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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 


F. C. Harrington, Commissioner 

Florence Kerr, Assistant Commissioner 

Henry G. Alsberg, Director of the Federal Writers' Project 

American Guide Series 


A Guide to the Old North State 

Compiled and Written by 




for the State of North Carolina 
Sponsored by 


The University of North Carolina Press 



9/7. SL 


aRCH £ 




All rights are reserved, including the rights to reproduce 
this book or parts thereof in any form. 




Clyde R. Hoey 


I am pleased, on behalf of the State, to 
present THE NCRTH CAROLINA. GUIDE, which has been 
prepared by Federal Writers* Project of the Works 
Progress Administration. 

This Guide presents a complete view of the 
State, her people, the historical background, and 
a complete inventory of the resources of North 
Carolina, all compiled in one volume. Many of 
the facts presented here are not obtainable else- 
where in book form. 

The procedure employed in the collection of 
data for this publication, its selection and the 
evaluation of the materials to be used, and the 
preparation of manuscript through a wide-spread 
force with varying degrees of experience and ca- 
pacities, place this volume and others in the 
national series in a class by themselves. 

As a result of these efforts there has come 
a comprehensive product portraying the character- 
istics of the people of one of the greatest of 
the American States, with liberal references to 
their historical heritages and the resources up- 
on which they have relied in building a Common- 
wealth which is as outstanding as it is American 
in ideals and purposes. 



Numerous personal anecdotes and sidelights 
of history have been uncovered by research work- 
ers of the project and should add materially to 
the reader's interest. 




Clyde R. Hoey 


The people of North Carolina have a great 
history and tradition, and those of today are 
serving the State in all walks of life in a mag- 
nificent way and making a real contribution to 
the fame and prestige of this Commonwealth. 

North Carolina has made phenomenal progress 
notwithstanding many handicaps during the past 
forty years, and the State has come a long way. 
There is yet much to be done. There is a will 
and purpose on the part of her people to work out 
the destiny of this State in harmony with her 
ideals of government and conceptions of public 
service . 

North Carolinians who would know more of 
their State will find a medium of acquiring such 
knowledge in this volume, and the outside travel- 
er within her borders or interested in investi- 
gating more fully the resources and future of the 
State will find THE NORTH CAROLINA GUIDE a store- 
house of information and a ready reference 
source. I commend this volume and congratulate 
those who are responsible for its production. 

jspectfully submitted, 

July 20, 1939. 


EXTENDING FROM the sand bars along the Atlantic to the crest 
of the Great Smokies, North Carolina offers a variety of pleas- 
ing or impressive scenery, and to the geologist, the botanist, the biol- 
ogist, and the folklorist an unusual field for study. The State has an 
abundance of historic associations that form an integral part of the 
national background. Through its development in a few decades to a 
position in 1937 as the fourth largest contributor of revenue to the United 
States Treasury (owing chiefly to the tobacco tax), it draws the atten- 
tion of the economist. In plain, foothill, and forested mountain, the 
hunter or the fisherman, the hiker or the leisurely traveler may find his 
heart's desire. A good highway system makes the way easy to any nook 
or corner. 

In the preservation and publication of its historical records, North 
Carolina has taken an advanced position. Its political, military, and 
social events have been treated in histories of undisputed value. Lately 
a number of excellent works dealing with its natural resources and 
economic development have been published either by the State itself 
or by the University of North Carolina Press. But among these publi- 
cations no single convenient volume gives a coordinated picture of the 
State in all its aspects of the past and present. It is such a picture that 
this guidebook aims to present. 

The Federal Writers' Project of North Carolina was started in Oc- 
tober 1935, with headquarters at Asheville, and district offices were 
established later in seven ether cities of the State. The project was 
primarily designed to provide work for unemployed writers, journalists, 
and research workers. Little by little — from books and periodicals, from 
chambers of commerce and State departments, out of the memories of 
kindly disposed individuals, and by actual travel over all the main high- 
ways — the workers collected and sent to State headquarters between 


one and two million words of roughly transcribed source material. 

By a long and arduous process of sifting, elimination, and condensa- 
tion, this enormous mass of material was gradually reduced to the de- 
sired essentials. Then followed the no less difficult task of arrangement, 
formulation, revision, and thorough checking for accuracy. Out of all 
this cooperative effort has emerged the present volume. 

Those engaged in this task could not have hoped for success without 
the assistance generously granted them by State and Federal depart- 
ments, State and city officials, chambers of commerce, county historians, 
officials of the National Park Service and the United States Forest Serv- 
ice, and public-spirited citizens in many communities. To name all of 
the hundreds of volunteer consultants would take many pages, but at 
least a few among those who have rendered exceptionally valuable assist- 
ance must be mentioned. Of consultants connected with the University 
of North Carolina, the list includes: W. C. Coker, Professor of Botany; 
H. M. Douty, Assistant Professor of Economics, Woman's College; Sam- 
uel H. Hobbs, Jr., Professor of Rural Economics; Guy B. Johnson, 
Research Associate; Hugh T. Lefler, Professor of History; Gerald Mac- 
Carthy, Assistant Professor of Geology; Z. P. Metcalf, Professor of Ento- 
mology, State College of Agriculture and Engineering; Miss Blanche 
Tansil, Associate Professor of Institutional Management, Woman's Col- 
lege; B. W. Wells, Professor of Botany, State College of Agriculture and 
Engineering; and W. A. White, Assistant Professor of Geology. The 
editors are also particularly grateful to: C. K. Brown, Professor of Eco- 
nomics, Davidson College; H. J. Bryson, State Geologist; C. C. Crit- 
tenden, Secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commission; Jona- 
than Daniels, Editor of the Raleigh News and Observer; Richard Dillard 
Dixon, Clerk of the Superior Court, Chowan County, Edenton; Miss 
Adelaide L. Fries, Historian of the Moravian Church, Winston-Salem; 
Mrs. Elizabeth Lay Green, Chapel Hill; Miss Louise Hall, Professor of 
Fine Arts, Duke University; J. S. Holmes, State Forester; Mrs. Guion 
Griffis Johnson, Chapel Hill; Paul Kelly, Assistant Director, Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development; and Coleman W. Roberts, 
President of the Carolina Motor Club. 

Edwin Bjorkman, State Director 
W. C. Hendricks, State Editor 










Tar Heels All — by Jonathan daniels 3 

Natural Setting: 8 
Physiography; Climate; Flora; Fauna; Natural Resources 

The Indians 25 

History: 31 
First Settlements; Proprietary Regime; The Royal Period; Revolu- 
tion and Independence; Ante-Bellum Days; War between the States 
and Reconstruction; Recovery and Progress 

The Negroes 51 

Agriculture ^8 

Modes of Travel 64 

Industry and Labor 71 

Public Education 79 

Religion 84 

Sports and Recreation 90 

Folkways and Folklore 94 

Eating and Drinking ioi 




The Arts: 

Literature; Theater; Music; Painting and Sculpture; Handicrafts 

Architecture 122 




C h apel Hill 

Charlotte 158 

Durham 169 

Eden ton 181 

Elizabeth City 190 

Fayetteville 196 

Greensboro 203 

High Point 214 

New Bern 221 

Raleigh 233 

Wilmington 247 

Winston-Salem 258 


tour 1 (Portsmouth, Va.) — Elizabeth City — Edenton — Wil- 
liamston ■ — Washington — New Bern — Wilmington — 
(Myrtle Beach, S. C.) (US 17) 275 

Section a. Virginia Line to Williamston 
Section b. Williamston to South Carolina Line 

1 a Elizabeth City — Kitty Hawk — Nags Head — Manteo— Fort 
Raleigh — Oregon Inlet — Hatteras Inlet (State 30, 34, 345) 291 

ib Elizabeth City — Weeksville — Halls Creek (State 170) 304 

ic Junction with US 17 — Orton — Old Brunswick — South- 
port (Old River Road) 306 



2 Junction with US 158 — Tarboro — Kinston — Junction with 

US 17 (US 258) 309 

3 (Emporia, Va.) — Rocky Mount — Fayetteville — Lumber- 
ton — (Florence, S. C.) (US 301) 315 

Section a. Virginia Line to Wilson 
Section b. Wilson to South Carolina Line 

3A Fayetteville — Fort Bragg — Manchester — Spout Springs 

(State 24) 326 

4 Junction with US 301 — Goldsboro — Warsaw — Junction 
with US 421 (US 117) 328 

5 Junction with US 301 — Clinton — Whiteville — (Conway, 

S. C.) (US 701) 334 

5A Junction with US 701 — Old Dock — Crusoe Island (State 
!3°) 33 8 

6 Junction with US 158 — Nashville — Wilson — Junction 
with State 102 (State 58) 340 

7 (South Hill, Va.) — Henderson — Raleigh — Southern 
Pines — Rockingham — (Cheraw, S. C.) (US 1) 342 

Section a. Virginia Line to Raleigh 
Section b. Raleigh to South Carolina Line 

7A Southern Pines — Pinehurst (State 2) 352 

8 (Clarksville, Va.)— Oxford— Durham (US 15) 354 

9 Creedmoor — Raleigh — Fayetteville — Laurinburg — (Ben- 
nettsville, S. C.) (US 15A, 15) 356 

10 (South Boston, Va.) — Roxboro — Durham — Junction with 

US 1 (US 501) 361 

1 1 (Danville, Va.) — Yancey ville — Hillsboro — Chapel Hill 
(State 14) 365 

12 (Danville, Va.) — Reidsville — Greensboro — Salisbury — 
Charlotte (US 29, 29A, 29) 372 

13 (Ridgeway, Va.) — Greensboro — Asheboro — Rockingham 
(US 220) 382 

14 Madison — Winston-Salem — High Point — Junction with 

US 220 (US 311) 388 



14A Junction with US 311 — Danbury — Piedmont Springs 

(State 89) 392 

15 (Hillsville, Va.) — Winston-Salem — Salisbury — Albemarle 
(Cheraw, S. C.) (US 52) 394 

Section a. Virginia Line to Lexington 
Section b. Salisbury to South Carolina Line 

16 (Independence, Va.) — Sparta — Statesville — Charlotte — 
(Chester, S. C.) (US 21) 401 

17 Sparta — Wilkesboro — Taylorsville — Conover (State 18, 

16) 408 

18 Twin Oaks — Blowing Rock — Marion — Rutherfordton — 
(Chesnee, S. C.) (US 221) 412 

19 Blowing Rock — Hickory — Lincolnton — Gastonia — (York, 

S. C.) (US 321) 419 

Section a. Blowing Rock to Hickory 
Section b. Conover to South Carolina Line 

19A Lincolnton — Mount Holly — Junction with US 74 (State 

27) 426 

20 (Elizabethton, Tenn.) — Elk Park — Spruce Pine — Burns- 
ville — Junction with US 19-23 (US 19E) 428 

20A Spruce Pine — Penland — Bakersville — Sioux (State 26) 433 

20B Spruce Pine — Little Switzerland — Woodlawn (State 26) 435 

21 (Erwin, Tenn.) — Asheville — Sylva — Murphy — (Blairs- 
ville, Ga.) (US 19W, 19) 437 

Section a. Tennessee Line to Asheville 
Section b. Asheville to Georgia Line 

21 a Junction with US 19 — Mt. Pisgah — Pink Beds — Junction 

with US 64 (Candler Rd., Pisgah Motor Rd., State 284) 446 

21B Waynesville — Dellwood — Soco Gap (State 284, 293) 449 

21c Waynesville — Dellwood — Mt. Sterling — Davenport Gap 

(State 284) 451 

21D Sylva — Cullowhee — Tuckaseigee — Cashiers (State 106) 453 



21E Junction with US 19 — Cherokee — Newfound Gap — Gatlin- 
burg, Tenn. — Maryville, Tenn. — Tapoco — Robbinsville 
— Topton (State 107E, 107; Tenn. 71, 73; US 129) 455 

22 (Newport, Tenn.) — Marshall — Asheville — Hendersonville 

— (Greenville, S. C.) (US 70-25, 25) 461 

Section a. Tennessee Line to Asheville 
Section b. Asheville to South Carolina Line 

22A Junction with US 70-25 — Devils Fork Gap — Junction with 

US 23-1 9W (State 208, 212) 467 

22B Hendersonville — Saluda — Tryon — South Carolina Line 

(US 176) 469 

23 Dillsboro — Franklin — (Clayton, Ga.) (US 23) 472 

24 (Franklin, Va.) — Murfreesboro — Roxboro — Winston- 
Salem— Mocksville (US 158). 474 

Section a. Virginia Line to Roxboro 
Section b. Roxboro to Mocksville 

24A Warrenton — Louisburg (State 59) 480 

25 Durham — Winston-Salem — Wilkesboro — (Mountain 
City, Tenn.) (US 70; State 62, 54; US 421) 482 

26 Fort Landing — Raleigh — Hickory — Hendersonville — 
Franklin — (Ducktown, Tenn.) (US 64, 70-64, 64) 492 

Section a. Fort Landing to Raleigh 
Section b. Raleigh to Statesville 
Section c. Statesville to Tennessee Line 

27 Chocowinity — Greenville — Wilson — Zebulon (US 264) 511 

28 Durham — Raleigh — Goldsboro — New Bern — Atlantic 
(US 70) 513 

28A Atlantic — Cedar Island — Portsmouth — Ocracoke (Mail or 

chartered passenger boat) 523 

29 Greensboro — Sanford — Clinton — Wilmington — Fort 
Fisher (US 421) 525 

30 Old Fort— Black Mountain— Asheville (US 70) 530 
30A Junction with US 70 — Camp Alice (Mt. Mitchell Toll Rd.) 534 


31 Junction with US 17 — Lumberton — Laurinburg — Char- 
lotte — Asheville (US 74) 

Section a. Junction with US 17 to Laurinburg 
Section b. Laurinburg to Charlotte 
Section c. Charlotte to Asheville 

32 Junction with US 1 — Troy — Albemarle — Charlotte (US 
15-501, State 27) 

33 Washington — Belhaven — Swanquarter — Engelhard (US 

33A Junction with US 264 — Bath — Bayview (State 92) 


Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
National Forests 


Suggested Readings 


Photographs not otherwise credited have as a ride been furnished by 
the North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development. 

