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Full text of "North Carolina Geological Survey"

North Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

i J. A. HOLMES, STATE GEOLOGIST. 






BULLETIN No. 3. 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH 
CAROLINA. 



HENRY B. C. NITZE 



GEORGE B. HANNA. 




WINSTON: 
M. I. & J. C. Stewart, Public Printer: 



2^Utm ho 3 



\Y)*&- 



PAETIAL LIST OF GOLD MINES 

LOCATED ON THE ACCOMPANYING MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA.* 



1. Portis mine, Franklin county. 

2. Mann-Arrington mine. Nash county. 

3. Arrihgton mine, " " 

4. Roberson mine, Orange " 

5. Belle mine, Moore 

6. Burns mine, " 

7. Cagle mine, " 

8. Clegg mine, " 

9. Brown mine, " 

10. Hoover Hill mine, Randolph " 

11. Wilson Kindley mine, " " 

12. Jones mine, " 

13. Parish mine, " •' 

14. Davis Mt. mine, " •' 

15. Sawyer mine, " " 

16. Winslow mine, " " 

17. Uharie mine, " " 

18. Emmons mine, Davidson " 

19. Cid mine, " " 

20. Silver Hill mine, 

21. Silver Valley mine, " " 

22. Conrad Hill'mine, " ik 

23. Welborn mine, " " 

24. Russell mine, Montgomery " 

25. Appalachian mine, tk 

26. Steele mine, " " 

27. Riggon Hill mine, " " 

28. Heaver Dam mine, " 

29. Moratock mine, " " 

30. Reynolds mine, " " 

31. Carter mine, " " 

32. Sam Christian mine, " " 

33. Haithcock, Hearne and Lowder 

mines, Stanly " 

31. Crawford mine, Stanly " 

35. Parker mine, " " 

36. Barringer vnine, ki " 

37. Gold Hill mines, Rowan " 

38. Rocky River mines, Cabarrus " 

39. Buffalo mines, " " 

40. Nugget mines, " " 

41. Crowell mines, Union " 

42. Long mines, " " 

43. Moore mine, " " 

44. Stewart and Lemmonds mines, 

Union 

45. Crump and Bntterfleld mines, 

Union " 

46. Henry Phifer mine, Union " 

47. Fox Hill mine, " 

48. Black mine, " " 

49. Smart and Secrest mines, " 

50. Moore Hill, Folger Hill, Davis, 

Phifer, Lewis and Hemby 
mines, Union " 

51. Bonnie Bell mine, Union " 

52. Howie mine, " 

53. Hamilton and Cox mines, Anson " 

54. Hodges Hill mine. Guilford " 

55. Fisher Hill and Millis Hill mines, 

Guilford 

56. Twin mine, Guilford 

57. North Carolina mine, Guilford " 

58. Gardner Hill mine, 

59. North State and Lindsay mines, 

Guilford " 

60. Deep River mine, Guilford 

61. Lalor and Loftin mines, David- 

son " 

62. Eureka mine,Davidson " 

63. Negus, Harrison, Hill, Southern 

Belle, Goodman and Randle- 
man mines, Rowan " 

64. New Discovery mine, Rowan " 

65. Dunn Mt. mine, " " 

66. Reimer mine, " " 



99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 

104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 
118. 
119. 
120 
121. 

122. 

123. 
124. 

125. 
126. 

127. 

128. 
129. 
130. 



Gibson and 
Mecklenburg 

Means 



Bullion mine, Rowan 

Gold Knob mine, " 

Dutch Creek mine, " 

Phoenix and Barrier mines, Ca- 
barrus 

Faggart mine, Cabarrus 

Barnhardtniine, 

Tucker mine, " 

Quaker City mine, " 

Reed mine, " 

Pioneer Mills Tiiines " 

Davidson and Point mines, 
Mecklenburg 

Rudisil mine, Mecklenburg 

St. Catharine mine, tv 

Smith and Palmer mine, Meck- 
lenburg 

^Taylor mine, Mecklenburg 

Trotter mine, " 

Clark mine, " 

Parks mine, " 

Brawley mine, 

Todd mine, 

Arlington mine, " 

Stephen Wilson, 
Neal mines', 

Capps, McGinn and 
mines, Mecklenburg 

G. C. Cathey, Sloan and Chap- 
man mines, Mecklenburg 

Dunn mine, 

Henderson mine, 

Ferris mine, " 

Hunter mine, kk 

Tredinick mine, " 

Ray mine, " 

Simpson and Black mines, Meek- 
lenburg 

Ellington, Surface Hib, Fergu- 
son Hill, etc., mines, Mecklen- 
burg 

King's Mt. mine, Gaston 

Crowder's Mt. mine, Gaston 

Rhodes mine, " 

McLean mine, kk 

Duffle, Robinson, Derr, etc., 
mines, Gaston 

Burrell Wells mine, Gaston 

Oliver mine, " 

Long Creek mine, kk 

Graham mine, Lincoln 

Shuford mine, Catawba 

Maiden mine, '• 

Rufty mine, " 

Abernathy mine, " 

Butler mine, Davie 

Callahan Mt. mine, Davie 

Isaac Allan mine, " 

Clarksville mine, kk 

Fulton mine, " 

Dixon mine, Yadkin 

Hancock mine, Burke 

Carolina Queen mine, Burke 

J. C. Mdls mine, 

Marion Bullion mine, McDowell 

Vein Mt mine. 

Alta mine, Rutherford 

Ell wood and Leeds mines, Ruth- 
erford 

Brown Mt. mine, Burke 

Baker, Raid Knob, Pax Hill, 
Scott Hill, &c, mines, Caldwell 

Bee Mt. mine. " 

Flint Knob mine, Wilkes 

Copper Knob mine, Ashe 

Boylston mine, Henderson 



county, 



'The symbols and numbers for the mines are printed on the map in red. 



557 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Illustrations 10 

Letter of Transmittal 11 

Preface 12 

Chapter I.— The Gold Producing Area and Its Development. 15 

Area of the gold-bearing rocks 15 

Historical notes 16 

Gold and silver produced in North Carolina 17 

Character and fineness of gold and silver 18 

The gold-bearing rocks 20 

Structure of the ore deposits '. 21 

Influence of weathering agencies on the ore bodies 22 

Chapter II.— The Eastern Carolina Belt 24 

General description 24 

Gold deposits and mines in the Eastern Carolina belt 25 

The Mann-Arrington mine 26 

The Arrington mine 27 

The Conyers mine 27 

Chapter III.— The Carolina Slate Belt 28 

Character and age of the rocks 28 

Emmons 1 Taconic system in North Carolina 28 

The Lower Taconic 30 

The Upper Taconic 31 

Kerr's Huronian system in central North Carolina 32 

Results of more recent petrographic studies 33 

The slates and schists 33 

The Monroe slates 36 

Quartz rocks — The volcanic series 37 

Conclusions 43 

The genesis of the gold ores 44 

(1.) The nature of the deposits 44 

(2.) The causes of the formation of the spaces occupied by the ore 45 

The manner of filling the fissure^ openings 47 

Age of the ore deposits.... 51 

Chapter IV.— Ore deposits and mines in the Carolina Slate 

belt 52 

Mines in Granville and Person counties 52 

Alamance, Orange, and Chatham counties 53 

Moore county 54 

The Burns (or Burns and Aired) mine 55 

The Cagle mine 56 

The Clegg mine 56 



4 CONTENTS. 

Chapter IV— Continued. 

Moore county — Continued. page. 

The Brown mine - 56 

Randolph county - 56 

The Hoover Hill mine - 56 

The Wilson Kindley mine 57 

The Jones (or Keystone) mine 57 

The Parish mine 59 

The Lafflin (or Herring) mine 59 

The Delft mine 59 

The Winningham mine. ~ 59 

The Slack mine - 59 

The Davis Mountain mine „ 59 

The Sawyer mine 59 

The Winslo w mine _ 60 

The Uharie mine 60 

Davidson county 60 

The Emmons (or Davidson) mine 60 

The Cid mine 60 

The Silver Hill mine 61 

The Silver Valley mine 66 

The Welborn (Smith) mine ...._ 68 

The Conrad Hill mine 68 

Montgomery county 74 

The Russell mine 74 

The Appalachian (or Coggins) mine 76 

The Morris Mountain (Davis or Dutton) mine — 76 

The Riggon Hill mine 77 

The Steel mine 77 

The Saunders mine 77 

The Beaver Dam mine 78 

The Moratock mine 79 

The Reynolds mine 80 

The Carter mine 80 

The Sam Christian mine 80 

Mines in Stanly county 82 

The Haithcock mine 82 

The Hearne mine 82 

The Lowder mine 82 

The Crawford (or Ingram) mine 82 

The Parker mine 83 

The Crowell mine 84 

The Barringer mine 85 

Mines in Rowan and Cabarrus counties 85 

The Gold Hill group of mines 85 

The Randolph vein, the Gold Hill mine 87 

The Barnhardt vein 88 

The Old Field vein 88 



CONTENTS. 5 

Chapter IV— Continued. 

Rowan and Cabarrus county — Continued. page. 

The Hunnicut vein 88 

The Standard vein 88 

The Troutman vein 88 

The McMakin vein 89 

Other mines in Cabarrus county 91 

The Mauney mine 91 

The Isenhour mine 91 

The Rocky River mine 91 

The Buffalo mine 93 

The Allen Furr mine 93 

The Nugget (or Biggers) mine 94 

Mines in Union county 94 

The Crowell mine 94 

The Long mine 95 

The Moore mine 95 

The Stewart mine 96 

The Lemmonds (or Marion) mine 97 

The New South mine 98 

The Crump mine 98 

The Butterfield mine 98 

The Henry Phifer mine 98 

The Fox Hill mine 99 

The Black mine 99 

The Smart mine 99 

The Secrest mine 100 

The Moore Hill, Folger Hill, Davis, Phifer, Lewis, Hemby 

group of mines 100 

The Moore Hill mine 102 

The Davis mine 102 

Folger Hill 102 

The Phifer (or Price) mine 102 

The Lewis mine 103 

The Hemby mine 103 

The Harkness mine .♦. 103 

The Bonnie Belle and Howie group 103 

The Bonnie Belle (or Washington) mine 104 

The Howie mine 104 

Anson county 106 

The Hamilton (Bailey) mine 106 

The Jesse Cox mine 106 

Chapter V.— The Carolina Igneous Belt and its Gold De- 
posits 107 

General description of the belt 107 

Geologic characteristics 107 

The ore deposits of the Carolina Igneous belt 108 

The mines in the Carolina Igneous belt 110 



6 CONTENTS. 

Chapter V— Continued. 

PAGE. 

Mines in Guilford county 110 

The Hodges (or Hodgins) Hill mine . 110 

The Fisher Hill mine 110 

The Millis Hill mine.... 110 

The Twin mine Ill 

The North Carolina (or Fentress) mine Ill 

The Gardner Hill mine 112 

The North State (or McCullough) mine 114 

The Deep River mine 115 

The Lindsay mine. 116 

The Beason, Harland, Beard, Vickery, Lauder, Eudy, and 

Ball mines 116 

Mines in Davidson county 116 

The Lalor (or Allen) mine..., 116 

The Loftin mine 117 

The Eureka mine 117 

The Black mine 117 

Mines in Rowan county 117 

The New Discovery mine ' 117 

The Dunns Mt. mine 117 

The Reimer mine 118 

The Bullion mine..... 120 

The Gold Knob mine 120 

The Dutch Creek mine 120 

The Atlas mine 121 

The Bame mine 121 

Cabarrus county '. 121 

The Phoenix mine 121 

The Barrier mine 122 

The Furness mine 123 

The Gibb mine 123 

The Faggart mine 123 

The Barnhardt mine 123 

The Tucker (or California) mine 123 

The Quaker City mine 123 

The Reed mine 124 

The Pioneer Mills mine 125 

Mecklenburg county 125 

The Davidson mine 126 

The Point mine 126 

The Rudisil mine 126 

The St. Catherine (Charlotte) mine 129 

The Smith and Palmer mine 131 

The Howell mine 131 

The Taylor mine 131 



CONTENTS. 7 

Chapter V— Continued. 

Mecklenburg- county — Continued. page. 

The Trotter mine 131 

The Clark mine 132 

The Parks mine 132 

The Brawley mine 132 

The Todd mine 133 

The Arlington mine 133 

The Stephen Wilson mine 133 

The Capps mine 133 

The McGinn mine 137 

The Means mine 138 

The Hopewell (or Kerns) mine 139 

The Green C. Cathey mine 139 

The Sloan mine 139 

The Chapman (or Alexander) mine 139 

The Dunn mine 140 

The Cathey mine 141 

The McCorkle mine 141 

The Henderson mine 141 

The John P. Hunter mine 142 

The Ferris (or Faires) mine 142 

The Hunter mine 143 

The Tredinick mine 143 

The Ray mine 143 

/The Simpson mine 144 

The Black mine 144 

The Surface Hill mine 145 

The A. J. Wilson mine 145 

Chapter VI.— The Kings Mountain Belt and its Gold Deposits. 146 

Gaston county 146 

The Kings Mountain (or Catawba) mine 146 

The Crowder's Mountain (or Caledonia) mine 147 

The Patterson mine 148 

The Rhodes mine 148 

The McLean (or Rumfeldt) mine 148 

The Duffle mine 148 

The Robinson mine 148 

The Derr mine 148 

The Rhyne mine 148 

The Burrell Wells mine 149 

The Oliver mine 149 

The Farrar mine 149 

The Long Creek mine 149 

Lincoln county 150 

The Hoke mine 150 



S CONTENTS. 

Chapter Y I— Continued. 

Lincoln county — Continued. page. 

The Graham mine 150 

Catawba county 150 

The Shuford mine ! 150 

The A. D. Shuford mine 150 

Davie county 151 

The Butler (or County Line) mine 151 

The Isaac Allen mine 151 

Yadkin county 151 

The Dixon mine 151 

Chapter VII.— The South Mountain Belt and its Gold De- 
posits 152 

General description of the region 152 

Topographic features of the region 152 

Historical : The Bechtler coinage 153^ 

General geologic and petrographic notes 154 

The gOld-bearing quartz veins 158 

Distribution of the quartz veins 159 

The value of the quartz veins 160 

Methods of working the quartz vein deposits 160 

The placer deposits 161 

Distribution of the placer deposits. 162 

Value of the placer deposits 162 

Methods of working the placer deposits 163 

Water supply for placer mining 16& 

Description of the gold deposits and mines in the South Mountain 

region 164 

Burke county 164 

The Hancock mine 164 

ThcCarolina Queen mine 164 

The Hodge property 165 

The J. C. Mills property 165 

McDowell county 166 

The Marion Bullion Co 166 

The Vein Mountain property 168 

Rutherford county 169 

The Alta (Monarch or Idler) mine 169 

The Ellwood mine 170 

The Leeds mine 170 

Conclusions and recommendations as to mining operations in the 

South Mountain region 170 

Areas still available for mining. 170 

Improvement in working methods 171 

Treatment of clay balls — " sluice robbers " 171 

Improvement of water conduits 171 

Disposition of the tailings 172 



CONTENTS. tf 

Chapter VII— Continued. 

PAGE. 

Monazite deposits of the South Mountain region 172 

Deep mining in the South Mountain region 173 

Description of mines in other portions of the general South Moun- 
tain belt 173 

Polk county 173 

The Prince mine 174 

The Red Spring mine 174 

The Double Branch property 174 

The Smith mine 174 

Burke county 175 

The Brown Mountain mine 175 

Caldwell county 175 

The Miller mine 176 

The Scott Hill mine 176 

The Pax Hiil mine 176 

The Baker mine 177 

Old Miller mine 177 

Bald Knob mine 177 

Francis mine 177 

The Bee Mountain mine 178 

Wilkes county 178 

Flint Knob '..... 178 

Bryan's Gap 179 

Chapter VIII.— The GtOld Deposits West of the Blue Ridge.... 180 

Ashe county 180 

The Copper Knob (or Cap Creek) mine 180 

Watauga county 181 

Buncombe county 181 

Henderson county 181 

The Boylston mine 181 

Jackson, Transylvania and Macon counties 191 

Cherokee county 192 

Index 195 

Errata 199* 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Plate I. Map showing the distribution of the gold deposits of North 

Carolina Frontispiece. 

II. Silver Hill mine, vertical sections of 62 

III. Silver Hill mine, longitudinal vertical section 62 

IV. Russell mine, Big cut 75 

V. Sam Christian mine, gravel and quartz veins 82 

VI. Gold Hill district, map of veins 87 

VII. Gold Hill mine, Randolph vein 87 

VIII. Gold Hill mine, Barnhardt vein 88 

IX. Phoenix mine, Phoenix vein 121 

X. Rudisil mine, vertical section 127 

XI. McGinn mine, gold and copper veins 138 

XII. Map of the South Mountain region 152 

XIII. Amphibolite and pyroxenite blebs 157 

XIV. Hancock mine, general view 164 

Figure 1. Incrustation at the Moore mine 50 

2. Bending of schists, Belle mine 54 

3. Plan of veins, Conrad Hill mine 69 

4. Rocky River mine, topographic map of 92 

5. Fragments of schists in vein matter 95 

6. Sketch map of location of Davis, Phifer, &c, mines 101 

8. Structure of vein, Gardner Hill mine 113 

9. Vertical section of Reimer mine .•. 118 

10. Cross section, Reimer vein 119 

11. Cross section, Rudisil vein 127 

12. Capps and McGinn mining tracts 134 

13. McGinn mine, Copper vein 137 

14. Cross section, Means mine 138 

15. Map of location of Miller, Scott-Hill, &c, mines 176 

16. Map of location of Boylston veins 182 

17. Plan of drifts, &c, Boylston mine 187 

18. Section on vein, drift No. 5, Boylston mine 188 

19. Section on vein No. 4, Boylston mine 189 



LETTEK OF TRANSMITTAL 



Raleigh, N. C, Nov. 30, 1895. 
To His Excellency, Hon. Elias Carr, 

Governor of North Carolina. 
Sir : — I have the honor to submit for publication as Bulletin 3 
of the Geological Survey, a preliminary report on the Gold Deposits 
of North Carolina; prepared by Mr. Henry B. C. Nitze, of the 
Geological Survey, and Mr. George B. Hanna, of the U. S. Assay 
office at Charlotte. There are many enquiries for information 
concerning the gold deposits of the State, and in response to these 
I recommend the publication of this Bulletin. 

Yours obediently, 

J. A. Holmes, 

State Geologist. 



PKEFACE. 

This preliminary report owes its appearance to the fact that 
during the past few years there has been a growing interest in the 
South Appalachian gold fields, and the resulting inquiries have 
shown' that mining operations in many portions of this region are 
in an exceedingly unsatisfactory condition, and that there were 
but few publications to be found relating to the subject, — and these 
of a somewhat unsatisfactory character. 

With a view of helping to remedy, as far as might be possible 
this state of affairs, a preliminary investigation was undertaken by 
the United States Geological Survey, of this gold region as a 
whole, and investigations have also been undertaken by the Geo- 
logical Surveys of several of the states included in this area. 
Results of the investigations undertaken for the U. S. Geological 
Survey by Mr. Geo. F. Becker, and the preliminary results obtained 
by the State Survey in Alabama have been published. Several 
years ago (1887) a paper on the gold deposits and mines in Xorth 
Carolina was also published, but this discussion of the subject is 
now nearly out of print. * 

During the past two years a study of the ]N"orth Carolina gold 
fields has been made by Mr. H. B. C. Nitze of the State Geological 
Survey, and by Mr. Geo. B. Hanna of the United States Assay 
Office at Charlotte, at such times as he could be absent from his 
duties there. The extent and nature of their work is described in 
more detail below. During the past year Mr. Nitze, assisted by 
Mr. H. A. J. Wilkens of Baltimore, has visited practically all of 
the mines now in operation in the South Appalachian gold field 
for the purpose of studying the mining and metallurgical methods 
in use. A statement of the results of their investigations was pre- 
sented at the Atlanta meeting of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers (October, 1895), and is now being printed in the 
Transactions of the Institute. A more elaborate report by them 
on this subject will be shortly published as one of the bulletins of 
this survey. 



*- l The Ores of North Carolina" : being chapter 2 of the 2nd volume of the Geology of 
North Carolina, by W. C Kerr and Geo. B. Hanna, Raleigh, 1887. pp. 333-359. 



PREFACE. 13 

With a view to the preparation of the present report on the 
Gold Deposits of North Carolina, Mr. Nitze began field explora- 
tions in the spring of 1894. During the latter part of May and 
June some preliminary examinations were made in Stanly, Rowan, 
Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Gaston, and Chatham counties. From 
the end of June to the beginning of November field work was 
pursued in the South Mountain region, embracing the counties of 
Burke, McDowell and Rutherford. This work was also extended 
into Henderson, Caldwell and Wilkes counties. 

During the month of November, Mr. Nitze was accompanied by 
Mr. Geo. F. Becker, and the latter's assistant, Mr. C. W. Puring- 
ton, of the U. S. Geological Survey, on a reconnaisance trip through 
Union, Cabarrus, Rowan, Montgomery, Davidson, Randolph, 
Moore, Chatham, Franklin and Nash counties. During the win- 
ter of 1894-'95 he was engaged in writing up the results of his 
field work, and in making a petrographic study of a number of 
rock specimens collected in the course of the field explorations. 
This work was pursued at the offices of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey in Washington, D. C, where he had the cordial assistance of 
Mr. Becker and his associates. 

The time in which it has been necessary to prepare the report 
of his work, together with other duties, did not allow of a micro- 
scopic examination of all the specimens collected, and some work 
still remains to be done in that direction. During the summer of 
1895, investigations were continued in the field, prior to the final 
writing of this report. 

Mr. Geo. B. Hanna, of the U. S. Assay Office at Charlotte, pre- 
pared a complete revision of the section on Gold Ores in "The 
Ores of North Carolina," and has added in this revision the results 
of his field observations in the gold belts made during the past 
few years. 

In order to bring together all the available data concerning the 
several gold bearing regions, it was necessary to combine these two 
reports, and this somewhat difficult task was assigned to Mr. Nitze, 
who has brought together the subject matter of the two manu- 
scripts in such a way as to present the most logical arrangement 
of the subject. In the report as published, the geological descrip- 



14 PREFACE. 

tions and discussions are solely his. The descriptions of the 
mines are in part his, in part Mr. Hanna's, in part a consolidation 
of the statements of both. 

Many of the facts contained in these descriptions, relating to 
the old mine workings, thickness of the ore bodies, etc., have been 
obtained from the personal statements of superintendents, of the 
mines, foremen, miners, etc., and the authors do not hold them- 
selves responsible for these. The majority of the mines described 
are not in active operation ; most 'of them being at the present 
time in an abandoned and inaccessible condition. Unless otherwise 
stated in this report, the mines described are not now being worked. 

It is well known that assays of gold ores are of little impor- 
tance as showing the working value of an ore body, unless very 
large quantities can be properly sampled in a sampling works, of 
which there are none in the South. The readers are, therefore, 
warned not to be misled by assays that are given in this report : 
they are given to show comparative approximate values, or vari- 
ations in different parts of the same ore body. Though it ought 
to be said that, excluding the high grade assays, many of the 
samples represent fairly well actual ore bodies of greater or less 
magnitude. The only safe criterion of the value of an ore is a 
mill test. 

Unless otherwise stated, the assays given in this report, have 
been made by Mr. Hanna. The gold and silver have been valued 
at their coining rates, viz : Gold $20.67 per fine ounce, and Silver 
SI. 293 per fine ounce. This is plain as to gold, for the coining 
and commercial rate are practically the same ; but with silver the 
commercial rate varies greatly, and those who are especially inter- 
ested must correct the stated valuation by the commercial rate of 
the day. The ton mentioned in the assays is invariably 2000 pounds. 

Mr. Chas. E. Cooke, topographer, of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, was engaged from October 10th to the latter part of Novem- 
ber in revising the S. W. quarter (250 square miles) of the Mor- 
ganton Atlas sheet, on a scale of one mile to the inch, with con- 
tour intervals of 50 feet. The map of the South Mountain 
region published in this report* (plate XII) is the result of Mr. 
Cooke's excellent survey. 

J. A. Holmes. 



THE GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

By H. B. C. Nitze and Geo. B. Hanna. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE GOLD-PRODUCING AEEA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. 

The area of the gold-bearing" rocks ; historical notes ; gold and silver pro- 
duction in North Carolina ; character and fineness of the gold and 
silver ; the gold-bearing rocks ; nature of the ore deposits. 

AREA OF THE GOLD-BEARING ROCKS. 

The formations of about one-half of the area of North Carolina 
may be considered as gold bearing, but the productive part of this 
area, i, e. the -part which at one or another period has been 
exploited to any considerable extent will not exceed 8,000 or 10,000 
square miles. There are at least 350 localities in the State which 
have earlier or later been worked for gold. At the present time 
18 mines are in operation. 

Warren county on the northeast, Moore county on the southeast, 
and the Tennessee line on the west, mark approximately the east- 
ern and western boundaries of the North Carolina gold field as a 
whole. It passes into Virginia on the north, and into South 
Carolina and Georgia on the south. 

This general field may be divided geologically and geographi- 
cally into the following six groups or belts, the general location of 
which is indicated on the accompanying small map (Plate I) : 

1. The Eastern Carolina Belt. 

2. The Carolina Slate Belt. 

3. The Carolina Igneous Belt. 

4. The Kings Mountain Belt. 

5. The South Mountain Belt. 

6. The mines west of the Blue Ridge. 

These various belts are not in all instances clearly outlined or 
well marked, and might on extended study be subject to still 

further differentiation or other revision. 

2 



16 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

However, they serve the purpose here of simplifying and facili- 
tating the descriptions of the geological features and the distribu- 
tion of the mines. 

Each belt will be taken up and treated separately in the follow- 
ing portions of this report. 

HISTORICAL NOTES. 

At what time gold mining was first undertaken in Xorth Caro- 
lina cannot be ascertained, but several traditions, which carry a 
large probability of truth, would seem to indicate that the aurif- 
erous character of the section was known before the Revolutionary 
war. One of the localities in this State, which it is believed was 
worked before that struggle began, was the Oliver mine in Gaston 
county. The Brewer mine in Chesterfield county, South Carolina, 
is another ; and the "Aborigines" shaft, at this latter place, is 
still pointed out where work was done earlier than any known 
records. Information has recently been received of the successful 
operation of the Parker mine in Cherokee county, N. C, by the 
Cherokee Indians long before the coming of the white pioneers 
into that section. They obtained only nugget gold and their art 
w T as entirely inadequate to the winning of the fine dust gold. 

The first authentic find was on the Reed plantation, in Cabarrus 
county, where a 17 pound nugget w T as found in 1799. Its value 
was not suspected at first, but when it was ascertained to be gold, 
a systematic search was undertaken, and a large number of nug- 
gets Avere unearthed. 1 

Success at this mine stimulated search elsewhere ; nugget gold 
was found at the Dunn mine in Mecklenburg county soon after- 
wards, and curious stories are still current of the common uses to 
which these nuggets were put by the local gunsmiths. 

By 1825 gold mining on a vigorous scale was carried on along 
the entire Appalachian slope, from Virginia to Alabama. The 
placers or like deposits were first worked, then the gossan outcrops 
of the veins, where slight skill with few and cheap appliances were 
adequate to the work. The exhaustion of these easily worked 
stores was effected about the time of the discovery of gold in Cal- 

i Emmons' Geology of the Midland counties of North Carolina, 1856, page 166. 



GOLD AND SILVER PRODUCED IN NORTH CAROLINA. 17 

ifornia and there was a large exodus of miners to that territory. 
The mining work had not recovered from the retarding influences 
of this exodus when the civil war came and put an end to all work. 
At the close of the war but one gold mine in North Carolina was 
in operation. Since then there have been spasmodic revivals and 
depressions in gold mining throughout the State, and at the pres- 
ent time everything points to a healthy growth of the industry. 

GOLD AND SILVER PRODUCED IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

The total amount of the precious metals produced by the mines 

of North Carolina up to Nov. 30th, 1894, so far as the United 

States records offer evidence is as follows : 

Gold (coining rate) $11,754,369.60 

Silver " " 63,620.40 



Total, $11,817,990.00 

It is certain, however, that this is but a part of the production, 
for much of it is known to have been exported directly by com- 
panies having headquarters abroad. Moreover, up to the time of 
the discovery of gold in California, there was a large demand for 
native gold by jewelers, and the Carolina gold was in request on 
account of its beauty. It is not an unreasonable conjecture that 
the amount which has in various ways escaped official notice is as 
large as that on record ; and that the total amount produced in the 
State can hardly have been less than $24,000,000.00. 

It should be added that the statistics for silver are trebly obscure, 
for in addition to the vicissitudes observed in the disposition of the 
gold mined in North Carolina, this metal has passed in a much 
greater proportion than gold directly into the channels of com- 
merce, through private refineries and smelting works, inasmuch as 
since 1873 the United States Mint has not purchased silver from 
depositors. The fluctuating and low price of silver since 1873 as 
compared with the coining rate is also confusing. The silver pro- 
duced in the State, at its coining rate, would probably be swollen 
in even greater proportion than that of the gold. 

The following statistics since 1880 are given, from the records 
of the United States Mint : 

fcLorth Carolina Stat* UWsry 



Raleigh 



18 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Table I. Gold and Silver produced in North Carolina, deposited at the 
United States Mint and Assay offices. 



Yeab. 


Gold. 


Silve a. 


Year. 


Gold. 


Silve h. 


1880 


$ 77,405.30 


$ 395.33 


1888 


$ 88,641.47 


$ 2,787.80 


1881 


55,989.97 


510.12 


1889 


81,196.33 


7,803.12 


1882 


82,472,84 


662.96 


1890 


75,192.13 


1,644.77 


1883 


100,2^3.84 


797.57 


1891 


53,992.75 


512.96 


1884 


88,861.11 


568.09 


1892 


50 -335.67 


475.96 


1885 


64,826.25 


591.07 


1893 


36,454.49 


348.44 


1888 


83,400.20 


784.71 


1864 


46,592.45 


454.83 


1887 


216,788.08 


2,756.37 









Table II. Estimate of the production of Gold and Silver {combined) 
in North Carolina. 



1880 


$ 95,000 


1885 


$ 155,000 


1830 


$ 126.397 


1881 


115,000 


1886 


178,000 


1891 


101.4T? 


1882 


215,000 


1887 


230,000 


1892 


90.196 


1883 


170,000 


1888 


139,500 


1893 


70.505 


1884 


160,500 


1889 


150,174 


1894 


52.927 



CHARACTER AND FINENESS OF GOLD AND SILVER. 

With the exception of minute quantities of telluric! e of gold at 
the Kings Mountain mine, and possibly a few others, the gold in 
this State is believed to exist in the metallic state, and is invari- 
ably alloyed with silver, in proportions varying from 50 to 600 
one-thousandths of silver. 

Native silver was found in some quantity at the Silver Hill 
mine in Davidson county, at the McMackin and Troutman mines 
near Gold Hill, and at the Copper Knob mine in Ashe county. 
Sulphide of silver is also reported to have been seen at the latter 
mine. Chlorides and bromides, with their associated minerals, are 
found only in extremely small quantities, and are of no importance 
commercially. 

Outside of these associations, silver is found in the galenas and 
zinc-blendes, with commonly only a small content in gold. Zinc 
ores, dissociated from galena, are very rare, while lead ores free 
from large amounts of zinc are also infrequent. In a word, the lead 



CHARACTER AND FINENESS OF GOLD AND SILVER. 19 

ores of North Carolina are usually zinciferous ; they are commonly 
argentiferous, and to a slight extent auriferous. 

The fineness of native gold varies throughout the State, and to 
a large extent with the different formations in which it occurs. 
The Eastern Carolina belt shows a variable fineness at the differ- 
ent points. Thus, toward the northern part of the State, well up 
to the Virginia line, assays show the gold to be about 925 m. fine, 
with from 60 to 75 m. silver and &very little iron, and occasionally 
a trace of copper ; at the Portis mine in Warren county, for exam- 
ple, very rarely does the fineness reach to 950 m. Further south, 
in Moore county, the range in fineness is from 700 to 750 (rarely 
850) gold, and 225 to 300 silver, with similar base constituents. 
In the first mentioned locality, the gold is almost entirely 
"placer " ; in the latter it is partly derived from a mill treatment 
of the schists. 

Throughout this entire area, arsenic, antimony, etc., are rare in 
the native gold, and it is not quite certain that these metals may 
not have been introduced by careless manipulation. 

In the Carolina Igneous region, gold ranges from 800 to 950 
( very rarely 975). Thus, for example, at the North State, Phoenix, 
Peed, Capps and Pudisil mines, 900 to 925 would characterize the 
average, with a trifle more iron, and sometimes with as much as 5 
to 10 of copper — for the gold comes from veins, which carry large 
bodies of chalcopyrite. 

In the Carolina Slate region, just to the east of this Carolina 
Igneous belt, the gold is derived from schists, which often carry 
pyrites or galenites, and these, especially the galenites, have 
apparently had a large influence in lowering the grade, which 
rarely rises to 900 ; examples of this may be seen at the Howie, 
where the fineness of the gold varies from 725 to 775 ; at Gold 
Hill, from 850 to 900 ; at the Phifer, from 750 to 800 ; and most 
frequently the fineness will not rise above 825. Where galenite 
is abundant, the proportion of gold is reduced to 450, and on rare 
occasions to a still lower point, as, for example, at the Davis 
mine, we find gold as low as 150, and sometimes less ; at the 
Stewart, gold 550, silver 147. The native gold itself does not 
often contain more than a trace of lead. 



20 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

In the extreme western part of the State, the gold is almost 
wholly placer gold, and occurs more or less in nuggets. The 
fineness is rarely as low as 800, and most generally runs above 
900 — occasionally rising to 980 — with the least possible amount 
of base metal. 

In the Burke county mines (South Mountain belt; which are 
chiefly placer, the gold is tolerably uniform, from 825 to 850, as 
may be observed at the J. C. Mills mines, the Hancock mine, 
and the Brindletown localities generally. In the adjacent 
county, McDowell, the grade lessens to 780 or 800 ; as at the 
Vein Mountain mine. In Rutherford county it rises to nearly 
900. In Polk county the fineness again rises, being rarely less 
than 900, and often more than 950 ; as may be observed at the 
Double Branch, and the Splawn mines. 

When it is said that iron is found in native gold, the statement 
must not pass without some qualification, for in some cases it is 
known to be due to a slight proportion of oxide of iron, mechani- 
cally contained in the minute cells of the nuggets or grains. 
And the same has also been occasionally observed of oxide of 
copper. l 

THE GOLD-BEARING ROCKS. 

The auriferous deposits of North Carolina are contained in the 
crystalline rocks, which cover more than one-half the area of the 
State. These rocks include gneisses, metamorphosed schists and 
slates, siliceous limestone, granite, diorite, diabase and other plu- 
tonic eruptives, devitrified ancient volcanics, and pyroclastic 
breccias. In part (limestones and some of the slates), they show 
evidence of sedimentary origin, but they are all metamorphosed 
to such a degree that they are included here under the general 
term crystalline rocks. 

The age of these rocks is not definitely known, but they ap- 
pear to be Archean, Algonkian, and probably in part Paleozoic. 

In the southeastern portion of the gold field, in Union, Stanly 
and Montgomery counties, is an area of little indurated, bedded 
slates, of undoubted sedimentary character, which have been 

1 See further the Engineering and Mining Journal, September 18, 1886. G. B. Hamia. 



STRUCTURE OF THE ORE DEPOSITS. 21 

called the " Monroe " slates. These are intersected by small 
auriferous quartz fissures, but their economic value is of little 
importance. 

The Jura Trias (Newark) conglomerates, bordering on the 
eastern edge of the gold-bearing crystalline rocks, have in sev- 
eral instances (Chatham county) been shown to be very slightly 
auriferous, but this fact is purely of scientific and not of commer- 
cial interest. 

STRUCTURE OF THE ORE DEPOSITS. 

Structually, the ore deposits are of two principal types : (1) 
quartz fissure veins containing free gold, and gold in combination 
with sulphurets. (2) impregnations of free gold and finely 
divided auriferous sulphurets in the country schists and slates, 
sometimes accompanied by small lenticular quartz intercalations. 

The quartz fissure veins in turn may be differentiated into (a) 
clean cut fissures, intersecting the massive rocks, such as gran- 
ites, diorites, etc., or cutting the schistosity of the gneisses and 
schists, both in dip and strike, at a well defined angle ; (b) a 
system of larger and smaller lenticular veins of more or less defi- 
nite extent, approximately conformable to the schistosity of the 
rocks, but also intersecting the same, usually at small angles, 
and sometimes cutting across from one lamination to another, or 
sending off irregular and discontinuous stringers into the wall 
rock ; (c) a system of reticulated veins. 

The second class, the auriferous schists, are sometimes hun- 
dreds of feet in width, though not by any means necessarily 
capable of being worked profitably in their whole extent. 
Almost invariably the larger the ore body, the lower the grade 
of the ore ; and these large bodies of auriferous schist form the 
low grade ores of North Carolina, as they do throughout the 
entire southern Appalachian, as well as other gold fields. 

The gold is not uniformly distributed in the ore bodies; both 
the veins and schists have "chimneys" or "shoots" in which the 
gold is concentrated, leaving the intermediate parts relatively 
poor, though all parts commonly have some valuable contents. 
These "shoots" have a pitch of their own in the vein or ore body. 



22 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The line of separation is not clearly denned, except to the expe- 
rienced miner, who can discriminate the limits of the secondary 
action, which has charged the "shoots". 

Moreover, the country rock in the vicinity of the ore bodies 
almost everywhere carries some sulphurets (nsnally pyrite), 
which contain at least a trace of gold. 

INFLUENCE OF WEATHERING AGENCIES ON THE ORE BODIES. 

The entire surface of the country has long been subject to 
weathering agencies ; and as a result the rocks, together with the 
auriferous bodies contained in them, have been decomposed to 
considerable depths, occasionally reaching 200 feet. Nearly or 
quite to the depths of these alterations, and almost always to the 
permanent water line, which is rarely more than 50 feet from 
the surface, the gold is in a free condition. 

In these upper, decomposed portions (the gossan) of the ore 
bodies the pyrite is for the most part changed to brown hema- 
tite (brown ore), the copper sulphides have become malachite 
(rarely azurite), chrysocalla, and occasionally either black or red 
cxide of copper, or else the copper constituents have been almost 
entirely leached out, and similarly the lead and zinc sulphides 
have been altered. The decomposed "brown ore" holds not only 
the gold, which was originally in the sulphurets, but it has been 
further enriched as a result of the alterations which have taken 
place, as is evidenced by the presence of nuggets and grain gold, 
which is always found in this zone more abundantly than in the 
deeper ores. Ores of this class are not difficult to work, and 
require little and inexpensive machinery. The treatment is 
rather a mechanical process than a metallurgical one, and with 
close attention to the process a large part of the precious contents 
is extracted at a small cost. The larger bodies of brown ores 
have by this time been practically exhausted, and the work 
henceforth must generally be on the deeper, more complex, and 
as a rule, less rich ores. 

Below the water level the ores are only partly altered at most. 
However, native gold is often found attached to the sulphurets. 



INFLUENCE OF W FATHERING AGENCIES ON THE ORE BODIES. 23 

and a simple concentration of the ores will generally disclose 
free gold. But the yield by stamp-mill amalgamation alone is 
seldom sufficient to be remunerative, and the ores must be sub- 
mitted to further mechanical and metallurgical treatment for the 
extraction of the gold from the sulphurets. 

The cost of mining is also largely increased, chiefly as it 
becomes necessary to use pumping and other machinery, the pur- 
chase and maintainance of which are heavy expenses. 

The narrow seams and veinlets of quartz, which are extraordi- 
narily abundant in the North Carolina gold field, and which 
traverse the country in many directions, are oftentimes compara- 
tively rich in gold. The weathering agencies have in time lib- 
erated the gold from these veinlets, and from the decomposed 
masses of country rock, and subsequently concentrated it on the 
bed of undisturbed rock, or in the streams, thus forming the 
placer deposits. 



24 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE EASTEKN CAEOLINA BELT. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

This embraces the extreme northeast deposits of the State, in 
the counties of Warren, Halifax, Franklin and Xash, (see plate 
I, page 15). The present known area over which the mines are 
distributed is not less than 300 square miles, extending from the 
Thomas mine, 1J miles northeast of Hansom's Bridge, in a south- 
westerly direction to the Tar river ; and it is possible that these 
boundaries will ultimately be enlarged both to the north and 
south, and even to the east into the region now covered by recent 
sands and clays. 

On the west this area is bounded by the Louisburg granite. 

The country rocks are diorite, chloritic schist, and gneiss. 
The great abundance of quartz veinlets, from a line to 1J inches 
in thickness, is very conspicuous in this district. They com- 
monly run with the lamination, but sometimes cross both the 
strike and dip of the schistosity ; occasionally they occur in con- 
siderable numbers close together and constitute a true ore chan- 
nel. They consist generally of sugary or granular quartz, often 
seamed and filled with oxide of iron, and are always soft and 
easily crushed. The smaller seams are usually the richer. The 
gold appears originally to have been in these narrow seams of 
quartz, which have been broken down in the process of weather- 
ing, and the fragments of which are widely distributed through 
the soil, and are generally most abundant on the bed rock, 15 to 
25 feet below the surface, or in favored sinks and channels. 

The richer parts of this district have been worked 60 or 70 
years, but those parts which are most accessible to water have 
been so far exhausted as to be no longer profitable under the 
simple methods so long practiced ; hence the almost total cessa- 
tion of the heretofore small hydraulic operations, although 
hydraulic work on a large systematic scale may in many cases be 
quite feasible. 



MINES IN THE EASTERN CAROLINA BELT. 25 

A large amount of quartz has been accumulated by such work; 
most of this is auriferous, and capable of being milled at a small 
profit, as indicated by the following assays : 

Assays of free-milling quartz, Eastern Carolina Belt. 

(1) (2) (3) 

Gold (per ton) $2.07 $3.10 $2.59 

Silver (per ton) trace. trace. trace. 

Most of the mines of this district have the same salient char- 
acteristics and demand the same mode of treatment ; though 
some, like the Portis, are situated on elevated land, and are not 
naturally well supplied with w T ater. 

A combined hydraulic and milling method, such as is used so 
extensively in Dahlonega, Georgia, may in many cases be adapt- 
able to the mines of the Eastern Carolina belt. 

The production of this district has unquestionably been very 
considerable, but whether the three or four millions of dollars 
attributed to it can be substantiated may admit of some doubt. 

GOLD DEPOSITS AND MINES IN THE EASTERN CAROLINA BELT. 

Among the more noted mines of the region, which have been 
worked, are the following : 

The Portis Mine 1 is situated near Ransom's Bridge in the 
northeastern corner of Franklin county, about 18 miles E. N. E. 
from Louisburg, on a hill 108 feet above Shocco creek, from 
which water for hydraulic work is obtained. 

The only work of any consequence that has been done here 
was surface sluicing and some hydraulicking, to a depth of from 
15 to 30 feet. Recently some prospect pits have been sunk on 
various portions of the property, but none of these extend to the 
water level, being entirely in the upper decomposed rock layer. 
Practically very little can be learned, either in regard to the 
true nature of the deposits in place, or the nature and relations 
of the country rock. 

The country rock appears to be diorite, which in general is 
greatly decomposed and beyond recognition ; only at a few points 
were fairly fresh specimens found. 

iGeolog. Report of the Midland Counties of N. C, p. 140. 



26 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTE CAROLINA. 

From a statement of Col. Sturgess, the owner, it appears that 
there are two main zones of ore, nearly at right angles to each 
other. One of these strikes about X. 50° E., and dips 25° S. 
E., as determined in a shallow prospect shaft. The ore body 
consists of a mass of small and large reticulated quartz veins 
(up to 2 feet thick) in the diorite, measuring about 9 feet in total 
w T idth. - The quartz is stained brown, and is for the most part of 
a saccharoidal character. 

The other zone is known locally as the "White Belt", and, 
like the first, consists of a network of reticulated quartz veins. 
The thickness of the deposit is stated to be about 9 feet. It is 
called the "White Belt" presumably on account of the appear- 
ance of the decomposed diorite, which is a soft bleached mass. 
The strike is west of north, and the dip westward at a very low 
angle. A former miner stated, that in a distance of 300 yards to 
the west of the outcrop, the depth of the ore body was only 40 
feet. 

Some loose pieces of diabase were found near one of these 
openings, but not in place. It is stated that this rock occurs in 
boulders just above the ore of the "White Bank"; and it is pos- 
sible therefore that the diabase exists as an intrusive dike lying 
with the ore body, nearly flat and above it, or it may exist in 
more vertical dikes somewhere. Its true relation could not be 
determined. At least one might say that it appears to be asso- 
ciated with the ore body. 

It is stated that the upper decomposed rock layer is every- 
where auriferous, and will pay to hydraulic. The scarcity of 
water is the great impediment. Small irregular quartz stringers 
occur promiscuously throughout the country rock. 

At one point a line has been hydraulicked, and Col. Sturgess 
reports that 1000 cubic yards yielded 1018 penny weights of gold, 
the loose vein rock obtained in this mass averaging about 88 per 
ton, assay value. 

The Mann-Arrington Mine is situated in the northwest corner 
of Xash county, at Argo P. O., five miles southeast of Ransom's 
Bridge. The country rock is chloritic schist, in part porphyritic, 
some of the phenocrysts being | inch in diameter. It may be a 



MINES IN THE EASTERN CAROLINA BELT. 27 

metamorphosed diorite. The strike is N. 58° E., dip 40° S. E. 
The rock contains iron sulphurets, and quartz lenses, from minute 
size up to 12 inches in thickness. These lenses are interlami- 
nated in the schist, and some were observed to cut the schistosity 
at low angles. The quartz is generally quite saccharoidal, and 
often of a reddish brown color from the decomposed sulphurets, 
having a "live" appearance for gold. It contains included frag- 
ments of chlorite. The mine has been worked to a depth of 
about 108 feet, but is now idle. 

The Arrington Mine is in Nash county, one mile southeast of 
the Portis. The mine tract comprises nearly 2,000 acres of land 
extending two or three miles down Fishing Creek. After the 
Portis, this mine is the best known of the region. 

The Thomas, Kearney, Taylor, Mann and Davis (in Halifax 
county), are other but less prominent mines of this region. 

The Nick Arrington Mine is twelve miles east of the Portis. 

The Conyers Mine is seven miles from Whitakers, on Fishing 
creek. There is an 18-inch vein of brown and snlphurretted ore, 
in addition to a large quantity of "pay" gravel. The shaft is 30 
feet deep, and is reported to show milling ore all the way. 

Near Springhope on Tar river, about 20 miles west of Rocky 
Mount, considerable surface washing has been done, and a large 
amount of gold extracted, but there has been no systematic work. 

On the AVoodward-Hedgepath tract, 2 miles from Nashville, a 
strong vein 3 feet wide has lately been opened up for a distance 
of more than one mile. The ore is cellular quartz, containing 
iron pyrites ; adjacent is a parallel body of auriferous slates. 



28 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER III. 

THE CAROLINA SLATE BELT. 

CHARACTER AND AGE OP THE ROCKS. 

The term slate, as used in this connection, covers a broad 
designation. The country rocks of this important belt are : 

1. Argillaceous, sericitic (hydromicaceous), and chloritic meta- 
morphosed slates and crystalline schists. 

2. Sedimentary pre-Jura-Trias slates. 

3. Ancient volcanic rhyolites, quartz-porphyries, etc. (flint, 
hornstone, etc.), and pyroclastic breccias, often sheared. 

This area of metamorphic slates and schists embraces a belt 
extending in a general southwesterly direction across the central 
part of the State, and varying in width from S to 50 miles. It 
is bounded on the west by the central igneous area (Emmons' 
pyro-crystalline rocks, Kerr's Lower Laurentian), and on the 
east for the greater part by the Jura-Trias ; also in the northern 
part by a small area of Archean rocks (Kerr's L T pper Laurentian); 
and in the southeastern part by a small embayment of the Coastal 
Plain. This is the so-called " great slate belt " of Olmsted, the 
" Taconic " of Emmons and the " Huronian " of Kerr. 

In order to gain a more comprehensive oversight of this im- 
portant geological area, it will be well to state in a few words 
both Emmons' conception of his Taconic, and Kerr's conception 
of his Huronian in this part of North Carolina, without com- 
ment ; and then to discuss the same in the light of more recent 
investigation. This is by no means intended to be a general dis- 
cussion of the Taconic question, but simply in so far as it refers 
to this particular zone of gold-bearing rocks. The investigations 
carried on in this field during the autumn of 1894 were of neces- 
sity very cursory and incomplete, and can only form the begin- 
ning of a more thorough study of the region later on. 

EMMONS' TACONIC SYSTEM IN NORTH CAROLINA. 1 

Emmons places these rocks among the lowest members of the 
oldest sedimentaries, i. e., at the base of the Paleozoic. 

1 Geological Report of the Midland Counties of N. C, 1856 ; pp. 38-73. 



29 



" The formations of the midland counties, which occupy the 
largest extent of surface, are slates and siliceous rocks, which 
have been called quartzites." * * * * " The slates are va- 
riable in color and composition. They are mineral ogically clay, 
chloritic and talcose slates, taking silica into their composition 
at times, and even passing into line grits and hornestones, but 
still variable in coarseness. In the order in which they lie, the 
talcose slates and quartzites are the inferior rocks, though quartz- 
ites occur also in the condition of chert, flint or hornestones in 
all the series." 

He establishes their sedimentary origin from the occurence of 
numerous beds containing rounded pebbles. Further, "many beds 
which look like sediments, are porphyrized and somewhat 
changed, though not strictly porphyries; and these porphyrized 
beds also frequently contain pebbles, and are therefore partially 
altered sediments". 

One of the arguments that Emmons uses to prove the sedi- 
mentary nature of the Taconic and its derivation from the basal 
complex, is the presence of gold in the slates and schists, "which 
of course must have been commingled with the sediments at the 
time these rocks were deposited". * * * * * * * "The 
gold exists mostly in the western belt of granite in the veins 
belonging to the hornblende and gneiss of the Blue Ridge." 

Furthermore he claims to have discovered in his Lower 
Taconic sandstones and cherty beds at Troy and Zion (12 miles 
S. W. of Troy) in Montgomery county, 2 or 3 species of fossils. 1 

These fossils he describes as siliceous corals of a lenticular 
form, from the size of a pea to 2 inches in diameter. Two vari- 
eties are distinguished and named by him Paleotrochis (old mes- 
senger) major and Paleotrochis minor. He also reports to have 
found one or two specimens of an obscure bryozoon. 

The following descriptive section in the ascending order of the 
rocks and beds, in which these fossils were found, is given : 2 

1. Talcose slates, passing into siliceous slates, and which are often 
obscurely brecciated. 

2. Brecciated conglomerates, sometimes porphyrized. 

1 Geoi. Kept, of the Midland counties of X. C, 1856, p. 60. 

2 Ibid, p. 61. 



30 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

3. Slaty breccia, associated with hornstone. 

4. Granular quartz, sometimes vitreous and filled with fossils and siliceous 
concretions of the size of almonds. 

5. Slaty quartzite with very few fossils. 

6. Slate without fossils. 

7. White quartz, more or less vitrified, filled with fossils and concretions. 

8. Jointed granular quartz, with only a few fossils. 

9. Vitrified quartz without fossils. 
10. Granular quartz, no fossils. 

"The fossils also occur in the variety of quartz or quartzite 
known as burrhstone, and which is often porphyrized. The fos- 
siliferous beds themselves are sometimes auriferous." 

He is therefore disposed from these facts to place all the rocks, 
not decidedly igneous, or which he regarded as stratified 
(though in reality the apparent statification is but schistose 
lamination), with the sediments. He then correlates these rocks 
with the Taconie, the infrasilurian sediments of Massachusetts, 
mainly from their lithological characters, and the relatione in 
which they are placed to the older rocks, and those which they 
sustain to each other. In North Carolina, he says, these rocks 
have been derived from syenitic granites, which he believes to 
belong to the primary or basal complex. He makes two divis- 
ions, the Low^er Taconie and the Upper Taconie, the distinction 
between them, however, being less obvious in North Carolina, 
than in the northern equivalents. 

THE LOWER TACONIC. 

u The Lovjer series (Taconie) will contain the talcose slates, 
white and brown sandstone, or quartz, which is frequently vitri- 
fied or cherty, and the granular limestone and associated slates." 1 

The talc slate is made up of talc and fine grains of quartz. 
Color and lustre is silvery when chlorite is absent, and greenish 
when chlorite is present. When quartz predominates it becomes 
a friable sandstone. 

The quartz rocks, white and brown sandstones, occur under 
the following varieties : 

1. A fine grained coherent quartz. 

2. A fine grained friable quartz. 

x Geol. Kept. Midland Counties of N. C, 1856, p. 49. 



THE UPPER TACONIC. 31 

3. A fine grained micaceous and talcose quartz. 

4. Vitrified quartz or chert. 

(a) green, blue, (b) agatized. 

5. A cherty or apparently porphyrized quartz, which contains feldspar, 

which decomposes and leaves a rough porous mass similar to burrh- 
stone. 

6. Pebbly and semi-brecciated quartz. 

7. Common brown quartz. 

This rock is associated with the talcose slates, and is repeated 
two or three times ; it frequently contains pebbles, and passes 
into hornstone, chert or flint. 

The apparent vitrification he considers due to a chemical 
combination of the particles, or to a cause independent and 
distinct from heat. 

" Agalmatolite " (pyrophyllite) also occurs in beds in this 
Lower Taconic series. 

The limestone is associated with slate and quartz, and con- 
tains talc and tremolite. 

The rocks of the Lower Taconic then are : 

1. Beds of talcose slates. 2. Quartz rocks with their alterna- 
ting series of talcose slates. 3. Beds of agalmatolite. 4. Lime- 
stone with its interlaminated slates. 

THE UPPER TACONIC. 

"The upper (series) will contain (in ascending order) the green 
clay slates novaculite, the argillaceous, and sometimes chloritie 
sandstones or grits, and the brecciated conglomerates." 1 

This division of the system is not very clearly marked, but the 
rocks regarded by Emmons as belonging to it in North Carolina 
are : 

1. The argillaceous or clay slates and subordinate beds. Ordi- 
nary soft, greenish slates are the prevailing rocks. A red 
decomposed variety is mentioned as being common near Pitts- 
boro, Chatham county. The subordinate beds are fine siliceous 
slates, passing into chert and hornstone. Color blue, purple and 
green. 

2. The chloritie and argillaceous sandstones have an in term e- 

1 Emmons : Geol. Report Midland Counties of N. 0., 1856 , p. 49. 
3 



o"2 GOLD DEPOSITS 0"F XORTH CAROLLXA. 

diate composition between sandstone and slate. They are finer 
and more ehloritic and among them are beds of conglomerate. 
These ehloritic beds may be taken for trap, being greenish and 
tough, and besides like trap the broken strata exfoliate in con- 
centric layers. 

3. The brecciated conglomerate has an argillaceous or ehloritic 
base. The mass is composed in the main of fragments of other 
rocks, mostly retaining an angular form. These fragments are 
sometimes as much as 2 feet long. 

The clay slates and breccias, with their intermediate beds, are 
traversed by veins of milky quartz ; these are sometimes aurifer- 
ous, but usually barren. 

The socalled quartzite of both the Upper and Lower Taconic 
is considered of such peculiarity that a separate chapter is devo- 
ted to its description. It is an unerystallized | crypto-crystalline i 
quartz resembling gun-flint, also called flint, chert and horn- 
stone. Color bluish-black, passing to purple, grayish, white and 
green ; sometimes banded ; texture line when compared with the 
finest sandstone ; translucent on the edges ; fracture flat conchoi- 
dai ; often porphyritic or porphyrized, and frequently the fresh 
fracture is dotted with small limpid crystals of quartz. 

These quartzites are not confined to rocks of a particular age 
or given series. They seem to be distributed through formations 
of all ages and epochs. Emmons explains their origin rather 
from a chemical than from a metamorphic standpoint. 1 

KERR'S HURONIAN SYSTEM IN CENTRAL NORTH CAROLINA. 2 

Kerr recognizes five principal outcrops of the Huronian rocks. 
The one that corresponds to the central auriferous slate belt, and 
hence of interest here, lies on the west side of the Raleigh gran- 
ite. " The bottom beds are argillaceous and talcoid : 

* * three to four miles from Raleigh these slates 
become highly plumbaginous, * * and a heavy body of 
micaceous, white, slaty quartzites follows closely along the west 
side of the graphite. Alternations of argillaceous, talcoid and 

'-Geol. Kept. Midland Counties of X. C, p. 51. 

^Report of the Geological Survey of Xorth Carolina. 1875. vol. 1 : pp. 131-139. 



THE SLATES AND SCHISTS. 33 

quartzitic beds continue for five or six miles, when they disap- 
pear beneath a narrow trough of Triassic sandstones, beyond 
.which they emerge along an irregular, but approximately JN\ E. 
and S. W. line in the general central mineral bearing slate belt. 

* * It is composed of siliceous slates 
and clay slates chiefly ; the former being often brecciated and 
conglomerate, the pebbles sometimes a foot and upwards in diam- 
eter, frequently chloritic, and often passing into hornstone and 
chert and occasionally into quartzite. The clay slates are gen- 
erally thin bedded, often shaly, grey, drab, banded, blue and 
frequently greenish from an admixture of chlorite ; sometimes 
talcoid or hydro-micaceous ; and very often they may be better 
described as conglomerate slates, being composed of flattened 
and differently colored soft, slaty fragments of all sizes, from 
minute particles to an inch and more in diameter. * * * * 
in Montgomery county, in a very heavy ledge 
of siliceous slates, occurs a siliceous conglomerate which is filled 
for hundreds of feet with very singular siliceous concretions, 
some of which Dr. Emmons has described under the name of 
Paleotrochis ; but the rock for several miles, as well as at this 
particular locality, contains a multitude of rounded and ovoid 
masses from the smallest sizes to that of a hen's egg; showing 
the wide prevalence of conditions favorable to the operation of 
concretionary forces." 

He also mentions the occurrence of beds of pyrophyllite, and 
the abundance of quartz veins. The strike is northeast and the 
dip is prevalently west at high angles. 

"The belt is bounded on both sides by the Laurentian on which 
it'lies unconformably, and from which its materials were derived. 
The stratigraphy therefore indicates the horizon of these rocks to 
be the Huronian, and lithology agrees well with that determina- 
tion. 1 ' 

RESULTS OF MORE RECENT PETROGRAPHIC STUDIES. 
THE SLATES AND SCHISTS. 

One of the results of the present survey in this belt has been 
to identify at least the argillaceous, sericitic and chloritic schists 



34 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

and slates with those of Emmons' Taconic and Kerr's Huronian. 
(The Monroe slates form an exception and will be spoken of 
later — p. 36). These rocks have in places been called schists, in, 
others slates. Certainly a great number of the rocks have a true 
slaty cleavage, while others are more truly schistose, i. e. the lam- 
inae are not essentially parallel. These structural effects are due to 
the action of dynamic metamorphism on materials of different 
composition. The argillaceous types might more properly be 
called the slates (clay-slate, thon-schiefer, argyllite, phyllite) as 
they contain more uncrystalline matter, and possess a more defi- 
nitely slaty structure. So also bedding planes are more easily 
distinguishable in these, if at all ; and altogether their sediment- 
ary or clastic origin is more evident. At the same time they are 
metamorphosed in varying degrees and possess many secondary 
cleavage structures. These slates often have a calcareous tend- 
ency in their composition, as exemplified by the numerous small 
calcite seams that intersect them and the coatings of calcite on 
their cleavage planes. 

The term talc (talcose, talcoid) slate or schist, used by Emmons 
and Kerr, and generally by many other writers, is a mistaken 
one. It is true that it is perhaps an excusable mistake, for these 
slates and schists are often so soft and greasy that the resem- 
blance to talc is very great. However, chemical analysis and 
other characteristics would place it in the class of hydro-musco- 
vite or sericite, the percentage of magnesia being far too small 
for talc. Several analyses of type specimens of this rock from 
the Haile mine in Lancaster county, S. C, by Dr. Chas. Basker- 
ville, show : 

Analyses of Sericite Schist, Haile Mine, S. C. 

(4) (5) 

44.61$? 61.02£ 

25.54 

4.46 

0.60 

0.14 



Si0 o 


44.61? 


A1,0 3 


31.57 


FeO 


3.55 


CaO 


0.20 


MgO 


0.22 


MnO 


0.16 


Na 2 


6.96 


K 2 


6 97 


H„0 


5.80 



2.19 
1.81 
4.20 



100.04 



RESULTS OF MORE RECENT PETROGRAPHIC STUDIES. 35 

The term that we shall therefore use as more appropriate is 
sericite schist. The true talc schists are very rare. 

The chloritic schists are probably more truly crystalline 
schists, and are richer in accessory metamorphic minerals, such 
as garnet and epidote. 

The argillaceous slates and sericite schists are often silicified ; 
the clorite schists are not as a rule. This silicification exists in 
varying degrees up to a completeness which renders the rock so 
hard that it resists scratching with a knife. This subject will 
be referred to again in the discussion of the genesis of the gold 
ores (see p. 47). 

The strike of the formation as a whole is generally N. E. and 
S. AY., and the dip steeply to the N. W. These strikes and dips 
refer to the schistosity of the rocks, and not to bedding planes. In 
the separate descriptions of the mines, wherever the bedding of 
the slates could be determined, and the instances were rare, it is 
so stated. 

In general the force producing schistosity and slaty cleavage 
appears to have acted downward from the northwest, producing 
normal faulting with but little deformation. No instance of 
reverse faulting was recorded. 

Now, as to the origin of these schistose and slaty rocks; in part, 
it seems that they must be sedimentaries altered by dynamo- and 
hydro-metamorphism. The evidence of this is offered by several 
observations of bedding and banding extending across the schis- 
tosity, generally at a low angle, as for instance at the Bonnie 
Bell, Stewart, and Russell mines. 

Their lamination or schistosity, however, is wholly the effect 
of shearing, produced by dynamo-metamorphism, and not bedding 
planes of stratigraphic structure, as both Emmons and Kerr sup- 
posed. The original bedding planes may correspond to certain 
of the present cleavage planes, i. e., lie parallel to them, but in 
that case the bedding structure has been obliterated. Schistosity 
must not be confounded with bedding. 

It does not seem probable at the present stage of the investi- 
gation, that these slates have been derived from the granitic and 



36 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

other more basic igneous masses lying on the west ; for as noted, 
further on, these are supposed to be later intrusive bosses. 

That others of these schists, particularly the chloritic varieties, 
are metamorphosed, sheared eruptives seems equally probable; 
such for instance are the schists of the Jones, Parker, Mann 
Arrington, etc., mines. They are even porphyritic and brecciated 
in places. In fact Emmons hints at such rocks in his description 
of the Upper Taconic chloritic member, when he says "These 
beds may be mistaken for trap, being greenish and tough, and 
besides like trap, the broken strata exfoliate in concentric lay- 
ers" l (p. 32). This subject will be recurred to later on. 

THE MONROE SLATES. 

At Monroe in Union County, a considerable area of truly bed- 
ded and but little indurated or metamorphosed slates was dis- 
covered. Yery similar slates were later on found at the Parker 
mine, at the town of Albemarle, in Stanly county, and at the 
Sam Christian mine, in Montgomery county. Thus presumably 
they cover a large area in the southeastern portion of the -'Caro- 
lina Slate Belt." In the fresh condition this slate is black, 
weathering to dark and light drab, greenish and even reddish in 
color. At the railroad station (Monroe) it lies in a low, gently 
undulating anticlinorium. Several hundred yards south of the 
depot the strike is N. 85° E., and the dip 30° S. E. At this 
point it is intersected by numerous small quartz fissures, from 
the thickness of a knife edge to 2 inches, striking uorth and 
south, and standing nearly vertical. At a point i mile north of 
the depot it is finely banded and lies nearly horizontal. It has 
been quarried here for use as paving blocks in Monroe. 

These slates were not recognized by either Emmons or Kerr. 
That they are of sedimentary origin and of later age than the 
slates and schists to the west and north can scarcely admit of 
doubt. They are reported to dip under the Jura Trias conglo- 
merate at Polkton, about 20 miles east of Monroe, and might be 
looked upon as Lower Paleozoic ; but the absence of fossils (at 

!Geol. Rept. Midland Counties of N. C, 1856, p. 66. 



QUARTZ ROCKS THE VOLCANIC SERIES. 37 

least so far none have been found, though a careful search is 
certainly warranted) must, for the time being, place them pro- 
visionally in the Algonkian. They might appropriately be 
named the "Monroe" slates. 

QUARTZ ROCKS THE VOLCANIC SERIES. 

The middle member of Emmons' Lower Taconic is the quartz 
rock (white and brown sandstone), which exists in many varieties. 1 
The work of the present Survey did not discover any true 
granular quartzites, such as characterize the Cambrian (even in 
a metamorphosed state) ; and in fact, from Emmons' and Kerr's 
descriptions, their rocks of this class are rather fine-grained, thin- 
bedded, quartzose schists, and devitrified quartz or chert, often 
porphyrized and brecciated. It is probable that Emmons' fine- 
grained, talcose quartz corresponds to the silicified argyllites and 
schists (p. 31), whose origin is due to a later hydro-silicification. 2 

The crypto-crystalline varieties of quartz (flint, chert, horn- 
stone, agatized, chalcedonic) are of especial interest, and warrant 
a careful consideration. It is again deplored in this connection that 
the present report did not allow the time for a microscopic study 
of the thin sections. Such cherty, flint-like masses have been 
described from the Sam Christian, Moratock, Silver Valley and 
Hoover Hill mines. It is at present the opinion that these rocks 
belong to the class of ancient (pre-Cambrian) acid volcanics, in 
many respects analagous to, and probably contemporaneous with, 
similar rocks of South Mountain in Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
whose discovery was first announced by the late Dr. Geo. H. 
Williams. 3 Miss Florence Bascom lias described the origin, 
devitrification and structure of the acid types of these rocks.' 
Dr. AVilliams has outlined the general distribution of the 
ancient volcanic rocks along the eastern border of North America. 5 
These rocks are analogous also to the halletiintas and enrites of 
Southern Sweden, described as volcanic rocks by Nordenskjold. 

1 Geol. Rept., Midland counties of N. C , 1&56, p. 50, 
- Ibid, p. 51. 

3 The Volcanic Rocks of the South Mts. in Pa. and Md. Am. Jour. Sci xliv., Dec. 1892, 
pp. 482-4%. Scientif. Amer., Jan. 14.. 1893. 
* Jour. Geolos?v, Vol. 1, 1893, pp. 813 832. 
5 Ibid, Vol. 2, 1894, pp. 1-31. 



38 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. , 

They would also correspond to Hunt's pre-Cambrian petro-silex 
rocks, called by him the Arvonian, being below his Huronian. 

The hornstones have every appearance of being acid feldspar 
quartz rocks, and will probably be found, on further study, to 
belong to the class of apo-rhyolites, a term introduced by Miss 
Bascom to denote a devitrified rhyolite. Emmons describes the 
type very well under the head of quartzite. ( p. 32) 1 They 
resemble perfectly crypto-crystalline quartz, and on weathering 
present an earthy, yellowish surface. The color of the fresh rock 
is drab, bluish to almost black ; translucent on edges ; fracture flat 
conchoidal ; sometimes banded, showing flow structure, as 
described from the Silver Yalley mine where the rock is locally 
called "gun flint." It often contains small crystals of metallic 
sulphurets, chiefly pyrite with some galena, chalcopyrite and 
blende. 

From the Moratock mine a siliceous rock is described (p. 79) 
as a quartz porphyry, which at first sight resembles a compact, 
homogeneous hornstone, but which on close examination is found 
to be dotted with small, dark colored, glassy specks ; these are 
minute quartz crystals. The true porphyritic character of the 
rock is best illustrated in the weathered specimens, the feld- 
spathic groundmass being decomposed and altered, leaving the 
quartz phenocrysts clearly outlined. The flow structure is also 
beautifully brought out in the weathered groundmass. 

Emmons, in the description of his quartzite, says they are 
"often porphyritic or porphyrized, and frequently the fresh frac- 
ture is dotted with small limpid crystals of quartz." In the 
enumeration of the varieties of Lower Taconic quartzites 
(p. 30) he mentions 1 "a cherty and apparently porphyrized quartz, 
which contains feldspar, which decomposes and leaves a rough 
porous mass similar to burrhstone." Kerr says: 2 "In Montgomery 
county, in a very heavy ledge of siliceous slate, occurs a siliceous 
conglomerate which is filled for hundreds of feet with very singu- 
lar, siliceous concretions, some of which Dr. Emmons has 
described under the name of Paleotrochis ; but the rock for 

1 Oeol. Report, Midland Counties of IN. C.,1856, p. 51. 

*This isulletin p. 33; and Geology of North Carolina, 1875, p. 132. 



QUARTZ ROCKS THE VOLCANIC SERIES. 39 

several miles, as well as at this particular locality, contains a 
multitude of rounded and ovoid masses, from the smallest sizes 
to that of a lien's egg, showing the wide prevalence of conditions 
favorable to the operation of concretionary forces." These gen- 
tlemen have without much doubt described the quartz porphyry 
of the Moratock mine. 

It appears highly probable that at least some of these siliceous, 
pebbly concretions are spherulites. Whether they constitute 
Emmons' pebbly beds, from which he determined the sediment- 
ary origin of his Taconic, is not known. However it is quite 
possible that they misled him in that direction. Certain it is 
that he says : l " I found, however, many beds among them 
(slates and associated rocks) which looked like sediments, were 
porphyrized and somewhat changed, though not strictly porphy- 
ries. I found, after much search too, beds which were unequiv- 
ocally pebbly ; and finally, to remove all doubt, I was fortunate 
in discovering that the porphyrized beds also frequently con- 
tained pebbles ; proving most conclusively that they are sedi- 
ments which were partially altered." 

Thus he evidently mistook either the concretionary form of 
the weathered porphyry and felsite, or else the partially rounded 
felsite fragments in the accompanying pyroclastic breccias 
( which will be spoken of further on ), for pebbles. 

Prof. Marsh in 1867 made a short study of Emmons' Paletro- 
chis, 2 and in his words : " An examination of the interior of 
several specimens clearly indicated that they were not corals, 
and as soon as microscopical specimens could be prepared, they 
were more carefully examined, but no trace of organic structure 
could be detected, the entire mass being evidently a fine grained 
quartz. The specimens examined were undoubtedly authentic 
examples of Paleotrochis, as some of them presented to the Yale 
cabinet by Prof. Dana, were sent to him by Prof. Emmons, and 
the rest were given to the writer by Prof. W. C. Kerr, the pres- 
ent State Geologist of North Carolina." * * * * * * 

1 Geol. Report, Midland counties of N. C, 1856, p. 47. 
2 Am. Jour. Sci. (2), vol. 45, 1808, p. 217. 



-10 GOLD DEPOSITS OF XORTH CAROLINA. 

"Admitting the inorganic nature of these remarkable forms, their 
origin becomes an interesting question, and it certainly is not 
easy to give a satisfactory explanation of it. They appear, how- 
ever, to have some analogy with " cone in cone," which, as the 
writer has shown elsewhere, 1 is probably due to the action of 
pressure on concretionary structure when forming. In some 
respects the two are quite distinct, but evidence of pressure is 
clearly to be seen in both.'' 

Kerr evidently agreed with Marsh as to the inorganic nature 
of the Paleotroehis, and Mr. C. D. Walcott, the director of the 
II. S. Geological Survey, entertains the same opinion. 

According to both Emmons' and Kerr's descriptions, these 
peculiar forms appear to occur in the acid effusive rocks. In his 
descriptive section of the rocks which carry the Paleotroehis, 
Emmons names the following : 2 

Granular quartz, sometimes vitreous and filled with fossils and siliceous 
concretions of the size of almonds. 
Slaty quartzite with very few fossils. 
Slate without fossils. 

White quartz more or less vitrified, rilled with fossils and concretions. 
Jointed granular quartz with only a few fossils. 

And he says : " These fossils also occur in the variety of 
quartz or quartzite, which I have described as burrhstone. and 
which is often porphyrized." 

An interesting point is suggested in the above succession of 
rocks, namely, that there was more than one volcanic outbreak, 
and during at least one period of inactivity slates were deposited. 

These acid volcanics are accompanied by pyroclastic breccias 
and basic eruptives, which are usually schistose. The same suc- 
cession is also common to the South Mountain region in Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania. Such rocks are described under the 
head of the Parker, Sam Christian, Moratock, Hoover Hill, Jones 
and Parish mines. The basic rocks are usually of a dark green 
color, and are perhaps pyroxenic in composition ; sometimes 
propyllitic : they cover large areas, and are often massive or only 
partly schistose ; again they are largely sheared into schists. A 

iProc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci.. vol. 16, 1867, p. 135. 
2 Geol. Report, Midland counties of X. C, ia56, p. 61. 



QUARTZ ROCKS THE VOLCANIC SERIES. 



41 



wide outcrop of this rock was followed from the Hoover Hill 
westward to the Jones, Parish, Silver Hill, and Silver Valley 
mines, and thence westward to near the Lexington granite belt, 
a distance of over 20 miles. It is quite probable that most of 
the chloritic schists, in this part of the Carolina slate belt, are of 
this nature. 

The breccias consist of this basic material in which are im- 
bedded angular fragments of the felsite (apo-rhyolite) or por- 
phyry up to one foot in diameter. They are distinctly pyroclas- 
tic breccias and hence the basic rock, or porphyrite, as it may be 
provisionally called, is later than the quartz porphyries and 
rhyolites. This would agree with the generally accepted law of 
eruptions, i. e., from the normal to the acid to the basic types. 

Emmons, in his description of the Upper Taconic, mentions 
brecciated conglomerates as the most remarkable mass of this 
division. As he states, " It has an argillaceous or chloritic base. 
The mass is composed in the main of fragments of other rocks, 
mostly retaining an angular form ; but frequently, rounded and 
worn rocks are enclosed in the mass. The fragments are some- 
times 18 inches and even 2 feet long." l 

Kerr mentions " brecciated and conglomerate siliceous slates, 
the pebbles sometimes a foot and upwards in diameter, frequently 
chloritic and often passing into hornstone and chert, and occa- 
sionally into quartzite." 2 

That these rocks correspond to the above described pyroclastic 
breccias is at once evident. 

These ancient volcanics have also been found coverino; lar<^e 
areas in Chatham and Orange counties, near the eastern edge of 
the Carolina slate belt, and fully 40 miles east of the region 
including the above described localities. During the summer of 
1S93, Dr. Geo. H. AVilliams in company with Prof. J. A. 
Holmes, made a reconnaisance trip through Chatham and 
Orange counties, the results of which are included in l)r 
Williams' paper on the distribution of the ancient volcanic rocks 
in eastern North America. 3 He Bays : "In a drive from San- 



1 Geol. Report Midland Counties of N. C 1856, p. 67. 
2Keportof the Geol. Surveyor N. C. Vol. I, 1875, p. 132. 
3 Journal of Geology, Vol. 2, 1804, pp. 1-38. 



42 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ford to Chapel Hill an abundance of the most typical ancient 
lavas, mostly of the acid type, was encountered. On the road 
from Sanford to Pittsboro purple felsites and porphyries showing 
spherulitic and beautiful flow structures and accompanied by pyro- 
clastic breccias and tuffs, were met with two miles north of Deep 
river and were almost continuously exposed on Rocky river. Here 
devitrified acid glasses with chains of spherulitic and eutaxitic 
structure were collected, while beyond, as far as Bynura on Haw 
river, 4 miles northeast of Pittsboro, the only rocks seen were of 
the same general character. On the farm of Spence Taylor, Esq., in 
Pittsboro, a bright red porphyry with flow lines is exposed in so 
altered a condition that it can easily be cut into any form with 
a knife, though it still preserves all the details of its structure. 
•x- -x- -x- -x- -x- -x- Three-quarters of a mile beyond Pittsboro, 
on the Bynum road, there is a considerable exposure of a basic 
amygdaloid. South of Hackney's Cross roads there are other 
excellent exposures of the ancient rhyolite with finely developed 
spherulitic and flow structures. * * ■* * * * Another locality 
in the volcanic belt was visited on Morgan's run, about 2 miles 
south of Chapel Hill. Here are to be seen admirable exposures 
of volcanic flow and. breccias with finer tuff deposits, which have 
been extensively sheared into slates by dynamic agency. 
Towards the east and north these rocks pass under the trans- 
gression of Newark sandstone. * * * * * * From still 
another locality at the Cross Boad near the northern boundary 
of Chatham county, 15 miles southwest of Chapel Hill, Prof. 
Holmes informs me that specimens of undoubted volcanic rocks 
have recently been secured. He has also sent me, within the 
past month, a suite of similar specimens from Pace's Bridge, on 
Haw river, 3 miles above Bynum." 

Since that time the same volcanics have been found at the 
Narrows of the Yadkin river, on the Deep river at Lockville, 
Chatham county, and for 5 or 6 miles northwest of Lockville. At 
the last two localities the masses are often brecciated and usually 
sheared into perfect crystalline chloritic schists. 

It is of interest to note in the above descriptions of Dr. 
Williams, the occurrence, on the Taylor farm near Pittsboro, of 



CONCLUSIONS. 43 

a bright red porphyry with flow lines, in so altered a conditon 
that it can he easily cut into any form with a knife. This is 
undoubtedly the same rock, and from the same locality, described 
by Emmons (p 31.) as a decomposed red variety of his Upper 
Taconic argillaceous or clay slate. ' 

CONCLUSIONS. 

In this brief resume then, we can recognize Emmons' Taconic 
and Kerr's Huronian rocks of the central ore-bearing slate belt. 

The bitter controversies regarding the Taconic question 
among geologists are well known, and need not be taken up here. 
It is sufficient to say that geologists by later and more detailed 
work and study have seen fit to differentiate various members of 
the old Taconic System in different parts of the country, and 
refer them to more definite horizons. Thus the granular quartz 
of Emmons' typical Taconic section in the Berkshire Hills of 
Massachusetts, has been found to be characterized by the Olenel- 
lus fauna of the Lower Cambrian ; and the Berkshire or Stock- 
bridge limestone by the Chazy-Trenton, and perhaps at its base 
by an Upper Cambrian fauna; and the original Lower Taconic 
slate of Emmons is correlated, by its stratigraphic position, with 
the Hudson shales. 2 In 1888, Walcott, in studying a section of 
these rocks in Newfoundland, placed, from paleontological evi- 
dences, the "Bed Sandrock" series, the Georgia shale and slate 
series, the "Granular Quartz" and the "Upper Taconic" of 
Emmons beneath the Middle Cambrian or Parodoxides zone of the 
Atlantic coast. 3 

And so the rocks of the old Taconic or Huronian belt in 
North Carolina must also in time be differentiated and recorrel- 
ated, when they have been more carefully studied. 

Along the extreme western edge of the State from Mitchell to 
Cherokee county, the quartzites, slates, limestones, and con- 
glomerates (here also in a great measure sheared and metamor- 
phosed) which constitute Kerr's western Huronian belt or "Chero- 

1 Geol. Kept. Midland Counties of N. C, 1856; p. 65. 

2 United States Geological Survey. Bulletin 81. Correlation Papers: Cambrian: by C. 
D. Walcott: 1891, p. 243. 

3 Ibid, p. 113. 



44 GOLD DEPOSITS OF XOKTH CAROLINA. 

kee Slates," have been referred to the "Ocoee" 1 by the recent 
work of the United States Geological Survey. 

Emmons was in a measure quite correct in calling the Taeonic 
rocks of central North Carolina the bottom sediments, and 
placing them below the Silurian. The absence of fossils in the 
slates, however, necessitates our going back still another step, 
and placing them below the Cambrian sediments, in the Algon- 
kian, which YanHise has defined as including all recognizable 
pre-Cambrian elastics and their equivalent crystallines, the base 
of the Cambrian being placed at the Olenellus fauna. 2 Here the 
matter must rest until we can find fossils in the rocks, or 
verify the organic character of Emmons' Paleotrochis ; or until 
we can trace the rocks into a terrane of known age. So also the 
pyroclastic volcaiiics must be looked upon as pre-Cambrian. 

It is of interest also to note that here, as in other portions of 
eastern Xorth America, the ancient volcanics occur in close 
proximity to the western edge of the Jura-Trias basin. Adopting 
Suess' theory of the formation of mountains, we may look upon 
this central belt of sheared and faulted slates as the levelled site 
of an ancient Atlantic mountain range : while the bordering Jura- 
Trias represents a transgression formed by the sunken block on 
the east. Early phases of this subsidence were accompanied by 
the exhibition of volcanic forces, which found outlets for their 
material. 

THE GENESIS OF THE GOLD ORES. 

This involves a consideration of (1) the nature of the deposits, 
(2) the causes of the formation of the spaces occupied by the 
ores, (3) the manner of their filling. 

i. THE NATURE OF THE DEPOSITS. 

Erom the descriptions of the various mines examined in this 
belt it is evident that the gold ores exist in two principal struct- 
ural forms, namely as quartz fissure veins, and as impregnations, 

1 The age of the "Ocoee"" is still indefinite, and mav be anvwhere from the Algonkian 
to the Carboniferous. 

- Lni ted States Geological Survey. Bulletin 86. Correlation Papers : Archean— Algon- 
Jdan, p. 4y5. 



THE GENESIS OF THE GOLD ORES. 45 

lenticular, stringerform and irregular dissemminations in the 
country schists and slates. 

The fissure veins in the slates and schists are generally diffi- 
cult to distinguish as such. Their structure is much more evi- 
dent in the granitic and other eruptive rocks. In the schists the 
larger regular quartz lodes lie apparently interlaminated in the 
country, or have the appearance of lenticular intercalations. 
However, even here they can usually be shown to intersect the 
schistosity, generally at a very low angle (as indicated at the 
Rocky River, Burns, and Mann Arrington mines). Such fissures 
have, as is usually the case, irregular boundaries, swelling and 
pinching; and it is also noticeable that they have on a large scale 
a lenticular structure, at least in linear extent (Rocky River 
mine). Certain it is that clean cut veinlets of quartz and calcite 
do occur, distinctly intersecting the cleavage and schistosity (as 
seen at the Bonnie Bell, Howie, arid Moore mines). The Mon- 
roe slates also contain true quartz fissure veinlets. (See p. 36.) 

The more usual mode of occurence of the ores is as small len- 
ticular and stringerform bodies of auriferous, sulphuretted quartz, 
and as lenticular and irregular disseminations of sulphurets in 
the country slates and schists, which are usually silicified, to 
some extent at least. Such are the Scandinavian "fahlbands", 
which are described as belts of schists impregnated with sulphides. 

V^ery often the slaty walling of a quartz body is impregnated 
for some distance with auriferous sulphurets, ( as at the Rocky 
River, Buffalo and other mines). Again in some cases there is 
apparently no distinct quartz lead whatever, but the slates them- 
selves are pyritic over certain widths and constitute the ore 
bodies (as at the Russell, Howie, Bonnie Bell, and other mines). 

2. THE CAUSES OF THE FORMATION OF THE SPACES OCCUPIED 

BY THE ORE. 

"No instances of metasomatic (substitution or replacement) 
formation of the ores has been observed. They must therefore 
have found open spaces waiting for their deposition. Further- 
more, it is evident that the origin of the ores was not contempo- 
raneous with that of the schists, but later ; this will be spoken 



46 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

of again, (p. 51). The slates and schists are everywhere 
cleaved and sheared, the usual strike being X. 20° to 55° E., and 
the dip steeply to the N. W. Observations show that the result- 
ant dynamic force which induced this structure, acted as a rule 
from the northwest downward, developing normal faulting, with 
but slight compression. Unfortunately opportunities did not 
allow of observations which showed direct illustrations of fault- 
ing, but it is certainly reasonable to suppose that dislocation 
must have generally taken place, if but with a very minute 
throw. And it is accepted that this dislocation, on larger and 
smaller scales, produced the spaces of dicission as Posepny calls 
them, 1 which were afterwards filled with the ore bearing solu- 
tions. 

Certain maximum lines of faulting were developed which 
made room for the larger fissure veins, on either side of which 
the smaller dislocations formed belts of variable width. Or, 
where the tension, compression, resistance, etc., were more uni- 
form, larger fissures were absent altogether. The existence of 
small, isolated impregnations of crystalline sulphurets in the 
slates may possibly have another explanation. But the lenticu- 
lar and stringerform quartz bodies, even those of minute size, 
will scarcely admit of any other. The main course of these 
belts is N. 20° to 55° E., and the dip is from 55° to 85° X. W. 
Isolated instances of crossfissuring occur ( Ore Hill : the Phifer 
mine ; and the Howie mine, where cross fissures are filled with 
" reibungs-breccia," ) but these are rare occurrences. Indeed it 
seems reasonable to suppose that in such a sericitic, chloritic, 
or kaolinitic material as these slates and schists are composed 
of the chief yielding planes should have been in parallel direc- 
tions to the cleavage. 

The frequent diabase dikes, which exist throughout the region, 
occupy fissures which strike usually northwest, across the gen- 
eral schistosity of the country, and intersect the ore fissure. 
These dikes are usually of considerable width, from a few feet to 

!The Genesis of Ore Deposits, by F. Posepny. Trans. Am, Inst, of Mining Engineers. 
18W3, vol. 23, pp. 197-370. 



THE GENESIS OF THE GOLD ORES. 47 

as much as 150 feet. They may be looked upon as paraclastic 1 

fissures, while the ore fissures are diaclastic. 

THE MANNER OF FILLING THE FISSURE OPENINGS. 

The theories of the filling of open spaces (spaces of dicission 
and spaces of dissolution) by their xenogenous 2 mineral contents 
are so manifold, and they have been the subject of so much con- 
troversy among geologists and mining engineers, that care must 
be exercised in their application. Recently several most admir- 
able treatises have appeared on this subject, chief among them 
being "The Genesis of Ore Deposits," by F. Posepny (Trans. 
Amer. Inst. Mining Eng., Yol. 23, 1893, pp. 197-370); and "The 
Ore Deposits of the United States," by Jas. F. Kemp, (published 
by the Scientific Publishing Co., N. Y., 1893, second ed., 1894). 
Work of great excellence and value has also been published in 
the monographs of the United States Geological Survey, notably 
by Becker, Emmons, Curtis, Hague, etc. 

We can look upon the manner of filling of the spaces of dicis- 
sion formed by faulting and fracturing, in the area under con- 
sideration, in no other way than by the ascension of mineral 
bearing waters from below. This is the ascension theory upon 
which Posepny, very properly, lays such great stress, though he 
is probably inclined to make unduly general application of the 
same. 

And we connect the origin of these deep seated waters with 
the last stages of the volcanic activity that was general along 
this line of disturabnce, the so-called solfataric, mofetti and 
fumarole stages. 

Heated carbonated, alkaline waters are capable of taking silica 
and metallic elements and sulphides into solution. Such waters, 
perhaps in a very dilute condition, ascended and circulated 
through the open fissures and spaces, and deposited their 
mineral contents on the walls, by virtue of relief of 
pressure, reduction of temperature, and perhaps of cer- 
tain chemical reactions. The frequent silicification of the 

l Par«vlaxtic dike fissures are such as were opened along entirely new lines, while dia- 
clastic ore fissures are such as were opened along cleavage lines which already existed. 
"-Minerals foreign to the rocks contiguous to the vein, i. e. brought up from below. 

4 



48 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

slates and schists has been noted, and must be ascribed to this 
permeation by silicified waters. Mr. Becker supposed, very 
reasonably, that there might be some direct connection between 
this fact and the richness of the ores, i. e. the highly silicified 
schists might be also more highly charged with metallic contents. 
Close inquiry into this, however, has shown ns that they are not 
necessarily richer than the softer varieties, when such are impreg- 
nated with xenogenous minerals. And it therefore seems that the 
main silicification went on independently, it may have been at 
the same time with the deposition of metallic minerals or subse- 
quently ; it was probably more of a chemical than a mechanical 
action, i. e. certain portions of the original country rock may 
have been so composed chemically as to have permitted of par- 
tial replacement by silicic acid, while others did not. 

In two instances only (Burns and Howie mines) was 
free gold found directly in the soft sericitic schist, which was 
apparantly entirely unsilicified and free from quartz. However, 
the absence of quartz or silicification in even an incipient stage 
cannot be regarded as favorable to the metallic richness of the 
ore bodies. 

The diabase dikes which occur in this region appear in gen- 
eral to have exercised a notably favorble influence on the rich- 
ness of the ore bodies. The ores are often richer in the vicinity 
of the dikes. At the Haile mine in Lancaster county, S. C, this 
is very marked. 1 Presumably the formation of these dike fis- 
sures has stimulated and intensified the circulation of the mineral 
bearing waters below, and it is even probable that these waters 
may have derived part of their metallic contents from the dia- 
basic magma, which is often slightly pyritic, and has in one case 
at least been found to contain free gold. 2 

The impregnations of small isolated crystals, up to i inch 
cube, or fine crystalline aggregates of sulphurets, usually pyrite, 
in the soft, unsilicified slates, within the limits of the ore belt 
and at a distance from the same, still remains to be explained. 

1 The Geology of the Haile Mine, S. C, by A. Thies and A. Mezger, Trans. Ainer. Inst. 
Min. Engrs., 1890, Vol. xix. pp. 595-601. 

2 Ores of North Carolina, Raleigh, 1887. Appendix B. u On some Peculiarities in the 
Occurence of gold in N. C.'\ by W. C. Kerr, pp. 327-328.; also Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. 
Engrs., Vol. x., 1882, p. 475. 



THE GENESIS OF THE GOLD ORBS. 49 

One explanation would be that the mineral solutions percolated 
through minute, pre-existing pores in the country rock in which 
they deposited their contents. The only other way in which to 
account for their presence would be by a metasomatic change 1 or 
replacement, such as suggested by Becker for the genisis of 
pyritic impregnations in the altered rocks of the Comstock Lode 
in Nevada, by the action of hydrosulphuric acid solutions on 
ferruginous bisilicates. 1 

The presence of free gold in the soft slates at the Burns and 
Howie mines, above alluded to, might be explained as a residuum 
from such auriferous pyrites, the iron sulphide having been oxi- 
dized and leached out. 

Mr. Becker has pointed out the tendency to successive depo- 
sition from solutions reaching complete saturation for separate 
minerals at different points in space. 2 This explanation may be 
applicable to the local deposition of free gold, unaccompanied by 
quartz or pyrite, such as is seen in the line coatings on the cleav- 
age planes of the unaltered slates at the Howie mine. 

As a rule the richer ore bodies exist as shoots or chimneys, 
which have a pitch of their own in the vein, and which must 
represent the main course of maximum circulation. The posi- 
tion of these shoots may bear some direct relation to the laws of 
Assuring. 

Posepny is inclined to accept " crustification " 3 phenomena 
as an infallible proof of the ascension theory of vein filling. 
While this may be disputed, yet in connection with the other 
facts above pointed out in regard to the deposits under consider- 
ation, incrustation can only furnish additional evidence of the 
manner and sequence of filling. 

Several observations of incrustation were made ; probably the 
best example was met with at the Moore mine in Union county, 
as shown in the accompanying figure (Fig. 1). 

1 Geology of the Comstock Lode and Washoe District: by George F. Becker; Tinted 
States Geological Survey ; Monograph III, 1883, i>. ill). 

- United States Geological Survey : Mineral Resources of the United States : 1892, p. 150. 

;! Mineral deposits on the walls of Assure veius. See Posepny's G?< nesla of Ore Deposits, 
ISO:., p. U. • 



50 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 




Silicifiecl Schist. 
EMI Calcite (crystalline.) 
I'-.'v'.-l olo. (fine granular?) 
HI S.dente. 
□ Quartz. 



Ck 



v r 



lie 



FIG. 1.— Illustrating crustification in a specimen from tne Moore mine, Fnion Co. 

It illustrates a narrow fissure containing quartz well crystallized 
along both walls, with its vertical axis at right angles to the same. 
The interior is filled with fine granular calcite and some well crys- 
tallized calcite rhombohedrons; small specks of a light brown min- 
eral, probably siderite, are distributed in the calcite and against 
the quartz. The quartz contains crystals of chalcopyrite. Thus, 
the quartz and chalcopyrite were the first minerals to crystallize 
out of the solutions, and were deposited in layers or bands on 
both walls ; following these came the siderite and calcite. 

In conclusion of this part of the subject it may be pointed out 
that Emmons' supposition that the gold in the slates and schists 
is of sedimentary origin (p. 29) is thoroughly untenable. It is 
true that there is generally in the South, beyond the zone of 
glaciation, an upper layer of decomposed rock, varying from a 
few feet to 150 feet in depth. This may be in instances subject 
to motion and rearrangement whereby the broken down quartz 
veins, with their gold, may be concentrated, in places forming 
placer deposits ; or the gold may even be distributed quite gen- 
erally through such a secondary mass (Parker, and Portis mines). 
But Emmons could not have referred to this alone, for his asser- 
tion is too broad. 1 



1 Geol. Report, Midland counties of N. C. 1856, pp. 57, 64. 



AGE OF THE ORE DEPOSITS. 51 



AGE OF THE ORE DEPOSITS. 



The filling of the dicission spaces took place subsequent to 
the force producing schistosity. This appears a fortiori from 
what has been said regarding the causes of the formation of the 
spaces occupied by the ores, and the manner of filling. But an 
additional proof is offered by the fact that in almost every 
instance fragments of the slate and schist country rock may be 
found included in the quartz. 

In the extreme southwestern part of the State, Cherokee 
county, the auriferous quartz veins occur in the Ocoee rocks, 
and are therefore of Algonkian or Paleozoic age. However, this 
region is too distant to be used as positive evidence in correla- 
tion here. There may have been two eras of vein formation. 

The investigations of the Jura-Trias basal conglomerates 
prove that the origin of the gold must be pre Jura-Triassic. 
The presence of gold bearing fissure veins in the Monroe slates 
(p. 36) shows that their age must be post Algonkian or possibly 
late Algonkian. The existence of ore bodies in the Pre- 
Cambrian volcanic rocks furnishes additional ground for this 
statement. 



52 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NOETH CAROLINA. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DESCKIPTION OF THE OEE DEPOSITS AND MINES IN THE 
CAKOLINA SLATE BELT. 

MINES IN GRANVILLE AND PERSON COUNTIES. 

The belt of copper ores in Granville and Person counties 1 
belong here geologically, although it is not our purpose to dis- 
cuss the copper deposits of this section at any length, except as 
they may be relative to the precious metals. 

All of these copper ores contain both gold and silver, but not 
in large proportions. The following assays of ore from the 
Yancey mine, in Person county, will indicate their general 
character : 

Assays, Auriferous Copper Ores, Yancey Mine, Person County. 

(6) (7) (8) 

Gold, per ton $ 2.07 $ 2.07 $ 2.07 

Silver 8.66 6.98 65 



Total $ 10.73 $ 9 05 $ 2.12 

Copper, percent 48.17:2 2616* 31.14£ 

The above cited contents of precious metals is not likely to 
cut a large figure in the gold mining industry of this section, but 
they may form a most important item of profit in a well con- 
ducted metallurgical treatment of these ores for copper. 

It must be premised that neither exploration nor exploitation 
is advanced enough to allow of more than approximate state- 
ments. 

Dr. Emmons, in his report, 2 estimated the copper belt to be 5 
miles in length, but later examinations make it more than twice 
that length, for it makes its appearance considerably to the 
north of the Virginia line, and^ extends southwest to and even 
beyond the Yancey mine in Person county. 

The belt is almost entirely confined to a ridge, which, with 
some bends, runs in a course S. 15° W., some thirty miles, nearly 
to Durham. This ridge, although of no great height, is a some- 

1 Ores of North Carolina. Geological Survey of N. C, by W. C Kerr and Geo. B. Hanua' 
1887, p. 214. 

2 Geology of the Midland Counties of N. C, 1856, pp. 344 et. seq. 



ALAMANCE, ORANfiE AND CHATHAM. 53 

what prominent feature in the landscape, and slopes very grad- 
ually both to the eastward and westward, and is everywhere 
strewn with abundant fragments from broken down quartz veins 
or seams, The schists are very hard and silicified, and the adja- 
cent matter sometimes shades gradually into ore. The strike is 
from Ts T . 10° to 20° E., and the dip 70° to 80° S. E. 

The veins are approximately conformable to the schistosity, 
and lenticular in structure, varying from a few inches to as much 
as 14 feet in thickness. The different veins cannot be brought 
into one alignment, but occupy a belt which at several points is 
about one mile wide. The ore is quartz, containing chiefly "gray 
copper" (chalcocite) and bornite, with some red oxide, carbon- 
ates, and rarely native copper ; chalcopyrite and pyrite occur in 
small quantities. 

The principal mines of this region are the Royster (or Blue 
AVing), Holloway, Mastodon, Buckeye, Pool, Gillis, Copper 
World and Yancey; only the Royster, Gillis and Yancey mines 
have been largely worked ; and at present these are idle. 

ALAMANCE, ORANGE AND CHATHAM COUNTIES. 

Gold has been found in these counties but no attempts at seri- 
ous mining have ever been made. Some of the copper ores of 
Chatham county are auriferous, and may be mentioned in this 
connection. 

In Orange county the Robeson mine (near the old Patterson 
mine), 12 miles northwest of Chapel Hill, w T as discovered in 1890. 
The ore body is a quartz vein, striking northeast and dipping 30° 
northwest. The outcrop has been traced for a distance of 1 
miles northeast and several hundred vards southwest. During 
the fall of 1895, a prospect shaft was sunk 30 feet on the under- 
lay, and the vein widened from 6 inches on the surface to 22 
inches at the bottom of the shaft. The quartz is cellular, vitre- 
ous to saccharoidal, and has a good appearance. Various assays 
have shown from &6 to $52 per ton. Development work is now 
in progress here, under the direction of Mr. R. E. Lyon, of Dur- 
ham, N. C. 



54 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF KOBTH CAROLINA. 



45°5E 




MOORE COUNTY. 

The mines are situated in the northern and western part of the 
county, not far from the northwest boundary of the Jura-Trias 
basin. 

The Belle Mixe is in the northern part of the county, 8 miles 
K. N. W. of Carthage. 

The country rock is chloritic schist, sometimes garnetifer- 
ous. Small calcite seams also occur. The rock has much the 
appearance of being a schistose, metamor- 
phosed eruptive ; propyllitic alterations were 
observed. The strike is X. 55 c E., and the 
dip 75° X. \Y. In the upper part of one of 
the old shafts the schists were observed to 
bend over with the sloyje of the hill, from the 
normal dip to an anomalous S. E. dip, which 
F1 §i"cWst?Be g iiemini? g was «> g'' ea t as 45° near the surface. 

The mine is abandoned and no ore was visible when the 
property was visited in 1894. It is stated that the mineralized 
schists themselves constitute the ore. which exists in several 
narrow belts containing siliceous seams from J to 4 inches in 
thickness. Mr. Eichard Williams, the former superintendent, 
reports that the pay streak was from 4 to 8 inches wide, lying 
against the foot wall, and that 1 i to 2 feet of the material in the 
foot wall side was mined and milled, yielding as much as 830 per 
ton. The entire vein matter, averaging fully 4 feet in width 
will run 812 per ton. In the course of a professional examina- 
tion l a rigid sampling of the entire ore body explored in the 75 
foot level was made. The assays for the two drifts gave the fol- 
lowing results : 

Assay, Gold Ores, Belle Mine, Moore County. 

(9) (10) 

Gold, per ton $1-3.95 $11.37 



Silver, 



$11.57 S11.7-J 

There is very little sulphuret present, and the free gold is very 
[i leafy ", which has caused great difficulty in working the ores 



Bv Mr. G. B. Hanna. 



