philemon Hawkins. Under such circumstances, he 
concluded to send them to Scotland, under the protection of a 
friend; but Col. John Hawkins was so nearly grown, and 
unwilling to go, that the idea was abandoned. When Col. 
Benjamin and Col. Joseph Hawkins arrived at the proper 
ages, he sent them to Princeton College, which seminary was 
at that time, owing to the great want of intercourse, such as 
is now in use, by stages and steamboats, almost as difficult of 
access as many of the European colleges. They continued at 
Princeton, progressing regularly in their collegiate course, 
and were only prevented from receiving the honors of the 
college by the war of the Revolution, which waxed warm at 
Princeton, and in the Jerseys, and suspended the business of 
that institution. 

From the end of the Revolutionary war to the time of his 
death, our venerated ancestor gave his attention mainly to 
the pursuits of private life. He was a Justice of the Peace 
from an early period, as long as he lived, and was a valuable 
member of the Court of his county. His favorite pursuits 
from early life, were raising stock, cropping, and the pur- 
suit of some regular profitable business ; and, by a steady 
application to them all, he acquired gTeat wealth. At the 
opening of the land office under the present government, hav- 
ing the ability, he became largely interested in taking up 



COL. PHILEMON HAWKINS^ SK. 103 

and acquiring lands, as well as all other property ; lie became 
entangled in many legal difficulties growing out of the state 
of the country and the speculations consequent upon a change 
of its policy. This new business, calling into action his su- 
perior judgment, showed him to possess an adaptation for it ; 
for he uniformly prevailed. This latter business, and his 
often seeking distant markets for what he had to sell, added 
to his previous very extensive acquaintance, rendered him 
one of the most noted men in this country; and, what was 
calculated to keep up his notoriety, his was a house of un- 
bounded hospitality. It was always open to administer to 
the comforts of all. And here I may be permitted to say, 
that no man ever had a helpmate, whose general good sense, 
good management, and superior domestic economy, exceeded 
that of Mrs. Delia Hawkins, the wife of Col. Philemon Haw- 
kins, sen'r, deceased. They were both poor originally, and 
had to resort to all the drudgery of labor attending that con- 
dition in life. But, by their good conduct and superior good 
sense, the scene was soon changed, and as they travelled on 
through life, increasing in wealth, they also increased in 
respectability and refinement, till at length their house — this 
house — was the resort of the fashionable and the gay, the 
man of business and the literati of the country. All found 
here a plentiful, an elegant, and a sumptuous repast. Al- 
though Col. Philemon Hawkins was not himself a man of 
science, his sons Benjamin and Joseph were, and they lived 
here with their parents, and added a zest to all that was agree- 
able. The style and fashion of the place was noted and 
exemplary, and the resort to it from many parts of the world 
considerable. During the French Revolution in 1792, there 
were many men of note from France, who resorted here to 
enjoy the gTeat pleasure of conversing in their own language, 
which Col. Benjamin Hawkins, from his classical knowledge 
of it, was enabled to afford them. 

Col. Philemon Hawkins, sen'r, deceased, lived up to the 
maxim, that extended hospitality, properly conducted, did 



104 THE NOETH CAKOLINA BOOKLET 

not conflict hnrtf uUy with the true rule of domestic economy ; 
that the additional supply to be laid in for that object, only 
required an additional effort to procure it, which the com- 
pany of friends always doubly paid him for. So that he set 
down these few additional efforts as better and more agree- 
ably requited than those bestowed for the sake of money alone. 
And as the human character seems generally to be better 
satisfied, and more regaled by variety, it might be permitted 
to weigh this maxim and see if its analysis proves its correct- 
ness. He pursued the rule of being generally employed in 
some useful business, or to some useful purpose, and by way 
of innovating upon its monotony, he would put forth his 
additional efforts to the cause of hospitality, by way of 
change, and agreeable relaxation in the same pursuit. By 
this means, though the pursuit be the same, the object aimed 
at was different, and that constituted the pleasurable variety. 
For the variety sought for, is to the sense, and if the same 
pursuit produces it, which in every other respect is useful, 
it is more than safe to rely upon this maxim. If this, then, 
is a logical deduction, in a money making sense, and so it 
may be by keeping off worse pursuits, it surely should not be 
departed from. And to the pleasure and reciprocal advan- 
tage afforded by the practice of hospitality, is to be added 
the sum of advantage to those upon whom it is bestowed. 

This house, once animated by the presence of our venerated 
ancestors, and once the seat of pleasure, of grandeur and of 
science, has undergone by the work of time a great change; 
and what is there upon which time will not leave its stamp ? 
For many years it has been almost deserted, and for a long 
time in a state of dilapidation; and could the spirit of the 
dead look back upon that earthly tabernacle which was occu- 
pied in life, surely the spectacle to our ancestors must have 
presented a sad contrast. But the day of resurrection for 
this spacious old mansion is at hand. Our venerable host has 
decreed it to be so. Ere long the extensive repairs already 
begun, and which are far advanced, will be completed, when 



COL. PHILEMON HAWKINS^ SE. 105 

it will present again its ancient appearance, somewhat modi- 
fied, and somewhat improved. And one great incentive to 
this work arises from the holy feeling of reverential regard 
for its ancient owners; and that appearances should be re- 
vived here as a tribute to their memory. The example thus 
set of reverence to parents, if followed, will never fail to en- 
kindle and to keep alive those finer feelings of the soul, which 
ennoble our character and our nature, and have been valued 
in all ages as virtuous testimony of gTateful benevolence. 
History records it as great virtue in Epaminondas, that in 
the celebrated Battle of Leuctra, where he gained unfading 
laurels as a general, upon being felicitated for the renown 
he had won, he showed his greatest pleasure consisted in the 
pleasure his parents would enjoy at his victory. 

This day one hundred and twelve years ago. Col. Philemon 
Hawkins, sen., deceased, was born, and he died on the 10th 
day of September, 1801, having lived nearly eighty-four 
years. He has now been dead upwards of twenty-eight years, 
and notwithstanding the long time which has rolled on since 
his death, his appearance is still fresh in the recollection of 
many of us; and his manly perseverance, his steady habits 
of useful industry, his systematic arrangement of his busi- 
ness and his time, his contempt for idleness and dissipation, 
will, it is earnestly hoped, never be forgotten by us. He was 
a great friend to schools. I^Tot having had himself the benefits 
of a liberal, scientific education, but possessing in an emi- 
nent degree all that practical good sense which could estimate 
the worth of it, he was their liberal patron. He was a strong 
advocate for internal improvements. His comprehensive 
mind pioneered him through the ways which are now fol- 
lowed, though slowly, to advance the best interests of the 
country in the way of its improvement. He had himself 
struggled through the wilderness, had seen the face of the 
country gradually improve, and he regretted much that all 
his influence could achieve was to open new roads, from 
whence great benefit was derived. 



106 THE NOKTII CAROLINA BOOKLET 

When we take a review of his rise and progress in life, and 
contrast them with the idleness and dissipation of the present 
day, we are ready to exclaim, that degeneracy is surely among 
us. He lived within his income, and caused it continually to 
increase; by which he was not only increasing his ability to 
live, but to increase his fortune, and to add to his power to be 
useful. Accustomed to labor in early life, laudable industry 
was viewed by him as a great virtue, and as the road to honor 
and usefulness ; and he who practiced it, was much exalted 
in his estimation. He always looked back to the days of his 
early life with pleasing reminiscences, and the most grateful 
feeling to the Giver of all good for having inspired him with 
the resolution, and given him the ability and the aptitude for 
labor and industrious enterprise, by which he had been able 
to throw off the shackles of poverty, and to acquire an ample 
fortune to raise and to sustain his family and himself in his 
old age. If a similar course was now pursued, much happier 
indeed would be the condition of this country. Let us then 
emulate his virtues, and inculcate his habits, and instill into 
the minds of our children the examples of his prosperous and 
useful life; and when each rolling year shall bring around 
the day of his birth, let us hail it as his natal day, and en- 
deavor to imprint it deeper and deeper in their hearts. 



George Washington in Guilford 



By J. A. HosKiNS 



There lias been a discussion going on regarding distin- 
guished personages whose history is connected with Guilford 
county. It has been shown that the wife of our fourth Presi- 
dent was bom at ISTew Garden (Guilford College) ; that our 
seventh President had been a resident of our county and a 
member of our bar. We now come to the greatest of them all, 
our first president, the immortal George Washington. His 
history is indisputably linked with that of Guilford. He was 
entertained at Guilford courthouse (Martinsville) June 2 
and 3, 1791, by Governor Alexander Martin, on his southern 
tour, and visited the scenes of the great conflict between our 
own General Greene and General Lord Cornwallis. I am 
here presenting his Journal from June 2 to June 27. This 
is the first appearance of this part of Washington's diary of 
his southern tour. It has long been a moot point as to 
whether Governor Martin entertained President Washington, 
at Guilford courthouse, or at Danbury, his plantation on the 
Dan in Rockingham county. The tax returns show. Governor 
Martin had a home in Martinsville late as 1806. The 
diary sets the matter straight. Judge Douglas, in his ad- 
dress at Guilford Battleground celebration, and which is in 
booklet form, was in error in saying that this historical event 
took place "at Danbury." Mr. Frank ISTash in his admirable 
paper on Governor Martin follows Judge Douglas in this mat- 
ter. It is true that "Alexander Martin, Go" was enumerated 
in the first federal census, 1790, in Rockingham county. 
This is shown by the volume of Colonial and State Records, 
containing the first census. He had also a home in Martins- 
ville, and there he did the honors. Judge Douglas was, no 
doubt, relying on the first census. His address is a splendid 



108 THE NOBTH CAEOLINA BOOKLET 

effort and throws much light on the life and times of Gover- 
nor Martin. 

The copies I have of the Diary, Southern Tour, are photo- 
stat copies of the original note book in Washington's own 
handwriting, obtained from the Library of Congress. 

From the record in Washington's own writing I quote: 
(notebook). 

"Thursday, June 2, 1791. 

"In company with the Governor I set out by four o'clock 
for Guilford, breakfasted at one Dobsons, at the distance of 
eleven miles from Salem and dined at Guilford, sixteen miles 
farther, where there was a considerable gathering of people 
who had received notice of my intention to be there today, 
and came to satisfy their curiosity. On my way I examined 
the ground on which the action between General Greene and 
Lord Cornwallis commenced, and after dinner rode over that 
where their lines were formed and the score closed in the re- 
treat of the American forces. The first line of which was 
advantageously drawn up and had the troops done their duty 
properly the British must have been sorely galded in ye ad- 
vance, if not defeated. The lands between Salem and 
Guilford are in places very fine but upon the whole cannot 
be called more than middling, some very bad. On my ap- 
proach to this place (Guilford) I was met by a party of light 
horse which I prevailed on the Governor to dismiss and to 
countermand his orders for others to attend me through the 
State. 

"Friday, 3. 

"Took my leave of the Governor, whose intention was to 
have attended me to the line, but for my request that he 
would not, and about four o'clock I proceeded on my jour- 
ney, breakfasted at Troublesome Iron Works, called fifteen 
but at least is seventeen miles from Guilford, partly in the 
Rain and, from my information, or for want of it, was 
obliged to travel twelve miles further than I intended to- 



GEOEGE WASHINGTON IN GUILFOED 109 

day, to one Gatewood's withiiL two miles of Dix' Ferry 
over the Dan, at least thirty miles from the Iron works. The 
land over which I passed this day were of various qualities 
and as I approached the Dan, were a good deal covered with 
pine. In conversing with the Governor, on the state of poli- 
tics in ISTorth Carolina I learned with pleasure that opposi- 
tion to the general government and the discontent of the peo- 
ple were subsiding fast and that he should so soon as he 
received the laws which he had written to the Secretary of 
State for, issue his proclamation requiring all officers and 
members of the Government to take the oaths prescribed by 
law. He seems to condemn the speculation in lands and 
the purchases from the State of Georgia, and thinks, as every 
sensible and disinterested man must, that schemes of that 
sort must involve the country in trouble, perhaps in blood. 

"Saturday, 4. 

"Left Mr. Gatewood's about half after six o'clock and be- 
tween his house and the Terry passed the line which divides 
the State of Virginia and JSTorth Carolina and dining at one 
Wilson's, sixteen miles from the Ferry, lodged at Halifax 
Old Town. 

"The road from Dix' Ferry to Wilson's passes over very 
hilly (and for the most part) indifferent land being a good 
deal mixed with pine though it is said here that pine when 
mixed with oak and more especially with hickory is not in- 
dicative of a poor soil. From Wilson's to Halifax Old Town 
the soil is good and of a reddish cast. Having this day passed 
the line of ]!Torth Carolina and, of course, finished my tour 
thro' the three southernmost states, a general discription of 
them may be comprised in the following few words. From 
the Seaboard to the falls of all the rivers, which water the 
lands, except the swamps on the rivers and the lesser streams 
which empty into them and the interval lands higher up the 
rivers is with but few exceptions neither more nor less than 
a continued pine barren, very thinly inhabited. The part 
next the Seaboard for many miles is a dead level and badly 



110 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

watered. That above it is hilly and not much better than 
barrens, if possible less valuable on account of its hills and 
because they are more inconvenient to market, supposing 
them capable as the lands below, of producing beef, pork, tar, 
pitch and turpentine. The lands above the falls of the sev- 
eral rivers from information, and as far as my own observa- 
tion has extended, is of a very superior kind, from their be- 
ing of a greasy red with large oaks intermixed with hickory, 
chestnut, etc., excelling in producing corn, tobacco, wheat, 
hemp and other articles in great abundance and are generally 
thickly inhabited, comparatively speaking vdth those below. 
"In the lower country (near the Seaboard) in the States 
of South Carolina and Georgia, rice as far up as the swamps 
extend is almost the sole article that is raised for market, 
some of the planters of which gTOW as much corn as with 
the sweet potatoes, support their people. The middle coun- 
try, that is between the rice lands and the falls of the rivers, 
and a little above them, is cultivated chiefly in corn and 
indigo and the upper country in tobacco, corn, hemp, and 
in some degree the smaller grains. It is nearly the same 
in ^orth Carolina with this difference, however, that as not 
much rice is planted there, especially in the northern part 
of the State, corn, some indigo, with naval stores and pork, 
are substituted in its place, but as indigo is on the decline, 
hemp, cotton, etc., are grown in its place. The inland navi- 
gation of the rivers of these three States may be improved 
according to the ideas I have formed of the matter to a very 
extensive degree to great and useful purposes and at a very 
moderate expense, compared with the vast utility of the 
measure inasmuch as the falls of most of them are trifling 
and their lengths are great, going to the markets penetrating 
the country in all directions by their lateral branches and in 
their present state (except at the falls which, as has been 
observed before, are trifling) navigable for vessels carrying 
several hogsheads of tobacco or other articles in proportion. 
The prices at which rice lands in the lower parts of the States 



GEOEGE WASHINGTON IN GUILFOKD 111 

are held, is very great. Those of which, if have been im- 
proved, from twenty pounds to thirty pounds sterling and, 
fifty pounds has been given for some, and from ten pounds 
to fifteen pounds is the price of it in its rude state. The 
pine barrens adjoining these sell from $1 to $2 per acre, ac- 
cording to circumstances. 

"The interval lands on the rivers below the falls and above 
the rice swamps also command a good price but not equal 
to those above and the pine barrens less than those below. 
The lands of the upper country sell from four to six or seven 
dollars, according to the quality and circumstances thereof. 
In the upper parts of JSTorth Carolina wheat is pretty much 
gTown and the farmers seem disposed to try hemp but the 
land carriage is a considerable drawback having between 
200 and 300 miles to carry the produce either to Charles- 
town, Petersburg, or Wilming'ton, which are their three 
gTeat marts, though of late Fayetteville receives a good deal 
of the bulky articles, and they are water borne from thence 
to Wilmington. Excepting the towns and some gentlemen's 
seats along the road from Charlestown to Savannah there is 
not within view of the whole road I traveled, from Petersburg 
to this place, a single house which has anything of an elegant 
appearance. They are altogether of wood, and chiefly of logs, 
some indeed have brick chimneys but generally the chimneys 
are of split sticks, filled with dirt between them. The ac- 
commodations on the whole road, except in the towns and 
near there, as I was informed, for I had no opportunity of 
judging, lodging having been provided for me in them (at 
my own expense) were found extremely indifferent, the 
houses being small and badly provided either for man or 
horse tho extra exertions when it was known I was coming, 
which was generally the case, were made to receive me. It 
is not easy to say which road, the one I went or the one 
I came, the entertainment is most indifferent, but with truth 
it may be added, of course, that both are bad, and is to be 
accounted for from the kind of travelers which use them, 



112 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

which, with a few exceptions only, on the upper road, are 
no other than wagoners and families removing, who gener- 
ally take their provisions along with them. The people, 
however, appear to have abundant means to live well. The 
grounds, where they are settled, yielding grain in abundance 
and the natural herbage a multitude of meat with little or 
no labor to provide food for the support of their stock, 
especially in Georgia where it is said the cattle live thru 
the winter without any support from the owners of them. 
The manners of the people, as far as my observation, and 
means of information extended, were orderly and civil and 
they appeared to be happy, contented and satisfied with the 
general Government, under which they were placed. Where 
the case was otherwise, it was not difficult to trace the 
cause to some demi-gogue or speculating character. la 
Georgia, the dissatisfied part of them, at the late treaty with 
the creek Indians were evidently land jobbers who strangled 
every principle of justice to the Indians and policy to their 
country, would, for their own immediate emolument strip the 
Indians of all their territory, if they could obtain the least 
countenance to the measure, but it is to be hoped the good 
sense of the state will set its face against such diabolical at- 
tempts and is also to be wished and by many it was said it 
might be expected that the sales by that state to what are 
called the Yazoo Companies would fall thru. The dis- 
contents which it was supposed the last Revenue Act (com- 
monly known by the Excise Law) would create, subside as 
fast as the law is explained and little was said of the Bank- 
ing act. 

"Sunday, 5th. — Left the Old Town about four o'clock a.m., 
and breakfasted at one Pridies' (after crossing Bannister 
Kiver one and a half miles) about eleven miles from it, 
came to Stanton River, about twelve, where meeting Col. 
Isaac Coles (formerly a member of Congress for this district) 
and who pressing me to it, I went to his house, about one 
mile off to dine and to halt a day for the refreshment of my- 



GBOEGE WASHINGTON IN GUILFOED 113 

self and horses, leaving my servants and them at one of the 
usually indifferent taverns at the Ferry that they might be 
no trouble or be inconvenient to a private family. 

"Monday 6th. 

'Tinding my horses fared badly at the Ferry for want of 
grass and Col. Coles kindly pressing me they were accord- 
ingly brought there to take the run of it until night. Dined 
with the gentleman today also. The road from Halifax Old 
Courthouse or Town to Stanton River, passes for the most 
part over this land, a good deal mixed with pine. 

"Tuesday, 7th. 

"Left Col. Coles by daybreak and breakfasted at Charlotte 
C. H., 15 miles, where I was detained some time to get shoes 
put on such horses as had lost them, proceeded afterwards 
to Prince Edward C. H., 20 miles further. The lands from 
Stanton Ferry to Charlotte, C. H. are generally good and 
pretty thickly settled. They are cultivated chiefly in tobac- 
co, wheat and com with oats and flax. The houses, tho none 
elegant, are generally decent and bespeak good livers, being 
for the most part weatherboarded and shingled, with brick 
chimneys, but from Charlotte, C. H. to Prince Edward, 
C. H., the lands are of an inferior quality with few inhabi- 
tants in sight of the road. It is said they are thickly settled 
off it. The roads by keeping the ridges pass on the most in- 
different ground. 

"Wednesday, the 8th. 

"Left Prince Edward, C. H., as soon as it was well light, 
and breakfasted at one Treadway's, 13 miles off, dined at 
Cumberland, C. H., 14 miles further, and lodged at Moore's 
Tavern, within 2 miles from Carter's Ferry, over James 
River. The road from Prince Edward, C. H., to Tread- 
way's was very thickly settled, altho the land appeared 
thin and the growth is a great degree pine, and from Tread- 
way's to Cumberland, C. H., they were equally thickly set- 
tled, on better land, less mixed, and in places not mixed with 
pine. The buildings appeared to be better. 



114: THE NOETH CAKOLINA BOOKLET 

, "Thursday, 9th. 

"Set off very early frora Moore's, but the proper ferry be- 
ing hauled up, we were a tedious while crossing in one of the 
boats used in the navigation of the river, being obliged to 
carry one carriage at a time, without horses and crossways 
the boat, on planks. Breakfasted at a Widow Pains', lY 
miles on the north side of the river, and lodged at a Mr. 
Jordans, a private house, where we were kindly entertained 
and to which we were driven by necessity by having rode not 
less than 25 miles from our breakfasting stop thru very 
bad roads in a very sultry day without any rest and by miss- 
ing the right road had got lost. From the river to the Widow 
Pains' and thence to Anderson's Bridge, over the ISTorth 
Anna Branch of the Pamunke the lands are not good nor 
thickly settled on the road, nor does the soil or growth prom- 
ise much (except in places) from thence for several miles 
further, but afterwards thru the county of Louisa, which 
is entered after passing the bridge, the river over which 
it is made, dividing it from Goochland they are much better 
and continued so with little exception quite to Mr. Jordan's. 

"Friday, 10th. 

"Left Mr. Jordan's early and breakfasted at one John- 
son's, T miles off. Reached Fredericksburg, after another 
(short) halt, about 3 o'clock, and dined and lodged at my 
sister Lewis'. The lands from Mr. Jordan's to Johnson's 
and from thence for several miles further are good but not 
rich afterwards. As you approach nearer the Rappahan- 
nock River they appear to be of a thinner quality and more 
inclined to Black Jacks. 

"Saturday, 11th. 

"After dinner with several gentlemen, whom my sister had 
invited to dine with me I crossed the Rappanhannock and 
proceeded to Stafford C. H., where I lodged. 

"Sunday, 12th. 

"About sunrise we were off, breakfasted at Dumfrees and 
arrived at Mt. Vernon to dinner. From Monday, the 13th, 



GEOKGE WASHINGTON IN GUILFOKD 115 

until Monday, the 27tli, (being tlie day I had appointed to 
meet the Commissioners under the Residence Act, at George- 
town) I remained at home, and spent my time in daily rides 
to my several farms and in receiving many visits. 

''Monday, 27th. 

"Left Mt. Vernon for Georgetown before six o'clock, and, 
according to appointment met the Commissioners at the 
place by nine, then calling together the proprietors of the 
lands, on which the Federal City was proposed to be built, 
who had agreed to cede them on certain conditions, at the last 
meeting, I had with them, at this place." 



116 THE WOKTH CAKOLINA BOOKLET 

The Most Distinguished Member of the 
Guilford Bar 



By J. A. HosKiNS 



I have read with, a great deal of pleasure the admirable 
address of welcome by Hon. George S. Bradshaw on the oc- 
casion of the meeting of the State Bar Association and was 
surprised at his omission of the name of Andrew Jackson, 
seventh President, from the long list of members of the Guil- 
ford bar, and again surprised that doubt should exist as to the 
authenticity of his Guilford residence and as to his being 
a former member of our bar. The old minute book of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions in clerk's office, Greensboro, says: 
"Andrew Jackson produced a license from the judges of Su- 
perior Court of law and equity to practice law and was ad- 
mitted an attorney of this court ITovember, 1787." What 
has probably caused confusion is the fact that there was an- 
other Andrew Jackson in the county. The old minute book 
shows in 1798 Andrew Jackson attorney for William 
Bridges, acknowledged deed from Daniel Dawson for 74 
acres. This was a power of attorney and the record so states. 
He was not a lawyer as has been erroneously claimed by 
some. This has been the stumbling block. It is clear that there 
was but one lawyer Andrew Jackson admitted to practice. 
Court record states in another place John Hamilton proved 
a power of attorney from William Bridges to Andrew Jack- 
son empowering him to make title to David Dawson, Jr. In 
1800 Andrew Jackson served as juryman. In 1801 Andrew 
Jackson was appointed road overseer. Andrew Jackson was 
appointed constable. In 1806 letters of administration on 
the estate of Andrew Jackson, deceased, were granted John 
Starrett and Edward Grau. It is clear that the record here 
refers to another Andrew Jackson who held the various small 
positions and died in 1806. The hero of the battle of ITew 



MOST DISTINGUISHED MEMBER GFILFOED BAE 117 

Orleans left Martinsville (Guilford courthouse) May, 1Y88, 
with Judge John McJSTairy to take up his duties as public 
prosecutor for the western district (Tennessee). Judge Mc- 
l^airy to assume the duties of Judge. They traveled on 
horseback. Parton says that "In the winter of 1784 and 
1785 Andrew Jackson left his home in the Waxhaw settle- 
ment, S, C, and came to Salisbury, IsT. C, where for some- 
thing over two years he studied law, at first in the office of 
Spruce McKay and afterwards in that of Colonel Stokes and 
that in l^ovember, 1787, he was licensed to practice law." 
(This latter date corresponds exactly with the record of 
minute book of Guilford court.) 