Jockey's Ridge, Nags Head 
Old Hatteras Light at Dawn 
Yaupon Tree and Banks Pony 
Frisco on the Banks 

Disappearing Road, Smith Island 
Long-leaf Pine and Dogwood, near 

Linville Falls, Linville 

Big Pinnacle, Pilot Mountain 

between 12 and 13 

Lake Lure from Chimney Rock 
Asheville Chamber of Commerce 

Pisgah and the Rat from Asheville 
Asheville Chamber of Commerce 

Grandfather Mountain from Linville 

Mount Mitchell Framed in Rhodo- 

Mountain Farm, Haywood County 

Dawn in Nantahala Gorge 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 


Cherokee Types 

Tuscarora Graves, Louisburg 

Cherokee Gorget 

B. S. Colburn Collection 
Indian Mound, Mt. Gilead 
Cherokee Ball Game 
Cherokee Bear Dance 
Blockhouse at Fort Raleigh 

Cornwallis' Headquarters, Wilming- 

Statue of General Greene, Guilford 
Courthouse Military Park 

Art Shop, Greensboro 
Birthplace of Andrew Johnson, 

between 44 and 45 
Birthplace of Gov. Zebulon B. Vance 
Glider Flight by Wright Brothers, 

Kill Devil Hill 
Wright Brothers' Monument, Nags 

Albert Burden 
Old Stone House near Salisbury 

Salisbury Chamber of Commerce 
Nancy Jones House, Cary 
Cupola House, Edenton 

Old Market House, Fayetteville 

John Wright Stanly House, New Bern 


Marsh House, Bath 

Interior, Smallwood-Ward 
New Bern 


between 124 and 125 
Spiral Stairway, Powell House, near 
Orton Plantation, near Wilmington 


Bellamy Mansion, Wilmington 

Brothers' House, Winston-Salem 

Fran\ ]ones 
Library, Biltmore House, Asheville 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Entrance, Biltmore House, Asheville 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
State Capitol, Raleigh (interior view) 
State Capitol, Raleigh (exterior de- 


"Ecce Homo," St. James Church, 

Wilmington Chamber of Com- 
St. Thomas, Bath 
St. Paul's, Edenton 

Interior of St. Thomas Church, Bath 

Old Bethabara Church, Old Town, 

near Winston-Salem 
Moravian Churchyard, Winston- 
Home Moravian Church and Salem 
College, Winston-Salem 
Christ Church, Raleigh 
Presbyterian Church, New Bern 

State Capitol, Raleigh 

Albert Barden 
Chowan County Courthouse, Eden- 

Burke County Courthouse, Morgan- 

Morganton Chamber of Com- 
City Hall, Charlotte 

Charlotte Chamber of Commerce 

between 140 and 141 
St. Lawrence Catholic Church. Ashe- 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Cedar Grove Cemetery, New Bern 

St. John's-in-the-Wilderness, Flat Rock 
Historical American Building 
St. Peter's Church, Washington 

Washington Chamber of Com- 
First Presbyterian Church, Greens- 

Art Shop, Greensboro 
Country Church on US 70, near 


Old East and the Well, Chapel Hill 

Chas. A. Farrell 
Playmakers Theater, Chapel Hill 

Carillon Tower, Duke University 
East Campus, Duke University 

Wait Hall, Wake Forest College 
Aycock Auditorium, Woman's Col- 
lege, Greensboro 

Greensboro Chamber of Com- 
Chambers Building, Davidson Col- 

Fran\ Jones 
Performance in Forest Theater, 
Chapel Hill 

Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte 


between IJ2 and ijj 
Jefferson Standard Building, Greens- 

Greensboro Chamber of Com- 
Office Building, R. J. Reynolds To- 
bacco Co., Winston-Salem 

Winston-Salem Chamber of 
Cotton Mills on Tar River, Rocky 

Roc\y Mount Chamber of Com- 
Tryon Street, Looking North, Char- 

Charlotte Chamber of Commerce 
Custom House, Wilmington 
Asheville from Beaucatcher Moun- 
Asheville Chamber of Commerce 




Negro Field Hand 

Negro Field Hand 

Cotton Pickers at Work 
Unloading Cotton at Gin, Smith- 
Farm Security Administration 
Power Loom in Cotton Mill 

U. S. Department of Labor 
Tobacco Auction 

Farm Security Administration 
Cigarette Machine, Reidsville 
Weaving on Old-Fashioned Loom, 


Fawn Rearing in Pisgah National 

Raccoon on the Hunt 
Bruin as Tree Climber 
Mama Opossum with Brood 
Rhododendron Blossoms 
Shortia Galacifolia, found only in 

this State 
Moth Boat Race, Edenton 
Skiing at Banner Elk 
Famous No. i Course, Pinehurst 
John G. Hemmer 


Tulip Festival, Washington 
Rhododendron Festival Parade, Ashe- 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Swing Your Mountain Gal, Soco 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Performance of "The Lost Colony," 

Roanoke Island 
Ox Team on Mountain Road 
Motor Boats at Engelhard 

Old Ways on New Roads, near 
Nash Street, Wilson 

Wilson Chamber of Commerce 

between 268 and 269 

Potter at Work, Jugtown 

Cheoah Dam, Tapoco 

Old Mill Wheel, Dillingham 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Saw Mill on Dismal Swamp Canal 

Net Fishing at Vandemere 
Well on Tenant Farm 

Farm Security Administration 
Old Plantation Barn, Pettigrew Park 
Cutting Crimson Clover 

Strawberry Sale, Wallace 

between 444 and 445 
Fox Hunt, Southern Pines 

Eddy's Studio 
Typical Road at Pinehurst 

John G. Hemmer 
Quail Hunting, Pinehurst 

John G. Hemmer 
Trout Fishing, Upper Davidson 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Bringing in the Game 
Camping Deer Hunters 

between 556 and 55J 
US 74 at Hickory Nut Gap 

Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Chowan River Bridge, Edenton 
New Bridge Across Albemarle 
Typical Wreck near Hatteras 
Only Negro Coast Guard Crew, Pea 

Island Station 
Southport Fisherman 

Eastern Farmer 

Darkies Shelling Corn 


STATE MAP back pocket 

TRANSPORTATION {reverse of State Map) back pocket 
TOUR KEY MAP front end paper 




DURHAM 174-75 






HIGH POINT 218-19 


RALEIGH 238-39 




A Guide to the Old North State 

General Information 

Railroads: Three trunk-line railroads, the Southern, Seaboard Air 
Line, and the Atlantic Coast Line, traverse North Carolina in a 
general northerly-southerly direction. Each operates subsidiary lines. 
The Southern Ry. and the Norfolk Southern R.R., with subsidiaries, 
cross the State in an easterly-westerly direction. Other independently 
operated lines are: Aberdeen & Rockfish R.R.; Atlantic & Western 
Ry.; Atlantic & Yadkin Ry.; Clinchfield R.R.; Cape Fear Ry.; Caro- 
lina & Northwestern Ry.; Durham & Southern Ry.; East Tennessee & 
Western North Carolina R.R.; High Point, Randleman, Asheboro & 
Southern R.R.; Laurinburg & Southern R.R.; Linville River Ry.; 
Louisville & Nashville R.R.; Moore Central Ry.; Norfolk & Western 
Ry.; Piedmont & Northern (electric) Ry.; Rockingham R.R.; Ten- 
nessee & North Carolina Ry.; Virginia & Carolina Southern R.R.; 
Wilmington, Brunswick & Southern R.R.; Winston-Salem South- 
bound Ry. 

Bus Lines, Interstate and Intrastate: Atlantic Greyhound Corpora- 
tion, Carolina Coach Co., Carolina Scenic Coach Lines, Cox & 
Eggleston, ET&WNC Motor Transportation Co., Independence Bus 
Co., Leaksville-Danville Bus Line, Norfolk Southern Bus Corporation, 
Pan-American Bus Line, Queen City Coach Co., Smoky Mountain 
Trailways, Virginia Carolina Coach Co., Virginia Dare Transporta- 
tion Co., Virginia Stage Lines, Inc. Intrastate Only: City Coach Co., 
Engelhard-Washington Bus Co., Lincolnton Bus Co., Mars Hill Bus 
Line, Mount Airy Transportation Co., Oteen Bus Line, Southerland 
Brothers, Seashore Transportation Co., Yadkin Coach Co. 

Steamship Lines: Belhaven Boat Line — Belhaven to Norfolk, Va.; 
Cashie River Line — Plymouth, Windsor, Sans Souci, Howard; Eastern 
Carolina Transportation Co. — Elizabeth City, Mill Creek, Nags Head, 
Mashoes, Manteo; Guthrie Steamboat Line — Engelhard, Elizabeth 
City, Norfolk, Va.; Manteo & Hatteras Transportation Co. — Manteo, 
Rodanthe, Salvo, Avon, Buxton, Frisco, Hatteras; Mooney Lines — 
Dismal Swamp Canal, Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds, Elizabeth 
City and Norfolk, Va., Engelhard and Coinjock; Ocracoke-Morehead 
City Mail Line — Morehead City, Beaufort, Davis, Sealevel, Atlantic, 


Ocracoke, and other points; Roanoke River Steamboat Co. — Hymans 
Ferry, Hamilton, Quitsna, Williamston, Jamesville, Canal Landing, 
and other points on Roanoke River; Salmon Creek Line — Avoca, Star 
Landing, and other landings on Salmon Creek; Wanchese Line — 
Elizabeth City, Wanchese, Manns Harbor, Stumpy Point. 

Air Lines: Eastern Air Lines, Inc., New York to Miami, stopping 
at Raleigh; New York to New Orleans, stopping at Greensboro-High 
Point, and Charlotte (see transportation map). 

Highways: 32 U. S. highways serve the State, of which 26 are 
interstate. Of approximately 59,000 m., 10,762 are included in the 
major State system; all roads are maintained by the State; no State 
border inspection; State highway patrol. Water and gasoline may be 
obtained in all parts of State. Gas tax: State, 6^; Fed. 1^. (For high- 
ways routes see state map.) 

Motor Vehicle Laws (digest) : Unlawful to drive at speed greater 
than is reasonable and prudent under conditions then existing, and 
speed greater than the following limits is prima facie evidence of 
unlawful driving: 20 mph. in any business district; 25 mph. in any 
residential district; elsewhere, 45 mph. for passenger vehicles, 35 mph. 
for trucks, and 30 mph. for trucks or tractors with trailers. Local and 
temporary exceptions are indicated by signs. Traffic in cities and towns 
is regulated by local ordinance. 

National uniform code applies for operation of motorcars on State 
highways. Comity rule prevails for operation of cars carrying licenses 
obtained outside of North Carolina, every holder of an out-of-state 
license receiving the same courtesy that the State issuing the license 
grants to the holder of a North Carolina license. Drivers' licenses are 
required. A person who engages in any gainful employment or who 
establishes a residence in North Carolina must procure license for 
all vehicles registered in his or her name at the time employment is 
accepted or residence established. Minimum age 16 yrs. if application 
is signed by parent or guardian, otherwise 18. Hand signals must be 
used; spotlights are permitted; accidents must be reported to some 
civil authority. 

Prohibited: Coasting in neutral, parking on highways, use of stick- 
ers on windshields or windows, passing school bus when loading or 

lntracoastal Waterway: A series of canals connecting rivers, sounds, 
bays, and creeks along the North Carolina coast affording sheltered 
inland route, north and south, from Virginia Line to South Carolina 
Line. Average channel depth 9 to 12 ft. at mean low water. Among 
principal waterways comprising the route are Currituck, Albemarle, 
Pamlico, and Bogue Sounds; Albemarle & Chesapeake, Dismal 


Swamp Canals; Alligator, Pungo, Newport, Bay Rivers; Pamlico, 
Neuse, Cape Fear River estuaries. Description: The Intracoastal 
Waterway, compiled by Federal Writers' Project of the Works Prog- 
ress Administration, United States Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C; p. 250. Pilot: Inside Route Pilot, Intracoastal Waterway, 
New Yort^ to Key West, available from U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, Washington, D. C, and its sales agents; p. 50^. 

Navigable Rivers {year-round navigation 7 ft. or more, 15-25 m. 
from mouth): Black, Cashie, Cape Fear, Northeast Cape Fear, 
Chowan, Meherrin, Neuse, Pamlico, Perquimans, Roanoke, Scupper- 
nong, Trent. 

Accommodations: Hotels in larger cities and towns. In western and 
central North Carolina are numerous tourists' camps; fewer in eastern 
part of State, but many homes take in paying guests; several dude 
ranches in the mountains. 

Liquor Regulations: Several of the counties have established pack- 
age liquor stores under county option. Except in a few localities it 
is lawful to sell beer and ale not exceeding 5% alcoholic content by 
weight, and both natural and fortified wine, the latter not exceeding 
24% alcoholic content by volume. 

Climate and Traveling Equipment: Travelers in the mountains in 
summer should have medium-weight topcoats or sweaters, as evenings 
are generally cool. Though extremely warm days are unusual it is well 
to have light clothing. Sun glasses are needed for trips along the coast. 
The Sandhill region has several winter resorts where only medium- 
weight clothing is necessary. 

Poisonous Plants and Venomous Snakes: Poison-ivy grows in 
wooded areas, along fences and streams; poison sumac occurs in wet 
swampy lands. Rattlesnakes and copperheads occur in remote sections. 
Cottonmouth moccasins and coral snakes are found only in eastern 
and southeastern sections. 

Recreational Areas: Coast — North Carolina has a coast line of 320 
miles with many beaches and resorts offering facilities for water sports. 
Sandhill — Sports facilities available at Southern Pines and Pinehurst. 
Piedmont — Artificial lakes along the Yadkin and Catawba Rivers. 
Mountain — Hiking and bridle trails lead to mountain peaks, many of 
which are more than a mile high; camping grounds, trout streams, 
artificial lakes, wild game. 

State La\es {facilities for swimming, fishing, boating, and other 
water sports) : White, Jones {for Negroes) , Salters, and Singletary 
in Bladen County {see tour 5) ; Waccamaw in Columbus County {see 
tour 31a) ; Phelps in Washington County {see tour 26a) ; Matta- 
muskeet and Alligator in Hyde County {see tour jj) . 


Power Development La\es {opportunities for water sports) : Yadkin 
River — High Rock in Davidson County {see tour 12) ; Badin in 
Montgomery and Stanly Counties {see tour 75) ; Tillery in Mont- 
gomery and Stanly Counties {see tour 32) ; Blewett Falls in Richmond 
and Anson Counties {see tour 31b). Catawba River — James in Burke 
and McDowell Counties {see tour 26c) ; Rhodhiss in Burke and 
Caldwell Counties {see tour 26c) ; Mountain Island in Mecklenburg 
and Gaston Counties {see tour 19 A). Cheoah River — Lake Santeetlah 
in Graham County; Little Tennessee River — Lake Cheoah in Graham 
County {see tour 21E). 

Rivers Suitable for Water Sports {east to west) : Pasquotank, Roa- 
noke, Pamlico, Neuse, Cape Fear, Yadkin, Catawba, Broad, New, 
Watauga, Little Tennessee, and Hiwassee. 

State Parkj: Fort Macon State Park, near Morehead City — close to 
good fishing grounds and bathing centers {see tour 28). Cape Hat- 
teras (Phipps) State Park, Dare County — bathing, fishing, and boating 
{see tour iA). Morrow Mountain State Park near Albemarle in 
Stanly County — swimming, hiking, horseback riding, cabins, and pic- 
nic sites {see tour 32). Hanging Rock in Stokes County — water 
sports, camping sites, foot and bridle paths, trout fishing {see tour 
14). Rendezvous Mountain Park near Wilkesboro — picnicking and 
hiking {see tour 25). Mount Mitchell State Park in Yancey County — 
trails, paths, cottages {see tour 30 A). Crabtree Creek State Recrea- 
tion Area near Raleigh {see tour 9). 