MOORE COUNTY. 55 

by the ordinary modes of amalgamation. In the northwestern 
part of the county is a group of 9 or 10 mines, comprised in an 
area 2 miles wide from northwest to southeast, and 6 miles long 
from northeast to southwest. These limits indicate the produc- 
tive part, but the actual auriferous area is considerably more 
extended. 

The Burns (or Burns and Albed ) Mine is situated 11 miles 
W. N. W. from Carthage on Cabin creek. The freehold and 
land tracts comprise more than 300 acres. 

The country rock is a sericitic, chloritic schist, in part silici- 
fied. The strike is N. 20° E., and the dip 55° 1ST. W. ; the joint 
planes dip 35° S. E. 

These schists are filled with quartz stringers and lenticles. It 
is difficult to say what is ore and what is not, for the rock is 
everywhere auriferous, though not everywhere capable of being 
profitably worked. 

It is mined in large opencuts, 20 to 100 feet wide, to a depth 
of about 50 feet. The cuts extend along the strike for a dis- 
tance of about 4- mile. This is on Moody Hill; some work has 
also been done on Brown Hill. 

The selection of places for exploitation has been almost exclu- 
sively determined by the results of mill runs of the ore, or by 
panning ; and while this method of work has been wasteful in 
some respects, it was probably the best method available. The 
cuts are scattered about promiscuously, without much evident 
connection or relation, and are usually very irregular in outline. 
It is stated that the average ore yields $2.50 to $3 per ton, free 
gold ; and at intervals schists of high grade have been found, and 
may be encountered at any time. 

Iron sulphurets also occur in the schists, but they have not 
yet been treated, as little, if any, of the work extends below the 
water level. The rock is also intersected by quartz veins in all 
directions, but they are presumably barren. Some of the quartz 
contains included fragments of the country schist. Several 
interesting specimens were exhibited by the superintendent at the 
time of our visit. These were small pieces of the soft, unsilici- 
fied schist, also free from quartz stringers, containing free gold. 



56 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The mill house is equipped with 5 Crawford mills, which treat 
8 tons of ore per 24 hours. Three of these were in operation 
(Nov., 1894). 1 This mine has been operated for more than 40 
years. Under the old, and for the most part successful, methods 
the work was on a small scale, the machinery inexpensive, the 
capital small, the management economical, and the attention to 
business was unremitting. And these circumstances will not 
unfairly indicate the conditions of successful work for all the 
mines of this group in the future. 

The Cagle Mine is situated about f-mile north of the Burns, 
and the country rock and ore are similar. The strike is N. % 2~ z 
E., and the dip 55° N W. The mine was formerly operated by 
a series of inclined shafts, on the dip, to a depth of 160 feet. 

The results of a series of assays of the ore from this mine show : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Cagle Mine, Moore County. 

(11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (161 (17! (18) 

Gold $5.17 $39.27 $26.62 $7.75 $6^0 $7.23 $47.54 $4.14 

Silver 18 .70 .66 trace, trace. .06 1.10 .13 



$5.35 $59.97 $27.28 $7.75 $6.20 $7-29 $48.64 $4.27 

The Clegg Mine is I mile west of the Cagle, on the west side 
of Cabin creek. It has the same character of ore, though the 
body is larger, and of relatively lower grade. It has been 
worked by open cuts. 

The Brown Mine is on the northeast edge of the district, on 
the road from Moffitt's to Richardson's mill. It has been worked 
for a distance of 300 yards, and to a depth of 40 or 50 feet. The 
dip is very flat ; the ore body is three feet thick, but the " pay 
streak" was a comparatively narrow seam of rich quartz, which, 
it is stated, finally narrowed down to such limits that it could 
not be profitably worked. 

RANDOLPH COUNTY. 

The Hoover Hill Mine 2 is situated about IT miles a little 
east of south from High Point, on the waters of the Uharie river, 
and on the western flank of the northern extension of the Uharie 

1 In 1895 this plant was abolished hy the Cabin Creek; Mining Co., and a ten stamp null 
with concentrating machinery erected, which it is proposed to use in connection with a 
cyanide treatment. 

2 Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina. E. Emmons, 1856. p. 139. 



RANDOLPH COUNTY. 57 

mountains. The mine lias only been worked spasmodically dur- 
ing late years. Unfortunately the water was up on the day 
when recently visited, and the underground workings were not 
open to examination. 

The country rock is a decomposed basic eruptive, which is 
partially brecciated, the included fragments being hornstone. 
Masses of hornstone, containing sulphurets, were also found, re- 
sembling that of the Silver Valley mine (p. 66). As at the 
Silver Valley and Silver Hill mines the basic rock is somewhat 
schistose in structure. It is probably a quartz porphyrite. Cer- 
tain more or less definite belts of this rock are intersected by 
innumerable small reticulated quartz veins, from less than one 
inch to one foot in thickness, and this is the material that con- 
stitutes the ore. The weathered outcrops were extraordinarily 
rich and gave the mine its early fame. At greater depths the 
gold is invariably associated with the quartz seams, though quartz 
sometimes occurs without enriching the ore body. Sulphurets 
(iron pyrites) are present to the extent of about 3 per cent. 

The principal ore body is known as the " Briols shoot," 
entered by the Briols and Gallimore shafts, the former being 350 
feet deep. The ore body at this depth was large ; its width was 
12 feet, and its length TO feet or more ; it was worth $8 to $10 
per ton. At no great distance from the Briols, six other bodies 
lying quite closely together have been worked by the Hawkins 
shaft. 

The Wilsox Kixdley Mine is situated \ mile southwest from 
the Hoover Hill, and the formation is like that of the latter 
mine. 

The Jones (or Keystone) Mine 1 is situated 18 miles E. S. E. 
from Lexington and 12 miles S. S. E. from Thomasville. The 
country rock represents a very schistose phase of the brecciated 
porphyrite found at the Hoover Hill mines. it is very soft and 
decomposed, so that the iron sulphuretj with which the rock is 
charged, has given rise to pure limonite which has tilled the 
joints and cross seams, and in fact stained the whole mass a red- 
dish brown color. The strike of the schistosity is INT. 15° E., 

1 Geological Report of the Midland Counties of Xorth Carolina. E. Emmons, 185G: pp. 
131, 132. 



58 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

dipping 80° N. "W. Besides the suiphurets, this schistose rock 
is filled with fine stringers of quartz. The ore bodies consist of 
this quartzose, pyritic mass. 

Gold is universally present in the soil of the region, but min- 
ing is confined to certain well known belts, which are more richly 
charged with it. Occasional horses (or " bars ") are found 
charged with finely disseminated iron pyrite, and being as 
yet slightly altered, are still solid and firm ; these (unless very 
rich) are usually avoided from the comparative difficulty both of 
mining and milling. Two of these belts have gained especial 
prominence, one being 50 feet and the other 110 feet wide. But 
there are numerous openings on every part of the tract, from 
every one of which auriferous material may be obtained. The 
portions which are comparatively barren are easily recognized and 
readily avoided. The mine is a series of open quarries. The 
tract is everywhere cut by gulches, which allow easy access and 
cheap entry into the ore bodies, and at the same time facilitate 
transportation by gravity tramways, to the mill. 

The character, the occurrence, and the distribution of the ore, 
are such, that new bodies, equal in A^alue to any that have been 
hitherto worked, may at any time be exposed. 

The disintegrated condition of the rock allows of mining at a 
marvelously cheap rate, frequently not exceeding 15 cents per ton 
of ore delivered in the mill-house. 

The material is low grade, but it changes perpetually in its 
contents, and bodies of relatively high grade material may be 
met with at any time, but the extent of these rich seams is lim- 
ited. The assays * give : 

Assays of Gold Ores, Jones Mine, Randolph County. 



Gold per ton 

Silver " " .. ~ 


(19) 

$ 3.10...... 

10 


(20) 
$ 6.20 


(21) 

$ 2.58 

trace 


(22) 
$ 3.10 


(23) 
.. $ 2.07 


03 


trace 




$ 3.20 

(24) 
$ :>8.94 


$ 6.20 

(25) 
$ 4.15 


$ 2.58 
(26) 

$ 2.07 

trace 






Gold per ton 


$ 3.10 
(27) 

$ 4 15 

U 


$ 2.07 
(28) 

... $ 4.82 






.13 




$ 28.94 

(29) 

$ 414 




$ 2.07 

(31) 
$ 2.89 






Gold per ton 

Silver " " 


$ 4.15 

(30) 
$ 3.10 .. 


$ 4.28 

(32) 
$ 4.14 


$ 4.SS 

(33) 
... $ 3.61 




trace 

$ 2.89 


trace 


... trace 




$ 4.14 


$ 3.10 








$ 4.14 


$ 3.61 


1 By G. B. Hanna. 













RANDOLPH COUNTY. 59 

Strict averages of large bodies of accumulated material, or 
reserves easily accessible, gave fairly uniform results, so that it 
may be said with fairness that the average value of working 
bodies will not fall under $3.00 per ton. 

Sample No. 24 above was taken by accident from a place which 
did not in the slightest degree indicate any superior value. 

Mining has been carried on here for two generations, and as 
long as the rich shoots and the concentrated material lasted, it 
was profitable, but when the resources worked down to the low 
grade ore, the old methods were no longer applicable, and the 
work became fitful. 

In the open cut where the present (Nov. 1, 1894) operations are 
being carried on, the width of the ore bearing schists is 12 to 15 
feet. A ten stamp mill stands on the property and the ore is 
stated to mill $2.00 per ton. 

One of the prime conditions of success with low grade mine 
stuff of this character is the handling of large quantities. A 
combination hydraulicking and milling process (Dahlonega 
method) might be applicable here. The nearest supply of water 
is the Uharie river, a bold stream, some 2 miles away, but at a 
lower level. 

The Parish Mine, now abandoned and inaccessible, is situated 
about t mile southwest from the Jones. The country rock is 
similar to that at Hoover Hill, though more decomposed. It is 
schistose in structure and shows brecciation. The ore body is 
mainly actinolite which is auriferous. 

The Lafflin (or Herring), and Delft Mines are situated in 
the vicinity of the Jones, and are similar to that in the character 
of their ore bodies. 

The Winningham and Slack mines are in Randolph county, 
two and a half miles south of Ashboro. 

The Davis Mountain Mine is four miles southwest of Ashboro. 

The Sawyer Mine is five miles northwest of Ashboro. At this 
locality the ore body is massive and consists of parallel belts of 
silicified schists in an advanced stage of disintegration, and 
sometimes forming a body of fine, loosely coherent sand. These 



60 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NOBTH CAROLINA. 

schists are auriferous, and the workable bodies are sufficiently 
near each other to be worked at the same time. 

The Winslow is live miles southwest of Ashboro. 

The Uharie Mine is a short distance to the northeast of the Rus- 
sell mine, (see p. 74), just over the line in Randolph county. The 
formation is for the most part the same as at the Russell, and 
calls for no detailed description. The entire mass of gold bear- 
ing schists is believed to carry 1J per cent, of pyrites. Unlike 
the Russell mine, the former work here was underground. The 
shaft was sunk to a depth of 170 feet. 

DAVIDSON COUNTY. 

The Emmons (or Davidson) Mine is situated 15 miles southeast 
of Lexington. The country rock is a soft chloritic schist, strik- 
ing K 22° to 31° E., and dipping 40° N. "W. These schists con- 
tain small quartz veins, approximately conformable with the 
lamination, from a few inches up to one foot in thickness, and 
the whole material is mineralized with sulphurets (mainly chalco- 
pyrite, with some galena, sphalerite, and pyrite). Siderite and 
chlorite occur as gangue minerals. The total thickness of the 
ore body is stated to be from 3 to 8 feet. The ore shoots pitch 
to the southwest. The ore is only slightly auriferous and has 
been worked entirely for its copper contents. The mine is entered 
by two shafts 680 feet apart, and both in the lode. The deepest 
shaft is 416 feet deep on the incline. Levels occur at 200, 2 SO, 
350 and 410 feet. It was reopened and worked several years 
after the war by a Baltimore company. The Hunt and Douglas 
(old) process was used here successfully for a long period. The 
available supply of ore was exhausted, according to a statement 
of James E. Clayton, then superintendent, and the mine closed 
down. In 1885 and 1886 it was again operated for a short time. 

The Cid Mine is li miles northeast of the Emmons. The 
appearance of she schists and the general character of the ore 
resemble the conditions at the Emmons. It carried from the 
start rich copper ores ; chalcopyrite, with black oxide and other 
surface alterations. The surface ore carried from 5 to 15 ounces 



DAVIDSON COUNTY. 61 

of silver, with a little gold (for which it was first worked, hut 
without much success). 

An underlay shaft was sunk 100 feet, when, from some unascer- 
tained cause, work was stopped. 

The Silver Hill Mine 1 is situated about 10 miles southeast 
from Lexington. The country rock is chloritic schist, striking 
about N. 35° E., and dipping 57° N. W. Specimens of an erup- 
tive dike rock were found, apparently pyroxenic in composition ; 
and other specimens of the same rock show a fibrous, asbestos- 
like mineral ; still other specimens exhibit a fine grained, silici- 
fied phase. One large piece showed a contact between the coarse 
eruptive and the country schists, along which occurred a coating 
of zinc blende. The dike rock also contains fragments of schist. 
The schists are impregnated with sulphurets (pyrite up to \" 
cube, and also galenite and sphalerite). 

The two principal veins or lodes are know as the " East " and 
the " West ;" they are parallel and about 28 feet apart on the 
outcrop. The strike is ]S T . E. and S. W., and the dip is N". W., 
in the vicinity of 45°. 

The prevailing appearance of the upper part of these lodes, 
and their accompaniments, is a yellowish white, decomposed, 
material, varying from hard rock to rotten schist and soft clay, and 
with the mineral matter dispersed through it, and not readily 
distinguishable. 

The gossan is composed of the usual decomposed sulphurets 
and was at first worked for gold. The treatment of the ores for 
gold, however, did not continue long, for the real character of 
the mine speedily disclosed itself. Below the water level the 
ores become a complex mixture of sulphurets, chiefly galena and 
zinc blende, with some chalcopyrite and pyrite, and the princi- 
pal precious metal content is silver. 

From the imperfect records of the mine now accessible it is 
believed to have been discovered in 1S38. It has been more 
extensively worked (the Gold Hill excepted) than any other 

1 Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina. E. Emmons, 1856, 
pp. 183-193. 



02 GOLD DEDOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

mine in North Carolina. The last work was clone about 12 
years ago, since when the mine has been closed and inaccessible. 

The mine, during the thirty years of its active work, was prac- 
ticed on by all kinds of " process " mongers, and the grounds and 
buildings are a museum of old and nondescript machinery and 
metallurgical appliances. A mechanical separation of the galena 
and blende by buddies and similar concentrating machinery was 
probably the nearest to success of any of the methods adopted 
here ; but assays of the tailings and slimes show a great waste of 
valuable constituents. The ore was for a time used without sep- 
aration of the galena and blende in making white paint, and 
served, it is believed, an admirable purpose. The ore is essen- 
tially adapted to a smelting process in combination with copper 
ores, such as was successfully tried some 3 years ago on similar 
ores from the Silver Valley mine. ( See p. 66). 

Plates Nos. II and III show all the important underground 
features. Down to the 200 foot level the drawings are from 
actual surveys by It. C. Taylor and Jas. V. Symonds ; below that 
point they are made from notes and statements by the old super- 
intendents and underground bosses, especially Mr. James Prim, 
and are to be regarded as only approximately correct. Xo 
records of a survey of this lower part of the mine exists. 

Much the greater part of the ore has been taken out by the 
Engine shaft ( at first known as the Whim shaft ). Down to 200 
feet this shaft was vertical ; from the 190 foot level of this verti- 
cal shaft an inclined shaft was sunk to a nominal depth of 660 
feet ; this incline was in the back or east vein, and in the main fol- 
lowed the dip. Both veins were worked from these shafts, as 
shown in plate No. II, in the vertical section through the engine 
shaft. 

The mine has been more or less prospected for about TOO feet 
of its entire length, but the vein formation extends a much 
greater distance, as is shown by the following assay of ore from 
the north extension : 

Assay, gold ore, north extension, Silver Hill, Davidson county. 

(24:) 

Gold, per ton $10.33 

Silver, per ton 12.28 

$22.61 




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DAVIDSON COUNTY SILVER HILL MINE. 63 

The East vein above the 60 foot level was the richer in silver, 
and the West vein in lead, hence the former was called the 
" Silver vein," and the latter the u Lead vein." The space between 
was soft ground with disseminated mineral matter. 

Two small veins are found from 100 to 175 feet in depth; the 
Little East vein, a few feet east of the main East vein, and nearly 
parallel to it ; and the Little West vein, some 50 feet west of the 
main vein, and inclining toward it. Small outlying lenticles 
were encountered occasionally in driving into the " country," 
and the main vein w r as occasionally divided by " horses " of slate. 

The veins come together at the 60-foot level just to the south- 
west of the engine shaft (plate II, fig. 3), where the West vein 
was the richer in silver. At the 60-foot level, and down to 
the 100-foot level of the West vein, there also occurred a good 
body of manganese ore, and associated with it most of the cabi- 
net specimens for which this mine was noted ; e. g., carbonates, 
sulphates, and phosphates of lead, and carbonates and silicates 
of copper, together with foliated and other kinds of native silver ; 
the East vein was less rich in cabinet specimens. 

The West vein also expands considerably between 60 and 100 
feet ; but in the expanded parts it was regularly defined, and 
often had " vugs " with rich mine matter. In this zone the ore 
was changed from oxides to sulphides, with blende predominat- 
ing over the galenite. Below the 160-foot level the East vein 
again becomes richer in silver. ♦ 

At this depth the space from wall to wall of the two veins (i. 
e., foot wall of East vein to hanging wall of West vein) is 32 
feet, and the vein becomes more vertical, i. e., 64° from the horizon- 
tal, and sometimes expands into nests, and is frequently tilled 
with black, cellular, steel-grained, zinciferous ore, with occasional 
masses of rich argentiferous galenite, and native silver. Assays 
of this ore show : 

Assays, Silver Ore, Silver Hill Mine, East Vein, Davidson County. 

(25) (26) 

Silver, per ton $ 25.86 $ 103.44 

Lead, per cent 4!> ">:.' 



64 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Galenite, associated with minerals of secondary formation, is 
sometimes found ranging extraordinarily high in silver. 

For 160 to 200 feet the vein becomes still more steep, but at 
'the latter depth rapidly changes to approximately -15°. Near 
the 200 foot level the West vein is ten to sixteen feet thick, and 
is rilled with argentiferous galenite — the last ten feet having 
produced more silver than any similar distance from the 160 to 
the 200-foot level. 

The east vein is divided by a " horse ", at the 160-foot level. 
as shown on plate II. Both the Little East and the Little West 
veins carry ores quite like those of the main vein at the same 
depth. 

Below the 200 foot level the blende gradually increases, and 
finally predominates over the galenite. 

The composition of a large pile of ore, which had accumulated 
with reference to smelting, was as follows : 

Assay, Ore From Silver Hill, Davidson County. (27) 

Lead 17-5 per ceut. 

Zinc 15. 

Sulphur 25. " 

Iron oxide, alumina and silica 10. " 

All efforts to smelt this class of ore were disastrous and waste- 
ful. 

At 170 feet the richest ore was found in a lenticle in the general 
mass, two feet thick. At the depth of about 200 feet a huge 
shoulder or swell wa* encountered, making the floor nearly flat 
for awhile. Below 200 feet the vein and its walls assumed their 
permanent and normal characteristics. 

The inclined shaft was sunk in the East vein, and cross-cuts 
driven from it to the West vein, and through them the West 
vein was worked, levels being driven each 50 feet on the incline. 
Down to 310 feet the levels extended both northeast and south- 
west ; below 310 feet, 50 to 75 feet to the north only, since the 
shoot of ore appeared to be pitching to the northeast. The 
slopes extended 25 to 50 feet from the shaft along the levels, 
both veins being worked alike. At the depth of about 100 feet, 
the exact point not being now ascertainable, the two veins uni- 



DAVIDSON COUNTY SILVER HILL MINE. 65 

ted again, and continued together for a distance of 50 feet down- 
ward. 

The ore shoots appear to be diminishing in length at the 
deepest point thus far attained, and are about 25 feet long in the 
course of the vein, but the thickness is not materially changed, 
and they have a width of twelve feet. Those who have been long 
familiar with the mine, say that it is a repetition of what has 
often occurred, and are sanguine that it will enlarge again. 

It is believed that a large body of carbonates still exists near 
the surface, and down to 100 or 200 feet. This body was pene- 
trated by the late J. Howard Jones in 1878, and a large amount 
of ore brought to the surface. Its character is indicated by 
assays Kos. 28 and 29 below. The general position of Mr. Jones' 
inclined shaft is shown on plate II by dotted lines ; an extensive 
cave subsequently occurred, and its exact position cannot now be 
determined. 

It may be mentioned that bodies of iron pyrite, with a very 
little chalcopyrite, are sometimes encountered, and it is believed 
that a considerable quantity exists. Assays ISTos. 30 and 31 show 
its composition. Nos. 32, 33 and 34 are assays of compact 
galenite. 

No. 35, by Prof. F. A. Genth, is the average contents during 
his connection with the mine, being an average of some 200 
assays. 

Assay, Ores from Silver Hill Mine, Davidson County. 

Carbonates. Pyrite. 

(28) (29) (30) (31) 

Gold, per ton $ 8.27 $ 2 07 $ 3.10 $10.H4 

Silver,'' " 20 3i 4.65 4.01 2.97 

$28.63 $ 6.72 $ 7.11 $13.31 

Lead, per cent 3.8 per cent 31.94 per cent 0.67 per cent — 

Zinc, u " 27.28 per cent 2.08 per cent 

Assays, Comj^act Galena, Silver Hill Mine. 

(32) (33) (34) 

Gold, per ton $ 4.13 $ 6.20 $ 4.13 

Silver, " •• 3.23 10.73 11.25 

$ 7.36 $16.93 $15.38 

Lead, per cent 22.94 per cent 56.72 per cent 12.57 per cent. 

Zinc, " " 7.14 per cent ....34.29 per cent. 



66 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

General Average of 200 Assays, Silver Hill Ores. 

(35) 

Galenite 21.9 per cent. 

Bisulphide of iron 17.1 

Sulpiride of zinc 59.2 " 

Silver and gold 025 

Copper pyrite 1.8 " 

100.025 

Passing to the north along the East vein are the Symonds' 
shafts, (plate II). Sulphide ores were encountered here near the 
surface, and were of the same general character. SYmonds , east 
shaft Avas sunk 110 feet, and the west shaft 210 feet. Very little 
stoping was done in these two veins. A level was driven from 
near the bottom of Symonds' west shaft, running angling back to 
the engine shaft in the East vein. 

The Silver Yalley Mine is situated 5 milest northeast of 
Silver Hill, and 12 miles E. S. E. from Lexington. The charac- 
ter of the ore is very much like that of the Silver Hill mine. 
The mine was discovered and opened in 1880, and it was last 
operated in the latter part of 1893, the ore being hauled to 
Thomasville where it was successfully treated by a smelting 
process, using copper ores as a flux. A 20 stamp mill stands on 
the property. The old mine dumps show specimens of argillace- 
ous schist, which it is stated form the hanging wall of the vein, 
while the foot wall is a hard line grained hornstone (locally called 
u gim flint"), which also occurs in abundance on the dump pile. 
The color of this hornstone varies from a light drab to dark gray, 
and some specimens show a sharp contact between the two, 
resembling flow-structure. It has all appearances of being a 
devitrified volcanic rhyolite, and this is substantiated by micro- 
scopic examination. An eruptive basic rock, resembling that at 
Silver Hill, is also found here, and from the various statements 
it appears to exist in the form, of a dike. 

The presence of galenite was suspected thirty years ago, and 
much prospecting work was done to find the deposit ; but the 
work was done mostly in the schists some distance off to the west 
of the present shaft, where the galenite disseminated in the 
schists seemed most promising. The vein now under discussion 
was discovered subsequently by a shrewd guess. Its strike is 



DAVIDSON COUNTY SILVER VALLEY MINE. 67 

approximately north and south, with a dip of 45° to the north- 
west. 

The quartz outcrop of the vein is nearly twenty feet wide, and 
is not the least promising for a mineral formation. The vein is 
five to twelve feet wide, and presents a laminated structure, with 
alternate bands of ore, slate and quartz ; these ore seams are 
from three to eighteen inches thick. It is believed that the ore 
is less scattered and more solid as depth is gained. 

The mine is entered by two shafts, one vertical and one under- 
lay in the vein of 170 feet (equivalent to about 120 feet vertical), 
and levels have been run 100 feet in either direction from the 
foot of the inclined shaft, which are mostly in ore. 

The contents of the vein is a milk-white and barren looking 
quartz, which disclosed little mineral matter until a depth of 
sixty feet was reached, though the upper part contained some 
brown ore. 

The ore is very like that of Silver Hill in its lower lev- 
els, and blende has come to form a large, and in some cases, the 
predominant constituent. The subjoined assays will show the 
composition of the massive galenites and blendes. 

Assays, Ore from Silver Valley Mine, Davidson County. 

Galenites and Blendes. 
(36) (37) (38) 

Gold per ton $ trace $ 4.13 $ trace. 

Silver " " 17.19 176.49 38.14 

$ 17.19 $ 180.62 $ 38.14 

Lead, percent 15.54* 55.25* 38.8* 

Zinc " " 31.43* 11.24* 3^.0* 

Poor Good Second Second 

Concentrates. Concentrates. Concentrates Concentrates 

from Poor Ore. from Solid Ore. 
(39) (40) (41) (42) 

Gold per ton $ 4.L3 $ 4.13 $ 1.03 $ 1.65 

Silver " " 23.01 44.74 13.08 14.34 



$ 27.14 $ 48.87 $ 14.11 $ 15.99 

Lead, percent 11.18* 47.62* 9.63* 8.13 

Zinc " " 27.70* 12.08* 27.S# 33.54 

Assay No. 36 more nearly represents the common run of the 
slightly cobbed ore, and No. 3S the more massive ore; No. 37 is 
exceptional. 

The possibility of concentrating the mine stuff into a smelting 
product fairly free from zinc is shown in No. 40, but the losses, 
as concentration has hitherto been practiced, are enormous. 



OS GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The gold is far from being uniformly diffused, for the presence 
of a little iron pyrite makes a considerable difference in the gold 
contents of the concentrates. 

The Welborn ( Smith ) Mine is situated 2 miles west of the 
Silver Hill, and carries similar complex ores. The mine was 
never developed sufficiently to indicate its true resources. 

The Smith or No. 1 Shaft was sunk in 1882-3 to the depth, as 
reported, of fifty (50) feet; at ten (10) feet in depth the vein was 
twelve (12) inches thick, and at thirty-five (35) it was stated to 
be forty (10) inches thick. The following assays give some idea 
of the general run of the ores : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Welborn Mine, Davidson County. 

(43) '44> (45) 

Gold, per ton, coining rate $15.51 $10.a3 $5.68 

Silver, per ton, coining rate — . 14. 37 4.^0 2 26 

Total. - $29.88 $14.53 $7.94 

Sample No. 43, Schist, with iron pyrite and a little copper pyrite and considerable 
galenite. 
Samples 44 and 45, Schist, with disseminated iron pyrite. 

Several hundred tons of ore had been accumulated on the dump 
in 1883, and an effort was made to smelt it, which, as a matter 
of course, ended in failure, as the ore contained blende. 

At the Miller Shaft, three-fourths of a mile north, there were 
also several hundred tons of ore on the dump ; the vein carried 
compact sulphurets with a trace of copper, and was reported to 
be 2i to 3 feet wide. 

Other localities have been ivorked in this vicinity, e. g., the 
Symonds vein, but the Survey has no authentic deta respecting 
them. 

The Conrad Hill Mine 1 is situated 6 miles east of Lexington, 
the county seat, on the northwest margin of the Carolina Slate 
Belt, and near its contact with the granitic rocks. The elevation 
of the hill is less than 100 feet above the adjacent valleys, and 
with very gradual slopes. The country rocks are fine grained 
argillaceous schists, often silicified, thinly laminated and much 
jointed. The strike is N. 10° to 20° E., and the dip towards the 
northwest at high angles, approaching the vertical. 

: The description here given of this mine is reprinted with slight alteration froin a spe- 
cial repoi t made by Prof. Kerr in May, 1881, which report whs published in the Baltimore 
Sun of June 4, 1881. The mine has not been in operation for a number of years past. 



DAVIDSON COUNTY CONRAD HILL MINE. 



69 




Fig 3.— Plan of veins at Conrad Hill gold mine, Davidson county. Scale : about 
1 inch to 300 feet. (Largely after Emmons.) 



There are two systems of veins traversing the hill ( see fig. 3.); 
one consists of veins parallel to each other and to the strike of 
the schists, while in clip they frequently, perhaps it may be said 
generally, cut the schistosity, at a slightly more westerly angle. 
The second system differs from the first in being entirely inde- 
pendent of each other and of the country rock, in strike and dip. 

The former, Prof. Emmons has designated 1 as right running 
veins, and the latter as cross veins. The gangne of both is quartz 
and carbonate of iron. They yield both copper and gold, the 
former occurring as a sulphuret (chaleopyrite), except in the 
upper levels, where it lias suffered partial oxidation ; the latter 
occurring as free gold, both in the quartz and in the altered car- 
bonate (brown oxides) of iron of the upper — and in the sul- 
phurets of the lower levels. 

Emmons describes four right running veins, which he calls 
"first" "second" and "third" or "front" " m l<I<I/< ■■ " and 
"hack" veins, the fourth being considered a branch of the third. 
The first of these cro>ses near the top of the hill, striking X. 
10° E,, and dipping wot at a high angle. The outcrop of the 

1 Geological Report of the Midland counties <>f \. C, 1851!, pp. 143 154. 



70 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

second or middle vein he places at the distance of fifty feet east 
of the first, and supposes it to be parallel in dip, as well as in 
strike, to the first. In this, however, he is evidently mistaken, 
since the two veins appear to meet within a hundred feet of the 
surface. 

There is evidence in the old workings that still another vein, 
with a very steep dip, exists between the second and third. This 
back vein we suppose to cross the line of the South shaft at a 
depth of less than 130 feet. In its thickness, and in the 
amount and' kind of matter which composes it, he considers this 
the most remarkable of all the veins of the hill. " It is 15 
inches thick at its outcrop, and at the depth of between 60 and 
70 feet it is 10 to 18 feet wide. It is quartz above, but at 50 
feet carbonate of iron, carrying sulphurets of copper and iron, 
this part of the vein being four feet thick at the 90-foot level, 
and rich in gold." 

Emmons mentions also 3 cross veins, one as having no outcrop, 
and only revealed in the engine shaft, and two others which he 
describes as among the richest of the whole hill. The first of 
these latter was worked to a depth of 90 feet, and seems to be the 
one represented as crossing the South shaft, No. 1. The other, 
having a strike nearly east and west, and a dip south, was worked 
to a depth of 60 feet, and showed a width of 4 feet of very rich 
ore, on which a drift of some 60 feet was run. It must, therefore, 
be the vein which appears on this cross course in South shaft No. 2. 

In addition to these there appear to be two other veins, not 
discovered when Emmons wrote his description — not showing 
themselves, apparently, on the part of the hill to which his atten- 
tion was confined. One of these is a very large vein — larger 
than any of those above described. 

The veinstone is quartz and iron carbonate, carrying copper 
pyrite and gold. This vein is exposed in all three of the shafts, 
below the point where the other veins are cut — below 100 feet. 
It is not clear where this vein comes to the surface, or whether it 
is put down on the sketch as the main cross vein. The other new 
vein is indicated on the diagram to the west of, and parallel to 



DAVIDSON COUNTY CONRAD HILL MINE. 71 

the first or front vein. It lias been opened by several shallow 
pits, and shows a four-foot quartz vein, with visible gold. An 
unsorted sample of the excavated mass yielded, in an assay by 
the company's chemist, $31 per ton for gold. 

There are three shafts sunk on the property, as shown in the 
diagram, and as they are all in front of the right running veins, 
the^e will all be penetrated by each of them at the same depth. 
In No. 1 South shaft, Emmons estimated that the last of them, 
the back vein, would be cut at 130 feet. A large body of ore 
was entered at the depth of 1*8 feet, where, according to Captain 
Edward B. Wilder, the front and middle veins have united and 
form one mass. From this shaft, at the depth of 105 feet, a drift 
was run some 10 feet north and 90 feet south, along and in this 
body of ore, exposing a thickness of 5 to 10 feet, all of which 
"contained gold in paying quantities." 

The veinstone is quartz, iron carbonate and spongy brown 
oxide of iron, carrying free gold and copper sulphurets and car- 
bonate. In the lowest part of this great mass of ore, the richer 
portion, about 4 feet wide, separated from the remainder of the 
vein by a well-defined line of demarkation, will all assay high 
— up to $300 per ton. 

-X- -X- -X -X -X • -X -X -X -X -X -X -X 

Just south of the shaft, a cut has been made from the drift, 
across this body of ore, measuring some 37 feet, to the foot wall, 
giving a thickness of upwards of 20 feet. A large part of this 
thickness is composed of crushed slates filled with strings of 
quartz. A sample taken across this section, which is 10 to 15 
feet high, including slates, quartz and everything representing the 
whole body of the vein, yielded $22.73 per ton (Hanna). Of 
course by a process of selection, throwing out the poorer masses 
of quartz, spar and slate, the yield per ton might be doubled or 
increased even to a higher percentage. 

Just north of the No. 1 South shaft, in the same level, is cut 
Emmons' second cross vein, which seems to coalesce with the bed 
of ore just mentioned. There is, therefore, exposed an immense 
mass of ore, in the mere exploitation of which, by the drifts and 



72 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

cross-cuts, made in the development of this part of the vein, a 
pile of material has been accumulated at the surface, which is 
estimated to contain nearly 3,000 tons of ore, of which an aver- 
age sample gave Mr. Clausen, chemist of the Conrad Hill Gold 
and Copper Company, $28.60 per ton. 

In No. 2 South shaft, according to Wilder, the veins cut at 67 
feet represent the front and middle veins of Emmons. On this 
point "a cross-cut has been driven 62/J feet back and into the 
first and second veins, and two levels started, one each way. on 
the course of the first vein. Both sides of the drift are in good 
ore, and in the southeast side a course of gold and copper ores, 
varying from 18 to 2-1 inches in thickness, has been exposed. 
Indications are that the ores here are as rich and abundant as at 
No. 1 South shaft." At the depth of 100 feet a drift has been 
carried some fifty feet south in a mass of ore, of which only the 
foot wall is exposed, on which lies an ore course of about 2 feet, 
the veinstone being quartz and brown oxide of iron, carrying 
gold and copper. A sample taken along this ore body gives 
(Hanna) $13.39 gold per ton. 

Some forty feet north of this shaft, on the same level, a simi- 
lar ore course of 12 to 20 inches of prill copper (i. e. 33 per cent, 
copper) is exposed towards the upper part of the vein, while a 
stope driven up and along the middle of it, in brown oxide and 
iron carbonate, gives, by assay of sample representing a thick- 
ness of 3 feet, $17.58 for gold (Hanna). This is probably 
Emmons 1 second vein. There is exposed in these two drifts a 
face of nearly 100 feet of ore, with three good ore courses, within 
a total exposed thickness of the vein of not less than ten feet 
the hanging wall being nowhere in sight. 

Forty or fifty feet more of drifting will connect this level with 
that coming south from No. 1 South shaft. Emmons' third cress 
vein is cut in this shaft at the depth of 57 feet, but no new exca- 
vations have been made at this level. "At a vertical depth of 
103 feet from the surfice this shaft cuts into, and at 122 feet 
passes through, the main cross vein, proving it to be 17 feet thick 
at this point, and composed of quartz and carbonate of iron, with 
more or less yellow sulphuret of copper. The vein is underlying 



DAVIDSON COUNTY CONRAD HILL MINE. 73 

at 40°, and the shaft will be continued down the incline of the 
vein, which has been more thoroughly exposed in the main shaft." 
This shaft, therfore, opens four important veins, and it is within 
40 feet of the new vein, which was recently discovered, and 
which can also be worked from this direction. The quantity of 
ore accessible from this point, therefore, and within a very mod- 
erate depth? is immense, and this takes no account of the back 
vein, which, of course, must be" reached at no great depth below 
the present termination. 

The Main or Engine shaft is situated 195 feet west of No. 1, 
and is distant 240 feet from No. 2 South shaft. It was sunk 220 
feet vertically, and subsequently to 400 feet. At 163 feet the 
shaft passes through the main cross vein. Throughout the entire 
distance a rich course of copper ore is exposed from 3 to 8 feet 
in thickness, of which 1 to 4 J feet is solid prill ore, giving an 
average of not less than 2 feet. Samples taken from across the 
whole distance of the face of this prill, and assayed by Hanna, 
give $11.98 gold per ton in addition to its copper value. This 
ore course of prill copper was also exposed, in a thickness of not 
less than 5 feet, in a drift northwards, at the 175 foot level. 

The general course of metallurgical treatment at this time 
was as follows: The matter was partly sorted out underground, 
and still further hand-cobbed and picked in the sheds ; the richer 
ore was sent at once to the copper works; the residues, after 
passing through a Blake Crusher, were jigged, and the best 
material added to the richer mine stuff above alluded to ; the 
poorest material from the jigs was rejected, the medium grade 
sent at once to the stamp battery and amalgamated as usual : the 
tailings from the battery were partly concentrated by buddies 
and blankets, and the concentrates sent to the copper works. 

At the outset, the richer copper minerals were, after roasting, 
smelted in a shaft furnace for matte, from which, after re-smelt- 
ing, black copper was obtained and refined. The material, how- 
ever, was not suited to this treatment, as the necessary basic 
matter was lacking to make a proper llux, and smelting was 
superseded by the wet method under the Hunt & Douglas patent 
(old method), i. e., the crushed ore after roasting was subjected to 



74 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

a batli of protochloride of iron, for the conversion of the insolu- 
ble copper mineral into the soluble chloride ; after leaching the 
copper was precipitated by metallic iron and refined. The resi- 
dues, now mostly peroxides, were sent back to be milled and 
amalgamated, and, to a slight extent, concentrated again. The 
final products were gold bullion and refined ingot copper. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

The deep mines of this county have been very prominent in the 
mining history of the State. The most important group is situ- 
ated in the extreme northwestern corner of the county, in the 
vicinity of the village of Eldorado. 

The Russell Mine is situated about 3 miles north of Eldorado, 
near the Randolph county line. It has been worked more exten- 
sively than any other, and has therefore allowed better oppor- 
tunity for study. 

The county rock is an argillaceous slate, both of the soft and 
silicified types ; it also contains small quartz stringers. Some 
specimens of the silicified slate showed coatings of calcite, and 
specimens of the softer slates contained small irregular calcite 
veins ; presumably the slate in general is somewhat calcareous. 
The strike and dip are variable. In the eastern end ef the " Big 
Cut " the strike of the schistosity is 1ST. 55° W., dip 40° X. E. In 
a tunnel leading from the cut southward to the open air, the 
bedding planes of the slates are nearly horizontal, with gentle 
undulations. In another tunnel entering the hillside, west of 
the " Big Cut," the strike of the schistosity is N. 24° E., and the 
dip 56° to 80° 1ST. W. The grain of the slate was determined 
here ; its strike is 1ST. 45° E., and the dip 35° S. \Y., showing 
that the cleavage was produced by a force acting from the South- 
west downward, and developing normal faulting. The compres- 
sion was not great. The bedding and cleavage planes usually 
coincide, but in cases, particularly where the bedding is at a 
small angle to the horizontal, they do not coincide, the cleav- 
age being much steeper. The cleavage planes are also marked by 
groovings. Pyrite (with the merest traces of chalcopyrite) to the 
extent of from 2 to 4 per cent, is almost universally present in 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



BULLETIN 3, PLATE IV 




: 



w , 



: 



"'V^ ,jp 





?p» /v,/Mi«^mmm' 



BIG CUT, RUSSELL MINE, GLEN BROOK, N. C 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY RUSSELL MINE. 75 

the slates. It is disseminated in isolated crystals up to i cube, 
and also in irregular stringers, lenticles and coatings. The 
entire formation is gold bearing, but only certain belts are rich 
enough to warrant mining operations. 

To one unfamiliar with the formation, it is difficult to distin- 
guish any difference between the richer and the poorer portions 
except possibly in the fact that the former are somewhat more 
altered ; and even the miner, long familiar with the region, is 
often at fault, and ascertains his true course only by constant 
" panning." 

Occasionally the working body jumps abruptly, in one case 
not less than ten feet, and sometimes further on resumes its old 
course. The change in grade is even more" perplexing, for the 
external signs of rich and poor ore are of the vaguest kind. 

There are at least 6 of these belts within a distance of 2,000 
feet across the strike, known as the " Little Lead," the " Big 
Cut," the " Biggins Hill Lead," the " Soliague Lead," the 
"Walker Lead," and the "Laurel Hill Lead." 

Of these the largest and most extensively worked is the " Big 
Cut," which is an open cut, about 300 feet long, by 150 feet 
wide, by 60 feet deep. (See plate IV.) 

The ore was mined by blasting down large masses at a time, 
and the cost of mining was thus reduced to a minimum. On the 
eastern edge of the cut is a shaft 150 feet deep, from the bottom 
of which the ore has been stoped upward. 

It is stated that the average ore, embracing the entire mate- 
rial from this cut, milled $2.00 per ton. There were sonic 
streaks from -A to 5 feet wide, which went much higher, and por- 
tions of the ore were so rich that it was carried out in powder 
kegs. 

The following series of assays shows how wide the variation is : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Russell Mine, Montgomery County. 

(46) (47) (48) (49) (60) (51) (52) (58) (54) (55) 

Gold (per ton) $2.07 $2.07 $3.10 $3.10 $4.13 $">.17 $7.24 $9.30 $U.30 $10.34 $11. \\ 

Silvei 06 .26 trace .22 .10 1.10 .til .:»'.! .84 L.06 1.65 



$2.13 $2 33 $3.10 $3.32 $4.23 $6.27 $7.85 $9 69 $10.14 $11.4(1 $16.02 



76 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Assays, Gold Ores, Russell Mine {Continued). 

(57) (58) (59) (60) (61) '62. (63 

Gold (per ton) $22.74... .$39.27—. $43 43.. ..$84.75.. ..$173.63.. ..$237 70... $320.38 

Silver " " 13 77-. 4.2a.... 2.07.... 3.10.... 6.31.... 12.08 



$22.87 $40.04 $47.69 $86.82 $176.73 $244.01 $332.46 

A forty stamp mill in good condition is located on the prop- 
erty. The mine was not in operation when last visited in the 
late fall of 1894; but preparations are now in progress for the 
erection of a cyanide plant for the treatment of the ores. 

The Appalachian (or Coggins) Mine is situated in close prox- 
imity to Eldorado. The schists here have a striked. 40° E.. and 
dip stee2)ly to the northwest ; they are quite similar to those of 
the Russell, though possibly less siliceous or more chloritic. 

The mine, as far as developed, shows large bodies of low-grade 
ore similar to those of the Russell, yet ores that are easily with- 
in the limits of profitable work. 

At the surface there appeared to be two ore bodies separated 
by a narrow and comparatively barren bed of schists of like 
character. 

The depth of the last workings was 160 feet. A forty stamp 
mill stands on the property. 

Several assays of the ore show its variation, similar to that of 
the Russell. 

Assays, Gold Ores, Appalachian Mine, Montgomery Co. 

(64^ (65) (66) 

Gold (per ton) .$2.07 $4.65 .S113.68 

Silver " " 13 16 1.29 

$2.20 $4.81 S114.97 

The Morris Mountain (Davis or Dutton) Mine is one mile 
nearly west of the Appalachian. The occurrence of the gold is 
similar to that at the Russell mine. It is occasionally concen- 
trated in the joint planes of the slates, which are sometimes very 
rich. On account of the small developments, the capabilities of 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY STEEL MINE. 77 

this mine have never been demonstrated. Assays of the ores 
have shown the following contents : 

Assays, Qold Ores, Morris Mountain Mine, Montgomery County. 

(67) (6S) 

Gold, per ton $:* 61 $82.68 

Silver, per ton fis trace 



$4.29 $82.08 

The ItiGGON Hill Mine is situated 3 miles east of Eldorado. 
The ore body consists of a quartz vein, reported to be 2& feet in 
thickness, lying approximately conformable with the schistosity 
of the country rock. It has been opened by a prospecting shaft, 
100 feet in depth. Rich ores, both in gold and silver, are 
reported from here. 

The Steel Mine, and its extension v the Saunders, are on the 
east side of the Uharrie river, 2 miles southeast of Eldorado. The 
nature of the country rock and of the ore deposits are quite like 
those of the Russell mine. 

The ore body varies from 9 to 12 feet in thickness, and occa- 
sionally rises to 20 feet. The strike is N. 25° E., and the dip 
70° X. W.j becoming steeper as depth is gained. 

The most valuable part of this deposit consists in what is 
locally called "string veins 1 ' — narrow seams of ore, which run 
through the mass with some general conformity to the slates. 
There are usually several of these strings approximately parallel, 
and from a line to nearly twelve inches in thickness. The com- 
bined thickness of these seams is rarely less than 15 inches, and 
is sometimes more than three feet. There is a considerable pro- 
portion of free gold present, but a large part is so intimately 
associated with the sulphurets as to be refractory to any mere 
mill process, and will need a smelting treatment. The associ- 
ated mineral matter is galena, blende, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. 

The rich ores of this part of the ore body have, ever since the 
mine was worked, been called "No. 1" ores, and are so alluded 
to in all reports. The rest of the deposit has a very small but 
varying proportion of sulphurets, and is generally rich enough to 



78 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

justify the treatment of the entire mass. This ore is known as 
"£To. 2". 

The remarkable richness of some of these "Xo. 1" ores is 
shown by the following assays by Prof. F. A. Genth : 

Assays, "JYo. 1" Gold Ores, Steel Mine, Montgomery County. 

(69) (70) (71) (72) 

Gold, per ton $428.90 $564.70 $2.648.24 $9,665.70 

Silver, " " not det 10.03 51.07 151.54 



$428.90 $574.73 $2,699.31 $9,817.24 

Assays of "No. 2" ore, also by Prof. Genth, have shown the 
following results : 

Assays, "JYo. 2" Gold Ores, Steel Mine, Montgomery County. 

(73) (74) (75) (76) 

Gold, per ton $26.46 $39.27 $55.19 $161.84 

Silver, " " - 2.53 2.45 2.08 4.60 



$28.99 • $41.72 $57.27 $166.44 

An examination of these figures will justify the early reputa- 
tion of the mine for richness. As a matter of course the most 
ardent friends of the mine do not claim any such values for the 
ores at the present depth (220 feet). The mine was last operated 
by the Genesee Gold Mining Company in connection with a 40 
stamp mill. The sulphurets were concentrated for metallurgical 
treatment. 

The Beaver Dam Mine is situated at Flaggtown postolfiee, 2 
miles northeast of the junction of Beaver Dam creek and the 
Yadkin river. The mining tract contains 800 acres, one-half of 
which is claimed to be underlaid by gravel. This gravel is from 
2 to 4: feet thick and overlaid by an alluvial deposit 5 to 15 feet 
thick. The bed rock is a decomposed silicified schist. 

A fair supply of water is afforded by Beaver Dam creek for 
hydraulic operations. The fall from the gravel bed to the river, 
along Beaver Dam creek, is one inch per rod, for a distance of 
U to 2 miles. Operations on a large scale have always been 
hindered by the presence of a tenacious white clay, which is 
commonly mixed with the gravel. Much of the broken down 
quartz would apparently bear a mill treatment, if an automatic 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY MOBATOCK MINE. 79 

and cheap process could be introduced as an adjunct to hydraulic 
mining. 

There are large and extensive bodies of greenstone on the 
property, which contain a sprinkling of iron pyrites, and gener 
ally a little gold, as follows : 

Assay, Pyritiferous Greenstone, Near Beaver Dam Mine. 

(77) 

Gold, per ton $2.07 

Silver, " " .' 32 

$2.39 

This is mentioned to show the extent and character of the dif- 
fusion of gold. 

The Mobatock Mine is situated 6 miles north of the Sam 
Christian, and 8 miles south of Eldorado. The country rock is a 
highly silicified quartz porphyry and a brecciated tuff. The 
quartz porphyry at first sight resembles a compact, homogeneous 
hornstone or flint, but upon close examination it is found to con- 
tain small, black, glassy specks, which are presumably quartz. 
However, the true porphyritic nature of the rock is clearly 
brought out in the weathered specimens, the feldspathic ground- 
mass being decomposed and altered, while the quartz remains 
intact as crystals with partially rounded, but yet distinct hexa- 
gonal outlines. Indistinct flow structure is also visible in the 
fresh rock, and it is emphasized in the ground-mass of the altered 
specimens. The porphyry contains pyrite crystals up to 1 inch 
cube, sparingly distributed : (1) irregularly, (2) along small 
seams, and (3) in minute cavities or geodes. Some chalcopyrite 
also occurs. The main rock mass is intersected by several small 
quartz fissure veins, less than one inch in thickness, and these 
are reported to be rich in gold. The brecciated tuft' was not seen 
in place, but several very large boulders were found in the hill- 
side near the mill. Some of the porphyry fragments in this 
breccia ^re as large as 12 inches square. Chalcopyrite am! green 
copper carbonate^ stains were also noticed. 

The Moratoek mine was first opened about 2 years ago, and 
theprincipal work consists of a small open quarry in the pyritic 
quartz-porphyry mass. However, the percentage of sulphurets 



80 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

in this rock is so insignificant that it could never make a work- 
able ore. It is stated that the assays showed less than $1.00 per 
ton. A shallow shaft has also been snnk in one of the narrow 
quartz veins. Altogether, it appears only natural that the whole 
undertaking should be abandoned, as it is. A ten stamp mill, 
equipped with a cyanide plant, stands on the property. 

The Reynolds Mine, 6 miles northeast of Troy, and the Carter. 
a little nearer to Troy, have been worked to the depths of 80 and 
100 feet respectively. Little is known of these mines. Both of 
them contain telluride of gold, according to Emmons. 1 

A belt of gravel mines is found on the west flanks of the 
Uharie mountains, and between them and the Uharie river. 
The northernmost limit of these deposits is known to extend to 
Barnes' Creek in Randolph county, and may even reach to 
within 5 or 6 miles of Asheboro. 

The localities best known and most worked are the Bright, 
Ophir (or Davis), Spanish Oak Gap, Dry Hollow, Island Creek, 
Deep Flat, Pear Tree Hill, Tom's Creek. Harbin's, Bunnell 
Mountain, Dutchman's Creek, and the Worth, the latter being 
Dear the junction of the Uharie and the Yadkin. 

All of these were largely and profitably worked as long as the 
naturally concentrated material lasted, and the proximity of 
water favored work. At present the supply of available water 
is entirely inadequate for the working of these properties, and 
the tailing ground is not always favorable. The presence of a 
tenacious clay with the gravel has also caused difficulties in the 
treatment. Occasionally a brilliant find of nuggets is made 
which gives a spasmodic, but short lived, activity to the section, 
but no large work or permanent activity can be expected, till an 
abundant and sure supply of water can be secured. 

The Sam Christian Mine is situated 12 miles east of Albe- 
marle, and 3 miles east of Swift Island Ford. 

This mine has gained something more than a local reputation, 
and has been productive of remarkably large and fine nuggets. 

The gold is found in old "channels", in gravel of a thickness 
from one (1) to three (3) feet, and deeply covered with soil. It 

3 Geology of the Midland Counties of Xorth Carolina, 1856, pp. 1(58—169. 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY SAM CHRISTIAN MINE. 



81 



Is rarely found in the shape of dust, but generally in nuggets of 
from 5 to more than 1,000 pennyweights. 

The tract contains 1,286 acres, and has been worked in several 
places, especially "Dry Hollow," "The Sam Christian Cut," and 
"California Cut." Other channels are also known. 

The method of work pursued at this mine consisted of a 
removal of the soil resting on the gravel, followed by a very care- 
ful washing of the gravel in sluices and rockers. Where the 
overlay was slight it was removed by simple digging. In other 
cases it was washed away by hydraulic giants. The "harvest" 
periods were uncertain and intermittent; a few days or even a 
few hours would sometimes suffice for obtaining a large reward 
for weeks or months of almost unproductive labor. The following 
interesting table of 40 nuggets, obtained from 1,070 cubic feet of 
grit in 18S0, illustrates well the result from a campaign of 88 
washing days : 

Weights of 40 Nuggets, Sam Christian Mine, Montgomery County. 



Dwts. 


Dwts. 


Dwts. 


Dwts. 


430 


22 


15 


41 


59 


32 


11 


148 


39 


22 


66 


540 


167 


132 (2 nuggets) 


21 


240 


16 


141 (9 nuggets) 


13 


241 


64 


26 


55 


6 


1,024 


62 


48 


Total 4,200 dwts. 





30 


484 





The mine was last operated about 1893. Water was supplied 
from a pumping station on the Yadkin river, some 2£ miles dis- 
tant, through a line of 20-inch iron pipe. The total elevation of 
the point of discharge above the water level at Swift Island ferry 
is 416.8 feet. 

The^country rock at the Sam Christian is the argillaceous slate 
of the Monroe type (see p. 36), of which there are some "good 
exposures" in the "Dry Hollow." A number of strikes were 
observed here, from N. 5° W. to N. 2<>° E. 3 with dips from 15° S.W. 
to 30° X.W., and in places nearly horizontal. The slates show dis- 
tinct banding, with and at angles to the cleavage. These slates are 
broken through by large eruptive masses of devitrified volcanic 
breccia and hornstone, the true field relations of which, however, 



82 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

could not be satisfactorily determined, but the coarse breccia con- 
tains fragments of the hornstone (as large as 4 inches square), and 
is most probably a tuff agglomerate. The hornstone contains 
occasional fine particles of pyrite. Its surface weathers with a 
raised layer of rounded concretions, thus resembling the quartz 
porphyry at the Moratock mine (see p. 79). Very good exposures 
of this rock were seen in the "Sam Christian Cut." This eruptive 
rock contains small quartz fissure veins from \ to 3 inches wide, 
striking K 70° W., and dipping 60° X. E. 

Several shafts have been sunk in some of these narrow veins, 
and it is almost needless to remark that attempts at deep mining on 
2 to 3-inch veins were failures. The gold in the gravel came from 
the breaking down of the numerous small quartz veins in the 
underlying and contiguous rock. Seven such veins, all less than 
three inches thick, are shown on plate Y, as they are exposed in 
the upper end of the " Dry Hollow" gulch of the Sam Christian 
mine. 

MINES IN STANLY COUNTY. 

The Haithcock, Hearne, and Lowder mines are from 2 to 4 
miles northwest of Albemarle, the county seat. The quartz 
veins of these mines are stated to be from 2 to 4 feet in thick- 
ness, lying approximately conformable with the schists. v o 
active work has been carried on for a great many years. Some 
prospect work was in progress at the Lowder mine during the 
summer, 1895. 

The Crawford (or Ingram) Mine is situated 4 miles north- 
east of Albemarle. It is a placer deposit of comparatively recent 
discovery (August, 1892). 

The auriferous gravel is situated in the valley of a small 
stream, and is overlaid by 2 to 4 feet of soil. The thickness of 
the gravel is from 11 to 2 feet in the centre of the basin, thin- 
ing out towards the edges. The width of the deposit is about 
250 feet. 

The bed rock is slate of the Monroe type, lying in a fiat syn- 
clinal. The gravel is composed of angular fragments of this slate 
and white quartz, bound together in a clay matrix. The lack of 
sufficient water for washing the material on a large and continu- 



STANLY COUNTY PARKER MINE. 83 

ous scale presented a serious difficulty at this mine. In 1894 the 
Crawford Gold Mining Company solved this problem by a very 
unique device. A wooden tank, holding about 200 cubic yards, 
is situated at some elevation above the stream bed. At one end 
of the tank is a stand pipe, about 30 feet high, which is supplied 
with water from a reservoir below by a steam pump. The gravel, 
together with a portion of the overlay and bed rock, is hauled to 
the top of the tank in tram cars, and dumped. Here it is washed 
by the discharge from the stand-pipe. A line of riffled sluice 
boxes runs from an opening in one side and near the bottom of 
the tank. The gold is collected from the bottom of the tank and 
from the riffles in the sluices. It occurs exclusively in the shape 
of nuggets, there being no dust gold to speak of. 

Two particularly large nuggets have recently been found here, 
one weighing 8 pounds and 5 ounces, on April 8, 1895, and another 
weighing 10 pounds, on August 22, 1895. 

Some of the gravel is worked directly in rockers, by tributers, 
who pay a royalty for this privilege. 

The source of this nugget gold has not yet been found. On the 
hillside, adjoining the shallow valley in which the gravel deposit 
is situated, several quartz veins, from 2 to 3 feet in thickness, have 
been explored. Pan tests show that the quartz is very slightly 
auriferous in places, but there is no sign of coarse gold. 

The Parker Mine is situated at New London, about 9 miles 
northwest of Albemarle. 

The country slates are those of the Monroe type ; they are 
intruded by successive flows of greenstone porphyry and some more 
basic eruptives, in part brecciated. The mine shafts have disclosed 
at least two such eruptive sheets, from 2 to 3 feet each in thick- 
ness, lying nearly horizontally and separated by sedimentary 
slates. In places the greenstone is sheared into nearly vertical 
schistose masses. 

Numberless auriferous quartz stringer veins, from less than one 
to eighteen inches in thickness, intersect the country rock in all 
directions. Besides these several larger and more persistent veins 
occur. The quartz is imperfectly crystallized and often cellular. 
• Weathering agencies have distributed the gold through the 



84 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

decomposed rock (soil) to depths of 10 or 20 feet. A combi- 
nation sluicing and milling process (Dahlonega method) was in 
operation here at one time ; the results, however, were unsatis- 
factory. The flushed material milled only about 50 cents per ton, 
although the quartz itself is shown by some assays to run as high 
as $4 to $6 per ton. It was, however, impracticable to select it. 

The principal yield of gold at the Parker mine has been from 
the old gravel channels. The gold was coarse, and in niiggot&. 
The largest nugget of which there is accurate knowledge weighed 
8 pounds, 3 oz , 2 dwts. The aggregate production is estimated 
at $200,000.00. 

The value of the gravel is stated to vary from $0,044 to 82.44 
per cubic yard. Although hydraulicking is at present abandoned, 
the placer ground has not been exhausted. At one point exami- 
nations have shown that tiie bed rock of the gravel channel is a 
sheet of soft decomposed greenstone but 3 feet in thickness, and 
that this is underlaid by still another gravel deposit, which will 
warrant hydraulic operations. The hydraulic plant, which is in 
good condition, consists of a pumping station at the Yadkin river,. 
4| miles distant, and an iron pipe line to a stand pipe, situated 
near the mine. The head furnished from the stand pipe to the 
workings is about 90 feet. 

The present work at this mine consists in the development of 
some of the larger quartz veins. The " Ross " shaft is being sunk 
and it is expected to intersect an ore body by means of a cross-cut 
extending eastward from the 120-foot level. Some surface wash- 
ing is being carried on with the water pumped from the above 
shaft, the general returns being 80 to 100 dwts. per month. One 
nugget of 3 ounces was recently found (Nov., 1895). 

Some assays of the vein quartz show the following results : 
Assays, Gold Ore from the Parker Mine, Stanly County. 

(78) (79) (80) (81) 

Gold, per ton $ 13.43 $ 7.23 $ 4.14 $ 3.10 

Silver, per ton 32 20 trace trace 



$ 13.75 $ 7.43 $ 4.14 $ 3.10 

No. 78. Quartz vein. Upcast shaft. 
No. 79. Accompanying wall rock (schist), 5 feet thick. 
No. 80. Flint Spring vein. 
No. 81. Other quartz veins. 

The Crowell Mine is but a short distance from the Parker. 
The ore body does not differ in a marked degree from the adjacent 



THE GOLD HILL GROUP OF MINES. 85 

"country," for both are auriferous. Both are silicified, sericite and 
chlorite schists, containing finely disseminated pyrite. The ore 
body is from 4 to 7 feet in thickness, and will frequently pay to 
work as a whole. The " pay-streak " is much narrower, and often 
becomes only a line in thickness. The last workings extended to 
a depth of 125 feet. 

The range of value of the ores is indicated by the following 
assays : 

Assays, Gold Ores from the Crowell Mine, Stanly County. 

(82) (83) (84) (85) 

Gold, per ton $ 7.23 $ 10.23 $ 23.87 $168.46 

Silver, per ton 91 17 trace 71 

$8 14 $ 10.40 $ 23.87 $169.17 

The Barringer Mine is situated 4 miles southeast of Gold 

Hill. Enormously rich ore is occasionally found, but the mine 

has been so long and so largely in litigation, that no considerable 

exploratory work has yet been done. The ore is frequently very 

deceptive and assays much richer than its appearance warrants, 

viz : 

Assays, Gold Ores from the Barringer Mine, Stanly County. 

(86) (87) (88) (Sit) (i,0) 

Gold, per ton $ 2.07 $ 5.17 $ 5.17 $ 346.23.. $ 510.00 

Silver, per ton 26 26 32 2.26 4.52 

$ 2.33 $ 5.43 $ 5 49 $ 348 49 $ 544.52 

None of these samples differed much in external appearance. 

MINES IN ROWAN AND CABARRUS COUNTIES. 

The Gold Hill Group of Mines. 1 This constitutes one of the 
most noted mining districts in North Carolina, and has been one 
of the most productive. 

The village of Gold Hill is situated 14 miles southeast of Salis- 
bury on a branch line of the Southern R. R. 

The group comprises a number of mines situated in a belt of 
auriferous schists, lying directly east of the Dunn Mountain 
granite area, nearly 1? miles long, from northeast to southwest, 
and § mile wide, from northwest to southeast, in the southeast 
corner of Rowan County, extending over into Cabarrus County 
on the south, and Stanley County on the east. 

^eoloincal Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina. E. Emmons, 1866, pp. 
154, 160, 205, 207. 



86 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

None of these mines are now in operation and but little can be 
seen. 

The outcrops of the veins were not bold, and in some cases (the 
Randolph, for example), were so obscured and covered, that they 
were only discovered by accident, and at a comparatively late 
date in the history of mining in the State — 1842. 

This series of mines is situated on the narrow plateau of a low- 
lying northeast and southwest ridge, which is broken by a small 
gulch near the Standard mines, and by a still deeper gulch on the 
McMakin tract, making the surface here quite hilly. The ridge 
generally slopes gently both to the southeast and to the north- 
west. 

The mines are grouped quite closely together, and very little 
mineral matter is found to the west of Buffalo creek, which skirts 
the ridge on the west. 

The country schists are chloritic and argillaceous, the chloritic 
constituent being if anything more marked at the northeastern 
end, and the argillaceous at the southwestern. The strike of 
the schistosity is N. 25° to 30° E., and the dip gener- 
ally 75° to 80° N. W., occasionally vertical, and rarely 
slightly to the east of the vertical. 

A diabase dike, about 15 feet in width, intersects the country 
in the Randolph and Barnhardt workings. It strikes N. 13° 
W., and is said to split into two prongs between the Center and 
Barnhardt shafts. 

The character of the ore bodies is that common to the " slate 
belt " elsewhere. The schists are impregnated, over certain 
widths, with auriferous sulphurets (pyrite, ehalcopyrite and 
galena) occurring in isolated crystals and small lenticular masses, 
and accompanied by lenticular stringers of quartz. And these 
belts constitute the so-called " veins." 

The shoots or ore bodies have generally a northerly pitch of their 
own in the veins, i. e., the workable bodies of ore occur alternating 
with relatively barren schists, and these bodies tend to the north 
more and more as the depth increases. 

There are at least 10 well-defined veins in the district (see 
plate VI). 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



BULLETIN 3, PLATE VI. 




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THE GOLD HILL GROUP OF MINES. 87 

Prominent among these are the Randolph, Earnhardt, Hunni- 
cut (Honeycut), Open Cut copper vein on the Standard property, 
the Trautman gold vein and the McMakin silver vein. 

But closely associated with these are outlying bodies, which 
may also be independent veins — for example, the Old Field body, 
which is between the Barnhardt and Hunnicut veins, and is made 
up of several nearly parallel bodies of ore which are very narrow, 
varying in width from one to several inches, intercalated with the 
schists and very tortuous. 

The Hunnicut vein has been proved for a length of 400 yards, 
and the Barnhardt for an equally great distance. Most of these 
veins conform to the schists both in strike and dip. 

The Randolph (or Earnhardt) vein occupies a position on the 
extreme northwestern edge of the group. It has been worked 
for a linear distance of 1500 feet, and to a depth of 740 feet. 
(See Plate YII.) It is this vein, discovered in 1854, which has 
contributed most to the celebrity of the Gold Hill district, and is 
in reality The Gold Hill Mine. The ore chimneys or shoots are 
especially marked; they are three in number and extend to the 
lowest depths to which the mine has been. worked. 

The Randolph shaft passes through the Texas shoot, just cuts 
the northern edge of the Big Sulphur shoot, and is but a few feet 
distant from the Randolph shoot. The ores below the water 
level are highly sulphuretted, being mostly iron pyrites. The 
lowest level, at 740 feet, carries considerable bodies of auriferous 
pyrites, containing (according to Mr. Hambly, a former assayer to 
the company), about 2 per cent, of metallic copper. 

The thickness of the ore body is stated by Emmons (in 1S56, 
when the depth of the mine was 410 feet) to be from 6 inches to 
4 feet, and in one part 7 feet. 

As respects the value of the ores it is very difficult to speak 
with exactness, for most examinations and reports have been made 
with reference to the plans of speculative promotors of mines. 
Some statements that have been made public are unquestionably 
too high to be expected from steady work. It is probable that 
the contents will be of low grade, as compared with the ores 
nearer the surface. 



88 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Some indication of the range of values is given in the following 

assays : 

Assays, Auriferous Copper Pyrites, Gold Hill Mine. 

(91) (92) (93) 

Silica 52.30 per cent. percent. percent. 

Copper 0.^5 per cent. 2.59 per cent. 5.96 per cent. 

Sulphur 16.80 per cent. percent. percent. 

'Iron 23.00 per cent. percent. percent. 

Cold, per ton $25.84 $4.14 $5 68 

Silver 49 .71 2.26 

Total $26.33 $4.85 $T.94 

The Bamhardt vein (discovered in 1854) is 400 feet east of the 
Randolph. The ores are similar to those of the Randolph, but in 
general more cupriferous. (See Plate VIII.) 

The Old Field vein lies to the southwest of the main workings 
of the Earnhardt ; it consists of a series of ore stringers inter- 
calated in the schists. These seams are frequently of great rich- 
ness, but the gold "jumps" from one seam to the other so often 
as to cause some embarrassment in mining. The depth of the 
last workings extended to a little more than 130 feet. 

The Hunnicut (Honey cut) vein is just to the southwest of the 
Old Field, and between the Earnhardt and Randolph. It is from 
15 inches to 2 feet wide. It was discovered in 1S42, nearly at the 
commencement of the mining excitement in this section, and was 
worked with great profit for a time, and to a depth of 1S5 feet. 
It is'stated to have yielded $101,665.00. 

The Standard vein is still further southwest. It consists of 
several narrow belts of schists charged with mineral matter. The 
ore body is very wide near the surface, but at greater depths 
becomes smaller. The deepest work was at 81 feet. 

The Trautman vein lies on the extreme southeastern edge of 
the group. It was the site of the first discovery of gold in this 
section, in 1842. Down to 20 feet the ores were auriferous, and 
the deposit was originally opened as a gold mine. The ore was 
cellular quartz, containing decomposed sulphurets. From 20 to 
60 feet down it was a mixture of hematite and highly ferruginous 
quartz, with a little crystallized pyromorphite, cerussite and other 
lead minerals; still lower down it was auriferous pyrite and 
quartz. At the depth of 100 feet, where the sulphurets were 




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THE GOLD HILL GROUP OF MINES. 89 

unaltered, the ores were poorer and contained a string of ash-grey 
blende and pyrite, from 2 to 6 inches wide, which had much in- 
creased at greater depths. The vein is stated 1 to have yielded 
$400,000.00. 

The McMakin (or Silver) vein is situated in the southwest part 
of the district. It has been exploited by pits for several hundred 
yards, but the deeper workings have extended over a linear dis- 
tance of about 200 feet only, No work has been done on it for 
over 30 years. It was entered by 3 shafts, the deepest of which 
was 180 feet; and two levels were driven, one at 66 feet and the 
other at the bottom. 

There are two veins, designated as the Main vein and the Little 
vein. They are approximately conformable to the schistosity in 
strike and dip, viz.: Strike N. 45°-60° E. and dip 70°-75° S. E. 

The outcrop consisted largely of brown hematite, psilomelane, 
pyrolusite, and dolomite — the first and second predominating. 
Manganese ores disappear at a depth of twenty feet ; then plum- 
bago, pyromorphite and cerussite come in ; and these in turn go 
out at 60 feet, being replaced by galenite, blende, pyrite, chalco- 
pyrite, and highly argentiferous tetrahedrite. The prevailing 
gangue is carbonate of lime and barite with quartz. Down to 70 
feet yellow blende, assaying 14 to 39 t 3 7 2 -q oz. of silver, occurs in 
larger amounts than galenite ; then the latter predominates, and is 
accompanied by an ever-increasing amount of tetrahedrite, and 
assaying 12 to 53^^ oz. silver. 

The following statement by Mr. O. J. Heinrich, E. M., 2 will 
show the characteristics fully : " At the depth of 76 feet between 
the South and the Whim shafts the vein is 4 to 10 feet wide, the 
vein fissure being chiefly occupied by carbonate of lime and 
barite." 

"This gangue carries grains and small masses of tetrahedrite to a 
width of two feet at the southeast; the central part of the vein 
contains several seams of tetrahedrite and yellow blende, and the 

1 By Emmons, in 1856. 

2 In a MSS. report to the owners of the property. 



90 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

northwest has yellow blende with galenite and many grains of 
tetrahedite. Tetrahedrite is found at its best close to the hanging" 
wall in the southeast." Average samples according to Dr. Genth 
gave : 

Assays, Silver Ore, McMakin Mine, Cabarrus County. 

(94) (95) 

Silver, per ton $ 317.95 $ &46.50 

" Simple cobbing increases the contents," as in assay number 95. 

There is a small parallel vein west of the main vein, which has 
been extensively stoped, from the Whim shaft to the surface ; its 
course is 1ST. 50° to 60° E., and dip 35° S. E. There are probably 
other parallel veins, both to the northwest and southeast, for the 
whole belt is metaliferous. 

Work was terminated at this mine in 1861, and the vein has not 
been touched since. 

Emmons states that up to 1856 the Gold Hill Mines produced 
an aggregate of $2,000,000.00. 

Up to 1874 it is estimated that $3,000,000.00 worth of tree gold 
had been extracted from the ores, which represents but 20 to 33 
per cent, of the assay value of the ores. 

Until 1881, when a 20 stamp mill was erected, the mode of 
extraction was entirely by Chilian mills and rockers. The last 
regular operations were carried on by the New Gold Hill Com- 
pany under the management of Mr. Richard Eames in 1893, when 
ores from the Earnhardt vein were treated in a 10 stamp mill near 
the mine. 

Since that time work at Gold Hill has been of a spasmodic and 
petty character, carried on by tributers who mill the decomposed 
material from the old mine dumps, in the Earnhardt mill. 

Although the Gold Hill ores are highly sulphuretted, no other 
treatment than that of simple amalgamation has been attempted to 
our knowledge. The yield of free gold from these ores has not 
been more than 20 to 33 per cent, of their assay value, as already 
mentioned. Chlorination has been advised, and Mr. Eames has 
made some experiments with cyanide, but they were never carried 
out on a working scale. It is more than probable that there are 



., 



OTHER MINES IN CABARRUS COUNTY. 91 

still good ore bodies in the mines ; certainly a careful examination 
is warranted, and improvements in the metallurgical treatment 
are suggested, namely, concentration of the sulphurets, after battery 
amalgamation, and subsequent treatment by a chlorination, 
cyanide or smelting process. 

OTHER MINES IN CABARRUS COUNTY. 

The Mauney Mine is situated about 1? miles southwest of 
Gold Hill, on the opposite side (west) of Little Buffalo creek. The 
strike of the schists is N. 25° E., and the dip 75° N. W. They are 
soft and contain but little quartz. The ore-bearing portion is con- 
sidered to be 4 feet in width. The last work done here (Nov., 1894), 
consisted in sinking two prospect shafts to a depth of about 70 
feet. The soft brown ores, above the water level, are stated to 
assay from $2.00 to $6.00 per ton. 

The Isenhour Mine is several hundred yards S. 33° W. from the 
Mauney, and the conditions are practically the same, though there 
is more quartz on the hanging wall side of the deposit. Work on 
a petty scale has been prosecuted at this mine during the past 
years, the ores being treated in a Howland pulverizer, the blanket 
concentrates from which are washed in log rockers with quicksilver. 

Among other mines in this zone of metamorphic schists, lying 
to the southwest of the Gold Hill region, in the eastern edge of 
Cabarrus county, are : the Widenhouse, Nugget (or Biggers), Eva 
Furr, Allen Furr, Buffalo, and Rocky River, all situated closely 
together, and from 10 to 12 miles southeast of Concord, the county 
seat. 

The Rocky River Mine is situated 10 miles southeast from 
Concord, on the waters of Rocky river. The country rocks are 
sericitic and chloritic schists, soft, intermediate and highly silici- 
fied. The strike is N. 20° E., and the dip (of the schistosity) 70° 
N. W. There are several parallel quartz veins, which lie appar- 
ently parallel with the schistosity, but really cut it at slight angles. 

The last work at this mine was done in the summer of 1S9."), by 
Mr. AVayne Darlington, E. M., who prospected the property for 
some Philadelphia capitalists. 

The following sketch (fig. 4), shows the position of the veins and 
the location of the principal former workings: 



:92 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 




Fig. 4— Topographic Map of the Rocky River Mine. Cabarrus Co., N. C. (After Survev bv 
Mr. Wayne Darlington, E. M. Scale 1 inch=260 feet. 

Mr. Darlington's explorations were concentrated chiefly on 
shaft No. 1, the depth of which is 130 feet, the total length of the 
drifts being about 200 feet. The strike of the slates is K 20° E.; 
dip 70° 1ST. W. The strike of the vein is K. 30° E., dip 85° N. W. 

In the 80 foot level the quartz was from li inches to 3 feet in 
thickness ; in the southwest drift, about 50 feet from the shaft, it 
was pinched to a few inches. The pitch of the ore shoots is 
towards the southwest. In the 130 foot level the vein was lost 
altogether. 

Cross cuts in the 80 foot level have exposed several small par- 
allel veins (10 inches and less in width). 

The vein matter is mainly quartz, with some carbonates, proba- 
bly calcite. The quartz carries sulphurets, chiefly pyrite, with 
some galena, blende, and chalcopyrite. It is stated that about 50 



OTHER MINES IN CABARRUS COUNTY. 93 

per cent, of the gold in the ores is free milling. Apparently there 
are three grades of ore : (1) Rich in galena (which carries much 
of the gold), a smelting ore; (2) Rich in pyrites, an ore to be 
treated by amalgamation and chlorination ; (3) Lean ore. 

This quartz ore from shaft No. 1 is stated to run about $15 per 
ton, the richer branches of sulphurets going as high as $30. 

The schists themselves are impregnated with pyrites and small 
stringers of quartz. In the neighborhood of the larger quartz 
veins these schists are stated to assay about $3.50 per ton. 

At shaft No. 2 the slates are more chloritic ; they strike N. 30° 
E., and dip 70° N. W. 

In shaft No. 3 the main vein is stated to be 2 feet thick, and in 
the foot wall is an aggregate of narrow veins (respectively 8 to 10 
inches thick) comprising together a width of about 3 feet. 

In shaft No. 5 the vein is stated to be 5 feet thick. 

Assays of the Rocky River mine ores show : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Rocky River Mine, Cabarrus County. 

(96) (97) (98) (99) 

Gold, per ton $ 5.17 $ 17.05 $ 56.85 $ 64.59 

Silver, per ton 1.04 trace 7.18 3.66 



$ 6.21 $ 17.05 $ 64.03 $ 68.25 

The recent explorations of Mr. Darlington have apparently 
shown that the quartz veins, themselves, while of good quality, 
cannot be depended on in regularity of extent. It may be that 
similar lenticular shoots exist in depth. However that may be, 
the adjoining schists are known to be auriferous for some distance 
from the quartz veins, and, taken together with the quartz, may 
make large bodies of low grade ore. 

If the mine were attacked from this view it might be worked 
profitably. 

The Buffalo Mine is situated one mile northeast from the 
Rocky River. The slates strike N. 55° E., and dip 80° to 85° N. W. 
The main vein is quartz, 5 feet in maximum width. The slates 
have been cut in a shaft and crosscut over a width of about 25 feet, 
and found to be pyritic, assaying $3.50 per ton in gold, of which 
about $1.00 is free gold. 

The Allen Furr Mine is 11 miles southeast of Concord, and 



94 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

near the Rocky River. The ore carries a small proportion of 
galena in a gangue of massive pyrite ; occasionally the galena occurs 
free enough to constitute a true lead ore. But it is doubtful if any 
considerable amount proves so rich as indicated by the following 

assays : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Allen Furr Mine, Cabarrus Co. 

(100) (101) (102) 

Gold, per ton $ 5.17 $ 620 $ 24.81 

Silver, per ton 2.58 1.23 26.89 



$ 7.75 $ 7.43 $ 51.70 

Lead 34.18 per cent. 

Zinc small percent. 

The great size of the lumps of ore and their richness in pyrites 
had attracted some attention to the locality as a source of sulphur 
for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, but later examination have 
not borne out this expectation. 

The Nugget or (Biggers) Mine is situated 12 miles southeast 
of Concord. The country rock is argillaceous slate, which is 
intersected by basic dykes. An ancient gravel channel of some 
extent has been worked here for the past two years by hydraulick- 
ing. The gold is usually quite coarse and in nuggets. Some 
galena-bearing quartz veins have been superficially explored, but 
never developed. 

MINES IN UNION COUNTY. 

These mines are located in the western part of the county. The 
ores are readily classified into auriferous and argentiferous galena, 
auriferous pyrite, and auriferous schists; but sulphurets are never 
absent from the latter. Copper ores are of incidental occurrence, 
but are not known to be present in quantity. 

The Crowell Mine is situated about 14 miles (air line) north 
of Monroe, in the extreme northwestern corner of the county. The 
vein matter is cellular quartz, carrying a little galena, some 
pyrite, and a trace of chalcopyrite. 

There are 3 veins. No. 1 strikes N. 30° E., and dips steeply to 
the northwest. In thickness it varies from 1 to 4 feet. The old 
engine shaft is 80 feet deep, with drifts 50 feet northeast and 60 
feet southwest. 



UNION COUNTY MOORE MINE. 



95 






Some assays show the following results : 

Assays, Gold and Silver Ores, Crowell Mine, Union County. 



(100) (101) 

Gold, per ton $ 3.51....$ 5.17. 

Silver, per ton 9.«)5.... 139. 



(102) (103) (104) (105) (106) (107) (108) 
.$ 8.28....$ 9.30....$ 9.30....$ 10.31....$ 32.04....$ 31.00....$ 41.34 
. 3.46.... 3 42.... 10.21.... 3.55 32... 5534... 4.85 



$13.4(5 $ 6 46 $11.74 $12.72 $19.51 $ 13.89 $ 32.36 $ 86 34 $ 46.19 

The middle vein is 1,000 feet east of and parallel to No. 1, but 
it is narrower. 

Yein No. 2 is 1,500 feet still further east; it varies from 2? to 
4 feet in width ; its dip is from 40° to 45° northwest. 

The Long Mine is f mile southwest of the Crowell, and appar- 
ently in line with the easternmost or No. 2 Crowell vein. The 
strike is N. 50° E., and dip 85° N. W. The vein matter is quartz 
and schist which carry pyrite, with some galena, sphalerite and 
chalcopyrite. Calcite and siderite occur as gangue minerals. 
The thickness of the vein is reported to be 30 inches to 4 feet. 

The Moore Mine is 3 miles southeast of the Long. The coun- 
try rock is chlorite schi-t, which strikes N. 50° E.,and dips steeply 
to the northwest. 

The mine has been opened by a shaft 80 feet in depth, but is 
now inaccessible. The former superintendent, Mr. II. J. Wentz, 
states that the ore body consists of a quartz vein 5 feet in thick- 
ness, approximately conformable to the schistosity of the country 
rock ; and that a four-inch paystreak, composed mainly of calcite 
carrvino; free sold, follows the hanging wall. 

The quartz carries pyrite, chalcopyrite, 
galena and much blende. These sulphur- 
ets also extend into the wall rock. The 
schists are intersected by narrow seams 
(i inch) of calcite. 

Specimens were found on the dump 
showing fragments of the country schist, 
highly silicified, imbedded in the vein 
matter, in both of which are contained 
DQetarU. D Zinc Blende. gmaU crystals of t]ie B11 l p hurets (tig. 5). 

Ui!d Gal en a, Copper & Iron . TT k , . x» i • 

.. ' rr Hence the quartz veins were formed in 

i y r i tes 

fig. 5, snowing fragments of openings in the schist, the whole mass 
taffig^niphiSets. 61 "' b ° th c ° u ~ becoming at the same time mineralized. 

7 




SSiJicified Schist 



96 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Other specimens were found showing fissures in the silicified 
schist containing quartz, well crytallized along the walls, and pro- 
truding at right angles to the same; the interior being filled with fine 
granular calcite, and some well crystallized calcite rhombohedrons. 
Small specks of a light brown mineral, probably siderite, are dis- 
tributed in the calcite and against the quartz. The quartz eon 
tains crystals of chalcopyrite. (See Fig. 1, page 50.) This shows 
that quartz was crystallized first around chalcopyrite, and then 
siderite, followed by calcite. Assays of these ores give the fol- 
lowing results : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Moore Mine, Union County. 

(112) (113) (114) 

Gold, per ton $ 8.27 $ 20.67 $ 121.02 

Silver, " 1.52 2.33 116.86 

$9.79 $23.00 $240.88 

The Stewart Mine is situated 1J miles southwest of the Moore, 
on Goose creek. The country rocks are argillaceous and sericitic 
schists. Their strike is 1ST. 55° E., and dip 85° JS T . W. These 
schists vary from soft to semi-silicified types, and at times show 
banding at angles to the schistosity. The ore bodies consist of 
certain belts of the country rock, impregnated wiih auriferous 
quartz stringers and sulphurets (pyrite and some galena). There 
are three such parallel ore belts, the Asbury, Miller, and Jake. 
The Asbury is farthest southeast, and is reported to be from 1 to 
18 inches wide. It has been explored by a shaft 80 feet in depth. 
The Miller is 15 feet northwest from the Asbury, and is reported 
to be 5 ft. Made. It has been explored by a shaft 1S5 ft. deep, 
from the bottom of which drifts extend 100 ft. southwest and 30 
ft. northeast, stoped to within 20 ft. of the surface. A cross cut 
runs from this shaft to the Jake b ' vein," 6 ft. northwest, which 
has been drifted on 50 ft. southwest and stoped to within 20 ft. 
of the surface. 

In general, the seams of ore are narrow, but there are many of 
them ; and it may be questioned whether the whole series is not 
one and the same ore belt, with several productive channels. 
There are also two heavy quartz veins near the Miller and Jake 
-veins, one of them 12 feet wide, but externally not promising. 



UNION COUNTY STEWART AND LEMMONDS MINES. 97 

A ten stamp mill stands on the property, and when visited (Nov., 
1894,) was being operated under extremely adverse conditions on 
material from the old mine dump, consisting of soft, brown gossan 
ores, which was reported to yield $13 per ton. 

Assays of ores containing galena show : 

Assays, Ores from Stewart Mine, Union County. 

(115) (116) (117) (118) (119) (120) (121) 

Gold per ton, $ 3.10 $ 8.27 $33.07 $41.34 $41.34 $44.44 $219.10 

Silver " 14.09 93 5.71 6.59 4.01 5.75 5.68 

$17.19 $9.20 $38.78 $47.93 $45.35 $50.19 $224.78 

The lead was not determined, but enough was present to form a desirable constituent 
In smelting. 

Other assays from this mine show : 

Assays, Ores from Stewart Mine, Union County. 

(122) (123) (124) 

Gold, per ton $5.17 $12.40 $20.15 

Sdver, " 91 04 25 

$6.08 $12.44 $20.40 

The future of the mine will probably depend on the possibility 
of working comparatively low grade ores, and of concentrating 
the sulphurets for subsequent metallurgical treatment. A very 
rich shoot of ore was found, but it was subsequently lost, and a 
great deal of costly work has been expended in searching for it. 

The Lemmonds (or Marion) Mine is a southern extension of the 
Stewart. Prof. F. A. Genth, who had the opportunity of exam- 
ining the underground work at this mine, describes the vein as 
follows : " Irregular in size, sometimes widening out from a few 
inches to 6 feet. It consists of quartz richly charged with brown 
zinc blende and galenite, with small quantities of arsenopyrite, 
chalcopyrite, etc." 

A pure specimen of galenite which did not show any free gold 
(assay No. 125), and one of brown zinc blende (assay No. 126), 
were assayed by Genth, with the following results : 

Assays, Ore from the LemmonoVs Mine, Union County. 

(125) (126) 

Gold, per ton, $620.10 $330.72 

Silver, ,l 111.84 20.69 

$731.94 $351.41 

A more recent assay of a probably more nearly average sam- 
ple of ore from the same mine shows : 

Assay of Ore, LemmonoVs Mine, Union County. 

(127) 

Gold, per ton $3.10 

Silver, " 6.80 



98 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The New South Mine is li miles northeast from the Stewart. 
The work down to 25 feet was satisfactory and profitable. The 
slates are laminated and thoroughly altered, but at that depth 
the alterations nearly ceased, and the "blue slates" came in, i. e., 
drab colored slates with disseminated pyrites. In the miners' 
parlance the gold " went out," which is merely a practical obser- 
vation that the gold could not be profitably extracted by the ordi- 
nary way of milling or panning. 

The Crump Mine is situated 2| miles southeast of the Stewart 
in Vance township. It has been worked for a length of 300 yards 
and was entered by three shafts. The vein matter (slates with 
some quartz and a little disseminated pyrites) was examined, and 
the very best and most promising sample of the supposed worka- 
ble ore assayed with the following result : 

Assay, Cold Ore, Crump Mine, Union County. 

(128) 

Gold, per ton $6.41 

Silver, " trace 



$6.11 

This would indicate very low grade' ore for the general run of 
the mine, but it is noted for'its remarkable pockets, and splendid 
and peculiar nuggets, in which nearly all, the gold occurs. 

The Butterfield Mine is 150 yards to the northwest of the 
Crump. It has been worked to a depth of 75 feet. The quartz 
carries copper and iron pyrites. 

There are a number of mines in the vicinity of Indian Trail 
station on the Carolina Central railroad. 

They are apparently located in two parallel series about h mile 
apart, comprising in the first or western group the Henry Phifer 
and Fox Hill mines, and in the second or eastern the Black, Smart, 
Secrest and Thomas Hemby mines. 

The strike of the schists is about "N. 30° E., aud the dip nearly 
vertical. 

The Henry Phifer Mine is i mile north of Indian Trail. The 
property comprises a long and narrow tract of 2,000 feet. The 
veins are stated to have been productive, but no record of the 
work is now at hand. 



UNION COUNTY BLACK AND SMART MINES. 99 

The Fox Hill Mine is one mile northeast of the Plenry Pinter. 
The remnant of the vein could recently be seen in the walls of 
the shaft, and appeared to be 6 to 10 inches in width, consisting 
of quartz, brown ore and iron pyrites. It has been sank upon to 
a depth of 40 feet. The slates strike nearly north and south 
where observed, and dip slightly eastward. 

The Black Mine is i mile nearly east from Indian Trail. There 
are two veins, or two seams of one and the same vein, only one of 
which could be examined. It was filled with quartz, and varied 
from 10 to 30 inches in width, so far as could be seen, although 
the full width is reported to be 4 feet, with rich seams of mineral 
matter from ten inches in thickness down to a mere seam. The 
strike is a little east of north, and the dip slightly eastward. A 
cross vein is also reported. The mineral matter of the rich 
seams is of high grade as shown by the following line of assays. 
It consists of galena, with very little blende, and iron and copper 
pyrites : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Black Mine, Union County. 

Free milling Sulphurets. 

(129) (130) (131) (132) (133) 

Gold, per ton $ 10.33 $ 60.97 $ 98.19 $ 117.82 $ 165.36 

Silver, per ton 45 2.33 3.75 06 3.81 



$ 10.78 $ 63.30 $101.94 $ 117.88 $ 169.1; 

Assays of Galenas, Black Mine. 

(134) (135) 

Gold, per ton $ 42.37 $ 41.34 

Silver, perton 5.56 8.14 



$ 47.93 $ 49.48 

The mine workings consist of a shaft 60 feet deep, from the 
bottom of which a drift extends 30 feet north and 40 feet south. 

The Smart Mine is one mile N". 30° E. from the Black. The 
country rock is sericite schist, in part highly silicified, which 
strikes 1ST. 30° to 40° E., and stands nearly vertical. The ore is 
galena with pyrite in a matrix of quartz ; it had been found in 
some quantity, but the last work in 1888 did not uncover so large 
a quantity as was expected. The ore body has been proved to a 
depth of 110 feet, and three levels at 35, 60 and 95 feet respectively 
have been run, each of which is about 60 feet in length. The 



100 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

vein is at times 3 to 4 feet thick, but the width of the ore seam is 
considerably less. Assays show the following values : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Smart Mine, Union County. 

(136) (137) (138) 

Gold, per ton $ 12.40 $ 13.44 $ 46.51 

Silver, per ton 3.94 2.07 5.95 

$ 16.34 $ 15.51 S 52.46 

The Secrest Mine is \ mile northeast, of the Smart. The schists 
are argillaceous to chloritic, striking 1ST. 30° to 35° E., and dipping 
slightly westward. No reliable information is available respect- 
ing its resources. There is another mineral occurrence on the 
Secrest property, \ mile west of the above locality, namely, a 
northeast and southwest running vein (N. 35° E., with steep 
westerly dip), with an 8-inch seam of brown ore; and running 
from it in a westerly direction with steep northerly dip is a quartz 
vein, carrying galena and chalcopyrite, and varying in width from 
2 to 12 inches. 

Assays of ores from this mine give the following results : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Secrest Mine, Union County. 

(139) (140) 

Gold, per ton $ 2.07 $ 67.18 

Silver, per ton 16.73 5.04 

$ 18.80 $ 72.22 

No. 139. From northeast and southwest vein. No. 140. From east and west vein. 

About 2 miles north of Indian Trail, on the road from the Smart 
to the Stewart mine, a heavy debris of a felsitic eruptive rock 
occurs. It was not found in place. 

THE MOORE HILL, FOLGER HILL, DAVIS, PHIFER, LEWIS, HEMBY 

GROUP OF MINES. 

About 2 miles south of Indian Trail is situated a group of mines,, 
comprising the Moore Hill, Folger Hill, Davis, Phifer, Lewis,. 
Hemby and Harkness. 1 The relative position of these mines is 
shown in the accompanying sketch map (Fig. 6). 

Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina, 1856. E. Emmons, p. 167. 



UNION COUNTY MOORE HILL AND OTHER MINES. 



101 




This zone of auriferous 
schists is 3 miles in length 
and not much less than one- 
half mile in width, some 
parts of which are capable 
of being operated, and some 
parts not, but none abso- 
lutely barren. 

Occasional pits both to 
the east and west of the 
line of work indicate that 
the zone is in reality much 
w T ider, but not commercially 
workable, so far as yet pros- 
pected. Beyond the Hem- 
by and Harkness, immedi- 
ately to the northeast, little 
has been found, and the loca- 
tion of the "Big Survey" 

C1 + ^ „ . , *. . , lands have prevented pros- 

sketch map showing relative locations L 

of the Davis, Phifer, Lewis, Hemby, etc., mines, pectin * to the SOTlthweSt. 

L 11 ion county* J. o 

Scale of longitudinal distances: 3 inches=l mile. xjv^ Q rlic+cjnr>P nf npnrlv 

The # transverse distances are slightly exaggerated. rord Ulbiance oi Jitrinj 

two miles there is an almost 
unbroken series of pits and shallow shafts. This vast number 
of diggings is the result of petty leases (which will also account 
in great part for the shallowness of the pits), and incidentally 
bears witness to the value of the deposits, which have been 
very rich, especially on the Phifer tract, where on Mint Hill 
an open cut, 100 feet in diameter and 50 feet deep, was 
worked out. Petty work is constantly going on along the 
whole line, but none of the mines are being systematically operated. 
The country rock is an argillaceous schist, which strikes X. 20° 
to 45° E., and stands nearly vertical, dipping slightly easterly in 
some places and westerly in others, the latter prevailing. These 
schists vary from soft to very highly silicihed types. They are 
impregnated with finely divided iron pyrites up to 1 or '2 per cent.: 
small lenses of pyrite and calcite also occur; and quartz stringers 
are frequent. 



Fig. 



J 02 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The occurrence of diabasitic dikes has been noticed at the 
Phifer, Hemby and Harkness mines. 

The gold is not uniformly diffused, but is carried mostly in 
narrow, parallel seams, rarely more than an inch or two thick, and 
sometimes not thicker than a knife blade ; the seams are quite 
porous and discolored with peroxide of iron and oxide of mangan- 
ese above the water level. 

The ore bodies as a whole are 1 to 6 feet wide, in which these 
seams occur abundantly and closely together. And the barren 
ground is that portion in which these seams are of infrequent 
occurrence. 

A glance at the sketch map (Pig. 6) shows that these workable 
belts are frequently not continuous in length. A new belt, lying 
parallel to the first may appear ; or, after a short unproductive 
interval, the same belt may reappear. 

The softness of the schists above the water line permits of easy 
and cheap work to this depth (40 to 50 feet) ; hence the innum- 
erable shallow pits ; but below this line the costly and more dim- 
cult nature of the work and the occurrence of sulphurets renders 
mining and milling more difficult, so that the ore bodies below 
this depth are still largely intact. 

The Moore Hill tract has been worked 100 feet in length, and 
at the most 70 feet in depth. 

The Davis has been worked fully 500 feet in length, and to a 
maximum depth of 150 feet in the " Road " shaft. 

Folger Hill has been worked some 300 to 400 feet in length. 
Random samples of rejected ore from the surface gave : 

Assay, Rejected Gold Ore, Folger Hill, Union County. 

(141) 

Gold, per ton $4.13 

Silver, per ton ~2 

Total $4.35 

The Phifer (or Price) Mine is situated in a belt at least 100 
feet west of the Davis, and has been worked for a length of 400 
feet and to a depth of 100 feet. Very rich stringers have been 
found here. Mint Hill is a fine illustration, for so abundant and 
rich were the stringers that the whole material for 100 feet in 
each direction and 80 feet in depth was taken out and milled. 



UNION COUNTY BONNIE BELLE AND HOWIE GROUP. 103 

At Ore Hill a system of cross fissures (strike S. 33° E.; dip 57° 
N. E.) occurs, which has been worked to a depth of 80 feet. 

The Lewis Mine has been worked nearly 1,000 feet in length 
and to a depth, in places, of 80 feet. 

The fineness of the gold at the above described mines is of low 
grade. The Davis gold is sometimes not worth more than 35 
cents per dwt., and little of the gold will exceed 75 cents. More- 
over, the occurrence of stringers near each other with gold of 
quite varying values points to dissimilar conditions of original 
deposition. Galena in sparing quantity occurs at times. 

East Hill, lying to the northeast of the Lewis, has apparently a 
position to the east of the extension of the Lewis belt. It carries 
a great deal of heavy quartz. 

The Hembv Mine appears to lie slightly to the west of the 
Lewis and Phifer lead. The shallow workings extend for a dis- 
tance of 1,200 to 1,500 feet along the strike. There aie two 
shafts here over 100 feet in depth. The old mine dumps show 
much solid, glassy quartz. Siderite occurs as a gangue mineral. 

Several non-parallel bodies exist on the property. Samples 
from some lecently exposed, but ordinary looking seams of ore 
assayed : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Hemby Mine, Union County. 

(142) (143) 

Gold, per ton $3.10 $15.71 

Silver, perton 21 86 

Total $3.31 $16.57 

The Hakkness Mine is 1£ miles northeast of East Hill, and 
from its position and the nature of the ore (heavy quartz) it ap- 
pears to be a continuation of the latter. It has been worked for 
a length of 300 feet, and to a reported depth of 120 feet. The 
strike is N. 20°-25° E. The ores, so far as they could be ex- 
amined, are very quartzose, containing coarse gold of relatively 
high grade. 

THE BONNIE BELLE AND HOWIE (JKOUP. 

A group of mines of some importance, consisting of the Bonnie 
Belle and Howie, is situated some 6 miles south of the Davis, 
Phifer, Lewis, etc., group, and about eight miles west of Monroe. 



104 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Bonnie Belle (or Washington) Mine is 1J miles north of 
Potter's Station, on the Georgia, Carolina and Xorthern R. E. 

The country rock is argillaceous schist, varying in degree of 
hardness from soft to highly silicified. The strike is X. 55° E., 
and the dip steeply westward. At one point an obscure outcrop 
of mica gneiss was observed. The schists show banding both with 
and across the schistcsity, pointing to their sedimentary origin. 

A diabasitic dike intersects the country nearly at right angles ; 
it is reported to be 10 feet in thickness, dipping 40° to 45° S. W. 
The schists are impregnated with finely divided sulphurets, chiefly 
pyrite and some little chalcopyrite. Small specks of free gold 
occur as coatings on the major cleavage planes. Very small 
quartz veinlets intersect the schists at vaiious angles. The gen- 
eral width of the ore bearing belt is stated to be 14 feet, and it 
has been proven over a distance of at least I mile along the 
strike, besides being traced much farther by pan tests. There are 
also indications of other parallel ore bodies but these have not yet 
been prospected. When visited, in the fall of 1894, the mine was 
being operated experimentally, and the ore treated 'in a combina- 
tion Chilian and four dragmills, which discharged on amalgamated 
copper plates, and thence to a Gilpin county bumping table fur 
concentration. The capacity of the mill was 10 tons per 24 
hours. 

The shaft from which the ore was raised is located near the 
mill. If w T as about 20 feet deep at the time when visited. The 
thickness of the ore body in this shaft was from 5 to S feet, the 
richer portion lying in the 2 feet adjoining the hanging wall. 
Samples of the ore were taken from the crusher at the mill, also 
of the concentrates and tailings, and the assays by Dr. Chas. Bas- 
kerville show : 

Assays, Bonnie Bell Mine, Union County. 

Ore. Concentrates. Tailings. 

(144) (145) (U& 

Gold, per ton $4.13 $20.67 trace 

Sliver, " 1.42 194 $1.03 

$5.55 $22.61 $1 03 

The Howie Mine 1 is situated about 1 mile south of west from 

1 Geological Report oi the Midland Counties of North Carolina. 1856. E. Emmons; p. 133. 



UNION COUNTY BONNIE BELLE AND HOWIE GROUP. 105 

the Bonnie Belle. The country rock is a dark colored argillace- 
ous slate usually highly silicified. The strike is N. 55° E., with a 
very steep dip to the northwest. 

The ore bearing formation is said to extend over a width of 400 
feet, and fully a mile in length. Within this belt there are per- 
haps as many as 8 so called "veins" or ore seams, varying from 18 
inches to 16 feet in width. It is difficult, however, to say where 
" vein " matter is not found, as the rocks of the entire region are 
gold bearing. The mine stuff rarely shows by its external appear- 
ance what material is and what is not rich enough for remunera- 
tive work, and this is determined by constant tests. 

