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Full text of "North Carolina Geological Survey"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/northcarolinageo2931unse 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 
JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, DIRECTOR 



BULLETIN No. 29 



THE KAOLINS 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



W. S. BAYLEY, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



PREPARED IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES 
GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY 




RALEIGH 

Edwards & Broughton Printing Company 
1925 



C^ 






\ si i t> 



GEOLOGICAL BOARD 

Governor Cameron Morrison, Ex-officio Chairman Raleigh 

F. R. Hewitt Asheville 

R. G. Lassiter Oxford 

John H. Small Washington 

C. C. Smoot, III North Wilkesboro 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, Chapel Hill 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

Chapel Hill, K C, September 1, 1921. 

To His Excellency, Cameron Morrison, 
Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir : There is herewith submitted for publication as Bulletin 29 
of the publications of the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey a report on The Kaolins of North Carolina, by Prof. W. S. 
Bayley. 

When it is considered that the clay products represent nearly 50 per 
cent of the value of the mineral production of the State, it will be 
realized that any report treating the clays of the State will be of 
interest and value to a large percentage of the mineral producers of 
the State. 

The work on which the present report is based was prepared in co- 
operation with the United States Geological Survey. 

Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

Director. 



6 i 4 3 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Preface 9 

Introduction 11 

Distribution of high-grade clays in North Carolina 13 

Kaolins in the Mountain District 15 

Pegmatite -. 15 

Origin of kaolin 17 

Kaolinization processes 22 

Alteration of feldspar 22 

Alteration of minerals other than feldspar 24 

Distribution of kaolin in the veins 27 

Preparation of kaolin and by-products 28 

Prospecting 30 

Uses of North Carolina kaolins 32 

Deposits in the Mountain District 33 

Kaolins from pegmatite 33 

Deposits in Swain County 34 

Payne and Sullivan mine 34 

Harris mine 40 

Hewitt mine 41 

Hyde and Messer prospects 42 

Everett prospect 43 

Deposits in Macon County 44 

Porter property 44 

Johnston property 47 

Cunningham prospect 49 

Iotla mine 49 

McGuire exploration 50 

Smith prospect 52 

Chalk mica mine 53 

Lenoir prospect 53 

Raby mica mine 54 

Porter mica mine 54 

Moore mica mine 54 

Lyle prospect 55 

Kasson mica mine 55 

Billings prospect 56 

Frank prospect 56 

Myers, Sloan and Sanders prospects 56 

Ferguson exploration 57 

Rochester mica mine 60 

West and Bryson prospects 60 

Deposits in Jackson County 62 

Hog Rock mine 62 

Rhoda mine 66 

Ashe and Harris prospects 69 



CONTENTS 

Cowan prospect 69 

Hall mine 69 

Long mica mine 70 

Springer pit 70 

Kaolin Manufacturing Company 70 

Forest Hill mica mine 70 

Cole and Black exploration 71 

American Land and Development Company 72 

Cagle Gap mica mine 73 

North Carolina Mining and Manufacturing Company 73 

Harris mine 74 

Love prospect 74 

Ross prospect 74 

North Carolina Kaolin Company 75 

National Abrasive Manufacturing Company 76 

Wayehutta mica mine 76 

Deposits in Haywood County 76 

Hand Clay Company 76 

Herren prospect 82 

Kinsland mine 83 

Sonoma prospect 84 

Retreat prospect 84 

Rhodarmer prospect 84 

Deposit in Madison County 85 

Seth Freeman prospect 85 

Deposit in Henderson County 85 

Valentine prospect 85 

Deposits in Buncombe County 86 

Dillingham prospect 86 

Snider prospect 86 

Deposits in Yancey County 87 

Wilson mine 87 

Wyatt mine 89 

Job Thomas mine 89 

Clay Products Company 90 

Elizabeth Smith prospect 90 

Thomas exploration 92 

Young prospect 92 

Deposits near Burnsville 94 

Deposits in Mitchell County 94 

Spruce Pine mine 94 

Sparks mine 98 

Penland mine 100 

Firescald property 105 

Snow Creek deposit 105 

Flukin Ridge prospect and mine 105 

Howell prospect 106 

Benner mica mine 107 

American Mica and Mining Company 107 

McKinney prospects 107 



CONTENTS I 

Tolley mica mine 108 

Wiseman prospect 109 

Reserve in Yancey and Mitchell Counties 109 

Deposits in Avery County 110 

Ollis prospect 110 

Wiseman prospect 110 

Deposits in Ashe County Ill 

South Hardin mica mine Ill 

Jesse Bare property Ill 

Ellers and Jones deposit 112 

Kaolins in the Piedmont Plateau 112 

Kaolins from pegmatite and granite 113 

Deposit in Rutherford County 113 

Isinglass Hill mica mine 113 

Deposits in Cleveland County 114 

Green mica mine 114 

Tom Baxter mica mine 114 

Deposit in Gaston County 115 

J. A. Smith property 115 

Deposit in Lincoln County 117 

Piedmont tin mine 117 

Kaolins from schistose rocks 118 

Deposit in Catawba County 119 

Ervin deposit 119 

Deposit in Iredell County 119 

Cashion and Furches deposit 119 

Deposit in Richmond County 121 

Steele exploration 121 

Deposits in Montgomery County 125 

Unnamed deposit : 125 

Eames prospect 126 

Overton deposit 127 

Kaolin Resources 128 

Miscellaneous Clays — Sedimentary 129 

White Clay 129 

Gerhardt deposit 129 

Stoneware Clays 130 

Rhodes deposit 130 

Lineberger and Todd deposit 130 

Mills deposit 131 

Bennett prospect 131 

Shelton deposit 132 

Wyatt deposit 132 

Pyrophyllite prospect 132 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plates Facing Page 

Plate I. Panoramic view of north cut in Hand Clay Company's mine, 

Woodrow :. 77 

Plate II. Map of Western North Carolina showing locations of kaolin 

deposits described in text 133 

Figuees Page 

1. Sketch map of kaolin deposits near Bryson 35 

2. Open Pit, No. 1. Payne and Sullivan Mine, near Bryson 36 

3. Sketch illustrating relations of kaolin and country rock, north 

wall of tunnel. Pit No. 2, Payne and Sullivan Mine 37 

4. Sketch showing relations of kaolin and mica schist at end of 

cross-cut near Pit No. 2, Payne and Sullivan Mine 38 

5. Sketch map of kaolin deposits near Franklin 44 

6. East wall of Gurney Clay Company's Pit, showing inclusions 

of rock in kaolin, near Franklin.. 45 

7. Sketch map of borings on Ferguson property, near Franklin 58 

8. Sketch map of kaolin deposits near Dillsboro 62 

9. Sketch illustrating relations of kaolin and rock at the Herren 

pit, near Waynesville. A. Vertical wall. B. Cross-section.... 83 

10. Sketch map of kaolin deposits in portions of Mitchell, Yancey, 

and Avery counties 93 

11. Map of borings at Penland Mine, Penland.- 101 

12. Map of borings on Firescald property, near Penland 104 

13. Longtitudinal section of kaolin deposit on Smith property, near 

Bessemer City 116 

14. Sketch showing relations of kaolin and schist in Cashion and 

Furches deposit, near Statesville 120 



PREFACE 

There have been two previous reports published by the Survey re- 
lating to kaolins of North Carolina; (1) Bulletin 13, on The Clays 
of North Carolina, by Prof. Heinrich Ries, which gives a short 
description of the kaolins*; and (2) in Economic Paper 34 on the 
Mining Industry, which gives a description of the feldspar and kaolin 
deposits, by Prof. A. S. Watts, f The present report has been pre- 
pared by Prof. W. S. Bayley of the University of Illinois and is 
intended to bring together such information as the Survey has been 
able to obtain relating to the kaolins of the State, including descrip- 
tion of deposits that are being operated, and prospects, particularly 
those that give indication of containing commercial quantities of kaolin. 
The deposits have been sampled and the kaolins tested as to their 
ceramic value. 

The field work on which the present report is based was done dur- 
ing the summer of 1918, covering a period of about four weeks. Dur- 
ing this time all the productive mines in the State were visited and 
samples of their crude and washed products were sent to the clay- 
testing plant of the U. S. Bureau of Mines at Columbus, Ohio, for 
examination. The results of the tests are incorporated in the report. 
Explorations of high grade clays that had not hitherto been examined 
were also visited, and, in those cases in which the material looked 
promising, were also sampled and the samples sent to Columbus for 
testing. Many other prospects were likewise visited, but since they 
had already been tested and described by Professor Watts in his report 
on the Mining and Treatment of Feldspar and Kaolin in the Southern 
Appalachian Region^ their material was not sampled for further test- 
ing. However, for the sake of completeness these prospects are again 
described in the following pages and the results of the tests made by 
Professor Watts are reprinted. 



*Bull. 13, N. C. G. & E. S., 18S7, pp. 5C-7C. 

tEconomic Paper 34, N. C. G. & E. S., 1914, pp. 183-2S6. 

JU. S. Bureau of Mines, Bull. 53, Washington, 1913. 



10 PKEFACE 

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the operators 
of the kaolin mines and the owners of the undeveloped prospects for 
their courtesy to him during the field season, to Professor Watts for 
his help during the writing of the paper, and to Mr. P. T. Stull, 
Director of the Experiment Station at Columbus, for the painstaking 
care with which he has followed up the tests and communicated their 
results. 

Professor Watts's bulletin has been drawn on for a great deal of 
information, due credit for which is acknowledged in the text. 

The long delay in publishing the report was due to press of work 
during the war and scarcity of labor for carrying out the tests after 
its conclusion. 

Joseph Hyde Pkatt, 

Director. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

By W. S. Bayley, Ph.D. 

INTRODUCTION 

The term, clay, is applied to natural deposits of earthy materials 
that are plastic when wet, and which, if heated to redness, or higher, 
become hard and rock-like. 1 Clays consist mainly of small particles of 
many kinds of minerals, mixed with colloidal material which may be 
of either organic or inorganic origin. 

With reference to origin, they may be residual or transported. The 
former are produced by the decomposition of rocks, and the removal 
of the soluble products of their decomposition. The insoluble products 
that are left behind, if they are of the proper kinds, constitute the 
clay. Residual clays are in the places where they were formed. They 
are closely related to the rocks with which they are associated, both 
in composition and in shape of outcrop. They contain particles of 
those constituents of the parent rocks which did not suffer alteration 
during the clay-making process, and occupy, in general, the same 
shaped areas as those of the rocks on which they lie. 

Transported clays are those whose components have been moved 
from their place of origin and deposited elsewhere, through the agency 
of water, ice or the air. The most common transporting agency is 
water in the form of streams. The clay material may be deposited 
along the sides or in the bottoms of creeks or rivers or it may be carried 
into lakes, bays or the sea and deposited on their bottoms. These are 
the sedimentary clays. All sedimentary clays are stratified and most 
of them exhibit other structural features, the characters of which de- 
pend upon the conditions under which they were deposited. Those de- 
posited in lakes, bays and seas are in broad, thin lenses or beds, con- 
forming in general with the slopes of the bottoms on which they were 
laid down. They are interstratified with layers of sand, pebbles, shell- 
rock and perhaps of other substances. 

The clays deposited on the sides of rivers cover their flood plains 
or occur in terraces. Because they were deposited in flowing water 
the finest sediments cannot settle, except in protected spots. Conse- 



^ies, H., Clays, Their occurrence, properties and uses. 2d edition, John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., p. 1, 
1914. 



12 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

quently most terrace clays are more or less sandy. Moreover, since 
the material gathered by a stream comes from various sources, many 
of which may not yield clay-making minerals, the sedimentary clays 
of this type are very varied in character, and they may possess almost 
any color. 

The finest clay particles may be carried out to sea where they may 
be deposited in quiet water. If the sources of such clays furnish 
kaolinite unmixed with dark fibrous or flaky materials the resulting 
clay beds will consist of white clay of uniform character and often of 
great purity. Pure, white sedimentary clays are not known to occur 
in commercial quantities in North Carolina, though they are abundant 
in South Carolina. Sedimentary clays are not related to the rocks on 
which they lie either in composition, or in the shapes of their deposits. 

Since the sedimentary clays are not discussed in this report their 
further characterization is not necessary. 

Ries groups clays as follows : 

A. Residual clays. 

I. Kaolins or china clays (white-burning). 

(a) Veins, derived from pegmatites. 

(b) Blanket deposits, derived from igneous or meta- 

morphic rocks occupying broad areas. 
II. Red-burning residual clays. 

B. Colluvial clays; deposits formed by wash from A. 

C. Transported clays. 

I. Deposited in water (mechanical sediments). 

(a) Marine clays or shales. 

1. Ball clays (white-burning). 

2. Fire clays (buff -burning). 

3. Impure clays. 

(b) Lacustrine clays. 

(c) Flood-plain clays. 

(d) Estuarine clays. 
II. Glacial clays. 

III. Wind-formed deposits. 
IV. Chemical deposits. 

High-grade clays include those that are white-burning and, in ad- 
dition, those plastic white clays that may be used satisfactorily in their 
unburned condition for certain purposes, such as the filling of paper 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 13 

and cardboard. Practically all the high grade clays in North Carolina 
are residual, i.e., they are kaolins or china clays, in the sense in which 
these terms are employed by Ries. There are also a few white sedi- 
mentary clays known, but their value has not yet been determined. 
Only one of this class is referred to, though several others are described 
that may upon further study be found to belong with it. 

DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-GRADE CLAYS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA 

The kaolins of North Carolina are limited in their occurrence to 
that portion of the State west of a line running along the east side 
of Warren County and southwest to the State line near Rockingham 
(see map, PI. II). This is the "fall line." The clays east of this 
line are not like the kaolins nor can they be used for the same pur- 
poses as these. They are all transported, and except in one known 
instance are of low grade. They are not discussed in this report. That 
portion of the State west of the "fall line" is separable mainly into 
two physiographic divisions — the Piedmont Plateau to the east and 
the Appalachian Mountain area to the west. The line dividing these 
is at the base of the Blue Ridge, passing diagonally through the State 
from the west side of Surry County southwest to the center of Polk 
County. A small area of the Coastal Plain, which lies east of the "fall 
line," covers parts of Richmond, Anson and Montgomery counties, but 
this is somewhat broken by outliers of the Piedmont Plateau. 

The mountain area is characterized by strong relief, due mainly to 
the differences in rate of weathering of the rocks exposed to the action 
of the atmosphere. Its topography consists of mountain chains and 
broad plateaus and deep, narrow intervening valleys. 

Between the mountains are the plateaus to which the surface has 
been reduced by long weathering and denudation, and it is on the 
slopes just above these surfaces where the weathering has been deepest, 
that the best deposits of kaolin occur. The areas immediately border- 
ing the main streams have been reduced to nearly level plains. These 
plains have been cut into by the rivers and now stand from 100 to 
300 feet above the present streams. On their surfaces the rocks are 
deeply decomposed and where they contained feldspathic rocks these 
are deeply changed to kaolin. Unfortunately, however, most of these 
deposits have been buried under debris of many kinds and are now 
beyond the reach of observation. 



14 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

On the Piedmont Plateau the topography is less emphatic than that 
in the mountain division. The country is rolling, with low, rounded 
hills separated by broad, shallow valleys. All the rocks are deeply 
decayed, but the slopes are so low that much of the product of decay 
has been left upon them. Materials from different sources have inter- 
mingled, and the entire surface is covered with a deep mantle of mixed 
detritus that obscures the narrow belts of kaolin that result from the 
decomposition of pegmatite dikes. Where feldspathic granites or other 
feldspathic rocks occur over large areas these may give rise to deposits 
of kaolin (the "blanket deposits" of Ries) that are so large, that by 
their very massiveness they may reveal themselves on the surface. Be- 
cause of its striking appearance, the kaolin, even when much mixed 
with other materials, may be recognized, and, because it may migrate 
down slopes, in many cases it may appear to cover a very much 
larger area than the deposit beneath. The deposits of this type are 
usually not as good as those made from pegmatites because the rocks 
from which they originated usually contained a good deal of material 
that did not become kaolinized, and, consequently, the resulting decom- 
posed product is not as pure a kaolin as that produced from the more 
purely feldspathic pegmatites. There are a few kaolin deposits known 
to exist on the plateau areas in North Carolina but the most promising 
ones are in the mountain area. 

No reference has been made to the possibility of the occurrence of 
clays along the river courses. In North Carolina as in all other regions 
the rivers have brought down much of the decayed products of the 
rocks in their upper courses and ha\e spread them along their banks. 
Since many of the rivers in this State now through districts in which 
there is much kaolin they have brought down large quantities of this 
substance and have deposited it mingled with other substances on their 
flood plains. Much of this deposit is clay, but since it contains many 
ingredients besides kaolinite, it is an impure clay which is not avail- 
able for the purposes for which the purer kaolin is employed, and con- 
sequently it is referred to only incidentally in these pages. Much of 
it may be employed in the manufacture of stoneware but most of it 
is too impure even for this purpose. 

High-grade clays of North Carolina may for convenience be sep- 
arated into (1) those occurring in the mountain district, (2) those 
occurring in the Piedmont Plateau. Only those in the mountain dis- 
trict have been developed in a commercial way. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 15 

KAOLINS IN THE MOUNTAIN DISTRICT 

The kaolins of the mountain districts are all, so far as known, resid- 
ual products resulting from the decay of pegmatites that are so 
abundant as dikes cutting the schistose rocks and granites which con- 
stitute the surface rocks of these districts. The dikes are of differ- 
ent widths and lengths. They are not continuous for long distances and 
consequently have the character of very narrow lenses. They often 
lie with their long directions parallel to the schistosity of the rocks 
with which they are associated, and which in turn is parallel to the 
trend of the mountain ridges in their vicinity. Since most of the 
ridges run in a general northeast direction, most of the dikes also 
trend in this direction. In a few cases the dikes cut across the struc- 
ture of the schists ; but in these cases the cross-cutting dikes are usually 
offshoots of main dikes that follow the schistosity. The largest deposits 
of kaolin are as a rule the results of the decomposition of the larger 
dikes, and therefore have a northeast trend. The cross-cutting dikes 
are smaller than those running parallel to the structure of the schists 
and have grven rise to smaller deposits of kaolin. 

Pegmatite 

The relations of the pegmatites to the neighboring rocks are so 
well described by Sterrett 1 that we may quote his description almost 
without modification. After stating that the pegmatites of North Caro- 
lina occur mainly in the Roan gneiss, which is a series of hornblendic 
gneisses and schists, and in the Carolina gneiss which is nonhornblendic, 
he says : 

Pegmatites occur in irregular masses, streaks, lenses, augen, or balls, 
some of them having no visible connection with other pegmatite bodies. 
They range from a fraction of an inch up to many yards in thickness. . . . 
Horses, or inclusions of wall rock, are common in pegmatite. Some of them 
are in the form of bands or sheets parallel to the walls, and the schistosity 
of these bands is also parallel to the walls. They range from an inch or 
two up to several feet in thickness, and their length may be many times 
their width. Elsewhere they occur as irregularly shaped masses, from a 
few inches up to several feet thick. ... In some places the horses are 
partly pegmatized by streaks of pegmatite ramifying through them and by 
the development of considerable feldspar and quartz through their mass. 
In such places no sharp line can be drawn between the pegmatite and the 
original horse. 



1 Sterrett, Douglas B., Mica deposits of North Carolina. N. C. Geol. & Econ. Survey Economic 
Paper No. 23, p. 37, 1911, and U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 430, p. 601, 1910. 



16 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Pegmatite is closely allied to granite in composition. As in granite, the 
essential constituents are feldspar and quartz, with more or less mica and 
other accessory minerals. Though hornblende is rather a common mineral 
in granite, it is less so in pegmatite. Orthoclase and microcline are the 
most common varieties of feldspar found in pegmatite. In many places, 
however, a variety of plagioclase, either albite or oligoclase, makes up part 
or all of the feldspar component. The feldspar occurs in masses and rough 
crystals, some of them with a diameter of several feet. 

Quartz assumes various forms and positions in the pegmatite. In many 
places it bears much the same relation to the feldspar and mica as in 
granite, the three minerals being thoroughly mixed with one another; but 
the individual grains are many times larger than in ordinary granite. Not 
uncommonly the quartz and feldspar assume a graphic granite texture in 
a portion of the pegmatite. Another common feature is the occurrence of 
large separate masses of quartz occupying various positions in the pegma- 
tite. Such quartz masses may be irregular in form and but little influenced 
by the shape of the pegmatite or inclosing wall. Many of them, however, 
lie in bands or sheets parallel to the walls. There may be one or more 
of these quartz bands constituting varying proportions of the pegmatite. 
Their thickness ranges from a fraction of an inch up to six or more feet. 
Many of them are lenticular in shape, the length varying from four or five 
to twenty or more times the thickness. In numerous places these quartz 
streaks or veins are persistent through the whole length of the pegmatite 
exposed. Some inclose feldspar or mica bodies; others do not. The quartz 
of these segregations is massive and generally granular, though locally 
crystallized. If crystallized, it may be translucent or clear and of a dark, 
smoky or light color. It is generally rather -pure and does not contain 
feldspar or mica in appreciable quantity. 

Muscovite is the common mica of pegmatite. Biotite occurs in moderate 
quantity in a few deposits, and in smaller amounts in many others. 

The mica occupies various positions in the pegmatite. Where the rock 
has a typical granitic texture the mica may be found evenly distributed 
through it. More commonly the larger crystals will be found either in 
clusters at intervals through the "vein" in places connected by streaks of 
small crystals, or collected along one or both walls of the pegmatite, with 
some of the crystals partly embedded in the wall rock. Where there is a 
quartz streak within the pegmatite, the mica occurs on either or both sides 
of it. The mica may be partly embedded in the quartz or be scattered 
through the remaining portion of the pegmatite, which generally is com- 
posed largely of feldspar. . . . 

The quartz may occur as equidimensional grains uniformly distrib- 
uted through the dike or it may be intergrown with the feldspar form- 
ing a "graphic granite." Further, it may be found as large, separate, 
irregular masses free from mica and feldspar, occupying almost any 
position in the dike. In the kaolin mines these constitute the greater 
part of the "rock" or "horses" so frequently encountered in mining. 
Finally, the quartz may lie in bands or sheets parallel to the dike 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 17 

walls. These may be extremely thin or they may be six feet or more 
in width. They may be long lenses or they may be persistent through- 
out the entire portion of the dike exposed. They sometimes enclose 
a little feldspar or mica, but usually do not do so. Watts 1 declares 
that some of the dikes may represent a series of intrusions and pub- 
lishes a diagrammatic sketch of one which he calls typical, that shows 
bands of quartz near the two walls, and within these bands of mineral- 
bearing pegmatite, bands of richly feldspathic pegmatites and a center 
of massive feldspar, with lenses of quartz along its sides. The writer 
has had no opportunity of seeing any of these. The dikes he has seen 
are nearly uniform in structure throughout. 

The other minerals frequently accompanying the dikes are garnet, 
beryl, tourmaline and other rarer compounds. 

Origin of Kaolin 

The kaolin, which so frequently grades into partly decomposed, but 
easily recognizable, pegmatite as to leave no doubt that the two are 
parts of the same geological mass, presents in the field the same tex- 
tures as the pegmatites from which it was derived. In some places 
the crude clay consists of a structureless mass of kaolinite surrounding 
irregularly round quartz grains of the same shapes as those in the 
granular pegmatites. In other places the quartzes are sharp-edged and 
wedge-shaped, like the particles of this mineral in graphic granite and 
the structure of the mass is exactly like that of undecomposed coarse 
graphic granite. Lenses of mica and micaceous decomposition products 
occupy the same relations to the kaolin and quartz as do muscovite 
and biotite in ordinary pegmatites. These relations indicate clearly that 
the kaolin occupies the place of the feldspar in the pegmatite — a con- 
clusion that is established as correct by the fact that much of the feld- 
spar in many dikes, especially at moderate depths, is white and opaque 
and very unlike pink or yellowish translucent variety in fresh dikes. 
The opacity and whiteness is due to the presence of a small quantity 
of kaolin in the otherwise unaltered feldspar. As the quantity of kaolin 
increases, the characters of feldspar disappear and a uniform mass of 
kaolin results. Often this retains the cleavage of the feldspar from 
which it was derived, but otherwise its character is entirely different. 

Analyses of fresh and altered feldspars show clearly the nature of 
the change. 



•Watts, A. S., Bur. of Mines Bull, 53. p. 14, 1913. 
2 



18 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



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THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 19 

No. 1 was a sample of fresh microcline. Wo. 2 was a milk-white 
orthoclase taken from beneath a kaolin deposit. It contained about 
3 per cent kaolinite. No. 3 was taken from nearer the surface than 
No. 2. It contained 8 per cent kaolinite. No. 4 was taken from the 
east side of a dike where the material was partially protected by a 
layer of quartz. It contained 23 per cent kaolinite. 

Analyses of the crude kaolins differ from those of the semi-kaolinized 
feldspars mainly in the relative proportions of their constituents. 
There is often more Si0 2 shown in the analyses of the kaolins, but 
this is easily accounted for by the presence of quartz in the pegmatite. 
"With the loss of K 2 and Na 2 there is a gain of A1 2 3 and H 2 0, 
and the change is progressive. The final stage in the process is shown 
in the analyses of the refined kaolins. Nearly all the quartz has been 
washed out, and what is left is mainly the result of the alteration of 
feldspar — a mixture of substances that approaches in composition that 
of the mineral kaolinite, which is unquestionably the largest component 
of the mixture. 



20 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 





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Hog Rock Mine. Webster. 


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J. J. Smith Prospect, Fran 
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THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 21 







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22 



THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 



Kaolinization Processes 

Alteration of feldspars. Kaolin produced from feldspar is formed 
in three ways 1 ; (1) by the action upon it of hot ascending gas and 
solutions containing fluorine, born and perhaps other active reagents; 
(2) by the action of water upon feldspathic rocks underlying swamps 
or moors, where the rocks are subjected to the action of the substances 
dissolved in the swamp water, especially C0 2 and organic acids; (3) by 
the action of percolating ground water traveling downward from the 
surface and carrying with it dissolved C0 2 and organic matter. The 
kaolins of the mountain districts of North Carolina are believed 2 to 
have originated as the result of the third process, i.e., they were pro- 
duced by the weathering of feldspathic dikes. Deposits of the first 
type are not known within the State. Those of the second type may 
be represented by the occurrences at Bessemer City (p. 115), Bostic's 
Mills (p. 121) and Statesville (p. 119) where the crude clay covers wide 
areas rather than long, narrow areas as in the mountain districts. 

Orthoclase when it changes to kaolin loses Si0 2 and K 2 and adds 
H o in the following amounts: 





Si0 2 


AI2O3 


K 2 


H2O 


Total 




64.86 
43.24 


18.29 


16.85 
16.85 




100 






60.09 


Adds 




6.36 


6.45 














21.62 


18.29 




6.36 


46.27 









or in chemical symbols: 2KAlSi 3 8 — 4 Si0 2 — K 2 0+2H 2 0= 
H 4 Al 2 Si 2 9 . 

The alteration of orthoclase may be effected by pure water, with the 
production of potash, colloidal aluminous silicates, colloidal silica and 
kaolinite. 3 Upon hydrolysis by water the feldspar yields KOH and 
an unstable silicate which easily parts with some of its silica and is 
converted into kaolinite, thus : 

:OJSi 3 8 +H 2 0=KOH+HAlSi 3 8 . 

2 HAlSi 3 8 +H 2 0=H 4 Al 2 Si 2 9 +4 Si0 2 . 

The process is hastened by the addition of H 2 S0 4 or C0 2 . When 
C0 2 is present, as it always is in freshly fallen rain, and in water that 



^Stremme, H., Handbueh der Mineralchemie. Theodor SteinkopfT, Dresden und Leipzig, Bd. II. 
pp. 130-134, 1914. 

2 W. S. Bayley, Kaolin in North Carolina, with a brief note on hydromica, Econ. Geol. Vol. XV, 
p. 236, 1920. 

^Cameron, F. K., and Bell, J. M., Bur. Soils, U. S. Dept. Agri. Bull. 30, 1905. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 23 

has passed through decomposing organic matter, the process may be 
indicated by the equation: 

2 KAlSi 3 8 +2 H 2 0+C0 2 =H 4 Al 2 Si 2 9 +K 2 C0 3 +4 SiOo. 

The colloids exist as gels in the mixture of kaolinite, quartz, feldspar 
and other undecomposed remnants of the original rocks that constitute 
the crude clay. 

Ashley 1 has shown that the plasticity of clay depends upon the pres- 
ence of colloids. Variations in the plasticity of clays that look alike 
are due in large measure to the proportions of their components that 
are in colloidal form. Consequently the ordinary chemical analysis of 
a clay is of very little value as indicating the quality of its plasticity. 

A high percentage of A1 2 3 may be suggestive of high plasticity 
since it may indicate the presence of colloidal aluminous silicates, but 
if other colloids than this are present the content of A1 2 3 is not par- 
ticularly significant. Even a comparatively low aluminous clay may 
be markedly plastic if colloidal silica or organic colloids are present 
in large quantity. 

Since orthoclase or microcline treated with a solution of C0 2 is 
slowly decomposed and K 2 is dissolved from it in excess of its pro- 
portion in the undecomposed mineral, it is clear that by long continued 
action of carbonic acid all the K 2 may be extracted, since the potas- 
sium may combine with the free acid, forming K 2 C0 3 which is drained 
off. The Si0 2 formed during weathering separates partly, at least, 
as a colloid which is soluble in the alkaline solution of K 2 C0 3 , and 
thus may be drawn off from the mass of decomposition products leav- 
ing the insoluble kaolinite and remnants of the unaltered minerals 
behind. Thus the kaolin is proportionately enriched, by the filling 
with kaolinite of the spaces left by the removal of the silica and the 
mass loses its porosity and becomes compact. Even though some of 
the K 2 may combine with some of the silica to form a soluble potas- 
sium silicate, or a colloidal potassium silicate compound, the same en- 
riching process will take place, since the soluble silicate will drain off 
and the colloid will either be decomposed by the excess of C0 2 or, if 
undecomposed, will deposit in the pores between the kaolin flakes and 
will thus tend to compact the kaolin and render it more plastic. 

In many veins there are places where the kaolin appears as a uni- 
formly compact mass almost entirely free from quartz or undecomposed 
feldspar. It may be that these represent places where the pegmatite 
was composed entirely of feldspar or where the quartz was so fine 
grained that it is not noticeable in the residual mass. However, since 



lAshley, H. E., U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 388. pp. 9-11, 59, 1909. 



24 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

a mass of orthoclase produces only 52 per cent of its weight or 61 
per cent of its volume of kaolinite, while a given mass of the compact 
clay often contains 90 per cent of kaolinite, it is plain that the silica 
which always accompanies the production of kaolinite from feldspar must 
have been removed in solution and the remaining kaolin compacted or 
there must have been an enrichment of the kaolin mass by the migration 
into it of kaolin material from other portions of the vein. 

Few deposits contain on the average more than 40 per cent of kaolin, 
even where all the feldspar has been decomposed. In most cases the 
feldspars in pegmatites are associated with quartz, mica, hornblende 
and to a less extent with beryl, garnet, tourmaline and other still rarer 
minerals. All of these with the exception of quartz decay with greater 
or less rapidity and some of them, as, for instance hornblende, may 
yield a hydrous aluminous silicate and colloidal silica. Thus the con- 
stituents of the original pegmatite may contribute to the kaolin decom- 
position products that may affect it in a favorable or an unfavorable way 
depending upon the nature of the substances and the conditions under 
which they were decomposed. 

Under the conditions favorable to the production of kaolinite from 
orthoclase, albite, if present, forms compounds analogous to those pro- 
duced from orthoclase. Where the process has continued to completion 
the result is the same as in the case of orthoclase and microcline and 
the albite has no deleterious effect upon the product., Where the proc- 
ess is less complete grains of albite may remain undecomposed, with 
the result that the kaolin may contain notable quantities of feldspathic 
sand. 

Alteration of minerals other than feldspar. The quartz of the orig- 
inal pegmatite suffers little change in the weathering process. In many- 
cases it remains in the kaolin as distinct grains of the same shapes and 
sizes as those in the pegmatite. In other cases, however, the residual 
grains are more or less rounded. Their sharp edges are smoothed off 
and their surfaces may have become pitted as though they had suffered 
some solution. Indeed, it is probable that they have in all cases under- 
gone solution to some extent, though perhaps only in exceptional cases 
is the solution marked. In the latter cases the quartz has a pebbly 
appearance and the crude kaolin may look very much like a conglom- 
erate composed of water-worn pebbles in a fine-grained sediment. The 
solution may be due to the action of the alkaline carbonates produced 
during the weathering of the feldspar, since it is a well-known fact, 
that quartz is appreciably dissolved by alkalies. If the quartz in the 
original rock was in fine grains some of it may be completely dissolved 
but much of it may, nevertheless, remain as grit or sand in the kaolin. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 25 

Beryl changes to mica and to kaolin. If it changes to mica it is 
apt to form fine scales which are difficult to separate from the scaly 
kaolinite flakes and thus may injure the refined product. 

Biotite, hornblende, tourmaline and any other ferriferous minerals 
that may be present may be altered to a number of compounds among 
which may be chlorite or other hydrated micaceous minerals, limonite 
or other ferruginous hydroxides, or to a ferruginous carbonate. In 
the presence of abundant oxygen the hydroxides are apt to form; and 
these stain the kaolin with a brown or yellow color. In the absence 
of much oxygen ferrous carbonates are produced. As these are soluble 
in carbonated water they may be drained from the deposit and carried 
off. Thus, near the surface where the percolating water was furnished 
with abundant oxygen, staining by iron salts is rather common, whereas 
with depth the stains decrease, except where crevices furnish canals 
along which the water may flow readily, and at groundwater level the 
kaolin is practically free from stains. The chlorite and other micaceous 
decomposition products may form dark nests in the midst of the clay. 
They are objectionable because of the difficulty of separating them in 
the refining process. Their fine scales are apt to float off and be 
carried into the settling vats where the kaolin is collected. The most 
objectionable components of the kaolin are the decomposition products 
of the garnets. When these are decomposed they, give rise to chlorite 
and other micaceous products that are often colored reddish brown by 
iron hydroxides or other iron compounds. The heaviest particles may 
be separated from the kaolin in the washing process, but some of the 
lightest material floats over with the slip and is distributed through the 
refined kaolin, often impairing its value to a serious degree. In the 
clay-bank the presence of the decomposed garnets is revealed by the 
presence of little circular brown spots. Where the spots are few the 
clay containing them may be removed by hand-sorting before the crude 
material is sent to the washer. Where abundant there is no recourse 
for the miner but the abandonment of that part of the mine in which 
they occur. 

The muscovite changes so slowly that it may be picked by hand 
from the kaolin, and much of it is so slightly altered that it may be 
placed on the market as sheet, punch or ground mica, depending upon 
the dimensions of the plates. 

Near the surface, however, in many places the mica is more or less 
altered and at some localities it has lost its characteristic features. It 
has become opaque and brittle and has assumed the color and luster 
of beaten tin and is often stained red by iron hydroxides. Even when 



26 



THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAROLINA 



bleached by hydrochloric acid it remains opaque except on thin edges 
where it is translucent. Under the microscope, between crossed nicols, 
the altered mica is discovered to be much less strongly doubly refract- 
ing than fresh muscovite. Plates thin enough to be transparent have 
no effect on the sensitive tint, and give no axial figure. Thicker ones, 
that are yellow and translucent, produce a slight modification of the 
sensitive tint and give a faint uniaxial optical figure that is negative. 
Fairly thick plates are dark reddish yellow and nearly opaque. These 
exhibit colors between crossed nicols and give fairly distinct axial 
figures. Flakes viewed at right angles to the cleavage, extinguish 
parallel to their cleavage and show bright colors between crossed nicols. 

Under high magnification the very thin plates show no distinctive 
features. They are very light yellow and apparently homogeneous 
except for the presence of a few tiny transparent or translucent par- 
ticles. The plates that are thick enough to be nearly opaque are 
dark reddish yellow and appear to contain numerous small flakes and 
particles of various kinds, but it is probable that these are deposits in 
the cleavages of the mica rather than within the mica itself. 

It is impossible to decide whether the altered mass is a definite 
mineral or not, but it appears more probable to the writer that it is 
an aggregate of tiny decomposition products embedded in a matrix 
containing a residual of muscovite. It appears to be one of the "hydro- 
micas" that are so frequently described as occurring in clays. 

An analysis of a particularly good specimen from the Herren prop- 
erty at Waynesville, yielded Mr. George Steiger of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, the following result : 



SiC-2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


FeO 


MgO 


CaO 


Na 2 


K2O 


H2O 


Ti0 2 


Moist 




40.79 


29.98 


8.07 


2.48 


2.71 


.45 


.38 


3.47 


9.34 


1.28 


1.20 


100.15 



Attempts to indicate this by a chemical formula are unsatisfactory, 
as the result is so complex that it is difficult to consider it as represent- 
ing any single mineral. If the material is regarded as a mixture, its 
mineral composition, calculated from the analysis on the assumption 
that the Fe 2 3 is in limonite, the Ti0 2 in rutile and FeO in a fer- 
ruginous serpentine, may be : 

Kaolinite 43.34 

Muscovite 34.04 

Serpentine 11.41 



THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 

Quartz, or some other form of Si0 2 1.08 

Limonite 8.90 

Rutile 1.28 



27 



100.05 



It is certain that the source of the limonite is outside the original 
mica, and it is probable that some of the kaolinite has also originated 
elsewhere and has migrated into the cleavage cracks in the altered 
mineral. Consequently, the figures given do not represent the compo- 
sition of a "hydromica" that has resulted solely from the alteration of 
muscovite. They, however, indicate the probable composition of most 
of the hydromica occurring in kaolin and show that this substance 
differs from muscovite in the presence of much less K 2 0, and possibly 
A1 2 3 , and of much more H 2 0. Most of the original muscovite has 
broken down into kaolinite and minerals closely related to serpentine, 
and most of its K 2 has been carried off in solution. 

Distribution of kaolin in the veins. As kaolinization progresses down- 
ward from the exposed surface the completeness of the process becomes 
less and less as depth from the surface increases until the proportion 
of undecomposed material becomes so great that deeper mining is im- 
practicable. Although at this depth the feldspar is partly kaolinized, 
the quantity of undecomposed feldspar in the mass is so great that 
a crowbar cannot be forced into it without the aid of hammer blows. 
The quantity of kaolin in the mass is there so small that it will not 
carry the increased cost of preparing it for market. 

The depth at which this occurs varies in different dikes but in those 
well up on slopes the depth at which profitable mining is no longer 
possible is at about 95 feet from the exposed surface. The purer kaolin 
is at about water level and above this kaolinization is practically com- 
plete. When the water level is reached in mining the kaolin becomes 
so plastic that it is difficult to maintain the shafts, and for this and 
other reasons the mining operations become so expensive that the shaft 
has to be abandoned unless some method of drainage can be perfected. 
In consequence of this fact deposits high up on slopes are apt to be 
minable to greater depths than those at their bases or on plains, since 
in these latter situations the water level is nearer the surface. Usually 
the best kaolin in any deposit is found at about the level of the ground 
water. Below this level the completeness of the kaolinization rapidly 
diminishes with depth and in many cases a few feet below the water 
level the dike material has been protected from alteration to such an 



28 THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 

extent that the dike might be used as a source of feldspar. Possibly 
another illustration of protection is the fact that in general a dike is 
richer in kaolin near its foot wall than near its hanging. This sug- 
gests alteration by downward percolating water. The hanging wall, 
especially if composed of schists, protects to some extent against the 
downward flowing water, whereas at the foot wall the water flow is 
more abundant. 

While it is true that the completeness of kaolinization of the feld- 
spar in the different parts of any given dike are as stated, nevertheless 
it is also true that other conditions affect the thoroughness of its altera- 
tion. Fresh feldspar and completely kaolinized feldspar occur at the 
same elevation and near each other in neighboring dikes. Watts 1 calls 
attention to the fact that at Penland, a dike in an advanced stage of 
kaolinization was being worked for kaolin a few years ago and 50 
yards distant another containing fresh feldspar was being worked for this 
mineral. In this case, however, he states "the kaolin deposit is not well 
defined and appears to have been disturbed by a slide, whereas the 
fresh feldspar is in a well defined dike." It is not apparent why the 
kaolin at Penland is regarded as a slide. A sketch map of the occurrence 
is given in Fig. 11 on page 101. However, in one of the shafts from 
which kaolin was taken a distinct dike of pegmatite about two feet wide 
may be seen cutting diagonally through the kaolin and the material of 
this dike is practically unchanged. In this case the feldspar of the 
small dike is microcline and not orthoclase. Evidently the microcline 
resisted decomposition more successfully than the orthoclase and is 
therefore nearly intact. It is probable that some of the contrasts in 
the degree of alteration of neighboring dikes may be due to differences 
in the character of their feldspar. 

Preparation of Kaolin and By-Products 

A thorough system of washing should remove all the objectionable 
constituents from the crude kaolin and yield a refined product of a 
nearly constant composition. The latter condition is more easily 
reached than the former. In the case of one mine the product was 
maintained at a constant standard during at least five years, as indi- 
cated by the figures below which show the limits of variation in the 
shipments of refined kaolin between the years 1890 and 1895. The 
analyses 2 were made by ~N. P. Pratt on material dried at 212 degrees F. 



Watts, A. S., Bur. of Mines Bull. 53, p. 17, 1913. 
2 Furnished by Harris Kaolin Co., Dillsboro. 



THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAKOLINA 



29 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 FeO 


CaO 


MgO 


K2O Na 2 


H2O 


46.47 
46.47 


38.82 
38.14 


.89 
.36 


.28 
.50 


.25 
.09 


.75 
.64 


13.34 
13.61 



The removal of objectionable constituents 1 is not so well accom- 
plished. Quartz and small quantities of feldspar are nearly always 
present in the refined kaolin and sometimes a large proportion of the 
more objectionable components. It is probable that washing alone, no 
matter how carefully done, will never succeed in removing all of the 
iron hydroxides, since some of these are colloidal in character, but a 
more careful washing than is now practiced- in the State would unques- 
tionably remove more of the heavy iron-stained particles and much of 
the quartz that now finds its way into the refined product. Analyses 2 
of the crude and washed kaolins from the Springer pit, near Webster, 
give some idea of the improvements effected by washing an unusually 
good crude clay. 





Si0 2 


A1 2 3 


Fe 2 3 


FeO 


CaO 


MgO 


Alk. 


H 2 


Moist 


Total 




62.40 

45.78 


26.51 
36.46 


1.14 

.28 


1.08 


.57 
.50 


.01 
.04 


.98 
.25 


8.80 
13.40 


.25 
2.05 


100.66 


Washed 


99 .84 



The crude material contained 15.61 per cent quartz and 18.91 per 
cent feldspar and the washed material 6.60 per cent of the two com- 
ponents. 

Most pegmatite dikes consist in large part of quartz so that the 
average quantity of kaolinite in their decomposed portions is usually 
much less than 40 per cent, and in most cases is so low that the de- 
posits are not workable throughout with profit. However, there are 
richer pockets scattered through the dike mass and it is upon these 
that the miner depends for his commercial success. He necessarily 
passes by the poorer portions and removes the richer ones. 

In some of the deposits there is a great deal of quartz which is in 
such fine grains that it passes the sand wheels used to remove the coarse 
components from the crude kaolin. This may pass into the mica 
trough and settle. If not mixed with much mica it may be used in 
scouring soaps and other cleansers. It is not sharp enough for sand- 



J See Plate I, for arrangement of washing plant. 
2Ries, H., N. C. Geol. Survey Bull. No. 13, p. 62, 1897. 



30 THE KAOLIXS OF XOETH CABOL1XA 

paper and rarely pure enough for use in glass making. In a few in- 
stances the coarser quartz, when fairly uniform in size, has been used 
for roofing, but with what success is not known. 

Much of the mica that was present in the original pegmatites has 
remained unaltered during the kaolinization of the feldspar and now 
occurs embedded in the crude clay. That which is in large flakes 
or aggregates of flakes is in many cases easily separable from the 
kaolin by hand and if clean and uniform in structure, it may be put 
on the market as "sheet mica" or "punch mica," depending upon its 
size. Indeed, some of the mines are now producing mica of this kind. 
Since in any case it must be removed from the mine and separated 
from the kaolin, the small, additional expense required to save and sort 
it is warranted by the price at which it can be sold. In some pegma- 
tites the mica is in very fine scales. Moreover, some of the coarser 
mica found in most dikes is so severely pounded and torn in the 
processes of refining the crude clay that it is shredded into fine par- 
ticles. The quantity of fine mica that passes the sand wheels is often 
very great. Much of it drops to the bottom in the mica troughs but 
the fine scales float out in the slip that goes to the settling tanks. By 
placing screens of the proper mesh in the sluice carrying the slip most 
of this mica might be saved and sold as "ground mica." At the Spruce- 
pine Mine an excellent grade of ground mica is now being saved at 
very little cost. 

Prospecting: 

All the deposits of kaolin now being operated within the State are 
on the slopes of hills in the mountain district, but unquestionably good 
deposits exist also in less exposed situations. That these have not been 
explored is due to a number of conditions, among them the fact that 
they are not so easily detected because usually covered by waste from 
the slopes. On slopes the debris produced by weathering is removed 
almost as rapidly as it is formed, and the white kaolin is exposed to 
view. At the base of slopes the narrow kaolin masses are covered by 
creep or wash from the overhanging hills and are frequently nearly 
completely obscured. 

In some places on flats or low slopes, where the kaolin cannot be 
seen, its existence beneath the soil may be inferred from the presence 
of large fragments or boulders of quartz on the surface. The boulders 
result from the decomposition of coarse pegmatites, as there are no 
other rocks in this portion of the State that yield large quartz boulders 
upon weathering. Consequently the presence of quartz boulders sug- 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 31 

gests decomposed pegmatites, and since the decomposition of pegmatites 
often produces kaolin, it follows that the presence of the boulders on 
the surface usually indicates the presence of kaolin beneath the surface. 

After the existence of kaolin has been determined it is desirable to 
ascertain its extent before undertaking any serious development to 
prove its value. This is done with an auger welded to a section of 
steel pipe long enough to enable the operator to penetrate the deposit 
at least 30 feet. The auger holes should be sunk at intervals of about 
15 feet in a series of lines at right angles to one another until enough 
area has been covered to establish definitely the width of the deposit 
and its general direction. Care should be taken to make sure that its 
actual limits have been reached before abandoning the cross-boring. 
It must be remembered that quartz horses are common in many of 
the deposits, and that they will stop the auger as effectually as wall 
rock. Before abandoning the cross-boring a large enough number of 
holes should be sunk to rock to establish the fact that the limit of the 
deposit has been reached in that direction. After proving the width 
of the dike, holes should be bored along its length through a distance 
that will leave no doubt as to its magnitude. These should be closely 
spaced along the borders of the deposit, but may be more widely spaced 
within its borders. 

After having determined that the size of the deposit is sufficient to 
warrant working, provided the quality of the kaolin seems satisfactory, it 
is necessary to obtain as nearly as possible an average sample for study. 
This is best done by driving a tunnel from the face of a slope into the 
deposit and cross-cutting, care being taken to grade the tunnel so that 
it will readily drain. Samples should be taken from the entire length 
of the walls of both tunnel and cross-cut, omitting only those portions 
occupied by horses so large that they would have to be left during 
mining. With this exception, all horses should be sampled as well as 
the pure kaolin, so that the sample may represent a fairly complete 
section of the walls throughout the entire extent of the mass that 
would be removed in mining. The sample thus obtained should be 
added to by the results of horizontal borings at definite intervals into 
the walls on both sides of the tunnel and cross-cut and by vertical 
borings into the overhead and foot. The samples should be preserved 
in bags and with each bag there should go a record explaining exactly 
how the sample was obtained and from what part of the deposit it 
was taken. This is important, as different portions of a deposit often 
yield materials with different properties, and it may be desirable to 
know something of the probable proportions in which they exist. 



32 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Watts 1 calls attention to several precautions which must be borne 
in mind in attempting to estimate the value of a deposit. He notes that 
in vertical boring the auger usually cuts the deposit obliquely, since 
most dikes have a distinct dip, and therefore may strike a narrow 
band of undesirable material, which, because of its loose texture and 
brittleness, may furnish fragments that may make the band seem 
wider than it really is. Care must be taken in lifting the auger that 
it may not tear off pieces of such a band, invalidating the sample. 
When boring from the surface he found it advisable to use a larger 
bit for penetrating the overburden and then to pack the sides of the 
hole with the aid of a smooth, round pole before boring into the kaolin, 
in order to prevent particles of the overlying clay or sand from fall- 
ing into the sample and contaminating it. 

After the several samples have been collected, one or more general 
samples should be made up by mixing the individual samples in their 
proper proportions and these general samples should be subjected to 
the tests that have been prescribed for determining the value of a 
kaolin for the purposes for which kaolins are used. A chemical analysis 
is not necessary, but a burning test is essential in case the kaolin is to 
be used in making whiteware of any kind. 

Uses of North Carolina Kaolins 

The kaolins of North Carolina are used in making china, semi- 
porcelain and porcelain, mosaic and other tile and in the manufacture 
of spark plugs and glass-melting pots. 

Their principal use is in the mix for burning into the various 
grades of china and other whiteware. It constitutes from 2% per cent 
to 15 per cent of the mix, the other ingredients usually being English 
ball and china clay, Florida kaolin, and often clays from other domes- 
tic sources. Some potters describe it as very satisfactory when not 
introduced into the mix in large quantity. Others declare that its 
use is objectionable in the manufacture of fine ware, but that if better 
cleaned it would be the equal of any English clay. In some instances 
it contains too much grit ; in others it is contaminated with particles of 
yellow material, which appear as tiny black specks in the finished 
ware. In a few cases it is apparently slowly replacing imported clay; 
in others its use is gradually being abandoned. One of the largest 
users reports that in the practice at his kilns it burns to a greenish 
body marred by black dots, and that as the demand for perfect ware 



Watts, A. S., Bureau of Mines Bui!. 53, p. 20-21, 1913. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 33 

is pressing he is compelled to diminish the quantity he has been using 
and is substituting for it English china clay. In one case, however, 
satisfactory ware is being produced from a mix containing only Amer- 
ican clays. In this North Carolina kaolin constitutes about 20 per 
cent of the mix. 

It is evident that while in the practice of some potters the kaolin 
from this State gives satisfactory results, in most cases it is not en- 
tirely satisfactory and consequently is used sparingly. It may be that 
with a change in the formulas at some of the potteries the quantity of 
North Carolina kaolin that could be introduced into the mix might 
be considerably increased. Nevertheless, a more certain means of ex- 
tending its use would be to change the method of washing the crude 
clay sufficiently to assure the removal of all the grit and other in- 
gredients that are so objectionable to the potters. 

One of the most promising uses of kaolin is in the manufacture of 
glass-melting pots. So far as is known commercial tests of the ap- 
plicability of North Carolina kaolins to this purpose have not been 
successful. Certain of the kaolins, however, have been used in making 
porcelain pots for optical glass, but this of course is a special use. 1 

DEPOSITS IN THE MOUNTAIN DISTRICT 
Kaolins from Pegmatite 

All the deposits of kaolin in North Carolina now being worked are 
in the mountain district and all of them are residuals from pegmatites. 
Besides these there are many other similar deposits which are not be- 
ing worked. Some of them are too small for profitable exploitation; 
others, though large, are not favorably situated with respect to rail- 
roads; others are owned by parties who are prevented from develop- 
ing them by lack of financial means and others are being held in re- 
serve by the owners of the present active plants. There are also other 
deposits, some of which are promising, that have not been brought 
to the attention of the public and many others the extent of which is 
not known because they have never been explored. All that are known 
are discussed. Many of them have been examined, but many others 
have not been seen. The facts concerning these are gleaned from earlier 
reports, to which reference is made in each case. The locations of all 
of them are indicated on the accompanying map (PI. II) by figures, 
identical with those prefixed to the names of the deposits in the text. 



'A. V. Bleininger. Bureau of Standards Technologic Paper No. 144, pp. 47-51, 1020. 

3 



34 THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAROLINA 

The active mines of the State are eight in number, located in Hay- 
wood, Jackson, Mitchell and Yancey counties. There are three others 
now inactive, but partly equipped for operation in Swain, Haywood 
and Mitchell counties and a score or more of promising deposits that 
might possibly be developed into producing properties under favor- 
able conditions. 

Deposits in Swain County 

Swain County contains no operating mines, though four have been 
operative in the past. Of these three have been permanently abandoned. 
The fourth is temporarily closed. Besides there are other deposits 
that have been described. 

(b) Payne and Sullivan Mine Xear Bryson 

J. H. Sullivan, Asheville, X. C. 

The Payne and Sullivan Mine is four miles southwest of Bryson 
near Yalaka Creek (see Pig. 1). The openings are a short distance 
from those formerly worked by the Carolina Clay Company at the 
head of Buckner Branch. The Carolina Clay Company's deposit was 
worked out some years ago but other dikes of kaolinized pegmatite 
have long been known to exist in the neighborhood and it is on one of 
these the Payne and Sullivan Mine has been opened. At the old mine 
the dike is reported 1 to have b.een 16 feet wide. It strikes N*. 15° E. 
and dips 75° S.E. It was rich in kaolin near the foot wall, but be- 
came progressively poorer toward the hanging near which the dike 
material was nearly all sand. There were pockets of garnet-colored 
sand in the kaolin and streaks of wall rock. A sample taken from 
across the entire width of the dike yielded 22 per cent of kaolin with 
a refractory value of 1,650° C. 

The Payne and Sullivan Mine is further south on the top of a steep 
slope. The mine has been closed down for several years. The build- 
ings of the washing plant are still standing in fairly good repair but 
all the machinery has been removed. It is stated by one of the present 
owners that the former lessees, who built the plant, operated the mine 
but a short time. They took out material that yielded about 250 tons 
of washed kaolin, of which they shipped 100 tons. The remaining 
150 tons is still in the storage sheds. When the mine was worked water 
was pumped 320 feet. The crude clay was trammed 300 feet from the 
mouth of the pit and sent down a chute to the refining plant at the 
bottom of the slope. The refined kaolin was hauled in wagons to a 
private road known as the Yalaka Railroad, and there loaded on stan- 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 124. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



35 



dard cars. When the mine is reopened it is intended to send the crude 
material from the old pit to the plant by a flume, to join the various 
new openings by a tramway already partly constructed and to sluice 
their product with that of the old opening. 




K 




X 



A 



Abandoned mine 



Prospect Direction of strike Strike and dip 
of bed of bed 



Fig. 1. Sketch map of kaolin deposits near Bryson, N. C. 
Lower case letters refer to abandoned mines. 
Figures refer to prospects and explorations. 
Letters and figures correspond to those in the text and on Plate II. 

There are at present two main openings on the property and a 
number of shafts, tunnels and test pits, nearly all of which expose 
excellent clay. The old pit is known as No. 1. A newer pit about 



36 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



half a mile further northeast is No. 2. Wherever exposed the clay 
appears to be in a dike that strikes about N. 20° E., or rather a series 
of ramifying dikes with a general northeasterly trend. In pit No. 1 
the width of the deposit is 40 or 45 feet, in pit No. 2 about 20 feet 
and in a shaft and tunnel 375 feet south of pit No. 2 the maximum 
width of clear kaolin is six feet. 




Fig. 2. Open pit, No. 1. Payne and Sullivan Mine, near Bryson. Looking southwest. The 
width of the pit represents approximately the width of the kaolinized dike that 
has been removed. 



Pit No. 1, which is 190 feet long and 40 feet wide, is an open cut 
along the strike of the dike. Its southeast wall is granite. Its contact 
with the kaolin is vertical so far as it has been uncovered. The north- 
west wall is in kaolin crossed by narrow horses of quartz and feldspar, 
but its east 50 feet is an intermixture of small streaks of clay in an 
undecomposed mass of quartz and feldspar. The opening consists of 
a terrace at its southwest end and along the west end of the north 
side about 40 feet above the bottom of the pit. The kaolin has been 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



37 



worked out to the bottom of the pit by open cut methods to a depth 
of about 65 feet from the original surface, and at the time the mine 
was abandoned material was being removed from the terrace with the 
aid of two shafts. At the. west end of the terrace is a cliff 40 feet 
high (see Fig. 2), that is pierced by a tunnel. Both cliff and tunnel 
expose kaolin traversed by many vertical streaks of quartz one inch 
wide. 

The clay occurring in this pit is dense and white. It is contaminated 
by little masses of partially decomposed feldspar, grains of quartz, 
soft crystals of partially decomposed muscovite and hard, black streaks 
of what is believed to be psilomelane or some other hard manganese 
oxide or hydroxide. 

Pit Wo. 2 is a small open cut across a thoroughly kaolinized dike, 
about 26 feet wide, exposing a surface of pure white clay. (See Figs. 2 
and 3). A tunnel has been driven into the face of the dike extending 
back about 30 feet along its strike. Just beyond the end of the tun- 
nel the dike ends in the face of a steep slope which cuts it off. In 
the tunnel the relations of the dike to the country rock are well shown. 
On its north wall the pegmatite sends irregular tongues into the granite 




Fig. 3. Sketch illustrating relations of kaolin and country rock, north wall of tunnel. Pit No. 2, Pay: 
and Sullivan Mine. 



and gneiss as illustrated in Figure 4, and on the south wall the same 
relations are shown in a less marked degree. Indeed, everywhere on 
the property the rock streaks occurring in the kaolin appear to be 
masses between tongues of kaolinized pegmatite.. 

The crude clay of pit No. 2 is like that of pit No. 1 but it con- 
tains more coarse quartz in sharp fragments and very little sand and 
mica. In some places in the tunnel it possesses a distinct graphic struc- 



38 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



ture. The quantity of clay in sight in this pit is estimated to be 
sufficient to yield 1,000 tons of washed kaolin. In this estimate no 
account has been taken of the amount of crude clay in the extension 
of the dike southwest of the pit, since its length in this direction has 
not been explored. 



Kaolin 



« 



ill 



Fig. 



Sketch showing relations of kaolin and mica schist at end of cross-cut near pit No. 2, Payn 
and Sullivan Mine. 



Between pits No. 1 and No. 2 are many smaller openings, some of 
which have exposed excellent white, almost porcelain-like clay, con- 
taining as visible impurities only an occasional coarse mica flake and 
a few sand particles. A boring in the bottom of the most promising 
shaft penetrated 39 feet of this kind of clay. 

Watts collected a sample representing the full width of the dike in 
pit No. 1, which yielded to laboratory washing methods 22 per cent 
of kaolin with a refractory value of 1,650° C. and a color of grade 5. 1 
Its shrinkage 2 was 3.8 per cent when dried at 110° C. and its total 
shrinkage 10.2 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The tensile strength 
of briquettes dried at 110° was eight pounds per square inch. 

Substituted for English China clay in the standard porcelain mixture 
and fired at 1,350° C. the result had a color described as of grade 5, a 
translucency of .65 and the transmitted light was yellow. The absorption 
of the fired mass was 2.2 per cent. Briquettes dried at 110° C. shrank 



x The color of the kaolin is its color after firing at 1350° C. It was checked against the standard Eng- 
lish china clay referred to below. This was given a color value of grade 5, and lighter shades were 
valued as grades 4 to 1, the latter being the whitest. 

^Shrinkage was determined by Watts (p. 55) by making wedges of the material to be tested and 
measuring them before and after drying and after firing; or by measuring before and after drying 
and after firing impressions made upon them by a die. 



THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAROLINA 



39 



2.4 per cent; when fired at 1,350° C. the shrinkage was 13.5 per cent. 
The color remained unchanged under the raw lead and, fritted glazes. 1 
The U. S. Bureau of Mines tested samples from pit JNo. 1 (No. 2.04) 
and pit No. 2 (No. 2.05). The result of these tests were as follows: 



Screen Tests 



Clay 


20M* 


20.65M 


65-100M 


100-200M 


Thru 200M 


2.04 
2.05 


0.53 
1.16 


36.56 
32.31 


7.85 
9.43 


12.40 
15.07 


42.64 
42.01 



*20M, 20-65M, etc. refer to the screens used. 



Moisture Present 

2.04=4.91% 
2 .05=3 .56% 



Water of Plasticity and Drying Shrinkage 



Clay No. 


Water of Plasticity 
per cent 


Volume Drying Shrinkage 
per cent 


2.04 
2.05 


41.63 

43.84 


20.13 
21.56 



x The standard porcelain mixture consists of 20 per cent standard feldspar, 30 per cent standard 
quartz and 50 percent of English china clay, having the composition: 



SiO-2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 0-3 


CaO 


MgO 


K2O 


Na 2 


Ti0 2 


Total 


46.86 


38.10 


.30 


.46 


.48 


1.18 


.30 


.00 


100.10 



This kaolin has a refractory value of 1690° C. and burns to a porous white mass at 1350° C. 

The standard porcelian mixture becomes vitreous white at 1.310° C. Its color after burning is of 
grade 5 and its translucency is .65. The shrinkage on drying at 110° C is 3 per cent and upon firing at 
1,319° C. is 12.6 per cent additional. The total shrinkage 1.310° C. is thus 15.6 per cent. 

In determining translucency, wedges of the parcelain mixture were "fired to the maturing tempera- 
tures of the standard feldspar and tested by determination of the maximum thickness, expressed in 
centimeters, at which can be detected a No. 20 wire on tha face of the trial next the lamp (16 candle 
power) with the lamp three inches distant from th3 trial." (Watts: Bureau of Mines Bull. 53, pp. 55-56.) 



40 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Per Cent Volume Shrinkage When Fired to Different Temperatures 



Clay No. 


1170° C 


1210° C 


1250° C 


1290° C 


1330° C 


1350° C 


2.04 


17.27 
14.25 


25.09 
25.99 


33.33 


37.26 
40.06 


48.35 




2.05 


42.42 











Per Cent Apparent Porosity When Fired to Different Temperatures 



Clay No. 


1170° C 


1210° C 


1250° C 


1290° C 


1330° C 


1350° C 


2.04 


39.64 
36.69 


34.64 
29.04 


24.20 


20.45 

7.88 


20.55 




2.05 


3.02 











Color When Fired 



2 .04 Good white 
2 .05 Good white 



Softening Temperatures 



Clay No. 


Cone. 


Cent. 


° Fah. 


2.04 
2.05 


34 
34 


1740 
1740 


3164 
3164 



The other two mines in Swain County ihat were formerly worked 
but which are now abandoned w r ere the Harris Mine near Bryson and 
the Hewitt Mine near Almond. Both are reported to have been worked 
out and there is no present prospect of their being reopened. 

(c) Harris Mine Near Bryson 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, N\ C. 
The Harris Mine was two and one-half miles north of Bryson, on 
the east flank of Sharptop Mountain. It was in a dike 40 to 60 feet 
wide in which were many bands of wall rock. The strike of the dike is 
X. 20° E., and is crossed by faults at intervals of about 150 feet. It 
is irregularly kaolinized, and in some places is stained yellow. In 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 41 

1911 this deposit had been worked to a depth greater than 35 feet, 
yielding a clay that when washed produced 22 per cent of white kaolin. 
In 1913, it had been about worked out, and the plant had been aban- 
doned. 

A similar deposit 1 was opened about one mile southwest, but was 
abandoned after a few months work and a new opening was made 
three miles farther northwest near Deep Creek. The refractory value 
of the washed kaolin was given by Watts as above 1,730° C. Its color 
when fired was grade 3. (See footnote, p. 39). Dried at 110° C. it 
shrank 4 per cent, and fired at 1,350° C. its total shrinkage was 12.8 
per cent. The tensile strength of the material dried at 110° was 14 
pounds per square inch. 

The standard porcelain mixture made with this kaolin when fired 
at 1,350° C. had a color of grade 3, a translucency of .63 and the trans- 
mitted light was cream colored. Its absorption was 3.3 per cent. The 
mixture dried at 110° shrank 2.8 per cent, and fired at 1,350° its 
shrinkage was 11.8 per cent. The color was unaffected by the raw 
lead and fritted glazes. 

(a) Hewitt Mine Near Almond 

F. K. Hewitt, Asheville, 1ST. C. 
The Hewitt Mine 2 at different times during its activity operated a 
number of openings in a belt running north and south at a distance 
of about two miles east of Almond on the Murphy Branch of the 
Southern Railway. Keith has noted that the pegmatite which gave 
rise to the kaolin occurs as small, round masses in graywackes and 
schists of the Great Smoky Conglomerate formation which is Cam- 
brian in age. This is unusual since in all other cases of kaolinized peg- 
matite the wall rocks are gneisses and schists of pre-Cambrian age. 
Six deposits were mapped. The mine at the time of Keith's visit was 
working the deposits two and one-half miles southeast of Almond on 
the east side of the road between this village and Needmore. The clay 
was being taken from the top and the southern slope of a small ridge. 
Test pits and a short tunnel proved its extent for about 450 feet in a 
north-south direction. About a mile further north is another kaolin 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, pp. 109 and 125. 

*Keith, Arthur. U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Nantahala folio, (No. 143), p. 8, 1007 



42 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

deposit and one-fourth mile west still a third one. Other deposits have 
been opened up by test pits two miles southwest and one and three- 
fourths miles northeast of the Hewitt Mine. At the last indicated 
locality there are two separate veins and the kaolin in them is at least 
50 feet deep. Later the deposit 1 on the west side of the road was 
opened. This was abandoned a few years ago and the entire plant 
has been closed. At this place a dike 20 to 30 feet wide, striking 
north and dipping 75° E. had been removed for a distance of 275 feet 
and to a depth of 40 to 60 feet. The pegmatitic material was incom- 
pletely kaolinized. 

The crude kaolin from this deposit had a refined kaolin content of 20 
per cent. The refined product was slightly off color. 2 Its refractory value 
was 1,650° C. The shrinkage of the kaolin in drying at 110° C. was 3.6 per 
cent, and upon firing at 1,350°, 8.7 per cent. The tensile strength of 
briquettes dried at 110° was six pounds per square inch. 

The porcelain mixture fired at 1,350° was of grade 6 color, was 
yellow by transmitted light, possessed a translucency of .66 and an 
absorption of 1.9 per cent. The drying shrinkage was 2 per cent and 
firing shrinkage 13.2 per cent. The color of the porcelain was not 
affected by the raw lead and fritted glazes. 

2, 3. Hyde and Messer Prospects Near Almond 

Two other openings in the neighborhood of the Hewitt Mine are 
referred to by Watts as the Hyde and the Messer prospects. 

The Hyde prospect is two and one-fourth miles north of east of 
Almond and one-fourth mile north of the Little Tennessee River. It 
may be the locality referred to by Keith as being one and three-fourths 
miles northeast of the Hewitt Mine. The deposit is in the form 
of an expanded lens covering an area of one and one-half to two acres. 
It was opened by five test holes and two tunnels, in one of which a 
width of twenty feet of kaolin was exposed. The lens is apparently 
pockety. It possesses no uniform dip, but is very irregular. The crude 
material 3 taken from the tunnel yielded 19 per cent of kaolin, which 
had a refractory value of 1,670° C. and a color, when fired, as of 
grade 6. The washed kaolin dried at 110° C. showed a shrinkage of 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 119. 

2This is described by Watts as of grade 6. (See foot-note p. 39), 

*Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 119. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 43 

4.2 per cent and fired at 1,350° C. a shrinkage of 8.8 per cent. The 
tensile strength of the material dried at 110° was eight pounds per 
square inch. 

A porcelain mixture with this kaolin, fired at 1,350° C. is grade 6 
color. The resulting porcelain has a translucency of .64 and an ab- 
sorption of 2.2 per cent. By transmitted light it is yellow. "When 
dried at 110° C. the mixture shrinks 2.1 per cent, and when fired at 
1,350° C, 8.8 per cent. The color is unaffected by the raw lead and 
fritted glazes. 

The Messer prospect is two miles south of east of Almond, and one- 
half mile south of the Little Tennessee River at an elevation of 200 
feet above the river. A dike is cut by two tunnels on opposite sides 
of a knoll and 25 feet below its crest. This dike appears to have a 
north strike and the dip where exposed is vertical. Mr. "Watts 2 states 
that the kaolin is of fair quality, but it contains many narrow streaks 
of stained material. 

Everett Prospect Near Bryson 

The only other tested deposit 3 in the county is the Everett prospect 
near Land Creek, two miles northwest of Bryson. This deposit is in 
a dike, perhaps nine feet wide, of semi-kaolinized material in which 
are some large quartz masses. The material yielded 28 per cent kaolin 
of grade 3 color and possessing refractory value above 1,730° C. When 
dried at 110° C. it shrank 4.3 per cent and when fired at 1,350° C, 
12.6 per cent. The tensile strength of the material dried at 110° was 
15 pounds to the square inch. 

A porcelian mixture fired at 1,350° C. was grade 3 color. Its trans- 
lucency was .65 and the absorption 4.7 per cent. By transmitted light 
it was cream colored. Dried at 110° C. mixture shrank 3 per cent 
and when fired at 1,350° C, 12.2 per cent. The Color of the fired mass 
was unaffected by the raw lead and fritted glazes. 

Deposits in Macon County 

There are no clay operations in Macon County during the present 
time. Formerly two mines, near Eranklin, were active producers, but 
for various reasons they have been closed within the past few years. 
One is still equipped for refining kaolin. The plant of the other has 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 120. 
2 Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 125. 



44 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



been completely destroyed. There are, however, a number of promis- 
ing prospects (Fig. 5) in the northeast quarter of the county, but 
their only outlet to the market is via the Tallulah Falls Railway of 
the Southern Railway system, which is roundabout. 




j? 



/ 



Mine 



Fig. 5. 



Prospect Direction of strike 

r of bed 

Sketch map of kaolin deposits near Franklin. 
Capital letters refer to active mines. 
Lower case letters refer to abandoned mines. 
Figures refer to prospects and explorations. 
Letters and figures correspond to those on Plate II. 



Dip and strike 
r of bed 



(d) Porter Property Near Franklin 

J. A. Porter, Franklin, K C. 
The Porter property was formerly worked by the Gurney Clay Com- 
pany as the Gurney Mine. It is situated four miles northwest of 
Franklin and three miles east of Burningtown on Iotla Creek. The 
snape of the pit, which has an average width of about 35 feet and is 
400 feet long, indicates that the deposit is a narrow lens, but since 
the width varies widely it is evident that the kaolin was pockety. 
Watts, 1 in describing the mine when in operation, states that "the 



l Watts, A. 8., L. c, p. 133. 



THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAKOLINA 



45 



kaolinized dike forms an expanded lens averaging about 200 feet in 
width and 300 feet in length already proven. . . . The lens con- 
sists of bands varying in kaolin content," but by mining the entire 
width of the dike a uniform product was obtained. At first mining 
was by shafts, some of which were 100 feet deep, but this proved so 
expensive that the open cut method was resorted to. The mine was 
worked about four years, producing about 250 tons of merchantable 
kaolin monthly. It was abandoned in 1914 not because of lack of 




Fig. G. East wall of Gurney Clay Company's pit, near Franklin. Showing inclusions of 
country rock in kaolin. 



material but in consequence of the lack of demand for kaolin in that 
year and because a red stain was developing in the output, which was 
caused by decomposed biotite, that it was found impossible to separate 
from the clay in mining and which necessarily had to be removed by 
hand-picking at a cost which was as great as the cost of mining. The 
time required for sorting limited the output of the plant to 250 tons 



46 



THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 



monthly, though its capacity was 500 tons. 1 Mr. Gurney believes he 
now has a method for eliminating the stained clay, which should enable 
the deposit to be operated successfully. 

It is not possible to study the relations of the clay to the rock in 
the pit at present because its walls are covered by wash. It can be 
seen, however, that there are several branching dikes. There are indi-" 
cations that the kaolin is crossed by horses of partly decomposed feld- 
spar and coarse quartz, and where the walls are exposed there are 
small veins of kaolin in the country rock and seemingly fragments of 
rock in the clay. (Fig. 6.) The fragments are probably portions 
of the country rock that had been surrounded by pegmatitic material. 
Muscovite bunches are common in the kaolin in many parts of the 
mine. In some parts it was so abundant that it was saved as a by- 
product. Biotite is also present but in smaller quantity. It is usually 
associated with quartz. That much quartz was mined with the clay 
is indicated by the fact that the waste heaps consist mainly of large 
fragments of the mineral. The overburden was not over ten feet in 
thickness anywhere. Its average thickness was about six feet. Accord- 
ing to Watts the yield of the deposit was almost 30 per cent of kaolin. 

The crude clay was white. As mined it contained a great deal of 
mica and quartz and much of it" was stained red. Mr. Watts reports 
that kaolin washed from the crude clay taken from the richer pockets 
to have the following composition: 



SiC-2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 Os 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K 2 


Ti0 2 


H2O 


Total 


44.00 


40.79 


.11 


tr 


tr 


.07 


.55 


tr 


14.72 


100.24 



The crude clay was washed and pressed in a plant a few hundred 
yards from the pit and when dried was hauled by teams to Franklin. 
It was sold under the name "Iotla brand" and was used by many 
of the potters in the Ohio Valley. 

The buildings of the washing plant are still in good repair but 
some of the machinery has been removed. 

According to Watts the kaolin washed from samples collected by 
himself, had a refractory value above 1,730° C. Its color after firing 
was grade 1 and its tensile strength when dried at 110° C. was 27.5 
pounds per square inch. Air-dried briquettes at 110° C. suffered a shrink- 
age of 5.4 per cent, and upon firing at 1,350° C. a shrinkage of 11.9 
per cent. 



'Communicated by Mr. J. W. Gurney in letter dated Aug. 14, 1918. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 47 

A porcelain mixture made with this kaolin when fired at 1,350° C. 
was grade 1 in color. It possessed a translucency of .72 and the ab- 
sorption was 6.5 per cent. The light transmitted through it was cream- 
white. The shrinkage at 110° C. was 3.2 per cent and at 1,350° C. 
was 12.4 per cent. Under the glazes used the color was not affected. 

(e) Johnston Property Near Franklin 

W. E. Johnston, Sylvester, Ga. 

The Johnston property was formerly worked by the Southern Clay 
Company. It was operated only two years when the lease was sur- 
rendered, the plant dismantled and the company dissolved. One of 
the causes of the abandonment of the mine was the difficulty of handling 
the water. There were a number of openings on the northeast flank 
of Tremont Mountain, the principal one being about one mile north- 
west of Franklin postoffice. 

At present little can be seen on the surface. Most of the workings 
have fallen in and covered their walls. About half a mile back of 
the main workings mica is now being taken from some of the old shafts 
and tunnels and they have been cleaned out. Three of the openings 
expose kaolin for a breadth of about ten feet, but much of this is badly 
stained near the surface. With increased depth, however, the staining 
diminishes and at 25 feet underground the clay is uniformly white. 
It contains many bunches of large mica plates which, as has been 
stated, are now being removed for sale. 

The main workings consist of an open pit 400 feet long and 50 feet 
wide and a shaft 125 feet deep to water. The walls of the pit are 
nearly vertical and its trend is a little north of east. The crude clay 
contained some coarse quartz and a great deal of fine mica, beside 
clumps of large plates, like those that are being mined further to the 
northeast. This was saved and sold. The fine mica was separated 
during the process of washing the clay and was thrown aside. Large 
dump heaps on the site of the old plant are composed almost exclusively 
of fine white mica scales which might possibly have been saved and 
sold as ground mica. 

It is reported by Mr. Johnston that about 4,000 tons of refined clay 
were sold and that it was used in the manufacture of whiteware and tile. 

Mr. "Watts 1 visited the mine just before the plant was abandoned. 
He reports that the main pit was on a well-defined pegmatite dike 16 
to 20 feet wide, striking K 90° E. and dipping 70° S. The wall 
rock is gneiss and was divided through its middle by another quartz 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 142. 



48 



THE KAOLINS OF XOKTH CAROLINA 



band. It contained small pockets of dark red sand and isolated pieces 
of weathered biotite surrounded by zones of stained clay three or four 
inches thick. Watts thinks the cost of mining was unnecessarily high 
because all material was removed by shafts. The overburden varied 
from 5 to 25 feet. The shafts were sunk vertically on the deposit, 
passing through the belt of quartz, and reaching the clay by cross-cuts. 

For a depth of 25 feet the kaolin was of a high grade. Lenses of 
feldspathic sand appeared at about this level, but below this to a 
depth of about 80 feet "the kaolin content of the dike is in excess of 
what would be expected from the kaolinization of average pegmatite, 
and approaches very closely the theoretical maximum from the de- 
composition of feldspar." Below the 80-foot level semi-kaolinized feld- 
spar began to appear and at the 100-foot level nearly pure fresh ortho- 
clase occurred. The deposit was reasonably uniform for about 120 
feet along its strike, but it disappeared almost completely on the east 
slope of the hill. A second dike is parallel to the first one and 30 
yards south of it, but the kaolin in it is so stained as to be unmarket- 
able. A number of other deposits scattered over the property are too 
small to be of value. 

The greatest difficulty in the mining of the clay was due to the 
great quantity of water encountered in the shafts. At 60 feet in depth 
the removal of the water became a "considerable problem'' and at the 
depth of 100 feet about half the time of operation was spent in hoist- 
ing the water to the surface in buckets. Xo attempt seems to have 
been made to get rid of the water in any other way than by bailing. 

The crude clay taken from the main dike yielded by washing 40 
per cent of white kaolin with the composition: 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


TiCh 


H2O 


Total 


46.67 


39.07 


.11 


tr 


tr 


.11 


.25 


.02 


13.22 


99.45 



The refractory value of the washed kaolin was above 1,730° and 
its color was grade 1. Dried at 110° C, its tensile strength was 25 
pounds per square inch, its shrinkage 4 per cent, and when fired at 
1,350° C, 11 per cent. 

The standard mixture with this kaolin, fired at 1,350° C, was pure 
white. Its translucency was .93 and its absorption 7 per cent. The 
transmitted light was white. Its shrinkage at 110° C. was 3.4 per 
cent, and when fired at 1,350° C. was 9.9 per cent. Its color remained 
unaltered under glazes. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 49 

9. Cunningham Prospect Near Franklin 

C. C. Cunningham, Franklin, "N. C. 
Across a valley from the east end of the Johnston property, where 
the main dike of kaolin is reported to have disappeared (see above), 
the dike reappears on the property of Mr. C. C. Cunningham, where 
it was worked through a number of shafts and pits as a source of 
mica. One shaft 25 feet deep penetrated 10 feet of overburden and 
15 feet of clay. A boring in its bottom went through 35 feet more of 
similar clay. Two other shafts 25 feet deep and a third 60 feet deep 
also exposed clay all the way under the overburden. It is thought 
that the depth of the kaolinization increases toward the east. Mr. 
Cunningham reports that borings and test pits outline a dike 22 feet 
wide and at least 1,500 feet long. It strikes a little north of east and 
dips about vertical. There is a great deal of mica in the clay and 
considerable quartz. It is possible that the kaolin and mica might be 
mined together. 

(/) Iotla Mine Near Franklin 

Chapman and Gudger, Asheville, U". C. 

The Iotla Mine, or the Franklin Kaolin and Mica Company's mine, 
is four and one-fourth miles north of Franklin on the west side of 
Little Tennessee River, at Iotla Bridge. The place is now abandoned. 
It was originally worked for mica and later for kaolin. Watts, 1 in 
his description of the mine shortly after it was abandoned, states that 
the development consisted of 10 tunnels and 12 shafts, some of the 
latter of which are 120 feet deep. The dike had been mined for 550 
feet in length and for a width that varied between 10 and 100 feet. 
Although layers of sugar quartz bordered the kaolin and a streak 
ran through the center of the dike, the crude clay contained very little 
quartz. A sample taken by Watts from one of the shafts yielded 42 
per cent of white kaolin of excellent quality. 

It is probable that when the property was worked for kaolin it 
was not on a very large scale as there is no evidence that any large 
quantity of material was ever removed from the ground. Moreover, 
all the dumps consist almost exclusively of mica. The most accessible 
part of the mine at present is a tunnel 150 feet long at the base of 
the hill, near the river. It is nearly all the way in a white clay, cut 
here and there by rock horses and crossed by numerous streaks of 
muscovite crystals and groups of crystals. The clay surrounding the 
mica crystals contains a comparatively small amount of quartz sand 



iWatts. A. S., L. c, p. 133. 
4 



50 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

and abundant tiny white mica flakes. Farther up on the hill-slope 
are six or seven other tunnels and a shaft in clay, and near the top 
of the hill is a large tunnel through clay, mica and quartz. It is 
reported by men who have worked on the property that mica was 
much more plentiful near the top of the hill than lower down, and 
that the quality of the kaolin was better at the lower levels. 

From the large number of pits and shafts scattered over the prop- 
erty it would seem natural to infer that there are present numerous 
small dikes of pegmatite and many small pockets of kaolin. Some of the 
largest appear to be promising. 

The sample collected by Watts from the only shaft that was open 
at the time of his visit was carefully washed and tested. Its color 
was grade 1 and its refractory value above 1,730° C. Wlien dried at 
110° C. its shrinkage was 5.2 per cent and when fired at 1,350° C. 
was 12.4 per cent. The tensile strength of the material dried at 110° 
C. was 24 pounds per square inch. 