National Forests: Three national forests and one purchase unit pro- 
vide camping grounds with provisions for outdoor cooking: Croatan 
National Forest in the southeastern, Pisgah in the western, Nantahala 
in the southwestern, and the Uharie Purchase Unit in the south 
central part of the State. The Pisgah has four divisions — Grandfather, 
Pisgah, Mount Mitchell, and French Broad {see national forests). 

National Par\s: Great Smoky Mountains National Park provides a 
variety of recreational interests {see great smoky mountains national 
park). Military Par\s: Moores Creek {see tour 29) and Guilford 
Courthouse {see tour /■?) have limited recreational equipment. 

Appalachian Trail {roughly following the North Carolina-Tennessee 
boundary between TJna\a Mountain and Davenport Gap, thence in a 
southeasterly direction to the Georgia Line) : Primary (4-ft. graded for 
horses); Secondary (4-ft. cleared); Manway (unimproved). Log: 
Guide to the Southern Appalachians, Pub. No. 8, Appalachian Trail 
Conference, 901 Union Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C, p. $1. Maps: 
Quadrangles of the U. S. Geological Survey, Department of the In- 
terior, Washington, D. C, while obsolete as to highways and trails, 
are the most detailed topographic maps available; recent topographic 


maps available in two sections for Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park; for the Appalachian Trail, the following quadrangles are avail- 
able: Roan Mountain, Mount Mitchell, Asheville, Greeneville, Mt. 
Guyot; between Deals Gap and Georgia Line, Nantahala, Cowee, 
Walhalla, Dahlonega, 10^ ea., U. S. Forest Service maps (not con- 
tour), available free, for four divisions of Pisgah National Forest, 
U. S. Forest Service, Asheville; Nantahala National Forest, U. S. For- 
est Service, Franklin; booklets and folders available from same sources. 
Information: The following organizations are responsible for the vari- 
ous sections of the trail: between Unaka Mountain and Davenport 
Gap, Carolina Mountain Club, Asheville; Smoky Mountains National 
Park, Park Service, Gatlinburg, Tenn., and Bryson City; between 
Wesser and Georgia Line, Nantahala National Forest, Franklin, and 
Nantahala Appalachian Trail Club, Almond. 

State Game Refuges: Western North Carolina — Pisgah, Mount 
Mitchell, Daniel Boone, Wayah Bald. Other refuges: Holly Shelter, 
Gates County, Robeson County, Union County, Guilford County. 
Holly Shelter harbors bear, deer, wild turkey, and small game {see 
tour 4). Certain sections of Lake Mattamuskeet, State-controlled, are 
noted for ducks and geese {see tour jj). The territory surrounding 
these refuges usually furnishes good hunting. Arrangements for hunt- 
ing on State-administered public grounds may be made through 
the division of game and inland fisheries of the North Carolina Dept. 
of Conservation and Development, Raleigh. 

Federal Game Refuges: Swanquarter and parts of Lake Matta- 
muskeet in Hyde County and Lake Tillery in Stanly and Mont- 
gomery Counties are sanctuaries for migratory waterfowl. Fishing, 
under permit, allowed on refuges. Limited hunting and fishing are 
permitted at irregular intervals in Pisgah National Forest under U. S. 
Forest Service regulations {see national forests). 

Fish and Game: 345 species of identified fish, including mountain 
trout, warm-water game fish, migratory fish, and salt-water species. 
Coastal waters and many inland bodies afford fishing opportunities. 
Game occurs throughout the State, including migratory wild fowl, 
upland game birds, deer, bear, fox, squirrel, rabbit, opossum, and 

Fishing Licenses: Issued by clerks of the superior courts and vari- 
ous other persons. Nonresident, $5.10; nonresident daily permit, $1.10; 
State-resident, $2.10; State-resident daily permit, 60^; county-resident, 
$1.10 (most of the western counties require licenses of county resi- 
dents — see local authorities) . • License requirements extend to both 
sexes above age of 16. Licenses are not required to fish in Atlantic 
Ocean, the sounds, or other large bodies of water near the seacoast 


which do not need to be stocked or protected (inquire locally). Land- 
owners and minor members of their families may fish on their own 
lands without licenses. For size and bag limits see State hunting and 
fishing laws. 

Hunting Licenses: Issued by clerks of the superior courts and vari- 
ous other persons. Nonresident, $15.25; State-resident, $2.10; county- 
resident, $1.10; combination State-resident hunting and fishing, $3.10; 
guide, $5.25 (subject to change); nonresident trapper, $25.25; State- 
resident trapper, $3.25; county-resident trapper, $2.25. Persons who 
have lived in the State for six months preceding application for 
license are regarded as residents. A nonresident who owns land in 
the State consisting of 100 acres or more may hunt thereon without 
license. Other nonresident owners of lands in the State may obtain 
licenses to hunt on their own lands for $5.25. No license is required 
of a resident owner of land, or a dependent minor member of his 
family, to hunt upon such land. The lessee of a farm for cultivation 
may hunt thereon without license. A member of the family of a 
resident, under 16 years of age, may hunt under the license of his 
parent or guardian. A nonresident minor child of a resident may 
secure and use a resident license when visiting such resident parent. 
For size and bag limits see State hunting and fishing laws. 

General Service Bureaus for Tourists: North Carolina Dept. of Con- 
servation and Development, Raleigh. U. S. Forest Supervisors: Pisgah, 
Asheville; Nantahala, Franklin; Croatan, Columbia, S. C, or U. S. 
Forest Service, Washington, D. C; Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park, Bryson City. 

Calendar of Events 

(nfd means no fixed date) 

Jan. 5th 

9th to 13th 
4th wk. 

St. Helena 




Southern Pir 

Feb. 3rd Mon. 
4th wk. 

High Point 


High Point 






Old Christmas Celebration 
Old Christmas Celebration 
Old Christmas Celebration 
Pinehurst Club Field Trials 
Carolina A.A.U. Wrestling 
Golden Gloves Boxing 

February Fishermen's Court 
Carolina A.A.U. Basketball 

Southern Furniture Exposi- 
tion (trade only) 
Carolinas-Virginia Boxing 

East Carolina Golden Gloves 
Boxing Tournament 

1st wk. 


Southern Conference Basket- 
ball Tournament 

2nd wk. 


Seniors Golf Tournament 

3rd wk. 

Southern Pines 

Spring Tennis Tournament 

3rd Sat. 


Sandhills Steeplechase and 

22nd to 24th 

Southern Pines 

Racing Assn. Meet 
Women's Mid-South Golf 

4th wk. 



United North and South Open 

4th wk. 

Greensboro and 

Golf Championship 
Greater Greensboro Open 


Golf Tournament 


28th to 29th Pinehurst 
Last wk. Pinehurst 


(nfd means no fixed date) 

Horse Show 


Chapel Hill 

Easter Sun. 


Easter Sun. 


Easter Mon. 


Apr. 1 st wk. 


4th to 6th 



Fort Bragg 



2nd wk. 




3rd wk. 


3rd wk. 


3rd wk. 

High Point 

3rd wk. 


4th wk. 


4th wk. 

Southern Pines 


Try on 




Chapel Hill 








Southern Pines 

North and South Invitation 

Golf Championship for 


Dramatic Festival and 


Moravian Easter Sunrise 


Union Easter Sunrise Service 

Morning German and Dance 

North and South Invitation 
Amateur Golf Championship 
Land of the Sky Open Golf 
Army Day 

Men's Amateur Golf Tourna- 

Tulip Festival 
Halifax Day 

North and South Professional 
Tennis Tournament 
North Carolina High School 
Music Contest 

South Atlantic Interscholastic 
Golf Championship 
Women's Spring Golf Tour- 

Senior State Golf Champion- 
ship Tournament 
Dogwood Tennis Tourna- 

Gymkhana; horse and hound 

Kennel Club Show 
High School Week; debating, 
track, and tennis tournaments 
Kennel Club Show 
Airlie Azalea Gardens 
Kennel Club Show 
Horse Show 





Garden Fortnight and Pil- 



Gladiolus Festival 

May i st wk. 


May Day Celebration 

i st wk. 


Flower Show 

ist wk. 

Rocky Mount 




Confederate Memorial Day 

ioth of May, June, 

July, Aug. 

Cape Lookout 

Banker Pony Roundup 

about 15th 


Garden Club Show 



Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence Day 



Wilmington Light Infantry 



3rd or 


Left-handed Golf Champion- 

4th wk. 

ship of the Carolinas Tourna- 



Flower Show 


Elizabeth City 

National Show of Racing 
Pigeon Club 



Garden Club Show 



Garden Club Show 



Open Rifle Tournament 

June ist wk. Wallace 

ist wk. Chadbourn 
2nd or 3rd wk. Asheville 

2nd wk. Gastonia 

2nd Fri. Rocky Mount 

2nd Sat. Rocky Mount 

4th wk. Banner Elk 

4th Sun. 
June, July, Aug. 

(full moon) 

July ist wk. to 

2nd wk. 


Near Linville 

Fort Raleigh 
Roanoke Island 



Strawberry Festival 
Strawberry Festival 
Rhododendron Festival 
Cotton Festival 
June German 
Negro June German 
Trout Fishing Derby and Fly- 
Casting Tournament 
Tri-State Singing Convention 
Channel Bass Derbies 

The Lost Colony Pageant 
(Wed., Thurs., Fri., Sat., and 
Sun. nights) 

North Carolina Open Tennis 

Men's Handicap Golf Tour- 



(nfd means no fixed date) 



Banker Pony Roundup 

2nd wk. 

Fort Bragg 

North Carolina Rifle and 
Pistol Championship 

2nd wk. 


Blackland Station Farmers 
Field Day 

3rd wk. 


Tobacco Station Field Day 

4th wk. 


Joint Farmers and 4-H Clubs 

4th wk. 


Women's Invitation Golf 

28th to 29th 

High Point 

Carolina A.A.U. Swimming 



Skeet Tournament 



New Hanover Fishing Club 
Casting Tournament 


High Point 

Southern Furniture Exposi- 
tion (trade only) 


Beaufort and 

Cape Lookout 

Goggle Fishing Tournament 



head City 

Gulf Stream Dolphin Derby 

Aug. 1st wk. 


Mountain Folk Music and 
Dance Festival 

1 st wk. 

Rocky Mount 

Upper Coastal Plain Test 
Farm Field Day 

1st wk. 


Horse Show 

1 st wk. 

Blowing Rock 

Horse Show 

2nd wk. 

Lincoln County 

Rock Springs (Methodist) 
Camp Meeting 

2nd wk. 


South Atlantic Yachting 
Assn. Meet 

2nd wk. 

Blowing Rock 

Men's Golf Tournament 

2nd wk. 


Men's Invitation Golf Tour- 




Water Carnival 

3rd wk. 


Tobacco Festival 

3rd wk. 


Men's Invitation Golf Tour- 






Fort Raleigh 
Roanoke Island 


3rd wk. 

Blowing Rock 




Near Charlotte 








Morehead City 





Sept. Labor Day 

New Bern 

Labor Day 


2nd wk. 


2nd wk. 
2nd wk. 
4th wk. 

Mount Olive 






Spruce Pine 

Oct. ist or 
2nd wk. 


1 2th 
3rd wk. 
about 15th 

Chapel Hill 
Elizabeth City 



Joint Celebration of the Birth 
of Virginia Dare and Found- 
ing of the First English Col- 
ony in America 
Fayetteville Independent 
Light Infantry Anniversary 
Women's Golf Tournament 
Mountain Test Farm Field 

Steel Creek Singing Conven- 

Camp Meeting (Holiness) 
Horse Show 

Men's and Women's Invita- 
tion Golf Tournaments 
Mid-Carolina Coast Water 

Reunion of Veterans of All 
Channel Bass Derby 

Boat Races on the Neuse 

Men's Handicap Golf Tour- 

Coastal Plain Experiment Sta- 
tion Farmers Field Day 
Men's Golf Championship 
Women's Golf Championship 
Farmers Festival 
Food Show 
Debutante Ball 
Horse Show 
Mayland Fair 

Western North Carolina Ne- 
gro Agricultural Fair 

Mixed Foursome Golf Cham- 
pionship of the Carolinas 
University Day 
North Carolina State Fair 
International Moth Boat 
Cherokee Indian Fair 



{Nfd means no fixed date) 



Open Rifle and Pistol Tour- 



Dahlia Show 



Kennel Club Show 



Kennel Club Show 


and Dec. 

near Asheville 

Big Game Hunts 


3rd wk. 


Mid-South Professional Golf 

ing wk. 
29th to 30th 


Turkey Shoot 

Continental Field Trial Club 



North Carolina Fox Hunters 
Assn. Meet and Field Trials 


1 st to 3rd 


Pointer Club of America 
Membership Field Trials 

5th to 9th 


Pointer Club of America 
Open Field Trials 

1 st Sat. 


North Carolina-South Caro- 
lina High School Football 

15th through 

Pinehurst and 

Golf and Tennis Tourna- 

winter sea- 

Southern Pines 

ments, Gymkhanas, Polo, 


Field Trials, Fox Hunts, 


Kill Devil Hill 

Horse Racing, Archery, etc. 
Wright Flight Anniversary 




Tobacco Market Christmas 




Community Christmas Tree 
Moravian Love Feast and 
Candle Service 



Moravian Watch Night 


Die Dates 

Elizabeth City 

National Show of Racing 
Pigeon Club 
Fiddlers Convention 

Variable Dates 


Textile Show 

Part I 



By Jonathan Daniels 

AS OLD William Byrd of Virginia told it, the line between North 
*Jk Carolina and Virginia was drawn across the map with much 
JL JL bickering and boozing. And when the line between the two 
Carolinas was drawn, legend insists that the South Carolina commis- 
sioners, being low-country gentlemen, were concerned with little more 
than keeping Charleston in South Carolina. Between the lines, between 
William Byrd's aristocratic contempt and the Charleston gentlemen's 
aristocratic unconcern, was left an area which for years on end rejoiced 
in the generalization that it was a vale of humility between two moun- 
tains of conceit. The generalization is useful, as most generalizations 
are. A modicum of truth lies in it, a persisting modicum, borne out in 
the report of a modern North Carolinian that among his State's neigh- 
bors there were only two classes of people, those who never had worn 
shoes and those who made you feel that you never had. His report is 
important as reflecting, in a North Carolina recently more proud than 
humble, a continuing conviction that one man is as good as another 
and that if you don't believe it he'll show you he's a damn sight better. 

Such generalization may aid the mechanically and mentally hurrying 
traveler, but it also may lead him into error in a State 500 miles long 
in which on the same day the winds may whisper in the palms at Smith 
Island and the snow cover trees common to Canada in the altitudes of 
Clingmans Dome. Such a generalization certainly can indicate nothing 
about the fact that between the fishermen of Manteo and the men in 
the coves beyond Murphy there are at least three areas, different not only 
in the geography of Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Mountain Regions, 
but different in the men and their preoccupations within them. Over 
roads and taxes, representation and offices, they have fought and quar- 
reled and still fight and quarrel. The East, which once angrily insisted 
on political preference because it paid most of the taxes, now resists the 
Piedmont, which today does most of the paying. The greater part of 
the tobacco crop is raised in the East but all tobacco is manufactured in 



the Piedmont, and growers have shouted in anger both at tobacco prices 
and corporation politics. The East, conventional old agricultural plan- 
tation South of cash crops, Negro labor, and a straight Democratic 
ticket, remains socially conservative while it grows politically liberal. 
The Piedmont is the New South, up-and-coming, in which the cleavages 
of industry have flung up, out of the same small farmer class, the class- 
conscious worker and the property-conscious millionaire. And beyond 
them both the Mountain Region, still politically divided in memory of 
Union and Confederate division in the War between the States, remains 
more divided too in its desire for industry like the Piedmont's and pre- 
occupation with its precipitate earth — rich, if sometimes difficult, for 
farming for living, and magnificent in its appeal to those able to come up 
from the physically undramatic lowlands. 