Pyrite to the extent of about one (1) per cent, is widely dissem- 
inated, and occurs somewhat more abundantly on the cleavage faces 
and joints of the slates. The slates are penetrated by numerous 
seams of quartz, which generally have the effect of enriching the 
ore body. Free gold occurs as line films on the cleavage and 
joint planes of the slates. 

Cross-fissures occur in the mine, filled with a "reibungs-breceia" 
of slate fragments cemented by pure white crystalline calcite. 
Small calcite veinlets penetrate the slates in various directions. 

Diabase dikes are of frequent occurrence ; they strike in a north- 
west direction across the slates. It is stated that the ore is richer 
in the vicinity of these dikes. The mine is inaccessible, but as 
the rock is extremely hard most of the shafts, although filled with 
water, are still intact. The deepest shaft was the Cureton, 300 
feet deep. 

The ore, as might be supposed, runs through a wide range of 
values. The former superintendent, Mr. I. Bates, reported that 
the average ore will yield in the mill about $13.00 per ton. The 
average of 12 assays of the "soft" ore (above water level) by Prof. 
Spears, of New York, gave for the gold and silver contents a value 
of 814.60 per ton ; and the rubbish piles were shown by him to 
carry $3.25 per ton. An examination of various tailing dumps 
showed that a surprising amount of gold was lost in the mill work. 



106 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

As already mentioned on p 36, the Monroe slates are intersected 
by quartz fissure veins. These veins are in instances auriferous, 
and at several points a short distance west of Monroe, prospects of 
gold have been discovered and superficial explorations made, but 
presumably without much success, as they were never pursued to 
any extent and are now abandoned. 

ANSON COUNTY. 

The Hamilton (Bailey) Mine is situated 2 miles southeast of 
Wadesboro. There are two quartz veins of which the westerly 
was formerly worked to a depth of 100 feet; it is stated to be 1\ 
to 4 feet in thickness. Assays have shown variable values from 

$4.00 to $30.00 per ton. 

The Jesse Cox mine is in the same vicinitv- 



107 



CHAPTER V. 

THE CAROLINA IGNEOUS BELT AND ITS GOLD DEPOSITS. 

GENERAL, DESCRIPTION OF THE BELT. 

The Carolina Slate Belt is bounded on the west by an area of 
massive, igneous, plutonic rocks, extending aero'ss the State in a 
southwesterly direction, and having a width of 15 to 30 miles. 
This is the Carolina Igneous Belt of gold bearing rocks. It 
includes the greater portion of the counties of Guilford, Davidson, 
Rowan, Cabarrus, and practically the whole of Mecklenburg. 
The area of the auriferous portion, however, is scarcely more 
than 1,000 square miles. At the northeast, in Guilford county, 
the mines occur near the southeast edge of the belt, and near the 
schists ; this relative position they hold as far south as Rowan 
county, where they begin to appear at a considerably greater dis- 
tance from this border, and finally in Mecklenburg county, near 
the southern boundary of the State, they stretch nearly across the 
entire area of igneous rocks from east to west. It may be said, 
with almost absolute accuracy, that the mines are on the east side 
of the main line of the Southern Railroad to a point little further 
south than Concord, where the mineral belt crosses the railroad 
abruptly and spreads to the westward. 

GEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS. 

The rocks are, so far as macroscopic determinations go, gran- 
itic, dioritie, gabbroitic, and diabasic eruptives, sometimes passing 
into each other by gradual transition phases. Schistose or gneissic 
structure is developed in places, as in the vicinity of Lexington, 
Davidson county, where the strike is N. 20° E., and the dip, as a 
rule steeply westward. 

From the nature of the contact, it appears that the age of this 
igneous mass is younger than the slates and schists of the Carolina 
Slate Belt on the east. 

Diabasic and granitic dikes again intersect the main igneous 
mass, and are therefore still later intrusions. These dikes are 



108 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAKOLIXA. 

sometimes indistinctly schistose in the same direction as the 
schistosity of the enclosing rock, where such is developed, which 
would indicate that they were intruded before the force produc- 
ing schistose structure was active. Furthermore they are often 
finer grained towards the edges than in the centre. In places 
they split, sending off cross-dikes. But as a rule they are more 
regular in outline, and in width may vary from a few inches to 
many feet. 

The auriferous quartz veins, which are found in these rocks, are 
the fillings of fissures. These fissures, particularly where they 
occur within a more or less homogeneous mass, are quite regular 
in outline, as at the Reed, Phoenix and Beimer mines. On the 
other hand, in some instances, they appear as pocketed or lenticu- 
lar bodies, as at the Surface Hill mine, along the contact of a 
diabase dike with the granite. In still other places the quartz 
veins are confined to the diabase, as at the Phoenix mine. 

If this diabase is in itself the filling of a dike fissure the age of 
the gold veins must be subsequent to the dike formation, a fact 
which does not agree with that found to exist in the Carolina Slate 
Belt, where the diabase dikes intersect the ore bodies. And it 
would thus appear that there were two eras of dike formations. 
However, the true relations of the rocks could not actually be 
determined at the Phoenix, as the mine was inaccessible, and the 
rocks could not even be seen in place. In fact, the diabase dikes 
in North Carolina might even be referred to three ages, including 
those which are found in the Jura-Trias, and which must hence 
be post Jura-Triassic. These are, however, but suggestions which 
are subject to modification on further research. They simply 
present a line for investigation. 

THE ORE DEPOSITS OF THE CAROLINA IGNEOUS BELT. 

It seems clear that the genesis of the gold ores in these igneous 
.rocks must be ascribed to the ascension of mineralized waters. 

These gold ores are often cupriferous ; they rarely contain any 
notable amount of lead, zinc, or nickel ; the silver present is 
usually alloyed with the gold ; arsenic and antimony are not com- 



THE CAROLINA IGNEOUS BELT. 109 

mon, and the ores are refractory only as the sulphurets make 
them so. 

The chief filling of the fissures is quartz, carrying the auriferous 
sulphurets. Frequently a finely laminated argillaceous 01 chloritic 
slate is noticed in the filling, parallel to the walls of the veins; it 
is sometimes within the quartz itself but, but generally nearer the 
walls, shading gradually into the country*, The presence of these 
slates in a vein, where there is at best but slight development of 
schistosity in the enclosing country rock, is an interesting phe- 
nomenon. In depth the slaty structure does not exist, or becomes 
obscured. 

In many mines there is what is called a back and a front vein 
(occasionally a middle vein also), but all evidence goes to show 
that they are but parts of the same vein. 

The quartz frequently shows a banded structure, especially 
near the walls ; and there is often a parallelism in the occurrence 
of the sulphurets. 

The frequent cupriferous nature of the ore in this belt has 
been alluded to. The copper ores, unless they were of such 
exceptional richness as to bear costly land transportation, 
had no market, and the time came when the price of copper fell 
so low as to preclude the working of these ores for copper alone. 
The low <i'rade copper ores, which (in sections favored with cheap 
transportation, or near commercial centres) could be easily bene- 
ficiated by concentration, were here valueless ; and as it was 
found by experience that the presence of copper greatly hindered 
the amalgamation of the gold ores, for which these mines were 
in every case originally operated, the presence of any considera- 
ble amount of copper was the signal for abandoning the mine. 
It is also quite true that copper pyrite, as a rule, does not carry 
as much gold as iron pyrite. 

It is not probable that the ores of copper are likely to be of 
importance for the exclusive production of that metal in the pres- 
ent condition of the .copper market; but in a smelting treatment 
of the gold ores of this section (particularly the complex sul- 
phurets), the command of a large supply of auriferous copper 



110 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ores is almost essential to the prosperity of many of the mines of 
central North Carolina. 

THE MINES IN THE CAROLINA IGNEOUS BELT. 

MINES IN GUILFORD COUNTY. 

The mines of this connty lie to the south and southwest of 
Greensboro. They carry highly cupriferous ores, and have been 
worked both for gold and copper. Emmons described these mines 
in 1856, * and a brief condensation, with some rearrangements and 
additions, is made from his report, as a matter of convenience to 
those who have no opportunity to consult the same. 

The Hodges (or Hodgins) Hill Mine is situated 6 miles south- 
east from Greensboro, and lies near the western edge of the gran- 
ite. The vein is stated to strike a little west of north and to dip 
to the southwest, 400 feet on the slope making hardly more than 
100 feet in vertical depth. It is from 6 inches to 12 feet in width. 
Pits have been sunk along the outcrop for a distance of 800 to 900 
feet. The gold is distributed unequally through quartz and chal- 
copyrite. Other gangue minerals are pyrites, siderite, mangan- 
ese oxide and liinonite. The alteration copper minerals are 
malachite and red oxide. Various assays show the following: 

Assays, Ores from Hodges Hill Mine, Guilford County. 

(147) (148) (149) doO) (151) 

Gold, per ton $ 1.03 % 2.07 $ 11.36 $ 22.74 $ 45.47 

Silver, per ton trace trace trace trace 58 



$ 1.03 $ 2.07 $. 11.30 % 22.74 $ 46.05 

Samples for assays Nos. 147 and 148 are from the poorest brown ore to be found on dump 
Sample for assay 149 was from the best appearing oxidized, cellular siderite from dump. 
Sample for assay 150 was from the screened and partly concentrated ore. Sample for 
assay 151 was taken from the most prominent iron pyrites obtainable from the dump. 

The Fisher Hill andMillis Hill Mines are 5 to 6 miles slightly 
west of south from Greensboro, and two miles west of the Hodges 
Hill. The mining tract comprises 900 acres. Fifteen veins are 
reported on the property. One system runs approximately north 
and south, and a second nearly northeast and southwest. The 
main work was done at three points ; Fisher Hill ; Millis Hill, 
nearly 150 rods south ; and the Puckett vein, towards the southern 
extremity of the property. The dip of the two Hill veins is very 

iGeological Report of the Midland Counties of N. C, 1856. E. Emmons, pp. 170-175: 196-204. 



GUILFORD COUNTY NORTH CAROLINA, MINE. Ill 

flat, from 15° to 20°. The Fisher Hill vein carries a little copper; 
Millis Hill a somewhat larger quantity; and the Puckett a con- 
siderable amount, with a heavy percentage of iron pyrite. 

The aggregate length of the veins on this property is perhaps 
not less than 8 or 10 miles, though not everywhere capable of 
being worked under existing conditions. The vein which was 
most extensively worked is traceable for nearly a mile, and has 
been successfully operated at several points. The ore body varies 
from 4 inches to 10 feet in thickness, and carries relatively high 
grade milling material. Four levels, aggregating nearly 200 feet, 
have been run. The milling plant consists of 10 stamps, and 
was in operation in 1S86 and 1887. 

The Twin Mine is situated 6 miles southwest from Greensboro. 
It derives its name from the fact that two parallel veins are 
exposed in one tunnel. These veins have a strike of N. 40° E., 
with a southeasterly dip. The slate between the veins is 4 feet 
thick, and the veins about 18 inches, consisting of quartz carrying 
chalcopyrite. 

The Raleigh vein is a continuation of the Twin. 

The North Carolina (or Fentress) Mine is situated fr<jm 9 to 
10 miles south of Greensboro, and near the eastern edge of the 
igneous belt. The old mine dumps bear witness to the size of 
the vein, as well as to its length, for it has been traced some 3 
miles along the outcrop ; though the part which was actively 
worked does not exceed I mile in length. It has been entered by 
3 deep shafts, and by a great number of shallow shafts and pits. 
The strike is variable from N. 25° E. to more easterly ; the dip 
is westerly from 3S° to 60°. The main, or Engine shaft, is 400 
feet deep, partly vertical (possibly 330 feet), and partly on the 
underlay. Four levels have been run from 300 to 500 feet in 
length. 

In the Worth shaft, at the extreme southwesterly end of the 
vein, the ore body is 3 to 4 feet thick at the depth of 4<» feet; 
at the extreme northeasterly end it is 3 feet thick at a depth of 
55 feet; while at the Colby shaft it is 1 foot thick at a depth of 
40 feet. At 310 feet the fissure is from 7 to 13 feet wide 
between the walls. There is, however, no improvement in the 
S 



112 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

vein where it is expanded, and it carries no more copper than 
when 7 to 8 feet thick. The copper sulphurets shift in position, 
lying upon the footwall for 30 to 40 feet, then suddenly curving 
upwards and following the hanging wall for a distance of 20 to 
30 feet ; or without a curve, they suddenly leave one wall and 
take to the other. Occasionally they occur in nests or solid 
masses 18 to 20 inches long by 7 to 8 inches thick. The vein stone 
is quartz and carbonate of iron. 

In 1855-56, when the mine was last worked on any consider- 
able scale, it had a high degree of prosperity, and shipments of 
copper ore, for which it was then exclusively worked, amounted 
-to 1,100 or 1,500 tons, ranging from 1-1 to 23 per cent, copper. 
The shoot then worked lay upon the footwall side, just above the 
310 foot level, and had a maximum width of 31 inches. The 
following assays represent samples taken from the old mine dump : 

Assays, Ores from the North Carolina (or Fentress) Mine, Guilford County 

(152) (153) 

Gold, per ton $ 0.62 $ 6 20 

Silver, per ton — ; 77 



$ 0.62 $ 6.97 

No. 152. , Carbonate of iron, which appears to contain practically no gold, except when 
pyrites are casually intermixed. 
No. 153. Iron pyrite, with a trifling per cent, of copper. 

The Gardner Hill Mine is 2 to 3 miles a little to the north 
of east from Jamestown. Comparatively little work has been 
done here since Prof. Emmons examined the mine in 1856, and 
the following extract is taken from his report 1 : 

"It is a true vein, whose direction is^N. 20° E., with a westerly 
dip. * * * * The gangue is quartz intermixed with brown 
ore, which lies against the footwall, and is from 6 to 12 inches 
thick. * * * The lode is bounded by slate or killas ; but the 
adjacent granite on the lower or footwall is extremely tough and 
bard, while that on the upper side is soft. The arrangement of 
the vein stone is shown in Fig. 8. a. a. the granite enclosing 

.'Geological Report of the Midland counties of North Carolina, 1856, pp. 174-176. 







GUILFORD COUNTY GARDNER HILL MINE. 113 

the vein fissure ; h. h. killas or slate; c. vein. 
The vein fissure is rarely more than 3 feet wide 
near the top, and in a part of the lode at the 
depth of 80 feet it is only 8 inches, where the 
ore is poor. The vein stone is quartz as is 
commonly the case in granite, but upon each 
side it is bounded by slate, which of course fills 

Fig. 8. Showing struc- . , ,, r; * * * * mi i -i 

ture of the vein ns- m part the nssure. * * * I he gold 

sure at the Gardner . . n 

Hiii mine. bearing oxide is derived from the copper and 

iron pyrites. It seems, therefore, that the gold attaches itself, 
as usual, to the sulphurets. * * * * The Gardner mine, at 
the depth of 110 feet, yields, under careful management, about 
one dollar per bushel 1 , the poorest about fifty cents. The ore 
contains a handsome quantity of rich sulphuret of iron and cop- 
per ; it yields about 30 per cent, of copper ; it is not largely 
intermixed w T ith iron pyrites at any part of the vein. There are 
probably three veins upon the Gardner property, but I have been 
unable to determine their relations." 

The following facts have been elicited by the present survey : 

The vein has been worked for a length of 5,000 feet along its 
course, from the Creek shaft on the northeast to the White Oak 
shaft on the southw r est, but the main work has been confined 
rather to the southerly part of the property. 

The following shafts have been sunk, and in the order named : 

The Creek shaft, 110 feet deep, on the underlay. The ore body 
was 3 6 to 8 inches wide, consisting of iron imd copper pyrites in 
quartz. 

The Underlay shaft, 600 feet southwest, is 175 feet deep on 
the incline. 

The Old Engine shaft, some 400 feet from the south end of the 
property is 175 feet deep, vertical. 

The New Engine shaft, still farther southwest, is 258 feet in 
depth, vertical. No. 2 shaft, 250 feet southwest of the above, is 
110 feet deep, vertical. 

The White Oak shaft at the southern boundary of the property, 
is 150 feet deep, vertical. 

1 Twenty bushels to the ton, approximately. 



114 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

There are four levels at 60, 100, 150 and 228 feet. They aver- 
age 500 feet in length, and have been driven in both directions 
from the shafts, with the exception that no south level was driven 
from the White Oak shaft. The mine is pretty well stoped out 
from the water level (60 feet) to the bottom of the respective 
shafts. Down to the water level the product was free-milling 
brown ore ; from the water level on it runs into copper sul- 
phurets. 

When copper ore was encountered in quantity little further 
effort was made to extract the gold ; shipping ores of copper were 
exclusively sought after, and for many years a very high degree 
of prosperity was enjoyed ; it is stated that for a Jong period 40 
tons of yellow copper ore were shipped weekly, averaging from 
20 to 25 per cent, copper. The width of the veins at times was 
fully 20 feet, 

It has been stated that there are three veins on the property. 
A few feet back of the Main vein is the Worth vein, which is 
supposed to have been worked out, from the surface down. It is 
claimed to have been very productive, and to have enriched the 
owners and lessees, but no records are in existence. 

Another small vein (the Goshen) lies some 200 to 300 feet 
behind the Main vein, but the Survey is unable to make any 
further statements respecting it. 

The vein matter shows everywhere heavy quartz with much 
brown ore, but some of this latter is evidently derived from the 
alteration of carbonate of iron, which is abundant. • 

The copper sulphurets were separated very clean by cobbing 
and dressing, and very few copper minerals can now be seen, but 
quartz, carrying iron pyrite in small quantity is abundant in 
every dump. 

Some tentative assays show from $3 to $10 per ton in the ore, 
which would be sufficiently auriferous to allow profitable milling 
and concentrating. It is estimated that there are 25,000 tons of 
ore on the dump at present, which can be handled at a merely 
nominal expense. 

The North State (or McCullough) Mine is situated 2 miles 
west of south from Jamestown. Its southerly extension is the 



GUILFORD COUNTY LINDSAY MINE. 115 

Lindsay, and its northern the Jacks Hill ; then the lode passes 
on to the unprospected Whitehead property for half a mile or so ; 
and to the north of this is the Aberdeen mine. The entire series 
forms a stretch nearly 3 miles in length. For a considerable 
part of this distance the dumps show an immense accumulation 
of heavy blocks of quartz, which bear witness to the great size of 
the veins. 

The Deep River mine is two miles south of the Lindsay. 

The following, in reference to the North State mine, is from 
Emmons : ] 

"The vein fissure pursues a northeast course, but is curved in 
the middle. It dips S. 80° E., and at one place S. E. The vein 
is composed of a column of brown ore resting on the footwall, 
which extends from the outcrop to 130 feet in depth. Upon this 
rests the disintegrated ore, containing 8 inches of beautiful copper 
pyrites, and then against the hanging wall, quartz rather poor in 
gold and frequently 8 feet thick. The vein at the surface is 
about 2 feet wide ; at 60 feet it is 4 ; at 90 feet it is 10 ; and at 
130 feet it is 24? feet wide. It dips at an angle of 45 degrees. 
At the 130 foot level it swells out into a rather lenticular form. 
Here the ore is concretionary ; on the footwall the brown ore is 
6 inches thick only, then copper pyrites, then a belt of brown 
ore containg nodules or concretions of pyrite more or less changed, 
the middle of which is rich in gold. Upon the hanging wall is 
the principal mass of porous quartz, which is generally poor. The 
brown ore is soft, and easily crushed. It is intermixed with fine 
quartz and spongy masses of it, which are rich in gold. 
Towards the north is Jacks Hill; a shaft sunk in the top of this 
hill cuts the vein at a depth of seventy-seven feet, where it is 
seventeen feet thick. * " :: " * The copper is the purest sul- 
phuret, yielding by analysis thirty per cent, of copper. * * * 
The McCulloch vein carries its gold in combination with thesul- 
phurets." 

Later information shows that the Rodman shaft was sunk 2<H) 
feet vertical, and 50 feet on the underlay ; the Kmlv shaft is 2-1-0 

1 Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina, 1&56. p. 17U. 



116 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

feet vertical and 120 feet on the underlay ; the Peters and the 
Long shafts are of comparatively moderate depth. The last work 
was done at the depth of 325 feet, where the vein varied from 1 
to 8 feet in width. In 1883 a ten stamp mill was erected, and 
during that and the following year materials from the old mine 
dumps were treated. In 1885 the mine was abandoned. 

At the Lindsay Mine (see also page 115) the more important 
work was done at the South shaft No. 2, which was 100 feet in 
depth ; twenty-two feet behind the main vein in this shaft a 
second vein was discovered, but never stoped. Subsequently 
there were sunk the South shaft ~No. 1, 90 feet deep ; the Engine 
shaft, 150 feet vertical and 60 feet on the incline ; and the Wil- 
low shaft, 110 feet deep. 

It is not feasible to estimate the amount of ore on the dumps 
of this stretch of 2 miles or more, still less can any reliable state- 
ment of their value be given. Some recent assays indicate a 
very wide range from $3.00 upwards. A series of 87 assays 
taken from all parts and from all classes of ore at the Lindsay 
mine ranged from $1 to $100 per ton. 

The Beason, Harland, Beard, Yickery and Lauder, Eudy, and 
Ball mines are in the immediate vicinity of Jamestown, but no 
trustworthy information of importance has been secured respect- 
ing these. 

MINES IN DAVIDSON COUNTY. 

The Lalor (or Allen) Mine is situated 2 miles southeast 
from Thomasville. There are 3 shafts, the deepest of which is 
165 feet on the underlay, corresponding to about 110 feet verti- 
cal. The vein is reported of good width and carries a fair pro- 
portion of iron and copper pyrites. The percentage of copper 
sulphurets is large enough to give, when concentrated, a pro- 
duct very desirable for matte smelting. The mine was operated 
in 1882 by the Campbell Mining and Reduction Company of 
New York. The mill contained 10 stamps and concentrating 
apparatus. A roasting furnace on a novel plan was erected to 
desulphurize the ores preparatory to smelting. By 1886 the 
work had practically ceased. 



ROWAN COUNTY DUNNS MT. MINE. 117 

The Loftin Mine is one and a half miles southeast of Thoin- 
asville. Its vein stuff is quite similar to that of the Lalor mine. 

The Eureka Mine is one-half mile west of the Lalor. It is 
penetrated to a depth of 125 feet. The width and character of 
the vein and the nature of the ore are nearly the same as at the 
Lalor mine. Assays show the ore to vary from $8.00 to $25.00 
per ton. 

The Black Mine is adjacent to the Eureka. 

MINES IN ROWAN COUNTY. 1 

A group of mines is found to the southwest of Salisbury, from 
2 to 9 miles distant, and 1 to 3 miles east of the Southern R. E. 
Among the principal ones are the Hartman, Yadkin, Negus, 
Harrison, Hill, Southern Belle, Goodman, Randleman, and Rose- 
man. 

The workings in these mines have been comparatively shallow, 
160 feet being the deepest so far as records go. The width of 
the ore bodies and their values are not matters of record, and 
nothing can be said of them here with exactness. 

Another group of mines, including the JS r ew T Discovery, Dunns 
Mt., Reimer and Bullion, is situated from 3 to 7 miles east and 
southeast of Salisbury. 

The New Discovery Mine is 3 miles east of Salisbury. The 
greatest depth to which it has been worked is 100 feet. In 1883 
a plant for treating the ore by the Designolle process was erected, 
but the ore was found deficient in quantity and difficult to treat, 
and all operations ceased towards the close of the year. 

The Dunns Mt. Mine is situated 3i miles east of Salisbury, 
and about \ mile northwest of Dunns Mt. It has practically 
been idle for the past 10 years. The old mine dumps show large 
masses of a dark grey dioritic rock, impregnated with pyrites; 
also a fine-grained schistose and a micaceous phase of the same ; 
also a light pink gneissoid granite. The actual relations of these 
rocks unfortunately could not be ascertained, but it seems proba- 
ble that the country rock is the gneissoid granite of the Dunns Mt. 

1 Eor description of mines in Rowan county in the slate belt, see pp. 85-91. 



118 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



type, which has been penetrated by a dioritic boss or dike, pre- 
senting various phases, and carrying the auriferous quartz veins. 

It is stated that there are 3 veins, one northeast and southwest, 
one northwest and southeast, and one nearly north and south (the 
Office vein). The first of these was worked to a depth of 190 feet, 
averaging about 4 feet in width. It was largely filled with slate 
and quartz, and carried only a moderate proportion of pyrite 
with a trace of chalcopyrite. The Office vein was worked to a 
vertical depth of about 140 feet. The ores were oxidized nearly 
to the lowest level, and contained but a small amount of sul- 
phurets. 

The Reimer Mine l is situated 6 miles southeast of Salisbury, 
and about 1 mile east of the Gold Hill R. R., on the waters of 
the Yadkin river. The accompanying cut (fig. 9) illustrates a ver- 
tical section of the mine, on the strike of the vein : 




Fig. 9. Showing vertical Section of the Reimer Mine. 

The mine is opened by 3 vertical shafts, respectively 193, 43 
and 165 feet in depth. The vein-stone is quartz, carrying about 
10 per cent of sulphurets (mostly pyrite with very little chalcopy- 
rite), as reported by the superintendent. In width the fissure is 
stated to average about 3 \ feet, varying from 1 to 9 feet. The 
quartz shows a tendency towards banded structure parallel to the 
walls, which are smooth and accompanied by a clay gouge. 

The strike of the vein is approximately east and west (W. 15° 
X.), but in the west end of the mine the course has been deflected, 
by a horse, to about W. 40° N. The dip is practically vertical. 

Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina, 1856. E. Emmons, p. 1S1. 



ROWAN COUNTY THE REIMEE MINE. 



119 



The following sections (fig. 10) are introduced here in order to 
illustrate the character and relation of the wall rocks : 




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Fi^. 10. Cross sections on the Reimer vein in Shaft No. 1, showing character of the wall 
rocks. 

The coarse grained rock is provisionally called quartz diorite, 
and the line grained rock is possibly a phase of the same. The 
alternate occurrence of these two varieties on opposite walls, 
and even in contact on the same w T all (110 foot level) suggests 
either an intrusive dike of the fine grained rock, or merely a 
different magmatic phase of the same general igneous mass. The 
intrusive theory seems rather untenable from the fact that this 
rock never cuts off the quartz vein. 

The last work at the Reimer was done in the summer of 1895, 
in the lower level of shaft No. 1. In the west drift at a short 
distance from the shaft a "horse" from the hanging wall had 
narrowed the vein to 12 inches. The reduction plant at the 
mine consists of a 20 stamp mill, 4 belt concentrators, roasting 
furnace, and a one-barrel chlorination house after the Thies pat- 
tern. Assays of the ore show as much as $24.00 to the ton, but 
it is not believed that it can average much over $4.00 or $5.00. 



120 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



The concentrates are stated to be worth 830 to $40 per ton. 
About -J- of the gold extracted is saved by amalgamation in the mill. 
The Bullion Mine is situated about one half mile east of the 
Reimer. The outcrop shows that the vein is of good width, but 
for some unknown reason it has never been much worked. At 
the depth of 90 feet a level was driven 200 feet in length, and a 
7 foot vein reported. The last work is supposed to have been 
done in 1881. Some assays of these ores show : 

Assays, Ores from the Bullion Mine, Rowan County. 

(154; (155) (J56) 157 1 

Gold, per ton $6.20 $9.32 $10.34 $15.51 

Silver, kt 1.30 155 1.88 1.03 

$7.50 $10.87 $12.23 $16.54 

Another group of mines is situated 8 to 10 miles southeast of 
Salisbury, near the Stokes Ferry road. Among these may be 
named the Gold Knob, Dutch Creek, Atlas, and Bame. The more 
easterly of these lie about one mile west of the contact between 
the granite and the schist. ISTone of the mines have been worked 
for the past 10 years. 

The Gold Knob Mine is 9 miles southeast, of Salisbury. 
Three veins have been worked : the Haynes, the Gold Knob, and 
Holtshauser. The Gold Knob is in places 20 feet in width. The 
quartz carries iron and copper sulphurets, and is, as a rule, of low 
grade, though chimnies of high grade ore may be expected. 

The Dutch Creek Mine is 10 miles southeast of Salisbury, 
just to the southeast of Dutch Second creek. The property con- 
tains a net work of veins, among which the more prominent and 
chiefly developed ones are the Katie, Hill, Tip-top, and Spring. 
The Hill and Tip-top have 2 shafts down to water level, below 
which line the ores are sulphuretted and refractory to mill treat- 
ment. Several shafts on the Spring vein also expose sulphurets 
(pyrite with some chalcopyrite) at water level. Two shafts were 
sunk on the Katie vein with like results. Several of the other 
veins are high in copper sulphurets. Most of these veins run in 
a general northeast and southwest direction, but some seem to 
have a more northerly course, intersecting the normal running 
veins. 



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CABARRUS COUNTY PHCENIX MINE. 121 

The Atlas and Bame Mines are supposed to be in the south- 
west con tin uation of the Dutch Creek veins. The strike of the 
veins is N. 35° to 40° E., with nearly vertical dip. Some of 
them are wide, but the ore, as a rule, is rather low in grade, at 
least so far as the free milling qualities go. 

CABARRUS COUNTY. 

The Joel Reed and Montgomery mines are situated in close 
proximity to Concord, the county seat, but not enough is known 
of these to justify any description. 

A group of some importance, comprising the Phoenix, Tucker 
and Quaker City mines, is situated 6 to 8 miles southeast of Con- 
cord. 

The Phoznix Mine 1 is 7 miles south of east of Concord. It was 
last worked in 1889 under the management of Mr. A. Thies, E. M., 
now of the Haile mine, S. C, w T ho treated the ores successfully by 
the chlorination process. It was inaccessible when visited in 1894. 
The country rocks are schists, but as the auriferous veins occur in 
diabase which traverses the schists, the mine is included here 
in the igneous belt. The old dumps show both soft and silicified 
types of the schist, besides large masses of diabase of two types : 
(1) a finegrained, massive ; (2) aporphyritic phase of the first. The 
following notes are based upon data which have been kindly fur- 
nished by Mr. Thies: 

There are three parallel veins about 200 and 1,000 feet apart. 
The main (Phoenix) vein, lying on the northwest, strikes N\ 70° 
E., and dips 80° N". W. It has been traced for 2,100 feet on the 
surface and varies from 12 inches to 3 feet in thickness. Mr. Thies' 
work was confined to the 300 foot shoot in this vein. It pitches 
to the northeast, and is opened by shaft No. 3, sunk 4^5 feet on 
the dip of the vein. Stoping has been done from the 100 to the 
425 foot level. Plate No. IX shows a longitudinal vertical sec- 
tion of the workings. The filling of the fissure is quartz, carrying 
from 3 to 60 per cent, of sulphurets (pyrite, chalcopyrite and 
traces of galena). The other gangue minerals are barite, with 

Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina. E. Emmons. 1866. i>. 178. 



122 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

some calcite and siderite. Free gold is found in the barite and 
calcite. In the bottom of the 485 foot shaft the vein averaged 30 
inches in width, bnt the "pay-streak," lying on the hanging, is only 
from 2 to 3 inches thick. It is believed that if the vein were 
drifted on here, in a southwest direction, the large ore shoot 
formerly mined from the pump shaft, would again be reached. 

The Pump shaft, 213 feet deep, is situated 300 feet southwest 
from No. 3. The so-called "Big Sulphur" shoot was worked here 
in former years from the 180 foot level to the surface. The ore in 
the bottom of the shaft is 14 inches thick and shows free gold. 

The Phoenix ores were treated by mill amalgamation and sub- 
sequent chlorination of the roasted concentrates. A Mears chlo- 
rination plant was erected in 1880, and was later on developed by 
Mr. Thies into what is now generally known as the "Thies 
process." 

The ores were cobbed and sorted, the heavy sulphurets being 
treated by themselves, and the other portion being milled and 
concentrated. The mill yield was $10 00 per ton, and about 87.50 
was contained in the sulphurets and not free to amalgamate. The 
concentrates ran $30.00 per ton. The ores contain from 1| to 3 
per cent, of copper. The exstraction of gold by chlorination was 
as high as 90 to 95 per cent. The mill and chlorination plants are 
now dismantled. 

The "Middle" vein, lying 200 feet southeast of the "Phoenix, v 
was formerly worked by open pitting ; towards the northeast it 
appears to approach the Phoenix. Masses of sulphurets were 
found here, assa}-ing as high as $36.00 per ton. 

About 1,000 feet to the southeast of the Middle vein is a heavy 
sulphuretted lode, composed mainly of chalcopyrite in a gangue of 
quartz and barite. The old workings, which were shallow, are 
now inaccessible. Assays of the surface ore show 22 per cent, 
copper and $42.00 gold and silver per ton. 

The Barrier Mine is 1 mile southwest from the Phoenix, on the 
same property, and was formerly open to a depth of 160 feet. It 
is stated (by Mr. Orchard) that there are two veins here, 12 feet 
apart, the one 14 inches thick and perpendicular, and the other 16 



CABARRUS OOtJNTT MINES. 123 

inches thick and inclined; at 160 feet they are only 2 feet apart. 
The ore is reported to have been worth $3.00 a bushel ($60.00 a 
ton. This mine was last worked, previous to 1860, by Mr. Orchard 
(deceased), and has not been operated since. 

Adjoining the Phoenix on the northeast and west boundaries 
are the Furness and the Gibb mines, which were worked in former 
years, and are reported to have yielded high grade sulphuretted 
ores. A shaft has recently been sunk on the Furness property, 
but the results of the exploration are not known. 

The Faggart Mine is 3 miles northeast of the Phoenix. It was 
opened by a shaft 100 feet deep, with a drift probably 50 feet in 
length. The vein is 18 inches w T ide, and composed of auriferous 
quartz and pyrite, having a stated value of $7.00 per ton. 

The Earnhardt Mine 1 is JLj* miles east of the Faggart. The 
quartz vein, carrying galena and chalcopyrite, lies in diorite or 
diabase. It is reported to be 5 feet in width ; with a value of $9.00 
per ton, in gold. A small stream on the property was worked for 
years, and has furnished very coarse gold, up to 5 and 6 penny- 
weight pieces. 

The Tucker (or California) Mine is about 1 mile south of the 
Phoenix, and about one-third mile west of the junction of the gran- 
ite and the schists. When last worked (about 1884) the main 
shaft had reached a depth* of about 175 feet, and levels aggregat- 
ing 117 feet in length had been driven. The vein did not average 
over 8 inches wide, with northeast strike and nearly vertical dip. 
The ore was heavy in sulphurets (mostly pyrite with a little chal- 
copyrite) in a gangue of quartz and barite. Its value is stated to 
have been $15 per ton. In 1882 a Plattner chlorination plant was 
erected, with one single hearth reverberatory furnace, but it did 
not give satisfactory results, and the Mears process was intro- 
duced. 

The Quaker City Mine is 3 miles north of the Tucker. There 
are 3 shafts on the property, 40, 60, and 80 feet deep, io& 1 ootively. 
The vein is from 2 to 5 feet wide, and carries in its lower depths 
much iron pyrites with a little copper. The ore is low T grade. 
It has not been operated during the past 10 years. 

Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina, 1856. E. Emmons, p. 178. 



. 



124 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Reed Mine 1 is situated 10 miles southeast of Concord. It 
is of especial interest as being the site of the earliest recorded dis- 
covery of gold in North Carolina, and it was the first mine to give 
celebrity to the gold fields of the Appalachian range, though 
probably not the first to yield gold. 

In 1799 the first nugget, weighing 17 pounds, was accidentally 
found in a branch ; and this was followed in 1803 by the discov- 
ery of a 28 pound nugget, the largest on record in the Eastern 
United States. Regular mining work was commenced shortly 
after this latter date, and during the subsequent period of 40 
years, the mine yielded large quantities of gold. The proportion of 
large nuggets has not been paralleled on this side of the conti- 
nent. Notwithstanding the fact that the gravel has been so long 
worked, there are some hollows or sinks of several acres in extent, 
which are almost virgin, but as the drainage is very imperfect 
they have never received the attention they deserve. The imme- 
diate supply of water is not large, but Rocky river and Buffalo 
creek might be tapped lor the requisite supply for large hydraulic 
operations. 

The mine might perhaps more properly be said to be in the 
Carolina Slate Belt, but the auriferous veins are confined to a large 
greenstone dike (reported to be 150 feet in width), and therefore 
it is placed here in the Igneous Belt. This greenstone is impreg- 
nated with pyrite, and contains quartz fissure veins, varying from 
4 inches to 3 feet in thickness, and striking about N. 25° E., with 
a dip of 45° to 57° S. E. Cross fissures also occur. The main 
shaft is 120 feet deep. It was inaccessible in 1S94. The mine was 
operated in a fitful manner from 1881 to 1887. During 1895 some 
prospecting and development work has been done ; the old shaft on 
the" lower hill" has been opened up and retimbered ; the west side 
of the "upper hill," the west and south sides of the "lower hill," 
and both banks of Little Meadow creek have been opened up for 
placer work; and a shaft has been sunk near the western limit of 
the property which has opened up a large body of low grade ore that 
is said to assay $7.50 per ton in free gold, and $11.55 per ton of gold 
the sulphurets. Preparations are being made for active mining. 

iGeol. Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina, 1856, E. Emmons, pp. 166-167. 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY MIXES. 125 

The Pioneer Mills Mine 1 is situated 12£ miles south of Con- 
cord, on the waters of Caldwell creek, which now into Pocky river. 
The mine has not been operated practically since the late war. 

Only one exposure of the country rock rock was observed in 
place; it is a much decomposed granite. The old mine dumps 
show vast masses of a gabbroitic eruptive rock of various crystal- 
line phases, from coarse to fine granular, and with alterations to a 
propyllitic type. A fine crystalline diabase, in part porphyritic, 
also occurs, and contains small quartz veinlets. A large specimen 
was found showing a sdiarp contact between the coarse 
crystalline gabbro (J) and the fine grained diabase. A very fine 
crystalline granite was also observed, which is perhaps a dike form- 
ation in the gabbro (?). The ore is quartz, containing iron and 
copper sulphurets, which sometimes show excellent banding, an 
example of incrustation. Siderite is one of the gangue minerals. 

Other mines in this vicinity are the Morrison, Crosby (or Pop- 
Ian), and Rogers, none of which are now accessible. 

MECKLENBURG COUNTY. 

Gold is probably more widely diffused in Mecklenburg than in 
any other county of the central part of the State. The productive 
area covers about 600 square miles, within which are well nigh 
100 mines, which have at some time or other been worked profit- 
ably. About half a dozen of these mines are now worked, but 
only 2 or 3 w T ith any vigor. The great number of these localities 
forbids a full description of each. Only those at work, or those 
which are considered the more important, can be described in the 
limited space of this report. 

To a great extent they are capable of being grouped into smaller 
districts. The vicinity of Charlotte is one of these mineral dis- 
tricts, and around it are mines on all sides, among them the fol- 
lowing : Davidson, Blake, Point, Parks, Clark, St. Catherine. 
Rudisil, Smith and Palmer, McDonald, F. Wilson, Howell, Trot- 
ter, Carson, Taylor, Isenhour, and others unknown to the general 
public, and unnamed. 

1 Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina. 1856. E. Emmons, p. 178. 



126 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORT3 CAROLINA. 

The Davidson Mine is 1 mile west of Charlotte, on the south 
end of Davidson Hill. It has been worked to a depth of 80 feet ; 
the vein was 3 to 4 feet wide, and the ores were reputed good. 

The Point Mine, at the north end of Davidson Hill, was 
worked to a depth of 160 feet. The oxidized ores extended much 
deeper than is usual in this region. 

The Eudisil Mine 1 . — The Eudisil and the St. Catherine mines 
are respectively in the south and the north parts of the same lode ; 
the former is one mile, and the latter one-half mile south of Char- 
lotte. 

The bodies of ores in both mines nearer the surface lie in slates, 
which in places approximate 100 feet in width. These slates are 
both argillaceous and chloritic, everywhere siliceous, and fre- 
quently replaced by layers of quartz with ore. They are bounded 
by the country rock of the igneous belt, massive crystalline rocks. 

At the outset, and to the depth of something more than 100 
feet, two bodies of ore were recognized — the "back vein," and the 
"front vein," but the intervening mass of slate frequently carried 
subordinate bodies. Emmons 2 says of the Eudisil mine : ; * The 
rock both above and below the two veins, which constitute the 
mine, is the syenitic granite of the Salisbury and Greensboro belt : 
but the veins are immediately in killas or slate, which cannot be 
distinguished from the slates which predominate in the slate belt ; 
and there are other points where the slate is in granite, and not 
less than 100 feet thick, which is traversed with veins of quartz. 
It is difficult to determine whether the slate thus situated is to be 
regarded as the killas of the vein, or as masses of the slate system 
isolated by an eruptive rock." 

"Thus the Eudisil veins are between masses of an eruptive 
rock. * * * * The vein fissure is fifty feet thick, occupied 
by talcose slate, which is overlaid by white granite, and underlaid 
by elvan or a dark trappean rock. A vertical section, Fig. 11, 

1 Geol. Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina. E. Emnions, 1S56. pp. 176-177. 

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MECKLENBURG COUNTY RUDISIL MINE. 



127 




!>. a'. 



shows the position of the two veins, lying one (b') against the 

el van (a f ), and the other (b) against the 
white granite (a).'' 

The strike of the fissure approximates 
N. 30° E., and the dip 45° JST. W. At 
the depth of 200 feet or more the slaty 
character becomes less evident, and ulti- 
mately disappears, seemingly giving place 
to the massive country. 

The two ore bodies (front and back 
veins) vary considerably in width from 2 
acSstSffiif to to 4, and sometimes 6 feet. At the depth 

of 200 feet they appear to approach. 
The ore was carried in pockets in the slates (or schists), and in 
great abundance, so that for many years the mine was very pros- 
perous. At the surface, and to a considerable depth, the mine 
material was the rich and easily treated brown ore of the region. 
The zone below water level carried iron pyrite with a little 
copper pyrite ; and the ore was scattered somewhat through a 
slaty and quartzose gangue, being less pockety than that above 
the water line. The assays for this zone as a rule showed mate- 
rial of only moderate value. At the 200 foot level the peroxides 
have mostly disappeared, and with them largely the free gold> 
though both are present in some proportion to the lowest level — 
350 feet below the surface. (See plate No. X.) 

At greater depths the sulphurets were scattered thinly through 
a quartzose and somewhat slaty gangue, or in narrow seams, or 
concentrated in large, wide and rich shoots of nearly solid sul- 
phurets. An inspection of the plate will show the position of these 
shoots — 3 in number. As regards the northern shoot neither the 
point of origin nor its character are matters of record : it is not 
known above the 130 foot level. 

The south and the middle ("Burnt Shaft") shoots began just 
above the 130 foot level in narrow threads, and expanded both in 
width and in length at greater depths. Neither the north nor the 
middle shoots have been followed below the 192 foot level to any 
extent, though slightly explored from the 250 foot level. The 



128 GOLD DEPOSITS OF XORTH CAKOLIXA. 

north shoot increased from a mere seam to 5 feet in thickness, and 
had a length in the direction of the vein, varying from 30 to 50 
feet. The material of this shoot was a high grade sulphuret, but 
not the best that the mine has furnished. The middle shoot 
increased in the same way to be 8 feet thick, extending longitudi- 
nally from 10 to 50 feet ; the grade of ore is believed to have been 
somewhat higher than that of the north shoot. 

It was, however, to the Big shoot (South shoot) that the mine 
has in recent years (as late as J 887) owed its reputation. It com- 
menced like the middle shoot almost in a point, and gradually 
widened and lengthened with a slight south pitch of its own in the 
vein, till it became in places 15 feet thick, and 100 feet long : its 
ends were not abruptly marked off from the adjacent vein or from 
the "country," but passed gradually into mine material compara- 
tively barren, or into "country" quite worthless. 

The contents of the shoots, as a whole, were compact iron 
pyrite with a very little copper pyrite, and some quartz, which 
latter was, however, for the most part readily cobbed out. This 
ore was uniformly of high grade, entire shipments sometimes 
ranging as high as $180 per ton. 

This shoot extended down a little below the 300 foot level, but 
in the 350 foot level it has never been found. There has been 
much speculation about it, and opinions have varied as to whether 
it had disappeared altogether, or was simply "thrown" from its 
normal position by one of the many deflections of the vein from 
its direct course. 

It may be added in conclusion that the so-called barren parts 
of the vein carry pyrites scattered through the quartz and slate, 
and most of it is quite capable of being treated by a preliminary 
cobbing to separate the massive pyrites for direct metallurgical 
treatment, and at the same time prepare the lowest grade mate- 
rial for battery amalgamation and subsequent concentration pre- 
paratory to smelting or chlorination. 

The following assays show the character of some material 
from this mine : 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY ST. CATHERINE MINE. 129 

Assays, Ores and Concentrates, Rudisil Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

Assays of Auriferous Pyrite scattered in gangue. 

(158) (159) (160) (161) 

Gold, per ton $ 6.20 $ 9.30 $12.40 $20.07 

Silver, per ton trace 2.40 trace 13 

$ 0.20 $11.79 $12.40 $20.80 

Assays of First Class Ore, Rudisil Mine. 

(102) (163) (104) 

Gold, per ton $ 45.47 $ 72.35 $ 74.41 

Silver per ton trace trace trace 



$ 45.47 $ 72.35 $ 74.41 

Assays of Second Class Ore, Rudisil Mine. 

(105) (106) (167) (168) (109) (170) (171) 

Gold, per ton $24 80 $28 70 $29.97 $3101 $35.14 $35.14 $30.18 

Silver, per ton trace, trace. .19 trace. .05 .90 .13 

$24.80 $27.70 $30.10 $31.01 $35.79 $30.10 $30.31 

Assays of First Class Cobbed Sulphurets, Rudisil Mine. 

(172) (173) (174) 

Gold, per ton $165.30 $120.09 $227.37 

Silver, per ton 45 94 1.71 

$105.81 $127.03 $229.08 

Assays of Concentrates, Rudisil Mine. 

(175) (170) (177) 

Gold, per ton $53.74 $59.94 $07.18 

Silver, per ton 2.90 1 73 1.14 



$ 56.64 $81.67 $68.32 

The St. Catherine (Charlotte) Mine is located in the north- 
east extension of the Rudisil lode (page 126), the two mines 
being over half a mile apart. The region intervening has been 
prospected superficially, but as yet nothing of importance has 
been found which promised well for deeper operations. Both 
mines have the same general features, and agree in strike and dip. 

The St. Catherine has been worked to a depth of 460 feet (155 
feet vertical and 305 feet on the underlay, equivalent to a total 
vertical depth of 370 feet). 

In the lower part of the mine the vein does not seem to be 
well consolidated, and the geological relations are perplexing. 
Below 250 feet there are several large shoots of low grade ore 
quite suitable for milling and concentrating, notably the ore 
body worked from the "pump" shaft and between the depths of 
200 and 370 feet, below which point it has not yet been removed. 
The occurrence may be briefly stated as a series of obscurely 
parallel seams of slate, with qnartzose ore bodies 2 to 6 feet in 



130 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

thickness between ; the amount of pyrite in this class of ore is 
small. 

A cross vein (striking N. W. and S. E.) has been examined 
from the 155 foot level for a distance of 100 feet along the vein. 

The following assays show the range in character and value of 
some of the ores of this mine : 

Assays, Gold Ores, St. Catherine Mine, Mecklenburg County. 
Assays of Brown Ores. 



(178) (179) (180) 
Gold per ton $26.87 $39.27 $56.87 


(181) 
.. $103.35 


Silver " " .71 58 38 


.88 






$ 27.58 $ 39.85 $ 57.27 


$104.23 


Assay of Quartz, with Dissemminated Pyrite, St. Catherine Mine. 






(182) 
....$24.80 


Silver, " 


16 



$24.96 



Assays of First Class Ores, St. Catherine Mine. 



(183) (184) (185) 

Gold, per ton $ 52.19 $ 53.74 $ 72.41 

Silver, " 55 trace 39 





$ 52.74 




$ 53.74 


$ 72.80 




Assays of Second Class Ores, St 


Catherine Mine. 




Gold, per ton.. 
Silver " " 


(186) 
$ 35 14 




(187) 
... $ 33.07 


(188). 
$ 35.14 


1.14 






.28 








$ 33.07 






$ 30.28 


$ £5.42 




Assays of Coohed First Class Ore, 


St. 


Catherine M2ne. 




Gold, per ton.. 

Silver, 


(189) 
$95.08 




(190) 
.. $108.52 


(19D 

$181.38 


41 














. 


$95.49 


$108.52 


$181.38 




Assays of Concentrates, St. Catherine Mine. 




Gold, per ton 
Silver, 


(192) 

$40.31 

1.10 




(193) 

... $ 66.14 

1.23 


(194) 

$133.32 

1.23 



$41.41 $67.37 $134.55 

In 1883 a ten stamp mill was erected. The ores were first sub- 
jected to a preliminary cobbing, which separated out the massive 
pyrites and lean ore, the latter going to the stamp mill. 
The ^ee gold was caught in the battery and on the plates in 
the customary mode of amalgamation, and the tailings led 
directly to True vanners, where the product was concentrates. 
The cobbed pyrites and concentrates were shipped north and 
elsewhere for treatment. 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY MINES. 1 ol 

The proportion of massive pyrites to the whole material mined 
(except when near a rich chimney) was small, probably not more 
than 2 or 3 per cent. 

In the common run of mining and milling practice it required 
10 to 15 tons of ordinary ore to make one ton of concentrates, 
which ordinarily contained 80 to 90 per cents sulphurets. It is 
worthy of remark that the concentrates, however high the per 
cent, of sulphurets, rarely contained as much gold per ton as 
cobbed ore of the same richness in sulphurets. 

The last work at the St. Catherine, of which the writer is 
aware, was in 1887. 

The Smith and Palmer Mine is 1 mile south of Charlotte, in the 
Rudisil neighborhood. It is a mooted point whether the vein be 
an extension of the Rudisil, or a parallel body. Its strike is N. 
30° E. and dip 50° JS". W. A line of pits indicate vein matter 
for something more than 500 feet along the strike. The greatest 
depth of the workings was 75 feet, and the width of the vein from 
2 to 1 feet. Assays of some samples show : 

Assays, Gold Ore, Smith and Palmer Mine, Mecklenburg Count y. 

(195) (19B) (197) (198) (199) 

Gold, per ton $ 5.17 $ 5.17 $ 15.51 $ 15.51 $ 148.82 

Silver, per ton trace 39 trace 26 .91 

$ 5.17 $ 5.46 $ 15.51 $ 15.77 $ 149.73 

Two other veins in the neighborhood deserve mention in this 
connection, namely, the Frank "Wilson and the McDonald. The 
former has hardly been touched; the latter has been worked to a 
moderate depth, but no record of the work has been preserved. 

The Howell Mine is believed to lie in the southern extension 
of the Rudisil lode. It has been worked to a depth of 32 feet, 
and something more than 50 feet of levels have been driven. The 
vein is stated to be 2 to -t feet wide. Assays of the brown ores 
show S5 to $14 per ton, and of the sulphurets $38 to $77. 

The Taylor Mine is 3 miles southwest of Charlotte, and the 
Is en hour is still further in the same direction. Each oi these has 
been worked for a distance of about LOO feet along the vein, but 
to a very moderate depth. 

The Trotter Mine is 3 miles southwest of Charlotte, and its 
vein is cut by the Southern It. R. (Charlotte & Atlanta line.) It 



132 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

has been prospected nearly 450 feet in length, and worked 70 

feet in depth. Some rich specimens were taken from the mine. 

The Clark Mine is 2i miles west of Charlotte. There appear 

to be two vein systems, one lying approximately northeast and 

southwest, and the other nearly east and west. Both have a steep 

dip southward. The northeast and southwest system was worked 

to a depth of TO feet, and from the line of pits the inference is 

reasonable that it must have been worked along the strike of the 

vein for a distance of about 1,200 feet. It is alleged that this 

part of the mine was abandoned on account of flooding by water. 

Assays of samples taken from this vein yield the following 

results : 

Assays, Gold Ores, E. and W. Vein, Clark Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(200) <20b . - 

Gold, per ton $ 5.17 $ 31.01 $ 146.76 

Silver, per ton trace 1.21 .x'9 



$ 5.17 $ 32 22 $ I47.a5 

The east and west vein was worked to a depth of 7S feet. In 
the 72 foot level 3 bodies of low grade brown ore were found 
within a space of little less than 25 feet ; they measured respec- 
tively 2 ft., 4 in.; 7 ft., and 7 to 12 in.; the latter body was the 
only one rich enough to work, and an average sample showed 
816 per ton, assay value. 

The Paries Mine is 1 mile northeast of Charlotte : no great 
depth was ever attained in its workings. 

A second group of mines is found 5 to 10 miles west and north- 
west of Charlotte, embracing the Hayes, McGee, Brawley, Frazer, 
Hipps, Campbell, Todd, Arlington, Capps, McGinn, Means, 
Bennett, Stephen Wilson, Gibson, Xeal, Trautman, Prim, Aber- 
nathy, Alexander, Dunn, Sloan, MeCorkle, Cathey and several 
others. 

The Brawley Mine is -1 miles west of Charlotte. It has been 
quite productive, and the quantity of rich float quartz was 
large, but all efforts to find a vein have proved abortive. The 
work thus far done would indicate the existence of a net work of 
quartz seams. 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY MINES. 133 

The Todd Mine is situated 5 miles northwest of Charlotte. 
There are two, and possibly three, veins on the property. The 
vein which was most extensively worked strikes east and west, 
and dips 45° southward. It has been penetrated to a depth of 
80 feet. Some exploratory work was done at this mine in 1886, 
and a ten stamp mill erected. 

The Arlington Mine is 6 miles west of Charlotte, and has 
been sunk to a depth of 70 feet. 

The Stephen Wilson Mine is 9 miles west of Charlotte. The 
property comprises 340 acres, and it is stated that 10 well defined 
veins have been located. Of these only two have been worked, 
namely, No. 2 and No. 3. Both of these have a strike nearly 
east and west, and dip southward, No. 2 from 26° to 45°, and 
No. 3 a little more steeply. No. 2 vein is from 2 to 3 feet wide ; 
it was entered by an underlay shaft to a depth (on the incline) 
of 400 feet, and 4 levels run. The ores carry iron and copper 
pyrites. Some very rich ores have been mined. Assays show 
the following results : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Stephen Wilson Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(203) (204) (205) (306) (207) (208) 

Gold, per ton $ 0.83 $24.80 $51.22 $95.08 $155.03 $344 61 

Silver, per ton 2(5 .90 .88 2.4e; 1.55 1.29 



$ 1.09- $ 25 70 $ 52.10 $ 97.54 $156.58 $345.96 

The Gibson and Neal mines adjoin the Stephen Wilson. 

The Capps Mine is situated 5? miles northwest of Charlotte, 
between the Rozzel's Ferry and Beattie's Ford roads. It is 
located on a group of veins of which two are closely convergent 
(the Jane and the Capps). By the accident of different owner- 
ships, they have been for the most part separately and differently 
developed. The Capps vein has a strike N. 30° to 35' \\\, and 
a dip westerly, with some variations, of about 4<>°. The .1 ane vein 
runs N. 40° to N. 60° E., and lias a very steep pitch eastward. It is 
not certain that the actual intersection of these veins has Keen 
found. The Capps vein has an ascertained Length of Dearly 3,000 
feet, and the Jane probably fully as much. 

As the development of these two vein- has been separate, the 
description will follow the course of the work. 



134 



GOLD DEDOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



The accompanying sketch (fig. 12) shows the relative position 
of the veins, properties, shafts, and worked areas. It shows also 
the position and relations of the McGinn Copper vein. 



'oidfenmanSkaft' 










IS 






SAadm 






& 



Fig. 12. 



Capps and McGinn Mining Tracts, Mecklenburg County. 
[Scale : 1 inch to 75 rods.] 



The later work on the jCapps was restricted, and finally stop- 
ped, from legal considerations, but the earlier work extended very 
nearly along the line of the outcrop of the entire vein — 2,000 to 
3,000 feet — and was carried to such depths as to disclose clearly the 
character of the outcrop. At points where the ore proved to be 
exceptionally abundant and valuable, operations were extended 
much deeper. There is perhaps no vein in the whole section 
which shows such extensive prospecting on the surface, and 
bears all the appearance of having been highly remunerative. 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY CAPPS MINE. 135 

It is much to be regretted that there are such scanty records 
of the earlier work, and of the characteristics of the veins and 
deposits. The outcrop of the vein at many points still shows a 
width of 20 to 25 feet, and the debris everywhere indicates a 
very wide vein. 

The ores near the surface are the customary soft brown ores 
with quartz, and are generally free milling. 

They were not uniformly disseminated in the quartz, but gen- 
erally occurred in layers, sometimes near the hanging wall, some- 
times near the foot wall. At greater depths sulphurets of ir©n 
(and to a small extent, of copper), together with quartz, were 
found ; nevertheless, at the depth of 130 feet there was still much 
brown ore. 

The work was never prosecuted to any great depth — at the 
Gooch shaft TO feet, at the Bissell 130, and at the Penman 65 
feet. 

The filling of this vein is quartz ; its width is not known, for 
no systematic work has ever been undertaken to find the Avails ; 
it cannot be less than 20 feet, and possibly is considerably more. 

The line separating the veins from the walls is not always sharp 
and definite, and occasionally, where the supposed hanging wall 
had been reached, another and valuable parallel body of ore was 
found still further beyond, which ultimately came back to the 
main vein. 

There are also "cross courses," leading into the main vein 
nearly at right angles. One of the most conspicuous and valua- 
ble of these was found in the 130 foot level, at the distance of 
225 feet southeast of the Bissell, and about one-half way between 
the Bissell and Mauney shafts. It received temporarily the name 
of the "East and West vein," for want of exact data as to its rela- 
tions to the main vein. This body departs abruptly from the 
main vein easterly and towards the Jane vein, and has been fol- 
lowed in that course 120 feet, and almost every foot of the vein 
material was ore. The width of this deposit could not have been 
much less than IS to 24 inches, and the ore was of more than 
average value. 



136 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

A few feet further north there is a similar cross course or body 
of ore, but so far as explored it was not so valuable as the "East 
and West vein." 

The Capps mine has been noted for the amount of ore it could 
furnish, and for the superior grade of its ore. There are four 
well known bodies of ores. The first of these is near the Gooch 
shaft, toward the south end of the mine, and from the 78 foot 
level downward it yielded largely brown ore with some sul- 
phurets, and seemed to improve in character going south. 

•The second body is in the 78 foot level from the Mauney shaft. 
Not much can be said witli precision respecting the value of this 
ore, though the upper part of the body toward the surface yielded 
an ore of high grade. 

A third and very large ore body was worked out through the 
Bissell shaft to the depth of 90 feet. The entire length of this 
level is 300 feet, of which 200 feet are to the north, and 100 feet 
to the south of the shaft ; the whole of this distance was ore, free- 
milling to a great extent above, but more and more sulphuretted 
below ; it has never yet been entirely extracted above the 90 foot 
level, but the best part of it has been stoped out. Below the 90 
foot level the ore has not been stoped out at all, except as it was 
necessary to remove it in running the levels. The body has been 
explored by a few winzes run downward toward the 130 foot 
level. Its connection with the large body developed in the 130 
foot level has not yet been established conclusively, but there 
seemed to be little doubt from its position and character that 
there is such a connection. This body in the 130 foot level is 
found at a point 125 feet south of the Bissell shaft, and extends 
north as far as the work has been prosecuted. The shoot cannot 
be less than 200 feet long, and judging from the 90 foot level, it 
may be 300 feet. 

Some assays of the ores from this shoot are as follows : 
Assays, Gold Ores, Third Ore Body, Capps Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(209) 

Gold, perton $ 11.72 

Silver, per ton trace 

$ 11.72 $ 15.83 $ 18.06 $ 25.97 $ 50.58 $ 133.13 

Assay No. 211 is an average of a large body of ore from this 130-foot (?) level. 



(210) 

I $ 15.51.... 

32.... 


(211) 
....$ 17.92.... 
14 


(212) 
....$ 25.84.... 
13... 


(313) 
....$ 49.61.... 
97.... 


(214) 
....$ 132.29 
84 







MECKLENBURG COUNTY MCGINN MINE. 



137 



A fourth body was found in the bottom of the Penman shaft, 
335 feet north of the Bissell. The stopings north of the inclined 
shaft are very extensive and reach to its bottom ; the ore body 
could not have been less than 3 feet thick on an average, and this 
increased in one place to be 8 feet ; a very little good ore is still to 
be seen at the bottom. 

The deposit in this part of the mine is comparatively shallow, 
and is, and will continue for some distance, free-milling. The facts 
recited will justify the expectation of large and valuable bodies 
of ore at still greater depths. 

That part of the Jane vein on the Capps mining tract was 
worked in part from the Isabella shaft to a depth of 160 feet. 
There is no record of the value of the ore body at this point ; 
common report speaks well of it, but admits the refractory char- 
acter of the ore. 

The Capps mine was reopened in 1882, and during the follow- 
ing year some ore was shipped to the Designolle works, 4 miles 
south of Charlotte. However, this process of reduction was unsat- 
isfactory. In 1884 a ten stamp mill was erected at the mine, and 
the ores from the dump were milled ; shortly after that time all 
operations ceased. In the spring of 1895 four diamond drill holes 
were bored on the Capps vein, respectively 340, 255, 180 and 170 
feet deep. The vein was cut by each hole, and showed a thick- 
ness of 20 feet, with a dip of about 30° S. W. The walls were 
fine and coarse grained diorite, at times porphyritic. Assays of 
the vein matter from 
the drill cores gave 
$6 to $7 per ton. 

The McGinn Mine 
adjoins the Capps on 
the north. The ac- 
companying sketch 
map (Fig. 12, p. 134) 
shows three veins, 
one of which has nev- 
er been explored, the 
second is the Jam 




Quartzose Syenite 



Bottom 
Penman 

>).:.! t 

80 ft. 

Sunk in )*-• 



Fig. 13. McGinn Mine, copper vein: a vertical cross-section 

through the old engine shaft shown in Fig. 5 of Plate XI, and 
5 on the line A-B of Fig. 12, page 184. 



138 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

and the third is the Copper vein. The appearance and relations 
of these veins and of the ore bodies are shown in the sections on 
Plate XI, and in figure 13 (p. 137). 

The Jane vein has been worked from various points, and espe- 
cially from the Engine shaft (150 feet), at which point all of 
the readily accessible ore bodies above the 150 foot level have 
been extracted. A glance at plate XI will show an ore body not 
much less than 35 feet wide, at points, and at the same time will 
disclose in the clearest manner-some of the characteristics of the 
vein structure, common to this and to other mines. 

The Copper vein was operated extensively for copper to a 
depth of 110 feet, i. e. as far down as could readily be done some 
50 years ago, with the appliances then at command. The ore 
was yellow sulphuret, and was shipped from the State for treat- 
ment. 

The following assays are appended : 
Assays, Gold Ores, Jane Vein, McGinn Mine, Mecklenburg County. 



Gold, per ton 

Silver, per ton 


(215) (316) 
.. $ 2.07 $ 5.17 
1.20 1.74 


(217) 
$ 33.35 
.31 


(218) 
$ 28.42 
.31 


(319) 
$ 99.32 
.71 


(220) 
$108.52 
1.65 


(221) 
$113.68 


$ 3.37 $ 6.91 
Copper, per cent 8.05% 

Assays, Ores from Copper Vein, 

(222) 
Gold, per ton $ 5 17 ... 


$ 33.56 $ 28.73 

McGinn Mine, 

(223) 
$ 10.85 


$ 99.93 $110.17 
4.55# 

Mecklenburg C 


$114.45 

ounty. 

(224^ 
. $ 1240 


Silver, per ton 


1.74 




1.65. 


1.20 




$ 6.91 
7.5Q* 












Copper, per cent ... 


$ 12.50 
4.55% 


$ 13.60 
8.05g 



The Means Mine is situated h mile nearly southeast from the 
Capps. By some investigators it is thought to be a continuation 
of the Jane and by others of the Capps vein, but it scarcely seems 
probable that either of these opinions is correct. 

The vein has been worked at different points, and in the Wal- 
lace shaft to a depth of 175 feet. The present work is at a ver- 
tical depth of 25 feet (36 feet on the incline), but preparations 
are being made for sinking to a new level. The exposure at the 

face of the drift on the 25 foot level is 
represented in the accompanying sec- 
tion (fig. 11). The strike at this point 

Fig. 14. Showing Section across • -vr qko a p.o T7 mi •._.. r>ovv^ -mnr»"h 
Ore.body in Means Mine. IS JN . OD -40 &. Hie OiesCail} lllUCn 






§/:•: 



I 5 

m o 

o Z 
o 

S 5 

33 m 



: O 


7, 






a 




go 


~. 


> 


7. 




w 




: 








- 
















-. 




> 




MECKLENBURG COUNTY MINES. 139 

chalcopyrite. The precious metal content is shown by the fol- 
lowing assays. 

Assays, Ores from the Means Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(225) (226) 

Gold, per ton $ 7.02 $ 28.44 

Silver, per ton 1.65 1 91 



$ 8.67 $ 30.38 

The Hopewell (or Kerns) Mine is 11 miles northwest of 
Charlotte. It yielded well in former years. The last work was 
done at the depth of 140 feet. Conflicting statements have been 
made respecting the amount and value of the ore at this depth. 
The manager's statement is that at the depth of 80 feet there 
were two veins aggregating 5 feet in width, and at 140 feet a two 
foot vein of good yellow copper ore. Some assays of the ore 
from this mine show : 

Assays, Ores from the Hopewell Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(227) (228) (229) 

Gold, per ton $ 4.13 $ 12.40 $ 16.53 

Silver, per ton trace trace 1.10 



$ 4.13 $ 12.40 $ 17.63 

Copper, per cent 18.83* 17.08* 12.2356 

The Green C. Cathey Mine, 8 miles northwest of Charlotte, 
carries copper ores, and has been explored sufficiently to develop 
an ore body of good grade. Some assays of ore from this mine 
show : 

Assays, Ores from the G. C. Cathey Mine, Mecklenburg County. 



Gold, per ton 


(230) 
$ 8.27 


(231) 
$ 7.23 


(2J32) 
$ 14 47 


Silver, per ton 


1.23 


3.88 


.39 


$ 9.50 
14.84* 


$11.11 
25.40* 




Copper, percent 


$ 14.86 



The Sloan mine adjoins the G. C. Cathey, and has been worked 
to a depth of 40 feet. 

The Chapman (or Alexander) Mine is in the same vicinity, 
near the Eozzel's Ferry road. It has been worked to a depth of 
110 feet, and at 90 feet levels have been driven 75 feet in either 
direction. 

The length of the vein on the property is 900 feet ; the strike 
is N. 20° W., and the dip 65° to 70° N. E. The vein matter is 
made up of silieified schists with seams of brown ore and quartz ; 
in depths sulphurets are abundant. The width of the vein occa- 
sionally reaches 9 to 10 feet, but the ore seams range from 4 



140 GOLD DEPOSITS OF XOKTH CAROLINA. 

inches to 2| feet in thickness. Some assays of aTerage samples 
from the head of the north and south level gave 812 to 813 per 
ton. An assay of an average sample of the brown ore seams ran 
82S ; and of the dump-pile, after sorting out the sulphurets, 813. 
The sulphurets, which had been sorted out, gave $48.00. Other 
assays of the ore from this mine gave : 

Assays, Ores from the Chapman Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(233) (234) (235) (236) .237) 

Gold, per ton $ 4.13 $ 20.67 $ 22.74 $ 23.77 $ a5.14 

Silver, perron trace trace 1.2a 1.10 74 



$ 4.13 $ 20.67 $ 24.03 S 24.^7 $ 35.88 

The Dlxx Mine is 2 miles northwest from the Alexander, 
towards Rozzel's ferry, on the west side of Long creek. 

It was the first mine discovered in the county, not lung after 
the finding of the nuggets at the Reed mine in Cabarrus county, 
in the first years of the present century. 

The "East vein' 7 was the first to be mined, but the ore soon 
changed to copper pyrites, which, though auriferous, proved to be 
too refractory to be treated by the methods then in vogue, and 
the vein was abandoned after working to a depth of 20 feet. 
Above this point the ores were mostly peroxidized. The vein is 6 
to 12 inches wide; its course is nearly north and south, and its 
dip west. 

The deposit which has been most largely worked is known as 
the Main vein — a body of slates bearing northeast and south- 
west, and dipping southeast at an angle of nearly 15 c . This 
body of slates extends across the property for a distance of i 
mile along its outcrop. It contains deposits of quartz and brown 
ores (including a very hard red hematite, more nearly resembling 
specular iron), cellular quartzose ores, and compact pyrites,' 
including some copper pyrite. Another "vein'' is found 50 feet 
back of this, but the sections indicate that the whole is one body, 
with a front and a back seam of ore, and not properly two veins. 
The appearance at the 60 foot level, where three bodies of ore are 
seen within a few feet of each other, gives strength to this view, 
that they are subordinate seams of the same vein, and makes it a 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY MINES. 141 

not unreasonable supposition that they may combine in depth to 
form one ore body. 

The underground work consists of a shaft 60 feet deep, and a 
second shaft of 90 feet, which is considerably to the east of the 
veins; a cross-cut has been driven from the bottom of this shaft to 
meet the veins. The 60 foot shaft is connected with the 90 foot 
shaft by a level (the 60 foot level) across the formation. Three, if 
not four parallel bodies of ore are cut across by this level. These 
bodies are composed of silicihed slates, varying from 3 to 5 feet 
each in thickness, and with an aggregate thickness of not less than 
12 feet. ISTo drifting had been done on these parallel bodies, and 
their character and strength is not known. 

The following assays show the variation of different samples of 
ore : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Dunn Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(238) (239) (240) (241) (242) 

Goli, per ton $ 8.27 $ 10.33 $ 28.94 $ 128.44 $ 26.17 

Silver, per ton trace trace 1.94 trace trace 



$ 8.27 $ 10.33 $ 30.88 $ 128 44 $ 26.17 

Nos. 238 241 were samples of ores from upper portion of the mine. 
No. 242 was a snlphuret sample. 

The Cathey Mine is 5 miles southwest of Charlotte. A large 
body of chalcopyrite was uncovered in the workings, and the ore 
was shipped from the State for reduction. A depth of 75 feet was 
attained when work was suspended. 

The McCokkle Mine is 8 miles southwest of Charlotte. The 
workings extended to a depth of 50 feet, and the ores were brown 
oxides, and iron pyrites. 

A third group of mines is found from 5 to 7 miles north of 
Charlotte, including the Henderson, Ferris, and others. 

The Henderson Mine is situated 7 miles north of Charlotte. 
The longitudinal extent of the workings appear to have been 
fully 300 feet. The strike of the vein is N. 4(>° E., and the dip 
S. E. The deepest shaft is 100 feet, and three bodies of ore 
were worked from it ; they vary in size from \-> to 4 feet in thick- 
ness; in the lower workings the sulphurets predominate, bnt 
the brown ores had not entirely disappeared. Assays show vari- 
ations from $14 to $75 per ton. 



142 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The John P. Hunter Mines are situated from 1 to 2 miles 
southwest of the Henderson. Judging from the outcrops and 
the float ore, there appear to be 5 veins ; but only one of these 
has been prospected, and that only to a depth of 25 feet. The 
strike is N. 40° E., and the dip S. E. The Ehvood vein is f 
mile further west. 

The Eerris (Faires) Mine is situated 6 miles north of Char- 
lotte. There are two veins on this tract, and a third on an 
adjoining tract. The two veins first mentioned are believed to 
unite towards the south, and to form the third vein alluded to — 
the G arris vein. 

The "North" vein has been worked most extensively. The 
"South" vein is 300 to 400 feet southwest of the former ; it 
strikes 1ST. 25° E., and dips 45° S. E. In width it varies from 2 to 
7 feet, and has a pay streak from 18 inches to 4 feet wide. The 
rich brown ores of the upper levels give place at greater depths 
to sulphurets, and at the 90 foot level these are quite compact. 
The ores carry some chalcopyrite. The following tables give the 
results of assays of both the brown ores and the sulphurets : 
Assays, Brown Ores, Ferris Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(243) (244) (245) (246) (247) (248) 

Gold, per ton $13.43 $18.60 $28.94 $40.31 $111.62 $126.09 

Silver, per ton 2.80 1.81 trace 4.72 trace 2.57 

$ 16.23 $ 20.41 $ 28.91 $ 45 03 $111.62 $128.66 
Copper, per cent 14.23# 

Assays, Sulphurets, Ferris Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(249) (250) (251) 

Gold, per ton $ 40.31 $ 72.34 $506.41 

Silver, per ton 4.72 trace 7.52 

$ 45.03 $ 72.34 $513.93 

Copper, per cent 13.66$ 

The Garris vein is the one at present worked. It shows a 
large outcrop, and is entered by two shafts, one 90 feet and the 
other 120 feet deep. The vein fissure strikes N. 25° E., and 
dips 70° N. W. It is stated to vary from 2J to 5 feet in width, 
and is composed of seams up to 12 inches in thickness of milky 
quartz, carrying iron and some copper sulphurets, and separated 
by hydromicaceous schists. The ores are worked in a Chilian 
mill of 3 tons capacity. It is stated that the quartz contains 
nearly 25 per cent, sulphurets, the concentrates from which 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY MINES. 143 



assay $45 to $60 per ton. Some assays of ore from this vein 
give the following results : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Garris Vein, Ferris Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

Gossan. Kidney Ore. 

(250) (253) 

Gold, per ton $ 5.17 $53.74 

Silver, per ton : trace trace 



$ 5 17 $53.74 

Other mines in this group are the Alexander, northwest of the 
Ferris, and the Nolan and Caldwell mines. 

A fourth group of mines is situated in Providence township 
near Sardis church, some 5 to 10 miles southeast of Charlotte : 
among others the Hunter, Tredinick, and Hay mines. 

The Hunter Mine is 5 miles southeast from Charlotte, near 
Sardis church. There are two veins,, and outcroppings of sev- 
eral others, but there is no record of the amount of work done, 
nor of the extent of the ore bodies. Recent explorations show 
a small amount of ore still accessible, assays of which ran from 
$20 to $45 per ton. 

The Tredinick Mine is 7 miles southeast of Charlotte. It 
has been prospected to a depth of 80 feet, and for a length of 2<»0 
to 300 feet. The vein is 1 to 2 feet wide, and carries a relatively 
large amount of copper minerals. 

The Rat Mine is situated from 9 to 9£ miles southeast of 
Charlotte, and within one mile of Matthews. It is the property 
of the Baltimore and North Carolina Mining Company, comprising 
360 acres of land. There are 5 veins with an a^o-reo-ate length 
of about 4 miles. The South vein has been worked to a depth 
of about 60 feet, and the Phifer Grove vein to a depth of 4<> 
feet. The mine material from both was free-milling brow n ore. 
The Ray vein, the best known of them all, is entered by *» shafts, 
the deepest being 250 feet. The ore seam is 6 to 8 inches thick. 
and is filled with nearly compact sulphurets. Most of the ore, 
down to the 120 foot level, has been stoped out. The Levels from 
the southernmost shaft uncovered a large and line body of aurif- 
erous chalcopyrite. The following assays of ore from tin's mine 
are appended : 
10 



14:4 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Assays, Gold Ores, Ray Vein, Ray Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(254) (255) 
Gold, per ton $ 20.67 $ 31.0] 



Silver per ton. 



$ 20.99 $ 31.98 $ 227.U 

Assays, Gold Ores, Phifer Grove Vein, Ray Mine, Mecklenburg County. 

(257) (258) 

Gold, per ton $ 20.67 $ 31.00 

Silver, per ton 32 97 



$ 20.99 % 31.97 

The Pioneer Mills group of mines in Cabarrus county (see p.125) 
extends into the southeastern part of Mecklenburg county. The 
Johnson, Stinson, Rhea, Maxwell, Simpson, and Black mines 
belong here. 

The Simpson Mine is in Clear Creek township, 10 miles east of 
Charlotte. The property has several veins, which carry quartzose 
ores, with a little sulphurets, including chalcopyrite. Assays of the 
ore show values from $1.00 to $45.00 per ton. 

The Black Mine, 10 miles east of Charlotte, has a small but 
very rich vein of brown ore, of which assays show values from 
$50 = .00 to $236.00. 

In Clear Creek township, 10 to, 12 miles a little south of east 
from Charlotte, is an interesting group of mines. The grouping 
comprises two series of veins striking in diverse directions ; one 
approximately northeast and southwest, and the other ^s. 60° TT. 

Of the northeast and southwest running series the most northerly 
vein is the Beaver, \ mile east of Mungo's store ; then two parallel 
veins, the Brafford and Ellington ; and about 300 yards still fur- 
ther south, the Surface Hill. 

The Ellington in its middle portion is known as the Blair, and 
in its southwestern continuation as the Hard Hill vein. 

The second series of veins (northwest and southeast running) is 
something like one mile further w T est, and \ mile southwest of 
Mungo's store. The mines in their order, commencing at the 
north, are : The Ferguson Hill, A. J. Wilson, Shaffer, and the 
Poplin. 

'The Survey has no detailed information respecting the Beaver, 
the Brafford or the Ellington. 



MECKLENBURG COUNTY MINES. 145 

The Surface Hill Mine has long; been known for its large 
yield of nuggets. It is situated on a high plateau in Clear Creek 
township, from which now McAlpine's creek to the southwest, 
Reed j creek to the northeast, and Clear creek to the southeast. 

The country rock is granite, which is apparently intersected by 
a system of reticulated quartz veins or veinlets ; and these, in con- 
sequence of the general disintegration, have scattered their con- 
tents widely over and beyond the 66 acres comprising the tract. 
There appear, moreover, to be two veins of some size crossing 
each other, viz : the main or Harris vein striking N". 45° E., and 
the Lidner or Vivian vein striking N. 10° W. 

The rich pocket of nuggets, which has given the mine its celeb- 
rity, appears to lie near the junction of the two veins, and a little 
to the north, where a dike has cut across them. It is stated that 
the nuggets were found most abundantly between the dike and the 
north end of the Harris vein. It is quite certain that several 
thousand pennyweights must have come from the space of a few 
square feet. 

A considerable amount of broAvn ore of good appearance, carry- 
ing copper sulphurets, has been mined in the process of hunting 
for nuggets, but as an ore it is of little value, despite its fine 
appearance. Assays show but $2.00 to $3.00 per ton. 

The A. J. Wilson Mine was first opened in the early part of 
1895, to a depth of 30 feet. The vein is of considerable 1 width but 
has not been exposed from wall to wall. The pay streak was 
from 8 to 11 inches, carrying compact hematite and some pyrite. 
The strike is JST. 63° W., and the dip 55° N. E. The assay of an 
average sample showed $13.80 per ton. 

Little is known of the Shaffer, Ferguson Hill and Poplin mines, 
all of which have been extensively worked, but whose records 
have long since disappeared. 

On the Elliotte plantation, 5 miles south of Charlotte, are 6 
veins, but none have been prospected. Five of these are grouped 
in a space of \ mile ; they range from 3 to 6 feet in thickness, and 
carry quartz, brown ore and sulphurets. Assays of the ores show 
results ranging from $6.00 to $15.00 per ton of gold and silver, 
and some copper. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE KINGS MOUNTAIN BELT AND ITS GOLD DEPOSITS. 

This belt occupies an area of indefinite and imperfectly known 
boundaries, adjoining the Carolina Igneous Belt on the west. The 
localities in which mines are situated are few and widely scattered, 
in Gaston, Lincoln, Catawba, Davie and Yadkin counties. 

The country rocks are crystalline schists and gneisses, and occa- 
sional lenticular bodies of siliceous, magnesian limestone and beds 
of quartzite. The strike of the schistosity is northeast, and the 
dip usually westward, at steep angles. The gneisses are micaceous ; 
the schists, micaceous, chloritic, argillaceous, and sometimes gra- 
phitic. Pegmatite dikes are frequent in some localities, and in 
the Kings Mountain district of Gaston and Cleveland counties 
they are tin-bearing. The quartzites are apparently confined to 
the higher ledges of Kings, Crowders, Anderson, etc., mountains, 
a line of isolated peaks and ridges stretching from the South Caro- 
lina line northeastward. The limestone occurs along the foothills 
and low lands bordering these ridges, in small, irregular lenticular 
bodies, usually separated by slates or schists, and often buried 
without cropping out on the surface. 

GASTON COUNTY. 

The Kings Mountain (ok Catawba) Mine 1 is situated 1J miles 
nearly south of Kings Mt. station on the Southern R. R. It lies 
in the narrow limestone belt, which skirts the western base of 
Kings and Crowders mountains. 

The ore is a mixture of the siliceous magnesian limestone and 
quartz, and exists in large lenticular chimneys, pitching to the 
northeast. The strike is N. 20° E., and the dip 45° to 60° west- 
ward. It is stated that five ore lenses or chimneys, which extend 
to the surface, have been opened. In length they reach 100 feet, 

iGeological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina. E. Emmons, 1856. pp. 168, 



GASTON COUNTY CROWDEr's MOUNTAIN MINE. 147 

• 

and in width 20 feet. They are separated by black, graphitic 
slate, carrying coarse crystalline iron pyrites, which are, however, 
stated to be barren. The total width of the ore bearing ground is 
from'60 to 150 feet. At one point in the mine the limestone is 
horizontally banded, blue and white ; the schistosity of the slates is 
at a steeper angle, and it would appear that both the limestone 
and slate were sedimentary. 

The gold is present largely in the free state ; the sulphurets 
(pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena) aggregate from 2 to 3 per cent ; 
tellurides are of occasional occurrence. 

The mine was discovered in 1834, and is said to have yielded 
$750,000.00 during its past history. It has been opened to a depth 
of 320 feet, and was last worked in a small way during the past 
summer (1895). The equipment consists of a 30 stamp mill with 
5 Frue vanners. 

The value of the ore is difficult to estimate intelligently. Various 
assays show the following results : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Kings Mt. Mine, Gaston County. 



Gold, per ton 

Silver, per ton 


(259) 

$ 3.37.... 

trace-... 

$ 3.37 

(266) 

$ 13.40... 

1.58.. 


(260) 
..$ 3 10.. 
... .32.. 

$ 3.43 


(261) 

$ 3.93.... 

23... 

$ 4.16 

(367) 

..$ 16.33 

.. 1.97 


(262) 
...$ 4.96.. 
...trace.. 


(263) 
....$ 5.17.. 
62... 

$ 5.79 

(268) 
.$ 39.27.... 
. 1.76.... 


(264) 
...$ 6.21- 
...trace.. 


,365) 
...$ 6.21 
77 


Gold, per ton 

Silver, per ton 


$ 4.96 


$ 6.21 


$ 6.98 

(269) 
..$ 76.48 
.. 3.36 



$ 13.98 $ 18.30 $ 41.03 $ 79.S1 

Perhaps from s4 to $6 per ton will be nearer the present average 
value. The fineness of the gold is about 920. The concentrates 
are reported to run from §35 to §40 per ton. 

There is still some placer ground to the east of the mine workings. 

The Crowdkr's Mountain (or Caledonia) Mini: is 4 miles east 
of the Catawba, and on the east side of Kings Mt., just over 
the gap between the two mountains. The country rocks are 
sericitic and chloritic schists, sometimes silicified, and often ferru- 
ginous, i. e. highly charged with magnetite or hematite. Certain 
narrow zones or belts of the schists are slightly mineralized with 
iron and copper pyrites ; occasionally the width of the ore bearing 



148 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

f 

belt rises to 8 or 1.0 feet. The ores are commonly low in grade. 
The results from a number of assays are as follows : 

Gold Ores, Caledonia Mine, Gaston County. 

(270) (271) (272) 273. 274 

Gold, per ton $ 5.17 $ 1.03 $ 3.62 $ 9.10 $ 5.10 

Siler, per ton trace trace trace trace 2.71 



$ 5.17 $ 1.03 $ 3.62 $ 9.10 §11.81 



Copper, percent 1.08£ 0.1S* 



gOft 



The Patterson Mine is £ mile northeast of the Caledonia, and 
has similar ores. 

The Rhodes Mine is 18 miles southwest from Charlotte. The 
ore body is auriferous, mica gneiss ; it has been worked to a depth 
of 100 feet, and for a length of 300 feet. Galena is occasionally 
found. 

The McLean (or Rtjmfeldt) Mine is 15 to 16 miles southwest 
from Charlotte. It has been prospected probably for a length of 
200 yards, and to a depth of 110 feet. The vein is filled with 
quartz carrying iron pyrites, and is from 1 to 6 feet in width. 
There is still some placer ground on the property. 

The Dfffie Mine is 16 miles west of Charlotte on the Tucka- 
seegee road. The vein is from 2 to 10 feet wide, and has been 
worked to a depth of 110 feet, at which point a large body of low 
grade sulphurets was found. Some assays show the following 
values . 

Assays, Gold Ores, Duffiie Mine, Gaston County. 

(275) (276) (277) (278) (279) '280' 

Gold, per ton $ 4.14 $ 5.17 $ 4.92 $ 10.33 $ 12.40 $ 13.43 $ 16.54 

Silver, per ton trace 75 2.56 91 66 65 5S 



$ 4.14 $ 5.92 $ 7.48 $ 11.24 $ 13.06 $ 14.08 $ 17.12 

The Robinson Mine adjoins the Duffie, and its ores are similar 
in character to those from that mine. Several assays of these ores 
give the following results : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Rooinson 3Iine, Gaston County. 

(282) (283) (284) 

Gold, per ton $ 3.45 $ 4.13 $ 9.31 

Silver, per ton trace 13 52 

$ 3.45 $ 4.26 $ 9.83 

The Derr and the Rhyne mines are about 17 miles west of Char- 
lotte. 



GASTON COUNTY MINES. 149 

The Burrell Wells Mine is situated 3& miles south of the 
Dnffie ; there are 4 veins ; the deepest workings are less than 50 
feet. Some spots of placer ground still exist, which are washed 
at intervals. 

The Oliver Mine is situated 12 miles northwest of Charlotte, 
on the west side of the Catawba river. It is believed to have 
been among the earliest operated mines in the section, and there 
are traditions of work here, which was done prior to the Revolu- 
tionary war. It has been worked for a distance of 100 yards ; 
sulphurets appeared at a depth of 75 feet, notably galena, which 
was rich in gold. 

The Farrar Mine is \ mile beyond the Oliver. 

The Long Creek Mine is situated 6 miles northwest of Dallas, 
the county seat. The property comprises about 600 acres. There 
are three veins, the Asbury, Dixon and McCarter Hill. The 
country schists strike N. 20° to 25° E., and dip generally 85° N. W. 
The quartz veins are approximately conformable to the schistosity. 
The Asbury vein has had some extraordinarily rich shoots of ore, 
which carried iron and copper pyrites, galena, zinc-blende, mis- 
pickel, and carbonate of bismuth. Its width was from 6 to 8 feet. 
It has been opened by two shafts, 45 feet apart, and worked to a 
depth of nearly 140 feet. 

The Dixon vein has been extensively worked along the surface 
by pits, and two shallow shafts, 300 feet apart, from which drifts 
were run 79 feet south and 107 feet north. The thickness of the 
vein was a little over 3 feet. 

The McCarter Hill vein has been entered by three shafts, within 
a distance of about 250 feet, and was stoped to a depth of 160 feet 
in the ore shoot, which pitches to the north, and increased longi- 
tudinally, until at the 140 foot level it had a length in the vein of 
more than 211 feet; the width ranges from 4 to 6 feet. 

The last work at this mine was done on the McCarter Hill >h<M>t 
in 1892. The assay value of the ore mined i> stated to have been 
&8.00 per ton, of which about $3.00 was saved in the mill, and the 
concentrates ran s24.no per ton. 



150 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. 

There is no mining work being done in Lincoln county, beyond 
desultory developments by small parties, though several mines 
have in the past been worked extensively ; prominent among 
these latter are the Burton and the Hoke mines, near Lincolnton. 

The Hoke Mine has been sunk to a depth of 110 feet, and 
drifts run for some length. 

The Graham Mine is situated about 4 miles northeast of Iron 
Station on the Carolina Central R. R. The vein is from 30 to 42 
inches wide, and has been prospected by pits along nearly 100 feet 
of the outcrop. The ores contain some copper, and occasionally 
the material becomes a true copper ore. 

CATAWBA COUNTY. 

In Catawba county the Shuford mine is the only one where 
regular operations are carried on. 

The Shuford Mine is situated 4 J miles slightly south of east 
from Catawba Station on the Western North Carolina R. R. 

The mining tract comprises 425 acres, but the workable portion 
of this tract embraces only 20 acres. This latter area is covered 
with auriferous quartz, and the soil is also auriferous. The under- 
lying schists and gneisses are penetrated by seams of auriferous 
quartz, which run in every direction ; but of veins, in any mining 
sense of that term, it may be doubted if there are any, although 
some of the seams, .12 inches or so in thickness, have considerable 
persistency in length and depth, and some general parallelism with 
the sehistosity. The entire surface is "pay" material. The strike 
of the schists is 1ST. 30° E., and the dip easterly. The mine is best 
adapted to a combination hvdraulicking and milling process 
(Dahlonega method). The supply of water is always the most 
important consideration in work of this nature, and at the Shuford 
the supply is not large. The last work was directed to the explo- 
ration of the quartz seams in depth. 

The A. D. Shuford Mine, | mile southeast from the above, is 
very similar in character. 

Some work was done in the early part of 1895 at Maiden, about 
5 mile.- south of Newton ; and at several points near Newton, and 
at the McCorkle and the England mines. To these may be added 



MINES OF DAVIE AND YADKIN COUNTIES. 151 

the'Rufty mine, just outside of the limits of Catawba Station, and 
the Abernathy, 6 miles east of Maiden. 

DAVIE COUNTY. 

In the gneissoid rocks of Davie county there are several locali- 
ties where gold has been mined at one time or another. 

The Butler (or County Line) mine is 8 miles southeast of Mocks- 
ville. The ore body is reputed to have been large, though of low 
grade. Callahan Mountain was worked a generation ago, but 
with what results is unknown. The Isaac Allen mine is 1 mile 
northwest of Mocksville. There are deposits of gold in Clarksville 
township, 7£ miles northwest of Mocksville ; also in Fulton town- 
ship, 7 miles northeast. 

YADKIN COUNTY. 

The Dixox Mine is situated 8 miles southeast of Yadkin ville, 
the county seat. It was discovered in 1894. The following infor- 
mation is from Mr. Richard Eames, Jr., M. E., of Salisbury, N". C: 
"The country rock is decomposed mica schist, sometimes chloritic, 
and intersected in places by diabase dikes. The vein is quartz, 
and on the outcrop shows a width of I feet. It has a steep dip to 
the northwest. 

"A shaft has been sunk to a depth of 35 feet, at which point the 
vein holds its width of -t feet. At this level drifts have been run 
5<> feet northeast, and 60 feet southwest. The vein from the shaft 
holds good each way for 25 or 30 feet, where it begins to be 
broken, and runs off into the laminae of the schists, making lenti- 
cular deposits and stringers. At places small stringers of kaolinitic 
matter intersect the vein at right angle-, and are rich in gold for a 
distance of 2 feet from the vein, beyond which point they have no 
trace of gold. The value of the ore (quartz) is not uniform, as the 
following assays will show : outcrop at shaft, $36 per ton ; 15 feet 
down, *1<) per ton ; 35 foot level, average, *7 per ton ; rich speci- 
men in 35 foot level, &-IO per ton ; poorest looking white quartz, 
$2.40. Milling results on small lots have given an average of $5 
per ton. 

"Some sulphurets of iron and copper are beginning to show in 
the ere." 

There are no other important occurrences o\' gold in Yadkin 
county, so far as known at present. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE SOUTH MOUNTAIN BELT AND ITS] GOLD DEPOSITS. 
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE REGION. 

The South Mountains form one of the prominent eastern out- 
liers of the Blue Bidge, in Burke, McDowell and Rutherford 
counties. This region is the nucleus of one of the important belts 
of auriferous rocks in the State, and comprises an area of some 
250 to 300 square miles, extending from Morganton to near Buth- 
erfordton, a distance of about 25 miles, with an average width of 
10 to 12 miles. 

To the north of Morganton the more or less isolated occurrences 
of gold in northern Burke, Caldwell and Wilkes counties on the 
east side of the Blue Bidge may be considered as belonging to this 
general belt. So also, to the south of Butherfordton, the deposits 
of Bolk county, extending into South Carolina, will be included 
here. 

But the South Mountain region, proper, as above outlined, is by 
far the most important part of the belt, and will form the principal 
topic of the following descriptions and discussions. The accom- 
panying contour map 1 , Blate XII., shows the location of the most 
important gravel deposits and mines in this region. 

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE REGION. 

The South Mountain range rises to a maximum altitude of 3,000 
feet above sea level. The average elevation above the sea of the 
old base level, which is a prominent feature in this region, is 1,300 
feet. This old plateau is dissected by the drainage, and gradually 
descends to 1,100 feet above sea level at the Catawba river, the 
main stream on the noith. The country is drained on these north- 

1 Prom revised surveys of the U. S. Geological Survey, made in 1894, by Mr. Chas. 5 E. 
Cooke, topographer. To such persons as may he particularly interested in this region, 
the Geological Survey will be glad to supply with a map, of larger scale, with 50 feet 
contours. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE SOUTH MOUNTAIN BELT AND ITS] GOLD DEPOSITS. 
GENEKAL DESCRIPTION OF THE REGION. 

The South Mountains form one of the prominent eastern out- 
liers of the Blue Ridge, in Burke, McDowell and Rutherford 
counties. This region is the nucleus of one of the important belts 
of auriferous rocks in the State, and comprises an area of some 
250 to 300 square miles, extending from Morganton to near Ruth- 
erfordton, a distance of about 25 miles, with an average width of 
10 to 12 miles. 

To the north of Morganton the more or less isolated occurrences 
of gold in northern Burke, Caldwell and Wilkes counties on the 
east side of the Blue Ridge may be considered as belonging to this 
general belt. So also, to the south of Rutherfordton, the deposits 
of Polk county, extending into South Carolina, will be included 
here. 

But the South Mountain region, proper, as above outlined, is by 
far the most important part of the belt, and will form the principal 
topic of the following descriptions and discussions. The accom- 
panying contour map 1 , Plate XII., shows the location of the most 
important gravel deposits and mines in this region. 

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE REGION. 

The South Mountain range rises to a maximum altitude of 3,000 
feet above sea level. The average elevation above the sea of tbe 
old base level, which is a prominent feature in this region, is 1,300 
feet. This old plateau is dissected by the drainage, and gradually 
descends to 1,100 feet above sea level at the Catawba river, the 
main stream on the noith. The country is drained on these north- 

iFrom revised surveys of the U. S. Geological Survey, made in 1894, by Mr. Chas.'E. 
Cooke, topographer. To such persons as may he particularly interested in this region, 
the Geological Survey will be glad to supply with a map, of larger scale, with 50 f cot 
contours. 




LEGEND. 

BH Stream Placers (Worked). 
ijdt Gravel Diggings. 
W Quartz Mines. 
yy Quartz Veins. 

1. Hancock Mine. 

2. Carolina Queen Mine. 

3. J. C. Mills Property. 
!. Marion Bullion Co. 
5. Vein Mt. Mining Co. 



THE BECHTLER COINAGE. 153 

ern slopes by Silver and Muddy creeks, flowing into the Catawba 
river, and on the south by the First Broad and the Second Broad 
rivers. 

HISTORICAL: THE BECHTLER COINAGE. 

Gold was first discovered in Burke county in 1828 in the bed of 
Brindle creek, one of the small tributaries of Silver creek, which 
has its source in the South mountains. 1 Soon every stream in the 
neighborhood was prospected and panned with golden success. 
Large slave owners found a new and profitable use for their slaves, 
and many thousands of them were put to work in this new field. 
Placer mines were opened and operated on a large scale, though 
by primitive methods, the pan, rocker, long torn, and sluice box 
being the only implements at that time — and, indeed, these are 
still used in portions of this region to-day. Mining was at first 
confined to the stream gravels, which were generally rich. Later 
on the upper decomposed layer of the country rock and the more 
ancient placers, formed by secular disintegration and drift, were 
worked. A large amount of gold was produced in this way, but 
it is impossible to even approximate the amount, as absolutely no 
records were kept. The best authorities place the amount at 
between two and three million dollars. 

There being but one U. S. mint established by the government 
at that time (at Philadelphia), and the means of transportation to 
that distance being attended with difficulty and great loss of time, 
the miners naturally looked about for some other means of con- 
verting their gold into a circulating medium on the spot. In 1831 
a German, named Christian Bechtler, a jeweler by trade, living 
about 3 miles from Rutherfordton in Rutherford county, proposed 
to the miners that he would coin their gold for a small percentage. 
His proposition was accepted, and a large quantity of gold was 
coined in one, two and a- half, and five dollar pieces, with the name 
of "C. Bechtler, Rutherford County, N. C," on one face, and on the 
reverse side the value, number of grains, and carats line. The 
United States government instituted an investigation and upon 
finding that the assay value of the coins was always equal t«>, if qoI 

lr The story of the first discovery is given by Col. T. Qt, Walton, <>i Morganton, N. C, lnan 
article which appeared iu the Morganton Herald ol March L5tn, IBM. 



154 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

somewhat greater than the denominational value, their circulation 
was not disturbed. The percentage paid by the bullion holders 
for coinage was 2| per cent. Bechtler continued the mintage of 
these coins until his death in 1843, after which his nephew, C. 
Bechtler, Jr., continued untilJune, 1857. Sometimes as much as 
$4,000 to $5,000 were coined in a week, and for about 10 years 
the annual quantity was pretty equal. As no records of the quan- 
tities coined are in existence, it is impossible to even estimate the 
amounts of gold consumed here. 1 

These coins are now rare, and command a premium. 

GENERAL GEOLOGIC AND PETROGRAPHIC NOTES. 

The subaerial decay of the rocks is universal, and extends to a 
depth exceeding 100 feet in places ; though the average thickness 
of the decomposed layer may be taken at about 50 feet. This 
fact will explain one of the great difficulties in studying the litho- 
logy, not only in this, but in every other portion of the State. 

The rocks of the South Mountain Eegion are for the most part 
mica and hornblende gneisses and schists, having an eminently 
lenticular structure. They are often garnetiferous, and contain 
besides, many rare minerals, especially those of the rare earths, 
such as zircon, monazite, xenotime, fergusonite, etc. The primary 
origin of these gneisses is looked upon as being igneous granitic 
and dioritic rocks of Archean age, which have subsequently been 
rendered schistose by the action of various dynamic forces. 

Owing to frost action the superficial layers of the country rock, 
especially along the slopes of ridges, have undoubtedly suffered 
motion and displacement 2 ; in many instances, therefore, the surface 
dips of the schistose laminse must be considered anomalous. 

The general strike of theschistosity maybe taken at 1ST. 10° to 25° 
W., and the dip 20° to 35° N. E. This applies to the central part 
of the region. To the northwest of South Muddy Creek and Yein 
Mt., and in Caldwell, etc., counties, the strike is generally north- 
east, and the dip southeast. 

1 Report on the Survey of South Carolina for 1857, by O. M. Lieber, p. 135. 

2 On the Action of Frost in the Arrangement of Superficial Earthv Material. By W. 
C Kerr. Am. Jour. Sci., 1881, Vol. 21, III., p. 125 ; and Ores of North Carolina, Appendix 
C, 1887, p. 329. 