When made up into the standard porcelain mixture and fired at 
1,350° C. the translucency was .72, the absorption 6.2 per cent and 
color of grade 1. The transmitted light was cream- white. When the 
mixture was dried at 110° it shrank 5.2 per cent and when fired at 
1,350° C, 12.8 per cent. The color was not changed under the usual 
glazes. 

Of the many other deposits known to exist in Macon County only a 
few have been prospected in a way to furnish any idea of their value. 
Most of them were originally opened as mica mines and, as is com- 
monly the case in this situation, the value of the kaolin was com- 
pletely disregarded. Moreover, most of them are so far from the 
railroad that the expense of marketing their product would be pro- 
hibitive, unless several of them in the same neighborhood should de- 
velop into much larger deposits than now seems probable. 

5. McGuire Exploration ]^"ear Franklin 

W. B. McGuire, Franklin, K C. 

The two localities that appear to offer the best prospects are the 
McGuire and the Ferguson explorations. 

The McGuire exploration is about three and one-half miles west 
of Franklin on the southwest slope of Tremont Mountain. The de- 
posit is on a dike 18 feet wide that strikes northeast and dips SO 
degrees southeast. Mr. J. H. Pratt made an examination of the prop- 
erty in 1915 and reported that at various places over an area of about 
two miles a number of openings have exposed kaolin, but only at a 
few places in commercial quantities. The most important of these are 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 51 

two tunnels. One, 72 feet long, runs N". 40° E., penetrates kaolin 
for 22 feet and then enters country rock. At the contact of the kaolin 
and country rock a drift extends E. 10° S. for a distance of 15 feet. 
The original pegmatite has been almost completely kaolinized; the 
only unaltered rock observed in the dike is a little feldspar associated 
with a band of quartz. In the kaolin is a little scattered mica and 
an occasional nest of "decomposed garnet." A second tunnel 200 yards 
S. 50° E. from the first one starts at the contact of the dike and the 
country rock and follows the hanging wall for 108 feet. At a point 
56 feet from the mouth of the tunnel is a cross-cut running N". 30° E. 
crossing the dike which is 18 feet wide. The kaolin cut by the cross- 
cut is like that cut by the drift from the first tunnel. Assuming that 
the deposit is continuous between the two tunnels and that kaoliniza- 
tion has extended to a depth of 100 feet, Pratt estimates 18,000 tons 
of washed kaolin present, provided the yield is 30 per cent of the 
crude clay. 

About 900 feet in a direction S. 60° E. from the tunnel is a shaft 
20 feet deep, that cuts 12 feet of kaolin like that in the tunnels. To 
the east and the west of the shaft are exposures of kaolinized material 
for a distance of one and one-fourth miles, but only at one point is it 
exposed in promising quantity. This is at a tunnel in the woods west 
of the shaft. It is cut into a hill 120 feet, and at this point it en- 
countered the foot wall of a dike which was again exposed in a shaft 
30 feet or more above the tunnel. At the extreme western end of the 
property a shaft on the top of a little hill rising 60 feet above a creek 
struck clay at a depth of 30 feet. Another shaft 86 feet from this 
one struck clay at the same elevation and several small pits exposed 
it in other places. These indicate the presence of a mass of kaolin 
about 100 feet broad. Its other dimensions were not disclosed. Some 
of the kaolin is stained by iron oxide but otherwise it is good. 

Mr. McGuire reports considerable boring on the property since 
Pratt's visit, but he cannot give details as to the results. 

Mr. Watts 1 sampled the material in the dikes, and found that in a 
washing test it yielded 42 per cent of a cream-colored kaolin, which 
analyzed : 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe20s 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


KjO 


TiO-2 


H:0 


Total 


46.35 


39.00 


.30 


tr 


tr 


.00 


.50 


tr 


14.00 


100.51 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 137. 






52 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Mr. Lillibridge, of the American Encaustic Tiling Company, for 
whom some of the boring was done, states in a letter to the writer 
that the kaolin is of a sufficiently high standard to meet the require- 
ments of wall-tile manufacturers. 

The kaolin can be economically mined as there is a good supply of 
water for all purposes, and a down grade to a good road. 

Its color was grade 3 and its refractory value above 1,730° C. The 
tensile strength of the material dried at 110° C. was 27.5 pounds per 
square inch, and its shrinkage 5.7 per cent. When fired at 1,350° C. 
it shrank 10.5 per cent. 

The standard porcelain mixture made up with this kaolin shrank 
3.2 per cent when dried at 110° C. When fired at 1,350° C. its shrink- 
age was 14.2 per cent. The translucency of the burned batch was .72, 
its absorption 5.4 per cent and its color grade 3. The light transmitted 
through it was cream-colored. The usual glazes did not affect its color. 

Most of the remaining deposits known to exist in Macon County 
have been described by Watts. They have nearly all been explored 
sufficiently to uncover unquestionable kaolin in reasonable quantities, 
but none have been worked. 

1. Smith Prospect ^ear Franklin 

The Smith prospect 1 on Little Tellico Creek, nine miles northwest 
of Franklin, is a completely kaolinized dike exposed by a 40-foot 
tunnel and an open pit. Where opened, the dike is 75 feet above 
the creek. It is nearly 200 feet wide, but is interrupted by several 
horses of wall rock, so that the width of the pegmatite is only about 
50 feet. Its strike is northeast, and its dip 80° northwest. The ma- 
terial sampled yielded 39 per cent of kaolin with a refractory value 
of 1,670° C, and a composition as follows: 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


Ti0 2 


H2O 


Total 


48 05 


37.69 


.31 


tr 


tr 


.02 


.91 


tr 


12.55 


99.53 



The color of the washed kaolin was of grade 4. The tensile strength 
of the material dried at 110° C. was 20.5 pounds per square inch and 
its shrinkage 6.8 per cent. When fired at 1,350° C. the total shrink- 
age was 12 per cent. 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 141. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



53 



The porcelain mixture made up with this Kaolin showed a shrinkage of 
3.2 per cent when dried at 110° C, and 12.4 per cent when fired at 
1,350° C. The burned porcelain showed a translucency of .71 and 
transmitted cream-colored light. The absorption was 4 per cent and 
color of grade 4. The color remained unaltered under the raw lead 
and fritted glazes. 

6. Chalk Mica Mine Near Burningtown 

Watts describes the Chalk Mica Mine 1 as being six miles northwest 
of Franklin and two miles north of the Franklin-Burningtown road, 
but on the map accompanying the Watts report it is placed three and 
three-fourths miles northwest of Franklin and one-fourth mile south 
of the road named. The deposit is said to strike N". 30° E. and to 
dip vertical. It has been proven for 50 yards by a tunnel, which ex- 
poses excellent kaolin, and by an open cut in a sandy kaolin. A sample 
averaged from the two exposed portions gave 35 per cent of kaolin 
with a refractory value above 1,730° C. Its color was of grade 3, and 
its tensile strength when dried at 110° C. was 15.5 pounds per square 
inch. Its shrinkage at 110° C. was 5.7 per cent and at 1,350° C was 
13.7 per cent. 

The porcelain mixture of which this kaolin is a component showed 
a shrinkage of 3 per cent when dried at 110° C. and 14.8 per cent 
when fired at 1,350° C. The fired mass had a translucency of .65 and 
transmitted cream-colored light. Its color was grade 3, and its absorption 
6 per cent. With both the raw lead and fritted glazes the porcelain 
assumed a pale green tint. 

4. Lenoir Prospect Wear Franklin 

The Lenoir prospect 2 is three and three-fourths miles south of west of 
Franklin, near the Franklin-Andrews road. A dike 20 feet wide is 
exposed on the slope of a hill by two tunnels. Its strike is west and 
dip vertical. Its material is crossed by small streaks of iron-stained 
sands and is penetrated by narrow seams of feldspathic substance, and 
it contains small pockets of micaceous minerals. A sample yielded 
38 per cent of white kaolin with a refractory value above 1,730° C. 
Its tensile strength at 110° C. was 20 pounds per square inch. Its 
shrinkage at the same temperature was 6.4 per cent and at 1,350°, 
14.9 per cent. When fired its color was of grade 1. 

When introduced into the standard porcelain mixture the shrinkage 
of this was 3.6 per cent when dried at 110° C, and 11.6 per cent 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 132. 
2 Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 136. 



54 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



when fired at 1,350° C. The translucency of the fired mixture was 
.67, its color of grade 1 and its absorption 7.1 per cent. The trans- 
mitted light was cream-colored. Under the raw lead and fritted glazes 
the color was unchanged. 

7. Eaby Mica Mine Near Franklin 

The Eaby Mica Mine 1 is two and one-half miles northwest of Frank- 
lin, on the northeast slope of Tremont Mountain. The dike with its 
stringers has an aggregate width of about 300 feet. It strikes X. 10° E. 
The stringers average about 15 feet wide. They hare been explored 
for a distance of 500 feet by tunnels. Other dikes have been prospected 
one-fourth mile to the northwest, one-fourth mile to the northeast, and 
one-fourth mile to the east. A sample of the material from the first 
deposit yielded 45 per cent of kaolin with a refractory value above 
1,730° C. Its composition was: 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K 2 


Ti0 2 


H 2 


Total 


46.90 


38.60 


.25 


tr 


tr 


.26 


.39 


tr 


13.80 


100.23 



The color of the washed kaolin was of grade 3 when fired at 1,350° C. 
When dried at 110° its tensile strength was 21.5 pounds per square inch, 
and its shrinkage 6.25 per cent. Fired at 1,350° C. the shrinkage 
was 13.5 per cent. 

The shrinkage of the porcelain mixture made with this kaolin was 
2.2 per cent at 110° C, and 13.2 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The 
translucency was .71, the absorption 6 per cent and the color of grade 3. 
The transmitted light was cream-colored. Under both the raw lead and 
fritted glazes the body color was pale green. 

8. Poster Mica Mine Xear Franklin 

The Porter Mica Mine, 2 one and one-half miles south of west of 
Franklin, is an old one abandoned some time ago. The dumps contain 
kaolin of fair quality, but no record of the dimensions of the deposit 
is obtainable. 

10. Moore Mica Mine Xear Franklin 

The Moore Mica Mine 3 is one mile north of Franklin, about 80 feet 

above the Little Tennessee River. It was opened by two tunnels and 

two shafts that do not cut the main dike. One shaft exposes an over- 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 139. 
nVatts, A. S., L. c, p. 138. 
3\Vatts, A. S., L. c, p. 138. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 55 

burden of 20 feet and 9 feet of kaolin that is very free from impurities 
and low in quartz. A part of the dike, however, is not completely 
kaolinized. Its strike is K 40° E. and its dip 85° KW. The sample 
contained 34 per cent of white kaolin, with a refractory value above 
1,730° C. When dried at 110° C. the tensile strength of this kaolin is 
28 pounds per square inch and its shrinkage 7 per cent. When fired 
at 1,350° C, its color was of grade 1 and its total shrinkage 15.7 per cent. 
The porcelain mixture with this kaolin shrank 3 per cent at 110° 
and 12 per cent at 1,350° C. The color of the fired mixture was of grade 

I, its translucency was .64, and its absorption 7.6 per cent. The trans- 
mitted light was cream-white. Under raw lead and fritted glazes the 
color Avas pale green. 

II. Lyle Prospect Near Franklin 
The Lyle prospect 1 is one and one-half miles northeast of Franklin, 

near the Dillsboro road. It is on a dike 15 feet wide that strikes north- 
east and dips 75° northwest. It has been opened for a depth of only 
10 feet, exposing a great variation in kaolinization. The material col- 
lected from the least weathered portion of the deposit yielded 26 per 
cent of cream-colored kaolin of a refractory value 1,690° C. Its color 
when fired was grade 3. Its shrinkage at 110° C. was 5.2 per cent and 
when fired at 1,350° C, 15.8 per cent. The tensile strength of the 
kaolin dried at 110° C. was 16 pounds per square inch. 

When made into the standard porcelain mixture the shrinkage at 
110° C. was 3.3 per cent and when fired at 1,350° C, 12.8 per cent. The 
fired mass had a color of grade 3, a translucency of .67, and absorp- 
tion of 3.1 per cent. Its transmitted light was cream-colored. The raw 
lead and fritted glazes produced no change in color. 

12. Kasson Mica Mine Near Franklin 

At the Kasson Mica Mine 2 two miles northeast of Franklin is a 
dike with many stringers from 6 to 16 feet in width that have been 
worked for mica. The main dike strikes N". 40° E. and dips 75° 
N.W. to 80° S.E. Where exposed the pegmatite is thoroughly kaolin- 
ized and much kaolin is on the dumps. The kaolin is badly 
iron-stained from altered biotite and it contains pockets of garnet- 
colored sand. A sample taken from the dumps, when washed, yielded 
41 per cent of pink kaolin with a refractory value above 1,730° C. 
It is possible that by careful selection a better colored product might 
be obtained. Enormous quantities of what was once high-grade kaolin 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 137. 
2 Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 135. 



56 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

now lie on the dumps ruined by mixture with fragments of wall rock. 
When dried at 110° C. the shrinkage of the sample collected by Watts 
was 4.7 per cent, and when fired at 1,350° C, 14.1 per cent. The 
tensile strength of the dried material was 18 pounds per square inch. 

When introduced into the porcelain mixture and dried at 110 z C. 
the shrinkage was 3.2 per cent, and when fired at 1,350° C, 13.3 per 
cent. The fired product had a translucency of .71, an absorption of 
5.6 per cent and a color of grade 3. The transmitted light was cream- 
colored. Under the usual glazes the tint assumed was a very pale green. 

13. Billings Prospect Near Franklin 

D. M. Billings, Franklin, X. C. 

A few hundred yards northeast of the Kasson Mine is a tunnel on 
land belonging to Mr. D. M. Billings of Franklin. It was originally 
dug for mica, but is reported to have penetrated good kaolin. The 
tunnel has caved so that it is impossible to enter it. The dump at 
its mouth consists of rock fragments and books of mica, but no kaolin. 
It is possible that this is one of the outlying openings of the Kasson 
Mine. 

15. Frank Prospect Near Dean 
At the Frank prospect 1 , three miles northeast of Franklin, near 

Dean, a dike of kaolinized pegmatite strikes west. It varies from 12 
to 15 feet in width. It has been opened by shafts and a tunnel. 
The material exposed is sandy, but it yields 31 per cent of a white 
kaolin, of a refractory value above 1,730° C. The color of this, when 
fired, was of grade 3 and its tensile strength when dried at 110° C. 
was 18 pounds per square inch. Dried at 110° C. it shrank 5.4 per 
cent, and fired at 1,350° C. its shrinkage was 15.1 per cent. 

The porcelain mixture made up with this kaolin shrank 3 per cent 
when dried at 110° C. and 13.2 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The 
fired product possessed a translucency of .63 and an absorption of 4.9 
per cent and a color of grade 3. The transmitted light was cream- 
colored. Under the raw lead and fritted glazes the body assumed a 
pale green tint. 

16, 17, 18. Myers, Sloan and Sanders Prospects Near Franklin 
The Myers prospect 2 is two and three-fourths miles north of Franklin 

and one-half mile southwest of the Sloan deposit. It is opened by 
small pits for a distance of 25 feet. The maximum width of the de- 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 132. 
2 Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 138. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



57 



posit is 12 feet, but it has been penetrated only five feet in depth and 
consequently the character of the kaolin could not be determined. 

The Sloan prospect is about midway between the Myers and Sanders 
prospects, about three miles north of Franklin. The deposit developed 
by a single open cut 50 feet above the Little Tennessee River is eight 
to ten feet wide, strikes northeast and dips 80° northwest. The dike 
is completely kaolinized, but it contains much fine quartz, a narrow 
quartz band along its hanging wall and much stained mica near its 
foot wall. A sample 1 yielded 30 per cent of kaolin w T ith a refractory 
value above 1,730° C. 

The Sanders prospect 2 is three and three-fourths miles north of 
Franklin and one-half mile northeast of the Sloan prospect. The 
dike exposed here when Watts visited the property strikes north 20° 
west and its visible kaolinized portion was about 20 feet wide. It 
was clearly defined by quartz bands along its walls, and by seams of 
partly decomposed pegmatite 8 to 15 feet wide. (See also descrip- 
tion of Ferguson property, below.) It had been opened by a tunnel 
120 feet long from which was taken a sample, which when washed 
yielded 29 per cent of kaolin with a refractory value above 1,730° C. 

Mr. Watts reports the kaolins from the Sloan and Sanders prop- 
erties and the porcelain mixtures containing them to have the follow- 
ing properties : 



Kaolins 



Color, after firing 

Tensile strength at 110° C, per square inch... 

Shrinkage at 110° C 

Total shrinkage when fired at 1350° C 

Porcelain Mixtures 

Shrinkage at 110° C 

Total shrinkage when fired at 1350° C 

Translucency of fired mass 

Absorption of fired mass 

Color of fired mass 

Color of transmitted light through fired mass 
Color under raw-lead and fritted glazes 



Sanders 



Sloan 



Grade 3 


Grade 3 


14 lbs. 


22 lbs. 


4.5% 


6.4% 


13 .8% 


15.2% 


3.4% 


3.2% 


13 .5% 


12 .3% 


.69 


.69 


5.3% 


7.1% 


Grade 3 


Grade 3 


Cream 


Cream 


Pale green 


Pale green 



14. Ferguson Exploration Near Franklin 

J. W. Ferguson, Waynesville, N". 0. 

The Ferguson property is about four miles northeast of Franklin, 

near Watauga Creek. The property, which is probably the same as 

the Sanders prospect, has been explored by a tunnel running 



Watts, A. S. f L. c, P. 141. 
2 Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 140. 



58 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

northeast into the side of a ridge. The tunnel cut 95 feet of kaolin 
in which is a 20-foot horse of partially altered feldspar and streaks 
of quartz. ^N"ear the end of the tunnel is a cross-cut about 50 feet 
long, all in excellent clay. That on the northwest side of the tunnel 
contains considerable coarse mica that is probably merchantable. There 
is also a little feldspar that might also prove of value. Xear the end 
of the tunnel is a shaft 14 feet deep and in the bottom of this a boring 
20 feet deep to hard rock. Since the mouth of the tunnel is 45 feet 
below the top of the ridge it is safe to assume the depth of the kaolin- 
ization to be 70 feet. 

A sketch showing the distribution of tire borings with reference to 
the tunnel is given in Figure 7. It is evident that they do not outline 

NO.I2 

NO.M- 

Nall °2o' 

22' 




The figures showing feet indicate depths 
into day 

Dotted lines represent horizontal borings 
O 50 100 Feet 

Fig. 7. Sketch map of borings on Ferguson property, near Franklin. 

the deposit. On the assumption that it has been proven for a length 
of 200 feet, a width of 48 feet and a depth of 60 feet, and that 25 
per cent of the kaolin in the crude material is recoverable, the amount 
of refined kaolin obtainable from the deposit is about 6,500 tons. 

The kaolin in the tunnel is snow-white and free from grit and visible 
impurities of all kinds, except the large flakes of mica already referred 
to. That on the old dump at the mouth of the tunnel is slightly stained. 

Since the deposit Avhere exposed is near the top of a slope 70 feet 
above its base, mining would be comparatively easy. Abundant water 
is available near by. It could be pumped to the top of the ridge and 
used for sluicing the crude clay to a washer situated in the valley 70 
feet below. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



59 



Samples of the crude kaolin (2.06) were tested by the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines. The results of these tests were as follows: 



Screen Tests 



Clay No. 


20M* 


20-65M 


65-100M 


100-200M 


Thru 200M 


2.06 


0.85 


17.48 


7.27 


11.03 


63.36 



'20M, 20-65M, etc. refer to the screens used. 



Moisture Present 
2.06—3.31% 



Water of Plasticity and Drying Shrinkage 



Clay No. 


Water of Plasticity Per Cent 


Volume Drying Shrinkage Per Cent 


2.06 


39.03 


22.58 



Per Cent Apparent Porosity When Fired to Different Temperatures 



Clay No. 


1170° C 


1210° C 


1250° C 


1290° C 


1330° C 


1350° C 


2.06 


65.68 


31.72 








3.02 













Per Cent Volume Shrinkage When Fired to Different Temperatures 



Clay No. 


1170° C 


1210° C 


1250° C 


1290° C 


1330° C 


1350° C 


2.06 


32.12 


25.24 








48.63 













Color When Fired 
Clay No. 2.06 Fair white 



Softening Temperatures 



Clay No. 


Cone 


Cent. 


Fah. 


2.06 


33J i 


1730 


3146 



60 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



19. Eochester Mica Mine Xear Franklin 
The Eochester Mica Mine 1 is on Lisle Knob, five miles north of 

Franklin. It is 150 feet east and 25 feet above the fresh pegmatite 
worked by the Lisle Knob Mica Mine. The Eochester dike is thoroughly 
decomposed to a high-grade kaolin containing many small iron garnets. 
It strikes K 10° E. and dips 80° I.I.; is five to ten feet wide and 
is uniform in character. It is exposed about 60 feet below the crest 
of the mountain by a tunnel for 40 feet along its strike. A care- 
fully selected sample contained 44 per cent of kaolin with a refractory 
value above 1,730° C. Its color after firing was of grade 2 and its 
tensile strength when dried at 110° C. was 24 pounds per square inch. 
Its shrinkage at 110° C. was 6.2 per cent and during firing at 1,350° C. 
was 13.8 per cent. 

The porcelain mixture with this kaolin shrank 2.6 per cent at 110° 
C. and 13 per cent at 1,350° C. The translucency of the fired product 
was .70, its color of grade 2 and its absorption 5.8 per cent. The 
transmitted light was cream-colored. With the glazes the color changed 
to a very pale green. 

20, 21. West and Bryson Prospects Near West's Mill 
The West prospect 2 is one-fourth mile southeast of West's Mill, on 

a dike about 25 feet wide that strikes west and dips 80° south. The 
deposit is opened by two tunnels, 25 and 45 feet below the crest of 
the hill through which the dike cuts. The West prospect is on the 
east slope of the hill and the Bryson prospect on its west slope, 75 
feet below the crest. At the Bryson locality the dike is said to strike 
northwest and to dip vertically, but Mr. Watts states that it is un- 
doubtedly the same dike as that exposed on the West property. At 
the West prospect the pegmatite is not completely kaolinized. A sam- 
ple taken from it yielded 29 per cent of kaolin with a refractory value 
of 1,730° C. The composition of the washed material was: 



SiC-2 


AI2O3 


FezOs 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


TiC-2 


H2O 


Total 


48.92 


36 .37 


.37 


tr 


tr 


.11 


.29 


.02 


12.70 


98.78 



The Bryson prospect 3 is just west of the West prospect near West's 
Mill. The deposit is on a dike 15 feet wide, that may be the exten- 



HVatts, A. S., L. c, p. 140. 
nVatts, A. S., L. c, p. 145. 
■nVatts, A. S., L. c, p. 131. 



THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAROLINA 



61 



sion of that at the West prospect. 1 It is opened by a tunnel 120 feet 
long at a level 50 feet lower than the opening at the West prospect. 
The material is well kaolinized, yielding 38 per cent of kaolin with a 
refractory value above 1,730° C. 

The character of the kaolin washed from samples obtained from 
these two properties is recorded by Watts as follows : 



Kaolins 
Color, after firing 

Tensile strength per square inch when dried at 110° C 

Shrinkage at 110° C 

Shrinkage when fired at 1350° C 

Porcelain Mixtures 

Shrinkage at 110° C 

Shrinkage at 1350° C._ 

Color at 1350° C 

Translucency after firing at 1350° C 

Absorption after firing at 1350° C. 

Color by transmitted light after firing at 1350° C 

Color under raw-lead and fritted glazes 



Bryson 



West 



Grade 2 


Grade 3 


28 lbs. 


24 lbs. 


6.6% 


7.0% 


17.3% 


18. 0% 


3.4% 


3.6% 


14 .0% 


14.2% 


Grade 2 


Grade 3 


.68 


.66 


4.5% 


4.3% 


cream 


cream 


pale green 


pale green 



An occurrence of kaolin near West's Mill is referred to also by 
Ries. 2 It is not known whether it is identical with one of the two 
described by Watts from the same vicinity or not. It is mentioned 
as being on the land of George Brindel. The kaolin is stated to be 
of remarkable whiteness and to burn to a pure white color. It is very 
fine-grained, free from grit and shows a few scattered white mica scales. 
It began to fuse at 2,300° F. (1,260° C.) and vitrified at 2,600° F. 
(1,427° C). 

The crude kaolin had the composition shown in I and the soluble 
clay substance was calculated to have that shown in II. The propor- 
tions of clay substance, quartz and feldspar present in the crude ma- 
terial were estimated to be 83.39: 14.98: 1.58. 





Si02 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 0-3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 K2O 


TiO-2 


H2O 


Total 


I 


53.10 
45.41 


33.06 
39.56 


1.18 
.86 


.38 
.45 


.08 
.09 


.83 
.03 




11.32 
13.58 


99.95 


II 




100.00 





























x In his description of the West prospect Mr. Watts states that the strike of the dike on the Bryson 
property is N. W. and its dip vertical; but in his account of the Bryson prospect he states that it "has 
the same strike as that on the West prospect," which is stated to be west. 

2 Ries, H., N. C. Geol. Survey Bull., No. 13, p. 62, 1897. 



62 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Deposits in Jackson County 

Jackson County has long been a center of kaolin production. The 
oldest mines in the State are located near Webster and one of them is 
still active. At present only two are being worked. Two other de- 
posits are being held in reserve after having been pretty thoroughly 
explored. Four others have been operated at some time in the past, 
but are now abandoned. A dozen other deposits have been examined, but 
most of them are too small for commercial exploitation or are too far 
from railroad lines to be readily accessible. 

The locations of all the deposits known are shown on the map, Fig. 8. 




Contour interval 500 feet 
Datcun is 7nean sea. level 







EXPLANATION 










A 




K 




-X 




X 








Strike 
of bed 



Strike and 
dip 



Mine 



Abandoned 
mine 



Prospect 



Washing plant 
of Roda mine 



Fig. 8. Sketch map of kaolin deposits near Dillsboro. 
Capital letters refer to active mines. 
Lower case letters refer to abandoned mines. 
Figures refer to prospects and explorations. 
Letters and figures correspond to those in Plate II. 

A. Hog Rock Mine Near Webster 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, N". 0. 

The Hog Rock Mine is about four miles southeast of Dillsboro, 

near Harris on Little Savannah Creek, Jackson County. It is the 

oldest mine in the State, having been operated continuously for 30 years. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 63 

The deposit is well up on the slope of a hill which has haen reduced 
by open-cut work to three terraces above the valley level, on the 
upper two of which mining is going on. The deposit is a series of 
pockets of rich kaolin separated by narrow lenses and streaks of quartz 
and by layers of gneiss. In the aggregate, so far as it has been de- 
veloped it is 900 feet long and 250 feet wide at its broadest, diminish- 
ing at one place to 100 feet in width and again widening to 200 feet. 
It is cut diagonally by a spur of quartz-mica rock 400 feet long and 
30 feet wide. West of this there are other deposits 15 to 20 feet wide 
separated from the larger deposit by several hundred feet of gneiss. 
Still further west a new deposit about 300 feet long and 100 wide has 
recently been opened. It is separated from those to the east by 250 
to 300 yards of gneiss and is apparently entirely independent of them. 

The depth to which kaolinization has progressed differs markedly 
in different parts of the mine. The maximum depth at which mining 
has gone is 125 feet from the original surface. This depth has been 
reached partly by open cuts and partly by shaft. Because of the 
pockety character of the deposit a reasonable estimate of the reserve 
is impossible. 

The walls of the deposit are not well exposed. They appear to be 
decomposed Carolina gneiss. The quartz-mica rock that penetrates 
the large deposit is mainly a mass of quartz streaked with little tongues 
of pegmatite containing pockets of decomposed feldspar, clumps of 
mica, small masses of limonitic material that may have come from 
hornblende or tourmaline and nodules of soft brown and black flaky 
limonite, and of oxides of manganese. 

The deposits at this place evidently represent a large dike and several 
smaller parallel ones trending about northeast and dipping nearly 
vertical. The dikes are irregular in width and the feldspar and quartz, 
in the main one at least, is irregularly distributed. 

The crude clay is distinctly cream-colored when first mined but it 
becomes darker when dried out and exposed to the air. This darken- 
ing is apparently due to the oxidation of some iron compound. Be- 
sides kaolin the clay contains a great deal of fine white mica and 
fine sand, a little decomposed feldspar, occasional reddish yellow stains 
and a few concretionary nodules of mixtures of limonite and psilome- 
lane or wad. These nodules are usually small but many of them have 
diameters of about an inch. They are readily separable from the 
kaolin in the refining process, consequently manganese is rarely re- 
ported in analyses of the commercial product. The material from 
different pockets differs in character but a uniform product is main- 



64 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



tained by careful mixing. The greatest variation in the composition 
of shipments made between 1890 and 1894 is represented by the follow- 
ing figures: 



S1O2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 FeO 


CaO 


MgO 


K2O NaaO 


H2O 


.00 


.68 


.53 


.22 


.16 


.14 


.27 



Three analyses of the washed kaolin from this mine are available. 
They represent the production in 1890, 1896 and 1912. 



SiO-2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


Ti0 2 


H 2 


45.86 
46.47 
46.95 


40.75 

38.82 
37.73 


1.39 
.89 
.15 


.45 

.28 
tr 


.09 
.25 
tr 


2.83 




9.01 
13.34 
13.99 


.75 
.18 1 .60 




.05 



Total 



100.38 
100.80 
99.65 



1. Ries, H. t N. C. Geol. Survey Bull. 13, p. 61, 1897. 

2. A portion of the iron is in the form of FeO. Analysis furnished by Harris Kaolin Co. 

3. Watts, A. S., Bureau of Mines Bull. 53, p. 131, 1913. Washed in laboratory. 

The crude kaolin passes through agitators, sand wheels, the usual 
tanks and screens, is pressed and dried and is hauled by horse tram 
four miles on a narrow guage road to a siding at Dillsboro on the 
Murphy Branch of the Southern Railway. 1 

The output of the plant is about 2,500 tons annually. The kiln is 
provided with 3,000 feet of 2-inch pipe and the drying sheds have a 
storage capacity of from 600 to 700 tons. 

The Hog Rock kaolin is well known to nearly all the whiteware 
potters of the middle west. It has been used by them in the manufac- 
ture of china and porcelain. It has also been employed in making 
tile, and is now being tested for use in glass-melting pots. For some 
years it has constituted a part of the mix from which is made the 
binder in carborundum wheels. 

Samples of the crude kaolin and of the porcelain mixture tested by 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines gave results as follows : 



x For details of mining and refining methods see Watts, L. c, p. 129, and for a description of the mine 
in 1896 and of the character of the kaolin then produced, see: Ries, H., N. C. Geol. Survey, Bull. 13, 
p. 59, 1897. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



65 



Kaolin 



When subjected to the screen test: 

38.60% was left on the 20 mesh screen. 
7.08% was left on the 65 mesh screen. 

.65% was left on the 100 mesh screen. 
5.80% was left on the 200 mesh screen. 
47.87% passed through the 200 mesh screen. 
The kaolin is white, short and sandy. It dries well, but the corners of bars tear. 
The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay is 44.78%. 
The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay is 20.92%. 
The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 7.49%. 
The moisture factor on a dry basis is 1 . 10. % 
The deformation temperature is cone 333^. 



When burned at 
The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 37.1% 

No. of bars tested 3 

The volume shrinkage 
terms of dry clay is _ . 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 

No. of bars tested 3 

Color Good 

white 



1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 



37.0% 
6 



"36.81% 
3 



30.92% 



5 

Good 
white 



3 

Very 
good 
white 



3 

Very 
good 
white 



1410°C. 

24.9% 
3 



16.0% 18.9% 17.88% 24.07% 30.7% 



11.5% 
3 

Very 
good 
white 



Porcelain Mixture 

The mixture makes poor bars and works poorly in jig. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry mixture is 30.81%. 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry mixture is 16 . 99 %. 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 6.02%. 

The modulus of rupture in lbs. per sq. in. is 224.1. 

When burned at 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 1410°C. 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 25.7% 25.88% 20.61% 2.49% .02% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry volume is __ 15% 16.38% 19.22% 39.57%, 32.15% 

The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 12.13% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The modulus of rupture in 

lbs. per sq. in. is 2988 3135 3405 6582 4576 

Color White, very Same as White, very Same as 

slightly tinted at 1190° slightly gray at 1370° 

with cartridge- 
buff 



66 THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 

B. Rhoda Mine Near Webster 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, "N. C. 

The Rhoda Mine is in Jackson County about seven and one-half 
miles southeast of Dillsboro and five miles southeast of Webster on 
the south side of the Tuckasegee River opposite the mouth of Cany 
Fork. The plant in which the clay is filtered and pressed is on the 
south side of the river, one mile east of Webster. The washer is near 
the mine. 

In his report on this mine Watts 1 declares that the dike which gave 
rise to the kaolin "cuts diagonally a low ridge and has a northeasterly 
strike. A broad band of sugar quartz follows the south wall which is 
very crooked. The extent of the dike has been proven more or less 
by test pits, but the chief exposure is by a long tunnel driven from 
the west slope of the hill. This tunnel passes through a broad band 
of low-grade pegmatite material into a band having a low quartz con- 
tent," where a shaft was sunk. An average sample from the shaft 
contained 26 per cent of kaolin. Since Mr. Watts's visit the mine has 
been sufficiently developed to show two dikes, 20 and 40 feet wide, 
separated by 40 feet of rock. The deposit is pockety and the character 
of the clay in the different pockets varies somewhat. There are at 
present (1918) five active shafts, the products from which are mingled 
in the flume going to the washers so that the washed kaolin is an 
average of the whole. In this way the mine's output is kept approx- 
imately uniform. It is estimated that the crude kaolin yields about 
25 per cent of refined product. The depth of the workable clay is 
about 50 feet on the lower slopes of the ridge and more that 100 feet 
on its upper slopes.- The estimated reserve is about 10,000 tons in that 
portion of the deposit that has been developed, but it is plain that 
its entire extent has not yet been explored. 

The crude kaolin is white and somewhat sandy. It contains some 
fine mica, some sand, a few tiny black specks, large fragments of 
quartz and partly decomposed feldspar and a few large flakes of mus- 
covite. Near the wall of the western vein are many black streaks 
of a decomposed mineral; and near the surface red clay streaks and 
bunches and streaks of soft black manganese compounds spoil the 
kaolin, but the main mass of the clay is free from stain and dark 
streaks. Running through the mass, however, are veins of mica imbed- 
ded in red clay. Much of the mica is stained and therefore useless, but 
seven or eight tons of rough material are separated monthly and put on 



Watts, A. S., Bur. of Mines Bull. 53, p. 156, 1913. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



67 



the market as cut and scrap mica. It is noticeable that the better mica 
and the better clay are found together and that where the mica is 
poor the kaolin also is apt to be inferior. 

An analysis of the washed kaolin as furnished in 1917 yielded 1 : 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 

.17 


K2O 


Ign 


Total 


46.41 


38.46 


.07 


.00 


.07 


.42 


14.40 


100 .00 



The crude clay is carried to the washer by a flume. The slip is 
pumped to a pipe which carries it to a flume, through which it flows 
by gravity to a tank on the top of a hill, then by gravity syphon to 
the top of another hill one and one-half miles distant and finally by 
another flume three miles to the settling tanks at the plant on the 
river. After being pressed it is carried by motor trucks three miles 
to a siding of the Southern Railway at Sylva. The mine and plant 
are operated by electricity generated by water power. The capacity 
of the plant is about 2,000 tons of refined clay annually, with the 
average amount of labor available. Under pressure it might be in- 
creased about 25 per cent. The kiln is supplied with 5,200 feet of 
2-inch pipe and provision is at hand for the storage of 600 tons of 
refined kaolin. 2 

The users of the Rhoda kaolin are the same as those of the Hog 
Rock product. Indeed, the kaolin of either mine is often substituted 
for that of the other. 

The results of tests of the crude and washed kaolin and of the cor- 
responding porcelain mixtures as reported by the Clay Testing Station 
of the Bureau of Mines are: 

Kaolin 

The refined kaolin furnished by the plants is gritty. It dries well, but the corners 
of bars tear slightly. That washed from the crude kaolin dries well and makes 
good bars. 

When subjected to the screen test: Crude Refined 

There was left on the 20 mesh screen 21.82% .00% 

65 mesh screen 9.56% .00% 

100 mesh screen ___ 1.20% .00% 

200 mesh screen 4.43% 1.75% 

There passed through the 200 mesh screen 62 . 99 % 98 . 25 % 

Plasticity Fair Fair 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay was_ 41.57% 46.51% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay was_ . _ 23 . 47 % 23 . 23 % 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 8.53% 8.44% 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is 1.61% 1 . 658% 

burnished by Harris Kaolin Co., analyst: N. B. Pratt. 

*In a letter to Mr. A. S. Watts dated Jan. 20, 1921, Mr. S. W. Enloe of the Harris Kaolin Co., states 
that the Rhoda Mine has now been abandoned. 



68 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The deformation temperature is cone 34 35 

The porosity in terms of burned volume when burned at 

1190°is 34.6 % 37.2 % 

1250° 34.6 % 35.8 % 

1310° 32.2 % 36.4 % 

1370° 28.21% 33.4 % 

1410° 21.6 % 23.6 % 

The volune shrinkage in terms of dry clay when burned at 

1190°C. is . 18.29% 20.6 % 

1250°C 20.9 % 21.6 % 

1310°C 22.14% 21.6 % 

1370°C 25.33% 25.94% 

1410°C 30.5 % 33.1 % 

The corresponding linear shrinkage at 1410°C. is 11.42% 12.54% 

The tests on porosity and volume shrinkage are based on three bars at each 

temperature. 

The color of the burned bars was good white in all cases, in a few instances showing 

a silvery luster in consequence of the presence of small mica flakes. 

Porcelain Mixture 
with crude kaolin 

The mixture is gritty. It works fairly well in mold and jig, and dries fairly well. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry mixture is 31.85% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry volume is 19.88% 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 7. 13% 

The modulus of rupture in lbs. per sq. in. is 299 . 9 

When burned at 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 1410°C. 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 26.3 % 25.82% 21.31% 11.88% .05% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry volume is _. 15,8 % 19.42% 18.83% 26.58% 31.64% 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 11.91% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The modulus of rupture in 

lbs. per sq. in. is 2334 2886 3610 3873 7260 

Color Good Good Very good white 

white white 

with refined kaolin 

The mixture is short. It makes fair bars, but its jiggering is rather hard. It 
dries well. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry mixture is 30. 74% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry mixture is^ 17.84% 

The corresponding linear shrinkage is__ 6.34% 

The modulus of rupture in lbs. per sq. in. is 264 . 3 

When burned at 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 1410°C. 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 24.1 % 23.51% 15.56% 7.03% .0% 

No. of bars tested 3 2 3 3 1 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry volume is 14.9% 18.99% 22.92% 27.57% 32.2% 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 12.15% 

No. of bars tested 3 2 2 3 3 

The modulus of rupture in 

lbs. per sq. in. is 2771 3679 3630 6765 6463 

Color Very Same as at 1190° White White 

good 
whitje 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 69 

28, 30. Ashe and Harris Prospects Near Webster 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, N. G. 

Two other deposits near Webster have been tested by boring but 
have not otherwise been explored. One, known as the Ashe property, 
is about five miles southeast of Dillsboro, in the gap in the mountain 
about one mile west of Painter. There is nothing known definitely 
about the deposit except that it was once opened by a pit on a vein 
reported to be about 15 feet wide. Borings indicated that the area 
underlain by kaolin is 200 feet by 21 feet and that the deposit contains 
about 10,000 tons of refined product. 

The other explored deposit is about one-half mile south of the plant 
of the Rhoda Mine on the south side of a hill. The productive area 
is 400 feet by 50 feet in extent. It contains about 15,000 tons of kaolin 
like that at the Hog Rock Mine. 

The remaining deposits that have been reported as existing in the 
vicinity of Webster have not been explored. They have been discovered 
during explorations for mica or have been opened by single test pits or 
tunnels. 1 

27. Cowan Prospect Near Webster 

The Cowan prospect 2 consists of a test hole one-half mile southeast 
of Webster and just west of the old nickel-refining plant. It exposes 
some high-grade kaolin. The extent of the deposit, however, cannot 
be determined because of the heavy overburden that covers all the 
rocks in this vicinity. 

24. Hall Mine Near Webster 

The Hall Mine 3 was one-half mile west of Webster on a low ridge 

south of the Tuckasegee River. It is on a dike with several stringers 

varying in width from 10 to 20 feet. The dike strikes N. 40° E. 

and dips vertical. It is opened by a tunnel 60 feet long that follows 

its strike and by a shaft 20 feet deep. 

Samples taken from across the tunnel yielded 24 per cent kaolin with 

a refractory value above 1,730° C. Its color after firing was grade 4. 

Its tensile strength at 110° C was 18 pounds per square inch and its 

shrinkage 4.9 per cent. When fired at 1,350° its shrinkage was 12.4 

per cent. 

The shrinkage of the porcelain mixture with this kaolin was 3.1 

per cent at 110° C. and 13 per cent at 1,350° C. The fired mass had 



x ln January 1921 the Harris Kaolin Co. was opening a new deposit about one-half mile X. of the 
Hog Rock Mne. It extent at that time had not been fully determined. 
2 Watts, A. S., Bur of Mines Bull. 53, p. 159, 1913. 
*Wat?s, A. S., L. c, p. 159. 



70 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

a translucency of .68, an absorption of 4.6 per cent, and a color of 
grade 4, and this color remained unchanged under the glazes. The color 
of the transmitted light was cream. 

31. Long Mica Mine K"ear Webster 

The Long Mica Mine 1 is four miles southeast of Webster, near the 
mouth of Wayehutta Creek. Two tunnels and an open cut expose an 
irregular pegmatite dike that strikes N. 70° E. Its width is 10 to 
20 feet, but it is interrupted by inclusions of the wall rock. A sample 
taken from the richer part of the dike gave 35 per cent kaolin with a 
refractory value above 1,730° CL Its color after firing was of grade 2. 
Its tensile strength at 110° C. was 20 pounds to the square inch, and its 
shrinkage 4.1 per cent. When fired at 1,350° C. its shrinkage was 
11.2 per cent. 

When introduced into the standard porcelain mixture the shrinkage 
of the mass was 3 per cent at 110° C. and 13.8 per cent at 1,350° C. 
The color of the fired mass was of grade 2, its translucency .69, and 
its absorption 6 per cent. Under the glazes used the color became a 
very pale green. 

(i) Springer Pit Near Webster 

The Springer pit was being operated in 1896, but was evidently 
abandoned shortly thereafter. A drift had been run into the side of 
a hill one-half mile northeast of Webster on the land of William Buch- 
anan. This cut a vein of kaolin 25 feet wide striking ZKT. 15° W. 
About 50 tons of crude material had been removed at the time the 
prospect was visited by Ries. The clay contained coarse fragments 
of quartz and feldspar, but was otherwise free from impurities. Its 
analysis yielded 66.14 per cent clay, 15.61 per cent quartz and 18.91 
per cent feldspar. The washed kaolin analyzed 45.78 per cent SiOo ; 
36.46 per cent A1 2 3 ; 1.36 per cent iron oxides; 13.40 per cent H 2 0; 
and .79 per cent other substances, besides 2.05 per cent moisture. It 
was white and began to fuse at 2,350° F. (1,288° C). Analyses of 
the crude and washed kaolin are given by Ries. 2 

The Kaolin Manufacturing Company, also, had a mine 3 near Webster 
which was operating in 1900, but it was soon thereafter abandoned. 

29. Forest Hill Mica Mine Near Cullowhee 

The Forest Hill Mica Mine 4 is one and one-half miles southwest 

of Cullowhee on a dike with a northeast strike and a vertical dip. It 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 159. 

*Ries, H., N. C. Geol. Survey Bull. 13, N. C. p. 61, 1897. 

»Pratt, J. H., The Mining Industry in N. C. during 1900. N. C. Geol. Survey Ec. Paper 4, p. 28, 1901 . 

«Watts, A. 8., L. o., p. 155 and 116. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



71 



varies from eight to ten feet in width and is accompanied by many 
thick stringers. Another dike is exposed by a pit 100 yards further 
northwest and a natural exposure of kaolin occurs one and one-half 
miles south, near Speedwell. The dike first referred to is opened by 
numerous tunnels driven in the search for mica. It exhibits various 
stages of kaolinization, but its material is free from impurities with 
the exception of a little quartz. 

A sample yielded 31 per cent of kaolin with a refractory value of 
1,730° C. The composition of this kaolin and that of the feldspar 
with which it is associated, which is probably similar to that from 
which the kaolin was derived, are as follows: 





SiO-2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


TiO-2 


H2O 


Total 


Kaolin 


49.20 
63.35 


37.58 
20.07 


.17 
.15 


tr 
.03 


tr 
tr 


.13 
1.11 


.47 
13.70 


tr 
tr 


12.53 
.90 


100.08 


Feldspar 


99.31 



The feldspar consists of 81.8 per cent orthoclase, 9.5 per cent albite, 
8.2 per cent kaolinite and .5 per cent quartz. 

The shrinkage of this kaolin when dried at 110° C. was 4 per cent 
and its tensile strength 16 pounds per square inch. When fired at 
1,350° C. its color was grade 2, and its total shrinkage 9.7 per cent. 

When used in the porcelain mixture this shrank 1.4 per cent at 
110° C. and 11.6 per cent at 1,350° C. The color of the fired mass was 
grade 3, its translucency .73, and its absorption 5.5 per cent. Under the 
glazes used it assumed a very pale green tint. 

22. Cole and Black Exploration Near Birdtown 

A. B. Cole, Bryson, K C. 

The Cole and Black prospect is about seven miles northeast of 
Bryson and three-quarters mile southeast of Birdtown, about one-half 
mile east of the Oconalufty River and the Appalachian Railway along 
its side. The location has been prospected by a series of test pits and 
several shafts. 

The most important opening is a shaft 12 feet in diameter and 27 
feet deep, at the bottom of which is a boring of equal depth. The 
upper 12 feet of the shaft are in clay overburden and a mass of dark 
schist (probably a micaceous, hornblende gneiss) folded into a syn- 
cline that can be traced east for some distance forming a capping above 
the kaolin and separating it from the clay overburden on the surface. 
Below the capping the kaolin is continuous to the depth reached by 
the auger. The kaolin is on the whole very white, but it is streaked 



72 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

by yellow and red stains near the top. Further down it is said to 
be free from stains, but only its upper part can now be seen. It 
contains coarse quartz fragments and is crossed by comparatively 
large horses of the same mineral. Sand and black mica are also 
present in it but not in large quantities. The strike of the bot- 
tom of the syncline is 1ST. 20° E. and this is also the strike of the 
kaolin deposit indicated by the lines of pits. Where wall rock can 
be seen its dip is southeast at a high angle. Three other shafts and 
a tunnel mark the extension of the dike for at least 300 feet along its 
strike. 

A little farther to the west is another series of openings, consisting 
of several test pits and two shafts, 20 feet deep and 57 feet deep. The 
walls of these are not visible but on their dumps is considerable sandy 
kaolin mixed with quartz and black mica. The deposit marked by 
this series of openings is parallel to the more easterly one and is evi- 
dently on an independent dike. 

Although very little definite information can be gathered from the 
prospecting, it has proven a great quantity of kaolin. It, however, has 
not shown that the kaolin is in deposits large enough to be of com- 
mercial importance. It may exist in a number of small pockets. If 
systematic borings around the first shaft described above should out- 
line a reasonably large deposit it might be worked economically by 
tramming 500 yards, sluicing to a washer placed a little below the 
mine and sluicing by gravity to a settling plant on the river 400 yards 
distant. It would be necessary to pump water about 200 feet to the 
mine and to flush the sluice leading to the washer. 

(g) American Land and Development Co. ]NTear Dillsboro 

In the Mining Industry for 1903 a deposit was reported 1 as in the 
process of development by the American Land and Development Com- 
pany, at Barkers Creek on the Murphy Branch of the Southern Rail- 
way. Cross-cuts, pits and shafts had uncovered material of good quality 
and in considerable quantity. The analysis of a sample by I\ E. Hunt 
gave Si0 2 =44.66; Al 2 O 3 =39.90; Ee 2 3 =tr; Alk=.68 and H 2 0= 
14.28. Total, 99.52. The Encaustic Tiling Company, of Zanesville, 
Ohio, tested a small quantity and declared it to be satisfactory for tile 
and whiteware. Evidently the place was abandoned, for Watts, 2 ten 
years later, maps a kaolinized pegmatite three-fourths mile east of 
Barkers Creek that apparently trends east-west. Xorth of this 200 
yards is a lense of pegmatite that had been penetrated by a tunnel. 



iPratt, J. H., The Min. Indus, of N. C. during 1903, p. 60, 1904. 
nVatts, A. S., Bur. of Mines Bull. 53, p. 128, 1913. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 73 

It is exposed in a semi-circular area five feet in diameter and is cov- 
ered by an arch of gneiss. An abandoned mica mine in which is kaolin- 
ized material was also noted at a point one-fourth mile northwest of 
Barkers Creek. These various occurrences were then known as the 
Allison prospect. No opinion of the quantity of kaolin present was 
hazarded. 

23. Cagle Gap Mica Mine Near Dillsboro 

The Cagle Gap Mica Mine, 1 one mile southwest of Dillsboro, in 
a pit alongside the road opened a 15-foot dike striking N. 20° E. 
The central eight feet of the dike is poorly kaolinized, but near the 
walls is good sandy material that yielded 21 per cent kaolin with a 
refractory value over 1,730° C. Its color after firing was grade 4. 
Its tensile strength at 110° C. was 16 pounds per square inch and its 
shrinkage 5.8 per cent. At 1,350° C. the shrinkage was 13.3 per cent. 
The porcelain mixture made up with it shrank 2.8 per cent when 
dried at 110° C. and 12.6 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The trans- 
lucency of the fired mass was .65, its color of grade 4 and its absorp- 
tion 5.4 per cent. The color was unaltered under the raw lead and 
fritted glazes. 

(h) North Carolina Mining and Manufacturing Co. Near Sylva 
The North Carolina Mining and Manufacturing Company was op- 
erating near Sylva prior to 1901. Ries 2 describes the mine as being 
two miles south of Sylva on the mountain slope on a dike striking 
about N. 45° E. and from eight to ten feet wide. The walls are a 
decomposed gneiss. Even as early as 1896 a 50-foot shaft had been 
sunk on it and drifts from this had been run in both directions along 
the vein. That running to the east was 150 feet long with two offsets 
of 16 feet each; that toward the west was short. The clay 
was very fine-grained and white. Its analysis is quoted on p. 201. 
Watts, 3 writing about 15 years later, after the location had been aban- 
doned, states that the development comprised two openings on a dike 
8 to 18 feet wide. There is a surface cut of 200 feet about 20 feet 
deep, and on the new surface thus made are five shafts of unknown 
depth from which mica was taken. Samples taken from the only 
portion of the vein now exposed gave 26 per cent of white kaolin, with 
a refractory value above 1,730° C. 

In the neighborhood of Beta there are several openings from which 
kaolin has been taken. In only one case, however, has any been shipped. 



iWatts, A S., L. c, p. 129. 

2Ries, H., N. C. Geol. Survey Bull. 13, p. 58, 1S97. 

Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 156. 



74 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



(/) Harris Mine Beta 

This is an old opening on the south side of the railroad about one- 
half mile west of Beta Station, from which a few years ago the Harris 
Clay Company obtained a few hundred tons of marketable kaolin. 
The place, however, was not operated long. 

26. Love Prospect Xear Beta 

Another opening, known as the Love prospect, 1 was on a low isolated 
hill on the north side of the railroad about a mile east of Beta. There 
are a number of test holes on the hill but they are now filled so that 
the extent of the deposit cannot be determined. From the character 
of the material on their dumps it is inferred that the kaolin is of fair 
quality. 

25. Ross Prospect Beta 

The most promising prospect near Beta is about one-half mile 
southwest of the railroad station on the west slope of the hill south 
of the railroad. It is now known as the Ross prospect, but is probably 
the same as the Buchanan prospect described by Watts. 2 The principal 
openings are about 400 feet above Scott Creek. They comprise a num- 
ber of test pits near the top of the ridge extending in a northeast direc- 
tion, and several tunnels and shafts below these on its west slope. Only 
one of the tunnels is now open to inspection. This is more than 200 
feet long, with a right angled turn about 125 feet from its mouth. 
Watts reports that it is believed that there are at this place several 
dikes varying in width from 10 to 18 feet, striking N*. 40° E. and 
dipping 80° IsT.W. Of the two principal dikes, the upper one has been 
opened by a few test pits and the lower one, one-eighth mile further 
west, by shafts 25 feet deep and by two tunnels. The material of 
both dikes contains lenses of garnet-colored sand mixed with altered 
biotite. Samples taken from the lower dike yielded 40 per cent kaolin, 
with a refractory value above 1,730° C. Its analysis gave: 



SiOa 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 0- 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


H2O 


Total 


46 .30 


39.06 


.20 


tr 


tr 


.11 


.60 


13.77 


100.08 



Inspection of the main tunnel shows walls of white clay crossed 
by many bands of quartzose pegmatite three to four feet wide run- 
ning in all directions. The pegmatite is pretty thoroughly decom- 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 123. 
*Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 154. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 75 

posed but its content of quartz is so high that much barren rock would 
have to be removed in mining. In most places the kaolin contains 
considerable quartz and mica, but some of the masses between the 
bands of pegmatite consist of nearly solid, dense kaolin. At 200 feet 
from the mouth of the tunnel is a pit that was not crossed, but the 
walls beyond exhibited what appeared to be wide clean exposures of 
clay. 

Samples taken from the best pockets differ from those presenting 
the average of the walls, exclusive of the pegmatite veins, only in that 
the better samples are almost free from mica and coarse grains of 
quartz. The average sample is lumpy, while the selected samples are 
nearly uniform in structure. Both are gritty but the grit in the better 
sample is so fine as to be scarcely visible, while that in the average 
sample consists of quartz grains with diameters of one-eighth to one- 
fourth inch. Moreover, they are aggregated into little groups with 
mica flakes, forming lumps. Since the cracks between the grains are 
badly stained by iron compounds that have infiltrated and oxidized, 
the crushing of the lumps seriously discolors the clay. The better 
sample is pure white when first taken, but upon standing in a dry 
atmosphere it turns pinkish or pinkish yellow, possibly through the 
oxidation of iron salts. The sample contains no visible impurities 
except tiny grains of sand. 

The kaolin washed by Watts from the sample collected by him was 
grade 3 in color after firing. Its tensile strength when dried at 110° C. 
was 28.5 pounds per square inch, and its shrinkage 5.4 per cent. Its 
total shrinkage at 1,350° C. was 13.9 per cent. 

When introduced into the porcelain mixture this shrank 3 per cent 
when dried at 110° C. and 13.1 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The 
translucency of the fired mass was .64, its color was grade 3 and its 
absorption 5.3 per cent. Under the glazes the color assumed a pale 
green tint. 

North Carolina Kaolin Company Near Addie 

In the Mining Industry of North Carolina for 1901 mention is made 
of the mine of the North Carolina Kaolin Company, 1 near Addie, which 
was in operation during 1900 and 1901 but no information is given 
as to its exact location nor the quantity or quality of the kaolin in 
its deposit. 



iPratt, J. H., N. C. Geol. Survey Ec. Paper 4, p. 28, 1901, and 6, p. 85, 1902. 



76 THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAROLINA 

National Abeasive Manufacturing Company Near Hall 

In the same report 1 for 1900 and again for 1901 reference is made 
to a kaolin deposit near Hall which had at that time been developed 
to a slight extent by the National Abrasive Manufacturing Co. It 
is stated that the clay is of good quality and gives indications of oc- 
curring in large quantity. 

32. Wayehutta Mica Mine Near Willets 

The Wayehutta Mica Mine 2 was on the northwest slope of Black 
Mountain, three miles south of "Willets. An irregular dike strikes 
N. 70° E. with a variable dip. It is 50 feet wide and has a 10-foot 
horse of wall-rock near its center, and a massive quartz band along its 
south wall. It is opened by four tunnels of which one penetrates kaolin. 
The crude material sampled contained 33 per cent kaolin with a refrac- 
tory value above 1,730° C. and a color of grade 2, after firing. Dried 
at 110° C. it shrank 4.6 per cent and had a tensile strength of 12.5 
pounds per square inch. When fired at 1,350° C. it shrank 12.3 per 
cent. 

The porcelain mixture containing this kaolin shrank 3.6 per cent 
when dried at 110° C. and 12.6 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The 
fired mass had a translucency of .64, a color of grade 2, and its ab- 
sorption was 7.1 per cent. No change of color was noticeable under 
the glazes used. 

Deposits in Haywood County 

There is one active mine in this county and a number of deposits 
that have been explored to a slight extent, but not sufficiently to war- 
rant a statement as to their commercial importance. 

(C) Hand Clay Company Near Woodrow 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, N. C 
The Hand Clay Company's deposit is about one mile southeast of 
Woodrow on the Pigeon River Division of the Tennessee and North 
Carolina Railroad, a short branch connecting with the Murphy Branch 
of the Southern Railway system. Woodrow is six miles south of West 
Canton, and the plant is connected with the railroad at Woodrow by 
a narrow gauge tram using cars drawn by mules. The deposit was 
formerly worked by the Hand Clay Company, with headquarters at 
Canton, N. C, but the Harris Kaolin Company has recently purchased 
the entire interests of the former company and is now operating both 
mine and plant. 



iPratt, J. H., N. C. Geol. Survey Ec. Paper 4, p. 29, 1901, and 6, p. 86, 1902. 
•Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 160. 



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78 THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 

The deposit is well up on a hill slope affording a convenient grade 
for the sluicing of the crude material to the refining and compressing 
plant in the valley. It is being worked (in 1918) by two open cuts 
20 feet deep and 90 feet wide and by two shafts of which one (in 
March, 1919) was 92 feet deep and still in workable clay. Explora- 
tions consisting of 39 borings distributed over an area 450 feet long 
and 120 feet wide indicate a workable deposit at least 450 feet by 90 
feet with an overburden of not more than five feet. Two tunnels, 
55 and 125 feet long cutting across the deposit show a fairly uniform 
character of clay, broken here and there by streaks of quartz. The 
thickness of the deposit is not known as the augers penetrated to depths 
of only 30 feet but most of the holes bottomed in hard clay. The 
present workings show a thickness of at least 90 feet of workable ma- 
terial. If we assume the average thickness to be 60 feet, the quantity 
of crude clay available for extraction is 90,000 cubic yards or 135,000 
tons. If 20 per cent is saved as refined kaolin the reserve is about 
27,000 tons. If the average depth of the workable clay is assumed 
to be 90 feet, the calculated reserve rises to 40,000 tons. 1 In making 
this estimate no allowance has been made for the presence of a horse 
of flint that shows in the two pits and on the map of explorations 
(PI. I). This may disappear with depth or it, may expand; at present 
there is no means of inferring its underground extension, though recent 
shaft work in the south pit indicates that it is "playing out." 

The walls of the deposit are not clearly defined, because excessive 
weathering has broken down the rock so that its character is not now 
recognizable. Keith, 2 in the Pisgah Folio, maps the country rock as 
Carolina gneiss, which is in accord with the heavily micaceous weather- 
ing products in the overburden. The clay deposit is evidently a dike 
striking about northeast and dipping about 85° southeast. In general 
it was pretty uniform in composition, but in one place, at least, it 
was crossed by a mass of quartz which now appears as a horse in the 
kaolin. (See PI. I.) 

The crude clay is white and finely granular and free from coarse 
quartz. It contains an abundance of quartz sand and is discolored 
here and there by small brownish yellow stains similar to those seen 
on the sides of cleavage cracks in semi-kaolinized feldspar. In addi- 
tion there are present numerous very small flakes of white mica and 



Work accomplished since the Harris Kaolin Company came into the possession of the property- 
makes it seem probable that the reserve is much greater than this, but how much greater is not 
known. The deposit extends northeast beyond the HaDd Company's line, whicn crosses the north- 
east end of the present pit, and in this extension is probably a large additional reserve. 

*Keith, Arthur, U. S. Geol. Survey Folio 147, 1907. 



THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 



small crystals and large groups of crystals of the same mineral. In- 
spection indicates that the yellow stains are most frequent in the 
neighborhood of the mica plates and especially around the larger 
crystals and groups of crystals and in the cleavage cracks between 
their plates where infiltration has carried iron compounds and deposited 
them. The mica itself within the kaolin appears to be almost wholly 
unchanged except comparatively near the surface where it has be- 
come red and opaque and has lost its elasticity. Even when bleached 
by treatment with strong hydrochloric acid it remains opaque except 
on thin edges where it is apparently only slightly doubly refracting, 
if not entirely isotropic. It has lost completely its homogeneity and 
has been changed to an aggregate of tiny transparent or translucent 
particles which in the mass appear white and opaque, as if they were 
kaolinite. They are, however, so lacking in definite characteristics 
that their nature has not been determined (compare pp. 25-27). When 
examined under the microscope there are seen to be present in the 
kaolin also numerous particles of partially kaolinized feldspar, small 
plates of reddish yellow decomposed muscovite, flakes of a brown pleo- 
chroic mica, that may be biotite, little aggregates of brown-stained 
kaolinite, and a few highly refracting grains that may be zircon. 
Some of the biotite flakes contain slender black needles, like the rutile 
needles frequently seen in the biotite of igneous rocks. 

The washed clay as put upon the market consists mainly of kaolinite 
material in flakes and granules, considerable quartz in irregular grains, 
a small quantity of kaolinized feldspar, an occasional frayed flake of 
muscovite, and many fibers of the same material, and here and there 
a little plate of slightly pleochroic brown mica. The greater part of 
the kaolinite particles measure about .01 to .03 millimeter in diameter, 
but they are often grouped together into clumps with diameters of 
six or eight times as great as the diameters of the individual grains. 
However, between these grains are others of smaller size, their average 
diameter being about .004 millimeter. The quartz, mica and feldspar 
are usually in much larger grains, often measuring .06 to .08 millimeter. 
A few of the clumps of kaolin are stained yellowish brown and also 
some of the feldspar. 

An analysis of a selected sample of the crude clay gave the result 
shown in I. In II the analysis is calculated to 100 per cent of the 
dry material. In III is the analysis of a specimen of the washed 
kaolin, and in IV this is calculated to 100 per cent of the dry sample. 



80 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 





Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 FeO 


CaO 


MgO 


NazO 


K2O 


P2O5 


Ign. 


Moist 


Total 


I 


37.92 


28.75 


.02 


.00 


.05 


.04 


.04 




9.68 


23.50 


100 .00 « 


II 


49.58 


37.53 


.02 


.00 


.06 


.05 


.05 




12.66 




100 .00 


III 


46.41 


37.76 


.70 


.00 


.09 


.17 


.55 


.04 


13 .46 


1.10 


100.282 


IV 


46.80 


38.07 


.71 


.00 


.09 


.17 


.55 


.04 


13 .57 




100 .00 



In analysis I it is clear that some one of the constituents was de- 
termined by difference, and therefore, if there is an error in the anal- 
ysis it is not discoverable. On the assumption that all the alkalies 
are in mica and that the figure for combined water (ignition) is .5 per 
cent too low, the mineral composition of the selected crude clay is 
as in line A below. The calculated mineral composition of the washed 
clay is shown in B. 





Kaolinite 


Quartz 


Mica 


Limonite 


Serpentine 


Water 


Total 


A 
B 


93.39 
92.80 


5.44 
2.06 


1.01 
3.72 


.02 
.71 


.14 

.19 


.48 


100 .00 
100 .00 3 



During the winter of 1918-19 alterations made in the plant resulted 
in a slight betterment of the refined product. A complete analysis of 
the improved product is not available, but determinations of the silica 
and combined water, made by Mr. J. M. Lindgren of the University of 
Illinois, yielded 46.70 per cent Si0 2 and 13.72 per cent combined 
water. These figures indicate that there was effected a slight increase 
in the quantity of kaolinite in the refined kaolin and a notable decrease 
in the quantity of quartz present. A microscopic examination of re- 
cently refined material confirms this inference. The newly refined 
material is only slightly gritty. A very little quartz is visible under 
the microscope and this is in extremely small grains. There are oc- 
casional rutile particles present and a few shreds of hydromica. The 
kaolinite, which naturally makes up the greater part of the mass, is 
in small plates, a few larger, irregular groups of plates and a fair 
number of worm-like aggregates. The material is much more uniform 
in grain than that refined before the changes were made — the large 
grains of quartz, mica and feldspar that were present in the earlier 
product (p. 79) being almost entirely absent from the recent product. 



iAnalvst: N. P. Pratt. Atlanta Ga. Aug. 1917. Furnished by Harris Kaolin Co. 

2 Analyst: Geo. Steiger. U. S. Geol. Survey. July 14, 1919. Sample obtained from kiln, August 1918 

including .04% P2O5. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 81 

The plant which is near the mine is well equipped with the usual 
washing and filtering apparatus. Its production during the past 
few years has been at the rate of 2,400 tons of refined kaolin annually; 
but with abundant labor it is thought the output might be doubled. 
Changes made in the plant during the winter (1918-19) may reduce 
its capacity to a slight extent, but the quality of the output has been 
improved. These changes consist in the lengthening of the mica 
troughs to 700 feet and the replacement of 100-mesh sieves by six 
others of 130-mesh. The kaolin is heated by 8,782 feet of 2-inch pipe 
and storage space is provided for six cars of dry kaolin. 

The clay from this mine has been used in making china, porcelain 
and other types of whiteware. It is introduced into mixtures of im- 
ported and other domestic clays to the extent of 2% to 15 per cent. 
Letters from the Bureau of Standards under dates of December 5, 
1917, and March 6, 1918, declared it to be of good grade for pottery 
purposes. When burned to cone 8 the material was still a very excel- 
lent white. The sample submitted was fine, as much as 94.61 per 
cent passing the 300-mesh sieve. When introduced in the proportion 
of 28 per cent into a porcelain mixture and fired in the biscuit to 
cone 8 and in the glost to cone 4 a vitrified body of "a very satisfac- 
tory white resulted." 

The results of tests recently made by the Clay-testing Station of 
the Bureau of Mines upon the washed kaolin and the corresponding 
porcelain mixture were : 

Kaolin 
When subjected to the screen test: 

.0 was left on the 20 mesh screen. 

.02% was left on the 65 mesh screen. 

.04% was left on the 100 mesh screen. 

.60% was left on the 200 mesh screen. 
99.34% passed through the 200 mesh screen. 
The kaolin is white. It is not very plastic, but makes good bars. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay is 47. 5 % 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay is 28. 91% 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 10.. 75% 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is 1.56% 

The deformation temperature is cone 34. 



82 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

When burned at 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 1410°C. 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 39.4% 39.4% 37.67% 31.4% 27.2% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry clay is__'__ 17.1 % 19.3 % 19.66% 27.3 % 31.0 % 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 11.63% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

Color Very Same as at 1190° 

good 
white 

Porcelain Mixture 

The porcelain mixture shows little plasticity, is hard to mold and jiggers with 
difficultly. It dries well. 

The quantity of temperir g water in terms of dry mixture is 33. 41% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry mixture is 20:96% 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 7. 54% 

The modulus of rupture in lbs. per sq. in. is 231 .9 

When burned at 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 1410?C. 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 27.4% 25.43% 22.89% 4.97% .05% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry volume is __ 16.1 % 19.72% 17.79% 30.48% 32.42% 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is * 12.27% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The modulus of rupture in 

lbs. per sq. in. is 2359 3937 3115 , 4316 6680 

Color Very As at 1190° White White White 

good 
white 

There are no other kaolin deposits in Haywood County that are 
more than prospects. Of these, however, there are five, three of which 
are southwest of Canton and the other two near Waynesville. 

33. Herren Prospect ISTear Hazlewood 

J. P. Herren, Waynesville, N". C. 
One of the two deposits near Waynesville is w T ell up toward the top of a 
spur at the southwest end of Lickstone Mountain, on the property of 
J. P. Herren of Waynesville, about four and one-half miles south of 
this city and three and one-half miles southeast of Hazlewood. There 
are several openings on the property, but they are now filled with 
debris and difficult to study. The largest was so made that it furnishes 
a vertical section 12 feet long that originally exposed a surface 12 feet 
high of which 7 feet was kaolin. The lower portion of the section 
is now covered by fallen material. That part now visible shows an 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



83 



almost horizontal contact between mica schist and a very quartzose 
stained kaolin that exhibits the structure of a pegmatite. It is cut 
by little quartz stringers and contains masses of decomposed black 
mica, flakes of decomposed white mica and sharp-edged fragments of 
quartz. (See sketch, Fig. 9.) Other openings a few hundred yards 
south of this show the same cap rock and the same kind of kaolin. 
At a distance of about 12 feet from the foot of the cliff in the larger 





J21 



A B 

Fig. 9. Sketch illustrating relations of kaolin and rock at the Herren pit. 

A. Vertical wall. a. Schist 

B. Cross-section. b. Kaolin 

pit is an exposure of mica schist which is apparently the foot wall 
of the dike. If this is so both foot and hanging are very flat, and 
their contacts with the dike are very irregular. When the pit was 
opened a little mica was taken from near the foot wall. No kaolin 
was mined nor were any tests of its quality made. Samples obtained 
from that portion of the vein now exposed would give no fair idea of 
its value. (See also pp. 25-27.) 

The deposit is not very near the railroad but there is abundant water 
in the vicinity for sluicing. 

35. Kinsland Mine Near Clyde 

The other prospect near Waynesville, the Kinsland Mine, is evi- 
dently an old mica mine. 1 It is nine miles northeast of Waynesville, 
just beyond the bridge over Pigeon River. It was opened by a num- 
ber of shafts and tunnels on a dike 75 feet wide divided by several 
lenses of only partly decomposed pegmatite. The masses of kaolin 
between these are from six to eight feet wide and they have a high 
quartz content. The dike strikes K. 40° E. 

A sample collected by Watts from one of the shafts gave 27 per 
cent of kaolin with a refractory value of 1,670° C. Its analysis yielded: 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


BaO 


Na 2 


K2O 


Ti0 2 


H2O 


Total 


50.64 


35.57 


.25 


tr 


tr 


.07 


.08 


1.70 


.03 


11.90 


100.24 



iWatts, A. S.. Bur. of Mines Bull. 53, p. 153, 1913. 



84 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The color of the washed kaolin, after firing, was grade 5. Its shrink- 
age at 110° C. was 4.4 per cent and its tensile strength 8 pounds per 
square inch. When fired at 1,350° C. the shrinkage was 9.8 per cent. 

Introduced into the porcelain mixture the shrinkage of this was 
1 per cent at 110° C. and 13.6 per cent at 1,350° C. The translucency 
of the fired mass was .76, its color grade 5 and its absorption 2.6 per 
cent. Under the glazes used its color showed no change. 

The three prospects that have been described as being in the neigh- 
borhood of Canton were developed to such a slight extent that their 
exact locations cannot now be identified. 

36. Sonoma Prospect Xear \Voodrow 
The Sonoma 1 prospect has already been referred to in the descrip- 
tion of the Hand Mine. In 1907 it consisted of a single pit 15 feet 
deep on the top of a ridge three-fourths mile south of Sonoma. The 
kaolin exposed by the pit was white and very little surface-stained. 
It was mixed with a moderate amount of fine quartz and a little mica. 
The size of the deposit was not determined, but it was thought to have 
a northerly strike. 

34. Retreat Prospect Xear \Yoodrow 

Another prospect, of which nothing further was ever reported, was 
on Flora Creek, about one-half mile from its mouth where it enters 
the west fork of Pigeon River, near Retreat. 2 Here in 1907 the kaolin 
had been exposed by three small pits on opposite sides of a little ridge. 
Two of the pits are in a north-south line directly across the foliation 
of the associated gneiss. This was taken to indicate that the strike 
of the deposit is in that direction for a distance of at least 200 feet. 
The kaolin, like that at Sonoma was mixed with quartz and a little 
mica, and was of a clear white color. 

37. Rhodarmer Prospect Xear Canton 
A third prospect 3 in this neighborhood is referred to several times in 

the reports on the mining industry of Xorth Carolina as being two 
miles southwest of Canton on the land of J. B. Rhodarmer, but its more 
exact location is not recorded. The kaolin is reported to be of good 
quality and apparently in quantity, since it has been penetrated by 
a shaft to a depth of 18 feet. 



iKeith, Arthur, L. c, p. 7, 1907. 
zKeith, Arthur, L. c, p. 7, 1907. 
aPratt, J. H., N. C. Geol. Survey Econ. Paper 6, p. 86, 190? 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 85 

Deposit in Madison County 

39. Seth Freeman Prospect Near Marshall 

In Madison County but one prospect is recorded. This is the Seth 
Freeman prospect 1 on a dike 100 feet wide on Trail Branch of Sandy- 
Mush Creek, four miles south of Marshall. The strike is N". 40° E. 
and dip 20° S.E. The dike consists of alternate layers of semi-kaolin- 
ized pegmatite and wall rock. 

A sample that had the appearance of fine white sand contained 37 
per cent kaolin. Watts 1 classes it as semi-kaolinized feldspar. 

Deposit in Henderson County 

38. Valentine Prospect Near Etowah 

G. H. Valentine, Hendersonville, 1ST. C. 

Mr. G. H. Valentine reports a deposit of kaolin close to the west 
bank of French Broad Biver, in Henderson County, one and one- 
fourth miles north of Etowah. It is known to be from 50 to 75 feet 
wide and more that 10 feet deep, but its length has not been deter- 
mined. Several small excavations have been made in it, and the grade 
for the public highway cuts it. Most of the clay is white, but in some 
places it is pink or salmon colored. The deposit is a few hundred 
yards from the river, and about 50 feet above it, and is near a moun- 
tain brook that might furnish all the water needed in mining. Con- 
nection with Etowah on the Toxaway Branch of the Southern Bail- 
way is by a road two miles long which is used for heavy hauling by 
trucks to within a distance of one-fourth mile from the deposit. 

The sample furnished by Mr. Valentine is a white gritty powder, 
that becomes only slightly sticky when moistened with a little water. 
When shaken with water the mass rapidly separates into a sediment 
and a thin fluid of a very pale gray, almost white color. The sediment 
consists of small sharp-edged transparent quartz grains and larger 
masses of grains that are cemented by kaolinite, particles of material 
stained by limonite and a few fragments of other substances some of 
which are organic. The unwashed powder is composed of comparatively 
few small kaolinite flakes, fragments of rosettes and worm-like aggre- 
gates of the same mineral, many clear, colorless quartz fragments, 
flakes and groups of grains and a few particles that may be partially 
kaolinized feldspar. A few of the quartz grains are large, measuring 
about .3 millimeters in their longest dimensions, but the diameters of 
most are between .05 and .07 millimeters. 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 113. 



86 THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 

The sample is mainly a fine quartz sand with a comparatively small 
proportion of kaolinite. "Whether it is residual or sedimentary in 
origin cannot be determined from its appearance. If sedimentary, its 
components have not been carried far, since the quartz grains show 
little or no evidence of rounding. The material is in an area under- 
lain by Henderson granite which "upon complete decay . . . pro- 
duces a yellowish or reddish clay, which is frequently leached out 
nearly white. This is mixed with sand and fragments of rock on the 
mountain sides and is of no great depth." 1 It is possible that material 
of this kind partly assorted by water would result in a product re- 
sembling the sample, which is very much like the samples from Rich- 
mond and Montgomery counties in this State and from near Abbe- 
ville in South Carolina. 

Deposits in Buncombe County 

Only two deposits of kaolin have been explored in this county, and 
neither has shown promise of being of commercial value. 

41. Dillingham Prospect !N"ear Jupiter 

Mrs. A. B. Dillingham, Weaverville, X. C. 

On the Dillingham property, four and one-half miles northwest of 

Weaverville and about two miles south of Jupiter, on Flat Creek, is 

a deposit of kaolin the character of which is not known. The deposit 

is now covered by soil and the land above it is under cultivation. 

40. Snider Prospect JSTear Asheville 

A second deposit is reported by Watts 2 as existing on the north bank 
of the Prench Broad River, about three and one-half miles northwest 
of Asheville. It is known as the Snider prospect. It % consists of a 
dike eight to ten feet wide broken by several horses of rock. It strikes 
X. 30° E. and dips 75° S.E. The clay is sandy and it carries a large 
quantity of fine white mica, but since it is exposed to a depth of only 
16 feet the sample probably does not represent the true character of 
the deposit. Other dikes in the vicinity indicate the presence of other 
deposits. 

The crude clay yields 9 per cent of fine mica and 24 per cent of 
white kaolin, of a refractory value above 1,730° C. The color of the 
fired kaolin is of grade 3. Its tensile strength when dried at 110° 
C. was 24 pounds per square inch. Its shrinkage at 110° C. was 4.2 per 
cent, and at 1,350° C, 14 per cent. 



iKeith, A., U. S. Geol. Survey Folio No. 147 ^Pisgah), p. 4, 1907. 
"Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 120. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 87 

The shrinkage of the porcelain mixture made with this kaolin was 
3 per cent at 110° C. and 12.8 per cent at 1,350° C. The fired mass 
had a translucency of .67, a color of grade 3 and an absorption of 
4.8 per cent. Raw lead and fritted glazes do not affect its tint. 

Deposits in Yancey County 

The kaolin openings in Yancey County consist of two operating 
mines, several promising explorations and a number of slightly de- 
veloped explorations. The working mines (in 1918) were the Wilson 
and Wyatt mines near Micaville. The Job Thomas Mine on the north 
slope of Chestnut Mountain was operating in 1918 but it was aban- 
doned early in 1919. The crude kaolin from the first two mines was 
shipped from the settling plant at Lamonti on the Black Mountain 
Railroad. That of the Job Thomas Mine was shipped from the plant 
at Intermont on the Carolina, Clinchfield and Ohio Railroad. 

The locations of all the known deposits in this county are shown in 
Figure 10. 

In 1920 preparations were being made by the Harris Kaolin Com- 
pany to develop a new property near Lindsay. 

D. "Wilson Mine Near Micaville 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, "N. C. 

The Wilson Mine is one mile southwest of Micaville and the settling 
plant one mile northeast of the same village. The mine is operating 
two open cuts on the same deposit, with one shaft in each. Watts 1 
states that the dike on which the mine is opened varies in width be- 
tween 30 and 100 feet and that it has been proven for a distance of 
about 700 feet by numerous shafts and tunnels. A sample obtained 
from a tunnel yielded him 28 per cent of kaolin. 

There is nothing of special geological interest to be seen in the 
present pits. The overburden is the usual red clay and its thickness 
is only from three to eight feet. Except for the thin veneer of over- 
burden around its top the walls of the pit are almost entirely in kaolin. 
At one place rock shows for a few feet but otherwise only white clay 
is visible. From the present development it appears probable that the 
deposit varies in width between 18 and 75 feet and that the merchant- 
able kaolin is from 30 to 50 feet deep. Its strike is 1ST. 60° E. and its 
dip about 85° S.E. 

The kaolin is very light cream-colored. It contains fine flakes of 
white mica, sand, quartz fragments and a little biotite that prevents 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 147. 



88 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



the separation of the fine white mica as a commercial product. On 
the other hand there are many streaks and isolated clumps of coarse 
white mica scattered through the mass, and from these are saved about 
$100 worth of sheet and punch mica monthly. An analysis of the 
washed kaolin made in 1914, when the mine was first opened, gave 
the results 1 in line I. In line II the same result is calculated on the 
of material dried at 212° F. 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 0-3 FeO 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


42.69 
46.53 


36.62 
39.91 


.10 
.11 


.00 
.00 


.00 
.00 


.09 
.09 


tr 

tr 



Loss on Ign. 



12.28 
13.38 



Moist 



8.22 



Total 



100 .00 
100.02 



The Wilson clay has been used with success in the manufacture of 
china and semi-vitreous porcelain of all types. About 15 per cent 
usually goes into the mix with six or seven other clays in the manu- ■ 
facture of semi-vitreous ware and a little less in that used in the manu- 
facture of table china, the major portion of the mix being English 
china and English ball clays, aside, of course, from flint and spar. 

The crude clay is trammed to the washer, which is situated about 
300 feet from the mouth of the pits, and at a little lower level. After 
emerging from the washer the slip passes through three sets of sieves 
of 90, 100 and 110 meshes and is sluiced one and one-fourth miles to 
the settling plant at Lamonti on the Black Mountain Railroad. Both 
plant and washer are run by electric power generated at the plant. 
The capacity of the plant is about 400 tons monthly, but this is rarely 
reached because of scarcity of labor. The capacity of the kiln is two 
cars and there is storage for 30 cars of dry kaolin. 

At the time of his visit, when the mine was little more than a 
prospect, "Watts collected a sample from the best developed tunnel on 
the property. This kaolin when washed had a refractory value above 
1,730° C. Its color, when fired, was grade 2. Its tensile strength, 
after drying at 110° C. was 24 pounds per square inch and its shrink- 
age at 110° C. was 4.2 per cent. When fired at 1,350° C. it shrank 13.2 
per cent. 