So the North Carolinian is three North Carolinians, at least three. 
But from Tidewater to Tennessee he is the native American. The North 
Carolinian has been where he is a long time, as America counts. Largely 
English, with lesser infusions of German and a large element of Scotch, 
the white North Carolinian, through time and a difference in environ- 
ment, has become three different men; and, in addition, nearly one-third 
of the population is Negro. 

The East remains expansive, leisurely, interminably and excellently 
conversational, concerned with good living, devoted to pleasure, politic- 
ally fixed but also politically philosophical. Perhaps the absence of any 
large cities has contributed to the fact that the easterner's neighborliness 
is little short of Gargantuan. Gregarious in an area not thickly settled, 
he finds it a trifle to go a hundred miles for a dance — and found it a trifle 
even when traveling meant trains and not the simplicity of automobile 
movement. His social life is restricted to no county or town. His "social 
set" is a whole population. And the famous June Germans of Rocky 
Mount, where the hugest tobacco warehouse is required for the dancing 
multitude, are perhaps the best example of his — and her — gregarious, 
nonexclusive ideal of pleasure. 

The Piedmont is another land. It has always been a more serious- 
minded land. Somehow, the Episcopalians, though they are relatively 
few in number, seem to have marked the East, not as a church but as a 
people. In contrast, the Piedmont seems more directly to have grown 
from the stern spirits of the Quakers of Guilford, the Moravians of For- 
syth, the Calvinists of Mecklenburg, the ubiquitous Baptists, and that 
practical Methodism from which the Dukes emerged. The plantation 
disappeared at the fall line. Labor became increasingly white. Leisure 
was less highly regarded, and practical concerns were paramount above 
philosophy, even above pleasure. Furthermore, where there was little 
Negro labor, there was water falling in the streams. And, long before the 


hydroelectric plants of Duke, it did not fall in vain. Hard-working, hard- 
headed men, with no foreknowledge of the inevitable change in rela- 
tionship from money and land to money and machinery, attached them- 
selves and their region to the change. Doing so long ago, they took the 
Carolina Piedmont into the direct stream of modern mechanical America 
and built the Piedmont in North Carolina into an area less distinguished 
for its differences from than its similarities to American industrial areas 
elsewhere. Its people are stirring or struggling. Wealth here has more 
sharply stratified society than in the older and more aristocratic East. 
But unlike some other industrial areas, its people are homogeneous. 
There are more foreign corporations than there are foreign workers. 
The stock ticker has come and also the labor union. The region has seen 
both the efficiency expert and the "flying squadron." It has seen a great 
deal of industrial money and some industrial murder. It is modern and 
American in almost every familiar connotation of those terms. 

Perhaps the mountains meet the Piedmont in those towns where folk 
have come from the difficulties of scratching a living out of the steep 
sides of tough hills to the promised ease and regularity and generosity of 
the mills. The meeting has not always been a happy one. Sometimes it 
has been as violent as might be expected in the collision of the Eliza- 
bethan and electricity. The mountain man is by no means so quaint as 
some of the novelists have made him. His isolation is seldom so com- 
plete as it has been pictured; indeed, some sentimentalists spend them- 
selves weeping over its disappearance. There are movies in every moun- 
tain town. Good roads run into a great many mountain coves. The boys 
and girls have gone out of the valleys to the schools. And now a good 
many simple mountaineers are waiting in hopefulness for some simple 
tourists. But the characteristics of the mountaineer remain. An individual 
may emerge from isolation swiftly, but a people does not immediately 
lose the characteristics created by long dwelling apart. The tourist is now 
to be welcomed, but to come to trust the stranger wholly is a more 
gradual process. By no means have all the strangers who have gone into 
the mountains in the past been worthy of trust. And though the battles 
were not of the proportions to reach the history books, the divided moun- 
taineers in the War between the States received the undivided and in- 
distinguishable attentions of undisciplined bands of soldiers on both 
sides. Furthermore, the antagonism in the sixties in the mountains was 
more personal and immediate than elsewhere. There the division be- 
tween the Union and the Confederacy might be no wider than the creek 
between two men's houses. A man learned to trust in himself, to share 
his deeper thinking slowly, to welcome warily, to mind his own busi- 
ness, and to vote as his granddaddy fought. He still does. 

But to reduce the North Carolinian to three North Carolinians is only 


the first step in the reduction of generalization to particular fact. There 
are diverse men among mountaineers. Certainly there are plenty of dif- 
ferent types and classes and people in the Piedmont. In the East they 
are a different folk who fish on Harkers Island from those who plant 
peanuts in Bertie. And in each area there are those indistinguishable 
men, worn to an identity of shape and coloration by the processes of 
education. They are everywhere, able, active, or otherwise, but unob- 
trusive, unimpressive in determining the quality or character of a native 

There are, however, in North Carolina interesting groups which, with- 
out losing the characteristics of section, yet create a unity that — beyond 
the uniformity of taxes and laws — may very well be called North Caro- 
lina. Strongest of all, perhaps, is the alumni of the University of North 
Carolina. This of course does not mean the body of enthusiasts articulate 
over football. Far more importantly it means a group of men in every 
section of the State who have something more than a provincial's sense 
of the meaning of his native land. From Battle and Winston through 
Alderman and Venable and Graham and Chase to another Graham, a 
series of able presidents has made the institution in a very real sense the 
center for an aristocracy of intelligence that in half a century has trans- 
formed the State. In no sense are these men everywhere in North Caro- 
lina steadily agreed on the directions that the State should take. Personal 
and sectional interests move them as they do other men. But in a broad 
and diverse State they know each other and have together a sense of the 
importance of their university and the schools that lead to its doors. 
They were chiefly responsible for North Carolina's educational advance. 
They are responsible now for their university's high integrity in free- 
dom. And that institution, more than the capital at Raleigh, is the center 
for the progressive idealism of the State. 

The university at Chapel Hill serves as a symbol for unity in aspira- 
tion as do few other institutions in the country. Sometimes regarded with 
suspicion, sometimes attacked with bitterness, the university neverthe- 
less is more often held in an almost pathetic affection by the State. North 
Carolina was so long in ignorance, so long in poverty! Its people today 
are restless in the consciousness of their former stagnation. Chapel Hill, 
no longer remote, embodies their aspiration that the vale may become 
the mountain (if, indeed, already it has not!) — that the inconsiderable 
people between the two aristocracies may yet accomplish a greater des- 
tiny than either. 

North Carolina, which has never been very long on history, neverthe- 
less remembers that when it followed the aristocracies into the War be- 
tween the States it provided certainly more privates and probably fewer 
generals than any other Southern State. It still is a State of privates ready 


to show scant respect to any who rise pretentiously among them. It even 
laughs sometimes at its own millionaires and is sometimes glad to get 
rid of the public officials it has elected. The North Carolinian is, as he 
has always been, an equalitarian individualist. And he believes in the 
possibility that he and his fellows may advance. He is no longer hum- 
bled, if he ever was, by the aristocracy of his neighbors. He learned in 
the third decade of the century to boast easily and often, and he had 
something to boast about, not only in the material progress of road 
building and accelerated industrial growth, but also in improved race 
relations, better care for the unfortunate, better schools, and a greater 
university. But a depression placed in neat relation to his progress taught 
him much. He is now less proud of the distance he has gone than aware 
of the distance he must go. He knows that he has "the greatest State on 
earth" and that he is as good as anybody in it. But he is by no means 
sure that this is good enough. 


NORTH CAROLINA, one of the Thirteen Colonies that formed 
the original United States of America, is bounded on the north 
by Virginia, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by 
South Carolina and Georgia, and on the west by Tennessee. Except for 
the North Carolina-Virginia boundary, which, with but slight varia- 
tions, runs due east and west, the State's boundaries are irregular. Situ- 
ated between latitudes 33 ° 27' 37" N. and 36 ° 34' 25" N., and longitudes 
75 27' W. and 84 ° 20' W., the State lies entirely within the warmer part 
of the north temperate zone. 

The extreme length of the State from east to west is 503.25 miles, and 
from north to south 187.5 m il es - The average length from east to west 
is approximately 410 miles, and from north to south approximately 115 
miles. The State's total area is 52,286 square miles, with 48,666 square 
miles of land and 3,620 square miles of water. 

The population in 1930 (U. S. Census) was 3,170,276, of whom 2,234,- 
948 were white, 918,647 Negro, and 16,579 Indian. North Carolina 
ranked twelfth in population among the States. Of its inhabitants 
2,360,429 were classified as rural and 809,847 as urban. The population of 
the largest city (Charlotte) was 82,675. 

North Carolina is popularly known as the Old North State to distin- 
guish it from its southern neighbor, and as the Tar Heel State from a 
designation attributed to Cornwallis' soldiers, who crossed a river into 
which tar had been poured, emerging with the substance adhering to 
their heels. 


Sloping down from the crest of the Appalachian system to the Atlantic 
seaboard, North Carolina lies wholly within the Atlantic border region, 
with its three great natural divisions: the Mountain Region, the Pied- 
mont Plateau, and the Coastal Plain. 

Nearly half of the State's area lies in the Coastal Plain, the broad 
almost level, forested or agricultural "low country" extending from the 
seacoast inland to the fall line. Its extreme eastern boundary is a long 


chain of islands known as "banks," a narrow barrier against the At- 
lantic. The banks are constantly shifting sand dunes, which in places 
are only one or two feet above tide level, but which at Kill Devil Hills 
in Dare County reach a height of ioo feet. From the banks three famous 
capes project into the Atlantic: treacherous Hatteras, "graveyard of the 
Atlantic," and Lookout and Fear guarding the entrances to the State's 
chief port towns, Morehead City-Beaufort and Wilmington. Between 
the banks and the shore a chain of sounds, including Pamlico and Albe- 
marle, stretches along the State's entire 320 miles of sea front. Notable 
among the numerous islands lying within the sounds are Roanoke and 

Bordering the sounds on the mainland is the Tidewater area, a belt 
from 30 to 80 miles wide, where the land is level and sometimes swampy. 
To the north a part of the Great Dismal Swamp spreads across the bor- 
der of Virginia into North Carolina; and farther south, swamps in 
Hyde, Tyrrell, and Dare Counties cover some 300 square miles. These 
swamplands, locally known as "dismals" and "pocosins," occur on the 
divides or watersheds between the rivers and sounds. In this region are 
15 natural lakes, largest of which is Lake Mattamuskeet, near the coast 
in Hyde County. Characteristic of the southeast is the savanna, a treeless 
prairieland with a thick growth of grass and wild flowers. The savannas, 
the largest of which covers some 3,000 acres, have been created by a lack 
of drainage and a close impervious soil. 

Many of the largest rivers of the Coastal Plain rise in the western 
Piedmont and join the sounds as broad estuaries. To the north are the 
Roanoke, rising in Piedmont Virginia, and the Chowan, formed by two 
rivers which rise in eastern Virginia. Draining the central portion of the 
plain are the Tar-Pamlico and the Neuse; to the south is the Cape Fear. 
The larger rivers are navigable almost to the border of the Piedmont. 
In a series of terraces, the Coastal Plain rises gradually from sea level to 
a height of about 500 feet at its western margin. 

The fall line, at the head of river navigation, marks the western edge 
of the Coastal Plain. Running from Northampton and Halifax Coun- 
ties on the Virginia border, the line extends in a southwesterly direction 
through Anson County on the South Carolina border. 

The Piedmont Plateau, extending from the fall line west to the Blue 
Ridge, consists of rolling hill country, with stiff clay soils and numerous 
swift streams capable of producing great power for industrial and urban 
development. In this region, the most densely populated in the State, 
the Broad, the Catawba, and the Yadkin Rivers, which have their 
sources on the southeastern slopes of the Blue Ridge, pursue easterly 
courses until, after cutting gaps through the ridges, they turn southward 
and flow into South Carolina, where the Catawba becomes the Wateree. 


At its western edge the Piedmont Plateau rises from 1,200 to 1,500 feet 
above sea level. Spurs from the Blue Ridge reach out eastward and south- 
ward, and a few straggling irregular ranges cross the breadth of the 

The Blue Ridge, or eastern Appalachian chain, is a steep, ragged 
escarpment rising suddenly above the Piedmont. It is followed by a 
downward fold with wide bottom that forms a plateau of more than 
6,000 square miles, with an elevation of 2,000 to 3,000 feet. This plateau 
is bordered on the north and west by the Iron, Stone, Unaka, Bald, 
Great Smoky, and Unicoi Mountains, all of which are part of the western 
Appalachian chain. Several cross chains, higher and more massive than 
the principal ranges, cut the great plateau into a checkerboard of small 
mountain-framed areas with independent drainage systems. 

Both the Blue Ridge and the Great Smoky Ranges reach their cul- 
minating heights in western North Carolina, and together they consti- 
tute the greatest mass of mountains in the eastern half of the United 
States. More than 40 peaks rise 6,000 feet or more above sea level. Among 
these, Mount Mitchell, on the Black Mountain spur of the Blue Ridge, 
attains a height of 6,684 feet, the highest elevation east of the Mississippi. 
Some 80 peaks are from 5,000 to 6,000 feet high, while hundreds are from 
4,000 to 5,000 feet. 

The Blue Ridge, a straggling irregular mountain chain, crosses the 
State in a northeast-southwest direction. Near the South Carolina border 
it turns westward and for a considerable distance forms the bound- 
ary between the two Carolinas. By a southwestern projection into 
Georgia, the range unites again with the western Appalachian chain, 
to which it approaches closely at its entry into North Carolina from 

The Great Smoky Mountains bound the plateau with marked definite- 
ness on the west, the main chain forming the boundary between North 
Carolina and Tennessee. The mean altitude of the range is higher than 
that of the Blue Ridge, and some of its peaks rise higher above their 
bases than any others in eastern America. 

The crest of the Blue Ridge is the principal watershed within the 
State. Rainfall on the eastern slope flows into the Atlantic; from the 
western slope it reaches the Gulf of Mexico by way of the Mississippi 
River. Fed by many tributaries, the Hiwassee, the Little Tennessee, and 
the French Broad Rivers flow westerly and northwesterly from the Blue 
Ridge into Tennessee. Farther north the New River flows through Vir- 
ginia and into the Ohio River. Within Tennessee, the Nolichucky and 
Pigeon Rivers empty into the French Broad. The Elk and the Watauga 
are important tributaries of the Holston River in Tennessee. 