GEOLOGIC AND PETROGRAPHIC NOTES. 155 

The mica gneisses are composed essentially of quartz, feldspar 
and mica. Both muscovite and biotite are present, the latter 
usually predominating. Phlogopite is of rare occurrence, as in 
the gneiss near the headwaters of South Muddy creek, at the 
old Bracket-town reservoir. All of the feldspars, from the potash 
to the lime-soda types, are present at various times. Plagioclase 
appears to predominate, especially in the more basic phases of the 
rock. Micro-perthitic intergrowths were noticed in many speci- 
mens, and microcline is common. Hornblende and pyroxene are 
altogether absent, or present only to small extent, in the acid 
mica gneisses, increasing in quantity and becoming essential 
minerals in the more basic hornblende gneisses. The hornblendes 
usually show greenish pleochroism, sometimes verging to brown- 
ish in color. The extinction angles are often very high, as in the 
hornblende gneiss from the Bracket-town shaft, McDowell 
county, where it reaches 30° ; however, the cross-sections are 
usually good and characteristic. The pyroxenes are monoclinic, 
in most cases apparently augite. They are colorless and non- 
pleochroic. 

The usual accessory constituents" of these gneisses are magne- 
tite, pyrite, titanic iron ore, garnet, zircon, monazite, and other 
rare minerals. 

Alteration products are numerous. The micas are frequently 
altogether gone over into hydrous varieties and carbonates; and 
bleached biotites are common. The feldspars are always affected 
to some extent, being at times partially, and often completely, 
altered to kaolin or sericite. Propyllitic changes to epidote or 
zoisite are not uncommon. The ferro-magnesian minerals alter 
to chlorite and epidote. Zeolitic alterations are seldom met with. 

These various alterations have in places proceeded to such an 
extent as to entirely obliterate the original character of the 
gneiss; and one of the best examples is met with in certain por- 
tions of the mine rock from the Bracket-town shaft, where the 
changes may be followed from fairly fresh specimens. This 
altered rock is light greenish in color and fine-grained in texture; 
macroseopically the constituent minerals are indistinguishable, 



156 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

and the mass resembles felsite. Under the microscope, however, 
small fragments of unaltered feldspar are still to be seen, though 
the main portion is entirely decomposed to sericite and carbon- 
ates. In the hornblendic gneisses from the same mine the change 
of the ferro-magnesian minerals is to epidote and chlorite. 

Such phenomena as secondary quartz and chlorite veinlets 
seem to point to a hydro-metamorphic action rather than a 
dynamic one. The effect of the latter force, however, is seen in 
the undulous extinction, bending, fracture, and other strain 
phenomena, exhibited by the minerals. 

It is seldom that these rocks are porphyritic, as observed in a 
specimen collected from Brindle creek in Burke county, where 
the phenocrysts are plagioclase crystals up to I inch in diameter. 
More generally there is a homogeneity in the crystalline structure 
of the minerals, which is micro-granitic. 

Relative to each other the mica and hornblende gneisses occur 
in adjacent lenticular banded masses, from a few inches to many 
feet in thickness ; and it appears in instances that they pass into 
each other by insensible transition phases between these acid and 
basic types. 

Pegmatites are of frequent occurrence in the gneiss-, and they 
contain such fumarole minerals as tourmaline and beryl. Their 
structure is usually lenticular, like that of the enclosing gneisses. 
The feldspar is largely microcline, and the same alterations occur 
as noted above for the gneisses. 

At Brown Mt., in the northern part of Burke county, the 
country rock is a massive granite. True granitic rocks, how- 
ever, besides the pegmatites just mentioned, exist in the South 
Mountain region proper only as small dikes, and the general 
rock decomposition makes these difficult to distinguish. The 
most pronounced one was found at a point about k mile south- 
west of Capt. J. C. Mills' house on the Rutherfordton road. It 
is 3 inches wide, with a strike N. 20° "W., and dip 80° 1ST. E. It 
is a fine grained biotite granite, in which the feldspar is mainly 
microcline, with some orthoclase and micro-perthite, and the 
structure is micro-granitic. Similar dikes were observed at the 



N. C GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



BULLETIN 3. PLATE XIII. 





PYROXENE M) AND AMPHIBOLITE (2) BLE6BS.— SOUTH MOUNTAINS. 



GEOLOGIC AND PETROGRAPHIC NOTES. 157 

Marion Bullion mine (Bracket-town), and Vein Mountain, in 
McDowell county. 

Massive crystalline dioritic rocks are not uncommon in the 
South Mountain region, but whether they exist as dike forma- 
tions or in larger bodies, it is as yet difficult to say. It appears 
probable that the former may be the case. They are usually fine 
grained, and composed of hornblende and a plagioclase feldspar, 
with very little if any quartz. The hornblendes show light to 
dark green, and at times blue to brown pleochroism. Among the 
accessory minerals apatite appears to be rather constant. The 
decomposition products are the usual ones, namely, sericite, 
kaolin, chlorite, epidote, etc. 

Gabbroitic (augite-plagioclase) rocks are seldom met with, in 
fact the only occurrence noted was 2 mile sonth of the White 
House in the western part of Rutherford county. 

There are no diabase dikes in the South Mountain reo-ion 
proper, but in the northern part of the general belt a heavy 
olivene-diabase dike extends persistently from near Hartland in 
Burke to the Baker mine in Caldwell county, the direction being 
about ~N. 20° W. At the latter point it is very wide and largely 
altered to serpentine. 

Isolated, basic ferro-magnesian masses of pyroxenite and 
amphibolite occur sparingly throughout the South Mountain 
region as rounded inclusions in the gneiss. They are usually 
coarse crystalline and massive, devoid of schistosity. They vary 
in size from less than one to nearly one hundred feet in diameter. 
The schistose laminae of the gneisses are observed to bend around 
these inclusions, showing that they were formed before the force 
producing schistosity was exerted, which they resisted owing to 
their superior solidity and hardness. These masses are looked 
upon as basic segregations from the original igneous magma out 
of which the gneisses were formed. Their concentric structure 
becomes evident on weathering. So far as present observations 
go, their outcrop occupies a broken line, following the South 
Mountain chain in a direction approximately S. 60° "VV. Plate 
XIII shows above (1) a section of one of these smaller pyroxenite 



158 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



blebs, partly altered to talc, to be seen in the bank by the road 
side, on Brindle ridge, Burke county. The lower half of this 
plate (2) is from a photograph of a much larger amphibolite bleb, 
which caps a low hill in the Turkey cove region, 1 mile north of 
Bracket-towm, McDowell county. 

The pyroxene in these rocks is monoclinic and non-pleochroic. 
In the amphibolites the hornblende shows light green pleochroism,. 
though in one instance it was observed to be bluish green to 
yellowish brown. The extinction angles are sometimes very high, 
24° and even 30°. The usual accessory minerals are magnetite 
and pyrite, which are sometimes present in considerable quanti- 
ties. These rocks are universally altered to serpentine or talc, 
often completely so ; and the serpentine possesses the character- 
istic fibrous grated structure, common to that formed from pyrox- 
ene or amphibole. 

THE GOLD-BEARING QUARTZ VEINS. 

The auriferous quartz veins of the South Mountain region are 
true fissure veins. Indeed the fissure system is the most regular, 
persistent and remarkable, from a point of almost absolute paral- 
lelism, in the State. The strike is N". 60° to 70° E., and the dip is 
from 70° to 80° "N. W. The thickness of these veins varies from a 
mere knife edge to four feet. The great majority are from less 
than 1 to 3 inches thick, the larger ones (1 to 1 feet) being few 
and far between. They appear to lie in belts, composed of scores 
of small veins close together, and there seems to be some regularity 
in the spacing between the large veins. Faulting has been noticed 
in but few instances, and there the throw was only from J to 3 
inches, always in a normal direction. At the Marion Bullion mine 
one of the veins is stated to be cut by a granitic dike, and thrown 4 
feet to the south ; but this could not be verified, and will require 
some further investigation. The veins vary in thickness, both on 
the strike and in depth ; but they hold their parallelism so far as 
at present explored (the deepest shaft in the district is 126 feet) ; 
and there is no reason for supposing, as is the quite general 
belief of the natives, that they will come together in depth ; in 
fact this would be unlikely and exceptional. The veins themselves,. 



DISTRIBUTION OK THE QUARTZ VEINS. 159 

it is true, are sometimes split by "'hordes" of the country rock, and 
at times have stringers running off from them at an angle, but 
individually they will preserve their parallelism in depth. 

The ore or filling of the fissure veins is quartz, usually of a 
milky white color, generally saccharoidal, and seldom, if ever, 
vitreous or glassy. It is often stained brown and is cellular from 
decomposed sulphurets. The stained, saccharoidal quartz is 
usually the richest. Sulphurets occur below the water-level ; 
these are pyrites, galena, chalcopyrite and sphalerite. All obser- 
vations go to chow that the vein matter is formed from ascend- 
ing mineralized solutions. There is no evidence of replacement 
of the country rock by ore. 

There is another system of quartz bodies, which lie interlami- 
nated in the gneisses as small, discontinuous lenses. This quartz 
is glassy, contains some mica and feldspar, and is barren. It is 
locally known as "water-quartz." 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE QUARTZ VEINS. 

The quartz veins appear to be concentrated in aggregates along 
parallel belts or zones within the general ore bearing region. So 
far as can be asserted at present there are five (5) such principal 
belts. (This is subject to revision on further investigation.) 

(1) The Morganton Belt ; passing through Morganton, along 
Little Silver creek, and through the Neighbor's Place to near 
North Muddy creek. 

(2) The Huntsville Belt, passing over the southern end of 
Hants ville mountain. 

(3) The Pilot Mountain Belt, passing over Hall's Knob, 
White's Knob, Pilot Mountain, Bracket-town and Vein Moun- 
tain, to and beyond the Second Broad river. 

(4) The Golden Valley Belt, passing across the upper cud of 
the Golden Yalley (valley of the First Broad river), and crossing 
Cane and Camp creeks to the Second Broad river. 

(5) The Idler Mine Belt, about three miles north of Kuther- 
fordton. 



11 



160 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The maximum breadth, in a north and south direction, across 
the ore bearing formation as a whole is about seventeen (17) 
miles. 

THE VALUE OF THE QUARTZ VEINS. 

It is difficult to estimate with any degree of satisfaction the 
real value of these auriferous quartz vein deposits. Samples run- 
ning several hundred dollars to the ton maybe selected from the 
richer portions of the veins, but they are of course not represent- 
ative. Other samples may show only a mere trace of gold and 
silver. From $5 to $20 per ton may be considered the more usual 
value of the average good grade of ore, dependent on the size of 
the vein. The wider veins are generally poorer in gold than the 
narrow ones. Wherever in this region there has been surface 
mining, many boulders are seen piled up which are evidently 
largely derived from veins of considerable size. Some assays of 
these large fragments, both from Brindletown and Golden Valley 
show only from $1.00 to $2.50 gold per ton. The fineness of the 
gold varies in different portions of the region 1 . Thus in the 
Brindletown district it is from 825 to 850; in McDowell county 
(Marion Bullion and Vein Mountain mines) from 780 to 800 ; in 
the Golden Valley, Eutherford county, 900; and in Polk county 
from 900 to 950. 

METHOD OF WORKING THE QUARTZ VEIN DEPOSITS. 

The great majority of these quartz veins are too small to be 
"profitably worked individually, on any regular mining scale. 
The natives, both men and women, often hunt for and find the 
rich streaks of the small veins, which they mine in narrow open 
cuts, and extract the gold by crushing with another rock and 
panning. They frequently make from 75 cents to $1.50 per day 
in this way, of which they are supposed to pay a toll or royalty of 
J to the owners. 

When the conformation of the ground admits, and the gulches 
are deep enough, the whole formation, including many of the 
small veins of quartz, may easily be undermined to a great depth, 

1 See article by Mr. O. B. Hanna, Engineering and Mining Journal, Sept. 18, 1886 : also 
"The Ores of North Carolina," 1887, p. 235. 



SOUTH MOUNTAIN REGION PLACER DEPOSITS. 161 

and the whole mass washed down into sluices, and thence to the 
mill for battery treatment and amalgamation of the auriferous 
quartz and hard masses, as is the practise in the Dahlonega dis- 
trict, Georgia. 

At the Carolina Queen mine in Burke county there stands a 
five stamp mill, which at one time treated the ore from a great 
number of small veins (2 to 1 inches), obtained by hydraulicking 
and sluicing ; this mill is now idle. Capt. J. C. Mills of Brindle- 
town, Burke county, has treated the ore from a series of small 
veins similarly in a small stamp mill, as he reports, quite suc- 
cessfully ; his mill was destroyed by lire a number of years ago 
and never rebuilt. 

Some of the larger quartz veins have been opened by shafts and 
underground drifts, as for instance the "Nichols" vein (18 inches 
to 3 feet) at Yein Mountain in McDowell county. At the Idler 
mine in Rutherford count} 7 a vein 22 inches thick has been 
opened to a depth of probably 100 feet. 

However, no vein mining of any magnitude has yet been done 
in the South Mountain region. It has been altogether of a desul- 
tory and spasmodic nature. In the whole region there are but 
two well appointed stamp mills, namely at the Yein Mountain, 
and the Carolina Queen mines. The Marion Bullion mine is 
equipped with a Huntington mill. No proper attempt has as 
yet been made to concentrate and treat the sulphurets. If, as 
reported, there are regular bodies of ore in the district, ranging 
from IS inches to 3 feet in thickness, and running from $5 to $1 ■> 
per ton, it seems difficult to understand why they should not be 
the basis of highly profitable mining enterprises. 

THE PLACER DEPOSITS. 

The Placer Deposits are of three classes : (1) The gravel beds 
of the streams and adjoining bottom lands, deposited by tiuviatile 
action ; (2) the gulch and hillside deposits, or the accumulations 
due to secular disintegration and motion, induced by frost action 
and gravity; (3) the upper decomposed layer of the country rock 
itself, the rotten rock in place. 



162 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

In the first class the gravel is waterworn, rounded to sub-angu- 
lar, and the deposits are from 1 to 2 feet in thickness. In the 
second class the gravel is usually quite angular, and the depos- 
its are from a few inches to several feet in thickness. In the 
third class gravel is of course absent, the washable ground consist- 
ing of the upper decomposed layer in place, and the gold being 
derived directly from the partially disintegrated quartz veins. 
, The gravel is for the most part quartz, and among the beds are 
frequently found fragments of quartz with threads, plates, and 
crystals of native gold. These fragments, in many cases, evi- 
dently represent the entire thickness of the veins from which they 
came. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE PLACER DEPOSITS. 

The principal stream deposits are those of Silver and South 
Muddy creeks and their numerous tributaries in Burke and 
McDowell counties ; the First Broad river and its tributaries in 
Rutherford county, and the Second Broad river with its tributa- 
ries in McDowell and Kutherford counties. All of these streams 
have their source in the South mountains. 

Most of the easily accessible stream deposits have been 
exhausted, and placer mining is being more strictly confined to 
the deep gravel channels, the gulch, and the decomposed country 
deposits. Their distribution is very general along the bottoms, 
highlands and ridges drained by the previously mentioned streams, 
and the principal centers of operation are at Brindletown, Brack- 
et-town and Vein Mountain. 

VALUE OF THE PLACER DEPOSITS. 

As no records have ever been kept it is not possible to say what 
the ground will yield in gold to the cubic yard. It is naturally 
quite variable from a few cents to as high as $20 a cubic yard. 1 
But it will run more generally from 4 to 50 cents. 

The character of this gold is usually quite fine, although in 
certain localities some coarse gold is found ; the largest nug- 
gets have been found in a gulch on the western slope of 

^nCapt. J. C Mills' land at Brindletown, Burke county, a small area of ground was 
worked by tunneling on a gravel channel, and save a daily yield of $180 to a volume of 
ground 5 by 7 by 6 feet (about 8 cubic yards), or $20 per cubic yard. 



PLACER DEPOSITS METHODS OF WORKING, ETC. 163 

Hnntsville mountain in McDowell county. One weighing five 
(5) pounds was washed out here. 

METHODS OF WORKING THE PLACER DEPOSITS. 

Simple sluicing is the common method employed in working 
these gravel deposits. Both ground sluices and wooden sluice 
boxes are used. The former are from 20 to 50 feet in length, 20 
inches wide and from 12 to 20 inches deep ; they are simply 
trenches cut into the soft bed rock, being unlined and unpaved. 
The wooden sluice boxes are from 8 to 15 feet in length, 12 to 20 
inches in depth, 20 inches in width at the upper and 18 inches at 
the lower end, so as to fit into each other in case more than one is 
used. Each box is fitted with from one to two riffles. The grade 
of the sluices is from 1J to 3 inches per 100 feet. The head box 
is fitted with a "grizzly," or perforated iron plate, on which the 
dirt and gravel to be washed are charged. The sluices are then 
worked over constantly with gravel forks or perforated shovels, 
and the larger rocks and pebbles are thrown out. 

The native miners, working on their own account, known as 
"tributers," ordinarily use a single sluice box, which they move from 
place to place, working spasmodically as the inclination strikes 
them. They pay a toll of 161 per cent, to the owners of the land. 
Fron 75 cents to $1.00 per day is considered good work by them. 

At the larger mines hydraulicking is employed, under a pres- 
sure of from 50 to 200 feet, with 12 inch mains, reduced to alf 
inch nozzle. The hydraulic elevator has also been used success- 
fully in raising the gravel to fall line. 

WATER SUPPLY FOR PLACER MINING. 

The numerous mountain streams afford a fairly good, though 
not over abundant, amount of water for mining purposes. These 
streams are small in size but their flow is unfailing throughout 
all normal seasons, and they can be concentrated by ditch lines 
in sufficient volume for sluicing and hydraulicking purposes at 
many points. The chief impediment i^ in the loss of grade 
before the mining ground in the foot-hills and bottom-lands is 
reached, due to the deep and numerous indentations in the moun- 
tains. Reservoirs are sometimes necessarv to store the water, in 



164 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

order to obtain a requisite supply and head. It is impossible to 
wafer some portions of the hillside ground, except by pumping 
into reservoirs constructed above. 

There are several long ditch lines, augmented by flumes, in 
the region ; one of these is over 10 miles in length. The size of 
the ditches varies from 12 to 18 inches across the bottom. 20 to 
30 inches across the top, and 12 to 20 inches in depth. The 
best grade is found to be from ii to 3 inches per 100 feet. 

A considerable obstacle is often met with in the lack of sufficient 
dumping ground for the tailings, the grade of the streams being 
too small to carry off all of the sand. In some instances this 
could be overcome by freeing the larger streams from debris and 
drift wood, and in removing other natural impediments, such as 
shoals. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE GOLD DEPOSITS AND MINES IN 
THE SOUTH MOUNTAIN REGION. 

BURKE COUNTY. 

The Hancock Mine is a placer digging situated at the foot of 
the northeast slope of Hall's Knob. The thickness of the gravel 
bed is from 1 to 1 J feet, and that of the overlay averages 25 feet. 
Directly above the gravel is a peaty bed, containing blackened 
stems and trunks of pine wood. 

A sluice, 2i miles in length, brings the needed water supply, 
with a head of 40 to 60 feet. When last visited (in the summer 
of 1895) the mine was being worked on a small scale by tribu- 
ters. The gravel was under fall which necessitated its being 
worked in pits, and raised by shovel into the sluice boxes. A 
rough estimate made of one of these pits shows that the yield was 
about 14 cents per cubic yard. 

The Carolina Queen Mine is situated on the northeastern 
slope of White's Knob, on Hall's creek. A series of small (1 to 
3 inch) parallel veins has been hydraulicked and sluiced in the 
upper decomposed layer, over a width of about 300 feet of 
ground. One of these veins (the so-called "Fisher" vein) has 



BURKE COUNTY MINES. 165 

been explored in a trench £ mile long to a depth of 50 feet. 
The material was sluiced to a 5 stamp mill close by, where it was 
milled. The ditch lines aggregate 5 to 6 miles in length. The 
strike of the quartz veins is N. 50° to 60° E., and the dip is 75° 
to 80° 1ST. W. The schistosity of the gneiss strikes N. 20° W. 
and dips 20° N. E. The mine is now idle. The placer ground 
on Hall's creek has been practically exhausted. 

The Hodge Property is situated on Silver creek, about 3? 
miles north of Pilot mountain. It comprises considerable placer 
ground along the creek and adjoining bottoms, at present filled 
with sand and not workable, without the production of some arti- 
ficial fall. During the summer of 1894 a number of prospect 
pits were sunk on the adjoining hills in garnetiferous, sillimanite 
schist, containing considerable secondary quartz, which was mis- 
taken for gold ore. Several samples, some of which contained 
pyrite, w r ere collected here by the Survey, assays 1 of which showed 
no more than the merest trace of gold, and a maximum of 1 
ounce in silver. Further search for gold in this ground is ill 
advised. 

The J. C. Mills Property at Brindletown covers a large ter- 
ritory on both sides of Silver creek, including the eastern half of 
Pilot mountain. 

A vast amount of gold has been obtained here since the first 
discovery in 1828, and much of the gravel has been washed over 
three times with good results. Considerable work has been done 
on the hillside and gulch deposits, and much of this ground is 
still virgin and valuable. Some of the richest channels have 
yielded the exceptional output of $20 per cubic yard. (See p. 162.) 

From Pilot mountain and along its lower slopes a number of 
gravel channels radiate in all directions, some of which have 
been located and worked as high as water could be obtainded, 
such as the AVhite Bank and Magazine mines. But a large 
amount of virgin ground still remains here that has not been 
worked for lack of water. Pilot mountain is an entirely isolated 
peak, and the only means of obtaining water sufficiently high 



1 Assays Nos. 251, 253. 253 of the Survey laboratory series, by Dr. ('lias. Baskervllle for the 
N.C. Geological Survey. 



166 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

for mining puposes, would be either by pumping into reservoirs, 
or by means of a siphon line (about 1 mile in length) from "Hard 
Bargain" gap, to which water could be brought from the head- 
waters of the First Broad river, in a ditch line from 15 to 20 
miles in length. 

The total length of the several ditch lines on this property is 
about 20 miles, with 4800 feet of fluming. The longest flume is 
600 feet, and the highest trestle 28 feet. The grade is \\ to 3 
inches in 100 feet. The ditches are 18 inches deep by 24 inches 
wide. Cost of ditching is 25 cents per rod. The flumes are 18 
inches wide by 12 inches deep. In places where the grade is 
less than the above mentioned the ditches and flumes are made 
wider. The head obtained is from 60 to 200 feet. 

Along the waters of Brindle creek the quartz veins in the 
decomposed country have been hydraulicked and sluiced, but no 
regular vein mining has been attempted. The veins are small, 
with few exceptions, (one vein on the Mill's place is from 12 to 
18 inches thick, but it is almost barren in gold, at least where 
exposed). They strike and dip in the normal direction. The 
strike of the crystalline schists averages N. 20° W., dip 20° X. E. 

Altogether this has been the most extensively worked tract 
in the South Mountain region. During the past year the Pied- 
mont Mineral Company, limited, erected a new hydraulicking 
plant with gravel elevators, and regular operations are probably 
in progress by this time. 

Mcdowell county. 

The Marion Bullion Company owns an extensive mining 
tract, situated at Bracket-town, in the valley of the headwaters 
of South Muddy creek. The accessible placer ground has been 
worked to the head of the present ditch line. By building new 
reservoirs and ditches at a greater elevation a considerable area 
of virgin ground might be made available here ; and by remov- 
ing several shoals in Muddy creek the fall of the same might be 
lowered sufficiently to work the stream and adjoining bottom 
gravels, heretofore inaccessible. 



MCDOWELL COUNTY MARION BULLION COMPANY PROPERTY. 167 

It is not possible to state any definite value of these deposits. 
In a general way, the hillside and gulch ground ranges from 4 
to 50 cents per cubic yard, while the gravel of the bottom land 
will run as high as $1.00 per cubic yard. 

A number of small quartz veins have been prospected on the 
property. The most extensive explorations in this direction 
w T ere made during the past few years by sinking a vertical shaft 
(7 by 11 feet cross-section) to a depth of 126 feet on a series of 
six narrow quartz veins, lying close together. 

The country rock is biotite gneiss striking N. 10° W., and 
dipping 15° to 20° N. E. It is lenticular in structure, and 
encloses lenses of a hiffhly altered greenish sericite gneiss. 

Near the outcrop the quartz veins vary from 1 to 6 inches in 
thickness, and are from 1 to 3 feet apart ; they are parallel and 
strike N. 68° E., dipping from 63° to 70° N". W. The prime 
object of the shaft was to ascertain whether these veins would 
grow larger and come together in depth, according to a popular 
but fallacious belief; instead of this, they are found to pinch out 
to less than one inch at the bottom of the shaft, and to maintain 
their distance apart. Two small normal faults were observed in 
the veins, of as much as \ inch throw. The quartz is saccharoi- 
dal, and mineralized with galena, blende, chalcopyrite and some 
pyrite. The wall rock itself, though not highly so, is impreg- 
nated with pyrite to a greater extent than the vein matter. 

The quartz alone from these veins gives assay values ranging 
from $4.00 to $20.00 per ton in gold and silver. At the depth 
of 115 feet a sample of the entire shaft material, vein quartz and 
wall rock, assayed $4. SO 1 . A test mill run was made in Septem- 
ber, 1894, in a Huntington mill and two Frue vanners, situated 
on the property. Fifty-four tons of quartz and rock were treated; 
of this amount one-fourth was quartz from the 50 foot level in the 
shaft, three tons were float quartz, collected in hvdraulicking on 
another part of the property, and the remainder was rock and 
vein quartz from the shaft. The result was 71 dwts. of free gold, 
caught as amalgam in the body of the mill beneath the stationary 

1 Assay No. 235 (of the Survey laboratory series) by Dr. Chas. liaskerville, assistant 
chemist, N. C. Geological Survey. 



168 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

grinding plate, and on the Hungarian riffles ; practically no gold 
was obtained from the silvered copper plates. The concentrates 
from the two Frne manners amounted to 2 tons, which were so 
dirty that they were run over and reduced to 260 pounds. The 
tailings on this second run showed enormous loss, especially in 
galena and floured amalgam, due either to the inefficiency of the 
vanner or more probably to inexperience in operating the same. 
An assay 1 of the final concentrates showed only $7.88 per ton, and 
a sample of the tailings gave $2.63 2 . This is certainly discour- 
aging. If further and more extended exploration can show that 
the entire rock mass, at least over a considerable width, in the 
bottom of the shaft and in the cross cuts, will average from 83.50 
to $4.50 per ton, then, by careful and intelligent management 
the. mine might be a profitable low grade proposition : but cer- 
tainly no dependence can ever be placed on the small veins alone. 

The Vein Mountain Property comprises a large tract of land 
extending from Vein Mt. on the Second Broad river in a north- 
easterly direction to Huntsville Mt., a distance of about 4 miles. 
The gulch deposits of Vein mountain have been hydrau licked to 
points as high as water was accessible by the ditch line, 16 miles 
in length. A careful and extensive examination 3 of the gravel 
still left in the gulches shows a range in value from 15? cents to 
$1.28 per square yard of bed rock on which it lies ; and a simi- 
lar examination of the soil of Vein mountain shows from 5| to 24 
cents per square yard of bed rock. On the Vein mountain end 
of the tract there appear to be 87 acres of superior gravel, rang- 
ing from 39? to 55 cents, and 169 acres ranging from 15? to 19 
cents per square yard of bed. 

The gulch deposits in the western slope of Huntsville moun- 
tain have been worked to some extent, and yielded a considera- 
ble amount of coarse gold. In a narrow mud seam at the head 
of one of these gulches a nugget weighing 5 pounds was found. 

The crystalline schists at Vein mountain have a general strike 
of N. 10° to 15° W., dipping 30° 1ST." E. A nitmber of small 

1 By Dr. Chas. Baskerville, assistant chemist of the N. C. Geological Survey. Assay No. 254 
of the Survey laboratory series. 

2 By Dr. C. Baskerville. Assay No. 255 of the Survev laboratory series. 
3 By Mr. G. B. Haima. 



RUTHERFORD COUNTY THE ALTA MINE. 169 

a 

pegmatitic (?) dikes cut the country at various angles, with 
unmistakable signs of faulting. 

A series of as many as thirty-three (33) parallel auriferous 
quartz veins crosses at Yein mountain in a belt not over £ mile 
wide. The principal and largest one of these is the "Nichols" 
vein, which has been prospected in four shafts, the deepest one 
being 117 feet. Shaft No. 1 is 1200 feet east of No. 4, and 100 
feet above it in elevation. The strike of this vein is about N. 
80° E., and its dip varies from 75° N. W. to nearly vertical. 
Its thickness is reported to vary from a few inches to three (3) 
feet, the usual portion of the vein worked being from 15 to 30 
inches. Below the water level the quartz is mineralized with 
sulphurets, chiefly pyrite and some chalcopyrite, galena and 
blende. A number of assays show the following variation in 
the value of the quartz. : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Nichols Vein, Vein Mountain. 

(285) 

Gold (per ton) $2.58 

Silver " " trace. 



(286) 


(287) 


(288) 


(289) 


(290) 


(291) 


$4.17 


$6.20 


$10.33 


$13.43 


$12.40 


$70.28 


trace. 


trace. 


trace. 


trace. 


1.51 


5.43 



$2.58 $4 17 $6.20 $10 33 $13.43 $13.91 $75.71 

According to the statement of the present superintendent, 
Mr. B. G. Gaden, mill runs of the ore have averaged $15 and 
$17 per ton. If any such values can be obtained in. quantity, 
there is no reason why the mine should not be operated at a 
great profit, and the present inactivity is difficult to explain. 
There is a ten stamp mill in good condition, without any con- 
centration machinery, on the property. 

RUTHERFORD COUNTY. 

The Alta (Monarch or Idler) Mine is situated about 5 miles 
north of Rutherford ton, on the divide between Cathey's creek 
and the second Broad river. 

As many as thirteen parallel quartz veins have been explored 
here, within a distance of £ mile across the strike. The four 
larger veins are known as the Monarch, Alta, Carson, and Glen- 
dale. These various veins have been worked since 1815 by 
numerous shallow open cuts, pits, and shafts, down to the water 



170 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

level, and the ore was milled in arrastras. The last work was 
done on the Alta vein some 2 or 3 years ago. A shaft was sunk 
here to a depth of 105 feet, but the workings were inaccessible 
when visited, and the following notes are taken from several 
outside reports on the property. The strike of the Alta vein is 
approximately N. 65° E. The thickness of the vein varies from 
10 to 22, averaging perhaps 15 inches. The quartz is of a milky 
variety, mineralized with pyrite and some chalcopyrite. The 
ore contains from 1 to 20 per cent, of sulphurets, averag- 
ing about 5 per cent. One statement gives its average yield 
in free gold, by mill test, at $10 per ton ; another gives 830 ; 
and the value of the concentrates has been stated to be 8100 per 
ton. There is a 5 stamp mill, in very poor condition, on the 
property. 

The Ellwood Mine is situated 3 miles N. 20° E. from Ruther- 
fordton and li miles southwest from the Alta mine, on the waters 
of Cathey creek. 

A series of five parallel quartz veins, 100 feet and more apart, 
was first opened here some 50 years ago. The last work was done 
in 1893, but barely paid expenses as stated by the present owner, 
a fact which it is difficult to reconcile with the subsequent state- 
ments. At no point have the veins been worked below water 
level. The country gneisses strike N. 60° \Y., and dip 25° Is". E. 
The veins strike K. 50° E., and dip 80° 1ST. W. The thickness 
of the larger veins varies from 10 to 15 inches. The ore is reported 
to run $5 to $7 per ton in free gold. It shows some sulphurets, 
pyrite and chalcopyrite. The sulphuretted ore is reported to run 
$20 per ton. 

The Leeds Mine is situated on a quartz vein parallel to and 
100 feet north of the Ellwood veins. It has been abandoned 
many years and is inaccessible. 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS AS TO MINING OPERA- 
TIONS IN THE SOUTH MT. REGION. 

AREAS STILL AVAILABLE FOR MINING. 

In the South Mountain region there are considerable areas of 
placer mining ground still worthy of attention. The operations 



IMPROVEMENT IN WORKING METHODS. 171 

of the past, when little capital and machinery were employed, 
were necessarily confined to such deposits as lay near water, or to 
which water could easily be brought. Theie is still a considera- 
ble amount of gold in the beds which remained untouched, as well 
as in those which have been carelessly or or rudely worked over — 
some of them more than once. Indeed, some of the richest of 
these deposits have remained unworked on account of the diffi- 
culty of bringing a supply of water to their level, being situated 
considerably above the neighboring streams, or the higher slopes 
and benches along the foot hills of the mountains. Attention 
should be directed to operations on a larger and more systematic 
scale, than has heretofore been generally in vogue in the district; 
and by this means the ground can also be more thoroughly pros- 
pected and the workable channels more accurately located. 

IMPROVEMENT IN WORKING METHODS. 

The methods of working are susceptible of improvement. 
Where the gravel is below the grade of the water courses, and 
this is so frequently the case in the district, the more general 
application of the hydraulic elevator is advocated. 

TREATMENT OF CLAY BALLS "SLUICE ROBBERS." 

A very frequent source of loss and annoyance is occasioned by 
the formation of clay balls in the sluices, which in rolling pick up 
fine particles of gold and carry them off. These are the so-called 
"sluice robbers." The clay is stiff and greasy, and it is almost 
impossible to break it up into fine mud before it reaches the 
sluices. In many instances the miners should, by more careful 
attention with the gravel fork, prevent its entrance into the head 
of the sluices. Should it be impossible, with all careful precau- 
tions, to avoid the formation of these clay balls, it is suggested 
that they be collected at the end of the sluice, and, either dried 
and afterwards pulverized and washed, or treated directly in some 
sort of puddling boxes. 

IMPROVEMENT OF WATER CONDUITS. 

Concerning the water conduits, considerable distance and grade 
can in instances be saved by the construction of closed pipe lines 



172 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

or "siphons" across the gulches and hollows, where trestling and 
fluming are impracticable. The ditch lines should also be more 
carefully surveyed and located ; thus on the Marion Bullion Com- 
pany's propei ty the present ditch line could be raised perhaps 
some 50 feet, which would water new mining ground for manv 
years to come. The construction of better reservoirs for impound- 
ing the water, where necessary, should also be looked to. 

DISPOSITION OF THE TAILINGS. 

The question of attaining an adequate grade for carrying off* 
the tailings is of paramount importance. It is often possible to 
work a hydraulic mine to advantage, but the fall of the stream 
below may be insufficient for carrying off the debris or tailings, 
which are almost wholly fine sand and mud. 

In instances this may be overcome by straightening the stream, 
cutting off bends by canals, and by removing such natural obstruc- 
tions as shoals. By thus cleaning out a stream, portions of its 
bed gravel may also be made available for washing. Thus a 
crude survey of the upper part of South Muddy creek has shown 
that by removing the Taylor shoal the surface of the stream 
above can be lowered so as to reach the bed rock on the Marion 
Bullion Company's land. 

Another important matter is the ^disposition of the tailings. 
Unless there be sufficient current and volume of water the stream 
will become filled with fine sand, and eventually overflow its 
banks, depositing the sand and rendering the adjoining bottom 
lands waste. In the South Mountain region this is very apt to be 
the case, and as the bottoms are considered the most valuable part 
of the farming land, the consequence of impairing them may result 
in serious litigation, as has been the case in California. 

The only means of averting this trouble is to devise some arti- 
ficial dumping ground for the tailings, such as may be attained by 
the construction of canals and dams. 

MONAZITE DEPOSITS IN THIS REGION. 

Attention is called to the value of the mineral monazite, which 
has of late years come into demand for the manufacture of the 



OTHER MINES IX SOUTH MT. BELT. 173 

incandescent light mantles, as an important product in many of 
the gold placer mines of this region. 

DEEP MINING IN THE SOUTH MOUNTAIN REGION. 

Referring to the upper decomposed rock layer with its innum- 
erable auriferous quartz veinlets, a combination sluice and mill 
treatment by the Georgia method may in many cases be applicable. 

But little encouragement can be given to deep mining in the 
South Mountain region. It is of course impracticable to mine the 
small quartz veins, so abundant in the region, to any depth. 
They are too narrow, and not sufficiently rich in gold ; nor will 
they unite in depth, as is the prevalent belief of many. There are 
a few larger veins, such as the Nichols and the Alta, which would 
apparently warrant further exploitation. They sh >uld be opened 
below the water level in depth, and for some distance along the 
strike so as to expose a fair amount and the various grades of ore 
in sight. Cross-cuts should also be driven so as to determine the 
proximity of other veins of importance, if there be any. If then, 
careful and impartial samples be taken for assay, or better still, 
mill tests be made, the probable value of the mine can soon be 
established. According to outside reports there are ores here 
which rank in quality with those of successful operating mines 
elsewhere. This, however, needs verification ; the Survey can 
make no definite statements in the light of present conditions. 
Finally, if upon proper investigation, such mines are really proven 
to contain workable ores, they should be operated under proper 
business management and technical skill, and with sufficient 
equipment and working capital to insure their success. The 
stamp mill, with concentration and chlorination works should be 
tenaciously adhered to. 



DESCRIPTION OF MINES IN OTHER PORTIONS OF THE 
GENEKAL SOUTH MT. BELT. 

POLK COUNTY. 

The Polk county deposits, some 25 miles southwest, appear to 
he an extension of the deposits of the South Mountain area. The 



174 GOLD DEDOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

gravel of this county is much like that of Burke, McDowell and 
Rutherford, but the region is lacking in the natural advantages, 
which, in these latter counties constitute so important a feature in 
working the deposits ; and from this detect, chiefly, the mining has 
languished. In this county gold occurs in both placers and veins — 
strikingly similar to the placers and veins in the larger areas just 
discussed. At present the localities are hardly more than names, 
for the desultory work carried on cannot be called mining. The 
better known localities are the Pattie Abrams, Wetherbee, Red 
Springs, Tom Arms, Splawn, Ponder, Riding, L. A. Mills, Car- 
penter, Hamilton, Neal, Maclntire, Double Branch and Prince. 
These all had a good reputation in the palmy days of mining, 
while the deposits contiguous to water lasted, but at present 
none can be worked on a large scale without a larger supply of 
water than can be obtained from the vicinity of the mines. 

The eastern part of this county is comparatively flat, and a 
sufficient supply of water with a good head could be obtained 
only from the North Pacolet river in the southwest part of the 
county, by a ditch 20 miles long. 

The Prince Mine is exclusively a placer working, and it is not 
known that veins exist. The better quality of quartz found in 
the top dirt shows an ounce of gold per ton, by assay. 

The Red Spring Mine has 3 veins ; and the Splawn mine has 
a massive vein of low grade quartz. 

On the Double Branch Property, some assays of a narrow 
quartz vein (1 to 3 inches in width) show enormous variations: 

Assays, Gold Quartz, Double Branch Mine, Polk County. 

(292) (293) (294) (295) 

Gold, per ton $2.07 $23.77 $465.07 $9.30 

Silver, " " trace trace 1.43 trace. 



$ 2.07 $23.77 $466.50 $ 9.30 

292. Barren looking quartz. 293. Lively quartz, with string of brown ore, sampled 
across vein, %y 2 inches. 

294. Sampled across vein, 1 inch (Brown Ore). 295. Compact pyrites, covered with 
coating of brown oxide. 

At the Smith Mine, \ mile east of the above, there are similar 
rich narrow veins, the occurrence being strikingly like that at the 
Carolina Queen mine in Burke county. 



BURKE AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 175 

BURKE COUNTY. 

The Brown Mountain Mine is situated 13 miles north of Mor- 
ganton on Caney branch, a tributary of Upper creek. The main 
mass of Brown Mt. is made of granite, while its western slope, 
towards Upper creek, is composed of chloritic schists. The mine 
openings, which amount simply to prospects, consist of two 
shafts and one small open cut. Shaft No. 1 is 20 feet deep, in 
coarse grained granite. The quartz appears to lie in irreg- 
ular stringers in the granite, varying from 1 to 6 inches in 
thickness; sulphurets occur sparingly. An open cut, 6 by 15 
feet by 5 feet deep, is situated 75 feet southeast of shaft No. 1, 
and exposes a ledge of granular, milky quartz, 7 feet wide, inter- 
calated with chloritic schist. It has a barren appearance. The 
dip is 75° S. E. 

Shaft No. 2 is situated \ mile west of No. 1. It is 25 feet 
deep, and exposes two bodies of chloritic schist, each about 2 feet 
in thickness, lying in decomposed granite, and striki g N. 60° W., 
with a dip of 75° S. W. The most southwesterly one of these is 
well impregnated with quartz lenses and stringers, and presuma- 
bly constitutes tho. ore. 

Gen. R. F. Hoke, of Raleigh, N. C, the owner of the property, 
furnished an assay of a sample, taken from "The shaft on the top 
of the hill", (presumably shaft No. 2), which showed $15.42 per 
ton (gold $12.40, silver $3.02). A sample taken from the ore 
dump at the mouth of this shaft by the present survey, showed 
only a trace of gold and one ounce of silver. 1 

More extended prospecting is to be recommended here before 
the value of the deposits can be determined. The bed of Caney 
branch was washed for gold in former years, up to a point about 
opposite to shaft No. 1, and is reported to have yielded well. 

CALDWELL COUNTY. 

The Miller, Scott Hill, Pax Hill and Baker mines are situated 
on the waters of Johns river near the southern boundary line of 
the county. 

1 Assay sample No. 268. Dr. Chas. Baskerville, Chemist. 

12 



176 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Their respective positions are 
better shown in the accompanying 
topographic sketch, fig. 15, taken 
from the Morganton sheet of the 



Jsf 



United States Geological Surv 



ey- 




Fig. 15. Topographic map : showing 

li miles northwest of Hart- S^ f ^nier, Scott Hm < Pax Hm < 

Scale 1 inch— 2 miles. Contour Inter- 
val 1U0 feet. 



These mines are located on parallel 
veins, in each instance in close prox- 
imity to a wide diabase dike, which 
strikes across the mica gneiss conn- 
try in a direction about N. 20° W. 
ISTone of the mines have been oper- 
ated for some years past, and they 
are now entirely inaccessible, 
wherefore but little can be- said of 
them. 

The Miller and Scott Hill 
Mines adjoin each other, and are 
situated on the waters of Seley's 
creel 
land P. O. 

The branches and adjoining hill ground have been worked for 
placer gold. A. series of parallel veins have been explored by a 
great number of cuts, tunnels and shallow shafts. Judging from 
the course of these old diggings the strike of the veins is N. 50° 
— 60° E., with a dip to the northwest. The float quartz which 
was observed here is of a white vitreous variety, and the largest 
pieces are 12 inches in thickness. 

A five stamp mill was at one time in operation at the Miller 
mine, but it is now converted into a distillery. The diabase dike 
passes near this building and strikes N". 20° W. ; it is probably 
over 100 feet wide. 

The Pax Hill Mine is 1 mile northwest of the Miller and 
Scott Hill mines. Some placer work has been done here. Three 
main veins have been opened, situated about 30 yards apart, and 
striking N. 60° E. They are reported to be respectively S, 10 
and 12 inches wide. 



CALDWELL COUNTY MINES. 177 

The Baker Mine has been more extensively worked than any 
of the above mentioned. It is situated on the western slope of 
Davis mountain, near the river. $ 

The country schists and gneisses strike northeast, and dip 
southeastward. The diabase dike at this point is very wide (over 
75 feet), and is largely altered to serpentine, intersected by nar- 
row veinlets of chrysotile. The quartz veins are in the schist and 
run northwest and southeast ; it is not certainly known whether 
they continue into and across the serpentine. 

There are four principal veins ; the more northerly is the Bras- 
well, which has a large boldly projecting outcrop, but has never 
been much examined. It strikes N. 35° W., and dips about 60° 
N. E. ; its width is from 2 to 5 feet. The Goley Ann vein bears 
N. 39° W., and dips 70° N. E. ; it is narrow at the surface. 

The Shaft vein is next, to the southwest; it strikes E". 45° W., 
and dips 66° to 75° N. E. It is from 20 to 2-1 inches in width, 
and has been opened at points 200 yards apart. The quartz 
veinstone carries scattered galenite and associated minerals. 

The Cabin vein is still further south, and was worked at points 
100 yards apart ; it strikes 1ST. 35° W., dips 60° JST. E., and is 20 
inches wide. The veinstone is quartz with ferruginous matter 
and galenite in considerable quantities. The galenite is highly 
auriferous as well as argentiferous ; some assays 1 of the pure 
material show : 

Assays, Ores from Shaft Vein and Cabin Vein, Baker Mine, Caldwell Co. 

Shaft Vein.' Cabin Vein. 

(296) (297) 

Gold, per ton $ 87.31 $ 31.00 

Silver, per ton 21 21 87.89 

$108.55 $12189 

Lead, per cent 81$ 83 b% 

The quartz of all the veins, aside from the galenite, carries 
gold. The surface and particularly the gulches and streams were 
originally rich in placer gold. 

Adjoining the Baker is the Old Miller Mine, a former placer 
digging. About J mile south of the Baker is the Bald Knob 
Mine, where the vein is reported to have a thickness of 4 feet. 
The Francis Mine is also near here. 

1 By J. G. Ellery, 



178 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

It is a noteworthy fact that all of the above described mines 
hold a positive relation to the diabase dike which accompanies 
them, and which has undoubtedly facilitated the activity and 
ascension of the ore bearing solutions. 

The Bee Mountain Mine is situated about 4 miles (air line) 
IS". 80° W. from Lenoir, on the northeast slope of Bee mountain. 
The openings consist of two shallow prospect shafts and a tunnel. 
The country rock is garnetiferous mica gneiss and pegmatite, 
which strikes N. 60° E., and dips 45° S. E. 

Shaft No-. 1 is 70 feet deep ; now filled with water. The 
dump shows no ore. Shaft No. 2 is about 30 feet deep, and 
shows a 4 foot quartz vein on the outcrop, striking X. 75° E. 
Much of the quartz is cellular and stained brown, and is miner- 
alized with zinc blende and some galena and chalcopyrite. 

The tunnel is situated lower down on the slope of the hill, and 
is 100 feet long in a direction jST. 20° W. ; it exposes nothing of 
interest, as it does not cut the vein. 

WILKES COUNTY. 

At Flint Knob in the southwestern part of the county, 6 miles 
east of Deep gap in the Blue Bidge, argentiferous lead ore is 
found. The property is situated on a mountain spur that shoots 
off from the Blue Bidge at intervals, and extends with gradually 
diminishing sharpness of outline and altitude to the Yadkin 
river. This particular spur is called Laurel Spur, and further 
down, Flint Knob, from the abundance of quartz which covers it. 
The earliest settlers were aware that lead was found there : 
extended explorations were undertaken some 60 years ago by Dr. 
McKenzie, and later by Gen. S. F. Batterson. The galenite is 
scattered more or less sparingly in a quartz gangue. Assays by 
Adelberg and Raymond showed samples to contain : 

Assays, Ore and Concentrates, Flint Knob, Wilkes County. 

Ore. (298). Concentrates. (299). 

Lead 19.5 per cent. Gold, per ton $ 81.57 

Silver, per ton 7.33 

$88.90 
Five tons of ore made one ton of concentrates. 



WILKES COUNTY. 179 

When visited in the fall of 1894, the superficial explorations of 
several quartz veins, carrying galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite, 
were seen ; but at no point had sufficient work been done to 
determine the possible value of these deposits. The country rock 
is garnetiferous gneiss. 

In the northern part of the county, where the road from Trap 
Hill to Wilkesboro crosses Roaring river, gold has been washed 
from the river sands. 

Another locality is near Trap Hill, on the eastern face of the 
Blue Ridge at Bryan's gap, where a bold outcrop of quartz has 
been traced for nearly three miles ; the vein dips easterly with 
the schists, and ranges from 3 to 20 feet in width ; it carries iron 
pyrites with a small proportion of copper pyrites, and is gener- 
ally auriferous. A series of assays show : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Bryans Gap, Wilkes County. 

(300) (301) (302) (303) (304) (305) (306) 

Gold, per ton $1.57 $1.55 $2.07 $3.10 $414 $5.17 $10.29 

Silver, per ton 84 1.01 59 91 trace none 88 



2.41 $ 2.56 $ 2.66 $ 4.01 $ 4.14 $ 5.17 $ 11.17 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE GOLD DEPOSITS WEST OF THE BLUE RIDGE. 

In the region west of the Blue Ridge are several gold mining 
localities, some of which have attracted attention,' and have been 
the site of more or less productive work. 

It is highly probable that the schists in^the mountain section 
are universally slightly auriferous, the gold being set free by 
weathering, and after erosion, being concentrated in favored 
sinks. 

In truth gold has been found in most of the mountain counties, 
and these sporadic occurrences have given rise to numerous, but 
short lived, mining excitements. 

From a large number of assays of material from all parts of 
the Blue Ridge counties it may be said that gold is never absent 
whenever the material possesses the least dissemination of any 
variety of sulphurets, and generally in quantities somewhat larger 
than traces, though not often constituting workable ores. The 
presence of galenite usually adds to the silver contents. 

In Ashe and Alleghany counties some of the copper ores con- 
tain a small proportion of gold and silver, though, with the 
exception of the Copper Knob mine, they are^not regarded as 
possible producers of the precious metals. 

ASHE COUNTY. 

The Copper Knob (ok Gap Creek) Mine is situated in the 
southern part of the county, on the waters of New river. There 
are three quartz veins, though only one of them has been worked 
to any extent. It lies in a large body of hornblende schist, but 
the prevalent country rock of the section is gray gneiss, with a 
strike N. 60° E., and a dip 40° S. E. The strike of the fissure is 
N. 35° W., and the dip 45° N. E., though neither dip nor strike 
is uniform. 



HENDERSON COUNTY THE BOYLSTON MINE. 181 

The vein-stone is quartz ; in the upper part it was accompanied 
by a selvage of iron peroxide, extraordinarily rich in gold. The 
mineral seam occupied the centre of the quartz fissure, and varied 
from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. In the 60 foot level the vein 
varies from 14 inches to 3 feet. On the northwest course, along 
this level, the vein contains copper ores for 53 feet, when the 
quartz becomes slightly changed and carries native gold, with 
brown oxide of iron, for about 36 feet. Here the bearing is 
changed to N. 43° "W. The vein appears to be more mineralized 
on the northwest than on the southeast side of the workings, 
which run into the Knob. The ore is complex : vitreous copper 
ore, malachite, chryscolla, a very little chalcopyrite, brown ore, 
etc. Iron pyrite is almost wanting. The ore seam increased 
somewhat in width as greater depth was gained. The shaft was 
sunk to a depth of 60 feet with satisfactory results, and subse- 
quently deepened (as reported) to 140 feet. At this stage the 
mine became the prey of a company of speculators. The con- 
current testimony of many persons cognizant of the last work is 
that the resources of the mine continued good as far as the explo- 
rations extended. 

The nature of some of the ore is shown in the following assays: 

Assays, Gold and Copper Ores, Copper Knob Mine, Ashe County. 



Gold, per ton 

Silver, " 


(307) 

$ 8.62 

2.26 


(308) 

$ 34.79.... 

25.50 


(309) 

....$ 57.36 

.... 14.53 .... 


(310) 

...$ 77.51 
45.68 




$ 10.88 


$ 60.29 




Copper, per cent 


$ 71.89 
23.83*.. 


$ 123.19 
37.44* 



In Watauga County a limited area of gold gravel is found on 
Howard's creek, which was worked on a small scale before the 
war. Gold is also found in this county at Hardin's, one mile 
north of Eoone. 

In Buncombe County, indications of gold have been found on 
Cane creek. 

HENDERSON COUNTY. 

The^Boylston Mine is situated on the southeastern slope of 
Forge mountain, on the waters of Boylston creek, 22 miles south 
of Asheville, and 12 miles west of Henlersonville. It is the 



182 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



property of the Boylston Mining Company, and embraces an area 
of some 618 acres. The mine is equipped with a ten stamp mill, 
Frue vanner, boiler, engine, etc., all of which are now in serious 
disrepair. 

The topography of the region is shown in the accompanying 
sketch map (Fig. 15), redrawn from the Pisgah topographic atlas 
sheet of the United States Geological Survey. 




Tig. 16. Topographic map, showing location of the Boylston veins on Forge moun- 
tain, Henderson County, N. C. 
Scale : 1 inch i mile ; contour interval 100 £eet. 

The general elevation of the valley of Boylston creek is 2200 



HENDERSON COUNTY THE BOYLSTON MINE. 183 

feet above the sea level. The crest of Forge mountain rises 900 
feet above the valley, or 3100 feet above sea level. 

Forge mountain is made up of fine grained mica and hornblende 
gneisses and schists, in part much crumpled. The general strike 
of the sehistosity is jST. 20° to 30° E. The dip is to the northwest ; 
near the surface the inclination is about 35°, gradually increasing 
to 50° and 60° within a short distance, and in depth it is reported 
to be nearly vertical, though still to the northwest. This phenome- 
non is undoubtedly to be ascribed to the dislocating action of 
alternate frost and heat, augmented by the action of gravity, 
especially on hill and mountain slopes. 1 

This anomalous dip also applies to the- quartz veins at the 
Boylston mine, as the fissures follow approximately the cleavage 
planes of the schists. 

The schists are cut by a granite dike, the general strike of 
which is about N. 30° E., dipping apparently at a steep angle. 
It is a light colored biotite granite of coarse grain, and is largely 
decomposed to white, kaolinized masses. The width of this dike 
was not established, but it appears to he over 100 feet in places, 
and contains large included fragments of the country schists, show- 
ing that the age of its intrusion was subsequent to that of the force 
which rendered the country schistose. 

The valley of Boylston Creek is composed of schistose lime- 
stone. Along its northwestern boundary, at the base of Forge 
mountain, this limestone, according to Dr. Wm. B. Phillips, 2 dips 
to the southeast and is uncomformably overlaid, by the schists of 
the mountain. The limestone outcrop was observed in Woodnn's 
quarry on the western slope of a low ridge, skirting the eastern 
bank of Boylston creek. It strikes N. 10° E., and dips 45° S. E., 
and is overlaid by crumpled schists, which are in part graphitic. 
These schists contain interlaminated rusty quartz lenses, from £ 
to 2 inches in thickness, whieli carry traces of gold and silver. 3 

The limestone is of a grey blue color, compact, fine crystalline, 
ami apparently quite free from siliceous matter. Some I miles 
further up the valley it is reported to hold thin veins of quartz 

a On the action of frost in the arrangement of superficial eartliv material. By W. C. 
Kerr, Am. Jour. Sci., Ill, Vol. 21, May, 1881. 
2 In a private report on the property. 
3 Assayed by Dr. Ctaas. Baskerville, assistant chemist N. C. Geological Surve3 r . 



184 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

carrying pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and blende, though not in 
commercial quantities. These rocks of the Boylston valley and 
Forge mountain are in a narrow belt, lately designated as the 
Ocoee formation by Mr. Arthur Keith of the IT. S. Gelogical 
Survey. 

Four main auriferous quartz veins have been discovered on the 
Boylston property. They are parallel and strike X. 30° E., dip- 
ping to the northwest at angles varying from 25° to 75°, their 
upper portion or crest being deflected down hill, as already men- 
tioned. 

In places the quartz is deeply corrugated, and has a banded 
structure, as though it were folded like the enclosing schists. At 
the same time it contains included fragments of the schist, and 
hence the age of its deposition is later than that of the schistosity. 
This crumpled, quasi-schistose structure of the quartz must there- 
fore be due to other causes, and the most reasonable one appears 
to be that during deposition the inside layer, -next to the wall of 
the fissure, was moulded on the crumpled schists, and the next 
succeeding layer was moulded on the first, and so on, producing 
.casts of each other. 

The character of the quartz is usually cryp to-crystalline, vitre- 
ous, being cellular and stained brown above the water level. 
Rarely it is tine grained, saccharoidal and milky. 

The thickness of the veins varies from 1 to 4i feet. A pay 
streak, from 1 to 8 inches wide usually appears along the hanging 
wall. The quartz carries free gold in the upper levels and free 
gold and sulphurets (pyrite and some galena) below the water 
level. 

For the convenience of description the veins have been num- 
bered 1, 2, 3, and 1, beginning with the one nearest the eastern 
base of the mountain. 

The occurrence of gold in Boylston creek was known for a long 
time, but it was not until the winter 1885-1886 that the quartz 
veins of Forge mountain were prospected by Mr. Wm. Allison. 
He worked the soft, decomposed outcrop of vein No. 2, by sluic- 
ing and washing, w T ith good results. Explorations proved so 
favorable that the present company was formed in 1886, and 



HENDERSON COUNTY THE BOYLSTON MINE. 185 

machinery was erected for treating the ores. The mine was then 
operated spasmodically and with varying success. In the fall of 
1889, Dr. Wm. B. Phillips made a thorough examination of the 
property, with practical mill tests of the ores, the results of which 
were presented in a report to the company. 

The mine is now idle and at t lie time when visited by the Sur- 
vey (October, 1894), most of the openings were caved in and inac- 
cessible. Much of the matter, including assays, contained in the 
following description of the Boylston mine, has been taken from 
the detailed report of Dr. Phillips. 

Vein No. 1 is exposed in a small pit, now caved in, near the 
eastern base of Forge mountain. Its width at this point is stated 
to be 2^ feet, with a 2i inch seam of slaty material. The quartz 
is saccharoidal and stained brown. An assay, representing the 
width of the vein, excluding the slaty seam, shows : 

Assay, Gold Ores, Vein No. 1, Boylston Mine, Henderson County. 

(311) 

Gold, per ton $4.13 

Silver, " 50 

$4.63 

On the Frank Sitton land, adjoining the Boylston property on 
the northeast, the same vein has been explored in a shaft 30 feet 
deep, and an open-cut 25 by 5 by 5 feet. The thickness of the 
vein is reported to be 3 feet. Two assays show : 

Assays, Gold Ore, Boylston Vein No. 1, Sitton Property, Henderson County. 

(312) (313) 

Golrl, per ton $ 13 37 $1314 

Silver, per ton 41 (iO 

$ 13.78 $14.04 

Vein No. 2 has been more thoroughly prospected and devel- 
oped than the others. All of the ore that has been mined and 
milled at the Boylston was obtained from this vein. 

The principal work on No. 2 begins at the George Sitton branch 
(Allison opening), and extends thence in a northeasterly direction 
along the outcrop in a series of open cuts made at intervals over a 
length of about 1500 feet, to the Mill branch, and thence in a 
series of drifts, for a distance of 300 feet. 

The Allison opening extends from the George Sitton to Rail 
Cove branch, a distance of about 600 feet. It is an open cut, 



18 6 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

averaging 10 feet in width and 15 feet in depth. In this distance are 
situated two shafts and an inclined tunnel, namely the Garwood 
and Radford shafts, and the Allen slope. In the open cut the vein 
is from 3 to 4 feet thick, composed of decomposed sulphurets and 
sugary quartz. A rich pay-streak of reddish brown quartz forms a 
layer, from 1 to 3 inches thick, next to the hanging wall, gener- 
ally ; but it is not to be depended on as regards either thickness or 
linear extent. In the sulphurets, composed chiefly of pyrite and 
some little chalcopyrite, about one-third of the gold is free. 

The Garwood shaft is 25 feet deep, and the thickness of the vein 
here is stated to he 4i feet. At the bottom of the shaft the 
Thomas level extends 35 feet, S. 15° AV. 

The Allen slope is 25 feet long. The Radford shaft is 20 feet 
deep ; the vein is 3 feet thick, and dips 65° X. W. The granite 
dike appears in the hanging wall, 4 feet from the vein. 

A number of assays show : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Vein No. 2, Allison Opening, Boylston Mine, Henderson 

County. 





(314) 


1 315) 


(316) 


(317) 


(318 1 


.319i 


.320' 


(321) 


(322) 


Gold, perton.... 


..$7.23... 


...$1.13... 


...$4.1.-!... 


...$5.18... 


...$6.20... 


...$7.23... 


...$109.35... 


...$St75.. 


...$7 23 


Silver, perton. 


.. .41... 


.. .41... 


... .50... 


.. .50... 


... .65... 


.. .50... 


... -L04... 


... 3.87... 


... .15 



$764 $4.54 $4.63 $5.68 $6.85 $7.73 $113.39 $8S.t32 $7.98 
314. Quartz from open cut. 315. Sulphurets from Allen slope. 316. Sugary quarz from 
open cat. 317. Ore from mill dump. 318. Ore from mill dump, one-half Garwood shaft. 
319. Quartz from Garwood shaft. 320 and 321. tteddish brown ore from pay streak. 322. 
Outcrop of sulphurets in branch. 

Dr. Phillips estimates that 1,000 tons of ore have have been taken 
from this part of the mine — between the Geo. Sitton and Rail Cove 
branches — and that the amount of ore still remaining above the 
water level is about 2000 tons, which may be depended on to 
yield $4.00 per ton in free gold (assay value). He gives as the 
cost of mining, transportation and milling, 82.25 per ton. 

The Winny Dunkin opening begins on the north side of Rail 
Cove branch, and extends as an open cut K. 15° E., for a distance 
of 275 feet. It is 10 to 15 feet in width, and about the same in 
depth. Sulphurets appear here 20 feet from the surface. In the 
zone above the sulphurets the vein matter is composed of granular 
quartz, decomposed sulphurets, slate with seams of quartz, and 
segregated thin seams of rusty quartz, carrying coarse gold. A sec- 
tion from foot to hanging wails, 10 feet below the surface, is given 
as follows : 



HENDERSON COUNTY THE BOYLSTON MINE. 



187 



Rusty brown slate, with seams of quartz 

Rusty quartz, carrying coarse gold 

Milky quartz, somewhat cellular and rusty. 
Thin bauds of brown slate, highly silicified. 



Feet. Inches. 

6 

1 
1 6 
1 6 

4 6 



Some assays from the Dunkin opening show : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Vein No. 2, Dunkin Opening, Boylston Mine, Henderson 

County. 



(323) 

Gold, per ton $ 4.13.. 

Silver, per ton 5.48.. 



(324) 
.$ 4 13 
. .50 



$ 9.61 $ 4.63 

332. Sulphurets ; the high silver is due to the galena present. 323. Ore from cut, 15 feet 
below the surface, sampled across the vein from wall to wall. 

It is estimated that 300 tons of ore were removed from this 
opening, and that the amount of free milling ore still remaining 
above the water level between Rail Cove and Mill branches is 
4100 tons, which will yield $4.00 per ton, (assay value.) 

Immediately on the north side of Mill branch is a series of 
seven drifts, now in very bad condition, along the outcrop of vein 
No. 2, for a distance of 300 feet. 

Their relative positions are shown in fig. 17. 



-isij 




Sketch Map 

of the 

Boilston Mine 

Vein N 9 2.. 






Sc.l, 



100. 



.Cr^j^.r 




Fig. 17 Drifts 1 to 8 inclusive, Vein No. 2, Boylston Mine. 



188 



GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



On the south side of the branch is drift No. 8, 50 feet long. The 
granite dike was penetrated by it, and the thickness of the quartz 
vein is 3 feet. An assay shows . 

Assay, Gold Ore, Drift No. 8, Boylston Mine, Henderson County. 

(325) 

Gold, per ton $ 4.13 

Silver, per ton 40 



$ 4.53 



Drift No. 7 follows the pay streak, which is 3 to 6 inches thick, 
along the hanging. The width of the vein is 4 feet, filled with 
stained granular quartz. It is accompanied by the granite dike. 
An assay shows : 

Assay, Gold Ore, Drift No. 7, Boylston Mine, Henderson County. 

(326) 

Gold, per ton $23.77 

Silver, per ton 1 70 

$25.47 

It is estimated that 60 tons of ore have been removed from here. 

Drift No. 6 joins No. 5 by a cross cut. It shows 2 feet of 
sugary quartz, stained brown. The amount of ore removed from 
here is estimated at 60 tons. 

Drift No. 5 opens on a platform 
at the top of an incline, 200 
feet long, to the crusher dump. 
At its mouth the thickness of 
the quartz vein measured 4i 
feet. The highly crumpled and 
folded schists make their appear- 
ance on the foot wall side, and 
are broken through by the 
eruptive granite, as shown in 




I' •' J Cra nif.e 



Schist. L^udJ Quartz. 



Fig. 18. Section on the dip of the vein at YlQi. 18, from the BovlstOll mine, 
mouth of Drift No. 5. (See also fig. 17, p. 187.) to J 



HENDERSON COUNTY THE BOYLSTON MINE. 



189 



Drift No. 4 exposes on the outcrop 4 feet of quartz, separated 
by 1 foot of granite. The vein 
swells and pinches, and appears 
to be cut off at one point by the 
crumpled schist. Near the face 
of the opening the vein matter 
consists of the schist itself, 
highly impregnated with quartz 
stringers and stained brown. 
This is best illustrated in Fig. 
19. 

It is estimated that 50 tons 
have been removed from here. 

Drift No. 3: The vein is 
probably 3 feet thick and dips 
25° N. W. About 10 tons of 
ore have been removed. 

Drifts Nos. 1 and 2 show up S 
similarly to No. 3. About 10 
tons of ore have been removed 
from each. 

Some 20 feet beyond the 
mouth of Drift No. 1 is the face 
of the Upper Cut, the termina- 
tion of the work that has been 
done on this part of vein No. 2. 
It is on this ridge that the vein 
appears to have been most dis- 
turbed by the granite dike, 
which lies next to the foot wall, 
and carries some free gold. 
An assay of the three feet 
adjoining the foot wall shows : 

Assay, Gold Ore, Vein No. 2, Boyls- 
ton Mine, Henderson County. 

(327) 

Gold, per ton $ 2.136 

Silver, per ton 50 

$ 2.56 




190 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Some assays of the ore from these drifts show : 
Assays, Gold Ore, Drifts 1—7, Boylston Mine, Henderson County. 

(328) (329) (330) (331) (332) (333) (334) 

Gold per ton, $8.47 $8.27 $18.09 $55 30 $4.13 $5.17 $ 5 1* 

Silver " .62 50 1.01 3.44 50 41 .41 

$9.09 $8.77 $19.10 $58.74 $4.63 $5^58 $5~59 

(335) (336) (337) (33>) 

Gold, per ton $ 6.-0 $ 6.20 $ 4.13 $ 11.37 

Silver, per ton 50 .32 50 58 

$ 6.70 $ 6.52 $ 4.63 $ 11.95 

Assay No. 328, Sample was taken from pay streak, 8 inches wide, from drift Xo. 1. 
Sample 329, From 8 inches of soft ore, immediately above the pay streak in drift; Xo. 1. 

330. Reddish brown pay streak, 8 inches wide, in drift Xo. 2. 

331. Pay streak, 6 inches wide, in drift No. 3. 

332. Sample across the face of 3% foot vein, drift Xo. 3. 

333. Quartzose slate, 12 inches thick, drift Xo. 3. 

334. Mill dump, 2 3 soft, % hard ore. 

335. Mill dump, soft ore. 

336. Mill dump, soft ore from above mill. 

337. Isolated mass of sulphurets in drift Xo. 3. 

338. From outcrop, 2^ feet thick, where vein Xo. 2 crosses high top of Forge mountain ■ 

Vein No. 3 has been prospected in a small pit and drift near the 
head of Rail Cove branch. The thickness is stated to be *2h feet, 
and the vein matter is composed of granular quartz, rusty cellular 
quartz, quartzose slate, and some pyrite. Several assays show: 

Assays, Gold Ores, Vein No. 3, Boylston Mine, Henderson County. 

(339) 

Gold, per ton $ 18.60 

Silver, per ton .32 



$ 18.92 $ 34.93 

339. Sampled across face of vein. 340. Six inch seam of rusty quartz. 

Vein No. 4 has been exposed on Vineyard branch, near the 
summit of the mountain, in a small pit, 6 feet deep. Its thickness 
is stated to be 3 feet, and the strike and dip are similar to those of 
the other veins. The ore is granular quartz. An assay of a sam- 
ple taken across the face shows : 

Assay, Gold Ore, Vein No. 4, Boylston Mine, Henderson County. 

(341) 

Gold, per ton $ 3.10 

Silver, per ton 56 

$ 3.64 



MINES OF JACKSON, TRANSYLVANIA, AND MACON. 



191 



A summary statement of the work done by Dr. Phillips in Sep- 
tember, 1889, including mining and milling, is as follows: 





Allison Opening. 


Winney Dunkin Opening. 


Drifts 1. 2 and 3. 


No. of tons mined 


10 


25 


40 


Assay value 


$5 56 


$451 


$5.49 






Cost of mining and 
transportation 


$1.50 


$1.25 


$1.17 







The total amount of ore mined and milled was 75 tons, worth 
$387.95, calculated from the above statement. The amount 
recovered w r as $112.20, an extraction of 24.63 per cent, of 
the assay value. This low yield was in general measure due to 
the condition of the machinery and outside battery plates ; the 75 
tons required 348 hours for running through, and during the last 
72 hours one-third of the total amount of gold saved,. was obtained, 
although the assay value of the ore remained the same. In other 
words, 20.8 per cent, of the time gave 33.3 per cent, of the gold, 
after the mill had been brought up to something like its proper 
efficiency. The rate of milling per day (24 hours) was 5.17 tons ; 
no more than this could be treated owing to the condition of the 
crusher, the shoes and dies, and the belts. 

The mill, if in proper condition, should be capable of treating at 
least 10 tons per day, with a saving of 60 per cent, of the assay 
value. 

Excluding the interest on the investment, Dr. Phillips estimates 
the cost of mining, transportation and milling at $2.33 per ton, on 
a basis of 375 tons per month. 

JACKSON, TRANSYLVANIA AND MACON COUNTIES. 

The gold of Jackson county has been obtained almost entirely 
from placers or detrital beds. These are situated chiefly along 
the southern slopes of the Blue Ridge, near Hogback and Chimney 
Top mountains. 

The most important locality is Fairfield valley, where George- 
town creek, one of the head streams of theToxaway, is said to have 
13 



192 GOLD DEPOSITS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

yielded between two and three hundred thousand dollars. The 
deposits extend for several miles along these elevated basins, and 
have been by no means exhausted. The origin of the gold here is 
doubtless to be sought in the quartz veins of the Blue Ridge, which 
rises on the north and east — a precipitous wall of gray gneiss — -to 
a height of 700 or 800 feet above the valley. It is along the base 
of this wall, where Georgetown creek has cut a deep channel, that 
the gold has been principally obtained. 

The deposits in Transylvania county, east of the Blue Bidge, 
on the headwaters of the French Broad, will probably be found 
to have a similar origin, and are evidently a continuation of the 
same belt of deposits. 

In the southeast corner of Macon county, in Whitener's valley 
and Horse cove, mining for gold has been carried on to a limited 
.extent in the stream deposits. 

CHEROKEE COUNTY. 

Possibly twenty-five to fifty men may be employed in actual 
mining operations in this county, workiug some half a dozen 
placers. 

The gold obtained is mostly in the form of large grains and 
nuggets. The greater part thus far won appears to have come 
from the valleys of Valley river and its transverse tributary 
streams. The immediate source of this gold is four fold: 
(1) The gravel underlying the broad bottoms of Valley river and 
other streams ; (2) The schists and the included quartz stringers 
or veins of the more elevated country bordering these valleys. 
(3) The iron ore beds, which skirt Valley river along its whole 
length, and occur with several reduplications or foldings at inter- 
vals for several miles to the east ; l (-t) The limestone (marble), 
which is usually closely associated with the iron ore beds, and 
contains gold in connection with galenite and possibly also 
in quartz veins, that traverse it. 

These rocks have lately been referred to the Ocoee by the U. 
S. Geological Survey. 

iFor an account of these ore beds, see Bulletin No. 1, Geological Survey of N. C: The 
Iron Ores of North Carolina, p. 1£6 et. seq. 



CHEROKEE COUNTY. 193 

The placer mines now worked are situated in the drift which 
covers the spurs and terminal ridges, especially where they pro- 
ject into the bottom land. Ditches are constructed to bring the 
water from the upper reaches of the mountain streams, under a 
sufficient head to operate at the desired points. The drift beds 
have a depth of 10 to 20 feet, and are occasionally at a consider- 
able elevation above the river. 

The schists have not been largely prospected, and cannot be 
utilized without heavy stamping machinery, as, owing to the 
steepness of the hills and mountains all the soft and altered mate- 
rial has been cleaned off by denudation. The unaltered schists 
are more costly to mine and treat, and would require the closest 
and most economical management; there is abundant evidence, 
however, that considerable work of this nature has been done on 
the hill and mountain sides. There are no data in possession of 
the survey defining the width and extent of the gold bearing 
schists, nor the number of such zones. 

The iron ore (limonite) beds have not hitherto been regarded 
generally as gold bearing, but some examinations point to a 
presumption that they are frequently auriferous. Assays of 
a number of samples ran from $1.86 to $10.60 per ton. The pos- 
sibilities in this direction deserve further examination. 

Gold also occurs in the marble in association with galenite. 
Such localities are : Section No. 6, 1 mile northeast from Mur- 
phy ; at Axel's shaft near Marble creek, 3| miles northeast of 
Murphy ; and near Marble post office. 

Some samples of the ores from Section No. 6 gave the follow- 
ing assay values : 

Assays, Gold Ores, Section No. 6, Cherokee County. 

(342) (343) (344) 

Gold, per ton $ 7.03 $ 13.03 $ 14.88 

Silver, " trace 10 19.20 



$7.03 $13.12 $34.08 



So little attention has been given to these occurrences that the 
extent of the resources is practically unknown, but they certainly 
appear to be worthy of more thorough exploration. 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Aberdeen mine 115 

Abernathy mine, Catawba county 151 

Abernathy mine, Mecklenburg county 132 

Age of rocks, Carolina Slate Belt 28 

ore deposits, Carolina slate belt... 51 

Alamance county, mines in 53 

Alexander mine 132, 139, 140, 143 

Allen mine 116 

Allen Furr mine 91, 93, 94 

Aired mine 55, 56 

Alta mine 169 170 

Anson county, mines in 106 

Appalachian mine 76 

Area of the gold bearing rocks in 

North Carolina 15 

Arlington mine 132, 133 

Arrington mines. 27 

Asbury vein 149 

Ashe county mines 180 

Atlas mine 120, 121 

Auriferous schists, defined 21 

Axel's shaft, Cherokee county, gold at.. .193 

Bailey mine 106 

Baker mine 175, 177 

Bald Knob mine. 177 

Ball mine 116 

Baltimore & N. C. Mining Co 143 

Bame mine 120, 121 

Barnhardt mine, Cabarrus county 123 

Earnhardt vein, Gold Hill 87, 88 

Barrier mine 122, 123 

Barringer mine, 85 

Bascom, Miss Florence, cited 37, 38 

Bates (1), quoted ,. 105 

Beard mine 116 

Beason mine 116 

Beaver mine 144 

Beaver Dam mine 78, 79 

Bechtler coinage in North Caro- 
lina 153,154 

Becker, Ceo. F., cited 47, 49 

Bee Mountain mine 178 

Belle mine 54, 55 

Belts of gold bearing rocks in North 

Carolina 15 

Bennett mine 132 

Biggers mine 91, 94 

Black mine, Davidson county.. 117 

Black mine, Mecklenburg county 144 

Black mine, Union county 98,99 

Blair mine 144 

Blake mine 125 

Blue Wing mine 53 

Bonnie Belle mine 35,45,103,104 

Boundaries of the N. C. gold fields 15 

Boylston mine 181, 191 

Boylston Mining Company 182 

Brafford mine 144 

Brawley mine 132 

Brewer mine, S. C 16 

Bright mine. 80 

Briols shoot 57 

Brown mine 56 

Brown Mountain, rocks of 156 

Brown Mountain mine 175 

Bryan's Gap, gold at 179 

Buckeve mine 53 

Buffalo mine 45, 91, 93 

Bullion mine 117, 120 

Buncombe county, gold in 181 

Bunnell Mountain mine. 80 

Burke county, mines in 164, 166, 175 

Burns mine 45, 48, 49, 55, 56 



PAGE 

Burrell-Wells mine 149 

Burton mine 150 

Butler mine 151 

Butterfleld mine 98 

Cabarrus county, mines in. ...85, 89, 94,121,125 

Cabin Creek Mining Co.. 56 

Cagle mine 56 

Caldwell county, mines in 175, 178 

Caldwell mine 143 

Caledonia mine.. 147, 148 

California mine. 123 

Callahan Mountain mine 151 

Campbell mine 132 

Campbell Mining & Reduction Co 116 

Capps mine 19, 132, 137 

Carolina Igneous belt 15, 19 107, 145 

general description...; 107 

geologic characteristics 107-108 

ore deposits and mines of. .108-145 

fineness of gold in 19 

Carolina Queen mine, 164, 165 

Carolina Slate belt, 15,19,28-106 

character and age of the 

rocks 28-44 

genesis of the gold ores 44-50 

age of the ore deposits 51 

mines and ore deposits of.. 52- 106 

fineness of gold in. 19 

Carpenter mine 174 

Carson mine. 125 

Carter mine. 80 

Catawba county, mines in 150, 151 

Catawba mine 146, 147 

Cathey mine 132, 141 

Cathey (G.C.) mine ...139 

Causes of formation of fissures in Caro- 
lina Slate belt 45,47 

Chapman mine 139, 140 

Character and age of rocks in Carolina 

Slate belt 28 

Character and Fineness of gold and sil- 
ver in N. C 18 

Charlotte mine 129, 130, 131 

Chatham county, mines in 53 

Cherokee county, gold deposits in 192, 193 

Chimney Top mountain, gold on 191 

Chlorination process— advised at Gold 

Hill 90 

at Reimer mine.. .119 
at Phoenix mine. 122 
at Tucker mine. ....123 

Cid mine 60 

Clark mine. 125, 132 

Clegg mine 56 

Coggins mine. 76 

Conrad Hill mine 68-74 

Conyers mine 27 

Copper Knob mine 18, 180, 181 

Copper ores of Chatham county 53 

Copper ores in Granville and Person 

counties 52, 53 

Copper World mine 53 

County Line mine 151 

Crawford Gold Mining Company 83 

Crawford mine 82, 83 

Crosby mine 125 

Crowders Mountain mine 147, 148 

Crowell mine, Stanly county, 84, 85 

Crowell mine, Union county 94, 95 

Crump mine 98 

Crustincation phenomena in the Caro 

Una Slate belt 49, 50 

Curtis, cited 47 



196 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Cyanide process- proposed at Burns mine. 56 

proposed at Russell mine 76 

plant at Moratock mine. >-0 

experiments at Gold Hill 90 

Dahlonega mining method, in the East- 
ern Carolina belt 25 

at the Parker mine 84 

applicability to Jones mine ..59 

Shuford mine 150 

in South Mt. region 161 

Darlington (Wayne), quoted ...91 

Davidson county 60-74; 116, 117 

Davidson mine, Davidson county. 1 60 

Davidson mine, Mecklenburg countv, 

125, 126 

Davie county, mines in 151 

Davis mine, Halifax county 27 

Davis mine, Montgomery county. ....76, 77, 80 

Davis mine, Union county 19, 100, 102 

Davis Mountain mine 59 

Deep Flat mine 80 

Deep River mine 115 

Delft mine 59 

Deposits of gold and silver at the U. S. 

Mint and Assay Offices 18 

Derr mine 148 

Designolle process at New Discovery 

mine 117 

near Charlotte 137 

Diabase dikes in the Carolina Slate 

belt .46, 47 

Dikes, diabase, in the Carolina Slate 

belt ...46, 47 

Dikes, influence of on ore bodies. 48 

Dixon mine (Yadkin co.) 151 

Dixon vein (Gaston co.) 149 

Double Branch mine 20, 174 

Dry Hollow mine 80 

Duffle mine 148 

Dunkin ( Winney) opening 191 

Dunn mine 16, 132, 140 

Dunn's Mountain mine. 117, 118 

Dutch Creek mine.. 120 

Dutchman's Creek mine 80 

Dutton mine 76, 77 

Eames (Richard, Jr.) quoted 90, 151 

Early records of gold mining in North 

Carolina 16 

Earnhardt vein, Gold Hill 87,88 

East Hill mine 103 

Eastern Carolina belt .15, 19, 24-27 

general description 24, 25 

minerals and gold deposits in.. .25-27 

fineness of gold in 19 

Ellington vein 144 

Elliotte plantation 145 

Ellwood mine (Rutherford co.) 170 

Ellwood vein, (Mecklenburg co.) 142 

Emmons, E., cited and quoted, 

28-33, 38-41, 52, 69, 90, 112, 115 

Emmons, S. F., cited 47 

Emmons mine 60 

England mine 150 

Estimate of production of gold and sil- 
ver in N. C 18 

Eudy mine 116 

Eureka mine 117 

Eva Furr mine 91 

Faggartmine 123 

Fahlbands 45 

Faires (Ferris) mine 141, 142 

Fairfield Valley, gold in 191 

Farrar mine 149 

Faulting in the Carolina Slate belt 46 

Fentress mine Ill, 112 

Ferguson Hill mine 144, 145 

Ferris (Faires) mine 141, 142 

Fineness of gold and sliver in N. C 18-20 

First authentic find of gold in N. C 16 

Fisher Hill mine 110, 111 

Flint Knob mine 178,179 

Folger Hill mine 100. 102 

Fox Hill mine 98,99 

Francis mine 177 

Frank Wilson mine 125 



PAGE. 

Franklin county, srold in 24 

Frazer mine, .132 

Furness mine •. 123 

Gap Creek mine 180. 181 

Gardner Hill mine 112 114 

Gaston county, mines in 146-149 

Genesee Gold^Mininsc Company 78 

Genesis of gold ores in the Carolina Slate 

belt 44. 45. 51 

Genth, (F. A.) quoted 65. 97 

Geologic Characteristics of the Carolina 

Igneous belt 107. 108 

Georgetown creek, gold on 191 

Gibb mine 123 

Gibson mine 132. 133 

Gillis mine 53 

Gold, fineness of 18, 20 

Gold, production of in N. C 17. 18 

Gold bearing rocks of North Carolina. 20. 21 

Gold deposits, west of Blue Ridge 180 

Gold Hill mines ....19. 85-91 

Gold Knob mine 120 

Goodman mine 117 

Graham mine 150 

Granville countv, mine.:; in 52. 53 

Guilford county, mines in 110-116 

Hague, Arnold, cited 47 

Haile mine. South Carolina 34. 48 

Haithcock mine 82 

Halifax county, gold mines 24 

Hamilton mine, Anson countv 106 

Hamilton mine, Polk county 174 

Hancock mine 20. 1H4 

Harbin's mine 80 

Hard Hill vein 144 

Harkness mine 100. 103 

Harland mine 116 

Harrison mine... 117 

Hartmann mine 117 

Hayes mine 132 

Haynes vein .-.» 120 

Hearne mine 82 

Heinrich, O. J., quoted 89. 90 

Hembv mine r 100. 103 

Henderson county, mines in 181 191 

Henderson mine 141 

Henry Phifer mine 98 

Herring mine. : 59 

Hill mine 117 

Hipps mine, 132 

Historical notes 16 

Hodges Hill (or Hodgins) mine 110 

Hodge property 165 

Hogback Mountain, gold on 191 

Hoke, Gen. R. F., quoted 175 

Hoke mine 150 

Holloway mine 53 

Holtshauser mine 120 

Hoover Hill mine 37, 40, 41. 56. 57 

Hopewell mine 139 

Howell mine 125. 131 

Howie mine 19. 45, 46, 48, 49. 103. 104 

Hunnicut vein, Gold Hill 87, 88 

Hunt, T. S., cited 38 

Hunt and Douglas process, 60. 73. 74 

Hunter mine 143 

Hunter (Jno. P.), mine 142 

Huronian system (according to Kerr"> in 

N. C 32.33 

Idler mine 169. 170 

Incrustation phenomena in Carolina 

Slate belt 49. 50 

Influence of diabase dikes on ore bodies, 48 
Influence of weathering agencies on ore 

bodies 22 

Ingram mine 82. 83 

Isaac Allen mine 151 

Isenhour mine, Cabarrus county 91 

Isenhour mine, Mecklenburg county. 

125. 131 

Island Creek mine 80 

Jacks Hill mine 115 

Jackson county, gold deposits in 191, 192 

Jesse Cox mine 106 

Joel Reed mine 121 



INDEX. 



197 



PAGE. 

Johnson mine 144 

Jones mine 36, 40, 41, 57-59 

Jura Trias conglomerates 21 

Kearney mine *7 

Keith, (Arthur) cited 184 

Kemp, J. F., cited 47 

Kerns mine 139 

Kerr, W. C, quoted 32, 33, 38, 41 68 

Kevstone mine 57, 59 

Kindley (Wilson) mine 57 

Kings Mountain belt 15, 146-151 

Kings Mountain mine 18, 146, 147 

Lafflinmine 59 

Lalor mine 116 

Lauder mine 116 

Leeds mine 170 

Lemmonds mine 97 

Lewis mine 100,103 

Lincoln county, mines in 150 

Lindsay mine 115, 116 

Lot'tm mine 117 

Long mine 95 

Long Creek mine 149 

Lowder mine, 82 

Lower Taconic series, according to Eui- 

mons 30, 31 

Louisburg granite 24 

Marble P. O., Cherokee county, gold at... 193 

Marble creek, gold on 193 

Macon county, gold deposits in.. 191, 192 

Maclntire mine 174 

Magazine mine 165 

Mann mine 27 

Mann- Arlington mine 26. 27. 36, 45 

Manner of filling the fissure openings in 

the Carolina Slate belt 47,51 

Marion mine 97 

Marion Hullion Company 166, 167. 168 

Marsh, Prof., cited and quoted 39, 40 

Mastodon mine 53 

Mauney mine* 91 

Maxwell mine 144 

MeCarter Hill vein 149 

McCorkle mine, Catawba county 150 

McCorklemine,Mecklenburgcountv..l32, 141 

McCullough mine 114,115, 116 

McDonald mine 125 

McDowell county, mines in., 166-169 

McGee minp 1H2 

McGinn mine 132, 137, 138 

McLean mine 148 

McMakin vein, Gold Hill 18. 87. 89, 90 

Means mine 132, 138,139 

Mears chlorination process 122, 123 

Mecklenburg county, mines in 125 146 

Miller mine 175, 176 

Millis Hill, mine 110, HI 

Mills, (L. A.) mine 174 

Mills, (J. C.) property 20, 165. 166 

Mines in the Eastern Carolina belt 25 27 

in tlie Carolina Mate belt 52-107 

in the Carolina Igneous belt,.. 110-145 

in the Kings Mountain belt 146 151 

in the South Mountain belt 

164-170, 173-179 

west of the Blue Ridge 15, 1M) 193 

Monarch mine 169. 170 

Monroe slates 21.36, 37, 45,82, 83 

Montgomery county, mines in 74 82 

Montgomery mine 121 

Moore county, mines in 54-56 

Moore mine 45, 49, 95, J. 6 

Moore Hill mine 100, 102 

Moratock mine 37 38, 79, 80 

Morrison mine 125 

Morris Mountain mine 76 

Murphy, gold near 193 

Nash comity mines 24 

Native silver in North Carolina 18 

Nature of Ore deposits in Carolina Slate 

belt 44, 45 

Neal mine, Mecklenburg county 132, 133 

Neal mine, Polk county 174 

Negus mine 117 



PAGE. 

New Discovery mine 117 

New Gold Hill Company 90 

New South mine 98 

Newark conglomerate 21 

Nick Arrington mine 27 

Nolan mine 143 

Nordenskjold, cited 37 

North Carolina mine Ill, 112 

North State mine 19, 114-116 

Nugget mine 91, 94 

Ocoee formation 184, 192 

Old Field veins, Gold Hill 87, 88 

Old Miller mine 177 

Oliver mine 16, 149 

Open Cut Copper vein, Gold Hill 87 

Ophir mine 80 

Orange county, mines in 53 

Ore Deposits, Eastern Carolina belt 25, 27 

Carolina Slate belt 52-107 

Carolina Igneous belt. ..108-145 
King's Mountain belt. .146-151 
South Mountain belt, 

164 170, 173-179 
west of the Blue Ltidge, 
15, 180, 193 

Ore Hill, Union county 46, 103 

Paleotrochis 29, 30, 33, 38, 39 

Parish mine 40, 41,59 

Parker mine, Cherokee countv 16 

Parker mine, Stanly county....36, 40, 50, 83, 84 

Parks mine 125, 132 

Patterson mine, (Gaston count \) 148 

Patterson mine, (Orange county) 53 

Pattie Abrams mine 174 

Pax Hill mine .175,176 

Pear Tree Hill mine 80 

Person county, mines in 5i, 53 

Phiier mine ...19, 46,100,102, 103 

Phillips, Wm. B., cited >5 

Phoenix mine 19, LI, 122 

Piedmont Mineral Company, Ltd 166 

Pioneer Mills mine .*. 125, 144 

Plattner Chlorination process 123 

Point mine 125, 126 

Polk county, mines in 20, 173, 174 

Ponder mine 174 

Pool mine 53 

Poplan mine 125 

Poplin mine 141. 145 

Portis mine 19, 25,26,50 

Posepnv, cited 46, 47, 49 

Price mine 102, 103 

Prim mine 132 

Prince mine 174 

Production of gold and silver in North 

Carolina 17, 18 

Quaker City mine 123 

Quartz fissure veins, classified 21 

Raleigh vein Ill 

Randleman mine 117 

i Randolph county, mines in 56-60 

1 Randolph vein, Gold Hill 87, 88 

| Rav mine 143, 144 

Red Springs mine 174 

Reed mine 19, 124 

Reimer mine 117, 118 

j Reynolds mine 80 

Rhea mine 144 

Rhodes mine 148 

Rhyne mine 148 

' Riding mine 174 

I Riggon Hill mine 77 

I Roaring river, placers 179 

Robeson mine 53 

j Robinson mine J48 

j Rocky River mine 45, 91, 92, 93 

Rogers mine 1^5 

Roseman mine ...117 

Rowan county, mines in 85, U7-121 

Royster mine 53 

Rudisil mine 19, 125, 129 

Rufty mine 151 

Rumfeldt mine 148 

Russell mine 35, 45, 74-76 



198 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Rutherford countv, mines in 20, 169. 170 

Sam Christian mine 37,40, 80 82 

Saunders mine 77 

Sawver mine 59, 60 

Scott Hill mine 175, 176 

Secrest mine 98,100 

Section No. 6, Cherokee county, occur 

rence of gold 193 

Sericite schists 35 

Shaffer mine 144,145 

Shuford mine 150 

Shuford (A.D.) mine 150 

Silver Hill mine 41, 61, 66 

Silver Valley mine 37. 38, 41, 62, 66, 6S 

Silver, native in North Carolina 18 

Silver, production of in North Carolina, 

17, 18 

Simpson mine 144 

Slack mine 59 

Slates and schists of the Carolina Slat** 

belt.... 33,106 

Sloan mine 132, 139 

Smart mine 98,99 

Smith mine, Davidson county 68 

Smith mine, Polk county 174 

Smith and Palmer mine 125, 131 

South Mountain helt 15, 20, 152 180 

areas still available for min- 
ing 170,171 

conclusions and recommenda 
tions as to mining operations 
170 173 

deep mining in 173 

disposition of tailings 172 

distributionof placer deposits 162 
distribution of quartz veins 
159, 160 

fineness of gold in 20 

general description 152 

geology and petrography.154-158 
gold bearing quartz veins 158, 159 
gold deposits and mines of.164-170 

gold placer deposits 161, 162 

historical 153, 154 

improvement of water con- 
duits 171,172 

improvement in working 

methods 171 

method of working placer de- 
posits 163 

method of working quartz 

veins 160,161 

mines of 164-170 

monazite deposits in 172, 173 

topographic features of...l52, 153 

treatment of clay balls 171 

value of placer deposits. ..162, 163 

value of quartz veins 160 

water supply for placer min- 
ing 163,164 

Southern Belle mine 117 

Spaces of dicission 46 



PAGE. 

Spanish Oak Gap mine „ 80- 

Splawn mine 20, 174 

Springhope, gold deposits near 27 

Standard vein, Gold Hill .83 

Stanly county, mines of b2. B5 

Statistics from U. S. mint 18 

St. Catherine mine 125, 129-131 

Steel mine 77. 75 

Stephen Wilson mine 132, 133 

Stewart mine 19. 35. 96, 97 

Stinson mine 144 

Structure of the ore deposits 21. 22 

Surface Hill mine 144. 145 

Taconic system in N. C 2>-32 

Talc, talcbse, talcoid schists ...34 

Taylor mine, Halifax county 27 

Taylor mine, Mecklenburg county.. ..125. 131 

Telluride of gold at Kings Mt. mine 1« 

Thies chlorination process 122 

Thomas mine 24. 27 

1 Thomas Hembv mine 98 

Todd mine 132. 133 

Tom Arms mine ..174 

Tom's Creek mine 80 

Toxaway river, gold on .- 191 

Transvlvania county, gold deposits. 191, 192 

Trap Hill, gold near 179 

Troutman mine. Mecklenburg countv.. .132 

Troutman mine, Gold Hill 18,87-89 

Tredinick mine 143T 

Trotter mine 125. 131. 132 

Tucker mine 123 

Twin mine Ill 

Uharie mine b0 

Union county, mines in 94-106 

Upper Taconic series of rocks 31. 32 

Valley river, ^rold in 192 

VanHise, Prof . cited 44 

Vein Mountain property 20. 168, 169 

Vickery mine 116 

Volcanic rocks. Carolina Slate belt 37-43 

Warren county mines 24 

Washington mine, (Union couutyj 104 

Watauga county, occurrences of goldin.181 

Weiborn mine .6S 

Wetherbee mine 174 

White Bank mine 165 

Widenhouse mine 91 

Wilkes countv, mines in 178. 179 

Williams (Dr. Geo. H.) cited 37. 41 

Wilson, (A. J.) mine 144, 145 

Wilson, (Frank) mine L;5 

Winningham mine 59 

Winney Dunkin opening 191 

Winston mine 60 

Woodward-Hedgepach tract, placer min- 
ing at 27 

Worth mine 80 

Yadkin county, mines in 151 

Yadkin mine 117 

Yancey mine 52, 53 



ERRATA. 



Page 26, first line, also in 30th line " Sturgess " should read 

" Sturges." 
Page 48, twenty-second line, read " favorable " in place of " favor- 

ble." 
Page 52, second line from bottom, "course" instead of " course." 
Page 53, fourth line from top, period (.) instead of comma (, ) 

after " seams." 
Page 55, first line, new paragraph should begin with : "In the 

northwestern." 
Page 55, ninth line, read " leased " instead of " land." 
Page 58, first line, read " sulphurets " instead of " sniphurets." 
Page 58, in assay No. 22, the total should read " $3.13 " in place 

of "$3.10." 
Page 61, sixteenth line from top, "known " instead of "know." 
Page 64, sixteenth line, the semicolon (; ) should be a colon ( : ). 
Page 68, tenth line from bottom, " data " instead of " deta." 
Page 72, fourth line from bottom, read " surface " instead of 

" snrfice." 
Page 74, sixteenth line from bottom, " ef " should be " of." 
Page 75, first line, after " | " read " inch." 
Page 77, twenty-first line from bottom, " Uharrie " should be 

" ITharie." 
Page 85, bottom line, "Stanley" should be " Stanly." 
Page 93, sixth line from top, " branches" should be " bunches." 
Page 94, fifteenth line, for " examination " read " examinations." 
Page 101, the scale should be " § inch = l mile " not " 3 inches=l 

mile." 
Page 102, sixteenth line from top, " the " should be " the." 
Page 110, twelfth line, read " eastern " in place of" western." 
Page 122, sixteenth line from bottom " exstraction " should be 

" extraction." 
Pao;e 129, assay No. 166, should be read "$27.70" instead ol 

"$28.70." 



200 ERRATA. 

Page 130, assay No. 180 should read " $5'6.89 " instead of 

" $56.87." 
Page 130, third line from bottom, instead of " concentrates '' read 

" concentrated. " 
Page 131, fifteenth line from top, " indicate " should be " indi- 
cates." 
Page 131, assay No. 196, the total should be " §5.56 " in place of 

"$5.46." 
Page 138, the copper listed under assay No. 216 belongs under 

No. 215. 
Page 142, the copper listed under assay No. 243 should be under 

No. 244. 
Page 165, fifth line from bottom, read " obtained " instead of 

" obtainded." 
Page 171, fifth line, " or " is repeated unnecessarily. 






_ 




McAdamized Road in Normandy, France, 
the best and cheapest permanent road foe general use. 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

J. A. HOLMES, STATE GEOLOGIST. 



BULLETIN No. 4. 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION IN 
NORTH CAROLINA; 



BY 

J. A. HOLMES, State Geologist, 

AND 

WM, CAIN, Civil Engineer. 



RALEIGH: 
Josephus Daniels, State Printer and Binder. 

Presses of Edwards & Broughton. 
1898. 



BOARD OF MANAGERS. 



Gov. Thomas M. Holt, ex officio Chairman, 
Elias Care, . . . . .. . . 

J. Turner Morehead, . • 



Raleigh. 
Old Sparta. 
Leaksville. 



STATE GEOLOGIST. 



J. A. Holmes, 



Kaleigh. 



North Carolina Geological Survey, 
Raleigh, IS". C., January 10, 1893. 

To His Excellency Hon. Thomas M. Holt, 

Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir : — I have the honor to submit herewith for publication as Bul- 
letin No. 4 of the Geological Survey, a brief report on the character 
and distribution in North Carolina of materials suitable for the con- 
struction of highways and public roads ; to which has been added 
a short discussion of the methods of using these materials, and of the 
tools and machinery used in modern road construction. And I beg 
leave to express my appreciation of the fact that the subject of better 
roads is one in which for many years you have shown an active and 
intelligent interest. 

With great respect, I have the honor to be, sir, 

Yours obediently, 

J. A. HOLMES, 
State Geologist. 






CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Letter of transmittal 5 

Preface .... ... 7 

Introduction . . _ _ .. 11 

Earty use of stone in road construction 11 

Good roads in European countries 11 

Reasons why roads in America have not improved _. 12 

Early public roads in North Carolina 12 

Fayette ville plank roads 12 

State roads in western North Carolina _ _ 13 

Public roads and railroads . . . 14 

Conclusions as to road improvement in North Carolina 14 

Working roads by paid labor . •. . 15 

Methods of raising funds for road construction . . 15 

Use of criminals on public roads 15 

Co-operation between State and counties ... . 15 

Work in the several counties . . _ 15 

Broken stone pavements best for public highways 16 

CHAPTER I.— Character and Distribution of Road Material 17 

Absorptive power of stone 17 

Coefficients of wear and crushing of stone . . 18 

Stones not suitable as road material 18 

Stones suitable as road material 18 

Trap 19 

Syenite . 19 

Granite 19 

Gneiss.. 19 

Limestone ... 20 

Gravel and sand .. 20 

Distribution of road material in the eastern counties 20 

Gravel . . . _ ....... 21 

Limestone .. . 21 

Clay and sand t 22 

( x-ranite and other crystalline rocks 22 

Timber for plank roads ... 22 

Distribution of road material in midland and Piedmont counties 22 

Trap in the sandstone and other areas 23 

Eastern granite belt . . . 24 

Central granite belt 24 

Central slate belt 25 

Gneisses and other i ocks in the Piedmont counties . . 26 

Gneisses and other rocks of the mountain counties 26 

Conclusion 27 



© CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

CHAPTER II.— Public Road Problem in North Carolina 28 

Cost of Wagon Transportation ...._. 29 

Other Items in the Cost of Bad Roads ... . 32 

Bad Roads Cost the People of North Carolina $10,000,000 a Year ,.'... 36 

The Construction of Good Roads would Cost much Less . . 38 

Agricultural Depression due in part to Bad Roads. 37 

Does it Pay to Build Good Roads ? 39 

Mileage of Public Roads in North Carolina ... . _. 41 

A few Practical Suggestions :. . ... 42 

Encouragement of Private Enterprise in Road Building . . 44 

CHAPTER III. —Notes on Common Road Construction . . _ 46 

Intelligent Supervision Essential ... 46 

Drainage ... ..... ... . 47 

Earth Roads . . . . 50 

Advantages of Wide Tires . .51, 77 

Telford and Macadam Roads 52 

Repairs of Broken-stone Roads ... ... ... ..60. 62 

Cost of Broken-stone Roads . ... 60 

Width of Macadam Roads 52. 61 

Gravel Roads . 63 

Plank Roads 64 

Grades on Public Roads too Steep 66 

Location of Public Roads should be changed in many places 52, 69 

CHAPTER IV.— Tools and Machinery Employed in Road Construction 70 

Tools used in Grading 70 

Plows ... . - . . 71 

Wheelbarrows . . 72 

Carts .. ... .. 72 

Austin Dump Wagon : . 73 

Scrapers 73 

Mechanical Graders (Road Machines) 75 

New Era Grader . . ... __ 77 

Rolling, important in all road improvement . . . . 77 

Horse Rollers 78 

Steam Rollers ... ... . . 79 

Tools for Construction and Repair of Macadam Roads 80 

Stone Crushers ... . . . 81 

RockDrills 84 

Outfit for Hand-drilling * 84 

Outfit for Steam-drilling . .. . .. 84 

Engines for Operating Crushers, &c ... . . ... ... 85 

Steele's Dump car and Winding-drum . 85 

Tools used in Tile Drainage . . 86 

Index . . . ... 87 

Additions and Corrections ...... 88 



PREFACE 



It was originally intended that the notes on the character and dis- 
tribution in the State of materials suitable for road construction given in 
this paper, should be published in the Bulletin on Building Stone. 1 
But as they are intended for a different class of readers, it is thought 
best to publish them separately. And as there is at the present time 
a considerable amount of interest shown in relation to the subject of 
better public roads, it is thought best to supplement these notes on 
road materials by a brief discussion of the general subject of road 
improvement. Two chapters on this latter subject: Chapter III on 
Methods of Eoad Construction, and Chapter IV on the Machinery 
Used in Eoad Construction, have been prepared by Prof. ^Ym. Cain, 
of the State University, who is an engineer of large experience, and is 
familiar with the needs of the State in this direction. 