Investigators, and there have been many, when finding the 
reference to "Andrew Jackson, attorney for William Brid- 
ges," in the year 1798 stopped there and asserted this was 
the attorney, Andrew Jackson, who was admitted to practice 
1787. 

He was born March 15, 1767, and was not quite 21 years 
of age. Parton states specifically that Jackson was for a 
short time in Martinsville. He was there evidently from 
N"ovember, 1787, to May, 1788, with his friend. Judge Mc- 
ISTairy, and no doubt together they were preparing for their 
great work in Tennessee. This would make him a resident 
of Guilford county for six months and a member of Guilford 
bar. Sumner and Brown failed to make mention of his stay 
in Martinsville, otherwise agreeing with Parton as to the 
other facts, figures and dates. Parton is the great biographer 
of Jackson and he is corroborated by the court records of 
Guilford. This is the documentary proof. 'Now, for the 
traditionary. The writer of this distinctly remembers many 
years ago hearing the late W. S. Hill, Esquire, of Greens- 
boro, often say that his father, Wilson Hill, knew Jackson 
when he resided in Martinsville, that he was a visitor in his 
father's home, that his father journeyed to Washington 
during the presidency of Jackson, that he called upon the 
President, and they talked over old times. Wilson Hill was 



118 THE NOETH CAROLINA BOOKLET 

a prominent citizen of this county, lived in good style at a 
place that is now called Scalesville in the north part of the 
county. The Hill place was afterwards known as the "An- 
selm-Keid Place." Again, Jackson was often a visitor in 
the home of Charles Bruce, of Bruce's Cross Roads (Sum- 
merfield). Stockard mentions this tradition. It is quite 
likely, for Bruce and Jackson were kindred spirits. They 
were both of Scotch descent. Bruce maintained a race track 
and a stud of racers.. He kept deer and fox hounds. He 
was a distinguished man and had served in the Halifax 
congress, as state senator, and a member of the county court 
and as its chairman, and afterwards other offices of honor 
and trust. He was intensely devoted to the cause of the Revo- 
lution, as was Jackson. Jackson at this time was a horse rac- 
ing, cock fighting, rollicking young dare devil. He wrought 
well in his day and generation for the Republic. 



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Address all communications referring to War Records to 
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Vol. XIX, No. 4 APRIL-JULY, 1920 Vol. XX, No. 1 

North Carolina Booklet 





GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 
BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 
RALEIGH. N. C. 

CONTENTS Q 

Shall this General Assembly of North Carolina Ratify 

the Nineteenth Amendment? 121 

By Hon, H. G. Connor, Jk. 

A Sketch of Fort Dobbs 133 

By Rosamond Clark 

Old Waxhaw 139 

By Lily Doyle Dunlap 

Pronunciation of "Raleigh" 145 

By Capt. S. a. Ashe 

Some of North Carolina's Notable Women 148 

Kiffin Yates Rockwell _ 150 

By R. B. House 



THIS NUMBER 50 CENTS 



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Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh. N. C. July 15. 1905, under the Act of 
Congreuof MarchS, 1879 



The North CaroUna Booklet 

Great Events in North Carolina History 



Volume XX of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the 
North Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1920. The Booklet will be published in July, October, January, and 
April. Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editoe : 
Miss Maby Hilliakd Hinton. 

Biographical Editor: 
Mrs. E. B. Moffitt. 

VOLUME XIX. 

Social Life in the Sixties. 

William Boylan, Editor of The Minerva. 

History of Transportation in North Carolina. 

Services of the North Carolina Women in the World War. 

Literature and Libraries in the Nineteenth Century in North 
Carolina. 

History of Some Famous Carolina Summer Resorts. 

History of Agriculture in North Carolina — Major W. A. Graham. 

The Old Borough Town of Salisbury — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

OTHER 

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Booklet, information that is worthy of preservation, but which if not 
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views of the latest historical works written by North Caioiiuians. 

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search in the State. 

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nish copies of unpublished records for publication in The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

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the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

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special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

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Vol. XIX, No. 4 APRIL-JULY, 1920 Vol. XX, No. 1 



'(She 

North Carolina Booklet 



"Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her! 
While we live we u^ill cherish, protect and defend her" 



Published by 

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DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



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Mes. Hubeet Haywood. 
Mrs. B. E. Moffitt. 
Me. R. D. W. Connor 
De. D. H. Hill. 
De. WILLLA.M K. Boyd. 
Capt. S. a. Ashe. 
Miss Adelaide L. Feies. 



Miss Maetha Helen Haywood. 

De. Richard Dillaed. 

Mr. James Speunt. 

Me. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Major W. A. Graham. 

De. Charles Lee Smith. 



editor : 

Miss Mary Hilliaed Hinton. 

biographical editor: 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 

1920-1922 



Miss Maey Hilliaed Hinton, 
Regent. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Honorary 
Regent, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Thomas K. Beuner, 
Honorary Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Thomas W. Bickett, 
1st Vice-Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Paul H. Lee, 2d Vice- 
Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Laurence E. Covington, 
Recording Secretary, Raleigh. 



Mes. George Ramsey, Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Raleigh. 

Miss Georgia Hicks, Historian, 
Faison. 

Mrs. Charles Lee Smith, 
Treasurer, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Charles P. Wales, 
Registrar, Edenton. 

Mrs. John E. Ray, Custodian of 
Relics, Raleigh. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 : 
Mrs. spier WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902 : > 

Mes. D. H. HILL, SE.t 

Regent 1902-1906: 

Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Regent 1910-1917: 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 

Regent 1917-1919. 

Mrs. MARSHALL WILLIAMS. 



•Died November 25. 1911. 
tDied December 12. 1904. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



Vol. XIX, No. 4 APRIL-JULY, 1920 Vol. XX, No. 1 



Shall This General Assembly of North Caro- 
lina Ratify the 19th Amendment?* 



By Hon. H. G. Connoe, Jb. 



In approachiiig a consideration of this resolution, and in 
discussing it, I shall confine myself, as nearly as may be, to 
two questions or propositions, which, briefly stated, are as 
follows : 

1. Has this General Assembly at this time the moral or 
political right to ratify this amendment? 

2. Conceding the first proposition, is it expedient that 
we do so? 

In approaching a consideration of the first proposition, 
certain fundamental principles which lie at the very foun- 
dation of that system of Government which we inherited 
from those who founded it should be borne in mind. 

We are reminded in the Declaration of Rights of the first 
Constitution adopted in this State, that of 1YY6, that the 
opening words thereof are: 

(1) "That all political power is vested in and derived 
from, the people only. 

(2) "That the people of this State ought to have the sole 
and exclusive right of regulating the Internal Government 
and Police thereof." 

Again, in the Declaration of Rights of the Constitution 
of 1868, which is our present Constitution, we read: "That 
all political power is vested in, and derived from, the people ; 



*This speech was delivered before the North Carolina Senate in August, 
1920, when, under the superb leadership of Senator Lindsay Warren, the 
Rejectionists defeated the ratification of the proposed Nineteenth Amendment. 



122 The ITobth Carolina Booklet 

all Government of Right originates from the people, is found- 
ed upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good 
of the whole." 

Again, we are told in this Declaration of Rights of the 
Oonstitution of 1868, ''That the people of this State have the 
inherent, sole and exclusive right of regulating the Internal 
Government and Police thereof." 

By whom was this Government founded ? We are given 
the answer to this question in the Constitution of the United 
States and in the Constitution of ISTorth Carolina of 1776, 
and also in the Constitution of ISTorth Carolina of 1868. The 
Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of 
North Carolina of 1868, both open with "We, the people." 
The Constitution of 1776 opens thus : ''The Constitution or 
form of Government agTeed to and resolved upon by the 
representatives of the freemen of the State of i^Torth Caro- 
lina, elected and chosen for that 'particular purfpse, in Con- 
gress assembled at Halifax, the 18th of December, in the year 
of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six." 

To avoid any confusion of thought or understanding, let 
it be admitted at the outset that the words, "We, the people," 
in both the Federal Constitution and the State Constitution 
of 1868, and the word "freemen" used in the Constitution 
of 1776, mean one and the same thing; that is, they mean 
that portion of the people of ISTorth Carolina and the other 
States, who, imder the laws of these States, at the time of 
the adoption of these Constitutions, were electors by the 
laws of the various States in which they lived. That is to 
say, the words, "We, the people," and "the freemen" mean 
"electors." 

We are reminded by Chief Justice Marshall, in McCul- 
lo'ch vs. Maryland, that it was the people of the United States, 
and not the States, who adopted the Federal Constitution. 
We are all familiar with the historical fact that the conven- 
tion at Philadelphia submitted the question of ratification, 
not to the Legislatures of the various States, but to con- 



Shall I^T. C. Ratify the 19th Amendment ? 123 

ventions of the people of the various States called for that 
purpose. It has always been understood that constitutional 
conventions in the American system of government were the 
creation of the people, the electors of the various States in 
convention assembled, through their representatives. It is 
our nearest approach to pure democracy. 

May I not then be permitted to say that it is a fundamental 
principle of American government, that the people, the 
electors and they only, founded this system, under which 
we live. As a corollary thereto, the people necessarily re- 
served unto themselves the right to alter or amend it, and 
never intended to delegate that power to any but represen- 
tatives chosen by them for that particular purpose. 

I, therefore, contend that my first proposition, that is, 
"Have we the moral or political right to ratify this amend- 
ment ?" is the proposition involved, and not "Shall we or shall 
we not adopt Woman Suffrage?" 

If all the political power is vested in, derived from, the 
people, and government of right originates from them, as 
the people of North Carolina have on the most solemn occa- 
sions of their political existence declared and reiterated, 
what right, political or moral, have we to take it from them, 
that is, to deprive them of a right which they have reserved 
unto themselves ? 

The people of North Carolina have been especially cau- 
tious in reserving unto themselves the right to amend, alter, 
change or otherwise deal with their fundamental law. The 
Constitution of 1776 contained no provision whatever for 
amendments or for any future constitution. 

During the long agitation leading up to and culminating 
in the convention of 1835, there was never a suggestion, so 
far as I have been able to discover, that the Constitution 
could be changed, other than by a convention of the people. 
The Act under which the convention of '35 was called, pro- 
vided that the question of "Convention" or "No convention" 
should first be voted upon by the people. 



124 The N'orth Carolina Booklet 

The convention of 1835 adopted a method of amending 
the Constitution, which is in effect the same method as is 
contained in the Constitution of 1868. A reading of the 
section, being section 2 of Article TV of the Amendments of 
'35, as well as a reading of Article 13 of the Constitution of 
'68, clearly demonstrates that the people reserved unto them- 
selves the right to pass upon each and every amendment, 
and the right to pass upon the question of "Convention" or 
"No convention." l^o Legislature has ever sat in jM^orth 
Carolina which was authorized by the people of ]*>[orth Caro- 
lina to Ichange by the crossing of a "t" or 1ihe dotting of Ian "i" 
their fundamental law. They have ever been jealous of this 
right. In the face of these conditions, we now hear it se- 
riously contended that this Legislature shall arrogate to it- 
self, without authority given unto it by the people, not to 
change the Constitution of ISTorth Carolina directly, but to 
change that which is over, above and superior to it, the Con- 
stitution of the United States, and not only change the Con- 
stitution of the United States, but change it in such a way 
that the State Constitution itself is changed without regard 
to the question whether the people of the State approve it or 
not. To put it more clearly, but not less truly, it is seriously 
proposed that eighty-seven members of this Legislature, all 
chosen since the submission of this amendment, shall take 
from the people of ISTorth Carolina, and I mean the electors, 
the power and privilege of passing upon the question of ratifi- 
cation or no ratification by electing representatives who would 
vote in accordance with their wishes. Twenty-six men in the 
Senate, sixty-one in the House, supposing a full attendance, 
eighty-seven in all, by voting for ratification, may change the 
Constitution of the United States and thereby the State Con- 
stitution, regardless of the will of the other two and a half 
million people in the State or that portion of the two and a 
half million who are the electors, without any opportunity 
for these people to express their will thereon. With a bare 
quorum in the Senate, fourteen men, and a bare quorum in 



Shall IT. C. Ratify the 19th Amendment ? 125 

the House, thirty-two men, forty-five in all, by arrogating 
and taking unto themselves this power, can forever take away 
from the people, their constituents, the power to pass upon 
this question. It is proposed that a majority of the present 
Senate and House, in a vital respect, without instructions 
from the people, without adopting any method of ascertain- 
ing their will in the matter, shall surrender a "right of regu- 
lating the Internal Government" of the State, a right which 
the Constitution we have sworn to support declares is a mat- 
ter over which the people of the State have "the inherent, 
sole and exclusive control." 

Seldom has it ever been suggested in a free country, that 
men who for the moment occupy particular offices shall ex- 
ercise such autocratic power, or rather exercise power so auto- 
cratically, and it cannot be called by any other name, with any 
regard to the truth. Of course it should be needless to say 
that what the amendment accomplishes has nothing to do 
with the principle involved, but for the moment, permit me 
to repeat that this particular amendment does, in fact, take 
away from the people of the State of I^Torth Carolina, and 
from every other State in the Union, power which they now 
have. In language it confers nothing upon any one except 
upon Congress, but takes away from each and every State 
power which it not only now has, but which each and every 
State has always had since the foundation of this Govern- 
ment, and power which the people of ISTorth Carolina have re- 
peatedly declared to be a matter of their "inherent, sole and 
exclusive" right to have and keep unto themselves. 

I consider it a fundamental proposition, lying at the foun- 
dation of representative government, that no Legislature of 
this or any other State has the moral or political right to rat- 
ify an amendment which has been submitted by Congress, 
subsequent to the election of that particular Legislature. 
Any Legislature that does so in ISTorth Carolina, in my hum- 
ble judgment, will suffer at the hands of the people when 
next the people are called upon to exert the residuum of 
power left in them. 



126 The N'oe.th Carolina Booklet 

The people of I^Torth Carolina were slow to ratify tlie Fed- 
eral Constitution; they were slow to attempt to repeal the 
resolution of ratification in 1861. They are rather slow in 
moving politically, but when they do move, they are rather 
determined in their manner of moving. They have not 
given to this special session authority to change the State 
Constitution. They never intended to give it the right to 
change the Federal Constitution. I admit your power, but 
I decline to accede to your proposition that you have the 
right to do this thing. 

At the risk of being tedious, I repeat: The control of the 
franchise is one of those "inherent, sole and exclusive" In- 
ternal EegTilations which the people of ISTorth Carolina have 
declared again and again they propose to keep to them- 
selves. This resolution of ratification proposes to surrender 
this to the United States Congress. It forever deprives the 
people of iN'orth Carolina of the power to pass upon this ques- 
tion themselves or by their instructed representatives. ]Srot 
one of us was elected by the people to do this thing. We 
have no authority or commission from our constituents to 
act in the matter. We have neither the moral nor political 
right to act at all. We should await a mandate from the 
rulers, rather than obey one from their servants, chosen for 
an entirely different purpose. 

Passing to the second proposition, that is, "Is it expedient 
that we ratify this amendment ?" one of the questions which 
presents itself is, "why this sudden hurry?" We are told 
we will have the opportunity, the high honor, of conferring 
the suffrage upon all the women of the United States. I 
would state it rather in this way: That we may have the 
honor of taking away from every State in the Union the right 
to determine whether women shall vote within that State. 

We are told that if we ratify that it will cause many 
women in States where they now have the privilege of 
voting to vote the Democratic ticket in ISTovember. Our 
Republican friends are told that their action in voting to 



Shall N. C. Ratify the 19th Amendment? 12'? 

ratify will cause many women in such States to vote the Rcr 
publican ticket in ]^ovember. We, the Democrats, are 
further told that if we refuse to ratify we will cause many 
women to vote the Eepublican ticket, and my Republican 
friends, on the contrary, are told that if they refuse to ratify, 
they will cause many women to vote the Democratic ticket. 
If we both vote to ratify, certainly all these results cannot 
be accomplished. Just how all these various, inconsistent, 
opposite and entangled results are to be accomplished is not 
explained and will not be, for they are incapable of explana- 
tion. The proposition that the women of Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, IsTevada, 'New 
York, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington 
and Wyoming, the States in which they have full suffrage, 
will be influenced to vote in accordance with the action of the 
Democratic or Republican members of the Legislature of 
]!^orth Carolina, involves several fundamental errors. 

One of these errors is that it is assum.ed that they will 
exercise their right of suffrage to reward or punish some 
party rather than exercise it for the purpose of assisting in 
solving the problems confronting the American people. I 
do not believe that the women of this country will be influ- 
enced by any such motive. 

Assuming that women will exercise their right of suffrage 
where and when they have it to reward or punish, then it is 
further argued that suffrage is coming anyway, and that as 
a matter of expediency we should not stand in the way of 
its coming. Of course this is no valid argument, it is sim- 
ply begging the question, but let us for a moment consider 
what lies at the bottom of this assumption. 

There have always been those who attempt to calmly and 
coldly calculate the ultimate result and to act accordingly. 
This sort of thing has been by some caljed "getting on the 
winning side" and "getting on the band wagon." Men have 
played this game successfully and unsuccessfully, but seldom 
with honor. Admitting that this be the motive, men and 



128 The North Caeolina Booklet 

women of honor never judge such persons by their success in 
guessing, hut they go deeper and very properly dismiss both, 
the successful and the unsuccessful, v^^ith the vs^ord "trim- 
mer." 

If this be the only reason which can be advanced, I trust 
that I will be honored by those who would advance it by hav- 
ing them pass me by. Comparisons are said to be odious, 
but without meaning to be odious, let us for a moment pause. 
Does any one suppose that Washington, Henry, Jefferson, 
Harnett, Hooper, the Adamses and hosts of others in 1776, 
stopped to calculate the chances of success of the three mil- 
lion colonists in the struggle with the greatest empire then 
in existence ? If so, then no sane man could or would have 
calculated in 1776 that this handful of people, scattered 
along 1,500 miles of sea coast, with nearly one-third of them 
opposed to the movement, had the slightest chance of win- 
ning. Such, however, was not the make-up of those who 
brought this Nation into life and wrote her Constitution. 

Does any one suppose that Lee, the Johnsons, the ances- 
tors of some of my colleagues, when called to defend their 
States from invasion, stopped to ask whether they were 
doomed to ultimate defeat? Certainly they did not, but 
they obeyed the call of the Constitution of their States and 
their people. Such was the make-up of those men. 

Has it come to pass that the blood which ran through 
their veins has become so weakened in this generation that 
their sons and grandsons would calmly listen to this proposi- 
tion without a blush of shame ? 

These words are not applicable to any one who conscien- 
tiously thinks that he has the moral right to vote for the rati- 
fication of this amendment and that ratification will redound 
to the benefit of his State and country. 

We are also told that as it is bound to come, that the delay 
which may be occasioned by our refusal to ratify may change 
the election of a President. Well, are we to amend the Con- 
stitution every four years to capture a presidency? If that 



Shall 'N. C. Eatify the 19th Amendment? 129 

is the only way we can elect a President, we had best lose out. 
Did it ever occur to you that we might lose as many votes as 
we might gain ? JtTeither is a reason for voting one way or 
the other upon this resolution, but there is as much danger in 
the one case as in the other. And, in passing, let me add: 
From my limited knowledge of the situation, speaking as a 
Democrat, we will stand an awfully good chance of losing 
very many votes if we ratify, and I think I know whereof I 
speak. We, as a party, will be held responsible, for we have 
the power and by its use shall we be judged. 

Let's for a moment, however, consider what will be the 
effect of the passage of this resolution : Fifteen States have 
granted suffrage to women. We then have thirty-three 
States in which women do not vote. In these thirty-three, 
however, are included those in which they have Presidential 
suffrage. 

If this resolution is passed by both Houses, then every 
woman in the United States will have the right to register 
and vote, if she can qualify under the election laws of her 
State. In those States in which they do not vote, there is not 
and cannot be any machinery or provision of law for the reg- 
istration and voting of women. I do not see how it would be 
possible to avoid calling a special session of the General As- 
sembly in the thirty-three States of the Union in which wo- 
men do not have suffrage, in order that necessary laws pro- 
viding machinery for the registration and voting of women 
in an election which is to be held within less than ninety 
days, be passed. If this is not done in each of the thirty- 
three States, then in the States in which it is not done there 
will of necessity, be chaos. Any man would be justified in 
refusing to act as a registrar or judge of election if this reso- 
lution is adopted and his State does not provide the ma- 
chinery for the registration and voting of women. Suppose 
we were not in special session and this amendment were rati- 
fied by another State? How would it be possible for any 
registrar or judge of election in this State to determine what 



130 The ]^oeth Carolina Booklet 

woman was entitled to register and vote and what not? 
Which of the various qualifications shall be applied to wo- 
man and which not ? If she and her husband live separate 
and apart, where is her residence ? It may be easy to answer 
these questions on the floor of this Senate, but how about on 
election day? There every registrar and poll holder must 
answer at his peril. An incorrect answer may mean im- 
prisonment. 

Can it be expedient that we calmly and deliberately do an 
act which will of necessity cause thirty-three States to have 
special sessions, thereby putting the taxpayers of those States 
to the enormous expense incident thereto ? Would this be a 
sisterly act on our part ? 

But it is said that the State Convention and the ISTational 
Convention have called upon us Democrats to do this thing; 
that the present President, a Democrat, is urging it, and that 
the nominee of both great parties are also urging it. The 
National Democratic Convention held in the city of San 
Francisco was called to deal with national matters. The 
present President was elected to deal with national matters. 
One of the two gentlemen from Ohio who are running for the 
Presidency, will have to deal with national matters when 
elected. IST either the convention nor either of these three 
gentlemen had anything to do with the Internal Regulations 
of this State. The people have reserved that unto themselves. 
I venture the assertion that this General Assembly is better 
qualified to deal with this question than either of the national 
candidates or the present incumbent. To be perfectly frank 
with you, these gentlemen are walking in where they have 
not been invited ; they are uninvited counselors. 

However, suppose we consider the State platform for a 
moment : 'No one has been elected under that platform and 
no one knows whether that platform will be approved by the 
people or not, and no one is bound by it. 

I do know, however, that we Democrats were elected upon 
a platform adopted in St. Louis in 1916, in which it is said: 



Shall l!^. C. Ratify the 19th Amendment? 131 

"We recommend tlie extension of the franchise to the women 
of the country by the states upon the same terms as to men." 
You Republicans were elected upon a platform adopted in 
Chicago, which says: "The Republican party reaffirms its 
faith in government of the people, by the people, for the 
people, as a measure of justice to one-half the adult people 
of this country, favors the extension of suffrage to women, 
but recognizes the right of each State to settle this question 
for itself." 

I congratulate my Republican friends upon their arrival 
at sound Democratic principles, for the planks in these two 
platforms are as sound Democratic doctrine as ever fell from 
the lips or pen of Thomas Jefferson, of Andrew Jackson, of 
Zebulon B. .Vance, of Thomas J. Jarvis, of Alfred M, Scales, 
or of Charles B. Aycock. Upon that principle we Democrats 
have fought many political battles. It has been preached in 
every township in ISTorth Carolina, in every county, in every 
State in the Union. 

ISTorth Carolina has been committed to it from its nativity. 
It is the foundation stone of local self government, for how 
can California or Maine have local self government when 
N^orth Carolina dictates to either who shall vote in local elec- 
tions ? 

Upon this principle thirteen States have granted suffrage 
to women. To this action on their part I have no complaint, 
I only want to refrain from taking that power from the other 
thirty-three, for such w^ould be the effect of this amendment, 
if adopted, even though its adoption be for expediency's 
sake. 

Shall we now depart from that principle? Shall we, for 
expediency's sake, join with those who for a half century 
have endeavored to take this right away from us ? 