Introduced into the porcelain mixture this shrank 3.2 per cent at 
110° C. and 13.6 per cent at 1,350° C. The color of the fired mass 
was grade 2, its translucency .72 and its absorption 4.3 per cent. 
Under the glazes used it exhibited a very pale green tint. 



Analysis made by N. P. Pratt. Courtesy of Harris Kaolin Company. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 89 

E. Wyatt Mine Near Micaville 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, N. C. 

The Wyatt Mine is a new opening about one mile northeast of 
Micaville. It is across the stream from the Lamonti plant where the 
output of the mine will be prepared for shipment. 

In September, 1918, the mine consisted of several openings on the 
side of a hill about 600 feet south of the Lamonti plant and about 
100 feet above it. Toward the east end of the property are two veins 
separated by 50 feet of rock. About 600 feet southwest of the eastern 
opening, which is a shallow pit, the two veins unite and form a single 
one 70 feet wide. In a tunnel a short distance south of the pit a 
width of 35 feet of kaolin is exposed. It contains streaks of mica and 
of red-stained material and is intersected by a nearly horizontal horse 
of red clay. At the end of the tunnel the kaolin fingers out in thin 
stringers, but 34 feet beyond there is more kaolin which is said to 
be 22 feet wide. According to Mr. Hise, the superintendent of the 
property, these two veins unite 300 feet southwest of the tunnel into 
a single wider vein. He states that the system of veins can be followed 
1,100 feet. The kaolin is covered by four feet of overburden and the 
average depth of the workable clay, as revealM by borings, is 42 feet. 
In some places the depth to hard rock is 60 feet. 

Only about 10 carloads of clay had been washed to September, 1918, 
but preparations were being made for systematic operation. The washer 
is on the hill near the mine. The slip is sluiced down to the plant 
at Lamonti where* it is mixed with that from the Wilson Mine. The 
mixed kaolin is to be the standard commercial product. 1 

F. Job Thomas Mine Near Toecane 

Intermont China Clay Company, Toecane, 1ST. C. 

The Job Thomas Mine has been worked since 1914 by the Inter- 
mont China Clay Company, the postoffice address of which is Erwin, 
Tenn., or Toecane, "N. C. The mine is three and one-half miles south- 
west of Toecane on the north side of Chestnut Mountain. The de- 
posits are pockety and therefore difficult to work, so that it is pro- 
posed to abandon the mine as soon as a new source of clay is developed. 2 

The crude clay is of the same general character as that of the 
Wilson Mine. It is light cream-colored and contains the usual sand, 



In a letter to Mr. Watts, written in January, 1921, by Mr. B.B. Royal, Superintendent of operations 
for the Harris Kaolin Company at Sprucepine, the Wyatt Mine is referred to as only a pocket of 
white clay that was operated for one year. 

2 The mine was abandoned early in 1919, and a new mine was opened on Flukin Ridge. 



90 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

fine mica and red streaks that are found in all the crude kaolin of 
this district. The overburden consists of from three to eight feet of 
red clay. 

The washer is near the mine. After passing through the usual 
troughs and screens the slip flows by gravity in a flume two and one- 
half miles to the compressing plant at Intermont, on the railroad 
three miles south of Toecane. Here it passes through six sets of 100- 
mesh screens to the settling tanks, and thence through the kiln and 
presses to the cars on a short spur of the Carolina, Clinchfield and 
Ohio Railway. The capacity of the plant is 400 tons of refined kaolin 
monthly. The storage capacity of the sheds is 30 cars and the capac- 
ity of the kiln two cars. 

The kaolin from the Job Thomas mine has been used in the manu- 
facture of china. In a few cases it is mixed with other domestic kaolins 
but more commonly with Florida and English china clays and English 
and domestic ball clays, especially in the mix used for making porce- 
lain. 

(h) Clay Products Company Near Toecane 

Formerly the Clay Products Company operated a pit about 100 
yards from the Job T^temas Mine. It was probably on a parallel 
dike. The deposit was small and pockety. A tunnel traversing it 
exposed good kaolin, intersected, however, by many schist streaks. 
The place was never suificiently developed to prove its value. It was 
worked a year, producing about 40 tons of refined kaolin that had 
been washed by hand, and was then abandoned. 

Several other prospects in Yancey County are promising as sources 
of kaolin and a few others are known to exist but have not been 
thoroughly tested, so that it is not possible to give any safe estimate 
of their importance. 

42. Elizabeth Smith Prospect Near Burnsville 

Miss M. P. Smith, Asheville, F. C. 
Perhaps the most promising prospect is that on the property of 
Misses E. E. and M. P. Smith of Asheville, N. C, and Mrs. George 
R. Calvert of New York. The deposit is situated one and one-half 
miles east of Burnsville, alongside the Black Mountain Railroad. It 
was formerly worked for mica, during the search for which numerous 
holes were dug and a shaft 40 feet deep was sunk. The shaft cut three 
or four feet of overburden and 35 feet of kaolin. It was abandoned 
because of caving. A tunnel 100 feet long also exposed kaolin. There 
is abundant water available for use of a mine and washing plant. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



91 



Watts 1 in his description of the deposit states that it is on a dike 
25 to 35 feet in width, striking !N*. 20° E. and dipping irregularly. 
The kaolin incloses lenses of semi-kaolinized material but on the whole 
the dike is well kaolinized. Tunnels connected by a cross-cut expose 
nearly the entire width of the dike, six feet of well kaolinized pegmatite 
adjoining its west wall, nine feet of semi-kaolinized material towards 
its center and 20 feet of kaolin adjoining its east wall. Test pits indi- 
cate that the dike may extend about half a mile. 

Samples taken from the tunnel gave 44 per cent of washed kaolin 
of a very light cream-color and a refractory value of 1,730° C. An 
analysis of this gave : 



SiO-2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


BaO 


Na 2 


K2O 


TiO-2 


H2O 


Total 


45.95 


39.20 


.05 


tr 


tr 


.03 


tr 


.50 


tr 


13.10 


98.83 



The samples seen by the writer are pure white and contain very 
little grit. Large lumps break with a distinct cleavage and thus indi- 
cate that the part of the dike from which they came was an almost 
pure aggregate of coarse-grained feldspar. Close inspection reveals 
a few grains of quartz sand, an occasional flake of fine mica and a 
rare minute spot of some yellow earthy material. Under the micro- 
scope the largest quartz grains seen had diameters of .1 to .15 millimeter. 
The mica is in very tiny flakes and shreds, with diameters of not more 
than .025 millimeter. A few stained kaolin clumps and the usual tiny 
flakes of this mineral were the only constituents noted. The 
sample is an especially pure kaolin. 

Offers have been made to mine the kaolin on a royalty basis, 
but the amount of royalty tendered was not attractive enough to the 
owners to warrant them in signing a contract. If the property is 
worked muscovite may be produced as a by-product. 

Watts reports the samples collected by him to have had a refrac- 
tory value above 1,730° C. Bars dried at 110° C. had a tensile 
strength of 29.5 pounds per square inch and a shrinkage of 4.4 per 
cent. Fired at 1,350° C. the shrinkage was 12.9 per cent. 

The standard porcelain mixture with this kaolin as a component 
had a shrinkage of 3.4 per cent when dried at 110° C. and of 14 per cent 
when fired at 1,350° C. The resulting porcelain had a translucency of 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 127. 



92 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

.70 and the transmitted light was cream-colored. Tested under the 
fritted and raw lead glazes it had a very pale green tint. 

43. Thomas Exploration Near Micaville 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, X. C. 

The Thomas prospect is a deposit that is being held in reserve by 
the Harris Kaolin Company. It has been tested by tunnels and shafts, 
but has not yet been exploited. It is expected that the clay will be 
refined at the Lamonti plant. The deposit is about one and one-half 
miles north of Micaville and about one mile northwest of Lamonti. 
The dike in which the deposit exists strikes ~N. 45° E. Watts 1 states 
that at the time of his visit, there had been driven a tunnel along its 
strike, at the end of which a shaft had been sunk. Both tunnel and 
shaft had exposed good kaolin. It was not then possible to determine 
the width, of the dike nor to estimate the size of the deposit. Since 
that time the place has been more thoroughly explored, revealing two 
dikes 60 and 175 feet wide and at least 1,000 feet long. The various 
shafts and tunnels on the property have uncovered good kaolin con- 
taining a little sand and white and black mica and crossed by streaks 
of red mica, which is apparently of the proper size and in sufficient 
quantity to be of commercial importance at greater depths. The de- 
posits are also penetrated by horses of rock. The overburden varies 
in thickness from 4 to 12 feet. If half of the clay can be removed 
the yield of the deposit in refined kaolin may be 50,000 tons. 

The kaolin is thought to be of the same quality as that at the 
Wilson Mine. A flume line from the property to Lamonti has already 
been surveyed and electric line poles are up but not strung. Water 
will be pumped from a creek to the mine, 150 feet higher, and the 
slip will flow to the plant by gravity all the way. 

If the property is worked muscovite may be produced as a by- 
product. 

50. Young Prospect Near Boonford 

Another promising deposit is the Young prospect 2 three-fourths mile 
west of Boonford on a dike 30 feet wide, divided in the middle by a 
4-foot horse of wall rock. The dike strikes N.E. and dips 85° S. 
Only a very short distance has been explored along its strike. The 
portion of the dike northwest of the horse is more profoundly decom- 
posed than its southeast portion. The material is free from impuri- 
ties "except for a very small amount of garnets and occurring in small 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 147. 
•Watts, A. 8., L. c, p. 123. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



93 



pockets." Samples taken from the walls of a tunnel yielded 22 per 
cent of kaolin having a refractory value of above 1,730° C. Its color, 
after firing, was of grade 2. When dried at 110° C. its shrinkage 




was 4.8 per cent and its tensile strength 22 pounds per square inch. 
Fired at 1,350° C. its shrinkage was 12.6 per cent. 

The porcelain mixture made with this kaolin when dried at 110° C. 
had a shrinkage of 4 per cent and when fired at 1,350° C. a shrink- 



94 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

age of 12.4 per cent. The fired mass had a translucency of .76, a 
color of grade 2 and an absorption of 6 per cent. Its color was un- 
changed under the raw lead and fritted glazes. 

Deposits Near Burnsville. Of the two 1 remaining deposits one is 
one-half mile northeast of Burnsville and the other two and, one-half 
miles east of the same village on the south side of the road to Micaville. 
Both are old mica mines, on the dumps of which kaolin can be seen. 
Nothing has been learned of the sizes of the deposits. 

Deposits in Mitchell County 

In Mitchell County there are at present three producing mines; 
others have been productive at some time in the past. One deposit is 
being held in reserve for future operation. One other has been ex- 
plored sufficiently to establish its value and a dozen others are at 
present only prospects. (For locations see Fig. 10.) 

The producing mines are the Sparks and Sprucepine at Sprucepine, 
and the Flukin Ridge near Toecane. The Snow Creek deposit near 
Wing is held in reserve. 

The Penland Mine, formerly operated by the Harris Clay Company, 
on the property of Colonel Bailey at Penland is temporarily abandoned. 

The Bailey deposit on the Firescald property at Penland has been 
prospected with promising results. 

Gr. Sprucepine Mine Sprucepine 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, 1ST. C. 

The present openings of the Sprucepine Mine are situated on the 
slope of a hill about three-fourths mile southeast of Sprucepine Station 
on the Carolina, Clinchfield and Ohio Railroad, near the mouth of 
Beaver Creek. The settling tanks and pressing plant are on the rail- 
road near the station. 

The deposits now being operated were first opened in 1916. Before 
that time the product was obtained from a deposit situated two and 
three-fourths miles north of Sprucepine near the head of Beaver Creek 
and was sluiced to the plant on the railroad. The old mine 2 was on 
a large lens of kaolinized material that had a general trend toward 
the northwest. Where worked the dike is about 120 feet wide, but 
its northeast part for a width of 50 to 70 feet was much richer in 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 126 and 127. 
2 Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 150. 






THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



95 



kaolin than the southwest part. A stringer 25 feet east of the lens 
has a width of 20 feet and a strike nearly north. The mine was 
worked to a depth of 75 feet when it was abandoned because no longer 
profitable. 

When washed the crude material yielded 24 per cent of cream-colored 
kaolin and about 2% per cent of fine mica, of which 35 per cent was 
finer than 100-mesh. The kaolin had a refractory value of over 
1,730° C. Its composition is shown in I. In II is the result of an 
analysis made by N. P. Pratt 1 in 1911. In the sample was 5.4 per 
cent of mica and free silica. 



Total 



Si02 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 0-3 


CaO 


MgO 


Na 2 


K2O 


TiO-2 


H2O 


45.20 


38.45 


.45 


tr 


tr 


.00 


.65 


tr 


14.80 


45.56 


38.65 


.41 


.05 


.08 


.55 


.80 


.10 


13.90 



99.55 
100.10 



The present mine consists of two openings about 500 feet apart. 
The one to the west (No. 1) has been worked two years and the 
eastern one (No. 2) since March, 1918. No. 1 opening has been op- 
erated by open cut to a depth of 30 feet, and by shafts to a further 
depth of 55 feet. At this depth dynamite is used to loosen the material 
and beyond this depth it is unprofitable to mine. The kaolin from 
this opening is light cream-colored. The overburden composed of red 
clay and broken rock is from six to ten feet thick. The crude kaolin 
contains the usual impurities, i.e., quartz, mica, black lumps of man- 
ganese oxides and here and there small masses of stained clay. The 
dike in which it occurs is believed to strike about north, but its walls 
are not clearly enough revealed to warrant a definite opinion. 

In No. 2 pit two shafts were down 30 feet in August, 1918. Both 
were so wet that pumping was necessary to keep them in condition 
to be worked. The kaolin obtained from this pit differs from the 
product of No. 1 in being white instead of cream-colored. It, however, 
contains the same impurities as the latter but in somewhat different 
forms. The quartz is in sand grains and also in little round frag- 
ments, like pebbles. The appearance of their surfaces suggest that 
they have been corroded. The mica is in very fine flakes. In the 
washing of the kaolin the mica is separated from the slip by 100-mesh 
sieves. About 1,000 pounds are saved daily and sold as ground mica 



1 Furnished by the Harris Kaolin Company. 



96 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

to rubber roofing manufacturers. The other impurities are nodules 
of soft black material probably manganese oxides, and streaks of yel- 
low clay. 

The deposit at this place is probably large. It has not yet been 
sufficiently developed to uncover distinct walls, nor is it known how 
deep kaolinization has proceeded. The kaolin, however, is cut by 
horses of red clay, some of which are 15 feet wide. These probably 
represent decomposed rock, which may pass into well-defined rock at 
greater depths than have thus far been reached. Borings around the 
open pit in which the shafts are situated have shown nothing but kaolin 
and streaks of yellow or red clay. 

The crude clay is cleaned in washers situated near the pits and the 
resulting slips are sluiced in a common trough to the settling, drying 
and filtering plant on the railroad. They are thoroughly intermingled 
before they reach the settling tanks and in this way a uniform product 
is assured. 

Steam power is used at the mine and washers and electricity at the 
plant. At present the electricity is generated by coal, but it is pur- 
posed to build a dam in the Toe River to furnish power with which 
to produce current for this mine and the Sparks Mine, which is under 
the same control and for the plants at both mines. 

The present capacity of the mine and plant is about 5,500 tons an- 
nually, with abundance of labor, but this output is not always reached. 
With the completion of the dam it may be possible to install labor- 
saving appliances, in which case the output may be increased. The 
kiln is furnished with 5,700 feet of 2-inch steam pipe. The storage 
capacity of the sheds is 1,000 tons. 

The users of the Sprucepine kaolin include most of the potters who 
use also the kaolin from the Hog Rock and Rhoda mines near Webster. 
In the manufacture of china and whiteware a mixture is made with 
imported clays and clays from Florida or Tennessee or with clays 
from both these sources. The Sprucepine kaolin is a favorite among 
most of the potters who use it. Some of them employ it to the extent 
of 15 per cent of the total mix and are contemplating increasing the 
quantity used in order to decrease the amount of imported clay now 
employed, while others report that they are gradually substituting for 
it some of the domestic clays from other sources. One potter declares 
that he uses no imported clay but makes his mix entirely of domestic 
material. The Sprucepine kaolin is also used in the mix of domestic 
clays employed in making spark plug and other types of porcelain. 
Some of the most important manufacturers prefer it to foreign clay 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



97 



for these purposes, whereas others declare that they could not use it 
alone for semi-vitreous porcelain, as it would shrink badly. However, 
practically the whole output of the mine goes to whiteware and elec- 
trical porcelain factories. 

Tests of the mixed crude products from the two pits and of the 
mixed washed product, and of the corresponding porcelain mixtures 
were made by the U. S. Bureau of Mines, with the results tabulated 
below. 



Kaolin 

The washed kaolin is reported to be very gritty, to be short and to make poor bars. 
That from the crude sample was sandy and possessed little strength. The corners 
of bars tear. 
When subjected to the screen test: Crude Washed 

there was left on the 20 mesh screen 21. 58% not 

65 mesh screen 17.39% tested 

100 mesh screen 1.16% 

200 mesh screen 57 . 95% 

there passed through the 200 mesh screen 1.95% 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay was 36 . 69 % 43.8 % 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay was 16.01% 14. 11% 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 5.65% 4. 94% 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is 1 .317%. 

The deformation temperature is cone 32.5 32 

The porosity in terms of burned volume when 

burned at 1190°C. is 35.7 % (3) 45.95% (3) 

1250°C 37.2 % (3) 46.3 % (6) 

1310°C 36.02% (3) 44.87% (3) 

1370°C 30.04% (3) 40..82% (3) 

1410°C._ 18.7 % (3) 29.1 % (3) 

The volume shrinkage in terms of dry clay when 

burned at 1190°C. is 14.7 % (3) 10.7 % (3) 

1250°C.___, 15.8 % (3) 10.1 % (5) 

1310°C 16.5 % (2) 14.0 % (3) 

1370°C 23.25% (3) 22.26% (3) 

1410°C 27.6 % (3) 24.5 % (2) 

The corresponding linear shrinkage at 1410°C. is___ 10.21% 8.94% 

The tests on porosity and volume shrinkage were made on the number of bars as 

indicated in parentheses. 

The color of the burned bars made from material washed from the crude sample 
was silvery white at all temperatures. That of the bars made from the kaolin 
washed at the plant was very light buff at all temperatures but 1410°, at which it 
was ivory yellow. 

Porcelain Mixture 

The mixture made with the washed kaolin is short and slippery. It molds with 
difficulty. 

Mixed Mixed 

Crude Washed 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry mixture is 26 . 36% 31 . 36% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry mixture is 12 . 01% 15 . 92% 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 4.17% 5.61% 

The modulus of rupture in lbs. per sq. in. is 245 92 . 1 

The porosity in terms of burned volume when 

burned at 1190°C. is 23.2% (3) 27.0 % (3) 

1250°C 18.49% (3) 18.44% (3) 



98 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



1310°C 10.17% (2) 15.75% (3) 

1370°C 1.33% (3) 7.43% (3) 

1410°C. .04% (3) .09% (3) 

The volume shrinkage in terms of dry volume when 

burned at 1190°C. is 11.67% (3) 15.6% (3) 

1250°C 23.01% (3) 21.95% (3) 

1310°C 28.53% (2) 20.0 % (2) 

1370°C 28.57% (3) 30.58% (3) 

1410°C 41.5 % (3) 31.57% (3) 

The corresponding linear shrinkage at 1410°C. is 16.4 % 11.88% 

The figures in parentheses show the number of bars tested. 

The modulus of rupture in lbs. per sq. in. when 

burned at 1190°C. is 2037 

1250°C . 4015 3412 

1310°C 4238 3917 

1370°C 7735 5845 

1410°C 6442 5074 

Color, when burned at. _._ 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 1410°C, 

Mixed crude Good White Fair Gray Gray 

white tinged white 

with 

light 

buff 

Mixed washed Pale Light Light Pale Pale 

ocherous buff buff olive olive 

salmon gray buff 

H. Sparks Mine Xear Penland 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, X. C. 

The Sparks Mine is on the Clinchfield and Ohio Railroad about 
two miles northwest of Sprucepine and about midway between this 
village and Penland. 

The deposit is on the slope of a hill several hundred feet above the 
compressing plant which is at the foot of the hill on the railroad. 
The mine was opened in the early part of 1914 and has been operat- 
ing ever since. The main vein strikes about north. It is about 100 
feet wide and is known to extend 1,000 feet north and south. A spur 
branches from the main vein to the northeast. This varies in width be- 
tween 65 and 75 feet and is several hundred feet long. Another vein, 47 
feet west of the main vein and parallel to it is 30 feet w T ide. 

The mine is worked in the usual way by open cut and shafts. Tn 
August, 1918, there w r ere being operated two shafts about 20 feet deep. 
Others, from 45 to 50 feet deep, had been abandoned because of water 
and the hardness of the rock at their bottoms. The overburden of 
red clay and rock fragments is from six to ten feet thick. 

The crude kaolin is white and coarse. It contains abundant rounded 
quartz fragments, bunches of white and dark mica, quartz stringers 
and much sand. On the walls of the shafts can be seen coarse quartz, 
quartz stringers and dark and light mica flakes in bunches forming 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 99 

streaks through the clay and abundant smaller plates of white mica 
scattered indiscriminately through the purer kaolin. Much of the 
darker mica is evidently badly decomposed, and some may itself be 
partially decomposed muscovite. A great deal of the white mica is 
fresh and in plates large enough to be of commercial value. This 
is separated from the kaolin by hand and sold as punch and sheet stock. 

The users of the Sparks kaolin (usually known as Penland kaolin 
because billed from this station) are the same as those of the Spruce- 
pine product, the kaolin from both mines being practically the same 
in character., (See pp. 94-97.) The potters of whiteware and semi-porce- 
lain employing it in mixtures report that as furnished to them in 
carload lots, it burns to a very white body. It is used in proportions 
of 10 to 16 per cent in the dry mix. It is also said to stand a very 
high fire and to be entirely satisfactory for the purpose to which it is 
put. The tile manufacturers employ it with New Jersey ball clay, 
flint and feldspar, and since a uniform quality has been furnished, 
through the method of mixing the products from different pockets, 
it has given such good results that it has in some factories replaced 
completely the imported kaolin. 

The capacity of the mine and plant is about 5,500 tons annually, but 
scarcity of labor has prevented this figure being reached during the 
past few years. The kiln is provided with 5,400 feet of 2-inch pipe. 
Storage capacity is provided for 600 tons. 

The washed kaolin taken from the shipping stock of the plant and 
the porcelain mixture made with it were tested by the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines. The results of the tests are tabulated below. 

Kaolin 
When subjected to the screen test: 

was left on the 20 mesh screen. 
was left on the 65 mesh screen. 
was left on the 100 mesh screen. 
2.92% was left on the 200 mesh screen. 
97.08% passed through the 200 mesh screen. 
The kaolin is sandy and short. It dries well without cracking, but bars made 
from it tear at the corners. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay is 44. 48% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay is 20.20% 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is .352% 

The deformation temperature is cone 32. 



100 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

When burned at 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 1370°C. 1410°C. 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 39.6 % 39.7 % 37.97% 35.52% 28.5 % 

No. of bars tested 3-3 3 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry clay is.. 18.1 % 18.4 % 20.3 % 24.98% 28.0 % 
No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

Color Clear White Good Good Good 

white tinged white white white 

with 
light buff 

Porcelain Mixture 

The porcelain mixture is short and sandy. It worked poorly in mold and jigger, 
and bars made of it tear on edges and crack badly. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of the dry mixture is 28. 5 % 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of the dry mixture is 16. 57% 

The modulus of rupture in lbs. per sq. in. is 221 .9 

When burned at 1190°C. 1250°C. 1310°C. 137G°C. 1410°C. 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 26.2 % 25.01% 20.01% 5.0.8% .4 % 

No. of bars tested 3 2 3 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry volume is 15.5 % 19.63% 18.95% 29.84% 31.4 % 
No. of bars tested 3 2 3 3 3 

The modulus of rupture in 

lbs. per sq. in. is 2582 3282 3357 6804 5236 

Color White White White Light Light 

tinged pearly pearly 

with grav grav 

light 
buff 

(I) Penland Mine Xear Penland 

Col. I. H. Bailey, Bakersville, X. C. 

The Bailey property between Bear Creek and Toe River contains 
two distinct areas underlain by kaolin in the neighborhood of Pen- 
land on the Carolina, Clinchfield and Ohio Railroad. One of these 
was formerly operated as the Penland Mine by the Harris Clay Com- 
pany of Dillsboro. This is on the railroad about half a mile east of Pen- 
land Station. It was abandoned a few years ago. The other is three- 
fourths mile northeast of Penland and about three-fourths mile from the 
old Penland Mine. This is known as the Firescald property or the 
"New deposit." 

The western area, comprising the old Penland Mine was worked by 
the Harris Clay Company for eleven years and previous to this by 
the C. J. Edgar Company. The area covers 21 acres. The openings 
from which the clay was taken are on a hill slope about 70 feet above 
the railroad. The washers were near the pits and the compressing 
plant at the railroad. The deposit was worked by open cut to a depth 
of 30 feet and by shafts to a further depth of 60 feet and for a 
maximum length of 400 feet. At the depth of about 60 feet the rock 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



101 



became so hard that it had to be dynamited before it could be raised. 
The overburden was of the usual character and of a very moderate 
thickness — about six to eight feet. 



- 6 t\ 

6-2<* '' &~<&\ 
6-18 ■"' W S^ZB \ [6-tS 



6-21 w 






3-SO'™ X Z • *6-37 ! v „..' /[ I 

<. O 6-39 16^0 w *0-30 *tX&r1&k\ +IS 

3-2S.-' + •-'°i 33 "-W"-20't£-?6S-k& 

P /6-40 /0-30 • 0O-/S %^° ° fT 

3-S3S * • ttfOtO-ft &7-Z7 6-34 '" 



3 -37 



a /^-j 



3-3S 6-3S „ ._-"" • O 

• • ^^S/e-37 9^S IO-IS 

6-40 3-30.^.. + • O 

• • tS-jS&g? ,0-35" S-30 , 



^orhe.6 




B4-40 16-35 ZO<33 7- 



■30 o-ao 



7-3S 14-34 \ 



•shas- 



-jS-.S'S //;?4 



\ + o * o 

! /Sj3e '3-£0 /0-Z3™ 
\,' ^ ^V^^S^jS® '3j&3* 



+ 
+ 

+ 









0££> PEN LAND MINE 

\ 

\ 



EXPLANATION 

• Boring in kaolin 
6 -28 First number indicates thick- 
ness of overburden; second num- 
ber indicates depth in kao/in 

R Rock at surface 

Boring in rock, 
mainly schiat 

+ Boring in pegmatite 
and pegmatite sand 

w Stopped i n water 



. Line showing 
extent of clay 

. Line showing limit 
of calculations 



300 Feet 




Fig. 11. Map of borings at Penland Mine, Penland. 

Although no definite wall can be seen, Watts 1 states that at the 
time of his visit the southeast wall was well defined, but on the north- 
west side of the deposit "the dike material grades gradually into a 



"Watts, A'. S., U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 53, p. 148, 1913. 



102 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

hard, granite-like rock producing little or no kaolin." On the map 
furnished by Mr. B. B. Westphalen, engineer of the Bailey Lumber 
Company, owner of the mineral rights, the strike of the eastern wall 
of the worked deposit varies between northwest and north and the 
general trend of its greater length is north, turning to the east at its 
northern end. (See sketch map, Fig 11.) The maximum width of 
the opening from which kaolin was taken is about 200 feet but this 
space was not all occupied by clay. As a matter of fact the clay is 
traversed by several small horses of micaceous schist, and toward the 
north the deposit is separated into two parts by a central horse of 
the same schist with a width of about 80 feet. Moreover, the east 
wall of the pit is the west side of another horse, or at any rate of a 
strip of schist which separates the worked deposit from another one 
that has not been opened, but which has been bored sufficiently thor- 
oughly to prove that it occupies a large area. Whether the different 
deposits are united and represent parts of a single great, branching 
pegmatite dike, divided by inclusions of rock, or whether they are on 
independent dikes has not yet been disclosed by the mining operations. 
"Watts, referring to the worked deposit only, described it as occurring 
in the form of an expanded lens striking !N". 25° E. He states that 
the original pegmatite was very fine-grained and that much of the 
kaolin retains its structure, as kaolinization has not been sufficiently 
thorough to destroy it. 

On the side of one of the shafts still open are to be seen several 
small dikes of pegmatite cutting through the clay. They not only 
retain their structure, but apparently have escaped kaolinization to 
such an extent that their feldspathic component is still recognizable 
as fresh microcline. One of these consists of quartz and a partially 
decomposed feldspar with only here and there a flake of muscovite. 
It is three feet wide, and dips 45° southeast. 

The character of the kaolin from the old Penland Mine was very 
much like that from the Sparks Mine. The crude clay, however, con- 
tained a larger proportion of coarse rounded quartz fragments and 
pieces of partially kaolinized feldspar and about a like proportion of. 
mica. The refined kaolin was used, apparently with satisfaction, by a 
number of whiteware and china potteries and by makers of vitrified 
tile in the Ohio River Valley. It was often substituted for the clay 
of the Sprucepine and Sparks mines. Like the kaolin of these mines 
it was not used alone, but in mixtures with Florida, Tennessee and 
English china clays. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 103 

Samples of the crude kaolin taken by Watts from the workings 
yielded 22 per cent of kaolin with a refractory value of 1,730° C. Its 
color was of grade 4 when burned at 1,350° C. Its shrinkage when 
dried at 110° C. was 3.4 per cent and its tensile strength was 12 pounds 
per square inch. When fired at 1,350° C. its shrinkage was 11.6 per 
cent. 

When made up into a porcelain mixture the shrinkage of the mass 
at 110° C. was 3.2 per cent, and when fired at 1,350° O. was 13 per cent. 
The fired material had a translucency of .62, a color of grade 4 and 
an absorption of 5 per cent. Under the raw lead and fritted glazes 
the color was changed to a pale green. 

Northeast of the old Penland openings and separated from them by 
a thin wall of rock is the area referred to above as having been ex- 
plored by borings that cover about four and two-thirds acres. The 
borings are in lines running northeast and northwest and at intervals 
of about 50 feet. The overburden averages in thickness not more than 
seven or eight feet and the depth of the clay penetrated varies from 
20 to 45 feet. On the assumption that the average thickness of the 
clay is 30 feet and that the average yield of commercial kaolin is 
about 20 per cent of the crude tonnage the productive capacity of the 
bored area is about 70,000 tons of refined clay. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the thickness of the kaolinized material is greater than 30 
feet and it is possible that the yield of merchantable kaolin from the 
crude clay might run higher than 20 per cent. 

52. Firescald Property Near Penland 

Col. I. H. Bailey, Bakersville, N. C. 
The "New deposit" on the Firescald property is three-fourths mile 
northeast of the old Penland Mine. It has been tested by boring over 
about 15 acres by 200 holes at irregular intervals. The reserve on 
this area is estimated to be about 250,000 tons of commercial clay, on 
the assumption that the whole area is occupied by kaolin, that the 
thickness of the deposit is 30 feet and that the crude kaolin will yield 
20 per cent of the refined product. A sketch map of the distribution 
of the borings and thickness of overburden and clay disclosed by them 
is reproduced in Figure 12. The original was furnished by the owners 
of the property. 



104 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



The material from the borings on the Firescald area has been tested 
by several potters and other parties and has been reported as being 



* 

(7-« VO R 


B " 


*/* 


o R '' 


^.•" 


JO-2> 




+*&** 


7 


'O-ZS 


S-,S 


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.*» 




t S-3* 






."*> 



Schist 



h *• 




•' 


Xp 


*p\ 


% S-30 




\ 


y-ss 



, V^jk ° \ J'** Br oi<en 



I 'S-30 
I '0-30 



9-as •._ 
.s-so 



N I 

•\gi •e-30 

3-/6 • 
20-2So *SS 
~6-2£ , m. 

, V* »> ^ •** 

R N e^ J" 30 *. 



o! e-es 



0-30 



Peg: 



matite 



• (S-3£> 

-/$ • • 6- 

V 3-30 

\ *S-30 m '£-3Q. 

P„ Pegmatite 



EXPLANATION 



Limits of area underla 
by kaolin 




r Boring in rock, 
mainly schist 

p Boring in pegmatite an 
x pegmatite sand 

• Boring in kaolin 
S-20 First number /nd/cates th/cJrness of 
overburden; second number /hd/oates 
depth f'n fcao//r? 



1 00 Feet 



Fig. 12. Map of borings on Firescald property, near Penland. 

similar to the Hog Rock kaolin, but of course it has not been tried 
on a commercial scale. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 105 

Wo properties in Mitchell County other than those described above 
have ever been worked for kaolin on a commercial scale. There have, 
however, been many workings for mica and in some of these con- 
siderable kaolin of good quality has been encountered. Besides there 
have been a few explored for kaolin alone. 

51. Snow Creek Deposit Wear Wing 

Harris Kaolin Company, Dillsboro, N". C. 
On Snow Creek, about one and one-half miles north of Wing post- 
office and about two miles north of Phillip Station on the Carolina, 
Clinchfield and Ohio Kailway, is said to be a deposit of kaolin in a 
dike striking a little east of north and dipping about 75° northwest. 
It has been tested by a shaft which penetrates excellent kaolin to a 
depth of 35 feet, and by borings at intervals of 20 feet. Most of the 
borings go to a depth of 40 feet in clay. The Harris Kaolin Company, 
owners of the mineral rights, declare that the deposit is at least 300 
feet by 150 feet, and the clay is much like that at Sprucepine. The 
estimated reserve calculated on the basis of a 20 per cent yield is 
about 20,000 tons of refined kaolin. The slip could easily be delivered 
at the railroad by a flume. 

46. Flukin Kidge Prospect and Mine Wear Toecane 

The Flukin Ridge Mine was opened in the early part of 1919, after 
the writer's visit to the locality. The deposit consists of a series of 
openings that were originally made in the search for mica. They are 
on the top of Flukin Ridge, a northwest spur from Burns Mountain, 
two and one-fourth miles southwest of Bakersville, and about one and 
one-half miles east of the plant of the Intermont China Clay Com- 
pany on the Carolina, Clinchfield and Ohio Railroad at Intermont, 
about two miles south of Toecane, with which it may readily be con- 
nected by a flume. Watts 1 describes the area as containing a large number 
of dikes of partially decomposed pegmatite striking 1ST, 50° E. and dip- 
ping 65° S.E. He states that tunnels and shafts had been dug over 
an area one-half mile long and one-eighth mile wide, and that "at one 
point a considerable quantity of fine white kaolin is encountered. There 
are, however, occasional streaks of fresh feldspar and on all sides of 
the lens there is semi-kaolinized material; these facts justify the as- 
sumption that the kaolin is merely an isolated lens and would not 
justify the equipment of an extensive outfit for handling it, although 



Watts, A. S., L. c, pp. 108 and 121. 



106 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

the presence in the neighborhood of other isolated kaolin deposits 
would justify the sinking of shafts and the removal of this kaolin 
to a central washing plant." 

In 1915 the place was explored for kaolin by extending old tunnels 
and by boring. At the time of the writer's visit the shafts were in- 
accessible and the tunnels were accessible for only short distances from 
their openings. The borings are not mapped. It is, however, reported 
by representatives of the Intermont China Clay Company that the 
borings indicate a vein 200 feet wide, including a few horses of rock, 
and 900 feet long. Near its southwest end a rock wedge penetrates 
it and splits it into, two parts the dimensions of which are not known. 
The best clay is said to be near the foot wall where it is white, dense 
and free from streaks of mica. Elsewhere there are streaks of mica 
and quartz which increase toward the hanging wall. In one of the 
shafts put down near the center of the deposit fair to good kaolin 
shows in the walls to a depth of 72 feet, and a boring made in its 
bottom penetrates 11 feet more of good clay. A cross-cut 46 feet from 
the bottom of the shaft toward the hanging wall is also all in kaolin. 
It is estimated that the quantity of refined clay that the deposit will 
yield is about 75,000 tons. It is proposed to sluice the slip to the 
settling plant at Intermont, on the railroad. The length of the flume 
necessary for this would have to be about three and one-half miles. 

A sample was taken from the walls of a tunnel, near the hanging 
wall of the dike where the clay is much interrupted by mica streaks. 
It is probable that if the deposit is worked mica may be obtained as 
a by-product. 1 

The other properties in this vicinity that might contribute to a 
washer on a flume line between Elukin Ridge and Intermont are the 
old Benner Mica Mine, the Sink-hole Ridge prospect and the P. H. 
Howell prospect. The first two are on Sink-hole Ridge, three miles 
southwest of Bakersville and about three-fourths mile southwest of 
Flukin Ridge. Neither of these places was seen. Watts, however, 
visited them and describes what he saw. 

44. Howell Prospect Near Toecane 

The Howell deposit 2 is on a dike occupying the crest of a ridge three 

miles south of Toecane. Its strike is N. 45° E. and its dip 80° N.W. 



iThe property was taken over by the Harris Kaolin Company in June, 1919, and opened at the 
old shaft referred to above. A washer, operated by electricity, has been erected on the site. The 
crude kaolin, which is quite sandy, is passed under two sand wheels and through 300 feet of mica 
troughs and then is fiurned to the settling plant at Intermont on the railroad, where it is pressed. 
The yield is from 17 to 20 tons daily of No. 2 product. After operating it about a year and a half 
the company is now (February, 1921,) expecting to abandon the site. 

nVatts, A. S., L. c, p. 157. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 107 

The width of the dike varies from 8 to 18 feet. Its kaoliiiization is 
on the whole well advanced, but there are present some only partly de- 
composed lenses. The wall rock is a brown gneiss. 

A sample taken from across the dike yielded 31 per cent of kaolin 
of a refractory value of 1,710° C, and a color, when fired, of grade 2. 
When dried at 110° C. its tensile strength was 17 pounds per square 
inch, and its shrinkage 3 per cent, and when fired at 1,350° was 12.7 
per cent. 

The porcelain mixture with this kaolin as a component shrank 3.4 
per cent when heated to 110° C. and 13.1 per cent when fired at 
1,350° C. The fired mass had a color of grade 2. Its translucency 
was .69 and its absorption 5.9 per cent. Under the raw lead and 
fritted glazes the color became a very pale green. 

45. Benner Mica Mine Near Toecane 

The Benner Mica Mine 1 is on a broad dike composed mainly of 
semi-kaolinized material. To the northwest, however, a portion of 
the dike has been isolated from the remaining part by a broad band 
of rock, and on this portion four shafts have been sunk in a good 
plastic kaolin. It is reported by those who had worked in the shafts 
that the width of the deposit was only a few feet and that its length 
was not known to be greater than a few rods. The strike of the 
dike is K 60° E. and its dip 75° S.E. 

47. American Mica and Mining Company Near Baker sville 
The American Mica and Mining Company opened a mine for mica 

on the brow of a hill one mile south of Bakersville and two and one- 
half miles southeast of Toecane. 2 It is in an isolated lens of kaolinized 
pegmatite 12 feet wide striking northeast. A shaft 300 yards farther 
to the southwest exposes five or six feet of clay. Otherwise the de- 
posit has not been developed. Borings show no dike material between 
the openings. The clay is of good quality, but is evidently in too 
small quantity to be of value. 

48, 49. McKinney Prospects Near Bakersville 

The Aaron McKinney prospect 3 is on a dike three-fourths mile 
northeast of Bakersville and three miles east of Toecane. The dike 
is 30 feet wide, but is divided by two horses of rock six or eight feet 
thick. The dike is known to extend 300 feet in a northeast direction 
and to dip nearly vertical. This is thoroughly kaolinized, but it con- 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, pp. 117 and 121. 
'Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 121. 
*Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 122. 



108 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



tains many small pockets of stained mica. The deposit has been 
opened by three tunnels and several test pits. From these a sample 
was taken which yielded 32 per cent of nearly pure white kaolin, with 
a refractory value above 1,730° C. 

The continuation of this dike was opened as a mica mine by Johnson 
McKinney, but the shafts are now closed and the character of the 
kaolin at this point is not known. 

The washed kaolin from the Aaron McKinney property had a color 
of grade 2 when fired. Upon drying at 110° C. it shrank 4.4 per 
cent, and upon firing at 1,350° C, 12.9 per cent. The tensile strength 
of the dried material was 28 pounds per square inch. 

When made up into a porcelain mixture the shrinkage of the mass 
was 2.8 per cent at 110° C. and 10.6 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. 
The fired mass had a color of grade 2. Its translucency was .61 and 
its absorption 4.25 per cent. Under the glazes the color became a 
pronounced green. 

53. Tolley Mica Mine 2s"ear Sprucepine 

Two other deposits near Sprucepine might possibly at some future 
time supply material to the plant at this place. One of these, the 
Tolley Mica Mine, 1 is on the north side of the Sprucepine-Micaville 
road, one mile west of Sprucepine. It consists of a dike 25 to 35 
feet wide, with numerous stringers. It has been proven for 300 feet 
and is opened by a shaft, said to be 45 feet deep, and a drift 32 feet 
long from the 20-foot level. 

The material of the dike appears to be uniform in character through- 
out. It is white but sandy. The crude clay yielded 30 per cent of 
kaolin with a refractory value above 1,730° C. 
An analysis of the washed product gave : 



Si02 


AI2O3 


FeaOs 


CaO 


MgO 


BaO 


NasO 


K2O 


TiC-2 


H2O 


Total 


46.35 


38.80 


25 


fcr 


tr 


.03 


tr 


.41 


tr 


14.00 


99.84 



The color of the washed kaolin, after firing, was of grade 2. When 
dried at 110° C. its shrinkage was 5.4 per cent and its tensile strength 
8 pounds to the square inch. When fired at 1,350° the shrinkage was 
10.9 per cent. 

The porcelain mixture including the kaolin had a shrinkage of 3.4 
per cent at 110° C. and 14 per cent at 1,350° C. The translucency of 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 152. 



THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAKOLINA 109 

the fired mass was .71, its color of grade 2 and its absorption 7.3 per 
cent. Under the glazes used the mass acquired a very pale green tint. 

54. Wiseman Pkospect Near Sprucepine 

The other deposit that has been described 1 as occurring near Spruce- 
pine is two miles southeast of the village on a partly kaolinized dike 
striking northeast and dipping nearly vertical. "The half adjoining 
the southeast wall is incompletely kaolinized, but kaolinization of the 
northwest half is well advanced." The entire deposit, however, is 
sandy. Adjoining the dike on the southeast is a narrow belt of coarse 
granite-pegmatite which is apparently unaltered. 

The material from the northwest part of the dike yielded 21 per cent of 
white kaolin, with a refractory value of 1,730° C. The color of the washed 
kaolin is described by Watts as of grade 2. When dried at 110° C. its 
tensile strength was 17 pounds to the square inch and its shrinkage was 
3.2 per cent. When fired at 1,350° C. the total shrinkage was 11.9 per 
cent. 

The porcelain mixture with this kaolin as an ingredient, when 
dried at 110° C. shrank 3.8 per cent and when fired at 1,350° C, 13 per 
cent. The translucency of the fired mass was .76, its absorption 3.7 
per cent. Its color is unaltered by the glazes used. 

ReserYes in Yancey and Mitchell Counties 

An estimate of the quantity of available kaolin present in the known 
deposits of Mitchell, Yancey and neighboring counties is of little value. 
Undoubtedly there is a large quantity of crude kaolin in the ground. 
The unknown factor relates to its distribution. It cannot be deter- 
mined from the slight development of most of the deposits how much 
of the material can be mined with profit, even under the most favor- 
able condition, since the dimensions of the individual deposits are not 
known. In the case of the deposits that are now being exploited and 
of those that have been explored by boring, it may be estimated that 
the reserve is over 400,000 ■ tons of commercial kaolin. This is a 
much lower figure than that arrived at by the owners of some of the 
kaolin properties in this area, but in their estimates it has been as- 
sumed that all the kaolin in the ground can be removed, which is not 
the case. 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 153. 



110 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Deposits in Ayery County 

Only two deposits have been described from Avery County, and 
neither is known to be important. Both are near Spear which is on 
the North Toe River, about eight miles north of Sprucepine. Even 
if they prove to be large they are too far from transportation lines 
to be of value at the present time. 

55. Ollis Prospect Xear Spear 
The Ollis prospect 1 is three-fourths mile northeast of Ingalls and 

about three miles a little east of south of Spear and Plumtree. Its 
nearest shipping points would be Pineola, six miles to the northeast, 
and Sprucepine, six and one-half miles to the southwest. The deposit 
occurs in a broad lens of pegmatite which has been proven for a width 
of 100 feet and a length of 750 feet along a ridge. Its strike is west 
and dip 80° south. The material, which is exposed by numerous 
shafts and tunnels, yielded 36 per cent of kaolin with a refractory 
value above 1,730° C. and a color, after firing, which "Watts describes 
as of grade 5. The washed kaolin shrank 4.6 per cent when dried at 
110° C. and in this condition had a tensile strength of 17 pounds per 
square inch. The shrinkage when fired at 1,350° C. was 9.6 per cent. 
The standard porcelain mixture containing this kaolin showed a 
shrinkage of 3.6 per cent at 110° C. and 12.2 per cent at 1,350° C. 
The translucency of the fired mass was .68, its absorption 3.6 per cent 
and its color of grade 5. This color was unchanged under the raw lead 
and fritted glazes. 

56. Wiseman Prospect Xear Spear 
The other deposit, at the Wiseman prospect, 2 is on Port Creek, a 

branch of Three-mile Creek. It is about two and one-half miles south- 
east of Spear and Plumtree and about five miles west of Pineola, its 
nearest potential shipping point. 

Tunnels and shafts expose a dike 20 feet wide in some places and 
in others a series of stringer dikes only a few feet wide. The general 
strike of the main dike is "N. 40° E. The material, which varies in 
its degree of kaolinization, is remarkably free from impurities. It 
yielded 37 per cent of a very white kaolin with a refractory value 
above 1,730° C. When dried at 110° C. it shrank 7.4 per cent, and 
when fired at 1,350° C. 17.4 per cent. The color of the fired kaolin 
was of grade 1. Its tensile strength after drying was 17.5 pounds 
per square inch. 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 151. 
nVatts, A. S., L. c, p. 153. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 111 

The porcelain mixture containing this kaolin shrank 4.4 per cent 
when dried at 110° C. and 14.4 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The 
color of the fired mass was of grade 1, its translucency .72, and its 
absorption 8.3 per cent. The glazes used did not affect the color. 

Deposits in Ashe County 

60. South Hardin Mica Mine Near Beaver Creek 
Watts has referred to the South Hardin Mica Mine, 1 one and one- 
fourth miles southwest of Beaver Creek as a prospective source of 
kaolin. The mine was on a dike from six to ten feet wide, striking 
N". 40° E. and dipping 60° S.E. In the open cut, shafts and tunnel 
from which the mica was taken is much kaolinized feldspar, but none 
of it was sufficiently decomposed to be plastic, although it is reported 
that in the old shafts, now entirely closed by slides, a good grade of 
plastic kaolin was exposed. 

61. Jesse Bare Property Near Jefferson 
Another deposit in this county is known only by its samples. It is 

on the property of Jesse Bare, Sr., near the mouth of Dog Creek, four 
and one-half miles east of Jefferson. It has been opened by two 
trenches two feet deep in solid clay. One trench is ten feet long and 
two and one-half feet wide, and the other six feet long and four feet 
wide. The overburden is three feet thick. Mr. Bare writes that the 
deposit is on top of a flat, smooth ridge, and that it occupies about 
an acre, to judge by the distribution of the lumps turned up in plowing. 
The sample sent is in very hard white granular porous masses that 
absorb a great quantity of water without disintegrating. Careful ex- 
amining with a hand lens reveals many transparent colorless quartz 
grains in a white structureless cement. Here and there a larger quartz 
grain is embedded in the mass and a few little groups of stained grains. 
When shaken with water and allowed to stand for a few minutes a 
sediment settles that consists almost exclusively of grains of quartz 
and a white opaque material which is taken to be kaolinized feldspar 
because the particles are bounded by planes, which appear to be the 
result of cleavage. K~o other constituents are observable when the 
crushed kaolin is viewed under the microscope. The quartz grains, 
which are jagged in outline, vary from .3 to .15 millimeter in diameter. 
They are comparatively few as compared with the grains of kaolinized 
feldspar. These are almost nonpolarizing. They are often straight- 



Watts, A. S., L. c, p. 123. 



112 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

edged, but occasional grains are subangular. The smallest particles 
are kaolin plates. They are not very abundant. An occasional wisp 
of muscovite is noted, but only very rarely. 

From the appearance of the material in the hand specimen and under 
the microscope it is inferred that it is an incompletely kaolinized, very 
feldspathic pegmatite. Even after being shaken with water for a 
long time it is only partially disintegrated. Professor Parmelee, after 
examining the sample, reports that it does not seem to be practicable 
to treat it by the ordinary washing process. 

66. Ellers and Jones Deposit Xear Bina 

The Ellers and Jones deposit is near the top of a hill about three- 
fourths mile north of Bina and one-fourth mile east of the Virginia- 
Carolina Railroad. It is only partially developed by a number of 
short trenches and small pits, none of which expose the entire width 
of the vein. The maximum width uncovered by any trench is seven 
feet. The vein has been traced for about 100 yards, but surface signs 
indicate a much greater length. 

The kaolin at the surface is a pale creamy white. It is uniform in 
character and nearly free from grit. It was originally a pegmatite 
cutting schists parallel to their foliation. It will wash easily and yield 
a large proportion of refined product. 

KAOLINS IN THE PIEDMONT PLATEAU 

Although all of the kaolin deposits of North Carolina that are 
now being exploited are in the mountain district, nevertheless there 
are known to be others in the Piedmont Plateau that may prove to 
be of commercial importance when they have been thoroughly explored. 
A few are the result of the alteration of pegmatites. These are similar 
to the deposits in the mountain district. Others have apparently re- 
sulted from the alteration of granites, of schistose feldspathic rocks 
or of slates. Those derived from slates are of no great importance 
from the point of view of this report. While some of them may be 
employed for some of the purposes for which kaolins are usually 
used, most of them are so impure that they will not burn white. They 
are referred to in the following pages only when their description is 
necessary to complete the discussion of certain properties on which 
white-burning kaolins occur. 

The residual kaolins derived from granites and schistose feldspathic 
rocks are usually less compact than those derived from pegmatites. 
They are generally fine-grained, powdery and very quartzose. They 
rarely contain large fragments of quartz, or large pieces of partially 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



113 



kaolinized feldspar. They cover comparatively broad areas and when 
derived from schists they often occur as layers between layers of very im- 
pure clay or of only slightly decomposed rocks. The dips of the layers 
may be high or low, depending upon the attitude of the series of rocks of 
which they are a part. If the original rock layer was thick the thickness 
of the kaolin will depend upon the depth to which kaolinization has 
proceeded. If the original layer was thin the resulting kaolin layer 
must also be thin. In prospecting it is important to determine the 
thickness of deposits of this kind by actual test or by calculations 
based upon observations of dip. 

The processes by which the granites and feldspathic schists were 
changed to kaolin were the same as affected the pegmatites, and there- 
fore, they need no special discussion. See p. — .) 

Besides the kaolins there as known also to be a few deposits of sedi- 
mentary clays in the Piedmont area, but they are not white-burning 
and consequently cannot be employed for the purposes for which kaolins 
are used. 

Kaolins from Pegmatite and Granite 

The only kaolin deposits in the Piedmont Plateau that are believed 
to be derived from pegmatite are in a few old mica mines that have 
been abandoned, with the exception of one in a tin mine near Lincoln- 
ton and a small deposit at Bessemer City. Only that at Bessemer City 
was visited. A deposit that is believed to have come from granite 
is also at Bessemer City. 

Deposits in Rutherford County 

57. Isinglass Hill Mica Mine Near Bntherfordton 

Only one deposit in Rutherford County was reported by Watts 1 
as of possible importance. This is at the Isinglass Hill Mica Mine 
three miles north of Rutherfordton, where a dike 6 to 50 feet wide 
has been proven for a distance of one-fourth mile and to a depth of 
20 feet along the crest of a low ridge three miles north of Rutherford- 
ton. It strikes K 20° E. and dips 80° N.W. Its hanging wall is 
more thoroughly kaolinized than its foot wall, the dike being divided 
in the middle by a band of sugar quartz one to three feet wide. The 
clay contains sharp particles of smoky quartz, a few crystals of garnet, 
and nodules of asbolite or wad. 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, pp. 148, 114. 



114 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Material from the west portion of the dike gave 42 per cent of 
kaolin with a refractory value of 1,730° C, and a color, after firing, 
of grade 5. When dried at 110° C. its tensile strength was 8 pounds 
per square inch, and its shrinkage 2.8 per cent. "When fired at 
1,350° the shrinkage was 11.3 per cent. 

Made up into the porcelain mixture the shrinkage was 2.2 per cent 
upon drying at 110° C. and 12.4 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. 
The fired mass had a translucency of .64 and an absorption of 8.8 per 
cent. Its color was of grade 3, and was unaltered under the raw lead 
and fritted glazes. 

Deposits in Cleveland County 

From Cleveland County two mica mines have been reported, in both 
of which is considerable kaolin, but not certainly in sufficient quantity 
to be of commercial value. 

58. Green Mica Mine ]^"ear Shelby 
The Green Mica Mine, 1 seven miles northwest of 'Shelby, was worked 

for mica in 1870 and again in a small way later. The old shafts in- 
dicate the existence of a 12-foot wide dike with numerous parallel 
stringers striking about ]ST. 70° E. and dipping 75° ~N.W. It is re- 
ported that much excellent kaolin was exposed in the shafts, but none 
was seen, as the workings have all collapsed. 

59. Tom Baxter Mica Mine 'Neav Fallston 
The Tom Baxter Mica Mine, 2 three miles southeast of Fallston and 

four miles northwest of Waco, is an old mica mine that was explored 
by shafts over an area about 40 feet long. The dike on which the 
work was done can be traced for about 200 feet in a general N", 60° 
E. direction. Its width is reported to be almost 100 feet. The shaft 
dumps show considerable very fine kaolin. The workmen formerly 
employed at the mine state "that at about 30 feet they found kaolin 
practically free from quartz, and in one shaft reached a depth of 47 
feet, but the dike material was so soft and caved so badly that the 
mine was abandoned." 

Samples taken from exposed portions of the dike gave 49 per cent 
of white kaolin with a refractory value above 1,730° C. This kaolin 
showed a shrinkage of 4.4 per cent at 110° C, and when dried at this 
temperature its tensile strength was 8 pounds per square inch. When 
fired at 1,350° C. it possessed a color of grade 2 and a shrinkage of 12.2 
per cent. 



iWatts, A. S., L. c, p. 150. 
Watts, A. S„ L. c, p. 149. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 115 

The porcelain mixture made up with this kaolin shrank 1.6 per 
cent when dried at 110° C. and 10.8 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. 
The fired mass had a translucency of .73. Its absorption was 8.1 per 
cent and its color of grade 2. This color was unaffected by the glazes 
used. 

Deposits in Gaston County 

62, 63. J. A. Smith Property Bessemer City 

In Gaston County the only deposits of clay that have been examined 
are those on the property of Mr. J. A. Smith, Bessemer City. Two 
openings are inside the city limits. One of these is a shaft 30 feet 
deep near the railroad station. It is now boarded up, but the walls 
can be seen to be in white clay underlying an overburden of about 
seven feet of red clay. The sample, which it is said by Mr. Smith, 
was taken from the side of this shaft 18 feet from the surface, is a 
white kaolin that dried into a powdery mass. It contains some sand, 
a little mica and the usual black streaks. A boring in the bottom of the 
shaft went down 12 feet further, all in clay. Wells in the vicinity of the 
shaft all passed through similar clay. Several carloads of material were 
shipped from these openings, two of which went to a tile manufacturer 
who made from it a cream-colored translucent product. 

About 1,800 feet northeast of the shaft is another opening which is 
now partially filled. It is a pit showing on its wall a 16-foot band 
of kaolin which is said to be separated from another band 10 feet 
wide by a horse of red clay. Mr. Smith declares that he has borings 
which indicate the existence of a belt of clay 300 feet wide inter- 
rupted by horses of clay. The west wall of the visible deposit is ap- 
parently a decomposed gneiss as are also the horses of clay. Other 
walls are not visible. A short distance from this pit borings are re- 
ported to have been made that outlined a dike 160 feet wide with 
walls on both sides. Nearly all the holes that penetrated kaolin showed 
it to extend to a depth of at least 35 feet. The structure of the clay 
in the pit suggests a residual deposit. It is crossed by little quartz 
veins and by streaks of yellow stain. Mr. Smith believes he has 
proven a series of dikes from 10 to 200 feet wide striking N". 22° E. 
and dipping vertically. There is no reason to doubt this conclusion 
though no evidence was at hand to confirm it. 

Another deposit, one and one-half miles northeast of the city near 
Long Creek, is of an entirely different character. It is exposed in a 
long gully from 10 to 30 feet deep. At the upper end of the gully 
its floor is over numerous large granite boulders. Further south these 
become friable and beyond, where the gully becomes deeper, they are 



116 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

partially disintegrated and covered with a layer of clay. Still further 
south the gully is deep and clay extends to its bottom. The granite 
ends in a steep slope over which a little wet-weather stream cascades 
(Fig. 13). About 100 feet down stream from the last boulder is an 
exposure of schist which is separated from the granite by a deep de- 
posit of white clay. In the bottom of the gully and in its walls at 
this place some of the kaolin seems to be sedimentary, but on the 
whole it presents the texture of the granite, i.e., it contains quartz 
grains of the same sizes and shapes of those in the granite, a few 
streaks of black earthy substance that may be some decomposed fer- 
ruginous mineral such as biotite, augite or hornblende. The com- 
ponents are arranged like those of the granite, the feldspar of the 
rock being replaced by kaolin in the clay. The conditions suggest 
a concentration of kaolin at the base of a granite slope by the wash- 
ing of the decomposition products of the granite into a depression 
between granite and schist. The deeper kaolinization of the granite 
at this point, and the consequent development of the steep slope is 
probably due to the presence here of the contact surface between granite 
and schist. Plainly the greater part of the kaolin is a residual de- 
posit, which is the result of the decomposition of granite. Where seen 
there is an overburden of from six to seven feet of red clay. 

A sample of the clay was taken from a hole on the east side of the 
bottom of the gully and from a strip of its west wall 25 feet long. 
It is a plastic white kaolin containing grains of quartz, feldspar, white 
mica, a few specks of black earth and a few yellow streaks. 




^ 200 feet 



Fig. 13. Longitudinal section of kaolin deposit on Smith property, near Bessemer City. 

There is unquestionably a large quantity of kaolin in the neighbor- 
hood of this locality, but it is probably irregularly distributed. 
Whether it is capable of being worked economically cannot be deter- 
mined without a pretty thorough exploration. Water is abundant for 
washing and the locality is only one and one-half miles from the 
Atlanta Branch of the Southern Railway on a road that could easily 
be put in excellent condition for trucking. 



THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAROLINA 



117 



Samples from the shaft (A), near the railroad station at Bessemer 
City and from the gully one and one-half miles northeast of the 
city (B) were submitted to the Mining Experiment Station of the 
Bureau of Mines at Columbus for testing. The sample from the shaft 
was furnished by Mr. Smith. 

The report on the two samples is as follows: 

When subjected to the screen test: A B 

there was left on the 20 mesh screen 2.220% 44.56% 

there was left on the 65 mesh screen .932% 11.66 % 

there was left on the 100 mesh screen .932% 3.65% 

there was left on the 200 mesh screen 8.840% 13.07% 

passed through the 200 mesh screen 87 . 080% 27 . 06 % 

Quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay 40 . 52 % 34 . 49 % 

Volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay 4.17 % 13. 10 % 

Calculated corresponding linear shrinkage 1.41 % 4. 57 % 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is .299% .585% 

The deformation temperature is cone 30 cone 32 

Sample A white. It possesses little or no plasticity. It is dusty when dry, and 
bars made from it chip easily. It lacks clay substance and contains much mica. 

Sample B is white and fairly plastic. It contains a good deal of mica, but its dry 
strength is fair. 
When burned at the tem- 
peratures 1190° 1250° 1310° 1370° 1410° 

The porosity of A in terms 

of burned volume is __ 45.3 % 49.22% 46.41% 28.4 % 18.1 % 

No. of bars tested 3 3 2 3 3 
The volume shrinkage in 

terms of dry clay is 5.1 % 7.58% 13.7 % 29.8 % 36.6 % 

The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 14.1% 

No. of bars tested 2 3 3 3 3 

The color is White White White White White 

The porosity of B in terms 

of burned volume is_. 41.9 % 44.2 % 42.02% 27.9 % 25.1 % 

No. of bars tested 3 5 3 3 3 
The volume shrinkage 

in terms of dry clay is ___ 12.2 % 12.71% 16.63% 21.8 % 25.7 % 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 9. 45% 

No. of bars tested 3 5 3 3 3 

The color is White White Light Light Light 

ivory ivory ivory 

yellow yellow yellow 



Deposits in Lincoln County 

64. Piedmont Tin Mine JNear Lincolnton 

At the old Piedmont Tin Mine of the U. S. Tin Company,, two and 
one-half miles southeast of Lincolnton the dikes carrying the cas- 
siterite are fairly well kaolinized. These dikes occur 1 in a belt strik- 
ing K 20° E. and dipping 80° I.¥. 

iGraton, L. C, U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 293, pp. 42 and 51, 1906. 



US 



THE KAOLINS OF XOETH CAKOLIXA 



The dike rock is a coarse-grained pegmatite composed mainly of 
quartz, several feldspars, museovite, a colorless somewhat brittle mica 
that may he margarite and grains of cassiterite. Between the com- 
ponents are films of iron hydroxides that produce an orange-red stain. 
All the dike material is more or less kaolinized with the formation 
of a reddish yellow sandy product in which there are numerous 
plates of colorless mica, grains of quartz and crystals of cassiterite. 
"Where the original material was nearly pure feldspar the resulting 
kaolin consists of kaolinite, small scales of mica, a very little quartz 
sand and a few crystals of cassiterite. 

Watts 1 declares that all the dikes contain some good kaolin and that 
the material in the one known as the "Jake vein" is fairly free from 
stain. When washed the crude clay from this vein yielded 26 per 
cent of kaolin, with the composition : 



Si0 2 


AI2O3' 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Xa 2 


K2O 


Ti0 2 


H:0 


Tctal 


4S .50 


37.35 


.85 


tr 


tr 


.32 


1.02 


tr 


12.00 


100.04 



Since the decomposed pegmatite is washed to obtain the tin ore it 
is possible that it might prove profitable to save the washings and 
separate the kaolin. 

The refractory value of the kaolin washed from the sample col- 
lected by Watts was 1,710° C. When dried at 110° C. its tensile strength 
was 16.5 pounds to the square inch and its shrinkage 4.4 per cent. 
When fired at 1,350° C. its color was of grade 5 and its shrinkage 
8.1 per cent. 

The porcelain mixture made with it shrank 2.2 per cent at 110° C. 
and 13 per cent when fired at 1,350° C. The translucency of the fired 
mass was .78, its absorption 3.5 per cent and color of grade 5, and this 
color was not affected by the raw lead and fritted glazes. 

Kaolins from Schistose Books 

Only a few deposits of the white powdery kaolin believed to be 
derived from schistose rocks have been examined by the writer. Sam- 
ples of others which were not visited were furnished by the owners 
of the properties on which the deposits occur. The deposit near Troy 
was not visited nor were any samples from it seen. But from the 
descriptions of it given by Bies there is no doubt that it is like some 



nVatts, A. S., L. c, p. 146. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 119 

of the deposits that are referred to below. Consequently Ries's de- 
scription is abstracted (p. 125), in the belief that it furnishes an idea 
of the character of the material in these other deposits. 

Deposit in Catawba County 

65. Ervin Deposit Near Catawba 

In Catawba County, on the State Central Highway, three miles east 
of Catawba village, on the property of E. A. Ervin is a deposit of 
white powdery clay that has been used locally as whitewash. The clay 
appears for a couple of hundred yards down the bottom of a stream. 
Up stream it is reported to be about 30 feet wide. At the lower end 
the color gradually changes to blue and dark gray. 

The sample taken from the upstream end of the deposit is very much 
like the material from Mr. Valentine's deposit in Henderson County 
(p. 85). It is a very fine-grained gritty powder composed of spicules 
and irregular sharp-edged quartz particles rarely over .02 millimeter in 
their largest diameter and numerous small flakes and fragments of ag- 
gregates of flakes of kaolinite. There are occasional quartz grains 
measuring .1 millimeter, but they are extremely rare. If sedimentary 
its components have traveled a very short distance, as many of the 
quartz spicules are extremely slender. 

Deposit in Iredell County 

67. Cashion and Furches Deposit Near Statesville 

H. V. Eurches, Statesville, N". C. 

Only one deposit has been reported in Iredell County. This is along 
the Charlotte Branch of the Southern Railway one mile south of States- 
ville on land belonging to Messrs. J. T. Cashion and H. V. Eurches. 
The property is undeveloped, but cuts on the railway and on the high- 
way one-fourth mile west of the railroad expose a white kaolin. 

On the east side of the railroad right-of-way a section of about 160 
feet is exposed and between this and the track are a couple of shallow 
pits. The section is in alternating schists and kaolin. At its north 
end a width of 20 feet of kaolin is shown, followed to the south by 
20 feet of quartz, 110 feet of kaolin and finally schists. (See Eig. 14.) 
The schists are alternating mica schists and quartz-feldspar schists full 
of garnets. These are interlayered with what appear to be sheared 
pegmatites. The feldspar in all the schists is kaolinized and one layer 
between slightly decomposed mica schists consists of a well-defined 



120 THE KAOLINS OF NOKTH CAROLINA 

kaolin. The strike of the schist series is IN". 10° W. and its dip 75° E. 
East of the railroad schists outcrop here and there, but in a well dug 
500 yards east of the rails clay was struck at about 12 feet. 



E. 
.Quartz,. k-,.„i:„ cu; c 4- 



^^P^g 



50 Feet 



Fig. 14. Sketch illustrating relations of kaolin and schists at Cashion and Furches deposit, near 
Statesville. 

The clay exposed in the cut north of the schists is very sandy. Tt 
contains in addition to the sand tiny flakes of dark and light mica, 
little masses of soft black material that may be a manganese oxide and 
little yellow spots that may represent decomposed garnets. The kaolin 
has an ill-defined structure parallel to the structure of the schists to 
the south and is crossed by vertical, or nearly vertical, veins of quartz. 
Most of these are narrow but at the north end of the cut one is 20 
feet wide. The schist mass, as one passes north in the cut, appears 
to disintegrate gradually, changing to layers of red brown clay and 
white clay, with the white clay becoming more abundant toward the 
north as though the clay-producing layers became thicker in that 
direction. Pits near the track show a cleaner and whiter clay than 
that in the cut. It was from one of these pits that the sample was 
taken. 

It is probable that the clay represents a thick layer in the schist 
series, but whether it was a feldspathic schist or a sheared pegmatite 
running parallel to the foliation of the schists was not determined. 
Nor is the thickness of the kaolin known. It has already been stated 
that kaolin exists in a road cut about one-fourth mile west of the 
railroad. Near this place a well was dug passing into white clay at 
a depth of six feet and continuing in it for 55 feet. Between the well 
and the railroad are no exposures and no explorations so that it is 
impossible to determine whether a single layer is continuous through 
this distance or whether there are several layers separated by schists 
that are not kaolinized. The distribution of the kaolin is rather wide- 
spread. If its origin is as suggested it must occur on the surface in 
belts striking about north. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 121 

The kaolin from a pit at the railroad is white and pulverulent. 
It contains a comparatively few fragments of quartz, a good deal of 
sand, very small masses of soft brown clay, an occasional mica flake 
and a few specks of a soft black substance. 

The characteristics of the crude kaolin as reported by the Mining 
Experiment Station of the Bureau of Mines at Columbus, Ohio, are 
given below : 

When subjected to the screen test: 

14.2 % is left on the 20 mesh screen. 

25.56% is left on the 65 mesh screen. 
6.55% is left on the 100 mesh screen. 

18. 14% is left on the 200 mesh screen. 

34.55% passes through the 200 mesh screen. 
The kaolin is white and fairly plastic. It is rather short but is moldable. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay is 41. 92% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay is 17. 5 % 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 6.2 % 

When burned at 1190° 1250° 1310° 1370° 1410° 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 46.9 % 40.5 % 44.9 % 36.5 % 34.6 % 

No. of bars tested 3 3 5 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of the dry clay is. 9.4 % 16.2 % 11.2 % 18.3 % 23.6 % 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 8.58% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 6 3 3 

Color White White White White 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is 1 .79. 
The deformation temperature is cone 33. 

Deposits in Richmond County 

71. Steele Exploration Rear Ellerbe 

R. L. Steele, Rockingham, N. C. 
The only deposits that have been reported in Richmond County are 
about two and one-half miles northwest of Ellerbe on the Norfolk and 
Southern Railway near Bostic's Mills. The property on which the 
clay occurs consists of 38% acres owned in fee by Robert L. Steele, Sr., 
and mineral rights on 230 additional acres. When worked a few years 
ago it was operated under the name of the Steele Kaolin Works with 
headquarters at Rockingham. As long ago as 1897 Ries 1 referred to 
openings in kaolin on the property of Mr. Steele, but none of these 
openings can be identified with those seen by the writer in 1918. 
However, since it is evident that the clay occurs over a fairly wide 

iRies, H., N. C. Geol. Survey Bull. 13, p. 65, 1897. 



122 



THE KAOLIXS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



area, it is probable that the conclusions of Hies with respect to the 
quality of the kaolins seen by him would apply nearly as well to those 
taken from the openings examined in 1918. 

Ries states that the clay appears for a distance of 50 feet in a 
roadside ditch one mile south of Bostic post office, and again on the 
opposite side of the road at the base of a hill. Between the two is a 
red clay resulting from the decomposition of a schist. Test pits sunk 
east of the road disclose a fine-grained clay containing comparatively 
few angular fragments and scattered stains of iron. Another series 
of pits one mile further west, across a shallow valley, uncovers another 
deposit of whiter material. In no case was the overburden more than 
one and one-half feet thick or the kaolin less than nine feet thick. 

The clay from the eastern pits (I) was a fine-grained kaolin with 
a little coarse grit. It slakes slowly but completely to a fine-grained 
mass. A workable paste shrank 4 per cent on drying and 9 per cent 
in burning. Air-dried briquettes showed an average tensile strength 
of 10 pounds per square inch. Incipient fusion began at 2,250° I\, 
vitrification at 2,500° F., and viscosity at 2,700° F. The burn was 
to a dense body with a pale yellow tint. A sample from another pit 
(II) suffered slightly less shrinkage. The average tensile strength of 
its briquettes was 13 pounds, and incipient fusion began at 2,300° T. 
In other respects it was like the first sample. The kaolin from the 
western pits (III) was a somewhat porous, fine-grained white clay 
with comparatively little grit. In most respects it was nearly like the 
material from the eastern pits. 

Analyses of the crude samples (in the order described) gave: 





Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Alk 


H2O 


Moist. 


Total 


I 


70.63 


21.81 


1.49 


.20 


.29 


1.45 


4.04 


.08 


99.99 


II 


68.15 


19.99 


1.86 


.13 


.16 


2.85 


4.70 


.17 


98.01 


III 


73.70 


16.03 


1.57 


.38 


.47 


1.90 


4.33 




98.38 


IV 


71.12 


19.61 


2.18 


.17 


.08 


2.48 


4.33 




99.97 



Samples I and III were washed. The first gave 40 per cent of 
settlings and the second 35 per cent. The washed sample I had the 
same properties as the crude sample, the analysis of which is given in 
line IV. Washed sample III was pure white, but it burned to a body 
with a faint yellowish tint. In all respects the washed material acted 
like the crude sample, except, that its briquettes had an average tensile 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



123 



strength of only 8 pounds to the square inch. The calculated mineral 
composition of each of the four samples of which the analyses are 
given follows : 



Clay substance. 

Feldspar 

Quartz.. 

Specific gravity 



I 


IV 


II 


47.14 


54.30 


49 .30 


16.13 


1.82 


9.20 


36.73 


43.85 


41.50 


2.41 




2.52 





III 



36.05 
62.33 
2.43 



The openings that may be seen now are widely separated. One on 
a crossroad running east from the main road north from Ellerbe is 
on a dense gray, massive, sticky clay that contains lines of limonite 
nodules, most of which are hollow or partly filled with red clay. Other 
nodules are concretions of quartz fragments, sand grains and flakes of 
mica cemented into elongate masses about one and one-half inches long 
and half as thick. Since the clay, where exposed, has a horizontal 
upper surface it resembles very closely a sedimentary deposit. Close 
examination of the walls of the pit, however, reveals the presence 
of a system of cross joints, such as appear in a sheared rock, and a 
number of tiny quartz veins that intersect the clay in nearly vertical 
planes. The exposure is too limited to furnish much evidence as to 
the origin of the clay, but because of the vertical quartz veins and the 
presence on the main road of rocks that might well be the source of 
such a clay, it is believed that the gray clay is a residual deposit re- 
sulting from the alteration of a sheared clay shale or slate or per- 
haps a sheared volcanic rock. The hollow limonite nodules might be 
explained as having been formed during the alteration of the slate 
to clay and the sandy concretions as having been originally little lenses 
of sand in the otherwise argillaceous rock. About 20 tons of the crude 
material was washed in a home-made washer and sold as a filler for 
cheap cotton goods. The unwashed clay burns gray. It probably 
would make good stoneware. 

On the main road, near Ellerbe, chocolate and ocher-colored clays 
are exposed in the ditches. They are extremely fine-grained, very 
slightly gritty and massive, but when broken apart many of the 
lumps show a distinct schistosity. It is said by Mr. Steele that a 
little of the yellower variety has been burned and sold as ocher. 
The clays of both colors are associated with jointed rocks that may be 
shales or slates as they readily fall apart into lozenge-shaped frag- 
ments, some of which consist partly of yellow clay. The freshest rock 



124 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

that was seen in place is presumably a pale gray clay slate, almost the 
same color as the gray clay at the pit. Although distinctly slaty it 
is nevertheless very soft as though a very compact clay. 

It is apparent that the country about Ellerbe is underlain by slates 
or sheared volcanics varying in composition, and that the different 
colored clays on the road are the results of their decomposition. The 
gray clay is possibly of a similar origin. It may have originated from 
a less ferruginous rock than those that gave rise to the colored clays, 
or during its formation the iron compounds may have been leached 
out, in part forming the concretions found scattered through it. These 
concretions when treated with HC1 leave residues of white kaolin of 
the same shapes, as the original nodules, indicating that the nodules 
were not present in the original rock, but were secreted after or dur- 
ing the production of the kaolin. 

West of the main road about one and one-half miles west of the 
pit in the gray clay is another opening on a hill covered with quartz 
boulders. No rock was seen in place. The pit has partly caved, but 
in some places around its sides can be seen a very white, compact clay 
which, when it dries, breaks down into, a very fine white powder that 
is quite gritty. When mixed with water it becomes very pale grayish 
white. The material, when examined microscopically, is seen to con- 
sist mainly of small splinters, and tiny dust-like particles of quartz 
with diameters of .003 to .02 millimeter and small flakes of kaolin of 
about the usual size, .004 millimeter. No other constituents were noted, 
except here and there a shred of decomposed mica. From the nature 
of the kaolin, its similarity in physical characters (except color) to 
the yellow and chocolate clays in its neighborhood, and its likeness, 
to the Overton (p. 127) and Eames (p. 126) clays, it is inferred that 
it is residual and that it was formed from some rock that occupied a 
fairly broad area, and not from a pegmatite dike. At Candor and 
Troy the original rock was probably a feldspathic volcanic. At 
Ellerbe there may have been a series of volcanics or of alternating 
slates and volcanics. 

Mr. Steele declares that borings about 30 or 40 feet apart over 25 
acres penetrated from, to 35 feet of sand and clay overburden and 
found underlying white and colored clays. Some borings found only 
colored clay, others only white clay, and others mixtures of the two. 
The holes were not located with the view of determining the areal 
distribution of either kind, consequently no estimate can be made of 
the quantity of the white clay available. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 125 

Neither one of the pits is now being operated. The eastern pit was 
worked in 1903, the clay being used mainly for cotton and paper filling. 
Only a small quantity was marketed, perhaps 150 or 200 tons. It was 
teamed fourteen and one-half miles to Rockingham. It could now be 
hauled by truck four miles to Norman and shipped by the Norfolk- 
Southern Railroad. 

A sample of the white clay from the western pit was submitted to 
the Bureau of Mines for testing. The results of the tests are as follows : 

When subjected to the screen test: 

.626% is left on the 20 mesh screen. 

. 359 % is left on the 65 mesh screen. 

.294% is left on the 100 mesh screen. 

.681% is left on the 200 mesh screen. 
98.04 % passes through the 200 mesh screen. 
The kaolin is cream colored and it molds with difficulty. Its dry strength is fair. 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay is 27. 95% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay is 2. 80% 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is . 84% 

When burned at 1190° 1250° 1310° 1370° 1410° 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 1 22.9 % 24.55% 13.82% 2.8 % .8 % 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of the dry clay is _ 22.8 % 22.13% 31.0 % 35.3 % 34.5 % 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 13. 2% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is .302%. 
The deformation temperature is cone 23. 

The surface colors of the burned bars are light buff at the lower 
temperatures, olive buff at 1,370° and drab at 1,410°. The body colors 
at the lower temperatures are the same as the surface colors, but in 
the bar burned at 1,370° the color is pale purplish gray and in that 
burned at 1,410° a pale Quaker drab. 

Deposits in Montgomery County 

Three deposits of white clay have been reported in Montgomery 
County but none have been exploited, though one, that near Candor, 
is in an old gold mine. 

69. Unnamed Deposit Near Troy 

The first locality in Montgomery County at which kaolin has been 
reported is in the neighborhood of Troy. 1 It is described by Ries 
as being four miles west of Troy, and is near the Eames exploration. 
No account of the method of occurrence of the material is given, but 



iRies, H., N. C. Geo]. Survey Bull. 13, p. 64, li 



126 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



from the description of its character it may be inferred that its oc- 
currence was similar to that of the Candor and Eames deposits, to be 
described later. Ries obtained two samples, one a gray kaolin and the 
other a white one. The darker sample yielded 40 per cent of kaolin 
upon washing. Both white and dark washed samples burned to a 
buff color and neither was suitable for the manufacture of whiteware. 
Since the characters of the Eames and Overton deposits are probably 
the same as those of the Troy deposits an abstract of Eies's account 
is given in full. 

The dark washed kaolin made into a workable paste with water shrank 
3 per cent in drying and an additional 10 per cent in burning. The 
average tensile strength of air-dried briquettes was 9 pounds per square 
inch. Incipient fusion took place at 2,100° F., vitrification at 2,300° 
F., and viscosity at 2,500° F. 

The white washed kaolin shrank 3 per cent in drying and 9 per cent in 
burning. Air-dried briquettes showed an average tensile strength of 
10 pounds per square inch. The reaction in the furnace was the 
same as for the dark variety. 

Analyses of the white (I) and the dark (II) kaolins are given as 
follows : 





SiO-2 


AhOs 


Fe 2 3 


CaO 


MgO 


Alk 


H:0 


Moist 


Total 


I 


63.10 


23 .33 


2.97 


.15 


.09 


1.90 


7.65 


.75 


99.94 


II 


86.03 


6.46 


2.14 


.17 


.04 


1.00 


2.90 


.53 


99.27 


III 


90.13 


4.99 


1.86 


.13 


.01 


1.03 


1.93 


.48 


100.56 



The dark washed sample contained 20.83 per cent clay substance, 
2.34 per cent feldspar and 76.20 per cent quartz, and the white washed 
sample 58.92 per cent clay substance, 5.81 per cent feldspar and 35.27 
per cent quartz. The specific gravity of the former was 2.32 and of 
the latter 2.34. The analysis of the crude dark is given in line III. 

68. Eames Prospect Near Mount Gilead 

P. M. Eames, Mount Gilead, JST. C. 
The exploration of P. M. Eames is five miles northwest of Mount 
Gilead, to the left of Lowder's Ferry road. Very little is known about 
the deposit. Mr. Eames, judging by the distribution of the outcrops, 
states that the clay covers about 700 acres. Only a shallow opening 
two feet deep has been made in it, and it was from this that a sam- 
ple was taken. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 127 

The sample looks very much like that from the Iola Mine at Candor. 
It is a very fine, gritty, flour-like material of a very pale grayish white 
color. Mixed with water it becomes buff-gray and exhibits almost no 
tendency to cohere. After washing carefully in a test tube a fine- 
grained pale buff residue is left which apparently consists entirely of 
quartz grains. 

The crude material is made up mainly of small quartz grains, with 
diameters between .02 and .04 millimeter. In addition there are a few 
particles of rutile, hydromica and stained feldspar and a very few tiny 
plates of kaolinite. The quartz is in little sharp-edged splinters, in 
subangular grains, in very irregular shaped particles and in a very 
few cases in rounded grains. Evidently the material has not been 
carried far from its source. It may be a residual mass, like that at 
the Iola Mine from which most of the kaolinite has been removed. 