It is not expected that this short paper will serve to any extent 
the purpose of a guide to road construction, but it is hoped that it 
may aid in stimulating a deeper and more intelligent interest in the 
subject among the people of the State, and may aid in bringing about 
a system of public roads more in accord with our civilization, with 
the needs of the community, and with common sense. 

Those who wish to go more deeply into the subject of better public 
I'oads, and it is hoped that there may be many such, are advised to read, 
amongst the excellent books published recently, "Highway Construc- 
tion," 2 and "A Move for Better Roads," 3 both of which give lists of 
numerous other books and pamphlets relating to this subject. And 
every person interested should read "Good Roads," 4 the monthly 
journal published by the League of American Wheelmen, New York. 

In the preparation of this Bulletin I have drawn freely from each 
of these publications, and have endeavored to give full credit at the 
proper places. I am especially indebted to Mr. I. B. Potter, editor of 
"Good Roads," who kindly had prepared for me electrotype's from a 
number of illustrations published originally in that journal. 

J. A. Holmes, 
State Gi ologist. 



1. Bulletin No. 2 on the Building stone in North ( larolina ; by J. A. Holmes and J. V. Lewis, 
1893. 

2. "Highway Construction," by Austin T. Byrne, }>i>. 686. John Wiley & Sons, 1892. Price $6. 

3. "A Move for Better Roads; Essays on Road-making and Maintenance and Road Laws." 
Henry Cary Baird & Co., Philadelphia. Price $2. 

4. "Good Roads," a monthly journal, edited by Isaac B. Potter. Potter Building, New York 
$2 a year. 




Fig. l.—A COUNTRY ROAD IK FRANCE. A STONE-PAVED ROAD. 
THE BEST ROAD FOR GENERAL USE. 



INTRODUCTION 



Historical Notes. — The use of stone in the construction of public 
highways, to the importance of which the American people are at 
last awakening, is by no means a modern invention. The Babylonians, 
the Carthaginians, the early Greeks in the Old World, and Incas of 
Peru in the New World recognized its importance, and some of their 
paved roads are well known in history, and their remnants still to be 
seen. And the Romans, starting with the Appian Way (312 B. C.) 
constructed a series of paved roads from Rome to the principal towns 
of the Empire and through many parts of Europe. Some of these 
splendid roads are still in use, and others form the foundations of 
modern roads. 

It was not, however, until the close of the last century that modern 
European nations became aroused to the necessity of better roads. 
France and England took the lead in the matter, and soon to be fol- 
lowed by Germany, Switzerland and other countries ; each recognizing 
the fact that good roads are an essential accompaniment and promoter 
of civilization, national prosperity, and even national existence. The 
progress in this direction has been constant, until at the present time 
France alone has not less than 130,000 miles of paved roads, unsur : 
passed in their excellence by those of any other country. And there 
is no doubt much of truth in the suggestion that the prosperity of 
her people, even under adverse circumstances, is due in no small degree 
to the fact that on her splendidly maintained system of highways the 
obstacles, the "movement of persons and exchange of commodities" 
have been reduced to a minimum. 

In the introduction to his recent book on "Highway Construction," 
page 31, Byrne gives the following reasons why public roads 
have not improved as have other institutions in the United States: 
; *(1) The excellence of the railroad systems and waterways; (2) the 
indifference of those in charge of highway maintenance; (3) the want 
of appreciation of the benefits of good roads and the fear of increased 
taxation on the part of the rural population ; (4) the dispersion of the 
people over large areas in their search for desirable localities tor resi- 
dence-; and (5) the ill effects of (the system requiring the personal 
service of the rural population on the highways." 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

Various States of the Union adopted from the old English laws the 
provision that every citizen may work out his road-tax on the public 
highways, and by the continued existence of this law, the American 
road is now a. hundred years behind the demands of American civili- 
zation. 

Early in the present century North Carolina statesmen, led by Judge 
Murphy and President Caldwell devoted a large share of attention to 
the subject of internal improvements. It was their purpose to improve 
the facilities for navigation on all the principal rivers, 'and starting 
from the head of navigation on each stream to construct a series of 
public highways extending westward into the interior of the State. 

In 1823 the Engineer of the Board, Hamilton Fulton, surveyed such 
a road from Fayetteville to Wilkesboro, and recommended its construc- 
tion, at a total cost of $63,200 ; and in his report of this survey he sug- 
gests the adoption of the following system of public roads, * dividing 
them into three classes : The great principal and leading roads in one 
class to be denominated State roads ; another of minor importance into 
county roads, and a third into private roads. The first of these to be made 
from a fund of which the State will contribute one moiety, and the 
counties through which the road passes their respective moities of the 
expenses actually incurred in the county ; when the road is once com- 
pleted, to be kept in repair by the county. The second class to be 
made and kept in repair by the counties ; and the third to be made and 
kept in repair by the private individuals who are benefited by the same. 

The public highway from Fayetteville to Wilkesboro was never 
built, as recommended by Mr. Fulton, but the plan bore fruit many 
years later when, in 1849, the citizens of Fayetteville (at the head of 
navigation on the Cape Fear river), with the co-operation of the State, 
undertook the construction of a series of plank roads. The Fayette- 
ville and "Western plank road,. begun in 1849-50, was built from Fay- 
etteville to Salem. The Fayetteville and Centre plank road, begun 
in 1855, was to extend to Centre (now Norwood), in Stanly County. 
The Fayetteville and Warsaw plank road, also begun in 1855, Avas to 
extend eastward to Warsaw, on the Wilmington and Weld on Railroad. 
The construction of these plank roads was under the management of 
stock companies, three-fifths of the stock having been subscribed by 
the State and two-fifths by the citizens of the community. The 
average cost per mile on the Fayetteville and Western plank road Avas 
about $1,300, and on the others it was probably the same.f During a 
few years after their construction these roads were highly satisfac- 



*Annual Report of the Board of Internal Improvements of North Carolina, 1823, p. 4o. 

fThe FayetteviJJe and Centre, and the Fayetteville and AVarsaw roads were never completed 



INTRODUCTION. L3 

tory, but it was not long before the timber began to decay ; and as 
the total receipts were not sufficient to make the investment a 
profitable one, they were not repaired, and have long since disap- 
peared, and are now known only in the memories of older citizens 
and in the public records, which show them to have cost not less than 
three hundred thousand dollars. 

As early as 1819,* and at intervals for forty years thereafter, the 
Board of Internal Improvements, as authorized by the General Assem- 
bly, co-operated on a small scale in having roads surveyed and con- 
structed in several of the 'sparsely settled mountain counties ; and in 
1819-'50 the General Assembly authorized a careful survey of the 
route, and the construction of the Western Turnpike Eoad, with 
various branches, to extend from Salisbury via Asheville, through 
Cherokee County to the State line, the cost to be borne out of funds 
arising from the sales of the Cherokee lands, and funds raised by pri- 
vate companies along the route. That part of the route between Sal- 
isbury and Asheville was abandoned in favor of the Western North 
Carolina Railroad. The road, with its tributary branches, was con- 
structed from Asheville to its south-west terminus between 1850 and 
1859. 

All these western turnpike roads, in the building of which the State 
aided, were, at best, fairly good dirt roads. Instead of constructing 
permanent stone roads, one of the chief aims of the builders was to 
get the stone out of the way. Nearly, if not quite all of them, were 
managed as toll-roads for several years after completion, but this fea- 
ture has been generally abandoned, to the detriment of the traveller. 
They are still known as State roads, though the State has long since 
ceased to be interested in them, financially or otherwise. 

During the past several decades plans for public improvement have 
turned in other directions. The railroads have penetrated many parts 
of the State ; they have absorbed a considerable share of public atten- 
tion ; and there has been a growing belief among the people that they 
have in a large measure done away with the need for other public 
highways. But we are just now coming to a clearer understanding of 
the true relations existing between the railroads and good wagon 
roads. Both are so essential that we need not stop to compare their 
relative importance ; neither can be extended so as to take the place 
of the other. It is true that railroads have in large measure done 
away with the need for long turnpikes extending parallel to them 
through the same territory, but they have enhanced the importance 
of other public roads extending out on both sides of the railroad by 



* Annual Report Board of Internal Improvements in North Carolina, 1823_ pp. 12 and 13. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

greatly increasing the service that these public roads may render in 
the exchange of commodities and in the development of the natural 
resources of the country. A railroad at every man's door is out of 
the question ; but every citizen should be within easy reach, over a 
good public highway, of the railroad, the county seat, and the nearest 
market town. And he is, in an important sense and during a con- 
siderable part of the year, nearer to these when separated from them 
by ten miles of good macadam road than when separated by two miles 
of a winter-time dirt road. 

Some Conclusions. — I have introduced these brief historical notes 
to show : first, that other civilized countries have now a system of 
stone-paved public roads, and find them an indispensable adjunct of 
national prosperity and progress ; and, second, that in North Carolina 
the public road system, if indeed it may be called a system, of the 
present century has been an expensive failure. It would be an easy 
task to show also that our lack of good roads has greatly retarded 
the material growth and development of the State ; and that it is a 
matter of paramount importance that we lose no time in adopting 
some different system of road construction and maintenance, such as 
has been found satisfactory in other countries. 

So much for the past. The problem of better public roads, espe- 
cially in the midland and western counties, perhaps outranks in im- 
portance all other industrial questions now before the people of the 
State. The most difficult part of the problem, as is so often the case, 
is that of revenue — how to raise the funds. This part of the problem 
demands the consideration of the General Assembly rather than the 
Geological Survey ; but I venture to state in conclusion a few general 
propositions which have served as a basis of road improvement in 
other countries, and which I believe must be recognized in establish- 
ing a new system of public roads in North Carolina. 

1. All public roads should be constructed and kept in repair as far 
as possible by men employed and trained for this special work ; and 
if it is not deemed wise to abolish at once, as has been done in every 
other enlightened country, the present system of having every voting 
citizen liable for work on the public roads, then it will be best To 
adopt such a modification of it as has been done in Mecklenburg 
county, where citizens are liable for four days of work, and are re- 
lieved of this obligation on the payment of the sum of fifty cents per 
day. The amount of this substitute money should be small — not 
greater than fifty cents per day — so that the great majority would pay 
it rather than work on the roads ; and the few who prefer to work 
may be called out, not in a bodv, but individually at the discretion of 



INTRODUCTION'. 15 

the road supervisor, and thus forced to labor continuously and intel- 
ligently. 

2. The cost of the construction of public roads should be paid out 
of funds raised by either of the following methods : 

(a) A State tax or a County tax, or both ; 

(b) The issuance of State bonds or County bonds, or both. 

The latter method possesses one decided advantage in that it pro- 
vides a large sum for immediate expenditure in the construction of 
roads, and the existence of these improved roads will so enhance the 
value of property as to more than pay the interest on the bonds 
issued, a fact which has been demonstrated by actual experience in 
Virginia, New Jersey, Connecticut, Indiana, and in other countries. 
And it possesses a second advantage that the people begin at once to 
realize the advantages of o-<>od roads. 

3. All criminals should, so far as possible, be used for work on the 
public roads, and thereby benefit the communities which have been 
injured by the commission of crime. 

4. While it may be best under our form of government for the 
several counties to bear the main burden of constructing and main- 
taining good roads, yet in a work of such paramount importance to 
every citizen and far-reaching in its consequences, where so large an 
expenditure is required demanding intelligent supervision, the State 
should co-operate with the counties in the construction of the prin- 
cipal highways, as it has done in educational matters, in the construc- 
tion of railroads, canals and other internal improvements. If in no 
other way the State should co-operate with the counties to the extent 
(1) of allowing the use of convicts in such counties or groups of 
counties as agree to raise funds sufficient for the construction of better 
roads; and (2) by providing for the employment of a practical engin- 
eer of roads who can visit the various counties, give intelligent advice 
and direction to the work, and thus aid in the production of uniformly 
good results. 

5. In the several counties the construction of better roads should 
begin at the county seats, and the work be done on all the prominent 
roads radiating out from that point, first near the town, and gradually 
at greater distances out ; except that where several counties co-operate. 
in the construction of a trunk road, extending through them, it may 
be wise first to complete the work on this road, and construct tin; 
other county roads thereafter. 

6. While the granite block pavement is probably the best for city 
streets, and the plank road is perhaps the most economical temporary 



16 



INTRODUCTION 



road which can he constructed in sandy and well timbered regions, 
the experience of a century has demonstrated the fact that for the 
public highways of the country the broken stone covering as used by 
MacAdam and Telford is by far the most satisfactory, and in the lono- 
run hv far the most economical. 




From "Good Koads." 

Fig. 5.— HEAVY LOAD OF STONE BEING HAULED ON A MACADAM ROAD. IT SHOULD 
BE OBSERVED THAT THE WHEELS DO NOT SINK INTO THE SURFACE, AND TnAT CON- 
SEQUENTLY THE LOAD WHICH CAN BE HAULED IS GREATLY INCREASED. 



CHAPTER ONE. 



CHARACTER AND DISTRIBUTION OF ROAD MATERIAL. 



Ju the following discussion of the character and distribution of 
road material in the State, it is thought best to avoid the use of technical 
terms as far as possible; and the names of rocks here used arc those 
applied by the engineer rather than by the geologist. The character 
of the materials are discussed with a view to their fitness for use in 
the construction of broken stone pavement as used by Macadam and 
Telford on the public highways. 

OHABACTER OF ROAD MATERIAL. 



"In considering the relative fitness of the various materials," says 
Byrne.* "the following physical and chemical qualities must be sought 
for : 

"(1) Hardness, or that disposition of a solid which renders it diffi- 
cult to displace its parts among themselves. 

"(2) Toughness, or that quality which will endure light but rapid 
blows without breaking. 

"(3) Ability to withstand the destructive action of the weather, and 
probably some organic acids produced by the decomposition of 
excretal matters, always present upon the roadways in use. 

"(4) The porosity, or water-absorbing capacity, is of considerable 
importance. There is, perhaps, no more potent disintegrator in nature 
than frost, and it may be accepted as fact that of two rocks which are 
to be exposed to frost, the one most absorbent of water will be the 
least durable." 

The following table shows the absorptive power of a few common 

stones :+ 

Percentage of 
Water Absorbed. 

Granites 0.06 to 0.155 

Marbles 0.08 to 0. 1(5 

Limestones 0/20 to 5.00 

Sandstones 0.41 to 5.48 



* Highway Construction, p. 24. 

f Byrne, Highway Construction, p. 2U 



1 8 ROAD MATERIALS. 

Something of the quality and suitability of different materials for 
use in broken stone pavements is shown in the following table ■/■■ 



Materials. 



Basalt . . - 
Porphyry 
Gneiss . . 



Coefficients of Coefficients of 
Wear. Crushing. 



12,5 to 24.2 12 1 to 16. 
14.1 to 22.9 8 3 to 16.3 

10.3 to 19.0 13.4 to 14.8 

Granite \ 7.3 to 18.0 7.7 to 15.8 

Syenite j 11.6 to 12.7 12.4 to 13.0 

Sla-g , 14.5 to 15.3 7 2 to 11.1 

Quartsite 13 8 to 30.0 12.3 to 21.6 

Quartzose sandstone | 14 3 to 26.2 9.9 to 1 6 6 

Quartz | 12.9 to 17.8 12.3 to 13.2 

Limestone I 6.6 to 15.7 6 5 to 13.5 



These "coefficients," showing the relative quality of various road 
materials, Avere obtained by French engineers as the result of an 
extended series of tests, and were found to agree fairly Avell with the 
results arrived at by actual observation of the wear of materials in 
the roads. The coefficient 20 is equivalent to "excellent." 10 to "suf- 
ficiently good," and 5 to "bad." 

Stones Not Suitable as Road Material. — Before proceeding to the 
consideration of the stones found in North Carolina adapted to use as 
road material, it may be well to consider briefly some of those that are 
not suited to this purpose. In general, it may be said that all sch istose 
and slaty rocks, i. e., all rocks which split or break easily into layers 
or flakes, should be discarded. No rock of whatever species which is 
already in the advanced stages of decay, so as to become crumbly and 
soft or porous, should be used 3 as the result in all such cases will be 
that, under the action of the wheels and hoofs, these materials become 
ground into fine powder, which becomes mud when wet, and dust when 
dry. There are other materials, like quartz ("white flint"), which are 
hard enough, but which are quite brittle, and hence easily crushed to 
powder, and which, consequently, should not be used when better 
material is available. Sandstones, as a rule, are unfit for use in 
macadamizing roads, as they are easily crushed and usually porous. 

Stones Suitable as Road Material. — "The materials used for broken- 
stone pavements must of necessity vary very much according to the 
locality. Owing to the cost of haulage, local stone must generally be 
used, especially if the traffic be only moderate. If, however, the traffic 
is heavy, it will sometimes be found better and more economical to 



* Byrne's Highway Construction, p. 172. 



ROAD MATERIALS. 19 

obtain a superior material, even at a higher cost, than the local stone; 
and in cases where the traffic is very great, the best material that can 
be obtained is the most economical."* 

Stones ordinarily used in the construction of Macadam and Telford 
roads are the following: trap, syenite, granite, gneiss, limestone, 
quartzite, gravel and sand. The first three of these names are used 
here in a very general sense, and include a number of species of rock 
which, in technical language, would be known by other names. In 
general, it may be said that they rank in importance about in the order 
named, but several of them, especially the granite, gneiss and lime- 
stone, vary so much in quality that this general statement is subject to 
modification accordingly. 

The term trap, as here used, includes not only the black rather fine- 
grain igneous rock known as diabase, which occurs in long dykes in 
the sandstone basins of Deep and Dan rivers, but also the somewhat 
similar material which is to be found in the older crystalline rock of 
many other regions. This rock does not split well into paving blocks, 
but when properly broken it is the most uniformly good material 
obtainable for macadamizing public highways. 

Syenite, sometimes called hornblende granite, varies somewhat in 
quality and composition. It is a widely distributed rock in the mid- 
land and western counties of North Carolina, and is an excellent road 
material. The varieties which are finer in grain, and those having the 
larger proportion of the black mineral known as hornblende and are 
consequently of darker color, are best adapted for this purpose. 

Granites vary considerably, both in quality and appearance, and in 
their value as road material. Those which are very coarse in grain, 
containing large and numerous crystals of feldspar, are, as a rule, more 
easily crushed and decay more rapidly, and should not be used in road 
construction when better materials are available. Those which con- 
tain a large proportion of mica split and crush more easily into thin 
flakes and grains, and, for this reason, are also less valuable. Those 
varieties which are of fine grain and contain a small admixture of 
hornblende are best for road purposes. 

Gneiss, which has the same general composition as granite, also 
varies very greatly in its quality and adaptability to road building. 
It usually has the appearance of being somewhat laminated or bedded, 
and when the layers are thin and the rock shows a tendency to split 
along these layers it should be discarded for road purposes. In addi- 
tion to this, the statements made above with reference 1 to the granites 
will apply also to gneiss. 



Byrne. Highway Construction, p. 170. 



20 ROAD MATERIALS. 

Limestone suitable for road purposes is not an abundant rock in 
North Carolina, but it is found in a few of the eastern and a few of 
the western counties. It is a rock which varies very greatly in char- 
acter, from the hard, fine-grained, compact magnesium limestone, which 
is a most excellent material for the Macadam and Telford roads, to the 
porous, coarse and partially compact shell-rock of recent geological 
formation, which is less valuable material. Practically, all limestones 
when used as road material possess one valuable qualification, that of 
''binding;" the surface material which becomes ground by the action 
of the wheels settles among the fragments below and consolidates the 
entire mass. For this reason, in many cases, it has been found to be 
good policy to mix a considerable quantity of limestone with some 
silicious and igneous rocks, which though hard and tough do not con- 
solidate readily. 

Gravel and Sand are not used in the construction of stone roads as 
formed by Macadam and Telford, except as an excellent foundation, 
for which purpose they possess a very great value ; and as a binding 
material, in small quantities they are sometimes mixed with the 
crushed stone as the latter is spread over the road surface. When 
used in this latter connection, however, the gravel must be quite free 
from round pebbles. . Gravel is, however, used extensively in the con- 
struction of what are termed gravel roads ; where there is no attempt 
at macadamizing the roads, but Avhere the gravel itself is spread uni- 
formly over the surface of a foundation road-bed which has been 
properly shaped and drained. 

DISTRIBUTION OF ROAD MATERIAL. 

A line drawn from Gaston to Smithfield, Smithfield to Gary, and 
from Gary to Wadesboro, separates the State into two general and 
well marked divisions, the eastern of which may be called the Coastal 
Plain region, and the western may be termed Piedmont and Mountain 
regions. 

Ix the Coastal Plain Region. — In the eastern counties, except 
along the western border of this Coastal Plain region at irregular 
intervals, we find none of the hard crystalline rocks suitable for mak- 
ing good road-bed. Over the larger part of the area we have sand, 
clays and loams, the sands becoming coarser and more gravelly along 
the western border and finer towards the eastern. At a number of 
points along some of the rivers and in some intervening areas is to be 
found a limestone rock which will serve a fairly good purpose in road 
building:. 



ROAD MATERIALS. 21 

Gravel. — The gravels along this western border can be used success- 
fully in making a fairly good road-bed, and should be used extensively 
where the hard crystalline rocks cannot be obtained. It may be found 
at many places in counties between the line mentioned above, extend- 
ing from Gaston to Wadesboro, and a line drawn to the east of this 
from Franklin, Virginia, by way of Scotland Keck, Tarboro, La- 
Grange and Clinton, to Lumberton ; and in a few places also east of 
this latter line. The gravel is more generally distributed along the 
borders of the river basins, where it occurs in extensive beds, a few 
inches to twenty feet in thickness, though along the western edge of 
the Coastal Plain region it is often found on the hill-tops and divides 
between the rivers. 

In many places the gravel is suitable for use on the road-bed just 
as it comes from the pit, containing pebbles of the right size, from an 
inch down to a coarse sand, and a small percentage of ferruginous clay, 
just enough to make it pack w T ell in the road-bed without preventing 
proper drainage. In many cases, how T ever, the proportion of clay and 
loam and sand is too large and must be reduced by the use of fine 
screens ; and in other cases many of the pebbles are so large that they 
must be separated by means of a one-inch mesh screen and broken 
before they can be used properly. 

The railroads passing through this region long since discovered the 
value of this gravel as a road material, and have used it extensively 
as a ballast on their road-beds. The small percentage of ferruginous 
clay soon cements the gravel into a hard compact mass. 

limestone. — In the south-eastern portion -of this region limestone 
rock and calcareous shells from the oyster and from fossil mollusks 
from the marl beds constitute the only hard materials to be found there 
for road construction. In some places the limestone is fairly hard, 
compact, as at Rocky Point, on the Northeast Cape Fear river, at 
Castle Hayne and elsewhere, and this rock will make an excellent road. 
In other places it is made up of a mass of shells firmly cemented 
together into a hard mass, as on the Trent river, near Xewbern, 
and elsewhere. At many other points beds of shells are so slightly 
cemented together that the material may hardly be called a rock, 
as the term is ordinarily used, and in this condition it is of less 
value as a road material. A careful search will show limestone of one 
of these grades to occur in considerable quantities at many points in 
these eastern counties, between the Tar river and the South Carolina 
line. The harder, the more compact, and liner grain this rock, the 
more valuable it is as a road material; but the loose shells from 
marl beds, when free from clay, and the oyster shells from the coast. 



22 ROAD MATERIALS. 

when placed on a road surface and ground into fine fragments by 
travel, will solidify into a hard, compact road. 

Clay and Sand. — The admixture of a small percentage of clay with 
the sand on the surface of the road-bed w^ill solidify it, and will thus 
very greatly improve the character of the road ; and in this connec- 
tion, and only in this connection, clay may be considered a useful 
road material... In whatever region the clay appears in abundance, 
the road will be greatly improved by the proper admixture of sand 
from an adjoining region, and by proper drainage. 

Granites and other crystalline rocks. — These are found outcropping at 
intervals along the western border of the Coastal Plain region, and 
wmerever found accessible this material should be used in construction 
of roads. Near the northern border of the State they are found exposed 
in considerable quantity ; along the Roanoke river, between Gaston 
and Weldon, in Northampton and Halifax counties ; near Whitaker's 
Station, at Rocky Mount, just south of Wilson, and again a few miles 
north of Goldsboro on the Wilmington and Weldon railroad. Another 
isolated and interesting occurrence of granite is near the junction of 
Pitt, Wilson and Edgecombe counties, where it is exposed over a tract 
of several acres. West of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, in 
the counties of Halifax, Nash and Johnston, the streams have removed 
the surface sands and clay in narrow strips along their borders, and 
have exposed at intervals the crystalline rocks; and in man v places 
these rocks will be found to make good road material. Further 
southwest, in Wake county, on the Cape Fear river, and Upper Little 
river in Harnett county, and again along the banks of the Pee Dee 
river and tributaries in Richmond and Anson counties, granitic and 
slaty rocks occur in considerable quantities, the former especially 
suitable for road material. 

In considering the materials for good roads in the counties of this 
Coastal Plain region, it must also be borne in mind that several large 
rivers connect this region with ample sources of granite and other 
good road materials which occur at the head of navigation on these 
streams and can be cheaply transported on fiats; and further, that a 
number of railroads pass from the midland counties where the supply 
is abundant directly into and across the Coastal Plain region. 

Plank Roads. — As suggested above, in deep sandy regions where 
timber is abundant, the plank road may prove the most economical 
good road that can be built for temporary use, and some of them are 
fairly durable. 

In the Midland and Piedmont Counties. — Throughout the mid- 
land and Piedmont counties of the State, west of the Coastal Plain 



ROAD MATERIALS. 23 

region, rocks suitable for road purposes are abundant, and widely dis- 
tributed, so that no one can claim as an excuse for had roads that the 
materials are not at hand for making good roads. It will serve our 
present purpose to discuss these in the order of their geographic dis- 
tribution, with bui little regard to their geologic relations. 

Trap Roolc in the Sandstone Areas. — As stated above, sandstones pos- 
sess very little value as road material, especially when broken into 
small fragments, as is necessary in making Macadam and Telford 
roads, but, fortunately in this respect, sandstones of North Carolina 
are quite limited in their distribution. The larger of the two areas 
begins near Oxford, in Granville County, and extends south westward, 
passing into South Carolina below "Wadesboro. It has its maximum 
width of about sixteen miles between Chapel Hill and Car\ r , and its 
average width is less than ten miles. It occupies the southern portion 
of Granville County, the southern half of Durham, the western border 
of Wake, the southeastern border of Chatham, and portions of Moore, 
Montgomery, Anson and Richmond counties. The other sandstone 
area is much more limited in extent. It lies mainly in Stokes and 
Rockingham counties, along the Dan river, between Germantown and 
the Virginia line, a length of not more than thirty miles, and a maxi- 
mum width of not more than five miles. 

Fortunately for the roads leading through these sandstone areas, 
there is abundance of a hard, black, tough, fine-grained rock, known 
as diabase, or trap, occurring in dykes which have broken through the 
sandstones and now appear on the surface in lines of more or less 
rounded black masses of rock running nearly north and south. These 
dykes vary in width from very narrow to more than one hundred feet, 
and are separated from one another by distances varying from a few 
yards to two or three miles. A dozen or more of these dykes are 
crossed by the wagon road between Chapel Hill and Morrisville. 
Several dykes occur 'at and near Durham, and the rock has been used 
upon roads leading out from Durham, but unfortunately it has not 
been crushed into small fragments, as should have been done, and 
hence the result has not been altogether satisfactory. 

There is, probably, in both these sandstone areas a sufficient amount 
of trap rock to properly macadamize every prominent road that crosses 
them, and. after this has been done, to furnish a top dressing for all 
public roads which are likely to be macadamized in the adjacent 
counties. 

Trap Rock in Other Areas. — Fortunately, this excellent road mate- 
rial is, in its occurrence, not limited to the sandstone regions. Dykes 
quite similar to those which abound in the areas just described are 



24 ROAD MATERIALS. 

also found extending across the country in many of the midland and 
Piedmont counties, and also the region west of the Blue Ridge. 
Heretofore this black, " nigger-head " rock, as it is frequently called, 
has been regarded as a useless encumbrance of the ground; now, in 
connection with the move for better roads, it must be regarded as one 
of our most valuable rocks. The city of Winston has already made 
extensive use of it in macadamizing its streets. 

The Eastern Granite Belts. — Granitic rocks are abundant over con- 
siderable areas in the midland and Piedmont counties, and especially 
in the former. One of these important areas may be called, as a matter 
of convenience, the Raleigh granite belt, which, in a general way, may 
be described as enclosed by lines drawn from Gaston to Smithfield, 
thence to a point midway between Raleigh and Gary, and thence a 
little east of north to the "Virginia line. This belt occupies a consid- 
erable part of Wake, including the region about Raleigh, and of 
Franklin, practically the whole of Warren and Yance counties. The 
principal rocks of this belt are a light-colored gray, comparatively 
fine-grained, granite and gneiss ; on the whole, a fairly good material 
for road construction. The rocks vary in composition and in appear- 
ance at different localities, but are fairly uniform in character over 
considerable areas. In some places the black or biotite mica is want- 
ing, and the rock assumes a whitish felspathic character ; at other 
points the mica becomes abundant, and the rock assumes a dark gray 
color. In places the mica is so abundant that the gneiss becomes 
♦somewhat schistose, or laminated, and in this condition crushes easily, 
hence should not be used on the roads. Dykes of trap rock are occa- 
sionally met with. 

The somewhat isolated patches of granite lying east of this belt in 
Halifax, Xash, Edgecombe and Wilson counties have already been 
referred to. 

West of the Raleigh belt there is another granite area of limited 
extent which occupies the extreme northeastern portion of Durham 
county and the larger part of Granville county. This may be called 
the Oxford granite belt. The rocks of this area resemble to some 
extent those of the Raleigh belt, but there is a larger proportion of 
syenitic and trap rocks,, which make excellent road material. 

The Central Granite Belt. — This belt extends obliquely across the 
State from near Roxboro, in Person county, to the South Carolina 
line along the southern border of Mecklenburg. Its width varies 
from ten to thirty miles, and it occupies a total area of about three 
thousand square miles in the following counties: western half of 
Person, including the region about Roxboro; the southeastern portion 



ROAD MATERIALS. 20 

of Caswell, the northwestern half of Alamance, the larger part of Guil- 
ford and Davidson, southeastern portions of Davie and Iredell, Lincoln 
and Gaston and the larger part of Rowan, Cabarrus and Mecklen- 
burg. In this belt throughout its entire extent road material of most 
excellent quality is abundant. The prevailing characteristic rocks are 
syenite, dolerite (trap), greenstone, amphibolite, granite and porphyry ; 
and, as will be seen from this list, the tough hornblende and angite rocks 
predominate. Dykes of trap rock, some of them of considerable extent, 
are to be found in almost every portion of the belt. So uniformly 
tough and durable are these materials, that one could hardly go amiss 
in making selections for road construction. 

The Central Slate Belt. — This region lies just east of the central 
granite belt, and extends obliquely across the State from Virginia to 
South Carolina. Its eastern border lies against the Deep river sand- 
stone basin described above (p. 23). It varies from twenty to forty 
miles in width and includes all or portions of the following counties : 
the eastern half of Person, the northwestern part of Durham, the 
southeastern part of Alamance, nearly all of Orange, Chatham, Rand- 
olph, Montgomery, Stanly and Union ; the eastern part of Davidson and 
Rowan, and the northwestern part of Anson. A considerable portion of 
this area is rich in other mineral products, but the entire belt as compared 
with the central granite belt, is poor in road materials. The rocks are 
mostly siliceous and clay slates, with a considerable admixture of chlor- 
itic and hydromicaceous schists ; all of which are at best inferior for road 
construction. Here and there,however, trap dykes are found in this belt; 
and in places the siliceous slates become somewhat massive, passing 
into hornstone and a quartzite, which, when crushed, will answer 
fairly well for macadamizing purposes. In other places the chloritic 
schists become somewhat massive and tough and can be used in the 
same way. In still other places, as about the State University, and 
along the eastern border of Orange County, the rock is a fine-grained, 
tough syenite, accompanied by trap dykes, and is eminently suited for 
road purposes; and again, as near Hillsboro, granite occurs in a lim- 
ited area. Vein quartz ("white flint") is abundant in many parts of 
the belt; and, though not usually recommended as road material, is 
worthy of consideration. While then, on the whole the rocks of this 
belt are not suitable for use as road material, yet a careful search will 
show the existence of a sufficient quantity of material of fail' quality 
to macadamize all the public roads. And should this supply ever 
prove insufficient, excellent materials are to be found in abundance in 
the granite belt along the western border of this region, and in the 
trap dykes of the sandstone on the eastern border. 






2t> ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

The Gneisses and Other Rocks of ths Piedmont Counties. — West of 
the central granite belt as described above, and extending back to the 
foot-hills of the Bine Ridge, is the region occupied by the Piedmont 
counties — Rockingham, Stokes, Forsyth, Yadkin, Surry, "Wilkes, Davie, 
Iredell, Alexander, Caldwell, Burke, McDowell, Rutherford, Polk, 
Cleveland, Catawba, Lincoln and Gaston. The rocks of this region 
resemble in many respects those of the Raleigh granite belt. They 
consist of a succession of gneisses, schists and slates, more hornblendic 
toward the east and more micaceous toward the west, with here and 
there masses and dykes of syenite, trap and other eruptive rocks. In 
places, as at Mount Airy, the true granite occurs in considerable 
abundance. The granites and gneisses, except where the latter tend 
to split into thin layers and crush, are fairly good materials for road 
construction, improving as they become finer in grain and as the per- 
centage of hornblende increases ; but the best material for road con- 
struction is to be found in the trap dykes and syenite ledges which at 
intervals traverse this region, more especially its eastern half. 

The Gneisses and Other Rocks of the Mountain Counties. — The rocks 
of this region are not greatly unlike those of the Piedmont counties 
just described. Over much the larger part of the area rock fairly 
well adapted to road construction is abundant, indeed so abundant 
that the laborers on the public roads in that region during the past 
half century have expended the larger part of their time and energy 
in endeavoring to get this rock out of the way. Had they expended 
this time and energy in crushing the rock and spreading it over a 
well-formed foundation, this region would possess at the present time 
a number of excellent macadamized highways. 

In the more northern counties — Alleghany. Ashe and Watauga — 
the predominating rocks are hornblende gneiss and slate, but massive 
syenites are abundant, especially between Rich mountain in Watauga 
and Negro mountain in Ashe county, and elsewhere. Further south- 
west, through Mitchell, Yancey, Madison and Buncombe counties, 
hornblende schists still continue, but they are more massive, and the 
gneisses predominate. These are, on the whole, compact and suffi- 
ciently tough for use in the construction of good Macadam roads. 
And the statement just made concerning these counties is also appli- 
cable to Henderson, Transylvania and Haywood counties, and in a 
measure to Jackson, Swain and Macon counties and the eastern half 
of Clay county, in all of which the supply of good road material is 
ample ; but in these last three counties mica schist partially replaces the 
hornblende slate. In the western part of Swain, in Graham. Cherokee 



ROAD MATERIALS 



27 



and the western part of Clay county good road material is not so abund- 
ant as in the other counties named, but nevertheless is to be found in con- 
siderable quantities. The rocks over a considerable portion of this 
last-named area are micaceous and hydro-micaceous in character, and 
are practically worthless for the purposes of road building, but the 
quartzite ledges and beds of limestone in these counties will furnish 
ample and suitable material. 

In conclusion, it may be said that in the middle and western counties 
of North Carolina material suitable for macadamizing the public high- 
ways is abundant and generally accessible. It will be the exception, 
rather than the rule, that this material will have to be transported for any 
considerable distance. In the eastern counties materials suitable for 
this purpose are inferior in quality and only moderately abundant in 
quantity, but the extensive and intelligent use of even these materials 
would very greatly improve the public roads and thereby increase the 
prosperity of the people. And in many places where the Macadam road is 
at present out of the question on account of the lack of stone, other mater- 
ials, gravel, clay, loam and plank will be found in sufficient abundance to 
make the construction of better roads practicable, at reasonable cost. 




Fig. i.-AN ENGLISH COUNTRY ROAD OF TO-DAY, MACADAMIZED 
(FROM "GOOD ROADS.") 



CHAPTER TWO. 



THE PUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

It has been well said that " " Every member of society is interested 
in the public road. At birth, at death, and at all intermediate points 
during life it is used, to a greater or less degree, by or for every indi- 
vidual member of society. It carries the doctor to the bedside of the 
sick, the minister to administer consolation to the dying, friends to the 




From "Goon Roads." 

Fig, -,.— A LOAD OF HAY SUCH AS IS ORDINARILY HAULED ON A 
MACADAMIZED FRENCH ROAD. 

house of mourning, and the dead to their graves. It brings purchaser 
and consumer together. It is the avenue alike of pleasure and of traf- 
fic. The farmer seeking his market, the commercial traveller looking 
for customers, the millionaire in search of enjoyment with his coach- 

* Ex-Governor Beaver, of Pennsylvania, in the Forum, Vol. XIII, 1892, p. 773. 



PUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM. 



29 



and-four, the wheelman in the pursuit of health, the few seeking- pleas- 
ure and profit on wheels, and the many in like pursuits on foot — all 
are interested in the public roads. And yet, direct and immediate as 
these interests are, we are content to follow the methods of half a cen- 
tury or more ago, to submit to inconvenience, to discomfort, and to the 
immense waste of money and patience." 

The greatest obstacle in the way of the move for better roads among 1 
the American people, who are always loth to increase the " burdens 
of taxation," is the item of cost ; and this will continue to be the case 
until the people come to realize the fact that bad roads cost more than 
good roads. But the campaign of education has already begun, and 
in the hope of aiding in this work I have introduced the few following 
facts concerning certain items of cost. 




1- :v*>L_<iL 



.=*-_£. 



From •' GOOD Koads." 

Fig. 6.— A LOAD OF HAY WHICH TWO LARGE HORSES WERE UNABLE 
MUDDY AMERICAN DIRT ROAD. 



Cost of Wagon Transportation.'^ — "It is apparent that but few 
people comprehend the cost of transportation by horses and wagons, 
or realize the amount of money annually wasted by the ill condition 
of the roadways." 

The following table "shows from actual observation the cost of 
moving a load of one ton a. distance of one mile on level roadways 
with different pavements in the usual condition in which they are 
maintained. The excessive amount of these charges is seen, when it is 



Byrne, p. 2. 



30 ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

remembered that the same goods using the roadways are now carried 
by the railroads at an average cost of A of a cent" per ton per mile : 

Cost of Transportation by Horses and Wagons. Hauling One Ton a Distance 
of One Mile on Different Road-coverings. 

On iron rails 1 .28 cents. 

" asphalt... .. ... 2.70 

" stone, paving, dry, and in good order _ 5.33 " 

" " " ordinary condition .. 12.00 " 

" " " covered with mud 21.30 

" broken stone road. dry. and in good order _ . ... ... 8.00 

" " " *' moist and in good order .... 10.30 

" k ' " "• ordinary condition .. ... 11.90 

" " " " covered with mud 14.30 

" '" " ' with ruts and mud ... ..20.00 

" earth, dry and hard . 18.00 

" " with ruts and mud _ .. . 39.00 

" gravel, loose . . 51.60 

" ' ■ compacted 12.80 

" plank, good condition 8.80 

" sand, wet ... ...32. GO 

'• sand. dry. .. .'.... ... ... 64.00 

It will be seen from the above table that in hauling a load of one 
ton over one mile of level road, it costs more than twice as much to 
haul this load over the best dry dirt road, about five times as much to 
haul it over a moderately muddy dirt road, and eight times as much 
on a dry, deep-sandy road, as it does to haul the same load the same 
distance on the best dry, broken-stone or macadamized road. These 
facts, and others given below in this and the following chapter, 
will serve to show that better roads are needed in every section of the 
State — in the east as well as in the west — and that our bad roads in 
every section are a heavy and expensive burden. 

The following table, * showing the load which a horse can draw on 
different grades, will serve to illustrate the fact that the many steep 
hills on the roads through the middle and western counties of the 
State are a serious drawback to travel, and a heavy item of expense. 
The fact that such is the case will be all the more apparent when Ave 
remember that the weight of a load which a team can haul is limited, 
not to what it can pull over the larger part of the road, but to what it 
can pull up a certain hill over which the road passes, or across a cer- 
tain muddy flat through which the road may lead. 

* Byrne, p. 270. 



PUBLIC KOAI) PROBLEM. 



31 



LOAD A HORSE CAN DRAW ON DIFFERENT GRADES ON THE VERY BEST MACADAM ROAD. 



Rate of Grade. Feet per 100 Feet. 

• 



Level surface, very best Macadam road 

1 foot rise in 100 feet, 

2 feet rise in 100 feet. 

3 feet rise in 100 feet, 
5 feet rise in 100 feet, 
7 feet rise in ICO feet, 
10 feet rise in 100 feet, 



tt, • , , Maximum 

Equivalent LoadinPoimdt , 

L ^ h °Mn!r el which a horse 

Road-Miles. can hauL 



1.000 


6,270 


1.500 


4,145 


2.000 


3,114 


2.484 


2,480 


3.444 


1,800 


4.844 


1,367 


5.977 


1,030 



It will be seen from this table that an average horse weighing- 1,200 
pounds can pull six times as much on a good level road as he can pull 
up a hill which rises 10 feet in a distance of^lOO feet (and such hills 
are numerous in the middle and western counties of North Carolina ) ; 
and it also shows that on such a good road it requires as much force 
to haul a given load up a mile of such steep grades as it does to 
haul the same load over 6 miles (5.977) on a level surface. In the 
following chapter of this report it is shown still more clearly that a 
single steep hill may double, or even quadruple, the cost of hauling 
over a given section of road. 




B 



Fig. 7.— Illustrating the disadvantages of bad roads. No. 1 represents a wheel 

ON THE SMOOTH HARD SURFACE OF A GOOD ROAD WHICH OFFERS VERY LITTLE RESISTANCE 
TO THE FORWARD MOVEMENT OF THE LOADED VEHICLE. NO. 2 IS A WHEEL RESTING ON 
THE HARD SURFACE OF A ROAD COVERED WITH LOOSE OR PERMANENT FRAGMENTS OF STONE. 
NO. 3 IS A WHEEL PARTLY SUNK INTO THE SURFACE OF A MUDDY ROAD. 



The accompanying figure will serve to illustrate some of the obstacles 
in the way of hauling heavy loads over the ordinary dirt highways. 
Wheel No. 1 of the figure is supposed to rest on the smooth hard sur- 
face of a good Macadam road. It does not sink into the surface and 
has no obstacles in front of it; consequently it is easily pulled for- 
Avard whatever weight it may bear. Wheel No. 2 also rests upon a 
smooth hard surface, but there is a stone in front of it; and before it can 



32 ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

move forward the horse must not only pull the load but must also actually 
lift one-fourth of the entire weight of the load and vehicle to the 
top of the stone* — supposing that the vehicle has four wheels; if it 
has two wheels he must lift half of the total Aveight. * Wheel So. 3 
is supposed to be on (or in) a winter-time dirt road and has sunk in 
mud half-way to the hub. Before going forward the horse must either 
lift this wheel out of the mud, in which case he must not only lift the 
entire weight of the load — supposing all of the wheels to be in the 
mud — but he must also lift an indefinite weight of mud and overcome 
a considerable amount of^ friction between the sides of the rim of the 
wheel and the mud into which the wheel has sunk before he can raise 
the vehicle on to a hard road surface again. 

Other Items in the Cost of Bad Roach. — In estimating further the 
cost of bad roads, we should take into consideration the loss of 
time by horses and men, the cost of maintaining the same during 
such lost time, the injuries and the wear and tear to the horses, vehi- 
cles and harness caused by the bad roads. We should also take into 
consideration the small loads that must be hauled over these roads, 
frequently not one-fourth of a full load, and we must bear in mind 
the fact that during the winter months, when ordinary farm work 
cannot be carried on, is the time when wagons and teams should be 
mostly used on the roads in going back and forth to markets, etc.. but 
this is just the season when many of the public highways become well- 
nigh impassable, even with light loads. It must also be remembered 
that bad roads keep down the selling and taxable value of lands and 
all other real estate, while good roads raise these values, as will be 
brought out more clearly below. 

In the eastern counties there are many places Avhere the soil is clayey 
or marshy, and where the roads become impassable for loaded vehicles 
during wet weather; but in the sandy regions, while the roads are 
always bad and make wagon transportation costly, hauling over them 
is less costly when the sand is wet than when it is dry. In the middle 
and Avestern counties, hoAvever, it is during the wet Aveather that the 
roads become so bad as to be practically impassable for loaded vehicles 
for from four to tAvelve Aveeks of each year. 

In order to determine approximately hoAv much our bad roads cost 
the people of the State, let us see first hoAA r much four weeks of impas- 
sable roads cost in the middle and western counties, and then how 
much the bad roads of the Avhole State cost us during other portions 
of the year by increasing the number of horses and mules which must 
be purchased and fed, the number of teamsters Avho must be paid, and 



PUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM. 33 

the number of wagons and harness which must be purchased and kept 
in repair,- because in travelling and hauling- we use these bad roads 
instead of good roads. We have now in the State', in round numbers, 
260,000 horses and mules.* We may deduct from this number 50,000 
which, in the cities and toAvns, can be used during the entire } r ear, and 
there remain 210,000 horses and mules which, for our present purpose, 
may be designated country horses and mules. 

Adopting the line of geographical division described on page 20, 
we may credit 134,000 of these to the fifty-six middle and western 
counties, and 70,000 to the forty eastern counties. These 134,000 
country horses and mules credited to the middle and western counties 
cannot be used during four weeks of the year on account of bad roads. 
The cost of feeding them per day, at twenty cents each is $26,800, 
which for the four weeks amounts to $750,400. jSTow let us add to 
this the item of the loss of time for these animals. Putting this at 
twenty -five cents per day (twenty -four days), we see another source 
of loss amounting to $804,000. These two items give us a total of 
$1,554,400 per annum which may be charged against the impassable 
public roads. Let us add to this the cost of the following items which 
will amount in the aggregate to certainly not less than $50,000 : (1) 
Value of the service of ox-teams and the cost of feeding them during 
the four weeks ; (2) and the loss farmers sustain by not being able to 
carry farm produce, tobacco, cotton, etc., to markets at times when 
prices are highest ; and the result presents at a reasonable estimate, a 
total loss of more than $1,600,000 per annum to be charged against 
excessively bad public roads in North Carolina during these four weeks. 

We may suppose that one man was employed in the management of 
each pair of these 134,000 horses and mules of the midland and western 
counties. Of these 67,000 teamsters we may fairly suppose that one-half 
of their time during the four weeks lost by the horses and mules was 
profitably employed in other ways about the farms ; but we may also 
fairly consider the other half of their time as lost on account of bad 
roads. Valuing the services of these men at fifty cents per day and 
charging one-half of this as lost, owing to bad roads, we have 67,000 
men at twenty-five cents, equal to $16,750 per day ; and for four weeks 
|402,000. While this is believed to be a real loss due to bad roads it 
Avill not be included in the final estimates of the total loss, because 



*The number of horses and mules in North Carolina during 1891, as given in the Auditor's 
Report for 1892, p. 107, is 253,614. The increase from 1890 to 1891 was 13,046, hence the number for 
1898 may be safely estimated at 200,000; and supposing that these additional horses and mules to 
be distributed among the several counties in the same proportions as existed in 1891, we may 
estimate, after deducting the 50,000 town horses and mules, the remaining number of country 
horses and mules now in the fifty-six middle and western counties as 1:^,000, and the number in 
the eastern counties as 70,000. 



34: ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

there is a reasonable doubt as to the amount of actual loss from this 
source. 

But then there is another large item that must be taken into con- 
sideration. I have estimated that this $1,600,000 per annum is lost 
during four weeks when the roads are so bad as to practically prevent 
all hauling. But it must be remembered that even when the dirt road 
is in good average condition, the loads hauled are not more than one- 
third those hauled on good Macadam highways. The average load 
for one horse on a macadamized country road in France is said to be 
two or three tons, and on the paved streets of a French city one horse 
often pulls three to five tons ; whereas, taken month in and month out, 
the load for one horse on the average American dirt road is less than 
half a ton. It can therefore be safely claimed that if we had good 
macadamized roads, the hauling we now do in two months could be 
done in less than half the time ; or if extended over two months, it 
could be done by less than half the teams and teamsters and wagons 
now employed. 

Of our 210,000 country horses and mules, including the eastern as 
well as the western counties, of course many of them do but little 
hauling on the public roads at any time; but there are also quite a 
number that spend the larger part of the year on the road; and there 
are others which go on the road at irregular intervals as there is extra 
hauling to be done. It is probably safe to estimate that all the haul- 
ing over the public roads during the year would require the constant 
employment of the entire 210,000 horses and mules and 105,000 team- 
sters and wagons during at least two months, with the roads in their 
present average condition, and would require their employment during 
one month on good Macadam roads. Here, then, is an important item 
of loss on account of bad roads, i. e., the services and cost of main- 
tenance of these horses and mules, teamsters, wagons and harness 
during one month. In this case it is manifestly proper to include in 
the estimate the wages of teamsters, who spend all of their time with 
the teams and are paid full wages, while the teams are pulling half 
loads, and hence losing half of the time. Valuing the services of these 
210,000 horses and mules at twenty-live cents per day each (twenty- 
four days), we have an item of $1,260,000 ; estimating their feed per 
day at twenty cents each,* twenty-eight days, we have another item 
of $1,176,000; and these combined show a loss of $2,436,000 for the 



* It is generally estimated that to feed a horse or mule while regularly at work costs twenty- 
five cents per day ; and while this is probably correct for horses where the feed has to be bought 
at the average market prices, where the corn, fodder and oats are grown on the farm and hence 
are to be valued at prices for which they can be sold on the farm, I have estimated the cost of 
feeding a horse while at work at twenty cents per day. 



PUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM. •"«> 

month. The pay of 105,000 teamsters, estimated at fifty cents per 
day each, gives an item of $52,500 per day and $1,260,000 for the four 
weeks. The wear and tear on the 105,000 wagons and harness, if 
plaeed at ten cents per day while in constant use, gives an item of 
$10,500 pei' day and $252,' 00 for the four weeks. Add these several 
items and we have a sum of $3,948,000 annually lost to the people of 
the State by having poorly laid out and constructed dirt roads instead 
of good Macadam roads, not including the loss during the four weeks 
when the roads are impassable. That this is an actual loss will be 
seen more clearly when we understand that the amount of hauling 
which could be done at a profit will greatly increase as we make good 
roads, and thus reduce the cost of wagon transportation. 

But there is yet another item which must be included in this general 
estimate before the grand total is reached. In the beoinning of this 

© © © 

discussion we left out of consideration fifty thousand of the horses 
and mules in the -State as being approximately the number about the 
cities and towns which can be used throughout the entire year. The 
suburban roads and many of the streets of these towns, however, are 
kept in such poor condition that we may safely estimate that if these 
streets and suburban roads were properly macadamized, these 50,000 
horses and mules and their drivers could do twice the work they now 
do, or one-half of them could easily do all the hauling now done, and 
tke other half might thus be easily dispensed with, and the cost of horse 
feed, wagons, harness and teamsters saved. Let us see what this saving 
would amount to if the latter plan were adopted. It costs to feed these 
25,000 horses and mules, at twenty-five cents'* per day each for the 
year, in round numbers, the sum of $2,281,000; and for these horses 
12,500 teamsters are required, which, at fifty cents per day, cost for 
300 days $1,875,000; and 12,500 wagons and harness, at ten cents per 
day (for 300 days). $375,000; making a total of about $4,531,000 per 
annum from these sources, which may fairlv be charged against our 

i © © 

inferior roads and streets. 

If we now estimate that there are in the\State 220,000 citizensf who 
are liable to work on the public roads four days of each year, and value 
their services at fifty cents per day. we have the sum of $440,000, which, 
whether expended in money or muscle, may be considered an annual 
tax for public roads. But, in spite of this large expenditure, year after 

*See note on page 34. 

fThe poll-list for 1891. which is supposed to include all male citizens between the ages of 
twenty-one and fifty years, shows 221,530 individuals. The general road law makes all male 
citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years liable for work on public roads, and 
the total number of such persons is hardly smaller than the poll-list. 



36 KOAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

year and decade after decade, we have not in the State to-day a public 
highway worthy of the name. 

Let us now bring together the results of these several estimates : 

Loss on account of the cost of feeding, and loss of time by the 134.000 coun- 
try horses and mules in the middle and western counties, during four 
weeks of impassable roads, etc. , (p. 33) $ 1 .600.000 

Loss, on account of bad roads, of the time and expenses of maintenance of 
210,000 country horses and mules, 105,000 wagons and harness, and wages 
of 105,000 teamsters, during one month (p. 34) 3.948.000 

Loss, on account of bad roads, of the services and expense of feeding 25.000 
town horses, and services of 12.500 teamsters, and wear and tear on 12,500 
wagons and harness, all of which could be saved by having good roads 
and streets (p. 35) 4.531,000 

Wasted in working public roads in taxes and labor (p. 35) .... 440.000 

Total $10,519,000 

The aggregate of these several items gives a grand total of over ten 
million dollars, which sum the people of the State lose annually on 
account of bad roads, and ivhich sum might be saved annually to the 
State by a system of good macadamized roads. 

I am aware that many will question these astonishing figures, but 
they are careful estimates — not random guesses. And while admit- 
ting that there are many sources of possible error, I am satisfied that 
whoever examines the estimates candidly will be profoundly impressed 
with the fact that on account of these bad roads the people of Xorth 
Carolina are suffering yearly enormous losses without any compen- 
sating return, and of the magnitude of which thev seem to be hardlv 
conscious; and it must be remembered that every year, as trade 
increases, and with it the number of horses and wagons and teamsters, 
we must use these bad roads more and more, and the losses they entail 
thus increase annually. These losses are, in an important sense, equiva- 
lent to an annual tax on the people of the State of ten million dollars, 
paid largely by the farmers who own the stock and wagons, but paid 
also in part by every man, woman and child in the State. 

England and France each expend eighteen million or more dollars 
annually in the maintenance and extension of their splendid systems 
of macadamized highways, and regard the investment a good one ; but 
the people of JSTorth Carolina, too poor, as they claim, to build good 
roads, nevertheless bear annually this enormous burden for the privi- 
lege, as it were, of doing- without them. 

And what do we get in return for this large drain upon the wealth 
of our people? A system of dirt roads, sandy in one region and 
clayey in another, which, as compared with macadamized highways, 
retard or prevent travel; diminish or prevent investment of capital; 



PUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM. 61 

keep intelligent settlers away ; retard and greatly increase the expense 
of all transportation and exchange of commodities between farms 
and markets ; decrease the profits of farming; interfere in the country 
with proper attendance at the schools and at churches ; prevent proper 
social intercourse among people in the country, and between those 
living in the country and those in towns; make young people and old 
people dissatisfied with living in the country and anxious to move to 
towns and cities, where they can walk, ride or drive with some degree 
of comfort; keep down the value of all lands and other real estate; 
prevent the inauguration of many mining, manufacturing and other 
enterprises, by making wagon transportation too expensive. In a 
word: in exchange for this heavy annual burden we have an expen- 
sive system of bad roads which greatly retards the material, social 
and intellectual development of our people, and is a standing discredit 
to our civilization. 

And how long will this continue to be the case? What are we 
waiting for? How long will it be before the intelligent men of the 
State join earnestly in this move for better roads? How long will it 
be before our people, instead of asking for a u reduction of the bur- 
dens of taxation," already exceptionally light, will come to understand 
that it will pay to expend a considerably larger portion of our labor 
and money in the development of such internal improvements as the 
construction of better public roads? How long will it be before we 
all come to realize the imperative need of better roads sufficientlv to 
determine to have them, whatever sacrifice may be necessary in order 
to pay for them? If we wait until the country increases in wealth 
we may expect to "make haste slowly," for certain it is that bad roads 
tend to perpetuate our poverty, and as equally certain it is that good 
roads tend to increase the wealth and prosperity of the people. 

Farming lands in many parts of the United States during the past 
few years have decreased in value. Ex-Governor Campbell stated 
recently that this decrease in value of farming lands amounts in Ohio 
to $220,000,000 in ten years. The abandoned farms in many States 
are numerous. The mortgage indebtedness of American farms during 
the past few years has increased at the rate of $2,500,000 per annum. 

After mentioning these facts in a recent article in the Forum, Mr. 
I. P>. Potter continues : * 

'* It is of course no easy task to charge these sluggish conditions and shifting fort- 
unes of agriculture to any certain cause: but, in searching for a solution, certain facts 
appear with such conspicuous prominence as to make them worthy of mention; viz., 
that with the same physical conditions, the same market, and unchanged prices of 

*Vol. XII, L891-'92, p. 380. 



38 ROAD MATERIALS AND KOAD CONSTRUCTION. 

farm produce, the American farm has in late years substantially declined in the 
market value; that the value of farm-produce in a given locality is, in general, deter- 
mined by the price offered in the local market; that the farmer pays the same for all 
that he buys, and gets no more for what he sells, whether his farm be near or distant 
from the market-town; that under these conditions the most immediate means of relief 
is to diminish the total cost of placing this produce in the market-town: that an ama- 
zing share of this cost is made up by the difficulties of wagon-road transportation, 
necessitating scant loads, long delays, mud blockades, breakdowns, and extra trips: 
that these or similar hampering conditions are tolerated by no other industrial class 
within the nation; and finally, that the quickening means for work, travel, and trans- 
portation adopted within and between the mercantile industries of the different towns 
have added to the attractiveness and profits of these pursuits, and by force of contrast 
have detracted from the commercial value of the neighboring farms." 

The depression among agricultural interests during recent years is 
indeed a complicated question, and concerning its causes and remedies 
there are grave differences of opinion ; but there is among the thought- 
ful statesmen of to-day a striking unanimity of belief that bad roads 
are a large factor in causing this depression, and that good roads will 
greatly aid in relieving it. 

The cost of good roads. — I have endeavored to show above approx- 
imately how much our present system of bad roads costs the people of 
the State; and in stating this at $10,000,000 per annum. I believe that 
this estimate is below rather than above the actual loss. It must 
be apparent to every one that at any reasonable cost per mile, the 
annual expenditure of a small portion of this sum in road improve- 
ment would give us a system of public highways, which in a short time 
would much more than pay for themselves. 

The cost per mile of the improved public roads will be discussed 
more fully in the next chapter, in connection with the treatment of the 
methods of construction. Of course the cost will depend largely upon 
the kind of road to be made, but it may as Avell be clearly understood 
that the construction of any public highway which is to be worthy of 
the name, and which is to be of any real and lasting benefit to the com- 
munities through which it passes is an expensive undertaking. The 
re-surveying, grading, proper drainage and other work in improving a 
oood dirt road, raav cost under different conditions from $100 to $500 
per mile. Macadamizing these dirt roads, already graded and drained, 
with different widths of road, different thicknesses of broken stone 
and other varying conditions, may cost from $1,000 to $10,000 per mile. 

Does it pay to build good roads? — In view of this large outlay neces- 
sary for the construction of good roads, let us face the issue squarely 
and ask ourselves the question: Does the investment pay \ Are the 
disadvantages of bad roads on the one hand and the advantages of 



PUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM. 39 

good roads on the other, sufficient to warrant the large expenditures 
necessary for the construction of better public highways ? In view of 
the fact that most of us have had but little opportunity to become 
acquainted with good roads and their advantages, it is clear that we 
must, in large measure, look to the experience of other States and other 
countries for a full answer to this question. In doing so, however, let 
us understand clearly our present position. We stand between the two 
horns of a dilemma, and we must accept one or the other. We may 
let our public roads remain as they now are, and continue to bear for 
this privilege a burden amounting to several millions a year without 
any compensating return ; or by a smaller additional annual expendi- 
ture, in a few years we may in large measure rid ourselves of this bur- 
den, and meantime build a system of public highways which will bring 
unnumbered blessings to the people of the State. 

England and AVales are said to expend annually $20,000,000 in the 
maintenance of their public highways ; and Scotland and Ireland 
expend large additional sums. The people of each of these countries 
regard the investment as a good one, and are even extending their 
costly roads. 

France expends on her highways not less than eighteen million dol- 
lars per annum ; and referring to the economic worth of these roads 
to the French people, Mr. Francis B. Lodmis, commercial agent at St. 
Etienne, France, reports to the United States Department of State as 
follows:* 

'"The road system of France has been of far greater value to the country as a 
means of raising the value of lands, and of putting the small peasant proprietors in 
easy communication with their markets, than have the railways. It is the opinion 
of well-informed Frenchmen who have made a practical study of economic problems 
that the superb roads of France have been one of the most steady and potent contri- 
butions to the material development and marvelous financial elasticity of the country. 
The far-reaching and splendidly maintained road system has distinctly favored the 
success of the small landed proprietors, and in their prosperity, and the ensuing dis- 
tribution of wealth, lies the key to the secret of tiie wonderful financial vitality and 
solid prosperity of the French nation."' 

And if it be claimed that we should not look to these wealthy 
countries for our examples, we may turn to Australia and Canada, 
both of which have a system of public roads far superior to our own, 
even in regions more thinly settled and less wealthy. 

In our own country, limited sections of macadamized roads have 
been built in portions of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia 

♦Streets and Highways of Foreign Countries, Consular Reports, United States Department 
of State, Government Printing Office, 1891, p. 51. 



4:0 ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

and other States. And in every case where a sufficient amount of 
money has been raised for the construction of really good roads, 
whether by tax levy or sale of bonds, the people generally have 
regarded the investment as a good one, and have been more than satis- 
fied with the result. 

For example, Union county, New Jersey, in 188.9 issued $300,< >00 worth 
of four per cent, bonds, and raised by taxation $25,000 each for 1889 and 
1890, making a total of $350,000, which was expended in the construction 
of good Macadam roads, beginning in 18S9 and completing the work 
early in 1891/" Before the improvement work began "the roads were 
dusty, sandy, stony, or so muddy that they were impassable, and so dan- 
gerous that the road authorities were indicted year after year by grand 
juries. All the land was simply out of the market ; nobody wanted it." 
One piece of property of twenty acres, with house and other buildings, 
within a mile of Elizabeth, was a drug in the market for years at 
$6,500, and was finally sold at $6,000, before the Macadam roads were 
built. Within a year after the roads were completed the owner refused 
$30,000 for it, without having invested a dollar in improvements. 

" The accretion of new wealth, induced to come to the county by 
the good roads, aggregates several times the cost of the roads. Farm- 
ers say that under no consideration would they return to the old system. 
Some of them say that the new roads have raised the value of property 
as a whole along them, from fifty to one hundred per cent. Others 
declare that the saving in harness, wagons, horses, etc., is equal to the 
amount paid for the roads." One of the new macadamized roads runs 
parallel with the Central Railroad of New Jersey, and along this line 
four new stations have been erected and promising towns started. 
Notwithstanding the payment of the interest on the bonds and special 
tax for two years, the rate of taxation was not appreciably increased ; 
but on the contrary, was one cent less on the one hundred dollars in 
1892 than it was before the construction of the new roads was begun. 
This is to be explained by the fact that from the beginning of 1889 to 
end of 1892 the increase in the value of property of the county 
amounted to nearly $4,000,000. In every way these roads "have been 
a splendid success. They have far more than fulfilled every expecta- 
tion and every promise made for them/' 

Along the line of the Shenandoah Turnpike, in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, the president of the company says that the construction of this 

*The results of this liberal investment in road construction will be stated in "Good Roads' 
for March (1893), in a paper by Mr. Charles C McBride, of Elizabeth, Union county. New Jersey, 
chairman of the New Jersey committee on good roads of the League of American Wheelmen. 
Through his kindness I am permitted to publish in advance the accompanying facts and extracts 
contained in a private letter to the writer.— J. A. H. 



rUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM. 41 

macadamized turnpike years ago raised the value of the property along 
its line more than twenty-five per cent. ; and a like result is said to 
have attended the construction of similar turnpikes in other parts of 
this region. 

In Wake, one of the larger and wealthier counties of our own State, 
Macadam roads are being constructed, and are giving general satisfac- 
tion. Here 100 miles of Macadam roads would be equivalent to six 
such roads averaging each 16.6 miles in length leading in different 
directions from Raleigh to near the county boundaries. That it would 
pay the people of Wake county to build these and other roads, even 
should the} r cost a large sum, and that this would raise the selling 
value of land and other real estate in the county 10 to 30 per cent, 
no one who has studied the question can doubt. 

In Mecklenburg county, which has done more toward improving its 
public roads than any other of the counties of our own State, there 
has been an increase in the value of property along the macadamized 
roads, and the people are so well satisfied that the investment is a good 
one that they continue cheerfully to tax themselves to extend the work. 
And so it is in all countries, and so it will be in every county in our 
own State; wherever a sufficient extent of good roads has been con- 
structed to enable people living along the line to realize their advan- 
tages they become satisfied that good roads are indispensable, and 
that it pays to build them, whatever sacrifice may be necessary in 
order to do so. 

Mileage of Public Roads in North Carolina. — It is of course impos- 
sible to give accurately the total mileage of public roads in the State 
owing to the fact that the majority of these roads have never been 
carefully surveyed and measured. But an approximate estimate based 
upon the best maps obtainable and extended observations in many 
counties shows a total for the State of (1) about 10,000 miles of prom- 
inent public roads radiating from the county seats to the borders of 
the counties, and (2) about 10,000 miles of cross-roads leading through 
various portions of the several counties. (3) In addition to these there 
is a considerable mileage of roads — probably 20,000 miles in all, some 
of them public and some private — of comparatively little importance, 
which are not included in this estimate. This would give an average 
of about 200 miles of prominent public roads for each county in the 
State, i. e., 100 miles of roads leading from the county seat out through 
the country, and 100 miles of cross-roads ; and an average of 200 miles 
of lesser public and private roads for each county. In many of the 
larger counties the mileage is greater, and in many of the smaller 
counties it is less than this average. 



42 ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

A few Practical Suggestions. — Admitted that our present inferior 
roads tend to perpetuate our poverty and retard the development of 
the State ; admitted that it will pay to build better roads, whatever 
reasonable sacrifice may be necessary in order to do so — it may not 
be out of place in concluding this chapter to offer a few suggestions 
relative to certain phases of the road problem in Xorth Carolina. 

In the introduction to this Keport (pp. 14-16), I have stated some 
general conclusions ivhich need not be repeated here. In Chapter I. 
I have -endeavored to show that in the midland and western counties 
the materials out of which to construct good roads are abundant ; 
and that even in the eastern counties, while stone is less abundant, or 
entirely wanting, the intelligent use of such materials as can be found 
in these counties will result in greatly improving the public roads. 

The raising of funds sufficient for the work is the most urgent and 
difficult phase of the public road problem which now awaits solution. 
But there is everywhere in the State a growing recognition of the 
principle that in building and maintaining public roads, property 
should cooperate with labor ; and hence that it 'is right and wise to 
raise funds for this purpose by taxation. In wealthier counties like 
Mecklenburg, "Wake, Guilford, Forsyth, Cabarrus, Buncombe, Alamance 
and others, which are already entering upon the work of road improve- 
ment, the demand for better roads is becoming so urgent that the 
funds will be raised by taxation or bonds with increasing ease as the 
work progresses ; but in the smaller and more thinly settled counties 
the raising of funds ample for this as well as other purposes becomes 
a serious problem. 

Take, for example, the counties west of the Blue Ridge. From all 
that beautiful and interesting region between the Virginia line and 
Georgia, through which thousands of visitors would be delighted to 
drive every year — travel is practically excluded except along the rail- 
roads by the absence of good highways. The people living in these 
counties are becoming aroused to this fact ; they see that good roads 
mean for them not only great saving in convenience, time and money 
in their own travel, but also great gain in the many thousands of 
dimes and dollars which these travellers would leave in every section 
through which they passed, and the addition of larger sums which 
many of them would invest in lands and homes. But how to raise in 
these sparsely settled communities money sufficient to build a costly 
system of highways is a problem not easily solved. It will never do 
to say that this cannot be done ; for better public roads are an essen- 
tial preliminary step in the development of this region. And what 
cannot be accomplished in a year for lack of sufficient means must be 



PUBLIC TiOAD PROBLEM. 43 

accomplished by the united efforts of all classes of citizens during 
several years. In the achievement of this end in the sparsely settled 
and less wealthy counties, the following- suggestions may be found of 
service : 

Each county should raise by tax or bonds as large a fund as possible 
for use in road improvement ; and the present general road law con- 
tinuing in force, let property and labor (as should be the case) cooperate 
in this important work. 

The money raised should be expended in the purchase of improved 
road machinery, and in the constant employment of a limited number 
of men who thus become trained in road building ; and let the citizens 
living along the roads liable for road work be called out for this pur- 
pose, not all at once, but in limited numbers and at intervals (as sug- 
gested on p. 14). 

The Boards of County Commissioners of the several counties should 
designate one or more prominent roads which shall be first improved, 
and add other important roads to this special list as rapidly as circum- 
stances may permit. These special or " tax roads," as they are often 
called, should be selected both with reference to the convenience to 
the best markets for the people of the county, and to the attractions 
for the travelling public. The County Commissioners of each county 
should select an officer to be known as the Road Supervisor or Eoad 
Engineer who should personally superintend all the work of improv- 
ing and maintaining these special roads. This officer should be selected 
with special care, and whenever possible the person selected should be 
a practical road engineer. 

In the betterment of the main public thoroughfares, the several 
counties through which they pass should cooperate upon some plan 
arranged by the Boards of Commissioners of the several counties, in 
the working of their convicts on the road, in the purchase and use of 
improved road machinery, and in such other ways as may be deemed 
advisable. 

In endeavoring to accomplish the greatest good with the least ex- 
penditure of money in this work, it will be found wise as described 
more fully in the next chapter : (1) To have the line of the entire road 
surveyed by a competent engineer, and the location changed in all 
places where the grade or road-bed can be greatly improved thereby ; 
(2) the road should then be carefully graded, drained and rolled ; (3) 
special sections of the road, where the soil in wet weather becomes 
quickly cut up into deep ruts, should be macadamized as rapidly as 
the funds will allow. After a few of the most important roads in 
each county have been treated in this way, the leading highway, on 



41 ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

which the work was first begun, may be macadamized throughout its 
entire length, and other important roads may be treated similarly, as 
circumstances permit or require. As illustrating the class of roads 
which it is here intended to designate as leading highways or roads 
of first importance in their communities, I may mention in the 
northwestern section of the State such roads as those from Sparta to 
Elkin, from Jefferson to Wilkesboro, from Wilkesboro to Lenoir, and 
from this latter road at Patterson a road via Blowing Rock to Boone ; 
from Cranberry via Bakersville and Burusville to Asheville, and from 
Bakersville to Marion. These roads with a few other connecting 
links — such as a road from Sparta via T efferso*n and Boone to Cran- 
berry — would open up this section of country and lead to its much 
more rapid development. Similar illustrations of leading highways 
can be supplied by the reader for every portion of the State with 
which he may be familiar. 

In this connection it may also be wise to encourage the building of 
turnpikes by private companies. Many object to these roads because 
they have to pay toll-gate charges, but it is far cheaper to pay these 
nominal charges for the privilege of driving on a good road than it is 
to haul half loads and be severely jolted on' a bad road for the privi- 
lege of traveling free. And if in our efforts to build good roads in 
thinly settled regions private companies are willing to cooperate in 
this way, their fair proposals should be welcomed. Subsequently, as 
the wealth of the community increases and the people are better able 
to do so, they can construct other roads or purchase these turnpikes 
on reasonable terms and open them to the public. 

We have now in the State two striking illustrations, on a small 
scale, of the value of private enterprise in this connection. One is the 
" Shell road," extending from "Wilmington to Wrightsville, which has 
for a number of years supplied a hard, smooth, excellent road both for 
those who drive in search of pleasure and those who with carts and 
wagons transfer various commodities between Wilmington and the sea- 
coast at Wrightsville sound. It is eight miles long, and in width aver- 
ages about twenty-one feet. It extends through a level region, sandy 
and marshy at intervals. Ditches were dug on both sides two to four 
feet deep for the purpose of drainage, the soil removed from the ditches 
being used to raise the road-bed. In the center of this road-bed a space 
twelve to sixteen feet wide was covered six inches deep with oyster 
shells taken from Wrightsville sound. Traffic soon ground the upper- 
most shells to a powder, which cemented the whole mass and gave a 
smooth surface on top. The attractiveness of the driveway has been 
increased by the planting of trees on both sides. The road was built 



PUBLIC ROAD PROBLEM. 45 

as a private enterprise by Wilmington gentlemen between IS 75 and 
1881 at a total cost of nearly $10,000. 

The other of the two roads mentioned as built by private enterprise 
is the " Yonahlossee " road from Blowing Rock to Linville, which passes 
through the beautifully picturesque region along the southern slope of 
the Grandfather mountain, with a* branch road extending to the top 
of this mountain. The main road is about twenty miles long, ten to 
fourteen feet in width, and was built at a total cost of about $10,000 by 
the Linville Improvement Company, on the plan projected by Mr. Hugh 
MacEae, then president and treasurer of the Company. Its route was 
surveyed and the road constructed under the supervision of Mr. S. T. 
Kelsey during 1890 and 1891. The larger part of the road surface is of 
loam and gravel (decayed siliceous gneiss) ; but along the steep slope of 
the mountain a considerable amount of excavation was necessary, the 
materials dug out of the mountain side being used to build up the lower 
half of the road ; and in many places considerable quantities of rock 
had to be blasted out of the way and then used in the construction of 
culverts and supports for the road on the lower side. The road is an 
excellent one for summer travel and leads through one of the most 
beautiful and interesting portions of the mountain region of North 
Carolina. A somewhat similar turnpike is now being built from 
Boone to Cranberry by a private company ; and it is to be hoped that 
others may be constructed in the near future. 

Societies should be organized in the State for the collection and dis- 
tribution of information with reference to the improvement of public 
roads ; and agricultural societies already in existence should cooperate 
in this work. Institutions for higher education should give instruc- 
tion as to the modern methods of locating and constructing roads. 
And it is gratifying to know that this is already being done by the 
State University and a few of the colleges. 



CHAPTER THREE. 



NOTES ON COMMON KOAD CONSTRUCTION* 

The subject of highways is naturally divided into their location, 
construction, and maintenance ; but the first is so peculiarly the prov- 
ince of the civil engineer that it is not treated, save incidentally, in 
what follows. An instrumental survey of a proposed line is absolutely 
necessary to insure the lightest grades with (as far as possible) the 
shortest distance that can economically be allowed. 

It will be seen from facts given below that the economy resulting 
from reducing grades is much more marked than that in saving dis- 
tance. A very little calculation will show tlie enormous reduction, for 
the entire State, of the annual cost of hauling by wagons which may be 
made by a proper revision of the location of most of our roads by sim- 
ply reducing grades on portions of the line, as a single steep grade on 
a long line limits the load which may be hauled over the entire distance. 
And those who have these matters in. charge cannot appreciate too 
soon nor too clearly the fact that the proper laying out and construc- 
tion of a good wagon road requires well-nigh as much good judgment 
and engineering skill as do the surveying and building of a railroad. 

Assuming that this work will be entrusted to experts, and that the 
lines of road will be properly located, there follows in order the grad- 
ing, proper construction of the road-bed, its drainage, and the improve- 
ment of its surface — all to be accomplished before the road can be 
thrown open for travel. As the subject of grading is sufficiently well 
understood, it was thought best to confine attention to the proper 
drainage of the road-bed, its proper shape, and the improvement of its 
surface, with remarks on maintenance, which subjects are not so well 
known and are generally ignored by the average road overseer. 

The subjects thus chosen will be grouped under the following head- 
ings : 

Drainage ; 

Earth Roads ; 

Telford and Macadam Roads • 

Repair's of Broken-stone Roads / 

Cost of Broken-stone Roads, and Repairs / 

Gravel and Plank Roads / 

Traction ; 

Grades. 



* Prepared by Wm. Cain, Mem. Am. Soc. C. E.; University of North Carolina. 



NOTES OX COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 47 

The most important of these subjects, especially for the heavier 
clayey soils, is drainage, and to this attention will first be directed. 

DRAINAGE. 

Iii Sandy Regions. — The first principle of successful road construction 
is proper drainage. In the " sand hills " this is not so evident, as the 
porosity of the sand effects the purpose which drains are required to 
do elsewhere ; and as a rule, except in long, rainy spells, too much water 
passes through the pores of the sand, leaving it a loose, pulverulent mass, 
on which horses have to exert about double the pull required on an ordi- 
nary earth road, and about seven to eight times the pull required on a 
good Macadam or a plank road. The sandy road is really better when 
moist, unless it has a covering of stone or other material, as it gener- 
ally accomplishes of itself more than is required for proper drainage. 

But the principle is brought home at once, even in sandy regions, 
when a low, miry bottom or morass has to be crossed. Here "the 
first principle " is to dig deep and wide ditches on either side of the 
road, and raise an embankment with the excavated material as much 
above the natural surface as is necessary to ensure a dry road-bed. 
These ditches should discharge into natural channels ultimately, and it 
is preferable to have them, as well as the embankment, on a grade, 
when practicable. 

In Clayey Regions. — The principle is the same on grades throughout 
the clayey lands. Ditches from two to three feet deep should be dug 
on either side of the road, whenever the material is a tenacious 
clay, but as there is danger of vehicles getting into these ditches and 
upsetting, they should either be separated from the roadway by a 
fence as shown in Fig. 10, or covered as is shown in Fig. 11, B, or 
what is better still, by the use of road machines the road surface 
should be graded from the center gradually down to the gutter, as 
shown in Figs. 9, 12, 10 and 21; and in all cases the centre of the 
road should be higher than the sides, so that the water will discharge 
readily into the drains. This rise at the centre, for earth roads, 
should be at least one-fortieth the width of road surface proper, and 
it should be increased on grades one or more inches, so that the water 
will not run along the road, but quickly reach the gutter by a diagonal 
path. In clayey soils the rise in the center should be as much as one- 
thirtieth of the width of the road ; and where there there is no center 
drain the elevation is sometimes as much as one-twenty-fifth of the 
width. 



4S ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

Central Covered Drains. — Where the sub-soil is wet and full of 
springs, stone or tile drains are put in trenches, say eighteen to thirty 
inches deep, along the centre of the road (Tig. 9), connecting with cross 
drains at intervals of two hundred, three hundred, etc.. feet, as the case 
may require. The drains may be made of any material, such as stone 
or brick, as well as tile, but the latter is preferable. Bound tile is best, 
and if three inches in diameter is said not to cost (labor and materials 
included) more than twenty-two to thirty-five cents per foot. The 




Fig. 9.— SHOWING CROSS SECTION OF DIET-ROAD (Bl WITH TIDE DRAIX (T) IX 
THE CENTER FOR AIDING IX THE DRAINAGE OF THE SURFACE OF THE ROAD- 
BED IX CLAYEY SOILS. 

A small quantity of straw may be placed just above tbe tile, and above this 
should be placed a quantity of coarse gravel or broken stone (a) and above this 
latter should be filled in with sandy loam or gravel as far as practicable. The 
depressions on both sides show the gutters or shallow ditches. 

fall should be about two inches in ten feet, and not more than four 
inches in ten feet. The tile is made in lengths of one to two feet, and 
pieces of larger pipe fit on over the ends and connect the different 
lengths. The tile and covers should be carefully bedded in the earth 
throughout their entire length, to avoid breaking, and stones should 
be carefully packed around and over them to the top of the trench to 
relieve them of as much weight as possible. All •'* connections " should 
be made with Y branches, and silt basins are preferable at all junctions. 

Diagonal Covered Drains. — These sub-drains are sometimes put diag- 
onally across the road, meeting at a point at the centre, so as to form 
a Vj with the point up hill. They should be placed twenty or thirty 
feet apart along the road in wet places. 

Side Ditches. — In Europe, the ditches on either side of the road and 
running parallel with it, are often placed outside of the foot-paths 
(which are three to six feet wide), and a fence is built between the path 
proper and the ditch to keep the unwary from tumbling in. | See 
Fig. 10). In this case, the edge of the foot-path, which is about 
six inches above the gutter, is sodded, so that water falling on the 
road is conducted first to the open gutters, along which it runs with- 
out damage to the foot-path, and finally discharges by tile drains, 
about fifty feet apart, passing under the foot-path directly to the 
ditches. Where economy is desirable, the foot-paths may be omitted, 
and in fact the deep ditches are not necessary on grades as a rule, as 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 4:9 

we see from analogy to the efficient drainage of railroad cuts. The 
common road may be drained in the same manner as a railway, by 
gutters or ditches on either edge of the road-bed, a foot to a foot and 
a half deep, the side of the cut forming one edge of the ditch. In 
very bad places, covered tile drains will be required under these gut- 



boadway 




iS'/LT BASIN 



Fig. 10.— SHOWING CROSS SECTION OF A MACADAM ROAD WITH FOOT PATH PRO- 
VIDED, AS IN MANY PARTS OF EUROPE, FOR THE EXCLUSIVE USE OF PEDESTRIANS. 

ters, say two or three feet deep. (See Fig. 11, E, page 50.) "Where 
water is liable to run over the top edge of a cut, catch-water drains 
are made, running a few feet from the edge of the cut and parallel to 
the road, which should turn the running water away from the cut 
altogether to other channels or into the fields. 

Culverts. — For culverts underneath embankments, large tile or stone 
drains are best. Wood should not be used for any kind of a drain, 
except temporarily, as it rots and invariably causes some accident. 
French drains, made by throwing in rocks into a trench in any order, 
are recommended by many, but the writer has found them a complete 
failure as a drain across an embankment, from silting up. It may 
take longer for the drain to close up or seal itself, in the case of sub- 
drains of common roads, as the water in them never runs with suffi- 
cient force to carry much silt, but in the end they will choke up and 
have to be replaced. Channels can sometimes be constructed in loose 
rock drains by selecting the rock for the covering of the little channel, 
but the tile drain is superior in every way and costs less than the stone 
drain. 

The character of the road surface will often determine whether 
subsoil drains are required. Thus with a compact macadam covering 
the rain-water is conducted quickly to the gutters and comparatively 
little soaks through to form mud beneath the surface. A sand cover- 
ing even is an aid, as it improves with moisture and protects the clay 
to a certain extent, as any excess of water can flow through it as well 
as over it to the gutters. On a clay road, however, the rain that falls 
is only in part carried to the gutters, even with a well formed surface. 
Much of the water soaks into the clay and is retained there and on 



50 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



the surface together, especially when the road is cut up into ruts and 
holes, and no amount of side ditching under these circumstances can 
make a dry road-bed. As vehicles move over the soaked road, the 
tires cut into the wet clay and churn it up, so that it becomes worse 
and worse under travel and finally impassable from the mud, which 
can only dry off during a prolonged dry spell. The drains mentioned 
as running under the road are serviceable, but a good earth road can 
only be made in such clay soils by excavating a large part of the soil 
above and to either side of the subsoil drains and filling in with gravel 
or other material (as seen in Fig. 9), which will readily drain the water 
falling on it into the subclrains. 



EARTH ROADS. 



The common earth road containing much clay, can never be made 
satisfactory in wet weather ; but by strict attention to the principles 
of drainage outlined above, it can be much improved and rendered 
a pleasant road to drive over during the larger part of the year. The 
usual method of constructing and repairing such roads in this State is an 
excellent example of how " not to do it." The road is worn or washed 
concave, so that water runs down its middle or remains upon the sur- 
face and soaks in, forming mud, and the repairs often consist of pine 
brush, sods, turf, or other perishable material, thrown into the holes 
and covered with earth; or, perhaps, rocks are thrown in when con- 
venient, the result being a non-homogeneous surface, which is bound 
to wear into holes again. The road surface should be homogeneous, of 




Fig. 11.— CROSS SECTION OF DIRT ROAD SHOWING COMMON FORM OF BADDY SHAPED 
SURFACE, TENDING TO DAD DRAINAGE AND PERMITTING WAGON VHEELS TO SINK 
INTO THE SOFT SURFACE. ALSO SHOWING FORM OF IMPROVED DIRT ROAD SURFACE 
WITH PLAN (A) OF AN OPEN DITCH ON ONE SIDE, AND PLAN (B) OF A COVERED TILE 
DRAIN ON THE OTHER SIDE. [From Good Roads.] 

earth, or preferably of sand, gravel, shells, ashes, slag, &c, to render 
it as dry as possible, if the material of the road is clayey. In this case 
four inches of sand or gravel, well rolled, over only half the road, if 
there is not enough of it to cover the whole road surface, will make a 
wet weather road, the other half being suitable for dry weather. 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 51 

If none of these materials are obtainable for covering the clay, Byrne 
recommends* the burning of the clay and spreading it on the road 
surface, which he estimates can be done at a cost for labor of about 
twenty or twenty-five cents per cubic yard ; and he claims that when 
thus burnt, spread over the road surface and rolled, this clay makes a 
porous and serviceable road covering, easily drained. In clayey regions 
it is also well to keep all trees and shrubs large enough and near enough 
to shade the road cut away sufficiently to allow full access of sunlight 
for drying the road surface. 

On sandy roads, clay may be added to the surface. The sand 
roads should have very light ditches — only enough to carry off the 
rain water — or none at all on the sand hills proper. The clay roads 
will need ditches from one to four feet deep on either side, as above 
explained, but with every precaution, in prolonged wet spells they 
are cut to pieces by the narrow tires of wagon wheels, and are 
barely passable. In the sandy regions of eastern counties it is possi- 
ble in many places by deep plowing or ditching to bring up along 
the roadside- a sufficient quantity of clay or loam which when mixed 
with the sand will pack and and greatly improve the character of the 
road surface. 

In these sandy regions, further, it is well to leave trees growing 
close by the road, with their limbs overhanging it, so that the shade 
may retard the drying of the surface and the leaves and twigs which 
fall upon the road may improve the surface by preventing the move- 
ment of sand by the wheels. As an aid in the accomplishment of the 
same purpose, the growth of grass and other small plants on the unused 
parts of the roadway should be encouraged. And, according to Byrne,f 
"A coating of four inches of loose straw will, in a few days travel, 
grind into the sand and become as hard and firm a dry clay road." 

Advantages of Wide Tires. — These tires should be two inches in width 
for the very lightest vehicle, up to six inches for those carrying the 
heaviest load per wheel. In France, "the freight and market wagons 
have tires from three to ten inches in width, usually from four to six 
inches. The four-wheeled freight wagons have tires rarely less than 
six inches, and the rear axle is about fourteen inches longer than the 
fore, so that the rear wheels run on a line about an inch outside of the 
line of the fore wheels. The varied gauge is also usually observed 
with cabs, hacks and other four-wheeled vehicles." In many other 
countries the width of tire is limited by law, and in the interest of 
good roads, the restriction should be imposed in this State, or a 



* Highway Construction, p. 451. f Ibid., p. 453. 



52 ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

bonus should be offered, or exemption from payment of road tax 
granted for a time to all persons who use these wide tire wheels. 

"Foreseeing the objection which might be raised to the great cost 
of supplying vehicles now in use with wide-tired wheels, an ingenious 
inventor has placed upon the market an adjustable wide tire, which 
may be made of any desired width and so constructed as to fit any of 
the wagon wheels now in common use. These tires are made by the 
Richardson Manufacturing Company, at Bath, X. Y. Both iron and 
steel are used in their construction (as may be desired by the purchaser), 
and they seem to have given much satisfaction during the brief time 
they have been in the market."* 

Width of the Road. — As to the width of roadway pr the space trav- 
ersed by vehicles, 12 feet is barely sufficient for two vehicles to pass, 
but 16 feet is ample and is the usual width macadamized in this country, 
though sometimes only half this width is so treated, the other half 
remaining an earth road. For three vehicles abreast, 22 feet is a 
minimum common width ; whilst 30 feet is ample for four vehicles, 
and is rarely exceeded except on thoroughfares leading into very 
large cities. 

Bad Location, of our Common Roads. — Our common elavey roads 
are in their best condition, say six months in the year ; they are toler- 
able three more months, and are wretched or impassable during the 
remainder of the year. They will never be improved without proper 
supervision of men trained to the business, and this fact is especially 
evident when we consider the bad location of most of them. Only a 
trained engineer can properly re-locate these roads on ground and 
grade suitable for the traffic. As to the great yearly loss from steep 
grades, which are often easily avoided, see the latter part of this chapter. 

TELFORD AND MACADAM ROADS. 

The movement for better roads was placed on an intelligent basis 
in England when in 1816 Macadam introduced the system of broken 
stone pavements which now goes by his name. In the construction 
of these roads the stones were broken by hand by men, women and 
children to sizes not larger than two inches diameter, and laid on a 
convex earth surface in layers of about three inches each, to a total 
depth of six to ten inches. In a few years 25,000 miles of such roads 
were constructed, the effect of which was to open up a great area of 
country, increase values enormously, lessen very materially the cost 

* Good Roads, Vol. II. , No. 2 (Aug., 1892), p. 92. 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 53 

of transportation, and incidentally tend to the enlightenment and 
increased civilization of the people. 




Fig. 12.— CROSS-SECTION AND TOP VIEW OF COMPLETED MACADAM 
ROAD WITH PAVED SURFACE GUTTERS AT SIDES. [Fl'Om the Century 

Magazine.*] 

Macadam was followed by Telford, whose construction differed from 
his in adding generally a course of stones on a level earth foundation, 
seven inches in depth at the center and diminishing to three inches 
fifteen feet from the center (for a thirty -foot road), the stones to be 
set on their broadest edges and lengthwise across the road, the breadth 
of the upper edge not to exceed four inches in any case. All the 




Fig. IS.— TOP VIEW AND CROSS-SECTION SHOWING METHOD OF 

constructing telford roadway. [From the Century Magazine.] 
B is the rolled earth foundation on which is laid the sub-pave- 
ment as shown in Fig. 14. At A have been laid the upper courses 
of broken stone rolled into compact form, similar to thatshown 
in the broken-stone layer of Fig. 12. 

irregularities of the upper part of this Telford pavement are to be 
broken off by the hammer and the interstices filled with stone chips 
firmly wedged or packed by hand with a light hammer. On this founda- 
tion of large stones a covering of six inches of macadam, or stones of 
one and a half to two inches or less in diameter, is placed and rolled 
in layers as usual, so as to form a smooth, tight surface which will be 
agreeable to traffic and shed water readily. The object of the founda- 

* Plates for Figs. 12, 13, 14, 18, 19 and 20, used originally in the Century Magazine, were supplied 
for this bulletin by the O. »S. Kelly Co., of Springfield, Ohio. 



54: ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

tion is to distribute the pressure over as large an area as possible, so 
that the surface covering will not sink anywhere, and which should 
insure a smoother road surface than where no foundation course is 
laid. Telford also allowed that this foundation might be of gravel or 
sand when stone could not be easilv obtained. 




Fig. Ik.— CROSS-SECTION (C) OF PORTION OF TEL- 
FORD SUB-PAVEMENT LAID ON ROLLED EARTH FOUN- 
DATION, AND TOP VIEW (D) OF THREE PARTIAL 
COURSES OF SAME, SHOWING METHOD OF BREAKING 
JOINTS OF LARGER STONES AND WEDGING AND 
PACKING OF STONE CHIPS INTO VOIDS AND INTER- 
STICES. [From the Century Magazine.'] 

Macadam claimed that his roads of broken stone, made of small 
stones laid directly on the earth in layers aggregating from six to ten 
inches thick, made as good a surface as the -Telford road, when tlie 
earthen road-heel is well drained and well rolled ; and on this point 
experience has sustained his position. 

Macadam versus Telford Roads. — The controversy over the relative 
merits of Telford and Macadam roads has waged continuously to this 
day. The opinions of the most experienced men in this country on 
the subject may be summed up as follows : 

(1) Generally, either system makes a good road when faithfully car- 
ried out ; 

(2) The Telford system has a decided advantage in northern lati- 
tudes, where the frost penetrates the ground for several feet ; 

(3) On a road-bed which cannot be drained thoroughly, the Telford 
should be used ; 

(4) "Where the soil is hard and gravelly, and not retentive of mois- 
ture, the Macadam pavement is a success anywhere ; in fact, as far 
north as Bridgeport, Conn., a macadamized road only four inches thick 
on a dry foundation, has proved a great success ; 

(5) The Telford pavement generally costs more than a simple macad- 
amized road, though the difference for equally good roads is not great, 
since the foundation course of the Telford road can be made of infer- 
ior and softer stones and the hard metalling reserved for the top. 
This surface metalling can be thinner than for a Macadam road ; 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

(6) If the roads are kept in good repair, there is little difference in 
their wearing quality, but if not repaired, the thinner Telford coating 
will sooner wear out, and then the foundation course will make one of 
the worst stone roads imaginable, whilst the Macadam road, if properly 
constructed, will be good nearly as long as it lasts. The Telford 
foundation in this case is so much loss and is a useless expense. 

(7) Wherever the drainage is not good, the Macadam wears into ruts 
more readily than a Telford road. 

I have recently measured the depth of frost at Chapel Hill during 
the prolonged cold weather of January, 1893, when the thermometer 
fell to 0° F., and find it to be 8J- inches. At and below this limit, it 
has been suggested that Macadam roads when properly drained, may 
be safely used, especially on steep grades where the water flows off 
quickly ; hence for this State, it would seem that a Telford foundation 
is superfluous except in badly-drained soils. However, the proper con- 
struction of both systems will be given in what follows. 

Cross Section. — It is now universally conceded by all, that the earthen 
road-bed on which the stone is laid, should not be level, as Telford 
recommended, but should be made parallel to the final stone surface 
which should always be higher at the middle than at the sides. The 
natural soil should be cut away to this curved form and all perishable 
matter removed and replaced with good earth. 



Fig. 15.— CROSS-SECTION OF MACADAM ROAD ON LEVEL GROUND, WITH SIDE GUTTERS 

or ditches not paved. [From Good Roads.] 



The middle of the road-bed, as consolidated by rolling and traffic, 
should be made higher than the sides in the following proportions of 
the width of the carriage-way from gutter to gutter : 

Earth road, rise at centre . . _ . $j to -£$ 

Gravel road, rise at centre. ¥ x ff 

Broken stone road, rise at centre J ff 

Stone blocks, rise at centre ^ 

Wood, rise at centre jfo 

Brick, rise at centre ^V 

Asphalt, rise at centre ^ 

For country roads, it will suffice to make the rise half-way from the 
inner edge of the gutter to the crown or middle of the road f, and at 
I this half width of road from the gutter I of the rise before given. 



56 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



Thus for a finished broken stone covering for a road 16 feet wide, the 
centre rise is 3.2 inches, the rise at 2 feet from the centre is 2.5 inches 
and at 4 feet, 1.2 inches. This transverse section gives a slightly 
steeper slope nearer the centre than for the usual circular or parabolic 
section and is therefore preferable. 




Fig. 16.— CROSS-SECTION OF MACADAM ROAD IN AN EXCAVATED ROADWAY AND OK A 
GRADE, WITH STONE PAVED GUTTER. [From Good Roads.] 

Before the stone is rolled and consolidated by traffic, for a 16 foot 
roadway it is best to add at least 2 inches to the rise at the centre to 
allow for subsequent settlement ; and further, on grades of over 5 feet 
in 100, an extra allowance of at least an inch is made to prevent the 




Fig. 17.— CROSS-SECTION OF MACADAM ROAD, ON AN EMBANKMENT OR FILL, BUILT UP 
WITH EARTH TAKEN FROM THE EXCAVATIONS, SO AS TO IMPROVE THE GRADE. THE 
FENCES ON THE SIDES PREVENT THE OCCURRENCE OF ACCIDENTS. [From Good Roads.] 



water running along the centre of the road and washing the material 
away. A proportionate increase is to be made for other widths of 
roadway. On steep grades too, breaks in the grade are sometimes 
made every four or iive hundred feet to give a rest to the horses. 

Foundation. — The road-bed should be thoroughly drained, as already 
explained, and then thoroughly rolled to a firm surface. If beds of 
gravel or sand are convenient, it is well to use these on a clayey foun- 
dation, or if these are not to be had, to put a ki/yer even of sandy 
loam 4 to 6 inches deep on the clay surface and roll it thoroughly. 
Sand makes a good foundation when confined, as it helps to distribute 
the pressure brought on a portion of it over a large area ; besides it 
never makes mud and it prevents the mud below from working up 
among the stones. In country practice it is rarely used owing to the 
expense of obtaining it. 

The Broken Stone Covering.— To build a Macadam road, about 4 
inches of stone, broken by a crusher, so that the largest pieces have 
only a diameter of, say 11 inches for trap rock, is spread uniformly 



NOTES OX COMMON KOAD CONSTRUCTION. 



57 



over the surface, just as it comes from the crusher, spawls, ehips and 
dust included. This is rolled with a 2- to 5-ton horse roller or a 10- to 
15-ton steam roller, so as to make the entire covering as tight and 
solid as possible, approximating to solid stone. If a light horse roller 
has been used, it is well to invite travel on the road for a while, as the 
wagon wheels consolidate a road better than the roller, though they do 





FIG. 18 ROUNDED PEBBLES AND SMALL COBBLESTONES TO 

BE CAREFULLY EXCLUDED FROM ALL MACADAM AND 

TELFORD ROAD-MATERIALS. 



FIG. 19 SHOWING FORM AND SIZES OF STONE CHIPS COM- 
MONLY USED FOR THE TOP LAYER IN CONSTRUC- 
TION OF MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 






Fig. W— SHOWING ROUGH CUBE-SHAPED STONES OE PEOPER SIZE AND FORM TO RE USED IN MACADAM 

and telford roads.— ]From the Century Magazine]. 

In the " intermediate" courses of either form of construction slightly larger sizes may be employed; but 
in top courses it is always best to restrict the workmen to a maximum size stone not materially greater 
than that shown in the left of the figure. 



so unequally and are apt to cause ruts unless the tires are wide. These 
ruts are to be worked out by the roller ; then a thin coating of sand, 
gravel or screenings is laid and rolled, and another 4 inches of broken 
stone laid as before. It is advised to water each layer, add screenings 
and more water and roll until the water flushes the top. AYe have 
now a uniform depth of, say 6 inches of broken stone, as when rolled 
thoroughly the 8 inches original depth of stone is reduced to 6. Simi- 
larly we proceed for other depths. 