Most of the valleys formed by the streams of the Mountain Region are 


deep and narrow. The gorge of the Little Tennessee at the foot of the 
Great Smoky Mountains is from 200 to 500- feet deep. Large and small 
streams have many waterfalls. 


The climate of North Carolina is considered exceptionally attractive. 
It is that of the warm temperate zone modified by the widely varied 
topography, with elevations ranging from sea level to 6,684 ^ eet - Periods 
of extreme heat or cold are infrequent and do not last long when they 
occur. In the coastal district, the proximity of the ocean has a stabilizing 
influence both in diurnal and seasonal changes of temperature, while it 
also tends to increase precipitation. In the western part of the State, the 
higher altitudes are associated with a lower temperature all the year 
around, but the mountains also act as a partial barrier against cold waves 
from the inland sections of the country. 

The mean annual temperature for the State is 59 °F., but it ranges 
from 48.4 at Linville in the northwest to 64.1 ° at Southport in the 
southeastern corner. The mean temperature for winter is 42 ° and for 
summer 75 °. The Coastal Plain has an annual mean of 62 °, the Pied- 
mont of 60 °, and the Mountain Region of 55 °. The lowest temperature 
recorded in several decades was — 20 ° in Ashe County, and the highest 
was 107 at Southern Pines. The length of the growing season ranges 
from 174 days in the extreme west and northwest to 295 at Hatteras, with 
numerous local variations. 

Rainfall is abundant and well distributed, but with sharp local vari- 
ations, especially in the west. Annual precipitation averages are 48.47 
inches for the northeastern section, 47.26 inches for the central and south- 
eastern sections, and 58 inches for the Piedmont and Mountain Region. 
The highest rainfall in the State is near Highlands in Macon County, 
where the average for many decades is 82.41 inches, and where as much 
as 1 1 1.20 inches have been recorded in a single year. Yet the lowest rain- 
fall in the State is recorded only 50 miles away, at Marshall, where the 
average annual is 39.08. The snowfall in the western half of the State 
varies from 4 inches at Monroe to 47 inches near the Tennessee border 
in Ashe County. 


Because of its widely diversified topography and climate, North Caro- 
lina contains examples of nearly all the major types of vegetation found 
in the eastern United States. No farther apart than a day's motor drive 


are the subtropical palmetto, wild olive, and live oak of the coast and 
the balsam-spruce forests of the high mountaintops. 

In contrast to the rocky shore of New England is the unbroken stretch 
of shifting dunes along the North Carolina coast, where the trees and 
grasses must resist wind and moving sand. Characteristic of these dunes 
is the sea oat, a tall and slender grass, ripening in August to golden 
plumes; the sea elder, a low shrub which grows in bright green clumps, 
and the seakale, with fleshy leaves from which water may be squeezed. 
On the landward side of the dunes grow the short wiry saltgrass, sea- 
beach grass, seaside evening-primrose, and dune groundcherry. About 
the seacoast towns, growing like weeds, are the gaillardia, Mexican- 
poppy, and other foreign plants brought over in ballast earth. On Smith 
Island, at the mouth of Cape Fear River, the seaside forest is at its best. 
Most beautiful is the live oak, with its bent and twisted trunk and 
branches, and its small evergreen leaves. Beneath the oaks grow dog- 
wood, redbay, wild olive, and the yaupon, a holly with shiny boxlike 
leaves and clusters of red berries. Here, too, grows the palmetto, which 
journeyed up the coast from Florida in ages past. 

The vast salt marshes on the eastern seaboard are covered with nar- 
row-leaved grasses that give them the appearance of prairie lands. Here 
grow the marsh morning-glory and aster, sea-lavender, sea-oxeye, and 
samphire, a leafless plant decorated with brilliant red in the fall. 

The plants of the fresh-water marshes vary with the depth of the 
water. Cattails, arrowheads, ricegrass, parrotfeathers, and lizardtails 
dominate the landscape, and scattered communities of wild flowers touch 
the marshes with brilliant hues. Along the borders grow bluebells, 
clematis, and the marsh dayflower, of a sky-blue color. 

The swamp forests are a distinctly southern plant community. Most 
picturesque is the somber cypress, with its hanging moss and its knobby 
root projections, or "knees," which actually are lungs that carry oxygen 
to the roots below the water. Along with the cypress, gum and white 
cedar dominate the swamp forests, in which also grow the swamp red- 
maple, pumpkin and pop ashes, and swamp hickory. On the margins 
the sweetgum, dogwood, and possumhaw are common. 

The lakes, ponds, and fresh-water sounds of eastern North Carolina 
are rich in aquatic vegetation. A common plant on the Coastal Plain 
rivers and ponds is the spatterdock, which has arrow-shaped leaves and 
greenish-yellow flowers that float on the surface of the water, and shape- 
less lettucelike leaves below. The tapegrass sends its seedbearing flower 
above the water and produces below the surface its staminate flower, 
which is cut loose when mature. Dwarf duckweed, smallest of all 
flowering plants, floats on the water. Common are the many species of 
bladderwort, which has a trap door to entice small forms of animal life. 






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The abundance of pondweed, a favorite duck food, has made certain 
North Carolina waters, particularly Currituck Sound, the haunt of great 
numbers of wild fowl. 

The evergreen-shrub bogs of eastern North Carolina, known also as 
"pocosins" and "bays," are even in midwinter a dense tangle of green- 
ery. Broad-leaved bushes stand waist-high in the soggy soil, and reeds 
and cane form thick brakes. One of the most common bog plants is the 
gallberry, closely related to the Christmas holly, and valuable for its nec- 
tar. Most beautiful of the small trees in the State, and one of the few 
large woody plants in the bog, is the loblolly-bay, with evergreen leaves 
and large white scented flowers that suggest the magnolia. Best known, 
perhaps, is the sweetbay, a true magnolia, whose flowers have a penetrat- 
ing fragrance. Among the beautiful bog flowers is the honeycup, with 
its pendant bells. 

On the lower Coastal Plain are the great savannas, or sedge bogs, 
famous for the beauty and variety of their wild flowers, and offering a 
pageant of bloom for every month in the year but January. In the stiqky 
black soil of these bogs grow the insectivorous trumpet, pitcherplant, and 
sundew. Most famous of these plants is the Venus's-flytrap, which is 
fairly abundant within a radius of 75 miles of the city of Wilmington. 
It is not known to grow wild in any part of the world except the seacoast 

On the dry and coarse sand uplands of the southern half of the Coastal 
Plain once stood magnificent forests of longleaf pine that furnished resin 
and turpentine for the great naval-stores industry of former days. Since 
the reduction of the pine by lumbering, turpentining, and fire, the Sand- 
hills are dominated by the turkey oak and the slender stiff-leaved wire- 
grass. Among the common wild flowers of the Sandhills are violets, iris, 
pyxie moss, moss pinks (a favorite rock-garden plant), and the spider- 
wort, with its three-petaled rose-colored blossoms. 

Old-field plant communities, nature's attempt to revegetate waste- 
lands, are a common sight where farmers have left old fields for new. 
Crabgrass, ragweed, goldenrod, and horseweed spread in succession 
across abandoned fields, to be followed and conquered by the ubiquitous 
broomsedge. In the Piedmont and Mountain Regions the paintbrush, 
wild carrot, yellow lily, evening-primrose, daisy, and aster make the 
fields colorful. After the weeds come the pines, which have taken pos- 
session of so many of the old fields in the State. 

Greatest of all plant communities in the State in size, diversity of 
structure, and number of species is the upland forest of broad-leaved and 
coniferous trees. Once forests dominated the whole State; today most 
of the virgin timber that remains is in Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park and the Nantahala National Forest. Magnificent spruce and balsam 


forests have been cut away, and the once-abundant chestnut has been 
almost destroyed by blight; but on the vast slopes of the Smokies still 
are forests like those the pioneers knew. Within the park are 143 species 
of trees, with a splendid stand of spruce covering 50,000 acres. The domi- 
nant hardwoods are red and white oak, yellow poplar, hickory, maple, 
and basswood. The redbud and dogwood, both flowering trees, are 
widely distributed. Most beautiful of the mountain shrubs are the flame 
azalea, ranging in color tones from pure white through orange to 
deepest red, the laurel, with its polka-dot flowers, and the great rhodo- 

The largest areas of boreal forest in the southern Appalachians lie 
within the boundaries of North Carolina. In these high forests grow 
the balsam and red spruce, and beneath them the forest floor is covered 
with a thick mat of tree moss, brightened in summer with flowers of 
the pink oxalis. Widely scattered over the high mountain ridges are the 
"balds" — strange treeless areas, some of them dominated by the beauti- 
ful rose-colored rhododendron, the laurel, and the azalea, others by only 
grass or sedge. 


Just as botanists were early attracted by the great variety of both 
northern and southern species of plants within the borders of North 
Carolina, many scientists, including the Swiss-American Agassiz, found 
the animal life of the State no less varied and interesting. 

As late as the middle of the 18th century wild game was abundant in 
the State. In 1760 the Moravians recorded many bears and wolves about 
their settlement in the Piedmont section and "a roosting place of wild 
pigeons of which they killed 1200." 

Today there is no longer the abundance of wildlife described by the 
early settlers. Gone like the primeval forests are the bison, elk, and wolf. 
Only two large quadrupeds survive in any numbers, the black or hog 
bear and the Virginia deer. The former is found in the wilder mountain 
areas, and in the heavy swamps of the low country. The latter is still 
abundant in parts of the low country and in some parts of the moun- 

Of small animals, rabbits are the most numerous. In the high moun- 
tains lives the New England cottontail, and in the low country the 
eastern cottontail. On the coast and along the river swamps is the marsh 
rabbit, which takes to the water when necessary. 

The rice rat of the coastal marshes and river bottoms looks like a 
young house rat but has aquatic habits. Florida wood rats live in small 
colonies among the river swamps in the southern part of the coast coun- 


try. The muskrat is to be found in the northeast and in many inland 
localities. Outnumbering all of these are the heavy-set gray gopher rats 
of the hedges and fields. In the high mountains live the Cloudland 
white-footed or deer mouse, the Carolina red-backed vole, and the rarer 
lemming. The common gray or cat squirrel and the flying squirrel range 
from one end of the State to the other. The red squirrel or "boomer" 
lives only in the mountains. The swamp ridges and coastal islands are 
the home of the handsome southern fox squirrel. 

Among fur-bearing animals of the State are the opossum, raccoon, 
mink, gray fox, and red fox. Wildcats are still numerous in the moun- 
tains. Both the weasel and the common skunk are found from the Moun- 
tain Region to the Coastal Plain, but they are rare. The otter is even 
less common, and needs protection if it is to be saved. 

Of all Carolina marine mammals, the bottle-nosed dolphin is best 
known. This "porpoise," as he is called by the native Carolinian, is often 
to be seen rolling along just beyond the surf, usually in company with 
others of his kind. A whale of any size in Carolina waters now attracts 
considerable notice, but the common dolphins and larger pilot whales 
are often seen. Sometimes a whole school of pilot whales is trapped in 
shoal water and washed ashore. 

Off the shores of the low country, both within the sounds and outside 
the great barrier reef, are many varieties of fish. Cape Hatteras, where the 
warm Gulf Stream leaves the Atlantic coast and turns northeast, marks 
the dividing line in coastal waters between the habitat of cold-water 
fishes such as the common mackerel, sea herring, cod, and haddock, 
and that of the warm-water fishes such as snapper, Spanish mackerel, 
and great barracuda. In the northern sounds, Currituck and Albe- 
marle, which are almost entirely fresh-water, live the perches and the 
large -mouthed bass, and here the rockfish, shad, and alewife come to 
spawn. Pamlico, a salt sound, has an abundance of ocean fishes, includ- 
ing the weakfish, menhaden, croaker, and bluefish. Off Cape Lookout 
are many sharks, rays, sailfish, large and small barracuda, and devilfish. 
In the fresh-water streams and lakes of the mountains, the brook or 
speckled trout is native. At lower altitudes rainbow and brown trout 
are found. A favorite game fish is the large-mouthed black bass. Pe- 
culiar to North Carolina waters is the striped catfish, or "penitentiary 

Among the reptiles of North Carolina are many turtles. The logger- 
head, which weighs from 250 to 500 pounds when mature, lives in the 
sea and lays its eggs on the beach. The diamondbacked terrapin is found 
only in the coast marshes; while the familiar box turtle makes its home 
in the damp woods. The only snapping turtle of North Carolina lives in 
fresh water and sometimes reaches a weight of 25 pounds. It is palatable, 


but difficult to catch. Two other fresh-water turtles are the mud turtle 
and the musk turtle. In the low country are a few alligators and, among 
the smaller saurians, the American chameleon and the red-headed lizard, 
known locally as the "scorpion." The many members of the snake family 
include some that are venomous: the diamondbacked, timber, and 
ground rattlers; the copperhead, and the cottonmouth moccasin. Most 
deadly is the coral snake, found only in the southeastern corner of the 
State, and sometimes turned up in plowing fields. This beautiful reptile, 
striped with black, red, and yellow, is capable of retaining its hold after 
it strikes. Valuable as a killer of pests is the harmless king snake, which 
seems immune to the venom of other snakes. 

The birds of North Carolina are still numerous, although many spe- 
cies noted by early travelers and naturalists are now rare; and some, like 
the Carolina paroquet and the great ivory-billed woodpecker, are seen 
no more. Captain Barlow, in 1584, saw the herons rise from Roanoke 
Island in such numbers that their cries sounded "as if an army of men 
had shouted together." Thomas Harriot, in 1586, saw "turkey cocks and 
turkey hens, stock doves, partridges, cranes and herons, and in winter 
great store of swan and geese . . . also parrots, falcons and merlinbaws." 

Today the coast has numerous winter and summer bird residents. 
Among summer birds are the little blue heron and the Louisiana heron, 
known for its grace as the "lady of the waters." The Florida cormorants, 
which feed on eels, like to build in cypress trees that stand out in lakes, 
or in pines along the shore. Fish crows often build near heron and cor- 
morant colonies, depending for food not only on fish and crabs but also 
on eggs and young from the nests. 

Ospreys, or fish hawks, have favorite breeding places at Great Lake 
in Craven County and at Orton Plantation in Brunswick County. In 
the tops of cypress trees growing far out in the water they build enor- 
mous nests, which they enlarge from year to year until some of the nests 
appear big enough to fill a farm cart. Currituck Sound swarms with 
ducks, geese, and swans. Among the latter is the beautiful whistling 
swan, seen in few other places on the American coast. 

The rare egret still breeds in a few protected places along the coast, 
building its nest high in cypress trees. This beautiful bird was almost 
entirely sacrificed in the interest of the millinery trade, which once val- 
ued its plumes. 

King of the sand beaches is the conspicuous oyster-catcher, known in 
Carolina as the "clam bird," brown-black and white in plumage, with 
brilliant vermilion bill, red eyelids, and large yellow eyes. Among other 
typical coast residents is Marion's marsh wren, which builds in rushes 
and cattails. The loud rattling call of the clapperrail and the musical 
note of the piping plover, a small bird with protective coloring like that 


of the shells and sand, are familiar sounds along the shore. Like the cries 
of a pack of hunting hounds are those of a flock of black skimmers, flying 
over the water and cutting it with knifelike bills whenever they find fish. 