I know not where others may stand, but as for me, I pro- 
pose to stand by the teachings of my fathers in Democracy ; 
to stand with Vance, Jarvis, Scales, Aycock and that great 
host who, leading the people of i^Torth Carolina, in their days 



132 The !N'orth Oakolina Booklet 

of trial, preached, yes preached, this as the very keystone 
of the arch, I shall not today repudiate them. I shall 
stand with the people of Maryland, Virginia, South Caro- 
lina, Greorgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, whose 
sons mingled their blood with the sons of this State, whose 
sons, under Lee and Jackson, shed their blood with our an- 
cestors under Pettigrew and Hill, and Pender and Ramseur 
and Scales, upon many a bloody field from Bethel to Ap- 
pomatox. In doing so I have the assurance, certainly of"~niy~ 
own mind and conscience, that I am acting in obedience to 
the Constitution of iN^orth Carolina, the best traditions of her 
people, and obeying the dictates of sound, moral and political 
expediency, and this, I take it, is the measure and standard 
set by the fathers to the representatives of the people. 



A Sketch of Fort Dobbs* 

In Iredell county, upon an eminence about two miles north 
of the town of Statesville, stands a granite boulder which 
marks the site of old Fort Dobbs, that place of refuge to the 
early settlers, in the days when Cherokees and Catawbas 
roamed unmolested through the forests of ISTorth Carolina, . 
The only remaining traces of the old fort are the marks of an 
excavation which show its location, and near by a depression 
overgrown with tangled clmnps of bushes, said to be the site 
of the old well. Truly, it was an excellent site for a fort. 
That fact is still apparent even today, when it is but a quiet 
spot in the midst of cultivated fields, for from its walls the 
slopes of the seven hills, which surrounded it in the distance, 
could be plainly seen, and the approach of the enemy detected 
long before attack was made, while we can imagine that on 
many a night its light shone out for miles around, a. beacon 
to guide the settlers, fleeing to safety within its walls. 

On the first day of IsTovember, 1754, Arthur Dobbs, of 
County Antrim, Ireland, was made Governor of North Caro- 
lina to succeed Gabriel Johnston, who died in 1752. Gov- 
ernor Dobbs arrived during the French and Indian war, and 
finding the colony provided with very little means of defense, 
he immediately set to work to remedy this. He was espe- 
cially interested in the western portion of the province, 
having himself received large grants of land between the 
Yadkin and Catawba rivers in 1745 ; and so in December, 
1754, he persuaded the Assembly to vote money for the pur- 
pose of equipping a company of fifty men to defend the west- 
ern frontier and assist in building a fort. 

The news that a fort was to be built for their protection 
must have been very welcome indeed to the settlers in those 
troublous times, for they had been very much annoyed by 

♦This paper, written by Miss Rosamond Clark of Statesvllle, won the gold 
medal awarded by the North Carolina Society of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, in a State-wide contest. It is printed by request. 



134 The ITokth Carolina Booklet 

tlie Indians. There is a record of a meeting between the 
settlers and the Catawba Indians, held at Salisbury August 
29, 1754, at which numerous charges were brought against 
the Indians by the settlers. (Col. Rec, Vol. 5, p. 143.) 
These charges were answered by King Haglar of the Cataw- 
bas, who brought some counter charges against the white men 
and asked that no more strong drink be sold his warriors. 
. This treaty was closed with protestations of friendship on 
both sides, and there was no further trouble until September 
16th. On that date a massacre was committed by the Chero- 
kees at the homes of John Gutrey and James Anshers, in 
which seventeen persons were killed and ten afterwards re- 
ported missing. A petition for aid having been sent to Mat- 
thew Rowan, president of the council, he sent supplies of 
powder and lead, and ordered Colonels Smith, of Rowan, 
and Clark, of Anson, to see to the welfare of the settlers and 
put the Catawba Indians on the trail of the murderers. 

In June, 1755, Governor Dobbs made a journey to the 
western frontier for the purpose of selecting a site for the 
fort and inspecting his claim. Three companies of men, 
under the leadership of Captain Hugh Waddell, were sent 
ahead to scout the country to the westward. In July, 1755, 
there was a meeting between the two parties and the site of 
the fort was selected. When the Assembly met at IsTew Berne, 
the 28th day of September, Governor Dobbs "recommended 
the erection of a fort between Third and Fourth creeks, near 
the South Yadkin, in the county of Rowan (now Iredell), a 
central spot between the northern and southern boundaries of 
the province." (Martin's History, Vol. I, pp. 82 and 83.) 

The work of constructing the fort was begun in the au- 
tumn of 1755, and it was completed the following year. It 
was eonstrncted of oak logs and was "a good and substantial 
building, 53 feet long by 40 feet wide, the opposite angles 
24 feet by 22 feet. In height 24^/^ feet. It contains three 
floors, and there can be discharged from each floor at one and 
the same time about one hundred muskets." (Col. Rec, Vol. 



A Sketch of Fort Dobbs 135 

5, p. 48.) The garrison of Fort Dobbs in the year 1756 con- 
sisted of 46 men, both officers and soldiers, and was in com- 
mand of Capt. Hugh Waddell. 

In February, 1756, Captain Waddell left the fort for a 
short time, having been sent out to negotiate treaties with the 
Cherokees and the Catawbas, and in May, 1756, there was 
another conference between the Catawba Indians and their 
white brethren at the home of Mr. Peter Arran in Salisbury. 
The Catawbas were led by King Haglar and Chief Justice 
Henley spoke for the settlers. A treaty was negotiated, and 
the Indians pledged undying friendship to the settlers. 

Troops appear to have been kept in Fort Dobbs almost con- 
tinuously from the time of its completion until about the year 
1762. Williamson's History, Vol. I, p. 83, says that the 
garrison generally consisted of about fifty men. However, 
in 1757 Waddell and his company marched to the relief of 
Fort Loudon, a fort situated about thirty miles from the 
site of Knoxville, Tennessee; and again in 1758 Waddell, 
now Colonel Waddell, marched at the head of three com- 
panies to take part in the final expedition against Fort 
Duquesne. They were absent from the fort from the early 
summer until the winter of 1758, and during that time Fort 
Dobbs was left in charge of two men, Jacob Franks and an 
unknown assistant. 

During the winter of 1758-59, the fort was of great service 
to the colonists, for the Cherokees were becoming more and 
more hostile. A great number of the settlers left their homes 
and came to dwell in the fort. The men went out in armed 
bands to work the fields and gather in supplies, while the 
women and children remained in the fort for protection. One 
of these armed bands was surprised and attacked by Indians 
at the home of Moses Potts, about four miles north of the 
present town of Statesville. Seven of the band were killed 
on the spot and tradition says that others fell on the way to 
the fort. One of these is said to have fallen and been buried 
by his comrades in front of the home of Mr. Alexander Hug- 
—2 



136 The ITorth Caeolina Booklet 

gins, a short distance from the fort. This old house still 
stands. 

The year 1759 found the raids of the Oherokees in- 
creasing, and Hugh Waddell was given power by the Assem- 
bly to call out the militia of Orange, Rowan and Anson 
counties in case of need. During the fall and winter of 
1759-60, the fort was again used as a place of refuge, and 
on the night of February 27th, 1760, an attack was made 
by sixty or seventy Indians. This party was met by a party 
of about ten men, including the commanders, Andrew Bailie 
and Hugh Waddell, at a distance of about three hundred 
yards from the fort. In regard to this attack, Waddell says 
in his account: "1 had given my party orders not to fire 
until I gave the word, which they punctually observed. We 
received the Indians' fire. When I perceived they had al- 
most all fired, I ordered my party to fire, which we did, not 
further than twelve steps, each loaded with a bullet and seven 
buckshot. They had nothing to cover them, as they were 
advancing, either to tomahawk us or to make us prisoners. 
They found the fire very hot from so small a number, which 
a good deal confused them. I then ordered my party to re- 
treat, as I found the instant our skirmish began another party 
had attacked the fort. Upon our re-enforcing the garrison 
the Indians were soon repulsed, with, I am sure, a consider- 
able loss. From what I myself saw, as well as those I can 
confide in, they could not have less than ten or twelve killed 
and wounded, and I believe they have taken six of my horses 
to carry off their wounded. The next morning we found a 
great deal of blood and one dead, whom, I suppose, they could 
not find in the night. On my side I had two men wounded, 
one of whom I am afraid will die, as he is scalped ; the other 
is in a fair way of recovery; and one boy killed near the 
fort, whom they durst not advance to scalp. I expected they 
would have paid me another visit last night as they attack all 
fortifications by night, but find they did not like their re- 
ception." (Col. Rec, Vol. 7, p. 229). Of the two men, who 



A Sketch of Fokt Dobbs 137 

are mentioned as having been wounded, one, Robert Camp- 
bell, afterward recovered; but R. Gillespie, Sr., who was 
scalped, died of bis wounds." 

There are no further records of attacks against the fort 
by Indians. During the summer of 1760 the tribe of Cataw- 
bas was almost annihilated by a terrible scourge of small-pox, 
and in 1761 Colonel Waddell led an attack against the Chero- 
kees. They were defeated in a fierce battle near the present 
town of Franklin, peace was made and the settlers were once 
more able to dwell in their own homes in peace and safety. 

Hugh Waddell, not being longer needed in Fort Dobbs, 
was allowed to retire from active service, and in 1762 he 
left the fort and settled upon a lot in Wilmington given him 
by his friend, Edward Mosely. Captain Andrew Bailie and 
the garrison of Fort Dobbs left soon after and Walter Lind- 
say was left to care for the provisions in the fort. 

From this time forward we know little concerning Fort 
Dobbs. In February, 1764, the committee of public claims 
recommended to the Assembly that the supplies should be 
removed from the fort to avoid further public expense. There 
is a tradition that the fort was used for the storage of am- 
munition during the Revolutionary War, and also that in 
1776 it was used as a refuge by settlers during a Cherokee 
uprising. The story runs that it was finally destroyed by 
fire, though probably not until the greater portion of it had 
been removed. The logs which were removed are said to have 
been used in the construction of the "Stevenson schoolhouse" 
on the Adderholdt plantation. Tradition also says that one 
of Governor Dobbs' cannon was thrown into a deep well near 
the fort, after it had ceased to be used as a stronghold, and 
in 1847 the old well was opened and excavated to a depth of 
40 feet, but no cannon was discovered. It is probable that 
the cannon was thro^vn into another well, the traces of which 
have not been found. 

How many settlers were sheltered in the old fort in those 
bygone days we cannot tell. It is certain that two children 



138 The North Carolina Booklet 

were born in it, liachel Davidson, in 1758, and Margaret 
Locke, in 1776. Imagination draws many a picture of the 
dangers and hardships in the life of the early citizen but the 
reality of it we may not know. Only a few brief records, 
with here and there a tradition, are left to remind us of the 
brave men and women who toiled and struggled for existence 
in the shadow of old Fort Dobbs. 

It is the purpose of the l^orth Carolina Daughters of the 
American Revolution to restore the Old Fort in the near 
future, so that we may hope to see erected upon this historic 
site a reproduction of Fort Dobbs, which will serve to per- 
petuate the memory of the Old Fort and the brave deeds 
of its people in the hearts of their descendants. 



Old Waxhaw 



By Lily Doyle Dunlap. 



Old Waxhaw Presbyterian Church, is of national interest 
because of the active participancy of its people in the cause 
of American liberty. It was settled by a sturdy folk who 
were fleeing from religious oppression and unjust tyranny 
to freedom of faith and speech — folk who had "moved on," 
and at every halt been sent further by the club of royal po- 
licemen until, taking their stand at Waxhaw, they swore 
to "run no more, but with God's help and their swords to 
fight for liberty." 

Many of these families were chips from the landed gentry 
of Ireland and Scotland, and not of plebian ancestry. Years 
afterwards some of their descendants fell heir to earldoms 
which they refused to accept. 

The date of the first building is not known as it was be- 
fore the lot was deeded. We know this because the deed 
made the 9th of May, 1758, contains this phrase: "Begin- 
ning at a stake upon the south side of an house built for 
Divine Service," etc. The deed is made by "Robert Miller 
and Jean, his wife," to Robert Davis, Robert Ramsay, John 
Line, Samuel Dunlap and Henry White. 

Other early elders of this church were Andrew Pickens, 
Sr., Patrick Calhoun, Robert Dunlap, Robert Crockett, 
James Walkup, Andrew Jackson, Sr., William Blair and 
others, including Alexanders, Hueys, Pinckneys, Crawfords, 
Jacksons, Montgomerys, Fosters, Carrutherses, Caldwells, 
etc. 

Early ministers were Rev, Alexander Craighead, Rev. 
William Richardson, Rev. Hugh Waddell, Rev. Hugh Mc- 
Cain and others. 

Andrew Pickens, Sr., was the father of Andrew Pickens, 
Jr., who was a brigadier-general in the Revolution and the 



140 The N"okth Caeolina Booklet 

progenitor of a prominent South Carolina family — a gover- 
nor, a diplomat to Eussia, and Douscha Pickens Dugas, the 
"Joan of Arc of South Carolina." 

Patrick Calhoun was the father of John C. Calhoun, Vice- 
President of the United States. He was twice married — first 
to Jane Craighead, daughter of Rev. Alexander Craighead, 
who lived only a short time, and secondly to Martha Caldwell, 
the mother of John C. 

The Dunlaps were of a noble old Scotch family who were 
intimate friends and court advisers of William, Prince of 
Orange. Eleven of the Waxhaw family were in the Revolu- 
tion, most of them officers. 

The Crocketts were a French Huguenot fa'mily who fled to 
Ireland and on to America. David Crockett, of Alamo fame, 
was descended from the Waxhaw Crocketts. 

James Walkup was a staunch Scotchman and a captain 
in the war. He owned the mill where was fought the Battle 
of Walkup' s Mill. He was a man who had money, and being 
much away in the army and knowing the disposition of the 
Tories he took the precaution to hide his gold and valuables 
in a pot which he cached in the bottom of the middle of his 
mill pond. As he had feared, the Tories came to his home 
plundering for treasure. Chagrined at finding none they 
hung his son Robert, who was little more than a baby, by his 
thumbs, trying to force him to tell where the money was hid. 
The child was too young to put sentences together intelli- 
gently but pointed to a stake that his father had driven in 
the pond to mark the place of the pot. The Tories thought 
that it was impossible to hide treasure under water, so after 
relieving themselves of their disappointment by torturing the 
child, went away. 

William Blair was a Scotch-Irishman who, at a tender 
age, came with his parents to Waxhaw from Antrim, Ireland, 
in 1754. He, with several cousins, served valiantly in the 
American army. He was in many battles and in one engage- 
ment was wounded. After the war he was offered pay for his 



Old Waxhaw 141 

services but replied: "If the small competence I now pos- 
sess fail me I am both able and willing to work for my living, 
and if it again becomes necessary I am willing to fight for 
my country without a penny of pay." The wife of his first 
cousin, also William Blair, was one of those great souled 
Irish women whose heart melted at sight of suffering. Once, 
when returning from the American camp near Salisbury, 
]^. C, wither she had been to take clothing and a basket of 
cheer to her soldier husband, she came upon a smoking ruin 
about which shivered a woman and several children, who 
were clad in nothing but night clothes. The Tories had 
burned their home and all their possessions. Mrs. Blair 
immediately doffed her skirt which she gave to the woman 
and went on her horse-back homeward way in her red 
flannel petticoat. 

Andrew Jackson, Sr., was father of Andrew Jackson, Jr., 
seventh President. The interesting history of this family is 
known. Andrew Jackson never forgave the British for 
Tarleton's slaughter at Waxhaw and at the Battle of ISTew 

Orleans he exclaimed, "ISTow, by h , we'll give them a 

taste of Waxhaw !" and we all know how he kept those words. 

Eev. Alexander Craighead was probably the first preacher 
at Waxhaw. He moved from there to Mecklenburg County, 
ISTorth Carolina, where he became famous as the sower of the 
seeds that sprouted the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Some historians even claim that he was also the 
propagator of the spirit that culminated in the Philadelphia 
declaration. He was forced to move from Pennsylvania and 
Virginia because of royal disfavor to his doctrines. 

Eev, Hugh Waddell, famous for his brilliance and deep 
piety, was another minister, and he married a Waxhaw girl, 
Catherine, daughter of Patrick Calhoun. There is a pretty 
romance about this marriage that makes an interesting story. 
The fame of Mr. Waddell had preceded him to Waxhaw, 
and when it was known that he was coming to preach there 
the eldership was -much exercised over his entertainment, 



142 The JSToktti Cakolina Booklet 

each coveting the honor. It was finally settled that the 
senior elder should have the privilege and Patrick Calhoun 
became the host expectant. ' ' 

The hoy preacher, for he was barely out of his teens, was 
on his horse-back way all unconscious of the furore his advent 
was causing among the good blue stockings of Waxhaw. 

The journey required many days of travel and wherever 
night overtook him there he slept, housed or unhoused as the 
situation admitted. One of these nights was like that of 
Jacob of old, fraught with dreams, not, however, of heavenly 
angels, but of an earthly angel, who was to ascend with him 
the hill of life. The end of his journey saw the consumma- 
tion of this dream to the least detail, to the exceeding em- 
barrassment of the young divine, an embarrassment mixed 
with joy for he realized that he had found his Rebekah, and 
she that her Isaac had come, so by and by they married. 

John C. Calhoun spent much of his time with this brother 
and sister, who had laid in him the foundation that was his 
incentive to greatness. 

Rev. William Richardson was the most famous resident 
minister of Waxhaw. He, like all Presbyterian preachers, 
believed that education was the first great help in establishing 
a true and useful religion, and so began a Latin school where 
many boys of the Carolinas received instruction that fitted 
them for large service. Of these youths Andrew Pickens, 
Sr., organized a military company, which exercise later stood 
them in good stead. 

Rev. Richardson was given to attacks of melancholia, 
caused by the sufferings of his people in Scotland and the 
condition of the colonies. In one of these he committed sui- 
cide. This being deemed an unpardonable act, and one that, 
if known, would work serious harm to those good practices 
that he had labored to teach, it seemed expedient to keep the 
manner of his demise secret. But the suspicious soon de^- 
tected signs ulterior and tongues began to wag with the result 
that the beautiful widow was openly accused of having be- 



Old Waxhaw 143 

■witched her husband to his death. The relatives of Mrs. 
Richardson were resentful and declared that she should be 
exonerated by a trial for witchcraft, which was that the corpse 
of the dead be exhumed and the accused one required to touch 
it, when, if guilty, blood would immediately gush forth. Ac- 
cordingly a day was set, the congregation assembled, the 
buried man pulled up and Mrs. Richardson put to the test, 
but not a drop of blood appeared. 'Tis said that one man 
crushed her hand into the forehead in his eagerness to see the 
blood flow. The persecutors had lost. 

In the assembly was a courageous youth whose disgust 
attained to such an heighth at this loathsome indignity to so 
sweet and innocent a woman that he followed her home and 
offered to her the comfort of his love and the protection of 
his strong arm. She no doubt felt the need of both in her 
childless widowhood, and she soon became Mrs. George Dun- 
lap. When the Revolution came on she displayed heroism. 
With Mrs. Andrew Jackson, Sr., she nursed the wounded 
Americans after Tarleton's slaughter, and at Charleston, and 
was with Mrs. Jackson when she died, nursing her through 
her illness and preparing her for burial. 

William Richardson Davie was a nephew and namesake 
of the preacher. His mother gave him to her brother and 
wife at his birth and when five years old he was sent over 
to his foster parents in the care of his father's nephew. Some 
years later Mr. and Mrs. Davie came over but little Williami 
continued with Mr. and Mrs. Richardson who took much 
pains with his rearing, intending him for a minister. But 
God had disposed otherwise and he became a great general 
in the Revolution, the third Governor of l^orth Carolina, and 
envoy to France during the reign of Napoleon. 

It was the first and second Maryland regiments of artillery 
under General De Kalb that went to relieve Lincoln, who 
were cut to pieces by Tarleton. 

On the 8th of September, 1Y80, General Davidson, en- 
camped at Waxhaw, wrote the commanding general: "No 



144 The ITokth CAKoiiiNA Booklet 

people have a better right to protection than those of this 
country. They have fought bravely and bled freely." 

The old church was used as a hospital after Tarleton's 
slaughter, and many a Carolina and Maryland soldier found 
their last home in the old cemetery. 

These heroes and heroines, with numerous others, rest in 
this old spot where tall pines whisper requiems and fragrant 
thorn roses and blue starred periwinkle hold closely the earth 
about these hallowed mounds. 

May our dear boys of today, like Jackson, remember Wax- 
haw in the spirit, not of hate to any people, but that autoc- 
racy must fall and liberty prevail throughout the world. 



Pronunciation of ** Raleigh'* 



By Capt. S. a. Ashe. 



The Christian Science Monitor in a recent issue says: 

"The preparations for the Raleigh commemoration bring 
up once more the question of how Raleigh should be pro- 
nounced. It is very common to hear the name spoken as if 
it were the Greek Ralli, yet Sir Walter, though spelling his 
name Ralegh as often as not, quite often spelled it Rauleygh 
and Raulwy, showing quite plainly that however it was spelt, 
and there was something like seventy variations of the name, 
it was never anything but Rauley to the ear. However, the 
matter is an unimportant one, though most people will admit 
that the owner of a name should be the person to decide as to 
its pronunciation." 

And a friend asks me to say something about it. 

Sir Walter's family name is now written in England as 
he himself generally ^vrote it — Ralegh; but over here we 
fancied Raleigh, But no matter how written the pronuncia- 
tion might well be the same. 

The family was a very old family of Devonshire. It is 
said — "A Raleigh matched with Damorye's daughter, by 
Elizabeth de Clare, a grand-daughter of King Edward, the 
First." 

In that part of England, as I understand it, the old Anglo- 
Sajfon e had the sound of a ; and a bad a sound like aw or au. 
So Raleigh would have been pronounced Rawly, or Rauly. 

Sir Walter generally wrote his name Ralegh, as also did 
his wife ; but some few of his letters are signed Rauleigh and 
Rauley. Some signatures are Raleigh ; and his wife some- 
times wrote Raleigh. Others, in writing his name, whether 
in letters or in court proceedings, appear to have followed 
the pronunciation. 



146 The ]!^okth Carolina Booklet 

His pedigree in tlie Herald's of&ce, from the "Visitation 
of Devonshire" made in his lifetime, when he wanted to 
establish kinship with the Queen through Edward, the First, 
runs — "Sir Hugh Rawleigh," and so on down through ten 
generations to "Sir Walter Rawleigh," himself. 

When he first went to court. Queen Elizabeth knew of him 
— for his Aunt Kate Ashley had in some measure raised her, 
and she certainly knew his name; and she wrote it "Rawley" ; 
and she showed him favor and pushed his fortunes "as our 
Servant Walter Eawley," "in respect of his kindred that have 
served us near about Our person." 

And in the entries in the court records he was "Rawley." 
"Sir Thomas Parrott and Walter Rawley, gentleoman, being 
called before their Lordships for a fray between them ;" — 
and as "Rawley" he was sent to Eleete prison, till he gave 
bond to keep the peace. 

And when as a gallant he needed trimmings, the 
warrant book tells us that the Queen gave "to our well- 
beloved servant. Sir W^alter Rawley, Knight, Captain of the 
Guard, six yards of tawney medley with a fur of black 
budge." 

All through his life, among the courtiers, when they did 
not write it Kalegh, he was either Rawley, or Raughley, or 
Rawleighe. 

And at his trial, old Coke wrote the name Rawley — and 
also Raleighe; while in the body of the proceedings he was 
called indifferently Rawlie, Rawly, Rawley, and his wife was 
"Rawlye's wife." Others wrote the name Rawleigh, Ragh- 
ley, and Rawleighe. 

But however it was written, the pronunciation seems to 
have ever been Rawly; and that conforms to the Anglo- 
Saxon a in Devonshire as I have understood it. Spellings 
vary, but the pronunciation of old names is maintained 
through generations. A recent letter from Brookline, a 
suburb of Boston, narrates: "I was enquiring for the store 



Pronunciation of "Raleigh" 14Y 

of Mr. Pierce. Nobody knew ; till finally one woman laughed 
at me, and said, 'Oh, you mean Mr. Prers.' " 

In this State, the people commonly call the capital of the 
State "Roily." I recall some doggerel of 1858 : 

"And , too, the jolly 

Has gone up to Roily." 



Some of North Carolina's Notable Women 

Colonial Heroines : 

Eleanor Care; Catlierine Sherrill. 