In its present condition the material represented by the sample is 
not a practical source of kaolin. 

70. Overton Deposit Near Candor 

A. J. Overton, Candor, N". C. 

The Candor deposit is at the old Iola Gold Mine which is two and 
one-half miles west of Candor and eight miles southeast of Troy. At 
the mine mineralized quartz veins are associated with a slaty rock 
which Hafer 1 believes may be a sheared andesite. The kaolin is re- 
ported by Mr. A. J. Overton, the owner of the land, as occurring over 
ten acres under an overburden of about eight feet of sand and gravel. 
The mine shaft that has penetrated it is 60 feet deep, and there are 
drifts 100 feet long at its bottom. 

The sample furnished is a loose, very light pinkish gray, gritty, flour- 
like mixture of very fine quartz and kaolin. The few lumps occurring 
in it are distinctly schistose, as though the original material from 
which the clay was made was a fine-grained schistose or slaty rock, 
as, for instance, a sheared felsite. 

Mixed with water it forms a distinctly cream-colored paste, and the 
coarse, gritty residue left after washing the crude material is flesh- 
colored, and it contains comparatively large iron-stained grains. 

Under the microscope the principal constituents visible are rough 
quartz grains of all sizes from the most minute to those .2 millimeter in 
length. Perhaps the greatest number have diameters between .05 
and .06 millimeter. Besides these are a few white opaque grains with 
straight edges that may be altered feldspar grains and a fair quantity 



iMining World. Vol. 28, p. 332, 190S. 



128 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

of small kaolinite particles of about the size of the smallest quartz 
particles. Occasionally there is a shred of kaolinite .06 millimeter long 
but most particles are less than .004 millimeter across. 

Prof. C. W. Parmelee of the Ceramics Department of the University 
of Illinois, to whom a .sample of the crude clay was submitted for 
examination, reports that it gives a residue of 25 per cent sand on a 
100-mesh screen. The washed clay is white. When wet it is plastic 
but the mass is "short." When burned to cone 6 (1,250° C.) it yields 
a light cream-colored product that is highly absorbent and so soft that 
it is easily scratched with a knife. 

It is noticeable that the washed samples of the three kaolins from 
Montgomery County contain a great deal of fine quartz, in which 
respect they differ markedly from the kaolins that are known to have 
originated by the decomposition of pegmatites. It is probable that 
all were derived from fine-grained rocks. 

Kaolin Resources 

The aggregate of all the kaolin deposits in North Carolina is very 
great. Unfortunately, however, the expense of preparing the material 
for market precludes the use of many of them because of their small 
size. So far as now known only a few of them contain sufficient crude 
material to warrant the construction of the washing plants necessary 
to fit this for market. From the data now at hand it is probable that 
there is enough material known to exist to furnish about 625,000 tons 
of refined product. The annual output of the State is 16,000 tons; 
consequently the supply is probably sufficient to last 39 years at the 
present rate of production. But because of lack of labor the produc- 
tion is less than the capacity of the plants to handle it. With plenty 
of labor the output may be increased 50 per cent. Moreover, as the 
methods of preparing the kaolin for market are improved, there will 
unquestionably be an increase in the demand for the refined product 
and an enlargement of the plants to take care of the increased demand, 
and the life of the reserve will become correspondingly shorter. 

A glance at the map (PI. II), however, will show that the deposits 
now known center around a few points, notably Dillsboro, Spruce- 
pine and Micaville. It is possible that the most attractive deposits 
occur in these areas. It is more probable, however, that the discovery 
of a few good deposits near these centers has encouraged the search 
for others in the same neighborhoods, and that this is the explanation 
of their peculiar distribution. It is known that pegmatite dikes are 



THE KAOLINS OF NOETH CAROLINA 129 

scattered rather uniformly through the mountain district. The distri- 
bution of the mica openings corroborates this view. There is no 
reason to believe that the kaolinized dikes are less widely distributed 
than those that are being worked for mica. But kaolin will not bear 
as high transportation costs as will mica, consequently the deposits 
of kaolin to be profitable must be close to the railroad, while deposits 
of mica may be more distant. There are large areas in the mountain 
districts that have not been explored for kaolin, because of the difficulty 
of getting the product to market. It is probable that these areas con- 
tain deposits, which, except for the cost of transportation to the 
railroad, would furnish as profitable sources of kaolin as some of those 
now being exploited. With the extension of the system of hard roads 
into remote mountain regions the use of trucks will be more feasible 
and the cost of transporting the refined kaolin will decrease. Explora- 
tion of the mountains will then become a more attractive proposition, 
and unquestionably, as a consequence, new sources of kaolin will be 
discovered. It is impossible to make any estimate of the probable 
amount of material these new sources will contribute to the State's 
output. It can only be stated that there may be found enough kaolin 
in deposits now unknown to lengthen the life of kaolin industry several 
times beyond that indicated by the size of the reserve now known. 

Miscellaneous Clays — Sedimentary 

During the course of the work on the kaolins the attention of the 
Survey was called to the existence of what was supposed to be high- 
grade white clay at a number of different localities. Samples from 
some of the deposits proved to be kaolin. These have been referred to 
in preceding pages. From others the samples are of light colored earth- 
enware clay, and from others coarse clay that is of value only as brick 
clay. All are sedimentary. None of the deposits were visited, so 
that knowledge of them was obtained only by correspondence. As a 
matter of record a few of what appear to be the best of the sedimentary 
deposits are referred to below. 

White Clay 

Gerhaedt Deposit 

After the field work on the kaolins and clays of the State was finished 
a specimen of white clay was received from Mr. Paul Gerhardt from 
a deposit about 60 miles south of Hemp, Moore County. The material 
is a very pale cream-colored plastic clay. It contains a few iron stains 
and numerous rootlets. There is a little fine-grained grit which appears 



130 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

to be an integral part of the clay and an occasional large grain of 
sand that may have been washed in from the surface. 

Mr. Gerhardt writes that the deposit is a large one, has been proven 
to a depth of 16 feet and is connected by a good road with the railroad. 

Professor Parmelee reports that the sample furnished by Mr. Ger- 
hardt leaves a residue of 5 per cent of sand on a 100-mesh screen. 
The washed clay is white. When wet it is plastic but very short. For 
this reason it is unsuitable for use alone in the manufacture of clay 
products. At cone 6 (1,250° C.) it burns to a light buff color, the 
body being highly absorbent. 

Stoneware Clays 

Rhodes Deposit Near Lincolnton 

From a number of sources word has been received that there are 
several white clay deposits in the vicinity of Xewton and Lincolnton, 
Lincoln County, that are workable. Inquiry in Lincoln, however, in- 
dicated that the clays referred to are light colored sedimentary clays 
that are used for making jugs, crocks and other forms of earthenware. 
The only deposit of which samples were seen is on the property of 
Mr. D. P. Rhodes, four and one-half miles northwest of Lincolnton, 
in the bottom land of South Fork River. The clay, when dry, is light 
grayish buff, hard, and it is stained here and there by reddish brown 
streaks. It is clearly not a kaolin. 

LlNEBERGER AND TODD DEPOSIT Xeai* MoUllt Holly 

Another deposit of nearly the same kind of clay occurs on the prop- 
erty of Messrs. R. E. Lineberger and William Todd, six miles north 
of Mount Holly, in Gaston County. It is on the second terrace of 
the Catawba River. The details concerning its extent have not been 
learned but from the general descriptions of those who have examined 
it, there can be little question but that it is large. It has been used 
by local potters in the manufacture of about 100,000 white jugs. The 
clay is buff color and is not of "high grade" as the term is used in 
this report. 

A sample of this clay was tested by the Bureau of Mines at its 
Columbus station with the following result : 

When subjected to the screen test: 

1 . 26% was left on the 20 mesh screen. 
6 . 16% was left on the 65 mesh screen. 
2.87% was left on the 100 mesh screen. 
11 .25% was left on the 200 mesh screen. 
78.46% passed through the 200 mesh screen. 
The kaolin is very plastic and sticky and is slippery when too wet. It molds 
well and possesses a good dry strength. 



THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 131 

The quantity of tempering water in terms of dry clay is 33. 39% 

The volume shrinkage on drying in terms of dry clay is 37. 4 % 

The calculated corresponding linear shrinkage is 14.5 % 

The moisture factor on a dry basis is 4. 36% 

The deformation tempeiature is cone 29, final. 

When burned at 1190° 1250° 1310° 1370° 1410° 

The porosity in terms of 

burned volume is 7.1 % 7.92% 6.36% 3.6 % 13.9% 

No. of bars tested 3 3 3 3 3 

The volume shrinkage in 

terms of the dry clay is __ 23.1 % 27.99% 29.4 % 28.6 % 15.4 % 
The corresponding linear 

shrinkage is 5.42% 

No. of bars tested 2 3 3 3 3 

The surface colors of the bars burned at the different temperatures are: 

1190° 1250° 1310° 1370° 1410° 

Pecan brown Vinaceous Vinaceous Cocoa brown Wood brown 

tawny 

The body colors at 1190° and 1250° are the same as the surface colors, but the 
body colors of the bars burned at the higher temperatures are very dark grays or 
black. 

Mills Deposit Near Tryon 

Mr. Thomas C. Mills reports the occurrence of clay three miles 
north of Tryon on the Columbia, Spartanburg and Asheville Branch 
of the Southern Railway, in Polk County, at the foot of Tryon Moun- 
tain. The sample seen is of an iron-stained, buff, coarse clay which 
is fairly plastic when wet. It was taken from a narrow gully. "The 
deposit is visible for about 50 feet along the gully and is from two to 
three feet below the surface. About one-eighth mile east of the gully 
the day is again visible near the surface." 1 When stirred with water 
and put through a 150-mesh screen it leaves a residue of 40 per cent 
sand. The material passing the screen is sufficiently plastic to be 
easily moulded into briquettes, which, burned at cone 6 (1,250° C), 
yields a light tan colored product that is fairly well vitrified, but is 
crossed by numerous shrinkage cracks. According to Professor Par- 
melee this clay in its washed condition is suited for the manufacture 
of ordinary stoneware and chemical stoneware. 

72. Bennett Prospect Near Leaksville 

In Rockingham County, three miles south of Leaksville, Mr. W. J. 
Bennett reports a white clay on land owned by him. The deposit has 
not been seen, but a sample was obtained from Mr. Bennett, w T ho states 
that it represents the material from two openings about 400 yards 
apart. No particulars have been learned as to the method of occur- 
rence of the clay, but from its character it is evident that it is of 
sedimentary origin. 

1 Quoted from letter of Mr. Mills, dated March 26, 1919. 



132 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The sample is of a light gray, finely granular and slightly gritty 
clay that becomes very sticky when treated with water. It slakes 
readily, forming a light gray viscous fluid from which a considerable 
quantity of sand separates upon standing. This consists of small, clear, 
sharp-edged quartz particles and larger rounded white or light gray 
grains, that appear to be aggregates of quartz and feldspar. If care- 
fully washed it might serve as filling for cheap cotton goods, linoleum, 
etc. In its natural condition it would probably make good stoneware. 
It is not a high-grade white clay or kaolin such as that used in the 
manufacture of whiteware. 

The deposit is within three miles of the terminus of the Danville and 
Western Railway. 

Shelton Deposit Near Parkersburg 

Mr. Amos Shelton reports boring through a deposit of compact 
white clay, when digging a well ten miles southwest of Parkersburg, 
Sampson County. Samples of the clay have not been seen, but since 
Sampson County is on the Coastal Plain it is possible that the deposit 
may be similar to some of the deposits in the Cretaceous series in 
South Carolina. 

Wyatt Deposit Near Faith 

Mr. J. T. "Wyatt writes that a deposit of white clay exists four and 
one-half miles south of Salisbury, near Faith in Rowan County. It 
is two miles from the Southern Railway. Some of it has been used 
in making white smoking pipes. Samples were not seen. 

Pyrophyllite Prospect Near Glendon 

Mr. John S. Honeycombe reports the existence of a large deposit of 
china clay near Glendon, Moore County. This "china clay," accord- 
ing to Mr. Honeycombe, is pyrophyllite and not kaolin. A sample 
possesses the optical properties of pyrophyllite. 



Plate II. 



N 




132 THE KAOLINS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The sample is of a light gray, finely granular and slightly gritty 
clay that becomes very sticky when treated with water. It slakes 
readily, forming a light gray viscous fluid from which a considerable 
quantity of sand separates upon standing. This consists of small, clear, 
sharp-edged quartz particles and larger rounded white or light gray 
grains, that appear to be aggregates of quartz and feldspar. If care- 
fully washed it might serve as filling for cheap cotton goods, linoleum, 
etc. In its natural condition it would probably make good stoneware. 
It is not a high-grade white clay or kaolin such as that used in the 
manufacture of whiteware. 

The deposit is within three miles of the terminus of the Danville and 
Western Railway. 

Shelton Deposit Near Parkersburg 

Mr. Amos Shelton reports boring through a deposit of compact 
white clay, when digging a well ten miles southwest of Parkersburg, 
Sampson County. Samples of the clay have not been seen, but since 
Sampson County is on the Coastal Plain it is possible that the deposit 
may be similar to some of the deposits in the Cretaceous series in 
South Carolina. 

Wyatt Deposit Near Faith 

Mr. J. T. Wyatt writes that a deposit of white clay exists four and 
one-half miles south of Salisbury, near Paith in Rowan County. It 
is two miles from the Southern Railway. Some of it has been used 
in making white smoking pipes. Samples were not seen. 

Pyrophyllite Prospect Near Glendon 

Mr. John S. Honeycombe reports the existence of a large deposit of 
china clay near Glendon, Moore County. This "china clay," accord- 
ing to Mr. Honeycombe, is pyrophyllite and not kaolin. A sample 
possesses the optical properties of pyrophyllite. 



?>: 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. 

JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Director 

IN COOPERATION WITH THE 

FOREST SERVICE, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

WILLIAM B. GREELEY, FORESTER 



BULLETIN 30 



WOOD- USING INDUSTRIES 

of 

NORTH CAROLINA 



By R. K. HELPHENSTINE, Jr. 

Statistician in Forest Products 







1 ' 
, i 

, i 

■ 



RALEIGH 

mltohei/l peisting company 

State Printers 

1923 






GEOLOGICAL BOARD 

Governor Cameron Morrison, ex officio Chairman Raleigh 

Frank R. Hewitt Asheville 

C. C. Smoot, III North Wilkesboro 

Hon. John H. Small Washington 

Dr. S. Westray Battle Asheville 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, Chapel Hill 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Chapel Hill, N". C, January 1, 1923. 

To His Excellency, Hon. Cameron Morrison, 
Governor of North Carolina. 
Sir: — A report on "The Wood-using Industries of North Carolina," 
which has just been completed, was prepared jointly by the North Caro- 
lina Geological and Economic Survey and the United States Forest 
Service, and it is recommended that this be published as Bulletin 30 of 
the publications of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 
This report should be of interest and value to the timber owner, the 
sawmill operator, wood-using industries, merchants who handle the fin- 
ished product, and all who are interested in trees and their uses. 

Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, 
N. 0. Geological and Economic Survey. 



,280 



PREFACE 



In 1910 the Survey published in Economic Paper No. 20 a report on 
"The Wood-using Industries of Worth Carolina." This report was very 
favorably received by the industries, and there was a constant demand 
for it until the edition became exhausted. With the large increase in 
the number of wood-using plants and the great increase in the volume 
of business of our wood-using industries, and on account of the decided 
change in the quantity and quality of raw material available for these 
industries, it was deemed advisable to prepare another report on the 
wood-using industries of the State which would consider not only the 
production of the plants, but their sources of supply of raw material. 
The statistics and information presented in this report cover the calendar 
year of 1919. In collecting material for the report some most interest- 
ing and instructive information regarding the timber used by these 
industries and its source of supply was obtained. 

During the investigation 155 of the more important wood-using plants 
of the State were visited and, according to statements obtained from a 
majority of these industries, their greatest need at present is a supply 
of suitable timber to be used in their plants, and the manufacturers are 
now considerably worried over their future supply. The statement was 
made at nearly all of the industries visited that the quality of their 
wood supply was not nearly as good as it was ten years ago, and that 
they were having to go constantly further away for what they did obtain. 
Representatives of at least one-third of these industries made the state- 
ment that their available supply of timber will be exhausted in ten or 
fifteen years. 

With the shortage of timber there is a corresponding increase in price, 
and seven manufacturers, representing Eastern, Central, and Western 
North Carolina, state that the cost of their lumber supply has more than 
doubled during the past ten years, and that the quality is not nearly as 
good as it formerly was. These conditions have caused those interested 
in our wood-using industries to begin to consider seriously the question 
of a future supply of timber, and they are now beginning to cooperate 
with the Survey in its endeavor to protect and conserve our timber 
supply; and they are realizing that the conservation of our forests and 
timber supply does not mean the nonutilization of the timber, but does 
mean maintaining a future supply of timber by maintaining good trees 
in our forests and bringing into timber cultivation land especially 
adapted for this purpose. It is believed that North Carolina can main- 



6 Preface 

tain sufficient forests to produce and provide perpetually a sufficient 
timber suppply for its manufacturing industries, but the first prerequi- 
site to accomplishing this is the protection of our forests and timber 
lands from fire. 

The present report takes up in detail the various kinds of wood grown 
in North Carolina and their distribution and the purposes for which 
they are now being used, with suggestions of other uses. There is also 
given a list of the commercial trees of North Carolina. 

The investigation upon which this report is based was - carried on 
under the joint direction of J. S. Holmes, State Forester of the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, and H. S. Betts of the Office 
of Forest Products, U. S. Forest Service. Mr. Holmes prepared largely 
the chapter on "Forest Conditions," and compiled the list of commercial 
trees of North Carolina. 

It is hoped that this report will be an incentive to still greater co- 
operation between the wood-using industries, the timber growers, and 
the State in conserving and perpetuating our timber supply. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

Director. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part I page 

Introduction 11 

Importance of Manufacturing 12 

Purpose of the Study : 13 

Forest Conditions 14 

Mountain Region 15 

Spruce Type 15 

Mountain Hardwoods 16 

Piedmont Region 17 

Hardwood and Pine 17 

Second Growth Pine Type 18 

Coastal Plain Region 18 

Coastal Pine Type 19 

Hardwood Swamps 19 

Depletion of Forest Resources 20 

The Future Timber Supply 24 

Part II 

Kinds of Wood 26 

State-grown and Imported Woods 28 

The Woods Described 29 

Softwoods 30 

The Hardwoods 35 

Foreign Woods 53 

Part III 

Industries 54 

Planing Mill Products 56 

Boxes and Crates 57 

Furniture 60 

Chairs : 62 

Vehicles and Vehicle Parts 64 

Fruit and Vegetable Packages 66 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, and General Mill Work 67 

Caskets and Coffins 69 

Elevators and Machine Construction 71 

Shuttles, Spools, and Bobbins 72 

Handles 74 

Fixtures 76 

Agricultural Implements 79 

Miscellaneous 80 

Part IV 

The Uses of Wood by North Carolina Manufacturers 82 

Wood-using Factories of North Carolina 91 

Part V 

Production of Forest Products 99 

Lumber 99 

Lath and Shingles 100 

Cooperage Stock 100 

Veneer 101 

Pulpwood 101 

Appendix — Commercial Trees of North Carolina 103 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate Description Facing Page 

I. A, Typical forest scene in the Mountain Region of North Caro- 
lina ; B, typical forest scene in the Piedmont Region of North 

Carolina 16 

II. Typical forest scene in the Coastal Plain Region of North Caro- 
lina 20 

III. A, The manufacture of box shooks for canned food packages. 
North Carolina pine is the wood used ; B, interior of a small 

North Carolina box factory 57 

IV. A wooden bedstead of oak in the "white," or before any finish of 
any kind is applied. The framework is solid wood, and ply- 
wood is used for the panels 61 

V. A, Higher grade walnut bedroom pieces in a North Carolina 
furniture factory. The chairs to the right are finished in old 
ivory and have cane seats; B, interior of a North Carolina 
factory devoted to the manufacture of bedroom furniture. The 

articles shown consist of footboards of wooden beds 61 

VI. A, Mirror frames for bureaus, chiffoniers, and dressing tables as 
produced by a North Carolina manufacturer of bedroom furni- 
ture ; B, the glue room of a large North Carolina furniture 

factory 61 

VII. A, Dressing table seats in a North Carolina chair factory ready 
for staining and finishing ; B, a corner of the finishing room of 
a North Carolina chair factory. Settees, rockers, dining-room 

chairs, and others are shown in the picture 63 

VIII. A, Chairs and settees in a North Carolina plant ready for stain- 
ing and finishing. In this factory red gum is the principal 
wood used ; B, chair parts in the making in a North Carolina 

factory 63 

IX. A, The wheel room of a large North Carolina wagon factory : B. 
wagon box board stock, hubs and spokes in the plant of a large 

North Carolina farm wagon manufacturer 65 

X. A, Interior of a North Carolina wagon factory. Completed 
wheels in the foreground and finished wooden gear parts in the 
rear, ready for assembling ; B, a portion of the assembly room 
for running gears in the factory of a large wagon maker of 

North Carolina 65 

XI. A, The finishing room in a North Carolina casket factory ; B. the 

manufacture of burial cases in a North Carolina casket factory 69 
XII. A, Dogwood is the principal wood used for shuttles. The picture 
shows a pile of dogwood logs on the yard of a North Carolina 
shuttle block mill ; B, shuttles in the making, the raw material 
used being the dogwood blocks produced by the shuttle block 

mill 73 

XIII. A, Ash and hickory handle squares seasoning under cover at a 
North Carolina handle factory ; B, finished and partly finished 

"D" shovel handles in a North Carolina handle plant..— 75 

XIV. Rough turned "D" shovel handles, the product of a North Caro- 
lina handle plant 75 



List of Illustrations 9 

Plate Description Facing Page 
XV. A, A store and office fixture factory in North Carolina. Show 
cases in the making ; B, a special order of white enamel tea- 
room fixtures under construction in the plant of a North Caro- 
lina office fixture manufacturer 77 

XVI. Agricultural implement handles and the raw material from 
which they are made. The handles are of oak and are first 

steamed and then bent, and afterwards worked 79 

XVII. A, One-horse, three-row grain drills as manufactured in an agri- 
cultural implement factory of North Carolina. Oak is used 
for handles and beams, while North Carolina pine is employed 
for seed boxes ; B, interior of a North Carolina agricultural 
implement factory. Oak is the only wood used in the manu- 
facture of the small fertilizer distributors shown in this plate, 
the wood being employed for plow beams and handles 79 

XVIII. Single-row oat sowers with oak handles and North Carolina pine 
hoppers, the product of a North Carolina agricultural imple- 
ment manufacturer 79 




H 

I 












^^k^^^^ 



Wood-Using Industries of North Carolina 

By R. K. Helphenstine, Jr., Statistician in Forest Products 



PART I 



INTRODUCTION 

Important among the many valuable natural resources of North Caro- 
lina are her forests. The total area of the State is 31 million acres, of 
which 21 million acres, or two-thirds of all the land embraced within 
its boundaries, support a timber crop. These forests produce practi- 
cally all of the commercially valuable hardwoods native to the United 
States and most of the eastern coniferous woods. An estimate made in 
1920 by the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey placed 
the stand of timber in the State at 34 billion feet, board measure. With 
such a plentiful supply of timber, North Carolina has naturally always 
been one of the leading lumber-producing states. The accompanying 
chart shows the relative rank of the leading states in the production of 
lumber for the eleven years from 1909 to 1919, inclusive. 

From the foregoing chart it can be seen that North Carolina has never 
occupied lower than tenth place during any of the years shown, and that 
for six of those years she ranked either fourth or fifth. The lumber cut 
in the State by the 1,211 mills that reported in 1921, the most recent 
year for which these statistics have been gathered, amounted to 
931,015,000 feet, board measure. Of this quantity 732,035,000 board 
feet were softwoods, and 198,980,000 board feet were hardwoods. The 
annual lumber cut alone does not, however, represent the total drain 
upon the forests of the State. There must be added to the products of 
the sawmills the raw material cut for shingles, ties, cooperage stock, 
pulpwood, poles, etc., the manufacture of which all call for merchant- 
able timber. In addition, several million feet of timber in the form of 
cordwood is cut for fuel and other purposes. These various items bring 
the total cut of timber in North Carolina each year up to the 7 billion 
board foot mark, or an annual cut of 350 board feet per acre for all of 
the forested area of the State. Even this stupendous figure of 7 billion 
board feet does not cover the total quantity of timber removed annually, 
for the reason that it does not take into account the extensive losses in 
both merchantable timber and potentially valuable young growth due 
to forest fires. 



*The figures presented in this introduction relating to the area of the State, the area of the 
forest land and the stand of timber are taken from the Biennial Report of the State Geologist 
for 1919-1920 published in 1921 by the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 



12 WoOD-USIXG IxDUSTEIES OF XoETH CaBOLIXA 

The yearly growth of wood per acre in Xorth Carolina has been esti- 
mated by the Geological and Economic Survey of the State to be ap- 
proximately 150 board feet. Since the annual removal per acre, exclu- 
sive of that destroyed by fire, is 350 board feet, the State is using each 
year 200 board feet per acre in excess of that which is replaced by 
growth. 

Although the State Legislature of Xorth Carolina in 1915 passed an 
excellent law embodying more particularly provisions for forest fire pro- 
tection, formerly no appropriation was ever made to enforce it. In 
1921, however, a sum of approximately $9,000 was set aside for this 
purpose. With this sum provided by the State for this work, further 
financial assistance is made available by the Federal Government under 
the Weeks Law, Section 2 of which provides, among other things, for 
assistance to the State in fire protection on the headwaters of navigable 
streams in those states that have some paid system of State fire protec- 
tion. The amount given by the Government cannot exceed the amount 
spent by the State, but it may, however, go as high as $25,000 providing 
the State spends a like amount. With sufficient funds to carry out the 
provisions of her forest law, and with a well defined policy of forest 
management in active operation, the State should soon be able to appre- 
ciably check the rapid depletion of her forests. 

IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING 

Xorth Carolina is beginning to take her place among the leading 
manufacturing states, and her natural resources, which are of great 
importance, have a marked influence in the establishment and growth 
of many industries. Some of the materials used in manufacturing, such 
as cotton, cereals, tobacco, timber, clay, and stone are produced in large 
quantities. The extensive steam and electric railway mileage and the 
transportation facilities provided by the harbors and navigable rivers 
of the State are important factors in the furtherance of its manufac- 
turing and commercial enterprises. 

Agriculture is the leading industry of the State, the total value of the 
farm products produced in 1919, as shown in the report of the Fourteenth 
Census, being over $503,000,000. In the manufacturing field cotton 
goods takes the lead, the total value of such products produced, as pre- 
sented in the census report of 1919, being $318,368,181. Tobacco manu- 
factures ranked second in value with $226,636,000, while the value of 
lumber and timber products, the third in importance, was $51,928,000. 
The wood-using industries, with which this report deals, constitute one of 
the important classes of manufacturing enterprises of the State. Unfor- 
tunately, however, no data are available which show the total value of 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 13 

the products made by this group of industries, but it is more than prob- 
able that if combined with lumber and timber products, the figure would 
be sufficiently large to give the joint industry second place among those 
of the State. 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 

During the years from 1909 to 1913, inclusive, the Forest Service, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducted studies of the wood-using 
industries in practically all of the various states. In certain cases this 
work was done in cooperation with the state, and the reports prepared 
as a result of the study were published by the state forester. In others 
the work was carried on in cooperation with state agricultural experi- 
ment stations, state colleges of forestry, state departments of horticul- 
ture, state geologic surveys, or state conservation commissions. For the 
remaining states the Forest Service collected the necessary data, and 
the reports were published in some of the leading lumber trade journals. 
Since the data contained in these various reports are now considerably 
out of date, some of the states for which these studies were originally 
made have requested the assistance of the Forest Service in the revision 
of these reports with a view of embodying in them more recent informa- 
tion. Among these is the State of North Carolina, the original report 
for which was prepared and published in 1910. In the preparation of 
this revised report on the "Wood-using Industries of North Carolina," 
which covers the calendar year 1919, the plan of procedure was the same 
as that previously followed. 

An appropriate questionnaire was sent to each wood-using factory in 
the State, requesting information as to the kind and amount of each 
species used, the commodities manufactured, the form in which the raw 
material was received at the factory, and whether the woods used were 
grown within the State or came from outside. Other data covering 
past, present, and future local timber supply, manufacturing tendencies, 
etc., were also requested. Considerable quantities of lumber in its rough 
form are used with no further change other than slight trimming to fit 
it together, as in house construction and the building of bridges, con- 
crete forms, scaffolding, fencing, etc. This material is not taken into 
account in this study, nor is any wood not actually employed as raw 
material in wood-using factories. The output of sawmills and such 
other primary products of the forest as veneer, lath, shingles, crossties, 
cooperage stock, posts, poles, extract wood, pulpwood, etc., is therefore 
also excluded from these statistics. Information of this kind has always 
been compiled separately, and such statistics as they relate to North 
Carolina are presented in the appendix of this report. They cover the 
most recent years for which such figures are available. 



14 Wood-using Ixdusteies of Xoeth Carolina 

The purposes of this report are manifold, and are intended to show 
the extent to which lumber is further manufactured in the State of 
Xorth Carolina, to indicate what industries of this kind exist in the 
State, the kinds and quantities of the various woods they use, what they 
pay for them, and the classes of finished commodities into which they are 
converted. 

The United States Forest Service and the Xorth Carolina Geological 
and Economic Survey are in constant receipt of requests for information 
from points throughout this and nearby states concerning markets for 
various kinds of timber and lumber, data on wood uses, manufacturing 
processes in various wood-using industries, and advice and assistance in 
waste utilization. This report will supply much of this information. 
In addition, it will aid the farmer, timberland owner, and sawmill 
operator in disposing of timber which they desire to market through the 
presentation of information as to the kinds of wood used by different 
classes of manufacturers and the forms and prices applicable to such raw 
material. Wood-using factories are in turn benefited by having these 
additional opportunities to purchase raw material brought to their 
attention. Manufacturers will also find in this report helpful sugges- 
tions relating to various points pertinent to their respective industries, 
such as the substitution of cheaper woods for the more costly ones now 
being used, regional sources of supply for raw material, etc. 

FOREST CONDITIONS 

Probably as many important commercial timber trees occur naturally 
in Xorth Carolina as in any State in the Union. Of the twenty-nine 
"kinds of wood" listed by the Forest Service in its reports on the pro- 
duction of lumber in the United States, twenty are important in this 
State. Of the twenty-four "minor species" half of them are cut to 
some extent in Xorth Carolina. Many of the "kinds" consist of a num- 
ber of species ; for instance, seven different species of yellow pine cut in 
Xorth Carolina are included under this class, though the great majority 
of the yellow pine cut belongs to two species, the shortleaf and the 
loblolly. Again, sixteen species of oak are cut into lumber, some of 
them, however, only occasionally, eight hickories, six ashes, three or four 
maples, three birches^ and two or three of several other kinds. At least 
seventy tree species are used for lumber in Xorth Carolina, and several 
others are used in some other form in the wood-using industries of the 
State. 

These trees are by no means distributed evenly over the State. In 
fact, very few species occur in commercial quantities from the eastern to 
the western border. Their distribution depends chiefly on soil, moisture, 
and climate, all of which vary greatly in the different parts of the State. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 15 

The range of temperature from the southeastern coast to an elevation 
of 6,700 feet is accompanied by a change in typical trees from the 
palmetto of Smith's Island to the spruce of Mount Mitchell. 

Three general forest regions are recognized in North Carolina, the 
Mountain, the Piedmont, and the Coastal Plain. The two former are 
included in the Southern Appalachian Hardwood Kegion, and the latter 
in the Southern Pine Region. Each of these three contains two or more 
fairly distinct forest types, each furnishing its quota towards the State's 
timber supply, and each requiring somewhat different methods of man- 
agement to insure a permanent supply of the best quality of timber in 
the greatest quantity, which is the chief object of forestry. 

MOUNTAIN REGION 

Approximately one-sixth of the area of the State, lying to the north 
and west of the lower or eastern slope of the Blue Ridge, is comprised 
within this region. It lies above an elevation of some 1,500 feet, and 
an average elevation for the region would be about 2,500 feet. 

Spruce Type. — The spruce forests, lying on the summits and slopes 
of the higher mountains almost entirely above an elevation of 5,500 feet, 
consisted of dense stands of spruce and balsam timber occurring in 
varying proportion, but averaging about 60 per cent spruce and 40 per 
cent balsam. In second growth the balsam is more abundant than the 
spruce. These beautiful forests have been so inaccessible that up to 
twenty years ago they were almost untouched by the lumbermen. Since 
that time, however, owing to the increasing scarcity of spruce for lumber 
and pulpwood, this type, of which there are probably not more than 
300,000 acres in the State, has been cut until at the present time prob- 
ably not more than 20 per cent of the area contains any merchantable 
timber. 

The cut-over areas have almost without exception been so severely 
burned that they not only contain no young growth of these two impor- 
tant species, but no other commercial timber trees are taking their place, 
the second growth consisting only of shrubs and trees of no commercial 
value. 

During the World War there was a large demand for high-grade 
spruce lumber for aeroplane construction, but the great majority of 
spruce and balsam timber has been shipped to the northeastern states 
for the use of the building trades. Practically no spruce lumber is used 
in North Carolina industries. There is, however, a steadily increasing 
demand for these two woods for paper pulp, and probably much more of 
the spruce in North Carolina is used for this purpose than for lumber. 

The spruce forests have been considered of extraordinary value in 
protecting the headwaters of streams. In North Carolina uncut spruce 



16 WOOD-USING INDUSTEIES OF NoETH CaEOLIXA 

forests have seldom been known to burn. The consequence is that the 
very heavy rains of the high mountains have been so retarded in their 
runoff that there has been a minimum of variation in the now of streams 
whose sources lie in these high altitudes. Unfortunately, these lands 
have been all held by extensively private owners, who have been obliged 
to look to the timber for profit only. They should have been in public 
ownership so that they could have been properly managed and protected 
for the public benefit. The future prospects are not bright. A very 
long time must elapse before the burned over spruce areas can be re- 
forested naturally to the same species. If fires are kept out, undoubt- 
edly reproduction will eventually be secured, but without sufficient seed 
trees this will be a matter of decades or possibly of centuries. Protec- 
tion of the areas from fire is the first practicable measure. This should 
be done by the State and Nation cooperating with the landowner. 

Mountain Hardwoods. — The remainder of the mountain region below 
the spruce is known «as the mountain hardwood type. The original for- 
ests contained a large number of valuable as well as less important 
species. The composition of the forest varies according to soil, moisture 
and situation, so that the type is for convenience divided up into ridge, 
slope, and cove. The timber on the ridges consists largely of chestnut 
oak, chestnut, red maple, black gum, and a number of less important 
species. On the higher ridges and slopes above 3,500 or 4,000 feet in 
elevation often the chief trees are red oak, sugar maple, buckeye, and 
basswood, as well as chestnut and chestnut oak. The coves have con- 
tained the heaviest and most valuable timber, but owing to their accessi- 
bility have been culled first. Here have grown yellow poplar, basswood, 
cherry, ash, as well as chestnut, hickory, hemlock, and several species of 
oak. The valuable ash, cherry, birch, and walnut have, however, been 
largely cut out. Between the coves and the higher ridges stretch the 
slopes supporting timber more or less dense and of large size, according 
to the soil and aspect. The north slope differs very little in composition 
from the cove, while the south slope is much more open and differs little 
from the ridge forests. Occasionally "benches" and some of the cooler 
slopes support almost pure stands of hemlock, but usually this tree, like 
the white pine, occurs mixed with the hardwoods in comparatively small 
proportion. 

The earlier lumbering operations selected only the more valuable 
trees, and often the cut-over area would look like an uncut forest from 
a little distance. With the general use of logging railroads, however, 
more and more of the timber within reach has been taken, until now 
very little of any kind of timber is left after lumbering. However, 
many of the hardwood trees reproduce readily by sprouts from the 



PLATE I 




A. Typical forest scene in the Mountain Region of North Carolina. 




B. Typical forest scene in the Piedmont Region of North Carolina. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 17 

stumps or roots of the younger trees, while others come in from seeds 
which are easily scattered by the wind. Among the latter are the poplar, 
ash, basswood, maple, hemlock, the pines, and some others. If seed 
trees of these species are left there will be little trouble in getting a 
second growth with these trees in the composition. Fires, however, 
must be prevented, for practically all of these wind-sown and valuable 
trees are easily injured by fire when young, and the burned-over forest 
seldom contains any appreciable percentage of them. The object of the 
forester in this type is to secure ample seed of the more valuable species 
by retaining trees which will bear them and to prevent fire in order that 
the young trees may be protected. 

. piedmont region 

From the lower slopes of the Blue Ridge to what is known as the "fall 
line," which is where the Piedmont Plateau falls off into the Coastal 
Plain Region, the original forests were a mixture of hardwood and short- 
leaf pine. This area comprises practically one-third of the State. 
Inroads have been made upon this forest by clearing for agriculture, 
.until at the present time probably not more than 25 per cent of the area 
retains the remnants of the original forest. Much of the land that was 
cleared, however, has been allowed to revert to forest growth, and this 
has usually come up to pine, making an entirely different type. The 
mixed hardwood and the pine and the second-growth pine are the two 
principal types of this region. 

Hardwood and Pine. — Very little of this forest can now be found in 
its original state. In nearly all cases the old pine trees have been cut 
for lumber and often the best hardwood has also been removed. Excel- 
lent quality oak of several different species was yielded by these forests, 
and the establishment of the furniture industry in Piedmont North 
Carolina was due almost entirely to the proximity of a large supply of 
suitable oak timber. Yellow poplar was also abundant throughout the 
region, but in consequence of lumbering and burning the woods it has 
become exceedingly scarce. The planing mills of the Piedmont Region 
years ago manufactured the old growth pine into sash, doors, blinds, and 
building material of the best quality, but now they depend almost 
entirely upon the second growth pine forests for their supply. The 
principal species in this region that comprise the hardwood and pine 
type of forest are, in the order of their importance, the oaks, which 
nearly always form as much or more than one-half the stand, shortleaf 
pine, both original and second growth, white pine and chestnut along 
the western border of the region, poplar, hickory, gum, and a number of 
other commercial species. 
2 



18 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Unlike the Mountain Region, lumbering is done here almost entirely 
with portable mills. The areas are small, usually forming parts of the 
farms, and it is seldom that more than 500 or 1,000 acres belongs to one 
owner. It is because of the comparatively small continuous areas of 
woodland that the risk from fire is so much less than in the mountains 
or the Coastal Plain. 

The chief feature of management of these forests is the removal of 
the old, and in some cases comparatively worthless trees, with the object 
of favoring thrifty young growth of the better species. "With a demand 
for firewood as great as in any State in the Union, a market for even the 
valueless trees can be found in most instances. Owners can do much 
towards improving their woodland by following such a practice. 

Second Growth Pine Type. — Throughout th.e Piedmont Region areas 
which have been cleared and in turn abandoned have almost uniformly 
grown up with pine, chiefly the shortleaf . On some areas, however, the 
scrub pine has come in and on the higher, poorer situations this some- 
what inferior tree tends to supplant the shortleaf pine. In the eastern 
part of the region loblolly pine has in some cases taken possession of 
old fields, but where it occurs it is usually mixed with shortleaf. 

These second growth pine forests, many of them occupying land which' 
was cultivated prior to the Civil "War, have for the past twenty years 
furnished a large part of the pine lumber in this region. Formerly 
"old field" pine was looked upon as an encumbrance upon the ground, 
as it frequently invaded old pastures. It has only been in comparatively 
recent years that its value has been recognized. The shortleaf pine 
grows somewhat slower than the loblolly pine of the Coastal Plain 
Region. The lumber of each is put upon the northeastern markets 
under the same commercial name of "North Carolina pine." 

Much "old field" land has been recleared after lumbering because it is 
easier to remove second growth pine than hardwood stumps, the former 
usually decaying within a very few years. Where the land has not been 
cleared a growth of hardwoods follows the cutting of the pine, and often 
a fair stand of hardwood reproduction is already on the ground before 
cutting commences. Dogwood, poplar, red gum, oak, hickory, etc., form 
the succeeding forest. With the reservation of seed trees and the pre- 
vention of fires it should be possible to secure a second crop of pine, 
which in most cases would be desirable. 

COASTAL PLAIN REGION 

' The original forests of the Coastal Plain region, which comprises 
about one-half the total area of the State, were largely longleaf pine. 
Ever since the first settlement, however, these forests have been de- 



Wood-using Industries of Worth Carolina 19 

structively exploited by the turpentine operator, the lumberman, and 
the stock raiser, the latter often responsible for the damage done by both 
fire and hogs. These two, fire and hogs, have been the principal causes 
contributing to the desolate and unprofitable condition of much of our 
eastern pine lands at the present time. There are now practically no 
old growth longleaf pine forests left, though here and there a few 
restricted areas of second growth longleaf may be found. 

The present forest area, which has been estimated at nearly eleven 
million acres, consists chiefly of second growth loblolly pine on the 
uplands and hardwoods in the river bottoms and swamps. 

Coastal Pine Type. — Three-fourths or more of the forest area of the 
Coastal Plain Region is classed as pine forest. The present stand and 
condition varies according to quality of soil, drainage, ownership, and 
transportation facilities. It was recently estimated that 40 per cent of 
this type was nonproducing, namely not growing sufficient timber on it 
to produce a profitable crop ; 25 per cent was in young growth, too small 
for market, and 35 per cent still supported a crop of merchantable 
timber. 

Loblolly pine, or shortleaf pine as it is generally called throughout the 
region, is the principal timber tree. When sawed and put upon the 
market it is almost universally known as Worth Carolina pine lumber. 
It is used in this form for all kinds of construction purposes. The tree 
grows rapidly on most soils in the region and readily reproduces itself 
naturally where fires are kept out. Unlike the longleaf pine, its seeds 
are not eaten by hogs, though the seedlings are often uprooted and 
destroyed by these animals. 

Although much of the pine land should be classed as potentially 
agricultural, there will probably be no demand for the greater part of 
it for many years to come. Labor is scarce and the reclamation of such 
lands slow. In order, therefore, to put the land to use and make the 
investment remunerative there should be no idle land, and what will not 
be needed for farm crops for the next forty or fifty years should be 
encouraged to produce a forest crop. 

In cutting these forests provision should be made for securing suffi- 
cient seed, even by leaving seed trees where necessary, and fire should 
be absolutely prevented. Some have considered this an impossibility, 
but no one has a right to this conclusion until an earnest effort towards 
forest fire prevention has been made by the landowners, the local people, 
and the State all cooperating. 

Hardivood Swamps. — Along the rivers and smaller streams occur 
alluvial and muck lands, more or less drained", but usually very wet 
during part of the year. These are occupied mostly by a variety of 



20 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

hardwoods, sometimes mixed with cypress or juniper. The latter is 
found in wet sandy and often peaty swamps, while the former is more 
common on heavier soils and near running water. 

On the heavier lands, especially in the overflow swamps along rivers, 
several species of oak are the chief timber trees. These are associated 
with red maple, elms and gums. In other places the gums predominate. 
Up until recent years these were not lumbered to any extent, and even 
yet the demand for gum lumber is somewhat limited. It is, however, 
cut into veneer for packages and furniture, and there has been con- 
siderable inquiry about it for paper making. 

These swamp lands, when cut over, come up largely to red gum, black 
gum, and tupelo, though seedlings from other hardwood species are 
usually present in more or less abundance. Cypress and juniper repro- 
duce very irregularly, the large openings made by logging letting in 
more direct sunlight than is good for the young seedlings of these species. 

Many of these swamps, when drained, make excellent agricultural 
lands, but some are better adapted to forest growth, and upon such areas 
logging should be done so that a second crop of timber may reasonably 
be expected. Fire prevention and the protection of the small trees is all 
that is usually necessary, though sometimes retention of seed trees may 
be advisable. Eire prevention is fairly simple in these swamps and if 
fires are prevented, the hardwoods should soon form shade enough to 
protect the juniper, and where seed trees are present a new crop of this 
valuable tree may be expected. Cypress reproduction is more difficult 
to secure, and like the longleaf pine, it may be destined to be replaced 
by other more adaptable species. 

DEPLETION OF FOREST RESOURCES 

The forests of this country have been divided into several main divi- 
sions, according to the predominant species that grow in each. One of 
these is the Southern Appalachian Hardwood Kegion, which includes the 
hardwood forests of Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Almost 
the entire area embraced within this region was once covered by virgin 
forests. These forests constituted a wealth of timber comprising oak, 
chestnut, and yellow poplar of large size and high quality, walnut, 
cherry, hickory, basswood, and the other valuable hardwoods, as well as 
white and yellow pine, and hemlock. The earliest operations in the 
region consisted of the removal of only such trees as walnut, cherry, and 
the finest oak and yellow poplar from easily accessible situations. The 
introduction of modern hogging methods extended operations into nearly 
all parts of the region, so that at present comparatively little virgin 



PLATE II 




Typical forest scene in the Coastal Plain Region of North Carolina. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 21 

timber remains, most of it remote and difficult to log. Present logging 
operations consist for the most part of the working over of previously 
culled stands and the removal of practically every saw log as well as a 
large part of the smaller material. The lumber cut from such timber 
is necessarily of poorer quality than that previously produced. 

In 1909 the peak of lumber production was reached in the Southern 
Appalachian Hardwood Region, the cut for that year being approxi- 
mately 4 billion feet. Since 1909 the cut of lumber in the region has 
gradually declined so that the normal cut now is in the neighborhood 
of 3 billion feet. The lumber cut, however, represents only about a 
third of the total consumption of wood in the region. The balance 
represents material removed in the form of extract wood and bark, 
poles, posts, ties, cooperage stock, fuel wood, and other products not cut 
in the form of lumber. Much of the material converted into these 
products consists of second growth timber. In the case of lumber pro- 
duction, however, the large proportion of the timber is cut from old 
growth stands. "With the exhaustion of the old growth, lumbermen will 
then have to look to the second growth timber as a source of supply, and 
since very little of this will yield lumber of a better quality than 'No. 1 
Common, the effect upon the furniture and other industries largely 
dependent upon high-grade lumber will be very serious. 

The total quantity of timber removed annually from this region is 
further augmented by that which is destroyed by fire and disease. The 
chestnut blight has entered the mountainous area and, according to 
pathologists, is almost certain to sweep through the hardwood forests 
and eventually eliminate this important species. As a result, tanning 
and other industries dependent upon this tree for raw material will be 
deprived of their chief source of supply and other species will be called 
upon to supply this demand, thus further adding to the depletion of the 
timber. It is impossible to even estimate the depletion resulting from 
the chestnut tree blight or from fire, which annually takes a heavy toll 
from the forests of the region. 

Considerable uncertainty exists in the minds of even the best informed 
men in the lumber industry as to the duration of the cut in the remain- 
ing old growth stands of timber in the Southern Appalachian Hardwood 
Region. In West Virginia, which has been one of the leading hardwood 
producing states, the statement was made recently by one of the best 
informed men in the lumber industry that the length of cut on a large 
scale would not exceed five years. A responsible official in a large mill 
in that state reported that most of the mills would be cut out within 
from five to eight years. The State Forester of North Carolina esti- 
mates that the supply of old growth hardwood timber will last approxi- 



22 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

mately 17 years. A prominent lumberman of western North Carolina 
stated that in his opinion the cut from old growth timber in north 
Georgia and southwestern North Carolina will last 20 years, but that 
this cut will come increasingly from small operations. In Kentucky and 
Tennessee the duration of the cut of old growth hardwoods is believed 
by the manager of one lumber company to be 20 years, while another 
well informed man sees 15 years ahead for the Kentucky hardwoods. 
A future cut of 15 years is predicted for old growth timber in the 
Southern Appalachian Region by another representative of the industry, 
while still another estimates that the supply will last 25 years. The 
consensus of opinion among the best informed men in the industry seems 
to be that if present conditions continue the Southern Appalachians will 
have ceased to function as an important lumber producing region of 
high-grade hardwoods within 20 years, and that within 25 years the 
old growth timber will be practically gone. 

The extent of depletion of the old growth hardwoods in the Southern 
Appalachian Hardwood Eegion is further reflected and perhaps more 
forcibly brought to our attention by the statements made in the schedules 
furnished by the wood-using factories of North Carolina, from which 
the data in this report were prepared. Referring to local supplies at 
the present time in comparison with conditions existing during the past 
10 or 20 years, 93 per cent of the furniture plants in the State, 91 per 
cent of the vehicle factories, and 100 per cent of the chair makers 
reported that supplies had been greatly reduced. In the matter of pros- 
pective local supplies on the basis of a 10-year outlook, 12 per cent of 
the furniture, 22 per cent of the vehicle, and 43 per cent of the chair 
factories reported that supplies would be exhausted. That supplies 
would be gradually reduced was reported by 57 per cent of the chair 
makers, 88 per cent of the furniture factories, and 67 per cent of the 
vehicle plants. Of all firms in the State represented by these three 
classes of establishments only 11 saw an outlook for sufficient raw mate- 
rial, and these were all vehicle plants. 

Depletion has not stopped with the hardwoods in the Southern 
Appalachian Region. The coniferous trees have come in for their share, 
especially the yellow pines. Recent estimates place the original yellow 
pine area of North Carolina at 10 million acres. Of this amount all but 
500,000 acres have been cut over. In the Coastal Plain region longleaf 
pine was once the characteristic forest tree. Turpentine operations, 
lumbering, the destruction of seeds and seedlings by hogs, and other 
agencies have brought about the depletion of the supplies of this impor- 
tant species in the State. The present stand of longleaf pine in North 
Carolina is hardly more than 50,000 acres, most of it being second 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 23 

growth timber, widely scattered in small areas. Such virgin longleaf 
pine areas as remain will no doubt soon be logged and become either 
nonproductive or be restocked with loblolly or shortleaf pine. The most 
valuable tree, from an economic standpoint, in North Carolina is lob- 
lolly pine, a species that now occupies in almost pure stands, much of 
it over 100 years old, nearly all of the cut-over longleaf pine lands, 
especially those in the Coastal Plain Region. As previously mentioned, 
loblolly pine and shortleaf pine in the proportion of 80 per cent of the 
former and 20 per cent of the latter comprise the pine marketed in the 
State as North Carolina pine. The softwood lumber production of 
North Carolina in 1921 was 732,035,000 feet, board measure, and of 
this quantity 647,845,000 board feet, or over 88 per cent, was of yellow 
pine. Since comparatively little longleaf pine is cut in North Carolina, 
the bulk of that reported as yellow pine consisted of North Carolina 
pine. On the other hand, the total quantity of wood consumed by the 
wood-using industries of the State in 1919 was over 493 million feet, 
while of this amount more than 248 million feet was North Carolina 
pine. These figures of production and consumption show the promi- 
nence of this species in North Carolina. 

As already stated, all but 500,000 acres of the original 10 million 
acres of yellow pine land in North Carolina has been cut over. Of this 
total cut-over area 3,600,000 acres are now restocking with trees of saw- 
timber size, 5,400,000 acres are restocking with trees of merely cordwood 
size, while 1,200,000 acres are not restocking at all. From this it can 
be seen that the forest area of North Carolina supporting yellow pine 
saw-timber size has decreased more than 50 per cent. This is further 
brought out by the fact that the lumber cut of yellow pine in North 
Carolina has decreased from 1,575,186,000 board feet in 1909 to 931,- 
015,000 board feet in 1921, or over 40 per cent during the 13-year period 
mentioned. 

In 1909 the cut of white pine lumber in North Carolina was 96,624,- 
000 board feet, while in 1921 it was only 3,360,000 board feet, a decrease 
in 13 years of over 92 per cent. This is but another evidence of forest 
depletion in the State. 

The dependence of the wood-using factories throughout the entire 
United States upon the forest resources of the country is self-evident. 
In North Carolina it is particularly noticeable, since, as shown in 
Table 3, home-grown timber supplied nearly 86 per cent of the total 
quantity consumed by the wood-using industries of the State. If our 
forests are to continue to supply the enormous demands for raw material 
that are made upon them it is perfectly obvious that some steps must be 
taken immediately to insure future crops. Apparently there is but one 



24 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

adequate means available, the establishment of a sound forest policy, 
the details of which will have to be worked out to fit the conditions 
existing in different regions of the country and perhaps also in different 
states. 

THE FUTURE TIMBER SUPPLY 

This country may in a way be likened unto the spendthrift who 
scatters his money to the winds and later has only vain regrets to remind 
him of his squandered fortune. Unlike the spendthrift, however, the 
country has come to the realization of how wasteful it has been with 
its timber wealth, and is taking timely cognizance of its condition with 
a view of improving it. The necessity for prompt, vigorous action 
looking to the perpetuation of the timber resources of the United States 
is apparent not only to a large number of individuals, but also to 
many of the important industries which are partly or wholly dependent 
upon the forest as a source of raw material*. Some of the states 
recognized the handwriting on the wall years ago, others more re- 
cently, and immediately took action in the matter of enacting forest 
laws with the ultimate object of providing for future crops of timber. 
At present thirty-five states maintain either a state forester, state board 
of forestry, forest conservation commission, or some similar state organi- 
zation, the functions of which are to carry out the provisions of existing 
laws relating to reforestation and fire protection. The Federal Govern- 
ment is doing its part in this work through its administration of the 
national forests in the west, its acquisition of lands under the Weeks Law 
for national forests in the east, its cooperative work with the various 
state forest organizations, and its extensive educational program with 
the general public. Large corporations, such as railroads, oil companies, 
and mining companies are also vitally interested in the subject, and some 
of them are either improving existing timber holdings or utilizing other 
lands for reforestation purposes. 

All of this indicates progress, but forest depletion in this country has 
assumed such alarming proportions that nothing but a carefully worked 
out, nation-wide forest policy will serve to prevent further devastation. 
Such a policy should have the support of all interested parties. Impor- 
tant among these are the private owners, whose forest lands constitute a 
large portion of the total timbered area of the country. The provisions 
of such a policy are manifold. Two of them stand out prominently, 
however, and merit immediate attention, namely, forest fire prevention 
and reforestation. In this work the Federal Government naturally will 
and should be expected to take a leading part, especially in such matters 
as the lending of aid to the activities of the several states, the standardi- 
zation of technical practice in reforestation and fire protection, and by 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 25 

the further acquisition of such land as is either more suitable for the 
growing of timber or more valuable for the protection of watersheds 
than it is for agriculture. Such a -forest policy naturally calls for new 
legislation and possibly the revision of existing laws, both national and 
state. For example, before the Federal Government can hope to increase 
the scope of its present forest policy to one of a national character suffi- 
cient appropriation from the public funds must be made available for 
the purpose. On the other hand, the full cooperation of the private 
landowner cannot be secured until state laws are enacted which will 
bring about an equitable form of forest taxation and at the same time 
place upon the owners certain responsibility in dealing with precautions 
against forest fires, disposal of slash, and other factors directly affecting 
forest production. 

Timber depletion in this country has resulted not so much from the 
use of the forests as the failure to grow them. Because of this fact 
there are now in the United States 326 million acres of cut-over land, 
on 81 million acres of which there is practically no timber growth, due 
principally to forest fires and improper methods of logging. This enor- 
mous area is being added to annually at the rate of from 3 to 4 million 
acres, as the cutting and burning of forests continues. It is estimated 
that there are available in this country a total of 463 million acres of 
land, which, from an economic standpoint, are more suitable for the 
growing of timber than for any other use. With a national forest policy 
in full and efficient operation, this land could eventually be made suffi- 
ciently productive to meet adequately the country's future demands for 
wood. 



PART II 



KINDS OF WOOD 

The wood-using factories of North Carolina consumed a total of 
493,151,871 board feet of lumber in 1919, representing varying quanti- 
ties cut from 28 different kinds of wood. In similar reports prepared 
for other States the information requested on the questionnaire used in 
gathering the original data called for the exact name of the various 
woods used, which permitted of the listing of the different kinds accord- 
ing to species, such as red oak, white ash, silver maple, red cedar, etc. 
This made it possible for the reader to study the uses according to 
inherent properties. In the collection of the material for this report, 
however, only the generic name was for the most part specified, such as 
oak, poplar, hickory, etc. In addition, the questionnaire used listed 
yellow pine as second growth, original, and longleaf. In view of the 
fact that these terms as used in any one of the three natural divisions 
of the State, namely : the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont, and the Mountain 
regions, are intended to include the predominant species of yellow pine, 
it was found difficult to differentiate the various species implied in each 
case. Since for the most part the bulk of the yellow pine in the State 
is either shortleaf pine or loblolly pine, it was considered advisable to 
include all wood reported either as second growth or original pine under 
the designation of North Carolina pine, the term most commonly em- 
ployed by the lumbermen of the State, especially those of the Coastal 
Plain Region. 

In Table 1 there is shown the quantity of all of the various woods 
used by the North Carolina wood-using factories in 1919, together with 
the percentage which each represents of the total consumption. This 
table also gives the average price per thousand feet, board measure, paid 
for the raw material f . o. b. factory, and the total cost for each wood. 

North Carolina pine ranks first among the various woods listed in 
Table 1 with a total of 248,221,156 feet, board measure. This represents 
slightly over 50 per cent of the total consumption of the State. Oak 
occupies second place, with 85,353,007 board feet, or 17.31 per cent. 
Eed gum was third, with 40,443,000, or 8.20 per cent, and yellow poplar 
fourth, the quantity of this wood used being 21,560,963 board feet, or 
4.37 per cent of the total. Twenty-four other woods were used in grad- 
ually decreasing amounts. Rosewood and mahogany were the only two 
foreign woods reported. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



27 



Black walnut was the most expensive domestic wood used, with, an 
average price of $201.62 per thousand board feet. Sugar pine, a Pacific 
Coast wood, ranked second, the price paid for it being $135 per thousand 
feet. Of the domestic woods used North Carolina pine was the least 
expensive wood among the conifers purchased and elm was the cheapest 
of the hardwoods. 



Table 1. — Summary of Kinds of Wood Used in North Carolina in 1919 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 
Feet, B. M. 



Per 

Cent 



Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory- 



Total Cost 



Pine, North Carolina 

Oak 

Gum, red 

Poplar, yellow 

Pine, longleaf 

Chestnut 

Gum, black 

Hickory 

Maple 

Pine, white 

Cottonwood 

Dogwood 

Birch 

Hemlock 

Walnut, black 

Basswood 

Ash 

Locust 

Cypress 

Beech 

Buckeye 

Sycamore 

Cedar... 

Mahogany ._ 

Rosewood 

Mountain laurel (Kalmia) 

Elm 

Pine, sugar 

All other 

Totals 



248,221 

85,353 

40,443 

21,560 

21,313 

20,996 

19,524 

9,124 

8,325 

6,521 

2,000 

1,575 

1,525 

1,028 

838 

735 

627 

370 

350 

205 

200 

112 

36 

32 

25 

15 

6 

5 

2,083 



,156 
,007 
,000 
,963 
,077 
,915 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,557 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,196 



50.33 

17.31 

8.20 

4.37 

4.32 

4.26 

3.96 

1.85 

1.69 

1.32 

.41 

.32 

.31 

.21 

.17 

.15 

.13 

.07 

.07 

.04 

.04 

.02 

.01 

.01 

.01 



.42 



29.03 
55.34 
73.90 
42.04 
38.86 
42.25 
25.12 
44.70 
54.50 
40.14 
75.00 
35.00 
60.25 
40.00 

201 .62 
64.42 
50.45 
40.54 
40.00 
35.29 

104.06 
57.32 
30.00 

311.54 

450 .00 
44.00 
24.00 

135.00 
23.42 



.7,206,524 

4,723,013 

2,988,589 

906,383 

828,158 

887,134 

490,379 

407,841 

453,690 

261,759 

150,000 

55,125 

91,919 

41,120 

168,961 

47,350 

31,632 

15,000 

14,000 

7,235 

20,812 

6,420 

1,080 

10,125 

11,250 

660 

156 

675 

48,798 



493,151,871 



100.00 



40.30 



% 19,875, 



Table 2 presents some very interesting data relating to prices paid 
for raw material by the wood users of North Carolina. In this table 
are shown the prices paid for the different kinds of woods used in 1909 
and 1919. The 1909 figures are those which were published in Economic 
Paper No. 20 of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, 
which constitutes the first report issued on the wood-using industries 
of the State. The 1919 figures are those given in this present report, 
which is a revision of the report mentioned above. Not all of the woods 



28 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



shown in the 1919 report were reported in use in the 1909 report, and 
for this reason it was only possible to show in Table 2 the various woods 
and the prices paid for those that were used in both years. It will be 
noted that for the woods shown the 1919 figures represent increases over 
the prices paid in 1909 of from 40 to over 500 per cent. 



Table 2. 



-Average Prices Paid for Raw Material oy the Wood-using Factories 
of North Carolina in 1909 and 1919 



Kind of Wood 


Average Cost per M. 
Feet F. O. B. Factory 


Per 
Cent of 




1909 


1919 


Increase 




I 12 .80 

18 .05 
17.61 
16.50 
21.28 
15.95 
15.80 
12.00 
18.75 
26.72 
12.00 
42.15 
20.75 
25.62 
14.00 
13.67 
19.74 
40.00 
10.76 
21.40 
147.42 
10.00 
13.38 


S 29.03 127 


Oak 


55 .34 
42.04 
42.25 
44.70 
54.50 
40.14 
75.00 
35.00 
60.25 
40.00 

201 .62 
64.42 
50.45 
40.54 
40.00 
35.29 

104.06 
57.32 
30.00 

311.54 
44.00 
24.00 


207 


Poplar, yellow.. . .._..._... ... . .. 


139 




156 




110 


Maple . . 


242 




154 


Cottonwood _ ... ... . . . _ _ 


525 




87 


Birch 


125 


Hemlock... . ... __ ..... .. 


233 


Walnut, black . ... . 


270 


Basswood... 


210 


Ash. 


97 


Locust. . .. 


190 


Cypress. 1. 


193 


Beech .. . . .... .... 


79 




160 


Sycamore ... ..... . 


433 




40 


Mahogany . ........ 


111 


Mountain laurel (Kalmia) . ... .. . 


340 


Elm 


79 







STATE -GROWN AND IMPORTED WOODS 

Over 85 per cent of the 493,151,871 board feet of lumber consumed 
by the secondary wood-using industries of North Carolina was grown in 
the State. The entire supply of 10 of the 28 different kinds of wood 
used came from within the State. These were dogwood, hemlock, bass- 
wood, ash, locust, cypress, beech, cedar, mountain laurel, and elm. In 
addition, the entire amount used of those woods grouped under the 
general heading of "all other" was also State-grown. The quantity 
produced within the State of all but one of the remaining 17 woods was 
greater than the quantity shipped in. The exception mentioned was 
red gum, of which 10,782,500 board feet, or 26.66 per cent, was cut 
within North Carolina, while 29,660,500 board feet, or 73.34 per cent, 
came from sources outside the State. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



29 



Table 3 shows the total quantity of the different kinds of woods used 
and the amount and percentage of each which was home-grown or 
imported. 

Table 3. — Summary of State-groion and Imported Woods 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 
Feet, 
B. M. 



Source of Supply 



Grown in 
North Carolina 



Quantity Per Cent 



Grown Outside of 
North Carolina 



Quantity Per Cent 



Pine, North Carolina 

Oak 

Gum, red 

Poplar, yellow 

Pine, longleaf 

Chestnut 

Gum, black 

Hickory 

Maple 

Pine, white 

C ott onwood 

Dogwood 

Birch 

Hemlock 

Walnut, black 

Basswood 

Ash 

Locust... 

Cypress 

Beech 

Buckeye 

Sycamore 

Cedar 

Mahogany 

Rosewood 

Mountain laurel (Kalmia) 

Elm.... 

Pine, sugar. 

All other . 

Totals 



248, 
85, 
40, 
21, 
21, 
20, 
19, 



221,156 

353,007 

443,000 

560,963 

313,077 

996,915 

524,000 

124,500 

325,000 

521,557 

000,000 

575,000 

525,500 

028,000 

838,000 

735,000 

627,000 

370,000 

350,000 

205,000 

200,000 

112,000 

36,000 

32,500 

25,000 

15,000 

6,500 

5,000 

083,196 



231,353,156 
73,165,507 
10,782,500 
19,350,263 
18,898,077 
20,696,915 
19,216,000 
7,999,500 
5,192,500 
6,443,357 



93.20 
85.72 
26.66 
89.75 
88.67 
98.57 
98.42 
87.67 
62.37 



16,868,000 

12,187,500 

29,660.500 

2,210,700 

2,415,000 

300,000 

308,000 

1,125,000 

3,132,500 

78,200 

2,000,000 



1,575,000 

1,375,500 

1,028,000 

576,750 

735,000 

627,000 

370,000 

350,000 

205,000 

175,000 

77,000 

36,000 



100 .00 
90.17 
100 .00 
68.82 
100 .00 
100 .00 
100 .00 
100.00 
100 .00 
87.50 
68.75 
100 .00 



150,000 
261,250 



25,000 
35,000 



32,500 
25,000 



15,000 
6,500 



100.00 
100 .00 



5,000 



2,083,196 



100 .00 



493,151,871 



422,332,721 



85.64 



70,819,150 



6.80 
14.28 
73.34 
10.25 
11.33 

1.43 

1.58 
12.33 
37.63 

1.20 
100.00 



9.83 



31.18 



12.50 
31.25 



100.00 
100 .00 



100 .00 



14.36 



THE WOODS DESCRIBED 

The following is a brief description of the principal woods employed 
in North Carolina by the different wood-using industries in the manu- 
facture of the wide range of commodities made partly or wholly of wood 
which they produce. Lumbermen divide woods into two general classes, 
namely, hardwoods and softwoods, the former comprising those trees 
which have broad leaves and the latter those with needle leaves. It has 
been found that this classification holds true generally and is practical, 
and for these reasons it has become standardized. 



30 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



softwoods 



Eight species of conifers were called upon to furnish wood in 1919 
for final manufacture in the State. Five of them were pines, while the 
other three consisted of hemlock, cypress, and cedar, respectively. The 
quantity of wood contributed by the coniferous trees constituted over 
50 per cent of the total amount used. 

North Carolina Pine {Pinus taeda and Pinus echinata). — Pine mar- 
keted and known as North Carolina pine, or Yirginia pine as it is 
frequently called in that State, is composed of approximately 80 per 
cent loblolly pine and 20 per cent shortleaf pine. In the forest these 
two species are easily distinguished, because the needles of the short- 
leaf are generally shorter and the cones smaller than those of lob- 
lolly. "When sawed into lumber, however, it is often exceedingly diffi- 
cult to tell them apart, owing to the close similarity of the two woods. 
Shortleaf pine grows sparingly as far north as Long Island, New York, 
and at one time was plentiful in New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. 
At the present time it is cut for lumber, perhaps, no farther north than 
Yirginia. Shortleaf reaches its best development and is most plentiful 
in northern Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri, and in those . states is 
often called by the trade name of Arkansas soft pine. In North Caro- 
lina it is usually found in the drier situations and frequently enters into 
the composition of upland forests. It appears less commonly in the 
Coastal Plain Eegion, being especially rare south of the Neuse River. 
Loblolly pine is a tree of the Coastal Plain Region, and finds its best 
development in the form of original growth in moist, deep soil. Land 
once cultivated and then abandoned a century or more ago by farmers 
now supports stands of second growth loblolly. 

The importance of North Carolina pine in the State is evidenced by 
the fact that more than half of the wood used by the wood-consuming 
factories in 1919 was of this species. The planing mill factories used 
the largest quantity, while next in importance from the standpoint of 
consumption were, in the order named, those industries making boxes 
and crates, those producing sash, doors, and blinds, and the furniture 
manufacturers. The quantity of North Carolina pine consumed by the 
various wood-using factories of the State is shown in Table 4. 

Longleaf Pine {Pinus palustris) . — This tree is the most important of 
the southern yellow pine group. Yirginia marks the most northerly 
limit of its range, while the heaviest stands are now located in Louisiana 
and the eastern part of Texas, where virgin timber is being cut. Long- 
leaf pine is often referred to as Georgia pine and hard pine. It is the 
chief source of turpentine and rosin, and because of this is sometimes 
called pitch pine, especially that which is exported. Longleaf pine gets 



Wood-using Industries of 'North Carolina 



31 



its name from the fact that it has the longest needles of any of the pines. 
Its strength, stiffness, and durability give it an important place among 
those woods used for structural purposes, and large quantities are 
demanded for this use annually. It is also extensively employed for 
flooring, while during the war with Germany it contributed the major 
portion of the tremendous amount of high-grade heavy timbers and 
planking needed for wooden vessels of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. 
Longleaf pine formerly extended in an almost unbroken forest from 
Texas to Virginia. At present in North Carolina it is found chiefly in 
widely scattered second growth stands of small area. 



Table 4. — Consumption of North Carolina Pine in 1919 






Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry- 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




125,734,000 
71,980,000 
12,580,000 
9,184,587 
8,773,000 
6,418,569 
6,393,000 

4,200,000 
800,000 
627,000 
405,000 
225,000 
901,000 


50.65 
29.00 
5.07 
3.70 
3.54 
2.59 
2.58 

1.69 
.32 
.25 
.16 
.09 
.36 


$ 31.12 
26.49 
32.09 
22.79 
26.55 
29.70 
29.53 

24.28 
20.00 
65.14 
32.12 
17.00 
15.00 


$ 3,912,511 
1,906,928 
105,300 
262,199 
232,945 
190,631 
188,797 

101,962 
16,000 
23,472 
13,010 
3,825 
13,515 


112,842,000 
71,010,000 
11,080,000 
9,184,587 
8,433,000 
6,337,569 
5,793,000 

3,765,000 
800,000 
627,000 
355,000 
225,000 
901,000 


12,892,000 




970,000 




1,500,000 


Fruit, and vegetable packages. ..- 






340,000 




81,000 




600,000 


Elevators and machine con- 


435,000 












50,000 














Totals 


248,221,156 


100 .00 


$ 29 .97 


$ 6,971,095 


231,353,156 


16,868,000 







In 1919 the wood-using industries of North Carolina consumed 
21,313,077 feet, board measure, of longleaf pine, the bulk of the con- 
sumption being for boxes and crates and planing mill products. The 
distribution of longleaf pine among the different industries that used it 
is shown in Table 5. 

White Pine (Pinus strohus). — White pine is a tree of first commercial 
importance which occurs from New Foundland west to the Winnipeg 
River and south through the northern states to Pennsylvania, Michigan, 
Illinois, Iowa, and along the Appalachian Mountains to Georgia. It 
reaches its best development in the region of the Great Lakes. The story 
of white pine is a vivid example of forest depletion in this country. 
Two hundred and fifty years ago the area mentioned above supported 
virgin stands of this valuable species. The forests were so vast and the 



32 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



stands so thick that the supply was considered inexhaustible. Lumber- 
ing operations began in New England. When one pine region became 
exhausted there was another one farther back and mills moved on to 
new forests. This occurred when the pine on the New England coast 
was cut. Next came the stands in New York, and after that those of 
Pennsylvania, followed by West Virginia. Later, when the supply here 
began to wane, the region of the Great Lakes was invaded and the 
splendid forests of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were called 
upon to supply the increasing demand for white pine. Michigan was 
in closer proximity to markets, and her forests were first among those of 
the Lake States to show signs of depletion. Depletion in Michigan was 
followed by depletion in Wisconsin, and the lumbermen then transferred 
their operations to Minnesota. The history of white pine in Minnesota 
is the history of white pine in other regions. Ahead of the state lies 



Table 5. — Consumption of Longleaf Pine in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost 
per M. 
Feet, 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


GroTvn ! Gro^vn 

in Outside 

State of State 




10,653,077 
7,750,000 
2,700,000 

169,000 
50,000 


49.98 
36.36 
12.67 

.75 
.24 


1 35.38 
43.31 
39.00 

42.50 
70.00 


1376,905.86 
335,652.50 
105,300.00 

6,800.00 
3,500.00 


10,653,077 
5,695,000 
2,540,000 

10,000 






2.055,000 




160,000 


Elevators and machine con- 


150,000 




50,000 








Totals 


21,313,077 


100 .00 


$ 38.86 


1828,158.36 


18,898,077 


2,415,000 







the same goal that they have already reached. The Lake States, which 
once measured their cut of white pine lumber in billions of feet, are now 
producing comparatively small quantities. Michigan is cutting less than 
Massachusetts and Wisconsin not as much as New Hampshire. The 
difference between white pine production in the Lake States and the 
production of this species in Massachusetts is worthy of note. The 
Lake States are merely harvesting the crop which nature planted cen- 
turies ago, while in Massachusetts, although the timber that remains is 
all second growth, fires are kept out and it is otherwise protected. As 
a result the cut of white pine in this State exceeds that of Michigan, 
once the leader in the world's output. White pine's capacity for repro- 
duction and its rapid growth make it an important tree from the stand- 
point of forest management. In fact, the tree will readily perpetuate 
itself if given a chance. Wind scatters the seeds by thousands, and they 
quickly spring up. Since, however, the bark of the pine seedlings is 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolin 



33 



thin and tender, the young trees are easily killed by fire. If, therefore, 
fires can be kept out of white pine cuttings and a few seed trees are 
allowed to remain, the rest can be left almost entirely to nature. 

In North Carolina white pine is found only in the Mountain Region, 
but the cut here is small compared to that of other regions of its growth. 
In 1919 the total quantity of wood of this species reported as having 
been consumed by the wood-using industries of the State was approxi- 
mately 6% million feet, board measure. More than two-thirds of this 
quantity, or 4,942,(100 board feet, was demanded for boxes and crates. 
Nearly 99 per cent of the white pine consumed in the State was cut 
from home-grown timber. The industries which used white pine in 
North Carolina in 1919 and the quantity that each consumed is shown 

in Table 6. 

Table 6. — Consumption of White Pine in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




4,942,000 
610,000 
326,557 
270,000 
150,000 

98,000 
75,000 
50,000 


75.78 
9.35 
5.01 
4.14 
2.30 

1.50 
1.15 

.77 


$ 37.67 
57.50 
35.60 
49.17 
40.00 

58.60 
25.00 
40.00 


$186,165.14 

35,075.00 

11,625.43 

13,275.90 

6,000.00 

5,742.80 
1,875.00 
2,000.00 


4,942,000 
584,800 
326,557 
220,000 
150,000 

95,000 
75,000 
50,000 






25,200 


Caskets and coffins 


50,000 






Elevators and machine con- 
struction 


3,000 










Total 


6,521,557 


100 .00 


I 40.14 


1261,759.27 


6,443,357 


78,200 







Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). — The range of hemlock extends east to 
Nova Scotia, west to Minnesota, and south along the mountain ranges 
to Georgia. In North Carolina hemlock occurs in the mountains, and 
is found in cool ravines, usually along streams on loamy or rich soil. 
It is frequently associated with birch, cherry, and other hardwoods. 
The tree is of considerable value to the tanning industry, its bark being 
the principal source of supply of raw material for extract plants. In 
North Carolina it is one of the chief woods used for paper pulp. The 
wood of hemlock is light in weight, coarse grained, brittle, and has a 
tendency to splinter. These properties have greatly influenced its use, 
so that during the years when white pine was plentiful comparatively 
little hemlock was cut. With the waning supply of pine, however, the 
demand for hemlock increased, and at present it is called on to meet a 
liberal share of the country's lumber requirements. It is an especially 
important species in the region of the Lake States. 
3 



34 



"Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



In 1919 in North Carolina the box and crate industry was the only 
one that employed hemlock as raw material in the manufacture of its 
products. The quantity used was 1,028,000 feet, board measure, and all 
of it was produced in the State. 

Cypress (Taxodium distichum). — Cypress is a southern species that 
occurs in swamps and overflowed lands from Virginia to Texas and up 
the Mississippi River as far as Missouri. It is a needle-leaf tree which 
sheds its leaves in winter. The principal supply comes from Louisiana 
and other Gulf States. In North Carolina it is found in the Coastal 
Plain Region, where it constitutes one of the most common trees along 
streams and swamps. The wood is light, soft, and straight-grained, and 
the heartwood of the tree is extremely durable when placed in contact 
with the ground or when used in damp situations. Its durability makes 
it an ideal wood for caskets and coffins, planing mill products, and sash, 
doors, and blinds, the three industries which together reported the con- 
sumption of the 350,000 feet, board measure, shown in Table 7. 

Table 7. — Consumption of Cypress in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost 
per M. 
Feet, 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


GroTvn 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




200,000 
100,000 
50,000 


57.14 
28.57 
14.29 


$ 40.00 
30.00 
60,00 


$ 8,000.00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 


200,000 
100,000 
50,000 
















Totals 


350,000 


100.00 


S 40.00 


1 14,000.00 


350,000 









Cedar. — The two species of cedar grow in North Carolina. They are 
the common red cedar, often called pencil cedar (Juniperus virginiana) , 
and southern white cedar (Chamaecyparis tliyoides) known locally as 
juniper. The former is one of the most widely distributed trees in North 
America, and is found in all parts of the United States except Cali- 
fornia, Oregon, and the western part of Texas. The latter grows along 
the Atlantic Coast as far north as New England, but is of little com- 
mercial importance above Maryland and the lower part of Delaware. 
Red cedar meets most of the demands for pencil stock and large quanti- 
ties of it in the form of slats are shipped abroad. It is also a favorite 
wood for clothes chests. ' Southern white cedar is largely used in house 
construction, is especially desirable for shingles, and with northern white 
cedar is the principal wood used for telephone and telegraph poles. All 
native cedars are especially durable in contact with the ground or when 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 35 

used in damp situations. This property makes the wood valuable for 
fence post material, and large quantities are employed for this purpose. 

In North Carolina red cedar is confined to the Piedmont Region and 
southern white cedar to the Coastal Plain Region. The wood users in 
the State reported the use of 36,000 feet, board measure, but since the 
species used was not stated, it has been classed in this report merely as 
cedar. The entire quantity was consumed by the planing mills. 

Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana). — Sugar pine is a tree of the Pacific 
Coast and occurs in heavy stands in California and southern Oregon. 
The tree reaches larger size than any of the pines. In mechanical prop- 
erties it compares very favorably with eastern white pine {Pinus 
strobus), and is employed for many of the purposes for which white 
pine is used. Large quantities of sugar pine are shipped annually from 
the region of its growth to eastern markets. The quantity used in North 
Carolina in 1919 was exceedingly small, amounting to only 5,000 feet, 
board measure, and was employed entirely for elevators and machine 
construction. 

THE HARDWOODS 

A summary of the wood-using industries of the entire United States 
shows that for the manufacture of commodities requiring wood as raw 
material a larger quantity of softwood is required than hardwood. On 
the other hand hardwoods are employed for a greater number of uses 
and from the standpoint of distribution among the various industries 
are more important. Twenty-one hardwoods entered into the manu- 
facture of the products of the wood-using factories of the State in 1919, 
and the entire supply of seven of them was obtained from sources within 
the State. The total quantity used was slightly over 21 million feet. 

Oak. — All of the fifty or more oaks that grow in the United States 
are divided by botanists into two groups. Those on which the acorns 
reach maturity in a single year are called white oaks, while those on 
which the fruit does not ripen for two years are known as black oaks, or 
more commonly as red oaks. The well known white oak (Quercus alba) 
is representative of the white oak group, while red oak {Quercus borealis 
maxima) occupies a similar position in the red oak group. Red oak or 
white oak lumber may be cut from any one of 25 different kinds of oak, 
but in the trade it is merely red or white oak, the lumbermen rarely 
having occasion to use a further differentiation. White oak is usually 
strong, hard, heavy, durable, dense, and more or less difficult to season. 
Red oak is less strong and durable and not so dense or hard. Since it is 
more porous, red oak is more easily kiln-dried than white oak. When 
white oak is used in situations where it is in contact with the ground or 
exposed to the action of the elements it is not usually customary to give 



36 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



it a preservative treatment. Eed oak, however, is less durable, and when 
so used should always be subjected to treatment. 

Eighteen different species of oak grow in North Carolina. Twelve of 
them are red oaks and six belong to the white oak group. From the 
standpoint of quantity used, oak is the most important hardwood that 
enters into furniture manufacture, not only in this State, but in practi- 
cally all others in which studies of this kind have been made. Further- 
more, it usually has the widest distribution among the different indus- 
tries. The quantity demanded by the wood users of North Carolina in 
1919 aggregates nearly 85% million feet. Seventy-four per cent of this 
was used in the furniture and chair industries. The quantity of wood 
used by the eleven other industries that reported a consumption of oak is 
shown in Table 8. 