Up and down the length of the coast range the boat-tailed grackles, 
known in North Carolina as "jackdaws." They eat small shrimps and 
crabs washed up on the beaches. Another summer shore bird is the willet, 
a large sandpiper that likes the mud flats. The eggs of the willet being 
used for food by coast dwellers, this bird is becoming rare. 

Seen only in Brunswick County, in the southeastern corner of the 
State, is the water turkey. This great bird is glossy black in color, with 
greenish tinges. He builds his nest of sticks and twigs and lines it with 
moss, but he has rarely been known to breed in this State. 

Gay summer visitor to the coast is the painted bunting, or nonpareil, 
which ranges from Beaufort south. The beautiful prothonotary warbler, 
rich orange and yellow in color, loves the water and chooses to live in 
cypress swamps or by sluggish streams, where he nests in holes in trees 
and stumps. He, too, is a summer visitor, as is also Swainson's warbler, 
a cinnamon-brown bird of the canebrakes. 

Among the birds of the inland Coastal Plain, chuck-will's-widow is 
familiar over the whole eastern part of the State. Just as familiar is the 
red-cockaded woodpecker of the Coastal Plain pine woods, often found 
in small flocks. He has black and white bars on his back, and (in the 
male) a little red patch on each side of the head. 

Many birds common to the inland Coastal Plain are found also in the 
central part of the State: Bachman's sparrow, summer tanager or "sum- 
mer redbird" (a sweet singer and lover of groves), brown-headed nut- 
hatch, orchard oriole, blue grosbeak, black vulture, pine warbler, prairie 
warbler, and yellow-throated warbler. 

The mockingbird is common throughout the State and lives in the cen- 
tral and eastern sections the year around. A master singer, he can imi- 
tate the notes of other birds to perfection. The yellow warbler, redstart, 
goldfinch, and nocturnal whippoorwill are seldom seen in the east in 
summer, but range over the Piedmont and west of it. The yellow warbler, 
lover of orchards and upland groves, comes from the south in the middle 
of April and builds a warm nest, often lining it with horsehair. The 
goldfinch — also called lettuce bird, wild canary, and thistlebird — is a 
winter visitor in the eastern part of the State, and a common summer 
resident of the central portion. 

The Carolina wren, sometimes called the "mocking wren," is one of 
the best-known birds at all seasons and in all parts of the State. Its loud 
ringing song, heard the year around, is sometimes translated "jo-reeper, 
jo-reeper, jo-ree," sometimes "freedom, freedom, freedom." The Caro- 
lina chickadee or "tomtit," like the wren, is seen at all seasons through- 


out the State, except on the summits of high mountains. It is one of the 
best insect destroyers and among the liveliest of birds. 

The southern hairy woodpecker and the slightly smaller southern 
downy woodpecker live the year around in the higher mountains and are 
great insect catchers. The flicker, or golden-winged woodpecker, likes 
to feed on the ground; ants form a large part of his diet. The worm-eat- 
ing warbler, Kentucky warbler, hooded warbler, and Louisiana water 
thrush are all found in the Mountain Region, although not above eleva- 
tions of 4,000 feet. 

Among the characteristic breeding birds of elevations above 2,500 feet 
and below 4,500 is Wilson's thrush (the veery), whose late evening songs 
are especially beautiful. Bewick's wren, a small bird with a long black 
tail, is a common mountain visitor and likes human habitations. Its 
musical song is somewhat like that of the song sparrow. Cairns' war- 
bler has been known to nest as high as 6,000 feet. Among the character- 
istic warblers are the black-throated green warbler, chestnut-sided 
warbler, blackburnian warbler, golden-winged warbler, and Canadian 

Many birds spend the breeding season on the tops of the higher moun- 
tains, above an elevation of 4,000 feet. The golden-crowned kinglet is a 
summer visitor that builds its nest of moss and lichens among the spruce 
twigs. The red-breasted nuthatch goes in small flocks, and builds in dead 
trees, lining its nest with grass. The black-capped chickadee supplants 
the Carolina chickadee on the higher mountaintops. The brown creeper 
is found over the whole State in winter, but breeds on the higher moun- 
tains. The winter wren, deep reddish-brown in color, is an alert little 
bird with a stumpy tail that sticks up at a right angle. The pine siskin 
has plumage streaked with brown and suffused with yellow during the 
breeding season. It breeds in the high mountains, going in flocks and 
feeding on seeds and berries. The crossbills also travel in flocks and feed 
on berries. The male is brick red, the female brownish washed with yel- 
low; they nest while snow is on the ground, building in coniferous trees. 
The raven, once known to the coast, is now found only in the moun- 
tains, where it builds among inaccessible cliffs, using the small nest for 
years. It feeds on carrion, small mammals, snails, and young birds. 
Golden eagles have been found on the coast but are more often seen in 
the high mountains. Above an elevation of about 3,700 feet lives the 
Carolina junco, or snowbird, common in the streets and gardens of 
mountain towns and found all over the State in winter. 

Many birds that were nearing extinction have been saved by State 
protection. The wild turkey and ruffed grouse are increasing, and quail 
have become numerous again. Migratory waterfowl in great numbers 
visit the feeding grounds provided among the sounds and about the 


lakes of eastern North Carolina. This State, like others, is attempting 
by means of game refuges and national forests to restore the wildlife of 
which man has been thus far so careless. 

Natural Resources 

When in 1629 Charles I granted to Sir Robert Heath the territory out 
of which later the State of North Carolina was formed, his vision of the 
rich resources of that land were embodied in the patent itself, for he gave 
to Sir Robert not only the land but "the ports & stations of shippes & the 
Creeks of the sea belonging to the Rivers, Islands & lands aforesaid; 
with the fishings of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons & of other Royal- 
ties in the sea or in the rivers moreover all veines, mines or pits either 
upon or conceald of Gold, Silver Jewells & precious stones & all other 
things whatsoever, whether of stones or metalls or any other thing or 
matter found ... in the Region." 

The years have proved that the greatest resources of North Carolina 
were not those "conceald" below ground, but the fertile soil, the timber, 
the streams that offered water power, the abundant wild game, and the 
"Royaltyes in the sea." Chiefly an agricultural State, North Carolina has 
the advantages of a long growing season, an abundant rainfall, and al- 
most every variety of soil. The full possibilities for diversified farming 
have not yet been realized, although the State ranks high in value of 
farm products. 

Forests. The forests of North Carolina contain more kinds of trees 
than grow in the whole of Europe. Not only were the vast original for- 
ests of interest to science, but their commercial value led early to exploi- 
tation with little regard for the future. The State geologist pointed out in 
1875 that people had accustomed themselves for generations to "treat 
the forests as a natural enemy, to be extirpated, like their original deni- 
zens, human and feral, by all means and at any cost." Only recently has 
the State seriously considered its forests as valuable resources. 

In the Coastal Plain, and extending into the Piedmont, is the southern 
forest belt, covering 12 million acres, where the dominant species are 
second-growth longleaf and loblolly pine. Loblolly or "old-field" pine is 
the chief commercial tree of the region, and on the dry sandy soil of the 
plain replaces once magnificent forests of longleaf pine. In the hardwood 
bottoms grow oak, hickory, ash, sweetgum, and blackgum, while in the 
deeper swamplands are gum, cypress, and white cedar (locally known as 

The central hardwood belt lies in the Piedmont Plateau and comprises 
some 4,500,000 acres. The hardwoods are red and white oak, hickory, 


and yellow poplar, but much of this region that was once cultivated now 
supports second-growth shortleaf and Jersey scrub pine. 

The northern forest of the Mountain Region is distinguished for great 
variety of species. From the plateau forests to an elevation of about 4,500 
feet there is a mixed hardwood growth, with some hemlock, white pine, 
and three species of yellow pine. The principal hardwoods include red 
and white oak, yellow poplar, hickory, maple, and basswood. Little of 
the original chestnut, ash, cherry, walnut, and locust remains. The soft- 
woods, largely cut out, are returning in second growth. 

In 1935, North Carolina had 699 industrial establishments using wood 
as a basic element in manufacture; and the products of these establish- 
ments in that year were valued at more than 65 million dollars. Lumber- 
ing operations reached their peak in 1909, when North Carolina ranked 
fourth among the States in lumber production. In 1935 it ranked only 
tenth, although the State contains more than 13 billion board feet of 
marketable timber. Tanning extract has taken a heavy toll of chestnut, 
hemlock, and oak. Pulp manufacture is increasing. In the smaller in- 
dustries pine, chestnut, and juniper furnish material for poles, white 
oak for railroad crossties, and cypress, juniper, and pine for shingles. 
The indigenous chestnut is believed to be doomed by the blight. 

Extensive areas for national forests have been purchased by the Federal 
Government in North Carolina (see national forests) . Originally in- 
tended to protect the great watersheds, the purpose of the national for- 
ests has been expanded to include purchase and reforestation of denuded 
lands, improvement of timber stands, prevention and control of fire and 
disease, and the establishment of a sustained yield. 

Many agencies have been engaged in reforestation work in this State. 
The division of forestry, under the State Department of Conservation 
and Development, administers the forest fire control program and other 
phases of forestry. The forestry department of the State College of Agri- 
culture and Engineering owns and cultivates 87,000 acres of forest land 
for furthering studies in forest development. The National Resettlement 
Administration has established projects for reforestation, and has under- 
taken the purchase of 100,000 acres of submarginal land in Richmond, 
Moore, Scotland, Hoke, and Bladen Counties. Camps of the Civilian 
Conservation Corps in the State have been an important force in fire 
protection and reforestation, and the Resettlement Administration has 
made progress in reclaiming an area near Murphy, which copper- 
smelting operations had reduced to a desert. 

The development of pulp and paper manufacture, the cellulose in- 
dustry, and the production of chemicals from wood are indicative of the 
increased commercial importance of North Carolina forests. 

Minerals. Early explorers in North Carolina regarded with interest 


the few tobacco pipes "tipt with silver" and the copper ornaments that 
the Indians possessed, and hoped to secure for themselves treasures of 
gold, silver, and jewels. Further exploration revealed that North Caro- 
lina is a laboratory for geologists and also offers opportunities for the 
commercial development of a number of minerals. Although some 300 
minerals are found within its borders, North Carolina ranks only thirty- 
seventh among the States in mineral production, due largely to insuf- 
ficient exploitation. 

As early as 1729, small shipments of iron were made from this State 
to England, but iron deposits are widely scattered and most of them are 
low-grade. The only production of iron ore in 1938 was at the Cranberry 
Mine, in Avery County, which was opened before the War between the 
States and supplied iron to the Confederacy. It has been estimated, how- 
ever, that there are six million tons of commercial ore near the surface 
in Cherokee County, as yet undeveloped. Coal is likewise lacking in any 
quantity; the largest deposit is the Deep River field, extending from the 
southern part of Chatham County 10 or 12 miles into the northern part 
of Moore and Lee Counties. 

One of the few tin deposits in the United States occurs in North Caro- 
lina in a belt extending from a point two miles northeast of Grover, 
through the town of Kings Mountain, and northeast to Beaverdam 
Creek, near Lincolnton. Copper ores have been found in considerable 
quantity in four areas, and in 1929 the Fontana Mine in Swain County 
and the Cullowhee Mine in Jackson County produced 15 million 
pounds. The only copper production at present is in Swain County, 
although mines in 15 different counties have produced ore in the past. 

Gold and silver have been mined in more than 400 localities in the 
State. In 1799 a 17-pound nugget of gold was found on the Reed planta- 
tion in Cabarrus County and North Carolina was one of the chief gold- 
producing States until 1849. After the War between the States, mining 
practically ceased, but the establishment by the Federal authorities of a 
price of $35 an ounce for gold in 1934 brought renewed production. 

There is little production of manganese, used as a hardening alloy in 
steel making, but deposits of manganese ore are found in Alleghany, 
Ashe, Cherokee, Transylvania, Madison, Surry, and Cleveland Coun- 

Increased demand in the United States for chromium has brought 
renewed interest in chromite ore, which is found in varying amounts in 
the rocks of the western part of the State. Lead and zinc have been 
mined at Silver Hill in Davidson County, and promising deposits have 
been found in Haywood, McDowell, and Montgomery Counties. 

Such nonmetallic minerals as feldspar, mica, clays, and building stones 
are economically the most important minerals in the State. North Caro- 


lina is the leading producer of feldspar, mining about half the national 
supply. It is used extensively in the manufacture of porcelain. The 
largest producing area is the Spruce Pine district of about 200 square 
miles in Mitchell, Yancey, and Avery Counties. 

Mica from North Carolina was found in use among the American 
Indians at widely scattered points of the United States. Deposits occur 
in more than 20 western counties, lying in a 100-mile- wide belt parallel 
to the Blue Ridge. In 1935, North Carolina produced 55 percent of the 
mica used in the United States. Vermiculite, a hydrated form of mica, 
used for insulation, is found in large quantities in the extreme western 
counties, the only deposits known to be profitable. 

Kaolin is produced in Yancey, Mitchell, and Macon Counties, chiefly 
in the Spruce Pine area. It is used in making porcelain, glass-melting 
pots, and tile. Clays suitable for pottery are found in Wayne and Wilson 
Counties in the east and in Burke, Catawba, Lincoln, Wilkes, Surry, 
Randolph, Henderson, and Buncombe Counties in the west. The mak- 
ing of pottery products is a constantly growing industry in the State. 
Clays for brick are found scattered over the State, and North Carolina 
ranks high in brick production. 

The most important talc deposits are in Swain County. Pyrophyllite, 
a rare talc substitute, is found in great quantities, chiefly at Hemp and 
Glendon, in Moore County. A number of building and ornamental 
stones are native to the State. The pink granite of Rowan County, the 
Regal Blue marble of Cherokee County, and the Mount Airy granite of 
Surry County have found national markets. 

The extraction of bromine from sea water is a recent development in 
the State. A plant near Wilmington is now producing 15,000 pounds a 
day for use in the gasoline industry. 

Gem minerals of numerous varieties have been found scattered through 
the Piedmont and Mountain Region. However, most of the discoveries 
of precious or semiprecious stones have been accidental. A corundum 
mine, opened in 1871 on Corundum Hill, near Franklin, in Macon 
County, produced the largest crystal of corundum ever found. This 
gray-blue stone, weighing 312 pounds, is now in the Amherst College 
collection. The same locality produced what is perhaps the finest 
emerald-green sapphire in the world, now in the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York. Sapphires have also been found in 
Transylvania and Jackson Counties, and rubies in Macon and Transyl- 

Of particular interest because it is native only to North Carolina is 
hiddenite, sometimes called lithia emerald, which was discovered near 
Stony Point, in Alexander County, in 1879. It is more brilliant than the 
true emerald, its color ranging from a pale yellow to a deep yellow 


green. The finest stone of this kind is in the American Museum 
of Natural History. A few small diamonds have been found in 
McDowell, Burke, Rutherford, Lincoln, Mecklenburg, and Franklin 

Water Power. Among the most valuable natural resources of North 
Carolina is water power. Favorable topography and the volume and dis- 
tribution of rainfall have given the State a plentiful water supply and 
potential water power second only to that of New York among States 
east of the Mississippi. In 1939 about one million horsepower had been 

Of the power developments, one at Waterville in Haywood County 
is notable because of the method employed. The waters of the small 
Pigeon River have been diverted into an 8-mile tunnel through the moun- 
tains and made to fall 861 feet through steel pipes to the turbines. Most 
of the developed power is in the Piedmont section, where the volume of 
flow is large, and here most of the industries are situated. 