Revolutionary Heroines : 

Miss Margaret McBride ; Miss Ann Fergus ; Mrs. Rachel 
Caldwell ; Mrs. Robin Wilson, the heroine of Steel Greek ; 
Mrs. Martha McFarlane Bell ; Mrs. Brevard ; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Forbis; Mrs. Elizabeth McGraw; Mrs. Sarah Logan; Mrs. 
Rachel Denny; Mrs. Mary Morgan; Mrs. Ashe, who gave 
eight sons to the rebel army ; little Martha Lenoir. 

Literary Women: 

Miss Martha (or Pattie as she was more generally known) 
Mangum, of "Walnut Hall" in Orange County, daughter of the 
Honorable Wiley, P. Mangum; Mrs. Mary Bayard (Dever- 
eux) Clark; Mrs. Cornelia (Phillips) Spencer; Mrs. Mary 
(Ayr) Miller (Mrs. Willis Miller) ; Mrs. Margaret (Mor- 
decai) Devereux (Mrs. John Devereux) of "Will's Forest" ; 
Christian Reid. 

Belles, Beauties and Social Leaders: 

Mrs. Delia (Haywood) Badger (Mrs. George Edmund 
Badger) ; Mrs. Lucy (Williams) Polk (Mrs. William Polk 
and sister-in-law of President eTames Knox Polk) ; Mrs. 
Dolly (Payne) Madison (wife of President James Mad- 
ison) ; Miss Sue Pelham (of Granville County) ; Miss Mc- 
ISTair, who married a Hines; Mrs. Jane (Saunders) Johnston 
(daughter of the LTonorable Romulus M. Saunders, Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Spain, and wife of General Bradley John- 
ston of Maryland) ; Mrs. Maria (Somerville) Hoge (wife 
of Associate Justice John Blair Hoge of the Supreme Court 
of the United States) ; Mrs. Cora (Manly) Singletary (Mrs. 
George Singletary) ; Mrs. Cora (Morehead) Avery, of whom 
a Senator in the State Senate in speaking of a certain I^orth 
Carolinian, said: "when kneeling at the shrine of her di- 



Some of IsTokth Carolina's ISTotable Women 149 

vinity"; Mrs. Virginia (Tunstall) Clay-Clopton (Mrs. 
Olement Claiborne Clay, later Mrs. David Clopton). 

The following have been written up in the North Carolina 
Boolclet : 

Little Virginia Dare ; Betsy Dowdy ; Penelope Barker and 
the fifty-one ladies of the Edenton Tea Party; Rebecca 
Lanier ; Grace Greenlee ; Elizabeth Maxwell Steele ; Martha 
MacFarlane Bell. 

The following list has been furnished by that gifted writer 
and charming lady, Mrs. Lutie Andrews McCorkle: 

Lady Granganimeo 

Isabel Johnston 

Esther Wake 

Flora McDonald 

Miss Balfour 

Lucy Alston 

Mother of Andrew Jackson 

Miss Bettie Haywood 

Margaret Gaston 

Mrs. Willie Jones 

Mrs. Allen Jones 

Aunt Abbie House 

Mrs. Z. B. Vance (Harriet Espy) 

Mrs. Stonewall Jackson. 



Kiffin Yates Rockwell * 



By R. B. House 
(The North Carolina Historical Commission.) 



On September 23, 1916, by cable, telegraph and wireless, 
news flashed around the world that the aviator, Kiffin Yates 
Rockwell, after so many miraculous escapes, had at last 
fallen in combat for France. His comrades in Escadrille 
124 mourned him as their best and bravest ; France mourned 
him as a fighter not to be replaced; America mourned him 
as the second of her sons to fall in air combat, following so 
closely in the steps of Victor Chapman, her first. All the 
world paid tribute to him. For Kiffin Yates Rockwell was 
a leader in that group of young men who left the paths of 
peace in their own neutral countries to fight for France, and 
in her person, for civilization. Chapman, Rockwell, Mc- 
Connell, Genet — these men were the pioneers of America 
in France, and in the air. They have all fallen on the field 
of honor, fell there before America entered the war. And 
now that over sixty thousand Americans, fallen under the 
Stars and Stripes, sleep in France beside these men, we 
realize some of the full measure of their achievement, and 
honor them for leading the way. 

But in 1916 the majority of Americans were in that state 
of mind that echoed the slogan, '"'He kept us out of war," 
over the country in a triumphant presidential campaign. 
Why American boys should give their lives in the European 
war except as in a gamble for adventure was not clear to 
most Americans ; why they should give them to France was 
a problem that rankled in the minds of many of our citizens 
at that time, even pro-German. 



*NoTE. — The Booklet, in presenting this interesting slcetch of one of the 
most renowned heroes of the World War, is departing from a long established 
custom since the history of tne present has not heretofore been considered. 
The Colonial, Revolutionary and Confederate periods only have received atten- 
tion. Publishing this is an exception and not intended to introduce a prece- 
dent. THE EDITOR. 



KiFFiN Yates Rockwell, 151 

And so it was that his mother, in Asheville, ISTorth Caro- 
lina, asked herself why it was that she, a Carolinian by birth 
and sympathy, should sacrifice her son in France, and her 
questions were augmented by similar ones from relatives and 
friends all over the country. KifEn, though gloriously dead, 
might have been saved, it seemed. She had tried to save 
him from himself by persistent entreaties to the Department 
of State in Washington to get her boy out of the French 
army, and by similarly persistent demands to the French 
Government to release her son. But before Kiffin fell she 
had come to see what he was fighting for, and it was not 
long after he fell before she was a sister in suffering to 
thousands of other American mothers who likewise had 
come to see why it was that their sons had to die in France. 

Kifiin Yates Rockwell was the first l^orth Carolinian to 
give his life in the world war, the first American volun- 
teer for service in France, the first American to bring 
down a German plane, the premier fighter of his time in 
the Escadrille LaFayette, and after Victor Chapman, his 
comrade, the first American airman to fall in battle. He 
belongs to ]S[orth Carolina by parentage on his father's side, 
and by residence, to South Carolina by parentage on the 
side of his mother, and to Tennessee by the actual event 
of birth. So it is that the sister states who share in common 
the glories of achievement in the records of the Old Hickory 
and Wildcat Divisions, also share in the glory of their 
premier fighter. 

The father of Kiffin Rockwell was James Chester Rock- 
well, of Whiteville, in Columbus County, ISTorth Carolina. 
By vocation he was a Baptist preacher, by avocation a poet 
of promise. The Rockwell family is of French extraction, 
being lineally descended from Ralph de Rocheville. The 
first of the name to settle in America was the Puritan 
deacon, William RockAvell, who came to live in Dorchester, 
Massachusetts, in the year 1630. "When the family came 
into N^orth Carolina is not clear, but thev were established 



152 The IJ^oeth Carolina Booklet 

in this State before the Civil War, for from ISTortli Carolina 
Henry Clay Rockwell, the aviator's grandfather, went as a 
captain in the Confederate Army. 

Kiffin's mother was Loula Ayres, daughter of Major 
Enoch Shaw Ayres, of South Carolina, himself a Confed- 
erate veteran. She comes also of French Huguenot extrac- 
tion. An early member of the Rockwell family was on the 
staff of General Washington. 

From these parents Kiffin Yates Rockwell was born in 
ISTewport, Tennessee, September 20, 1892. His parents had 
moved to ISTewport sometime before this in search of health 
for his father. He was named Kiffin in honor of William 
Kiffin, an English home missionary in the fifteenth century, 
and Yates for Matthew Yates, a foreign missionary from 
Korth Carolina in the nineteenth century. At the age of 
26 his father died, leaving his mother to care for Kiffin, 
his elder brother, Paul Ayres, and a younger sister. 

His mother became a teacher, and founded the system of 
schools that obtains today in the little town of J^ewport. 
While Kiffin was still in the gTammar grades she moved 
with her family to Asheville, to give them better oppor- 
tunities in education and herself in business. She took up 
the successful practice of osteopathy. Kiffin entered the 
Orange Street school, where he became a favorite pupil of 
Mrs. Mary Walden Williamson. Dr. George T. Winston, 
in a memorial to Kiffin Rockwell, quotes Mrs. Williamson 
in the following description of Kiffin at the age of fifteen : 

"A handsome, intelligent, chivalrous boy of fifteen, im- 
maculate in person as in honor, impatient of the tedium of 
school routine, restive, though ever courteous under re- 
straint; with serious deep-set, gray-blue eyes, aglow with 
enthusiasm over tales of daring adventure; breaking rarely 
into surprising light of merriment." Even this early Kiffin 
and Paul pondered over the history of their ancestral coun- 
try, France, and reached the conclusion that if France were 
ever attacked they would fight for her. 



KiFFiN Yates Kockwell 153 

Kiffin's motlier had hoped for him to lead a life of scholar- 
ship. With this in view, she encouraged him to pursue 
studies at Virginia Military Institute, and later at Washing- 
ton and Lee University. Although Kiffin spent some years 
at Virginia Militaiy Institute and Washington and Lee, it 
was with no love for scholarship, and no intention of leading 
a scholarly existence. One real association of school days 
that inspired him to the day of his death was membership 
in the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity. Both he and his 
brother Paul were good fraternity men, loyal and ideal. 

Without gTaduating he M^ent from college into advertising 
journalism, organizing and conducting successfully a pro- 
ject for publishing advertising editions of newspapers. In 
this business he traveled over the United States and Canada, 
finally coming to rest in Atlanta, Georgia, as a member of 
the Massingale Advertising Agency. It was here that he 
was working when in AugTist, 1914, Europe hurried into 
war. Kiffin and Paul Rockwell were on their way to France 
on August 3, 1914, by the first boat they could take. Land- 
ing in Liverpool, they made arrangements at the French 
embassy for entering the French army. From London they 
went by Havre to Paris, and there at the Invalides entered 
the French service on Augiist 30, 1914. Training first at 
Rouen, then at Toulouse, and finally at Camp de Mailly, 
they made ready for a winter in the trenches with the 
Foreign Legion. 

After many months in the trenches, he moved with his 
regiment to the 1915 battles in Artois. At the storming of 
N'euville^Saint-Vaast, May, 1915, he fell severely wounded 
in the thigh by a bullet. He recovered from his wounds, 
and by opportunity secured for him by influential friends, 
began the study of aviation, completing his education in 
the air in time to become, with Chapman, Prince, Thaw, 
Cowdin, IMcConnell and others, the organizer of the Esca- 
drille LaFayette. His success was immediate. On May 
18, 1916, at Hartmannsvillerskopp in Alsace, he brought 



154 The I!^orth Carolina Booklet 

down the first German plane of the many to fall at the hands 
of the Escadrille LaFayette. In rapid succession he won 
the Medaille Militaire, the Croix de Guerre, and three palms 
for additional citations. He rose from pilot to brevet lieu- 
tenant in the space of four months. Over Verdun he was 
indefatigable, engaging in over thirty-four victorious flights, 
and winning the title, "Aristocrat of the Air." By Septem- 
ber he had brought down three planes which officially were 
credited to him, and seven more of which there is no reason- 
able doubt as to his credit. Captain Thenault, his flight 
commander, said of him: "Where Rockwell was, the Ger- 
man could not pass, but was forced rapidly to take shelter 
on the ground." In one combat he was struck in the face 
by an explosive bullet. Refusing to retire for the day, he 
re-engaged the enemy and brought down another plane. 

On September 23, 1916, Rockwell attacked the enemy 
near the same spot where he had won his first victory. Al- 
though he had come successfully through one hundred and 
forty-one previous battles, and single-handed had driven off 
ten German planes, this time fate willed that he should fall 
— killed by an explosive bullet from a German machine 
gun. He was buried at Luxiul with the honors of a general. 
"The best and bravest of us is no more," was the comment 
of his commander and his comrades. 

Kiffin Rockwell's achievements in the air and previously 
in the trenches rank him as one of the greatest of the allied 
fighters. For his services he received the highest honor the 
French Government can give. But the most remarkable 
feature of his life is the perfect coordination of purpose and 
achievement in his spirit. He was indefatigable in battle 
because he was invincible in his conviction that he was 
defending civilization. In his school days, even, he had 
considered the possibility of France's being attacked and 
had resolved to fight for her. On August 3, 1914, he offered 
his services to the French Government. To his brother 
Paul he wrote, "If France should lose, I feel that I should 



KiFFiN Yates Rockwell 155 

no longer want to live." But with all his love for France 
he retained his sense of responsibility as an American. "I 
am paying my part of America's debt for Lafayette and 
Rochambean," was his expression that has been echoed and 
re-echoed by American fighters from private to General 
Pershing. 

His attitude towards death was a triumphant assertion 
of immortality. In a letter to Mrs. John Jay Chapman 
about the death of Victor, he dwells repeatedly on the idea 
that death had no part in such a life as Victor's ; that Victor 
is still alive and fighting because his spirit has passed into 
his comrades. On another occasion he gave expression to 
an attitude toward death that caught the imagination of the 
French, and became a part of their own thought. "From 
the day a man enters the army," he said, "he should con- 
sider himself as good as dead ; then every day of life is just 
that much gained." Acting on this belief he hardly gave 
his attendants time to fill the gas tank of his plane and keep 
it in repair, so constantly was he fighting. 

ISTot the least of his victories was his winning his mother's 
support. Mrs. Rockwell had rebelled against his going to 
France at all, and she had continued to move the American 
and French governments in efforts to get Kifiin back home, 
until finally KifSn brought her to realize that he could not 
retire from the struggle to which he had committed himself, 
and that he would not if he could. For he wrote her in his 
last words that referred to death, "If I die I want you to 
know that I have died as every man ought to die — fighting 
for what is right. I do not feel that I am fighting for 
France alone, but for the cause of all humanity — the greatest 
of all causes." Catching up in these words the whole spirit 
of America as it arose at w^hite heat for war, Kifiin not 
only won his mother to his cause, but his countrymen also. 
Of the thousands of Americans who followed him in death, 
he became an elder brother, a pioneer in the crusade for 
humanity. 



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PURPOSES 

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SECRETARY 

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COLLECTOR OF WAR RECORDS 

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Address all communications referring to War Records to 
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OCT. 1920, JAN.-APRIL. 1921 Vol. XX, Nos. 2, 3, 4 



North Carolina Booklet 





GREAT EVENTS 

IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 
HISTORY 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 
BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 
RALEIGH. N. C. 

CONTENTS 

Gen. William Ruffln Cox 159 

By Hon. Frank S. Speuill. 

Gen. James Johnson Pettigrew, O. S. A 171 

By Chief JusTxcfE Walteb Clabk 

The Shepard-Pruden Memorial Library 181 

By Mrs. Charles P. Wales 

j-^he Cupola House 185 

Opposes Plan for Removing Dust of Davis' First Wife 187 
By Maby E. Robinson 

.Joel Lane . 191 

By Mabshat. DeLancey Haywood 

The Spirit of the Revolution'. 207 

By Miss Maby Hillabd Hinton 

In Memoriam 213 

Review of the Conquest of the Old Southwest 215 

TfflS NUMBER 75 CENTS $1.00 THE YEAR 



Entered at the Postoffice at Raleigh, N. C, July 15. 1905. under the Act of 
Congress of March 3, 1879 



The North CaroHna Booklet 



Great Events in North Carolina History 



Volume XX of The Booklet will be issued quarterly by the 
North Carolina Society, Daughters of the Revolution, beginning July, 
1920. The Booklet will be published iu July, October, January, and 
April. Price $1.00 per year, 35 cents for single copy. 

Editob : 
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BlOGBAFHICAL EdITOE : 

Mes. E. E. Moffitt. 

VOLUME XX 

Social Life in the Sixties. 
William Boylan, Editor of The Minerva. 
History of Transportation in North Carolina. 
Services of the North Carolina Women in the World War. 
Literature and Libraries in the Nineteenth Century in North 
Carolina. 
History of Some Famous Carolina Summer Resorts. 
History of Agriculture in North Carolina — Major W. A. Graham. 
The Old Borough Town of Salisbury — Dr. Archibald Henderson. 

OTHER 

Brief Historical Notes will appear from time to time in The 
Booklet, information that is worthy of preservation, but which if not 
preserved in a permanent form will be lost. 

Historical Book Reviews will be contributed. These will be re- 
views of the latest historical works written by North Carolinians. 

The Genealogical Department will be continued with a page devoted 
to Genealogical Queries and Answers as an aid to genealogical re- 
search in the State. 

The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America will fur- 
nish copies of unpublished records for publication in The Booklet. 

Biographical Sketches will be continued under Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. 

Old Letters, heretofore unpublished, bearing on the Social Life of 
the different periods of North Carolina History, will appear here- 
after in The Booklet. 

This list of subjects may be changed, as circumstances sometimes 
prevent the writers from keeping their engagements. 

The histories of the separate counties will in the future be a 
special feature of The Booklet. When necessary, an entire issue 
will be devoted to a paper on one county. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscriptions to The Booklet 
for Vol. XX are requested to give notice at once. 

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For particulars address 

Migs Maey Hilliaed Hinton, 

Editor North Carolina Booklet, 
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OCT. 1920, JAN.-APR. 1921 Vol. XX, Nos. 2, 3, 4 



North Carolina Booklet 



"Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her! 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her" 



Published by 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 



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North Carolina History. The proceeds arising from its publication 
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BALEIGH 

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Mes. Hubert Haywood. 
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Me. R. D. W. Connor. 
Dr. D. H. Hill. 
Dr. William K. Bovn. 
Capt. S. a. Ashe. 
Miss Adelaide L. Fries. 



Miss Martha Helen Haywood. 

Dr. Richard Dillard. 

Mr. James Sprunt. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood, 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 

Major W. A. Graham. 

Dr. Charles Lee Smith. 



EDITOR : 

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biographical editor: 
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OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 
DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION 

1920-1922 



Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, 
Regent. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Honorary 
Regent, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Thomas K. Beuneb, 
Honorary Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Thomas W. Bickett, 
1st Vice-Regent, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Henry A. London, 2d Vice- 
Regent, Pittsboro. 

Mrs. Laurence E. Covington, 
Recording Secretary, Raleigh. 



Mrs. George Ramsey, Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Raleigh. 

Miss Georgia Hicks, Historian, 
Faison. 

Mrs. Charles Lee Smith, 
Treasurer, Raleigh. 

Mrs. Charles P. Wales, 
Registrar, Edentou. 

Mrs. John E. Ray, Custodian of 
Relics, Raleigh. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902 ; 

Mrs. SPIER WHITAKER.* 

Regent 1902 : 

Mrs. D. H. HILL, SR.f 

Regent 1902-1906 : 

Mrs. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

Regent 1906-1910: 

Mrs. E. E. MOFFITT. 

Regent 1910-1917: 

Miss MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 

Regent 1917-1919. 

Mrs. MARSHALL WILLIAMS. 



♦Died November 25. 1911. 
tDied December 12, 1904. 



The North Carolina Booklet 



OCT. 1920, JAN.-/VPR. 1921 Vol. XX, Nos. 2, 3, 4 



GEN. WILLIAM RUFFIN COX 



Address of Hon. Frank S. Spruill, of Rocky Mount, in presenting 
to the State the portrait of the distinguished Confederate oflBcer. 

I am commissioned by Mrs. William Ruffin Cox to present 
to tlie State this portrait of its distinguislied son, and to speak 
briefly of bis illnstrioiis career and great acbievements. 

I approach the performance of this pleasing task with 
cheerful alacrity, for chronicler has rarely had a richer theme. 

The records of history are more and more becoming pic- 
torial. Posterity, reading of the high deeds of some dead 
and gone soldier or statesman, naturally desires to know 
what manner of man he was. In the absence of portrait or 
likeness, imagination often supplies the details, and, if his 
career has been one of great deeds and knightly prowess, 
we think of him as one 

" like old Goliath tall, 

His spear an hundred weight." 

It is meet that we should hang upon the walls of the State's 
Hall of History portraits of the men who have made our 
liistory glorious. They remind us of the illimitable vast- 
ness of opportunity to him who is willing to serve; they 
preserve in pictorial form the history and traditions of a 
great though modest commonwealth ; they inspire us with 
a laudable desire to live our lives that posterity may say 
of us that we also "have done the State some service." 

And so we come today to speak of one who writ his name 
large in the annals of the State's history ; of one who in every 
walk of life into which he directed his steps, made the 
observer take note that a man had passed. 

In our childhood days we used to stand against the wall 



160 The JSTorth Carolina Booklet 

to be measured of our stature, and in many an old home- 
stead in the State upon the crumbling walls are marked the 
records of the children's annual growth. It was before the 
days of automatic devices that, for a penny in the slot, will 
weigh and measure you, and prophesy your future fortune. 

It is my purpose briefly to stand General William Ruffin 
Cox against the wall of history, and measure, as best I may, 
his stature as a soldier, as a statesman, and as a civilian. 

It is not necessary or desirable to make this address a 
mere biographical sketch of our distinguished subject; a 
skillfuller and abler hr.nd than mine has done this. Captain 
S. A. Ashe has penned the inspiring story and preserved it 
in permanent form, in volume one of the "Biographical 
History of ISTorth Carolina." 

I have drawn largely upon this incomparable sketch for 
my facts in the preparation of this paper, and here and ndw 
wish to miake to him due acknowledgement. 

Born of highly honorable parentage, on March 11, 1832, 
General Cox was a descendant of the Cavalier rather than the 
Puritan. He was orphaned by his father's death when only 
four years old, and upon his cultured and gifted mother fell 
the burden of his early training. There was something in the 
serene and stately bearing of the man — in his perfect poise — 
in the careful modulation of his rich masculine voice — and 
in his gTave and dignified courtesy, that, to the end, refleoted 
the early impression of that magical mother love and, train- 
ing. 

He came to the bar in Tennessee in 1852, and resided at 
ISTashville until 1857, as the junior partner of John G. Fer- 
gaison, a lawyer of distinotion and a kinsman of Hon. G. S. 
Ferguson, some time judge of our Superior Court. 

In 1857 he married Miss Penelope B. Battle, sister of the 
wife of the late Dr. Kemp P. Battle, of Chapel Hill, and 
came to ]!!^orth Carolina to live. 

The mutterings of the coming storm were already audible. 
The political atmosphere was becoming more and more tense 



Gek. William Euffijst Cox 16,1 

and surcharged witli feeling and, as the crisis approached, 
the question of State's rights was being discussed, not al- 
ways calmly, alike by the learned and the unlearned. Gen- 
eral Cox, who had, in 1859, removed to Raleigh, was an 
ardent believer in the doctrine of State's rights as expounded 
by Mr. Jefferson Davis, and, believing that war was in- 
evitable, in company with several others, he equiped a bat- 
tery. So began his highly honorable military career. 

Almost im m ediately upon the outbreak of hostilities, he 
was appointed by Governor Ellis, major of the Second ISTorth 
Carolina troops and entered upon actual service. 

Time and space will permit us to do no more than touch 
upon the "high lights" of one of the most unique military- 
careers in the great War between the States. General Cox 
and the Second ISTorth Carolina Troops were to win imperish- 
able renown before the curtain fell upon the lurid drama. At 
Mechanicsville, on June 26, 1862, and lasting through seven 
days of shot and shell, he and his regiment received their 
first baptism of fire, and helped to hurl back MoClellan's 
incomparable army and "to drive it, defeated, disorganized, 
and cowering, under the protection of the Federal gunboats 
at Harrison's Landing." After that he was a veteran, cool 
and intrepid. 

At Malvern Hill, he was severly wounded and could not 
rejoin his regiment until after the battle of South Mountain. 
Followed in rapid sequence, Sharpsburg, bloody and desper- 
ate; victory at Fredericksburg; and then Chancellorsville, 
with its unutterable tragedy. Here we pause to quote from 
Captain Ashe's spirited account: 

"At Chancellorsville, on Friday evening, Colonel Cox 
moved up and drove in Hooker's outposts, the regiment lying 
that night so near to the enemy that all orders were given in 
whispers; and the next morning Cox's regiment was one of 
the sixteen l^orth Carolina regiments that Jackson led in 
his memorable march across Hooker's front, reaching the 



162 The IJ^Tokth Carolina Booklet 

rear of Siegel's troops about sunset. The men were in line, 
stooping like athletes, when Ramseur, their brigade com- 
mander, ordered ^forward at once' and Cox, leading his regi- 
ment, drove the enemy from their works ; but his troops were 
subjected to a terrific enfilading artillary fire at only two 
hundred yards distance, and in fifteen minutes he lost 300 
of the 400 men he had carried in with him. The gallant 
colonel himself received five wounds, but continued on the 
field until exhausted. Of him the lamented Eamseur said in 
his report: The manly and chivalrous Cox of the Second 
i^orth Carolina, the accomplished gentleman, splendid soldier 
and warm friend, who, though wounded five times, remained 
with his regiment until exhausted. In common with the 
entire command, I regret his temporary absence from the 
field, where he loves to be.' The brigade received, through 
General Lee, a message of praise from the dying lips of 
General Jackson." 