Table 8. — Consumption of Oak in 1919 








Quantity 


Average 
Cost 
per M. 
F. 0. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry- 


Feet, B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




40,465,000 

23,930,000 

7,545,000 

5,719,500 

3,347,000 

985,000 

813,807 

540,000 

365,000 

290,000 

260,000 
131,500 
961,200 


47.41 

28.04 

8.84 

6.70 

3.92 

1.15 

.95 

.63 

.43 

.34 

.31 

.15 

1.13 


i 57.33 

60.48 
41.87 
45.74 
47.92 
65.00 
39.50 
33.50 
37.83 
74.17 

52.30 
47.50 
50.00 


$2,319,858.45 
1,447,286.40 
315,909.15 
261,609.93 
160,388.24 
64,025.00 
32,145.38 
18,090.00 
13,807.95 
21,509.30 

13,598.00 

6,246.25 

48,060.00 


35,309,000 

18,576,500 

6,853,000 

5,319,500 

2,847,000 

899,000 

813,807 

540,000 

365,000 

290,000 

260,000 
131,500 
961,200 


5,156,000 




5,353,500 




692,000 


Vehicles and vehicle parts 


400,000 
500,000 




86,000 


















Elevators and machine con- 
















Totals 


85,353,007 




$ 55.33 


84, 722, 534 .05 


73,165,507 


12,187,500 



Red Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) . — This species occurs from Con- 
necticut to Missouri, south to central Florida, and westward to Texas. 
It reaches its best development in the bottom lands of the Mississippi 
Valley. It is one of the commonest trees throughout the hardwood 
bottom forests and reaches large size. It is found also to a considerable 
extent on the uplands and low ridges, but is there scattered and of 
smaller size. In North Carolina it frequents moist situations from the 
coast to the mountains. It is in the Coastal Plain, however, that it 
attains its largest dimensions and is found in mixture with black gum 
and cypress in deep swamps. 



Wood-using Industries of Worth Carolina 



37 



Red gum has a tendency to warp and twist, and is therefore a refrac- 
tory wood from the standpoint of both air seasoning and kiln drying. 
This fact has always been an obstacle to its commercial exploitation, 
especially in past years, when the supply of other hardwoods was so 
large that there was no incentive on the part of wood users to work such 
a supposedly unsatisfactory wood as red gum. With improved methods 
of handling and the perfection of kiln-drying practice, red gum came 
into its own, and today is an important species in many wood-using 
industries. Among the primary industries it is extensively employed 
for slack cooperage and is much in demand by veneer mills. Of the 
secondary industries the box factories, furniture plants, chair makers, 
and several other classes of wood users demand red gum in large quanti- 
ties for the manufacture of their products. 

In North Carolina in 1919 a total of 40,443,000 feet, board measure, 
of red gum was used, nearly two-thirds of which was obtained from 
outside the State. Over 50 per cent of this was converted into furniture. 
The industry producing vehicles and vehicle parts was the second in 
importance as far as the quantity consumed is concerned, while large 
amounts were demanded also by the box and chair factories. The State's 
consumption of red gum during the year covered by this report by those 
industries that used it is shown in Table 9. 



Table 9.- 


—Consumption of Red Gum in 1919 






Quantity- 


Average 
Cost 
per M. 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




23,475,000 

9,240,000 

4,047,000 

3,000,000 

253,000 

178,000 

150,000 

100,000 


58.04 

22.85 

10.01 

7.42 

.62 

.44 

.37 

.25 


1 79 .47 
51.75 
95.67 
60.00 
113.33 
143 .33 
110.00 
70.00 


$1,865,558.25 

478,170.00 

387,176.49 

180,000.00 

28,672.49 

25,512.74 

16,50000 

7,000.00 


2,582,500 

7,280,000 

400,000 

500,000 

20,000 


20,892,500 


Vehicles and vehicle parts 


1,960,000 
3,647,000 




2,500,000 




233,000 




178,000 


Caskets and coffins 




150,000 






100,000 








Totals 


40,443,000 


100.00 


$ 73 .90 


$2,988,589.97 


10,782,500 


29,660,500 



Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). — Yellow poplar, although 
widely distributed, is seldom the predominant tree in the forest, but is 
found dispersed through forests of other hardwoods, seldom more than 
three or four trees in a group. Its range extends from Vermont west 
to the Lake States and south through Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, 
and Alabama to Florida. It probably reaches its best development 



38 



"Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



along the tributaries of the Ohio Eiver and on the lower slopes of the 
high mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. It grows habitually 
in deep, rich, moist soil. Yellow poplar is found in all parts of North 
Carolina, but is most abundant and attains its largest size on the lower 
mountain slopes of the counties west of the Blue Kidge. The tree is 
sometimes called tulip poplar, because its blossoms resemble those of the 
tulip. There is a great difference between the heartwood and sapwood 
of yellow poplar. The former is yellow in color and derives its name 
from this fact, while the latter is white and is often called whitewood. 
This differentiation often leads to the erroneous belief among users of 
the wood that they are separate species. 

The wood of yellow poplar is light, soft, straight-grained, very easy 
to work, and holds its shape extremely well after drying. In addition 
it takes and holds paint better, perhaps, than other wood. These prop- 
erties commend it for many uses and make it a wood of first co mm ercial 
importance. It is highly prized and much in demand by furniture 
manufacturers and is converted by them into drawer bottoms, backing, 
white enamel bureaus, cabinets and chiffoniers, plywood core stock, and 
many other commodities. Its ability to take paint makes it well adapted 
for panel work in the vehicle industry. 

Twelve industries in North Carolina reported in varying quantities 
the consumption of yellow poplar in 1919. A total of 21,560,963 feet, 
board measure, was used, and the furniture manufacturers, the box 
factories, and the planing mills were the principal consumers. The 
amounts demanded by the remaining nine industries are shown in 

Table 10. 

Table 10. — Consumption of Yellow Poplar in 1919- 





Quantity- 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Gro^ra 
Outside 
of State 




11,642,000 
3,057,000 
2,755,000 
956,856 
848,307 
657,000 
286,500 
243,000 

184,000 

160,000 

10,000 

761,300 


53.99 
14.18 
12.78 
4.44 
3.93 
3.05 
1.33 
1.13 

.85 

.74 

.05 

3.53 


$ 45 .42 
43.90 
35.00 
33.61 
37.00 
45.68 
42.50 
36.75 

55.00 
25.00 
30.00 
23.50 


$528,779.64 
134,202.30 
96,425.00 
32,159.93 
31,387.36 
30,011.76 
12,176.25 
8,930.25 

10,120.00 

4,000.00 

300 .00 

17,890.55 


10,163,000 
3,055,000 
2,755,000 
956,856 
135,807 
639,800 
286,500 
243,000 

184,000 

160,000 

10,000 

761,300 


1,479,000 




2,000 










Fruit and vegetable packages 


712,500 
17,200 










Elevators and machine con- 








Shuttles, spools, and bobbins 










Totals . 


21,560,963 


100.00 


$ 42 .04 


$906,383.04 


19,350,263 


2,210,700 







Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 39 

Chestnut (Castanea dentata). — In 1918 North Carolina ranked second 
in the cut of chestnut lumber, the total production for the State being 
nearly 49 million feet, board measure. The tree has a wide range, 
extending from Maine to Michigan and south to Delaware and Tennessee 
and along the southern Appalachian Mountains to Alabama. In North 
Carolina its growth is confined principally to the Mountain Region. 

The chestnut bark disease has made heavy inroads upon the stands in 
various sections of the country, especially in the region north of the 
Potomac River. The chestnut in Pennsylvania has perhaps suffered 
most. The disease is becoming more serious each year, and according 
to pathologists is practically certain to extend throughout the range of 
this important species unless some unforeseen natural occurrence takes 
place to check its ravages. The disease is a fungus, the spores of which 
when carried by the wind or other agency into any wound on the trunk 
or limb of a chestnut tree germinate and cause a spreading canker which 
girdles the part attacked and eventually kills the tree. The Bureau of 
Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture recom- 
mends that advance infections be destroyed by felling the trees and 
burning the bark and brush over the stump, so that the surface of the 
latter is completely charred. Another excellent method is to paint the 
surface of the stump with creosote and then burn the bark and brush in 
piles. The disease does not injure the wood, and sound wood cut from 
dead timber is fully as strong as wood from healthy trees. Service tests 
conducted by the Porest Service with posts, poles, and crossties cut from 
healthy, diseased, and dead chestnut have shown that from the stand- 
point of service and durability there is no difference between infected 
or blight-killed chestnut and that which is healthy. 

The sapwood of standing blight-killed chestnut starts to decay at the 
end of two years, not because of the disease, but from the effects of insect 
attack. At the end of four years the sapwood is full of insect burrows 
and well rotted. During the fifth year after death the bark usually 
falls from the trunk and the decayed sapwood dries out and peels off, 
leaving the heartwood hard and sound. If the tree continues to stand 
the heartwood will become so badly surface-checked as to make it un- 
merchantable. It is advisable, therefore, for owners of chestnut timber 
to cut it as soon as infection becomes apparent. If this is not possible, 
it should at least be removed not later than two years after death before 
insect injury, decay, and checking have started. 

Chestnut is light in weight, easily seasoned, very durable, readily 
worked, extremely porous, and possesses a very attractive grain. It 
occupies an important place among the commercial woods included in 
the hardwood group. Because of its durability it is the leading wood in 



40 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



the casket and coffin industry, and is extensively employed for fence posts 
and telephone poles. It also ranks well toward the top in a number of 
other wood-using industries. Panel and plywood manufacturers as well 
as furniture factories value it highly for core stock. The grade known 
to the trade as "sound wormy," which contains numerous small pin 
worm holes, but is otherwise sound, is considered most suitable for this 
purpose, for the reason that these holes provide good anchorage for the 
glue. This grade of chestnut is also largely used by box factories. 
Chestnut wood is one of the sources from which tannin is obtained and 
large quantities are employed annually by extract plants for this purpose. 
The furniture factories used over 50 per cent of the chestnut demanded 
by the wood-users of North Carolina in 1919. The second largest users 
were the makers of caskets and coffins, while four other industries con- 
sumed varying quantities. The six industries of the State, which 
together reported a consumption of nearly 21 million feet, and the 
quantity that each required in the manufacture of its products during 
the year are presented in Table 11. 



Table 11 - 


-Consumption of Chestnut in 1915 








Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


Gro"«~n 

in 
State 


GroTvn 
Outside 
of State 


Furniture .. 


11,244,000 

7,852,915 

1,520,000 

300,000 

50,000 

30,000 


53.55 

37.40 

7.24 

*.43 

.24 

.14 


$ 40.53 
43.34 
50.00 
35.00 
50.00 
69.00 


$455,719.32 
340,345.34 
76,000.00 
10,500.00 
2,500.00 
2,070.00 


10.944,000 

7,852.915 

1,520,000 

300,000 

50,000 

30,000 


300,000 


























Totals . 


20,996,915 


100 .00 


§ 42 .25 


$887,134.66 


20,696,915 


300,000 







Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica). — Considerable confusion has always 
existed in the classification of the various species of the genus Nyssa. 
Three trees are important in this group, namely, black gum (Nyssa 
sylvatica), cotton gum, or tupelo, as it is frequently called (Nyssa 
aquatica), and water gum (Nyssa biflora). They are all members of 
the dogwood family, but are not related to red gum (Liquidambar 
styraciflua). The last two usually grow together in wet lowlands and 
swamps in company with cypress and southern white cedar. Black gum 
grows in similar situations, but usually somewhat removed from the 
other two species and generally on well drained elevations. The wood 
of the three species of gum so closely resemble each other that it is 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



41 



difficult to identify them from their external appearance. The wood 
of cotton gum splits straight and is fairly easy to work. The fiber 
of black gum and water gum is closely interlocked and the wood is very 
difficult to work or split. The wood of water gum has a yellowish hue 
and is darker than that of black gum while cotton gum is lighter in 
color than either of the other two. Frequently all three of these woods 
are called merely black gum, lumbermen making no effort to separate 
them. 

Two of the gums occur in North Carolina. They are black gum and 
cotton gum, although that used was all reported as black gum. Owing 
to the variation in nomenclature applicable to these trees, however, it is 
possible that species other than black gum were used. Black gum is 
extensively utilized by box factories and by the fruit and vegetable pack- 
age industries. In the latter industry it is usually employed in the 
form of thick rotary cut veneer. As shown in Table 12, these two 
industries were the principal consumers of black gum in North Carolina 
in 1919. 

Table 12. — Consumption of Black Gum in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry- 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


Grown 
in 

State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




11,505,000 

7,060,000 

300,000 

300,000 

188,000 

150,000 

20,000 

1,000 


58.93 

36.16 

1.54 

1.54 

.96 

.77 

.10 

.00 


S 22.79 
28.63 
23.00 
25.00 
32.63 
32.00 
35.00 
35.00 


$262,198.95 

202,127.80 

6,900.00 

7,500.00 

6,134.44 

4,800.00 

700 .00 

35.00 


11,505,000 
7,060,000 








Furniture. .. ... _ . 


300,000 




300,000 
180,000 
150,000 
20,000 
1,000 






8,000 


Handles... . . 
















Totals 


19,524,000 


100 .00 


$ 25.12 


$490,396.19 


19,216.000 


308,000 







Hickory. — Hickory is often referred to as though it were a single 
species, like red gum or yellow poplar. In reality there are as many as 
ten different species, the wood of some of them being considered valuable 
commercially and others not. From the standpoint of commercial use, 
especially in the manufacture of handles and vehicle stock, the hickories 
may be divided into two main groups, namely, pecan hickories and true 
hickories. In the former group are pecan hickory, water hickory, 
nutmeg hickory, and bitternut hickory. The true hickories comprise 
principally shagbark hickory, big shellbark hickory, pignut hickory, and 
mockernut hickory. At one time hickory was available in ample quanti- 
ties for commercial use in most of the states east and in several imme- 



42 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

diately west of the Mississippi River. The Ohio and lower Mississippi 
valleys were the regions of its best development, and here it was found 
in the greatest abundance. The original supply has been cut to such 
an extent that at the present time there is an acute shortage. In the 
states east of the Alleghanies and north of the Potomac River this 
shortage is especially marked. A few scattered stands are yet to be 
found west of the Alleghanies and north of the Ohio River. Most of 
what remains is in the lower Mississippi Valley, Arkansas and Tennessee 
being the center of production. It is probable that by now the whole 
hickory-producing territory has been covered by the timber buyers, and 
that some of the larger companies are working over their old cuttings, 
taking material which was rejected ten or fifteen years ago. 

Eight species of hickory are found in North Carolina. Two of them, 
bitternut and water hickory, are really pecans, while the other six are 
true hickories. Bitternut hickory and whiteheart or mockernut hickory 
occur throughout the State, but reach their best development in the 
Mountain and Piedmont regions. Scalybark or shagbark hickory is also 
found in all parts of the State, but is nowhere common, and least so in 
the Coastal Plain Region. The southern shellbark, small fruited hickory 
and pale hickory are most important in the Piedmont Region, while 
water hickory is confined principally to the Coastal Plain Region. 

The handle plants and vehicle factories are the largest consumers of 
hickory, and use over two-thirds of the total annual consumption in the 
manufacture of their products. The different hickories can be easily 
distinguished in the tree by their botanical characteristics, but in the 
form of lumber or other timber products identification is difficult. In 
fact, lumbermen make little effort to separate them and the wood-using 
factories usually report the wood merely as hickory. This accounts for 
the use in this report of only the generic name hickory. Among the 
trade, however, especially the handle and vehicle manufacturers, the 
term "second growth" is commonly used, and is intended to mean wide- 
ringed material of fast growth. Hickory possesses in combination 
strength, toughness, and elasticity not found in any other commercial 
wood. These properties are essential where the wood is used for such 
commodities as spokes and other vehicle stock, axe, adze, pick and 
hammer handles, picker sticks, and sucker rods. 

In North Carolina in 1919 the combined consumption of hickory by 
the six industries that used it was 9,124,500 feet, board measure. The 
largest consumers were the vehicle factories. The quantity used by the 
shuttle, spool, and bobbin industry, as shown in Table 13, was employed 
in the manufacture of picker sticks and other loom supplies. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



43 



Table 13. — Consumption of Hickory in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost 
per M. 
Feet, 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


Grown 
in 

State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




5,553,000 

1,925,000 

1,351,000 

280,000 

10,500 

5,000 


60.86 

21.10 

14.81 

3.07 

.11 

.05 


$ 42.46 
55.71 
40.71 
32.66 
50.00 
30.00 


1235,780.38 

107,241.75 

54,999.21 

9,144.80 

525 .00 

150.00 


4,443,000 

1,925,000 

1,351,000 

275,000 

10,500 

5,000 


1,120,000 












5,000 














Totals 


9,124,500 


100.00 


$ 44 .70 


$407,841.14 


7,999,500 


1,125,000 







Maple. — Two species of maple are cut for lumber in North. Carolina, 
namely, sugar maple, often called hard maple (Acer saccharum), and 
red maple (Acer rubrum). The quantity of maple lumber produced in 
the State, however, is small, being less than one per cent of the total 
production for the whole country. Of the two kinds of maple men- 
tioned, sugar maple is the most important commercially. It is used for 
almost as many purposes as oak, and the figured wood which it some- 
times produces, known as birds-eye and curly maple, is much in demand. 
The tree is highly prized for the sap which it yields, from which are 
made maple syrup and sugar. When standing in the woods it is fre- 
quently called sugar tree, but the lumber cut from it usually goes by the 
name of hard maple. Hard maple makes an excellent floor material 
and over one-third of the total quantity produced in this country is 
converted to this use. It is a favorite wood for chairs and large 
quantities are cut into squares and dimension stock for this purpose. 
Furniture manufacturers employ it extensively for drawer and extension 
table slides, while shoe last and bowling pin manufacturers depend upon 
it altogether for raw material in the manufacture of their products. 

The wood-consuming factories of North Carolina used during the year 
a total of 8,325,000 feet, board measure, of maple. Eighty-seven per 
cent of this amount went into final manufacture in the planing mills 
and the chair and furniture factories. The industries that used the 
balance and the quantities that each consumed are shown in Table 14. 

Birch. — With the exception of the paper birch of New England, the 
well known spool wood, lumbermen rarely separate the various kinds of 
birch according to species. The only classification used commercially is 
the differentiation of the wood according to the section of the tree from 
which it is cut. Eor example, the heartwood, which is red, is called red 
birch, while the sapwood, which is white, is called white birch. Lumber 



44 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



containing both heartwood and sapwood, either separate or together in 
the same piece, is known as unselected birch. In other words, the deter- 
mining factor in this classification is whether the wood is heartwood, 
sapwood, or both heartwood and sapwood. Forty-eight different wood- 
using industries in this country use birch in varying quantities in the 
manufacture of their products. Birch, beech, and maple constitute the 
three woods most used by the hardwood distillation industry. Since the 
physical and mechanical properties of these woods are so much alike, 
most of the uses for one are common to the other two. Among the 
secondary wood-using industries, the planing mills are the largest con- 
sumers of birch, the wood that they consume going principally into the 
manufacture of flooring and interior trim. Birch is an important wood 
in the veneer industry and large quantities are demanded by the box, 
furniture, and chair manufacturers. 



Table 14 


— Consumption 


of Maple in 1919 








Quantity- 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry- 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Vent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




4,052,500 

2,290,000 

1,030,000 

500,000 

400,000 

42,500 
10,000 


48.68 
27.51 
12.37 

6.01 
4.80 

.51 
.12 


S 56.67 
45.34 
79.69 
30.00 
45.00 

110.00 

45.00 


§229,655.18 
103,828.60 
82,080.70 
15,000.00 
18,000.00 

4,675.00 
450 .00 


3,212,500 
790,000 
637,500 
250,000 
250,000 

42,500 
10,000 


840,000 


Chairs . 


1,500,000 




392,500 




250,000 


Shuttles, spools, and bobbins 

Elevators and machine con- 


150,000 










Totals. 


8,325,000 


100.00 


$ 54 .50 


3453,689.48 


5,192,500 


3,132,500 







Black or sweet birch (Betula lento), red or river birch (Betula nigra), 
and yellow birch (Betula lutea) are the species of birch that grow in 
North Carolina. Sweet birch and yellow birch are confined entirely to 
the Mountain Region, while red birch is found along streams and on the 
borders of swamps throughout the State. The industries of the State 
that reported the use of birch in 1919 were six in number and are shown 
together with the quantity used by each in Table 15. 

Black Walnut (Juglans nigra). — Black walnut is one of the valuable 
timber trees of this country, and is distributed over practically the 
entire eastern half of the United States. It reaches its best development 
in the rich bottomlands of southwestern Arkansas and Oklahoma and on 
the western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains. This wood was of 
immense importance from a national defense standpoint during the world 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



45 



war. Millions of gunstock blanks were made of it and large quantities 
were used for aeroplane propellers. The whole country was literally gone 
over with a fine-tooth comb to obtain raw material for these wartime 
uses. The tree is not found in dense stands, but occurs in small groups 
of a few trees each, which probably accounts for its wide distribution. 
The wood of black walnut is straight-grained, very easily worked, highly 
shock-resistant, glues readily, and possesses the ability to hold its shape 
extremely well when seasoned. Walnut was used during Kevolutionary 
times for gunstocks, and its stability, shock resistance, and workability 
are the properties that made it highly satisfactory for that use and for 
propeller manufacture during the war with Germany. Walnut is also 
important as a furniture wood and is highly prized for veneer. The 
most attractively figured wood is obtained by the sliced veneer process 
from stumps, especially those showing burls. These burls are usually 
on the root of the tree and mostly beneath the surface of the ground. 
Burls occurring higher up on the trunk or limbs are not especially 
desirable, since they are more apt to contain cavities. Good burls should 
have sound, solid wood, and the best are usually turnip-shaped. 

Table 15. — Consumption of Birch in 1919 





Quantity- 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




650,000 
405,000 
255,000 
100,000 
68,000 
47,500 


42.61 

26.55 

-16.72 

6.55 

4.46 

3.11 


$ 38.66 
57.50 
132.50 
30.00 
51.00 
68.33 


I 25,129.00 

23,287.50 

33,787.50 

3,000.00 

3,468.00 

3,245.68 


650,000 
285,000 
255,000 
100,000 
38,000 
47,500 






120,000 












30,000 










Totals 


1,525,500 


100 .00 


$ 60 .25 


$ 91,917.68 


1,375,500 


150,000 







In North Carolina black walnut is found throughout the State, but 
attains its largest size and is more plentiful in the Piedmont Region. 
During 1919 the furniture factories and the casket and coffin makers, as 
shown in Table 16, used together 838,000 board feet of walnut, or all 
that was consumed in the State. 

Dogwood {Com/as florida). — The range of dogwood extends from 
southern New England west to southern Ontario and south to Florida 
and eastern Texas. Stands of trees with low crowns growing in the 
forest and overtopped by other species with which they are usually 
associated are known as an "understory." In North Carolina in the 



46 



"WOOD-USIXG IXDUSTEIES OF XoETH CaBOLIXA 



Coastal Plain Eegion dogwood forms an understory beneath pine. In 
the Piedmont and Mountain regions it occupies a similar position under 
oaks, hickories, and yellow poplar. The tree is frequently called flower- 
ing dogwood from the profusion of beautiful white flowers which it bears 
in the spring. Dogwood was once considered a weed tree, but at the 
present time is in great demand. The wood is hard, heavy, dense, and 
has the particular quality of wearing smooth with continued use. These 
properties, especially the last one mentioned, enable dogwood to meet 
the exacting requirements for raw material for shuttle blocks. The first 
three commend it highly for use in the manufacture of golf club heads. 



Table 16. — Consumption of Black Walnut in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 
in 

State 


Grown 
Outside 

of State 


Furniture 


813,000 
25,000 


97.02 
2.98 


S 206.67 
37.50 


§168,022.71 
937.50 


558,000 
18,750 


225,000 
6,250 






Totals- 


838,000 


100 .00 


-S 201.62 


$168,960.21 


576,750 


261,250 







Persimmon has been found to possess to a greater degree than any 
other commercial wood the properties of dogwood, and it contributes 
largely in supplying the demands of the shuttle block and sporting and 
athletic goods manufacturers. 

No persimmon was used by the wood-using factories of North Caro- 
lina in 1919, but they consumed over a million and a half feet, board 
measure, of dogwood, all of which was converted into shuttle blocks and 
was cut from home-grown timber. 

Basswood. — Three species of basswood grow in the United States. 
The most common is known merely as basswood (Tilia americana). 
The other two are white basswood {Tilia heterophylla) and downy bass- 
wood (Tilia pubescens) . All three species occur in North Carolina, but 
they are so nearly alike that lumbermen do not differentiate between 
them. Basswood is often called linn, which is an abbreviation of linden, 
the name applied to a similar species in Europe. 

Since basswood is a broad-leaved tree it is classed as a hardwood. The 
wood, however, is softer than many of the woods included in the softwood 
group. Because of the annual rings being indistinct and the medulary 
rays invisible to the naked eye, basswood shows less figure irrespective 
of the way it is sawed than any other wood. Basswood is easily worked, 
warps very little, and imparts no taste when used for food containers. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



47 



These properties make it especially valuable for chopping bowls, flour 
buckets, bread boards, and similar woodenware. It is also highly prized 
by manufacturers of apiarists' supplies. 

Such basswood as was consumed by the wood-using industries of 
North Carolina in 1919 was not employed for any of the uses mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph. A total of 735,000 feet, board measure, was 
reported for the year, and the commodities for which it was used were, 
in the order of importance, planing mill products, caskets and coffins, 
furniture, and fixtures. The total quantity of basswood used was 
cut from forests within the boundaries of the State. Table 17 shows 
by industries the consumption of basswood in North Carolina in 1919. 

Table 17. — Consumption of Basswood in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry- 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




400,000 

175,000 

150,000 

10,000 


54.42 

23.81 

20.41 

1.36 


$ 40 .00 
110.00 
75.00 
85.00 


$ 16,000.00 

19,250.00 

11,250.00 

850.00 


400,000 

175,000 

150,000 

10,000 




















Totals 


735,000 


100 .00 


$ 64 .42 


S 47,350.00 


735,000 









Ash. — Fifteen or sixteen different kinds of ash grow in the United 
States. Some of them occur in restricted areas, but most of them are 
widely distributed. As is the case with birch and gum, lumbermen 
rarely differentiate between species. Ash is another very important 
commercial wood, and is used in the manufacture of a wide range of 
commodities made wholly or partly of wood. It has always been exten- 
sively employed and highly prized by horse-drawn vehicle manufacturers, 
who use it for shafts, top bows, felloes, panels, and many other parts. 
The automobile industry depends upon it very largely for raw material, 
especially for body frames, running boards, storage battery boxes, floor 
boards, and many other uses. Its value to both industries is attributable 
to the fact that it is strong, tough, and elastic. These properties com- 
mend it for use in the manufacture of agricultural implements and for 
certain kinds of sporting and athletic goods, such as tennis rackets, 
baseball bats, and skis. It is the premier wood for handles for pitch- 
forks, rakes, hoes, shovels, and other farm and garden tools and large 
quantities are converted annually to this use. Because it imparts no 
taste or odor when used as a food container, ash has always been a 
favorite wood for butter tubs and lard tierces. 



48 



"Wood-using Industries of Nokth Cabolina 



White asli (Fraxinus americana), green ash. (Fraxinus lanceolata), 
red ash {Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and water ash (Fraxinus caro- 
liniana) are the four principal members of the ash family found in 
North Carolina. As is customary in the trade, the wood-using factories 
of the State which reported a consumption of ash in 1919 did not indi- 
cate the species used. The total quantity of ash that went into final 
manufacture during the year was 627,000 feet, board measure. This 
was all home-grown wood and was consumed by those industries engaged 
in the manufacture of agricultural implements, chairs, fixtures, handles, 
and vehicles. The quantities each used are shown in Table 18. 

Table 18. — Consumption of Ash in 1919 





Quantity- 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry- 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




375,000 

150,000 

91,000 

10,000 

1,000 


59.81 

23.92 

14.51 

1.60 

.16 


$ 55.00 
42.00 
47.50 
35.00 
35.00 


$ 20,675.00 

6,300.00 

4,322.50 

350 .00 

35.00 


375,000 

150,000 

91,000 

10,000 

1,000 
























Totals 


627,000 


100 .00 


$ 50 .45 


$ 31,632.50 


627,000 









Beech (Fagus atropunicea) . — Beech grows in all states east and in 
several immediately west of the Mississippi River. Since the wood of 
beech is rather difficult to season and frequently warps and checks when 
in place even after it has been thoroughly dried, it does not compare in 
quality with its associates, the maples and birches. At one time it was 
considered an inferior wood and was seldom cut for lumber. Later, 
however, beech and other species in its class were called on to meet the 
increasing demands for wood, so that at present the annual sawmill out- 
put of beech lumber exceeds 190,000,000 feet, New York, Michigan, and 
Pennsylvania being the three states in the order given which lead in its 
production. Beech is an important wood in the slack cooperage indus- 
try, large quantities going annually into heading and staves. It is also 
manufactured considerably into flooring, that of the special grade of 
"Bed Clear" beech possessing a rich warm color peculiar to no other wood 
used for this purpose. Beech is much in demand by brush manufac- 
turers, who use it for backs of scrubbing and other cheap brushes. It is 
the principal wood used for clothes pins, and wood turners value it 
highly as raw material for the manufacture of their products. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



49 



Beech occurs in North Carolina throughout the State. It is found 
sparingly in the form of small trees in the Coastal Plain Region, more 
commonly and of larger growth in the Piedmont Region, and most 
abundantly and of greatest size in the Mountain Region. The quantity 
of beech lumber produced in the State is small, the cut of the few mills 
that reported in 1921 being slightly in excess of 1% million feet, board 
measure. The total quantity used by the wood-consuming factories of 
North Carolina in 1919 was 205,000 feet, and was used for bobbins, 
chairs, and furniture. All of the wood used was obtained from sources 
within the State, and its distribution among the industries that used it 
is shown in Table 19. 



Table 19.— Consumption of Beech in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost 
per M. 
Feet, 
F. 0. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




100,000 

80,000 
25,000 


48.78 
39.02 
12.20 


$ 30.00 
42.00 
35.00 


$ 3,000.00 

3,360.00 

875.00 


100,000 
80,000 
25,000 
















Totals 


205,000 


100 .00 


$ 35 .29 


$ 7,235.00 


205,000 









Yellow Buckeye (Aesculus octandra) . — Although buckeye has rather 
an extensive range, it is, from the standpoint of lumber production, 
considered a minor species among the commercial woods of the United 
States. West Virginia, Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina were 
the only states that reported a cut of buckeye in 1921, which amounted 
to less than 4 million feet, board measure. Buckeye reaches its best 
development in the Alleghany Mountains of North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee. The wood often loses its identity and goes to market mixed with 
yellow poplar. Artificial limb manufacturers sometimes employ it as 
raw material for their product, in which case it is called for by name. 
The wood is light in weight, cross-grained, soft, and rather difficult to 
split. In color it is almost white, and the line of demarcation between 
heartwood and sapwood so indistinct as to be hardly distinguishable. 
The furniture factories and the makers of caskets and coffins were the 
only two industries that reported a consumption of wood of this species 
in North Carolina in 1919. They used together 200,000 feet, board 
measure, 85 per cent of which was cut from home-grown timber. The 
quantities consumed by each are shown in Table 20. 



50 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Table 20. — Consumption of Buckeye in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost 
per M. 
Feet, 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry- 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




125,000 
75,000 


62.50 
37.50 


$ 112.50 
90.00 


I 14,062.50 
6,750.00 


100,000 

75,000 


25,000 








Totals.. 


200,000 


100 .00 


S 104.06 


% 20,812.50 


175,000 9H nnn 









Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) . — This is a very common tree that 
grows in rich, moist soil, generally near streams, and is found in most 
of the states east of the Mississippi and in several west of that river. 
It is often called "buttonwood' and "button ball," getting its name from 
the similarity of its fruit to a button ball. The tree is easily distin- 
guished by the appearance of its upper branches, from which the outer 
bark usually peels, leaving the stark white inner bark. Sycamore, per- 
haps, attains greater diameter than any other American hardwood, trees 
measuring twelve to fifteen feet having been known. As a general rule, 
however, such trees are hollow-butted, sound trunks being found only in 
trees of approximately 24 inches and less in diameter. The wood of 
sycamore has a distinct grain, somewhat contorted. It is hard, heavy, 
moderately strong and durable, moderately difficult to season and work, 
and does not hold its shape well. The choicest material goes to the 
furniture factories and is rift-sawed, which exposes the broad medullary 
rays as in quartered oak. The contrast is much more marked, however, 
in sycamore than in oak and the general appearance of the wood is most 
pleasing to the eye. Sycamore is a favorite wood for use in the manu- 
facture of butchers' blocks, for which purpose it is usually cut into small 
blocks that are set on end and bolted together. Considerable quantities 
are also utilized for meat skewers. 

Sycamore grows in North Carolina in all parts of the State, but 
attains its best size along the edges of the alluvial swamps of the Pied- 
mont Region and is least abundant in the Coastal Plain Region. As 
shown in Table 21, only 112,000 board feet of this wood was used in the 
State in 1919, and the industries that consumed it were the furniture 
factories and fixture manufacturers. 

Locust. — Two species of locust occur in North Carolina and both are 
found in the Mountain Region. They are black or yellow locust (Robinia 
pseudacacia) and honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) . The former is 
the most important of the two species commercially and was demanded 
in huge quantities during the war with Germany. Its wartime use con- 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



51 



sisted of its manufacture into treenails, which are long, round, wooden 
pins, either straight or tapered, used to fasten the timbers of wooden 
ships together. These treenails were required by the United States 
Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation in connection with its 
wooden ship construction program. Since contracts were let for 375 
wooden vessels, each requiring from 30,000 to 50,000 treenails, some idea 
of the demand for locust for national defense purposes can be obtained. 
As in the case of walnut, the entire country was covered in order to get 
sufficient raw material for this purpose. Honey locust is an extremely 
porous wood and was otherwise found unsuitable as treenail material. 
Black locust, on the other hand, is a hard, dense wood of great durability, 
and one which shrinks less than any other commercially important wood 
found in this country. Black locust is employed extensively for fence 
posts and has been known to give upward of forty years service in the 
ground. It is also much in demand for insulator pins and brackets and 

tie plugs. 

Table 21. — Consumption of Sycamore in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. 0. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 

Cent 


Grown 

in 
State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 




100,000 
12,000 


89.29 
10.71 


$ 60 .00 
35.00 


$ 6,000.00 
420 .00 


65,000 
12,000 


35,000 










Totals 


112,000 


100 .00 


$ 57 .32 


$ 6,420.00 


77,000 


35,000 







Table 22 shows that the wood-using factories of North Carolina 
consumed 370,000 feet, board measure, of locust in 1919. All of the 
wood was State-grown and was converted into loom parts and insulator 
pins. 

Table 22. — Consumption of Locust in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 

Cost 

per M. 

Feet, 

F. O. B. 

Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Industry 


Feet, B.M. 


Per 
Cent 


Grown 
in 

State 


Grown 
Outside 
of State 


Shuttles, spools, and bobbins 


350,000 
20,000 


94.59 
5.41 


S 40.00 
50.00 


$ 14,000.00 
1,000.00 


350,000 
20,000 










Totals 


370,000 


100 .00 


$ 40 .54 


$ 15,000.00 


370,000 









Elm. — White elm (Ulmus americana), slippery elm (Ulmus puhes- 
cens), cork elm (Ulmus racemosa) , winged elm (Ulmus dlata), and cedar 









52 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

elm (Ulmus crassifolia) are the five species of this genus which produce 
the supply of elm wood in the United States. The proportion which 
each contributes to the lumber industry is not known, since they are 
often mixed together, and when included in statistical reports by lumber- 
men and wood users are merely listed as "elm." In this report no 
attempt has been made to separate the various species. White elm, 
often called American elm, is by far the most important species from 
the standpoint of lumber production. 

Three of the five species of elm mentioned above occur in North 
Carolina. They are white elm, winged elm, and slippery elm. None of 
them are commercially important, however, as evidenced by the fact that 
the total production of elm lumber by those sawmills of the State that 
reported in 1921 was only 74,000 feet, board measure. The wood- 
using factories of North Carolina consumed but 6,500 board feet of elm 
in 1919, all of which was home-grown and went into the manufacture of 
vehicles and vehicle parts. 

Cottonwood (Populus heterophylla) . — Such timber of this species as 
grows in North Carolina is for the most part well scattered. It is 
usually found in the Piedmont Region along streams and on rich swampy 
lands, but is not an important commercial tree in the State. Cottonwood 
belongs to the poplar family, as do also the aspens. In Virginia it 
frequently goes by the name of Carolina poplar. Cottonwood is easy 
to season, works well, and is extensively employed for vehicle body panels, 
woodenware, soft drink cases, and a number of other purposes where a 
white wood with practically no figure is required. The box factories 
of the State, which in 1919 used 2,000,000 feet of this wood, were the 
only manufacturers that reported the consumption of cottonwood. All 
of the wood of this species used was obtained from sources outside the 
State. 

Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia). — Mountain laurel is a small 
evergreen hardwood tree which usually attains an average height of from 
10 to 15 feet, although trees as large as 20 inches in diameter and 40 
feet high have been known. Its range is very wide, extending from 
New Brunswick and Lake Erie to western Florida and through the 
Gulf States to western Louisiana and Arkansas. It reaches its best 
development in the southern Alleghany Mountains, where it often forms 
dense thickets. 

In North Carolina it is found sparingly in the Coastal Plain Region, 
and to a greater extent in the Piedmont Region. It is most abundant, 
however, in the Mountain Region, where it is known locally as "ivy." 
Commercially the mountain laurel is valuable for its large, burl-like 
roots, which are used in the manufacture of smoking pipes. It serves 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 53 

as an excellent substitute for the genuine French briar, and in the form 
of the finished product it is difficult to differentiate them. All of the 
15,000 feet of mountain laurel reported by the wood-using factories of 
North Carolina in 1919 was converted into smoking pipes, and was 
obtained from sources within the State. 

FOREIGN WOODS 

Two foreign woods were employed by the wood-using factories of 
North Carolina in 1919. They were mahogany and rosewood. The 
furniture industry used 7,500 feet, board measure, and the manufacturers 
of fixtures 25,000 feet of the former, while the entire amount of 25,000 
feet of the latter was consumed by the furniture makers. 



PART III 



INDUSTRIES 

The various species of wood which the wood-using factories of North 
Carolina employ as raw material in the manufacture of their products, 
their botanical relations, source of supply, and in some instances their 
properties, have been discussed in Part I of this report. Part II deals 
with the various factories which use the different woods and considers 
the processes of manufacture employed and the extent to which the woods 
are utilized according to the respective properties of each. In North 
Carolina a total of 14 industries used 493,151,871 board feet of lumber 
in 1919, and Table 23 shows how the total consumption was apportioned 
among them. The largest industry required 150,503,000 board feet of 
wood and the second in importance utilized 109,776,077 board feet, 
while the smallest used 962,500 board feet. Six other industries de- 
manded more than 15,000,000 board feet. Several small industries 
represented by less than three concerns each were grouped together 
under the heading "Miscellaneous" for the reason that if they were 
shown separately the figures presented would reveal the individual 
operations of the firms which reported. The industries presented in 
Table 23 have been arranged according to the quantity of wood used. 

In North Carolina the handle factories and those making agricultural 
implements were the only two industries which obtained their entire 
supply of raw material from home-grown wood. The remaining twelve 
industries obtained the major portion of their wood from sources within 
the boundaries of the State. The chair factories employed a larger 
percentage of wood obtained from outside the State than any of the 
other industries, while the makers of caskets and coffins used the least 
quantity of shipped-in wood. 

As previously stated, the total consumption of wood by the wood-using 
industries of North Carolina in 1919 was 493,151,871 feet, board 
measure, which cost delivered at the factories $19,875,788. In 1909, or 
ten years previous, the amount of wood used was 676,166,250 board feet 
with a total delivered value of $9,577,242. "With these figures before 
us it is of interest to note that although the quantity of wood used in 
1919 was less than the amount reported in 1909 by 183,014,379 board 
feet, the price paid for the 1919 consumption was more than double the 
cost of that used in 1909. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



55 









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56 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Planing Mill Products. — The manufactured products belonging to 
this industry include such commodities that come within the scope of 
interior and exterior house trim as flooring, siding, ceiling, partition, 
and stock mouldings. It does not, of course, include lumber, either 
rough or dressed, used for building construction which needs no further 
change than can be made with a hatchet, chisel, or saw to fit it in place. 

Over 25 per cent of the lumber cut of the United States is demanded 
for the making of products belonging to this industry and more wood 
in a greater variety of species enters this line of manufacture than any 
other. It is to be expected, therefore, that these same facts apply to 
North Carolina, and that in this report the planing mill industry takes 
first place in point of wood consumed. Table 24, following, lists the 
kinds and amounts of wood used in this industry during the period 
covered by this report. It does not, however, represent the total lumber 
requirements of the State in this line, for the reason that considerable 
quantities of these products are shipped into the State in finished form 
by large lumber companies which operate planing mills in conjunction 
with their sawmills and by factories that manufacture ready-cut houses. 
A glance at Table 24 shows that fifteen different kinds of wood were 
used by the North Carolina manufacturers of planing mill products. 
North Carolina pine heads the list with 125,734,000 board feet, or nearly 
84 per cent of the total amount of wood consumed by the industry. 
Longleaf pine and oak rank second and third respectively, each con- 
tributing approximately 5 per cent of the total quantity used. The 
supply of basswood, chestnut, cypress, birch, cedar, and those woods 
included under "miscellaneous" was obtained entirely from the forests 
of the State. Of the balance of the woods listed all but one were obtained 
in much larger quantities from within the State than from without. Of 
the total of 150,503,000 board feet of wood used by this industry more 
than 88 per cent was cut from the forests of North Carolina. This is 
indicative of the importance which the forests bear to the commercial 
development of the State. The planing mill industry is not only one of 
the most prominent wood-using industries of the State, but also one that 
more strongly appeals to the interest of every class of citizen. In order 
to keep constant the supply of wood which the State contributes for 
building material and, if possible, to increase this supply in the future, 
it is essential that the forests be adequately protected and improved with 
this object in view. The State has perfected and has had enacted a law 
embodying an excellent forest policy covering all phases of the subject. 
If sufficient funds for fully carrying out the provisions of this law are 
provided and popular support given much will have been accomplished 
to help solve the problem of a future timber supply. 



PLATE III 




A. The manufacture of box shooks for canned food packages. North Carolina pine is the wood used. 




B. Interior of a small North Carolina box factory. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



57 



Table 24. — Wood Used for Planing mill Products in North Carolina in 1919 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 



Feet, 
B. M. 



Per 

Cent 



Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 



Total 
Cost 



Source of Supply 



In 

State 



Outside 
State 



Pine, North Carolina 

Pine, longleaf 

Oak 

Maple 

Poplar, yellow 

Pine, white 

Basswood 

Chestnut 

Hickory 

Gum, red 

Gum, black 

Cypress 

Birch 

Cedar 

All other 

Totals 



125,734 

7,750 
7,545 



,000 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,000 
,000 



83.54 

5.15 

5.01 

2.69 

2.03 

.41 

.27 

.20 

.19 

.17 

.13 

.03 

.03 

.02 

.12 



31.12 
43.31 
41.87 
56.67 
43.90 
57.50 
40.00 
35 .00 
32.66 
113.33 
32.63 
60.00 
68.33 
30.00 
32.00 



$3,912,511 

335,652 

315,909 

229,655 

134,202 

35,075 

16,000 

10,500 

9,145 

28,672 

6,134 

3,000 

3,246 

1,080 

6,400 



112,842,000 

5,695,000 

6,853,000 

3,212,500 

3,055,000 

584,800 

400,000 

300,000 

275,000 

20,000 

180,000 

50,000 

47,500 

36,000 

200,000 



150,503,000 



100.00 



$ 33.54 



$ 5,047,181 



133,750,800 



12,892,000 

2,055,000 

692,000 

840,000 

2,000 

25,200 



5,000 

233,000 

8,000 



16,752,200 



Boxes and Crates. — In reports of this kind prepared in the past for 
other states an effort was made to secure data on the wood used for 
boxes from every possible source. In this connection the information 
was solicited not only from box factories but also from all manner of 
manufacturing plants that maintain a packing department for the mak- 
ing of packages and containers. Such establishments included glass 
factories, paper mills, machinery manufacturers, makers of electrical 
goods, wholesale dry goods stores, and similar concerns. In the prepara- 
tion of this report, however, these various classes of consumers were 
omitted, the figures presented in Table 25 merely showing the consump- 
tion of wood by those firms engaged in the manufacture of boxes. Boxes 
are used for so many different purposes that it is impractical to attempt 
to list them. They may, however, be separated into tw r o main groups, 
those which are fully made up and ready for use and the knocked-down 
box, the component parts of which are more frequently referred to as 
box shooks. The former includes the nailed box, the wirebound box, 
the lock cornered box, and the dovetailed box. Nailed boxes are rarely 
ever shipped in any other than the shook form, those that are made up 
ready for use usually being sold in the same locality in which they are 
made. The wirebound box is made either of thin, resawn lumber or of 
sheets of thick veneer. In either case it is usually reinforced with cleats 
and further strengthened with wire or metal strapping. This is one of 
the types of boxes used for the shipment of canned food. Even though 
the poorest grades of lumber are mostly used for the manufacture of 



58 "Wood-using Industkies of North Carolina 

boxes, the shortage of raw material even in this wood-using industry 
is reflected by the increased use of veneer. This type of package is 
particularly well adapted for the shipment of light-weight material, such 
as dry goods, millinery, men's hats and furnishings, etc. Strength is 
given to the container by the use of mortised and tenoned cleats and 
wire or metal strapping. The veneer box is less expensive than the solid 
wood box, and furthermore, since it is lighter in weight, effects a saving 
in freight charges on a shipment. For an especially strong box of 
minimum weight plywood is employed. In this type of box the top, 
bottom, and sides are made of three sheets of veneer glued together, the 
direction of the grain of the center sheet or core running at right angles 
to the grain of the two outer sheets or plys. In addition to its strength 
and light weight the one-piece faces of the plywood box present a very 
attractive appearance. Boxes of this type are also strengthened with 
cleats and in some cases they are wire or metal bound. The raw mate- 
rial required for both the veneer and plywood box is usually cut by the 
rotary or sliced veneer processes. Since cheap veneer woods, principally 
the gums, are more plentiful in the South, most of the panel makers are 
located there, and large quantities of this class of boxes in the form of 
shooks are shipped from North Carolina and other states in the Southern 
Appalachian Hardwood Kegion annually. 

Shooks are knocked-down boxes so made that they readily and neatly 
fit when nailed together, and to facilitate assembling, are systematically 
bundled. The manufacture of shooks includes both boxes and knocked- 
down crates. At one time any kind of lumber, either rough or dressed, 
in practically any color, thickness, or width used to do for boxing and 
crating, and the lumber yard rather than the box factory served as the 
source of supply. Today manufacturing plants using wooden containers 
for the shipment of their products give considerable attention to their 
packages and exercise care in the matter of construction. As a conse- 
quence, the factories making box shooks are also called upon to furnish 
neat and well designed crates. These are usually put up in unit bundles 
and in their manufacture particular attention is given to the size, kind, 
and thickness of the material used, dependent upon the weight, form, 
and character of the goods to be shipped. At the present time well 
designed and attractively branded packages for the shipment of merchan- 
dise constitute an excellent advertising medium, the general public being 
quick to recognize the make of goods which the box or crate contains 
without further identification being necessary. 

Those factories in North Carolina making boxes and crates consumed 
the second largest quantity of wood. The thirty firms engaged in this 
industry which reported used during the year 1919 a total of 109,776,077 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



59 



board feet of wood. Fourteen different species of wood were employed 
in varying quantities, North Carolina pine taking first place with 
71,980,000 feet, board measure, or 65 per cent of the total consumption 
by the industry. The average price f. o. b. factory paid for North 
Carolina pine by the box makers in 1919 was $26.49 per thousand board 
feet, or nearly three times what this material brought ten years previous. 
Longleaf pine ranked second, the quantity used being 10,653,077 feet, 
while black gum was third, with 7,060,000 board feet. Of the total 
quantity of wood used for boxes, over 94 per cent was obtained from the 
forests of the State. The entire quantity used of eight of the fourteen 
woods listed was obtained from sources within the State. Cottonwood 
was the only species the entire supply of which was obtained from sources 
outside the State. 

The statistics of the United States Forest Service show that in 1921 
North Carolina ranked twelfth among the several states in the produc- 
tion of eastern hemlock. In view of this fact it is surprising to note that 
the quantity of this wood, which is cheap and otherwise well adapted for 
box manufacture, was so small. A plausible explanation would be, 
however, that since low-grade hemlock is used for pulp as well as boxes, 
the bulk of the wood of this quality that was used was consumed by the 
pulp mills. North Carolina pine, white pine, red gum, black gum, 
yellow poplar, cottonwood and hemlock are all favorite box woods and 
enter principally into the manufacture of packing boxes used in com- 
merce. The other woods listed in Table 25 are rarely used for this 
purpose, but are frequently employed for fancy or novelty boxes for 
special use. 

Table 25. — Wood Used for Boxes and Crates in North Carolina in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 

Cent 


In 

State 


Outside 
State 


Pine, North Carolina 


71,980,000 

10,653,077 

7,060,000 

4,942,000 

3,000,000 

2,755,000 

3,347,000 

2,000,000 

1,520,000 

1,028,000 

500,000 

5,000 

986,000 


65.57 

9.70 

6.43 

4.50 

2.73 

2.51 

3.05 

1.82 

1.39 

.94 

.46 

* 

.90 


$ 26.49 
35.38 
28.63 
37.67 
60.00 
35.00 
47.92 
75.00 
50.00 
40.00 
30.00 
30.00 
16.50 


$ 1,906,928 

376,906 

202,128 

186,165 

180,000 

96.425 

160,388 

150,000 

76,000 

41,120 

15,000 

150 

16,269 


71,010,000 
10,653,077 
7,060,000 
4,942,000 
500,000 
2,755,000 
2,847,000 


970,000 










Gum, red 


2,500,000 


Oak 


500,000 




2,000,000 




1,520,000 
1,028,000 

250,000 
5,000 

986,000 










250,000 






All other 








Total 


109,776,077 


100 .00 


S 31.04 


S3.407.479 


103,556,077 


6,220,000 







"Less than .005 per cent. 



60 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Furniture. — In accordance with the last official statistics that were 
gathered, North Carolina ranked first among the several states in the 
consumption of wood for use in the manufacture of furniture, the city 
of High Point being the center of the industry. Since, however, the 
quantity of wood used in 1919 by the furniture makers of the State was 
less by approximately 35 million feet than was reported in 1909, it is 
probable that North Carolina does not still hold first place in the in- 
dustry. The factories of the State engaged in this line of manufacture 
make all classes of furniture from the cheap kitchen table to the high- 
priced piano-finished parlor suit. For the most part, furniture may be 
separated into two main groups: (1) Commodities that are more im- 
portant from a utilitarian standpoint, such as cupboards, ice boxes, and 
refrigerators; (2) articles in which the appearance of the finished 
product is as important as its lasting qualities. This second class com- 
prises dining room, living room, library, parlor, and bed room furniture, 
all of which is usually purchased with the object in view of having it 
harmonize with the other appointments of the room in which it is to be 
placed, as well as to tone in with the general interior decorative scheme 
of the house as a whole. In the preparation of the 1909 report on the 
wood-using industries of North Carolina, the two classes of furniture 
mentioned above were kept separate and considered as separate indus- 
tries. In this report, however, owing to the form in which the original 
data were collected, it was found impracticable to segregate them. As 
was the case in the previous North Carolina report, however, the manu- 
facture of chairs has been considered as a separate industry. This is 
done because of the fact that the economic conditions existing in the 
chair industry are distinctly different from those of the furniture indus- 
try. For example, the form of the raw material is different, the processes 
of manufacture are in no way alike, and in the marketing of the products 
they are usually kept separate. 

Furniture makers demand various kinds of wood. In fact, the num- 
ber of woods used by this industry in North Carolina was greater than 
was reported by any other discussed in this report. The wide variation 
in classes and grades of furniture makes this necessary. Some are con- 
structed for the most part of costly woods; others entirely of cheap 
material. Even in the manufacture of expensive furniture, however, it 
is customary to employ cheap plain woods for interior hidden parts, and 
reserve the finer ones for the outside finish. An ideal in high-grade 
furniture manufacture, and one that is sought after in well organized, 
up-to-date factories, is the production of a product which not only pre- 
sents a pleasing appearance, but from a practical point of view is con- 
structed of the most suitable material available for the purpose. 



PLATE IV 




A wooden bedstead of oak in the "white," or before any finish of any kind is applied. 
The framework is solid wood, and plywood is used for the panels. 



PLATE V 




w'wm 




W f i 






xiifenj 



■ 



A. Higher grade walnut bedroom pieces in a North Carolina furniture factory. The 
chairs to the right are finished in old ivory and have cane seats. 




B. Interior of a North Carolina factory devoted to the manufacture of bedroom furni- 
ture. The articles shown consist of footboards of wooden beds. 



PLATE VI 




A. Mirror frames for bureaus, chiffoniers, and dressing tables as produced by a North 
Carolina manufacturer of bedroom furniture. 




B. The glue-room of a large North Carolina furniture factory. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 61 

From the standpoint of quantity used, oak is the most important 
furniture wood in this country. Even in those states where the supply 
of standing timber of this species is extremely limited it leads all other 
woods. Iowa, Minnesota, and Michigan are examples. On the other 
hand, in those regions where other furniture woods are more plentiful, 
such as red gum in the southern Mississippi Valley, oak still leads in 
quantity consumed. Red gum, maple, birch, and yellow poplar in the 
order named are the other woods demanded in the greatest quantity by 
furniture factories. 

The bulk of the cheaper grades of furniture are constructed of solid 
wood, as are also some of the better grades, such as the poplar mission 
type. For this class of furniture woods with pronounced grain are most 
commonly used, such as oak, ash, chestnut, etc. The more costly pieces 
of furniture, where one of the main objects is to show an attractive 
figured surface, are constructed mainly of built-up wood. This char- 
acter of construction is in general use throughout the furniture industry, 
and consists of the manufacture of various furniture parts out of several 
laminations of wood glued together. In the construction of built-up 
wood or plywood, the name by which it is most commonly known, the 
inside layer or core is usually of some soft, porous, coarse-grained wood, 
such as chestnut, ash, or yellow poplar, which possesses the particular 
quality of absorbing and holding glue well. To each side of this core, 
which varies considerably in thickness according to the use to be made 
of the plywood, is glued a thin sheet of finish wood, or face veneer, as it 
is known in the trade, the grain of which runs at right angles to the core. 
Such construction is much stronger than solid wood, and will hold its 
shape better. In addition, the method followed in cutting veneer makes 
it possible to obtain a wonderful, natural figure in the wood. Hence, in 
furniture made of plywood a far more beautiful outside appearance 
from the standpoint of grain can be secured than is possible in solid 
wood construction. The use of veneer in furniture making dates back 
to Colonial days, many of the antique pieces of that time being con- 
structed in this manner, with the exception that the core was of the same 
wood, usually mahogany or walnut, as the face veneer. 

Table 26 gives in the order of their importance from the standpoint 
of quantity used the various woods used for furniture in North Carolina 
in 1919. Oak was most in demand, the quantity used being 40,465,000 
board feet, or nearly 41 per cent of the total consumption. Red gum 
occupied second place with 23,475,000 board feet, and was followed in 
the order named by yellow poplar, chestnut, North Carolina pine, and 
maple. All of the 13 other woods shown were used in quantities of less 
than 1,000,000 feet, while mahogany, an important furniture wood, con- 
tributed only 7,500 board feet. 



62 



Wood-using Industeies of North Caeolina 



Oak, chestnut, North Carolina pine, and sycamore were the woods 
employed by the North Carolina furniture factories for frame work. 
Principally because of their ability to wear smooth sugar maple and ash 
were used for drawer and extension table slides. As mentioned above, 
soft, coarse grained, porous woods are considered best for core stock, 
and chestnut, yellow poplar and North Carolina pine supplied the 
demand. Oak, red gum, black walnut, birch, rosewood and mahogany 
were the principal woods used for exterior finish. Yellow poplar pos- 
sesses to a marked degree the property of taking paint well and in this 
connection serves admirably as a finish wood for white enameled furni- 
ture. White pine, basswood, black gum, sycamore, and beech served 
for drawer bottoms, partitions, shelving and other inside work. Since 
the wood scours white and is thus easily kept clean, buckeye is valued 
for kitchen table tops, while for kitchen safes and cabinets yellow poplar, 
gum and the lower grades of oak were used. Nearly 100 million feet of 
wood were used by the industry during 1919, and of this quantity over 
70 per cent was cut from forests of the State. 



Table 26. — Wood Used for Furniture in North Carolina in 1919 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 



Feet, 
B. M. 



Per 

Cent 



Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 



Total 
Cost 



Source of Supply 



In 

State 



Outside 
State 



Oak 

Gum, red 

Poplar, yellow 

Chestnut 

Pine, North Carolina 

Maple 

Walnut, black 

Birch. 

Gum, black 

Basswood 

Buckeye 

Sycamore 

Beech 

Pine, longleaf 

Pine, white 

Rosewood 

Hickory 

Mahogany 

All other 

Totals 



,465,000 

,475,000 

,642,000 

,244,000 

,773,000 

,030,000 

813,000 

405,000 

300,000 

150,000 

125,000 

100,000 

80,000 

50,000 

50,000 

25,000 

10,500 

7,500 

201,000 



40.90 

23.72 

11.77 

11.36 

8.87 

1.04 

.82 

.41 

.30 

.15 

.13 

.10 

.08 

.05 

.05 

.03 

.01 

.01 

.20 



57.33 

'79.47 
45.42 
40.53 
26.55 
79.69 

206 .67 
57.50 
23.00 
75.00 

112.50 
60.00 
42.00 
70.00 
40.00 

450 .00 
50.00 

350 .00 
25.00 



$ 2,319,858 

1,865,558 

528,780 

455,719 

232,945 

82,081 

168,023 

23,288 

6,900 

11,250 

14,062 

6,000 

3,360 

3,500 

2,000 

11,250 

525 

2,625 

5,025 



35,309,000 

2,582,500 

10,163,000 

10,944,000 

8,433,000 

637,500 

558,000 

285,000 



150,000 
100,000 
65,000 
80,000 



50,000 



10,500 
201,000 



98,946,000 



100.00 



$ 58.04 



§5,742,749 



,568,500 



5,156,000 
20,892,500 

1,479,000 
300,000 
340,000 
392,500 
255,000 
120,000 
300,000 



25,000 
35,000 



50,000 

25,000 

7,500 



29,377,500 



Chairs. — Although chairs are classed as furniture, it is customary, as 
explained under the chapter on furniture, to consider their manufacture 
separately. The reason for this is primarily because chair factories 
confine their operations to that one article, while the furniture industry 



PLATE VII 




A. Dressing-table seats in a North Carolina chair factory ready for staining and finishing. 




B. A corner of the finishing room of a North Carolina chair factory. Settees, rockers, 
dining-room chairs and others are shown in the picture. 



PLATE VIII 




A. Chairs and settees in a North Carolina plant ready for staining and finishing. In 
this factory red gum is the principal wood used. 






tf 




T 



V 



^j^»# 
>; 



« 



Jlt%I 



;:li *-'S 'V } k 



■ 



; .:.4 






Oft 






'itJ 



B. Chair parts in the making in a North Carolina factory. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 63 

lias a much wider field of operation. In the manufacture of chairs 
JSTorth Carolina stands well up toward the top among the various states 
in which this industry attains any importance. In 1919 the chair 
makers of the State used 31,627,000 feet, board measure, of wood, con- 
sisting of eight different kinds. Of these oak was the most important, 
contributing more than two-thirds of the total quantity consumed. Of 
the entire amount reported by the chair industry, over 6Q per cent was 
supplied by the forests of the State. Red gum and maple were obtained 
in larger quantities from outside the State than from within, while the 
supply of all the others listed, with the exception of oak, was home- 
grown. Table 27 shows the quantity of each kind of wood used by the 
industry, the average price paid for it f . o. b. factory, its total cost, and 
the source from which it was obtained. 

The raw material used by the chair industry consists for the most part 
of dimension stock, usually squares, the chair makers perhaps using 
more wood in this form than any other industry. Sawmills operating 
in hardwood timber make a practice of supplying such stock and obtain 
it by bolting slabs and edgings. They also frequently use for this pur- 
pose small crooked logs, tops, down timber, and cut-offs which ordinarily 
could be disposed of in no other way. Wood-using factories, especially 
those requiring oak, beech, birch, and maple, constitute another source 
of supply. In such plants low grades and factory waste are converted 
to this use. In some instances this material is further manufactured 
into turned chair parts and shipped to the chair factories ready to 
assemble. In view of the foregoing, it can be seen that the chair indus- 
try occupies a position of economic importance, in that it not only 
contributes to the industrial development of the State, but also to the 
movement of forest conservation through its tendency to promote the 
closer utilization of mill and factory waste. 

~Not all of the raw material used by this industry is in the form of 
dimension stock, nor is all of the dimension stock used by chair makers 
obtained from waste. For chair seats and backs, wide planks in thick- 
nesses ranging from 1% to 2% inches are used, and this same class of 
material is ripped up into squares in order to obtain sufficient stock in 
this form to meet the requirements of the industry. Chair stock is 
usually thoroughly air-seasoned or kiln-dried before use. Sawmills 
cutting dimension stock for the chair industry from green timber are 
careful to see that the stock is straight-grained and fairly free from 
defects, and that allowance is made for shrinkage. 

Dimension stock in the form of principally birch, beech, and maple 
squares are required mostly for turned chair parts or others which can 
readily be manufactured from raw material of this kind, such as square 



64 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



tapered legs and square rung stock. For chairs which follow more or 
less straight line designs, as well as for those of the mission style, requir- 
ing parts which are wider than they are thick, the raw material is cut 
from wide plank. Oak, ash, and chestnut are more commonly called 
on for raw material for the better grades of these types of chairs, while 
for the parts of the cheaper imitation articles woods like sap red gum, 
birch, and also elm are used, with a grain representing that of oak, ash 
or chestnut printed on them. 



Table 27. — Wood Used for Chairs in North Carolina in 1919 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 



Feet, 
B. M. 



Per 

Cent 



Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 



Total 
Cost 



Source of Supply 



In 
State 



Outside 
State 



Oak..... 

Gum, red 

Maple 

Birch 

Ash 

Poplar yellow 
Pine, white. .. 
Beech 

Totals.. 



23,930,000 
4,047,000 
2,290,000 
650,000 
375,000 
160,000 
150,000 
25,000 



75.66 

12.80 

7.24 

2.05 

1.19 

.51 

.47 



60.48 
95.67 
45.34 
38.66 
55.00 
25.00 
40.00 
35.00 



$ 1 



,447,286 
387,176 
103,829 
25,129 
20,625 
4,000 
6,000 



18,576,500 
400,000 
790,000 
650,000 
375,000 
160,000 
150,000 
25,000 



31,627,000 



100.00 



63.08 



$ 1,994,920 



21,126,500 



5.353.500 
3,647,000 
1,500,000 



10,500.500 



Vehicles and Vehicle Parts. — Hickory and oak, in the order men- 
tioned, have always been the two leading vehicle woods, but in North 
Carolina in 1919 these two species were relegated to third and fourth 
place respectively by red gum and North Carolina pine, which from the 
standpoint of quantity consumed occupied first and second place in the 
order named. That red gum took first place in the industry is surpris- 
ing, especially in view of the fact that this wood, on the basis of total 
annual consumption by the vehicle industry for the entire United States 
ranks ninth in importance. In North Carolina in 1909 it occupied sixth 
place, the total quantity consumed by the vehicle industry during that 
year being only 250,000 feet, board measure. In 1919 the quantity used 
increased to 9,240,000 feet, board measure, or over 33 per cent of the 
total amount of all kinds of wood used by the industry. This sudden 
prominence of red gum in the vehicle industry of the State is explained, 
however, in this way. A certain factory in North Carolina engaged in 
the manufacture of wooden automobile parts uses red gum exclusively, 
and the bulk of the 9,240,000 board feet reported as. having been used 
by the vehicle makers of the State was consumed in this particular 
factory. It has always been a rule of the Forest Service in preparing 
reports of this kind to exclude from them all information likely to reveal 



PLATE IX 




A. The wheel-room of a large North Carolina wagon factory. 





| • tiiiiiiiiMijtiij 

ilMllf! - M M! li 

Hit 
i «l in 

I nil i r in it 








B. Wagon box-board stock, hubs and spokes in the plant of a large North Carolina farm 

wagon manufacturer. 



PLATE X 




A. Interior of a North Carolina wagon factory. Completed wheels in +he foreground and 
finished wooden gear parts in the rear ready for assembling. 




B. A portion of the assembly room for running gears in the factory of a large wagon maker of North 

Carolina. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 65 

the operations of individual firms. Since the factory in question is the 
only one in the State that makes these articles, this rule would be 
violated if the name of the article were divulged or its use described. 

In accordance with the latest statistics of the National Automobile 
Chamber of Commerce, there were, in 1919, in the entire world a total 
of 8,750,000 automobiles, 7,558,848 of which are in the United States, 
or 1 to every 14 of the population of this country. With these facts 
before us, it is not surprising that many of the establishments through- 
out the country which formerly made horse-drawn vehicles have been 
converted and are now engaged in some way in that part of the automo- 
bile industry where wood is the raw material used. Even, however, with 
the phenomenal growth of the motor car industry, the demand, especially 
in rural districts, for horse-drawn vehicles is still strong. 

Specialization has always been an important practice in the vehicle 
industry, and is the principal reason why so few factories manufacture 
the full complement of parts needed to turn out a complete vehicle. 
Some establishments purchase hubs, spokes, and rims separately and 
complete the vehicle from this point. Others obtain wheels already 
manufactured, axles with skeins fitted in place, and other parts of the 
running gear fully ironed, and merely build the bodies. Still another 
class buy all parts complete, even to the bodies and tops, and assemble 
them. In order to avoid duplication, assembling establishments of this 
kind were not taken into account in the compilation of the data relating 
to this industry. 

The kinds of horse-drawn vehicles manufactured in North Carolina 
are buggies, surreys, carriages, and similar light pleasure vehicles, as 
well as farm and delivery wagons, carts, warehouse and other trucks and 
wheelbarrows. In the manufacture of these vehicles, oak and hickory 
contributed the largest quantity of raw material. Hickory was used 
for such parts as spokes, rims, tongues, bolsters, axle caps, hounds, top 
bows, fuchels, single, double and whiffle trees. Oak was employed for 
body frames, wagon spokes, axles, and felloes, hounds, tongues, bolsters, 
etc. Ash was converted into top bows and body frames, while birch and 
elm were used largely for hubs. Tor body work red gum, North Caro- 
lina pine, yellow poplar, and white pine constituted the principal woods 
used. In making wagons, the vehicle manufacturers used for flooring 
or bottom boards maple, oak and ash, while for panels yellow poplar, 
white pine and red gum were the woods reported. Body linings were of 
yellow poplar and North Carolina pine, the latter wood also being used 
for warehouse trucks. 

In the automobile field, which in North Carolina consisted principally 
of the manufacture of commercial bodies, the oak and ash that was used 
5 



66 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



went for body and door frames. North Carolina pine, oak and yellow 
poplar were employed for seat boxes, while elm, yellow poplar, ash and 
red gum supplied the raw material needed for floor boards and running 
boards. 

The vehicle industry of North Carolina consumed in 1919 a total 
of 27,867,000 feet, board measure, of wood, the total cost of which was 
over a million dollars. Since the industry demands high-grade material, 
it naturally follows that the average price paid for it was comparatively 
high. The quantity of wood used by the industry in 1919 exceeded that 
reported in 1909 by 12,231,000 feet, board measure. Of the total quan- 
tity used, slightly over 85 per cent was home grown. 

Table 28 shows the kinds and quantities of the various woods required 
by the industry, the average price per 1,000 feet f. o. b. factory which 
the vehicle makers paid for it, the total cost, and the source from which 
it was obtained. 



Table 28. 



-Wood Used for Vehicles and Vehicle Parts in North Carolina 
in 1919 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 



Feet, 
B. M. 



Per 

Cent 



Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory- 



source of Supply- 



Total 
Cost 



In 

State 



Outside 
State 



Gum, red 

Pine, North Carolina 

Oak 

Hickory 

Poplar, yellow 

Ash 

Pine, white 

Birch 

Maple 

Elm 

All other 

Totals 



9,240,000 

6,393,000 

5,719,500 

5,553,000* 

657,000 

91,000 

75,000 

68,000 

10,000 

6,500 

54,000 



33.16 

22.94 

20.52 

19.93 

2.36 

.33 

.27 

.24 

.04 

.02 

.19 



51.75 
29.53 
45.74 
42.46 
45.68 
47.50 
25.00 
51.00 
45.00 
24.00 
38.33 



478,170 

188,797 

261,610 

235, 780 

30,012 

4,322 

1,875 

3,468 

450 

156 

2,070 



7,280,000 

5,793,000 

5,319,500 

4,433,000 

639,800 

91,000 

75,000 

38,000 

10,000 

6,500 

54,000 



27,867,000 



100.00 



$ 43 .30 



$ 1,206,710 



23,739,800 



1,960,000 
600,000 
400,000 

1,120,000 
17,200 



30,000 



4,127,200 



Fruit and Vegetable Packages. — Wood in the form of veneer is the 
raw material used by this industry in the manufacture of barrels, 
baskets, berry crates, hoppers, etc., for use in shipping peaches, apples, 
potatoes, beans, tobacco, cucumbers, berries of every kind, and other 
fruits and vegetables. The veneer used is cut in thicknesses ranging from 
% to % of an inch. The cheapest woods available are usually em- 
ployed. The raw material comes to the factory in the form of logs, 
which are cut into bolts of the required length. The bolts are boiled or 
subjected to steam for from 12 to 24 hours to soften them, and then the 
bark is removed. The bolt is then placed in the veneer stave machine, 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



67 



which consists of a cylinder containing knives. As the log revolves the 
knives cut the face of the bolt lengthwise to a depth equal to the thick- 
ness of veneer desired, and the staves come from the machine in finished 
form ready for assembling. One form of waste in this industry consists 
of core stock, which is that part of the bolt that is left after all the 
veneer possible has been removed. These cores are sawed into thin 
lumber, are joined together with cleats to make a square board, and then 
cut around into bottoms and lids. Other waste is converted into hoops. 

By referring to Table 29 it can be seen that black gum, North Caro- 
lina pine, and yellow poplar were the principal woods used by the plants 
engaged in this industry. Manufacturing costs in the industry are high, 
and for this reason high-priced woods cannot be employed. The low 
average price of $23.38 per 1,000 feet, board measure, f. o. b. factory, 
reflects the low quality of the logs used in the production of the com- 
modities made. The cheapness of the material used, coupled with the 
fact that a thousand feet, log measure, will make six or eight thousand 
surface feet of veneer, more than offsets costly production. This enables 
the factories manufacturing fruit and vegetable packages to offer them 
at reasonable prices, thus stimulating the demand for such packages for 
shipping farm and truck garden products to market. 

The total amount of wood used by the industry in 1919 was 22,791,897 
feet, board measure. In point of quantity consumed, black gum took the 
lead with 11,505,000 feet, board measure. North Carolina pine ranked 
second with 9,184,587 board feet, while yellow poplar occupied third 
place. Nearly 97 per cent of the total amount of wood used for fruit 
and vegetable packages was home grown. 



Table 29.- 



■Wood Used for Fruit and Vegetable Packages in North Carolina 
in 1919 





Quantity- 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


In 

State 


Outside 

State 




11,505,000 

9,184,587 

848,307 

813,807 

440,196 


50.48 

40.30 

3.72 

3.57 

1.93 


$ 22.79 
21.69 
37.00 
39.50 
18.00 


$ 262,199 
199,227 
31,387 
32,145 

7,924 


11,505,000 

9,184,587 

135,807 

813,807 

440,196 










712,500 


Oak 












Totals 


22,791,897 


100 .00 


$ 23 .38 


$ 532,882 


22,079,397 


712,500 







Sash, Doors, Blinds, and General Mill Worh. — The commodities dis- 
cussed in this chapter are so closely allied to those produced by the 
planing mill that it is sometimes difficult to differentiate them. Planing 



68 "Wood-using Ixdustkies of North Carolina 

mill products for the most part, however, consist of such articles as 
flooring, ceiling, siding, partition, and stock mouldings, which are manu- 
factured universally to standard design and size. The ordinary planing 
mill usually operates planers and nothing else, and is frequently con- 
nected with a large sawmill, which supplies it with rough lumber. The 
mill which turns out sash and doors may be considered more in the 
nature of a factory, since it planes, saws, cuts, fits, and finishes the article 
produced. In addition it is usually equipped with a wide variety of 
machinery adaptable for turning out custom work. Unlike the planing 
mill, it procures its raw material in the general market in quantities 
and kinds needed to fill current or anticipated orders. Formerly sash, 
doors, and blinds were made in local planing mills, but within recent 
years the establishment of factories specializing in the manufacture of 
these commodities in standard sizes has caused the small planing mills 
to abandon this line of work. At the present time, therefore, the 
products of the local sash, door, blind, and general mill work factories 
consist for the most part of commodities made on special order. They 
comprise sash, doors, blinds, window frames, stair work, built-in cup- 
boards, mantels, grills, panels, cornice and porch finish, capitals, columns, 
lattice work, and other classes of interior and exterior house trim. 

Table 30 lists the various woods demanded by this industry in North 
Carolina during the year 1919. It will be noted that North Carolina 
pine heads the list and contributed over 75 per cent of the total used by 
the industry. Longleaf pine occupied second place, while oak ranked 
third. Nearly 90 per cent of the total quantity of wood consumed by 
the industry was obtained from the forests of the State. The total 
supply of five of the eight woods reported by the industry was obtained 
from sources within the State, as was also the bulk of the other three. 

The North Carolina door, as it is known to the trade, is one of the 
most important articles of commerce produced by the factories of the 
State. It gets its name from the fact that North Carolina pine is the 
wood used in its manufacture. Other woods that contributed to the raw 
material for doors are longleaf pine, cypress, oak, chestnut, and white 
pine. As is the case in other wood-using industries, veneer plays an 
important part in the manufacture of doors. Some of the highest 
grades of this class of woodwork are of built-up construction. For 
veneer doors the usual run of soft, porous woods, such as chestnut, yellow 
poplar, and white pine, are employed for core stock and highly figured 
woods for the face veneer. Yeneer doors, if properly made, are much 
stronger, less liable to warp, and will give better service than those made 
of solid wood. "White and North Carolina pine and some oak were the 
principal woods used for sash, both stock sash and that calling for 



PLATE XI 




A. The finishing room in a North Carolina casket factory. 




B. The manufacture of burial cases in a North Carolina casket factory. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



69 



special designs and sizes. The capacity of cypress, especially the heart- 
wood, to resist decay makes it an important wood for use in the manu- 
facture of window screens, cornice, window frames, and greenhouse sash 
and other articles used in damp or exposed situations. 

Yellow poplar is a wood that takes paint well, and because of this fact 
is extensively employed for outside trim. Oak is a favorite wood for 
mantels and other high-grade finish, for which purpose it is used on 
account of its attractive grain and because it takes a high polish. "When 
quarter-sawed, the broad medullary rays, or "flakes" as they are referred 
to in the trade, present a very pleasing appearance in interior house trim. 



Table 30. — Wood Used for Sash, Doors, and Blinds 






Quantity- 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


In 

State 


Outside 

State 




12.580,000 
2,700,000 
365,000 
300,000 
270,000 
243,000 
100,000 
50,000 


75.74 

16.26 

2.20 

1.81 

1.63 

1.46 

.60 

.30 


$ 32 .09 
39.00 
37.83 
25.00 
49.17 
36.75 
30.00 
50.00 


I 403,701 
105,300 
13,808 
7,500 
13,276 
8,930 
3,000 
2,500 


11,080,000 
2,540,000 
365,000 
300,000 
220,000 
243,000 
100,000 
50,000 


1,500,000 




160,000 


Oak.. 










50,000 


















Totals 


16,608,000 


100 .00 


$ 33.60 


$ 558,015 


14,898,000 


1,710,000 







Caskets and Coffins. — Care and reverence in laying away the dead is 
an age-old custom of the human race the world over, a fact that is well 
corroborated by the discoveries made at the recently opened tomb of 
King Tut-ankh-amen. The manufacture of coffins dates back many 
centuries. The mummy cases of the ancient Egyptians to be found in 
museums of the present day are evidence of this fact. Cedar of Lebanon 
was one of the woods employed for this purpose, and, strange as it may 
seem, some of these burial cases, although made only of wood, have 
survived the passage of centuries down the misty corridor of time, while 
the houses and other structures built of stone during those periods have 
crumbled into dust. 

During the present century it was formerly the custom for every com- 
munity to provide its own coffins as needed, and the local carpenters or 
cabinet makers were called upon to furnish them. The name "coffin" 
has almost universally been replaced by the term "casket." Both are 
used for the same purpose, the only difference being that the coffin is 
constructed so as to conform to the lines of the human body, while the 
casket is merely rectangular in shape. The latter type of burial case 



TO "Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

is the one most commonly used at present. Today the manufacture of 
caskets and coffins is an important wood-using industry carried on largely 
in cities. The manufacture of outer cases, or the rough box in which the 
casket is placed, is also a part of the industry. As much wood is con- 
sumed in making these boxes as is used in the manufacture of caskets. 
"Woods that are easily worked, take stain well, and are susceptible of a 
good polish are used for cheap coffins. Yellow poplar is more commonly 
employed than any other wood. In the South the principal wood used 
for coffins is cypress, while western red cedar serves the same purpose on 
the Pacific Coast, and basswood is favored in the Lake States. 

In North Carolina, as in many other States, chestnut is considered 
the most suitable wood for caskets. Since nearly all caskets are cloth- 
covered, this permits of the use of the lower grades of lumber. At the 
same time the raw material must be free of defects that would be likely 
to affect the strength and durability of the casket. Chestnut is espe- 
cially durable under ground, and, in addition, it is light in weight and 
possesses sufficient strength. Some of the chestnut going into caskets 
is of the very best grade, but for the most part the grade known com- 
mercially as "sound wormy" is used. The lumber sold under this grade 
is perforated with small worm holes about 1/16 inch in diameter, but it 
possesses the requisite strength and durability, and the worm holes are 
an advantage, since they present an especially good surface to which to 
glue the cloth covering. High-priced caskets are finished in natural 
wood that has been carefully worked, and in some cases handsomely 
carved, and then given a piano finish. For such burial cases mahogany, 
walnut, oak, and similar highly-figured cabinet woods are employed. 

In Table 31 are listed the various woods which supplied the raw 
material consumed by the casket and coffin manufacturers of North 
Carolina in 1919. Chestnut occupied first place with 7,852,915 feet, 
board measure, while North Carolina pine was a close second with 
6,418,569 board feet. The chestnut reported went into caskets and 
coffins, while the North Carolina pine was used principally for outer 
boxes. The total amount of wood consumed by this industry during 
the year was 16,469,897 feet, board measure, and chestnut and North 
Carolina pine together contributed more than 86 per cent of this quan- 
tity. Of the total quantity of wood reported by the industry, less than 
1% per cent was obtained from sources outside the boundaries of the 
State. The fact that the requirements of these manufacturers are met 
so largely by the forests of the State should elicit their interest in any 
movement that has for its object the perpetuation of the timber supply 
of North Carolina. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



71 



Table 31. — Wood Used for Gaskets and Coffins in North Carolina in 1919 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 



Feet, 
B. M. 



Per 

Cent 



Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 



Total 

Cost 



Source of Supply 



In 

State 



Outside 
State 



Chestnut 

Pine, North Carolina 

Poplar, yellow 

Pine, white 

Oak 

Cypress 

Basswood 

Gum, red 

Buckeye 

Walnut, black 

Totals 



7,852,915 

6,418,569 

956,856 

326,557 

290,000 

200,000 

175,000 

150,000 

75,000 

25,000 



47.68 

38.97 

5.81 

1.98 

1.76 

1.22 

1.06 

.91 

.46 

.15 



43.34 
29.70 
33.61 
35.60 
74.17 
40.00 
110.00 
110.00 
90.00 
37.50 



340,345 

190,631 

32,160 

11,625 

21,509 

8,000 

19,250 

16,500 

6,750 

938 



7,852,915 
6,337,569 
956,856 
326,557 
290,000 
200,000 
175,000 



75,000 
18,750 



16,469,897 



100.00 



$ 39 .33 



$ 647,708 



16,232,647 



81,000 



150,000 
6,250 



237,250 



Elevators and Machine Construction. — The principal raw materials 
used in the manufacture of elevators and various kinds of machinery 
consist of iron and steel. Wood, however, is indispensable for certain 
parts, and in North Carolina varying quantities of seven different woods 
were used by those factories engaged in this industry in the manufacture 
of grist mills, both stationary and portable, freight elevators, cotton 
gins, cotton presses, textile, sawmill, and tobacco machinery, feed mills, 
and similar apparatus. Nearly 85 per cent of the 4,949,500 feet, board 
measure, of wood consumed by the industry was North Carolina pine, 
over half of which was employed in the making of portable grist mills, 
each requiring in the neighborhood of 200 feet, board measure, of wood. 
The modern passenger elevator is usually an all-metal product, with a 
sanitary composition floor. In the manufacture of freight elevators, 
however, wood is still extensively employed. For such parts as plat- 
forms, guide posts, and guide strips sugar maple and longleaf pine were 
found especially w r ell adapted, while oak served for car sills and over- 
head beams. For freight elevator car siding North Carolina pine was 
used, and large quantities of this wood were also consumed in the manu- 
facture of miscellaneous machinery, where it was employed for light 
frames and panel work. Yellow poplar and wmite pine w T ere used for 
grain runways, hoppers, and bins of grist mills, as was also sugar pine, 
a w^ood of the Pacific Coast. Sugar maple was employed for section 
beams and other parts of textile machinery where a hard, dense wood is 
required. This wood was also used along with oak for log decks and 
carriage platform parts of sawmill machinery. Table 32 shows the 
w r oods used by this industry. 