It is estimated that only about half of the State's potential water power 
has been developed. More than half of the power developed is now con- 
trolled by the public utility companies. 

Fisheries. Inside the barrier reef that extends the length of the North 
Carolina coast are 3,000 square miles of fishing waters, both salt and 
fresh, and outside the reef is the Atlantic Ocean. Besides some 25 species 
of finfish that are commercially valuable, shrimps, oysters, clams, 
escallops and crabs are taken from these waters. 

Parts of Pamlico Sound and the shallow waters from Bogue Sound 
to the South Carolina Line are capable of producing excellent oysters. 
Only about 12,000 of a possible million acres of oyster grounds in the 
State furnish the entire output, however. In an effort to stimulate oyster 
culture, the Works Progress Administration has planted several mil- 
lion bushels of oysters and shells under the sponsorship of the State 
Department of Conservation and Development, while the predecessors 
of the WPA also planted considerable quantities. 

The soft-shelled crab industry centers in the coastal waters of Curri- 
tuck and Carteret Counties, the greater catch coming from Bogue and 
Core Sounds. The shrimp industry is confined to Carteret and Bruns- 
wick Counties. The hard-shelled clam is taken in commercial quantities 
along the borders of Onslow, Carteret, Pender, and Brunswick Coun- 

Besides food fish, there is a large catch of menhaden, which is con- 
verted into fertilizer and oil. Although the menhaden catch reached a 
peak of 180 million pounds in 1918, it has since declined. The menhaden 
industry is centered around Beaufort and Southport. 

Some 15,000 persons in North Carolina are directly dependent on the 


fisheries for a livelihood. In 1934 the total catch amounted to 163,462,000 
pounds, with a total value to the fisherman of $1,672,200. 

The chief problems of the industry are concerned with marketing and 
maintaining the source of supply. The State provided in 1923 a half -mil- 
lion-dollar fund for fish and oyster conservation, and from the hatcheries 
thus established and newer stations millions of fish are distributed an- 
nually. The Department of Conservation and Development, which 
superseded the geologic and economic survey in 1925, has as one of its 
functions the development of fish and oyster resources. Through Fed- 
eral aid a cooperative was formed in 1935, and money was advanced for 
the establishment and initial running expenses of a main plant at More- 
head City, and three branches. 

Six hatcheries for the propagation of fresh-water game fish have been 
established by the State Department of Conservation and Development. 
These have been supplemented by Federal hatcheries in the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park and the Sandhills. Game fish are pro- 
tected by closed seasons and setting aside special spawning grounds for 
certain periods. 


OF THE SCORE or more Indian tribes in North Carolina when 
the white man came, the most important numerically were the 
Cherokee, a powerful detached tribe of the Iroquoian family, 
and the Tuscarora, also of Iroquoian stock, known as Skaruren or "hemp 
gatherers." The Neusick, perhaps of Iroquoian stock, later merged with 
the Tuscarora. The Catawba were the most important of the eastern 
Siouan family, to which also belonged the Keyauwee, Tutelo, Saponi, 
Waccamaw, and possibly the Cape Fear tribes. 

Among the Algonquian tribes were the Machapunga and Coree, who 
settled together at Lake Mattamuskeet; the Pamlico and the Hatteras, 
and the Weapemeoc on Roanoke Island. During the 17th century four 
related tribes lived north of Albemarle Sound : the Yeopim, Pasquotank, 
Perquimans, and Poteskeet. The Bear River tribe lived in Craven 
County, the Moratoc on Roanoke River, and the Chowanoc on Chowan 

Eno-Will, John Lawson's guide, believed to have been a Shakori by 
birth, became chief of the combined tribes of the Eno, Shakori, and 
Adshusheer, who lived not far from present Durham. The Occoneechee 
had a village near where Hillsboro now stands. The Saponi were taken 
into the Virginia Colony by Governor Spotswood, and the Tutelo, who 
resembled them, lived in central North Carolina. The Cheraw Indians, 
called Sara and Saraw in early records, were a Siouan tribe next in num- 
bers to the Tuscarora, but less prominent in history because they had 
been destroyed before white settlements were made. Living east of the 
Blue Ridge between Danville, Virginia, and Cheraw, South Carolina, 
they were first mentioned in the De Soto narrative of 1540, under the 
name Xuala. Before 1700 they had settled on the Dan River near the 
southern Virginia Line where they had two villages 30 miles apart, 
Upper Saura Town and Lower Saura Town. They gave their name to 
the Sauratown Mountains in Wilkes and Surry Counties. The Cheraw 
were eventually absorbed into the Catawba, once their sworn enemies. 
Today the Cherokee alone of North Carolina Indians maintain their 
tribal entity. 

The first settlers found the Carolina coastal aborigines living mostly 



in conical tents or wigwams made of skins tied together and stretched 
upon poles. Houses and huts of cypress or pine bark and moss were not 
uncommon. Cooking was primitive. Water poured into skins was made 
to boil by dropping in heated stones. Flesh was placed upon sticks and 
broiled over the fire, though roasting in hot embers was a common 

Women of the tribe did nearly all of the work except hunting. They 
cooked, made mats and baskets from reeds and rushes, cared for the 
children, and cultivated the fields. Agricultural implements for the 
most part were wooden sticks. Food included deer, bear, hares, fish, 
melons, nuts, cucumbers, "pease, and divers rootes . . . and . . . their 
Countrey corne, which is very white, faire and well tasted, and groweth 
three times in five months . . ." Besides maize, the Indians acquainted 
Sir Walter Raleigh's settlers with tobacco and white potatoes. 

The braves fought and hunted with bows and arrows, tomahawks, 
spears, clubs, and knives made of stone, shell, or bone. Boats were made 
of trees, hollowed out by burning. The "medicine men" were skilled in 
the treatment of some types of illness and of wounds through herbal 
remedies, but their primitive methods, particularly conjuring, often were 
disastrous for their patients. When smallpox epidemics raged, hundreds 
died after being sweated and then plunged into cold streams. The crude 
surgery practiced often proved successful. 

The Tuscarora, who lived on the Roanoke and Tar-Pamlico Rivers 
until their migration northward, were an important people, though 
comparatively little is known about them. John Lawson, the surveyor 
general of North Carolina, who knew the Tuscarora well from close 
contact, said (1709) they were "really better to us than we to them." He 
relates details of assistance and kindly acts on the part of the Indians. 

The seizure of more and more lands by the settlers led to resentment, 
and when the whites began to kidnap and enslave the Indians open 
warfare developed. In 1710 the Tuscarora sent a petition to the provi- 
sional government of Pennsylvania embodying their grievances. Eight 
proposals, each attested by a wampum belt, were framed to cover the 
relations between Indians and whites. These belts with their pitiful 
messages were finally sent to the Five Nations of the North. 

At the beginning of the first war between the Tuscarora and the whites 
the Indians had 15 towns and a fighting strength of 2,000. The war 
opened with the capture (September 171 1) of Lawson and Baron de 
Graffenried. Lawson was put to death but de Graffenried was liberated. 
Five tribes then formed a compact to annihilate the whites, each operat- 
ing in its own district. 

The massacre, in which 130 colonists on the Trent and Pamlico Rivers 
were slain, began on September 22. Col. John Barnwell, sent from South 


Carolina to aid the settlers, succeeded in driving the Tuscarora into one 
of their palisaded towns near New Bern, later violating the treaty that 
he induced them to sign by seizing some of the Indians and selling them 
into slavery. This started the second war and again South Carolina sent 
aid. Meanwhile other tribes of the Tuscarora had taken vengeance on 
the Swiss and Palatine settlers on the Trent River, killing about 70, and 
destroying much property. This onslaught almost effaced the New 
Bern settlement. To obtain aid from the Catawba against the Tusca- 
rora, their common enemy, the Carolina authorities promised the 
former a lower price for commodities. By 1714 the remnants of the Tus- 
carora migrated northward to take shelter with the Five Nations. 

The Catawba Indians lived on both banks of the lower Catawba 
River. Having been friendly to the English during the wars with the 
French and with other tribes, they participated in the defense of South 
Carolina during the Revolution. Later they took part in an expedition 
against the Cherokee. The Catawba were agriculturists, not unlike their 
neighbors. The men were brave and skilled in hunting, but they lacked 
energy. The women were noted makers of pottery and weavers of 
baskets. They practiced head-flattening to some extent. After the Ca- 
tawba Reservation in South Carolina had dv/indled to one square mile, 
these Indians tried to live among their old enemies, the Cherokee, in 
western North Carolina, but most of them returned to their former 
home. The last survivor- of the emigration died in 1889. 

Concerning the Croatans (Indians now living chiefly in Robeson 
County) there is so little authoritative information that the group has 
never been placed genealogically. The romantic tradition that they are 
descendants of Governor White's Lost Colony sent out by Sir Walter 
Raleigh in 1587 sheds a glamor dimmed by other views of their possible 
origin: (1) that Portuguese and Spanish traders from Florida mingled 
with a small tribe in the Florida swamps; (2) that escaped convicts from 
the Georgia penal colony took refuge among a friendly tribe; and (3) 
that pirates, ne'er-do-wells, and malcontents from the coast pushed 
farther inland to the marshlands. Some hold that the Robeson County 
Indians are an admixture of pioneer Scottish, Negro, and Indian blood 
(see tour 31a). 

While their dominant characteristics indicate an Indian origin, a con- 
siderable body of evidence lends support to the claim that some of their 
ancestors were survivors of an English colony. Numerous Anglo-Saxon 
words now obsolete are still used by the Croatans. They speak of houses 
as "housen" and say "mension" for measurement. Father is "feyther" 
and loving, "lovend." In many cases their family names are identical 
with those of members of the Lost Colony. 

Separate schools for the Croatans were provided in 1885, the previous 


generation having grown up illiterate because parents refused to send 
their children to Negro schools. During the 20th century social and 
economic conditions among these people improved to such an extent 
that they are almost invariably landowners, cultivating cotton, tobacco, 
and corn. They have been accorded full use of the ballot, and make 
their influence felt in local politics. By 1935 the community had in- 
creased four-fold since 1890, when it numbered only 3,640. 

The Cherokee Indians, mountaineers of the South, with an authentic 
history from 1540, called themselves Yun'wiya or Ani Yun'wiya, mean- 
ing "Principal People." The name appears in 50 different spellings, but 
the term "Cherokee" has no meaning in their own language. It ap- 
peared first as "Chalaque" in the Portuguese narrative of De Soto's 
expedition, and as "Cheraqui" in a French account of 1699. The Eng- 
lish form, "Cherokee," was used as early as 1708. 

They held the entire Allegheny region from the headwaters of the 
Kanawha and the Tennessee southward to the region of present Atlanta, 
and from the Cumberland Range on the west to the Blue Ridge on the 
east, a territory of about 40,000 square miles lying within Virginia, 
Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. 

Hernando De Soto, and later (1566-67) Capt. Juan Pardo, recorded 
their early history. In 1684 the Cherokee made their first treaty with the 
South Carolina colonists. From 1721, when the French had established 
themselves along the Mississippi, until their final withdrawal in 1763, 
the British and the French struggled for territorial and commercial 
supremacy, the Indians being pawns in the hands of one or the other. 

In 1735 the tribe had 64 towns containing about 16,000 people of 
whom 6,000 were fighting men. They used guns, knives, and hatchets, 
and wore some European clothing. They owned horses, cattle, hogs, and 
poultry. The men were hunters, but they grew potatoes, corn, and 
beans, and the women made pottery and baskets. Smallpox brought 
by slave ships to Carolina in 1738 or 1739 broke out with such devastat- 
ing effect that almost half the tribe was exterminated. 

During the 18th century the Cherokee helped drive the Tuscarora 
northward, expelled the Shawano from the Cumberland, made inroads 
into the Catawba, and were finally defeated by their former friends, 
the Chickasaw. Their wars, however, concerned the white man but 
little. From 1754 to 1763 the French and English were at grips in a 
decisive conflict, which, though known as the French and Indian War, 
was concluded with an Anglo-French treaty whereby the whole west- 
ern territory was ceded to England. 

The opening of the Revolutionary War found the tribes almost to 
a man on the side of the British, who claimed to stand "as the sole 
representative of authority between them and extinction at the hands 


of the American borderers." After disastrous attacks by British, Tories, 
and Indians on the South Carolina frontier, and an advance by the 
Cherokee against the Watauga and Holston settlements as well as 
against those in Georgia, the border States determined to strike a con- 
certed blow against the Cherokee. In August 1776, Gen. Griffith Ruther- 
ford with 2,400 men crossed the Blue Ridge at Swannanoa Gap and 
proceeded on a campaign in which 36 towns and villages were burned, 
and many Indians, regardless of sex or age, were slain. The Indians 
fled into the Great Smoky Mountains, leaving ruin and desolation be- 
hind. Expeditions from Tennessee and South Carolina completed the 

In 1777 the Lower Cherokee surrendered all their remaining terri- 
tory in South Carolina, and the Middle and Upper Cherokee ceded all 
lands east of the Blue Ridge, together with the disputed territory on the 
Watauga, Nolichucky, Upper Holston, and New Rivers. By 1781 Col. 
John Sevier had overcome the Cherokee in Tennessee, who sued for 
peace in time to permit the victors to send a detachment against Corn- 

Benjamin Hawkins, North Carolina's second United States Senator 
(1789-95) and agent to the Creeks and all tribes south of the Ohio River 
from 1796 until the beginning of the War of 1812, was appointed by 
President Washington in 1785 commissioner to treat with the Cherokee 
and other southern tribes. Hawkins negotiated the Treaty of Hopewell 
(South Carolina), November 28, 1785, which gave to the settlers the 
whole country east of the Blue Ridge and the Watauga and Cumberland 
tracts. During the next half century 37 treaties were made, every one 
of which cost the Cherokee more territory. 

In 1 8 10 the tribal council abolished the custom of clan revenge. Dur- 
ing the War of 1812 the Cherokee aided the Federal Government, and 
in the following year cooperated in the campaign against the Creeks. 
In 1820 they adopted a form of government modeled after that of the 
United States. 

Sequoyah, known to his white neighbors as George Guess, invented 
the syllabary (1820) that raised his people to the status of a literate 
race. Like several Cherokee chiefs he had white blood, in his case Ger- 
man. He made two trips to the West searching for a "lost tribe" of 
Cherokee; on the second trip he died in Mexico. The California sequoia 
trees are named for him, as is a mountain in the Great Smokies. 