Spottsylvania, with its record of glorious achievement, 
followed and the part played by the brigade, of which General 
Cox's regiment was a part, evoked from General Lee words 
of personal thanks for their gallant conduct, and brought to 
General Cox his commission as Brigadier General. "After 
that time," to quote again from Captain Ashe's inspiring 
account, "General Cox led the brigade that, under Anderson 
and Eamseur, had been so distinguished in all the fields of 
blood and carnage, in which the Army of l!^orthern Virginia 
had won such glory." 

It was to fall to the lot of General Cox's brigade, under 
his leadership, to further immortalize itself. He led the 
brigade to Silver Springs within a few miles and in sight of 
the White House at Washington. This was the nearest 
point to the seat of the Federal Government which the Con- 
federate troops at any time approached. Thence he was 
recalled to General Lee's aid at Petersburg to share there- 
with his brigade all the hardships and cruel privations of 



Gen. William Euffin Cox 183 

that memorable siege. I quote again from. Captain Ashe's 
vivid account: 

"Once more it was General Cox's fortune to draw from 
General Lee an expression of liigh commendation. It was 
during the retreat from Petersburg, at Salior's Creek, just 
after Lee's retiring army had been overwhelmed, and the ut- 
most confusion prevailed, the soldiers straggling along hope- 
lessly, many leaving deliberately for their homes, and the 
demoralization increasing every moment, while the enemy, in 
overwhelming numbers, pressed on so closely that a stand had 
to be made to save the trains, upon which all depended. Lee 
sent his staff to rally the stragglers, but they met with in- 
different success. All seemed mixed in hopeless, inextricable 
confusion, and the gTcatest disorder prevailed, when presently 
an orderly column approached — a small but entire brigade — 
its commander at its head, and colors flying, and it filed 
promptly and with precision into its appointed position. 
A smile of mo^mentary joy passed over the distressed features 
of General Lee, as he called out to an aide, "What troops are 
those?" "Cox's JSTorth Carolina Brigade," was the reply. 
Taking off his hat and bowing his head, with courtesy and 
kindly feeling. General Lee exclaimed, "God bless gallant 
old ISTorth Carolina!" This occasion has been graphically 
described in a public address made by Governor Yance after 
the war. 

Stand General Cox, therefore, against the wall of history 
and measure his stature as a soldier. Assaying him by his 
accomplishments and what he attained, we know it may be 
said of him that no more gallant soldier than this distin- 
guished ISTorth Carolinian went forth from the State to fight 
its battles. In his body he bore the marks of eleven wounds 
received during those four years. 

Was his career as a statesman any less distinguished ? Let 
us examine the record in this respect. 

With the war ended and the return of the disbanded sol- 



164 The JSToeth Caeolina Booklet 

diers to civil life after four years of military duty, tie de- 
mand for high, and disinterested service was tragically great. 
War is the very culmination of lawlessness; it is the resort 
of men to primitive and lawless methods of arbitrament, 
and law ends where war begins. The lawlessness, which 
is the culmination of and is typified in war, affects to the 
very core, the citizenship that is engaged. In proof of this, 
you have but to observe the wave of crime and rapine that 
has swept over this country in the two years and a half 
since the armistice was signed. We have stood amazed and 
horrified at the recital of crimes perpetrated even in our very 
midst, and no hamlet is so quiet or so well ordered that it 
has not its chapter of bloodshed and outrage. Human life 
becomes so cheap, and property rights of so small account, 
when a million men are fighting breast to breast at each 
other's throats, that the lust to kill cannot be soothed into 
quiet by the mere signing of an armistice or treaty. 

So, when General Cox, who at the time of the surrender 
had become an unique and dominant figure in the Army of 
^Northern Virginia, surrendered his sword and laid aside the 
habiliments of war, he came home to take up' a task vaster 
in its significance and ultimate fruitage than were his duties 
as a soldier. He was to throw his great prestige and strong 
personality into the labor of rebuilding a chaotic and bank- 
rupt State. He was to co-operate with and aid other leaders 
in directing the energies and passions, engendered by war, 
into channels that would not only render them innocuous, but 
positively helpful. Here was a mighty dynamic force that 
was full of dangerous menace ; but, if it could be controlled 
and directed, it would become potential for the accomplish- 
ment of great good to the State. 

Mr. President, as proud as we are and should ever be of 
the glorious record of the ISTorth Carolina Troops in the Con- 
federate service, I declare to you that, in my judgment, the 
brightest page in our great State's great history is that writ- 



Gen. William Ruffust Cox 165 

ten by leaders and led in those years following hard upon 
the war. Even with half a century between us and those fate- 
ful years when our very civilization was gasping for its life, 
and our social and political institutions were debauched and 
chaotic, we are too close to the tragic events to understand 
their significance, or to rightly appreciate the mighty part 
played by those great souled men. More years yet are needed 
to give us the proper perspective of the great and sublime 
devotion of those men who took upon themselves the high and 
holy duty of rebuilding the wearied, discouraged and broken 
State. 

Among those men there immediately moved out to the 
front the martial figure of the man of whom we speak. 

Coming back to Raleigh, he began the practise of lalw. A 
solicitor of the metropolis district was to be elected, and 
General Cox had the courage, although the district was over- 
whelmingly Republican, to announce himself as a candidate 
for the Democratic nomination. It was the first formal 
notice given by the returning remnant of Lee's army that 
it w'ould not suffer things in ISTorth Carolina to go by de- 
fault. It rang out the brave challenge that "The old guard 
can die, but it cannot surrender." The Republican organ- 
ization in the district approached him with the proposition 
that if he would run as an independent, the organization 
would endorse him. He refused its blandishments and ran 
on the ticket as a Democrat, and, when the election returns 
were in, to the joy and surprise of his friends, he was found 
to have been elected by a narrow margin. 

This office, so full of possibilities for good when adminis- 
tered by a high-minded, clean man, and so potent for evil 
if maladministered, he filled with a high credit to himself 
and with entire satisfaction to the district, for six years. 
His capabilities being thus successfully subjected to the acid 
test, his further promotion came rapidly, but brought with 
it increased responsibility and gruelling labor ; for 



166 The IsToeth Carolina Booklet 

"The heights by great men reached and kept, 
Were not attained by sudden flight; 
But they, while their companions slept, 
Were toiling upward in the night." 

He had become Chairman of the State Democratic Ex- 
ecutive Committee and, when his term as Solicitor ended, 
he refused a renomination in order to devote all his powers 
and energy to overthrowing the Republican machine in the 
State. In 1874, while he was Chairman, the State was re- 
deemed by a Democratic majority of about 13,000. In 
1875, when the popular vote was being had upon the State 
Constitutional Convention, there went out from his office, 
as Chairman of the State Executive Committee, that trench- 
ant and historic telegram to the Democratic Headquarters 
in Robeson: "As you love your State, hold Robeson." 
Doubtless as a result of this patriotic appeal, Robeson was 
held and the State was saved. I count it one of my high 
privileges to have heard General Cox, who was as modest 
about his dwn exploits as a woman, personally relate the stir- 
ring narrative. 

In 1876, still retaining the chairmanship of the State Ex- 
ecutive Committee, he conducted the great Vance-Settle 
campaign, resulting in the election of Governor Vance, after 
the most dramatic contest ever waged in the State. 

In 1877, he was appointed Judge of the Superior Court 
for the Sixth District, and discharged most acceptably and 
ably the duties of this high office until he resigTied to seek and 
to canvass for the nomination for Congress. Having won the 
nomination, he was triumphantly elected, serving in the 
United States Congress for six years. 

In 1892, General Cox was elected Secretary of the Senate 
of the United States, a position of great honor and trust. 
To the discharge of the duties of this office, he brought all 
his great natural ability and fine culture. After the expir- 
ation of his term of office as Secretary of the Senate, he held 
no other political office. 



Gen. William Euffin Cox 167 

If the measure of a man's powers be the success he attains 
in all his undertaJvings, surely measuring General Cox's 
civil life upon the wall of history, he was a statesman. In 
his offiice as solicitor, he had been clean, strong, capable and 
absolutely unafraid. He came to the office in troublous 
times, and he met its duties in the calm, commanding way 
that banishes difficulties almost without a conflict. His 
administration of the usually thankless office of chairman 
of the State Executive Committee was so brilliant and so 
successful that it has passed into the party's most glorious 
history. He came to the bench while the code system was 
yet in its experimental stage in the State and his urbanity, 
his dignity, his great common sense, his broad reading and 
his innate courtesy made him an ideal nisi prius judge. He 
went into the Congress of the United States and became the 
friend and adviser of the President, and trusted councilor of 
the great party leaders. He passed into the office of the 
Secretary of the Senate, and was on terms of intimacy with 
those great souls "who held manhood cheap that was not 
bottomed fast on rock-ribbed honesty." He left that office, 
where yet the older generation speak of him as the "Chivalric 
Cox," and came to hisi home and farm on Tar River, in Edge- 
combe County, to live the simple quiet life of the Southern 
planter. 

Great warrior, distinguished and successful statesman, 
what will he do amid the homely surroundings of the ISTorth 
Carolina cotton plantation with the proverbial "nigger and 
his mule" ? 

To the direction of his great farm he brought the order 
and system of the soldier and the vision and courage of the 
statesman. He introduced blooded stock and modern ma- 
chinery. He raised the finest sheep and the best pigs in the 
county. His yield per acre was a little better than any of 
his neighbors. If rain or drought, flood or storm came, he 
was always calm and imperturbable, and no man ever heard 



168 The IToeth Carolina Booklet 

him utter a word of complaint. In his well selected and 
large library he read not only history and biography, but 
chemistry and books on food plant and volumes on agricul- 
tural science. Your speaker has more than once been down 
to the country home at Penelo and found the general with 
his books on the floors and tables all around him, running 
dawn the subject of scientific fertilization. 

He was a successful farmer. He entered no field of ac- 
tivity in which he did not succeed, and it was difficult at the 
end of his disting-uished life to say in which field were his 
most successful achievements. 

Three years after the death of his first wife, who died in 
1880, General Cox married Miss Fannie Augusta Lyman, 
daughter of the Rt. Rev. Theodore B. Lyman, Bishop of 
I^forth Carolina. After two years of wedded life she died, 
leaving her surviving two sons : Col. Albert L. Cox, distin- 
guished soldier, judge and lawyer of this city, and Captain 
Frances Cox, now a candidate for Holy Orders. 

In June, 1905, General Cox was married to the charming 
and gracious Mrs. Herbert A. Claiborne, daughter of Col. 
Henry C. Cabell, of Richmond, Va., who graces this occasion 
with her presence today. 

I have tried more than once to summarize, or catalogue, 
those particular or accentuated virtues or characteristics 
which marked General Cox as truly great. He was a man 
of singularly handsome person, tall, erect and soldierly in 
bearing, with high-bred classical features. His manner was 
one of utmost composure and quiet certitude. His imperturb- 
ability could not be shaken, and he looked the part of a man, 
to whom, in great crises, other men would naturally turn 
for leadership. His dominant characteristics I would cata- 
logue as follows : 

He was physically and morally as brave a man as I ever 
knew, and this mental condition was that which made him 
so singularly effective when emergency arose. His courage 
was so unconscious and so ingrained that I have frequently 



Gen. William Ruffin Cox 169 

thouglit it was the cause, at least in larger part, of his serene 
composure and quiet bearing. 

He was inherently a just mian. Although by training and 
habit of mind he was a rigid disciplinarian, yet there was 
nothing about him of the martinet, and in determining, as he 
was frequently called upon to do, the small controversies that 
were inevitable in the conduct of a large farm, whether be- 
tween landlord and tenant, or cropper and cropper, he was as 
impersonal as he had been when presiding as a judge. 

He was rigidly honest, and by that term I do not mean 
simply that he discharged his legal obligations ; he did more 
than that — ^he dared to follow truth to its ultimate end, and 
the popularity or unpopularity of the conclusions he reached 
did not in the slightest way affect him. 

He was a clean man. He thought and lived cleanly. His 
mind was occupied with clean thoughts,, and he nourished 
it upon good books and wholesome literature. He never told 
an anecdote of questionable character, or uttered an obscene 
or profane word. 

He was an intensely patriotic man, and with a devotion as 
ardent as a lover for his mistress, he loved ISTorth Carolina — 
her heritage and her history — her traditions and her customs 
— her people and her institutions. In the evening of his long 
and eventful life, as he sat in the shadow of the majestic oaks 
that embowered his home, he thought much upon the prob- 
lems that were arising and presenting themselves for solu- 
tion, and he believed with all the strength of his soul in the 
ability of the State to wisely solve them and to attain her 
future great destiny. 

He was one of the most evenly courteous men in his man- 
ner and bearing that I ever saw. A patrician by birth and 
association, he was yet as gravely courteous and as formally 
polite to the humblest mule driver on his farm as he was to 
the greatest of the historic figures amid whom he had lived 
his eventful life. Calm, strong, urbane and dignified, he 



170 The I^oeth Cakolhsta Booklet 

went through life, and the world knew him as one bom to 
command. 

In a career crowned with high achievements, hoth in mili- 
tary and civil life, there was nothing adventitious or acci- 
dental. There was in him a definite nobility of soul and 
mind and person which marked him as one of nature's noble- 
men. His fearlessness and heroic courage; his perfect sense 
of justice; his unblemished integrity; his intense and flam- 
ing patriotism ; his fund of practical common sense ; his per- 
fect poise and unruffled composure; his manly bearing and 
unfailing courtesy, added to his singularly handsome face 
and person and to his splendid physique — combined to make 
him one of "The Choice and Master Spirits of this Age." 

Mr. President, in behalf of his bereaved and gracious 
widow, I have the honor to formally present to the l^^orth 
Carolina Hall of History this excellent portrait of the man, 
in honoring whom we honor ourselves. For her I request 
that it may be hung on the walls of this building, to the end 
that future generations, looking upon his strong, composed 
and handsome features, may seek to emulate his high example 
of service and devotion. 



GEN. JAMES JOHNSTON PETTIGREW, C. S. A. 



A-ddress by Chief Justice Walter Clark, of North Carolina, at the 
Unveiling of the Memorial Marble Pillar and Tablet to General 
Pettigrew near Bunker Hill, W. Va., September 17, 1920. 

l^ear this spot died James Johnston Pettigrew, a native of 
l^orth Carolina and brigadier general in the armies of the 
Confederate States, who commanded Heth's Division in the 
memorable assault on Cemetery Eidge at Gettysburg, July 
3, 1863. Wounded fatally on the retreat at Falling Waters, 
Hd., on July 14, 1863, he died here on the morning of July 
lY. His remains were removed to Raleigh, IST. C, where they 
lay in the rotunda of the capitol, surrounded with due honor, 
and were interred in the cemetery at the capital of his native 
State. After the war they were removed to the spot where he 
first saw the light in eastern Carolina, where the earliest rays 
of the rising sun gild the summit of the shaft that marks his 
grave. 

One who was more than man said : "Greater love hath no 
man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." 
(John XV. 13.) 

It is for this reason that men visit with awe and venera- 
tion the gTeat fields where men has died for men and with 
T^ared heads stand at Bunker Hill, at Saratoga, at Yorktown, 
and on the gTeat fields of the War between the States. 

Dr. Johnson said : "That man is little to be envied whose 
patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon 
or whose piety would not grow warmer amid the ruins of 
lona." 

Whether the existence of those who have passed beyond the 
veil is but a fond dream of hope, as some say, or whether 
they live again, as we believe, "far advanced in state in the 

Note. — Chief Justice Clark was attached as Cadet drill-master 
to the 22d North Carolina regiment when commanded by Pettigrew. 



172 The ISTorth Caeolina Booklet 

lives of just men made perfect," it is certain that what they 
have been here, what they have done here, what they have 
said abides with us and is a living influence moving upon our 
lives to-day. In a recent speech by D^Annunzio at Rome he 
moved his audience by asking: "Do you not hear the tramp 
of the army of the dead on the march ? All along their route 
they find the footprints of the marching legions of Csesar 
and hear the distant tread of those who went before." 

It is said that in the most desperate hour of Verdun a 
wounded Frenchman called out madly: "Arise, ye dead." 
His appeal galvanized into supreme resistance the wounded 
and shattered columns of France. The message spread 
throughout the French army, and the German advance was 
stayed at the very moment when it seemed about to become 
victorious. 

The same thought was with the prophet Ezekiel (xxxvii. 9") 
'when he said : "Come from the four winds, O Breath, and 
breathe upon these slain, that they may live, * * * and 
they lived, and stood upon their feet, an exceeding great 
army." There was no actual physical resurrection, but the 
prophet was calling upon the influence of their deeds upon 
the living. 

The example of those who have sacrificed life for their 
country and liberty is an appeal which never dies and rings 
down the ages whenever a column has faltered or a loved 
leader has fallen. The memory of such sacrifices moves the 
hearts of men. 

'"Mid Jersey snows, the march it led, 
The moor at Marston felt its tread." 

'No Confederate soldier ever failed to be impressed with 
the cordial hospitality and loyalty of Virginia. Time has 
not obliterated this recollection nor dulled these qualities 
in the people of this great State to this day. 

We are here to-day to bear tribute to the memory of a 



Gen. James Johnston Pettigkew 173 

brave officer, a leader among the gallant men of the South in 
one of the greatest struggles of all time. It is fit and proper 
that we should make some brief note upon the career of the 
gallant, talented, and disting-uished young officer to whom 
we place this tablet in perpetual memorial. 

James Johnston Pettigrew was born at Bonarva, on his 
family estate at Lake Scuppernong, in Tyrrell County, in 
Eastern J^orth Carolina, on July 4, 1828. His family was 
of French origin, but in the fifteenth century removed to 
Scotland, where they held an estate near Glasglow in 1492, 
the year Columbus discovered America. A branch of the 
family later removed to I^orth Ireland, whence the great- 
grandfather of General Pettigrew in 1Y32, the year of Wash- 
ington's nativity, came to Pennsylvania and twenty years 
later to North Carolina. His son, the gTandfather of Gen- 
eral Pettigrew, was the first bishop elect of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in ITorth Carolina. Bishop Pettigrew's 
r!on, the General's father, was elected to Congress in 1835, 
receiving the rare compliment of every vote in his county 
except three out of seven hundred cast. 

General Pettigrew had the misfortune to lose his mother 
when he was two years of age. Educated at Hillsboro uridcn^ 
the well-known instructor, Mr. Bingham, he entered the Uni- 
versity of l!Torth Carolina in 1843 and graduated at the head 
of his class in June, 1847, achieving the reputation of being 
the most talented youth who ever graduated at that his- 
toric institution. His class, of which he was easily the leader, 
was one of the most distinguished that the University has 
ever graduated, and it was a singular coincidence that side 
by side at recitation there sat in alphabetical order four 
men who later attained the highest honors: Brig. Gen. James 
Johnston Pettigrew; John Pool, who became United States 
Senator; Matthew W. Ransom, brigadier general in the 
(Confederate army and later for twenty-three years a Senator 
of the United States ; and Alfred M. Scales, also a brigadier 
2 



174 The ISTorth Caeolina Booklet 

general in the army of the Confederacy, a member of the 
United States Congress, and for four years Governor of his 
native State. Of such men the University can say, like the 
mother of the Gracchi : "These are my jewels." 

At the commencement at which he graduated there was in 
attendance President Polk, who was himself a graduate of 
that institution; United States Secretary of State John Y. 
Mason; and Lieut. Matthew Fontaine Maury, of the ISTa- 
tional Observatory, who, impressed by the homage univer- 
ally paid to the talents of the young student, offered him a 
position in the observatory, which he accepted. 

Later he obtained license for the practice of law and lo- 
cated in Charleston, S. C. On the advice of friends he soon 
after proceeded to Berlin and other universities in Germany 
to perfect himself in the study of the Eoman civil law. He 
remained three years in Europe where he traveled exten- 
sively and acquired the faculty of being able to speak at ease 
German, French, Italian, and Spanish. For a while he then 
became secretary of legation to Hon. D. M. Barringer, of 
ISTorth Carolina, who was then our Minister to the Spanish 
Court, and wrote a delightful volume, "Spain and the Span- 
iards." 

Eeturning to Charleston, his success at the bar was bril- 
liant. He was elected to the legislature in 1855 and achieved 
distinction. 

In 1859 he went to Europe to offer his services to Count 
Cavour to serve in the Italian army in the war with Austria, 
but the battle of Solferino put an end to that struggle before 
his services could be accepted. 

Pettigrew was colonel of a South Carolina rifle regi- 
ment when Fort Sumter was fired on, April 12, 1861. As 
such he received the surrender of Castle Pinckney. Failing 
later to have his regiment promptly sent to the army in Vir- 
ginia, in his impatience he resigned and enlisted as a private 
in Hampton's Legion, iwhich he accompanied to Virginia. 



GE]sr. James JonisrsTOisr Pettigkew 175 

Passing through Raleigh, he was recognized by friends, and 
a few days later was surprised by a telegram announcing his 
unsolicited election as colonel of the 22d Regiment of North 
Carolina Troops, which was being organized at Camp Ellis, 
near Raleigh. 

I was at that time attached to the regiment and saw Col- 
onel Pettigrew for the first time on his arrival in Raleigh. 
Some description of his appearance may not be without in- 
terest. He was slendor of build, swarthy of complexion, 
dark hair and mustache, and with dark eyes the most bril- 
liant and piercing. He was quick in his movements and 
quick in perception and in his decision. For several months, 
and until I was transfered to another command, I occupied 
a tent near to his and saw him daily. His habit was to pace 
restlessly up and down in front of his tent with a cigar in 
his mouth which was never lighted. 

Later I served on the staff of Gen. Matthew W. Ransom, 
who had been his competitor for honors at the University, 
and thus had the good fortune of knowing them both. 

As gentle and modest as a woman, there was an undoubted 
capacity to command, which obtained for Pettigrew instant 
obedience, but a kindness and bearing which won affection, 
and chivalry and courtesy which marked him as every inch a 
gentleman. 

Ordered to Virginia in July, 1861, our regiment vwas en- 
camped at Rocketts, just below Richmond, whence in the fall 
of 1861 the regiment was ordered to Acquia Creek; thence 
we were sent up to Quantico and stationed near Dumfries in 
the rear of the batteries at Evansport, which were erected to 
impede the navigation of the Potomac by the Federals. 

In the spring of 1862 he was tendered the appointment of 
brigadier general in another brigade, but he declined to ac- 
cept the promotion because it would separate him from his 
regiment. A little later, being offered the command of brig- 
adier general of the brigade to which his regiment belonged. 



176 The ISTokth Carolina Booklet 

lie accepted. He was on tlie Peninsula nnder Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston and shared in the retreat to Richmond in May, 
1862. 

On June 1, 1862, in the battle of Seven Pines, he was se- 
verely wounded in a charge which he led with great gal- 
lantry, and left for dead upon the field, he fell into the hands 
of the enemy. It is not generally known that after he was 
shot down and left unconscious on the field General Petti- 
grew was bayoneted by the enemy. This must have been one 
of the very few occasions on which this occurred in our war. 
Yet it is attested by a letter from General Pettigrew to his 
adjutant general, Capt. John W. Hinsdale, a gallant Confed- 
edate soldier, who had his horse killed under him and who 
was later colonel of the Y2d North Carolina Regiment and 
is one of the most distinguished lawyers in IsTorth Carolina 
and now living in Raleigh. The following is a verbatim ex- 
tract from the original, which Colonel Hinsdale has in his 
possession: "Major Lacy told me you were all disturbed at 
not bringing me off the field. You could not possibly have 
changed it. At the time I entered the wood none of the staff 
were with me, all having been sent off. I did not expect to 
be in the woods more than ten minutes, but I was unfortu- 
nately shot while attempting to ascertain the position of the 
enemy. The ball entered the lower part of the throat, strik- 
ing the windpipe, glanced to the right, passed under the col- 
lar bone, struck the head of the shoulder, and glanced again 
upward, tearing the bones. It unfortunately cut an artery, 
and I would have bled to death had it not been for Colonel 
Bull. I became entirely unconscious. I subsequently re- 
ceived another shot in the left arm and a bayonet in the right 
leg, spent the night on the battle field, and a little before day 
was carried to a Yankee camp. My right leg is still partially 
paralyzed, but I am recovering the use of it." 