It has been found by experience that a final depth of macadam of 
6 to 8 inches is ample for light traffic and even 4 inches has been success- 
ful on a gravelly soil. To make a smooth road at once, a last top coat 
of screenings is used, but it costs $200 to $400 per mile and may be 
omitted if necessary, as the travel will eventually smooth and consol- 
idate the surface. 



58 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



Use of Binding Material. — Some engineers advocate the vise of 
thin layers of clay or loam taken from the sides of the road as a sub- 
stitute for the screenings for packing. It is put on each 4-inch layer 
of stone in turn, watered and rolled as before, and undoubtedly con- 
solidates and brings the stones to a bearing very soon, as it fills the 
voids between the stones better than any other material. A light 
roller can consolidate the road with this packing, whereas it takes a 
10- to 15-ton steam roller to consolidate a road packed with spa wis, 
screenings or sand alone. 

GROIA/A/ 




6 otter to be r AV£0 

°» ST *EP GRADES 

Fig. 21.— SHOWING CROSS SECTION OF ONE-HALF OF TELFOKD ROAD FROM THE CEN- 
TER OR CROWN TO THE GUTTER ON ONE SIDE ; THE LARGER STONES BELOW SHOW THE 
TELFORD FOUNDATION WITH THE CRUSHED STONE ABOVE. TO THE RIGHT OF THE 
STONE IS THE ORDINARY SOIL WHICH ON A LEVEL SURFACE OR GENTLE GRADES 
NEED NOT BE PAVED. 

The French engineers have long used this earth packing, and it has 
recently been used by Mr. J. Owen on the New Jersey roads with 
success, though the general sentiment is against it. as it is claimed 
that heavy rains will wash it out and cause looseness in the mass. As 
the voids in broken stone are about one-half, and no amount of rolling 
can reduce them to less than one-fourth the total volume, some pack- 
ing is essential, and if the screenings from the crusher are insufficient, 
clay or loam may be judiciously used in thin layers. Sand is said to 
be inefficient as a binder. 




From "Goon Roads." 

Fig. ^.-TELFORD ROAD SHOWING A FOUNDATION OF LARGER STONES WITH SMALLER 
STONES WEDGED BETWEEN THEIR TOPS; ON THE LEFT IS A PORTION OF CURBSTONE AND 
GUTTER AS USED IN CITIES, AND ON THE RIGHT A PORTION OF THE BROKEN STONE 
COVERING OF THE ROADWAY WITH SURFACE GRAVEL. THE CURBSTONE AND GUTTER 
HERE SHOWN ARE TOO EXPENSIVE FOR USE ON COUNTRY ROADS. 



NOTES OX COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 59 

TIte Telford Road. — In building a Telford road, the top surface of 
ground is made parallel to the final surface of roadway as with the 
Macadam road. On this, the foundation is made of large stones that 
may be of inferior quality to that used for the covering, as before 
described. On this foundation one-half to three-fourths inch of screen- 
ings of stone (or loam if necessary) is put on and rolled to prevent 
spawls working up.; then the layers of macadam are put on as usual. 

Use of both Macadam and Tel ford plans on same road. — An experi- 
enced engineer in road construction recommends on a grade of one in 
one hundred, six inches Telford foundation and four inches macadam 
on top ; on grades of one foot in one hundred to five in one hundred, 
five inches Telford foundation and three inches macadam, and for grades 
of^overfive feet in one hundred he advises six inches macadam with- 
out any Telford foundation. Such thicknesses have given success even 
in bad soils. It is hardly advisable generally to build roads with only 
four inches of macadam covering alone, for although they have suc- 
ceeded at Bridgeport, Connecticut, where the soil is sufficiently dry, 
yet in another case after doing good service for three years, a severe 
winter broke up miles of them ; still they may be tried as an experi- 
ment in favored localities, on dry and gravelly earth beds, where they 
should prove the most economical of all good roads. 

Misuse of Stone on Roads. — It should be clearly understood that 
broken stone of all sizes up to four or five inches, dumped in any 
way on an old road whose surface has not been prepared properly does 
not make a " macadamized road." It is a complete waste of money, 
and if such a system is pursued, will bring discredit upon this " move 




Fig. SS. — CROSS SECTION OF MACADAM ROADWAY (A) LAID ON COMPACT EARTH (B), 
MADE SOLID AND PERMANENT BY HEAVY ROLLING. 

for better roads." Instead of the transverse section of the earth road 
being made convex as above explained, I have seen it made concave 
and dug into holes and the stone wastefully thrown in the holes and 
not consolidated or brought to shape, so that possibly much more 



60 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



material was used and the road cost more than if an engineer had 
graded it properly and built a superior Macadam road. 




Fig. 2h— CROSS SECTION SHOWINfi WASTEFUL USE OF MACA DAM MATKKIAL (A) OX A 
ROAD SURFACE (Bj NOT PROPERLY COMPACTED BY ROLLING, NOR THOROUGHLY 
DRAINED. 

Let it be borne in mind that only experts in road making should 
have charge of the construction of our roads, and that there is "no 
economy in employing a cheap man. Such a policy will certainly cost 
tens of thousands of dollars in the end and has proved a failure when- 
ever tried. 

REPAIRS OF BROKEN STONE ROADS. 

As to repairs, the thick coverings last longest. An average road 
will last four or five years (unless very narrow) and for our country 
roads, should not cost for repairs over $100 to §150 per mile per year. 

A road properly constructed should wear equally along its length 
and should be repaired by a coating of broken stone throughout, 
put on as before described. When ruts or holes are formed, it is 
proper to repair at once, but the daily tinkering and breaking up of a 
road in places for repairs, so universally followed by some, is not 
recommended by others. A good road of hard materials, well com- 
pacted, needs but few repairs for some } r ears ; but a road of soft mate- 
rials can only be kept in good order by constant repairs. 

COST OF BROKEN STONE ROADS AND REPAIRS. 



The following table of cost of Macadam roads is taken from Byrne's 
"Highway Construction," (page 186) : 



Locality. 



Bridgeport, Connecticut- ... 

Fairfield, Connecticut 

Franklin Township, N. J 

Plainfield, New Jersey 

Kingston, Rhode Island 



Thickness j Width of 
of stone. | Pavement. 



Inches. 



Feet. 




18 to 20 

20 

15 

16 
16 to 20 



Method. \ C«P« 



Macadam. 
Macadam. 
Macadam. 
Macadam. 
Macadam. 



3.000 00 
5.0(0 00 
4.700 00 
3.000 00 
5,500 00 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 01 

The cost is seen to vary with the depth of stone covering and the 
width of the road. Tims, for a depth of stone of four to six inches, 
the cost for a sixteen foot road is at least $3,000 per mile ; whereas, 
for the same width, but with eight inches of stone, the cost is $5,500. 
The proximity of the stone of course largely influences the cost. 
If in places the plan be adopted of having only one half of the six- 
teen foot road macadamized, lea vino- the remaining half to serve as a 
dirt road, the cost per mile of the four inch Macadam road might be 
reduced to $1,500 or $2,000 per mile. 

The Most Economical Width of Macadam Hood. — As stated on page 
52, and as indicated in the above table, the width of the macadamized 
part of the road, as generally adopted in the United States, is 16 feet, 
but varies from 15 to 20 feet. In Austria the macadamized space 
ranges from 14 1-2 to 20 1-4 feet, in France from 1G to 22 feet, while 
in Belgium the regular width is only 8 1-4 feet. The full width of the 
roads, however, in different countries, and even in the same country, 
ranges from 26 to 06 feet, portions of this space being occupied by the 
foot-path, ditches and the macadamized wagon- way — and in some cases 
a dirt road by the side of the latter. As the cost of the Macadam 
road varies with the width and thickness of the broken stone covering, 
this should be as narrow and thin as may be consistent with the use- 
fulness and durability of the road. The 8-foot Macadam road has 
proved fairly satisfactory in Belgium, and in Mecklenburg county of 
our own State, where it is now being tried. But on account of its 
narrowness the wagon wheels must always run in the same places, and 
with our narrow American tires ruts are cut with comparative rapid- 
ity. This road is too narrow for vehicles to pass without one of them 
leaving the macadamized part, and in so doing there is always a ten- 
dency to break down the latter on its edges, to bring quantities of 
mud on to the road surface ; and in wet weather leaving the macad- 
amized part with a loaded wagon often means to sink into the mud on 
the roadside. Consequently, as far as possible, the Macadam road 
should have a widtli of not less than 14 feet, so as to allow two vehicles 
to pass, and especially is it important to do this on roads on which the 
soil is rotten and becomes easily cut up in bad weather ; also on moun- 
tain roads, where the tendency to wash away the dirt road is so strong, 
it is better to macadamize the full width of the road (14 or 10 feet). 
And it should be borne in mind in deciding as to the width of space 
to be macadamized, that a Macadam road 14 feet wide and 5 inches 
deep costs very little more than one 8 feet wide and 8 inches deep, and 
is far more satis factor v. 



62 ROAD MATERIALS AN'D ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

Cost of Repairs. — The cost of keeping the road in repair per year 
varies with many conditions, the traffic being the principal. Thus in 
London the cost of maintenance varies from 6 to 62 cents per square 
yard ; in Paris it is about 45 cents, and in Boston 50 cents. - It must 
be borne in mind that the cost of labor in Europe is less than in 
the United States. The country roads cost less for repairs : thus in 
Belgium it is 6 to 10 cents per square yard: in France 1 to 10 cents; 
in Bavaria 8116 per mile. From the experience in this country it 
would seem that repairs for highways should not cost more than 3 
cents per square yard, or for a road-bed of 16 feet in width, si 76 per 
mile. It has been given lower than that by some and higher by others, 
bnt experience in Xew Jersey would indicate about $150 per mile per 
year including renewals every 5 years. An average estimate, there- 
fore, for a macadamized road 16 feet in width and 6 to 8 inches thick 
would be about $4,000 to $5,000 per mile for construction and about 
8150 per year for maintenance — the interest of $2,500 at 6 per cent. 
For roads of less width, the cost is proportionately decreased, though 
not in a direct ratio. • 

Where the stone is near at hand and the other conditions favorable, 
roads 16 feet wide have been built at $3,000 to $4,000 per mile, and it 
is to be hoped that with cheaper labor most of our roads can be built 
at the lower rate; but it is safer to take the larger figures in making 
our preliminary estimates. 

Some memoranda of average cost of various items, etc.. may be of 
interest here. They are taken from Byrne and other sources. 

Rollers. — A 2 -horse roller weighing *2 tons will cost 8175; a 10-ton 
steam roller costs $3,500 to $4,000. The yearly maintenance of the 
latter runs from $1,300 to $2,000, when it is used constantly. 

A steam roller finds difficulty in surmounting a grade of 1:6. but 
none on a grade of 1:14. It can roll 500 to 3,000 square yards per 
day ; average in England of -12 towns, 1,105 square yards. In England 
the cost of rolling is from 1 to 2 cents per square yard ($60 to $120 
per mile for a 16 foot road-bed) ; in the United States. 1 up to 11 cents 
per square yard. 

Loam put on and rolled will cost from $30 t<:> $50 per mile. The 
rolling of the stone covering should start from the sides and be con- 
tinued "until the stones cease to creep in front or sink under the 
rolls, and the surface has become smooth and firm." 

Stone Crushers. — These cost, average size, and including engine, 
boiler, etc.. $2,500; expenses of operating, per day. $15 to $27. 



* A road 16 feet wide contains 5,S67 square yards of surface in one mile 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



63 



Cost of Quarrying and Crushing Stone. — The following gives the 
cost of quarrying and crushing, etc., per cubic yard at Hartford. 
Conn. : Quarrying 70c, crushing 35c, carting to breaker 25c ; total 
cost crushed at quarry $1.30, and delivered on streets, $1.80. The 
haul was not over two miles. 

Amount of Crushed Stone Required. — A well rolled road covering 
contains from TO to 80 per cent, of stone. Adding 25 per cent, for 
compression, we have the number of cubic yards of broken stone 
required in a mile as follows : 



Depth in Inches. 



Four inches . 
Six inches... 
Eight inches 



Width of Pavement. 



645 

968 
1290 



Feet, 16 Feet. 24 Feet 



1290 
1935 

2580 



1935 
2903 

3870 



GRAA^KL ROADS. 



Macadam is said to have deduced his principles of construction of 
broken stone roads from noticing how wheels sunk in and ploughed 
up a gravel road in consequence of the roundness of the pebbles. 

Eounded pebbles should never be used for gravel roads except from 
necessity, but where an abundance of angular stones can be found near 
the line of the proposed road, a good and cheap gravel road can be 
made exactly in the manner hitherto detailed for broken stone roads. 
As a rule pit gravel contains too much earth, from which it should be 
partially screened ; but a certain amount of ferruginous clay is desir- 
able and causes the gravel to set and become hard as soon as it is 
exposed to the action of the atmosphere. The gravel and clay mixed 
are put on in layers of say three inches, then watered and rolled by 
a 2- to 5-ton horse rol]er, when other layers can be added in a 
similar manner. No gravel larger than two inches diameter should be 
used, all larger stone should be broken. Such roads are good in dry 
or slightly damp weather, but in rainy periods or very dry Aveather 
the clay looses its hold and the road becomes muddy or dusty, as the 
case may be, and looses its coherence. Such roads, however, are vastly 
superior to earth roads and should be constructed where suitable 
gravel is abundant. 

Cost of Gravel Roads. — They have been constructed at Richmond, 
"Virginia, for fifteen to twenty cents a square yard, and at Haverhill, 



6£ ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

Massachusetts, for twenty -five cents per square yard, or say from 
$900 to $1,500 per mile for a roadway sixteen feet wide. 

In Illinois, for a roadway twelve feet wide, the gravel being twelve 
inches deep at the middle and nine inches at the sides, the cost was 
$900 per mile ; in Boston, Massachusetts, the cost was seventy-five 
cents a square yard, or say $4,500 per mile for a sixteen foot roadway. 

Plank Roads. — -The construction of plank roads in the timber regions 
of our State is well understood. The track is usually made eight feet 
wide, with a dirt road of eight to twelve feet alongside ; sills four by 
twelve inches and fifteen to twenty feet long are laid parallel to the 
centre line of the road and about four feet apart. They are laid flat- 
wise and firmly embedded in the ground and ''break joints/* The 
plank covering, laid at right angles to the sills, consists of boards 
eight feet long, nine to twelve inches in width and three inches thick. 
They are placed on the sills, but are not spiked to them and are so 
arranged that every three or four project alternately on each side 
three or four inches beyond those next to them, so that vehicles can 
readily pass from the earth road to the plank road. The slope of the 
planks should be three inches in eight feet towards the ditches. 

The cost per mile varies from $1,000- to $2,400 exclusive of extra 
earth work, bridges, culverts, etc., and the planking lasts about eight 
years when well built and cared for. 

Possibly, in the long leaf pine regions where timber is plenty and 
rock scarce, plank roads are the cheapest and best that can be con- 
structed. 

Tractive Force. — The pull of the horse on the vehicle or force required 
to overcome the resistance to motion, is called the tractive force and 
is expressed in the following table as a part of the gross weights of 
wagon and load for various road surfaces, at velocities corresponding 
generally to a pace or a trot. The table is taken from one compiled 
by Mr. Rudolf Hering. 

Sand . .... i 

Sandy road . . . T V 

Loose gravel - \ 

Co union gravel road T V 

Hard rolled gravel ^ 

Ordinary earth road - . - - T V 

Hard clay . . . ^\ T 

Hard and dry earth road - ^ to ^ 

Cobble stone ...... g to y^ to ^ 

Macadam, little used _ T V to ^ 

Macadam, ordinary aV to ^V 

Macadam , best - - - - ^ to -J (T 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. ' <I5 

Good Belgian block . J„ to $1 

Planked roadway . . Vo to .-.S 

Asphalt ... ....... . | \ ., 

Granite tramway . .. ... . jfc 

Iron..." :.-.. . .... ,^ 

Load a Iforse can Dram on Different Surfaces, — Hence, if we call 
the load a horse can draw on an iron track 100, the loads he can pull 
on. other road surfaces (taking average results) will be represented 
as follows : 

Iron track 100 

Granite tramway .'. .. 83 

Asphalt. 67 

Plank road 30 

Best stone blocks _ 30 

Macadam, good ... 18 

Cobble stone . . ..... . . : 10 

Gravel road . . 8 

Earth road, common 6 

Sand 3 

Cost of Transportation. — So many elements enter into the cost of 
transportation on various road surfaces that it is impossible to estimate 
the saving in improving the surface except very approximately. As 
an illustration, however, let us take a level earth road twenty-five miles 
long on which an average horse, moving at two and one-half miles per 
hour, will make a day's journey in ten hours. The horse can easily 
exert a horizontal pull of one hundred pounds on the wagon for this 
rate and time. 

Let us suppose that the traction on the earth (hard clay) road is one- 
twentieth the gross weight of wagon and load ; whereas, if the surface 
is macadamized, the traction will be just half or one-fortieth of the 
total load. Further, we shall suppose that fifty two-horse wagons go 
over the road daily for three hundred days in the year, the yearly cost 
of one hundred horses and fifty drivers being as follows: 

One hundred horses at 50 cents per day * . . . . $ 50 00 

Fifty drivers at $1.00 per day 50 00 

$ 100 00 

For one year (of three hundred working days) this would amount 
to 300X$100— $30,000. 

As the traction on the earth road is gV 3 and one horse exerts a pull 
of 100 pounds all the time, the gross load carried by two horses on 
the earth road is SJ0X200=4-,OO0 pounds '2 tons. Assuming the two 



66 * ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTBUCTION. 

horse wagon to weigh half a ton,* this leaves the net or paying load 
carried as a ton and a half. With a Macadam surface, however, (the 
traction being to) the two horses attached to the wagon can drag a 
gross load of 40X200=8,000 pounds=4 tons. Subtracting from this 
the weight of wagon <i ton i. we have the net load=3§ tons or t times 
the net load carried on the earth road. Therefore f of the wagons 
originally employed can haul the same tonnage. Thus 50 wagons at 
11 tons met load)=75 tons daily; |X50 wagons at 31 tons (net load)= 
75 tons daily. We thus find that to haul the same tonnage over the 
Macadam road, only f of the horses, drivers, etc.. used on the earth 
road are required, so that the yearly saving on this 26 miles of road bj 
macadamizing it would bef of $30,000=^$17,143 — interest on $2S5.717 
at 6 per cent. Clearly it would pay the people who travel over this 
road to borrow the sum of. say $100,000, and with this macadamize 
the 25 miles at once : and in nine years the annual savings will have 
paid the interest and paid off the principal. 

The saving is even greater than has been estimated on account of 
extra wear and tear of wagons and harness on the earth road and its 
impassable condition daring a part of the year, as to which, see Chap- 
ter II. . 

GRADES. 

Where grades are encountered, the ratio of the relative resistance 
due to gravity to the resistance on a level road is greater the smoother 
the road. The writer has computed the following table to show this. 
The load which can be hauled on a level, for the kinds of road given, 
being called 100, the loads which may be hauled on various grades 
are as follows : 

M -^ ."f -3 '-? -' 



Grade. 



hfi = o H ~ Z~- 



Ill ?ji ill 

* 

Level _. 100 100 100 

1 foot in 160 feet 91 S3 71 

2 feet in 100 feet 83 71 55 

3 feet in 100 feet 77 63 45 

4 feet in 100 feet 71 55 38 

5 feet in 100 feet §§ 50 33 

1«» feet in 100 feet 50 33 20 

15 feet in 100 feet 40 25 14 

*The two-horse wagons used in the hilly country around Chapel Hill weigh from R00 to 1.400 
pounds, the average of 20 weighines being 1.07-5 pounds. The net load carried varies from 47$ to 
2.020 pounds, the average being 96S pounds. The one-horse wagons weigh from -100 to 0-40 pounds, 
average 551 pounds, and carry net loads of 190 to 630 pounds, average 416 pounds. These figures 
were kindly furnished me by Mr. A. S. Barbee. 



NOTES ON COMMON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. bj 

Thus on a rise of 10 in 100, a horse can pull on an ordinary earth 
road f 5 o°o or h the load he can draw on a level ; but on a good macadam- 
ized road he can only draw on this grade, tW or i the load he can draw 
on the level. It follows from this example, or generally from the table, 
that it is much more important to reduce grades on any road that is 
to be macadamized than it is to lighten the grades on a common earth 
road whose surface is not to be improved. 

It was assumed in the table above that a horse can exert the same 
pull on a grade as on a level, which is not true, especially for the 
steeper grades; so that for the latter, the above figures should be 
somewhat less. This is due to a horse's anatomical formation and 
great weight, for although a horse on a level is equal to 5 men, on a 
rise of 15 feet in 100 he is not as strong as 3 men, and finally the 
grade may become so steep that he can barely pull his own weight 
up it. 

A horse can, however, for a short time exert double his usual force 
(or even more for very short distances), which will take him over hills 
giving double the resistance on a level. His tractive force also varies 
with the velocity, being for an average horse working 10 hours a day 
at 4 miles per hour 60 pounds, at 21- miles per hour 100 pounds, and at 
1 mile per hour 250 pounds. It is also proportionately greater when 
he works a less number of hours each day. 

On a macadamized road where the traction is ff of the load on a 
level, the horse will have to exert double his force to overcome a grade 
of one foot in thirty -five, which he is supposed to be capable of doing. 
This grade likewise being "the grade of repose," a vehicle can be 
driven down it at a good rate, say twelve miles per hour, without 
increased speed due to gravity. Hence, whether viewed as an ascent 
or a descent, this grade should be the maximum (when practicable) 
under the conditions assumed. Similarly a grade of one in forty is 
the maximum when the traction on a level is to of the load. 

The minimum grade should not be less than half a foot in a hun- 
dred, or better, one in a hundred, for purposes of drainage, giving a 
full and free flow to water in the gutters and ditches. 

Steep Grades add Greatly to Cost of Transportation. — As grades are 
frequently much greater than one foot in thirty -five, it is well to give 
an example showing the loss a single steep grade, on. a line say i/wenty- 
five miles long, or a day's journey, will entail. To take an extreme case, 
suppose the hill to rise one foot in ten, when traction on a level is h of the 
load or 57 pounds per ton of 2,000 pounds, corresponding to an aver- 
age macadamized road. The extra force required on the grade is of 



68 KOAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

2,000 pounds=200 pounds, which added to 57 gives 257 pounds, the 
horse must exert on the grade for each ton hauled. Half of this is 
127, so that if the hill is not too long for the horse to exert double his 
usual force in overcoming it, the ratio of the gross load he can draw 
on the grade to that he can draw on a level is 57 : 127. 

Let us suppose (as in a previous example) that 50 two-horse wagons 
pass over the hilly road 300 days in the year at a cost of $30,000 per 
year. If a horse can exert a pull of 100 pounds at 21 miles per hour 
for ten hours, then as we have taken the traction at 1:35, the horse 
can pull a gross load of 35X100=3,500 pounds on the level portion of 
the road. Therefore, 

Two horses can pull a gross load of 7.000 pounds. 

Weight of wagon assumed to be. 1 .000 pounds. 

Net load on a level 6.000 pounds. 

On a grade of ten feet rise in one hundred feet, the two horses 
exerting double their usual strength can draw, as we have seen. 

fsVX7,000 _ 3. 142 lbs. 

Weight of wagon ..... 1 ,000 lbs . 

Net load on grade .... 2,142 lbs. 

This is but little over a third the net load (6,000 lbs.) drawn by two 
horses on a level. For convenience, take it as one-third. 

We thus see that it will take three teams on the grade to haul the 
same net load as one team on the level portion of the road. The ea&m 
cost in one year, due to the grade limiting the load over the whole 
twenty-five miles of road is thus two-thirds of the cost over the line 
with the hill on it, or f x$30,000=$20,000— the interest on 8333.333 at 
six per cent. Any amount less than this can be economically expended 
in getting a level route around the hill if the length or cost is not 
greatly increased. 

It is supposed here that the hill is at least 400 to 600 feet long (as a 
horse can exert more than double his strength on less lengths) but not 
over a mile, so that the horse can continually exert double his usual 
strength over the entire grade. The net tonnage is taken very small — 
only 50X2142=107,100 pounds or about 54 tons a day at a cost of $100 
or $4 per mile (wear and tear omitted) or 7.4 cents per ton per mile. 
On the perfectly level road, the cost is one-third of this, or 2.5 cents 
per ton per mile, certainly a very low estimate. 

If the distance has to be increased 1 mile to avoid the hill, suppose 
the cost of this extra mile to be $10,000 and the yearly maintenance 



NOTES ON COMMON KOAI) CONSTRUCTION. 09 

$150 per mile, the interest of $2,500 at 6 per cent; a total of $12,500. 
As the cost of hauling the net load of 54 tons on the road With the 
grade is $30,000 per year, the cost of hauling the same net tonnage 
on the level road is one-third of this, or $10,000 per year on 25 miles, 
or $400 per mile — the interest of $0,606 at per cent. Add to this 
the cost of building and maintaining the extra mile ($12,500) and we 
have $19,166 in all as the principal to provide for the first cost, main- 
tenance and cost of operating the extra mile, against $333,333 to expend 
in avoiding the hill. This example suffices to illustrate how a very 
large amount can often be judiciously expended in avoiding some 
steep hill, which limits considerably the loads carried over the rest of 
the line, even when the latter is not level, as was supposed to simplify 
the calculations. In most cases, however, the road line can be changed 
at moderate cost. 

Many of our roads were originally only bridle trails, or at least were 
located without reference to economy in hauling heavy loads by 
wagons. Consequently most of them go directly over hills, without 
any attempt at securing a gentle grade even when one is perfectly 
practicable. As we have seen, the heaviest grade limits the load over 
the whole road to what can be hauled up the steep grade ; besides 
this, all other hills giving lesser grades increase the cost of hauling ; 
so that many changes in the location of our country roads, particularly 
if they are to be macadamized, are imperatively demanded. On such 
work only a trained engineer is competent and should be employed. 
Such a man can earn a hundred fold his salary in one year when the 
saving to all concerned is considered. 

The endeavor has been made in what precedes to give some of the 
principles of highway construction which it seemed desirable should 
he generally known. Let the move- for "better roads" be organized 
carefully and judiciously and attend first to a revision of the location 
of country roads, particularly in the hilly country ; then must follow 
the improvement of the surface by macadamizing or otherwise, the 
proper construction of which should be rigidly insisted on. 



CHAPTER FOUR. 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED IX ROAD CON- 
STRUCTION. 

I The following brief notes on the tools and machinery employed in 
the construction and repair of roads are intended only to give such 
general information as may be useful to county commissioners, road 
supervisors and others who may be interested in the subject. As new 
and improved types of tools are likely to be placed on the market at 
all times, and as prices change more or less every year, it will be well 
for all persons desiring to purchase such machinery and tools to cor- 
respond directly with several manufacturers or large dealers, and also 
with different road engineers about them before doing so. The facts 
here stated are taken in part from Byrne's " Highway Construction, '' 
and " Good Roads," in which there will be found a full and illustrated 
treatment of the subject. When a lot of tools and machinery is 
ordered at one time doubtless the manufacturers will cheerfully send 
along an agent to show how the machines are put together and 
operated. 

Tools Used in Grading. — A large part of the work of road improve- 
ment, after the location has been settled, will be found to consist in 
the proper grading and drainage of the dirt road-bed. In connection 
with the building of railroads so large an amount of work of this kind 
has been done that improved machinery has been extensively and 
economically used, and in the treatment of our public roads it will be 
wise to adopt similar methods. The following list of tools will be 
found useful in clearing, grubbing, ditching and grading: 

Axes, price per dozen $12.00 to $15.50 

Bush-hooks, handled, per dozen - 17.00 

Grub-hoes, per dozen ... . . 11.00 to 17.00 

Mattocks, per dozen . 15.50 to 18.00 

Shovels, square-pointed, per dozen ... 7.00 to 13.00 

Shovels, round-pointed, per dozen 7.25 to 18.50 

Picks, per dozen 10.75 to 22.50 

Spades, per dozen ..■-__ 13.25 to 14.50 

Hoes, per dozen 13.50 

Wheelbarrows, per dozen 20.00 to 52. 50 

Plows for road work, each 20.00 to 60.00 

Scrapers, drag, each 1 2. 00 to 1 5 00 

Scrapers, wheel, each 50.00 to 70.00 

Carts, each 65.00 to 75.00 

Road machines, each 100.00 to 300.00 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



71 



Plowd. — Flows of special forms adapted to this work are used exten- 
sively in road improvement and are manufactured by several establish- 
ments. They are known under different names, such as " road-plows," 
"grading-plows," "township-plows," etc., and vary in form according 
to the character of work thev are intended to do. 




Fig. %5.— TOWNSHIP OR BREAKING PLOW. 

They are made of the strongest wood and wrought iron, with steel 
points, and are pulled by two or four horses. They weigh from 100 
to 300 pounds and cost from $20 to $00 each. The accompanying 
illustration of the "Township" or " Breaking-plow " shows their gen- 
eral characteristics. In rocky soil it will be found best to remove the 
knife to prevent its edge becoming dulled by the stone. This plow is 




Fig. ?<?.— WHEELBARROW OF <>AK Wool) 



of light draft, requiring two horses in loam soils and four horses in 
heavy clay soils. It is not intended for turning the soil butcutsa fur- 
row 10 inches wide and to 11 inches deep, and weighs about L20 
pounds. These road-plows arc manufactured by the American Road 



i 2 ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

Machine Company, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania : the Kilbourne & 
Jacobs Manufacturing Company, Columbus, Ohio, and other companies. 
Wheelbarrows. — The wheelbarrow shown in Fig. 26, constructed of 
wood, is one of the forms most commonly used in earth work. Its 
capacity ranges from 2 to 2 1-2 cubic feet, its weight is about 50 pounds 
and its price is about $20 per dozen. Fig. 27 shows another form 




Fig. 



-WHEELBARROW WITH IRON' WHEEL AND PRESSED STEEL TRAY, 



of wheelbarrow with frame of oak, wheel of iron and tray or bowl of 
pressed steel. Its capacity ranges from 3 1-2 to 5 cubic feet, and its 
price from $5.-50 to $7.50 each. While costing more it will be found 
to be much more durable than the all-wood barrow. 




Fig. 21 



■ORDINARY EARTH CART. 



Carts. — Fig. 28 shows a form of cart ordinarily used in hauling 
earth and other materials. These carts have broad-tired wheels to 
prevent their sinking into soft earth, and the body is so balanced that 
when the load is evenly divided there should be no great pressure on 
the horse's back. The average capacity of these carts is 22 cubic feet, 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED EV ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



73 



but it is more convenient to have them large enough to hold an even 
cubic yard of earth. The average weight is about 800 pounds, and the 
price $65 to $75. 

The Austin Dump Wagon (Fig. 29) is claimed to be a great im- 
provement on the ordinary cart, as it can be dumped more quickly and 
easily. Its capacity is from 35 to 45 cubic feet. It is manufactured 
by the F. C. Austin Manufacturing Company, Chicago. It is an expen- 




Fig. 29.— THE AUSTIN DUMP WAGON, DUMPED. 

sive wagon, costing $135; but being of iron throughout, it is quite 
durable, and those who have used it claim that it is an economical 
machine even at this price. 

/Scrapers* — " These are great labor savers in many places, and are 
made in a variety of forms. The best are of solid steel, being lightest, 
strongest and most durable, and in the end the cheapest. In many 
soils a good steel scraper can be used even though ploughing has not 
been done, but the plough is always an important aid in loosening the 
soil, .no matter what method is adopted for its removal. The common 
solid steel drag scrapers will carry from three to seven cubic feet of 




Fig. SO.— DRAG SCRAPER IN POSITION FOR LOADING. 

earth, the largest size being generally employed for longer hauls and 
where the earth is to be carried away on a down grade. A scraper 
having a capacity for about five cubic feet is best for ordinary carting,, 

* I. B. Potter, in " Good Roads," Vol. I, (1892) pp. 333-'o. 
6 



74 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



while if only one horse is employed, and light work only is intended, 
the scraper carrying three feet will be sufficient." The scrapers with 
two strips or runners on the under surface, as shown in Fig. 31, have 
a lighter draft, and those with round edges on the bottom, like the one 
here illustrated, last longer. 

" In the employment of a scraper you will find it necessary in most 
cases [in using scrapers having a capacity of 5 to 7 1-2 cubic feet] to 




Fig. SI.— DRAG-SCRAPER WITH EUNNEKS, 

use a team of two horses, and if the haul is short the size of the scraper 
should be made correspondingly smaller, because the filling of the 
scraper will be more frequent, and this portion of the work will be very 
severe upon your team. Scrapers are largely used in the handling of 
earth where much work is to be done, and thev have an advantage in 
cheapening the cost of the work. Trautwine computes that by the use 
of a drag scraper in light soils, the cost of handling earth per cubic 




Fig. 32.— WHEEL SCRAPER IN CARRYING POSITION. 

yard (not including contractor's profit) varies from 5 1-2 to 12 cents 
per cubic yard where the lengths of haul vary from 200 to 250 feet, 
including the spreading of the material in places, while the same cost 
under shorter lengths of haul, where the earth is 'wasted,' varies from 
A\ to 11 cents. 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



75 



While drag scrapers are quite satisfactory on short hauls, for long 
hauls wheeled scrapers are coming into general use. " They are made 
to carry from about twelve to seventeen cubic feet of earth when 'even 
full,' and mounted on wheels having broad tires to prevent them from 
cutting into the soft earth. The bowl of the scraper is made so that 
it may be raised or lowered, and is operated by lowering the edge of 
the scraper into the earth until the bowl is filled, after which it is 
raised a distance of some inches above the ground and carried to the 
dump or embankment, when the bowl is emptied by revolving it upon 
an axis from which it is hung-. The cost of removing earth by wheel 




Fig. 3J.-\V r HEEL SCRAPER IN POSITION FOR LOADING. 

scrapers is somewhat less than that involved in the use of the drag 
scraper. * * * * * A wheel scraper of medium size will weigh 
about 450 pounds, will carry a little less than one-half a cubic yard, 
and will cost from $50 to $70. A drag scraper weighing about 100 
pounds will cost from $12 to $15." 

Mechanical Graders. — f" Within the last few years several machines 
have been devised for the purpose of handling earth more expeditiously 
and economically than can be done by hand ; they are called by various 
names, such as 'road machines,' 'graders,' 'road hones,' etc. Their 
general form is shown in Figs, o-f and 35. 

" Briefly described, they consist of a large blade made entirely of steel 
or of iron, or wood shod with steel, which is so arranged by mechanism 
attached to the frame from which it is suspended that it can be adjusted 
and fixed in any direction by the operator. In their action they com- 
bine the work of excavating and transporting the earth. They have 
been chiefly employed in the forming and maintenance of earth roads, 
but may be also advantageously used in preparing the subgrade surface 
of roads for the reception of broken stone or other improved covering. 



fByrnc, pasre 580. 



76 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



A large variety of such machines is on the market, and the price 
ranges from $100 to $300." 

The accompanying illustration (Fig. 34) shows the "Champion" 
reversible road machine, manufactured by the American Road Machine 




Fig. 



THE STEEL, FRAME LIGHT CHAMPION REVERSIBLE ROAD MACHINE. 



Company, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, which can be had with either 
iron or wooden wheels — the latter being probably preferable. It can 
be easily pulled by four good mules and is said to be capable of doing 
as much work as 40 or 50 men, under favorable conditions. By 
tilting the blade it will cut the side ditches or gutters, as well as grade 
the road when the blade is properly adjusted. The price of it is $250. 




Fig. 35.— THE AUSTIN REVERSIBLE ROAD MACHINE. 

Fig. 35 shows another form of road machine made by the F. C. 
Austin Manufacturing Company of Chicago. 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 77 

"The New Era Grader," a machine recently introduced by the F. C. 
Austin Company, seems to be well adapted to the rapid handling of 
large quantities of earth at a comparatively low cost; and it promises 
to mark a considerable step in advance in the grading for railroads 
and wagon roads in comparatively level regions where the soils are 
fairly loose. But its adaptability for use on public roads in hilly 
regions and stony soils like those of midland and western North 
Carolina does not appear to have been demonstrated as yet. Persons 
desiring further information concerning the nature and work of this 
machine should correspond with the manufacturer in Chicago.* 

Rolling.^ — "Let us suppose that drains have been put in, culverts 
laid, banks sloped and the road surface given its proper shape. It is 
by no means a finished road even now, for in many parts the earth 
will be loosely compacted and in others scarcely settled at all. Rains 
will wash it, wagon wheels will sink into the surface and in a short 
time the earth will settle unevenly and take on a shape that will make 
you look upon it as a mortifying failure. You may obviate many if 
not all of these bad results by the thorough and proper use of a good 
roller. Every dirt road that is subjected to wagon traffic becomes 
hard by the process of rolling. Every wagon Avheel acts as a roller, 
and when you consider the millions of wagons in use you may see the 
force of my statement when I tell you that if wagon tires were made 
of a width fairly proportioned to the heavy loads which they are 
required to sustain, our county roads would be vastly smoother and 
always in better condition than we find them today. 

"You are familiar with the soft and cloggy condition of the ordin- 
ary country road in springtime, and know how the summer sun grad- 
ually evaporates the water and leaves the road surface roughened and 
cut by deep ruts and marred by occasional mud-holes where the deep 
water has not fully evaporated. To hasten the escape of the water I 
have advised thorough drainage, but to destroy ruts and preserve the 
road surface in good passable condition, rolling should be resorted to, 
and the more constant your rolling the smoother and more satisfactory 
will your road become. 

" Great differences of opinion exist regarding the proper weight of 
roller to be used in the different kinds of road-making, but it is reason- 
ably well settled that a roller of any given weight cannot be used to 
the same advantage on all kinds of roads, and that the weight of the 
roller in each case should, if possible, be adjusted to answer the con- 
dition presented. A comparatively light roller of large diameter may 
be used to advantage where the ground is soft and yielding, but the same 

* For an illustrated description of this machine, see Byrne's Highway Construction, p. 580. 
t Good Roads, Vol. II., No. 2, pp. 85, 8(5 and DO. 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



roller would hardly answer to consolidate heavy and moderately firm 
materials. It is therefore best, when possible, to use a roller which may 
be loaded and lightened at will to answer these several conditions, 
remembering, however, that the final work of the roller can hardly be 
done by too heavy a machine, and that the process of rolling is more 
likely to be discontinued too quickly than unduly prolonged, which lat- 
ter is indeed hardly possible in ordinary conditions." 

Horse Boilers.— Admitting the importance of using a roller in all 
road work, the question arises as to what kind of roller will be found 
most satisfactory for the work in hand. It is perhaps generally con- 
ceded that for work on*city streets and on country roads where there 
are no weak bridges which might be broken down bv the weight of 




Fig. 36. -THE CHAMPION ROAD ROLLER. 

the roller, and no especially steep grades to ascend, that the heavy 
steam rollers are preferable. But for the ordinary country road work 
a good horse roller answers the purpose fairly well and costs consid- 
erably less than the steam roller, though the expense of operating the 
latter is but little if any more than that of a large-sized horse roller. 
In the choice of a horse roller it is better to select one which does not 
bear heavily on the necks of the horses, and one the weight of which 
can be considerably increased by the use of bars of iron, masses of 
stone, or otherwise. In the Champion road roller shown in Fig. 36, 
the weight, which normally is three tons, can be quickly increased 
to five tons by the addition of two tons of railroad iron cut into 4-foot 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION 



79 



pieces, or by adding- masses of stone when the iron cannot be secured 
easily. The advantage of thus being able to increase the load will be 
apparent wmen it is understood that whereas over a rough and some- 
what soft road surface it requires four strong mules to pull the 3-ton 
roller, after this roller has passed over the road several times and has 
begun to pack down the surface, the four mules can as easily pull the 
roller with its weight increased to five tons. And furthermore, it is 
often better for the road surface that when passing over it for the first 
few times the unweighted roller be used and that subsequently the 
weight be increased. 

Other horse rollers are made b}^ K. C. Pope r St. Louis ; the F. C. Austin 
Manufacturing Company, Chicago, and the Gates Iron Works, Chicago. 

Steam Rollers. — A steam roller may be described as a kind of loco- 
motive mounted on broad heavy wmeels, and used for compacting the 
road surface. They vary in weight from eight to thirty tons, the sizes 




Fig. 37.— SPRINGFIELD STEAM ROAD ROELER. 

generally used weighing from eight to fifteen tons. The advantages 
of steam rollers are stated by Byrne as follows : * 

"(1) They shorten the time of construction. 

" (2) A saving of road metal, (a) because there are no loose stones 
to be kicked about and worn ; (b) because there is no abrasion of the 
stones, only one surface of the stone being exposed to wear ; (e) because 
a thinner coating of stone can be employed ; (d) because no ruts can be 
formed in which water can lie to rot the stone. 

"(3) Steam-rolled roads are easier to travel on account of their even 
surface and superior hardness, and have a better appearance. 

♦"Highway Construction," p. 183. 



SO ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

" (4) The roads can be repaired at any season of the year. 

" (5) Saving both in materials and manual labor." 

The Springfield steam roller manufactured by the O. S. Kelly Com- 
pany, Springfield, Ohio (shown in Fig. 37), has been found quite satis- 
factory. The following information concerning this roller can be 
given best in tabulated form : 

Springfield Roller. 



0-ton. 



12| TON. 15-TON. 



4 feet 4 feet. 



Front roll, diameter l 4 feet. 

Front roll, width ._. 44 inches. 48 inches. 48 inches. 

Driving wheels, diameter ...... ; 6 feet | 6 feet. ' 6 feet. 

Driving wheels, width. . . \ 18 inches. 20 inches 22| inches. 

Extreme width of machine . . 75 inches. 85 inches. 90 inches. 

Pressure per inch of width ...... . 500 pounds. 570 pounds. K00 pounds. 

Coal capacity 450 pounds. 500 pounds. 550 pounds. 

Water capacity . . . ! 153 gallons. 175 gallons. 200 gallons. 

Maximum grade ascended with 100 lbs. stone. 16 per cent. 1 16 per cent. 16 per cent. 

Price . -. .. ..... $3,500. $4.000. $4*500. 

Other steam rollers on the American market are the Aveling and 
Porter roller, an English machine and probably the first of its kind 
on the market, now used largely in both England and America ; and 
the Harrisburg patented double-engine roller, an American machine 
and used at many places in this country. Both these rollers are made 
in three sizes having different weights; the former 10, 15 and 20 
tons and the latter 10, 12 and 15 tons in weight. 

Tools for the Construction and Repair of Macadam Roads. — The fol- 
lowing list gives the more important tools and machines which have 
been found useful in the construction and repair of Macadam roads : 

Sledge hammers, 5 lbs. and over, for breaking masses of stone. % S 

per lb . . . 

Hand hammers, 3 to 5 lbs , for breaking masses of stone, per lb. 
Hand hammers. i\ to 2 lbs., for breaking masses of stone, per lb. 
Ring gauge, iron, 2 or 2| in. in diameter for testing stone, each 

Tape lines, 100 feet long, in rolls. ...'. 

Straight-edge, wooden, made by any carpenter*. 

Reel and stake, per dozen 

Rakes, used for leveling stone, per dozen 

Hand rammers, each 

Levels, per dozen 

Brooms, per dozen . . 

Wheelbarrows, per dozen 

Stone crusher, each . ... . ° _ 

Rollers, horse, 2 to 5 tons, each 

Rollers, steam, 10 to 15 tons, each . . 

Drilling outfit, work by hand, each 





.30 




.36 




.45 




.25 


1.00 to 


4.00 


6.00 to 


9.50 


14.00 to 


16.00 


1.10 to 


12.00 




48.00 


8.50 to 


9.00 


20.00 to 


52.50 


600.00 to ] 


,250 00 


150.00 to 


500.00 


3.500.00 to 4 


.500.00 


100.00 to 


150.00 



* A good design is shown in Byrne's "Highway Construction," p. f.90. 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY- EMPLOYED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



81 



Drilling outfit, work by steam, each 

Derricks, for use in quarrying, each-. 
Engine for running crusher, etc., each 



300.00 to $ 600.00 
50.00 to 200.00 
G50.00 to 800.00 



Stone Crushers. — Breaking stone by hand for road purposes, which 
was formerly so extensively practiced, lias now been generally aban- 
doned — notwithstanding the claim that stone broken in this way is 
more uniform in size, has sharper edges and hence packs better — 
because, as is generally conceded, the steam crushers do the work much 




Fig. oS— FARREL MAES DEN CRUSHER, MOUNTED ON WHEELS AND WITH SCREEN ATTACHMENT. 

more rapidly and cheaply. At the present time a good stone crusher 
is regaredd as an essential part of an outfit for macadamizing roads. 
The following are among the leading crushers now on the American 
market : 




Fig. 39. — FARREL MARS DEN CRUSHER, SECTIONAL VIEW. 

The Farrel Marsden crusher, manufactured by the Farrel Foundry and 
Machine Company, Ansonia, Conn., and by the Mecklenburg Iron 



82 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



Works, Charlotte, N. C, is being used extensively. The accompanying 
illustration (Fig. 38) shows this crusher mounted on wheels, thus making 
it portable, and with attached screen for separating the different sizes 
of broken stone. When it is preferred. not to separate these different 
sizes the screen can be removed. Fig. 39 shows a sectional view of 
the Farrel Marsden crusher. 



Farrel Marsden Crusher : Dimensions, Capacity, Etc. (as published.) 



NO. 


RECEIVING 
CAPACITY. 


APPROXIMATE PRODUCT OF 
2-INCH STONE PER HOUR. 


APPROXIMATE HORSE 
WEIGHT. P'WEK 


* 

PRICE. 


3 
4 
5 


10x4 inches. 
10x7 inches. 
15x9 inches. 


3 cubic yards. 
5 cubic yards. 
8 cubic yards 


4.500 pounds. 6 

7,600 pounds. : 10 

16.200 pounds. | 20 


1275.00 

500 00 
750.00 




Fig. hO— CHAMPION KOCK CRUSHER, PORTABLE VIEW. 

The Champion rock crusher, made by the American Road Machine 
Company, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, is shown in Fig. 40 in its 
portable form, and in Fig. 41 when stationary and at work with ele- 
vator and screen attachment. The front wheels and tongue shown in 
Fig. 40 when the crusher is stationary can be removed and used on 
the road roller shown in Fig. 36 (page 78). The elevator, 9 to 12 feet 
long, can be so arranged that the broken stone will fall directly into 
bins from which it can run into carts without being handled. The 
elevator and screen cost $400 additional to the price of the crusher. 



Price unmounted and without screen. 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 83 




84 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



Champion Crusher: Weight, Capacity, Etc. (as published.) 



NO. 


RECEIVING 
CAPACITY. 


APPROX. PRODUCT 
STONE PER HR., 2 in 


WEIGHT 
APPROXIMATE. 


HORSE 
POWER. 


PRICE. 


8 

4 


7x13 inches 
9x15 inches' 


10 to 15 tons 
15 to 20 tons. 


5 000 pounds. 
8,000 pounds. 


10 
12 


$600 
800 



Forster's crusher, the Brennan crusher, the Gates crusher and the 
Smith Hydraulic Safety crusher are also on the market and deserve 
to be considered in the purchase of stone crushing machinery. 

, Rock Drills. — The rock as it occurs in the quarry must first be 
blasted out and then broken into masses small enough — S to 15 inches 
in diameter — to go into the crusher, where it is crushed into small 
fragments — 2 inches and less in diameter — ready for distribution on 
the road surface. In the work of blasting out the rock at the quarry, 
until recently the hand-drill has been used exclusively, but during the 
past few years, where extensive operations are being carried on, it has 
been replaced by the steam drill, which does the work more rapidly 
and more cheaply. The crusher is generally located at the quarry, 
and the same engine which runs the crusher can also run the steam 
drill ; and in the purchase of an engine for running the crusher one 
should be selected with several horse power more than what is claimed 
to be sufficient to run the crusher alone, so that extra work of this 
kind can be done without an extra engine becoming necessary. Where 
the stone used for macadamizing is picked up largely from the fields, 
and is already in fairly small masses and hence but little quarry work 
is to be done, it will be found cheaper to use the hand-drill ; but where 
there is a considerable amount of regular quarry work to be done it 
will be cheaper to use the steam-drill notwithstanding the greater 
purchase cost of the drilling outfit. 

Outfit for Hand Drilling. — The following list includes the more im- 
portant articles used in hand drilling : * 

Drill steel, per pound ; $ .25 

Striking-hammers. 3 to 5 pounds, per pound .36 

Striking-hammers, 5 pounds and over, per pound . _•_ _-_ .30 

Spoons, each 2.00 

Wedges, per pound. .12^ 

Plug and feathers, per pound .30 

Crowbars, per pound ... . .10 

Stone-sledges, per pound ... .30 

Blacksmith outfit 50.00 or more. 

Outfit for Steam Drilling. — The outfit for steam drilling includesf 
a steam drill, a set of drill-steels ; a set of blacksmith's tools for sharp- 

* Byrne, " Highway Construction," p. 586. f Ibid, pp. 587-'9. 



TOOLS AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 85 

ening the drills ; a sand pump ; a band for centering the piston ; extra 
drill parts ; and a steam hose. The following table shows the approx- 
imate prices of such an outfit : 

Drill and tripod complete $ 175.00 to $350.00 

Steam hose, per foot - - - .54 to .97 

Drill steels, per set -- 25.00 to 115.00 

Forge and hand tools 50.00 and upw'd 

Sand pumps, each $ 3.00 

Giant blasting powder, per pound .15 to .60 

Leading wires, per foot . .01 and upw'd 

Magneto-electric blasting apparatus, each 25.00 to 50.00 

Derricks, each 50. 00 and upw'd 

These drills and outfits are manufactured and for sale by the Eand 
Drill Company, New York, and by several other companies. 

Engines or Boilers. — Almost any good portable engine and boiler 
of sufficient power will answer for running the rock crusher, rock 
drill, dump cars, etc. It is better in purchasing to select one which 
can give a greater power than is called for in advertising statements ; 



s^yr- 1 ; ■-_-;; -.;.:-| 






-v- ■ - 



Fig. /^.—STEELE'S DUMP CAR. 

for if it requires to run a rock crusher a 10-horse power it is safer 
and more economical to get this force from a 12-horse power boiler 
than from a 10-horse power boiler. And where the rock crusher 
and steam drill and dump-cars are to be operated at the same point 
(at the quarry) it is better to get an IS- to 20-horse power engine, as 
the cost does not increase in the same ratio as the horse power. Thus 
of the Ajax engine, which is claimed to be one of the best now on the 
market, the 12-horse power engine, mounted on wheels, costs about 
$665 and the 18-horse power about $780 — a gain of 6-horse power at 
an additional cost of $115. Engines adapted to the running of rock 
crushers are manufactured by the Mecklenburg Iron Works, Charlotte, 
North Carolina, and by other establishments. 



86 



ROAD MATERIALS AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 



Dump Car and Winding Drum. — It has been found that the clump 
cars (Fig. 42) and winding drum manufactured by J. C. Steele 
of Statesville, 1ST. C, for use in hauling clay from the pit to the mills 
are also well adapted to hauling fragments of rock from the quarry 
to the crusher, and it is claimed that in this latter capacity they can 
be used on the automatic switch, also manufactured by Mr. Steele, to 
a considerable advantage, being operated by the same engine as that 
which runs the crusher, or crusher and steam drill, and thus saving 
the employment of several men and carts to do this work. 

Draining Tools. — In ditching for drainage where it is intended to 
use tile, as advised above (p. 48), and in laying the tile, special forms 
of spades and other tools have been found useful and inexpensive. 
These can be obtained from any large dealer in road machinery. They 
are fully illustrated and described in Byrne's Highway Construction 
(pp. 585-6), and in Good Roads, for July, 1892 (p. 33). 




From *Guui> Koads.' 



Fig. US.— THE RESULT OF intelj igent work in keeping a dirt road, sixty 

BARRELS OF GARDEN TRUCK HAULED BY A SINGLE TEAM ON DIRT ROAD 
AT CAPE CHARLES, VA. 



INDEX.. 



PAGE. 

Absorptive power of different stones 17 

Austin Dump Wagon 73 

Bad roads, cost of 29, 32, 30 

Beaver, ex-Governor, quoted 28 

Binding materials for macadam road 58 

Byrne, A. T., acknowledgments to _ 9 

Carts used in road work 72 

Clay as a road material 22, 51 

Convicts, use of, on public roads 15, 43 

Cost of wagon transportation 29, 30, 65 

bad roads 29, 32, 36 

good roads 38, 60 

gravel roads 63 

Macadam roads 38, 60 

quarrying and crushing stone 63 

Drainage of roads in sandy regions 47 

of roads in clayey regions 47 

tools for 86 

Drains, central covered 48 

diagonal covered 48 

Drilling, outfit for, by band 84 

outfit for, by steam 84 

Dump car and drum, Steele's 85 

Dump-wagon, the Austin 73 

Eastern counties, road materials in 20, 27 

Engines for operating road machinery 85 

Eugland, improved roads of 11, 36, 39 

Fayetteville plank roads 12 

Foot-path, as provided on European roads__ 49 

France, improved i*oads of 11, 36, 39 

"Good Roads," acknowledgements to 9 

Gneiss as road material 18, 19, 24, 26 

Grade as affecting transportation— 30, 66, 67, 69 
Grades, load a horse can draw on different, 31 

66 

Granite as road material 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26 

Gravel as road material 20, 21 

Gravel roads 20, 63 

Horses and mules, number of, in N. C 33 

cost of feeding 34 

Limestone as road material 18, 20 

distribution of, in N. C 20, 21, 27 

Linville road to Blowing Rock 45 

Location of country roads 46, 52, 69 

Load horses can draw on different grades. 31; 60 
different surfaces. 30 

French roads 34 

Load horses can draw on American dirt 

roads 34, 60 

Loomis, F. B., quoted 39 

Macadam roads 16, 43, 52, 54 

binding for 58 

cost of 38, 60 

repairs of 60 

width of 52, 61 

vei-sus Telford roads 54 



PAGE. 

Macadam roads, tools used in repair and 

construction of 80 

McBride, Charles C, quoted 40 

Mechanical graders (road machines) 75 

Mecklenburg county, road improvement in, 41 
Mileage of public roads in North Carolina— 41 
New Jersey, road improvement in Union 

county 40 

"Nigger head" (trap) roc-k 19,23 

Plank roads 12, 22, 64 

Plows used in road work 71 

Potter, I. B., quoted 37, 73, 77 

acknowledgments to 9 

Quartz (" white flint") as road material— 18, 25 

Repairs of Macadam roads 60 

Road machines (graders, etc.) 75 

Roads, advantage of Avide tires on 51, 77 

ancient stone-paved 11 

and railroads 13 

construction of, notes on 46 

cooperation of State and counties in 

building 15 

cooperation of property and labor in 

working '.42, 43 

cost of bad 29, 32, 36 

cost of good 38, 60 

drainage of 47 

early, in North Carolina 12 

gravel 20, 63 

how to raise funds for constructing— 15 

42, 43 

location of 46, 52, 69 

Macadam 16, 52, 54 

materials, character of 17 

materials, distribution of, in N. C— _ 20 

methods of improvement 14, 42, 46 

mileage of, in N. C 41 

number of persons liable for work 

on, in N. C 35 

of England 11, 30, 39 

of France 11, 36, 39 

private turnpike 44 

should be worked by trained labor.. 14 
should be worked in part by taxa- 
tion 15, 42, 43 

Telford 16, 52, 54, 59 

tools and machinery used in con- 
structing 70 

use of criminals in working 15, 43 

Western N, ('.turnpikes 13 

width of 52, 61 

Sand as road material 22, 50 

Scrapers, drag 73 

wheel 75 

Shell-road, Wilmington and Wrlghtsville— 41 



88 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Shell, use of, in road-making 21, 44 

Stones, absorptive power of 17 

Stones, crushing and wear coefficients.__17, 18 

not suitable as road material 18 

sizes of fragments used in macad- 
amizing 56, 57 

suitable as road material 18 

Syenite as a road material 18, 19, 25, 26 

Taxation, working roads by 15, 42, 43 

"Tax roads" 43 

Telford roads 16, 52, 54, 59 

Tile, use of, in draining roads 48 



PAGE. 

Tires, advantages of wide 51, 77 

disadvantages of narrow 51 

Tractive force on wagon roads 64 

Trap rock as road material 19, 23 

distribution of 23, 2J, 25, 26 

Turnpike roads in Western X. C 13 

private 44, 45 

Wheelbarrows used in road work 72 

" White flint" (quartz), use of as road ma- 
terial 18, 25 

Wilmington shell-road 44 

Yonahlossee road 45 



CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 



On page 51, twelfth line from the bottom, after the word "firm" 
insert "as." 

On pages 59 and 60, plates for Figs. 23 and 24 have been kindly 
supplied by the O. S. Kelly Company. 

On page 62, tenth line from the top, for $176 read $2S2 ; in the 
ninth line from the bottom for $60 read $94, and for $120 read $188; 
in the footnote, for 5,867 read 9,387. 

On page 6-1, second line from the top, for $900 read $1,400, and for 
$1,500 read $2,300. 

On page 65, tenth line from the bottom, for "yearly" read "daily." 

On page 67, in the bottom line, between the words is and of insert T V- 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

J. A. HOLMES, STATE GEOLOGIST. 



BULLETIN No. 5. 



THE FORESTS, FOREST LANDS, AND FOREST 
PRODUCTS OF EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 



W. >v. ASHE, 



Ix Charge of Forest Investigation. 




RALEIGH : 
ins Daniels, state Printer and Binder 

PRKSSES OK K. M. UZZELL. 

is: (4. 



li 






TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Letter of Transmittal 8 

Preface 9 

Chapter I. — Forests and Forest Lands of Eastern North Carolina 13 

Objects of this preliminary forest survey 13 

Area under consideration 14 

Kinds of growth 14 

Nomenclature of the trees 16 

Long-leaf pine 16 

Loblolly pine 16 

Short-leaf pine 17 

Savanna pine 17 

Other minor trees 17 

Original distribution of the pines 18 

Long-leaf pine 18 

Loblolly pine 20 

Short-leaf pi ne 21 

Savanna pine 22 

Forests and forest regions of eastern North Carolina 22 

The seaboard region 23, 24 

Brunswick county 24 

Col urabus 25 

Duplin 25 

Pender 25 

Onslow 2t> 

Carteret 27 

Craven 27 

Jones 27 

Pamlico 28 

Beaufort 28 

Pam 1 ico peninsula 29 

Counties north of Albemarle sound 29 

The inland loblolly pine region 23, 31 

Gates county 31 

Hertford 31 

Bertie 32 

Martin 32 

Pitt 32 

G reene 32 

Edgecombe and Wilson :> >."> 

Wayne 33 

Lenoir 34 

Joh nston 34 



4 CONTEXTS. 

Chapter I. — Continued. page. 

The pine-barren regions 24, 34 

Robeson county 34 

Bladen 35 

New Hanover 36 

Cum berlan d 36 

Harnett 36 

Sampson 37 

Richmond 37 

Moore 37 

The transition region 24, 38 

Northampton county 38 

Halifax 38 

Nash 39 

Montgomery 39 

Chatham 39 

Wake 39 

Existing supply of timber in eastern North Carolina 40 

Cypress, 40; white cedar (juniper), 40; loblolly pine, 41; savanna 
pine, 41; short-leaf pine, 41; long-leaf pine, 42; swamp timber, 42. 

Chapter II. — The Waste Lands of Eastern North Carolina 43 

Scarcity of timber in the sand-hill regions 45 

The larger tracts of barren land 4-5 

Bladen county 45 

Sampson 47 

Cumberland 47 

Harnett 48 

Moore 48 

Richmond - - - 49 

Robeson 49 

Brunswick 49 

Columbus 49 

Wayne 49 

Duplin, Onslow, New Hanover 50 

Other eastern counties 50 

The origin of these waste lands 51 

Why long-leaf pine forests are not self-propagating 52 

The seeding of the long-leaf pine 53 

Destruction of the young plants 55 

Enemies of the long-leaf pine 56 

Destructive work by hogs and fires 57 

The ultimate utility of these waste lands o9 

Cost of securing a new forest growth 60 

Necessary protection of young pines against fires and hogs 61 

Forest management in the w r aste-land regions CVo 

The necessitv for forests in the future 64 



CONTENTS. 

Chapter II. — Continued. page. 

Will a regrowtli of pine on these waste lands pay? 07 

Rate of growth of long-leaf pines (57 

Future value of turpentine orchards 68 

Future value of long-leaf pine forests 69 

Area of waste land increasing 70 

Importance of early action 71 

Chapter III. — The Naval Store Industry 7.*> 

1 Iistorical sketch 73 

In colonial times 73 

Later developments 74 

South-westward extension 76 

Inland extension in North Carolina 77 

Value of the naval store products of the United States 78 

Amount of capital and labor employed 78 

Present condition of the naval store industry in North Carolkia 78 

Spirits of turpentine and rosin statistics 79 

Decrease in production of crude turpentine 80 

The rosin trade 82 

Exports of tar and pitch 83 

Total value of naval store products in North Carolina 84 

Present condition of the turpentine orchards in North Carolina 85 

Length of time turpentine orchards are worked 85 

Areas of abandoned turpentine orchards 8(5 

Annual additions to the turpentine orchards 87 

Boxing of other species of pines 88 

Amount of round timber available for boxing 8S 

Young growth of long-leaf pine 89 

Decreasing area of turpentine orchards in North Carolina 00 

Destruction of orchards by fires 90 

Damages to orchards from storms 02 

Area of orchards reduced by lumbering 93 

How long can our turpentine orchards last? 93 

French and American methods of gathering turpentine 93 

American method of boxing pine trees 04 

French method of gathering turpentine 96 

A d vantages of the French system 99 

Results as to the relative strength and vitality of the trees 99 

Yield by the French system larger in quantity and better in quality, 100 

Results of experiments with the French system in North Carolina 100 

Cost of adopting the French system ". 104 

Chapter IV. — The Lumber Endustry in Eastern North Carolina 106 

Historical sketch L06 

Loblolly pine in the timber market 107 



b CONTENTS. 

Chapter IV. — Continual. page. 

Statistics of the lumber industry in North Carolina 108 

Output of lumber and shingles 109 

Lumber product from different species of trees 112 

Lumber shipments from Wilmington 11:; 

Production and export of shingles 114 

Capital invested in the lumber industry llo 

Production of lumber in North Carolina in 1893 116 

Miscellaneous wood-working industries 117 

Production of timber other than mill timber lis 

"Tun timber" lis 

Railroad ties 119 

Telegraph poles list 

Oak staves 120 

Value of forest products of eastern North Carolina 120 

Recent timber developments and the outlook 121 

Uses of important woods 122 

The pines 122 

Yellow poplar, ash and white cedar 122 

Cypress, sweet gum and black gum 123 

Index 125 



BOARD OF MANAGERS. 



Governor Elias Carr, ex officio Chairman, 
J. Turner Moreiiead, . 
Samuel L. Patterson, . 



Raleigh. 
Leaksville. 
Yadkin Valley 



STATE GEOLOGIST. 



J. A. Holmes, 



Raleigh. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

Raleigh, N. C, September 26, 1894. 
To his Excellency, Hon. Elias Carr, 

Governor of North Carolina. 
Sir : — I have the honor to submit herewith for publication as 
Bulletin No. 5 of the Geological Survey publications a preliminary 
report on the Forests, Forest Lands and Forest Products of Eastern 
North Carolina. This report has been prepared by Mr. W. W. Ashe, 
who is making for the Survey a careful examination of the forests 
of the State. I beg to call your special attention to two facts 
brought out in this report: (1) the continued and unnecessary 
destruction of the forests of our eastern counties by fires and stock. 
and the importance of remedying this evil before it is too late; 
(2) while we cannot at once greatly enlarge the areas of our tur- 
pentine orchards the quality and value of the naval store products 
may be increased to the extent of some $200,000 per annum by the 
adoption of the French system of gathering the turpentine. 

I desire to express my appreciation of the active and encouraging 
interest which you and the other members of the Board have 
shown continuously in this and all other work undertaken by the 
Survey. 

Yours obediently, 

J. A. Holmes, 
State Geologist. 



PREFACE. 



The law inaugurating the Geological Survey provides for the 
investigation of the timber as well as the mineral interests of the 
State ; and in carrying out this provision a systematic examination 
of the forests was begun in 1891 and has been carried on since 
that time. The plan adopted in this work embodies a fourfold 
investigation : first, as to the existing forest resources ; second, as to 
how these resources can be utilized to the greatest advantage with- 
out involving the destruction of the forests; third, as to how the 
waste lands of the State can be continuously restocked with valua- 
ble trees, and thus our forest wealth perpetuated; and fourth, as 
to what can be done to encourage the development in the State of 
enterprises which will manufacture into finished products a larger 
portion of our timber instead of shipping to other States our crude 
materials for manufacture there. We have found, as will be 
shown in this Report and others which are to. follow at an early 
date, that our forest resources are considerable; and they are 
now attracting lumbermen and capital from many sections of the 
country. The lumbering industry in the State is already a large 
one and is increasing in magnitude; indeed, already the timber 
is being cut with such rapidity that we may fairly ask ourselves 
the question, how long it will be before our forest wealth, like 
that of many other States, becomes a matter of the past. And 
we may also ask ourselves the question, whether it is possible that 
these resources can be utilized now and at the same time our forest 
wealth be perpetuated. 

A trained student in forestry will answer this latter question 
in the affirmative, but the experience of the past has too often 
answered it in the negative. The cutting of the valuable tim- 
ber frequently leads to the total destruction of the forest, The 
trees are felled regardless of surrounding growth that may be 
injured; and the branches and the tops are left scattered among 
the younger growth and thus add greatly to the destructiveness of 
forest fires, which frequently follow during the first dry season. The 



10 PREFACE. 

average lumberman has but one purpose in the prosecution of his 
work : the removal of the valuable timber. It rarely happens that 
the owner, himself, seriously considers the future welfare of 
his forests; and, indeed, the opinion seems to be prevalent in the 
public mind that when the valuable timber has been once removed 
from a forest the forest itself no longer has a value, and may as 
well be cleared awa} r so that the soil can be cultivated; or, if it is 
allowed to remain, it is usually made to serve as a range for cattle, 
and is thought to answer this purpose best when burned through 
by the forest fires every autumn or spring. 

The policy of the average citizen appears to be based upon the 
theory that our natural resources are inexhaustible, and that we 
should get all out of them we can to-day and let the future take 
care of itself. And so thoroughly grounded are these notions in 
our public and private policy that it is exceedingly difficult to 
secure the adoption of any plan which runs counter to them. But 
fortunately, in the matter of our forests, their preservation for use 
by a future generation need not prohibit the utilization of the 
valuable timber now standing by the present generation. It only 
demands that while we cut and make use of this timber we protect 
the young growth, and look to the restocking of our waste lands 
with valuable trees, and thus make the forest valuable for future 
generations also. 

The examinations of the forests in Eastern Xorth Carolina were 
begun by the present writer several years ago. More extended 
investigations have been carried on by Mr. W. W. Ashe at intervals 
during the past two years. The larger part of the information 
embodied in the present report was collected by him during a series 
of extended trips made through the eastern counties during the 
autumn of 1893 and the following winter. As shown in the body 
of this Report, the approximate supply of pine timber now stand- 
ing in Eastern North Carolina is about 8,200,000,000 feet, and this 
is being cut at the rate of about 450,000,000 feet per annum. These 
figures point in unmistakable terms to the fact that, unless mean- 
while we encourage the growth of new trees, two decades more 
will find the valuable pine forests of this region largely a thing of 
the past. And it is unfortunately true that the cutting of this tim- 
ber is often followed by the destruction of the forest. 



PREFACE. 11 

Indeed, nothing in the way of forest management could be more 
reckless and destructive than the treatment of our long-leaf pine 
forests during the past few decades. In the boxing for turpentine 
the trees have been cut so deeply and so extensively that both their 
vitality and strength have been greatly weakened, and the storms 
have prostrated many of the finest specimens. The lumberman 
and the storms have been followed by forest fires, which have com- 
pleted the destruction, already begun in so systematic a manner, of 
large areas. 

Started at times by thoughtless hunters at night, by sparks from 
an engine, by cafeless squatters or tenants, or even at times by 
land owners, in the hope of improving the grazing capacity of their 
lands during the following season, these forest fires sweep irresisti- 
bly across miles of territory, destroying not only the mature for- 
est trees, but also the young growth; and thus destroy the forest of 
the future as well as of the present. And the few young pines 
which may have escaped destruction in this way soon follow the 
fate of the others by being destroyed by hogs. Many of these long- 
leaf pine lands which lie in the sand hill regions of Eastern North 
Carolina have had their forest removed so completely that they have 
become " waste lands," covered by a thin growth of nearly worth- 
less scrubby oak. The total area of these waste lands is now nearly 
half a million acres, and is steadily increasing. This Report 
endeavors to show that while much of these waste lands are worth- 
less for other purposes, they can be re-set with long-leaf pine forests 
if they can only be protected against forest fires and stock. And it 
is gratifying to find among the lumbermen themselves a growing 
realization of the fact that it is to their interest and to the interest 
of the public at huge that this destructive policy give place to a 
more intelligent plan which, while it does not seriously curtail 
the utilization of the existing forests, it looks to their protection 
and perpetuity. 

It is devoutly to be hoped that this awakening will grow into a 
change of both public and private opinion concerning the future 
of our forests, and lead to the adoption and carrying out of rational 
plans for their perpetuity and improvement. The problems 
connected with the accomplishment of this end will be discussed 



12 PREFACE. 

more fully in future publications of the Survey, now in prepara- 
tion. The object of the present report is to describe briefly the 
present condition of the forests and forest lands of this region. The 
capital invested in the lumber industry in Eastern North Carolina 
in 1893 amounted to $4,690,000, and more than 8,000 men were 
regularly employed in connection with the 323 establishments. 
The market value of the forests products of this region for 1893, 
including naval stores, but not including tire-wood nor fencing 
material, amounted to $7,320,000. Including these latter items 
the aggregate annual value of the forest products of the region 
will probably reach $12,000,000. Certainly this is an industry the 
future maintenance of which deserves the earnest consideration of 
the State and her individual citizens. 

The Survey is indebted to many lumbermen, naval store dealers 
and manufacturers, and to many other citizens in every part of this 
region for their kind co-operation in the work of collecting infor- 
mation for this Report, and I beg to assure them that their kind- 
ness and hospitality have been highly appreciated. 

J. A. Holmp>. 
State Geologist. 






.a 8* ro1 



FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS 
OF EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 

By W. W. Ashe. 

CHAPTER I. 
FORESTS AND FOREST LANDS. 

OBJECTS OF THIS* PRELIMINARY FOREST SURVEY. 

During the present decade there has been a marked increase in 
the lumber industry in Eastern North Carolina and a correspond- 
ing decrease in the available supply of standing timber. Already 
predictions are numerous as to the exhaustion at an early date of 
the supply of merchantable long-leaf pine over considerable areas. 
The boxing of these pines weakens the trees and makes them more 
liable to be blown down by the winds, and far more liable to be 
destroyed by forest fires, which by their frequency and extent have 
entirely removed the long-leaf pine forests over many large areas. 
These pine forests, in the sandy regions, instead of being replaced 
by a valuable young growth of the same kind are followed by a 
worthless growth of sand black-jack oak. Forest fires and subse- 
quent pasturing of these regions with cattle and hogs are the 
important agencies which combine to prevent the long-leaf pine 
from reproducing itself over the larger portion of these sandy 
lands. From these causes the extent of these areas of waste or 
abandoned lands is increasing steadily. It is believed that under 
proper management these waste lands can be restocked with long- 
leaf pine. 

The present examination was undertaken with a view to deter- 
mining the exact condition of the forests of the eastern section of 
the State, the rapidity with which they are being removed, the 
condition of lumbered districts, the character, extent and condition 
of the regrowth or "second growth," and to find out, if possible, 
some practicable plans for the protection, development, and exten- 
sion of the forests of this region. 



i 



14 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

AREA UNDER CONSIDERATION. 

The area examined embraces thirty-eight eastern counties and 
the eastern parts of six more, being what is usually termed the 
long-leaf pine belt in North Carolina. This is the "coastal plain 
region" of the geologists, which extends inland from the coast a 
distance of one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles and has 
in this State an aggregate area approximating 24,000 square miles. 
Its western border, separating the hill country from the coastal 
plain region, may be described as an irregular line extending 
through the western part of Halifax and the south-eastern part of 
Franklin county, passing near Raleigh and Gary to northern Mont- 
gomery and eastern Anson counties. Its surface is that of a gently 
undulating plain, of less elevation (ten to twenty feet above 
tide) and of a more nearly level surface eastward, becoming 
more elevated (three hundred to five hundred feet) and rolling 
along its western border. Its soil is generallv a sandy loam or 
sand, though in limited areas clay predominates. In the more 
eastern portion of this region are numerous extensive swamps or 
marsh areas surrounding, in some cases, small lakes and bordering 
streams. In some of these the soil is mainly an admixture of sand 
and vegetable mold, while in others it is a fertile loam. The soil 
of the western portions of this region, north of the Xeuse river, 
varies considerably, but is ordinarily a loam, becoming sandy 
or gravelly in some places and clayey in others, while south of 
Neuse river the sand predominates, and there are numerous ele- 
vated, dry, sandy ridges on which only the long-leaf pine and the 
sand black-jack oak flourish. 

KINDS OF GROAVTH. 

The timber over the entire section is, on the highlands, largely 
of two species of pine, one, the loblolly pine (Pinus Taeda L.), more 
confined to the counties north of the Neuse river and to the moister 
soil ; the other, the long-leaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), to those 
south of this river and to the drier, more sandy soil. Beneath 
these trees, where the soil is not too dry and sandy, is a lower 



KINDS OF GROWTH. 15 

growth of small white and post oaks, dogwood, haws and the nar- 
row-leaved crab-apple, while where the soil is very sandy and dry 
there grows, either with the long-leaf pine, or where it has been 
removed, a small worthless oak, the sand black-jack or barren oak 
(Quercus Catesbaei Michx.), and less frequently the high-ground wil- 
low oak (Quercus cinerea Michx.). This oak is also a small tree and 
indicates the most barren soil. Besides the pines just referred to, 
there are two others found with them, the short-leaf pine (P. echi- 
nata Mill.), an uncommon tree except on dark loam or gravelly soil 
along the western and northern limits of this section, and the 
savanna pine (P. serotina Michx.), a knotty, unsymmetrical tree 
occurring from Virginia southward along the margins of "pine bar- 
ren" ponds or scattered in small clumps over the open savannas 
and marsh lands. These few species form the chief growth of the 
higher lands. 

The swamp lands, with a total area of about 3,500 square miles, 
have a very characteristic and varied growth. Bordering these 
swamps are water and willow oaks, with the evergreen loblolly 
bay and sw r eet bay ; farther in them are huge swamp chestnut oaks 
(Quercus Michauxii Nutt.), elms, maples, beech, holly and tall rose- 
mary pines (P. Taeda L.). These lands constitute the oak flats, areas 
which are under water only during the wettest seasons of the year. 
They have usually a good soil and can be easily drained. 

AVhere the water is deeper in the swamps and remains longer 
grow the cypress, sweet gum, black gum, tupelo and yellow poplar. 

In the mud swamps along the larger streams there are, besides 
cypress and gums, ash, overcup oak, cottonw r ood, sycamore and 
hackberry. Mixed with the other swamps, but covering less area 
and occurring only on sandy or peaty soil, are white cedar swamps, 
or "juniper bays," as they are usually called. The tree growth 
in these is largely and often entirely juniper or white cedar 
(Chamaecyparis sp her oldea Spach.) and white bay (Magnolia glauca 
L.). In the extreme eastern part of this section, in the immediate 
vicinity of the sea-coast, there is a characteristic arborescent flora 
of red cedars and live oaks, while along its southern limits the 
palmetto and American olive (Olca americana L.) give it a semi- 
tropical aspect. On the other hand, as the clay and loam of the 



16 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

hill country is neared, the oaks and hickories rapidly increase 
among the pines, making the transition to the hardwood uplands. 
While this does not exhaust the list, even of the useful trees of 
this section, it includes those of greatest importance and widest 
distribution, and those most characteristic of the region. Those, 
however, which at present are of greatest economic importance are 
the pines, cypress, white cedar, ash and yellow poplar, and these 
only will be considered in detail, as the other forest trees of this 
section are not yet subject to the destructive agencies which pre- 
vent the extensive propagation and even threaten the future exist- 
ence of at least one of the most valued of these trees. 

NOMENCLATURE OF THE FOREST TREES. 

The names of many trees occurring in the State are very much 
confused, some trees having several names applied to them in tin- 
same locality, while in other localities the same name is given to 
several distinct species. This is particularly true of the pines of 
the eastern section, so much so that the} 7 frequently cannot be dis- 
tinguished at alb by their local names. Names which are in very 
general use, and the use of which will prevent confusion, are those 
adopted by the United States Forestry Bureau. These names 
will be used throughout this report and are given in the following- 
table along with the corresponding botanical terms and a list of 
the other names generally used in this State, with the region to 
which they are peculiar: 

Long-leaf pine (Pimis palustris Mill., P. australis Michx.) is 
known everywhere by this name, but long-straw pine is a term 
frequently substituted for it, the leaves of the pine after they have 
fallen being always called "straw." Long-leaf old-field pine is the 
name givi n to the young growth in fields, etc. Piteh pine is used 
in the north-eastern counties and by turpentine distillers. Heart 
pine, North Carolina pine, Georgia pine and yellow pine are lumber- 
men's names. 

Loblolly pine (P. Taeda L.) is a name rarely heard in this 
State in the field, short-leaf or short-straw pine being the usual name. 
Long -sir aw pine is heard in the north-east, where this tree grows 



NOMENCLATURE OF THE TREES. 17 

with P. echinata (the short-leaf pine), and rosemary pine is used along 
the Cape Fear river. Slash pine, swamp pine and old-field pine are 
names frequently given to it. Sap pine, North Carolina pine and 
North Carolina sap pine are names in use among lumbermen. 

Short-leaf pine (P. echinata Mill.). — Short-leaf pine and yellow 
pine are names given it in the middle and western sections of the 
State, and it is there also the old-field pine. It is spruce pine in 
eastern and south-eastern counties and is known among mill men 
as North Carolina and yellow pine. 

Savanna pine (P. serotina Michx.) is also called short-leaf, and 
other names for it are old-field pine, bastard short-leaf, swamp and 
pocosin pine. This pine is seldom recognized as distinct from the lob- 
lolly. Its most frequent designation where so distinguished is poco- 
sin pine, from its growing in flat, marshy land ; the flat, undrained 
lands, usually at the heads of streams, being called "poeosins." 
These poeosins are covered with a low growth of gums, this pine, 
and an undergrowth of gallberry bushes, huckleberries and androm- 
edas, while in places there is more or less coarse, densely stooled 
grass and sedges. This land often appears to be on the point of 
becoming savanna land, should the drainage become more thorough 
or its surface be raised by an accumulating peat. The common 
names for the other trees of this region, which are being discussed 
as being at present of considerable economic importance, are widely 
known and merely deserve mention: Cypress (Taxodium distichum 
Rich.); yellow poplar (IAriodendron tulipifera L.); white cedar 
(Chamaecyparis spheroidea Spach.), often called juniper, a name that is 
also applied to a small shrub farther north. Although three species 
of ash occur no distinction is made between them, each being called 
simply ash. These three species are the water ash (Fraxinus platy- 
carpa Michx.), ivlu'te ash (P. Americana L.) and red ash (P. pubescens 
Lam.). The first of these is a small' tree confined in this State to 
swamps in the extreme eastern and 'southern parts. The other 
two are larger trees and occur in all parts of the State, either in 
swamps, along streams or in moist, cool places. 



18 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

ORIGINAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE PINES. 

The distribution of the pines and the respective area occupied by 
each in this State has changed a great deal since the first explora- 
tion of the country. 

Long-leaf pine (P. palustris Mill.). — The distribution of no tree 
has been more affected than that of the long-leaf jAne by the trans- 
formation from a wilderness to a civilized country. The long-leaf 
pine formerly extended over the entire area under consideration, 
growing upon the drier portion of the sand. In the southern 
and south-eastern counties it formed a forest of pine, unmixed with 
other trees, but in the northern and western counties it was confined 
to the sandy or gravelly drift along the higher and drier ridges, 
here intermixed with short-leaf pine and scattering oaks, while 
poplar and loblolly pine occupied the lowlands. 

Early in the last century the production of tar and turpentine 
was a profitable industry north of Albemarle sound, the commodi- 
ties being taken to Norfolk or Nansemond, Va., for market.* The 
crude turpentine was shipped to England and there distilled. The 
largest bodies of pine which then yielded turpentine were the one 
on "Sandy Ridge," lying to the north of Edenton, and another 
east of Chowan river, in Gates county, and extending north into 
Nansemond county, Va. Before 1850 these had ceased to be of 
economic consideration, such trees as had withstood the fires and 
wind having been converted largely into building material. Now 
only isolated trees are to be seen here, scattered among black-jacks 
on the highest land. That they ever occupied much of the land 
might be questioned but for the tar-kiln mounds with which these 
counties are studded, the land having now a heavy growth of lob- 
lolly pine, and the mounds even bearing trees of this latter species 
two or three feet in diameter. " 

Southward these pines occurred only scattered over the high, 
sandy land lying between Albemarle sound and Washington. Xow 
a tree of this species is rarely seen here. Between Washington and 
Newbern on a high sand ridge, with an area of 35,000 acres, 
was the finest body of pine in the Pamlico peninsula, but there is 



s Wm. Byrd, Westover MS., Petersburg, Va., 1841, p. 27. (This manuscript was written in 1720). 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE TREES. 19 

now very little merchantable timber of this kind left on it. West 
of this body it occurred in Beaufort, Craven and Pitt counties, 
only thinly dispersed among the loblolly pines as far as Kinston in 
Lenoir county, where on a suitable soil it again became the domi- 
nant forest tree, extending west as far as Enfield, and nearly 
to Raleigh. On the maritime sand hills just within the sounds 
there was a narrow belt in Currituck county, and in Carteret a 
wider belt in the middle of the county, lying north and south, 
parallel to the coast. In Currituck it is now confined to the south- 
ern promontory which projects into Albemarle sound, and in Car- 
teret there are only several million feet of mill timber on the sand 
ridges opposite Bogue sound. From Carteret southward there was 
some uniformity as to its manner of occurrence. It occupied a 
belt from two to twenty miles wide immediately on the coast; 
beyond that lay a poorly drained basin of variable width and 
broken contiguity, embracing oak flats and gum and cypress 
swamps. The long-leaf pine re-appeared west of this and extended 
in an unmixed forest, broken only by river swamp, streams and 
occasional "juniper bays," to its western limits at Cary to ten miles 
west of Troy, and to Lilesville in Anson county. It is in this 
stretch of country that the largest areas lie which are either par- 
tially or completely denuded of all valuable tree growth and where 
a future growth is being entirely kept down by the systematic burn- 
ings to which those lands are subjected. 

South of North Carolina the long-leaf pine extends through 
Eastern South Carolina and Georgia, Southern Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi, and west of the Mississippi river it re-appears in the sandy 
uplands of the valleys of the Red and Sabine rivers in Louisiana 
and eastern Texas, where it reaches its greatest development. 

The quality of the wood of this pine varies considerably with 
the character of the soil on which it grows. Where the humus 
covering on the soil is thin, and the sand very deep, the tree has a 
coarser grain and a larger proportion of sap than where there is 
more organic matter in the soil, and it is not so highly silicious. 
The stocks with the coarser grain and larger amount of sap wood 
are distinguished as pitch pine, those with the finer grain and less 
sap wood -as heart or yellow pine. The pitch pine yields turpentine 



20 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

more abundantly, can be worked for a longer time, and is less 
injured by repeated boxing and chipping. It is the more abund- 
ant in Onslow and Brunswick counties near the sea-coast, and on the 
highest sand hills of northern Bladen, Sampson and Cumberland 
counties. The yellow pine, containing mostly heart wood, makes 
the finer lumber and is the variety sought for by lumbermen. 

Loblolly pine (P. Taeda L.) was originally confined to the 
lower and moister land, especially where it was loamy or slightly 
clayey, over the entire coastal plain region and westward beyond 
it about forty miles. While its limits have not materially changed 
it has increased its acreage, occupying now some of the higher and 
more sandy land, especially tracts which have once been under 
cultivation and much of the moister soil once completely or par- 
tially occupied by the long-leaf pine. Some original loblolly land 
which had a clayey or gravelly soil has been occupied by a hetero- 
geneous growth of oaks, the white, post and black oaks and 
the black-jack being those that form the greater portion of the 
hardwood growth. As in the case of the long-leaf pine, the 
quality of the wood of the loblolly pine varies considerably with 
the different kinds of soil upon which it grows, and these varia- 
tions in the wood and habit of the tree have given rise to the use 
of different local names which are applied by many persons through- 
out this region to what are considered by them different varieties 
of the " short-leaf pine," as the loblolly is commonly called. They 
are all, however, the same species (the loblolly pine) and their dif- 
ferences in quality of wood and appearance are due simply to dis- 
similarity of soil and other conditions which surround their growth. 
The principal kinds to which local names have been given are the 
following : 

(1). The rosemary pine has a fine-grained (or sometimes coarse) 
wood, with a thin sap. It grows along the borders of deep swamps, 
or on mounds and hummocks within them, which are usually 
flooded during winter and spring. It grows with gums, cypress 
and ash, and is here the largest of the native pines, frequently 
attaining a diameter of 5 feet and a height of 130 to 140 feet. 
with a clear trunk of 80 to 90 feet. It has a bright brown bark 
broken into large, smooth, rectangular plates. It is found from 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE TREES. 21 

Virginia southward, the best developed trees recently observed 
being found on the Cape Fear river and its tributaries. South of 
the Cape Fear river they are not common. Some of these trees 
show on being cut that they are over 400 years old. 

(2). The swamp or slash pine, which is the most frequent form of 
the loblolly, has a coarse grain, with the sap wood occupying half 
or even more of the diameter. The tree is smaller and the wood 
not so highly valued as that of the preceding, and is also said to 
decay more rapidly. It is most common on the moist or wet lands 
north of the Neuse river, where it forms a compact forest; and 
through this region and in the adjacent parts of Virginia it is 
the chief lumber tree. 

(3). The old-field pine is a growth of the loblolly pine which is 
often looked upon in the south-eastern counties as a tree distinct 
from each of the preceding. It is, however, only a vigorous, 
exceedingly coarse-grained loblolly pine, which, having grown very 
fast, has only a small proportion of heart, logs 2 to 2J feet in diam- 
eter rarely having one- fourth of their diameter heart. Of this 
open-grained wood both heart and sap decay rapidly on exposure 
to the weather unless painted or otherwise protected. But it is 
now being used very largely for indoor work, for which it is well 
adapted. 

Short-leaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is found mixed with hard- 
woods on all the dark, gravelly loam of the uplands and is there 
the chief lumber pine. In the eastern counties it was originally 
only scatteringly distributed, even in those adjacent to Albemarle 
and Pamlico sounds, where it was most abundant. From here it 
has been largely removed. South of Neuse river it was a rare 
tree, being found in small clumps interspersed among the long-leaf 
pines where the soil was inclined to be a dry or gravelly loam. 
Some trees on fertile soils become very large and have been 
removed for "tun timber." The wood of these larger trees is only 
a little coarser than that of the long-leaf pine; it is much lighter, 
though, and more brittle. On the sandy soil of the coastal plain 
region it does not abundantly reproduce itself, and young trees are 
uncommon, but on the uplands it is rapidly increasing and its 
young growth promises to play an extensive part in the future 



22 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

development of this section. As it has the smallest cone and 
shortest leaf of any pine in the eastern portion of the State it can 
be readily distinguished. This pine has a wide distribution, 
extending north to Massachusetts and west to Kansas and eastern 
Texas. It always occurs mixed with hardwoods or other pines. 

Savanna pine cannot readily be distinguished from the lob- 
lolly in young trees, but mature trees are easily separated. It 
is a medium-sized tree, whose trunk holds its size well, being cov- 
ered with limbs and knots for the upper two-thirds of its height. 
The leaves are similar to those of the loblolly, but the bark is a 
darker brown and smoother. It is always covered with cones, 
which remain on for several seasons. These are shorter than the 
cones of the loblolly, conical, and usually have the scales closely 
oppressed. This species is of but little commercial value and is 
rarely used for the reason that the wood is coarse-grained and 
gummy, with a large proportion of sap wood, and the trees are 
frequently unsound. The savanna pine has been but slightly 
affected by the causes which have operated to increase or diminish 
the distribution of the other pines. Being sawn for lumber only 
by accident, and growing only on a few kinds of soil, and such 
soils as are unfit for agricultural purposes, the amount of it stand- 
ing to-day is practically the same as formerly. 

FORESTS AND FOREST REGIONS IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 

The following descriptions of the counties of the coastal plain 
region show, in a general way, not only the quantity of merchanta- 
ble timber now standing in the several counties, but also, when 
such figures were obtainable, the areas and character of such lands 
as have been lumbered. They also show the condition in which 
these lands were left after being cut over, and the kind of young 
growth which is succeeding the one removed, whether it be the 
same or a different kind, and give such tracts as have been burnt 
over after lumbering, on which the tender young growth and trees 
which might serve for seed trees have been partially or completely 
destroyed. 

The acreage of the various kinds of timber, excepting the long- 



FORESTS AND FOREST REGIONS. 23 

leaf pine, is prepared from information furnished by county officials, 
lumbermen and residents familiar with the lands of their respective 
sections. The amount of standing long-leaf pine is an estimate 
based on the number of barrels of rosin produced in each county, 
the unboxed round pine and the abandoned orchard also being 
taken into consideration. These figures were corrected in some 
instances by the estimates obtained direct from the acreage of stand- 
ing pine, the figures for such acreage coming from county records 
which show the character of the timbered lands of the townships. 
Besides this a thorough personal examination was made of the 
condition of the timbered lands in different sections of each county. 

The counties, beginning with those that lie nearest to the coast 
and proceeding inland, have been grouped according to the char- 
acter of their dominant economic timbers as they stand at the 
present time. 

The seaboard region lies along the coast or but a short dis- 
tance inland. It has an elevation of from 10 to 100 feet above 
the sea-level. Its average altitude, however, is not over 30 feet, 
and the only points which attain an elevation above 70 feet are 
a line of drifting sand dunes along the north-east coast, which 
• in places are over 100 feet high.* The counties included in this 
region are Columbus, Brunswick, Pender, Onslow, Duplin, Carteret, 
Jones, Craven, Pamlico, Beaufort, Hyde, Dare, Tyrrell, Washington, 
Chowan, Perquimans, Pasquotank, Camden and Currituck. These 
counties have loblolly pine as the dominant forest tree, though in 
the most southern ones there is considerable long-leaf pine, and 
there are numerous swamps with a growth of sweet and black gums, 
cypress and white cedar. 

The inland loblolly pine region, which lies along the Neuse 
river and north of it, farther inland than the seaboard, embraces 
the counties of Gates, Hertford, Bertie, Martin, Pitt, Greene, Edge- 
combe, Wilson, Lenoir, Wayne and Johnston. Their elevation is 
slightly higher than that of the seaboard counties, and will aver- 
age between 100 and 150 feet, being higher toward their western 
borders. Their upland growth is nearly all loblolly pine, except 



•Geology of North Carolina, W. C. Kerr, Vol. I, 1875, pp. 13-19. 



24 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

that in Lenoir, Wayne and Johnston counties there is considerable 
long-leaf pine. There are few swamps except along the streams. 

The pine-barren regions. — The counties containing the larger 
portion of the pine-barren areas are New Hanover, Sampson, Bladen, 
Robeson, Cumberland, Harnett, Richmond and Moore. These lie 
south of the Neuse river and just west of the southern seaboard, 
excepting New Hanover, which is situated at the mouth of the 
Cape Fear river. The altitude of these counties varies between 
about the same limits which were given for the inland loblolly 
pine counties. Long-leaf pine or the sand black-jack, which has 
largely replaced it, is the characteristic growth of these counties. 

The transition region. — Nash, Halifax and Northampton 
counties form a tier of counties which are transitional between the 
loblolly uplands and the hardwood hills. These in their western por- 
tions have an altitude of from 200 to 400 feet, while their eastern 
portions lie at a lower level. They have no swamps except narrow 
strips of alluvium lowlands along the streams, which are subject to 
overflow. Montgomery, Chatham and Wake form another tier of 
transitional counties. They lie partly in the long-leaf pine belt 
and partly in the hardwood hill country. The western portions of 
these counties reach an altitude varying from 450 to 700 feet; but 
along the streams and in the more easterly portions their altitude 
is considerably less. 

THE SEABOARD REGION. 

Brunswick county has in its western part 4,000 acres of white 
cedar land, most of it located along Juniper creek, Green swamp 
and its ramifications, and 20,000 acres of excellent cypress and 
loblolly pine lands which have never been lumbered. The lum- 
bered districts lie in the northern part of the county along the 
W. C. & A. R. R. and in the northern arms of the Green swamp, 
which are tributary to the Cape Fear river. Much timber has 
also been rafted out by way of Waccamaw river from the extreme 
western part of the county to the mills at Georgetown, S. C. The 
oak lands bordering the numerous swamps are equal in area to 
the cypress lands and are destined to become very valuable. The 
entire swamp area is 166,000 acres, one-half of which is gum 



THE SEABOARD REGION. 25 

swamps and cane brakes. The cutting has been done gradually in 
these swamps and the young growth is in a fair condition. The 
long-leaf pine lands lie in the southern and central parts of the 
county and consist mostly of turpentine orchards either still being 
worked or now abandoned. There are in this county 130,000,000 
feet of standing long-leaf pine. 

Columbus county has in its southern and eastern parts, along 
Waccamaw river and the lake swamp and in Green bay, some 
very fine cypress. These bodies have in part been lumbered. In 
White and Brown marshes and in the western section of the 
county, along Lumber river and Big swamp, there are large tracts 
of unlumbered cypress lands. The total area of cypress in the 
•county is about 32,000 acres. In Green bay swamp, from which 
large quantities of white cedar have already been taken, there still 
remains a great deal more. There are 60,000 acres of swamp lands 
in the county. On the level pine flats there are between ten and 
twenty thousand acres of loblolly pine, largely second growth, 
very little of which has ever been cut. The long-leaf pine lands 
lying in the central and northern portions of the county have 
145,000,000 feet of merchantable pine standing on them. 

Duplin county contains about 12,000 acres of cypress swamp 
along the North East river and its tributaries. Adjacent to the 
streams much of the best timber has been culled or picked over. 
The remaining, merchantable cypress lies principally along North 
East river, Back swamp, GosheD, Lock wood and Cypress pocosins. 
There are excellent water oak, willow oak and swamp chestnut 
oak in the flats bordering the above-mentioned swamps and 
Angola bay. There is some ash and yellow poplar, but the wood 
of neither tree is here of a superior quality. Over one-half of the 
swamp area, which amounts to about 38,000 acres, is covered with 
compact forests of black and sweet gum and tupelo. The loblolly 
pine, which is largely second growth, occupies about 50,000 acres. 
There is still some rosemary pine on the more fertile lands around 
the smaller swamps. The quantity of standing long-leaf pine is 
not large, only 68,000,000 feet. This county and Pender have 
furnished a "great deal of timber for the Wilmington mills. 

Pender county. — Several of the swamps of this county are 
2 



26 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

continuations of the swamps of Duplin which lie along the North 
East river. Besides these there is Holly Shelter swamp, a large 
swamp in the eastern section of the county and extending into 
Onslow county. There is altogether 15,000 acres of cypress land, 
one-third of which has been culled, the largest and finest trees 
having been cut out to make drawn shingles from them. The 
finest cypress is located in Holly Shelter and the North East river 
swamp. Angola bay, lying partly in this county and partly in 
Duplin, covers 120,000 acres. Through this swamp there are 
extensive areas which have a very poor, sandy soil and are covered 
only with reeds and brambles and the savanna pine. There is a 
considerable area of water oak and swamp white oak flats border- 
ing the swamps. The swamp area is about 160,000 acres. The 
loblolly is largely second growth and occupies the flat pine lands 
of the middle section. There are 90,000,000 feet of long-leaf pine 
standing in the county. 

Onslow county. — Although this county has a very large swamp 
area, over 100,000 acres being swamp, only about 4,000 acres of it, 
consisting of narrow strips along the streams, can be called cypress 
land. Both White Oak swamp and Holly Shelter swamp are 
fringed with a broad belt of swamp white oak and water oak flats. 
At least one-third of these swamps is "gladey," being covered with 
gallberry bushes, or cane brakes and a scrubby growth of savanna 
pines, and has a soil of sand that is exceedingly barren of fertility 
and forests. There are no extensive areas of heavily timbered 
gum swamp in the county. Loblolly lands, covering 58,000 acres, 
occupy the greater part of the center of the county, while the 
long-leaf pine lies chiefly in the north-western part. There are 
60,000,000 feet of the latter standing. The sand hills adjacent to 
the coast, formerly covered with long-leaf pine, are now almost 
denuded. In parts of the county near the coast there is a scatter- 
ing growth of red cedars. They are, indeed, in this and Carteret 
counties more abundant than in any other portions of the State. 
but are generally found in considerable numbers on all the 
"banks" and islands skirting the coast. White cedar occurs in 
several "bays" in the western section of the county, and forms the 
growth of a "bay" of considerable size near the source of White 



THE SEABOARD REGION. 11 

Oak river. The loblolly and cypress have been removed to a large 
extent from the territory drained by White Oak river. Lumber- 
ing has only lately begun, however, in other parts of the county. 

Carteret county. — There is now found in Carteret county 
scarcely any cypress suitable for mill purposes. The loblolly pine 
area is about 30,000 acres, over one-half of which have been lum- 
bered. In southern Carteret, near the coast, there are 20,000,000 
feet of long-leaf pine, all consisting of timber standing in aban- 
doned orchards. In the eastern section of the county there is an 
open pocosin of 80,000 acres, bordered with oak flats, but farther 
in only poorly timbered with savanna pine or in places entirely 
open. 

Craven county. — Although extensive lumbering has been car- 
ried on in this county for over half a century it has large tracts of 
second growth of loblolly forest which have never been cut into. 
The long-leaf pine was first removed and was rapidly replaced by 
the loblolly pine, except on the high, sandy lands lying north of 
the Neuse river. Most of the lumber now manufactured in the 
county is from this latter pine, although for some mills the savanna 
pine furnishes a great many logs. There are nearly 200,000 acres of 
swamp in the county, the Dover swamp, lying in the south-western 
section, having an area of over 120,000 acres. This swamp is 
sandy, and in the interior is covered with an open growth of the 
savanna pine and occasional cane brakes. It has been partially 
lumbered. The other swamps are fringed with swamp chestnut, 
oak or water oak flats, which have never been cut into. Besides 
the swamp lands there is a great deal of loblolly pine land' south 
of the Neuse, which has-been more or less cut over. North of the 
Neuse the loblolly pine lands are in about the same condition as 
on the southern side. There are in the county probably 38,000 
acres of un lumbered loblolly pine land. The supply of cypress 
and ash in the river swamps is nearly exhausted, Swift creek and 
Trent river being now the principal sources of supply. 