72 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



Nearly 90 per cent of the total quantity of wood used by this industry 
was supplied from home-grown timber. Here, again, is evidence of the 
dependence of the wood-using industries of North Carolina upon a con- 
tinuous supply of State-grown wood. This should serve to stimulate 
interest among wood-using factories in the matter of obtaining an ade- 
quate appropriation to put into effect the forestry law of the State. 



Table 32. — Wood Used for Elevators 
North Carolina 


and Machine Construction in 
in 1919 




Quantity 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


In 

State 


Outside 
State 




4,200,000 

260,000 

184,000 

160,000 

98,000 

42,500 

5,000 


84.86 
5.25 
3.72 
3.23 
1.98 
.86 
.10 


$ 24.28 
52 .30 
55 .00 
42.50 
58.60 
110.00 
135 .00 


! 101,962 
13,598 
10.120 
6,800 
5,743 
4,675 
675 


3,765.000 

260,000 

184,000 

10.000 

95,000 

42.500 


435,000 


Oak 










150,000 


Pine, white 


3,000 




5,000 








Totals 


4,949,500 


100 .00 


S 29.01 


3 143,573 


4.356.500 593.000 











Shuttles, Spools, and Bobbins. — When the work of preparing State 
wood-using industry reports was first started by the Forest Service a 
careful selection of headings was made to cover certain industries or 
groups of industries. This classification was followed in the prepara- 
tion of the thirty-odd reports of this kind that were published. In some 
cases the similarity of the products made in several industries made it 
advisable to combine such industries under one heading. This accounts 
for the shuttle, spool, and bobbin industry, and although these various 
products are not always made in the same factory, the processes of manu- 
facture are so much alike as to make it convenient for purposes of tabu- 
lation to combine them. 

In North Carolina the articles made by the factories embraced in the 
above-mentioned group of industries include not only shuttles, spools, 
and bobbins, but also picker sticks, cones, cobs, clearer rollers, and other 
loom supplies and skewers. For shuttles the favorite woods are dog- 
wood and persimmon, both of which because of their density possess to 
a high degree the requisite property of wearing smooth with continued 
use. In addition, they are heavy, hard, and strong. The manufacture 
of shuttle blocks is usually an industry separate from the manufacture 
of shuttles. Great care is exercised in getting out the blocks. Fre- 
quently costly delays and damage result when shuttles of second quality 
are put in the loom. Therefore, to obviate this and to avoid injury to 



PLATE XII 




A. Dogwood is the principal wood used for shuttles. The picture shows a pile of doj 
wood logs on the yard of a North Carolina shuttle-block factory. 




B. Shuttles in the making, the raw material used in being the dogwood blocks produced by the shuttle- 
block mill. 



"Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 73 

delicate fabrics during the process of weaving only perfect blocks can be 
used. Shuttle blocks are cut to full size to allow for seasoning, and the 
following dimensions are considered standard : 





Dimension of 


Dimension of 


Size 


Green Block 


Dry Block 


No. 


15" x 2" x 1%" 


14%" x 1%" x 1%" 


No. 1 


i5y 2 " x 2y 8 " x i%" 


15" x 1%" x 1%" 


No. 2 


16%" x 2%" x 2" 


16" x 2" x 1%" 


No. 3 


16%" x 2%" x 2%" 


16" x 2" x 2" 


No. 4 


17" x 2%" x 1%" 


16%" x 2%" x 1%" 


No. 5 


18" x 29/ 16 " x 2%" 


17%" x 2%" x 1%" 


No. 6 


19% " x 29/ 16 " x 2" 


19" x 214" x 2" 


No. 7 


21%" x 2i3/ 16 " x 29/ 16 " 


21" x 2%" x 2%" 


No. 8 


23%" x 3%" x 2i% 6 " 


23" x 2%" x 2%" 



Blocks must be cut from perfectly clear timber, correctly sawn and 
free from knots, checks, cross grain, bark, or other defects which would 
give the finished shuttle the slightest bit of rough surface. In sawing 
out the blocks the practice is to cut them so as not to include the pith of 
the tree. Immediately after being sawed both ends of the blocks are 
dipped to a distance of about an inch in paraffin or a mixture of lamp- 
black and rosin to prevent end checking. They are then stacked for 
sixty or ninety days to permit of partial seasoning and the development 
of imperfections which cannot be detected in the green wood. The per- 
fect blocks are then sorted out, tied up in burlap sacks according to size, 
and shipped to the shuttle factory. These blocks pass through twenty- 
three separate and distinct operations during the process of converting 
them into finished shuttles. The North Carolina factories engaged in 
this industry used no persimmon in 1919, but reported over a million 
and a half feet of dogwood, this species, from the standpoint of quantity 
consumed, being second only to hickory among the various woods used. 

Picker sticks are those parts of a loom mechanism which cause the 
shuttle to move backward and forward in its groove. For these articles 
hickory has been found most satisfactory, and a large part of the 
1,925,000 feet, board measure, of this wood was converted to this use. 
The balance was consumed in the manufacture of skewers, the small, 
pointed, pencil-like wooden sticks used by butchers to fasten together 
roasts of beef and other cuts of meat after the bone has been removed. 

Wood suitable for bobbins must be hard, tough, and close-grained, and 
possess the ability to turn well without the wood "roughing up" during 
the process. Beech, birch, and maple possess these qualities to a high 
degree, and in North Carolina were used for bobbins and speeder mate- 
rial as well as for other turned loom parts, such as quills and twisters. 



74 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



The yellow poplar reported by this industry went into the manufacture 
of quill boards, while the commodities made from the locust used con- 
sisted of cobs, cones, and other miscellaneous parts. 

The manufacture of spools is an industry confined for the most part 
to New England, the State of Maine being its center, and the wood of 
paper birch the raw material most used. No spools were reported as 
having been manufactured in North Carolina in 1919. 

The woods used in 1919 by the North Carolina factories engaged in 
the manufacture of shuttles, spools, and bobbins are presented in Table 
33, and are arranged in the order of their importance from the stand- 
point of consumption. This table also shows the average cost per thou- 
sand feet f. o. b. factory of the different species listed. Nearly five 
million feet of wood was reported, and of this quantity nearly 97 per 
cent was cut from home-grown timber. 



Table 33. 



■Wood Used for Shuttles, Spools, and Bobbins in North Carolina 
in 1919 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 



Feet, 
B. M. 



Per 

Cent 



Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 

Factory 



Total 
Cost 



Source of Supply 



In 

State 



Outside 
State 



Hickory 

Dogwood- 

Maple 

Locust 

Pine, North Carolina 

Beech. . 

Birch... 

Poplar, yellow 

Totals.. 



1,925,000 
1,575,000 
400,000 
350,000 
225,000 
100,000 
100,000 
10,000 



41.09 
33.62 

8.54 
7.47 
4.81 
2.13 
2.13 
.21 



55.71 
35.00 
45.00 
40.00 
17.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 



107,242 
55,125 
18,000 
14,000 
3.825 
3,000 
3,000 
300 



,925,000 
575,000 
250,000 
350,000 
225,000 
100,000 
100,000 
10,000 



4,685,000 



43.65 



204,492 



150,000 



4,535,000 I 150,000 



Handles. — The handle factories of North Carolina reported the use of 
2,991,000 board feet of wood in 1919, which cost them $100,189, or an 
average of $33.50 per thousand feet, board measure, f . o. b. factory. All 
of the wood was supplied by the forests of the State, and the industries 
that used it are shown in Table 34. 

Hickory is the best known material for certain classes of tool handles, 
such as the axe, pick, hammer, adze, and hatchet. Nearly half of the 
total quantity of wood consumed by the industry was hickory. Woods 
to take the place of this valuable handle material have been sought the 
world over, but no satisfactory substitute has yet been found. There is 
a strength, toughness, and elasticity to hickory which nature has denied 
to other commercial woods. Some are stronger, many are harder, but 



PLATE XIII 




A. Ash and hickory handle squares seasoning under cover at a North Carolina handle factory, 




B. Finished and partly finished "D" shovel handles in a North Caro- 
lina handle plant. 



. 



PLATE XIV 




■ 



.r:.^ 



""-';' 



Rough-turned "D" shovel handles, the product of a North Cf 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 75 

the rare combination of the qualities mentioned is lacking in all of them. 
Since this paragraph has reverted to the subject of the mechanical prop- 
erties of hickory, it may be of interest to discuss briefly a few other 
points relative to this important wood. 

Hickory is often referred to as though it were a single species, like 
red gum or yellow poplar. In reality there are as many as ten different 
varieties, some of which are valuable for handle manufacture and others 
not. The sapwood of hickory is white and is universally referred to as 
"white hickory," while the heartwood is red, and is known to the trade 
as "red hickory." The proportion between the heartwood and sapwood 
varies greatly in different trees, at different ages during the life of the 
same tree, and between different species. Generally young trees growing 
in the open are nearly all sapwood, while old trees possess compara- 
tively thin sapwood. There has always existed a prejudice against the 
use of the heartwood of hickory for handles, a prejudice principally 
on the part of the consumer. The manufacturer, on the other hand, has 
long been aware of this condition, and has realized that he has been 
placing brash white hickory in the grade of No. 1 handles and throwing 
red hickory handles of excellent quality into the grade of "No. 2. This 
practice, for the most part, however, has been followed principally in 
connection with axe, adze, machinist hammer handles, and others requir- 
ing great resiliency or the ability to resist shock. This property is not 
insisted upon in pick handles, and for these no objection is usually raised 
to the use of the heartwood of the tree. In other words, strength in 
hickory has always been associated with the sapwood. Heartwood in a 
larger proportion than sapwood is more likely to be found in trees of 
slow growth. The same is true of old trees, which have naturally 
reached that age producing narrow annual rings. Accordingly red 
hickory is associated in the tree with wood showing narrow annual rings 
of growth. Exhaustive experiments conducted by the Forest Service, 
however, have shown red hickory to be just as strong, weight for weight, 
as white hickory, and highly suitable when of proper density for all 
types of handles. 

With the increasing scarcity of hickory, oak is being employed for 
clay and railroad pick handles as well as others which do not require 
the elasticity so essential in an axe handle. Ash is the favorite wood for 
farm tool handles, such as pitch forks, grubbing hoes, rakes, spades, 
shovels, manure forks, etc. In other states where the manufacture of 
handles is 'included among the other industries represented, ash, from 
the standpoint of quantity used, is usually second in importance to 
hickory among the woods employed. In North Carolina, however, it 
came within one of occupying last place, and the 150,000 feet, board 



76 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



measure, that was reported was not used for the types of handles men- 
tioned above, but went entirely for broom handles, along with Xorth 
Carolina pine and gum. 



Table 34.— Wood 


Used for Handles 


in North Carolina in 1919 






Quantity- 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


In 
State 


Outside 
State 




1,351,000 
800,000 
540,000 
150,000 
150,000 


45.17 

26.75 

18.06 

5.01 

5.01 


$ 40.71 
20,00 
33.50 
42.00 
32.00 


$ 54,999 
16,000 
18,090 

6.300 
4,800 


1,351,000 
800,000 
540,000 
150,000 
150,000 








Oak . 




Ash 














Totals. 


2,991,000 


100 .00 


S 33.50 


S 100,189 


2,991,000 









Fixtures. — The products turned out by those establishments making 
fixtures are so closely related to those of the sash, door, and blind facto- 
ries and the furniture plants that it is sometimes difficult to determine 
under which classification they properly belong. Fixtures may be said 
to occupy the middle position between these two industries. The term 
"fixtures" as used in this report includes various types of show-cases and 
counters for stores and shops, and such furnishings as wall cases, pews, 
altars, pulpits, partitions, railings, especially designed desks, tables, 
racks, and telephone booths and similar articles for offices, churches, hotel 
lobbies, lodge, court, and bank directors' rooms, barber shops, lunch 
rooms, cafeterias, etc. One item of dissimilarity between the commodi- 
ties made in the sash, door, and blind factory and those produced in the 
plant making fixtures is that the former, such as mantels, colonades, and 
cabinet work are for the most part of permanent, built-in construction, 
while the latter are usually readily portable, or, at least, can be moved 
with slight remodeling. Large establishments usually specialize in one 
or the other of the two lines mentioned. In small towns, however, where 
the local demand does not justify separate industries, establishments 
will often be found that are engaged in the manufacture of both. 

Practically the same woods as are used in the manufacture of furni- 
ture are employed for fixtures, with the exception that perhaps a larger 
proportion of the higher grades is demanded by the latter industry. 
In both industries the woods consumed may be grouped into those used 
for exterior finish and those that go into interior construction of hidden 
work. In the fixture industry, as in the manufacture of furniture, and, 
in fact, in many other industries, veneer plays an important part. 



PLATE XV 



. 


- " " ; ,&? 


m - 




WmKB^^^BKKB^^k 




? - ^ m§>:0'§ 




■ • 






- ■ 

ft •'* /,/ 




In! 


• 
1 







A. A store and office-fixture factory in North Carolina. Showcases in the making. 




B. A special order of white enamel tea-room fixtures under construction in the plant 
of a North Carolina office-fixture manufacturer. 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



77 



METHOD OF QUARTER SAWING A LOG 



FIRST CUT 
|HA LYING THE LOG 




ye 



SECOND CUT 
VAN EIGHTH INTO BOARD5 



r\ 



a. 



THIRO CUT 



LJ» 



KANOTMER EIGHTH INTO BOARDS 



n 




FOURTH CUT 
K ANOTHGR EIGHTH INTO BOARDS 



k 



7 



n 



it 



FIFTH CUT 
ANOTHER EIGHTH INTO BOARDS 



T 7 



TMEOTHER HALF OFTHE LOG IS CUTINTHE SAME MANNER 



Plate No. 26 — Method of quarter-sawing a log. 



78 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Oak, which, occupied first place among the eleven woods used by the 
fixture makers of North Carolina, was called on to supply nearly half 
of the total quantity of raw material used by the industry in 1919. Its 
prominence in this industry, and the fact that it ranked first among the 
woods used for furniture, is due mainly to its highly-figured grain, 
especially when quarter sawn or when cut into veneer by the rotary 
process. Quarter sawing is the same as rift sawing and consists of the 
cutting of the log into halves lengthwise and the sawing of these halves 
into boards, the saw crossing the annual rings of growth at right angles 
or as nearly so as possible. During the operation the halves of the logs 
are canted two to several times on the carriage. Plate 23 shows the 
common method of quarter-sawing a log. Perhaps more figure is shown 
in cutting oak if the boards are merely plain sawed, but the pleasing 
effect of the wide flake produced by quarter sawing is more in demand, 
and, in addition, lumber, when so cut, is less liable to warp. North. 
Carolina pine was second among the list of woods used, but practically 
all of it went into hidden work. Yellow poplar goes both into exterior 
and hidden works, its suitability for these uses being due to its soft 
texture, stability, straight, even grain, the fact that it is easily worked, 
and because it takes and holds paint perhaps better than any other wood. 
All of these properties commend it for exterior enameled work, partitions, 
drawer bottoms, hidden parts of show-cases and shelving. Birch is the 
wood most often used to imitate mahogany, for which purpose the heart- 
wood of the tree is usually employed, although the white sapwood is also 
similarly used. Birch occupied fourth place from the standpoint of 
quantity used in this industry. Bed gum is another wood extensively 
employed for fixtures, although in North Carolina the quantity used 
during the period covered by this report was less than 200,000 feet, board 
measure. Some red gum trees produce what is termed "figured wood." 
The figure in red gum is fundamentally different from the characteristic 
figures of oak and many other woods. Oak's figure in quarter-sawed 
stock is due to the medullary rays, with certain modifications by annual 
rings of growth. The figure in chestnut is due almost wholly to the 
annual rings of growth. Bed gum's figure is due to neither. The shades 
and tones cross the annual rings in every direction, although they some- 
times follow them with a certain amount of regularity. The medullary 
rays have practically no visible effect, the colors ramifying through the 
wood and obeying no known law of growth or deposit of earthy matter. 
With red gum, especially figured wood in the form of rotary cut veneer. 
it is possible, therefore, to obtain a wonderful variety of markings and 
color tones to meet the individual taste of the designer. Bed gum has 



PLATE XVI 



.. ,. . 





ISr -ft. 



Agricultural implement handles and the raw material from which they are made. 
The handles are of oak and are first steamed and then bent, and afterwards 
worked. 



PLATE XVII 




A. One-horse, three-row grain drills as manufactured in an agricultural imple- 
ment factory of North Carolina. Oak is used for handles and beams, while 
North Carolina pine is employed for seed boxes. 




B. Interior of a North Carolina agricultural implement factory. Oak is the only wood 
used in the manufacture of the small fertilizer distributors shown in this plate, the 
wood being employed for plow beams and handles. 



PLATE XVIII 




I" 
ft rt 



5S 

r- ft 



£* 



03.- 

i :- 

C ^ 

1! 

-co 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



79 



the combined beauty of Circassian walnut and mahogany, and yet it 
possesses a distinctive character peculiar to no other wood. 

Table 35 shows the total amount of each kind of wood used by the 
fixture manufacturers of North Carolina in 1919. Of the 2,216,500 
board feet consumed, nearly 85 per cent was supplied from sources within 
the State. Fixture manufacturers, like many others, using home-grown 
timber, should also be vitally interested in forest conservation looking 
to the State's future timber supply. 

Table 35. — Wood Used for Fixtures in North Carolina in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 

Cent 


In 

State 


Outside 
State 


Oak.. 


985,000 

405,000 

286,500 

255,000 

178,000 

30,000 

25,000 

20,000 

12,000 

10,000 

10,000 


44.44 

18.21 

12.93 

11.51 

8.03 

1.35 

1.13 

.90 

.54 

.45 

.45 


$ 65 .00 
32.12 
42.50 
132.50 
143 .33 
69.00 
300 .00 
35.00 
35 .00 
35.00 
85.00 


$ 64,025 

13,010 

12,176 

33,788 

25,513 

2,070 

7,500 

700 

420 

350 

850 


899,000 
355,000 
286,500 
255,000 


86/00 


Pine, North Carolina 


50,000 


Birch 






178,000 




30,000 






25,000 




20,000 
12,000 
10,000 
10,000 








Ash 












Totals 


2,216,500 


100 .00 


S 72 .37 


$ 160,402 


1,877,500 


339,000 







Agricultural Implements. — The articles produced by manufacturers 
engaged in this industry consist of the various tools and machinery em- 
ployed by farmers in the preparation and tilling of the soil, the planting 
of seed, and the gathering or harvesting of crops. Among such are 
threshers, harvesters, drills, grain cradles, harrows, cultivators, ensilage 
cutters, hay ladders, hay presses, manure spreaders, corn planters, mow- 
ing machines, hay rakes, plows, and binders. In North Carolina this 
is perhaps one of the least important among the various wood-using 
industries, as evidenced by the fact that of the several hundred firms 
that furnished the data on which this report is based, only four were 
engaged in the manufacture of any of the commodities mentioned above. 
Furthermore, the total quantity of wood used was less than one million 
feet, board measure, all of which was home-grown. 

North Carolina pine ranked first among the woods used and con- 
tributed over 65 per cent of the total. Oak, the only other wood reported 
in any quantity, occupied second place. Table 36 shows the quantity 
of the different woods used by the industry, the average price of each 
per 1,000 feet, board measure, f. o. b. factory, and the total cost. 



so 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



Table 36. — Wood Used for Agricultural Implements in North Carolina in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


In Outside 

State | State 




627,000 

131,500 

1,000 

1,000 

202,000 


65.14 

13.67 

.10 

.10 

20.99 


$ 37 .44 
47.50 
35 .00 
18.00 
55 .00 


S 23,472 

6,246 

35 

18 

11,110 


627,000 


Oak 


131,500 


Ash 


1,000 




Gum, black ._ . .._.._. 


1,000 
202,000 












Totals 


962,500 


100 .00 


3 42.47 


$ 40,881 


962,500 











Miscellaneous. — It has been the custom of the Forest Service in pre- 
paring reports of this kind to refrain from including in them any in- 
formation that would be likely to reveal the operations of individual 
firms. Therefore, whenever reports were received from less than three 
firms engaged in the same industry, the data was placed under the head- 
ing "Miscellaneous." This practice has been followed in this report and 
the information presented in this chapter covers the activities of six 
different establishments representative of as many separate industries. 

Table 37 shows the quantity of wood used by the factories referred 
to above. Oak, which in point of consumption occupied first place, 
was used in the manufacture of insulator pins and brackets and for 
parts of reed organs. North Carolina pine, which ranked second, was 
also employed in the manufacture of reed organs and for excelsior, wood 
wool, and wash boards. Yellow poplar and red gum contributed the 
raw material used in the manufacture of butter tubs, while kalmia 
(mountain laurel) was converted into smoking pipes. Over 96 per cent 
of the total quantity of wood consumed by this group of industries was 
cut from home-grown timber. 



Table 37. 



-Wood Used for Miscellaneous Commodities in North Carolina 
in 1919 





Quantity 


Average 
Cost per 
M. Feet 
F. O. B. 
Factory 


Total 
Cost 


Source of Supply 


Kind of Wood 


Feet, 
B. M. 


Per 
Cent 


In 

State 


Outside 
State 


Oak 


961,200 
901 , 000 
761,300 
100,000 
20,000 
15,000 


34.84 
32.66 
27.60 
3.63 
.73 
.54 


I 50.50 
15.00 
23.50 
70.00 
50.00 
44.00 


$ 48,541 

13,515 

17,891 

7,000 

1,000 

660 


961,200 
901,000 
761,300 














100,000 




20,000 
15,000 












Totals --- 


2,758,500 


100 .00 


$ 32.12 


$ 88,607 


2,658,500 


100,000 







Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



81 




P JG4 

Plate No. 33-The evolution of smoking pipe. Mountain laurel is the wood used for pipes 
the North Carolina factories engaged in this industry. P P 

6 



by 



PART IV 



THE USES OF WOOD BY NORTH CAROLINA MANUFACTURERS 

The uses for which the various woods previously described were em- 
ployed by the North Carolina wood-consuming factories in 1919 are 
shown in the following list : 

Ash 



Backing, show-case 

Backs, seat 

Boxes, automobile seat 

Bows, vehicle top 

Chair parts 

Cotton planter parts 

Counters, store 

Doors 

Drop gates, wagon 

Fertilizer distributor parts 

Fingers, grain cradles 

Fixtures, exterior work 

Foot boards, automobile 

Frames, automobile body 

Frames, buggy 

Frames, carriage bodies 

Frames, drays 

Frames, wagon bodies 

Frames, farm machinery 

Furniture, case goods 

Gear parts, vehicle 

Handles 

Handles, contractor's shovels 

Handles, grubbing hoes 

Handles, hay fork 

Handles, hoe 

Handles, long shovel 

Handles, mallet 



Astragals, folding door 
Backing, mirror 
Backing, furniture 
Backing, fixture 
Balusters 
Blinds, window 
Boards, drain 
Boards, ironing 
Cabinets, medicine 
Cabinets, kitchen 
Casket cases 



Handles, pitchfork 

Handles, rake 

Handles, small tools 

Handles, spade 

Hay beds, farm wagon 

Head blocks, wagon 

Hubs, wheelbarrow 

Hay ladders, farm wagons 

Moulding, window 

Neck yokes 

Panels, wagon bodies 

Partitions, store and office 

Peanut picker parts 

Peanut planter parts 

Posts, chair 

Push cart bodies 

Rungs, plow 

Rungs, ladder 

Running boards, automobile 

Shafts, light vehicle 

Show-cases 

Sides, wagon bodies 

Side pillars, light delivery wagons 

Snathes, grain cradle 

Tubs, butter 

Trucks, tobacco 

Trucks, factory 

Trucks, warehouse 

Basswood 
Casing 

Clothes driers 
Drawer sides, furniture 
Fixtures, hidden work 
Furniture, hidden work 
Moulding, picture 
Moulding, house interior trim 
Panels, door 

Partitions, furniture drawers 
Sash, window 
Store and office fixtures, interior work 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



83 



Beech 



Arms, chair 
Backing, bureaus 
Backing, desk 
Backing, mirror 
Backs, chair 
Bobbins 

Bottoms, drawer 
Book shelves 
Cabinets, medicine 
Chairs, stepladder 



Arms, chair 

Axle caps 

Backs, chair 

Back posts, chair 

Backing, furniture 

Balusters, stair 

Benches, piano 

Bookcases 

Book racks 

Bottoms, automobile seat 

Bottoms, carriage bodies 

Bottoms, wagon 

Bottoms, factory trucks 

Bottoms, warehouse trucks 

Brackets, stair 

Brackets, plate rail 

Bureaus 

Cabinets, medicine 

Cabinets, instrument 

Cabinets, music 

Casing, window 

Casing, door 

China closets 

Costumers 

Davenports 

Doors 

Dowells 

Drawer bottoms 

Drawer sides 

Drawer slides 

Fixtures, curtain 

Fixtures, office 



Backing, mirror 
Backing, furniture 
Bins, kitchen cabinets 
Bottoms, drawers 



Cupboards, kitchen 
Loom parts 
Moulding, bed 
Posts, chair 
Rounds, chair 
Seats, chair 
Sides, drawer 
Slides, drawer 
Stools 
Tops, kitchen table 

Birch 

Fixtures, store 

Flooring 

Frames, furniture 

Furniture, case goods 

Hubs, buggy wheel 

Leaves, table 

Moulding, picture 

Moulding, house interior trim 

Panels, door 

Panels, furniture 

Partitions, office 

Partitions, drawer 

Parlor furniture, frames 

Rails, stair 

Risers, stair 

Rockers, chair 

Rounds, chair 

Sash 

Seats, chair 

Screens, window and door 

Shelves, book 

Show-cases 

Slides, table 

Stands, flower 

Store and office fixtures, exterior 

Tables, library 

Tables, sewing 

Tabouretts 

Tops, case goods 

Wainscoting 

Wagon boxes 

Wardrobes 

Buckeye 

Core stock, furniture panels 
Cupboards, kitchen 
Outer boxes, casket and coffin 
Tops, kitchen table 



84 



Wood-using Industries of Xoeth Carolina 



Bannisters, porch 
Brackets, porch 
Columns, porch 
Cornice work 

Backing, bureau 

Backing, desk 

Backing, dresser 

Box shooks 

Boxes, plant 

Boxes, tin plate 

Boxes, tobacco 

Bureaus, hidden work 

Caskets 

Cabinets, medicine 

Casing, door and window 

Ceiling 

Chairs, arm 

Chairs, desk 

Chairs, mission 

Chairs, rocking 

Chests, hall 

Coffins 

Cores, veneer 

Couch frames 

Counters, store 



Boxes, bottle 

Boxes, butter 

Boxes, cracker 

Boxes, creamery shipping 

Boxes, plant 

Boxes, plug tobacco 



Battens, O. G., barn 

Beams, pergola 

Bevel siding 

Blinds 

Boxes, plant 

Brackets, porch 

Cases, casket 

Casing, door and window 

Caskets and coffins 

Columns, porch 

Cornice 

Doors 

Face brackets 

Fence pickets 



Cedar 

House trim, exterior 
Newel posts 
Siding 

Chestnut 
Crates 
Doors 

Drawer sides 
Footstools 
Frames, mirror 
Frames, picture 
Frames, furniture 
Frames, store and office fixtures 
Interior finish, house 
Kitchen cabinets 
Mantels 
Newel posts 
Panels, veneer 
Refrigerators 
Stair work 

Screens, door and window 
Shelves, book 
Tables 

Treads, stair 
Wainscoting 
Washstands 

Cottoxwood 

Boxes, packing 
Box shooks 
Cases, soft drink 
Cases, egg 
Crating 



Cypress 

Frames, door and window 
Frieze railing, porch 
Gable ornaments 
Greenhouse, woodwork 
Lattice work 
Moulding, drip cap 
Moulding, porch 
Moulding, screen 
Moulding, stair 
Railing, outside stair 
Railing, porch 
Sash, hotbed 
Screens, porch 
Screens, door and window 



u 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



85 



Siding 

Sills, window 

Spindles, porch 



Subframes, hotbed 
Thresholds, porch door 
Window stool 



Dogwood 
Shuttles 



Axles, wagon 

Bent parts, automobile body 

Bows, automobile top 

Eveners 

Floor boards, automobile 

Frames, automobile body 

Frames, horse-drawn vehicle bodies 

Hubs, carriage wheel 



Elm 

Hubs, wagon wheel 
Hubs, wheelbarrow 
Hounds, light vehicles 
Reaches, light vehicle 
Running boards, automobile 
Seat frames, automobile 
Singletrees 
Yokes, neck 



Gum, Black 



Backing, furniture 
Baskets, fruit 
Baskets, grape 
Baskets, split 
Baskets, vegetable 
Barrels, veneer 
Berry cups 
Blocks, hub 
Boxes, tin ware 
Boxes, bottle 
Box shooks 
Brake blocks 

Backs, chair 

Backing, furniture 

Backing, case goods 

Bannisters, stair 

Baskets, fruit 

Baskets, vegetable 

Bedsteads 

Boxes, cracker 

Box shooks 

Bureaus 

Cabinets, medicine 

Cabinets, music 

Cases, casket 

Cases, clock 

Cases, sample 

Cases, shipping 

Casing, door and window 

Caskets 

Chairs, rocking 

Chairs, dining room 



Crates, berry 

Crates, bottle 

Cleats, box 

Dishes, lard 

Fertilizer distributor parts 

Handles, broom 

Hoops, veneer package 

Hubs, buggy wheel 

Hubs, wagon wheel 

Hubs, wheelbarrow 

Mauls 



Gum, Red 



Chiffoniers 

Church pews 

Coffins 

Colonnades 

Commodes 

Costumers 

Crating 

Cupboard doors 

Doors 

Drawer bottoms 

Dressing tables 

Frames, chair 

Frames, door 

Frames, dresser 

Frames, window and door 

Front doors, house 

House interior trim 

Humidors 

Mantels 

Mirror doors 






86 



Wood-using Industries of JSToeth Caeolina 



Moulding, bed 
Moulding, picture 
Panels, furniture 
Plate rails 
Posts, bed 
Posts, dresser 
Reed organs 



Show-cases 

Store and office fixtures 

Tables, library 

Telephone stands 

Telephone booths 

Wardrobes 

Washstands 



Boxes, glassware 
Boxes, cracker 
Boxes, packing 
Boxes, canned goods 
Box shooks 

Axles, wagon 

Axle caps, buggy 

Bows, automobile top 

Carts, dump 

Cross bars, buggy shafts 

Doubletrees 

Eveners 

Felloes, wheel 

Fifth wheel bars 

Fifth wheel circles 

Flooring, motor truck 

Furniture dowels 

Gear parts, vehicle 

Handles, axe 

Handles, adze 

Handles, blacksmith's hammer 

Handles, claw hammer 

Handles, cant hook 

Handles, chisel 

Handles, grub hoe 

Handles, hatchet 

Handles, machinist's hammer 

Heads, mallet 



Hemlock 

Cases, packing 
Cracker boxes 
Crates, bottle 
Crating stock 

Hickory 

Hounds, light vehicles 

Head blocks, light vehicle 

Loom parts 

Neck yokes 

Picker sticks 

Pole fuchles, light vehicle 

Poles, buggy 

Porch furniture 

Reaches, buggy 

Ribs, wagon top 

Rims, automobile wheel 

Rounds, chair 

Rounds, ladder 

Split bottom chairs 

Shackle bars, light vehicle 

Singletrees 

Spokes, buggy wheel 

Spokes, automobile wheel 

Spring bars, light vehicle 

Spring blocks, wagon 

Sweep sticks, loom 

Trucks, warehouse 

Wheelbarrows 



Kalmia (Mountain Laurel) 
Smoking pipes 



Insulator pins 
Loom parts 

Arms, chair 
Back posts, chair 
Bedsteads 
Bureaus 



Locust 

Telephone brackets 

Mahogany 

Book cases 
Book racks 
Cabinets, magazine 
Cabinets, music 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



87 



Cabinets, smokers 
Cases, dental 
Caskets 

Chairs, rocking 
Chests, clothes 
Chiffoniers 
Desk chairs 
Frames, furniture 
Frames, mirror 
Panels, furniture 

Arms, chair 

Axles, wagon 

Back posts, chair 

Beds, warehouse trucks 

Bobbins 

Bolsters, wagon 

Bottoms, basket 

Bottoms, drawer 

Boxes, cutlery 

Boxes, buggy 

Boxes, automobile seat 

Boxes, knife 

Box shooks 

Bureaus 

Cabinets, medicine 

Cases, shipping 

Chairs, camp 

Chairs, rocking 

Chair seats, plywood 

Chair frames 

Cogs, flour mill machinery 

Crates 

Dowels 

Eveners 

Flooring 

Frames, box mattress 



Show-cases, exterior 
Stands, plant 
Tables, card 
Tables, parlor 
Tables, sewing 
Trays, sewing 
Tops, table 
Veneer panels 
Wardrobes 

Maple 

Frames, corn sheller 

Frames, cot 

Frames, farm machinery 

Friction blocks 

Gear parts, farm machinery 

Guide strips, elevator 

Knobs, door 

Knobs, furniture 

Legs, furniture 

Packers, flour mill machinery 

Partitions, drawer 

Parts, hay press 

Posts, bed 

Posts, chair 

Posts, dresser 

Rockers, chair 

Rungs, chair 

Seat boxes, automobile 

Slides, extension table 

Stops, drawer 

Straw carriers 

Swings, porch 

Tables, kitchen 

Thresholds 

Trucks, factory 

Wheelbarrows 



Altars, church 

Altars, lodge room 

Arms, chair 

Bedsteads 

Buffets 

Baseboards 

Bedposts 

Bed rails 

Boxes 

Box shooks 

Buggy bodies, bottoms 



Oak 
Bureaus 
Cabinets, music 
Casing, door and window 
Caskets 
Chairs 

Chairs, dining 
Chairs, rocking 
Chairs, mission 
Chiffoniers, exterior work 
China closets 
Church altars 



8S 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



Church pews 

Cider presses 

Coffins 

Commodes 

Couch frames 

Davenport frames 

Desks, office 

Doors 

Drays 

Dressers 

Dump carts 

Felloes, wagon 

Flooring 

Frames, vehicle 

Frames, furniture 

Fixtures, exterior 

Hounds, wagon 

Hubs, wagon 

Insulator brackets 

Interior finish, house 

Kitchen cabinets 

Landing posts 

Lounge frames 

Mantels 

Newel posts 

Panels, furniture sides 

Pilasters, furniture 

Pilasters, mantels 

Plow beams 

Plow handles 

Plug tobacco boxes 

Plow rungs 



Pole steps, telephone 

Reed organs, exterior work 

Road carts 

Sash 

Sills, wagon bodies 

Sideboards 

Singletrees 

Spokes 

Spring bars, buggy 

Stair balusters 

Stair rails 

Stair risers 

Stair treads 

Stair work 

Stands, bedroom 

Stretchers, table 

Tables, extension 

Tables, library 

Table leaves 

Table elides 

Table tops 

Telephone boxes 

Thresholds 

Tobacco machinery rarts 

Toilet seats 

Tree blocks 

Truck parts, cars 

Wagon bodies, framework 

Wagon gear parts 

Wagon tongues 

Wash stands 

Whiffletrees 



Balusters, porch 

Balusters, stair 

Baseboards, house trim 

Base moulding 

Battens, O. G., barn 

Beams, elevator 

Bevel siding, house 

Blinds, window 

Box shooks 

Brackets, porch 

Cabinet work 

Cars, elevator 

Cases, tobacco 

Casing, door and window 

Ceiling 

Cleats, elevator 

Cornice, house construction 



Pine, Longleaf 

Crates, cabbage 

Derricks, well 

Elevators, freight 

Flooring, house construction 

Footing pieces, elevator 

Frames, couch 

Frames, freight elevator 

Frames, window and door 

Interior finish, house construction 

Lattice 

Moulding, bed, house construction 

Moulding, brick, house construction 

Moulding, cap, house construction 

Moulding, cove, house construction 

Moulding, crown, house construction 

Moulding, drip cap, house construction 

Moulding, picture 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



Moulding, plaster 

Moulding, quarter round 

Newel posts 

Nosing, house trim 

Partition 

Platforms, elevator 

Poles, wagon 

Porch columns 

Porch newels 

Risers, stair 



Balusters 

Baseboards 

Basket bottoms 

Blinds 

Boxes 

Boxes, dry goods 

Box cleats 

Box shooks 

Cabbage crates 

Cabinets 

Casing 

Ceiling 

Clapboards 

Coffins 

Conduits 

Cornices 

Crates, vegetable 

Crates, fruit 

Cross-arms 

Cultivators 

Doors 

Door frames 

Excelsior 

Fixtures, store and office 

Flooring 

Flooring, factory 

Furniture backs 

Furniture, veneer cores 

Grain doors 

Guide strips, elevator 

Bins, flour mill machinery 
Bins, grain 
Grain shutes 



Backing, furniture 
Backing, mirror 
Balusters, porch 



Sash 

Screens, window and door 

Sheathing 

Siding 

Sills, door and window 

Thresholds 

Treads, stair 

Wainscoting 

Window apron 

Window stool 

Pine, North Carolina 
Harrows 
Hoppers 
Interior trim 
Kitchen safes 
Landing posts 
Lattice 
Mouldings 
Newel posts 
Outer cases, caskets 
Panels, furniture sides 
Partitions 
Pilasters 
Porch columns 
Poles, wagon 
Poultry coop bottoms 
Roofers 
Sample cases 
Sash 

Screens, door 
Screens, window 
Siding, house 
Stair rails 
Stairways 
Stepping 
Store fronts 
Veneer boxes 
Truck bodies 
Wagon panels 
Window and door frames 

Pine, Sugar 

Hoppers, feed mill 

Panel sides, mill machinery 

Troughs, ensilage cutters 

Pine, White 

Beds, light delivery wagon 
Bins, flour mill machinery 
Bins, grain 



90 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



Blinds, window 

Boxes, packing 

Boxes, plant 

Boxes, tobacco 

Box snooks 

Brackets, porch 

Capping, sink, house trim 

Cases, casket and coffin 

Cases, leaf tobacco 

Cases, sample 

Casing, door and window 

Chests, clothes 

Cornice 

Crating 

Doors 

Drain boards, sink 

Floor boards, automobile 

Frames, window and door 

Gable ornaments 

Hoppers, plow and feed 



Lining, dumb waiter shafts 

Lattice 

Mantels 

Mirror doors 

Moulding, house trim 

Panels, stair work 

Porch columns 

Porch railings 

Risers, stair 

Running boards, automobile 

Sash, window 

Sash, hotbed 

Seat boxes, automobile 

Screens, door and window 

Shelves, dumb waiter 

Sides, wagon bodies 

Siding, house 

Spindles, porch 

Wheels, water mill 

Window stools 



Poplar, Yellow 



Balusters 

Backs, dresser 

Bands, berry basket 

Bedsteads, white enamel 

Berry baskets 

Blinds 

Boxes, bottle 

Boxes, cracker 

Boxes, cutlery 

Boxes, plug tobacco 

Boxes, wagon 

Cabinets 

Cases, casket 

Casing, door and window 

Ceiling 

Cigar boxes 

Clapboards 

Coffins 

Cores, veneer 

Cornice work 

Crating 

Doors 

Doors, poultry coops 

Drawer bottoms 

Drawer sides 

Fixtures, store and office 

Frames, upholstered furniture 

Interior finish, house 



Kitchen cabinets 

Kitchen safes 

Kitchen tables 

Lining, light wagon bodies 

Lounge frames 

Mantels, white enamel 

Mirror backing 

Moulding 

Packing cases 

Panels, automobile bodies 

Panels, delivery wagon tops 

Panels, furniture sides 

Panels, interior house trim 

Partition 

Pilasters, mantels 

Plug tobacco boxes 

Porch blinds 

Porch columns 

Porch newels 

Porch railing 

Poultry coop bottoms 

Reed organs, interior parts 

Running boards, automobile 

Sample cases 

Sash, window 

Seat boxes, automobile 

Shelves 

Siding, house 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



91 



Stair risers 
Traveling cases 
Wagon bodies 



Backing, Bureau 
Backing, mirror 
Bottoms, drawer 
Cabinet work 
Chairs, kitchen 
Frames, kitchen cabinet 
Frames, furniture 

Altars, church 

Arms, chair 

Bedsteads 

Benches, piano 

Bible stands 

Bookcases, exterior 

Bureaus, exterior 

Cabinets, magazine 

Cabinets, music 

Cabinets, phonograph 

Caskets 

Chairs 

Cheval mirrors 

Chiffoniers, exterior 

Coffins 



Wagon beds 
Wardrobes 
Window frames 

Sycamore 

Frames, fixture 

Mantels 

Seat frames, chair 

Sides, drawer 

Slides, drawer 

Tables, kitchen 

Walnut, Black 

Footstools 

Frames, mirror 

Furniture, lodge and church 

Panels, desk 

Pews, church 

Rockers, chair 

Screens, fire 

Settees 

Sewing tables 

Tables, dining room 

Tables, library 

Tables, parlor 

Tables, tea 

Trays, serving 

Wall cases 



WOOD-USING FACTORIES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The following is a list of the wood-using factories of North Carolina 
which supplied the data upon which this report is based. It will be 
noticed that the names of several establishments appear under more 
than one industry, the reason for this being that they produce more than 
one class of wooden commodity. This list is arranged to correspond 
with the industries described in the preceding pages : 

Agricultural Implements 

Asheboro Wheelbarrow Company Asheboro 

Cole Manufacturing Company Charlotte 

S. B. Carter ... Elizabeth City 

Gardner Manufacturing Company Greenville 

A. G. Cox Manufacturing Company Winterville 

Boxes and Crates 

Interstate Cooperage Company Belhaven 

Jarman Lumber Company Burlington 

Styers Sash and Door Shop Cherryville 

D. L. Boney Clinton 



92 Wood-using Industkies of Xoeth Caeolina 

Carolina Cross-Arm Company Elkin 

West Lumber and Box Company Fayetteville 

Warlich Lumber Company Gilkey 

Roberson, Strader & Company Greensboro 

C. F. Hany Grover 

Hutton and Bourbonnais Company Hickory 

Zove Box and Crate Company High Point 

Selwood Manufacturing Company Hobgood 

Morehead City Manufacturing Company Morehead City 

John L. C. Miller Mt. Pleasant 

Jeffreys Myers Manufacturing Company Oxford 

Halifax Builders' Supply Company Roanoke Rapids 

The Church Lumber Company Ronda 

Yadkin Valley Mill and Lumber Company Ronda 

Makepeace Box and Lumber Company Sanford 

C. M. Wall & Son _ Southmont 

Stantonsburg Lumber Company Stantonsburg 

Boyce Lumber Company Statesville 

Statesville Lumber Company Statesville 

Alexander Lumber Company Taylorsville 

Hughes and Peace Lumber Company Thomasville 

Carolina Lumber Company Walnut Cove 

Mengel Box Company Winston-Salem 

J. E. Shelton Box and Lumber Company Winston-Salem 

Caskets and Coffins 

Burns Casket Company Asheboro 

National Casket Company _ Asheville 

Burlington Coffin Company Burlington 

Charlotte Casket Company Charlotte 

Rankin Coffin and Casket Company High Point 

Rockwell Furniture Company Rockwell 

Atlantic Coffin and Casket Company .*. Rose Hill 

Rose Hill Coffin Factory Rose Hill 

Richardson Manufacturing Company Sparta 

Hearnes Brothers and Company Whitakers 

The Turner-White Coffin Company Winston-Salem 

Chairs 

American Bentwood Chair Company Asheboro 

Asheboro Chair Company Asheboro 

Piedmont Chair Company Asheboro 

Randolph Chair Company Asheboro 

Coleridge Manufacturing Company Coleridge 

Denton Chair Company Denton 

Hickory Chair Manufacturing Company Hickory 

Barnes Manufacturing Company High Point 

Southern Chair Company High Point 

Thomasville Chair Manufacturing Company High Point 

Tomlinson Chair Manufacturing Company High Point 

Johnson Chair Company Julian 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 93 

Bernhardt Chair Company ....... Lenoir 

Carolina Chair Company . _ Lenoir 

Ethel Chair Company Lenoir 

Lenoir Chair Manufacturing Company Lenoir 

Hoover Chair Company Lexington 

Lexington Chair Company Lexington 

Liberty Chair Company Liberty 

Hanes Chair and Table Company Mocksville 

Bent Oak Chair Manufacturing Company Siler City 

High Point Bending and Chair Company Siler City 

Statesville Chair Company Statesville 

Standard Chair Company Thomasville 

Elevatobs and Machine Construction 

Alexander and Garsel Charlotte 

Liddell Company .., Charlotte 

Moffatt Machinery Manufacturing Company Charlotte 

The Park Manufacturing Company Charlotte 

Grover Gin Company Grover 

W. C. Meadows Mill Company . H North Wilkesboro 

E. V. Williams Company North Wilkesboro 

New Williams Mill Company North Wilkesboro 

R. C. Meadows Mill Manufacturing Company Pores Knob 

Blue Ridge Mill Company Roaring River 

Briggs-Shaffeur Winston-Salem 

Fixtuees 

H. M. Wade Manufacturing Company Charlotte 

Moss Cabinet Shop Hickory 

Myrtle Desk Company High Point 

Cochran Hardwood Manufacturing Company Lincolnton 

Raleigh Manufacturing Company Raleigh 

Allright Manufacturing Company Rural Hall 

Dellinger Show Case Company Statesville 

Statesville Show Case Company Statesville 

Kwick-Bath Manufacturing Corporation Wilson 

Feuit and Vegetable Packages 

Aberdeen Crate and Box Company Aberdeen 

Patten Package Company , Calypso 

Rhaney and Rector Company Drexel 

Foreman-Derrickson Veneer Company Elizabeth City 

Southern Roller Stave and Heading Company Elizabeth City 

N. J. Brown and Company , George 

Empire Manufacturing Company Goldsboro 

Utility Manufacturing Company Goldsboro 

Cecil Manufacturing Company High Point 

O. E. and C. A. Bivins Hillsboro 

Eureka Lumber Company Washington 

T. R. Peppers ~, Winston-Salem 

Sheppard Veneer Company Winston-Salem 



94 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Furniture 

Albemarle Mantel Company Albemarle 

Carolina Wood Products Company Asheville 

Styers Sash and Door Shop Cherryville 

Home Table Furniture Company China Grove 

Drexel Furniture Company Drexel 

Elkin Furniture Company Elkin 

Newberry Brothers & Cowell Dunn 

Goldsboro Furniture Manufacturing Company _ _ Goldsboro 

Warlich & Sherril Company Granite Falls 

Melton-Rhodes Company, Inc _ Greensboro 

Standard Table Company Greensboro 

Sterling Furniture Company „ Greensboro 

C. F. Hany Grover 

Unagusta Manufacturing Company Hazelwood 

Waynesville Furniture Company Hazelwood 

Hickory Cabinet and Manufacturing Company Hickory 

Martin Furniture Company „ Hickory 

Southern Desk Company Hickory 

Alma Furniture Company High Point 

Continental Furniture Company High Point 

Dalton Furniture Company _ High Point 

J. F. and Arthur Ellison High Point 

Giant Furniture Company _ High Point 

Globe Parlor Furniture Company High Point 

Ideal Table Company High Point 

Kearns Furniture Company : High Point 

Keystone Cabinet Company.... High Point 

J. A. Lindsay High Point 

Marsh Furniture Company ., High Point 

Tate Furniture Company.... , High Point 

Tomlinson Chair Manufacturing Company High Point 

Union Furniture Company High Point 

Welch Furniture Company -High Point 

Wrenn Columbia Furniture Company High Point 

Zone Box and Crate Company High Point 

Kernersville Furniture Manufacturing Company Kernersville 

Ring Furniture Company ...Kernersville 

King Manufacturing Company King 

Caldwell Furniture Company Lenoir 

Harper Furniture Company Lenoir 

Lenoir Furniture Corporation Lenoir 

Atlas Furniture Company Lexington 

Dixie Furniture Company „... Lexington 

Elk Furniture Company Lexington 

Foster Furniture Company Liberty 

Catawba Furniture Company Marion 

Drexel Furniture Company Marion 

McDowell Furniture Company ~ Marion 

White Furniture Company Mebane 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 95 

J. H. Myers Monroe 

Mooresville Furniture Company Mooresville 

Morganton Furniture Company...., Morganton 

Banner Manufacturing Company Mt. Airy 

National Furniture Company Mt. Airy 

Mt. Airy Furniture Company Mt. Airy 

Mt. Airy Mantel and Table Company „ Mt. Airy 

John L. C. Miller Mt. Pleasant 

Valley River Lumber Company Murphy 

Forest Furniture Company North Wilkesboro 

Oak Furniture Company North Wilkesboro 

John R. Hagaman Patterson 

Fitts-Crabtree Manufacturing Company Sanford 

High Point Bending and Chair Company Siler City 

Carolina Parlor Furniture Company , Statesville 

Imperial Furniture Manufacturing Company Statesville 

Statesville Furniture Company Statesville 

Statesville Wood Products Company Statesville 

Forsyth Dining Room Furniture Company „ Winston-Salem 

Forsyth Furniture Company Winston-Salem 

B. F. Huntley Furniture Company Winston-Salem 

Hyatt & Company Waynesville 

Keller Manufacturing Company Waynesville 

J. C. Money Yadkinville 

Handles 

A. W. Vickory & Company Bonlee 

Craven Brothers Boonville 

Bryson City Handle Company Bryson City 

J. D. Pitts Glen Alpine 

Crawford Spoke and Handle Company Mebane 

Jesse Lovell Pilot Mountain 

Fred R. Thompson Staley 

Brendle Handle Works Wilmington 

Planing Mill Products 

Asheboro Wheelbarrow Company Asheboro 

Home Building and Material Company Asheboro 

Jordan Hampton Blowing Rock 

Miller Supply Company Brevard 

Spoon & Safford Burlington 

J. D. Bush Lumber Company Cary 

Lee Lumber Company Cary 

Beam Lumber Company Charlotte 

Cathey Lumber Company Charlotte 

Doggett Lumber Company Charlotte 

Hardwood Manufacturing Company, Inc Charlotte 

J. H. Wearn & Company Charlotte 

Styers Sash and Door Shop Cherryville 

Clinton Lumber Company Clinton 

Sampson Power and Planing Mill Company , Clinton 



96 Wood-using Industries of jNTokth Carolina 

Cary Lumber Company Durham 

Chatham Lumber Company Durham 

Durham Lumber Company East Durham 

Jackson Brothers Fayetteville 

Spencer Lumber Company, Inc Gastonia 

Warlich Lumber Company Gilkey 

E. E. Bain Greensboro 

Fuller Lumber Company, Inc Greensboro 

Oetinger Lumber Company Greensboro 

Pennsylvania Lumber Company Greensboro 

C. F. Hany Grover 

J. D. Pitts Glen Alpine 

Hendersonville Lumber Company Hendersonville 

Pace Lumber Company Hendersonville 

C. M. and W. G. Wilson Hendersonville 

H. S. Smith . Hickory 

Kannapolis Lumber Company „ Kannapolis 

Hines Brothers Lumber Company Kinston 

Kent-Coffee Manufacturing Company Lenoir 

Lenoir Manufacturing Company Lenoir 

C. M. Thompson Sons.... Lexington 

E. E. Wallett Littleton 

C. H. Fallin Lumber Company Madison 

Beaman Lumber Company Marion 

Chapman Lumber Company Marion 

Payne and Decker Lumber Company Marion 

Dixie Lumber Co Mebane 

Fitch & Riggs Lumber Company Mebane 

J. L. Sheek Mpcksville 

J. H. Myers Monroe 

G. M. Tucker Monroe 

Mooresville Furniture Company Mooresville 

Beasley & Tesh Lumber Company , Mt. Airy 

John L. C. Miller Mt. Pleasant 

Cherokee Manufacturing Company Murphy 

The Pine Lumber Company New Bern 

Setzer Lumber Company Newton 

Wilkesboro Manufacturing Company ....North Wilkesboro 

Oxford Orphanage Wood Shop Oxford 

C. D. Ray Lumber Company Oxford 

Job Hiatt Pilot Mountain 

S. K. Harris & Son Polkton 

John B. Rogers Reidsville 

Richfield Lumber Company Richfield 

Sider & Kluttz Rockwell 

Halifax Builders' Supply Company.... Roanoke Rapids 

Rocky Mount Woodworking Company Rocky Mount 

Wilson Mill and Lumber Company Rural Hall 

Goodman Lumber Company Salisbury 

Graf-Davis-Collett Company Salisbury 



Wood-using Industries of ^Torth Carolina 97 

Makepeace Box and Lumber Company Sanford 

Thompson Company Shelby 

Boone Fork Lumber Company Shulls Mills 

Little River Lumber Company Star 

Southern Timber and Lumber Company Star 

Boyce Lumber Company Statesville 

Statesville Lumber Company Statesville 

Stantonsburg Lumber Company Stantonsburg 

Alexander Lumber Company Taylorsville 

Guilford Lumber Manufacturing Company _ Troy 

Dan River Lumber Company Walnut Grove 

Pridgen Manufacturing Company Warrenton 

Moss Planing Mill Company Washington 

Hyatt & Company Waynesville 

Dixon Lumber and Millwork Company Weldon 

Chadbourn-Bate Company Wilmington 

Chadbourn Lumber Company ..Wilmington 

Clark-Lynch Lumber Company *.. .Wilmington 

Hilton Lumber Company Wilmington 

Fogle Brothers Company Winston-Salem 

Orinoco Supply Company Winston-Salem 

The Phillips Lumber Company Winston-Salem 

Yadkinville Buggy Company Yadkinville 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, and General Mill Work 

William W. Jones Asheville 

Spoon & Safford Burlington 

John I. Barns Clayton 

Styers Sash and Door Shop Cherryville 

Durham Lumber Company East Durham 

T. A. Henry Gastonia 

A. T. Griffin Manufacturing Company Goldsboro 

Novelty Lumber Company Hickory 

J. R. Wilson Lumber Company Hendersonville 

J. M. Beam & Brother Henry 

Jonesboro Sash and Blind Company Jonesboro 

Builders Supply Manufacturing Company Lincolnton 

J. H. Lineberger & Son Lincolnton 

Morganton Manufacturing and Trading Company Morganton 

Neuse Lumber Company New Bern 

Baker-Thompson Lumber Company Raleigh 

J. M. Beam and Brother Reepsvillo 

Builders Sash and Door Company Rocky Mount 

Graf-Davis-Collett Company Salisbury 

Sanford Sash and Blind Company Sanford 

L. K. Overcash Statesville 

Guilford Lumber Manufacturing Company Troy 

Dixon Lumber and Millwork Company Weldon 

The Aladdin Company Wilmington 

W. W. Siinms Company : Wilson 



98 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Shuttles, Spools, and Bobbixs 

J. Elwood Cox Biltmore 

Hickory Handle and Manufacturing Company Conover 

Ivey Manufacturing Company Hickory 

Elwood Cox Manufacturing Company High Point 

Liberty Picker Stick and Novelty Company Liberty 

Novelty Wood Works Ramseur 

Jordan Manufacturing Company Toecane 

Vehicles and Vehicle Parts 

Aslieboro Wheelbarrow Company _ Asheboro 

The Knowles Manufacturing Company Biltmore 

Tyson & Jones Buggy Company Carthage 

Charlotte Wagon and Auto Company .Charlotte 

Cotton States Wagon Company Charlotte 

T. A. Smitherman East Bend 

Gastonia Wagon and Auto Company Gastonia 

W. H. Piland Gates 

Corbett Bugg> Company Henderson 

Carolina Buggy Manufacturing Company Henderson 

Piedmont Wagon Manufacturing Company Hickory 

North Carolina Wheel Company High Point 

W. G. Hollowell _ Hobbsville 

Parkers Wagon Shop Kelford 

J. H. Hampton Buggy Company.... .....Leaksville 

Waters Buggy and Auto Company New Bern 

Garman Wheel Company Oxford 

C. R. Overton , Powellsville 

Wilson Mill and Lumber Company Rural Hall 

Veneer Products Company Smithfield 

Thomasville Spoke Works Thomasville 

Washington Buggy Company Washington 

Hackney Brothers Wilson 

E. S. Dail Carriage Company Windsor 

George E. Nissen Company Winston-Salem 

S. J. Nissen Company Winston-Salem 

J. C. Spach Wagon Works Winston-Salem 

Winston Vehicle Company Winston-Salem 

J. C. Money Yadkinville 

Yadkinville Buggy Company Yadkinville 

Miscellaneous 

J. F. Rodman Clinton 

Blue Ridge Locust Pin Company Dillsboro 

Carolina Cross Arm Company Elkin 

Carolina Woodenware Company Fayetteville 

High Point Veneer and Panel Company High Point 

Shipman Organ Company High Point 

Clarence Call North Wilkesboro 

Oval Oak Manufacturing Company Siler City 

Putnam & Parks Spruce Pine 



PART V 



PRODUCTION OF FOREST PRODUCTS 

As previously stated, the information given in this report does not 
include rough lumber or the products of primary industries, such as 
shingles, lath, cooperage, pulpwood, etc. Such statistical data have 
always been collected separately, either by the Bureau of the Census or 
the Forest Service. Since statistics of production of forest products 
have such an important bearing on those of consumption, it was con- 
sidered advisable for purposes of reference and comparison to include the 
former, in so far as they relate to North Carolina, in this appendix. 

Lumber. — Although North Carolina, in 1921, was among the ten 
leading states in the production of lumber, she did not occupy first place 
in the cut of any one particular species. In the production of chestnut 
lumber, however, the State ranked third. 

Table I given below shows the rank according to quantity produced of 
the 22 woods cut for lumber in North Carolina in 1921. 



Table I. — Production of Lumoer in North Carolina in 1921 



Kind of Wood 



Quantity 
(Feet B. M.) 



Average 

Value per 

M. Feet 

F.O.B. Mill 



Total Value 
F.O.B. Mill 



Yellow pine... 
Oak 

Spruce 

Chestnut 

Red gum 

Yellow poplar 

Hemlock 

Cypress 

Maple 

Tupelo. 

Cedar 

Basswood 

White pine 

Hickory 

Ash 

Beech 

Birch 

Sycamore 

Elm 

Cottonwood.. 

Walnut 

All others* 

Totals.. 



647,845, 

83,088 

47,486 

36,806 

26,346 

18,728 

16,894 

11,817 

11,209 

7,426 

4,633 

4,058 

3,360 

2,053 

1,769 

1,716 

1,521 

117 

74 

65 

38 

3,966 



000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
.000 



19.04 
23.78 
27.01 
24.21 
17.38 
31.56 
18.47 
27.10 
25.39 
15.81 
41.45 
30.86 
25.82 
26.28 
35.98 
23.93 
31.31 
20.80 
26.50 
25.15 
64.41 
51.02 



12,334 

1,975 

1,282 

891 

457 

591 

312 

320 

284 

117 

192 

125 

86 

53 

63 

41 

47 

2 

1 

1 

2 

202 



,832.64 
,596.86 
,073.26 
,893.48 
,055.68 
,032.18 
,240.70 
,596.51 
,405.06 
,037.85 
,229.88 
,755.20 
,952.84 
,648.62 
,063.88 
,622.51 
,433.60 
,961.00 
, 634. 75 
,447.58 
,345.32 



931,015,000 



20. S3 



19,388,828.20 



*Includes buckeye, chittem, and box elder. 



100 Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 

Lath and Shingles. — Lath are chiefly a by-product of lumber manufac- 
ture, and are cut from so many kinds of timber that no effort is made in 
the collection of such statistics to differentiate between species. They 
are manufactured for the most part from slabs, although large quantities 
are also produced by portable lath mills working in cut-over tracts and 
utilizing the small timber, crooked logs, tops, and other material left 
behind the sawmill. The quantity produced in North Carolina in 1921 
is shown in Table II. 

The bulk of the shingles produced in this country are made of cedar, 
principally the western red cedar of the Pacific Coast, although con- 
siderable quantities are cut from the eastern white cedar. Other woods 
used are cypress, southern yellow pine, and chestnut. The total pro- 
duction of shingles in North Carolina in 1921 is shown in Table II. 

Table II. — Production of Lath and Shingles in North Carolina in 1921 



Product 


Quantity 
(Pieces) 


Number 

of Mills 

Reporting 


Equivalent 
in Feet 
B. M. 


Lath 


16,164,000 
46,064,000 




3.233,000 


Shingles 


36 


4.606.000 



Cooperage Stock. — Cooperage stock is of two kinds, slack and tight. 
Slack cooperage includes barrels intended for use in the shipment of dry 
products, such as sugar, flour, cement, plaster, salt, certain classes of 
hardware, crockery, etc. Tight cooperage consists of barrels used as 
containers of alcoholic and other liquids. The substitution of cotton, 
jute, and paper sacks has limited the demand for slack cooperage stock, 
especially in the flour, salt, cement, plaster and sugar industries. The 
increased demand for slack barrels in other industries has, however, 
probably offset the reduced consumption of wood as containers of certain 
industries as brought about through substitution of other materials. 
Woods that dry quickly, steam well, retain their form when bent, and 
which are comparatively free from resin and odor make the best slack 
stave material. Red gum, pine, elm, and ash are in the order named 
the four most important woods employed by the industry. 

White oak, especially that cut from the heart of the tree, is considered 
the most satisfactory wood for tight cooperage stock. The pores of the 
wood are not open like those of red oak, and after the barrel is made, 
no leakage of the contents takes place through the pores. Although the 
uses for tight barrels, other than for the shipment of alcoholic beverages, 
are many, there is no doubt but that national prohibition will have the 
effect of greatly reducing the consumption of wood by the tight cooperage 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



101 



industry. Table III shows by kinds of wood the number of slack staves 
and sets of heading that were produced in North Carolina in 1921. 
The tight cooperage industry in North Carolina in 1921 was of such 
minor importance that the production of tight staves in the State during 
that year was not shown separately in the published statistics. 



Table III. — Production of Slack Cooperage Stock in North Carolina in 1921 



Kind of Wood 


Staves 
(Number) 


Heading 

(Sets) 


Equivalent in 
Board Feet 


Tupelo 

Pine _ 


38,102,000 

16,427,000 

3,700,000 

50,000 


1,708,000 

620,000 

3,214,000 


17,824,000 
6,715,000 




7,661,000 


All other 


16,000 








Totals 


58,279,000 


5,542,000 


32,216,000 



Veneer. — North Carolina, in 1921, ranked fifth among the various 
states in the consumption of wood in the manufacture of veneer. The 
total quantity used in the State was 24,264,000 feet, log scale, as com- 
pared with 400,388,000 feet, log scale, reported for the entire country. 
Table IV shows by species and processes of manufacture the consump- 
tion of wood in this industry in North Carolina during the year. 

Table IV. — Consumption of Wood in North Carloina in the Production of 

Veneer in 1921 





Total (Feet 
Log Scale) 


Process 


Kind of Wood 


Rotary Cut, 
Quantity 

(Feet 
Log Scale) 


Sliced, 
Quantity 

(Feet 
Log Scale) 


Sawed, 
Quantity 

(Feet 
Log Scale) 




13,707,000 

7,498,000 

2,299,000 

760,000 


13,677,000 

7,498,000 

2,299,000 

225,000 


30,000 




Yellow poplar.. 




Tupelo 






All other*... 


35,000 








Totals . 


24,264,000 


24.199,000 


65,000 









"Includes yellow pine, maple, white oak, beech, spruce, sycamore, walnut, and chestnut. 



Pulpwood. — Since there are less than half a dozen pulp mills in North 
Carolina, the industry is of minor importance in the State. As small 
as the industry is, however, it consumed in 1921 over 70 million feet of 
raw material in the form of cordwood, which constitutes quite an item 
in the total annual drain upon the forests of the State. 



APPENDIX 



LIST OF COMMERCIAL TREES OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Common Names Botanical Name 
White pine Pinus strobus 



Loblolly pine Pinus taeda. 



Shortleaf or rosemary pine. -.Pinus echinata. 



Trade Name 
White pine 



Local Names 

J White pine 

\Balsam pine 

Old field pine 

Shortleaf pine 

Longleaf pine 

Bog pine 

Slash pine 

Loblolly pine 

Old field pine 

Forest pine 

Yellow pine 

Rosemary pine... 

Shortleaf pine 

Longleaf pine Pinus palustris Longleaf pine Yellow pine 

Spruce pine 



N. C. pine 



Yellow pine 
N. C. pine 



Spruce pine or Virginia pine.. Pinus virginiana. 



Pond pine.. Pinus serotina. 



Pitch or black pine Pinus rigida. 



Nigger pine 

■ Alligator pine... 

Hickory pine 

Scrub pine. 

Bay pine 

Pocosin pine 

Black bark pine- 
Pond pine. 

Black pine 

Pitch pine 

Ridge pine 

Mountain pine... 

Old field pine 

(Black pine 



Table mountain or moun- 
tain pine Pinus pungens -{Ridge pine.. 

I Prickly pine 

(Spruce 

\He balsam.. 



Red spruce Picea rubra. 



N. C. pine 
>N. C. pine 

Yellow pine 

Yellow pine 
Spruce 



Southern or mountain 
balsam Abies Fraseri. 



Hemlock Tsuga canadensis. . 

Carolina hemlock Tsuga caroliniana. 



Balsam (Balsam 

She balsam (Spruce 

Hemlock | 

Spruce pine f Hemlock 

Hemlock spruce J 



Cypress. 



.Cypress 



Cypress. Taxodium distichum 

Pond cypress Taxodium ascendens 

White cedar Chamaecyparis t hy oides Juniper. Juniper 

Red cedar Juniperus virginiana Red cedar ...Red cedar 

White walnut or butternut.. .Juglans cinerea White walnut.. .Walnut 

Black walnut Juglans nigra Black walnut Black walnut 

White heart or mockernut 

hickory Carya alba White heart hickory Hickory 

Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis .Red heart hickory Hickory 

Water hickory Carya aquatica ..Swamp hickory Hickory 

Pignut hickory Carya glabra Hickory Hickory 

Scaly-bark or shagbark 

hickory Carya ovata Scaly bark Hickory 

Pale-leaf hickory Carya pallida Hickory Hickory 

Southern shell-bark hickory .Carya carolinae-septentrionalis._Scaly bark hickory Hickory 

Little-nut hickory Carya microcarpa Hickory Hickory 

River birch Betula nigra River birch Birch 



104 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



Common Names 



Botanical Name 



Local Names Trade Name 

Mountain mahogany ] 



Overcup oak Quercus lyrata. 

Swamp chestnut oak Quercus prinus. 



> White oak 



Black birch Betula lenta < Mahogany [►Birch 

[Cherry birch J 

Yellow birch Betula lutea lWhVh'""li" fBirch 

Beech Fagus grandif olia Beech Beech 

Chestnut Castanea dentata Chestnut Chestnut 

White oak Quercus alba White oak White oak 

Post oak Quercus minor White oak White oak 

/Overcup oak \™n... i 

< , , >White oak 

[Swamp post oak J 

(Swamp white oak \ v 

\Swamp chestnut oak. 

{Chestnut oak | 
Rock oak [-White oak 
Mountain oak J 

Live oak Quercus virginiana Live oak Live oak 

(Red oak .... 1 

Northern red oak Quercus borealis maxima s,, . . """ /Red oak 

I Mountain oak 

[Buck oak... J 

Scarlet oak Quercus coccinea Spanish oak Oak 

Black oak Quercus velutina Black oak Oak 

fRed oak ) 

Southern red oak Quercus rubra s Turkey oak [Oak 

[Spanish oak J 

Swamp red oak Quercus pagedaefolia. Red oak Oak 

Water oak Quercus nigra Water oak Oak 

wn i ^ u ii [Water oak. 

Willow oak Quercus phellos 

Slippery elm Ulmus fulva 

Winged elm . Ulmus alata 



White or american elm Ulmus americana. 



Willow oak. 

-Slippery elm Elm 

f Small-leaved elm. 

J Corky elm. 

| Winged elm 

[Southern elm 

JElm 

White elm 



Elm 



>Elm 



Red mulberry Morus rubra. 



Hackberry Celtis occidentalis < _ &C erry >Hackberry 

[bugarberry.. 

Mulberry 

Red mulberry 

(Cucumber 
Mountain cucumber.. (-Cucumber' 
Wahoo 

(White bay 

\Sweet bay 

Cucumber-tree -Magnolia acuminata Cucumber Cucumber' 

Yellow poplar ] 

White poplar 

Poplar 

I Tulip poplar J 

/Sweet gum Red gum 

reet or red gum... ...Liquidambar styraciflua... . ^ gum gatin ^^ 



Sweet or white bay. 



.Magnolia virginiana. 



Yellow poplar Liriodendron tulipifera. 



>Mulberry 



^Cucumber" 



^Poplar 



Sycamore Platanus occidentalis. 

Black cherry Prunus serotina 

Black locust... Robinia pseudacacia.. 

Holly Ilex opaca 



Sycamore 1 

_ , > Sycamore 

Buttonwood J 

Black cherry 

Wild cherry 

Locust 

Black locust 

Holly 

^American holly.. 



>Cherry 
>Locust 
>Holly 



Sugar maple Acer saccharum ( _ "" >Hard maple 

[Sugar maple 



Wood-using Industries of North Carolina 



105 



Common Names Botanical Name Local Names Trade Name 

fRed maple 

Red maple Acer rubrum -j Swamp maple... 

I Carolina maple. 
Yellow buckeye Aesculus octandra (Buckeye 

\Yellow buckeye- 
Linden or basswood Tilia spec { -„ ------- 

[Basswood 

Dogwood Cornus florida Dogwood Dogwood 

Black gum... ...Nyssa sylvatica... Black gum .. .Black gum 

Sour gum 



fSoft maple 

{Buckeye 
Basswood 



Water gum Nyssa biflora. 



Tupelo Nyssa aquatica 

Sourwood Oxy dendrum arboreum. 

Persimmon Diospyr os virginiana 



Silverbell. 



Halesia carolina. 



White ash. 



.Fraxinus americana. 



Tupelo gum 

Black gum 

Bowl gum 

Tupelo gum 

Cotton gum 

Sourwood 

Sorrel tree 

Persimmon 

['Simmon 

f Silverbell tree.. 
J Snowdrop tree. 

|Box elder 

[Bell wood 

/Ash 

\White ash 

..Red ash 



^Tupelo 



>Tupelo 



>Sourwood 



Persimmon 



^Pee woodf 



>Ash 
.Ash 



Red ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica 

Biltmore ash Fraxinus biltmoreana ash White ash Ash 

Green ash Fraxinus lanceolata Green ash Ash 

Pumpkin ash Fraxinus profunda Pumpkin ash Ash 

Water ash Fraxinus caroliniana Water ash Ash 



In addition to the trees listed above, there are some ninety other 
species of trees native to North Carolina, most of which are either too 
small or too rare to be used commercially. There are also some dozen 
introduced species which have escaped from cultivation and become wild. 



*Cucumber is often cut with and classed and sold as poplar.* 
fSometimes cut and sold with cherry. 

(Compiled by J. S. Holmes, State Forester, North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, with the advice of Dr. George B. Sudworth, U. S. Forest Service.) 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 

JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Director 



BULLETIN No. 31 



DEPOSITS OF BROWN IRON ORES (Brown Hematite) 
IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA 



BY 
W. S. BAYLEY 




RALEIGH 

Edwards & Broughton Printing Company 

1925 



GEOLOGICAL BOARD 

Governor Cameron Morrison, ex officio Chairman Raleigh 

Frank R. Hewitt Asheville 

C. C. Smoot, III North Wilkesboro 

Hon. John H. Small Washington 

Dr. S. Westray Battle Asheville 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director Chapel Hill 









LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

Chapel Hill, N. C, February 3, 1922. 

To His Excellency, Hon. Cameeon Morrison, 

Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir: — I herewith submit for publication as Bulletin No. 31 of the 
publications of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey a 
report on The Brown Iron Ores of Western North Carolina, which has 
been prepared by W. S. Bayley, Geologist. This investigation of these 
iron ores showed that there is a larger quantity of commercial ore than 
we had realized. This report should be of particular interest to the 
people of Western North Carolina and all those interested in the devel- 
opment of the iron ores of the State. 

Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, 
North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 



6143 i 



PREFACE 

This report on "The Brown Iron Ores (Brown Hematite Deposits) 
of Western North Carolina" represents simply part of an investigation 
of the iron ores of "Western North Carolina which has been made by 
Mr. W. S. Bayley, Geologist, of the University of Illinois. It has been 
a cooperative investigation between the United States Geological Sur- 
vey and the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, and the 
results of the investigation will be published as a series of reports, botb 
by the State and Federal Surveys. One part of the investigation on 
"Magnetic Iron Ores of East Tennessee and Western North Carolina" 
will be published as a cooperative report between the Tennessee Geo- 
logical Survey and the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey.* 

The present report describes particularly the brown iron ores of 
Cherokee and Clay counties, which is the district containing the largest 
amount of commercial ore. From the results of the investigation it is 
considered that this district oifers a promising field for development 
of an iron ore industry of some considerable importance. 

The deposits in Madison, McDowell, Catawba, Lincoln and Gaston 
counties are also examined and described, but they are not considered 
of any great commercial importance at the present time. 

The report also gives an estimate of the amount of ore in the several 
districts. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, 
North Carolina Geological anal Economic Survey. 



*Has since been published as Bull. No. 32 of the North Carolina Survey and Bull. No. 29 
of the Tennessee Survey. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of Transmittal iii 

Preface iv 

Introduction 1 

Character of the ores 1 

Deposits of brown iron ores in the Mountain district 2 

Geology of the ores 2 

Origin and age of the ores 5 

Deposits in Madison County 7 

Deposits near Tennelina 7 

Ore reserves near Tennelina 10 

Other deposits in Madison County 10 

Deposits in Cherokee County 11 

Geology of the ores 11 

Distribution of the ores. 13 

Ore deposits in the Valley and Nottely rivers belt 15 

Mines and deposits in the Valley River belt 18 

Deposits near Murphy IS 

Fain-Hitchcock Mine 18 

Hall-Starbuck Mine 21 

Dockery Mine 22 

Section 6 openings 22 

Savage Bros. Mine 23 

Ore reserves near Murphy 25 

Deposits near Marble Creek 25 

Ore reserves near Marble Creek 27 

Deposits near Maltby 27 

Kinsey-Betts property 27 

Heaton and Russell Mine 28 

Welch and Guy Green mines... 29 

Ore reserves near Maltby 30 

Deposits near Marble 30 

Puett and McHan mines 30 

Hayes-Hoblitzell Mine 32 

Cooper and Hanks openings 33 

Ore reserves in the neighborhood of Marble 36 

Deposits between the Jenkins place and Andrews 36 

General 36 

Taylor or Geo. Luther property 37 

Southern Iron Mining Company's mine 37 

Deposits between the southern Iron Mining Company's mine 

and Andrews 39 

Ore Reserves between the Jenkins place and Andrews.. 40 

Deposits between Andrews and Topton 41 



vi Contexts 

Page 

Deposits in the Andrews area 41 

General 41 

Washburn place 42 

Swan property 42 

Ferebee and Young Mine 42 

Rogers opening 44 

Marvacar Mining Company's property 45 

J. W. Walker preperty 46 

Ore reserves in the Andrews area 48 

Deposits in the Nottely River belt 48 

Ore reserves in the Nottely River belt 52 

Ore deposits in the Peachtree area 54 

Ore reserves near Peachtree 56 

Ore deposits in the Brasstown belt and the Martin Creek area 56 

General 56 

The Brasstown belt 56 

General _ 56 

Deposits north of the Hiwassee River 57 

Deposits south of the Hiwassee River 58 

Ore reserves in the Brasstown belt 59 

The Martin Creek area 59 

General 59 

The Monteith Mine 60 

Other deposits in the Martin Creek area 61 

Ore deposits in the Hiwassee and Nottely rivers belt 63 

Ore reserves in the Hiwassee and Nottely rivers belt 67 

Deposits in McDowell County 68 

Deposits in the Piedmont Plateau 69 

Deposits in Catawba and Lincoln counties 69 

Deposits in Gaston County 70 

General 70 

Ormond Mine 70 

Little Mountain Mine 72 

Ore reserves in Catawba, Lincoln and Gaston counties 76 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate Facing Page 

I. General geological map, showing locations of principal brown 

iron ore deposits in the Nottely and Valley rivers belt 11 

•II. Map of Murphy and vicinity, showing positions of rock exposures 

III. Pit of Fain-Hitchcock Mine, near Murphy, looking northeast 20 

•IV. Map of rock exposures in neighborhood of Maltby 

V. Heaton and Russell Mine, near Maltby 28 

D. Ore-vein, bottom layer, dipping away from observer. 

B. Mining by hydraulic jet. 

C. Washer. 

VI. The Hayes and Hoblitzell Mine near Marble 32 

C. General view of the pit looking south. 
B. Near view, end of pit. 

*VII. Map of pits and rock exposures in Andrews-Valleytown area 

VIII. Views of mine of Southern Iron Mining Company, near Andrews 38 

A. General view of ore-bed. 

B. West end of ore-bed, showing parallelism with surface. 

C. Detail of ore-bed, showing detrital character. 

IX. Marvacar limonite mine, near Andrews 45 

A. General view of south end of open cut. 

B. Near view of vein in same cut. 

Figure Page 

1. Index map of western North Carolina, showing positions of areas in 

which are important deposits of brown hematite ores 3 

2. Geological map of brown hematite deposits at Tennelina, near Hot 

Springs 8 

3. Diagrammatic N-S section through area shown in figure 2 9 

4. N.W.-S.E. section across Valley River belt near Marble 15 

5. Diagrammatic cross section through Fain-Hitchcock Mine, near 

Murphy 19 

6. Mamillary ore in Savage Bros. Mine, near Murphy 23 

7. Section across end of pit on J. W. Walker property, near Andrews.... 46 

8. N.W.-S.E. section across Nottely River belt at Culberson 4S 

9. Geological map of Peachtree area and Eastern part of Brasstown belt 53 

10. Section across Brasstown belt, Peachtree area and Valley River belt 

near Regal 54 

11. Map of Martin Creek area and Hiwassee-Nottely rivers belt, show- 

ing locations of important deposits of brown hematite 62 



*Plates II, IV, and VII could not be completed from the original surveys in time to avoid 
delaying unduly the publication of this paper. It is planned to issue them later as a 
supplement. 



DEPOSITS OF BROWN IRON ORES (BROWN HEMATITE) 
IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA 



By W. S. Bayley 



INTRODUCTION 

For some years North Carolina has been supplying small quantities 
of brown hematite ore to the furnaces of the South. Between 1917 and 
3920 the quantity reported to the U. S. Geological Survey was 126,000 
tons. Most of this came from Cherokee County. Formerly a little 
came from near Asheville in Madison County and from near Bessemer 
City in Gaston County, but the mines in these counties were abandoned 
several years ago. There are deposits also in other counties but they 
have not yet been developed. 

The ores occur mainly in the valley between the mountains in the 
western part of the State and in the Piedmont Plateau region in its 
central portion. The most important mountain deposits are in Madi- 
son and Cherokee counties. Less important ones are in McDowell 
County. The most important in the Piedmont Plateau are in Catawba, 
Lincoln and Gaston counties. 

Character of the Ores 

While it is probable that most of the brown hematites of these 
regions are limonite and goethite, a few of them may be composed 
largely of other compounds. They are all hydrated iron oxides, but 
some of them may contain a greater proportion of water than is usually 
present in limonite. A few of them have been reported to be turgite. 