On his exchange, his brigade having been placed under the 
command of the lamented General Pender, he was given the 



Gen. James Johnston Pettigkew 177 

command of another brigade, witk which he repelled the 
Federal raid into Martin County in the fall of 1862 and par- 
ticipated in the defeat of Foster's expedition in December, 
1862, against Goldsboro. In the folloiwing spring he was un- 
der Gen. D. H. Hill in his attack upon Washing-ton, IST. C. 

When Stoneman made his raid on Richmond, General 
Pettigrew was sent with his brigade to the protection of that 
city and was stationed at Hanover Junction. Later his bri- 
gade was assigned to Heth's Division, A. P. Hill's Corps, in 
the Army of ISTorthem Virginia, and was in the advance to 
Gettysburg. His brigade, one of the largest and best in the 
army, at that time consisted of the 11th IsTorth Carolina 
commanded by Col. (later Gen.) Collett Leventhorpe; the 
26th ITorth Carolina, commanded by Col. H. K, Burgwyn, 
the gallant young soldier who laid down his life at Gettys- 
bui'g in a most gallant charge when only twenty-one years 
of age; the 44th ]^orth Carolina, Col. Thomas C. Singletary ; 
the 47th N'orth Carolina, Col. G. H. Faribault; and the 52d 
l^orth Carolina, Col. J. K. Marshall. This brigade had 
originally contained the 17th l^orth Carolina, commanded by 
Col. W. F. Martin ; but when, after the battles around Rich- 
mond in 1862, Gen. James G. Martin returned to l^orth 
Carolina, he took with him his brother's regiment, and it was 
replaced by the transfer to Pettigrew's of the 26th ISTorth 
Carolina, then commanded by Col. (later Gov.) Z. B. Vance, 
from Ransom's Brigade. This was later commanded, after 
Vance's election as Governor, by that gallant young soldier. 
Col. Harry K. Burgwyn. 

On the advance into Maryland the 44th Regiment was 
left to assist in guarding Richmond; but the ranks of the 
other four regiments were full, and the brigade presented a 
superb appearance with the distinguished commander at its 
head. The loss of the brigade in the battle of Gettysburg was 
the heaviest of any in the army, and one regiment, the 26th, 
suffered the heaviest loss of any regiment on either side in 
any one battle during the entire war. 



1Y8 The I^oeth Cakolina Booklet 

On the third day at Gettysburg, General Hetk having been 
wounded, the division of four brigades was commanded by 
General Pettigrew, who went forward on horseback, riding 
close up behind his men. His horse was killed under him, 
and the General himself was wounded near the stone iwall, 
which was the Ultima Thule of the Confederate advance. 
This wound in his hand and his death not long after pre- 
vented his writing his report of the charge, which would have 
prevented the subsequent controversy. 

The gallantry of Pettigrew's Brigade is most eloquently 
told by the official returns, which show that on the opening 
of the battle on July 1 its four regiments reported present for 
duty three thousand men, of whom on the morning of the 
4th only nine hundred and thirty-five were left. General 
Pettigrew himself iwas wounded, and all of his field officers 
were killed or wounded except one, who was captured, and 
the brigade was commanded by Major Jones, of the 26th, 
who had been wounded. Two of General Pettigrew's staff 
were killed. In the battle on July 1 Captain Tuttle's com- 
pany, of the 26th ISTorth Carolina Eegiment, of three officers 
and eighty-four men were all killed and wounded except one. 
On the same date Company C, of the 11th ISTorth Carolina, 
lost two officers killed and thirty-four out of thirty-eight men 
killed and 'wounded. Its captain, Byrd, brought off the regi- 
mental flag, the flag bearer being shot. 

The official reports of the battle of Gettysburg show that 
2,592 Confederates were killed and 12,707 wounded. Of 
the killed. 700 were from !N"orth Carolina, 435 Georgians, 
399 Virginians, 258 Mississippians, 217 South Carolinians, 
and 204 Alabamians. The three brigades that lost the most 
men were Pettigrew's North Carolina (190 killed), Davis's 
Mississippi, in which there was one North Carolina regiment, 
the 55th (180 killed), and Daniel's North Carolina (165 
killed). Pickett's Division of three brigades had 214 killed. 

The historic charge made on the 3d of July was composed 
of Pickett's Division on the right, of three brigades, Gar- 



Gen. James Johnson Pettigrew 179 

nett's and Kemper's, with Armistead's in the second line. 
On the left of Pickett's was iHeth's Division, composed of 
Archer's, Pettigrew's, Davis's, and Brockenbrough's brig- 
ades. This division was led by Pettigrew, General Heth 
having been wounded. In the rear of this division marched 
Lane's and Scale's brigades, both from J^Torth Carolina. 

The stone wall which Pickett and Pettigrew were sent for- 
ward to take had a re-entrant angle in front of Pettigrew's 
part of the line. Owing to this, some of Pickett's men, strik- 
ing the wall first, passed over it at the angle, and General 
Armistead was killed forty yards on the other side, but too 
few got over to hold the ground beyond the wall. The wall 
in front of Pettigrew being eighty yards farther on, Capt. 
E. F. Satterfield, of the 55th North Carolina Regiment, was 
killed, and others were killed or wounded at the wall in their 
front and thus fell farthest to the front, though on this side 
of the wall. While General Armistead and others of Pick- 
ett's men twere killed or wounded on the other side of the 
wall, they fell not quite so far to the front. 

This states fairly the evidence in the generons controversy 
between the two States as to whose troops went farthest to 
the front at Gettysburg. There was glory enough for all 
where all did their duty. General Pettigrew himself had his 
horse killed under him, but continued to advance on foot 
and was wounded near the wall in his front. 

In this historic charge there were ''eighteen regiments and 
one battalion from Virginia, fifteen regiments from North 
Carolina, three from Mississippi, three from Tennessee, and 
one regiment and one battalion from Alabama." (Judge 
Charles M. Cooke, in "Clark's North Carolina Regimental 
Histories," Vol. Ill, page 300.) 

On the retreat from Gettysburg, when A. P. Hill's Corps 
crossed the Potomac at Falling Waters, General Pettigrew 
hvas placed in charge of the rear guard. A small squad of 
the enemy's cavalry made a reckless and unexpected charge. 



180 The ISToeth Carolina Booklet 

One of the enemy's troopers fired at the General, who fell 
mortally wounded. The trooper was killed, but the loss 
which he had caused to the Confederacy was irreparable. 
General Pettigrew was conveyed to this spot, where, linger- 
ing, he died in the early morning on 17 July, 1863. 

When he awakened out of his sleep that morning he said : 
"It is time to be going." He heard the roll call of the Great 
Commansder and answered, "Adsum." 

Such is the frief summary of the career of one of the most 
talented men, one of the bravest spirits that this country has 
produced. 

On the death of Pettigrew it might well have been said in 
the language of Milton: "Young Lycidas is dead and hath 
not left his peer." 

On the soil of Virginia, which State bore the severest 
strain of four years of a great war and which saw the fall 
of so many who died for their duty and their country, there 
passed away no braver, purer, or more patriotic spirit. 



"On Fame's eternal camping ground 

His silent tent is spread, 
And glory guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead." 



Note. — Pettigrew commanded a front of four brigades, with two bri- 
gades in the second line. Pickett cammanded a front of two brigades, 
with one in the second line — just half as many. Pickett personally 
(not as a reflection on him, but as a historical fact) stopped at the 
Cadori House, six hundred yards from the stone wall, and did 
not cross the Emmettsburg Pike. Pettigrew went forward in per- 
son with his command and was wounded near the stone wall. It 
was, in fact, "Lougstreet's assault," being under his command ; and 
the phrase, "Pickett's charge," is a misnomer, due to the fact that 
the Richmond papers were boosting Pickett for promotion to 
lieutenant general. — W. C. 



THE SHEPARD-PRUDEN MEMORIAL 
LIBRARY OF EDENTON 



By Mb.s. Ohables P. Wales 

On February 2d, 1921, the Shepard-Pniden Memorial 
Library was thrown open and formally presented to the white 
people of Edenton and Chowan County. This splendid and 
fitting memorial is the gift of Mrs. Anne Shepard Graham, 
daughter of Mr. William Blount Shepard, and the widow 
and children of Hon. W. D. Pruden, both citizens who held 
a high place in the affectionate regard of the people, and 
whose lofty ideals of Christian culture as exemplified in 
their lives, and now given concrete form and expression in 
this appropriate tribute to their memory, will not cease to be 
an inspiration and an infiuence for good from one generation 
to another. 

Prior to this time a few patriotic citizens of Edenton, 
realizing that the Cupola House was destined to yield to the 
commercialism of the times, organized a stock company and 
purchased the building, and the large banquet hall was 
assigned to the use of the Shepard-Pruden Memorial Library. 

Senator C. S. Vann, on behalf of the donors, fittingly and 
gracefully presented the library as f ollohvs :- 

"This library is presented to the white citizens of Edenton 
and Chowan county by Mrs. Anne Shepard Graham, and 
widow and children of Mr. W. D. Pruden as a memorial to 
Mr. William Blount Shepard and Mr. William Dossey 
Pruden. The sum of ten thoaisand dollars was given to 
this memorial. The use of the room is given by the stock- 
holders of the Cupola House. After restoring and furnish- 
ing the room, paying one-third of the cost of putting the heat- 
ing plant in the building, buying the books and supplies for 
the library, and having the library organized by a trained 
librarian, $7,500 is left to be invested as a perpetual endow- 
ment to buy new books and for other needs of the library. 

"It is proposed to have the library directed by a board of 



182 The Nokth Carolina Booklet 

five trustees, one to be selected from the town council, one by 
the board of county commissioners, and three by the stock- 
holders of the Cupola House. 

"]!^ow what shall we say about this library ? Mr. Carnegie 
gave many libraries to many cities and towns, but these 
libraries were so cumbered with cares, and circumscribed by 
conditions and entangling demands that in many cases,' es- 
pecially in the smaller tov^ms to iwhich these libraries were 
given, they were liabilities rather than assets. These gifts 
were in answer to Mr. Carnegie's spirit of philanthropy, and 
were given without discriminating consideration. !Not so 
with this library, for the distinguished gentlemen who made 
possible this library grew up with these people, they knew 
them, knew their tastes and needs, they loved them and this 
is a gift to the people with whom they moved and whom they 
loved. 

"The gift itself is the best possible that could have been 
chosen by those 'who make it. They might have made a 
gift to the poor and so provided a daily bread line, they might 
have endowed a hospital where the unfortunate might have 
had consideration, or they might have given to some other 
charity, but these are incomparable to the gift of this library. 
Those would have administered to the needs of a class ; this 
supplies the needs of the whole people ; it is free, and those 
who desire the use of the books of this library can come and 
get them without money and without price. It is the biggest 
and best gift that Edenton has yet received. I do not wish 
to be considered as speaking treason, but it is the truth to say 
that Edenton has not held its place for culture that our an- 
cestors deeply established and surely maintained. The 
spirit of commercialism which has played so large a part 
among the people everywhere of late, has had its effect upon 
the people of Edenton and so we lost something of our 
former position as a place of culture. We hope and believe 
that this gift will have the effect of bringing us back to our 
former distinction. 



SnEPARD-MEMOEIAL LiBKAEY 183 

"The value of this library upon the tastes and hahits of the 
people cannot be measured if it is received in the spirit in 
which it is given. We go to the great capital of our great 
country and stand in the statuary hall and look with admira- 
tion upon the figures in stone and bronze of the great men 
Who played their part in our history, but these are but the 
forms of those who passed away, 'but storied urn, nor ani- 
mated bust, cannot call back the fleeting breath.' and we feel 
that we are standing among the things that were and are to 
be no more. We cross over to the Congressional Library and 
as we enter we feel a different atmosphere. We are with the 
things that are and shall be forevermore. It is not necessary 
that we should be told that we are not to speak above a 
whisper, the very atmosphere forbids it. We feel now that 
we are among the living. The ideas and ideals of all the 
great of all times of every nation are with us. All the stops 
of onr better selves are pulled out and the music of our souls 
flows out in full volume to mingle with that of our silent and 
invisible companions. Such is the influence of books, the 
storehouses of the ideas and ideals of the gTeat of all times, 
leading us to the best thoughts and to the highest ideals. God 
Be thanked that the distinguished gentlemen of blessed mem- 
ory have made possible this day, and God be praised that 
their inheritors have made this possibility a reality. And, 
now, Mr. Mayor, as the accredited representative of the 
county of Chowan and town of Edenton, in behalf of those 
who make this gift, I formally turn it over to you." 

For the town and county Mayor E. I. Warren made the 
speech of acceptance, and said : 

"I wish to express my appreciation at being asked to 
accept such a gracious gift to our town, but I feel lost in find- 
ing words to express my real feeling and gratitude for myself 
and our people. We all feel that this is one of the greatest 
blessings that will mark the pleasant memories of two of our 
most distinguished Christian gentlemen. This library will 



184 The I^oeth Cakolina Booklet 

bring to our minds many pleasant recollections of our be- 
loved and honored friends, wbose ideas and opinions are still 
being cherished by our people. 

"I desire to express in behalf of our town and community 
our sincere and grateful appreciation of this admirable gift; 
it will be the means of a stepping stone to our people for 
higher and better things. We feel that iwe owe the relatives 
of our deceased friends a debt of gratitude for their liberal 
and generous thought in furnishing this library in memory 
of William Dossey Pruden and William Blount Shepard, 
whose pictures we have before us now and whose throbbing 
hearts would be in love and sympathy with this gathering. 
Their ideas were strong and uplifting to man, and will be 
long remembered by those who knew them. 

"This will enable every person in our community to enjoy 
the privilege of a well selected public library that will 
strengthen and enlighten us to better citizenship; it will 
teach us to love home and be in sympathy with one another. 
This would, within itself, be worth more than our banks filled 
with gold and our bodies bedecked with jewels. I cannot 
help but feel that in throwing open the doors of such a build- 
ing as this, which /was constructed by our forefathers with 
such diligence and care and at such great sacrifice, would of 
itself interest our good people in rallying to its preservation 
and upkeep ; and that the use of this library and the things 
which may be connected with it, such as local museum, and 
ladies' tea room, will be to the credit and interest of our 
town. 

"Again I thank the relatives of our beloved friends for 
their generous gift^ and also their friends in helping to secure 
the building, and their loyal interest in our behalf ; and with 
the love of God I hope and pray that there will be others in- 
spired to such lofty ideas that will pave the way for our 
people for higher and better ideals. 



THE CUPOLA HOUSE AND ITS ASSOCIATIONS 



A large portion of the territory of eastern ISTortli Carolina 
was granted by the Crown to the Earl of Granville. The 
mildness of the climate and fertility of the soil attracted 
settlers eager to purchase or rent land. It became necessary 
for Lord Cranville to have agents in iTorth Carolina to col- 
lect rents and fees and confirm titles, and Francis Corbin 
and Thomas Child were dispatched to the colony vested with 
full rights and commissioned as his attorneys. In a few 
years Child returned to England and left Corbin in full 
charge. The temptation for self emolument was so great 
that Corbin set about to extort and impose in every way upon 
the people. Excessive fees were charged, and surveys and 
grants to those who had previously purchased land were 
declared void in order that more fees might be extorted from 
them. Indignation was aroused all over this section, the 
courts were appealed to without avail, and Govenor Dobbs 
was invoked in vain. The citizens became desperate, threat- 
ening, even riotous. Corbin had an office in Enfield also, 
and the people of Halifax and Edgecombe had suffered as 
!well at his hands. They determined to regulate matters by 
force, and, as the Colonial records recite, the people, "receiv- 
ing neither redress nor the money unjustly taken from them," 
early in January, 1759, twenty well armed men set out for 
Edenton to seek Corbin and compel him to go with them to 
Enfield. When they reached their destination they obliged 
Corbin to give security to return at the next term of Court 
and to return the fees unjustly taken from them. After 
this the Governor and his Council suspended Corbin and 
brought the matter to the attention of the Earl of Granville. 
The action of the Governor was approved and Joshua Bod- 
ley was appointed in Corbin's stead. Corbin was dismissed 
as one of the assistant judges and his commission as colonel 
of the Chowan regiment was taken from him. 

He soon regTetted the policy he had pursued and being 



186 The JN'okth Carolina Booklet 

a man of great shrewdness and ability he seemed afterwards 
to have gained the respect and confidence of the people who 
for several terms elected him as a member of the Assembly. 
He also took a great interest in St. Paul's Church, then 
nearing completion, declaring that it should be finished. 

The Cupola House was built by him for his betrothed, 
Jean Innes, the widow of Col. James Innes, of the Cape 
Fear section, the escheator general of ISTorth Carolina, and 
the initials "F. C." and the date "1758" are still plainly 
visible upon the gable post of this old house. 

The house was then very much as it is to-day, iwith its 
great outside chimneys, curious old windows, the project- 
ing second story, the beautiful panelled wainscoting; its 
spacious hall, its quaint winding stairs leading up to the 
cupola, which was originally surrounded by a delightful 
balcony overlooking the town and the beautiful waters of 
Edenton Bay. These old cupolas, or lanterns, as they were 
originally called, were designed by Sir Christopher Wren 
and were always lighted up on the King's birthday and 
public holidays and other festive occasions. 

Corbin occupied this residence with his beautiful bride 
but a short while. She became ill and died. Broken- 
hearted and crushed, he survived his lovely wife but a fefw 
years, and leaving no children, this house descended to his 
brother and only heir, Edmund Corbin, who sold it to Dr. 
Samuel Dickinson in 1777^ and his great-great-granddaugh- 
ter in turn sold it in 1918 to the Cupola House Association. 



Any one wishing to read further the story of the Cupola House 
can find it in Dr. Dillard's article in the News and Observer of 
May 31, 1908. 



OPPOSES PLAN FOR REMOVING DUST OF 
DAVIS' FIRST WIFE* 



MISS NANCY DAVIS SMITH RECALLS STAND OF CONFEDER- 
ATE LEADER AGAINST DISINTERMENT AND WRITES 
LOUISIANA DIVISION COMMANDER, U. C. V., ON 
VETERANS' PROPOSAL 



By May E. Robinson (Correspondent) 
Shall the handful of dust, which is surely all that re- 
mains of the body of Sarah Knox Taylor, first wife of Jef- 
ferson Davis, be removed to a new resting place ? 

The United Confederate Veterans have raised this ques- 
tion, since at the reunion at Houston, Tex., in October, a 
resolution was passed by that body, and order given to a com- 
mittee to make this removal from the grave in West Felici- 
ana Parish, La., to one beside her distingaiished husband at 
Richmond, Va. 

The proposal is received with mixed feelings by those 
relatives of the great Confederate leader now resident in 
West Feliciana Parish and by the people of the parish in gen- 
eral. The proposal, as it reveals a desire to remove from ob- 
scurity and to do honor to the dead, is deeply appreciated, but 
other considerations make it at least debatable. These are 
Lest expressed in a letter which Miss ISTancy Davis Smith 
Jecently wrote to the local paper in West Feliciana, saying: 

Opposes Disinterment 

"I, as Jefferson Davis' oldest surviving relative and closely 
associated with him during his declining years, submit the 
following facts for consideration. Proposing to remove the 
body of Mr. Davis' first wife from its obscure resting place 
is, as a tribute to both him and her, /worthy of the men who 
wore the gray, but whether advisable or not becomes a de- 
batable question. Would he whose lips are now sealed have 
approved ? 

♦From The Times Picayune. Published by request. 



188 The ISTorth Carolina Booklet 

"I recall and occasion when, discussing, disinterments, lie 
added ©mphatically, "Where the tree falleth, there shall it 
lie." A wish that was apparently expressed by the tomb 
marking his wife's grave. Moreover, four sons buried in 
different states where they died, were not exhumed while 
their father lived. 

"Another reason for leaving his wife's remains undis- 
turbed is that after 85 years there would seem little prob- 
ability of identifying a handful of dust. 

"To our gTanduncle, Jefferson Davis we, the descendants 
of his sister, Mrs. Luther L. Smith, are indebted for fore- 
sight in reserving God's acre. The portion enclosed and 
taken charge of by me, I shall guard during my lifetime, 
but beyond that, there being no guarantee against desecrar 
tion, the vision of the grave on a lonely plantation presents 
a forcible argument for removal. Still there is a solitary 
argument opposed to the objections I have specified." 

(Signed) "]^ancy Davis Smith.^^ 

Writes General Brooks 

Miss Smith has written in similar vein to General O. D. 
Brooks, Commander Louisiana Division, U. C. V., conclud- 
ing with this strong paragraph : 

"Thus the Veterans' proposed tribute to their revered 
chief and the wife who was laid to rest eighty-five years ago, 
would, in fact, though worthily planned, be ignoring his 
convictions, whose memory they desire to honor." 

Miss Smith was a favorite niece of Jefferson Davis and 
served for years as his amanuensis, and therefore had ex- 
ceptional opportunities for knowing his opinion on this as 
well as other subjects. The evidence all points to its being 
his wish that the gTave of the bride of his youth shall remain 
undisturbed. 

The grave of the first Mrs. Jefferson Davis is in the pri- 
vate cemetery of the Luther Smith family. Locust Grove 



Opposes Removal Mrs. Davis's Body 189 

plantation, about six miles from St. Francisville, and is tlie 
usual low brick tomb covered with marble slab with an appro- 
priate inscription. This burial plat is reserved for the fam- 
ily and not affected by any subsequent sales. 

Was Taylor's Daughter 

Mrs. Davis was the daughter of President, at that time 
Colonel, Zachary Taylor. She married the gallant young 
Mississippian, then an officer in the United States army, 
in opposition to the wishes of her father, as he was averse 
to his daughter's marrying a soldier and being exposed to 
the discomforts and changes incident to life in army posts. 
There seems to have been no other objection, and the young 
couple were determined. 

Shortly after their marriage they came to Locust Grove 
plantation, West Feliciana, to visit his sister, Mrs. Luther 
Smith. Both developed malarial fever, and as they were 
dangerously ill, Kvere cared for in seperate rooms. 

Jefferson Davis heard his bride singing "Fairy Bells" 
in her delirium, and stiTiggled to her bedside to find her dy- 
ing. 

She died September 15, 1836, and was buried in the 
little cemetary at Locust Grove, as young and fair as the 
flowers that bloomed in profusion there, and for eighty-five 
years her gi-ave has been lovingly tended by successive gen- 
erations of the Smith family, and there seems no probability 
of its being neglected. Mrs. Davis had the distinction of 
being the daughter of one President and the wife of another, 
but as she passed away before either father or husband had 
achieved fame and exalted position, her life-story seems 
like a separate volume in their respective lives. An exquisite 
though tragic episode in the life of the great Confederate, 
closed when the gi-ave opened to receive her eighty-five 
years ago. 

Dear to West Feliciana 

It might be fairly inferred that there is where Jefferson 
3 



190 The I!^orth Caeolina Booklet 

Davis himself would prefer that the beloved wife of his 
youth should rest until the resurrection morn ; it is there 
that the surviving relatives would wish her to remain, if 
assured that the gi-ave would be sacred from neglect or 
desecration ; and it is certain that West Feliciana, as a whole, 
is loath to lose a spot distinguished by such romantic and 
historic associations. 

General A. B. Booth, former commander of Louisiana 
Division, United Confederate Veterans, has made the sug- 
gestion to the U. C. V. committee that instead of removing 
the remains of Mrs. Davis, that the IT. C. V. "might consider 
buying one hundred square feet (ten feet square) at the 
grave site, cover the plot with granite, with marble slab in 
center, with appropriate legend on it." "The parish would," 
General Booth thinks, "gladly receive it." 

This plan is entirely feasible and would, no doubt, satisfy 
everyone concerned, meeting all requirements of sentiment 
and common sense, without depriving West Feliciana of 
a cherished shrine. 



JOEL LANE* 



A PIONEER AND PATRIOT OF WAKE COUNTY, 
NORTH CAROLINA. 



By Mabshatt. DeLancy Haywood 

Though comparatively few of the name now remain in the 
State, the family of Lane was one of the most numerous, as 
well as influential, in the province of J^orth Carolina. It is 
said to be collaterally descended from Sir Ralph Lane, who, 
with Sir Richard Grenville and other bold adventurers, sailed 
from Plymouth, England, in 1585, and founded (in what 
is now ]^orth Carolina) the Colony of Roanoke, of which 
Lane became Governor — the first English Governor in 
America. This colony, as is well known, had no permanent 
existence, and Governor Lane returned to Great Britian 
where he died — in Ireland — in 1604, three years prior to the 
first permanent American settlement, at Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia, in 1607. The father of this Sir Ralph was Sir Ralph 
Lane of Orlingbury, whose wife, nee Parr, was a first cousin 
of Katherine Parr, the sixth Queen of that exemplary old 
Mormon, King Henry VIII. 

l^ot many years after Jamestown was founded, several 
other members of the Lane family came to Virginia, and 
their descendants aided in the permanent settlement of ISTorth 
Carolina. 