Jones county lies between ('raven and Onslow counties and is 
penetrated by some of the largest swamps in this region. Dover 
swamp lies in the northern part of Jones, and White Oak swamp 
covers a large part of the territory south of the Trent, which flows 



28 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

through the center of the county and with its tributaries drains 
nearly its entire area. In the extreme eastern part lies the great 
pocosin of which Catfish lake is the center. This pocosin, extend- 
ing eastward, occupies under different names much of the territory 
of southern Craven. All of these swamps in their interior have 
considerable tracts of land entirely untimbered, or covered with 
scattering savanna pines, small maples and gums, and have a large, 
unproductive soil of silt. They are, for the most part, bordered by 
extensive oak flats, though around White Oak swamp there are 
still large quantities of yellow poplar, ash and cypress. The cypress 
along the Trent river has been largely removed. The entire swamp 
area in the county approximates 125,000 acres. Excepting some 
narrow strips of sand hills lying parallel to the Trent river, which 
have a few million feet of long-leaf pine on them, the rest of the 
county consists of flat, loblolly pine lands, which have been largely 
cut over. There are between 25,000 and 30,000 acres, mostly lying 
in the western part of the county, yet in a virgin state. This 
county yearly supplies several million feet of logs for the mills at 
Newbern. 

Pamlico county has 3,000 acres of white cedar swamp, partly 
lumbered, lying near Vandemere and along the western edge of 
Big Gum swamp in the northern part of the county. There are 
7,000 acres of cypress swamp, over half of which are lumbered. 
This cypress swamp lies near the mouth of Bay river and in Gum 
swamp. The remaining swamp area is heavily timbered with yel- 
low poplar, gums, chestnut oaks aud water oaks. The soil of these 
swamps, though inclined to be peaty, is exceedingly fertile. The 
loblolly formerly covered all the rest of the county with the excep- 
tion of a narrow strip of high, sandy land in the north-western sec- 
tion, which, in the character of its soil and the kinds of trees which 
grew r on it, approached the pine barrens. There is now, however, 
no merchantable long-leaf pine in the county and not more than 
10,000 acres of loblolly pine suitable for milling purposes. The 
central part of Big Gum swamp is open, covered with scattered 
savanna pines and an undergrowth of gallberries, huckleberries, 
brambles, etc. 

Beaufort county. — There is some cypress along Chocowinity. 



THE SEABOARD REGION. 29 

Blount and the other streams of the county, but the supply is 
rapidly being exhausted. The loblolly pine, which had an original 
area of over 100,000 acres, has been largely removed except in the 
north-eastern section. Much of the best oak in the county has been 
converted into staves for the West Indies trade. 

The Pamlico peninsula, consisting of the counties of Hyde, 
Dare, Tyrrell and Washington, is largely swamp, having over 
1,000,000 acres of swamp in it. The uplands consist of narrow 
strips surrounding the swamp and land which has been drained 
around lakes Phelps, Pungo and Mattamuskeet. Around the east- 
ern edge of the swamp and enclosing the sound is a narrow strip 
of treeless sand dunes. Much of the soil of the swamp, especially 
in Dare, Hyde and Tyrrell, is peaty and covered with a growth of 
white cedar and bays. There is estimated to be about 40,000 acres 
of white cedar now in the swamp. The cypress acreage is not near 
so large as formerly, but there is still a large amount standing. 
The largest bodies lie in Tyrrell and Washington counties. The 
cypress lands, too, are the most fertile, and have to a large extent 
been drained and put under cultivation. Along the outer edges 
of the swamps are oak flats, which in Hyde are very extensive. 

The northern portions of Dare, Tyrrell and Washington, border- 
ing on the sound, have a growth largely of loblolly pine with some 
oak lowlands. The standing pine has been removed from over 
half of this area, which is about 100,000 acres. In western Dare 
there are also extensive tracts of pine lands which extend into 
Beaufort county. Much of the swamp in Washington and Tyrrell 
counties is thinly timbered with the savanna pine. There is a 
great deal of soft maple and yellow poplar scattered through the 
swamp, and in places on the most fertile soils are considerable 
quantities of hickory, both the shag-bark and white-heart hickory. 
Lumbering has been one of the leading industries of these coun- 
ties for a great many years, the numerous canals and streams which 
penetrate the region affording great facilities for removing timber. 

The counties north of Albemarle sound are so similar in the 
character of their forests and soil, and are so closely connected with 
each other, that they can best be described as one body. Five 
counties occupy this territory, Chowan, Perquimans, Pasquotank, 



30 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

Camden and Currituck, lying from west to east in the order named. 
All except Chowan are penetrated in the northern parts by the Dis- 
mal swamp, or arms of it which lie on the boundary between this 
State and Virginia. About 65,000 acres of Dismal swamp area lie 
in these counties. Although the swamp varies a great deal in 
character of soil, most of it is peaty and was formerly covered by 
a heavy growth of white cedar. All of this cedar swamp has been 
lumbered, except about 8,000 acres, and about 8,000 acres have 
been repeatedly burnt over, effectually destroying all trees, and in 
places burning out the soil to a great depth. There were some nar- 
row tracts of cypress in these swamps, and also in the swamps 
along the streams, but the cypress, like the white cedar, has been 
largely removed. These streams rise in the Dismal swamp and 
flow southward, cutting this territory into long divisions, forming the 
natural boundaries of the counties and convenient water-ways for 
removing timber along them. Oak was at onetime abundant, but 
the finest has been cut out for staves and to supply the Norfolk 
navy yards. The finest pine also was removed many years ago for 
use in the navy yards. 

The construction of two canals, the numerous natural water- 
ways, and later a railroad crossing these at right angles, asso- 
ciated with the nearness of Norfolk and the facilities offered 
there for the shipment and marketing of lumber, had, as early 
as 1850, built up a large trade in timber and lumber from 
these counties. The lumber which is now manufactured is almost 
entirely from the loblolly pine. During the past decade there has 
been shipped from this section in the log over 800,000,000 feet 
board measure, while nearly as much more has been sawn by local 
mills; but such is the wonderful recuperative power of the loblolly 
pine forests on a suitable soil that now there remains not less than 
25,000 acres of merchantable pine. The production of timber in 
these counties is, however, not one-half of what it was ten years 
ago, and sooner or later the annual output will be reduced to the 
increase in the forest by the growth each year. 

These regions around the Dismal swamp were about the south- 
ern limits of the economic distribution of the holly, the trees reach- 
ing here a large size. Large quantities of holly, dogwood and soft 



THE INLAND LOBLOLLY PINE REGION. 31 

maple have also been removed, but there is still a great deal left. 
Some sandy ridges near the middle of these counties were once cov- 
ered with long-leaf pine, but there are scarcely any trees of it left 
now. The area of these counties is 750,000 acres, over 95,000 of 
which are in swamps. The savanna pine is found at intervals 
through the swamps, and extends into Southern Virginia, as does 
the tupelo gum. Some of the cypress lands are largely timbered 
with gums. The soil, for the most part, is sand or a sandy loam, 
but in the Dismal swamp, where it is not peaty, it is usually com- 
posed of fine silt. The timber lands of these counties have, as a 
rule, been more thoroughly lumbered than any others in the State. 

THE INLAND LOBLOLLY PINE REGION. 

Gates county, like the region just described, lies on the Virginia 
line, and has the extreme eastern part lying in the Dismal swamp. 
The Chowan river, which forms the southern and western boundary 
of the county, has along its entire course a narrow swamp. There 
are 20,000 acres of white cedar lands in this swamp and several 
thousand acres in the Dismal swamp which are untimbered. The 
little cypress still standing in the county lies along Bennett's creek. 
Loblolly pine, which occupied the central and eastern parts of the 
county, growing on a sandy loam, has been removed, except between 
ten and twenty thousand acres which are in small tracts. In the 
western part of the county is a high sand ridge resembling the pine 
barrens. The long-leaf pine has been removed from this and an 
open growth of loblolly and short-leaf pine with black-jack beneath 
them has taken its place. In the extreme north-western portion 
there is a strip of bright-colored loam soil, timbered with a heavy 
growth of post, black and red oaks. Most of the timber cut from 
this county is transported to Virginia. 

IIertfokd county is the first of a number of counties lying in 
the pine uplands which has no large swamps. The eastern and 
southern parts of the county have a sandy loam soil, in places 
silty and very compact, which was covered with a dense loblolly 
pine forest, now largely lumbered, through which were interspersed 
narrow strips of white and red oak lands. In the northern part of 
the county there is more oak and dogwood mingled with the pine. 



32 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

There are about 25,000 acres of unlumbered loblolly pine land. 
The cypress, which is confined to the alluvial land along the streams, 
is more abundant along the Ahosky and Pottecasy than any other 
streams. 

Bertie county has a soil and growth similar to those of Hert- 
ford county, consisting for the most part of upland loblolly pine 
lands. In the southern part, however, it is skirted by the Roanoke 
river, which is bordered with a broad swamp still having large 
quantities of white and red oaks, gums, maple, Cottonwood, hickory, 
sycamore and elms and some ash and cypress in it. There is also 
some cypress along Cashie and Roquest creeks. Although the tim- 
ber yield of this county has been very large for a number of years 
there are now standing 65,000 acres of unlumbered loblolly pine. 
Early in this century Bertie county was known as the " pine forest,'' 
on account of the density and excellence of its forests of this tree. 

Martin county lies south of Bertie on the opposite side of the 
Roanoke. Its soil is similar to that of the last described counties, 
but the Roanoke river swamp is less continuous, being confined to 
several bends in the river in the eastern part of the county. Along 
the river <there are some narrow sand ridges, now covered with 
black-jacks and small post and red oaks. The remainder of the 
forest area is loblolly pine land, about two-thirds of which has 
been cut over. The county is the seat of extensive milling opera- 
tions. 

Pitt county, being drained in the northern and eastern parts by 
the Tar river and Grindle creek, one of its largest tributaries, has 
for many years furnished large qualities of timber for the mills at 
Washington. Along all the streams are large stretches of cypress 
swamp and oak lands, the latter forming virgin forests and the for- 
mer only partially lumbered. The loblolly pine near the larger 
streams has been extensively cut. In the southern and western 
sections the soil becomes more sandy, and the original growth, long- 
leaf pine, has been replaced by loblolly pine, mixed with a low 
growth of oaks. The loblolly has never been removed from this 
section. 

Greene county, which lies just south of Pitt, has in the north- 
ern parts a soil similar to that of the adjacent portion of Pitt, and 






THE INLAND LOBLOLLY PINE REGION. 33 

is covered with similar forests. In the southern section the soil is 
more sandy and there are numerous sand hills, approaching the 
pine barrens, now nearly denuded of the long-leaf pine, which was 
once abundant, and largely covered with sand black-jacks. Along 
Contentnea creek and its numerous tributaries, which drain the 
entire county, are extensive tracts of cypress swamps. In the 
northern part of the county these swamps, which extend over into 
Pitt, have been but little lumbered; in the central portion, however, 
exploration has been carried farther. About one-half of the forest 
lands, or 30,000 acres, is still covered with merchantable loblolly 
pine. 

Edgecombe and Wilson counties lie west of those last described 
and have an average elevation of about 50 feet higher than that 
of these counties. Their soil is considerably drier and more sanely 
than that of the section to the east of them, being a sandy loam, 
which in places passes almost into sand. The long-leaf pine, which 
primarily occupied these lands, has been largely destroyed and a 
scattering growth of loblolly pine, with an undergrowth of low 
post and red oaks and dogwood or thickets of black-jack oak, have 
taken its place. There are along the streams occasional strips of 
cypress swamp which have not been lumbered and there is a con- 
siderable quantity of other swamp timber, sweet and black gums, 
tupelo, soft maple, and occasional overcup and chestnut oaks. 
Although over one-half of the area of these counties is under cul- 
tivation, there is still standing a considerable quantity of mer- 
chantable loblolly pine. 

Wayne, another of the loblolly pine counties, has in the section 
contiguous to Wilson county a soil and forest similar to those of 
Wilson, but south of the Neuse river, which flows through the 
centre of the county, there are extensive tracts of pine barrens, 
stripped of pine and covered with sand black-jack oak or com- 
pletely denuded. Skirting the Neuse river and its tributaries are 
tracts of swampy alluvium, on which there are still merchantable 
gums and oaks, and in places cypress and ash. The loblolly pine 
(rosemary), which was once abundant along these lands, has for the 
most part been removed. There are several small white cedar 
; ' bays'"' at different places in the county. The loblolly pine, except 



34 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS 

that along the streams, is all second growth and forms open forests. 
About one-fifth of the wood land, or 30,000 acres, is loblolly pine 
fit for mill timber. When removed this loblolly pine is apt to be 
succeeded by small oaks. There are now standing in this county 
probably 30,000,000 feet of scattering long-leaf pine. 

Lenoir county is situated on the Neuse just below Wayne, and its 
swamp lands along the Neuse are of the same character and in a 
similar condition. The extreme southern and western parts of 
the county are very sandy, and in places on the ridges there are 
important bodies of long-leaf pine, or black-jack oak, which in 
places has replaced it, while between the ridges there lie very nar- 
row alluvial or peaty bottoms covered with a growth of swamp 
timbers. Scattered through the county are plains, at times inun- 
dated, on which there is a growth of oaks, maples, elms and ash. 
The eastern section is flat loblolly pine land covered with a heavy 
growth, except near the river; but there are scattered through this 
loblolly pine forest small pocosins covered with savanna pines 
and a variety of shrubs. There are about 30,000 acres of loblolly 
pine and 30,000,000 feet of standing long-leaf pine in the county. 

Johnston county lies west of Wayne and is also drained by 
the Neuse. Along the river and its numerous tributaries there 
are the usual strips of swampy alluvium covered with swamp 
timbers. In the eastern and southern parts of the county the soil 
is a sandy loam, which becomes more loamy toward the north and 
west, and the surface in these sections is more rolling and hilly. 
The timber on this loam consists of long-leaf pine, mixed with 
oaks and loblolly pine, and in the southern section near the river 
there are quantities of valuable loblolly pine. There has been 
very little milling done in the county, but considerable timber has 
been rafted to mills down the river. The long-leaf pine is being 
very rapidly replaced by the loblolly pine, the amount of the 
former now standing being only about 160,000,000 feet. 

THE PINE-BARREN REGION. 

In Robeson county there is along the dark loam lands of the 
Lumber river 28,000 acres occupied exclusively by the loblolly 



THE PINE-BARREN REGION. 35 

pine. This pine is in all stages of growth, and is gradually taking 
the place of the long-leaf pine as the latter is being destroyed by for- 
est fires or otherwise. Many of these tracts covered with loblolly 
pine appear, however, to have always been occupied by this tree 
which here forms, on soil sufficiently moist and loamy, small clumps 
of unmixed growth frequently 100 acres or more in extent. These 
trees are coarse-grained, largely of sap wood, and are from two 
to two and one-half feet in diameter. None of these have ever 
been cut for lumber. In Big swamp there is probably 5,000 acres 
of loblolly pine, which is largely of the rosemary variety, mixed 
with large gums and cypress trees. Only a part of this swamp 
has been lumbered. The area of the gum and cypress swamps is 
about 30,000 acres, lying in Big swamp and its tributary marshes, 
Flowers swamp and the other swamps along Lumber river. There 
has been very little lumbering done in them. There are no exten- 
sive oak flats in the county and little ash or poplar. On the long- 
leaf pine uplands, lying in the southern and northern sections of 
the county, there are 280,000,000 feet of merchantable timber. 
The pine lying immediately along the railroads has been to a large 
extent removed. 

Bladen county has about 12,000 acres of cypress land lying 
along Brown marsh, Big swamp, Cape Fear river, Colly and Turn- 
bull creeks. About 4,000 acres have been more or less thoroughly 
lumbered; and there are about 3,500 acres of white cedar swamp, 
which have to a large extent been cut over, but were left in a fair 
condition. This latter lies in Big Juniper bay and various smaller 
bays on the north side of the Cape Fear. There are large tracts 
of untouched oak flats and gum swamps mostly in the southern 
and western parts of the county. Good ash, except in the smaller 
swamps, is becoming scarce. This county has a swamp area of 
about 55,000 acres. The loblolly pine, except along the swamps, 
is usually scattering. There cannot be less than 10,000 acres 
occupied by this pine, only the finest and largest trees having been 
removed. The long-leaf pine lands of Bladen have been very 
badly treated. On either side of the Cape Fear river there are 
extensive tracts of "pine barrens," on which this pine has been 
very largely destroyed, so that it is really waste land. But there 



36 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

is still about 808,000,000 feet of standing long-leaf pine, lying 
chiefly in the western and southern parts of the county. 

New Hanover county lies immediately on the coast, and con- 
sists largely of pine barrens. The long-leaf pine has been for the 
most part removed or destroyed. There are still, however, several 
million feet standing in different parts of the county. In the 
northern part along the North East river there is some swamp 
land timbered with gums and some oak. Smith's island, which 
lies at the southern extremity, is densely timbered with a growth 
of hardwoods, largely water and live oaks, interspersed with pal- 
mettos. 

Cumberland county, like the northern part of Bladen, lies 
largely in the sand-hill region and contains considerable areas of 
"pine barrens," from which the original long-leaf pine forests have 
been removed. In the eastern part of the county there is some 
white cedar along the streams or occupying small swamps, and 
along most of the deeper streams there is cypress. There are no 
extensive bodies of merchantable oak or loblolly pine to be found. 
In the eastern part of the county the long-leaf pine has been largely 
cut out, but west of Fayetteville it forms extensive forests, extend- 
ing nearly to the Moore county line; and there are probably 310,- 
000,000 feet of standing long-leaf pine in this region. 

Harnett county is situated north of Cumberland, and that 
part of it lying south of the Cape Fear river, which divides the 
county into northern and southern halves, is a continuation of the 
rolling sand-hill country with its pine barrens of Cumberland 
county. The larger part of these pine lands is in an exceedingly 
bad condition, having been burnt over until there are extensive 
tracts entirely denuded of all tree growth. There is very little 
cypress to be found in the county. North of the Cape Fear river 
the country merges into the dark loam uplands covered with a 
young growth of oaks, dogwood and loblolly pine, which are 
replacing the long-leaf pine. There is only about 200,000,000 
feet of long-leaf pine now standing in the county. Harnett county 
furnishes some timber for the Wilmington market, last year it 
having been estimated that about 1,500,000 feet, board measure. 
of long-leaf pine timber was rafted down the Cape Fear river. 



THE PINE-BARREN REGION. 37 

Sampson county. — The oak lands of Sampson lie in the north- 
ern part of the county and are covered with a growth of young 
white and post oaks. There are no large bodies of water or chest- 
nut oak flats. The cypress and gum swamps lie in narrow strips 
along Black river and Big and Little Cohary creeks. The unlum- 
bered cypress lands cover about 3,800 acres, and about an equal 
area has been cut over to obtain timber for the Wilmington mar- 
ket. The long-leaf pine lies chiefly in the southern and central 
parts of the county. The standing pine amounts to about 330,- 
000,000 feet. The loblolly pine, largely second growth, is scat- 
tered through all sections of the county and occupies about 35,000 
acres. This county has for many years furnished a large part of 
the timber that is carried to Wilmington. 

Richmond county. — The larger portion of this county may be 
described as being typical sand-hill countn^ the surface being 
undulating and even hilly, and the soil sandy; the sand often 
being many feet deep. In the extreme western part there is along 
the Pee Dee a narrow strip of alluvial swamp, heavily timbered 
with red, overcup and chestnut oaks, red maple and hickory. In 
the eastern part of the county there are white cedar, gums and 
cypress of inferior quality along the streams. The long-leaf pine 
which covers the remainder of the county has, over the larger 
areas, been removed when adjacent to the railroads. Lumbering 
is. however, largely carried on in the northern part of the county 
at the present time, and extensive bodies of timber still remain 
there and in the eastern section. There remains probably 220,000,- 
000 feet of standing long-leaf pine. 

Moore county lies north of Richmond and has in the southern 
part, along the sand hills, a similar soil and topography. This 
section, embracing the southern two-thirds of the county, is cov- 
ered with long-leaf pine and is the seat of the largest long-leaf 
pine industry in the State at the present time. In the middle 
portion of the county, where the soil is more loamy, there is con- 
siderable post oak and small hickories mixed in with the pine 
along the hill-sides and yellow poplars and a few loblolly pines 
along the lowlands. The northern third of the county has a 
loamy soil covered with a growth of hardwoods mixed with long- 



38 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

leaf and short-leaf pines. Although extensive lumbering opera- 
tions have been carried on in these pineries for the past fifteen 
years, so that all timber near existing lines of railroad has been 
removed, there are probably 320,000,000 feet of long-leaf pine still 
standing in the county. The long-leaf pine is succeeded in this 
county, as is the case in Richmond, by sand black-jack oaks. Tn 
the very sandy parts of the county there is only a little loblolly 
pine, with small cypress trees and some white cedar scattered along 
the streams. 

THE TRANSITION REGION. 

Northampton county is situated on the boundary between the 
loblolly pine uplands and the hardwood hills which cross the west- 
ern third of the county. The loblolly is mixed in places with scat- 
tered short-leaf pine, and is, except along the swamps and streams, 
very largely a second growth. It has never been lumbered. The 
southern and western boundary of the county is the Roanoke river, 
and along its entire course there is a strip of alluvial swamp from 
one to three miles wide, covered where there have been no clear- 
ings made with a heavy growth of trees similar to that along the 
same river in Bertie county (p. 20). 

Halifax county. — The eastern half of Halifax county, like the 
greater part of Northampton, is a fairly level region, with an aver- 
age elevation of but little more than 100 feet above sea-level. The 
soil is generally a sandy loam, and the forests of this region con- 
sist mainly of loblolly pine with the short-leaf pine, post oak, Span- 
ish and white oak interspersed. On the northern boundary of the 
county along the Roanoke river lowlands, which are of less extent 
on this side of the river than on the northern side in Northampton 
county, are at intervals forests of black gum, sweet gum, red maple, 
elm, red oak, ash, sycamore, hackberry, and other deciduous trees. 
Occasionally one finds on portions of these fertile lowlands, the cul- 
tivation of which ceased some fifty years ago, vigorous but scatter- 
ing black walnut trees nearly 2 feet in diameter and more than 50 
feet high. Beech creek, likewise, with its larger affluents, Marsh and 
Beaver Dam creeks, have along their courses some ash, cypress. 
gums and tupelo, and these streams are bordered in places with 
extensive flats of scarlet, chestnut, overcup and willow oaks. The 



THE TRANSITION REGION. 39 

western half of the county "is quite hilly, as are also the western 
portions of Northampton and Nash counties. The soil, while 
sandy, gravelly and pebbly in places, is in general much more 
clayey than that of the eastern section. The forests of this west- 
ern half of the county are mostly oaks, hickories and other hard- 
wood trees, with a few scattering short-leaf pines. 

Nash county has a soil and topography much resembling those 
of eastern Wake, being a rolling country, hilly along the larger 
streams and having a light loam soil. The growth, also, is like 
that of Wake, consisting of scattered long-leaf pines, about 20,000,- 
000 feet, board measure, standing, which is rapidly being replaced 
by loblolly, or on close soils by oaks, dogwood and hickories. The 
long-leaf pine extends west to the clay hills; on which the 
hardwoods of the uplands are mixed with short-leaved pines. There 
is more loblolly pine here than in Wake, both original growth and 
second" growth. There has been very little lumbering done in the 
county except immediately along the lines of the railroads. 

Montgomery county, lying west of Moore, has in the eastern 
part, on a loam soil, a heavy growth of long-leaf pine which has 
never been lumbered. This growth toward the middle of the 
county is mixed with short-leaf pine and hardwoods, and there the 
hardwood uplands begin. This is the finest body of pine for lum- 
ber now in the State, having been worked for turpentine for only 
four or five years. There are 338,000,000 feet of long-leaf pine in 
the county and about 40,000,000 feet of short-leaf. There are 
some extensive bodies of hardwoods in the Uwharrie mountains in 
the western section. 

Chatham county now has an inconsiderable amount of long- 
leaf pine in the extreme south-eastern section. Its place has been 
taken as it was removed by a heterogeneous growth of oaks and 
the short-leaf pine. In the middle part of the county there are 
along the ridges short-leaf pines and hardwoods, while the low- 
lands along the Haw and the Deep rivers are timbered in most 
places with oaks, maple and loblolly pine. 

Wake county has in the eastern part considerable long-leaf pine 
still standing, mixed with a young and vigorous growth of oaks 
and dogwood. The soil is for the most part a reddish loam, inter- 



40 FORESTS, FOKEST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

spersed with sandy ridges, on which the long-leaf pine, where it 
has not been, replaced by black-jacks, is more abundant than on 
the loam. There are 30,000,000 feet of this pine standing. East 
of the center of the county the short-leaf pine appears, and from 
there westward it is the commonest old-field pine. There is a very 
large acreage of both second growth short-leaf and loblolly pines 
in the county and probably 60,000,000 feet of their original growth 
standing in the eastern section. To the north and west of Raleigh 
the surface is more broken and the oak growth more abundant, 
except along the gravelly ridges, where there is short-leaf pine. West 
of Wake the loblolly pine becomes less frequent. 

EXISTING SUPPI/V OF TIMBER IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 

In conclusion, it can be said that certain kinds of timber, both 
useful and abundant, are as yet of little commercial importance 
in most parts of the coastal plain region. Such are water, willow, 
overcup and chestnut oaks, sweet and black gums, soft maple 
and sycamore. The supply of some other kinds of timber, such 
as ash and holly, has been nearly exhausted. 

There are still large quantities of cypress standing in some coun- 
ties, while in others the supply has been almost exhausted. This 
tree is of very slow growth and shows little tendency to reproduce 
itself abundantly, the regrowth after it has been removed gener- 
ally being sweet and black gums. The soil of cypress swamps is 
usually one of the best of swamp soils and when drained is very 
productive; so these swamps are being put under cultivation. Con- 
siderable areas have already been reclaimed for agricultural pur- 
poses, and a great deal more is to be thus reclaimed in the near 
future. It is evident from this that in this State there will never 
be any general second growth of cypress to take the place of that 
which is now being removed. 

White cedar, which usually occurs with white bays in small 
swamps or in clumps in other swamps, flourishes only on a peaty 
or very sandy soil which is largely mixed with organic matter. 
These soils are unfit for agricultural purposes and their fertility is 
easily destroyed by fire during very dry seasons, especially where 



EXISTING SUPPLY OF TIMBER. 41 

the dried debris resulting from logging fills the woods. Unless 
these swamps are burnt out a growth of the same species is most 
likely to replace the white cedar after lumbering, but in the event 
of a fire the white bay {Magnolia glauca L.) will succeed and 
usually retain possession. Although white cedar is very valuable, 
grows rapidly, and there is only a comparatively small amount 
in (he Eastern United States, these swamps are from carelessness 
frequently burnt and the chance of a regrowth thus destroyed. 

The loblolly pine, now generally recognized as a valuable lum- 
ber tree, is the dominant pine over a large area, and has been 
removed from only a relatively small part of the territory it occu- 
pied. It is a tree of rapid growth which seeds abundantly and 
usually follows itself after lumbering. Oak occasionally replaces it 
as the hardwood uplands are neared. However, on account of the 
destruction of a great part of the young growth, these second 
growth forests are never as dense as they should be. This produces 
less timber to the acre and is the cause of many deformities, as 
knotty, crooked and short-stemmed stocks. The loblolly pine is 
also taking the place of the long-leaf pine in the forest on moist 
soils, and on drier soils when the latter have been under cultiva- 
tion. The standing merchantable loblolly pine can be said to cover 
about 1,150,000 acres in the eastern part of the State. Allowing 
a cut of 4,000 feet, board measure, to the acre, this will make 
4,600,000,000 feet of standing loblolly pine. At the present rate 
of cutting, 290,000,000 feet, board measure, having been reported 
as cut during 1893, this would last fifteen years. The final amount 
cut will, however, be much larger than this, since in the mean- 
while there will be a constant increase each year in the amount of 
young growth available for milling purposes and a considerable 
increase in the size of the merchantable pine now standing. The 
entire acreage of loblolly pine land, including the lumbered areas 
with second growth on them, the unlumbered and lands where it 
is taking the place of the long-leaf pine, is considerably over 
4,000,000 acres. 

There are possibly 300,000,000 feet of the savanna pine in poco- 
sins and around the edges of swamps and nearly as much short- 
leaf pine situated in the counties bordering the oak uplands. Most 
of this will be lumbered along with the loblolly pine. 



42 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

The total amount of merchantable long-leaf pine now standing in 
the State is about 3,103,000,000 feet. The estimate of Mr. Kid- 
der, of Wilmington, N. C, prepared for the United States Census 
Department, fixes the amount of timber, standing, on May 31, 
1880, in the counties south of the Neuse river, at 5,229,000,000 
feet. This, compared with the amount now standing in the same 
counties, shows a decrease of 2,000,000,000 feet in the amount of 
merchantable pine in thirteen and one-half years. At this rate of 
decrease in less than twenty years the long-leaf forests will be a 
thing of the past. The rate of decrease is, however, one of con- 
stant acceleration, since the yearly output of the mills is increas- 
ing and there is a much larger amount of abandoned orchard at 
the mercy of wind and fire. 

At the end of twenty years there may remain scattered bodies 
of this pine remote from transportation facilities or too small to be 
profitably sawn, but there will be nothing more. The length of 
time the long-leaf pine will last can be stated with more certainty 
than in case of the loblolly pine, because in the case of the former 
there is no appreciable addition of merchantable timber from 
second growth woods. 

The total amount of merchantable pine of all kinds {loblolly, 
long-leaf, short-leaf and savanna) in these Eastern North Carolina 
counties can be placed at about 8,200,000,000 feet, board measure. 

The amount of standing swamp timber cannot be estimated with 
any degree of accuracy, since no average can be arrived at for the 
cut per acre, and only approximate figures can be gotten for the 
acreage. Cypress, for instance, will cut from 500 to 5,000 feet to 
the acre as a general thing, but numerous reports were made by 
trustworthy lumbermen of cuts running from 15,000 to 20,000 feet 
to the acre. There is a very wide range given for the amount of 
white cedar to the acre, but not so wide as that for cypress. The 
water oak and chestnut oak lands usually have a more uniform 
growth, and will cut from 1,500 to 3,000 feet to the acre. One of 
the chief difficulties connected with the handling of this oak. 
where such has been attempted, is that when green it has a greater 
specific gravity than water and cannot be floated out unless rafted 
with lighter woods. The same is true of the elm, hickory and 
much of the gum. 



OHAPTER]|II. 

THE WASTE LANDS OF EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 

It is a very generally received opinion that the eastern part of 
North Carolina, especially that part covered with the long-leaf 
pine, is so densely wooded that for very many years at least there 
will be there not only an abundant supply .of timber, but of a tim- 
ber of the very finest quality. The long-leaf pine for nearly two 
hundred years has fully supplied all demands, not showing until 
very recently the least sign of failing. During the period between 
1860 and 1870 the timber of the "pine barrens" was treated in a 
most reckless manner, and the fires which passed through them 
left traces which will last for many years to come, burning thou- 
sands of acres as clean as if they had been placed under cultiva- 
tion. The timber which suffered most was that on the highest 
and driest land, where the ground was covered beneath the trees 
with a thick growth of wire-grass (Aristida stricta Mx.) and such 
broom grasses as grow on dry, sandy soil (Andropogon tener Kunt. 
and A. Elliottii Chap.). 

The 3,100,000,000 feet of merchantable long-leaf pine still 
standing might seem to be sufficient to last for building and 
fence material in districts not readily accessible to large lum- 
bermen for an indefinite time. But this is not so. The fact 
that since 1873 the output of turpentine in this State has fallen 
off over one-half, which of itself gives a very vivid idea of the 
number and extent of the turpentine orchards that have been 
abandoned, shows that it is now only a question of a few years 
before the turpentine yield will be reduced practically to nothing. 
This will mean that all the orchards have been abandoned, and it 
will be only a short time after their being abandoned before the 
destruction of the timber takes place, either by fire or by its being 
blown down, or by the two agencies combined. 

The greater part of the dry upland soils of the pine belt are of 
two kinds : (1) the sandy loam soils of the level piney lands, and 
(2) the sandy soil, of nearly pure deep sand, characteristic of the 



44 FORESTS, FOE EST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

pine barrens of the sand-hill regions. These barrens are dry and 
frequently form large tracts of rolling or even hilly land. 

The first of these soils is not unproductive and is well adapted 
to agriculture; and as the original growth of long-leaf pine is 
removed from it the loblolly pine and a small growth of different 
kinds of oak, mostly the post, Spanish and black oaks, take its 
place. In the pine barrens, on the other hand, no oaks will nourish 
except two very small, worthless trees, the sand black-jack and the 
" barren" willow Oakland no pine except the long-leaf pine. 
Unless the soil has been previously cultivated the loblolly pine 
does not take posession of these lands, even when there are numer- 
ous trees of this species standing near by in wet places. From 
this it follows that when these high sandy lands are being stripped 
of their original growth of long-leaf pine, if its young growth is 
not allowed to develop, no tree of economic importance will natu- 
rally take its place. The sand black-jack oak in twenty years will 
have matured and begun to decay, while in that time a pine has 
only fairly begun its life, although its usefulness, even then, will 
be much greater than that of the more quickly maturing black- 
jack. 

There are few uses to which the black-jack can be put. Its 
small size excludes it from being employed in construction : in con- 
tact with the soil it decays rapidly, and so is unfit for fence posts. It 
makes a very good fire-wood and is largely used for this purpose 
in Wilmington, Southport and other towns, and also in the coun- 
try. Its bark is said to be valuable for tanning, but although the 
growth of this tree covers a very large area it is doubtful if the 
yield of bark per acre would be sufficient to make it of any commer- 
cial importance. The upland willow oak is even of less impor- 
tance than the sand black-jack. While the presence of these trees 
is not pernicious, and is in fact much more beneficial to the land 
than would be a state of entire denudation of all forest growth, 
yet their growth is not near so valuable as that of the long-leaf 
pine, and the advantages arising from their presence are greatly 
inferior to those derived from a forest of the long-leaf pine of the 
same age. For this reason every means should be taken to enable 
the long-leaf pine to regain a firm hold on all high sandy land 



SCARCITY OF TIMBER IN THE SAND-HILL REGIONS. 45 

which has now on it no growth at all, or none of greater worth than 
the two oaks just referred to as growing on these lands. 

SCARCITY OF TIMBER IN THE SAND-HILL REGIONS. # 

The exhaustion of the long-leaf pine forests is not a concern of 
the distant future alone, — something to be talked about and never 
to be realized. There are already localities, of limited area, to be 
§ure, where there has never been a lumber mill, and with not one- 
tenth of the land under cultivation, where there is not now suffi- 
cient timber to properly fence the fields. The district around 
White Hall, Bladen county, is such a one, and this place is in the 
very centre of the long-leaf pine belt. Here good pine for fencing 
has become so scarce that a "stock law" or "no fence law" has 
been secured by which all live stock is to be confined to the Cape 
Fear river bottom, and that alone, fenced in across a bend of the 
river. There are other localities in Bladen, Sampson and Cum- 
berland counties with about the same proportion of land under 
cultivation that find it hard each year to secure rails necessary for 
fence repairs, and obtaining them becomes annually more difficult 
as the forests from which the material is procured diminish in size. 
It is usually the case that some tree succeeds this pine as it is 
gradually cut off or otherwise destroyed, and this tree is usually 
the sand black-jack, and it forms over the land where the pine 
has once been a thicket of low, scrubby trees, which in less than 
twenty years will die and be replaced by a similar growth. 

Scattered among these scrubby oaks are frequently stunted, 
knotty long-leaf pines, with a thin, sickly foliage of yellowish 
green, which are permitted to stand because they are regarded as 
useless. There are also large tracts of land on many acres of 
which there are no pines at all, and others where the black-jack 
even has not succeeded in getting a foothold, wire-grass and a few 
bushes being the extent of the vegetation. 

THE LARGER TRACTS OF BARREN LAND. 

Bladen county has its largest tract of this barren land in the 
northern part of the county, between the Cape Fear river on the 



46 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

south and Black river on the north-east, extending eastward as far 
as Lion swamp and west nearly as far as Parkersburg. It is about 
18 miles long and from 4 to 10 miles broad, and has almost 70,000 
acres of waste land in it. There are on it, however, a few bodies 
of pine in excellent condition, which either have not been boxed, 
or if boxed have been carefully protected ; but for the most part 
it is covered with a scanty growth of sand black-jack, beneath 
which there is a great deal of densely tufted wire-grass, though in 
places there are only lichens and moss on the ground, or sometimes 
stretches of dazzling white sand. Here and there are small long- 
leaf pines, exhausted by the continued boxing. 

In depressions where the soil is wet there are gallberry " bays " in 
which are a few savanna pines, but there is no loblolly pine except 
bordering the larger streams. These streams having loblolly pine 
along their banks are the Black and Cape Fear rivers, Colly swamp, 
Johns and Turnbull creeks. Colly swamp and Johns creek have 
in places a rich deep soil, formed of a fine silt largely mixed with 
organic matter, and could be easily drained. The drainage of Colly 
swamp for agricultural purposes is now being undertaken and it is 
probable that most of the swamp land will ultimately be drained, 
since it is much more fertile than the sand-barren uplands. This 
will mean, of course, the removal of the swamp timber. Although 
these streams have loblolly pine along their courses, its seed has 
never produced a young growth on any of the neighboring high 
sandy land; so that when the swamp timber is exhausted there will 
in reality be a dearth of* building material throughout this region. 
The long-leaf pine timber from the tract was largely taken off to 
supply the mills at Wilmington, though much of it has been 
destroyed by fires. Even now some long-leaf pine timber, of an 
inferior quality, is obtained from here. 

The surface of the land is gently rolling; the soil is nearly pure 
sand, with a small percentage of other mineral matter in it, and the 
subsoil, which is a light yellow sandy loam, lies too deep beneath 
it (from 8 to 15 feat below the surface) to be reached by the roots 
of trees. Generally there is no humus, the constant fires burning 
off the leaves and dead grass soon after they become dry. There 
are in Bladen county several smaller tracts of waste land, which 
lie south of the Cape Fear river. 



-< 



THE LARGER TRACTS OF BARREN LAND. 47 

In Sampson county there is, perhaps, no single tract of waste 
land which covers an area as large as 10,000 acres. But beginning 
in the south-western section of the county, near Autryville, and 
following the Black river down, there are several small areas of 
from 3,000 to 8,000 acres, all of which areas are in a bad condition. 
These have been burnt over and in many instances are still covered 
with charred stumps or encumbered with fallen trees. The surface 
sand here is not as deep as in Bladen, the loam usually lying about 
three feet below the surface ; nor is it as continuous, being cut across 
by Big swamp, Big and Little Coharie, and by several other swamps 
and streams. The population here is thicker than on the southern 
side of the river, and there is more cleared land, but there is as yet 
no scarcity of good timber. As the trees are here worked for tur- 
pentine longer than elsewhere in the State there are less abandoned 
orchards and the forests are better protected. The combined area 
of all the waste tracts in this county amounts to about 25,000 acres. 

Cumberland county has in its eastern part a continuation of 
the sand-hills of northern Bladen. The land in some places is 
more hilly, and the loam subsoil lies usually at such a depth below 
the surface (5 to 20 feet) that the roots of many trees do not reach 
it. The waste land lies mostly east of Fayetleville, all along Rock 
Fish creek, aud south and east of Manchester. There are, however, 
many bodies of excellent timber in this latter section of the county. 
Along some of the creeks in the south-eastern part of the county 
the land is almost bare of all tree growth, while in other places, 
particularly in the north-eastern part, there is a heavy growth of 
sand black-jack, which has an average height of about 15 feet. 
There are at least 40,000 acres of such barren land in Cumberland 
county. Although not one-tenth of the soil is under cultivation 
several reports from the county state that in many places fencing 
material is becoming scarce. 

Timber, other than the long-leaf pine, is not abundant in most 
parts of the county. The streams all- have narrow channels and 
there is not much hardwood or loblolly pine along them. There 
are several white cedar "bays," but these can supply no build- 
ing material. West of Fayetteville there is the same kind of soil 
that there is in the eastern part of the county, but there is much 



48 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

more timber standing. This part of the county is a succession of 
sand ridges and sand hills, which are covered with a fair growth 
of long-leaf pine. Nearly or quite all of this pine has been boxed, 
and although a considerable amount of lumbering has been done 
there remain large areas of valuable pine forests. 

Harnett county has in its southern parts a large area of waste 
land, which is in a worse condition than any other such tracts 
observed in the State. This is what is called the "Thomas Strange 
tract," which extends from the Lower Little river on the south to 
Little river on the north, and eastward 15 miles from Swann Station, 
on the C. F. & Y. V. R. R. This tract contains over 40,000 acres 
of waste land, two-thirds of which has but few merchantable pines 
on it and scarcely any sand black-jack. All of this except the 
part immediately adjacent to the railroad was reduced to its present 
condition by repeated forest fires, the thick wire-grass forming the 
fuel which carried the flames. The territory along the C. F. tfc Y. 
V. R. R. has been lumbered and there is still some lumbering 
operations going on along it where there are bodies of timber which 
have been protected from the fires. 

The topography of the southern part of Harnett is similar to that 
of Cumberland. It is a typical "sand-hill" region, and its soil is 
sand with the loam lying very deep below the surface. The streams 
usually have narrow channels and very little hardwood or loblolly 
pine along them ; but along Upper Little river and the Cape Fear 
there are in places wide and well-timbered "bottoms." The north- 
ern part of the county has a salmon-colored gravelly loam soil on 
which loblolly pine and white oaks are replacing the long-leaf pine. 
In the western part of the county and extending east from Jones- 
boro there is another tract which was burnt over several years ago 
and much of the timber on it destroyed. This latter area is not 
" waste land " now, but it soon will be. Harnett countv, beino- inter- 
sected by the Cape Fear river and two of its largest tributaries 
which afford transportation facilities, furnishes yearly a considerable 
amount of timber (long-leaf pine) for the Wilmington mills. 

Moore county has 60,000 acres of waste land, all of which has 
been recently lumbered, though much of it has been burnt off sub- 
sequently. This land has a heavy growth of young sand black- 



THE LARGER TRACTS OF BARREN LAND. 49 

jack on it, and in the localities more recently lumbered there 
remain a few scattered pines. It lies in the eastern and southern 
parts of the county, along the railroads. In places there are some 
post and Spanish oaks with the sand black-jack oak, but there is 
almost no loblolly pine and no other material suitable for building 
purposes except the long-leaf pine. When lumbering has ceased 
there will probably be over twice the area of waste land there now 
is, since all the southern section of the county is high rolling pine 
barrens, with a deep sandy soil. 

Richmond county has a soil in character similar to that of the 
southern part of Moore; but since lumbering has not been so 
extensively carried on in Richmond as in Moore there are in the 
former only about 40,000 acres of waste land, all of which have 
been lumbered except a few small tracts which have been burnt 
over. This waste land lies along the C. C. and R. & A. R. R's. 
It is covered with a thick growth of sand black-jack oak, and there 
are undersized pines scattered over a part of the area, many of them 
still being worked for turpentine. Except the long-leaf pine there 
is very little timber in the eastern part of the county suitable for 
building material. 

Robeson county has very little waste land and very little deep 
sand except in the northern part of the county. In that section, 
adjacent to the Cape Fear river, there are possibly 10,000 acres 
with little tree growth except sand black-jack oak. In the middle 
and southern parts of the county the loblolly pine is taking the 
place of the long-leaf pine. 

Brunswick county contains several thousand acres of waste and 
very thinly timbered lands along or near the sea-coast and the Cape 
Fear river. While these lands were never heavily timbered they 
are now rapidly getting into a deplorable state, which is a presage 
of the final destruction of the long-leaf pine. 

Columbus county has about as much waste land as Brunswick. 
This land is in small tracts lying in the southern part of the county 
and the sand black-jack oak has taken possession of most of it, 
Good loblolly pine is, however, abundant through most sections of 
this county. 

Wayne county has 20,000 or more acres of waste land covered 



50 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AXD FOREST PRODUCTS. 

only with sand black-jack oak and very scattering, exhausted long- 
leaf pines. This land lies in the central and southern parts of the 
county. Good timber is getting scarce in many places. Much of 
this sandy laud in this and other counties has been highly ferti- 
lized and is cultivated in truck farms, vineyards and fruit orchards. 

Duplix county contains several thousand acres, in the northern 
part, covered only with the sand black-jack oak, through which, 
occasionally, there occurs a few scattering long-leaf pines. Near 
the railroads a great deal of this sandy land, which has been highly 
fertilized, is used in this county for truck gardening. 

Oxslow axd New Haxover couxties have jointly about 25,000 
acres of waste land, some of which is entirely denuded and some 
covered only with the sand black-jack oak. In many parts of New 
Hanover county, especially between Wilmington and Wrightsville, 
there is a very promising regrowth of long-leaf pine appearing, 
though the trees are very scattering and fires destroy a great many 
of the smaller ones every spring. The growth of timber in the 
eastern parts of New Hanover and Onslow counties, like that in 
the eastern part of Brunswick county, was probably never dense. 

Besides the above tracts there are in Johnston, Pender and Lenoir 
counties a few smaller tracts which have been stripped of the long- 
leaf pine and on which no valuable regrowth has appeared: and 
there is immediately along the coasts of Currituck, Dare and Car- 
teret counties a narrow strip of land which in many places is entirely 
bare, and has been described by the late Prof. W. C. Kerr as form- 
ing drifting sand dunes, which, along thecoast of -Dare county, "are 
moving under the impact of the trade winds constantly toward the 
south-west into the sound." What effect these moving dunes may 
have on the existing channels in the sounds or how they may 
modify or change the inlets between the sounds and the ocean are 
questions foreign to the present subject. 

It is a well-known fact, however, that the breaking of the ocean, 
in 1763, through one of these untimbered sand banks formed the 
New Inlet, 16 miles below Wilmington, N. C. , and seriously changed 
the channel at the mouth of the Cape Fear river, lessened the 
depth of its water and caused the expenditure of a large amount 
of money before the damage done could be rectified and the break 






.ary. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE WASTE LANDS. 51 

securely filled. It could not be learnt whether this strip of sand 
dunes was ever timbered, though it is probable that at one time it 
was, since Smith's island and other parts of this same bank onl) r 
a few miles distant are now heavily timbered. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE WASTE LANDS. 

From the preceding it appears that there is a large amount of 
waste land lying in the south-eastern part of this State. There 
are now over 400,000 acres of such land and the amount of it, 
from various causes, is constantly increasing. This land consists 
of high, rolling or hilly sand barrens, formerly covered with 
extensive forests of long-leaf pine. These forests yielded turpen- 
tine abundantly, but on account of the larger amount of sapwood 
and the coarser grain of the wood of trees growing on these poorer 
sandy lands the lumber, though of good quality, was of a grade 
inferior to that from trees grown on fertile soils. Now, however, 
owing to the grossest neglect, large portions of these forests have 
either been destroyed entirely or reduced to such a condition that 
there is neither mill nor turpentine timber on them, and no 
regrowth of the long-leaf pine has been allowed to take the place 
of the older trees as the latter were being gradually exterminated. 
The soils of the barrens on account of their sandiness and poor 
quality will produce very few kinds of trees which have any 
economic importance. No valuable broad-leaved trees (oaks, etc.) 
thrive on these lands, and among the conifers (pines, etc.) the long- 
leaf pine is the only one growing naturally on them. 

The short-leaf pine, except where the loam subsoil lies near the 
surface, is rarely found, and it is only after the ground has been 
cultivated and enriched and the moister layers of earth have been 
brought to the surface that the loblolly pine will grow there. So 
it seems that the long-leaf pine is the only native tree of much 
value which flourishes on these barren, sandy lands. There are 
very few if any other forests in the eastern United States so pecu- 
liarly limited as to the variety of valuable tree growth as the lono;- 
leaf pine forests, particularly when it grows on the sand barrens; 
and there are no other forests which demand such care to obtain a 
regrowth of the original dominant species. 



52 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

Many kinds of trees after having been lumbered or burnt out 
are succeeded by smaller and less valued species, but the original 
growth in time again takes possession of the land. This is the 
case with the spruce forests of Western North Carolina and the 
white cedar (juniper) in the eastern section of the State. How- 
ever it may have been primarily in the long-leaf pine forests this 
is not the result under the present management of these pineries. 
After the removal of the pine the land quickly becomes waste land, 
and passes from a growth of sand black-jack to utter barrenness. 
Nowhere is there any general sign of either the long-leaf or any 
other pine again forming a prominent part of the growth on these 
sand-hills. 

Unless there is some radical change in their management these 
lands may even cease to produce the few sand black-jack oaks 
which now flourish on them. There is even a possibility, and in 
fact it can be said a great likelihood, that this valuable tree, the 
long-leaf pine, will become extinct in North Carolina unless some 
steps are taken to secure its more general propagation. It has 
already become extinct over large tracts lying to the north of the 
Neuse river which were formerly occupied either exclusively by 
this pine or by mixed forests of it and hardwoods and the loblolly 
pine. 

WHY LONG-LEAF PINE FORESTS ARE NOT SELF-PROPAGATING. 

The causes which have operated to prevent the long-leaf pine 
from propagating itself are several, and all of them are important 
and act uniformly throughout this sandy area, A brief statement 
of some of the peculiarities of this tree may enable us to see more 
clearly why it needs more special protection than must necessarily 
be accorded other trees to enable the forests to reproduce them- 
selves. The chief causes which have influenced and tended to 
retard the general regrowth of this tree at the present time arise 
from a highly specialized form of seed and plant structure and a 
decidedly unique manner of growth when compared with the other 
pines of this same region. These characteristic peculiarities lie 
chiefly in the young pine seedling, in the seed, and in the struc- 
ture of the leaf buds. 



THE SEEDING OE THE LONG-LEAF PINE. 53 

THE SEEDING OF THE LONG-LEAF PINE. 

Although the writer has not yet carried on systematic observa- 
tions, on (1) the frequency of seeding of the long-leaf pine, (2) the 
relative abundance of its seed as compared with those of other 
pines, and (3) the relative fertility of boxed and unboxed trees of 
the same species, long enough to have obtained accurate results, 
yet the observations of different persons, thoroughly familiar, for 
many years, with the pines of the barrens, will, he thinks, for most 
of these cases, be found sufficiently accurate, their results being 
supplemented by his conclusions drawn from a personal investi- 
gation extending over several years. Although there were certain 
years in the primeval or virgin long-leaf pine forest, just as there 
are with all other trees, when no seed were borne, yet these years 
were rare and the yield of seed was usually abundant. William 
Byrcl, writing in 1728, says* the mast of this tree (the long-leaf pine) 
is very much esteemed for fattening hogs, through all of Albemarle 
county (North-eastern North Carolina) on account of its greater 
abundance and the greater certainty of its occurrence (than that of 
the oaks). The forests of which he was speaking were largely 
virgin at that elate. There are to be found frequent statements 
mentioning the same fact by other historians, of both an earlier 
and later date. 

So far as could be ascertained the masts (as the seed of this pine 
are called) have not been as abundant for the past fifty years as 
they formerly were. There seems to have been only three large 
long-leaf pine masts since 1845. One of these occurred just about 
that time, the next one was in 1872 and there was one in 1892, 
which was not so large, however, as either of the preceding. 
There is a fairly abundant mast about every four or five years, and 
on intermediate years the production is small and localized. In 
North Carolina most of the trees which now bear seed are boxed 
and have been in this condition for from ten to fifty years. And the 
opinion prevails throughout the pine barrens that pine masts are 
less frequent and less abundant now than before the pines were so 
largely boxed and thinned out. The removal of a great portion of 



^History of the Dividing Line between Virginia and North Carolina, p. 29. 



54 FORESTS, FOREST. LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

the trees may explain, in part or wholly, why masts are less abun- 
dant. It would naturally be inferred that there would be a large 
decrease in the productiveness of boxed trees, whose vitality, 
measured by the rate of accretion between them and unboxed 
trees, has been greatly impaired by the practiced manner of box- 
ing. However, from a tabulated record of observations carried on 
during several years there as yet appears no marked difference 
between the productiveness of boxed and unboxed trees, similarly 
situated. 

There are several important differences between the reproduc- 
tive capacities of the loblolly and long-leaf pines, all of them to 
the advantage of the former. The fertility of the long-leaf pine 
is much less than that of the loblolly pine, its most frequent asso- 
ciate. The loblolly pine bears cones at an earlier age, and usually 
produces more seed, both perfect and imperfect ones, and the great 
variety of soil on which the loblolly pines grow causes a slight 
difference in the time of flowering of different trees, making this 
pine less liable to have the entire prospect of a seed yield destroyed 
by frosts, or by heavy rains during pollination. While this may 
possibly explain why the loblolly pine has come up as a regrowth 
over so much of the moister loam land it has affected the growth 
of the pine barrens very little. 

The seed of the long-leaf pine are very large, one-third to one- 
half an inch long, independent of the wing, while no other pine of 
this region has seed over one-fourth an inch long. But there is a 
much smaller proportion of abortive and otherwise imperfect seed 
in a long-leaf pine cone than in the cone of the loblolly pine. 
This would be decidedly to the advantage of the long-leaf pine in 
seeding old fields, etc., were its seed not too heavy to be carried far 
by the wind. They usually fall within fifty feet of the parent tree. 
while the light-winged seed of the loblolly have been known to 
scatter thickly over fields from trees more than a quarter of a mile 
distant; and single seed are reported to have been blown several 
miles. And furthermore, as described more fully beyond, the seed 
of the long-leaf pine are much more extensively destroyed by 
hogs, fowls, squirrels, rats, etc. 

Another reason for the exclusively loblolly growth in fields may 



DESTRUCTION OF THE YOUNG PLANTS. 55 

be that even when the seed of the two pines fall on the same land 
the loblolly pine by its rapid growth during the first few years 
overshadows and effectually crowds out the more slowly growing 
long-leaf pine, and the latter during this early slow growth are 
easily destroyed by fires and by live stock. The two are, however, 
rarely seen associated together in second growth woods. The seed 
ripening in October fall to the ground rapidly and if there is a 
warm moist season sprout immediately. In the event of a long 
warm rain just after the seed are matured they will frequently 
sprout in the cones and the entire yield will be thus destroyed. 

DESTRUCTION OF THE YOUNG PLANTS. 

The young long-leaf pine seems to be especially adapted by the 
form of its root system for growing on a sandy soil. By the end 
of its first year's growth its root system, which has grown rapidly, 
consists of a large tap-root which extends 6 to 10 inches deep in the 
sand, and from the bottom of it branches out the smaller roots 
which draw nourishment from the soil. It is this deep-seated 
root system sent thus early far down into the soil which enables 
this pine to grow on the sand barrens, and it is doubtless because 
the roots of the loblolly are small and divide for the first year or 
two into a great many small divisions, lying near the surface, that 
it does not get sufficient moisture and nourishment from the dry 
surface sand to enable it to thrive on the sand barrens before this 
land has been cultivated. This long tap-root of the long-leaf pine 
frequently goes through the sand into the loam soil and secures 
for the tree a firm anchorage against storms and enables it to draw 
its nourishment from a more fertile soil. 

The stem parts of the long-leaf pine are as peculiarly adapted 
for growing on a sand soil as the root system is. Instead of the 
stem's branching or growing the first year it only puts out a great 
number of very long thick leaves, exceedingly close to the ground. 
These leaves soon spread out and help to shade the ground close 
to the plant and keep it moist. At the end of the first season's 
growth the single (terminal) bud is not over an inch and a half 
above the earth and the bud itself is nearly an inch long, so that 
it can be said that the stem of the seedling does not grow any in 



56 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

height during the first year, all the energy of the plant being 
diverted to increasing the root and producing the great tuft of long 
deep green leaves which spread out immediately below the bud and 
make the plant resemble more a tuft of some marvelous kind of 
grass than a young tree. Some of the lowest leaves usually die 
during the first year; most of them remain on, however, for two 
seasons. 

During the second and third years the growth of the stem in 
height is slight, though it increases in thickness, but after that, at 
least in a forest, its growth is wonderful. Frequently in a thick 
wood where a young tree has been allowed to grow, in 8 or 9 years 
after height-growth has begun, it will have reached a height of 18 
or 20 feet and a diameter of no more than 3 or 4 inches, and will 
have grown each year from only one bud, the terminal bud, at the 
end of the woody axis, there being no branches, and no sign of 
any having been formed. For leaves there will be only a single, 
broom-like bunch terminating the slender stem. The rapidity with 
which this stem is raised and the fewness of its branches until the 
natural height of the tree is reached makes one of the fine quali- 
ties of the timber. It gives long stocks which have no knots in 
them, even small ones 4 to produce any ununiformity of quality, or 
to make weak places on the interior of an apparently perfect piece 
of timber. 

This feature which is the cause of so fine a quality of wood is a 
great drawback to the development of the young trees. This single 
terminal bud is a very large and complicated structure, and when 
once destroyed in any way no other bud is usually formed by which 
the growth of the young seedling can be continued. It is true of 
most conifers (i. e., pines, firs, cypress and cedars) that they do not 
readily form buds and that they rarely sprout from the stump and 
are very difficult to reproduce from cuttings, etc., but with the long- 
leaf pine such buds are formed and sprouts developed even more 
rarely than with most other conifers. 

THE ENEMIES OF THE EONG-LEAF PINE. 

The long-leaf pine has a severer struggle for existence than any 
other of our forest trees for the reason that in all stages of its 



DESTRUCTIVE WORK BY HOGS AND FIRES. 57 

reproduction and growth it is more severely and continuously 
attacked by a greater variety of enemies than any other. Besides 
the natural drawbacks to its development from the peculiar man- 
ner of forming several of its parts, and the fact that these parts 
when destroyed are not replaced, its large and sweet seed are eaten 
in large quantities by fowl of various kinds, rats, squirrels, and 
by swine, which prefer them to all other kinds of mast and, when 
there is enough long-leaf pine mast, become very fat on it. 

As far as has been observed, young long-leaf pines are attacked 
by no injurious beetles or bark-borers or by any fungi sufficiently 
to injure them. The mature pines, however, have in past years 
several times been attacked by bark beetles in such numbers as to 
destroy the pine over large areas. A few trees which have been 
killed from their attacks can be seen at any time around the edges 
of districts where lumbering is in progress, or about districts which 
have been recently lumbered. 

DESTRUCTIVE WORK BY HOGS AND FIRES. 

If the destruction by swine ceased with eating mast there would 
still be sufficient seed left to reproduce some parts of the forests, 
as the mature trees are gradually thinned out, for one-year-old 
seedlings are* common twelve months after a heavy mast. No 
sooner, however, has the young pine gotten a foot high and its root an 
inch in diameter than the hog attacks, it, this time eating the roots, 
which, until two inches in diameter, are very tender, juicy, pleas- 
antly flavored and free of resinous matter. In the loose sandy 
soil the piney woods hog, or "rooter," finds little difficulty in fol- 
lowing and devouring these tender roots to their smallest ends. 
Many small trees are destroyed in this way. And cattle, further- 
more, are said to bite off frequently the tops of the small plants, 
and with them the terminal buds, in the early spring. This is 
doubtless done while grazing, more accidentally than otherwise. 

Fires often destroy all the young pines that escape the hogs. 
They kill the small pines by burning the highly inflammable 
bracts around the bud and so stop its growth, or in high grass fre- 
quently burn all the leaves. Larger trees, even until they are 3 
or 4 inches through, are easily killed in spring, when the sap is 
4 



58 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

rising and the outer layer of wood is growing rapidly, by a hot 
fire which will burn the thin exfoliated layers of bark all over the 
trunk. The loblolly pine is less injured by fire because its bark 
is thicker and so offers more protection to the growing wood ; the 
bark, too, lying closer to the wood in firmly appressed. layers, does 
not so easily take fire. (See, also, the discussion on page 61). 

The chief agencies, then, which prevent a regrowth of the long- 
leaf pine on the high sandy lands are the hogs and the fires : and 
the attacks of the hogs are directed against parts which seem to 
have been developed to meet requirements of a plant growing on 
a dry, barren soil of loose sand. These peculiarly developed parts 
are the seed, large for a pine, which contain abundant nutriment 
for the young plant to enable the root to push itself rapidly into 
the sand ; and the long, succulent root which grows for a consid- 
erable distance straight down without branching. Since the first 
settlement of these sandy lands the "ranging" of swine has been 
allowed in the barrens, and while there were enough pines stand- 
ing and frequent masts, they fed a large number of hogs. 

The practice of firing the barrens has been adopted in many 
cases with a view to improving the pasturage ; while in many other 
cases, after the trees were boxed, the leaves and trash pulled away 
from around them, the forests were burned over to prevent in a 
dry season a chance conflagration getting from under control and 
burning the faces of the turpentine boxes and the timber. That 
this policy of burning the barrens is a very bad one and calcu- 
lated to do far greater damage than that immediately apparent has 
perhaps been made evident. The accompanying illustration 
(Plate I) shows one of these long-leaf pine forests, near Southern 
Pines, where a recent fire destroyed all of the young growth, the 
turpentine boxes and most of the timber trees. 

That sooner or later the present management, or lack of man- 
agement, which has characterized all dealings with the barrens for 
the past 150 years must be changed if the long-leaf pine forests 
are to be made self-propagating, no one who has ever seen their 
condition or fully realizes what it is can possibly doubt. The 
logical result of these burnings in the past has been the destruction 
of millions of feet of standing pine and the prevention of the growth 
of young trees, which, had they started even fifty years ago would 



THE ULTIMATE UTILITY OF THESE WASTE LANDS. 59 

now be large enough for small mill timber and for turpentine; 
while the burnings of the present and future, if not soon discon- 
tinued, will mean the final extinction of the long-leaf pine in this 
State. 

THE ULTIMATE UTILITY OF THESE WASTE LANDS. 

It has been practically demonstrated, in the vicinity of South- 
ern Pines and elsewhere, that, after having been richly fertilized, 
considerable portions of these sandy pine-barren lands, containing 
a small portion of loam and organic matter mixed with the sand, are 
adapted, by their southern situation and light, friable soil, to a high 
state of productiveness in fruits and vegetables ; and these branches of 
agriculture are rapidly increasing in North Carolina. They appear 
to be more especially suited for viniculture and gardening. It is 
probable, however, that large portions of these waste lands will not 
be brought into cultivation during the next fifty years, nor at any 
time, owing to the extreme poverty of the soil. What then is to be 
done with this 400,000 acres, once covered with long-leaf pine, 
but now of little more value than a similar area of a genuine 
desert? If the present lack of policy in regard to their manage- 
ment is continued, it is only a matter of a few years before the long- 
leaf pine which is now standing on the sand-hills will also have 
been destroyed without giving profitable returns to its owners or 
leaving behind it a young growth of pine to take its place. It 
becomes manifest at once that if the scattering trees, which might 
serve as seed trees, are entirely removed from this waste land, it 
will not only be a very difficult but a very costly matter to secure 
a regrowth of long-leaf pine or any other valuable building tree, 
either pine or hardwood. 

No matter what is the ultimate use to which the land may be 
put there must necessarily be, on a considerable part of it, trees 
which grow large enough to furnish timber and fuel more abun- 
dantly than the black-jack oak can do. A pine alone can supply 
such wants when there is only an impoverished soil to grow on, and 
the long-leaf pine can do this better than any other pine. 

No community, least of all one devoted to agriculture, no mat- 
ter whether it raises cotton, garden truck or fruit, can be inde- 
pendent while at the same time it is dependent on some other sec- 



(30 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

tion for either fuel or building material. This, however, is what 
some sections of eastern North Carolina are fast coming to, and 
the fact is being recognized by not a few of their most thoughtful 
residents. 

That the existence of a highly developed agriculture is some- 
times entirely dependent on a forest is shown by the condition of 
the lands between Bordeaux and the coast of France along the 
bay of Biscay. This district is the seat of the manufacture of the 
Bordelais wine*s, clarets and other light wines, and some of the 
finest wines are made in vineyards east of the Medoc from vines 
grown on a highly sandy soil. A great part of this land is cov- 
ered with forests of pines, which x were set out, at great expense, to 
prevent the shifting of these sandy soils. Before the planting of 
the forests these lands were sand dunes, or heather lands which 
formed dunes of moving sand as rapidly as the low, scattered heath 
growth was removed. 

In view of the facts stated in the preceding pages we are driven 
to the conclusion that the most practicable plan of treatment of 
these waste lands, with a view of making them again productive 
of wealth to their owners, is that of protecting these areas against 
the attacks of hogs and forest fires and thus permitting them to be 
again covered with a new growth of long-leaf pine. 

COST OF SECURING A NEW FOREST GROWTH. 

The cost of securing a regrowth of long-leaf pine on most of 
this waste land would now be very little in addition to what the 
land-owners must necessarily pay to retain their land which has 
ceased to be productive or give any returns. Interest on the 
capital invested in the land probably has to be paid and taxes 
must be paid yearly. The additional cost would be solely that 
arising from protecting the land from fire and from excluding cat- 
tle and swine for a certain number of years after a mast. 

The opposition such a measure would produce would be consid- 
erable, especially among a class of indigent citizens who, owning 
little or no land themselves, have alw T ays been accustomed to give 
their cattle free range over the lands of others, to fire the dead 
grass for bettering the pasturage, and even to cut timber for home 



PROTECTION OF YOUNG PINES AGAINST FIRES AND HOGS. ()1 

use on these lands ad libitum. It is the opposition of these people, 
who constitute so large a part of the voters, that has prevented in 
several of these eastern counties the adoption of a general law for 
confining cattle and stock. As timber for fencing material and 
other purposes becomes scarcer, the more intelligent citizens are 
coming to see clearly enough the imperative need of such a change, 
both in our laws and in public opinion, as will suffice to protect 
the young forest growth from fires and stock, and thus to give the 
valuable forest trees an opportunity to propagate themselves. 

NECESSARY PROTECTION OF YOUNG PINES AGAINST ElRES AND HOGS. 

Without a thorough cessation of fires and an equally thorough 
exclusion of stock, at least until the trees are thickly started and 
well grown, say until 10 feet high, any effort to produce a uniform 
growth would be futile. Once that a new growth has secured 
a firm foothold and has formed a dense covering, the very thick- 
ness of it, by its exclusion of most low growth and grass, will be 
preventive of fires, since the thin covering of pine straw and 
humus will not carry fire except in very dry seasons or before a 
heavy wind. The exclusion of swine is a measure which must be 
absolutely enforced until the trees have reached a diameter of 
3 or 4 inches. (See, also, page 57). 

The following statements will show what an important part fires 
play in the destruction of pine seedlings: 

In the fall of 1892 there was a very full long-leaf pine mast, 
and in the following spring seedlings could be seen by thousands. 
In moderately dense long-leaf pine forests in Montgomery county, 
where there was about one-half as many of those pines standing 
as when it was in a virgin state, these pines being mixed with a 
few post and black-jack oaks and the rest of the land open, there 
were from 15 seedlings to the square yard in the open to 35 seed- 
lings on an equal area beneath some of the trees. A space which 
was staked off and noted was examined again in the fall after a 
fire had passed over it and then it did not average one seedling to 
the square yard. The soil here was a salmon-colored loam and 
the grass largely broom-straw (Andropogon Virginicus). 

Another tract, which was on the sand-hills of the western section 



62 FORESTS, FOEEST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

of Cumberland county, was examined shortly after it had been 
lumbered. This was not seen in the spring, but when visited in 
the fall showed by the great number and position of the cones that 
seed must have fallen abundantly over most of the ground which 
had since been burnt over. It was hard to find, however, a seed- 
ling which had escaped the flames. 

Another place examined was in Bladen county, on a sandy loam 
soil. There were in the spring of 1893 numerous seedling pines 
there. A later examination in the fall showed a large number 
still growing, but no fire had passed over them and the roots were 
not yet large enough for the hogs to root up. A small portion of 
this last tract has been fenced off and the progress of the seedlings 
in the enclosure, and those outside, will be compared and the 
requirements and peculiarities of the young plants studied as they 
develop. 

If it had been possible, immediately after the falling of this 
mast of 1892,- to put the long-leaf pine lands, or at least those 
parts which are most sandy, and have only a thin cover of pines, 
or the large areas recently lumbered, under some management 
which would have given protection to the seed and later to the 
young pines, in ten years with continued protection there would 
have been over the larger part of this area a thicket of pines large 
enough to have been self-protecting in a great measure, and in a 
fair way to become trees suitable for lumber and for yielding sup- 
plies of turpentine. 

At the date of this writing it is a safe statement to make that 
there have been already destroyed over nine-tenths of the pines 
which sprung up so abundantly less than two years ago. The 
time which will elapse before another large mast is of course 
uncertain. Smaller masts should occur, however, in three or four 
years. Last year (1893) there was none. An examination of the 
pines shows that there will be very little this fall. The freeze in 
April of this year (1894) destroyed the pollen of the trees along 
the western part of the pine belt, but as they have not been exam- 
ined further east it is uncertain whether it was destroyed there also. 

There will consequently be little pine mast in 1895, at least in 



FOREST MANAGEMENT IN THE WASTE-LAND REGIONS. 63 

the western parts of the long-leaf pine belt, as it requires two sea- 
sons for growth and maturity after pollination has taken place. 

FOREST MANAGEMENT IN THE WASTE-LAND REGIONS. 

Just here, in connection with the discussion as to w r hat policy 
should be adopted in regard to the treatment of the pine barrens, 
a brief statement of what forestry is and what it necessarily is not, 
will not be out of place. The two conceptions as to what forestry 
is are in part equally erroneous. One of these is that forest man- 
agement consists in protecting trees w r ith no definite end in view 
beyond that of protection. The other conception contains a half 
truth. It is that forest management consists in the production of 
trees and the systematic management of timbered lands, but that 
the State or government's ownership of such timbered lands is 
essential for putting this into practice. This latter view of the 
matter is fairly correct except that ownership or management by 
the State or government is by no means an essential feature. In 
a country such as ours timber lands must be managed by their 
owners or not at all. 

From the point of view of a money -yielding investment, and 
this is the chief view that need be considered in dealing with most 
of the lands of eastern North Carolina, the following might stand 
for a definition of forestry: Forestry consists in the systematic 
care of forests so that the land will always yield valuable forest 
trees and so that production of timber may be carried to its highest 
possible limits. This growth of course is to be utilized, but in 
■such a manner that a young growth of equal value to the one removed 
may take its place. Such management is not only not inconsistent 
with private ownership of land, but if properly carried out by pri- 
vate parties can be made more efficacious, at least as far as finan- 
cial results are concerned, than when carried on by a government 
or State. 

It is true that in some European countries much of the forest is 
owned by the various governments, municipalities, etc., but much 
of this land was owned by the respective governments for many 
years before any forest management was practiced. Their owner- 



64 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AXD FOREST PRODUCTS. 

ship by the governments was not at all necessary for the practice 
of forestry in these countries, and there is more forest land under 
systematic management in Europe owned by private parties than 
by the governments. 

In some of the private forests, as those of the Tyrol, cuttings 
are restricted and are superintended by trained government for- 
esters, because from the situation of the lands in hilly or mountain- 
ous districts the sudden removal of all timber from over a large 
area might cause the land to wash, so that reforestation could only 
be accomplished under serious difficulties. The cleariug of large 
areas and their remaining in a state of denudation causes in hilly 
countries, where the soil washes easily, great floods in the rivers 
which are filled with detritus washed down from the hills. Such 
floods endanger the life and property along the streams, while the 
deposit of the soil washed down seriously affects arable lands and 
the channels of the streams. The control of such lands as these 
is not undertaken by the governments with a view of influencing 
in any way the owners' profit, but as a measure to protect other 
citizens whose interests might be much affected by any carelessness 
or greed of a timber owner. 

In Germany, which country- probably leads the world in the 
thoroughness of its forest management, there are about 43.000 
square miles of forest.* The government owns about 13,300 
square miles of it, various local organizations, towns and small 
principalities own 6,700 square miles, while the rest, about 21.700 
square miles, belongs to individuals, and its management is entirely 
free from all governmental interference, except so far as the cut- 
ting of one person's timber will damage lands or property belong- 
ing to another, in which case an injunction to prevent cutting can 
be obtained from the courts. 

THE NECESSITY FOR FORESTS IN THE FUTURE. 

The question is asked, Will there be any use, fifty years from 
now, for a forest grown on this waste land when so large a part of 
the State and country will be timbered by a second growth of pines 



*Paul Pary's Yahrbuch, 1890. Landwirtschaftliche Statistik, 1889. 



THE NECESSITY FOR FORESTS IN THE FUTURE. 65 

and hardwoods which have naturally sprung up? Moreover, it 
may he thought that in that length of time a large part of the 
original forest growth will still remain uncut. 

An examination of the facts in the case will yield an answer. 
Ten years ago it was thought that the supply of white pine was 
inexhaustible in Michigan, which State then had far the largest 
bodies of pine, and in fact nearly all the merchantable white pine 
in the United States except that in Wisconsin, Minnesota and some 
in West Virginia. Bulletin No. 5 of the Eleventh U. S. Census 
showed that in 1890 Michigan had an output of white pine of 
about 10,000,000,000 feet, board measure (including shingles), and 
that there was supposed to be only enough timber standing to last 
the mills for live years longer. Many persons even then ridiculed 
the idea of the exhaustion of the white pine. A few months ago 
the Northweste,rn Lumbermmi, which had most loudty proclaimed 
that the white pine was inexhaustible, announced that this season 
there would be in one district a shortage amounting to many 
million feet, and that the total shortage in Michigan alone would 
probably amount to over a billion feet, board measure. Other soft 
woods, yellow poplar, etc.', will probably be sawn to take its place 
for several years, and will come from Kentucky, Tennessee, North 
Carolina and other regions in the Appalachian mountains. 

In ten years from now the forests of Michigan will have been a 
thing of the past, so that within fifty years after lumbering began 
on a commercial scale the white pine and probably the best hard- 
woods will have been cut out. These forests of Michigan cut from 
two to three times as much mixed hardwood and pine to the acre 
as the pine lands of eastern North Carolina will now yield, after 
having been picked over for two hundred years. 

The forests of Washington are as yet in a nearly virgin condition 
and are probably the finest in the world. They will cut three 
times as much to the acre as the pine lands of eastern North Caro- 
lina, and although the amount of standing timber was estimated 
on January 1, 1894, to be near 400,000,000,000 feet, board measure, 
yet such is the enormous destruction of timber by fire and the 
rapid increase in the milling industry, which now cuts only 1,000,- 
000,000 feet a year in that State, that those forests will probably 
not last longer than fifty years. 



66 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

The forests of all the Northern States have been cut over and 
the most valuable timber removed. Maine, Vermont, western 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia still manufacture, however, large 
quantities of hardwoods, but the supply of them is so rapidly being 
reduced that in a few years the annual output will be reduced to 
the growth in the forests during a year. 

The condition of the timbered lands is about the same in all the 
Southern States. The pine in the lower districts has in places been 
entirely removed, but in other places there is still much left, while 
the hardwood on the uplands has for a century been called upon 
to supply local needs and in most places has had the finest timber 
culled, except toward the mountains of the south-eastern States 
where there are magnificent virgin forests of hardwoods. These 
forests of the South are the ones to which the lumbermen of the 
North are looking as the supply of timber near the seats of con- 
sumption becomes exhausted, and once that the tide of millmen 
turns this way the depletion of the forests of this State and those 
farther south will be a matter of only a few years. 

Bulletin No. 5 of the Eleventh U. S. Census gives the amount 
of yellow pine and cypress land owned in nine Southern States 
by establishments located only in Michigan and Wisconsin to be 
1,407,358 acres, estimated to have standing on them a total prod- 
uct of eleven billion feet, board measure, of merchantable timber, 
valued at $8,723,000. The timber on this land is cypress and 
hard pines — i. e., long-leaf, loblolly, and short-leaf pines, and this 
large amount invested shows that Michigan millmen, already 
foreseeing the exhaustion of the northern forests, are investing in 
those timbers which are suitable to take the place of the white pine. 
Even at the present rate of removal, and allowing that there is no 
decrease in the business from the free entrance into the United 
States of Canadian lumber, the standing pine in the eastern part 
of North Carolina cannot last twenty years, and may not last more 
than fifteen years, unless a wise policy obtains. The indications 
are, however, that there will be in the next five years a much 
greater expansion of the milling industry in eastern North Caro- 
lina than has taken place during the past five years and a pro- 



portionally greater increase in the annual output of lumber, and 
decrease in the available supply of standing timber. 



This question has been asked ; and it is the first point to be con- 
sidered in connection with any attempt to restock these waste 
lands with long-leaf pine. And in answering this question we 
may ask another: Will it pay to let these lands lie idle and 
unproductive? The cost of securing a growth of pines on these 
lands will be the cost of keeping off the hogs and fires, and this will 
be but little if any more than what proprietors have to pay at 
present for the privilege of holding these unproductive tracts. If 
it pays to own these lands unoccupied and unproductive, it will 
pay much better to own them if they are restocked, at a slight 
cost, with long-leaf pines. 

One of the chief considerations upon which the final value of a 
regrowth of long-leaf pine depends is the securing, in as short a time 
as possible, a thick, homogeneous growth of young trees, and the 
entire prevention of all fires among the pines. Nowhere else is the 
truth of the strength of unity more exemplified than in a forest 
growth, especially in a young and growing forest, on an arid and im- 
poverished soil, where one of the necessities is retaining the moist- 
ure in the earth and preserving the hunius formed by the decay of 
leaves. This moisture will serve to supply the trees with water essen- 
tial for their development and tend to check or even prevent fires. 
The damage fires do to a forest growth, even after the growth is well 
started, is considerable and has much influence on the character 
of the timber. By killing a part of the timber they make the 
growth open and the stocks short-bodied and filled with limbs 
and resulting knots. The thicker the growth the taller and 
straighter will the stocks be, and so much greater and more valu- 
able will be the final yield of timber. 

RATE OF GROWTH OF LONG-EEAF PINES. 

After a large number of measurements of young growth trees, 
which have sprung up in enclosures, or where protected, it has 



68 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

been ascertained that it will require from thirty-five to fifty years 
for such a growth to reach sufficient size to furnish saw logs 20 feet 
long and from 14 to 20 inches in diameter. The usefulness of 
these trees will have begun, however, in less than half of that 
time, since their increase in size is much more rapid during the 
earlier years of growth than during the later years. After twenty- 
five years they will be large enough to hold a turpentine box. 
About this age, too, they begin to bear mast, and as the foliage 
becomes more open the more tender grasses of the barrens appear 
and afford pasturage. Besides this there is a great quantity of 
litter which yearly accumulates under the trees and can be used, 
as such litter now is, when it can be gotten, as a mulch for agri- 
cultural lands. Moreover, the lands themselves will have gained 
a permanent improvement from the mould which will have accu- 
mulated on the ground during the time that the trees were 
growing. 

future value: of turpentine orchards. 

What may be the value of turpentine orchards twenty years hence 
is of course a speculative question. With the great variety of 
uses to which both rosin and turpentine are put it is hardly likely 
that in that time any cheaper substitute will be found for them in 
all their uses.* The area of long-leaf pine which will be under 
c orchard at that date is also largely a matter of conjecture. The 
observations of the writer and of several specialists who have 
examined all or parts of the territory covered by the long-leaf 
pine, would lead to the conclusion that, without some radical 
change in the manner of boxing, and the reservation by timber 
owners of large tracts of pine for turpentine culture only, the 
orchards of the United States, with the possible exception of 



*Uses of Resinous Products.— In a report upon the maritime pines made in 187S by M. Des- 
noyers at the Universal Exposition of Paris the following uses are given for the different resinous 
products of that tree: 

Spirits of turpentine is used in the manufacture of oil colors, varnishes and paints, in the prepa- 
ration of rubber, is emplo3'ed in medicine and veterinary arts, and for cleaning and illuminating 
and making water-proof .putties and cements. 

Rosin is used in sizing paper, in soap-making, in the manufacture of sealing-wax, for solderiug 
lead and in tinning, and from it is obtained by destructive distillation rosin oil which is used in 
making lubricants, printing and lithographic inks, paints, etc., and painting beer-kegs 
Crude turpentine scrape and pitch are also used in many of these manufactures. 



FUTURE VALUE OF LOXG-LEAF PINE FORESTS. 69 

those of Texas, will have seen their best days in less than twenty 
years. 

The Report of the U. S. Division of Forestry for 1891 describes 
the pine lands of eastern Texas and western Louisiana as follows:* 
In the center of the region above the Red river, pine ridges alter- 
nate with tracts of oak and hickory. Toward the Red river the 
forests covering the undulating pine lands remain practically 
unbroken to the Sabine river. On the east side of the Red river 
the area is estimated at 1,625,000 acres, extending northward an 
average distance of fifty-five miles, cutting from 4,000 to 6,000 feet 
to the acre, with no change in character to Trinity river in Texas. 
In that State the forests of long-leaf pine cover about 5,000 square 
miles, merging toward the north into the region of short-leaf, 
toward the south into vast forests of loblolly pine. The fact that 
but little tapping for turpentine has been practiced in this region 
may be of importance from a market point of view. 

Forests suitable for the manufacture of turpentine, being sub- 
ject to a triple destruction, will probably give out some time before 
those suitable for lumber will. Turpentine orchards of long-leaf 
pine are destroyed by being lumbered, by natural exhaustion from 
continued tapping and by fires ; and their trunks being weakened 
by boxes the trees are more liable to blow over by the winds. 
They are renewed only to an inconsiderable extent by regrowth. 
The rate of destruction by each of these agencies has been yearly 
increasing, and has not yet reached its maximum limit. 

FUTURE VAI,UF OF I^ONG-LEAF PINF FORFSTS. 

The future value of a forest of long-leaf pine as a source of lum- 
ber is based on these facts. Long-leaf pine wood, even after it has 
been tapped for turpentine, which has no effect on any of the heart 
w T ood except to a slight extent those parts immediately in contact 
with the faces of the boxes, is much stronger than any other of our 
pines; and it is especially durable in contact with the soil or when 
exposed to alternating conditions of being wet or dry. As these 
qualities of the timber become recognized they will much increase 



;: Annual Report Secretary of Agriculture, 1S91, p. 216. 



70 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

the value and use of the wood for purposes where such qualities are 
requisite. The rapid thinning of the woodlands of the eastern 
United States will cause an increase each year in the value of all 
timber near centers of consumption : and there is a constant increase 
in the value of stumpage as the utilization of the forests proceeds. 
When once the mass of standing woody material, the uninterrupted 
accumulations of centuries, is destroyed, the entire country will 
each year be dependent for wood on what maybe called the annual 
increase in the forests. 

The lands of the greater part of the northeastern States are 
already in this condition, and those of the southern States, with 
the exception of the hardwood forests of the Appalachian mount- 
ains, are fast being reduced to a similar condition. This second 
growth forest is producing very largely nonvaluable woods, having 
been produced by the seed of inferior species left in lumbering as 
worthless, and only such of these survive as can naturally with- 
stand the repeated burnings to which the woodlands are subjected. 
Moreover, most of this second growth is very open and thin, caused 
by fires and other agencies, and the trees from the same causes are 
often defective. A large part of the land which should be timber 
land is unproductive waste land, with absolutely no arborescent 
growth, and the continued violation of all natural laws concerning 
plant-life prevents the development of such a growth. The 
demand for wood is yearly increasing and each year the power of 
the woodlands to supply it is diminishing. 

An abundant supply of wood and timber must be an impor- 
tant factor in the future development of eastern, and particularly 
south-eastern North Carolina, whether that development be an 
agricultural or manufacturing advancement: but unless there is a 
more strict observance of the fundamental laws of all plant-life. 
particularly in respect to the long-leaf pine on the high sandy 
land, preventing the destruction of the seed and young pines, this 
section will be in great want of timber at the time when it will 
need its timber most. 

AREA OF WASTE LAND INCREASING. 

In conclusion, it can be said that there are now 400,000 acres of 
waste sandy land in Eastern North Carolina, and that this area is 



IMPORTANCE OF EARLY ACTION. 71 

constantly increasing. This land is covered only with a low, 
scrubby growth of sand black-jack oaks and in places has mixed 
with these oaks scattered long-leaf pines, unfit for lumber and 
exhausted of turpentine by the continued tapping. Malpractice, 
especially the custom of firing the barrens and allowing stock full 
range on them, has never given the long-leaf pine an opportunity 
to reproduce itself except over very limited areas, and where pro- 
tected. From this cause this pine, which will always have the 
highest value, both for its timber and the abundant resin which it 
contains, is in danger of becoming extinct in North Carolina, and 
indeed in all the States where it now grows, at least as far as its 
commercial importance is concerned. 

IMPORTANCE OF EARLY ACTION. 

If the long-leaf pine which is still standing is allowed to seed 
these lands, and the seed and young pines protected from destruc- 
tion, a regrowth can be obtained with comparative ease, but if the 
long-leaf pines now standing are once destroyed, the securing on 
these waste lands of a growth of trees which will be of economic 
importance will be both a difficult and costly undertaking, since 
this pine is the only tree of value in the arts which naturally 
grows on these barren lands. It will cost very little more to secure 
a regrowth than it does to retain the lands in their present impover- 
ished and unproductive state, since taxes and frequently the inter- 
est on the original investment must be paid. 

The adoption of some general law for these districts, requiring 
stock, especially swine, to be confined, would be of great help in 
securing a regrowth, but it would be imperative, at the same time, 
to prevent any fire from passing through the barrens, since one 
fire can kill in a few hours a growth of pines several years old. 
The final value of the growth would depend, too, on fires being kept 
out even when most of the trees were large enough to be unin- 
jured by burning. By the time such a growth reached maturity 
or became large enough to furnish timber, all the original forests 
will have been cut over and the usually thin and scattering 
regrowth will be called upon to furnish not only most of the fuel, 
but all lumber and timber required in building and manufacturing. 



72 FORESTS, FOE EST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

So great is the annihilation of the primitive forests and so rap- 
idly does the demand for lumber increase from year to year that it 
is doubtful if the entire forests of the Southern States can last 
longer than two or three decades. The same is true of the pine 
forests which can be used for turpentine production. The ruin of 
these forests will cause a marked rise in the value of all forest 
products, so that a certain and a higher-priced market can be 
assured for all future forest material. 



CHAPTER III. 
THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

In Colonial Times. — As early as 1700 the production of naval 
stores was an industry of some importance in the Colony of Caro- 
lina. At the same time the industry was carried on in the adja- 
cent parts of Virginia. In Virginia the products were largely 
derived 'from the loblolly pine, while in North Carolina they came 
chiefly from the long-leaf pine. The products exported from the 
colony at that date were tar and pitch and some crude turpentine ; 
but the quantity of the latter shipped was small. Tar kilns were 
made then as now and the process of burning was the same. 
Indeed, the process is very much the same as that described by 
Theophrastus as being used by the ancient Greeks. 

The tar manufactured in the Southern States was more com- 
monly converted into pitch before being shipped, -by the addition of 
some crude turpentine and the mixture then being boiled down to 
the right consistency. From north-eastern North Carolina it was 
shipped by way of Norfolk, Va., to England, the laws of England 
at that elate forbidding colonial products from being shipped to 
other than English ports. Until about 1800 the making of tar 
was not as largely confined to North Carolina as it is at present, 
nor even to the Southern States. Besides being burnt in Virginia 
from the loblolly and short-leaf pines, some was made in New York 
and other Northern States from the pitch pine (Pinus riglda), but 
more for home use than for export. Georgia and South Carolina 
also produced considerable amounts in colonial days. The method 
of cutting the boxes for collecting the crude turpentine was then 
the same as now. The names of some of the parts connected with 
the process have slightly changed in the meantime. Cornering was 
then called notching and the virgin dip was called pure dippings. 
These names continued in general use until the early part of the 
present century. 



74 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

Both the tar and the crude turpentine produced in the north- 
eastern part of this State were marketed, in the early days, usually 
in exchange for goods, at Nansemond or Norfolk, Va., and there 
found ready sale. Before the beginning of the present century 
both commodities had practically ceased to be produced around 
Albemarle sound. The seat of the industry slowly moved west- 
ward from thence up the Roanoke and Tar rivers and southward. 
as the settlements extended, to Washington and Newbefn, both 
points shipping large quantities of naval stores to New York and 
Philadelphia", where it was reshipped to England, and there the 
crude turpentine was distilled. The largest special use for the 
crude turpentine in the United States then was for mixing with 
fats, etc., in making yellow soap. 

Later Developments. — Before 1800 Wilmington became one 
of the largest shipping points for both crude turpentine and tar. 
In 1804 the exportation of crude turpentine from Wilmington 
amounted to 77,000 barrels, and the total amount of naval stores 
shipped exceeded that from all other ports of the United States. 
The crude turpentine was brought down the rivers on rafts and 
small boats from as high as Edgecombe county to Washington, 
from Wayne county to Newbern, and from all the northern tribu- 
taries of the Cape Fear river to Wilmington, and was distilled in 
crude iron stills partly at the shipping points, partly in Philadel- 
phia and New York, and much also went to England to be there 
distilled. The spirits of turpentine usually found quick sales and 
good prices except when overproduction took place, and was pre- 
ferred in France even to the Bordeaux turpentine, which was made 
in the department of the Landes in Gascony, being less odorous 
and more uniform in quality than that. The rosin manufactured 
was worth very little, getting down as low as 25 cents a barrel and 
then so low it would not pay to handle it. The tar and pitch 
manufactured at first gave general satisfaction and were made in 
large quantities. In 1770 there were nearly 100,000 barrels of 
tar and pitch shipped from the United States, about one-fifth of 
this amount being pitch shipped from North Carolina. 

In 1799 the tar used in England came in equal proportions from 
Russia, Sweden and the United States. Later the Carolina tar 



THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 75 

and pitch were less esteemed in England, where they were said to 
burn the cordage more than the products made in the Baltic 
provinces. This was said to be due to dead wood being used in 
North Carolina for making tar and the burning being carried on 
so rapidly and at so high a temperature that wood acids were 
formed in large quantities along with the tar. American products 
were also objected to because they were earthy, the receptacle being 
carelessly made, and were packed in insecure, leaky barrels. These 
last objections are sometimes made against them now, though the 
use of cases for shipping has tended to remedy the evil. 

In Bothnia and Sweden, on the other hand, only living wood 
of the fir and usually from the lower part of the trunk and roots 
were used and burning was carried on more slowly. In 1831 
there were imported into England 10,900 lasts of tar, of 14 barrels 
each. Of these 8,700 came from Russian provinces on the gulf 
of Bothnia, 1,200 from Sweden and only 1,000 from the United 
States. The amount imported from the United States has remained 
at very near these figures ever since. 

The total value of the resinous products shipped from the United 
States, however, increased from about $200,000 in 1800 to $567,000 
in 1834, and to $700,000 in 1838. Most of the products shipped up 
to this time were from North Carolina, as previous to 1838 trees 
were not tapped for turpentine south of the Cape Fear river, it 
being a generally held opinion that south of that river the pines 
would not yield. This error was soon discovered by experiment- 
ing with the trees in that section and orchards there soon became 
as valuable as those farther north. 

In 1836 copper distilleries were introduced in this country and 
at the same time there was an increased demand for spirits turpen- 
tine as a solvent of India rubber, this being the cheapest solvent 
of that article obtainable, and was thus used in the manufacture 
of rubber goods. It was also used for illuminating purposes, 
though the different forms of petroleum oils and the general use 
in towns of illuminating gas, made from coal, soon supplanted it. 
Stimulated by this increased demand the production of turpen- 
tine extended rapidly southward beyond the Cape Fear river into 
South Carolina, and up the Cape Fear to Cumberland and Har- 



76 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

nett counties. The British free-trade measure in 1846 gave free 
entrance into English ports to the products manufactured from 
turpentine and this stimulated the manufacture of these products 
in North Carolina. From this date forward the exports of crude 
turpentine decreased as the exports of spirits turpentine, rosin, 
tar, etc., increased. 

It was found more economical to move the stills as close to the 
seat of production as possible, so that when rosin was low in value 
the spirits of turpentine only need be shipped. This allowed 
work to be done farther from the water-courses, near to which the 
industry had been previously confined. By 1855 about one-half 
of the spirits of turpentine shipped from Wilmington was dis- 
tilled inland. The shipments from Washington and Newbern had 
already begun to decline, the building of the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad having largely turned their trade toward Peters- 
burg and Wilmington. 

By 1860 the orchards from which Washington drew its supply 
approached exhaustion and production soon ceased. Newbern 
being farther south, the industry continued there for several years 
longer, but after 1870 the decline in production became rapid and 
practically ceased during the past decade. There is now no dis- 
tillery in full operation within thirty miles of Newbern. North of 
the Neuse river there were in 1893 only eight distilleries in operation, 
with an output for that year of less than 7,000 barrels of rosin. 
Three of these distilleries were in Johnston, two in Nash, two in 
Wilson and one in Wayne county. 

S0UTH-WESTW T ARD EXTENSION OF THE INDUSTRY. After 1835 

the seat of the production of turpentine began to move south- 
westward through the Southern States. In 1840 the value of the 
total product amounted to $593,451, nearly the entire amount 
being produced in North Carolina; and in 1860, while the value 
of the total product in the United States was $7,454,000, that 
of North Carolina was $5,355,778. In 1870 North Carolina, 
with 147 establishments, manufactured naval store products valued 
at only $2,338,000, while the total product of the United States. 
with 227 establishments, amounted in value to $3,585,000. In 
1893 Georgia made about the same amount of turpentine and rosin 



THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 77 

that North Carolina did, while Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and 
Louisiana altogether made about as much more. 

The industry has only become of importance in Mississippi and 
Louisiana during the past few years, and is still capable of great 
expansion in these States. The turpentine orchards of Georgia 
are in about the same condition as those in this State, although 
there is probably in Georgia more round timber standing. The 
same may be said concerning the forests in Alabama. There are 
in Texas, however, between 3,000,000 and 4,000,000 acres of 
untapped long-leaf pine forests and the turpentine industry there 
has hardly more than made a beginning. 

Inland Extension in North Carolina. — The first turpentine 
distillery at Fayetteville was established in 1844 by Thomas Lutter- 
low. The same year the first boxes were cut in what is now Harnett 
county, near Manchester, by Henry Harrison, who shipped the 
turpentine from there to Fayetteville to be manufactured. Ten 
years later there was a distillery owned by Jonathan Worth & Son 
in operation in the extreme western part of Harnett county near 
Buffaloe Springs. 

The building in 1850 of a plank road from High Point to Fay- 
etteville, which road was followed in a few years by a similar one 
from Fayetteville through the western section of Cumberland 
county and another which was projected to Raleigh through Har- 
nett and Wake counties, but only partially finished, caused Fay- 
etteville to become the seat of a large business both in handling 
turpentine and rosin and in distilling the crude turpentine. The 
satisfactory prices obtained, and the facility with which the pro- 
duce could be gotten to Fayetteville on the plank roads for ship- 
ment down the Cape Fear river to Wilmington, led to the indus- 
try's extending before the outbreak of the civil war, even to the 
very western limits of the pine belt in Chatham, Wake and Moore 
counties. 

The completion, subsequently, of railroads across the western part 
of the long-leaf pine belt caused a great deal of the rosin and 
spirits, manufactured along their lines, to be shipped direct to 
Northern and other inland consumers, without going via Wilming- 
ton. In 1893 over 5,000 barrels of rosin went direct west by way 



78 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

of Paint Rock, and over one-half as much went direct north or to 
Norfolk by rail, as was shipped by way of Wilmington. Although 
the output of rosin and spirits -of turpentine has more than doubled 
in the United States since 1860, the demand has increased nearly 
as rapidly until within the last few years, when there has been over- 
production and consequently low prices. 

VALUE OF THE NAVAI, STORE PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

From the Eleventh Census the total value of the naval stores 
manufactured in the United States for the year ending May 31, 
1890, was $8,077,379. The product that year consisted of 346,524 
barrels of spirits of turpentine, 1,429,154 barrels of rosin, and 
about 40,000 barrels of tar, pitch and miscellaneous products. 
The turpentine products given above represent the entire amount 
produced in the world for commercial purposes with the exception 
of that made in southern France and Austria, which altogether 
did not amount to 25,000,000 pounds (about 100,000 barrels). 

. AMOUNT OF CAPITAL AND LABOR EMPLOYED. 

The cost of the crude material used to produce the output of 
naval store products in the United States in 1890 was $2,506,440, 
and the capital directly invested in the manufacture of naval stores 
in the United States was reported by the Eleventh Census to be 
$1,117,265, and in North Carolina $269,341. This capital, repre- 
senting 670 establishments, employed 15,313 laborers in the United 
States and 1,747 laborers, on an average, in North Carolina, where 
there were reported to be 194 establishments. 

The relatively small number of laborers given as employed in 
this State is due to the fact that the greater part of the turpentine 
is collected by farmers (or their "hands") who have a small area 
of turpentine orchard and utilize their time at dull seasons in. this 
way; and many of these are not included in the above estimate. 
But some of the turpentine collected in other States is also gotten 
in the same manner. . 

CONDITION OF THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

During the latter part of 1893 the Geological Survey made an 
examination into the condition of the naval store industry in North 



THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA . 



79 



Carolina, and particularly 'into the condition of the turpentine 
orchards and the prospects of this industry in the State. The 
statistics for 1893 relating to this industry, which are given below, 
have been secured by correspondence with naval store dealers and 
distillers in all parts of the long-leaf pine region and by personal 
visits to many sections. The figures used in comparisons have 
been derived from the latest U. S. Census reports, unless credited to 
other sources. 

SPIRITS TURPENTINE) AND ROSIN STATISTICS. 

The accompanying table shows for the year ending December 
31, 1893, the number of turpentine distilleries in operation during 
the year, and the amounts of rosin aud turpentine manufactured 
in each county, together with the amounts shipped from each 
county to Wilmington, N. C, and the amounts shipped direct by 
rail routes to consumers and dealers elsewhere. 

Yield of Rosin and Spirits Turpentine in North Carolina, 1893. 



County. 



Rosin Manufactured. 

o 3 

d Barrels Barrel 
a a! shipped to shipped by 
q I Wilming 



27 



26 

24 
5 
9 



Bladen 

Brunswick ... 
Columbus .... 
Cumberland 

Duplin 

Harnett 

Johnston j 10 

Montgomery 12 

Moore i 34 

Onslow 12 

Pender j 8 

Richmond 13 

Robeson 28 

Sampson | 30 

Wayne 3 

*Other counties.. 7 

Totals 256 



ton. 



39,800 
12,000 
37,200 
21,000 
7,800 
3,700 



3,125 
12,000 
10,400 

7,170 
30,200 
41,000 

"4,000 



229,995 



rail else- 
where. 



,000 



15,000 

9,050 

16,764 

22,000 

38,207 

2,700 

"o,bl7 
9,910 
3,000 
.",,970 
7,768 



Total 

number ofi 

barrels. I 



43,400 
12,000 
37,200 
30,000 

7,800 
12,750 
10,704 
22,000 
41,332 
15,300 
10,400 
13,187 
40,110 
44,000 

3,970 
11.768 



137,986 I 367,981 



Spirits of Turpentine 


Manufactured. 


Casks 


Casks 


Total 


shipped 


ship'd by 


Num- 


to Wil- 


rail else- 


ber of 


mington. 


where. 


casks. 


7,500 


990 


8,490 


2,800 




2,800 


7,750 




7,750 


3,200 


3,961 


7,161 


1,000 




1,000 


400 


2,335 


2,735 




2,032 


2,632 




5,150 


5,150 


200 


8,637 


8,837 


2,700 


450 


3,150 


2,000 




2,060 


1,800 


1,083 


2,883 


4,712 


3,233 


7.945 


7,920 


2,121 


10,041 





517 


517 


. 800 


1,517 2,317 


1 42,902 


32,020 


75,528 



*This includes four counties: Nash with 2 distilleries, Wilson with 2, Uenoir with 2 and New 
Hanover with 1. The amounts included in this statement for New Hanover county are estimates 
obtained by adding the average-yearly output of one distillery. 