Limonite is commonly represented by the formula Fe40 3 (OH) 6 , 
but its analyses vary between such wide limits, that the assignment of 
a definite formula to represent its composition is hazardous. It is often 
regarded as a colloidal goethite with one or more molecules of water, de- 



2 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

pending upon temperature. That it is a colloid admits of little doubt. 
It is never found in crystals, but always in some form that suggests 
its precipitation from solution. It is often found as stalactites, as glob- 
ular masses or in forms that imitate the crystals of other minerals, 
which it has replaced. It is also often found in the shapes of leaves, 
twigs, etc. In these cases it is said to be a pseudomorph. The orig- 
inal materials have been replaced by the limonite, which has assumed 
their forms. In no case does it appear to have a shape which is pe- 
culiar to itself. Like other gel colloids, limonite possesses the power 
of absorbing compounds from their solutions, so that the mineral may 
in fact be a mixture of colloidal iron hydroxide and various other com- 
pounds which differ in nature in different occurrences. Limonite is 
brown on fresh fractures and its powder is yellowish-brown. When 
earthy it is often yellow, as in the case of "yellow ocher." In cases 
where its origin is known, the mineral is the result of the decompo- 
sition of other iron-bearing compounds by oxygenated water, or is a 
deposit made by the accumulation of the remains of iron secreting 
bacteria. 1 The ores in North Carolina have originated in the first way. 
The commercial ores are hard, dark-brown, flinty mixtures of goethite 
and limonite and soft, yellowish-brown, sandy limonites. As furnished 
in carload lots they are non-Bessemer ores, containing about 45%-52% 
Fe, 0.25%-1.25% Mn, 0.3%-7% P, and 8%.18% Si0 2 . The sulphur 
content is small, rarely greater than 0.1%. The variations in iron and 
silica depend mainly upon the care taken in preparing the ore. The 
variation in the manganese is due to inherent differences in the ore. 
In a few ores the manganese content is less than 0.25%, on some 
it is greater than 2.25%, and in a few cases the ore is a low grade man- 
ganese ore. The sulphur content is never large enough to be objec- 
tionable. 

DEPOSITS OF BROWN IRON ORES IN THE MOUNTAIN 

DISTRICT 

Geology of the Ores 

Madison, Cherokee and McDowell counties are in the Appalachian 
mountain division of the Appalachian Province. (See map, fig. 1..) 
The rocks associated with the ores are Cambrian sediments that have 



1 Harder, E. C, Iron-depositing bacteria and their geologic relations. U. S. G-eol. Survey, 
Prof. Paper 113, 1919. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



3 



been metamorphosed to a greater or less extent, depending upon their 
character, by the great movements that occurred during the Paleozoic 
Era and culminated soon after the close of the Carboniferous period. 
As one of the results of these movements the sediments which were 
once in approximately horizontal beds were crinkled into folds and 
broken by great faults. The folds are of various magnitudes. They ex- 
tend in a general northeasterly direction and they are generally over- 
turned to the northwest. Nearly all the dips on the sides of the folds 
are southeastward, those on their northwest sides being the steeper. 



SPECIAL MAPS 
h Peach tree area and east end 

of Brasstown belt 
2=Nottely and Valley river belt 
3= Martin Creek area and Hiwassee and 

Nottely river belt 
4= Area near Hot Springs 




Figure 1. Index map of western North Carolina showing location of areas containing 
valuable deposits of brown hematite. 

The faults usually appear on the northwestern sides of the anticlines or 
southeastern sides of synclines. Nearly all the fault planes dip toward 
the southeast and their strikes in general are parallel to the axes of 
the folds. 

Besides the folds and faults produced by the compression of the sedi- 
mentary beds, the rocks composing these beds were broken by innumer- 
able small cracks, and were changed in composition by the growth of 
many new minerals. Moreover, these new minerals were produced 
under conditions that caused them to grow with their long directions 



4 Deposits of Beown Ikon Oees 

in planes that are approximately at right angles to the direction of 
greatest pressure. This has resulted in the production of a schistosity, 
the strike of which is in general parallel to the strikes of the folds 
and faults and its dip is steep, usually 50° or more. 

The sequence of the Cambrian sediments in Cherokee and Madison 
counties, as worked out by Keith, 1 is indicated m the following table, 
in which Keith's names are used. In Cherokee County metamorphism 
has been more pronounced than it has been in Madison County and 
the present character of most of the formations is different; but there 
is a general parallelism in them, the differences being only such as 
might be exhibited by rocks in any two basins separated from one an- 
other at recurring intervals or even by different portions of a single 
basin if differently situated with respect to old shore lines. The names 
of the several formations and their order of deposition in the two 
areas are: 

Table of Cambrian Formations in Cherokee and Madison Counties 



CHEROKEE COUNTY 



MADISON COUNTY 



Nottely quartizite. White quartizite. 



Andrews schist. Calcareous ottrelite schist, 
with iron-ore beds. 



Murphy marble, 
with talc. 



White and blue marble, 



Valleytown formation. Graywacke, garnet 
and ottrelite schist and slate. 

Brasstown schist. Blue and black ottrelite 
schist and slate. 

Tusquitee quartzite. White quartz. 



Knox dolomite. Light and dark magnesian 
- limestone with chert. 

I Nolichucky shale. Variegated calcareous shales 
I and thin limestone. 

s Honaker limestone. Blue and gray lime- 
I stone. Thin. 

I, Watauga shale. Purple, red and yellow shales 
and sandy shale. 



Shady limestone. Gray and blue cherty lime- 
stone with marble beds near base. 



Hesse quartzite. Chiefly white quartz. 

Murray slate. Grayish slate and shale with 
sandy layers. 



H 



Natahala slate. Black slate, with garnet- 
staurolite schist at base. 



Great Smoky conglomerate. Conglomerate, 
coarse gray sandstone and graywacke, 
with many beds of black slate and 
schist. 

Hiwassee slate. Bluish-gray, banded argil- 
laceous slate. 



Nebo quartzite. Chiefly white quartz. 

Nichols and Nantahala slate. Grayish slate 
and shale with sandy layers, metamor- 
phosed to mica schist and and ottrelite 
schist. 

Cochran and Great Smoky conglomerates. 
Gray conglomerate with beds of slate, 
metaporphosed to schists in Great Smoky 
conglomerate. 

Hiwassee slate. Dark banded slate and 
schists, with layers of limestone and 
sandy beds. 

Snowbird formation. Light colored quartz- 
ite and sandstone with beds of slate, 
conglomerate and arkose. 



1 Keith, A., U. S., Geol. Survey Geo!. Atlas, Asheville folio (No. 116), 1904 and Nantahala 
folio (No. 143), 1907. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 5 

These lie on a basement of granites, gneisses and crystalline schists 
that are Algonkian and Archean. 

The geology of McDowell County has not yet been studied, but the 
rocks associated with the ores in this county are similar to those asso- 
ciated with the similar ores in Madison County. 

The limonite deposits of greatest value are found in the residual clays 
of the Andrews schist and Murphy marble or their equivalents, at the 
contact of the marble and the schists with quartzites, along or near faults 
separating the limestone or calcareous schists from other formations, 
and at the contact of quartzites with the Valleytown and Brasstown 
formations in Cherokee County. The most important are those at the 
contact of quartzites with the marble or the calcareous schists, and 
those in faults. 

Origin and Age of the Ores 

The ores occur in veins and in residual deposits, formed by the break- 
ing down of the rocks containing the vein material. When the rocks 
containing the veins are weathered much of their material is dissolved 
and carried away in solution. The insoluble residue consists of sand 
mingled with fragments of ore that remains as a covering over the un- 
decomposed rocks. Where the underlying rocks were mineralized 
marble or calcareous Andrews schist the residual mantle is rich in ore 
fragments, because most of the rock that was originally with the ore 
has been carried away. In some places the ore fragments in this sandy 
mixture are so large and so abundant that they are gathered by hand 
and shipped. In most places they are small. Where sufficiently 
abundant the soil is washed and the ore thus separated from the sand. 
Most of the mines are at present obtaining their ore either from this 
layer of decomposed rock, or from the partly decomposed rocks be- 
neath it. 

The vein ore is found only at such places as furnish easy channels 
for downward traveling water; consequently it is believed that the 
veins received their ore from above. The source of supply of the 
ferruginous solutions was the great thickness of rock beds that was 
formerly above the Cambrian rocks in which the ore now occurs. As 
these were weathered the ferruginous solutions drained downward, 
were oxidized and made the deposits by filling the cracks through which 
they were flowing and replacing their walls by iron hydroxides. 
Because the ores are oxidized products it is probable that they are 
confined to shallow depths. They were formed near the surface; con- 
sequently they could not have been deposited until the surface had 



6 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

reached nearly its present position, which was probably later than 
Tertiary time. It is believed that the greater portion of the filling of 
the veins was accomplished in Quaternary time. 1 

For the most part the veins follow bedding planes or fault cracks, 
but the smaller ones may divide and coalesce in an intricate pat- 
tern, locally crossing the rock layers, swelling and thinning, and in 
some places wedging out. Few of the thicker veins consist of pure 
ore throughout. Most of them are mixtures of iron hydroxides and 
sand, which in some places occur as thin alternating layers and in 
others as uniform mixtures. In many deposits the vein material is 
coarsely porous and the ore lining the openings is mammillary. Mam- 
millary surfaces are also common on the sides of veins (PL V), espe- 
cially those in the bedding planes of the Andrews schist, and in man- 
ganiferous ores the portions richest in manganese are the outer layers 
of the spheroids. Thus the North Carolina ores are like some of 
those in the Cartersville district of Georgia, which are described by 
Hayes and Eckel 2 as consisting of geodal shells containing cavities 
with stalactitic and botryoidal forms, which have glazed surfaces. 

The veins are nowhere single. They are almost invariably grouped 
in stockworks, which have the same general strikes and dips as the 
rocks with which they are associated. Those in faults may follow the 
fault planes for short distances, but they feather out into the bedding 
planes or into joints and other fractures of the faulted rocks and so 
may possess very irregular shapes. 

Nearly all the ore of the veins in the Andrews schist contains sand 
grains and the remnants of decomposed ottrelite crystals. The cal- 
careous cement of the original rock has been replaced by the iron com- 
pounds, leaving only the micaceous decomposition products of the 
ottrelite and little grains of sand to represent the original schist. Such 
ore may preserve the schistosity of the replaced rock in the arrange- 
ment of the sand and the decomposition products of the ottrelite. 

As remarked by Hayes and Eckel, 3 in discussing similar ores in 
the Cartersville area in Georgia, the ores appear in part to have filled 
open fissures and in part to have replaced schists. These authors think 
it probable that the veins in the Cartersville district were formed by 
solutions ascending from a considerable depth and that the ore may 
change below the water level into a mixture of iron oxides, sulphides, 
and perhaps carbonate. In North Carolina there is practically no evi- 



1 For further discussion of the origin of the brown iron ores in this district see: U. S. 
Eull. 735-F, Geol. Survey, pp. 160-163, 1922. 

2 Hayes, C. W., and Eckel, E. C., Iron Ores of the Cartersville district. Ga.. U. S. Geol. 
Survey Bull. 213, p. 240, 1903. 

3 Op. cit, p. 240. 



Deposits of Brown Ikon Ores 7 

dence as to the character of the ore below groundwater level. !N"one of 
the mines have reached to so great a depth. It is certain, however, 
that the veins were formed after the deformation of the rocks in which 
they occur, as they exhibit no signs of slickensides or of true schistosity, 
and it is almost equally certain that they were produced by water per- 
colating downward. They are best developed at the contacts of replace- 
able rocks with impervious beds and in fault zones and are more 
abundant above the impervious beds than beneath them. In some 
places the veins are arranged as if in synclines and thus apparently 
follow a bed that is more easily replaced than others; but a glance at 
the maps (PI. I and figs. 2, 9, 11), will show that they do not occur at 
any definite horizon. They may be present almost anywhere within 
the Andrews schist, for the rocks of this formation, because of their 
porous texture and pronounced schistosity, furnish abundant channels 
for percolating water. The veins are largest, however, at the contacts 
of the schists with impervious or nearly impervious beds, because these 
contacts furnish the best channels for the ore-depositing solutions. In 
rocks other than the calcareous schists deposits of brown iiematite occur 
only at contacts or in faults. 

The explanation of the existence of large deposits in the Andrews 
schist on the northwest side of the quartzite ridge in the Valley River 
belt is difficult unless it may be assumed that the foliation planes of 
the schists near the contact were opened by shearing when the beds 
were folded and, naturally, thereafter became easy conduits for descend- 
ing solutions. As the folds are overturned to the northwest, the folia- 
tion of the schists and their accompanying veins dip southeasterly 
under the overlaying quartzite. 

DEPOSITS IN MADISON COUNTY 

Deposits Near Tennelina 

In Madison County the only deposits that have been worked to any 
considerable extent are mainly limonite lumps and masses in the residual 
clays of the Shady limestone near Shut-in Creek at Tennelina, 3 to 
4% miles west of Hot Springs. The amount of ore in the clay varies 
greatly. It is most abundant at the west end of a belt of limestone, 
where that rock lies in a synclinal basin surrounded by ridges of con- 
glomerate and quartzite. Keith writes (Folio 116, p. 10) "The hema- 
tite is most abundant near the contact of the limestone and the under- 
lying quartzite, and is found here and there along the entire contact. 
The upper portions of the limestone contain very little ore. Its presence 



8 



Deposits of Beown Iron Oees 



in the lower layers near the quartzite appears to be due to downward 
concentration into these layers. The limestone itself contains little or 
no ferruginous material, so that the hematite is probably derived from 
the quartzite series, in which are found small accumulations of pyrite." 
The depth of the ore has been tested only by shallow pits. "It is prob- 
able that * * * the clays containing the ore are not much more 
than 30 feet deep." 

A map and cross-section of the area showing the relation of the ores 
to the limestone are given in Figs. 2 and 3. They are taken from 
Keith's map of the Asheville quadrangle (Folio 116). The section is 
slightly modified, since Keith's section is east of the points at which the 




Contour interval 20O feet. Datum, mean sea /eve/ 
EXPLANATION 



^^^ 



?^s SS 



Z3 

5SKS 



Watauga shale Shady limestone Hesse quartzite Murray slate Nebo quartzite Nichols slate 

a.- quartzite lentil 



Opening in 
brown hematite 



Figure 2. 



Cochran Hiwassee slate Snowbird 

conglomerate formation 

Geologic map of area containing deposits of brown hematite at Tennelina, near 
Hot Springs, N. C. A-B, Line of section, figure 3. 



ores are best developed. Just west of Shut-in Creek the rocks on the 
upthrow (north) side of the fault are members of the Cochran con- 
glomerate and not of the Snowbird formation as they are further east 
where the section was made. The ores are in or near the fault. Here 
weathering has been excessive because of the ease with which water 
could travel down the fault zone, and the limestone has been changed 
to sandy and clayey decomposition products to a greater depth than 
elsewhere. 

The ore occurs nearly everywhere along the north side of the lime- 
stone. In some places it forms little streaks in the bedding planes of the 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 9 

limestone; in other places it occurs as large dense masses in brecciated 
and massive limestone and clay and in still other places it is in veinlets 
cutting the limestone and to some extent the neighboring shale and con- 
glomerate. The relations indicate that the ore is a replacement of 
limestone along joints, small faults and bedding cracks. As erosion 
proceeded the ore became shattered and scattered through the clay and 
formed the productive ore-mass that Keith describes. 

The source of the iron in these deposits is problematic. It may have 
come from any one of the formations that have been eroded from above 
the Cochran conglomerate. Keith apparently ascribes its origin to 
pyrite in the Hesse quartzite; but after a careful examination of the 
old openings one can scarcely escape the conviction that some, at least, 
of the limonite came from the limestone itself. 




Figure 3, Diagrammatic north-south section through area shown in figure 2. a, Watauga 
shale; b, Shady limestone; c, Hesse quartzite; d, Murray slate; e, Nichols slate; f, 
Cochran conglomerate. 



The mines, which are situated on or near the fault, form a line 
extending west from Shut-in Creek for a distance of about 1% miles. 
Most of them are open pits that are now so filled with dirt that no 
rock can be seen in their walls. A few are tunnels in which small ex- 
posures are visible. It is said that several hundred cars of ore were 
shipped to Knoxville and other points when the mines were operated 
by A. Gr. Betts in 1917. Most of the ore was wash ore that yielded 1 
part of commercial ore to 4 parts of material mined. In some places, 
however, the ore was hard and massive. In these cases it was hand 
picked and shipped as lump, yielding a much higher average of ore 
than 1 :4. 

The most easterly opening is a tunnel in mixed limestone, chert and 
other rocks. It is a comparatively small opening on the north side 
of a little stream, and is about *4 mile west of the creek. The dips of 
the rocks penetrated by the tunnel vary from horizontal to 30° N". E. 
The tunnel opening goes down at an angle of about 75° "NJW. following 
a chert-limonite streak. The strike of the beds, as nearly as could be 
determined, is 30° S. of W. The material removed consisted of chert, 
shale, and thin layers of limonite. This was washed. 



10 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

Mr. John Smith, who made an examination of the district for the. 
]N"orth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey when the mines were 
in operation, reports that a the ore was all worked from open cuts 
except the last attempt, in which the hydraulic process was used. 
* * * The water and ore were carried to the plant by means of an 
open box flume. * * * The concentration of the ore is accomplished 
by means of the log roller process" at the rate of 125 to 300 tons daily. 

"In all, there were six mines opened on this property, from which 
about 30,000 tons of ore have been taken," at a cost of about $1.00 per 
ton. 

Ore Reserves Near Tennelina 

There is no means at present of estimating the quantity of ore 
in the belt of country along the fault trace, as all the pits are filled 
with sand and there are no exposures. It appears probable that 
the amount of ore material removed from the pits had a width of 
about 15 feet. If this yielded 30,000 tons of marketable ore, as has 
been reported, there may be as much as 100,000 tons left within about 
50 feet of the surface. Since much of this would be furnished by the 
bowlders, etc., in the clay and sand that have resulted from the con- 
centration near the surface of that part of the fault zone which has 
been worn away, the quantity of ore that might be mined profitably 
in the next 50 feet, if the veins extend that deep, is much less. 

So far as we can judge, without systematic exploration, the supply 
of ore in the area discussed is not sufficiently large to warrant the 
erection of a plant which could handle the material effectively. Con- 
siderable ore remains that might be concentrated profitably on a small 
scale by log washers, but there is no promise of production on a large 
scale. 

Other Deposits in Madison County 

Deposits have been reported by Nitze 1 from two other points in the 
county but their descriptions are very brief and their locations not pre- 
cise. He mentions, on the authority of H. L. Harris, the existence of 
a bed of limonite having a width of 30 feet and an unknown thickness, 
on the western waters of Shut-in Creek. This was said to be cellular 
and in places ocherous, and to be associated with a gritty metamorphic 
sandstone that is conglomeratic in places. The analysis of a sample 
gave: 



iXitze, H. B. C, Iron ores of North Carolina: N. C. Geo!. Survey, Bull. Xo. 1, p. 210. 









4 A 









10 Deposits of Bkown Ikon Ores 

Mr. John Smith, who made an examination of the district for the, 
j^orth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey when the mines were 
in operation, reports that "the ore was all worked from open cuts 
except the last attempt, in which the hydraulic process was used. 
* * * The water and ore were carried to the plant hy means of an 
open box flume. * * * The concentration of the ore is accomplished 
by means of the log roller process" at the rate of 125 to 300 tons daily. 

"In all, there were six mines opened on this property, from which 
about 30,000 tons of ore have been taken," at a cost of about $1.00 per 
ton. 

Ore Reserves Near Tennelina 

There is no means at present of estimating the quantity of ore 
in the belt of country along the fault trace, as all the pits are filled 
with sand and there are no exposures. It appears probable that 
the amount of ore material removed from the pits had a width of 
about 15 feet. If this yielded 30,000 tons of marketable ore, as has 
been reported, there may be as much as 100,000 tons left within about 
50 feet of the surface. Since much of this would be furnished by the 
bowlders, etc., in the clay and sand that have resulted from the con- 
centration near the surface of that part of the fault zone which has 
been worn away, the quantity of ore that might be mined profitably 
in the next 50 feet, if the veins extend that deep, is much less. 

So far as we can judge, without systematic exploration, the supply 
of ore in the area discussed is not sufficiently large to warrant the 
erection of a plant which could handle the material effectively. Con- 
siderable ore remains that might be concentrated profitably on a small 
scale by log washers, but there is no promise of production on a large 
scale. 

Other Deposits in Madison County 

Deposits have been reported by Nitze 1 from two other points in the 
county but their descriptions are very brief and their locations not pre- 
cise. He mentions, on the authority of H. L. Harris, the existence of 
a bed of limonite having a width of 30 feet and an unknown thickness, 
on the western waters of Shut-in Creek. This was said to be cellular 
and in places ocherous, and to be associated with a gritty metamorphic 
sandstone that is conglomeratic in places. The analysis of a sample 
gave : 



iXitze, H. B. C, Iron ores of North Carolina: N. C. Geol. Survey, Bull. No. 1, p. 210. 



Deposits of Beown Ikon Oees 



11 



SiCh 


Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


11.94 


45.05 


.39 


.53 


1.176 



At another point in the neighborhood the ore is said to he botry- 
oidal and compact, and at still another point the deposit is said to con- 
sist "of a fairly solid central mass, with stringy and lumpy crusts run- 
ning out from it." 

All these descriptions apparently refer to the deposits on the fault 
at Tennelina ; but other deposits are said to exist "along the south- 
eastern slopes of the Unaka Mountains, the northwestern boundary of 
Mitchell County." 



DEPOSITS IN CHEROKEE COUNTY 
Geology of the Ores 

The sequence of the formations associated with the limonites in 
Cherokee County has already been noted. Those that are most closely 
associated with the ores are the Valleytown formation, the Murphy 
marble, the Andrews schist, and the lottery quartzite. All belong in 
the upper portion of the Cambrian. (See pi. I.) 

The Valleytown formation as described by Keith in the Nantahala 
folio (p. 4) consists in the main of mica-schist and fine grained gneiss. 
"In the basin of Valley River these rocks constitute practically all 
of the formation. * * * The mica-schist passes downward into the 
Brasstown schist. * * * 

"On the south side of Valley River, where metamorphism is greatest 
near a fault plane, the mica-schist is strongly developed and many of 
the gneissoid beds have received a secondary schistosity. Similar re- 
sults are seen north and west of Andrews, along the border of the 
Murphy marble, where the folding has been excessive. The strata of the 
formation south of Valley River are filled with small crystals of garnets 
♦ * *, Further southwest the garnets are less common." North of 
the river the rocks contain both garnet and ottrelite and at some places 
south of the river they contain also staurolite. 

All the members of the formation are closely folded and often con- 
torted, and all of them are schistose. 

Since this formation has been closely folded, in common with all 
the other rocks of the region, it is impossible to get accurate meas- 
urements of its thickness. It is thought, however, that the entire 
formation is not less than 1,000 feet thick. 



12 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

The Murphy marble occupies a narrow strip of country extending 
southwest along the Nantahala, the Valley and the Nottely rivers, and 
alongside the Murphy Branch of the Southern Railway and the Murphy 
Branch of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad; a small crescentic 
area near Peachtree, and a narrow belt extending southwest from near 
Peachtree to near the southwest corner of the Nantahala quadrangle 
and then westward into the Murphy quadrangle for a mile, at which 
point it expands northward into the wide valley of Martins Creek. 
The narrow belt continues up the west branch of the creek to the head 
waters of Gold Braiich and down this to its mouth. (See maps, pi. I 
and figs. 9 and 11.) 

The formation consists of a fine grained white, gray, pink or blue 
marble, which passes downward into the Yalleytown formation by in- 
terbedding with the ValleytoAvn schists, and upward into the Andrews 
schist through several feet of interbedded marble and schist. Its thick- 
ness before erosion was probably 500 feet. 

Where the original deposit was impure through the presence of sand 
or clay the metamorphic processes that changed it into marble caused 
also the production of a number of silicates, such as micas, tremolite, 
garnet and talc. The talc occurs mainly as lenses embedded in the 
marble near its base. At many places the talc is mined, furnishing an 
excellent product. Pyrite is present not only in layers in which garnet 
is plentiful, but also as disseminated grains through the general body 
of the rock. 

The Andrews schist also occupies narrow belts. It flanks the Murphy 
marble on the east from Valleytown nearly to the State line, and also 
borders the marble at Peachtree on the west, south and east sides. 

The formation consists of a series of beds of calcareous schists from 
about 200 to about 350 feet thick. The schists are composed of a matrix 
of marble in which are embedded sand grains and great quantities of 
muscovite and biotite flakes and plates of ottrelite. It is in this schist 
that most of the limonite deposits occur. 

At its base the Andrews schist grades into the marble by interbedding. 
"Upward it passes into the Nottely quartzite, as the sandy material in- 
creases both in separate layers and as grains in the body of the schist." 

The Nottely quartzite appears in small lenticular areas surrounded 
by Andrews schist between Murphy and Maltby. Farther northeast 
it is entirely missing, but farther southwest it occupies an almost con- 
tinuous narrow belt stretching to the State line and beyond, into 
Georgia. Here it is on the east side of the marble, the Andrews schists 
being cut out by the Murphy fault. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 13 

The Nottely quartzite is composed entirely of white quartzite, con- 
sisting of quartz, a little feldspar and considerable white mica that 
was produced during the period of metamorphism. Where the mica is 
abundant the quartzite passes into a micaceous quartz schist. The 
thickness of the quartzite is at least 150 feet. 

The region occupied in part by Cherokee County consists of a great 
synclinal basin with a northeast-southwest axis, complicated by minor 
folds with the same strike, of which one is a syncline following the 
Valley and Nottely rivers (map, pi. I). From Marble to the State 
line the syncline contains the youngest rocks of the region, but it rises 
rapidly toward the northeast and older beds are brought to the surface. 
In many cases the beds have been so compressed that the strata on each 
side of the axis of the fold were made practically parallel. Their dips 
are everywhere high and at many places, as at Andrews, the beds are 
nearly vertical. 

Moreover the region is characterized by many faults, which like the 
folds have a general northeast trend. One of these, the Murphy fault, 
follows along the east side of the Valley River trough, bringing in 
contact the Valleytown formation with the overlying Nottely quartzite, 
the Andrews schist, or the Murphy marble through most of its course 
from Andrews to the State line. This is believed to be the second 
longest fault in the southern Appalachian Mountains, its total length 
being about 100 miles. Just south of Andrews the fault was probably 
folded after its formation, as it now outcrops in a curved Z. The dips 
of the Murphy fault are generally to the southeast at various angles 
varying between 20° and 60° in Valley River and Nottely River val- 
leys. Its maximum throw is about one mile in the neighborhood of 
Andrews. 

A small syncline accounts for the Brasstown and Martin Creek strips 
of Murphy marble (figs. 9, 10 and 11), and an anticline for the outcrops 
of marble and Andrews schist at Peachtree (fig. 10). The Peachtree 
area, moreover, is bounded by two curving faults separating it from the 
Valleytown formation on the north and east and from the immediately 
underlying Brasstown schist on the west (map, fig. 9). 

Distribution of the Ores 

The most important and most persistent limonite deposits in the 
county as well as in the State are along the belt of Murphy 
limestone and associated rocks that occur in a narrow zone along 
the Murphy Branch of the Southern Railway from Valleytown 



14 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

to Murphy and its extension along the Louisville and Xashville 
Railway to the State line, a distance of 28 miles (map, pi. I). That 
portion from Valleytown to Murphy has been called the Valley River 
ore belt, since it lies near the Valley River, a tributary of Hiwassee 
River, emptying into it at Murphy. That portion southwest of Murphy 
is simply an extension of the portion northeast of the city. It contains 
the same kind of deposits as those in that portion of the belt to the 
northeast and they are in the same geological positions as the latter. It 
lies along the Nottely River, another tributary of the Hiwassee River, 
and may therefore be designated as a matter of convenience the lottery 
River belt. 

Another series of deposits surrounds the area of marble near Peach- 
tree 6 or 7 miles west of Murphy (map, fig. 9). There has been no 
development of any of the deposits in this area, mainly because of their 
distance from the railroad. With the recent construction of the road 
from Andrews to Hayesville they are now more easily reached, and 
some of the most promising ones may be opened up. 1 

A third series lies along the border of a strip of marble that has been 
traced from a point a mile southeast of Peachtree, through Brasstown 
to the west boundary of the JNTantahala quadrangle, a distance of about 
6% miles. This may be called the Brasstown belt (map, fig. 8). Here 
too development has been retarded by lack of cheap transportation. 
The belt of limestone is known to extend westward, possibly with one 
interruption, into the valley of Martins Creek in the Murphy quad- 
rangle, and then southwest with some interruptions along Gold Branch 
to the Nottely River. It apparently expands into a broad area at 
Martins Creek, where it is bordered as usual by ore deposits. For con- 
venience, this western portion of the belt is called the Martin Creek 
area. 

A fourth series occurs between ledges of quartzite and black slate 
that are probably members of the Brasstown schist. It extends in a 
southwesterly direction from the Hiwassee River, near the mouth of 
Hampton Creek, 1% miles southeast of Murphy to near the bridge 
crossing JSTottely River on the road between Murphy and Culberson. 
a distance of about 9 miles (map, fig. 11). Through this distance is 
a ridge of dark quartzite on the south side of which are a number of 
deposits, some of considerable size. Because of their distance from the 
railroad they have not been worked since the abandonment of the local 



1 In 1924 one of the occurrences west of Peachtree was opened but to what extent is 
not known. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



15 



forges. A few other deposits several hundred yards south of the north- 
east end of the same ridge may have had their positions determined 
by a thinner bed of quartzite; but the number of deposits in this series 
is few and the line is short. 

Other deposits, some of them apparently of good promise, are on 
the northeast side of Hiwassee River, about on the strike of the belt 
of deposits last mentioned. These, too, are on the southeast side of a 
quartzite ridge, but whether this is the northeast extension of the belt of 
quartzite to the southwest is not yet known. 

OKE DEPOSITS IN THE VALLEY AND NOTTELY 
RIVERS BELT 

Thi> Valley and Nottely rivers belt of ore banks extends from the 
State line northeast to Andrews as an almost continuous series of de- 
posits. Throughout this distance, as has already been noted, is a nar- 
row trough of Murphy marble, Andrews schist and Nottely quartzite 
which is a syncline overturned to the northwest, as shown by the sec- 
tions (figs. 4, 8 and 11) given by Keith through Marble and Regal and 
by LaForge and Phalen through Culberson. The eastern side of the 
troug.i is limited by the Murphy fault with its dip to the southeast of 
from 20° to about 60°. Its downthrow being on the northwest side, the 
upper formations on this side have been preserved. 



h-m )■■,:[ 




Figure 4. Northwest-southeast section across Valley River brown hematite belt near Marble, 
N. C. b, Andrews schist; c, Murphy marble; d, Valleytown formation; e, Brasstown 
schist; /, Tusquitee quartizite ; g, Nantahala shale; h, Great Smoky formation. 

Beyond Andrews to the northeast only an occasional deposit is 
known, and others are not likely to be found, since, because of the 
rise of the syncline in this direction, the upper formations have been 
almost entirely lost by erosion. 

At Andrews the trough takes a sudden turn to the south for about a 
mile, then as suddenly, south of Valleytown, turns to the northeast and 
resumes its original course. On the outside of the bend are a few 
deposits; and these are the northeasternmost that are, at present, of 
economic importance. 



16 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

Although limonite deposits are known to exist at short intervals all 
the way from the State line to Andrews, only those near Murphy and 
from Murphy north to Valleytown have been worked. 

Where the Nottely quartzite is present there are usually two parallel 
belts of deposits, one on each side where it is in contact with the An- 
drews schist. Where the quartzite is not present the ores are usually 
in the center of the Andrews schist area, or in the schist near the fault 
that borders it on the east, or they occur at the surface in the clay and 
sand resulting from the decomposition of the rocks near the fault trace. 

Many of the deposits are large enough to be worked with profit even 
by the wasteful processes that have heretofore been employed. Much 
of the ore shipped has been picked by hand from the surface or has 
been separated by hand or with a fork from the material that has been 
broken by pick and shovel from the walls of open pits. This is known 
as hard lump ore. 

Where only hand picking is employed to obtain ore of shipping 
quality the operation is short lived and the "mine" is soon abandoned. 
At many places, however, the soil is so full of ore that it may be re- 
moved in its natural condition and shipped without beneficiation of any 
kind. The dirt is shoveled or forked into trucks or wagons and hauled 
to the railroad without hand picking or washing. The only selection 
made is in the pit, where portions of the dirt that appear poor are 
left behind. Mines worked in this way are also short lived, for with 
increasing depth the ore becomes more solid and less evenly distributed 
through the soft rock, and the associated rock itself also becomes harder. 
The cost of exacavation thus becomes more expensive and the prepara- 
tion of the shipping product requires greater care. A little larger 
capital outlay is required and more careful supervision of the work- 
men. When pay dirt can no longer be forked into the carts without 
regard to its quality mining ceases. 

Since most of the mining in the valley has been carried on in one 
of the two ways described, it is natural that there should be many 
abandoned mine sites. The first impression gained by a rapid examina- 
tion of the field is that failure has followed the attempts to exploit it. 
As a matter of fact, most of the operations have been successful finan- 
cially. Abandonment resulted only when the cream of the district had 
been skimmed. Most of the operators were interested in other projects 
and when time and attention were required to operate their mines suc- 
cessfully they preferred to use their capital and energy elsewhere. 
There are many old mine pits in the district, but unfortunately they are 
now tumbled in and consequently very little can be learned as to the 
conditions under which the ore occurs. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



17 



In the Tenth Census Report 1 only a few paragraphs are devoted to 
the ores of the district. Following Kerr 2 the deposits are described 
as being in three parallel belts. Only 5 mines were visited by the 
census geologists, and only a few descriptive words are devoted to each. 
At the Morse place, 10 miles northeast of Murphy, the ore was found to 
be hard and compact "with nodules filled with clay and some softer, 
more earthy portions." The vein was about 8 feet wide and had an 
east-west strike. An average sample from the entire exposed face 
analyzed as in I. At the Tomotla bank 3 miles southwest of the Morse 
opening were some shallow pits, from the old stock pile of which a 
sample was taken for analysis II. The belt in which the pits were 
sunk was thought to be at least 200 feet wide. 

At a point known as Section 6 one mile north of Murphy, considerable 
work had been done, but only one small exposure was seen and from 
this sample III was collected. 

A small opening at Mr. Little's place 5 miles southeast of Murphy 
furnished sample IV, and openings at the Monteith place 6 miles south- 
east of Murphy furnished sample V. At Monteith's the vein varied 
from 4 feet to 10 feet in thickness. 





Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


I 


57.84 
55.85 ' 
58.25 
51.94 
56.46 




.021 

.291 
.387 
.994 
.691 


» .036 


II . 




.521 


Ill .. 


.160 


.664 


IV 


1.914 


v 




1.224 









Since the appearance of the Tenth Census Report, however, the belt 
has been explored more vigorously than had been the case before the 
visit of the census geologists and a large number of small openings have 
been made. Mining was especially active during the war with Germany. 
But, as has been stated, most of the openings were superficial, and since 
they have now been filled with wash they reveal little information of 
value. 



1 Tenth Census U. S., vol. 15, pp. 327-329, 1886. 

2 Kerr, W. 0., Report of the Geological Survey of North Carolina, vol. 
Raleigh, 1875. 



1, pp. 160-163, 



18 Deposits of Beown Iron Ores 

Fortunately, there are a few large mines in the district which have 
been able to work since the close of the War by the employment of 
efficient methods for removing material from the pits, for securing most 
of the ore in the material removed, and for properly preparing the prod- 
uct for market. These mines have furnished nearly all the information 
that has been obtained with respect to the manner of occurence of the 
ore. 

MINES AND DEPOSITS IN THE VALLEY RIVER BELT 
Deposits Near Murphy 

All the mines in the Valley River belt, as has been stated, are either 
at Murphy or between that city and Valleytown. 

Fain-Hitch co ch Mines: — The southermost mine in the Valley River 
belt is the Fain-Hitchcock Mine which is about % mile southwest of 
Murphy and therefore more properly in the Nottely River belt (see 
p., 14). It is described here because it is the only active mine in the 
southern belt and geologically its deposit is more nearly like the de- 
posits in the northern mines than it is like those in the more southern 
openings. The mine is on the southwest slope of a ridge, the crest of 
which is occupied by the Nottely quartzite. (See map, pi. 1.) On the 
lower slope of the hill and to the south, as far at least as the track 
of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, the surface is covered with 
sandy slate fragments suggesting the Andrews schist, but near the 
top of the low hill south of the track are outcrops and float of an 
ottrelite schist that is characteristic of the Valleytown formation. The 
ore consists of layers of hard limonite and loose bowlders of the same 
mineral in a mixed clay and sand matrix that appears to have been 
derived largely from a calcareous schist that may well have been the 
Andrews schist. On the surface and near it the ore is in sandy clay 
as loose fragments and nodules forming an excellent wash ore. At a 
greater depth it occurs in layers in a friable sandy schist dipping at 
angles to the southeast. 

Such ore as can now be seen in place is in the main a mass of small 
and large veins cutting in a general parallel direction through much 
disintegrated sandy schists but often crossing the schist layers between 
them and uniting into a few large veins. Some of the ore is coarsely 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



19 



botryoidal with dense spherical masses measuring about 3 or 4 inches 
in diameter. (Compare fig. 6.) Other portions are brown sandy 
masses that fall apart when roughly handled. Many of these contain 
little scaly portions that represent the decomposed ottrelite plates in the 
original schist, and others are simply masses of sand and limonite. 
The veins evidently were formed by the replacement of the calcareous 
cement of the schist by iron hydroxides. In open spaces and in layers 
that were limestone dense ore was formed. In sandy layers sandy 
ore resulted. It is this sandy ore and that occurring in the plexus of 
small veins which furnish the "wash ore." The thick veins of dense 
limonite and the botryoidal variety furnsh the hard or "lump ore." 
In this mine, as in most others in the district, the wash ore is in much 
greater quantity than the hard ore. 




1500 ft. above 
sea level 



Figure 5. Diagrammatic cross section through Fain-Hitchcock mine, near Murphy, N. C. 
a, Nottely quartzite; b, Andrews schist; c, Murphy marble; d, Valleytown formation. 



Since the dumps contain fragments of conglomerate and breccia, it 
is probable that the conditions are somewhat similar to those at Tenne- 
lina in Madison County. The breccia probably marked the position of 
a small fault in the pit at the contact of the schist and the quartzite. 
The presence of the Murphy fault south of the Andrews schist accounts 
for the absence of the Murphy marble from between the schist and the 
Valleytown formation — the position it should occupy if undisturbed 
by faulting (fig. 5). 

Southwest of the old pits are exposures of hard ore out-cropping as 
rugged solid ledges for a distance of about 2,000 feet and a width of 
175 feet and large bowlders of ore covering a belt that is considerably 
wider. To the northeast the belt can be traced by float for S00-1,000 
feet. 



20 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

The workings of the original mine consist of an open pit about 400 
feet long trending about !N".. 35° E. (See pi. III.) It crosses a low hillock 
to the east and extends into a little depression to the west. Its maximum 
depth at the top of the ridge is 40 feet and in the depression 25 feet. 
As the bottom of the trench to the east is at the level of the top of that 
to the west, the total depth to which the ore has been proven is 65 
feet. The width of the opening is now about 20 feet and the width 
of the vein between 12 and 15 feet, but the width of the layer of pro- 
ductive wash ore must be much wider than this. To the southwest of 
the old pit the ledge is now being opened by a new pit. 

The ore was blasted and the loose material was loaded on cars with 
forks and shovels. It was carried by dump cars of 1% tons capacity, 
actuated by gravity along 2,200 feet of track to a siding on the Louis- 
ville and Nashville Railroad. The ore was loaded without special 
screening or washing; consequently only the best of it was taken from 
the pit. The dumps still contain much ore that might be saved by 
an efficient washing plant. 

It has been reported to the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey that operations began in April, 1917, and 500 to 600 tons of 
ore were shipped weekly. The mine was active during 1918 but had 
closed down before the summer of 1919. In the early fall of the same 
year operations were again resumed at the west end of the old pit but 
were soon thereafter abandoned. In the fall of 1920, when the mine 
was again opened, a log washer was installed and preparations were 
made to ship 100 tons of washed ore daily, but legal complications 
ensued and the mine was idle in 1921. 

The shipped ore is said to have contained from 44.75% to 49.50% Ee. 
ISTitze (1. c. p. 198) gives an analysis of a surface sample of the best 
ore as follows : 

SiO^S.82; Fe=56.56; S = .047; P=.820; P ratio=1.449 

Nitze declares that on the western flank of the ridge on which the 
mine is situated "the parallel outcrop of the syncline is found on the 
west side of the quartzite, which dips 55° S. E.," and that at one time 
a prospect shaft was sunk into it. If ore exists on the northwest side 
of the quartzite, corresponding to that on its southeast side, there is 
on this side of the ridge a complete sequence from the Valleytown 
formation to the ISTottely quartzite. The northwest slope of the ridge 
is covered by quartzite fragments, but in the valley at its base are a few 



North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 



Plate III 




Pit of Fain-Hitchcock Mine, Near Murphy. Looking N< 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 21 

exposures of marble and a number of shafts from which talc has been 
taken. Across the valley to the south are abundant ledges of the Yalley- 
town formation. It is evident that the ridge is synclinal. On its south- 
east limb, however, the Murphy marble is lacking, due no doubt to the 
presence of the Murphy fault, which at this place apparently intersects 
the Andrews schist. Nitze (1. c. p. 198) gives a section through the ridge 
but in it neglects to indicate the existence of the fault. An ideal sec- 
tion through the hill is shown in fig. 5 (p. 19). 

Hall-StarbucJc Mine: — The Hall Mine is about % mile north of 
Murphy. This and its extension for about 1,200 feet was worked in 
1917 by F. E. Seeley. About 100 cars are said to have been shipped 
before the mine was closed. It was opened again in 1920 and was 
worked for the Roane Iron Company by Ben Starbuck who produced 
daily about 60 tons of washed ore containing from 44.5% to 58% of 
iron, with an average of about 48%. Two carload shipments in July 
analyzed : 



Fe 


Mn 


Moisture 


46.30 
47.70 


.29 
.29 


3.90 
4.40 



The workings consist of three or four open pits between a belt of 
quartzite on the northwest and ottrelite schists on the southeast. The 
strike of pits and rocks is about !N\ 35°-40° E. and the dip of the rock 
layers about 65° to 70° S. E. Beyond these to the northeast are other 
pits and trenches that indicate the extension of the ore about 1,000 
feet in this direction. The main pit is about 250 feet long and about 
20 feet wide. It is about 25 feet deep at the northeast end, where it 
exposes a ledge of ore about 12 feet thick. 

West of the quartzite, at the spring on the south side of the road, 
are small exposures of ottrelite schist and associated with it is some 
limonite, and at the switch of Whiteley Lumber Company's track is a 
well characterized deposit of soft ore. Beyond these is a valley with- 
out exposures. This is probably underlain by the Murphy marble. 
These various beds represent the northwest side of a syncline at the 
center of which is the quartzite. Its southeast limb lacks the marble, 
the Andrews schist being faulted against the Valleytown formation by 
the Murphy fault. (See map, pi. I.) 

The quantity of ore on the northwest side of the quartzite at this 
place is very small as compared with that on its southeast side, due no 



22 Deposits of Brown Iron Oees 

doubt to the comparatively high dip of the beds to the southeast. The 
overhanging impervious quartzite on the northwest limb of the syn- 
cline protected the schist to some extent from the action of downward 
travelling water, while on the southeast side the quartzite has served 
as a basement along which the descending water was concentrated. 

Dockery Mine: — Although at the Hall Mine limonite has been found 
in small quantity only on the northwest limb of the syncline, about % 
mile further northeast at the Dockery Mine, which was also operated 
by Mr. Seeley, the principal ore deposits so far as known are on the 
northwest limb. The quartzite here forms a ridge southeast of the 
mine openings and on its southeast slope ore is again encountered, 
but only in small quantity. 

The mine is a comparatively small hole, now filled with water. 
North of it for a distance of 900 feet, however, there have been dug 
a number of pits and one shaft, and from some of these marble 
fragments have been taken. By a glance at the map it will be seen 
that the ore lies between the marble and the quartzite, in a location 
that would naturally be underlain by Andrews schist. No exposures 
of this rock are visible, either northwest or southeast of the quartzite; 
nor has the exact position of the Murphy fault on the southeast side 
of the quartzite been identified. 

Section 6 Openings : — About % mile farther northeast from the 
Dockery place begin the numerous openings on "Section 6," that extend 
for nearly a mile on the northwest side of the quartzite ridge, thus con- 
tinuing the vein system of the Dockery Mine. Some of the openings 
are very large, but none are deep. Some are long trenches extending 
from near the crest of the ridge down its west slope for 125 feet. Others 
are large pits near the bottom of the slope. The long trench exposes 
nearly throughout its length ore layers dipping 55° S. E. One of these 
consists of almost solid ore 30 feet wide and another of ore 15 feet 
wide. Besides these there are many small veins, aggregating in thick- 
ness 10 or 12 feet. On the hill above the upper end of the trench ore 
bowlders are scattered abundantly over the surface, so that the fair in- 
ference is that the mineralized belt is even wider than the width exposed 
in the trench. Moreover, pits on the slope all the way from the lower 
end of the trench to the road at the bottom of the slope — a distance of 
500 feet — show the presence of ore in the soil, but none of them, so far 
as could be determined, reach solid rock. The ore on their dumps is 
probably all superficial material that has rolled from above. 



Deposits of Beown Ikon Ores 



23 



About y<2, mile farther northeast other openings well up on the north- 
west slope of the* ridge also show a series of limonite layers from 6 inches 
to 2 feet thick, dipping about 45° S. E. 

From the character of the ore layers seen in the few openings that 
reach undisturbed rock it is believed that there are here no great thick 
hard ore layers that can be mined without washing. On the other 
hand, the abundance of bowlders strewn over the northwest slope of 
the quartzite ridge for a distance of over a mile and the great quantity 
of ore fragments present in the soil and sand uncovered by the many 
pits that have been opened on its lower slopes indicate that this belt 
of country as far northeast as Marble Creek furnishes favorable pros- 
pects for an efficient washing operation. 




Fig. 6. Mammillary ore in Savage Bros. Mine near Murphy. 

According to Nitze (1. c. p. 199) the ore contains: 

Fe=58.80; S=0.161; P=0.391; P ratio=0.664 

Savage Bros. Mine: — On the opposite (southeast) side of the hill 
from that occupied by Section 6 openings are the open cuts of the 
Savage Bros. Mine. The property was worked by A. G. Betts, during 
the first half of 1917, but later came into the possession of the Messrs. 
Savage of Murphy and was worked by them during the late war. The 
main opening, which is on the old Cooper property, is a large open pit 
about 500 feet long and 75 feet wide at the top, narrowing to 30 feet 
at the bottom. Its depth varies between 12 and 35 feet. It is well up 
on the slope of the quartzite ridge which separates the deposit from 
that on the Section 6 property. Mr. Savage states that the width of 
good ore was between 30 feet and 40 feet, of which 20 feet was solid black 
ore and 10 or 15 feet was soft ore. In its general character the ore which 



24 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



dipped nearly vertical, is similar to that of the Fain-Hitchcock Mine, 
botryoidal, or mammillary varieties being abundant (fig. 6). Only such 
hard ore as it was possible to hand cob was shipped. The soft ore and 
small fragments were thrown on the dump. Mr. Betts shipped in all 
about 1,000 tons and the Savage Bros, about 4,000 tons. 
Carload lots shipped by Savage Bros, analyzed: 



Fe_; 




47.08 


45.10 
.58 

4.88 


49.54 

.25 

1.90 


48 81 


Mn 


.29 
2.73 

1 


49 




1 00 






Mtze reports (1. c. p. 199) that the ore on the Cooper place yielded: 


Si0 2 


Fe 


S 


P 


i 
P ratio 


7.76 


51.94 


.06 


.730 


1.405 



An inspection of the huge dumps at this place gives abundant evi- 
dence of the great quantity of ore that has been wasted. Although, 
of course, no estimate has been made of the percentage of ore present 
in the sand and clay that make up the greater portion of the dump 
piles, nevertheless there would appear to be no doubt that some of the 
piles would warrant washing. Mr. Savage states that the width of the 
wash ore is at least 100 feet. If this is so, and it seems to be the case, 
the property deserves careful prospecting and testing with an efficient 
washing plant, since about 60,000 tons of ore must be available above 
a depth of 70 feet. 

About 1,800 feet southwest of the Savage Bros, opening are exposures 
of ottrelite mica schists on the road. These are probably members 
of the Yalleytown formation. Between these exposures and the mine 
are no outcrops. In this interval should appear the Andrews schist and 
a part of the Murphy marble unless faulted down by the Murphy fault 
which also should be situated somewhere in this interval. Since a 
cut in the highway, 600 feet southeast of the northeast end of the pit, 
is through red clay with the characteristics of clay that is known to 
be derived from marble, it is probable that the fault passes through the 
upper portion of the marble layer and very close to the road, and that 
here marble exists on both sides of the syncline. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 25 



Ore Reserves Near Murphy 

The depth to which the ore deposits extend is not known; conse- 
quently any estimate of the total quantity of ore present in any por- 
tion of the Cherokee County area is of no conceivable value. It is 
certain, however, that ore persists to a depth of 75 feet in most places 
and to at least 100 feet in others. Even though it might extend 
downward for great distances, the ore below the ground water level 
would be unavailable under present economic conditions because of 
the cost of draining the openings. At present we can regard as avail- 
able only the ore that can be reached by open cuts, as the individual 
veins are so small that they cannot be followed profitably by under- 
ground methods. In order that a deposit may prove profitable all 
the material in the small veins must be recovered, and this is pos- 
sible only where a wide slice of rock may be raised and washed. Open 
pit mining with the aid of steam shovels or of hydraulic jets is the 
most economical method of accomplishing this result at present, con- 
sequently the only available ore is that which can be reached by open 
pit mining. Since most of the ore outcrops are on hill-sides well above 
the surface drainage level, it is probable that the bottoms of pits might 
be carried to 70 feet below the outcrops without meeting with any 
serious obstacle in the way of groundwater. 

If we regard as available all ore within 70 feet of the surface and 
base our calculations upon the length and width of the productive belt 
at the surface, the quantity of ore that may be reached in that portion 
of the Valley River belt adjacent to Murphy is about 465,000 tons. The 
actual amount of ore in the area is several times greater than this, but 
it is so scattered in thin veins and small complexes of veins that except 
in a few places, it cannot supply more .than a few carloads at a cost 
that would not be prohibitive. 

Deposits Near Marble Greek 

Farther northeast at Marble Creek (pi. I), two ore belts are again ex- 
posed. % The creek cuts across the quartzite which dips 45° S. E. On the 
southeast side of the quartzite, near the mouth of the creek, ore outcrops 
along the highway a few feet above the level of Valley River. Its dip 
is 75° to 90° S. E. Because of the low altitude of the outcrop, perhaps,* 
the ore has not been explored and consequently the thickness of the 
deposit is not known. 



26 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



On the northwest side of the ridge the ore has been exploited on the 
slope of the ridge, by large open pits, both south and north of the creek. 
INTitze states that they were made by the Valley River Company! 
In recent years the openings to the southeast were worked by A. G. 
Betts and the pits northeast of the creek by F. R. Seeley. 

Nitze (1. c. p. 200) describes the southern deposit as consisting 
of a "solid ore bed 8 to 12 feet in thickness, dipping 50° S. E., and un- 
derlaid by decomposed shale and clay, beneath which there are several 
smaller seams of siliceous ore," with the composition. 



Si0 2 


Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


17.52 


48.44 


.038 


.295 


.609 



On the north side of the creek the ore was 8 feet thick and was 
more siliceous than that in the southern opening. 

"West of the openings the Murphy marble is exposed and is quarried 
for commercial purposes by the Regal Blue Marble Company and % 
mile further northeast is worked for talc. Keith 1 describes the section 
through the marble as follows: 

"At the bottom are several feet of white marble with tremolite crys- 
tals; above this are 50 feet of pure white marble, 40 feet of blue 
marble, and "30 feet of white marble. After a small interval in which 
are no exposures the ottrelite-bearing Andrews schist outcrops." 
Then follow the ore deposits and after these about 150 feet to 
200 feet of lottery quartzite in the bed of the creek. The struc- 
ture is a syncline overturned to the northwest. A reproduction of 
Keith's section is given in fig. 10. 

The large openings immediately northeast of Marble Creek extend 
for about half a mile, beyond which are a number of small pits scattered 
on the northwest side of the quartzite for another half mile, and here 
and there on its southeast side is a small exposure of ore. There are no 
other large ore openings until Montvale is reached — a distance of about 
1% miles. Through this stretch the Nottely quartzite has been entirely 
eroded and with it any ore deposits that may have developed along its 
contacts with the Andrews schist. Here and there, as has been stated, 
pits in the Andrews schist have opened into small deposits, but these are 
very limited and of no commercial importance. 



1 Keith, Arthur, U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas, Nantahala folio (No. 143), p. 7, 1907. 



Deposits of Brown Ikon Ores 27 

ORE RESERVES NEAR MARBLE CREEK 

The aggregate tonnage near Marble Creek, on the assumption that 
a strip 30 feet wide might be worked to a depth of 70 feet, would be 
about 120,000 tons. 

Deposits Near Maltby 

Kinsey-Betts Property: — Just above Montvale going northeast the 
Nottely quartzite reappears and constitutes a little ridge which extends 
at least as far as Morgan Creek and probably a quarter of a mile beyond. 

That portion of the ridge southwest of Morgan Creek is flanked on 
both sides by ore deposits, but those on its northwest side have been 
much more thoroughly explored than those on its southeast side, 
although on this side are a few large, but shallow pits and several 
promising exposures. 

The principal opening is at the northeast end of the ridge, near 
Morgan Creek, where active operations are now being carried on inter- 
mittently by Ben Starbuck of Murphy under lease from Mrs. Kinsey 
who owns the mineral rights. The main opening is about 325 feet long. 
Other openings on the strike of this are small and shallow, but they 
are so distributed as to indicate a considerable width of mineralized 
rock, dipping 35° S. E. The mine is equipped with a pump and log 
washer. Most of the product is washed, yielding an ore analyzing in 
carload lots about 12% Si0 2 48% to 52% Ee, 0.13%, Mn and 0.04% P. 
The yield is about 800 lbs. of ore to the ton of rock. During the war 
the mine furnished several carloads of very porous ore to the naval 
station at Pensacola where it was used for the generation of hydrogen. 

The quartzite ridge is very narrow. On its southeast side at its 
northeast end are exposures and strippings showing 8 or 10 feet of hard 
ore which it is proposed soon to work. Farther southwest are several 
large openings that were formerly operated by A. G. Betts. Mr. John 
Smith in a report to the North Carolina Geological and Economic Sur- 
vey writes of the "Dockery place" at Montvale, presumably the prop- 
erty worked by Betts, that the ore vein is "made up of flat lenses stacked 
one on another and reaching a maximum of 7 layers, width 1 to 8 feet ; 
dip about 45°. This was worked for about 3 months and produced 
about 3,000 tons." At the "Kinsey property," probably the southern 
part of this area, he writes "about 7,000 tons have been produced since 
the first opening of this mine some years ago, 1,200 of which were 
mined this year" (1918). The openings at the southwest end of the 



28 Deposits of Brown Ikon Oses 

strip of ore-bearing ground on the southeast side of the quartzite are 
spread over a width of about 150 feet indicating a belt of ore at least 
125 feet wide. 

Mr. Starbuck declares that 3 engineers have estimated the reserve 
on both sides of the quartzite as from 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 tons, 
assuming a double belt of ore bodies to extend % mile. He does not 
know the data upon which the estimates were based, but states that a 
shaft on neighboring property followed the ore to a depth of 85 feet. 
So little is known of the horizontal or vertical continuity of the veins 
in this locality and so vague is the information as to the proportion 
of ore to waste that the estimates have very little value. If the width 
of the strip of ore-bearing rock on the east side of the ridge is 125 feet 
and that on its northwest side is equally wide, and the rock can be 
worked profitably to the depth of 70 feet, then the quantity of concen- 
trate that may be obtained from the two slopes of the hill within 1,800 
feet of Morgan Creek is about 650,000 tons, provided the entire body 
of rock raised will yield 800 pounds of ore to the ton. 

Heaton & Russell Mine: — Keith does not map the lottery quartz- 
ite as extending to the northeast beyond Morgan Creek. There are, 
however, two small knobs north of the creek on which bowlders of 
quartzite are thickly strewn. On the northwest sides of these knobs, well 
up on their slopes are 4 or 5 large openings, some of which have dis- 
tinctly defined quartzite to the east, while others are apparently not 
associated with any visible quartzite though on the strike of those 
further southwest which are so associated. 

At the northeast end of the southern ridge, about *4 m il e from the 
Starbuck Mine is the large opening being worked by Messrs. Heaton 
and Russell. The opening shows no unusual features. (See pi. V.) 

Mr. Smith writes of the "Kilpatrick property" which answers to the 
description of the Heaton and Russell Mine that the vein is vertical, 
20 feet wide and cut into two parts by a horse. The ore is said to be 
more solid than it is further southwest and to have been proven for 
% mile. 

The ore was originally cobbed but not washed, and consequently 
there was a great quantity of fine ore left on the dumps. In the summer 
of 1920 this was being raised by steam shovel and washed, yielding 
about y s ton of concentrates to the cubic yard. Shipments were at the 
rate of about 50 tons daily. The main pit around which the dumps 
have accumulated is an open cut about 175 feet long, 40 feet wide and 
from 40 feet to 60 feet deep, with an entrance at its northeast end 
through a cut 150 feet long. The vein as now exposed is in ore 6 to 




o 



z -. 




Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 29 

10 feet wide, but ore is so thickly scattered over the surface down slope 
that it is believed the soil will warrant washing as far as 100 feet from the 
outcrop. During 1921 water was conveyed to the mine and delivered 
with a nozzle pressure of 100 lbs. It is intended to use it in excavating 
the ore. 

Southwest of the main opening of the mine a continuous trench about 
1,200 feet long has uncovered throughout its whole length 3 sets of 
veins, ranging from 2% to 5 feet in thickness, in which are sandy part- 
ings only a few inches thick. The veins dip 45°-50° S. E., and are 
separated from one another by 10 to 15 feet of schist containing many 
small veins. To the northeast the openings of the Welch and Guy 
Green mines seem to prove that ore occurs beyond the visible quartzite 
through a distance of 1,800 feet. There is a possibility, however, that 
ore has not been deposited between the Welch and Green mines, in 
which case the northeast extension of the vein beyond the Heaton and 
Eussell Mine is only 900 feet. 

If we assume a continuous vein 2,100 feet long and a workable slice 
of ground 100 feet wide and 70 feet deep which will yield a concen- 
trate of only y 2 ton to the cubic yard, the available ore in this strip 
will approximate 270,000 tons. That the yield of ore would be as great 
as y<2, ton per cubic yard admits of no doubt, as the yield of the waste 
left at the Heaton Mine after picking out the good lump ore was, as has 
been reported by Supt. E. C. Palmer, a little greater than % ton per 
cubic yard, during a week in August, 1920, when 778 cubic yards of 
dirt yielded 621,000 lbs. of shipping ore. As much of the material that 
would be removed from the strip would consist of vein ore, the yield 
of the entire strip would be much greater than that of the mine dumps. 

Southeast of the mine there is a narrow exposure of quartzite on the 
top of the ridge, but so far as known there are no ores on its southeast 
side as is the case at the Kinsey-Betts location. 

Welch and Guy Green Mines: — Northeast of the Heaton & Russell 
Mine the quartzite seems to disappear. It is possible that it may ex- 
tend to the Welch Mine 600 feet further northeast, though no outcrops 
are to be seen on the hill above the opening and none are known further 
northeast in Cherokee County. The brown ores northeast of the Welch 
mine occur in relations different from those to the southwest. 

At the Guy Green Mine, which is 1,000 feet northeast of the Welch 
Mine, the quartzite is probably absent. The mine is on comparatively 
low ground and there is no distinct ridge to the east. It may be that 
the quartzite was originally present in its usual position just over the 



30 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

ores but that it has been entirely removed by erosion, which, however, 
has not yet cut deeply enough into the underlying Andrews schist to 
remove the deposits that were formed near the contact of the schist and 
quartzite. 

The Welch Mine is a few hundred yards northeast of the Heaton 
and Eussell Mine. It is a shallow open cut about 600 feet long with a 
width varying between 10 and 50 feet and a depth of from 6 to 10 feet. 
In 1920 it»was being operated on a small scale by J. W. Welch. The 
opening is in flat country and is therefore difficult to work. The 
main ore vein is about 6 feet wide but there are other thin veins 
separated by thin layers of sandy schist. The ledge is broken down 
and the ore handled by forking. Thus nearly all the finer ore is lost. 
Up to September 1st, 1920, about 50 tons of ore had been shipped. 

The Guy Green Mine, now known as the Green and Mehaffy Mine, 
consists of a large shallow pit and 5 or 6 small ones, occupying the top 
of a low hillock. At present nothing can be seen at the mine but a pile 
of mixed sand and ore. The largest pit is about 200 feet long, 25 feet 
wide and 15 feet deep. Southwest of this the ledge is stripped for a 
length of 150 feet on the vein which strikes N. 55° E. and dips 
50°-55° S. E. About 200 feet further southwest is another pit 125 
feet long, 10 to 15 feet wide and 6 feet deep in which the vein is again 
exposed. Thus the ore is exposed for nearly 700 feet on the property. 
The "vein" comprises for the most part a number of small veins, each 
about 1 foot thick, alternating with layers of sandy schist. Only the 
harder ore was shipped. Since the solid ledge has not yet been reached 
by either the Welch or the Green mines, it is impossible to predict the 
conditions under the mantle of decomposed rock. A clean hand speci- 
men of the ore from the Green Mine gave 52.53% Fe and .687% P as 
the result of a commercial analysis. 

OEE RESERVES NEAR MALTBY 

On the assumption that ore exists only in those portions of the strip 
between the Kinsey-Betts property and the Guy Green Mine where it 
is exposed on the surface, and that it can be worked to a depth of 50 
feet in the neighborhood of the Guy Green Mine and to a depth of 70 
feet elsewhere, the aggregate available tonnage in the vicinity of 
Maltby is about 1,070,000 tons. 

Deposits Near Marble 

Puett and McHan Mines: — Beyond the Guy Green place for 2 miles 
no ore has been discovered. The country is low and erosion has exposed 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



31 



the Murphy marble all the way to the town of Marble, where the An- 
drews schist reappears. 

At Marble, however, begins another series of openings, some of which 
have developed into important mines. The series begins with the Puett 
openings about Y 5 mile south of Marble Station. Formerly they were 
worked together with the openings on the adjacent McHan property 
by A. G. Betts, producing about 1,500 tons, without screening or wash- 
ing. The Puett property is now abandoned, and the McHan Mine has 
not been in operation during the past few years. 

The Puett Mine consists of a number of holes, some of them large, 
extending in a comparatively broad band across the road from Marble 
up Vengeance Creek. The largest hole is about 20 feet deep and on its 
northeast and southeast sides shows a little hard ore. Exposures indi- 
cate a width of this ore measuring 8 or 10 feet. The dumps are so filled 
with fragments of ore and limonite sand as to appear to be worth wash- 
ing. About 200 feet farther northeast is another large pit on a little 
rise. In this the vein is 7 or 8 feet wide. Several more openings indi- 
cate a vein with a strike of about N". 20° E. and a very high dip. Other 
openings northwest of these seem to show that the deposits are in a 
double belt, but they are small and not so distributed as to prove the 
case. 

Immediately northeast of the Puett Mine and northeast of the road 
up Vengeance Creek is the McHan Mine. Mr. Smith writes that Mr. 
"W. McHan began to mine here in January, 1917, at first by contract 
and later under his own direction. The ore was shipped without 
screening or washing but was separated- from sand by forking. After 
producing about 900 tons of material averaging 45% Fe, work was dis- 
continued in the early part of July, 1917. The ore is reported to have 
occurred in veins 3 to 10 feet wide. Analysis showed that some cars 
contained from 2% to 3% Mn. Work was again undertaken in the 
early part of 1918 add stopped in May of that year after the shipment 
of about 75 cars, some of which ran Over 52% Fe. An average of 
analyses of 12 cars sent to the Roane Iron Co. and reported upon in 
August, 1918, gave: 



Si0 2 


AI2O3 


Fe 


Mn 


P 


10.86 


5.30 


49.90 


.58 


.02 



32 



Deposits of Brown Ikon Ores 



The present openings on the McHan property are some very large 
pits uncovering a plexus of veins in a sandy schist. There is now vis- 
ible no distinct massive vein, although it is currently reported that some 
of the veins opened were 10 feet thick, but in the northeast hole, which 
is about 1,500 feet from the southwesternmost pit at the road, the veins 
are so crowded that they form a stockwork 20 feet wide striking about 
N". 40° E. and dipping 35° to 40° S. E. There is no solid rock in sight. 
In the largest new pit which is 300 feet long, 60 feet wide and 50 feet 
deep, the upper 25 feet are in sand containing no ore except in bowlders 
lying on the surface. Beneath this is the decomposed schist with ore 
veins running in all directions within the belt referred to above. In 
the entry northwest of the main pit a little light colored clay is 
exposed. This may indicate the position of the southeast contact of the 
Murphy marble, and the material in which the pits are dug may be 
decomposed Andrews schist. Keith indicates the width of this belt of 
Andrews schist as extending from the river to the railroad, but it is 
possible that he has placed the contact of the schist and marble too 
far north, as might well be the case, since no rocks were exposed here 
at the time of his visit. It is only by the stripping of sand from over 
the ore veins that the white clay was brought to light. 

Hayes-Hoblitzell Mine: — A few hundred yards farther northeast on 
the ridge on which are the northern openings of the McHan Mine, and 
across a little valley from these are the openings of the Hayes-Hoblitzell 
Mine (pi. VI). The principal open cut, which is at the northeast end 
of the hill overlooking the valley of Hyatt Creek, is about 300 feet long, 
about 75 feet wide and 70 feet deep at its southwest end where it is cut 
into the hill. The walls of the pit are sand shot through with ore, form- 
ing a stockwork 50 feet wide. No well denned solid vein was seen, though 
southwest of the main opening are several cross cuts that prove the ore 
belt to extend in that direction for more than 50 feet, and about 125 
feet southeast of the main cut is another small opening showing con- 
siderable hard ore. If this is the Morse property referred to by Nitze 
(1. c. p. 202) there is an old shaft on it that at the time of his visit 
showed ore in its walls. A sample of this ore was analysed with the 
result shown in I. In the report of the Tenth Census (p. 327) the ore 
was said to be 8 feet wide, and to have the composition given in II. 





SiO* 


Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


I 


6.49 


57.16 
57.84 


.036 


.756 
.021 


1.322 


II 


.036 











North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 



Plate VI 





B 



The Hayes & Hoblitzell Mink. Neab Mab 



C. General view of pit, looking south. 
B. Near view, end of pit. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 33 

The dip of the main veins is southeast as usual, but the smaller ones 
dip to the northwest across the bedding as though following joint cracks. 

The mine is equipped with a steam shovel, a 40 foot log washer and 
a pump with a capacity of 200 gallons a minute. 

It is reported by Mr. Hayes that there have been shipped from the 
present opening about 30,000 tons of ore in the past 3 years, all of 
which contained notable quantities of manganese. In 1920 mining was 
at a standstill but the old dumps were being washed, yielding 2 cars of 
ore daily, at the rate of 100 tons of ore to 250 yards of sand. It is 
estimated that in the cut the proportion of ore to sand is as 3 :2. 

Carload shipments during June, July and August, 1918, are repre- 
sented by the four analyses of dried material following : 



Fe_. 
Mn. 



49.20 
1.37 



49.80 
1.03 



48.80 
1.13 



48.50 
1.38 



Cooper and Hanks Openings: — About % mile northwest of the Hayes 
Mine are numerous openings on the Cooper and Hanks places, now 
owned by Mr. L. L. Jenkins, that indicate a great quantity of ore that 
is available for washing. Although an old property that was worked 
extensively during the latter part of the last century, it was reopened 
in 1917 by A. G. Betts and worked intermittently during the war, ship- 
ping about 200 cars of ore averaging 48% to 49% of iron. 

On this property are eight or nine small pits extending in a straight 
line about 1,500 feet and several larger ones on both sides of this line, 
all of which show many small veins in a mineralized zone in schists. 
In the southwesternmost of these the vein is 5 feet thick, and in several 
others it is reported to be from 7 feet to 10 feet thick, but in most of 
them the veins measure scarcely more than 6 or 7 inches. The 
mineralized zone is said to be 40 feet wide, tapering to 6 feet at the 
northeast opening. The ore in some of the pits is notably globular. 

In the large open pit from which most of the ore was taken the 
lower portions of the walls show the usual plexus of small veins cutting 
sandy schists. Above, the veins are truncated and over their cut-off 
edges is a blanket of conglomerate formed of bowlders, pebbles and sand. 
Some of the bowlders are of ore. They may be of local origin like those 
on the slope of the quartzite hill at Section 6 (see p. 22), but here they 
are rounded and the deposit shows a rude bedding, as though worked 
over by water. 



34 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

About 600 feet southeast of the main line of openings is another 
series of several shallow openings on the opposite side of the ridge. The 
northeasternmost one shows a vein of hard ore 7 feet wide but the others 
only wash ore. The ore has also been uncovered on a slope forming the 
west bank of Valley River. The largest opening is about 60 feet above 
the stream, but a smaller cut is nearer the river. The latter shows 4 
to 10 feet of ore dipping about 30° ~N. E. Across the river on the 
right of way of the new railroad between Andrews and Hayesville are 
numerous outcrops of Andrews ottrelite schists, with which at several 
points are associated limonite layers. 

Fortunately Nitze visited the old mines when their openings were 
comparatively fresh and described the conditions as he saw them at 
that time. He stated (1. c. p. 203) that there are two series of out- 
crops trending nearly east-west on parallel ridges about 600 feet apart. 
The northern belt was uncovered by trenches for a width of 175 feet 
and at one point a shaft was sunk 38 feet in ore, without reaching the 
bottom of the deposit. 

The outcrops on the southern belt had been explored by a shaft 55 
feet deep, which penetrated to its full depth alternating layers of clay 
and limonite averaging about 4 feet thick. Drifts from the bottom of 
the shaft were driven 40 feet and 20 feet south in the same mixture of 
materials. A few yards east of the shaft the top of the ore had been 
uncovered for a width of 60 feet and had been found to be 8 feet thick. 
Further east the ore had been again stripped and penetrated by a shaft. 
Here the deposit was also found to be only 8 feet thick. It lay almost 
horizontal as a layer 8 feet thick just under the surface. Again at 
the river a large outcrop was exposed over a width of 48 feet and this 
again was 8 to 10 feet thick. 

The deposit described above as dipping 30° "N. E., which is just a 
little steeper than the slope of the surface at this point, is probably the 
extension of the layer described by ISTitze. It is evident that a nearly 
uniformly thick layer of ore exists under the surface, following its undu- 
lations rather closely. It is overlain by about 4 or 5 feet of sand and 
loose rock fragments, some of which are quartzite and granite bowlders 
and many others are ore bowlders, and is underlain by sand and clay, 
representing a decomposed rock. In no way is this ore layer directly 
related to fissures in the associated material, as is the case with the hard 
ore veins. Mtze (1. c. p. 205) describes the ore bed near the river as 
being "as a rule compact, but in places porous; again it is nodular and 
extremely argillaceous, changing in fact into a hard, siliceous, ferru- 
ginous clay slate." Observations by the writer revealed a layer made 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



35 



up of rounded masses like bowlders, in some places tightly cemented 
by limonite and in others loosely embedded in a mass of sand and 
limonite. 

Analyses of samples of ore from the two belts are as follows : 





Si0 2 


Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


I. From shaft on northern belt -.- 


3.32 
10.70 


58.52 
54.88 


.026 
.072 


.520 
.273 


.888 


II. From 30 foot shaft on southern belt 


.497 







It is plain that the blanket deposit which slopes with the surface has 
not had the same origin as the hard ore veins that are steeply inclined. 
The latter were evidently made in fractures in the rocks. The former 
is not related to fractures, but appears to be directly related in some 
way to the surface. The deposit seems to be a conglomerate or breccia, 
such as might be made by cementing together into a mass the ore frag- 
ments so thickly strewn over the surface near the outcroppings of ore 
veins and down slope from them. It is possible that the thick layer of 
clay below the ore represents decomposed marble and calcareous schist, 
and the ore was originally in the debris on top of these rocks before they 
were so thoroughly decomposed, like the ore in the clay above the marble 
in Madison County (p. 8) or like the conglomerate above the sandy 
schists in the main pit on this property. Apparently the deposit was 
made and cemented after the general features of the present topog- 
raphy had been developed, the ore having been furnished by veins 
outcropping near the apex of the ridge. 

At present no work is being done anywhere on the property, although 
it furnishes a promising opportunity for the use of a steam shovel and 
log washer. At a few places, as on the slope to Yalley River, though 
there are abundant bowlders of ore scattered over the surface, there are 
intermingled with these many equally large bowlders of granite and 
quartzite which it would be impossible to separate except by hand 
picking. However, it is probable that the cost of picking these from 
the washed ore would be slight. Moreover, they occur only on the sur- 
face and are not found in the layer of ore beneath the surface, so that 
most of the material furnished by the shovel could be delivered from the 
washer in shape for shipment without any further treatment. 



36 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



ORE RESERVES IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OE MARBLE 

It is clearly impossible to estimate the quantity of ore in the vicinity 
of Marble. Small cuts southwest of the main pit of the Hayes-Hob- 
litzell Mine show that the ore-bearing strip extends at least 600 feet 
in this direction, and the openings on the McHan and Puett properties 
extend it at least 1,500 feet further. If the ground can be worked as 
deep as at the mine, there are in this strip of 2,100 feet about 160,000 
tons of ore. But it is probable that mining can be carried on profitably 
below this depth, since the ore at the bottom of the mine is in a condi- 
tion to be removed easily and, in all probability, if all the material re- 
moved were put through the washer, the yield in concentrate would be 
greater than it has been in the case of the material taken from the 
open cut. It is therefore very likely that the quantity of ore that might 
be taken from this strip of country south of Hyatt Creek would amount 
to well over 200,000 tons. 

Northeast of Hyatt Creek on the Jenkins property a moderate quan- 
tity of wash ore is available from the strip of country on the north- 
west side of the ridge. On the southeast side of the hill is the blanket 
deposit which, if it is spread over this slope uniformly, will yield about 
750,000 tons. 

On the assumptions made the total quantity of available ore in the 
vicinity of Marble must be about 1,000,000 tons. 

Deposits Between the Jenkins Place and Andrews 

General: — At the Jenkins place the ore belt crosses the Valley River 
and for the rest of its course remains southeast of the river. 

Small exposures on and near the Andrews-Hayesville railraod where 
it crosses Taylor Creek mark the course of the main veins for a mile, 
and other exposures and pits extend it all the way to Andrews. Other 
exposures and pits farther south, on and near the highway from An- 
drews to the mouth of Vengeance Creek, indicate the presence of other 
deposits near the fault trace between the Andrews schist and members 
of the Valleytown formation. None of the explorations on any of these 
deposits have yielded promising results. In some places the deposits 
are moderately large, but nowhere are they large enough to warrant the 
installation of washing plants under present normal economic con- 
ditions. 

Although the ore veins on the southeast side of the river are not prom- 
ising sources of ore, the case is quite different with respect to the blanket 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 37 

deposits, already referred to as existing at the northeast end of the 
Jenkins property. From Nitze's description we are assured that the 
conglomeratic sheet-like layer of ore spreads over the northeast end of 
the hill on this property and dips down to the edge of the river. 
Whether it fills the river valley and the slopes on its opposite side is 
not known, since no exposures of it are seen for the next mile. A few 
rods northeast of Taylor Creek it is, however, again encountered and 
from this point it extends at least % mile farther northeast where it 
is mined by the Southern Iron Mining Company. 

Taylor or George Luther Property: — The Talyor or George Luther 
prospect is on the little hillock between the lower portion of Taylor Creek 
and the river. There are two openings on the southeast slope of the 
hill in a very flat lying ore bed which is exposed also in the road cut a 
few yards to the east. The ore is said to be about 10 feet thick, over- 
lain by a mixture of sand and ore fragments. Nitze (1. c. p. 205) 
reports the ore to be 40 feet wide and from 6 feet to 8 feet thick. As 
the ore body slopes with the surface, it is probably a sheet like that on 
the Jenkins Place, in which case the width exposed possesses no great 
significance. As a matter of fact, small pits and trenches that have 
merely removed the loose soil have exposed ore under a strip of country 
% mile long. 

On the northwest slope of the hill are exposures along the track of 
the Carolina and Georgia Railroad and a few pits, which show the pres- 
ence of an ore vein the size of which has not been developed. A clean 
sample of the ore from one of these pits yielded Fe=48.93; P=.766. 

Southern Iron Mining Company's Mine: — On the next hill to the 
northeast the conditions are nearly the same as at the Luther place. 
Here the main openings of the Southern Iron Mining Co. are at the 
southwest end of the hill where an area at least 100 feet wide has been 
uncovered, showing a sheet of ore about 10 feet thick wedging to 5 feet or 
6 feet toward the west and east. On the top of the hill farther east are 
ditches and test pits, all uncovering ore over an area 250 feet wide and 
nearly % mile long. Within this area a shaft is reported to have 
penetrated ore to a depth of 38 feet. Moreover the valley to the south- 
east of the hill is said to have been explored by several pits now obliter- 
ated and these pits exposed 5 feet or 6 feet of ore like that on the hill. 
Other pits and a tunnel 750 feet west of the mine opening mark the 
presence of a well defined vein. 

The ore sheet here has in most places a conglomeratic aspect, although 
so compact that it forms a continuous unbroken and quite rigid layer 
i(pl. VIII, A). It is composed mainly of many bowlders of limonite 



38 Deposits of Brown Ikon Ores 

and a few of quartz and schist in a matrix of micaceous sandy limonite. 
In some places globular masses of ore are cemented by a dense limonite 
or goethite exhibiting no characteristic structure, or by crusts of fibrous 
goethite that were evidently deposited in open spaces between frag- 
ments. The structure of the layer is distinctly platy (pi. VIII, C), be- 
cause of the fact that many of the bowlders are flat and partly because 
there are in it many lenses of decomposed schist, similar to that under- 
lying the ore bed. Many of the quartz pebbles are fractured and the 
cracks are filled with iron hydroxides. The cement of the ore is in 
general very porous. Some of the pores are now completely filled with 
soft limonite and others are lined with fibrous goethite. The mica 
plates so abundant in it evidently represent the partially decomposed 
ottrelite plates that are so common in the Andrews schist. 

Below the ore bed is a mass of sand that represents decomposed 
Andrews schist. It is thinly layered like the schist, and the layers 
are as a rule complexly distorted. Just under the ore, however, the 
layers of the schist become parallel to the ore-bed and many schist 
streaks are interlaminated with the ore, especially at its base. This 
parallelism of the schist layers with the ore-bed is thought to be due 
to slumping occasioned by the weight of the ore. The underlying 
sand is almost free from ore particles. Occasionally there is a little 
limonite vein in the foliation planes, but there are in it no large 
pieces of ore. 

Above the ore is a 3-foot layer of an obscurely bedded mass of mixed 
sand, ore fragments and pebbles of quartz. At its base, immediately 
over the ore, is a thin layer of pebbles and sand. This grades upward 
into a red sand and this into soil. Although the evidence is very weak, 
nevertheless it appears to indicate that the ore rests on an old erosion 
surface and that another old surface is just above it. 

From the property, which when formerly active was known as the 
Lena Walker Mine, 13 cars of float ore were shipped and 65 cars of ore 
were taken from the opening at the east end of the hill. The mine was re- 
opened in November, 1919, and a steam shovel and washer were installed 
to recover the ore in the sand above and beneath the ore sheet as well 
as from the ore sheet itself. Between November, 1919, and April 21st, 
1921, when the mine was again closed, production was at the rate of 
about 70 tons of washed ore daily, containing an average of 48.5% Fe 
and a moisture content between 2% and 4%. The total shipments be- 
tween October, 1919, and August, 1920, were about 11,000 tons. The 




o 



° C -T 

O O o 



O p? Q 

<i ffl" O 




Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 39 

overburden of loose material above the ore-bed yielded about % ton of 
ore to each ton of material handled and the ore bed a little less than 
% ton (about 1,450 pounds to the ton). 

In ]STitze's report (1. c. p. 205) the "Sharp place" is described as 
being 3 miles from the point at which the ore belt crosses the river, but 
the description fits the Lena "Walker place. If the two names refer to 
the same place his statement that "in one of the prospect shafts marble 
was found at a depth of 32 feet below the ore by means of a sounding 
bar," is of interest. Keith does not map any marble in this vicinity, 
but, since it is not exposed, it may easily have been missed, and the 
southeast boundary of his marble area may have been placed a trifle 
too far north. 

If the ore layer is continuous over the area between the Luther 
property and the Southern Iron Mining Company's land and has as 
wide a spread over the last named property as seems to be indicated 
by the explorations that have been made on it, and the yield of mer- 
chantable ore that might be obtained from it is as great in proportion 
as that now being recovered at the Southern Iron Mining Company's 
pit, there is probably available in the vicinity of the mine about 600,- 
000 tons of ore. 