This alleged connection between Sir Ralph and the Lanes 

of Colonial Virginia, from whom spring the Lanes of North 

Carolina, is vouched for only by tradition, but this tradition 

exists in many separate and divergent branches of the family. 

Whether it should be taken cum grano salts, let the reader 

judge. 

"I cannot tell how the truth may be; 
I say the tale as 'twas said to me." 

After removing to North Carolina, the Lanes lived prin- 
cipally in the eastern section of the State. They were useful 

♦Reprinted from pamphlet published in 1900. 



192 The Nokth Cakolina Booklet 

members of society and adherents to the Churcli of Eng- 
land. In Halifax County quite a number of the family 
settled, and there was born Joel Lane^ the subject of this 
sketch. His father, Joseph Lane, of Halifax, married 
Patience MacKinne, a daughter of Colonel Barnabas 
MacKinne. 

The above mentioned Joseph Lane, of Halifax (who died 
about 1776), had five sons, all of whom left issue. They 
were : Joel, of whom this sketch will treat at length ; J oseph,* 
who married Ferebee Hunter, and died in Wake County in 
1798 ; James, f who married Lydia Speight, and died in Wake 
County on January 6, 1805 ; Jesse,:}: who married Winifred 
Aycock, and died in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1804; and Barn; 
abas, who died about 1775. Barnabas, had three children: 
Martin, Barnabas (Jr.) and a daughter, Jean. His son Mar- 
tin — born 1755, died 1825 — served in the Revolutionary 
War, was one of the earliest land-owners in Raleigh, and died 
in Giles County, Tennessee, leaving descendants. 

General Joseph Lane, the "Marion of the Mexican War," 
who was Governor of Oregon and United States Senator, 



*Joseph left a son and grand son, both named Joseph. They 
should not be confused with General Joseph Lane, of Oregon, who, 
as hereinafter mentioned, was a grandson of Jesse Lane. 

tThere seems to have been a superfluity of James Lanes: (1) 
James Sr., above mentioned — Col. Joel's brother; (2) James, son 
of Col. Joel; (3) James, son of another Joel, and granlson of James, 
Sr. I think there were some Lanes in other parts of the State, who 
also bore this given name. 

|In the State Records, Vol. XVI., p. 1101, it appears that a Jesse 
Lane enlisted for a three years term of service on March 1, 1777, in 
Captain Jacob Turner's Company, Third North Carolina Continent- 
als. Captain Turner was killed at the battle of Germantown in 
the following October. After Jesse's enlistment had expired, he 
again entered the service ; for by reference to the manuscript books, 
entitled "Army Accounts," in the rooms of the North Carolina 
Historical Commission at Raleigh, Vol. 13, Section A. A., p. 50, 
will be found the entry : "Allowed Jesse Lane for pay to the 
first of January, 1782, including interest, the first day of August, 

1783 175. 11. 6." Governor Swain in the letter presently given, 

says that Jesse moved to Georgia before this (in 1779). 
Quere : Were there two Jesses, or did Jesse of Wake send his 
family to georgia, and follow them later? 



Joel Lane 193 

as well as a distingnislied soldier, was the son of John Lane 
and his wife Betsy Street. This John was a son of Jesse and 
a nephew of Joel. 

When General Lane was a candidate for Vice President 
of the United States in 1860, he visited Raleigh in July of 
that year and was entertained at the country seat of his kins- 
man, the late Henry Mordecai, just north of the city. To 
this entertainment every member of the Lane connection, who 
could be found, was invited. Mr. Mordecai's residence was 
originally built by his grandfather, Henry Lane, eldest son 
of Joel; but afterwards, in 1824, was added to and remod- 
eled under the supervision of William ISTichols, who also 
altered the architecture of the old capitol, which was de- 
stroyed by fire on the 21st of June, 1831. 

It has sometimes been stated that the late Governor Henry 
Smith Lane, of Indiana, was descended from the Lanes of 
Wake County. This, as the writer learns from a member of 
the family in Indiana, is a mistake; though the Governor 
was probably of the same stock, for his ancestors were of 
Virginia origin, as were also the Lanes of l!^orth Carolina. 

After General Joseph Lane, of Oregon, had won a great 
reputation in the War with Mexico and was gaining distinc- 
tion in national politics, a gentleman in Tennessee, desiring 
to know something of the history of the Lane family, wrote 
in 1859 to ex-Governor Swain (then President of the Univers- 
ity of ISTorth Carolina, and a first cousin of the General), 
for the information desired. Governor Swain's reply was 
published in the Memphis Avalanche, and was afterwards 
copied in the North Carolina Semi-W eeMy Standard, a 
paper published at Raleigh, in its issue of July 21, 1860, 
when Lane was a candidate for Vice President. Comment- 
ing upon it, the editor of the Standard observed that in Bun- 
combe County where General Lane was born, there was a 
"Lane's Pinnacle," a "Lane's Mine Hole Gap," and "Lane's 
Iron Works," named for his family. 



194 The JSTorth Caeolina Booklet 

The letter of Governor S/wain is so replete with informa- 
tion concerning the whole connection that we give it in full : 

Chapel Hill, October 23rd, 1859. 
Dear Sir: — Your letter of the 14th, owing to my absence in the 
discharge of official duties, did not reach me until a day or two 
since, and I avail myself of the earliest practicable opportunity 
to reply. 

There is probably no family whose authentic history can be more 
clearly traced through every period of the annals of North Caro- 
lina than that of General Lane's. In proportion to numbers, com- 
paratively few of its members have aspired to or obtained political 
distinction, or indeed distinction of any kind. On the other hand 
there are probably few that have enjoyed greater average respect- 
ability. 

General Lane's great-grandfather, Joseph (who signed his name 
Joseph Lane, Jr., in 1727), died at his residence , near Halifax, on 
the Roanoke, in 1776. His three sons — Joel, Joseph, and Jesse — 
were pioneer settlers in the neighborhood of Raleigh, in 1741. Of 
these, Colonel Joel was the wealthiest and most conspicuous. He 
conveyed to the State 640* acres of land ; the site of the phesent 
City of Raleigh. His dwelling-house, at the period of its erection 
the best within a hundred miles, is the present residence of William 
Boylan, Esq. All three were Whigs during the Revolution, and 
Colonel Joel and Jesse did service in the army, the latter as a pri- 
vatef. 

Jesse was the grandfather of General Joseph Lane and of my- 
self. He was born in Halifax, July 4, 1733, and married Winifred 
Aycock. They had sixteen children-eight sons and eight daughters- 
all of whom lived to rear families. In 1779 my grandfather 
emigrated to Wilkes, now Oglethorpe County, Ga., where he re- 
sided until 1800 ; then he removed to St. Louis, where he died in 1804. 

General Lane is the son of Joel Lane, the eighth child and 
fourth son of our grandfather Jesse. At the time of the removal 
of the family to Georgia (1779), Wilkes was a frontier county, 
and, during a series of years was subject to frequent incursions 
from the Creeks and Cherokees. There were no members of the 
family able to bear arms, whose services were not put into requisi- 
tion, and no one male, or female who were not familiar with the 
horror of savage warfare. My mother beguiled many an hour 
during my infancy, in the recital of hairbreadth escapes, which, 
delicate woman as she was, rendered her personal history one of 
remarkable suffering and adventure. 

I have no recollection of my grandfather or uncle John. The 
former visited my father on his way to Missouri, and the latter was 
an inmate of our family for some time previous to and subsequent to 
my birth. I heard much about him in my boyhood, and suppose that 



*At a later date, 1867, Governor Swain makes a more accurate 
statement (in his Tucker Hall Address) of the amount of land 
sold by Lane, to-wit : 1,000 acres, 400 acres of which were laid 
ofC into lots and the remainder held, for the time being, by the 
State.— M. Del. H. 

tSee last note on p. 36, ante. — M. DeL. H. 



Joel Lane 195 

in all respects the son is the counterpart of the father, brave enter- 
prising, and generous. He was a universal favorite in the midst of 
the men who fought at the Cowpens and King's Mountain, and who 
considered a foray among the Indians as little less than a pastime. 

General Lane's mother was Betsy, daughter of James Street, 
the first sheriff of my native county (Buncombe). The descend- 
ants of the sixteen children of Jesse are dispersed through all of 
the Western and Southern States. 

I enter into these particulars simply to satisfy you that whilst 
the family of General Lane have no just pretentions to the pride of 
heraldry, there is no cause, on the other hand, why they should 
blush for his ancestry or his connections. 

I write in unavoidable haste, but will be ready at any time to 
communicate more special information if it is called for. 

Yours very respectfully, 

D. L. Swain. 

Many years before Wake County was formed, Joel Lane 
had settled at the point which afterwards became its county- 
seat, and was later the capital of the State. His place of 
residence was at a cross-roads hamlet called Bloomsbury, and 
was then within the territory of Johnston County. Land 
was taken from Orange and Cumberland, as well as John- 
ston, for the formation of Wake, and Mr, Lane was one of 
the commissioners who laid out its boundaries. The new 
county .'was established by the colonial assembly in December, 
17Y0, with a proviso that the act of creation should not take 
effect until March 12, 1771. Governor Try on, for whose 
wife, nee Wake — and not "Esther Wake" — it was named, 
formally signed the charter on May 22, in the latter year.* 

The first court was held on the 4th of June, 1771. Theo- 
philus Hunter was chairman, and Joel Lane and his brother 
Joseph were among the members of this tribunal, f The other 
justices were: Benjamin Hardy, James Martin, Hardy 
Sanders, Abraham Hill, Thomas Wootten, James Jones, 
Ting-nail Jones and Thomas Crawford. 

In the early spring of 1771, when Governor Tryon raised 
an army to suppress the insurrection of the Regulators, the 
principal place of rendezvous for his forces was Bloomsbury 



♦Colonial Records, Vol. VIII., pp. 299, 333, 334. Copy of charter 
in court-house of Wake County. Chapter 22, Laws of 1770. 
fCourt Records of Wake County. 



196 The IToeth CAEOiyiNA Booklet 

or Wake Court House, where Raleigli now stands. Colonel 
John Hinton, Lane's father-in-lalw, then commanded the 
county militia and marched under Try on to the scene of ac- 
tion, in which he bore a conspicuous part.* Of Colonel Hin- 
ton's conduct on this occasion, and after^vards at the battle of 
Moore's Creek Bridge, during the Revolution, Governor 
Caswell says: "In both instances I was an eye-witness and 
can venture to assert he behaved with becoming bravery and 
resolution. "f At Alamance the Regulators were routed in 
the battle fought on May 16, 1771. While waiting for re- 
enforcements during that campaign, Governor Tryon located 
his headquarters near the present Fayetteville road at Hun- 
ter's Lodge, the residence of Theophilus Hunter. This, was 
some distance southeast of Spring Hill, later the home of 
Theophilus Hunter, Jr. For three days, from the 5th to the 
8th of May, the army remained there. As the old road was 
too rough to carry artillery over, Tryon had a new one cut in 
the direction of the Regulators' country. After a town in 
Kent, England, he called it "Ramsgate Road." That classic 
locality near Raleigh, now known as Rdmcat, derives its 
name from this circumstance. When the army marched back 
from Alamance, Colonel Hinton's detachment was disbanded 
at Wake Court-House on the 22nd of June. On the day 
before this. Governor Tryon bade his army farewell, and 
left for N^ew York, having been appointed Governor of that 
Province. f He was succeeded, as Governor of North Caro- 
lina, by Josiah Martin, who remained in office until driven 
out during the Revolution. Whether Joel Lane served in the 
Alamance campaign is not known, but he probably did, for 
his name appears as Lieutenant-Colonel of Colonel Hinton's 
Regiment on a roster made out in 1772. || 

For many years Colonel Lane was a Justice of the County 
Court of Wake ; and during the war for Independence, he was 



* Colonial Records, Vol. VIII., pp. 576, 704. 
fState Records, Vol. XII., p. 707. 
^Colonial Records, Vol. VIII., pp. 675, 676. 
II Colonial Records, Vol. IX., p. 344. 



Joel Lane 197 

at one time its Presiding Justice.* TliroTigliout the entire 
conflict •with Great Britian, he served with fidelity in many 
important civil stations. Together with John Hinton, Mich- 
ael Rogers, Theophilus Hunter, Tingnall Jonesf , John Rand, 
and Thomas Hines, he represented Wake County in the 
Provincial Congress at Hillsborough in August, 1775, and 
that body, on September 9th elected him a member of the 
Committee of Safety for the Hillsborough District.:}: John 
Hinton and Michael Rogers were likewise elected members 
of this committee. On September 9, 1775, the above named 
CongTess also elected militia officers for Wake County as fol- 
lows : John Hinton, Colonel ; Theophilus Hunter, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel ; John Hinton, Jr., First Major; and Thomas 
Hines, Second Major. When the militia was reorganized, on 
April 22, 1776, these officers were continued in the same 
rank. II 

Michael Rogers succeeded Hunter in 1778 ; for, by the 
minute docket of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 
in that year, it appears that on the 19th of February, "Mich- 
ael Rogers, Esq., produced into Court a commission from His 
Excellency Richard Caswell, Esq., Governor, constituting him 
Lieutenant Colonel for the County of Wake; came into 
Court and qualifyed agreeable to law." Hardy Sanders 
likewise held that rank at a later period, and James Hinton 
was either a Colonel or a Lieutenant Colonel. 

In the Provincial Congress which assembled at Halifax 
in April, 1776, Colonel Lane again represented Wake 
County. § His colleagues in this body wei'e John Hinton, 
John Rand, Tingnall Jones, and William Hooper. The 
last named, though put down as a delegate from Wake, was 
not a resident of the county, but came from the eastern part 
of the state. He was one of those who, a few months later, 

♦Court Records of Wake. 

II This gentleman (whose signature I have seen) wrote his first 
name as here given, but I think his son and namesake signed 
himself as Tignall or Tignal. 

tColonial Records, Vol. X., pp. 166, 215. 

II Colonial Records, Vol. X., pp. 207, 532. 

fColonial Records, Vol. X., p. 501. 



198 The ISToeth Caeolina Booklet 

made their names immortal by signing the Declaration of 
Independence at Philidelphia. While a member of this Pro- 
vincial Congress, Mr. Hooper was also a member of the 
Continental Congress. 

Colonel Lane did not serve in the Provincial Congress 
which met at Halifax in November, 1776. The delegates 
from Wake County were Tingnall Jones, Michael Rogers, 
James Jones, Britain Fuller, and John Rice.* 

From February, 1778, to September, 1778, Joel Lane was 
Entry Takerf, and frequently represented Wake County in 
the State Senate. At that time the Legislature met annually, 
and sometimes oftener. During the Revolution, James 
Jones was the first to hold the office of Senator, in 1777. 
At the second session of 1777, in 1778, and in 1781 Michael 
Rogers was Senator. John Rand was Senator in 1779, and 
John Hinton in 1780. During and after the war, Colonel 
Lane was eleven times Senator — in 1782, 1783, two sessions 
in 1784, 1787, 1788, 1789, 1790, 1791, 1792, and 1794. 

Those who represented Wake County in the House of 
Commons during the Revolution were: John Rand, Ting- 
nall Jones, Lodowick Alford, John Rice, Thomas Wootten, 
Thomas Hines, John Hinton, Jr., IsTathaniel Jones,:}: (of 
White Plains), John Humphries, Burwell Pope, James Hin- 
ton, Theophilus Hunter, and Hardy Sanders. 

On June 23, 1781, 'while the war was raging with its great- 
est fury, the Legislature met at Wake Court House. || For 
want of more commodious edifice, Colonel Lane's residence 
was used as the place for assembling. At this session, 
Thomas Burke was elected to succeed Abner Nash as Gover- 
nor. 



♦Colonial Records, Vol. X., p. 915. 

tCoui-t Records of Wake. 

JTtiere were three gentlemen in Wake County bearing the name 
of Nathaniel Jones: (1) Nathaniel Jones of Crabtree; (2) his 
father, Nathaniel Jones, Sr., mentioned above; (3) Nathaniel Jones 
of White Plains. The last named was not connected with the Jones 
family of Crabtree except by marriage. In old county records they 
were usually distinguished by placing the letters C. T. for Crabtree, 
and W. P. for White Plains, after their names. 

II State Records, Vol. XVII., pp. 794, 87 V. 



Joel Lane 199 

A ludricrous reminder of the depreciation in paper cur- 
rency caused by the gloomy prospects for the success of the 
2 .Lane was paid for the house-rent, pasturage for horses, etc., 
/^ American cause, is the official record* that when Colonel 
3^used by the above Legislature during this session of less than 
one month's duration, the amount voted him was fifteen 
thousand pounds! or about thirty thousand dollars (a 
pound was then only two dollars). This was many times as 
great as the sum paid by the State for the Lane plantation 
(where Raleigh is built) after the war, when money was 
worth more than the paper it Kvas printed on. 

During the Revolution those who occupied the office of 
High Sheriff of Wake (then a station of great importance) 
were: Thomas Hines, from June, 1775, till June, 1777; 
Thomas Wootten, from June, 1777, till September, 1780 ; 
Hardy Sanders, from September, 1780, till September, 
1782 ; Britain Sanders, from September, 1782, until after 
peace was declared, f 

After the end of hostilities. Colonel Lane exerted every 
effort to allay the bitterness which had arisen while the war 
was in progress, and befriended many Loyalists who were 
objects of hatred to a less generous element of the Whigs 
than that to which he belonged. Among other Tories, who 
had reason to be thankful for his good offices, was Colonel 
John Hamilton, whom he probably knew before the »war, as 
both were from Halifax County. Hamilton was one of the 
bravest and most active officers siding with the King, and a 
man of character who had treated American prisoners with 
imore than ordinary kindness, though even this did not save 
his estates from confiscation. For some years after the 
Revolution, he was British consul at Il^orfolk, Virginia, and 
finally went to England, where he died. Serving on Hamil- 
ton's staff was a young ensign, Dugald McKethen, who be- 
came a useful and respected citizen of Raleigh after the re- 

*State Records, Vol. XVII., pp! 876, 977 
tCourt E«cords of Wake. 



200 The ISToeth Caeoliwa Booklet 

turn of peace, and married one of Colonel Lane's daughters. 

In the time treated hj this sketch, Wake County aboun- 
ded in large game, and hunting was a favorite pastime. Just 
inside, and westward of the southern entrance, of Capitol 
Square in Raleigh, there is still living a large sassafras tree, 
which was a famous deer-stand. The writer learned this 
from his father, the late Dr. Richard B. Hayiwood, who per- 
sonally remembered one of Colonel Lane's relatives, Edmund 
Lane, who himself claimed to have killed nearly forty deer 
there. 

Bfefore the Revolutionary War, and during that struggle, 
the capital of ISTorth Carolina was somewhat migratory. 
It was, as a rule, located where the Governor happened to 
reside, for that functionary usually summoned the Legisla- 
ture to meet at the, place which best suited his convenience. 
So, after independence had been achieved, the State Conven- 
tion, which met in Fayetteville in 1Y88, gave the General 
Assembly instructions to fix permanently the capital, pro- 
vided it should be within ten miles of Isaac Hunter's planta- 
tion in Wake County, which radius was chosen on account of 
its central location. IsTine commissioners were appointed to 
purchase a site, but only six attended a meeting held for that 
purpose. Those present were: Frederick Hargett, Chair- 
man, AVilliam Johnston Daiwson, Joseph McDowell, James 
Martin, Thomas Blount, and Willie Jones. The members 
of this board were from different parts of the State. They 
had to choose from seventeen tracts which were offered. In 
reference to their decision, the Honorable Kemp P. Battle, 
in his 1892 Centennial Address on Raleigh, says that the 
Hinton tract on l^euse river received, on the first ballot, 
three of the six votes cast; the tract offered by Joel Lane 
received two ; and the other vote was cast for land owned by 
ISTathaniel Jones, of White Plains, near the present village of 
Cary. As a majority was not received by either tract on 
this ballot, the board adjourned until next day. Continuing 
his address Dr. Battle says: 



Joel Lane 201 

''Willie Jones was a master of the art of persuasion and 
was an intimate friend of Joel Lane. Lane himself was a 
man of influence, who had served the State in the Colonial 
Congress and as Senator for ten years in succession. Very 
probably he offered new inducements as to price. At any 
rate, on Friday, the 30th of March, a second ballot was 
taken, with the result that Wake Court House received five 
votes, and the Hinton land received only one vote. Possibly 
Lane was adversely criticised for his tactics in winning the 
contest. There was abundant room for unpleasant talk on 
account of his entertaining the Commissioners at his house. 
They were acting as judges, and were certainly, notwithstand- 
ing their high character, liable to the criticism that they ate 
the bread of one of the litigants. I cannot find their ac- 
counts of expenses, but it is altogether probable that they paid 
for their entertainment. I notice that Lane was Senator 
from 1782 to 1792, both inclusive, but that in the next year 
James Hinton had his place. This is some evidence that the 
Hinton family resented his success in the negotiation and 
that the people took their side. If so, the displeasure was 
evanescent, for he was Senator again in 1794 and 1795." 

James Iredell (afterwards a Judge of the United States 
Supreme Court) introduced the Convention ordinance re- 
quiring the capital to be located in Wake County, and the 
name "Raleigh"' is said to have been first suggested for the 
new city by Governor Alexander Martin. 

As Colonel Lane's residence was the most important house 
at Bloomsbury, or Wake Cross Roads, before Raleigh was 
laid out, he 'was often inconvenienced by the number of 
travellers who claimed his hospitality. To get rid of those 
who were not his personal friends, he caused to be erected a 
small ordinary — or or nary as it was called by the natives. 
This old inn was afterwards turned into a school-house, 
and later used as an out-building to a residence on the 
north side of Hillsborough street, between McDowell and 
Dawson. It was about three-quarters of a mile in an east- 



202 The Korth Caeolina Booklet 

erly direction from the old Lane homestead, and somewhat 
resembled the architecture of that building. It was finally 
torn down. 

Two blocks north of Capitol Square, in Raleigh, one 
of the city's thoroughfares, running east and west, is called 
Lane street in honor of the former owner of the soil. 

Colonel Lane was one of the first trustees of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, and (on November 5, 1792) offered 
that institution a gift of six hundred and forty acres of land, 
near the plantation of ISTathaniel Jones, of White Plains, on 
condition that it should be located there, but the offer was 
declined. 

Hinton James, the first graduate of the University, was 
a nephew of Mrs. Lane, whose father, Colonel John Hinton, 
had two daughters who married members of the James 
family. Hinton James was the son of Captain John James, 
of the Revolution, and his wife, Alice Hinton. Alice's sister, 
Elizabeth, married Thomas James. 

Colonel Lane was twice married. Both of his wives 
were daughters of the well known Revolutionary soldier and 
statesman. Colonel John Hinton, of Wake County, and his 
wife, Grizelle Kimbrough. 

To his first wife, Martha Hinton, Colonel Lane was 
married on the 9th of December, 1762. She died on Sep- 
tember 9, 1771, leaving three sons. They were: 

I. Henry Lane, bom March 6, 1764, who married his 
first cousin, Mary Hinton (daughter of Major John Hinton, 
Jr., of Wake County), and left descendants. He died in 
Wake County in 1797. 

II. James Lane, who was born October 7, 1766.* 

III. William Lane, who was born October 15, 1768.* 
Maey Hinton, the second -wife of Joel Lane, to whom 

♦Where the marriages of Colonel Lane's children are not given, 
it is because I have been unable to ascertain whom they married. 
Some of his children may have died young. James and William 
were living in 1794 when their father made his will. As to other 
James Lanes, see second note, page 36, ante. 



Joel Lane 203 

lie was married in 1772, bore him nine children as follows: 

I. Nancj Lane, born July 22, 1773. 

II. John Lane, born March 6, 1775, who married Sarah 
Elizabeth Jones, daughter of ISTathaniel Jones, of White 
Plains, Wake County, and left descendants. He removed to 
Marshall County, Tennessee, and died there in 1864. 

III. Martha Lane, bom February 19, 1778, who was twice 
'married: (first), to Dugald McKethen, heretofore men- 
tioned; (second), to Jonathan Brickell, She was Mr. Brick- 
ell's second wife. Her death occured in Raleigh, May 20, 
1852. She had children, but no descendants are now living. 