80 



FORESTS. FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 



The number of counties which produced crude turpentine during 
the year (1893) was 19. The amounts produced in New Hanover. 
Xash and Wilson were very small, Xew Hanover producing prac- 
tically none. The greater part of the crude turpentine which was 
manufactured in that county was brought from South Carolina, 
and from inland counties along the Cape Fear and Northeast Cape 
Fear rivers. 

The total amounts of rosin and spirits of turpentine manufac- 
tured in North Carolina and their values are shown in the accom- 
panying table for the year 1893 and the census years ending May 
31, 1870, 1880 and 1890 as reported by the United States Census 
for those years. 



Quantity and Value of Rosin and Spirit* Turpentine Manufactured in North Carolina. 





Number of 


Rosin. 


Spirits of Turpentine. 




Y EAR. 


establish- 
ments. 


Barrels. Value. 


Casks. 


Value. 


Total value. 


1870 


147 
184 
194 
247 








S2.33S.309 


1880 








1,758,488 


1890 
1893 


365,233 8377,310 
367,981 392,000 1 


72.888 
75,528 


SI, 293,086 
1,283,760 


1.705.S33 
1,752,760 



The total values represent the value of all products manufac- 
tured directly from turpentine. 

Production has ceased during the past ten years in Wake, 
Craven and Edgecombe counties. There has been an increase 
since 1880 only in Moore and Montgomery counties, the number of 
barrels of rosin produced in Moore county for the year (1893) being 
considerably larger than the number produced in 1880, though 
the value of the product is less now than at that date. Mont- 
gomery county is credited with no resinous products in the cen- 
sus of 1880, but in 1893 there were 12 distilleries operating there 
which produced 22,000 barrels of rosin. 



DECREASE IX THE PRODUCTION" OF CRUDE TURPENTINE. 

The quantity of crude turpentine shipped is small now com- 
pared with past shipments. All that was shipped last year went 
direct to domestic consumers, mostly manufacturers of printing 



THE NAVAL STOKE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 



81 



and lithographic inks. Boston was the largest market, New York 
and Baltimore being next in order. There were (3,331 barrels 
shipped from Wilmington and 4,600 barrels from other points, 
making a total of 10,931 barrels, with an estimated valuation of 
$12,000. The grades of this crude turpentine w T ere not obtainable. 

The general decrease in the amount of crude turpentine pro- 
duced in the extreme eastern counties during the past twenty years 
is approximately shown by the decrease in the exports of rosin and 
spirits turpentine from Wilmington. This will not apply to the 
more westerly counties and to Harnett, Johnston, Cumberland and 
Robeson, since additional railroad facilities during the past ten 
years have turned a large part of their products from Wilmington. 
In a few of these counties, as in Montgomery and Moore, the prod- 
uct has increased considerably of late, owing to better railroad 
facilities, but this product is largely transported direct to Northern 
markets and does not enter into this statement of exports from 
Wilmington. 

The total exports of rosin and spirits of turpentine from Wil- 
mington for every year since 1872, as shown by the records of the 
Wilmington Produce Exchange, were as follows : 



Total Rosin and Spirits Turpentine Exported from Wilmington, 1873-93. 





Exports 


Exports of 




Exports 


Exports of 


Year 


of 
Rosin, 


Spirits of 
Turpentine, 


Year. 


of 
Rosin, 


Spirits of 
Turpentine, 




Barrels. 


Casks. 




Barrels. 


Casks. 


1878 


690,151 


131,236 


1884 


342,986 


71,354 


1874 


556,182 


125,837 


1885 


314,724 


66,603 


1875 


523,330 


107,420 


1886 


331,497 


63,684 


1876 


490,555 


91,592 


1887 


381,535 


71,912 


1877 


537,704 


101,832 


1888 


246,566 


63,478 


1878 


581,958 


118,176 


1889 


351,827 


61,626 


1879 


512,891 


91,224 


1890 


385,528 


70,285 


1880 


447,750 


101,725 


1891 


304,818 


(50,844 


1881 


486,1:58 


87,658 


1892 


278,291 


58,084 


1882 


444,818 


87,896 


1893 


224,070 


47,228 


1888 


458,465 


82,185 









When the exports of 1883, for both rosin and spirits of tur- 
pentine, are compared with those of 1873 there is shown a falling 
off of over one-third, while there is a falling off of nearly one-half 
in the decade between 1883 and 1893. 



82 



FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 



Many distilleries in* the extreme eastern counties reported that 
their territory had not been thoroughly worked, during the last few 
years, on account of the low prices, and that any rise in prices 
would largely increase production. This fact may in part account 
for the more rapid decline in the receipts of rosin and spirits of 
turpentine at Wilmington since 1883. 

The following table gives the foreign exports of rosin and spirits 
of turpentine from Wilmington and their value for the past ten 
years. The data were kindly compiled from the records of the 
custom-house at Wilmington, for the Survey, by Mr. J. M. Cronly. 
Deputy Collector of that port : 



Quantity and Value of Foreign Exports of Rosin and Spirits Terpentine from 
Wilmington, N. C, 1874 and 1884-93. 





Foreign Exports of Rosin. 


Foreign Exports Spirits Tur- 


Year. 






pentine. 




Barrels. 


Value 


Gallons. 


Value. 


1874 


248,424 


$ 


2,530,000 
1,418,848 


S ... 


1884 


300,932 


405,776 


470,644 


1885 


290,165 


348,849 


2,375,482 


689,964 


1886 


288,499 


306,538 


2,139,091 


732,642 


1837 


333,119 


338,356 


2,203,457 


757,398 


1888 


311,613 


341,825 


1,988,103 


695,476 


1889 


281,251 


296,987 


1,630,795 


641,025 


1890 


302,094 


394,569 


1,751,270 


709,988 


1891 


296,918 


426,007 


1,473,157 


565,834 


1892 


251,853 


371,394 


1,080,231 


372,534 


1893 


231,056 


299,286 


918,727 256,178 



While the foreign exports of rosin have varied but little there 
has been a steady decline in the amount of spirits of turpentine 
shipped. 



THE ROSIN TRADE. 



The bulk of the rosin made in the United States is used in for- 
eign countries, England importing the larger part of it. About 
two-thirds of the amount manufactured in North Carolina last year 
went to Europe, and the remainder to domestic consumers. Domestic 
manufacturers use more of the fine grades of rosin made in this 
State than foreign manufacturers do. An attempt was made to 
ascertain the amounts of the different grades of rosin manufactured. 



THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 83 

but returns as to this point were frequently imperfect. There were, 
however, about 4,800 barrels of W. W. and W. G. rosin (the two 
highest and lightest colored grades)* shipped by rail from the 
western counties of the pine belt, and about 4,000 barrels of the 
same grades were shipped to Wilmington, from the more eastern 
counties of the pine belt. There were about 20,000 barrels of other 
grades of light rosin (above N.) made in the western counties, 
and shipped by rail, and about 25,000 barrels of these grades made 
in the more eastern counties and shipped via Wilmington. It 
seems that, while Wilmington handled nearly two-thirds of the rosin 
manufactured in North Carolina it only received about one-half of 
the finer grades of rosin. Practically all of the finer grades of 
rosin which were received at Wilmington, during the year 1893, were 
sent to Europe. 

EXPORTS OF TAR AND PITCH FROM NORTH CAROLINA. 

Exports of tar and pitch from North Carolina have varied during 
the past twenty years much less than have those of rosin and turpen- 
tine. The exports, both foreign and domestic, of these commodi- 



*Grades of Rosin. — The commonly recognized grades of rosin in the United States areas fol- 
lows : " W. W."— water white; " W. G."— window-glass ; "N."— extra pale; "M."— pale; "K."— 
low pale; "I." — good No. i: "H." — No. i; "F." — good No. 2; "E." — No. 2; "D."— good strain; 
"C." — strain; "B." — common strain; "A." — black. 

"Water white" and "window-glass," which are the lightest colored and highest priced rosins, 
are made only from the " virgin dip," and usually only from that gathered during the first parts 
of the season. The virgin dip is the turpentine taken from the boxes the year or season that they 
are cut. The last dipping of the first season (the boxes are dipped from six to eight times during 
a season) give a yellowish turpentine which makes rosin of about the grade "N." The second 
and succeeding years 'yellow dip" is obtained, the turpentine having acquired a decided yellow 
tinge of color from running down over the face of the tree which was hacked during the preceding 
summer when it comes in contact with the old and dark-colored resin on its surface, and is subject 
to the evaporation of the volatile oils in it by being longer exposed to the heat of the sun. 

The second year's yellow dip makes usually rosin of the grade "N." during the first part of the 
season, while only darker grades " L." and ■' M." are gotten during the latter part of the season. 
Each year that the boxes are worked the dip becomes more colored, yields a darker rosin, and has 
less spirits of turpentine in it on account of having to run down a larger surface, covered with 
colored resin, and be exposed for a longer time to the oxidizing influences of the sun and air. 
The "scrape," which is the hardened resin adhering to the scarified face of the tree, yields the 
darker grades of rosin. The common grades are made from old scrape on trees which have been 
worked several years, and frequently has mixed with it sticks and chips, cut from the tree while 
the hardened scrape was being removed. The turpentine produced from the lighter colored dip- 
pings is of a better quality than that from the darker, being purer and lighter and having less 
rosin oil in it. 

A large part of the dark grades of rosin ("strain" and "common") which are exported to 
Europe are used in manufacturing rosin oil. The finer grades are used in the manufacture of 
soaps, paper sizing, etc. 



84 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCT^. 

ties from Wilmington for the years 1874, 1884 and 1893 were as 
follows : 

Total Exports of Tar and Pitch from Wilmington. 



Year. 



Tar, Barrels. Pitch, Barrels. 



1874 68,619 7,400 

1884 68,794 5,734 

1893 52,541 J 3,274 



In 1893, besides the above, 4,600 barrels of tar and 700 barrels 
of pitch were shipped North by rail from Robeson and Cumber- 
land counties. This makes a total of 57,100 barrels of tar and 
4,000 barrels of pitch, with an estimated value of $65,000. The 
foreign exports of tar and pitch from Wilmington, for the years 
1873, 1884, 1893 were as follows: In 1873 they were 48,200 
barrels; in 1884 they were 20,138 barrels; in 1893, 7,740 barrels. 
This shows a decline in the foreign exports of more than 50 per 
cent, during each decade. 

TOTAL AMOUNT AND VALUE OF NAVAL STORE PRODUCTS IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1893. 

The total amount and value of the naval store products shipped 
from North Carolina during the year 1893 were approximately as 
follows: 

Amount and Value of North Carolina Naval Store Products, 1893. 

75,528 barrels of spirits turpentine 81,283,760 

367,981 barrels.of rosin 392,000 

10,931 barrels crude turpentine 12,000 

63,100 barrels tar and pitch 65,000 

Total value of products $1,752,760 

A preliminary report of the Eleventh Census estimates the total 
products for North Carolina for the year ending May 31, 1890, to 
have had a valuation of $1,705,833. No crude turpentine is given 
in that report and the tar is given at 600 barrels, valued at §847 
for the entire State. This statement is evidently incorrect, since 
the exports of that product from Wilmington alone amounted to 



THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 85 

72,000 barrels for the year 1890 and almost as much for the pre- 
ceding year. 

CONDITION OF THE TURPENTINE ORCHARDS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

As bearing on the future supply of resinous products in North 
Carolina, a close examination was made into the condition of the 
long-leaf pine forests now standing in the State, and in the follow- 
ing notes the writer has endeavored to show the character and 
extent of the existing productive orchards, of those orchards which 
have been abandoned, the round timber which can be boxed, and 
the second growth long-leaf pine. 

LENGTH OF TIME THAT TURPENTINE ORCHARDS ARE WORKED. 

The orchards of the Cape Fear river section have been worked 
steadily for from twenty to thirty-five years and in Sampson and 
Bladen counties many bodies of pine are reported as having three 
sets of boxes on them, having been worked since 1845, with inter- 
missions of a few years for rest and to allow the space between the 
hacked faces to increase in breadth. The yield from these long- 
worked trees is still considerable when they grow on good soil, and 
when the trees have been injured in no other way, as by fire 
charring the faces of the old boxes. 

These trees along the Cape Fear river seem capable of standing- 
continuous working longer than those in any other part of the State 
or even of the United States, there being numerous reports from 
this section stating that the orchards had been worked from forty 
to fifty years. From Columbus county only one distiller reported 
that his trees had been worked as long as thirty-five years, while 
others stated that theirs were abandoned after having been w T orked 
from twenty to twenty-five years. One distiller in Robeson county, 
on the Cape Fear river, reported fifty years as the maximum time, 
while for those farther west, in Moore county, approaching the clay 
uplands and at an elevation of from 300 to 500 feet above the sea- 
level, a productive limit of twenty years was given. In South 
Carolina the trees are worked from twelve to fifteen years ; in 
Georgia from four to eight years, except the slash pine (Pinus 



86 



FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 



cubensis Griseb.) along the coast, which "runs dry" in one or two 
years, as is true of the loblolly pine in North Carolina. 

It may be said that most of the orchards now producing in Xorth 
Carolina have been "back-boxed"* and that over four-fifths of 
the crude turpentine comes from back-boxed trees. Only in Mont- 
gomery and the western parts of Moore county are there any 
extensive bodies of trees which have not been back-boxed. The 
average time the trees have been worked in these two counties is 
about seven years, but many of the orchards in Montgomery have 
only been worked for four years. 



AREAS OF ABANDONED TURPENTINE ORCHARDS. 

An examination of this region showed that large areas of long- 
leaf pine forests had been abandoned as no longer profitably yield- 
ing turpentine. Such areas; where the trees are still standing, are 
classed by the distillers as abandoned orchards. When these forests 
have been removed by fire or cut by lumbermen and no loblolly 
pine has appeared to take the place of the long-leaf pine, the term 
ivaste land is applied to these areas. The following estimates of the 
amounts of abandoned orchards in the separate counties are based 
on returns made by 162 distillers in these counties, supplemented 
by personal investigation by the writer. These areas, in acres, of 
abandoned turpentine orchards were as follows in December, 1893 : 

Areas of Abandoned Turpentine Orchards in Xorth Carolina, 1893. 



Bladen county 60,000 acres. 

Brunswick 98,000 " 

Cumberland 51,000 " 

Duplin 17,000 " 

Harnett 52,000 " 

Lenoir 2<»,000 " 

Johnston 30,000 " 

Montgomery 10,000 " 

Moore 10,000 " 



Onslow countv 38,000 acres. 



Pender 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Sampson 

Wayne 

Wilson 

Other courrties. 



28,000 
32,000 
63,500 
58,500 
30,000 
20,000 
75,000 



Nash 



25,000 



Total in the State.... 718,000 



Included in the term "other counties" are Wake, Edgecombe, 
Craven, Columbus, New Hanover and Carteret counties. The 



*For explanations of this and other terms see pp. 94 — 96. 



THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



87 



amount abandoned during the past few years has been greater than 
usual, the very low prices making it unprofitable to work thinly 
timbered orchards longer. The operation of many of these bodies 
may be resumed should there be any material advance in prices 
of naval store products, but such a change is hardly probable. In 
these areas of abandoned orchards there is a great range of density 
of forest growth, varying from that which may be called the normal 
density, which will cut from 3,500 to 4,500 feet, board measure, to 
the acre, to that which will scarcely cut 300 feet to the acre, below 
which latter limit it would be considered ivaste land unless a 
growth of loblolly pine has, in part, replaced the long-leaf pine. 
Although there is very little of this abandoned orchard that is 
heavily timbered with long-leaf pine, all of it has, more or less, 
valuable mill timber on it. Much of the timber might again be 
boxed and profitably worked if protected until the growth of the 
space between the boxes would allow new boxes to be cut. 

ANNUAL ADDITIONS TO THE TURPENTINE ORCHARDS. 

. The number of acres of round timber being boxed yearly is now 
very small. An attempt was made to ascertain this amount, but 
both back boxes and original boxes were included in the returns ; 
these figures, too, were somewhat fragmentary for certain districts. 
For the seasons 1892-'93 and 1893-94 the total number of boxes cut 
in each county were about as follows : 

Number of Boxes Cat in North Carolina, 1892-94. 



Count y 



Bladen 

Brunswickf .. 
Columbus.. .. 
Cumberland . 

Duplinf 

Harnett 

Johnston 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Lenoirf 



Season 
1892-'93. 



86,000 
10,000 
60,000 
255,000 
11,000 
82,000 
35,000 
35,000 
83,000 



Season 
1893-'94. 



95,000 



70,000 
220,000 

4,000 
70,000 
42,000 
60,000 
78,000 

3,000 



County. 


Season 

1 892-' 93. 


Season 

1893-94. 


Nash 

New Hanover* 


60,000 


60,000 


Pender 


33,000 
35,000 
90,000 


22 000 


jOnslo\v 


18,000 
(i.'vono 


Richmond 


Robeson 


197,000 96,500 

114,000 I 105,000 
7,000 3,000 


Sampson 


Wayne 


Wilson ; 


Totals 




1,193,000 


1,011,500 



: No returns made. fRetums not full. 



88 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

It can be roughly estimated that it would require the trees on 
20,000 acres to hold the number of boxes cut in 1893-94. The 
proportion of this which was round timber, and which represents 
the increase in the area of orchard, was under 3,000 acres. The 
largest single tract ascertained to have been newly boxed was 350 
acres in Bladen county. There were other tracts nearly as large 
in Sampson, Harnett, Richmond and Montgomery counties. 

BOXING OF OTHER SPECIES OF PINES. 

The loblolly and short-leaf pines are not generally tapped in 
this State. An attempt was made, however, to find out the num- 
ber of loblolly pine (P. Taeda) boxes cut last year in Johnston and 
Robeson counties, where most of them are worked, and the num- 
ber was found to be under 20,000, showing that a very insignifi- 
cant amount of turpentine is produced from this tree. There were 
about 3,000 short-leaf pine (P. mitis) boxes cut last year in Mont- 
gomery county. This tree was extensively worked fifteen years 
ago in Wake and Chatham counties. The young trees are the only 
ones. which yield sufficiently to justify boxing; they yield about 
two-thirds as much crude turpentine as the long-leaf pine and can be 
worked from six to seven years. The crude turpentine from the 
loblolly pine is very thin, and runs so freely that it usually over- 
flows the box and runs down to the ground, unless the boxes are 
dipped more frequently than the long-leaf pine boxes are. It is 
said to have so much water in it that when distilled without a 
large intermixture of crude turpentine from the long-leaf pine 
only a poor quality of spirits turpentine is obtained. 

AMOUNT OF ROUND TIMBER AVAILABLE FOR BOXING. 

This name is given to the original growth of long-leaf pine 
before it has been boxed. It makes, of course, better mill timber 
than the boxed trees, which have the lower part of the stock around 
the face of the boxes surcharged with resin, obliterating all signs 
of the grain and making what is called lightwood. The amount 
of round timber, in acres, standing in each county December, 1893, 
was, as nearly as could be determined, as follows: 



THE NAVAL STOKE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 



89 



Amount of Round Timber (Long-leaf Pine) in North Carolina, December, 1893. 
Bladen 3,900 acres. Nash , 700 acres. 



Columbus 3,700 

Cumberland 1,300 

Duplin 1,000 



Onslow 3,200 



Harnett 

Johnston .... 

Jones 

Lenoir 

Montgomery 
Moore 



6,100 

200 

400 

1,500 

0,050 

10,700 



Pender 

Richmond. 
Robeson.... 
Sampson .. 

Wake 

Wayne 



5,400 

2,200 

0,850 

870 

700 

200 



Total for the State... 55,876 



The total amount of round timber now standing is very little 
more than was yearly being put in orchard during the period 
between 1840 and 1870. The number of acres of round timber 
standing in these same counties fifty years ago must have been 
between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 acres. Much of this remaining 
timber will probably never be boxed, being in small bodies in dis- 
tricts where trees have ceased to be worked for turpentine. 

YOUNG GROWTH OF LONG-LEAF PINE. 

The young growth of long-leaf pine may also be included along 
with the round pine as timber which in part now, or in the near 
future, can be worked for turpentine. But unfortunately the acre- 
age of second growth pine which is now, or even soon will be. of 
sufficient size to be boxed for this purpose, is very small, and the 
trees in such growth are scattering, consequently they are short- 
bodied and present little uniformity as regards size or regularity of 
growth. The figures for this acreage are based on field notes taken 
during an examination of the pine lands during the winter of 
1893— '94. In each case they are probably much in excess of the 
true amount of young growth of trees large enough to hold a tur- 
pentine box. The counties in which any large amount of young 
growth was observed and the approximate amounts of this in each 
(in acres) are enumerated in the accompanying table: 

Areas of Young Growth of Long-leaf Pine in North Carolina, 1898. 

Bladen county 3, 500 acres. New Hanover 4,000 acres. 

Craven 5,000 " Robeson 2,000 " 

Cumberland 2,700 " Sampson 2,500 " 

Moore 700 " Others possibly 10,000 " 

Lenoir 2,000 " 

Johnston 700 " Total in the State 33,100 " 



90 



FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 



Some of this young growth has already been boxed, but the 
amount of turpentine gotten from it is inconsiderable. It varies 
in age from about eighteen to thirty-five years, and in diameter from 
four inches to eighteen inches. The amount of young growth 
loblolly and short-leaf pine is very large, should the price ever 
allow them to be extensively worked for turpentine. 



DECREASING AREA OF TURPENTINE ORCHARDS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

As shown in the above statements the additions to the areas of 
turpentine orchards during the past few years, from both the tak- 
ing in of new mature forests and the boxing of young or second 
growth pine trees has been small. On the other hand, the destructive 
agencies, such as forest fires, storms and the lumbermen, have been 
actively at wo^k, and as the result of their combined activities the 
area of productive turpentine orchards in North Carolina has been 
reduced to but a small part of what it was half a century ago. 
Over the large areas north of Neuse river the long-leaf pine has 
practically disappeared. Over large areas between this river and 
the South Carolina State boundary line many of the once dense 
virgin long-leaf pine forests have given place to equally large areas 
of abandoned pine barrens and waste lands. 

DESTRUCTION OF ORCHARDS BY FIRES. 

Every year there is more or less destruction of standing timber 
by fires, both in worked and in abandoned orchards. The loss 
during the past year and the number of acres burnt over are 
shown with approximate accuracy in the accompanying tabulated 
statement: 

Some of the Losses from Fires in Lung-leaf Pine Forests, 1S9S. 



Locality. 


No 


of Acres Bui 


•nt. 


Loss. 


Moore county 

Cumberland 

Robeson 

Six other smaller fires 


30,000 

10,000 

5,000 

3,500 


$25,000* 

12,000t 
0.000 
5.000 






Totals 


48,500 


848,000 


*Estimated by W. E. Petty, Esq., Carthage, N. C. 
f Estimated by Mr. John Blue, of Aberdeen, N. C. 











THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 91 

All of these fires took place in the spring, either in March or 
April, and all were reported as started from the firing of the grass 
of the pine barrens. The first two fires were particularly severe, 
going through orchards that were being worked, and ruining not 
only the boxes, but also killing a great deal of the timber, very 
little of which was so situated that it could be converted into lum- 
ber before being attacked by the borers. 

In the fall of 1892 there was another severe fire in Richmond 
and Moore counties, which destroyed a large amount of timber, 
and also the village of West End, on the Aberdeen & West End 
Railroad. The value of the timber alone destroyed by this fire was 
placed at $75,000. 

The danger and loss occasioned by fires in the forests is not suffi- 
ciently understood by the class of persons who are generally the 
cause of them. In the pine barrens most of the fires are purposely 
started, and the persons starting them should be held responsible 
for any loss caused by them. Too great discretion cannot be exer- 
cised about a suitable time to burn the woods, when it is deemed 
absolutely necessary to burn them, and persons should be careful 
that it is not too late in the season: after the trees have begun to 
put forth their leaves or shoots, and that the season is not too dry. 
Much care should be taken to prevent such fires escaping proper 
bounds and destroying the property of other persons who are in 
no way connected with the starting of the fire. 

The damage of fires is more than local and the loss occasioned 
by them, or resulting from them, is felt far beyond the immediate 
district in which they occur. Even when there is no apparent 
damage it sets a precedent, the following of which is sure ulti- 
mately to lead to great damage. And there is always a consid- 
erable amount of damage done; enough to far more than counter- 
balance the advantages supposed to be gained in improving the 
pasturage of the forests or in other ways. 

The illustration (Plate I) facing page 58 is from a photograph 
of a long-leaf pine forest a few miles west of Southern Pines, 
Moore county, taken some months after a forest fire had swept 
through this region. All of the pines at this point were killed. 
Many of them fell and were partially or completely destroyed, and 



92 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

the few left standing were practically ruined, as they could not be 
cut at once. (See, also, pp. 57 and 61 for notes on the destructive 
work of forest fires). 

DAMAGES TO ORCHARDS FROM STORMS. 

Besides the injuries to turpentine orchards, during 1893, from 
fires they were damaged by two severe storms, occurring one in 
August and the other in October, in the fall. The earlier storm, 
in August, did but slight damage, except to abandoned orchards. 
The one of October 14th, however, proved generally destructive 
to all boxed pines, besides blowing up by the roots many oaks 
and other hardwood trees. The damages were greater in the 
south-eastern portions of the State, especially in Columbus, Bladen, 
Sampson and Johnston counties, but they were by no means con- 
fined to these counties. The force of the storm was not uniformly 
distributed over this area, but was more severe at numerous scat- 
tered points. Twenty distillers in these counties estimate that at 
least one-tenth of their trees were blown down, while other orchards 
were injured to a less extent, and several thousand acres of aban- 
doned orchard were ruined. 

Most of this fallen timber proved to be a total loss, though about 
100,000 railroad cross-ties were cut from it at points contiguous to 
the railroads, and small quantities of it were carried to the saw- 
mills on the Cape Fear river. Unboxed long-leaf pines suffered 
very little, and neither the loblolly pine nor swamp timber was 
damaged to any considerable extent. Boxed pines, as a rule, were 
broken off at the box. Out of one hundred prostrated long-leaf 
pines seen near Bladenboro (X. C.) eighty-five were broken off at 
the box, four above the box but along the face, ten were blown up 
by the roots, and only one tree was broken off above the face of 
the box. These facts show the importance of adopting some other 
system of gathering the turpentine which will avoid the deep box- 
ing of the trees. Such a system is practiced in France, and is 
described further on in this report (page 96). 



THE NAVAL STORE INDUSTRY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 93 

AREA OF ORCHARDS REDUCED BY LUMBERING. 

Lumbermen are also instrumental to a considerable extent in 
reducing the acreage of turpentine orchards. In Moore, Rich- 
mond and Robeson counties they are rapidly cutting into the 
orchards. Eleven distillers in the two first counties reported their 
orchards as having been cut into by lumbermen last year. At 
least 35,000 acres of new and abandoned orchard must have been 
cut over during 1893 to have yielded the lumber cut during that 
year by the mills sawing long-leaf pine. 

HOW LONG CAN OUR TURPENTINE ORCHARDS LAST? 

It appears from the foregoing that there are in the State less 
than 75,000 acres of long-leaf pine timber now unboxed which can 
be added in the future to the turpentine orchards, and that the 
present yield of turpentine is derived principally from ''back- 
boxed" trees, which if not destroyed within twenty years could 
not continue to yield turpentine for more than that length of time. 
In point of fact, however, the trees of existing orchards cannot 
produce turpentine, except in a small way, for even that length of 
time, since they are being destroyed by fire, or converted into lum- 
ber, at the rate of over 60,000 acres a year. Then, too, the rate of 
destruction increases each year as the number of mills increases, 
and as the amount of abandoned orchard, which proper precau- 
tions are not taken to protect from fire, becomes larger; and these 
abandoned orchards serve as means of carrying fire to the newer 
orchards which are being used. 

FRENCH AND AMERICAN METHODS OF GATHERING TURPENTINE. 

The two chief objections to the American system of boxing trees 
for turpentine are: 

(1). The injury to the tree produced by the box, interrupting and 
impairing the life processes and sooner or later damaging the tim- 
ber or causing its entire destruction, and, 

(2). That the yield of spirits of turpentine is less than it should be, 
and the rosin manufactured is largely of darker and inferior grades. 

A method of tapping the trees, which to a very great extent 



94 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

remedies these faults, is the Hugues system, which was first used 
in France about 1860, and since that time has come into general 
use in that country, having been found more efficacious than the 
one previously used there. It presents as great an advancement 
on the American system now in vogue as the American did on the 
early French method. 

THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OF GATHERING TURPENTINE. 

The American method, which can be advantageously used only 
on stocks over fifteen inches in diameter, consists of cutting in the 
base of the tree, about eight inches from the ground, a hole called 
the box. This box, which is hollowed out with a narrow, thin- 
bladed axe manufactured for the purpose, has a length following 
the circumference of the tree of about fourteen inches (d to e of 
Plate II), a depth of about seven inches (b to /), and extends 
back into the wood at the mouth of the box about four inches 
(b to c), or at the bottom of the box (/) about five inches. At the 
same time that the box is cut there is a triangular strip removed 
on either side of it and extending up as high as the tip of the box- 
This operation is called cornering and the channels left where the 
chips were removed act as gutters leading into the box. 

Immediately above this box the thin bark and a thin section of 
the sap-wood is removed by means of a sharp, bent-bladed imple- 
ment called the hack. In this process, called hacking or chipping, the 
implement is drawn at an oblique angle across the surface of the 
trunk alternately in opposite directions, each pair of grooves made 
by the hack forming a Y, so that the cut surface consists of two 
planes forming a very obtuse angle, the lines of their union run- 
ning vertically up the tree above the center of the box, and down 
which line the resin runs into the box. This scarified surface, 
called the face, has a breadth of from fourteen to sixteen inches and 
a depth usually of one and one-half to two inches, rarely going in 
as deep as the thickness of the sap-wood. 

The boxes are cut late in fall or early in spring, and in the 
first part of March chipping is begun, and is repeated about 
once a week for from thirty to thirty-five weeks, according to the 






N. C. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



BULLETIN •) PLATE II. 




AMERICAN PRACTICE OF BOXING AND CHIPPING. 

[FROM U. S. DEPT. AGR. REPT. 



THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OF GATHERING TURPENTINE. 95 

length of the summer season and the way the resin runs. At eaeh 
chipping about one-half an inch of wood is cut off. The resin 
lying in the resin duets or pores, which are parallel with the 
grain of the wood, flows out when these ducts are cut and runs 
down into the box. The object of repeated chipping is to open 
a fresh surface for the exudation, when the ducts have become 
clogged by an accumulation in them of hardened resin. By the 
end of the first season the face has been carried up eighteen to 
twenty four inches above the box. 

The resin which runs into the box, called virgin dip the first 
season, and the yellow dip of subsequent years is a thick, viscid 
liquid, more or less transparent and thinner the first season, but 
hardening quickly on exposure. During the first season it is 
removed seven or eight times from the box. That resin which 
hardens on the face is removed by a sharp scraper (scraping) and is 
mixed with chips and bark, and, besides containing only one-half 
as much spirits of turpentine as the dip, makes a much harder and 
darker and withal less valuable grade of rosin than the dip, much 
of the spirits of the scrape having evaporated or oxidized under 
the influence of light, heat and air. Each year as the face is car- 
ried up higher, about twenty inches a year, there is more scrape 
and less dip, as the resin exuding from the freshly hacked sur- 
face has to run over the entire surface which has already been 
hacked before it reaches the box, and a large proportion of it 
hardens and never reaches the box. 

The dip, as has been explained, becomes, in succeeding years, 
gradually darker as work is carried on until it makes only a slightly 
better rosin than the scrape and contains only two-thirds as much 
spirits of turpentine as the virgin dip gotten the first year the 
boxes were worked. There will average two such boxes to a tree, 
the trees generally being about twenty inches in diameter. After 
the "faces" have been carried up so high that it is no longer 
profitable to work them, the trees are allowed to rest for several 
years and recuperate. During this time the sound wood left 
between the "faces" broadens, partly covering the old faces, so that 
on large trees new "boxes" can be cut in between the old ones and 



96 FORESTS, FOE EST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

the trees again worked. This is called "back-boxing." There are 

frequently three sets of boxes put on one tree. 

THE FRENCH SYSTEM OF GATHERING TURPENTINE.? 

The original French method merely removed the bark and a 
thin layer of sap-wood from a space (face) about five inches wide 
on each tree, and the resin as it exuded after the repeated ehippings 
ran into a receptacle placed at the foot of the tree to receive it. or 
frequently into a hole dug in the sand. By the latter method, 
which was very primitive, the turpentine was mixed with sand, 
the spirits was absorbed and only a poor grade of rosin was made 
from it. 

The method adopted in 1860, when the production of turpen- 
tine was stimulated in France owing to the stoppage of American 
exports by the blockades during the civil war, was very much in 
advance of this. The new method, then adopted, may be described 
in general terms as follows: At the end of February the outer 
bark for a considerable height is removed on all trees which are to 
be tapped that year, leaving only a thin layer of bark over the 
sap-wood. This is to prevent loose bark from falling into the resin. 
At the first of March, with a peculiar-shaped implement resembling 
an adze with a bent handle and a curved blade, there is made near 
the foot of the tree an incision which is four inches broad, two 
inches high and only one-third of an inch deep. At the bottom of 
this incision a curved gutter of zinc or galvanized iron, which has 
a width of the hacked face and teeth on its inner edge, is driven 
into the wood. This gutter turns the more liquid resin, which 
flows down into an earthenware or zinc cup hung on a staple 
immediately below the gutter. 

The accompanying illustration (Plate III), taken originally from 
Professor L. Boppe's work on Forest Technology, but here repro- 
duced irom the Annual Report of the Chief of the Division of 
Forestry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, for 1892, "represents 
a pine two hundred years old, with more than fifty scars or chips, 
without apparently any ill effects on the life of the tree."* Some 



■An. Rept. Secretary of Agr., Washington, 1S92, p. 34S. 



N. C. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



BULLETIN 5 PLATE III. 







TURPENTINE ORCHARDING IN FRANCE. 

[FROM THE U. S. DEPT. AGR. REPT.] 




I 



N. C GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



BULLETIN O PLATE IV. 





FIQ. 1.— TURPENTINE GATHERING (FRENCH 
SYSTEM), TILL AND POT. 



FIG. 2— CROSS SECTION OF TURPENTINE 
TREE (FRENCH SYSTEM). 




FIG. 3.— FIRE-SAFETY STRIP ALONG RAILROAD, FRENCH TURPENTINE FOREST. 

[FROM U. S. DEPT. AQR. REPT. 



THE FRENCH SYSTEM OF GATHERING TURPENTINE. 97 

of the details of the method are more clearly shown in the figures 
1 and 2 of Plate IV. 

Figure 1 of Plate IV "exhibits the method of gathering tur- 
pentine by the Hugues system, and the use of the till and pot- 
While formerly the resin was allowed to run into a hole in the 
sand at the foot of the tree, since 1860, when the production was 
stimulated by the closing of the American sources of supply, an 
improvement on the crude method of collecting came into use. 
It consists in fixing a bent zinc collar or gutter cut from sheet zinc 
eight inches long and two inches wide, with teeth (see figure) across 
the chip, which acts as a lip, and conducts the liquid resin into a 
glazed earthen pot or a zinc vessel of conical shape suspended 
below the lip. The pots are six inches high, four and a half inches 
at the opening, and three inches at the bottom, and hold about one 
quart. At first placed on the ground they are fastened each season 
above the old chip by means of a nail through a hole or otherwise 
(see figure). In this way, by shortening the distance over which 
the resin has to flow, the evaporation of the oil is reduced and 
there is less liability of impurities to fall into the receiver. A 
cover over the pot is also sometimes used. The pots are emptied 
every fifteen or twenty days with the aid of a spatula. The scrape 
is collected only twice in the season, in June and November."* 

Figure 2 of Plate IV shows a cross section of a pine tree treated 
according to the French method, bled at different places at different 
times. Some of the scars are nearly covered over with new wood 
(as at II), and two of the scars (as at III) have been recently made 
in new wood between older scars. 

"Another improvement which reduces the amount of evapora- 
tion and assures cleaner resin consists in covering the chip with a 
board. This improvement (Hugues system) is said to yield more 
and purer resin, the yield is claimed to be about one-third larger, 
and the difference in price, on account of purity, 80 to 90 cents 
a barrel, while the cost per tree per year is figured at about one 
cent, besides the proportion of scrape is considerably reduced. 
This (called gallipot) is collected by hand, except the hardest impure 
parts (called barras), of which there is hardly any in this system of 



*An. Rep. Secretary Agr., Washington. D. C, 1S92, p. 350. 



98 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

collection. Not more than 17.9 per cent, of scrape is expected, as 
against 29 in the American practice."* 

Figure 3 of Plate IV "shows safety fire strip along railroad ; 
a is the elevated roadbed, b is a strip of ground about twenty-five 
feet wide, which is cleared of all inflammable material. Alongside 
of this the wooded safety strip about fifty to sixty feet wide ; e is a 
ditch five to six feet wide, a foot or so deep, the soil being thrown 
toward d. Cross ditches are made through the safety strip every 
300 feet. The total width of the whole system of the road on 
either side is, therefore, eighty to ninety feet. The strip b may be 
used for agricultural purposes if fit for it; strip c remains wooded, 
but the forest floor is cleared out and freed of all inflammable 

material, "t 

Chipping is done forty to fifty times a season, and by the end of 
the first season the chipped surface has reached a height of twenty 
inches; that is, while the face is carried in one season just about 
as high in France as in the United States it is hacked from twelve 
to fifteen times more in the former country than here. This cup 
can be emptied easily and quickly by lifting it off the tree, and to 
prevent it being broken can be set aside while hacking and scraping- 
is in progress, which latter operation is done once a year, in the 
fall. When work is begun on the second and subsequent years 
the cup and gutter are moved up and refastened so as to be just- 
under the newly hacked surface. The face is rapidly carried up. 
the tree being hacked more frequently, but a much thinner chip 
being taken off than is required in the American practice, pre- 
serving all the time about the same width and same depth, so that 
at the end of five years it has reached a total height of twelve feet. 
From one to ten such faces are put on the pines, according to their 
size and age, and whether they are to be bled to death (gemmage a 
mort), in which event the timber will at once be utilized, or bled as 
long as the tree lives and an abundant flow of turpentine will per- 
mit (gemmage a vie). 

These faces are worked only five years and then the tree is allowed 
to rest several years before new ones are put in. The new faces 
must be put in so that they will be four inches from any other 



=An. Rep. Secretary Agr., Washington, D. C, 1892, p. 350. \lbid. 



THE FRENCH SYSTEM OF GATHERING TURPENTINE. 99 

faces, in order that not enough of the inner bark and sap-wood will 
be removed at one time to kill the tree or seriously injure its life. 

ADVANTAGES OF THE FRENCH SYSTEM. 

The advantages of the French over the American system fall 
under two heads: (1). It tends more to protect the trees and pro- 
long their activity. (2). It gives a larger yield, raises the grade of 
the resinous products and lessens the cost of producing. 

RESULTS AS TO THE RELATIVE STRENGTH AND VITALITY OF THE TREES. 

Under the French system no "boxes" are cut to weaken the 
trunk and make it liable to blow down, and in which, sooner or 
later, rot begins and finally destroys the timber value of the stem. 
It is in this American "box," too, always filled or covered with 
inflammable resin while the face is being worked, that fires usually 
get a start on the tree. There is no limit to the number of new sets 
of narrow French faces which can be placed, while from the weak- 
ening caused by the boxes only a limited number of sets of them 
can be cut. There are trees in the canton of Cormeau (France) 
which have been worked for more than 200 years and show over 
fifty scars. The scars of the narrow faces, although they may be 
over twice as numerous, are more quickly covered over by the 
growth of new wood on both sides, since the cambium or genera- 
tive tissue just under the bark will have twice as many surfaces 
from which to develop. This enables a tree to more quickly 
regain its lost vitality, upon which the yield of resin largely 
depends. The shallow depth which the faces in the French prac- 
tice are cut, only one-third of an inch, does not injure the life 
process so much as the deeper cutting practiced in America, which 
injures the growth of the tree about two-thirds, as is shown by a 
comparison of the thickness of individual rings of growth before 
and after boxing. 

The purpose the French management has in view is to both pre- 
serve and work the forests intended for the production of turpen- 
tine as long a time as possible without serious injury to the trees, 



100 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

since it is a matter of both time and expense to grow a body of 
pines suitable for tapping. 

THE YIELD BY THE FRENCH SYSTEM LARGER IN QUANTITY AND BETTER IN 

QUALITY. 

By using the cup for collecting the turpentine and moving it up 
each year, so that it will be just below the freshly hacked surface, 
a larger quantity of purer and lighter colored dip is gotten than 
would be possible under the American plan, and the material thus 
collected corresponds always to the virgin dip; it is very free from 
bark and makes an exceedingly high grade rosin. Under this 
arrangement there is very little scrape, the surface hacked that 
season being all that has scrape on it, The increased production 
in France by use of the cup method amounted to four pounds of 
spirits of turpentine and seven pounds of rosin from every 100 
pounds of crude turpentine, and besides there were no chips or 
trash of any kind in the crude material. The spirits of turpen- 
tine manufactured is of a better grade than that made from crude 
turpentine collected by the old method, being distilled at a lower 
temperature and with less heat, and all of the rosin, except a small 
proportion made from the scrape, is of a high grade. 

The value of a barrel of the crude turpentine collected by the 
cups is about one-fourth greater than that collected by the former 
system. By the cup method there is also a large saving in labor, 
both in scraping and dipping, and there is no loss of turpentine in 
dipping from a box to a bucket, 

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS WITH THE FRENCH SYSTEM IN NORTH 

CAROLINA. 

During the season of 1894 a trial on a limited scale was made 
to test the merits of the French system and to ascertain by its 
direct application to the long-leaf pine the exact increase of tur- 
pentine collected by it above that yielded by the American practice. 

In order to reduce to a minimum the chance of errors it was 
decided to conduct the experiments at three separate stations under 
direction of different persons. At two of these stations the tur- 
pentine was to be gotten from second-year boxes and at the third 



THE FRENCH SYSTEM APPLIED IN NORTH CAROLINA. 101 

station it was intended to begin a trial with first-year or virgin 
boxes and continue the work here for several consecutive years to 
ascertain the comparative annual yield. * 

Unfortunately in one set of the experiments with second-year 
boxes the value of the results was vitiated by reason of a considerable 
loss of turpentine from the receptacles' overflowing. The results 
in this case will not be considered. Careful and conscientious 
attention seems to have been given the third set by the person in 
charge, and the results seem to be of sufficient importance to be 
given in full. The superintendence of this work during the season 
was in charge of Mr. Singletery, of Bladenboro, N. G, and it was 
near this village that the experiment was conducted. 

The pines selected for tapping were in a grove with a medium 
density (about seven), and had an average circumference, breast 
high, of six feet nine inches. These were by no means the largest 
trees in this grove, but were selected on account of their vigor and 
apparent healthiness. The soil was fair, being a moist sandy loam. 
The forest floor was poor, being covered with a heavy growth of 
wire-grass, broom grass and low huckleberries. This strip had not 
been burnt in several years, and since the locality was isolated, 
being located in the neck of a small swamp, there was little likeli- 
hood that a fire would interfere in any way with the carrying out 
of the experiment. Boxes, usually two to a tree, had been cut in 
these trees in the previous spring and the trees "worked" for one 
season (1893), so that there were faces twenty inches in height on 
each tree. Those faces were from thirteen to fifteen inches broad. 
Six of these old boxes, with nearly southerly aspects and with faces 
unshaded by surrounding shrubs, were chosen as suitable for our 
purpose. Above each of these old faces two narrower faces (each 
six inches broad) were begun side by side. This method of placing 
the narrow faces gave each pair of them nearly the same aspect, 
and since, so far as could be seen, they were under similar con- 
ditions and of the same breadth, the amount of resin which flowed 
from each should have been the same. Six pairs of these narrow 
contiguous faces were begun above the broad ones on as many 
different trees, care being always taken that both narrow faces of 
any one pair were of the same breadth. 



102 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

The surface of one narrow face of each pair was continuous with 
the surface of the face below, which was hacked during 1893, and 
the turpentine which exuded from the freshly chipped surface of 
this narrow face was allowed to run down the entire surface of the 
old face into the box cut at the foot of the tree. 

Across the base of the other narrow face, which began at the 
upper edge of the old face, a metal gutter was driven into the 
wood. This gutter turned the turpentine into a metal cup which 
hung on a staple beneath it. Chipping was begun on these 
faces April 20th. Both of these narrow faces were hacked at the 
same time and the same number of chips were taken from each 
face, so that the length of both faces was kept equal. Both the 
metal receptacles and the boxes were emptied six times during the 
running season. The turpentine taken from the boxes was such 
yellow dip as is commonly collected from second-year boxes. The 
grade of the turpentine collected in the metal cups was virgin 
dip, exceedingly free from bark, leaves and chips. It will be 
understood, from the fact that each of the narrow faces had a 
breadth of only six inches, that from the six faces in either set 
there should have exuded only about as much turpentine as is 
usually collected from three of the large-size faces, fourteen inches 
broad. 

The net weight of the turpentine collected by all of these boxes 
was 21 pounds; the net weight of that collected by the cups was 
24 pounds and a few ounces; that is, by the use of the cups 
there was a gain of one-seventh in the weight of the dip collected; 
or had the faces been as broad as they are usually made there would 
have been during the summer a gain of one pound to each face. 
The yield of 7 pounds to a box from these picked trees is about 
one-fifth more than the average yield, which is only between d.o 
and 6 pounds to a second-year box. However, this is immaterial. 
What we are after is the percentage of the increased yield collected 
in the metal cups above that of the boxes. This increase was 
about 15 per cent, in favor of the cups. The application of this 
to a crop of turpentine would mean considerable aggregate gain 
and would show more clearly how large the gain really is. 

Working out the increased yield on this basis, i. e., one pound 



THE FRENCH SYSTEM APPLIED IN NORTH CAROLINA. 103 

to each box, there would be a gain of 10,000 pounds of dip to a 
crop of 10,000 boxes, or a gain of 35.8 barrels of dip above the 
250 barrels which 10,000 boxes would have produced had each 
box yielded 7 pounds; or there would be gotten, instead of the 
250 barrels of yellow dip from the boxes, 285.8 barrels of virgin 
dip by use of the cups. The difference in the amount of scrape 
yielded by the two systems was not near so large as the difference 
in the amount of dip. This difference, of course, was in favor of 
the boxes and amounted to less than two pounds from all six of 
the boxes. This loss of a pound or more was due to the loss of 
volatile oil by evaporation and loss of scrape which hardened on 
the old faces. This difference in favor of the boxes would amount 
in a crop to nearly 23.5 barrels of scrape. 

The advantage in favor of the cups, however, lays not only in 
the increased yield in pounds of turpentine, but also in the higher 
grade of product obtained by the cups. The value of the entire 
yield of a crop of 10,000 boxes as determined above would amount, 
at present prices, to about one-fifth more if collected by the cup 
than if collected in the boxes. This difference in value would be 
distributed as follows : 

Value of 285.8 barrels of virgin dip at $1.70 per barrel, $ 485 00 

Value of 250 barrels of yellow dip at $1.50 per barrel $ 375 00 

And value of larger yield of 23.5 barrels of scrape at 

$1.10 per barrel 26 00 401 00 

Difference in favor of cups , $ 84 00 

There is an increase in value amounting to $84, or over 20 per 
cent, gain, even when the cups are substituted in the place of 
second-year boxes, and the rate of increase in value of products 
becomes larger each succeeding year. 

As in the other experiment both cups and boxes were tried on 
first-year faces, of the same length, no difference is expected in the 
result in favor of either system. It was intended, when this experi- 
ment was begun, to move the cups, at the middle of the season, 
up to the top of the face which had at that time been chipped. 
This should have yielded, in the cups, a slightly larger amount of 
dip turpentine than was collected in the boxes, and the grade of 



104 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

that in the cups should have been higher, since the clip turpentine 
collected from first-year boxes is usually classed as yellow dip for 
the last dippings of the season. 

It is expected that these experiments will be continued next season 
(1895) on a larger and even commercial scale to make a further test 
of their adaptability. This will include a test of the cheapest and 
most serviceable collecting cups, the best breadth to make the faces, 
and a trial of different materials for making gutters to ascertain 
their durability and strength. The use of materials with mini- 
mum cost and maximum utility will of course determine the com- 
mercial practicability of the system and it is these subjects which 
it is hoped will be thoroughly investigated during the next year. 

The incomplete results from another experimental trial, in which 
the cups, on first-year faces, were, at the middle of the season, 
moved up so as to be at the top of the face which had so far been 
cut, show a gain in the number of pounds of dip collected even 
larger than that obtained in the preceding trial. As no scrape was 
collected in this trial, from a misunderstanding with the person in 
charge, the weight of the scrape cannot be included. It can be 
said, however, that there was a large difference in the amount of 
scrape on the two sets of faces, much the larger amount of scrape 
having settled on the faces with boxes. 

There were twelve faces in each set. the arrangements being- 
similar to those stated in the above experiment, except that these 
faces were broader — from 7 to 7 J inches — and instead of the faces 
being cut in pairs, one of each kind, they were placed two on each 
tree without regard to their aspect. The net weight of the tur- 
pentine collected from the twelve boxes was 50J pounds, and the 
weight of that collected from the cups was 59 pounds which gives 
a net yield in favor of the cups of 8J pounds, or a gain of over 
16 per cent. Xo difference in the grades was noticed in the tur- 
pentine, both being classed as virgin dip. 

COST OF ADOPTING THE FRENCH SYSTEM. 

The cost of the change from the old French method to the mod- 
ern Hugues system was stated by Desnoyers (chief forest guard of 
the national forests of France) to be about one cent a year for each 



THE FRENCH SYSTEM APPLIED IN NORTH CAROLINA. 105 

tree. To change from the American to the Hugues system it would 
not cost that much, for the cutting and cornering of the boxes, 
allowing two boxes to a tree and 1.4 cents for the cost of each box, 
amounts to nearly three cents for each tree the first year; and by 
the American practice one-fourth of the total yield of turpentine 
for six years is obtained during the first year. In the French 
orchards, on the other hand, the yield is very nearly the same for 
each year. The cups, which are made of glazed earthenware, have 
a hole near the upper rim which can be slipped over a hook or 
staple driven in the tree. Thick galvanized iron makes better 
gutters than zinc, as the former stands driving better and is much 
less injured by atmospheric influences. It is cut in strips four 
inches long and one and one-half inches wide, one of the longer 
sides being cut obliquely to the surface so that it can be easily driven 
into the sap-wood of the pine. 

The above-mentioned facts concerning the tapping of the pine 
in France are taken from Samano's Treatise on the Culture of the 
Maritime Pine; Desnoyers' Tapping of the Maritime Pine; Prof. L. 
Boppe's Forestry, and The Naval Store Industry in the Report of the 
Chief of the Division of Forestry in the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture for 1892. This last mentioned publication has a very clear 
and concise account of the different methods of tapping, with the 
advantages and disadvantages of the different systems, and is well 
illustrated. It can probably be obtained free of charge by any one 
desiring to know more of the merits of the Hugues system and the 
condition of the naval store industry in other parts of the United 
States and in foreign countries. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN EASTERN NORTH 
CAROLINA. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Until within the past two decades the production of lumber in 
eastern North Carolina, except for local use, had been small, owing 
to the great distance from general markets and the limited demand 
for the hard pines. Wilmington, as early as the middle of the 
last century, had considerable trade in long-leaf pine lumber with 
the West Indies and England, and this trade continued in a lim- 
ited way until the first part of the present century, when with the 
use of steam in sawing the output was largely increased. Mr. 
James Sprunt, in his " Information Concerning Wilmington. X. ('.." 
says that the first steam saw-mill established in Wilmington was 
erected on the western side of the Cape Fear river by a person 
named Mazerretti in the year 1818. 

For a great many years after this Wilmington had a large and 
growing trade in lumber with the West Indies, but of late years 
the competition of Savannah, Mobile and Pensacola, which are 
much nearer to these islands, has prevented any farther expansion 
of the industry in that direction. Wilmington has always had a 
large trade in lumber with the Middle and New England States, 
where the long-leaf pine has been largely used in ship-building, etc. 

In the last few years, owing to the increased demand for Southern 
hard pine, the number and capacity of the mills at Wilmington 
have been more than doubled. The logs for supplying this demand 
come from the counties along the Cape Fear, Black and North East 
rivers and their tributaries, along which lie well-timbered cypress, 
long-leaf pine and loblolly pine lands. The territory drained by 
these streams is about 5,000 square miles, over one-fourth of which 
area is timbered with long-leaf pine that can be floated to Wil- 
mington. 

As early as 1830 both Newbern and Washington had large trades 
in long-leaf pine lumber with foreign ports, mostly in the West 






THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IX EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 107 

Indies. By 1860, however, owing to the exhaustion of the long- 
leaf pine in these sections, their trade had ceased, and since that 
time these points have become centers for the production of lob- 
lolly pine lumber. 

Loblolly Pine in the Timber Market. — As the supply of 
long-leaf pine became exhausted north of the Neuse river other 
pines were used in its place, the short-leaf pine being the next used 
and then the loblolly. Iu many sections these latter have always 
been the only pines available for building materials. 

It is only within the past thirty years, however, that the loblolly 
pine has entered the general market in the form of lumber, being 
debarred, previous to that time, because of the fact that so large a 
proportion of it is sap wood. If used where exposed to the weather 
it decayed rapidly, and when used for interior work had to be 
painted, since it "blued" badly. The introduction of dry kilns, 
which enabled the sap to be thoroughly driven from the timber 
and the wood perfectly dried, has given it a wide range of uses. 
Now there is a steady demand for it, as it is extensively used for 
flooring, ceiling and other interior wood-work, and also for exterior 
work, for which latter use it is suitable only when thoroughly dried 
and painted. In the Northeastern States it is being used as a sub- 
stitute for white pine and spruce, and as the better grades of these 
become scarcer and consequently more valuable the demand there 
for loblolly pine lumber increases and the uses to which it is put 
become more varied. 

Since this is the chief timber tree over a large part of the State, it 
has been used for many years, in the section where it is the 
only pine, for building and fencing material. For these domestic 
uses only the largest stocks, and those with the most heart, were 
selected. For the manufacture of kiln-dried flooring and ceiling, 
however, those trees are preferred which have the least heart, since 
the sap wood furnishes a lumber more uniform in quality and color 
than the heart. Lumber made from the sap wood is also lighter 
than that from heart wood and the cost of transportation is less. 
It is marked in the New England and Middle States where it is 
sold under the name of "North Carolina pine," " North Carolina 
sap pine," or "North Carolina kiln-dried pine." 



108 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS, 

There has been a considerable increase in the value of loblolly 
pine stumpage since it has entered the general lumber market. 
Twenty years ago loblolly lands ranged in value from 50 cents to 
$1 per acre, according to situation in relation to transportation 
facilities and density of growth. Land similarly situated and 
timbered now sells from $1 to $5 an acre. Original growth lob- 
lolly lands will cut from 3,500 to 6,000 feet, board measure, to the 
acre ; second growth from a third to a half less. 

STATISTICS OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY. 

The statistics for this report on the saw-mill and forest industries 
of eastern North Carolina were collected in connection with an 
investigation of the timber lands of this section,, which has just 
been completed. It is intended more to show the condition of the 
various branches of the lumber and allied industries, in respect to 
output and supply, than to give a general treatment of the different 
departments of the aggregated interests. In this connection there 
are but imperfect statistics for comparison, these being chiefly esti- 
mates prepared for lumber journals. 

The area treated of embraces forty -three counties, which constitute 
the original " long-leaf pine belt" of North Carolina and to which, 
according to the U. S. Census of 1880, four-fifths of the milling 
interests of the State were at that time confined. In this enumera- 
tion are contained the products of all saw-mills and planing-mills. 
whether operated in connection with saw-mills or as distinct estab- 
lishments, excepting entirely local planing-mills and door, sash 
and blind factories connected with these or distinct. There are in 
this section ten such local planing-mills and blind factories, which 
have an output with an estimated value of between §100,000 and 
$250,000 per annum. In spite of the fact that the latter half of 
the year 1893 was an era of business depression, and consequently 
there was a curtailed output, there is a marked increase shown in 
the value of the output of 1893 over that of both "1890 and 1880, 
according to the census reports for those years. 

The value of rough and remanufactured lumber, including 
shingles, produced in this "long-leaf pine belt" of North Carolina 






THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 109 

for the year ending December 31, 1893, was about $4,559,000. 
For the census year 1880 it was $1,340,000, and for the census 
year 1890 it was, for the entire State, $5,767,687. 

The output for 1893 came from 323 lumber-mills, including 
shingle-mills, with an aggregate capital of $4,690,000. The capital 
reported by the census, for the entire State, in 1890 was $5,319,- 
500, invested in 688 establishments. 

The capital engaged respectively in the manufacture of shingles 
and board cannot be separated, since the manufacture of shingles 
is largely engaged in by mills producing other lumber products. 
The number of mills engaged in the manufacture of lumber was 
281, with an output in 1893 of 455,865,000 feet, board measure, 
valued at about $3,745,000. The number of shingle-mills was 65 
(42 exclusively shingle-mills), with an output of 166,180,000 
shingles, valued at about $813,280. 

OUTPUT OF LUMBER AND SHINGLES. 

The output of lumber and shingles and the capacity of the lum- 
ber and shingle-mills in operation in each county for the year 
ending December 31, 1893, was as follows: 



110 



FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCT* 



Output of Lumber and Shingles, Eastern North Carolina, 189-: 



Lumber. 



Counties. 



<v 

| 
o.S Output in 
fcS 1893, in feet, 
£ | board 
^H measure. 



Yearly ca- 
pacity in 

1893, iii feet, 

board 

measure. 



Output in 
in 1893. 



Yearly 

capacity in 

shingles, 

1893. 



Bladen 

Bertie 

Beaufort 

Brunswick .... 

Camden 

Carteret 

Chowan 

Craven 

Columbus 

Cumberland... 
fCurrituck .... 

Dare 

Duplin 

Edgecombe.... 

Gates 

Green 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Hertford 

Hyde 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lenoir 

Martin 

Montgomery.. 

Moore 

gNash 

New Hanover 
Northampton. 

Onslow 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank.... 
Perquimans .. 

Pitt 

Pender 

Robeson 

Richmond 

Sampson 

Tyrrell 

Washington .. 

Wake 

Wayne 

Wilson 



o 

7 

13 

3 

5 

3 

6 

16 

8 

10 



2,800,000 

1,940,000 

28,350,000 

-2,000,000 

4,500,000 

6,700,000 

24,400,000 

46,700,000 

13,400,000 

10,500,000 



5,400,000 

5,000,000 

35,000,000 

3,500,000 

6,000,000 

8,000,000 

30,000,000 

53,500,000 

24,000,000 

18,000,000 



3,500,000 
3,000,000 
4,000,000 



5,000,000 
5,000,000 
6.000,000 



1,300,000 4,000,000 



3,000,000 
12.300,000 
15,100,000 



4,500,000 
15.800,000 
25,000,000 



o 

6 
9 
6 

11 
5 
5 
4 
5 
7 
5 

13 

10 
3 

30 
6 
8 



7 

13 

6 

10 

5 

12 

12 

9 

3 

6 

9 

6 



*2, 000, 000 

1,800,000 

*2, 850, 000 

2,700,000 

2,300,000 

-8,000,000 

6,800,000 

3,800,000 

6,900,000 

-7,600,000 

2,200,000 

20,300,000 

19,500,000 

2,300,000 

32,320,000 

3,550,000 

36,000,000 

'•5,800,000 

14,500,000 

11,700,000 

22,500,000 

4,900,000 

7,000,000 

900,000 

14,700,000 

12,000.000 

1,670,000 

4,500,000 

34,500,000 

6,000,000 

8,600,000 

1,500,000 



4,005,000 
3,000,000 
4,000,000 
4,500,000 
5,000,000 
14,000,000 
8,500,000 

"io,Oo6)b6o 

13,000,000 

3,000,000 
25,000,000 
30,000,000 

3,000,000 
49,000,000 

4,800,000 
48,000,000 

8,000,000 
16,000,000 
15,800,000 
30,000,000 

7,000,000 
10,000,000 

1,500,000 
18,300,000 
17,500,000 

3,800,000 

6,000,000 
40,000,000 
10,000,000 
10,000,000 

2,800,000 



6,000,000 10,000,000 



1,500,000 

780,0C0 

1,500,000 



3,500.000 
1,600,000 
2^00,000 



2,500,000 
3,000,000 



4.500,000 
4,000,000 



3.700,000 

8,200,000 

15,000,000 



2,000,000 
13,000,000 
19.000,000 



1,900,000 
1,506,060 



4.700,000 



19,500,000 
3,000.000 
3,000,000 
3,300,000 
4,000.000 
1,700,000 
400,000 
7,000,000 

27,200,000 

2,000,000 

300.000 



1,500,000 



3,000.000 
800,000 

23,000.000 
3.900,000 
4.500.000 
4.800.000 
7.000.000 
3,300.000 
950.000 
9.000.000 

32.000.000 
2.800,000 
1,800.000 



Totals. 



323 



452,880,000 | 625,000,000 : 159,180,000 208.150.000 



The figures show the quantity of lumber manufactured in each county rather than the amount 
cut in each. In some cases logs were carried to large mills from several adjoining counties, and 
are here credited to counties where sawn. 

*Partly estimates made by lumbermen. fXo reports made, i Mills destroyed before the end of 
the year. \ Reports incomplete. 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IX EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 



Ill 



The output is at least one-tenth less than it would have been 
under normal trade conditions, since 107 mills, with ah output of 
230,000,000 feet, board measure, reported an average idleness of 
seven weeks. Many mills also that did not shut down consider- 
ably reduced their output during a part of the year. The unprece- 
dented freeze during the month of January, 1893, caused many 
mills dependent upon the water-courses for their supply or opera- 
tion to shut down for several weeks. The output would otherwise 
have been over 500,000,000 feet, 

In the preceding statement the output for the respective counties 
does not necessarily mean that the timber was produced in them, 
but merely that it was manufactured in these counties. Camden, 
Chowan and Perquimans counties now produce but a small pro- 
portion of the timber manufactured in them; it comes from Bertie, 
up the Chowan river, and the counties lying on the southern side 
of Albemarle sound. 

The proportion of timber produced by individual counties is 
more nearly represented by a subsequent table showing the amounts 
of timber and timbered lands held by logging and milling com- 
panies in each county, though there are given no actual figures of 
the production of timber by counties. There are only a few towns 
in the State which have a large annual output, the mills in gen- 
eral being scattered through the timbered districts. 

The relative rank, capital invested, yearly capacity, output and 
value of output of the three producing points, for 1893, were as 
follows: 



Capital, Output, etc., at Different Lumber Markets in Eastern North Carolina, 1893. 



Towns. 




No. of es- 
tablish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Output for 
1893, feet, 
board meas- 
ure. 

36,000,000 
38,000,000 

21,000,000 


Yearly ca- 
pacity. 

48,000.000 
51,000,000 
27,000,000 


Value of out- 
put, iso:;. 


Wilmington 

Xewbern+ 


1 

•> 
3 


8 
9 

< 


*5:;o,000* 
385,000 
165,000 


8425, 000 1 
:!50,000 
188,000 


Washington 



*Not full, partly based on a bulletin of the U. S. Census of 1890. 
tPartly taken from the custom-house records of Wilmington. 
{Includes James Cit\-. a village on the opposite side of the Trent river, 



112 



FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 



The apparent disproportion between capital and value of output 
in the various statements is due to the different extent to which 
remanufacturing is carried at different places. Wilmington, too, 
largely increased during 1893 the capital engaged there in milling, 
but not sufficiently early in the year to increase the output in like 
ratio. The output of no shingle-mills or remanufacturing establish- 
ments except such as are connected with lumber-mills is included 
in the above. Elizabeth City and Edenton, with twelve mills, had 
a combined output of 38,000,000 feet, board measure, and 21,000,000 
shingles. The shingles made in these places were largely from 
juniper or white cedar; the lumber was chiefly made from the lob- 
lolly pine. All except a small part of the output of Wilmington 
was from long-leaf pine, that of Newbern and Washington was 
largely loblolly pine, less than five per cent, being long-leaf The 
Aberdeen district in Moore county, and the western part of Cum- 
berland county produced in 1893 over 31,000,000 feet of long-leaf 
pine. 

LUMBER PRODUCT FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES OF TREES. 

The output in eastern North Carolina, 1893, of lumber and 
shingles was distributed according to kind of tree as follows: 

Lumber Product from Different Kinds of Trees, 1893. 



Kind of Timber. 



Lumber, thou- 
sand feet, Shingles, 
board measure. 



Loblolly pine* 

Loug-leaf pine 

Cypress 

Juniper (white cedar). 

Ash.' 

Yellow poplarf 



288,090 
148,600 
6,275 
6,300 
5,000 
2,400 



10,300.000 

111,680,000 

44.200,000 



*The savanna and short-leaf pine were sawn along- with the loblolly and not distinguished froni 
it, so there was no way of getting any accurate information about the quantity* of these that was 
sawn. The savanna pine formed a large part of the material sawn at some mills in the extreme east, 
but there was no appreciable amount of short-leaf pine sawn except aloug the western bouudar%- 
of the pine belt. Loblolly pine was reported as beiug sawn in thirty-three counties, and in twenty 
of these no long-leaf pine was sawn. Long-leaf pine was sawn in twentj'-one counties and entirely 
sawn to the exclusion of the loblolly pine in six counties. The counties which produced the most lob- 
lolly pine were Beaufort, Bertie, Columbus, Craven, Dare, Gates, Halifax, Hertford, Jones. Lenoir. 
Martin, Onslow, Perquimans and Washington. Those which produced the most long-leaf pine 
were Cumberland, Moore. Richmond, Sampson and Robeson counties. 

-{-Including small quantities of persimmon, sweet-gum. oak and dogwood. 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 



113 



Of the above amounts of lumber sawn there were 138,420,000 
feet remanufactured at the mills, of which 101,420,000 feet were of 
loblolly pine and 37,000,000 feet were long-leaf pine. Besides this 
it is estimated that there were 45,000,000 feet of both kinds remanu- 
factured at separate establishments in Moore, Richmond and Per- 
quimans counties. 

The amount of lumber used locally, including that shipped to 
other points in North Carolina, was 79,200,000 feet, of which 
52,000,000 feet was long-leaf pine lumber. It seems that long-leaf 
pine lumber is much more widely used in the State than that made 
from the loblolly pine. This is because the long-leaf pine timber 
lasts so much longer than that of other pines when used in exposed 
situations, as is generally the case in this State. Most of the lob- 
lolly pine used in North Carolina is sawn in the counties where it is 
used. What is exported goes to the Northeastern States, about the 
same amount going by rail as by water. The long-leaf pine lum- 
ber, except that from Wilmington, goes to Virginia, Pennsylvania, 
and other interior States. That from Wilmington goes to coast- 
wise ports and to the West Indies. 

T.UMBKR SHIPMENTS FROM WILMINGTON. 

The total shipments of lumber, the foreign exports and the value 
of the latter, from Wilmington for the years 1873, 1883 and each 
year of the past decade were as follows: 

Quantity and Value of Lumber Shipped from Wilmington, 1873-93. 



Year. 



*Total 

ship- 
ments of 
lumber, 
feet, b. m. 



fTotal for- 
eign ex- 
ports of 
lumber, 

feet, b. m. 



1873 19,517,768 j 6,920,171 

1883 '40,281,158 9,074,077 

1884 37,076,042 15,319,000 

1885 35,956,829 114,912,000 

1886 '39,512,249 9,053,000 

1887 1 11,190,000 



t Value of 
foreign 

exports of 
lumber. 



232,537 
238,983 
145,968 
174,121 



Year. 



*Total 

ship- 
ments of 
lumber, 
feet, b. m. 



1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 



41,067,686 
3(5,679,509 
40,289,205 
40,065,567 
29,580,160 
25,874,331 



fTotal for- 
eign ex- 

V ort * ° f exportsof 
lumber, | { J h 

feet, b. m. 



it Value of 
foreign 



13,019,000 $190,681 



10,695,000 
13,824,000 
17,532,000 
12,224,000 
13,244,000 



172,487 
212,094 
287,448 
174,446 
175,699 



♦From the records of the Wilmington Board of Trade. For the compilation of these figures and 
others obtained from these records the Survey is indebted to Col. J. t,. Cantwell, Secretary of the 
Wilmington Board of Trade. These figures indicate the number of feet in board measure. 

tFrom the custom-house records. 



114 



FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 



PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OF SHINGLES. 

The greater part of the sawn cypress shingles, and all of the 
first-class white cedar (juniper) shingles manufactured in the State. 
have been exported. The greater part of the pine shingles have 
been used locally. Wilmington was the only point in the State 
that has shipped any shingles to foreign ports. It also had a large 
domestic trade. The total exports of shingles from Wilmington, 
the foreign exports, and the value of the foreign exports for the 
years 1873, 1883, and each year of the past decade are shown by 
the following table: 

Quantity and Value of Shingles Exported from Wilmington, 1878-93. 



Year. 


Total Exports. 


■ 
Domestic Ex- 
ports. 


Foreign Exports 


Value of For- 
eign Exports. 


1873 


6,338,836 
6,635,851 


3,960,580 
4,748,951 


2,378,256 


«. 


1883 


1,886.900 
3,630,000 




1884 


10,140,707 


6,510,707 


18,936 


1885 


7,191,335 


3,894,335 


3,297,000 


IS, 936 


1886 


9,265,560 


7,677,560 


1,589,000 


8,749 


1887 


5,726,453 


3,499,453 


2,227,000 


11,750 


1888 


6,663,950 


2,622,950 


4,041,000 


21,125 


1889 


7,316,912 


• 3,593,912 


3,723,000 


17.946 


1890 


8,935,064 


5,305,064 


3,630,000 


19,249 


1891 


5,958,520 


3,732,520 


2,226.000 


12,930 


1892 


10,274,329 


7,358,329 


2.916,000 


15,519 


1893 


18,167,500 


6,314,500 


1,853,000 


9,806 



Much the larger part of the shingles shipped from Wilmington 
are hand-drawn or rived cypress shingles. These are made entirely 
in the surrounding counties, especially those along the Cape Fear 
river. The making of drawn shingles, both from cypress and long- 
leaf pine, is an industry that has rapidly declined during the past 
decade. Estimates given by shingle dealers at Wilmington. New- 
bern and Washington, and smaller places along the seaboard, show 
a falling off in the production of one-half or more since 1880. 
This falling off is largely due to the fact that the supply of the 
best quality of cypress which could be easily reached in the swamps 
has been in a measure exhausted. The number of rived pine and 
cypress shingles estimated to have been made last year (1893 s ) was 
22,800,000, valued at about $55,000. 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 115 
CAPITAL INVESTED IN THE LUMBER INDUSTRY. 

The capital reported as invested in milling was $4,690,000. 
This was engaged as follows : In milling plants, stock and live assets, 
$3,471,100; in timber lands, $817,432; in railroads and rolling- 
stock, $408, 800. Seventy-four establishments reported that they 
owned or controlled 630,700 acres of timbered land. Of this 
298,700 acres were loblolly pine lands, 219,200 acres were white 
cedar (juniper) swamp, 89,800 acres cypress and gum swamps, and 
24,000 acres long-leaf pine lands. About 300,000 acres of this, 
including the cypress and white cedar land, is owned, and the rest 
is controlled for a limited number of years. 

The registers of deeds of ten counties reported $1 58, 934 
invested in timber lands in their respective counties, by logging 
or milling companies of other States. This represented 114,995 
acres of land. The swamp land amounted to 51,230 acres and 
the loblolly pine lands to 63,765 acres. In this connection was 
also reported 20,000,000 feet of standing loblolly pine, valued at 
$22,000. This was situated in dates, Hertford and other north- 
eastern counties. Bulletin No. 5 of the U. S. Census of 1890 
reported 111,418 acres of yellow pine and cypress land, with an 
estimated total product of 953,770,000 feet, board measure, of 
merchantable timber, and a value of $346,885, to be owned in North 
Carolina by milling establishments located in Michigan and Wis- 
consin. 

The $408,800 invested in railroads and rolling stock represents 
eighteen roads, with 194 miles of track and their necessary equip- 
ment. Besides this there are eight railroads exclusively or largely 
engaged in handling lumber and timber, which had 96 miles of 
track, and were taxed in 1893 on a valuation of $256,300. 

The capital reported as invested by millmen in lumbering does 
not by any means represent the total amount of capital engaged 
directly or indirectly in milling. Forty-two establishments reported 
171,800,000 feet, board measure, of their logs as having been 
brought to the mills by outside capital. This is 31 per cent, of all 
the logs brought to the mills. The number of persons engaged in 
handling this timber, taking them to be 45 per cent, of those 
engaged in logging, in the employment of the mills, was 1,300. 



116 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

This, with the total number reported as employed by milling 
companies in logging, makes 2,800 engaged in this branch of the 
industry. The total number of hands reported as employed in the 
entire industry, in handling the material from the stump to the 
finished product, was 8,320. 

The rafting of timber to the mills is done by farm laborers during 
the dull seasons of the year. The price paid at the mills for this 
timber is from $3.75 to $5 a thousand feet, board measure, for 
loblolly pine, and from $3 to $6 for cypress and ash, according to 
the quality of the timber and situation of the mill. Long-leaf 
pine brings the same prices as loblolly pine. 

THE PRODUCTION OF DUMBER IN NORTH CAROLINA IN 1893. 

Exports of Crude Lumber. — There were operating in North 
Carolina in 1893 three timber companies, with a capital of §40,000, 
reported as engaged in logging for establishments in other States. 
During the year 1893 there were exported by these and other logging 
and milling companies logs amounting to about 110,000,000 feet, 
board measure, to establishments in other States. This amount 
exported was nearly one-fourth the entire amount manufactured 
in the State. It consisted mostly of loblolly pine, with some 
cypress, and had an estimated value in raft in this State of $500,- 
000. It went out by way of the Chowan river, and through the 
Dismal swamp canals and partly by rail. This timber was manu- 
factured chiefly at Franklin, Whaleyville, Suffolk and in the 
vicinity of Norfolk, Ya. Besides this there was exported 9,800 
cords of white cedar billets, valued at $62,000, chiefly to Philadel- 
phia, Richmond and Norfolk. This, however, cannot begin to 
represent the total amount shipped, since the white cedar was 
shipped in small amounts from a great many different places, so 
that but little knowledge could be gained from these sources about 
the amounts shipped and their value. 

Recent Growth of the Lumber Industry. — An endeavor was 
made to ascertain the increase of capital invested in milling and the 
increase in output since 1890, and also to find the amount of increase 
during 1893. While the number of new plants erected since 1890 
was gotten, the capital invested in those that had stopped run- 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 



117 



ning or indefinitely suspended, and their annual output, could 
not be accurately ascertained. The following table represents, 
however, very nearly the increase since 1890 in capital, annual 
shingle and board capacity for mills sawing long-leaf and loblolly 
pine and cypress lumber: 

Increase Since 1890 in Capital and Productive Capacity of Lumber Mills. 





New Estab- 
lishments. 


Capital In- 
vested. 


Board Ca- 
pacity, 
in feet. 


Capacity 
in Shingles. 


Loblolly pine and Cypress 

Long-leaf pine 


18 
14 


$1,011,300 
73,000 


85,000,000 
28,000,000, 


38,000,000 
2,000,000 




Totals 


32 


$1,084,300 


113,000,000 


40,000,000 



It was also ascertained that in this same time about twenty 
plants, with an annual output of 25,000,000 feet, had ceased run- 
ning. The above increase in loblolly pine mills lay largely in 
Washington, Onslow, Martin, Lenoir, Halifax, Craven, Colum- 
bus and New Hanover counties, and in long-leaf mills in Moore, 
Nash and Cumberland counties. 

The total increase in capital for the year 1893 was $392,000, 
and in yearly capacity was 46,000,000 feet. 

There was besides this an increase for 1893 of twenty miles of 
logging railroad, valued, with the rolling stock, at $80,000. 



MISCELLANEOUS WOOD-WORKING INDUSTRIES. 

There are several minor industries in eastern North Carolina 
which are largely or entirely dependent upon timber for their 
products and which annually consume large amounts of timber or 
wood. 

One of the most important of these industries is that engaged 
in the manufacture of cooperage. The stock establishments engaged 
in the manufacture of cooperage in North Carolina during 1893 
are situated chiefly in the eastern part of the State, and included 
three barrel factories making truck barrels and boxes, with an 
output of 53,000 barrels and 1,790,000 staves, valued at $22,000; 
two bucket factories using white cedar; and a great number of 



118 FORESTS. FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

small cooperage concerns engaged in making casks for spirits tur- 
pentine from oak. and barrels for rosin and crude turpentine from 
pine. The barrels for truck were made partly from pine ' ; slabs." 
with wire hoops, and partly from black-gum staves with cypress 
hoops and yellow poplar heads. 

Besides this there was a large amount of cooperage material, 
staves, headings and hoops, manufactured in Washington. Dare 
and other north-eastern counties from cypress and white cedar. 
The census for the year 1890 reports that there were that year 
eighty-three establishments manufacturing cooperage in North 
Carolina, with a capital of §34.542 and an output valued at 
8111.925. 

There are a number of special manufactories in the State, includ- 
ing veneer works, spoke and handle factories, etc., using nothing 
but wood in the manufacture of their products, or largely dependent 
on wood. The character and extent of these manufacturing estab- 
lishments and the practicability of increase in the State will be 
made the subject of a special Bulletin to be published by the Sur- 
vey at an early date. 

PRODUCTION OF TIMBER OTHER THAN MILL TIMBER. 

■'Ton Timber. : " — The forests of eastern North Carolina once 
furnished a large quantity of very valuble pine stocks of excep- 
tionally large size and superior quality, under the name of -'ton 
timber, 7 ' which were used in naval architecture, and for other pur- 
poses requiring extra large strong timbers. These stocks came 
from both the loblolly and long-leaf pines, the former furnishing 
the longest and largest pieces. The finest trees for these uses have 
been removed wherever accessible, and though some of these stock> 
are still gotten out each year their size is not so large and their 
quality is not so high as formerly. 

During recent years the largest of these stocks have come from 
up the Cape Fear river, being that growth of loblolly known as 
rosemary pine. They are procured here and there, only a few at 
a place, in separate localities, by a number of contractors, so that 
reliable information as to the amount of production could not be 
obtained. However, at least 20,000 feet, scale measure, were 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 119 

exported last year to coastwise and to European ports. A larger 
quantity of this timber was shipped from Wilmington than from 
any other point. 

Railroad Ties. — One of the most constant demands for the 
best heart pine and young white and post oaks is for making rail- 
road cross-ties. The eastern part of this State not only furnishes 
all the timber required for the construction and maintenance of its 
own lines of railroads, but annually exports several thousand cross- 
ties to other States. There are about 400,000 cross-ties required 
yearly to maintain the existing lines of railroad. Of these 400,000 
ties about one-half are all-heart long-leaf pine, and average about 
7J feet long by 9 inches broad and 6 inches thick, each containing 
about 3 cubic feet of wood. The oak ties are larger, especially 
broader, and are being used more than formerly. There are some 
cypress and a few white cedar ties in use, and on some roads lob- 
lolly pine ties are used. The average price paid for hewn ties is 
about 22 cents each. As near as could be ascertained there were 
22,000 white cedar and cypress, and 30,000 pine ties, exported 
during the year 1893. 

Telegraph Poles, etc. — These are cut from both cypress and 
white cedar woods. About 7,000 poles are annually required for 
use in this State, and besides this about 12,000 white cedar tele- 
graph and electric light poles, valued at about $27,000, were 
shipped during 1893. The requirements for such white cedar 
poles usually are that they shall have few knots in them, and very 
few are cut under 14 inches in diameter at the larger end, so that 
the finest stocks are required to make them. It would be advisable 
for more care to betaken of juniper "bays" and swamps after they 
have been lumbered. Their soil is generally too peaty to be used 
for agricultural purposes, so that the only real use to which these 
lands can be put is to let grow on them the young white cedar left 
after they are cut over. Precaution should be taken to prevent 
these swamps from being burnt over, during dry seasons, as the 
forest fires not only destroy the young growth of white cedar, but 
also burn the thin layer of organic matter, consisting of sphagnum, 
peat and buried cedar logs, clear down to the sand subsoil, and 
thus destroy the possibility of a future supply of this timber. 



120 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

The Production of Oak Staves. — From 1840 until 1880 there 
were annually made in the north-eastern counties many thousand 
white and red oak staves. During the last fifteen vears, however, 
this industry has declined to a very small part of what it once was. 
Staves were very largely shipped from Beaufort county to the West 
Indies, prior to 1860. "Red oak staves" made from black, scarlet, 
water and Spanish oaks were preferred for this trade ; while for the 
European trade, which went by way of Norfolk, New York or 
Baltimore, "white oak staves" were preferred. The latter were 
made from white oak, post oak and overcup oak. Between 1868 
and 1880 the counties around Albemarle sound produced large 
numbers of staves, but the practical exhaustion of the best acces- 
sible oak has largely reduced their output. Nash county now pro- 
daces a considerable number of oak staves, and this is the onhy 
county in the eastern section of the State that does. Further west, 
however, large quantities of such staves are made in the upland oak 
forests which extend through the middle and western parts of the 
State to Tennessee. 

AGGREGATE value of. the forest products of eastern north 

CAROLINA. 

The values of all the timber and lumber products of eastern 
North Carolina for 1893 may be said to have been as follows: 

Value of lumber, including sawn shingles S1,558,2S0 

" round timber exported 562,000 

" "tun" and hewn timber exported 12,000 

" railroad ties produced 110,000 

" telegraph and electric light poles 

' ' hand-made shingles 

" products of special manufactories (U. S. Census, 1890), 

" cooperage products (U. S. Census, 1890) 



Total, 





27 


,000 




OO 


,000 




131,055 




111 


,925 


$5 


,567 


.260 



To this amount can be added the value of all resinous products, 
which amounted, in 1893, to $1,752,760 ; and we have as the approxi- 
mate market value of the forest products for eastern North Caro- 
lina in 1893, $7,320,020. This does not show the real total value 
of the forest products of this section, since practically all the 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IX EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 121 

fencing material is wood, and over nine-tenths of the fences are 
made from rails manufactured on the farms and not included in 
the above amounts. Neither is there included in the above any of the 
fire-wood, which constitutes nearly all of the fuel used in this sec- 
tion, both for manufacturing and domestic purposes. The value 
of the fencing cut up, and the cord wood in piles, would amount 
to considerably over $4,500,000 a year, for the quantity of both 
consumed in eastern North Carolina, and this added to the value 
of the other products, makes an aggregate value of about $12,000,000 
for the forest products of this section, for one year. This makes 
the forest industry one of the largest in the State. The cotton crop 
of the entire State had in 1890 a value about equal to this amount. 

RECENT TIMBER DEVELOPMENTS, AND THE OUTLOOK. 

The tendency of the lumber industry in North Carolina is towards 
larger establishments, turning out at the mills as highly finished 
a product as possible, such as flooring, ceiling, moulding, etc. The 
wisdom of this course is fully sustained by the fact that there were 
in these eastern counties, in 1880, 306 establishments, which had 
an output valued at $1,340,000 ; while in 1893 there were only 
323 establishments, with an output of $4,559,000. There are now 
in operation nine band saws, five of which have been put in since 
1890; and the change from circular to band saws is being contem- 
plated by several other establishments, since there is a saving in 
them, not only of motive power, but also a great saving of timber. 

Most large mills which will be built in the future, at least those 
for sawing loblolly pine, will be furnished with band saws. 

The next ten years will probably show a much greater increase 
in milling than the past decade, and a very much larger develop- 
ment of the loblolly pine and hardwood industry. There are 
several counties in which the loblolly pine has as yet no commer- 
cial value, and in which it is only sawn in small quantities for local 
use. The fact that the mills using this kind of timber, and owning 
timber land, reported over 2,000,000,000 feet in sight, insures them 
sufficient material for many years to come. Besides this, the area 
still unlumbered and not controlled by lumber men, must have 

at least twice as much standing timber on it as was reported by 

8 



122 FORESTS, FOREST LANDS AND FOREST PRODUCTS. 

millmen for their lands. This does not include any regrowth 
which is now occupying areas already lumbered. 

USES OF THE IMPORTANT WOODS IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 

The long-leaf pine serves for more uses than any other tree of 
this section. Its largest uses are for heavy building material for 
houses, bridges, trestles and other places where great strength and 
length of timber are required; for tank plank, flooring, ceiling, 
weather-boarding, shingles, railroad cross-ties, and filing. Its 
special qualities as a wood are not yet sufficiently understood by 
consumers, and it is put to a great many uses to which an inferior 
and weaker timber might as well be applied. Its use as tank 
plank is one to which it has only lately been extensively put. but 
one to which it is well adapted on account of its durability. It is 
extensively used for fencing and posts, and in the form of split 
rails, throughout all the south-eastern section of this State. 

The loblolly pine is manufactured chiefly into flooring and ceil- 
ing, and to some extent into scantling for frame work, bridge timber, 
etc. For the last uses the wood is not so well suited as that of 
the long-leaf pine, though it is extensively used when the long- 

© 1 © t> © 

leaf cannot be gotten. Railroad cross-ties are made from it in the 
north-eastern counties, but they decay rapidly, since they are 
largely or entirely of sap wood, and are in contact with a soil 
unusually damp during the greater part of the year. 

The short-leaf and savanna pines have the same uses as the lob- 
lolly, though the wood of both trees is different from that of the 
loblolly. The loblolly pine is also largely used for fencing. 

The yellow poplar is manufactured into boards for box stuff, and 
some of the best quality of lumber into furniture squares. The 
poplar of the eastern swamps, however, is of an inferior quality 
when compared with that from the western part of the State, and . 
can only be put to secondary uses. It makes excellent fencing. 

Ash is sawn into furniture squares, banister and newel post 
pieces, and some of the lower grades of wood into boards. Barrel 
hoops are extensively made from it. Like the poplar its quality 
is not as high as the ash from the western counties. 

White cedar (juniper) is now recognized as one of the most 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 123 

valuable woods of the eastern United States, and decidedly the 
most valuable in the eastern part of North Carolina, where it has a 
large and constantly increasing number of uses. It is employed 
for making cooperage ware, pails, tubs, railroad tank plank and 
boat plank, shingles, sashes, railroad ties, telegraph and telephone 
poles and for fencing. All of these services to which it is put are 
based on the property it possesses of withstanding exposure to 
moisture, or alternate wetting and drying, and its small shrinkage. 
In this State it is also used in the manufacture of cheap furniture, 
and is said to be particularly suited for such, being easily worked, 
shrinking very little, and being light. 

Cypress is largely used for shingles, and in other ways in which 
white cedar is used. Besides, on account of its great size, wide 
paneling, wainscoting and building material, sashes, blinds, 
exterior mouldings, and other wood- work exposed to the weather, 
are made from it. The poorer quality wood, where it is worm- 
eaten and "peggy," is sawn into fence boards. 

The uses reported for the other woods were very few, and indeed 
very little of them is being sawn. Some sweet-gum is sawn into 
lumber for making furniture, but it warps so badly that it is dif- 
ficult, even when kiln-dried at once, to get good boards for ship- 
ment. A use for which it is well adapted is to make veneer ware, 
butter and lard dishes, crates, small baskets, etc., and it is being 
largely employed in such manufactures in the eastern section. 
For making the veneer, the gum logs are cut to a uniform length, 
steamed thoroughly to soften the wood, placed in a large turning 
lathe the chisel of which takes off a thin sheet of wood as broad 
as the log is long. The chisel is moved automatically nearer to 
the center of the log with each revolution of the latter to make the 
sheet taken off of a uniform thickness. These sheets are then cut 
to size and pressed or bent into the shape desired, and steam-dried 
to prevent any warping. 

The black-gum is being used for making staves and crates for use 
in trucking, for which uses manufacturers say it is well suited, not 
being heavy, and about the cheapest materia] that can be gotten. 

Several thousand feet of maple was reported by one company 
among their products as being sawn for use in finishing the interior 
of railroad cars. 



INDEX. 



PACE. 

Acreage of loblolly pine 41 

merchantable loblolly 

pine 41 

Action necessary for forest preserva- 
tion 71 

Andropogon tener 48 

virginicus 61 

Area considered in report 14 

Aristida stricta 43 

Beaufort county 28, 110 

Bertie county 82, 110 

Big swamp 85 

Bladen county, 35, 45, 79, 86, 87, 89, 110 

Boxed pines, fertility of. 53 

often blown down by the 

wind-storms 92 

Boxing, American system of. 94 

weakens the tree 92 

Broom grass 43 

Brunswick county, 24, 25, 49, 79, 86, 87, 

89, 110 

Camden county 30, 110 

Carteret county 27, 110 

Cashie creek 32 

Cedar, red, occurrence of 26 

white (juniper) 114, 123 

Census, V. S., statistics from, 6o, 60, 76, 
78, 84, 108, 115 

Chatham county 39 

Chowan county 29, 110 

river 31 

Colonial turpentine products 78 

Columbus county, 25, 49, 79, 87, 89, 110 

Contentnea creek 33 

Craven county 27, 89, 110 

Cronly, J. M., information furnished 

by 82 

Crude turpentine (see turpentine). 
Cumberland county, 36, 47, 79, 86, 87, 

89, 90, 110 

Currituck countv 30, 110 

Cypress. 17, 114, 123 

in Bertie county 82 

Bladen county 35 

Brunswick county 24 

Columbus county 25 

Craven county 27 

Dismal swamp 30 

I )upli n county 25 

Greene county 33 

Jones county 28 

Northampton county 38 

Onslow countv 26 



PAGE. 

Cypress in Pamlico county 28 

peninsula 29 

Pender county 26 

Robeson county 35 

Sampson county 37 

lands owned by Michigan mill- 
men 66 

manufactures of 112 

merchantable 40, 42 

uses of 123 

Dare county 29, 110 

Decrease in naval store products.. .76, 80 

turpentine production 80 

amount of standing pine..42 

Density of forests 65, 70 

Destination of naval store exports 82 

Destruction of young pines 57 

Dismal swamp 30 

Distribution of pines 18 

Dover swam p 27 

Dunes, sand, moving 23, 50 

Duplin county... 25, 50, 79, 86, 87, 89, 90, 

110 

Edgecombe countv 33, 110 

Errata .". 128 

Exhaustion of forests 66 

turpentine orchards. ...90 
Exports of naval stores from Wilming- 
ton 81, 82, 84 

lumber from Wilmington, 

113, 114 

Eires, damage by 67, 90 

produce waste lands 51 

destroy pine seedlings....55, 57, 61 

Forest lands of Beaufort county 28 

Bertie county 32 

Bladen county 35 

Brunswick county 24 

Camden county 30 

Carteret county 27 

Chowan county 29 

Chatham county 39 

Colum bus county 25 

Craven county 27 

Cumberland county ...36 

Currituck county 80 

Dare county 29 

Duplin county ...26 

Edgecombe county 8)3 

Gates countv 81 

Greene county 32 

I lal i fa x county 8.8 

Harnett countv 36 



126 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Forest lands of Hertford county 31 

Hyde county 29 

Johnston county 34 

Jones county...! 27 

Lenoir county 34 

Martin county 32 

Montgomery county... 39 

Moore county 37 

Nash county 39 

New Hanover county. ..36 
Northampton county, 38 

Onslow county 26 

Pamlico county 28 

Pamlico peninsula 29 

Pasquotank county 29 

Pender county 25 

Perquimans county 30 

Pitt county 32 

Richmond county 37 

Robeson county 34 

Sampson county 37 

Tyrrell county 29 

Wake county 39 

Washington county. ...29 

Wayne county 33 

AViison county 33 

products of eastern North Caro- 
lina 120 

value of 12, 120 

regions 22 

Forestry, meaning of __. 63 

in European countries 64 

Forests, cost of securing 60 

damages to by tire 11, 67, 90 

hogs 57 

exhaustion of. 66 

growth of in eastern North 

Carolina 14 

growth of pine barrens. ...14, 44 
investigation of bv the Sur- 
vey 9, 13 

necessity for 59, 64 

of Washington 65 

young growth of 61 

French system of tapping pines 96 

turpentine system, cost of 104 

experiments 
with.... 100 

Gates cou n ty 31 

Georgia pine 16 

Greene county 32 

Gums, black and sweet 25, 28, 123 

Halifax county 38 

Harnett county 36 

Hertford county 31 

Heart pine 16 

History of naval store industry 73 

lumber industry 106 

Hogs, pines destroyed by 57 

Holly Shelter swamp 26 

Hyde county 29 



PAGE. 

Increase of naval store industry 16 

Johnston county 34 

Jones county 27 

Juniper (see cedar) 17 

Kerr (W. C), quoted 50 

Kidder's (Edward) estimate of stand- 
ing pine, 1880 42 

Laborers employed in naval store in- 
dustry 78 

lumber indus- 
try 115, 116 

Lenoir county 34 

Live oak, occurrence of 15, 36 

Loblolly pine, cut per acre 41 

distribution of 20 

entire acreage of 41 

in each county (see sep- 
arate counties). 

lumber industry 107 

names of 16, 107, 112 

rapidity of its growth... 41 

regions 23, 31 

stum page 108 

Long-leaf pine, destruction of. 55 

distribution of. 18 

enemies of. 56 

fires in 58 

forests, value of 69 

growth of seedling 56 

lumber industry, his- 
tory of... 106,* 11 2, 117 

merchantable 42 

masts 61, 62 

names 16 

protection of 61 

rate of growth of 67 

seeding 53 

seedlings 55 

standing 42 

young growth of. 61 

Lumber industry, capital invested in, 115 

history of. 106 

increase of, 9, 116, 117. 
121 

statistics of. 108 

local consumption of 113 

production of in North Caro- 
lina 116 

shipments of from Wilming- 
ton 113 

Lutterlow (Thos.), referred to 77 

Martin county 32 

Masts, frequency of 62 

Merchantable long-leaf pine 42 

loblolly pine 41 

short-leaf pine 41 

timber in Eastern North 

Carolina 42 

Michigan millmen, southern timber^ 

lands OAvned by 66 

Mills, lumber (see lumber). 



INI) K X 



127 



PAGE. 

Milling statistics 115 

Montgomery county 39 

Moore con nly 37 

Mud swamps, growth in 15 

Nash con n ty 39 

Naval stores, exported from Wilming- 
ton 74 

history of industry 73 

statistics of 78, 79, 80 

production in North Car- 
olina 84 

uses of 68 

values of. 84 

Neuse river 33 

Newbern, naval store industry at 76 

lumber industry at Ill 

New Hanover county 36 

Nomenclature of trees 16 

Northampton county 38 

North Carolina pine 17, 107, 117 

sap pine 17 

Pam lico county 28 

peninsula 29 

Pasquotank county 30 

Pee Dee river 37 

Pender county 25, 79, 86, 87, 89, 110 

Perquimans county 30 

Pine 16 

barren region . . . . 24, 34 

barrens 34 

management of. 63 

fires in 58 

lands owned by millmen (\6, 115 

loblolly (see loblolly pine), 
long-leaf (see long-leaf pine). 

Pinus australis (see long-leaf pine) 16 

echinata 17 

palustris (see long-leaf pine) 16 

serotina (see savanna pine), 
taeda (see loblolly pine). 
Pitch (see tar). 

made from tar 73 

Pitt county 32, 110 

Plank roads 77 

Pocosin pine (see savanna pine) 17 

Poplar, yellow 112, 123 

Railroads, logging in North Carolina, 115 

Railroad ties, production of 119 

Richmond county. ..37, 49, 79, 86, 87, 89, 

110 

Roanoke river 32, 38 

Robeson county 34, 49, 86, 87, 89, 90, 

110 

Rosemary pine 17, 35, 20 

(see loblolly pine). 

Rosin, at Fayetteville 77 

destination of exports of. 82 

exports of 81 

grades made 83 

low price, of 74 

production in North Carolina, 78, 



PAGE. 

Rosin, production in North Carolina, 80 
United States.... 78 

shipped to Wilmington 79 

north direct 79 

value of production of. .80 

yield by counties IS) 

Round timber, acreage of. 89 

Sampson county.. ..37, 47, 79, S6, 87, 89, 

110 

Savanna pine 17 

distribution of 22 

in Carteret county 27 

Craven county 27 

Dismal swamp 30 

Virginia 31 

me rchantable 41 

Second growth pine, character of 70 

value of 70 

Seaboard region 23, 24 

Short-leaf pin e 16 

distribution of 21 

merchantable 41 

in Chatham county. ...39 
Montgomery county, 39 

Nash county 39 

Wake county 40 

Shingles, exported from Wilmington, 114 

manufactures of 114 

Slash pine 21 

Soils of eastern North Carolina 14 

swamp lands 15 

the sand-hill regions 59 

upland regions 43 

Spirits of turpentine (see turpentine). 

Sprunt (James), quoted 106 

Standing timber in eastern Nortn Car- 

lina 40 

Staves 29 

production of 120 

Storms, damage to timber bj^ 92 

Strength of boxed trees 99 

Swamp lands, area of 15 

growth in 15 

of Beaufort county 28 

Brunswick county... 24 

Craven county 27 

Carteret county 27 

Duplin county. 25 

(lutes county 31 

Jones county 27 

Onslow county 26 

Pamlico county 28 

Pender county 25 

Robeson county :)^ 

Sampson county 37 

soilsof 15 

Tar, colonial manufacture of 73 

converted into pitch 73 

exports of 74 

production of in North Carolina, 84 
United States 74 



128 



INDEX 



Telegraph poles, production of 119 

Topography of eastern North Carolina, 14 

Transition region 24, 38 

Tun timber, production of 118 

Tupelo gum, distribution of 31 

Turpentine, American method of col- 
lecting 94 

crude, exports from North 

Carolina 73 

exports from Wil- 
mington 76 

production of ...76, 

77, 80 

markets for 81 

usesof 81 

French methods of col- 
lecting 96 

orchards 93 

additions to 87 

decreasing area 

of 90 

destruction... 90, 

92, 93 
of S'th'n States, 77 

value of 68 

spirits, exports of. 81 

production of in 

N. C 78, 80 

production of in 

U. S 78 

shipments of... .79, 83 
shipped to Wil- 
mington 93 

value of produc- 
tion in N.C 80 

yield by counties, 79 

Tyrrell county 29, 110 

ITwharie mountains, timber of 39 



PAGE. 

Uses of woods 122 

Virgin dip 95 

Wake countv 39, 89, 110 

Washington'county 29, 110, 117 

Washington, production of naval 

stores at. ...74 
lumber at. Ill 

Waste lands, area of 11, 70 

conclusions concerning, 71 

growth of 51 

origin of 51 

protection demanded for, 

61 
policy necessary for, 63, 71 

restocking 60 

utility of 59 

Wayne county '.49, 79, 86, 87, 89, 110 

Wilmington & Weldon railroad, 

building of. 76 

Wilmington, lumber trade with West 

Indies 106 

naval store industry at... 74 

rosin exports from 81 

turpentine exports from, 82 

timber supply for 106 

value of naval store ex- 
ports 82 

Wilson county 33, 86, 110 

Wood- working industries 117 

Woods, usesof. 1 

Worth (J.) and son, referred to 77 

Y e 1 1 o w d i p 95 

Yellow pine (see long-leaf pine). 
(see short-leaf pine). 

16, 19 

poplar (see poplar) 112, 123 

Yield of turpentine by French svstem, 

100 



ERRATA. 



Page 22, line 14 from top; read oppressed for oppressed. 
Page 28, line 7 from top; read compact for large. 
Page 31, line 19 from bottom; read unlumbered for uutimbered. 
Page 33, line 9 from top; read exploitation for exploration. 
Page 38, line 18 from bottom; read (p. 32) for (p. 20). 
Page 42, line 12 from top; insert annually after and there is. 
Page 50, line 8 from top; read occur for occurs. 
Page 118, line 16 from bottom; read tun for ton.