Deposits between Southern Iron Mining Co/s Mine and Andrews: — 
Between the Southern Iron Mining Company's plant and Andrews, 
a distance of 3 miles, there are no mines. The country is mapped by 
Keith as being underlain by a strip of the Andrews schist about % 
mile wide all the way to Andrews. This is bounded on the south by the 
Murphy fault and on the north by the Murphy marble. As the country 
is flat and only a few exposures exist, it is probable that the mapping 
is only approximately correct. It is possible that the strip of schist is 
much narrower than mapped, as a ledge of material resembling decom- 
posed marble was noted on the highway 1% miles west of Andrews in 
the area colored for Andrews schist. No evidence of the presence of the 
JSTottely quartzite was seen anywhere between the Lena Walker property 
and Andrews. At several points, however, ore has been uncovered near 
the highway to Andrews, but at no place has mining been undertaken 
seriously, though a number of carloads of ore fragments were shipped 
from several of the openings during the exploratory operations. 

The more promising explorations are on the land of Mr. Ensley, 
about % of a mile northeast of the Southern Iron Mining Co.'s plant, 
where there are 4 shallow trenches in the hill back of Mr. Ensley's 
house; on the property of Mr. D. P. Adams, about } o mile farther 



40 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

northeast, where 4 or 5 cars of ore are said to have been shipped from 
a pit on the west side of the highway; on the farm of B. W. Luther 
about a mile farther northeast, where there is a large pit on the east 
side of the highway; near the church, 14 mile farther northeast, where 
there are several old pits to the west of the highway on both sides of 
the road running northwest to the railroad and another on the road 
running east from the church, and on the property of Mr. C. M. 
Schlagel, % mile east of the highway, on the outskirts of Andrews about 
7 /g mile southwest of the Andrews railroad station. 

At the Ensley place the pits show some ore but it is not in distinct 
veins. On the east side of the highway, however, on the northwest 
slope of a small hill is the outcropping of a very distinct vein which is 
persistent for several hundred feet. The size of the vein is not deter- 
minable but much of the float is in such large fragments that its width 
is probably several feet. 

Near the church is a shallow pit in decomposed Andrews schist. Od 
its walls, which are much weathered, is a breccia of schist fragments 
cemented by iron hydroxides and cut by small veins of limonite. Above 
this, and reaching to the surface, is a layer of conglomeratic ore like 
that farther southwest. The exposures are poor and there is nothing 
to show whether the opening is in a small local deposit or whether it 
cuts into the blanket deposit that is so prominent at the Southern Iron 
Mining Company's plant. The pit on the Luther place shows no blanket 
ore. It exposes a series of small veins. 

The Schlagel occurrence is on a little hill covered with ore bowlders. 
On its slope are two shallow pits that reveal nothing as to the source 
of the bowlders. Two carloads of ore fragments taken from the holes 
and picked from the surface in July and August, 1918, yielded on 
analysis Fe 45.80% and Mn 1.18%. Since the pits are not far from the 
position of the Murphy fault as mapped by Keith, it is possible that the 
ore fragments came from a deposit in the fault fracture. 

Ore Reserves Between Jenkins Place and Andrews 

It is impossible to estimate the quantity of available ore in the strip 
of ore-bearing rocks between the Southern Iron Mining Company's land 
and Andrews because of lack of exposures and the scarcity of explora- 
tions. There are unquestionably some deposits in the strip that would 
yield a few tons of ore; but there is no evidence at present that their 
yield would be commensurate with that of the mines farther southwest. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 41 



DEPOSITS BETWEEN ANDREWS AND TOPTON 

Northeast of Andrews the syncline of marble and Andrews schist 
that is so marked a feature in the Valley River Valley southwest of 
Andrews disappears a few miles from Andrews. Beyond it to Topton 
there remain only a few patches of marble that represent its bottom. 
Elsewhere the entire syncline has been eroded and the great Murphy 
fault, already referred to, separates a strip of Valleytown formation from 
a strip of Nantahala slate (pi. I). Along this fault are a few deposits, 
but none of them give promise of successful operation under present 
economic conditions. So far as now known they are comparatively 
small and are not in compact veins. There are only two points at 
which explorations have been made. One is on the crest of the little hill 
on the east side of the railroad track about 500 feet south of Rhodo 
Station. Here there are 3 small trenches that uncover a little ore that 
appears to be a horizontal vein or a thin blanket deposit like that on the 
Lena Walker property, south of Andrews (p. 37). The other is about 
1,600 feet north of Topton on the east side of Red Marble Gap. Here 
the Nantahala black slate is mapped by Keith as being in contact with 
the Tusquitee quartzite, which lies above it. The ore occurs at this 
contact where the conditions are somewhat similar to those further 
southwest. In both cases quartzite lies above a schist and ores were de- 
posited at their contacts. Very little is known about the Red Marble 
Gap occurrence. The openings have nearly been obliterated. Nitze 
(1. c. p. 206) states that the deposit is 20 feet thick and that it dips 
toward the southeast. 

DEPOSITS IN THE ANDREWS AREA 

General: — Attention has already been called to the fact that the Mur- 
phy fault makes a sudden turn at Andrews, running south for a mile to 
the mouth of Snyder Creek, then southwest for % mile, where it appar- 
ently is cut off by another fault that trends northeast and continues the 
general fracture so prominent southwest of Andrews. Where this fault 
crosses Junalaska Creek it is joined by a short fault that extends for 
several miles in a little more northerly direction and then dies out. 
The triangular area enclosed by the faults west, south and south- 
east of Valleytown is occupied by a crescentic area of Murphy marble 
to the northeast and a surrounding crescent of Andrews schist to the 
southwest. The Andrews schist is bounded by the faults which separate 
it on the surface from the Brasstown and lower formations. In the 



42 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

Andrews schist and along the faults that limit the area on the south- 
east are several mines and a number of prospects that are being seri- 
ously considered for exploitation in the near future. 

Washburn Place: — Northeast of Andrews there is one deposit on the 
strike of the deposits in the Valley River belt to the southwest. This 
was described by Nitze (1. c. p. 206) as occurring on the Washburn 
place, % mile north of Valleytown, on the south side of Valley River 
between the mouths of Tatham and Junaluska creeks, which is not far 
from the position of the contact between the Murphy marble and An- 
drews schist as mapped by Keith, The occurrence is described as con- 
sisting of two outcrops, one of which was 75 yards a little south of east 
of the other. One exposed 18 feet and the other 25 feet of a compact, 
massive ore. This is the place later worked by J. Q. Barker and from 
which about 150 tons of ore were taken. There are 3 pits on the 
sides of a little hillock about 750 feet east of the Andrews Lumber 
Company's plant. The vein is said by Mr. Barker to trend northeast 
and then to bend to the southeast, following in general the direction 
of the contact between the marble and the Andrews schist as it makes its 
turn toward the south into the Tatham Creek area. The largest pit is 
about 150 feet long and its bottom is from 10 feet to 15 feet below the 
water level. There was no evidence that the limonite was changing to 
pyrite with depth, as is the case where limonite is a surface oxidation 
product of pyrite deposits. During the course of the operations some 
bowlders measuring 30x40 feet were mined, indicating the existence of 
a large vein somewhere in the vicinity. None of the ore was washed, 
only the coarse, hard material being saved. 

Swan Property: — The first openings southeast of the Washburn place 
are two pits on the property of Mr. G. W. Swan near the junction of 
the road to Valleytown and that up Snyder Creek. The larger is a 
trench 10 feet wide and 70 feet long trending 1ST. 15°-20° E. Its walls 
show a number of small veins dipping about 25° S. E. No compact 
ore is now visible, though it is said that some ore was shipped without 
washing. A second pit a few hundred yards further southeast is just 
east of Valleytown. It is a shallow opening 70 feet by 40 feet in a 
wash ore. These two pits must be near the contact of the marble with 
the Andrews schist, as mapped by Keith, or within the schist near the 
contact. 

Ferebee & Young Mine: — The next openings in this direction are 
those of the Eerebee and Young Mine, about % mile nearly east of 
Valleytown at the junction of the road from Valleytown to Topton 



Deposits of Beown Iron Oees 



43 



and that leading northwest from Junaluska Creek. Here are several 
openings, from one of which about 200 cars of ore were shipped. 

One of the openings is a small pit on the side of the road leading 
northwest to Topton, where there is a deposit of loose ore about 8 
or 9 feet thick lying under calcareous schists dipping 45° S. E. 

Most of the ore that was shipped came from a large pit 150 yards 
from the road, near the top of a little hill, and near the fault bounding 
the Andrews schist on the southeast. This pit has a length of 125 feet 
in a direction N". 80° E., which is believed to be the trend of the vein, 
a maximum width of 70 feet and an average depth of 17 feet. The 
rocks associated with the ore appear to be contorted and crushed, as 
though in a fault zone. The ore-ledge in the bottom of the mine con- 
sists of many thin layers of limonite separated by sandy layers, the 
whole measuring about 9 feet wide, and having a high dip to the south. 
The mining operations followed this ledge in a general way, but the 
whole area of the pit was worked. In some places the material was 
simply scraped up and loaded into trucks without washing or even 
forking. In other places the material was screened and shipped. When 
the harder rock under the mantle of disintegrated material was reached 
the place was abandoned. 

It is reported that near the surface about 50% of the "dirt" was 
iron. "With greater depth the iron content diminished to 45%. At a 
depth of from 12 to 15 feet the material became so poor in iron that it 
no longer paid to ship it. A glance at the bottom of the pit reveals 
the fact that there is still a great quantity of ore in it, but that it will 
require washing before it becomes salable. 

Analyses of the ore as shipped without washing or cobbing are given 
below. In the second series the effect of increasing depth on the qual- 
ity of the ore is well shown. 



Mar., 1917, 1 car.. 

Oct. 3, 1917 

Mar., 1918, 17 cars 

April, 1918, 6 cars. 



Si0 2 


Fe 


Mn 


P 


5.46 


53.00 


.78 


.46 


11.90 


50.40 


.41 


1.03 


7.93- 


46.08 


.37- 


.35- 


10.93 





.92 


.65 


11.15 


49.80 


.49 


.35 



Analyst 



Va. I. C. & C. Co. 
Intermont C. & I. Corp. 
Va. I. C. & C. Co. 

5 Roane Iron Co. 







Mar. 
1917 


Aug. 
1917 


Sept. 
1917 


Oct. 
1917 


Nov. 
1917 


Dec. 
1917 


.Mar. 
1918 


Apr. 
1918 


June 
1918 


Fe 


52.40 
3 


52.75 
1 


51.57 

7 


50.06 
9 


51.46 
18 


47.84 
10 


46. OS 
17 


49. SO 
6 


52.30 




9 







44 Deposits of Brown Irox Ores 

Samples of selected ore gave : 



Si0 2 


Fe 


Mn 


P 


12.48 


46.70 


3.37 


1.008 


3.63 


56.01 


.00 


1.22 


3.23 


58.11 


tr 


.90 


.90 


2.56 


55. 16 


.113 



Analyst 



Road cut 

Road cut 

Hill opening. 
Creek openin 



Intermont C. & I. Corp. 
F. P. Drane, Charlotte. 
F. P. Drane, Charlotte. 
F. P. Drane, Charlotte. 



The last sample was taken from a small hole on the creek south of the 
opening on the road. It is evidently from a small vein of pyrolusite. 

There are no other ore pits and no exposures of brown ore anywhere 
in the immediate neighborhood of the mine. It is reported, however, 
that trenches and pits have uncovered limonite in Ingram field, which 
occupies the valley extending from the Eerebee and Young Mine west- 
ward to Junaluska Creek. The ore is probably underlain by the Murphy 
marble and the Andrews schist, for in an old pit for manganese on the 
east bank of the creek where it crosses the valley, is exposed a broad 
expanse of contorted calcareous schist resting on a white marble that 
dips southeast. 

About 300 yards southwest of this point, on the west side of the road 
up Junaluska Creek several openings and a shaft have been made in 
search for magnetite. Bowlders of magnetic ore were scattered over 
the surface and through the soil in which the pits and shaft were dug. 
but no ledge was encountered. A line of magnetic attraction is said 
to run southeast to the point of a projecting hill of Xantahala shale. 
The source of the ore is unknown. 

Rogers Opening: — The road leading up Tatham Creek follows very 
closely the fault between the Valleytown formation and the Andrews 
schist, which forms the western boundary of the Yalleytown area, l^ear 
or on this fault are some of the largest deposits in the area, one of which 
is now being worked by the Marvacar Mining Company. The most 
northerly deposit that has been uncovered in this portion of the district 
is about 100 yards east of the road opposite the residence of J. R. Rogers, 
^which is about % mile south of the junction with the Valleytown road. 
Here an open cut 150 feet long and from 40 feet to 70 feet wide has 
exposed a series of sandy schists striking about N. 50° E. and dipping 50° 
S. E. These schists are traversed by a number of small veins forming a 
stockwork about 20 feet wide. Many of the veins are an inch or two 
in width but more are larger., They are so closely spaced and there 
are so many of them that the whole would appear to offer a promising 
opportunity for a washing plant. 



North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 



Plate IX 




A 




B 



Marvacab Limonite Mine, Near Andrews 



A. General view of south end of open cut. 

B. Near view of vein in same cut. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 45 

Marvacar Mining Company's Property: — About a mile south of the 
Rogers opening is the large pit of the Marvacar Mining Company (pi. 
IX). This is the only operating mine in the district. It was formerly 
operated by Cover & Porter and later by Griffith, Middleton k Co. 
In September, 1920, the Marvacar Mining Company was incorporated. 
This company secured the mineral rights on 201 acres of land and im- 
mediately began plans to operate on a large scale. 

The present workings consist of an open cut, 550 feet long by about 
100 feet wide, and varying in depth from a few feet to 50 feet. The 
opening follows a ledge of dark compact ore striking ~N. 50° E. and 
dipping 65°-70° S. E. There is an 18-foot vein of ore of which 10 
feet is hard and compact in the southeast wall and this constitutes the 
principal source of the shipping ore, though the whole pit is in material 
that furnishes a satisfactory wash ore. The foot wall of the main vein 
is a micaceous sandy schist and the hanging wall a red and white clay 
that may be a fault gouge. The overburden varies in thickness from 
1 to 10 feet, and much of it contains enough ore to pay for washing. 

It is said that 6 drill holes put into the bottom of the pit 30 feet 
northwest from the outcrop of the vein bottomed in ore. Assuming that 
the width of workable ore is 50 feet, there is present under the pit, 
for every 30 feet of depth, about 80,000 tons of merchantable ore. It 
is reported by the men in charge of the washing that under normal 
conditions the material going to the washer would yield 3 tons of washed 
ore containing about 50% Fe to 4 tons of ground excavated. 

Sandy schists containing ore veins extend for some distance to the 
west of the main vein, and prospect trenches cut in the hill 500 feet 
west of the pit indicate that the ore-bearing zone may cover a strip of 
country at least this wide. The westernmost row of trenches has uncov- 
ered ledges showing several veins from 2 to 3 feet wide and a number 
of thinner ones closely spaced through a width of 18 feet. The soil 
covering the ledges is only a few feet deep, but everywhere it contains 
numerous fragments of ore. 

About 24,000 tons were shipped from the property between April, 
1917, and December, 1918. During a portion of 1919 the mine was 
shut down temporarily, but in 1920 it was shipping about 50 tons daily 
until the end of the year, when it was again shut down. During the 
summer of 1921 mining was suspended, but a little work was being done 
to prepare the mine for more economical operation. It is interesting 
to note the use of hydraulic methods for removing the overburden and 
washing the sand from the ore. Water for the system is drawn from 
a branch of Tatham Creek. 



46 



Deposits of Beown Iron Oees 



The ore is broken down by very light charges of dynamite, is elevated 
by a steam shovel and hauled by a light locomotive over a narrow 
gauge track 2,000 feet to the washing plant on the Andrews Manufac- 
turing Co.'s railroad and then on this logging road 1% miles to An- 
drews. Formerly about 2 cars were loaded daily, but the property is 
now being equipped to load 3 or 4 cars daily. 

The following analyses of carload lots represent the composition of 
the shipped products. 







Fe 


Mn 


P 


SiO* 


Nov. 17, 1917.. . 




49.00 
41.00 
49.60 
44.00 
45.40 
51.21 
51.90 
51.73 


.64 
.40 


1.00 
.52 


8.40 


Nov. 28, 1917 




17.92 


Nov. 28, 1917.. 




7.84 


Dec. 17, 1917 




.26 
1.12 


.76 
.54 


11.00 


Dec. 17, 1917 




10.10 


Mch. 18, 1918 . 






April, 1918 








8.91 


June, 1918 





















J. W. Walker Property: — The J. W. Walker property is about % 
mile southwest of the Marvacar Mine near the junction of the two 
faults limiting the east and west sides of the Yalleytown area. 

The property is under the control of the Southern Iron Mining Co. 
but is not now being worked. Explorations have been made by means 
of trenches and pits on the crest and northeastern slope of a hill over- 
looking a branch of Tatham Creek. There are five large openings in 




Brown hematite with few 
sandy layers 



Sandy schist with small 
ore veins 



Figure ?. Section across end of pit on J. W. Walker property, near Andrews, N. C. 

the hill and^ several small trenches exposing ore for a distance of 700 
feet in length and several hundred feet in breadth. These openings 
were made for exploratory purposes, but during the explorations about 
60 cars of ore were shipped. The rocks in most of the openings dip 
55° S. E., but in the large pit that is farthest east the dip of the vein 
is nearly vertical. The loose ore was separated from the sand of the 
decomposed schist by hydraulicking, forking and screening. In addi- 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



47 



tion hard ore was broken from the steep quarry-like faces of some of 
the pits and shipped without further preparation. At the large open- 
ing on the south side of the top of the hill there has been exposed a wall 
60 feet long that shows about 30 feet of ore, in two veins 17 feet and 15 
feet wide, separated by 3 feet of sand, and a number of smaller veins 
from 1% feet to a few inches wide. Some of the ore in the wider 
veins could be shipped without washing, but much of it and most of 
that in the smaller veins and in the sand between the veins (see fig. 7) 
would have to be washed to become salable. 

The following analyses of shipments made to the Roane Iron Co. in- 
dicate the character of the product that may be furnished without wash- 
ing and without further cobbing than the rejection of sand in the pit. 
There is added for comparison the analysis of a sample composed of 
material taken from the 5 openings on the property, quartered and 
washed. 

Analyses of carload lots of dried material, unwashed. 1918. 





July 


July 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Oct. 


Fe 


46.50 
.39 


43.30 
.45 


46.70 
.69 


45.90 
2.36 


47.90 
.98 


42.80 

.88 


40.50 

.34 


44.10 


Mn... 


.64 







Analysis of 8 cars unwashed ore and sample from 5 openings. Dry. 





Fe 


Mn 


P 


AI2O3 


Insol. 


Eight cars, Sept., 1918 


44.04 
48.41 


1.02 
2.36 


.84 
.349 


4.57 


20.15 




12.65 







The Walker property appears to be well situated for working. Water 
can be obtained by ditch from Tatham Creek and delivered 40 feet 
below the main openings. It can then be pumped to the pit and utilized 
for carrying ore and sand to the bottom of the hill where separation 
can be accomplished by washing. An outlet to Andrews might be pro- 
vided by building a spur of % mile up Tatham Creek from a logging 
road already in operation. 

The southwesternmost openings in this area are several pits between 
Tatham Creek and the road on its southeast side, some of which are 
on the property of Geo. Walker, about % m il e from the pits just 
described. They are now filled. About 20 cars of ore were shipped 
from them before the place was abandoned. The rocks in their vicinity 
strike a little east of north and dip 85° E. 



48 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



ORE RESERVES m THE ANDREWS AREA 

If the ore-belt is continuous from the Marvacar through the Walker 
property, the quantity of ore in the southwest corner of the Andrews 
area must be very large. Unfortunately, however, we are not yet sure 
that the veins extend between the two. An estimate of the ore that is 
available in this portion of the area, based on the explorations that have 
been made, indicates the existence within 70 feet of the surface of about 
1,350,000 tons. Most of the ore elsewhere in the area is unavailable at 
present. Some of the deposits might be worked on a small scale for 
a short time, but so far as is now known, they could be operated only 
to a shallow depth, because, since the area is one of low relief, the 
underground water level is close to the surface except at a few places. 
It is probable that the deposit at the Eerebee and Young Mine might 
furnish considerable wash ore, but the product would have to be hauled 
1% miles to Andrews for shipment, unless a spur were built down 
Ingram field to the Andrews Company's logging road at Junalaska 
Creek. 

DEPOSITS IN THE NOTTELY RIVER BELT 

The extension of the Valley River ore belt to the southwest as far 
as the State line has been called the Nottely River belt, since it follows 
very closely the course of this river all the way to Georgia (pi. I). As a 
rule the syncline is much narrower to the southwest of Murphy than it is 
between this city and Andrews and the Andrews schist is not as well 



Culberson 
<£ ca. 



Sea /eye/ 




Figure 8. Northwest-southeast section across Nottely River helt at Culberson, N. C. a, 
Nottely quartizite; c, Murphy marble; d, Valleytown formation; e, Brasstown schist; /, 
Tusquitee quartizite; g, Nantahala shale; h, Great Smoky formation. 



developed. The rocks are closely folded so that their dips are usually 
high (fig. 8). Moreover the Murphy fault traverses the fold nearly along 
its axis. The close folding and the position of the fault account for the 
narrow width of this portion of the syncline. Because the syncline is 
more depressed to the southwest than toward the northeast (see p. 13), 
and because of the close folding, the Nottely quartzite has been more 
completely protected from erosion in this portion of the syncline than 



Deposits of Bkown Ikon Ores 49 

further northeast and has consequently been preserved as a low ridge 
flanking the Murphy branch of the Louisville and Nashville railroad 
nearly all the way to the State line. West of the quartzite is a narrow 
strip of the Murphy marble which at Kinsey was formerly quarried and 
in many places has been worked for talc. East of the quartzite is a 
comparatively narrow belt of the Andrews schist and east of this the 
trace of the Murphy fault. The fault in some places passes very near 
the quartzite, so that the belt of Andrews schist exposed at the surface 
is reduced to very narrow limits. In other places the fault passes 
through the Andrews schist and consequently there are at these places 
wider patches of the schist between the quartzite and the members of the 
Yalleytown formation. At one point near Ranger, a very narrow strip 
of the Murphy marble is between the Andrews schist and the fault line, 
but this is the only outcropping of the marble known on the east side of 
the quartzite. 

The ore deposits in the Nottely belt are confined mainly to the 
neighborhood of the fault. That is, so far as known, most of them 
occur only on the southeast side of the Nottely quartzite ridge. A few 
pits have uncovered deposits on its northwest side but they are small 
and unimportant. No mines have been developed, but from a few 
openings in the neighborhood of Culberson small shipments have been 
made from time to time. 

On the southeast side of the quartzite ridge, on the other hand, are 
numerous evidences that an ore belt is nearly, if not quite, continuous 
all the way to the State line. Many pits and small exposures on or near 
the highway from Murphy to Culberson have shown the presence of 
deposits all the way. Only on the Fain-Hitchcock property, however, 
have any large explorations been attempted (see p. 18). Most of the 
openings are small pits that have not reached the solid ledge; conse- 
quently there is no means of learning whether the veins are large or 
small. Usually only soft ore was encountered and because of this the 
openings were abandoned. No recent attempts have been made to test 
the material as a source for wash ore. 

One of the most promising of these deposits is the Rogers prospect 
near the mouth of Cane Creek where it crosses the quartzite ridge just 
before entering Nottely River about three miles southwest of Murphy. 
Here ore appears to be between the quartzite and Andrews schist. It is 
opened by a comparatively large pit, just east of the railroad track, ex- 
posing a yellow or yellowish-brown and sandy ore containing many little 
rhombohedral or cubical masses of limonite that represent decomposed 
ottrelite plates, indicating that the ore replaced Andrews schist. North- 



50 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

east of the pit near the railroad are 5 other pits that carry the ore- 
bearing zone about % m il e further in this direction. Some of them are 
large, and from them a great deal of ore must have been taken. It was 
apparently all loose ore that required washing. Much of the ore is 
manganiferous and some of the pits have yielded manganese ores of 
shipping grade. There is no means of estimating the quantity of ore 
in the deposits, but if the ore-belt is 20 feet wide through the entire 
"Yz mile about 60,000 tons are present within 50 feet of the surface. 

A small pit in the woods about 1,000 feet north of the pit on the 
railroad shows that ore is on the northwest side of the quartzite as well 
as on its southeast side, and exposures on the track of the Louisville 
and Nashville Railroad indicate that the mineralized zone extends at 
least 3 miles farther southwest. But the exposures are all small and 
the veins uncovered are all narrow, so that the quantity of ore on the 
northwest side of the ridge is probably inconsiderable in quantity. 

On the southeast side of the ridge, farther to the southeast, are a num- 
ber of pits and several fairly large exposures revealing the presence of 
much wider veins than those on its northwest side. Most of the exposures 
are on the highway between Murphy and Culberson, and the pits are 
near this road on either side. An exposure of manganiferous ore is at 
the road corner about 650 feet southwest of the bridge over Cane Creek, 
a cut in red ocher is on the road and a pit is just east of it on the prop- 
erty of W. P. Hall, about 2,000 feet farther southwest, and other ex- 
posures are at about equal intervals between the Hall property and the 
corner of the road to Kinsey. 

Between this corner and the junction of the highway with the road 
to Ranger are 4 more exposures on the main road, and two pits on the 
west side of the road in the Andrews schist near its contact with the 
quartzite. Neither of the two pits shows any ore in its wall, but the 
dumps are so filled with small fragments of limonite as to suggest that 
the deposits might furnish wash ore in fair quantity. 

Near the corner of the highway and the road to Ranger ore is much 
more abundant. About 750 feet northeast of the corner is an exposure 
in the stream-bed just east of the road and in a cut on the Ranger road a 
few yards northwest of the corner is another. On the northest bank of 
the cut is a small pit in the same veins as are exposed in the cut, but 
neither in the cut nor in the pit can the width of the mineralized zone 
be determined. It is reported by the residents in its vicinity that some 
ore was shipped from the pit. These deposits are all near the trace of 
the Murphy fault. On the map (pi. I), they are designated the Speed 
and Kirkpatrick prospects. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 51 

The largest deposit in this region is opened at the southeast side 
of the quartzite ridge, on the southwest side of the Ranger road just 
east of the railroad crossing. At this point is a pit several hundred 
feet long well up toward the crest of the ridge and just east of a large 
quartzite quarry. The pit has been abandoned for some time and 
therefore shows no solid ledge, but from its size it is evident that it has 
yielded considerable ore. Here and there are small seams of sandy ore 
in very much disintegrated schist. Their strike is N". 40° E. and dip 
about 75° S. E. 

Another group of deposits is exposed by a series of trenches and a 
tunnel at the southwest end of the same quartzite ridge — the Carroll 
prospect. Like the pit at its northeast end, the trenches are on the 
contact of the quartzite and the Andrews schist. There are a few 
narrow seams of ore in the schist but most of the ore appears to con- 
sist of bowlders in its disintegrated upper portion. About 1,500 feet 
farther east, on the southeast side of the highway, are two other 
pits, likewise in loose ore, and a few yards west of them is an exposure 
of ore in the road. These are near the Murphy fault line. If the 
strip of country 500 feet wide between the various pits and exposures 
is everywhere as rich in ore as is indicated by the character of the 
material in which the pits have been sunk, it contains a large quantity 
of ore suitable for washing. 

At this point the syncline widens and a narrow belt of the Murphy 
limestone lies between the Andrews schist and the Murphy fault trace. 
Only one distinct exposure of the marble is known to occur, and that 
is in the large spring north of Carroll's corner, but the east slope of the 
hill to the soutliAvest is covered with the kind of white sand that is 
known to result from the decomposition of the marble elsewhere, so that 
there can be little doubt that it is underlain by the marble. 

Here the highway turns south and crosses the fault line, and 
for the rest of its distance to Culberson runs over rocks of the Valley- 
town formation. Since it nowhere crosses onto the Andrews schist belt 
it cuts no more ore exposures. 

The quartzite ridge, however, continues its southwest course and 
crosses the Nottely River midway between the highway and the railroad. 
Most of the area between the highway and the river is devoid of expos- 
ures, but the quartzite can be traced across it by trains of bowlders. 
Near the river are a few exposures of the quartzite and about 1,000 feet 
from its bank is a little ridge which is covered with quartzite frag- 
ments. On the northwest side of this is an exposure of ore in veins and 
above this is a thin layer of conglomeratic ore. There is no likelihood 



52 Deposits of Bkown Iron Ores 

that the ore is in large quantity. The occurrence is interesting, how- 
ever, as indicating the presence of ore on the northwest side of the 
quartzite. 

About a mile farther toward Culberson, where the railroad passes 
through a narrow valley between two small hills, ore is again met with. 
The little valley is in marble. The hill to the southeast is mainly 
quartzite, but on its southeast slope is a pit from which some ore has 
been taken. Nothing is known of the size of the deposit, but the float 
indicates that the ore zone extends the full length of the hill. South- 
east of the pit the land is low and there are no exposures for a distance 
of 500 feet. Beyond this the rocks are sandy slates that are probably 
Valleytown. The interval between the slates and the pit may be un- 
derlain by Andrews schist, in which case the ore is on the contact of this 
rock and the quartzite. If the underlying rocks are Yalleytown the 
deposit is on the Murphy fault plane. 

No other deposits were seen on either side of the quartzite until Cul- 
berson was reached. This is about % mile from the State line. On the 
road running northwest from the railway station is an exposure of ore 
on the northwest side of the quartzite, and a little farther west, on the 
northwest side of the main road, are three pits near the contact of the 
marble with the Valleytown formation, from which it is said large 
quantities of ore were once taken for the use of local forges. The pit 
walls are now covered with weeds and nothing can be seen in them, but 
the old dumps still contain a great many ore fragments. 

Other exposures and pits mark the position of an ore belt on the 
northwest side of the quartzite all the way to the State line and just 
across it, in Georgia, exposures and pits prove the existence of ore on 
both sides. Much of the ore near Culberson is highly manganiferous, 
and some is composed largely of pyrolusite. In no case do any of the 
deposits appear of commercial importance. 

OEE RESERVES IN THE NOTTELY RIVER BELT 

There appears to be no good reason why there should not be ore de- 
posits in the Nottely River belt, south of the Fain-Hitchcock Mine, of 
the same magnitude as those farther north, since the geological condi- 
tions are the same in both portions of the ore-bearing belt. There is, 
however, no evidence that large deposits occur in the southern portion of 
the belt. There are several deposits from which a few thousand tons 
of ore might be obtained, but none, so far as known, that would yield 
a large production. The most promising deposits are those near the 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



53 




Contour interval ZOO fe^t 











EXPLANATION 














^E=E2 




\ v\ \ 

\ \ \ x . 

\ VA .\ 




^ 









X 











Andrews 
schist 



Murphy 

marble 

(Including some 

Andrews schist 

in the Brasstown belt) 



Valleytown 
formation 



Brasstown Tusquitee 



schist 



quartzite 



Nantahala 
slate 



Figure 9. Geologic map of the Peachtree area and the eastern part of the Brasstown belt, 
N. C. A-A', Line of right-hand portion of section, figure 9. 



54 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



mouth of Cane Creek. There may be others equally as large, which 
explorations have not discovered, but the covering of soil is so uni- 
formly spread over the rocks of the area that outcrops are rare and the 
trace of the Murphy fault is difficult to locate. 



ORE DEPOSITS IN THE PEACHTREE AREA 

The village of Peachtree, 6 miles east of Murphy, lies in the concavity 
of a crescentic-shaped area of Murphy marble and Andrews schist pro- 
duced by the erosion of an anticline pitching toward the southwest (fig. 
9). The fold involves only the two formations mentioned, with the 
Andrews schist surrounding the marble on all sides but the northeast. 
A fault separates the Andrews schist from the Brasstown schist on the 
west, and another separates it from the Valleytown formation on the 
south and east. Both faults are indicated by Keith as dipping at com- 
paratively low angle to the southeast. (See fig. 10.) 




^% 



Figure 10. — Section across Brasstown belt, Peachtree area, and Valley River belt near 
Regal, N. C. a, Nottely quartzite; b, Andrews schist; c, Murphy marble; d, Valleytown 
formation; e, Brasstown schist; /, Tusquitee quartzite; g, NantaUala shale. 

There have been no developments of ore deposits in the district in con- 
sequence of the lack of transportation facilities. With the opening to 
traffic of the Carolina and Georgia Railroad to Hayesville, it is probable 
that a more thorough knowledge of the resources of the district will soon 
be available. Because of the lack of exposures in the vicinity of the 
village few deposits are known to exist within the area underlain by 
the marble and Andrews schist, but nearly a dozen are known within 
a short distance of the village outside of this area. 

One of the most promising looking of all the deposits is just west of 
Peachtree on the lands of Messrs. Eliot and Leatherwood, where two 
ledges about 20 feet by 35 feet rise a few feet above the general level 
of the valley. There are no other rocks in the neighborhood, but the 
position of the deposit is near that of the contact between the marble and 
the Andrews schist. 

There has been no attempt to discover the extent of the vein, nor so 
far as known, has there been analysis of the ore. 1 It is clear from in- 
spection alone that much of the vein could be shipped without washing. 



1 This exposure was opened during the Summer of 1924, but with what result is not known. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 55 

The only other evidences of ore in the area are a narrow ledge cross- 
ing the road, about half a mile north of the Eliot deposit, another 
crossing Peachtree Creek about % mile southeast of the Eliot ledge, and 
two openings in ocher, one near the junction of the Murphy and Zim- 
merman Creek roads, and the other about % uiile north on the road 
running north from this junction. The exposure first mentioned ap- 
pears to be near the contact of the marble and the Andrews schist, 
as mapped by Keith, and the second is in the Andrews schist near 
the fault separating it from the Valleytown formation. Neither is 
large enough to offer promise of affording much ore. 

The first of the two openings in ocher is in a cut on the north side 
of the road very near the fault line. The material is a mass of red 
clay just west of exposures of white and pink clays that probably repre- 
sent weathered calcareous layers in the Andrews schist. The second is 
also close to the fault, but it is also close to a ledge of quartzite which 
lies just west of it. It is a large pit, locally known as the Paint Mine, 
but it is so old that its walls have fallen in and are now hidden by a 
thick cover of weeds and brush. 

The quartzite immediately west of the Paint Mine is not mapped by 
Keith as a separate formation. However, it extends southwest as a ridge 
which is flanked on its southeast side by ore deposits. It may be a thick 
bed in the lower portion of the Brasstown schists, but from its massive 
character it appears more likely to be a strip of the Tusquitee quartzite 
raised from beneath by folding. 

Ore is exposed on the southeast side of the quartzite, a few rods 
west of the corner of the Zimmerman Creek and Murphy roads, at a few 
yards further south on the property of Mr. W. P. Smith, and again in 
a road cut 600 feet south of Mr. Smith's house. 

Only one of these deposits is of more than passing interest. This 
is the one on Mr. Smith's property, about 200 yards north of his house. 
Here on a low hill are a ledge and many loose fragments of hard ore 
that would seem to indicate a vein 6 or 7 feet wide. It has not been 
explored, so no estimate of its value as a source of ore can be made. 

Another and more lofty ridge of quartzite is a little further south- 
west. The quartzite is well exposed at the corner of the Peachtree and 
Murphy roads where it has been quarried for road metal. Erom this 
point it extends as a distinct ridge all the way to Zimmerman Creek, 
but beyond this point it has not been traced. It may be the southern 
extension of the belt of quartzite near the Paint Mine. All along its 
southeast side are exposures of ore or belts of ore float. The most not- 
able deposits are at its southwest end, where for ] [> mile from the 



56 Deposits of Brown Ikon Oees 

Murphy road exposures and heavy float ore are continuous. The largest 
exposure is about % mile from the road-corner, on the east side of a 
rough quartzite ledge which forms the crest of a little ridge near the 
base of the greater ridge. The exposure is a ledge of hard ore about 7 
feet wide, and nearby is a small pit. There is no question of the pres- 
ence of considerable ore in the belt, but it is doubtful if it is so con- 
centrated in any one place as to constitute an important deposit. 

ORE RESERVES NEAR PEACHTREE 

The Peachtree area proper offers little promise for the development 
of large mining operations, though one or two of the deposits in it 
may furnish fair quantities of ore. 

ORE DEPOSITS IN THE BRASSTOWN" BELT AXD THE 
MARTIN CREEK AREA 

General: — Southeast of Peachtree is a second belt of quartzite, in 
the area mapped by Keith as being underlain by the Valleytown 
formation. This quartzite is not as well developed as that farther west. 
It is at the northeast end of the Brasstown belt of Murphy marble (see 
map and section, figs. 9 and 10) which begins at a point a little south of 
east of Peachtree as a narrow belt, nowhere more than % a mile wide, 
that has been mapped as extending for 7 miles to the western border of 
the Nantahala quadrangle, passing through the village of Brasstown. At 
the Monteith Mine on the divide between Little Brasstown and Martin 
creeks no evidence of the presence of marble was seen; consequently 
it may be assumed that the Brasstown belt terminates at this point. 
Another belt starts at the head waters of Martin Creek, a mile further 
west, spreads out over the valley of Martin Creek, and then contracts 
and again becomes a narrow belt running southwest to the Xottely 
River. This has been called the Martin Creek area. 

THE BRASSTOWN" BELT 

General: — The marble strip passing through Brasstown is the ex- 
posure of a closely compressed syncline overturned to the northwest 
about 15° from the vertical. It is bordered on both sides by the rocks 
of the Valleytown formation. (See fig. 9.) 

Ore deposits are known to occur on both sides of the marble through- 
out nearly its entire length, and at several points they were formerly 
exploited. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 57 

Deposits North of the Hiwassee River: — The most important de- 
posits in that portion of the Brasstown belt north of the Hiwassee 
River are those on the west side of the marble near its contact with 
the quartzite already referred to above. If Keith's mapping is cor- 
rect, the deposits are in the Valleytown formation between the marble 
and the quartzite. The topography, however, suggests that the mar- 
ble or the Andrews schist may extend as far west as the ore-ledges, 
in which cases the deposits are in the calcareous rock at its contact 
with the quartzite. 

At all points where observed the ore in this portion of the belt is 
hard and comparatively dense and is apparently in large quantity. At 
the J. van Davis place, about one mile southeast of Peachtree, and at 
the A. E. Suddeth place % mile farther southeast pits have been dug 
and some ore has been removed. 

At both of these places the ore is at the east contact of a narrow belt 
of quartzite, which if Keith's interpretation of the structure of the area 
is correct, is a bed of quartzite near the top of the Valleytown formation 
and overlying schistose beds of the same formation. The quartzite is 
persistent for several hundred yards to the northeast and appears at in- 
tervals for a mile to the southwest. The ore was not seen in place at 
either location, but it outcrops as narrow veins at several places in the 
road between them. 

On the Davis property large fragments of almost pure ore occur on 
the slopes of a low hill in such great quantity as to suggest the presence 
of a wide vein near by, and at the Suddeth place is a pit with an old 
dump composed almost entirely of limonite gravel. 

The largest and most promising ledges in this portion of the belt 
are on the property of J. W. Cooper about V2 ml le south of the 
Suddeth property and west of the residence of Cyrus Witte, across 
a valley which is underlain by marble. There are here two ledges 
that are the outcrops of parallel veins about 300 feet apart. The 
eastern ore is exposed in a little cliff, which apparently marks the 
western boundary of the marble. The vein can be traced contin- 
uously for 500 feet as an almost solid ledge about 15 feet wide. It 
is admirably situated for mining. The western exposure is an ac- 
cumulation of large fragments and rough ledges that indicate another 
vein about 15 feet wide at the surface. This has been traced by float 
for a distance of about 1,000 feet, where it disappears to the southwest 
under a valley filling. Between the two lines of ledges no rock is ex- 
posed, but the character of the soil indicates the presence of calcareous 
schists beneath. 



5S Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

Deposits South of the Hiwassee River: — South, of the Hiwassee 
River ore is known to exist at Brasstown on the southeast side of 
the marble and at two points on its northwest side near the village. 
The ore on the southeast side is exposed in a small ledge just east of 
the post office. Northwest of the village about 400 yards east of Big 
Brasstown Creek, on the northwest side of the marble belt, is an old 
pit in an exposure that shows a closely crowded series of small veins of 
limonite. The ground in the vicinity is covered with fragments of ore 
so that neither the width nor the length of the series can be determined. 
The third point near the village at which ore is known to occur it about 
400 yards south of that last mentioned and about the same distance 
west of the village. Two pits, dug many years ago, uncovered soft ore, 
but they are now so covered with brush that the character of the deposit 
cannot be seen. 

Farther west there are several exposures on the road leading to Mar- 
tin Creek and near the road on its southeast side are several pits and 
shafts from which small quantities of ore have been taken for local 
forges. They show that the ore belt is persistent and nearly, if not 
completely, continuous all the way to the Monteith Mine. South of the 
ore exposure marble ledges occur in some of the springs, and in the bed 
of Little Brasstown Creek, and a short distance south of the creek 
are exposures of the Valleytown formation. The best exhibit of ore is 
on the road near Rev. Gay Bryant's residence, about 2 miles from 
Brasstown. In a little cut in the road about 10 feet of ore have been 
uncovered, and in an old field on the opposite side of the road frag- 
ments of float ore of the same kind as that in the road are quite abund- 
ant. If ore is continuous between the two points the deposit will be 
worthy of careful exploration when transportation conveniences are 
furnished the country south of the Hiwassee River. 

A little farther west near the point marked Ballew on the map of 
the Murphy quadrangle are several exposures on the road and in an old 
pit a short distance to the north but nothing of special interest is shown 
by them. South of the road, however, on the crest of a ridge of white 
sandy rock, is a large opening in a black, porous manganese ore which 
is composed mainly of pyrolusite. The ore is intimately associated with 
the white sandy rock, which in this place is probably decomposed lime- 
stone. The deposit is on the south side of the marble, probably near 
its contact with members of the Valleytown formation, for a short dis- 
tance farther south are numerous exposures of a siliceous ottrelite schist. 

All the other ore exposures in the valley of Little Brasstown Creek 
are of small veins cutting sandy schists lying between the marble on the 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 59 

south and members of the Valleytown formation on the north. The 
sandy schists may represent a thin bed of siliceous limestone at the 
base of the Murphy marble. 

A few evidences of the existence of ore are said to be present on the 
south side of the marble belt, but none were found except at Brasstown 
and near Ballew. 

ORE RESERVES IN THE BRASSTOWN BELT 

Until transportation facilities are provided for the country south of 
the Hiwassee River, it is futile to discuss the value of the deposits in 
this portion of the Brasstown belt. There is not in the entire belt suf- 
ficient ore to warrant the building of a railroad, and there is no deposit, 
so far as we now know, that is rich enough to furnish ore that could 
stand the cost of haulage to Murphy or to any point on the Carolina 
and Georgia Railroad. It is possible that at a few points mining might 
be prosecuted on a small scale for 2 or 3 years, but there is no likeli- 
hood that a large mine might be developed at any place. 

North of the Hiwassee the case is different. The exposures on the 
Cooper property indicate the existence there of a comparatively large 
deposit, and the new Carolina and Georgia Railroad offers a convenient 
outlet for shipments. On the Davis property there is probably also a 
large, or at any rate, a fair-sized deposit. If the two deposits could be 
worked under one management so that the overhead charges could be 
distributed between them, their development might be profitable for a 
few years, at any rate. We have no means of knowing the depth to 
which the deposits extend with their surface widths, and so have no 
basis for estimating their value after their surficial portions have been 
removed. 

THE MARTIN CREEK AREA 

General: — The only mine in this portion of the district that was ever 
of importance was the old Monteith Mine about 3,500 feet west of 
Ballew, on the headwaters of Martin Creek about 5 miles south of 
Murphy. As has already been stated, the Brasstown belt of Murphy 
marble may end at the divide between the headwaters of Little Brass- 
town Creek and those of Martin Creek, and another area, beginning 
near the Monteith Mine, may follow down the valley of Martin Creek 
and up its west branch. It is possible, of course, that the two areas 
are continuous, since all rock between the headwaters of the two creeks 
is covered by sand. For the purpose of the present report the marble 
on Martin Creek is regarded as a separate area. (Map, fig. 1 L.) 



60 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

The larger part of the Martin Creek area of marble occupies the 
valley of the main creek from near the Monteith Mine to the junction of 
the two roads along its sides four miles farther north. A narrow ex- 
tension follows the principal western tributary to its source, then 
an eastern tributary of Cane Creek for a mile, and then down Gold 
Branch to its mouth. Few exposures of the marble are seen. The best 
are at the bridge crossing Martin Creek about % mile north of the 
Monteith Mine, where two low ledges show a definite strike and dip. 
A small exposure in a stream a few yards farther north, a ledge in Mr. 
Elliott's spring, occasional shallow cuts made by the tributaries of Mar- 
tin Creek in which white clay is uncovered, and a few sink holes are 
about the only data, aside from topography, by which the main area can 
be outlined. The western strip extending down Cane Creek and Gold 
Branch is traced by sink holes east of Martin Creek Church, by an 
exposure in Cane Creek a few hundred feet west of Martin's Saw 
Mill, an exposure in the bed of Gold Branch near the cross- 
ing of the old road from Ranger to Belview, and finally by frag- 
ments of talc plowed from the fields near the mouth of the Gold Branch. 
According to Mr. L. E. Mauney, marble occurs also in the hill to the 
west of the mouth of the branch. 

Limonite deposits have been discovered at the Monteith Mine, at sev- 
eral places along the west side of the marble area in the valley of Martin 
Creek and on the north side of its western extension, and in the valley 
of Gold Branch. At one or two points the deposits are large enough 
to have furnished ore to local forges, but none are thought to be worthy 
of exploitation at present. 

The Monteith Mine: — The Monteith Mine is the best known of all 
the occurrences in this area. It is at its southeast corner, about 3,500 
feet west of Ballew (fig. 11, No. 2). If the ledge of ottrelite schist 
exposed in the bed of Martin Creek, about 1,800 feet northwest of the 
old pits, is a member of the Andrews schist series, the mine is on the 
southeast side of the marble, at or near its contact with the slates of 
the Valleytown formation. 

The old mine which is on Ham Stalcup's farm is now represented by 
a series of very old pits in a line striking about X. 70° E. Mtze 
(1. c. p. 207) states that the ore was mined for a forge 10 miles away. 
At the time of his visit the dimensions of the main opening were de- 
termined to be 600 feet long and 6 feet to 20 feet deep. The width of 
the ore was reported in the Tenth Census Report to vary between 4 and 
10 feet. Its better portions were hard and flint-like, the softer being 
more siliceous, grading into a brown clay. 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 61 

A sample taken from one of the cuts analyzed : 

Fe=56.46; P=.691; P ratio=1.224 

All the pits are now so overgrown that no rocks can be seen in them, 
nor can any ore be found on their dumps. From the great amount 
of work they represent, it is plain that the mine must once have been a 
very important one. 

Other Deposits in the Martin Greek Area: — The next openings to 
the west were about 1,000 feet northeast of the residence of J. Martin, at 
the corner of the road between Martin Creek and Brasstown and that 
to Beaver Gap (fig. 11, 'No. 3). Here was a trench about 250 feet long 
from which it is said much ore was taken during the Civil War. Noth- 
ing can be seen as to the character of the ore, but from the material in 
the small dumps around the trench it is probable that it would require 
thorough washing before shipment. A pit about 700 feet north of 
the trench has also uncovered ore, the quality of which, however, is 
not known. About 350 feet east of the trench decomposed marble is 
exposed in the bed of a little stream. Between the two there are no 
exposures of any kind. It is probable that there is at the contact of 
the marble with the Yalleytown formation. 

Farther north, east of Mr. H., D. Elliott's house, ore is said to have 
been found by test pitting near the marble referred to above as ex- 
posed in the spring on Mr. Elliott's property. 

~No other evidences of ore are known in the main valley of the creek, 
but along the western extension of the area, forming the narrow strip 
running along the road to Ranger, are several old openings that can 
still be recognized as ore pits and a few depressions that are said to be 
the remnants of other pits that have been filled. None of them are im- 
portant, although from several ore was formerly obtained. Two of 
these are a few hundred yards east of the Martin Creek Schoolhouso 
and north of the road, apparently between a narrow strip of marble to 
the south and a hill of slate to the north. 

In the road west of the school house are exposures of decomposed 
marble and soft ocherous ore, but no considerable explorations have 
been made until the headwaters of Gold Branch are reached. The 
marble belt turns from the Cane Creek valley to that of the Gold Branch 
and follows this stream southward to the Nottely River, beyond which it 
has not been traced. The most westerly point in the valley of Cane 
Creek that is reached by the marble is about % mile east of the junction 
of the Ranger and Belview roads. It reappears as another very 
narrow strip at the Belview road about Vo mile southeast of the June- 



62 



Deposits of Brown Irox Ores 



tion, runs southwest crossing the road down Price's Creek at the old 
sawmill and continues down Gold Branch to its mouth. A few hundred 
yards southwest of Mr. Suit's house on the new Belview road is a sink- 
hole, and just south of it is a small trench in soft ore (fig. 11, Xo. 6). On 
Gold Branch, at the bridge crossing, about ^ mile to the southwest, is a 
large pit and trench on the south side of the stream, and a few feet 
down stream is a small exposure of brecciated talc and marble in the 
bed of the stream (fig. 11, Xo. 7).. The pit, which is so old that it 
shows nothing in its dumps, is on the south side of the marble as at 




Contour interval ZOO feet Datum sea level 
EXPLANATION 



»2 



■ 



R E 



Murphy Valley town Brasstown Tusquitee Mine or Road 

marble formation schist quarti.it : prospect 

Figure 11. Map of Martin Creek area and Hiwassee-Nottely rivers belt, X. C, showing 
location of deposits of brown hematite. 

Mr. Suit's house.. It is reported that a number of tons of ore were 
removed from it and shipped to local forges, but no definite figures 
concerning the quantity can now be given. The farmers in the vicinity 
state that ore was taken from several pits in the stream valley, but, 
because of the fact that the whole valley has been dug over for gold, 
none of these could be identified. 

Xo other evidences of the presence of ore in this belt were seen along 
the branch, though Mr. Mauney states that ore occurs in its channel 
near its mouth. 






Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 63 

ORE DEPOSITS IN THE HIWASSEE AND NOTTELY 
RIVERS BELT 

The fourth, belt of deposits is on the southeast side of the quartzite 
ridge that stretches from the Hiwassee River about 2 miles above 
Murphy in a general direction S. 35° W. to the bridge crossing the 
Nottely River 1% miles northeast of Culberson (fig. 11). The quartzite 
is nearly continuous through this distance, but at some places the out- 
crop becomes very narrow. On the road running south from Murphy, 
up the valley of Martin Creek, the quartzite is in contact on the 
south with black slates that are probably members of the Brasstown 
formation. It has not been determined whether the quartzite is also a 
bed in this formation or whether it is a narrow strip of the Tusquitee 
quartzite on the crest of an anticline. The series dips about 70° S. E., 
and the principal ore deposits are on its southeast contact with the slates. 
At the northeast end of the belt a second line of deposits is about 300 
yards south of the main line. The ore here is also on the southeast side 
of a quartzose layer. In some places this quartzose layer is in contact 
with black slate and in others with a clay that resembles a decomposed 
calcareous schist. Some of the deposits on both lines were worked 
years ago, furnishing considerable ore; others have simply been ex- 
plored. As a rule the ore is more porous and more ocherous than that 
in the Nottely and Valley river belts and usually much more sandy. 
Moreover, much of it, especially that in the more southerly line, ap- 
parently contains some hematite and much more than the usual quan- 
tity of manganese. Some of it is so rich in pyrolusite that it would 
pass as an ore of manganese. 

The most northeasterly point at which ore is known to exist in this 
belt is about l 1 /^ miles southeast of Murphy on the northeast corner 
of a hill overlooking the Hiwassee River. At this point is a fairly large 
opening on a vein about 34 feet wide dipping southeast. The hanging 
wall looks like a shaly limestone cut by quartz veins. The footwall was 
not seen, but to the northwest on the crest of the hill is quartzite. About 
2,000 feet southwest of this is another opening near the crest of the 
quartzite ridge in which only about 10 feet of good ore are exposed. The 
hanging wall is a black slate. About 200 feet southeast of the eastern 
limonite vein is a 5 foot wide vein of hematite in red slates. 

Other pits and ledges give evidence that brown hematite ore is con- 
tinuous on the south side of the quartzite ridge all the way to the road 
leading from Murphy up Martin Creek. On and near this road, about 
i/4 mile south of the lower crossing of Martin Creek, on land belonging 



64 



Deposits of Brown Irox Ores 



to Mr. L. E. Mauney, are the two largest explorations in the belt (fig. 
11, No. 1). This is probably the place referred to by Mtze (1. c. p. 
207) as the Mooney place, % mile above the month of Martin Creek. 
Nitze describes the exploration as a "rectangular pit on the southeastern 
flank of a qnartzite ridge; it shows a thickness of 18 feet of mixed 
ore, clay and shale; ronghly estimated, over 50% of this material is 
ore, which is porous and ocherous. At one point of the bed the ore 
is solid for a thickness of four feet; the dip is 55° S. E. and the strike 
of the shales is K 45° E." 
A sample analyzed: 



Si0 2 


Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


15.42 


48.02 


.039 


-201 


.418 



On the east side of the road is a deep trench 64 feet long with a shaft 
at its northeast end. According to Mr. Mauney, the owner of the 
property, the shaft, which is said to be 60 feet deep, was sunk in 1855. 
The trench is in thinly layered rocks striking N. 45° E. and dipping 45° 
S. E. On the road, northwest of the trench and about 100 feet distant, 
are road cuts in qnartzite and graywacke schist and between these and 
the . opening of the trench is an exposure of clay that seems to be a 
decomposed slate. ~No rocks but a few black slates were seen near the 
ore on its southeast side, but 800 feet distant in this direction is a tun- 
nel 110 feet long, running into the slope from the northeast side of the 
road. The tunnel cuts about 20 feet of ore and for the rest of its length 
is in quartz schists. South of the ore are again black slates. About 60 
feet northwest of the tunnel are other quartz schists and about 50 feet 
southeast is another trench. This also shows a little ore underlying a 
blue slate which is on its southeast side. 

The relation of these ore veins is not clear. It is certain, however, 
that there are at least two veins of ore, each on the southeast sides of 
belts of quartzites and a third under slates. The latter, however, ap- 
pears to be only a local de/elopment. 

About y± mile southwest of the trench on the road, on the south side 
of another hill which is the extension of the hill north of the trench, is 
another opening. Here again the ore is at the southeast contact of the 
qnartzite. In this opening the ore is said to be 49 feet wide, but of this 
width 6 feet is black clay. Its dip is 70° S. E. On the hanging wall is 
fissile black slate and south of this a few thin layers of qnartzite which 
are apparently beds interstratified with the more slaty members of the 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 65 

Valleytown formation. South of this quartzite are a couple of hundred 
feet of black fissile slates and in these are layers of ore aggregating 
about 10 feet. The ore exposed in the pits outcrops on an old road, at 
a point about 600 feet northeast of the pit. 

About 200 yards southeast of the pit and about 150 feet north of 
the main highway from Murphy is a trench in a sandy slate that has 
been strongly impregnated with limonite and hematite, but in which 
no definite ore deposit has been made. The mineralized belt is about 
10 feet wide. It represents the last exposure to the southwest on the 
southern line. About a mile farther southwest a small deposit of man- 
ganese ore was developed on the top of a little hill near the main high- 
way from Murphy, and this also is on the southern edge of a ledge of 
quartzite, but the quartzite is a different bed from that farther north- 
east, or at any rate the two are not continuous on the surface, and they 
are at different distances south of the main quartzite belt, which is con- 
tinuous. 

A few pages back attention was called to the existence of a vein of 
hematite in slates at the northeast end of the belt. It is a matter of pass- 
ing interest to note that there are other deposits of hematite in this neigh- 
borhood, some of which have been opened by trenches. INTone of them 
are of any economic importance. The most extensive is about 150 yards 
south of the trench on Mr. Mauney's place and near the Glade Church. 
Here are two veins, 5 feet and 12 feet thick. The uppermost is overlain 
by white stratified clay. The hematite is of two kinds — a dull red gran- 
ular variety that resembles a fragment al deposit, and a dense, lustrous 
darker variety that looks like a direct precipitate. The latter has a 
reddish brown streak and may be turgite. About 75 yards southeast of 
these is a small limonite vein with a foot wall of red and yellow slate cut 
by quartz veins. The hanging wall was not seen, but in the cuts on the 
road slates are exposed in the position to be expected of the hanging. 

The hematite and limonite in the slates are evidently of very dif- 
ferent origin from the larger deposits of limonite that occur in the dis- 
tinct and well defined belts. Although nothing definite can be made out 
about their relations to the rocks associated with them, they neverthe- 
less appear to be only small deposits of local origin, occurring in the 
bedding of schistose planes of slates. 

To return to the limonite deposits. About 14 mile southwest of the 
pits last referred to and about 1,200 feet northwest of the bridge over 
Martin Creek is another pit in limonite on the south edge of a bluff of 
quartzite. Here again the ore appears to be associated with slates. 
It occurs in three layers having a total width of 30 feet. 



66 Deposits of Brown Ikon Ores 

Beyond this point the quartzite ridge can be followed to the south- 
west without interruptions for several miles, but nowhere are there any 
explorations for ore, until the road between Martin Creek and Cane 
Creek is reached. A few rods north of this road, on the farm of R. R. 
Owensby, are three trenches on the north side of the road that are dug 
at the contact of the quartzite and Brasstown schists (fig. 11, Xo. 4). 
They uncovered about 5 feet of ore which is reported to contain about 
2% of manganese. The ore deposit is probably wider than 5 feet, but 
it is doubtful if it is of sufficient size to be of economic importance. 

On the south side of the highway, a little farther east is the largest 
deposit of manganese ore that that has been developed anywhere in 
Cherokee County. It is on the land of Geo. R. Eager about % mile 
south of the main quartzite ridge in a mass of quartz, and thus is in 
the same position with reference to the main ridge as is the deposit 1% 
miles northeast on the road between Murphy and Martin Creek (fig. 11, 
"No. 5). At the Eager place the ore is a shattered mass of quartzite 
about 20 feet wide that is cemented by psilomelane and pyrolusite. 
There are three trenches in the ore body and from them a great deal 
of ore has been removed; but unless the material was crushed and 
washed it cannot have had much value. Other openings north of the 
road and about 200 yards southeast of Mr. Owensby^s house also un- 
covered manganese ore but in what quantity is unknown. 

For the next 1% miles to the southwest the hills have been unex- 
plored, but about y<2, mile north of the residence of Mr. J. H. Headon 
on the Martin Creek road is a pit high up on the southeast side of a 
hill which is covered with quartzite bowlders (fig. 11, ISTo. 8). The pit 
shows only a mass of soft brown ore that is plainly manganiferous. 
No ore was seen in place, as the walls of the pit are covered with loose 
material; consequently there is no means of learning whether or not 
there is any considerable body of ore uncovered. The quartzite is on 
the strike of that at the three trenches on the Owensby place. 

There are two other points beyond this place at which explorations 
have been undertaken, and although they are on the south side of a 
quartzite belt which is on the trend of the quartzite ridges along which 
so many evidences of the existence of ore have been noted, nevertheless 
it is possible that they may be in a different belt of deposits since the 
ridge has not been followed continuously from the Headon place. It 
is more probable, however, that the two ridges are continuous and that 
the ores are in the same belt. This view seems all the more reasonable 
since the ores are manganiferous. 



Deposits of Beown Ikon Ores 67 

One of the largest of the explorations is a deep trench and small pit 
on a tributary of Gold Branch, about 1% miles southeast of Ranger. 
The trench, which is about 25 feet long, is 200 to 250 feet south of a 
ledge of quartzite which outcrops on the hill slope above (fig. 11, No. 9). 
It uncovers a sandy slate with which are interlayered three seams of 
manganese ore (pyrolusite), manganiferous limonite and some hard 
limonite. The material in the dumps appears to be rich, but in all 
probability this is due to the deep color given it by the pyrolusite. By 
carefully washing the crude material there may be secured a highly 
manganiferous ore that may be a profitable product. 

A little over a mile farther to the southwest, on the land of Mr. B. L. 
Fox and his neighbors to the northeast are three other pits and trenches, 
on the south side of the same quartzite ridge which is continuous all 
the way from Gold Branch (fig. 11, No. 10). The openings show very 
little of interest. The most widely separated ones are about % m il© 
apart and the three are connected by a continuous line of float. 

The only other deposit in this portion of the country is exposed by 
a pit on the southwest side of the road, about % mile southeast of Cul- 
berson, and just across the State line in Georgia. The pit is in black 
slates mapped as Valleytown by La Forge and Phalen. The slates 
strike N. 40°-60° E., and the ore seems to be a plexus of veins about 6 
feet wide occurring in a fracture zone, partly as seams in the cracks 
and partly as replacements of the slate. It is reported that some of 
the material, which is a very richly manganiferous limonite, has been 
shipped as a manganese ore. There is no quartzite in the vicinity of 
the pit, nor is it near a fault line. The only explanation of the pres- 
ence of the ore is that it is a local replacement deposit along a shear 
zone. 

ORE RESERVES IN THE HIWASSEE AND NOTTELY 
RIVERS BELT 

From the descriptions of the deposits in the Hiwassee-Nottely rivers 
belt it will be inferred that the explorations on this belt have as a rule 
been so superficial that we know almost nothing of the size of the de- 
posits or of the quality of the ore in them. At a few places, as for 
instance on the Mauney property, south of Murphy, it has been shown 
that the deposits are reasonably large, but whether they are sufficiently 
large to warrant the construction of plants ample to handle their prod- 
ucts efficiently is doubtful. Moreover, all of them are a mile or two 
from the nearest railroad, to which their ore would have to be hauled 
over hilly roads before it could be shipped. None of them give prom- 



68 Deposits of Brown Ikon Oees 

ise of profitable development in the near future, though it is possible 
that when the hard road is completed up Martin Creek a few of them 
might be worked on a small scale. 

deposits in Mcdowell county 

In the north corner of McDowell County is a deep gorge-like valley 
extending from Linville Falls south and southwest to the North Fork of 
Catawba River. Its bottom is occupied by North Cove Fork for nearly 
its entire length. East of it is the great mass of Linville Mountain, 
which consists mainly of Erwin quartzite and west of it are other ridges 
of the Blue Ridge, composed principally of crystalline pre-Cambrian 
rocks with here and there small masses of the Cambrian Hampton shale, 
which lies under the Erwin quartzite. 

Where the valley is narrow the stream flows over quartzite. In the 
few places where it widens the underlying rock is the Shady limestone, 
which is approximately equivalent to the Murphy marble in Cherokee 
County. About northwest of Brown Mt. it is now being quarried as 
an ornamental stone, and % mile above Ashford is being quarried and 
crushed by the Clinchfield Lime Company for agricultural purposes. 
At the quarry the limestone is a thinly bedded blue-gray rock, dipping 
about 30° to the southeast. A short distance farther south, between 
Ashford and Avery, the stream and the tracks of the Carolina, Clinch- 
field and Ohio Railway run over quartzite dipping 45° "N. "W. South 
of Ashford the valley widens to about % mile and is underlain for the 
most part by limestone. 

On the lower slopes of Linville Mt. about % mile southeast of Avery 
Station and about 200 feet above the railroad track are several limonite 
deposits in a line trending about K". E.-S. "W., and higher up on the 
mountain to the northeast are other deposits. At all the occurrences 
the ore appears to lie on the quartzite, forming a veneer on the slope 
facing the railroad. At any rate, no exposures are to be seen between 
the ore layer and the track except here and there in the railroad cuts, 
where a decomposed sandy schist containing ore veins is occasionally en- 
countered. The slope of the ridge, where not covered with talus, has 
about the same inclination as the dip of the quartzite, so that when the 
limestone was removed by erosion the ore, if a vein, was left as a veneer 
on the quartzite beds. 

At only one point has the ore been opened, and at this point it has 
not been sufficiently uncovered to show its relations to the surround- 
ing rocks. So far as can be judged, it occurs as a vein about 15 feet 
wide dipping about 35° ~N. W. 



Deposits of Brown Ikon Oees 69 



DEPOSITS IN THE PIEDMONT PLATEAU 

Although brown hematites are known to occur at many places on the 
Piedmont Plateau, most of them are in small deposits, which do not 
offer much prospect at present for profitable exploitation. The only 
deposits of prospective importance are those in Catawba, Lincoln and 
Gaston counties, and of these only those in Gaston County have been 
developed. 

DEPOSITS IN CATAWBA AND LINCOLN COUNTIES 

The deposits in Catawba and Lincoln counties are described by Nitze 
(1. c. p. 87) as occurring in a belt passing 2 miles east of Lincolnton. 
They are said to be in mica schists, lying above a limestone, which 
may be of Cambrian age. Search was made for some of the old 
pits mentioned by Nitze, but none were found. They have been 
abandoned many years and are now obliterated. The belt is 
said to cross the Carolina and Northwestern Railway 2% miles south 
of Lincolnton, but a traverse along the railroad revealed nothing but 
micaceous schists cut by pegmatites and fine grained quartz veins many 
of which contain tourmaline. No iron ores were seen but some of the 
schists are very red. Nitze also reports the existence of old pits on 
land formerly belonging to Cephas Quickel 2 miles east of Lincolnton. 
He states that a line of pits extends from the Seaboard Air Line Bail- 
way in a general southwesterly direction for 1*4 miles to the C. and 
N. "W. Ry. A cut on this road, he writes, "exposes the talcose, or hydro- 
mica schists, with small seams of yellowish, saccharine quartz, having a 
strike of 3° to 5° east of north, very much folded; and this folded 
structure evidently accounts for the great width of the ore-belt, which, 
judging from the position of the old openings and the wide dis- 
tribution of the float ore over the ground, which is comparatively level, 
must be % mile. The ore beds here are reported to vary in thick- 
ness from about 6 inches near the surface to 2 and 3 feet at a depth of 
10 feet, with a general pitch toward the south, between walls of dark 
red to dark yellowish slate, accompanied by seams of yellow saccharine 
quartz. It is highly probable that the beds exist in pockets of irregular 
thickness and extent. * * * The formation has been traced by sur- 
face float some 4 or 5 miles each way * * * and its northeasterly ex- 
tension is reported in Catawba County, where the ore was superficially 
worked for some old forges in former years." 



70 Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 

A sample from the Quickel place contained : 



Si0 2 


Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


4.94 


54.32 


.037 


.840 


1.546 



DEPOSITS IN GASTON COUNTY 

General: — In Gaston County brown hematites are found in two belts, 
one in gneisses and schists immediately east of a belt of limestone, which 
may be the continuation of that in Lincoln County, and the other in 
quartzites about % mile still farther east. Both belts are short and 
each is notable for one mine. Both mines are within a mile or a little 
more of Bessemer City. The Ormond, which is on the western belt, was 
at one time one of the best known mines in the State. The other — the 
Little Mountain Mine — was noted because of the fanciful forms as- 
sumed by its ore. 

Mr. JSTitze's idea of the geological structure of the region is given in 
a section, which, however, is of little value, partly because of the 
scarcity of exposure of the rocks involved and partly because of the 
indefiniteness of the rock determinations. The country has not yet 
been mapped geologically, and until this is done it is useless to specu- 
late upon its structure. There are practically no exposures in the 
neighborhood of the Ormond Mine. At the Little Mountain Mine the 
only rock exposed is the quartz schist that is associated with the ore. 

Ormond Mine: — The Ormond Mine is about 1% miles west of Bes- 
semer City in a series of talcose-quartz schists, on the northwest side 
of the railroad. It is not now working, but some of the shafts and 
many old pits are still easily discoverable, and on one of the dumps 
is a large quantity of fresh rock. The pits extend in a line for a dis- 
tance of about % mile in a direction about S. 20° W. 

In the Tenth Census Report only a few words are devoted to the 
description of the mine. Its greatest depth at the time had been 
reached in the engine-shaft, which was down 80 feet. The ore is re- 
ported to lie in lenticular masses 3 feet to 8 feet in thickness, the south- 
ern end of one lying east of the northern end of the one beyond it. The 
dumps "contained two kinds of ore intimately associated in the same 
pieces ; the first is very dense, hard enough to scratch glass, has a brown 
streak like limonite, and is distinctly magnetic; it is not at all gran- 
ular, and in appearance closely resembles many of the dense homogene- 
ous limonites. The other is dark colored, fine grained, and slightly 



Deposits of Brown Ikon Oees 71 

friable; it shows lamination, has a very dark almost black, slightly 
reddish streak, and is also magnetic." An analysis of a sample of the 
mixed ore gave: Fe=65.82, P=.092. 

At the time of the visit of the Census geologists the mine had been 
developed to a slight extent only, but when Nitze visited it, he was 
able to describe it (1. c. p. 97) more in detail. 

Nitze remarks that the deposits have been worked at intervals as 
far back as the Revolutionary War. "The country rock is a quartzitic 
talcose schist, argillaceous and decomposed to considerable depths, 
striking N. 25° to 30° E., with a dip of from 70° to nearly 90° N. W." 
He finds 4 types of ore: a hard black jointed ore containing generally 
less than 5% water, possibly to be classified as turgite; a hard black 
homogeneous ore, slightly magnetic; a porous limonite and a loose, pul- 
verulent, bluish black powdery ore. The latter "may be considered a 
decomposed variety of manganiferous block ore" since it "is often found 
filling up the interstices formed by the joints and cracks in the same." 
The ore is declared to be in overlapping lenses with a general north- 
westerly dip. They are connected with each other by small stringers 
of ore along which there is a flow of water. The "hanging wall is 
usually a decomposed gneiss or slate and the foot wall a soft, black 
muck, which has been found to contain a considerable amount of fine 
black ore." The lenses varied in thickness from less than 3 to more 
than 28 feet, but their length and heights had not been developed. In 
all they occupied a belt from 50 to 100 feet wide. 

On the western drifts of the lower level, 173 feet below the surface, 
at shaft No. 4, limestone was found, which Nitze thinks is the western 
boundary of the ore formation. It dips about 45° "W. and shows "signs 
of erosion" where in contact with the ore. This limestone, of which 
there is "great quantity on the dump, is a thinly bedded, gray and 
white, very sandy variety. This is not exposed anywhere on the sur- 
face, but just west of the pits is a little ridge of very friable white sand- 
stone." Nitze's statement, quoted above, that the hanging wall of the 
ore is a "decomposed gneiss or slate" must refer to individual lenses, 
for the hanging wall of the belt of lenses, or what Nitze calls the "ore 
formation", is the limestone. 

At the time of ISTitze's visit the mine was working in three different 
ore bodies. One, 30 feet south of the shaft, was a mass of solid 
block ore 28 feet thick. (Analysis I.) Another, 100 feet north of the 
shaft, was a body of similar ore 12 feet thick and at least 30 feet long. 
Its composition is shown in II. The third was a lens 7 feet thick lying 
against the limestone. The composition of a sample taken from 2 



72 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



cars of mixed ore that had been prepared for shipment by crude wash- 
ing in a trough is shown in III, and that of the tailings from this ore 
in IV. Analysis Y is of a black powder ore. 





Si0 2 


Fe 


S 


P 


P ratio 


I. Block ore, from 28 foot lens. 




64.40 
63.52 
52.39 
43.50 
65.35 


.048 


.036 
. 033. 
.079 
.155 
.007 


.055 


II. Block ore, from 12 foot lens 




.051 




9.72 


.150 


IV. Tailings from III .. .. . . 


.333 


V. Black powder ore.. . 


1.55 


.010 







Since the shipping ore was imperfectly washed in a trough it is 
probable that with more careful manipulation in a log washer it might 
be raised to Bessemer grade. This probability seems reasonable in view 
of the fact that the specimens of the block ore, which must have con- 
stituted a large proportion of the shipping product, were well under the 
Bessemer limit. 

Nitze gives several figures of sections through the mine at various 
places, but they are so unlike that they apparently possess little sig- 
nificance. In none of them is there shown any of the quartzitic tal- 
cose schist that is said to be associated with the ore bodies, nor is there 
anything to show that the deposits are in overlapping lenses. The im- 
pression gained from a study of the sections is that the ore bodies are 
very irregular masses lying in the schistose planes of foliated rocks, 
or at the contacts of pervious and impervious layers. The erosion of 
the lower contact of the limestone in ~No. 4 shaft suggests corrosion 
by water. It may signify that the origin of the ore at the Ormond 
Mine is analogous to that of the ore in the mines in Cherokee County, 
and that in the case of the Ormond Mine the source of the iron was in 
the limestone. 

During its life the mine was a large producer. During the first 
eight months of 1892 about 5,000 tons of ore were shipped. The mine 
was then closed, refinanced, and more effectively equipped, and it pro- 
duced regularly for several years thereafter. 

The belt on which the Ormond Mine is situated has not been traced 
beyond the old mine workings in either direction. There are prob- 
ably a number of lenses in the mine property that have not yet been 
discovered, but whether the belt extends to the northeast or southwest 
is not known. 

Little Mountain Mine: — The Little Mountain Mine, or the Devil's 
Workshop, is about one mile southwest of Bessemer City Station on 
the crest of a little hill of quartzite or, perhaps better, quartz. On the 



Deposits of Brown Iron Ores 



73 



ridge of the hillock are outcrops of fractured quartz, cemented by 
quartz. In some places the quartz is broken by gashes. In others it 
is crossed by quartz veins. In other places sharp edged fragments of 
quartz lie in a quartz cement. In many places the cement is porous, 
or cavernous, and the walls of the holes are lined by quartz crystals. 
The ore is in the cracks and caverns. 

Mr. "Willis in the Tenth Census Report (p. 321) describes the ore as 
limonite altered from siderite or calcite. He writes that "portions of 
it are mamillary and stalactitic, but the greater number of specimens 
show pseudomorphs after rhombohedra. It incloses large crystals of 
quartz, sometimes 3 inches through, whose surfaces bear the impres- 
sions of rhombic crystals. Associated with this limonite is an earthy 
friable ore, which also shows pseudomorphs after rhombohedra, but 
has a dark-reddish streak, and it is apparently manganiferous." The 
ore is said to occur in a vein, 8 feet or 10 feet wide, with vertical walls 
of siliceous slate. Its strike was recorded as "N. 30° E. Some of the 
ore was described as containing also large apatite crystals. 

Analyses of the limonite and the manganiferous ore, taken from 
piles containing about 10 tons each, resulted as follows : 



Limonite 




Manganiferous Ore 




1.63 


Si0 2 


5.28 




.24 


FeO 


.29 




86.75 


Fe 2 03 


82.92 




.25 


AI2O3 


1.33 




1.00 


MnO 


4.11 




.24 


CaO 


.52 




.13 


MgO 


.16 




.169 


FeS 2 


.211 




tr 


NiS 


tr 




tr 


CoS 


tr 




tr 


CuS 


tr 




.15 


CO 2 


.14 




.023 


P 2 5 


.017 




.06 


C in carbonaceous matter 


.03 




.33 


H 2 0- 


.62 




9.30 


H 2 0+ 


4.24 




100.272 


Total 


99.868 




61.00 


Fe 


58.37 




.009 


P 


.005 



Nitze (1. c. p. 102), who examined the mine after it had been more 
extensively developed repeats the statements of ^Ir. Willis, except that 
he declares the ore to be limonite, goethite and turgite, with a strike 
K 37° E. and a dip of from 75° K W. to vertical. He repeats the 



74 



Deposits of Beown Iron Oees 



statement that it is in a distinct vein between parallel walls, and that 
it is probably pseudomorphous after siderite or calcite. He gives no 
evidence corroborating his conclusions, but evidently is satisfied to 
follow Mr. Willis, without discussion. 

He describes the vein matter as consisting of an admixture of crystal- 
line quartz and ore in varying proportions, lean on the outcrop but be- 
coming richer with depth, until at the bottom of the 60 foot shaft the 
vein material is nearly pure ore. "This ore assumes some of the most 
grotesque and beautiful shapes, * * * — hard, massive; porous, honey- 
combed; stalactitic; botryoidal; mammillary; pisolitic; reniform; soft, 
earthy; etc., etc." 

At the time of his visit the outcrop had been explored by a trench 
270 feet long, from 3 to 10 feet wide and from 3 to 20 feet deep. Two 
shafts had also been sunk, one at the southwest end of the trench and 
the other about 175 feet farther northeast. In the northeast shaft the 
vein matter was "profusely mixed with quartz" to a depth of 30 feet, 
beyond which point the proportion of quartz diminished until at its 
bottom the shaft was in pure ore, 10 feet wide. Drifts proved the vein 
to vary in thickness between 10 feet and 27 feet. At the 50 foot level 
a crosscut into the quartz hanging passed through 17 feet of quartz 
into a second vein of ore. Analysis of the ore from the bottom of this 
shaft (I) and from across the vein on the 50 foot level (II) are 
quoted below. Analysis III is of a sample taken from a stock pile of 
50 tons of ore raised from the southwest shaft. Short drifts from this 
shaft at the 25 foot and 54 foot levels developed ore at least 8 feet wide 
but at no point was its extreme width established. 





SiOz 


Fe 


Mn 


S 


P 


P ratio 


I 


6.67 
7.90 
11.96 


54.32 
53.75 
52.70 


.45 




.017 
.045 
.022 


.031 


II 


.011 


.083 


III 




.041 











Mtze declares that the ore does not require washing, but that it may 
be improved by crushing and jigging. He also states that from a 
point 264 feet S. 40° W. from the southeast shaft a tunnel was driven 
100 feet in a direction N. 10° E. but failed to strike ore. 

When the writer visited the mine it had been abandoned and the 
trench had been partly filled, so that access to the vein was impossible. 
However, good exposures were found on the walls of the trench and 



Deposits of Bkown Ikon Obes 



75 



good outcrops on the hill near the trench. As has been said, the quartz 
is crushed and the fragments that resulted from the crushing are 
cemented by quartz. Thus the quartz is in many places crossed by 
quartz veins, many of which contain vugs lined with quartz crystals. 
On the strike of the trench and on its walls, however, the cementing 
quartz appears to be replaced in part by ore, and the walls of open 
gashes and of vugs are coated with ore material. The ore is mainly in 
crusts lining the walls of crevices and in botryoidal and stalactitic 
forms in vugs. It often encloses quartz crystals and coats them concen- 
trically. Usually there is a mass of earthy or porous limonite next to 
the walls, or a mass of platy limonite in which the plates are thin and 
arranged parallel to the walls. Next to this and surrounding quartz 
crystals that penetrated the vug spaces are layers of fibrous goethite 
about % inch wide. Often the goethite does not entirely close the space, 
in which case its exposed mammillary surface is covered with a lustrous 
black enamel. 

An analysis of a sample of compact ore, made by Mr. E. T. Erickson, 
in the U. S. Geological Survey laboratory, yielding this result: 



Fe 2 03 


MnO 


FeO 


H 2 above 105° 


81.84 


.15 


.00 


11.81 



Goethite (FeO (OH)) contains 10.1% and limonite (Fe 4 3 (OH) 6 ) 
contains 14.5% of water. The sample is a mixture of approximately 
60% of goethite and 40% of limonite. 

Another type of the ore is a cellular mass of goethite, made up of thin 
plates enclosing cells of rhombohedral shapes as though the iron hydrox- 
ide had developed in the cleavage cracks of some rhombohedral mineral. 
Where massive, rather than cellular, the mass is a reddish brown color, 
and it often exhibits a rhombohedral cleavage. The writer saw none 
of the impressions of rhombohedral crystals on the quartz as described 
by Willis. However, the rhombohedral cleavage of some of the massive 
goethite and the rhombohedral cavities in the cellular varieties suggest 
that some rhombohedral mineral was present in the crevices before the 
iron hydroxide was introduced. It is possible that this was siderite. If 
this is so, it was oxidized to iron hydroxides, and later supplies of iron 
hydroxides coated the surfaces it found, whether they were surfaces of 
the hydroxide that had replaced the carbonate, surfaces of quartz crystals 
that extended into cavities, or surfaces of cracks that had contained no 
carbonate. 



76 Deposits of Brown Ikon Ores 

The sequence of events seems to have been: 1, the shattering of the 
quartz ; 2, the introduction of silica forming quartz veins and the crys- 
tals in the vugs ; 3, the introduction of a carbonate ; 4, the introduction 
of iron hydroxide that (a) replaced the carbonate and (b) formed the 
fibrous coatings of goethite. The iron hydroxides may have been brought 
from some outside source, or, if the carbonate was siderite, a part might 
have resulted from the oxidation of this carbonate in place and a part 
from the oxidation of solutions of a similar carbonate higher up in the 
deposit. The carbonate certainly originated elsewhere. There is no 
marble in the series of rocks near the Little Mountain Mine, but the 
layer found in the Ormond Mine, if it keeps its strike to the southwest, 
cannot be more than a mile distant on the surface. i 

The vein of the Little Mountain Mine has been traced for several 
miles to the southwest by its outcrop of ferruginous quartz, and two 
small pits about 1% miles from the mine have uncovered conditions 
similar to those near the surface at the mine. 

OEE RESERVES IN CATAWBA, LINCOLN AND GASTON 

COUNTIES 

There are a few deposits of brown ore known in these three counties, 
other than those described above, but none of them are large enough to 
be considered even probable sources of ore. The Ormond and Little 
Mountain mines may contain fair quantities of ore, but they are so 
much more expensive to operate than the deposits in Cherokee County 
or similar deposits farther northeast in Virginia that they are not likely 
to be able to compete with these in the near future. 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



3 3091 00772 7738