IV. Elizabeth Lane, born August 6, 1780, who was the 
first wife of Stephen HayWood, of Raleigh, where she died 
March 7, 1805. She has descendants, but none are now 
living who bear the name of Haywood. 

V. Mary Lane, bom January 1, 1783. 

VI. Thomas Lane, born September 12, 1785, who mar- 
ried I^ancy Lane, daughter of his cousin and guardian, Mar- 
tin Lane, heretofore mentioned. Thomas removed to Giles 
County, Tennessee, and died there March 29, 1832, leaving 
issue. 

VII. Dorothy Lane, born December 13, 1787, who was the 
second wife of Dr. AUen W. Gilchrist, and left descend- 
ants. Her marriage took place on May 29, 1806. Dr. 
Gilchrist was from Halifax County, North Carolina, but 
afterwards removed from the State. 

VIII. Joel Hinton Lane, born October 11, 1790, who mar- 
ried Mary Freeman, and died without issue, in Giles County, 
Tennessee, June 22, 1832. He was a volunteer from Wake 
County, l!^orth Carolina, in the War of 1812. 

IX. Grizelle Lane, born June 13, 1793, who married 
George Lillington Ryan, and died without issue, in Raleigh, 
March 4, 1868. 

Joel Lane's second wife Mary survived him less than a 
week, and died on the 3d of April, 1795, 

In things spiritual, Colonel Lane was most exemplary, and 



204 The North Cakolina Booklet 

enforcd strict religious observance upon all within his house- 
hold. It has been noted that his ancestors were adherents of 
the Church of England ; so, when this sturdy pioneer came to 
the wilds of Wake County, the Book of Common Prayer 
came also. Under the English Church Establishment at that 
time, the territory embraced in Wake was known as the 
"Parish of St. Margaret." Though the adjacent country was 
too thinly settled for the Church to thrive, the Lane residence 
always remained the home of religion as well as of hospital- 
ity. Not only was the family called daily to prayer, but 
Colonel Lane himself observed each fast and other devotional 
exercise prescribed by the Church, in which he remained a 
communicant up to the time of his death. At intervals, 
some regularly ordained clergyman would pass through ; and 
on these occasions, younger members of the family were 
baptized. Among other clerical visitors, was Parson 
Meikeljohn, of Hillsborough, whom "Shocco" Jones describes 
as "a high Church-man in religion and a high Tory in poli- 
tics." When, some years after the Revolution, Bishop 
Ravenscroft came to Wake County to revive, under its new 
name, the Church of England, the Lanes could boast that in 
one quarter, at least, it had never been dormant. 

The death of Joel Lane occured on the 29th day of March, 
1Y95. In an address delivered in Raleigh, on August 24, 
1867, Ex-Grovernor Swain (Colonel Lane's great-nephew) 
refers to the last resting place of the old patriot, saying that 
his remains "moulder in the midst of other unrecorded dead 
beneath the shade of a mulberry on his ancient domain." 
There, indeed, is his gi-ave, of which no vestige now appears. 
The spot has a cottage built over it, and lies a few feet east 
of Boylan Avenue, about thirty-five yards south of Morgan 
street. 

After the death of Joel Lane, his son Thomas, to whom he 
bequeathed his residence, sold it on December 31, 1808, to 
Dr. Allen W. Gilchrist who married Colonel Lane's daughter. 
It was afterwards bought by Peter Browne, a native of Scot- 



Joel Lane 205 

land, who was an able latwyer, but witbal a miser and utili- 
tarian, respecting nothing above its value in dollars and cents. 
Finding that the burying ground (where, also, many other 
early citizens, besides the Lanes, were interred) was an un- 
profitable piece of property, he had it plowed up and planted 
in cabbages ! If one leaves this spot, and walks about a 
mile and a half eastward along Morgan Street to what Raleigh 
people now call the Old Graveyard, there he will find the 
slab which marks the grave of Browne himself. It states 
that he died October 26, 1833, "aged 6711 years." Verily, 
one may think, Methuselah would turn green with envy, and 
feel youthful, could he read this. What means it, may be 
asked by another, less credulous. The solution is this: 
Originally the inscription read, "67" years ; and some van- 
dal, with a good knowledge of stone-cutting, did the rest by 
adding the two other figures. Thus the grave of this desecra- 
tor has not itself escaped desecration. 

Before concluding our sketch, further mention should be 
made of the house in which Colonel Lane lived, and which 
was built by him. It still stands, and is the oldest house in 
Raleigh — much older than the city itself. William Boylan, 
editor of the Minerva, bought it from the aforementioned 
Peter Browne, in 1818, and it has been in possession of 
the Boylans ever since. It faced east on the avenue named 
for that family, but was later moved westward a few hundred 
yards and is now on Hargett Street, facing south. To one of 
the present generation, it is an unimposing structure; but 
when built, was considered quite palatial. Two stories, low 
in pitch, with a steep double-slanting roof, is the house as it 
stands. But it seldom fails to attract attention. Its quaint- 
ness of architecture speaks of a generation now passed into 
history — of Tryon, marching with his army against the 
Regulators; of Burke, Spaight, Lenoir, and their compat- 



206 The Nobth Carolina Booklet 

riots in the Revolutionary assembly whicli met beneath its 
roof; of the Hintons, Hunters^ and Jones's, of early Wake. 

"A kind of old Hobgoblin Hall, 

Now somewhat fallen to decay, 
With weather-stains upon the wall, 

And stairways worn and crazy doors. 

And creaking and uneven floors, 
And chimneys huge, and tiled and tall — 

A region of repose it seems, 

A place of slumber and of dreams!" 



THE SPIRIT OF THE REVOLUTION 



By Mary HiiiLiAUD Hintoist 

The American Revolution may easily be classed as one 
of the most remarkable events of modem history, the fruits 
of which have so affected the world. 

As late as 1774 America found the melting pot had per- 
formed its task well. The conglomeration of nationalities 
had become consolidated as one, the Anglo-Saxon predom- 
inating. 

To the wealthy American families of English descent 
the ties with the mother-country were as close as geographi- 
cal conditions could permit. The life they led in the Colo- 
nies was influenced by the English mode of living. Their 
children, trained in the schools and colleges of Britain, 
returned to the 'New World to cherish the same manners 
and customs. This made severance of the bonds that bound 
them to home all the more difficult. 

The masses, struggling for existence, were less controlled 
by such influences, and furnished more fertile soil for the 
germination of democracy. Strange to say, the masses of the 
Revolutionary period were better informed than are the 
masses of the Union to-day with all its boasted progress and 
culture. With no magazines, traveling or public libraries, 
no public schools, passable roads, or railroads, no telegraph 
or telephone, no movies, no innumerable daily papers, with 
weekly mail in summer and fortnightly in winter, all of 
which bring the world to our very doors, it is astounding 
that the people of that day were so conversant with current 
events and knew the needs of the hour. They did their own 
thinking — a habit that is in danger of becoming obsolete. 

With the classes the Anglo-Saxon thirst for justice, the 
inherent demand for freedom and the call of liberty, which 
have ever characterized the race, were just as pronounced 
then as at Runnymede. 



208 The E"orth Caeolina Booklet 

The most vital issue that can touch the human side of man 
is taxation, and when representation is denied, another al- 
most equally vital question is involved. Taxation and the 
electorate are the strongest of the threo pillars of democracy. 
Hence, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney's declaration "Millions 
for defence, hut not one cent tribute," was an echo of the 
feelings of the Colonists. 

These sentiments they were fully prepared to support with 
arms. Men who owned their own land, raised all supplies, 
all material for the clothing, which was made in the homes, 
feared neither government nor ruler. They were not con- 
cerned with high nor low tariff, and could subsist were all 
ports closed. They were absolutely independent and paid 
court to no one, but were governed by the lofty motive of 
principle only, instead of such a fleeting fancy as "political 
expediency." The fight was against an imbecile German 
king and not against the English people. 

Scattered along a distance of 1,500 miles, 3,000,000 souls, 
with a small minority of Tories in their niidst, murmured 
against the injustice of the wrongs imposed by the Crown, 
and asserted their rights. 

The selection of Washington as Commander-in-Chief of 
the Army was the highest tribute, for even at that time 
there was a feeling existing between the North and the 
South. It was a proof that he was worthy of the trust and 
showed the keen insight of those leaders by whom he was 
chosen. Time has revealed the truth that he was born for 
the service of his country. The wealthiest man of America 
of his day, he risked all and obeyed solely the voice of duty, 
actuated by principle, even though before him loomed up 
the sad fate of that other rebel, the unfortunate ISTathaniel 
Bacon who, striking too soon, failed. Thru victory and de- 
feat Washington was ever the calm leader with the resolve 
to fight to a brilliant triumph, or a glorious death. His 
words, "I have put my hand to the plow and cannot turn 



The Spikit of the Revolution 209 

back," were characteristic of the man who, although he 
regarded the result as uncertain, would be faithful to the 
end, Charles Carroll on entering the strife realized ulti- 
mate failure possible and signed his full name, Charles 
Carroll of CarroUton, to the Declaration of Independence in 
order that another Charles Carroll might not be accorded a 
rebel's fate. 

Although the infidel principles of France permeated that 
period, a deep religious faith pervaded the Revolution. In 
Virginia the patriots severed connection with the mother- 
country with the most solemn forms of religion. When the 
Assembly met at Williamsburg May 24, 1774, the members 
"resolved to set apart a day for fasting, humiliation and 
prayer." 

The letter of George Mason of "Gunston Hall," the friend 
of Washington, who was present at that Assembly but not a 
delegate, in which he alludes to that resolution, shows the 
deep religious sentiment of the patriot. Col. Mason wrote: 

"Enclosed you have the Boston Trade Act and a resolve 
of our House of Burgesses. You will observe that it is con- 
fined to the members of their own House; but they would 
wish to see the example followed through the country; for 
which purpose the members, at their own private expense, 
are sending expresses with the resolve to their respective 
counties. Mr. Massie (the minister of Fairfax) will re- 
ceive a copy of the resolve from Colonel Washington; and 
should a day of prayer and fasting be appointed in our 
county, please to tell my dear little family that I charge 
them to pay a strict attention to it, and that I desire my three 
eldest sons and my two oldest daughters may attend church 
in mourning, if they have it, as I believe they have." 

Several years later in 1778, the American Congress went 
further than appointing a day of fasting and prayer and 
passed the following resolution regulating morals: 

"Whereas, true religion and good morals are the only 
solid foundation of public liberty and happiness : Resolved, 



210 The I^orth Carolina Booklet 

that it be, hereby, earnestly recommended to the several 
States, to take the most effectual measures for the encourage- 
ment thereof, and for the suppressing of theatrical entertain- 
ments, horse-racing, and gaming, and such other diversions as 
are productive of idleness, dissipation, and a general de- 
pravity of manners." 

In Pennsylvania Washington's faith in and dependence 
on prayer is emphasized. During the darkest hour of that 
trying winter at Valley Forge he was seen kneeling alone 
in prayer in a secluded wood. From that day the fortunes 
of the Patriot Army grew brighter. The beautiful Memo- 
rial Chapel erected on the spot where our Chieftain knelt 
has been remembered by our leading patriotic organizations 
with handsome gifts. 

Ai notable example of piety was Mrs. Van Cortlandt, 
of Van Cortlandt Manor on the Hudson, who knelt in prayer 
by a bed in her room the entire day the Battle of White 
Plains was fought, from the first booming of the cannon at 
sunrise, till the sun sank below the horizon, praying for the 
victory of the American arms and the safety of her sons en- 
gaged in the battle. 

The record of the Red Cross, thoroughly organized dur- 
ing the World War, has been a marvel and leaves nothing 
to be desired. What did our foremothers accomplish in this 
line during the Revolution? In Townsend, Massachusetts, 
a mother and her daughters during a day and a night 
sheared a black and a white sheep, carded from the fleece a 
gray wool, which they spun, wove, and cut and made into a 
suit of clothes for a boy to wear off to fight for liberty. In 
the summer of 1775 when the preparations for the war were 
in a most unsettled and depressing condition, particularly the 
supplies for the Continental Army, the Provincial Congress 
called upon the people to supply thirteen thousand warm 
coats by cold weather. 'No contractors existed then to meet 
this demand, but by hundreds and hundreds of firesides 



The Spirit of the Revolution 211 

througliout the country wool-wheels and hand-looms were 
set to work and the patriotic women of America gave their 
handiwork eagerly. To-day the record books of some I^ew 
England towns preserve the names of these coat-makers. To 
each soldier volunteering for eight months service one of 
these home-spun, home-made, all-wool coats was presented 
"a;S a bounty," which was highly prized ; so much so that the 
heirs of the heroes who fell at Bunker Hill before receiving 
their coats were paid a sum of money instead. A list of 
the names of the soldiers who were given a bounty was known 
as the "Coat Roll." By the English Washington's troops 
were sneeringly nicknamed "Homes spuns." 

The patriots of '76 took no account of consequences but 
risked all, and in some instances contributed so freely as to 
leave their families impoverished. Such was the case of 
General Thomas Nelson, who gave his entire fortune — hun- 
dreds of thousands — for the Patriot cause, leaving his widow 
and children almost destitute. As I stood by his grave in 
the churchyard at Yorktown, which had remained unmarked 
for more than a century, naturally thoughts dwelt upon the 
ingratitude of the country for patriotic sacrifice. He pro- 
cured on his own credit for the use of his State when Virginia 
could procure none on her own. He entered the conflict 
very rich, but at his death, "save the old home in deserted 
York and some poor, broom-straw fields in Hanover," his 
property was sold at public sale to pay debts assumed for 
his country. Even the old family Bible with the records of 
the ^Nelsons, with the little table that held it, was sold at that 
time. 

Governor John Page furnished another example of un- 
selfish devotion when he stripped the heavy lead covering 
from the shingled roof of his home, "Rosewell," considered 
the stateliest mansion in Virginia, "when Colonial Virginia 
was baronial Virginia," to be moulded into bullets for the 
Army. Robert Morris of Pennsylvania was the acknowl- 



212 The North Caeolina Booklet 

edged financier of the Revolution. The gift of Elizabeth 
Maxwell Steele of Salisbury to General Greene, the gold 
saved from years of toil^ aifords another illustration of 
patriotic sacrifice. 

Lastly our patriots of '76 possessed vision, safeguarded 
by v^isdom and judgment. That period produced a very 
rare type — constitution builders, statesmen — who have 
handed down to us the most priceless heritage, a document 
of such worth that it has been most conscientiously protected 
against the 2,203 propositions for amendment introduced in 
Congress, nineteen winning, and then only during times of 
great public disaster. 

A devoted son of Britain once remarked that he was 
thankful the ties were severed so early, for then the loss 
was less. By adhering strictly to the dictates of principles 
the offspring has later saved the mother country, as well as 
the world. 



IN MEMORIAM 



Mrs. Ellen Tyson Lee 
Again the summons to lay aside the duties earth and ascend 
to the glory of a higher sphere has come to one of our faithful 
officers, leaving a shadow that cannot be lifted, for in this loss 
we have sustained a very heavy blow. In all the varied services 
Ellen Tyson Lee rendered the Daughters of the Revolution, there 
was displayed a marked degree of efficiency that performed each 
task with entire satisfaction, a high sense of loyalty and patriotism 
that could not be surpassed, and poise that bespoke the inherited 
Spartan spirit of Revolutionary ancestors. The worthy sister of 
a distinguished general, the mother of a soldier, she was a true 
patriot indeed. Of her it can be said she was absolutely dependable, 
praise that can be accorded few. To the Regent she was ever a 
staunch supporter, a tower of strength, who never failed to respond 
to every call. Words cannot convey the extent of our loss, which 
wUl extend through coming years. May others emulate her noble 
example. Faithful to every trust, duty was her watchword. 
To the bereaved family we extend our warmest sympathy. 
That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the Society 
and a copy sent to the family, 

Maey Hilllaed Hinton, 
Mrs. Geobge Ramsey, 
Geace Haeding Bates, 
Cormndttee. 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT TO THE MEMORY OF 

MRS. ELLEN TYSON LEE, WHO DIED 

NOVEMBER, 1920 



Whereas, God in his tender, divine love and wisdom has seen 
it was well to call from our midst to the Spirit World our beloved 
Chapter Regent, Mrs. Ellen Tyson Lee, therefore, be it 

Resolved, that the Bloomsbury Chapter, Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion, deplores this inexpressible loss. 

That her zeal, generosity, never-tiring energy for our interests, 
even when fettered by physical disability, trustworthiness, reserve — 
never seeking but always sought — and keen appreciation of the 
fundamental principles that made our country great, made serving 
with and under her leadership a joyous privilege. 

That we shall miss her inspirational influence, but bow In humble 
submission to the decree of a Higher Power. 
To her loved ones we tender our sincere sympathy. 
That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the Society 
and a copy sent to the family. 

Mrs. L. E. Covington 
Mrs. E. C. Hillyeb 
Mrs. Chas. Lee Smith 
Cormnittee. 



REVIEW OF THE CONQUEST OF THE 
OLD SOUTHWEST 



By ifyTiNA Holland Covington 
(Mrs. Laurence Covington) 

The history of I^orth Carolina, tinged throughout with 
the glamour o£ romance, has no more thrilling chapter 
than the story of the adventures of the daring and dauntless 
pioneers who left the State to establish settlements beyond 
the mountains in Kentucky and Tennessee. This story is 
most graphically told in "The Conquest of the Old South- 
west," by Dr. Archibald Henderson, of the University of 
!N^orth Carolina. Dr. Henderson is well known as an accu- 
rate, clear-visioned historian; moreover, being a member of 
the family who sent out these early settlers under Daniel 
Boone, he had the added advantage of unlimited access to 
family documents and records which throw light upon this 
important period of American history. 

"It is," one critic says, "a notable, authoritative contribu- 
tion to the history of the Old Southwest, written in a lively, 
vivid style, with a wealth of romantic incidents, absolutely 
authentic and based upon documentary evidence, and replete 
with extracts from original letters, journals, and diaries 
hitherto unpublished or inaccessible." 

The choice of title of the book indicates the exact section 
of the country with which it deals. "By West nowadays 
we mean the regions on the western side of the Mississippi, 
but at this early date when most of settled America was along 
the fringe of the Atlantic, the Carolinas, Kentucky and 
Tennessee, were called the Southwest. The fearless, resource- 
ful, devoted men and women who first went West not only 
led the way for those who later crossed the Mississippi, but 
they struck the keynote of that pioneer civilization which 
has so profoundly influenced the character of the American 
people by shaping our Democracy, the democracy which 
produced an Andrew Jackson and an Abraham Lincoln." 



216 The ISTokth Carolina Booklet 

Bj means of the story of the settlers of this old Southwest, 
with all the attendant hardships and dangers, the historian 
develops and describes the great and powerful idea of West- 
ward Expansion, the idea which drove men from their 
peaceful homes in the thickly settled portion of the country 
to dare unknown dangers, to withstand savage enemies and 
finally to make settlements in a strange and rough and rug- 
ged country. 

"Some to endure and many to fail, 
Some to conquer and many to quail, 
Toiling over the Wilderness Trail." 

With painstaking, yet interesting detail. Dr. Henderson 
tells the story of the German settlements in Pennsylvania, 
of the early trading paths established by these settlers with 
their Southern neighbors, with, finally, the migration of 
many of these to Virginia and Carolina ; of the early history 
of the Boone family and other early settlers. 

Governors who helped in pioneer settlement, governors 
how retarded westward expansion, treaties of peace with 
Indian nations, the romantic hunting stories of the hunters 
in the Cumberland and elsewhere, all is told with skill and 
accuracy. Especially well does he tell of these early hunters, 
who, though not as serious-minded as the home-makers, 
nevertheless, opened the way, explored the forest and made 
the men who followed them feel that what other men had 
dared they, too, could and would dare. Thus, the wedge 
of pioneer settlement pushed on and on into the obscurity 
of the dense forests. In the midst of struggles with the 
Indians (fighting as they twere against the encroachment of 
the white man), in the midst of revolts against tyrannical 
oppression of governors and kings, the ax of the early settler 
cut down the trees of the dense forest, until immense tracts 
of land were opened up, settlements became permanent, men 
of broad vision established companies for systematic settle- 
ment. Finally, the "Old Southwest" became an important 
section of the young American nation. 



Review of the Old Southwest 217 

Such is the main theme of the book by Dr. Henderson. 
It is perhaps one of the most important contributions to 
American history of the last decade. It is a matter of 
great pride to ISTorth Carolinians that the book has been 
enthusiastically praised by some of the greatest historians 
and critics of the country. It is a matter of distinct con- 
gratulation that Dr. Henderson's loyalty to his state makes 
him satisfied to remain in his "ain countree" in spite of 
^flattering inducements offered elsewhere, and above lall, 
we are intensely indebted to him that he has so often directed 
his genius upon subjects relating to his own State. Thus 
N^orth Carolina history is most wonderfully enriched and 
our State has gained added attention and prestige in the eyes 
of the world. 

(The Conquest of the Old Southwest, by Dr. Archibald 
iHenderson, of the University of North Carolina. The 
Century Co.) 



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ESTABLISHED 1867 
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No. 1 1 E. HARGETT ST. 



RALEIGH, N. C 



YOUR GARDEN 



You will either be proud of it and it wiU supply your table every 
month in the year or it will be a failure. 

You will have a profitable garden and one you will delight in 
having your friend see, if you let Professor Massey help you make it. 

In his weekly talks in The Progressive Farmer, and in his book, 
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South's premier gardener. 

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A year's subscription to The Progressive Farmer (new 
or renewal), 

A year's subscription to The Booklet (new or renewal), 
A copy of Massey's Garden Book, 

All Three for $1.65. 

Send your order to 

Editor North Carolina Booklet 
Midway Plantation Raleigh, N. C 



DIAMONDS WATCHES 



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PERTAINING TO JEWELRY SUITABLE FOR 

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128 Fayetteviixe Steeet RALEIGH, N. C. 



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Engraved Wedding Invitations 
Announcements 
Visiting Cards 
Correspondence Stationery 

Approved Styles — Finest Material 

The Only Completely Equipped Steel Die and Copperplate Engraving Plant in 
North Carolina. Special Attention Given Engraving of 

BOOK PLATES AND COATS OF ARMS 

Write for Samples and Prices 

Edwards & Broughton Printing Company 

Printers, Publishers and Stationers 
Steel Die and Copperplate Engravers 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Book Designers, Printers 
and Binders 

ALL DEPARTMENTS MANAGED BT 
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Legible Type faces, Best Paper Stock, and Skilled Experience 
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Raleigh, North Gabouna 



ANNOUNCEMENT ! 

GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT 

NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY, DAUGHTERS OF THE 

REVOLUTION 

HAS BEEN REVIVED 

Your Ancestry Can Be Carefully Traced 

The Colonial Records of North Carolina, Records of Different States 

and Counties, family papers, State histories and biographies, 

will be diligently examined for parties desiring to 

have their ancestry traced. 

Fee: According to Difficulty of Research 

Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to 

Mrs. Sallie Clark Graham, Polk St. 
(Genealogist for N. C. Society D. R.,) 

RALEIGH, N. C. ; 



THE NORTH CAROLINA 

Historical Commission 



DEPARTMENT OF WORLD WAR RECORDS, ESTAB- 
LISHED BY CHAPTER 144, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1919 

PURPOSES 

(1) To collect as fully as possible data bearing upon the 
activities of North Carolina and her people in the Great 
World War. 

(2) To publish a complete history of North Carolina in the 
World War. 

WANTED 

Printed matter, manuscripts, photographs and souvenirs of 
all sorts showing the activities of soldiers, sailors, airmen, 
welfare workers, war workers, communities and individuals. 

YOUR CO-OPERATION SOLICITED 

You have the materials. The Commission has the only 
organized agency for collecting, and the only modern fire- 
proof depository for historical records in North Carolina. 

MEMBERS 

J. BRYAN GRIMES Raleigh, N. C. 

T. M. PITTMAN Henderson, N. C. 

FRANK WOOD Edenton, N. C. 

M. C. S. NOBLE Chapel Hill, N. C. 

D. H. HILL Raleigh, N. C. 

SECRETARY 

R. D. W. CONNOR Raleigh, N. C. 

COLLECTOR OF WAR RECORDS 
R. B. HOUSE Raleigh, N. C. 

Address all communications referring to War Records to 
The North Carolina Historical Commission, Department of 
War Records, Raleigh, N. C. 

,S,orthCarc!ma state Library. 
Raleigh 



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