Worn down by ceaseless pressure from encroaching white settlers 
supported by their State governments, which pressure reached a climax 
with the discovery of gold upon Indian lands in Georgia, a small group 
of Cherokee met with Federal agents at New Echota, Georgia, in 1835 
and negotiated a treaty whereby the Cherokee ceded their last remaining 


lands. The Government agreed to pay the Indians $5,600,000 and to 
give them an interest in the territory west of the Mississippi. The treaty 
was repudiated by the chiefs and by more than 90 percent of the Indians 
who had not participated in nor agreed to the terms. Nevertheless Presi- 
dent Andrew Jackson was determined that the Cherokee should be 
removed and their lands opened up for settlement. In 1838 President 
Van Buren sent Gen. Winfield Scott with regulars, militia, and volun- 
teers to round up and remove the remaining Indians. Forts and stock- 
ades were built throughout the Cherokee country and into these the 
Indians were herded, then marched on the long westward trek. Thirteen 
thousand were thus transported. 

The exiles died "by tens and twenties daily," nearly one-fourth perish- 
ing on the route known since as the Trail of Tears. The once-powerful 
tribe was divided into four groups: the Arkansas, the Texas, and the 
Indian Territory Bands, while those who escaped the removal became 
known as the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Nation (see tour 21E). 

The last group fled into the remote mountain sections, chose Utsala 
as their leader, and defied all attempts at capture. General Scott was 
on the verge of giving up what seemed a fruitless struggle, when the 
dramatic Tsali incident offered him a chance to effect a compromise. 
After killing a soldier who had maltreated his wife, Tsali fled into 
the mountains with his family. Col. William H. Thomas persuaded 
Tsali to surrender on condition that the rest of the tribe be allowed to 
remain (see tour 21b). 

Colonel Thomas then turned to the National Capital in behalf of 
his Indian friends. By 1842 he had been appointed agent and trustee 
of the Eastern Band with authority to use their share of the treaty money 
to purchase lands for permanent settlement. Later additional funds 
augmented the reservation holdings. As agent and chief, Thomas drew 
up a simple form of government which he and his foster father, Yona- 
guska, administered. The first constitution under Federal supervision 
was adopted in 1870. 

Colonel Thomas was born in 1805 on Raccoon Creek and first worked 
at an Indian trading post. As Indian agent he purchased and laid off 
land for five towns: Birdtown, Painttown, Wolf town, Yellow Hill, and 
Big Cove, the first three being named for original clans. Resigning 
from the State senate at the outbreak of the War between the States, 
he organized the Thomas Legion, composed of Cherokee, which served 
as a frontier guard for the Confederacy. 

Although a State act in 1889 established the rights of the Cherokee, 
the legal status of the Eastern Band is still somewhat involved. They 
are at once wards of the United States Government, citizens of the 
United States, and a corporate body under State laws. 


First Settlements 

THE FIRST European known to have explored the coast of what 
is now North Carolina was Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Floren- 
tine navigator in the service of the King of France. In 1524, he 
explored the Cape Fear coast, and on July 8 of that year sent to the 
King the earliest description known to exist of the Atlantic coast line 
north of the Cape Fear. This report was published in 1582 in Hakluyt's 
Divers Voyages. Spaniards, however, may have been in the region prior 
to Verrazzano's visit. In 1520, and again in 1526, when Lucas Vasquez de 
Ayllon headed Spanish expeditions to the Carolinas, he entered what he 
called the "Rio Jordan," which river was either the Combahee or the Cape 
Fear. It seems likely that Hernando De Soto traversed a part of the 
Cherokee country in 1540, and then turned through the mountains into 

Neither the French nor the Spanish planted a colony, and it was left 
for the English to make the first settlements. Sir Walter Raleigh has been 
called the "Father of English America" and Roanoke Island has been 
frequently referred to as "the birthplace of English America." On March 
25, 1584, Raleigh obtained from Queen Elizabeth a patent granting to 
him, his heirs, and assigns, the title to any lands that he might discover 
"not actually possessed of any Christian prince, nor inhabited by Chris- 
tian people." He was authorized to plant colonies and to establish a gov- 
ernment. On April 27, 1584, Raleigh sent out an expedition under Philip 
Amadas and Arthur Barlow to explore the country and to select a place 
for a colony. Early in July 1584 they landed on Roanoke Island. After two 
months, spent in exploring and trading with the Indians, they returned 
to England, taking with them "two lustie men, the Indians Manteo and 
Wanchese." Upon their arrival in England, Amadas and Barlow gave a 
glowing report. They said that the soil of the new land was "the most 
plentiful, sweete, fruitfull and wholesome of all the world"; that it con- 
tained the "highest and reddest Cedars of the world," and that the natives 


were "very handsome and goodly people." Delighted with this report, 
Queen Elizabeth permitted the new land to be named Virginia. 

In 1585 Raleigh sent out his first colony, with Ralph Lane as Governor 
and Richard Grenville in command of the squadron that carried the 
colonists. There were 108 men. On August 17, 1585, they landed on 
Roanoke Island. From the very first, things went badly, chiefly because 
too much time was spent in looking for gold and too little in building 
houses and cultivating the soil. The Indians became unfriendly, some of 
the settlers died, and the others became discouraged. They abandoned 
the settlement in 1586 and returned to England with Sir Francis Drake, 
who had arrived and found them destitute. Thus ended the first English 
colony in America. 

Within a few days after the colony's departure, an English ship out- 
fitted by Raleigh arrived with supplies and reinforcements. It was fol- 
lowed by Grenville with more supplies. Grenville searched in vain for 
the settlers before he returned to England, leaving behind 15 men to 
hold England's claim to the country. Though Lane's colony failed to 
establish a permanent settlement, it was the first English colony in the 
New World; it resulted in Thomas Harriot's informative Discourse on 
Virginia and the paintings by John White; and it led to the introduc- 
tion of tobacco, the white potato, and Indian corn into England. 

In April 1587, Raleigh, "intending to persevere in the planting of his 
Countrey of Virginia," sent out another colony headed by John White, 
whom he appointed Governor. Raleigh had ordered White to pick 
up the 15 men who had been left at Roanoke Island and then make a 
settlement farther north, but Ferdinando, the ship's captain, refused to 
take the company farther than Roanoke. Here they found the ruins 
of the Lane fort, but no sign of the men, except one skeleton. They 
rebuilt the fort and a few houses and named their settlement "the Citie 
of Ralegh in Virginia." 

By August of that year supplies had begun to run low, and White, 
against his wish, was finally "constrayned to returne into England." 
After being detained in England by the war then raging with Spain, 
White returned to Roanoke Island in 1591 to find his colony gone. 
There was no trace except a few broken pieces of armor, the word 
"CROATOAN" carved on a tree, and the letters "CRO" on another 
tree. The two best-known incidents in the life of the Lost Colony were 
the baptism of Manteo — the first-known administration of a baptismal 
sacrament by English-speaking people in the New World — who was 
given the title "Lord of Roanoke," the only title of nobility ever granted 
on United States soil; and the birth on August 18, 1587, of White's 
granddaughter, Virginia Dare, the first child born in America of 
English parents. 


What happened to the Lost Colony is an intriguing and unanswerable 
question. Some contend that they were killed by Indians; others that 
they were destroyed by the Spanish. Still others maintain that they 
intermarried with the Indians and that the Croatan Indians of Robeson 
County are their descendants. 

Raleigh failed to plant a colony in America, losing both fortune and 
political prestige. He spent about $200,000 in his colonization ventures. 
However, his ideas lived, and within a few years of his last effort the 
first permanent English colony was planted at Jamestown, Virginia, in 

Before long the Jamestown colony began to expand, furnishing the 
first permanent settlers in North Carolina. Migrating southward in 
search of better lands, they followed the streams in southeastern Vir- 
ginia that flowed into Albemarle Sound. The movement was a gradual 
one, and the exact date of its beginning is not known. The first recorded 
expedition into North Carolina was made by John Pory, the secretary 
of the Virginia Colony, who in 1622 traveled overland as far south as 
the Chowan River through a country which he described as "very 
fruitful and pleasant." 

In 1629, King Charles I granted the land south of Virginia to Sir Rob- 
ert Heath, his attorney general, naming the region "Carolana," or 
"Carolina," — the "Land of Charles." Heath failed to settle his grant, how- 
ever. Meanwhile traders continued to come into Carolina from Virginia. 
Expeditions were sent into the Albemarle Sound region by Gov. William 
Berkeley of Virginia, in 1646; and Edward Bland, a Virginia merchant, 
trading there in 1650, wrote glowing descriptions of it. 

The oldest land grant on record in North Carolina was made to George 
Durant on March 1, 1662, by the chief of the Yeopim Indians. This was 
not the earliest grant, however, for it refers to one that had previously 
been made by the same Indian chief. Carolina was even attracting con- 
siderable attention in England. A London newspaper in 1649 revealed 
that plans were under way to send over a "Governour into Carolana in 
America, and many Gentlemen of quality and their families with him." 

Proprietary Regime 

In 1660, Charles II was restored to the English throne, largely through 
the efforts of a few loyal friends, who held high positions in the Govern- 
ment and the Army. In 1663 this group applied to the King for a grant 
of all the land claimed by England south of Virginia. On April 3, 1663, 
Charles II granted them the territory of Carolina, extending from lat. 
31 ° N. to lat. 36 N. and from the Atlantic Ocean to the "South Seas" 


(Pacific Ocean). The Lords Proprietors were Edward, Earl of Claren- 
don; George, Duke of Albemarle; William, Lord Craven; John, Lord 
Berkeley; Sir William Berkeley, then Governor of Virginia; Anthony 
Ashley Cooper; Sir George Carteret, and Sir John Colleton. The pro- 
prietors were given control of the land, paying only a nominal rent 
to the King, and granted authority to establish a government. When 
they learned that their charter did not include the Albemarle settle- 
ments, they asked for a new charter, granted in 1665. This extended 
the boundaries two degrees southward, far into Spanish Florida, and 
30 minutes northward, to the present Virginia-North Carolina Line. 

Unfortunately, the northern and southern boundaries were arbitrarily 
drawn, unrelated to any features of the land, and on this account they 
remained for decades a source of controversy. The dispute between 
Virginia and North Carolina was particularly acrimonious. The first 
serious effort to settle the dispute through a survey by a joint commis- 
sion was in 1728, when the line was run from the coast 240 miles inland. 
An incidental result of the survey was an unusually racy specimen of 
early American literature, William Byrd's History of the Dividing Line. 
The final completion of the line to a point near Bristol, Virginia, was 
not achieved until 1779, and a more definite relocation was not finished 
until 1896. 

Along the southern boundary the dispute concerned particularly a 
section west of the Blue Ridge, variously claimed by South Carolina, the 
United States, Georgia, and North Carolina, and over which the so- 
called Walton War was fought between North Carolina and Georgia, 
with North Carolina victorious. The trouble arose over an early errone- 
ous location of the 35th degree of latitude, but was effectively settled 
in 1 810 after two skirmishes in what is now Transylvania County be- 
tween North Carolina militia and Georgians in the region. In 1819 the 
Georgia Legislature officially confirmed an accurate survey of the 35th 
parallel, admittedly North Carolina's southern boundary. 

The proprietors planned to develop three counties : Albemarle, Claren- 
don (in the Cape Fear section), and Craven (in the South Carolina 
region). Albemarle was the first settled and is justly called "the cradle 
of North Carolina." For many years Carolina was a single province 
and the term North Carolina was not used. The early Governors were 
Governors of Albemarle, the first one being William Drummond, ap- 
pointed in 1664. About 1665 the first legislative assembly was held in 
Albemarle, and within a few years laws were passed to attract settlers. 
One of these gave all new settlers tax exemption for a year; another 
prohibited suing any person within five years after his arrival "for any 
debt contracted or cause of action given without the County." These 
laws, although exact copies of Virginia statutes, antagonized the Virgin- 


ians, who spread evil reports about North Carolina, calling it "Rogue's 

From 1691 to 1712 the government of North Carolina was admin- 
istered by a deputy appointed by the Governor of the entire Province of 
Carolina, who resided in Charleston and administered the government 
of South Carolina. After 1712, North Carolina had a separate Governor. 

North Carolina faced difficulties equal to if not surpassing those of 
any other English colony. There were neither good roads nor good 
ports. Virginia harassed the Colony with laws restricting the sale and 
shipment of North Carolina tobacco through her ports, and by dis- 
puting the jurisdiction of North Carolina over the territory along the 
northern boundary. Pirates, the most noted of whom were "Black- 
beard" (Edward Teach, or Thatch), and Stede Bonnett, raided the coast 
for 50 years. 

Moreover, the government of the Lords Proprietors was never satis- 
factory. The proprietors were dissatisfied because the Colony grew 
slowly and was unprofitable, while the settlers felt that the proprietors 
neglected the Colony. Most of the Governors were inefficient or dis- 
honest. Land titles were not clear. There were few schools, churches, 
or internal improvements. The British navigation acts interfered with 
trade and provoked the Culpepper Rebellion, in which the people de- 
posed the Governor and put in office men of their own choosing. In 
fact, no less than six Governors were deposed during proprietary rule 
(1663-1729). There were serious disputes over representation in the leg- 
islature, quitrents, taxation, and courts. 

North Carolina grew slowly in population and wealth. By 1715 there 
were three towns, Bath, Edenton, and New Bern, with enough people 
to entitle them to representation in the assembly. Bath, the oldest town 
in the Colony, was incorporated in 1705 but never became large. Eden- 
ton, founded before 1710, was the seat of government for a number of 
years. New Bern was founded by German and Swiss Palatines in 1710. 
The Tuscarora War, which broke out in 171 1, was the most serious upris- 
ing in the history of the Colony; hundreds of white settlers were killed 
before the Indians were subdued with the aid of South Carolina troops. 
Beaufort was established in 1722. Brunswick, near the mouth of the 
Cape Fear, was founded about 1725 by settlers from South Carolina. 
Until the outbreak of the American Revolution, it was an important 
port as well as a political center. Wilmington, founded in 1730 as New 
Liverpool, soon became the Colony's chief port. 


The Royal Period 

In 1729 the King bought out the proprietors and North Carolina be- 
came a royal colony, to the satisfaction of all concerned. One proprietor 
retained his share, known as the Granville District, which embraced 
the upper half of present North Carolina and included two-thirds of 
the people in the Colony at the time. The existence of this district caused 
much confusion until the Revolution, at which time the land was con- 
fiscated by the people living in the district. 

From 1729 to 1775, North Carolina made considerable progress. There 
were only five Governors during the period of royal rule, and the gov- 
ernment was much more stable. Between 1730 and 1775 the population 
increased from 30,000 to 265,000, and the frontier was pushed westward 
to the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The Indians were driven 
over the Appalachians; agricultural methods, transportation, and trade 
improved; schools and churches were built, and newspapers were estab- 

Before 1739 the white population was largely of English stock, but 
between that date and the outbreak of the Revolution a steady stream 
of Scotch Highlanders, Scotch-Irish, and Germans poured into North 
Carolina. The Highlanders came into the Cape Fear Valley in large 
numbers, particularly after their defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 
1745. The Scotch Highlanders were the only large group to come 
directly from their native land. Most of the English settlers came in 
from Virginia and South Carolina, while most of the Scotch-Irish and 
Germans came down from Pennsylvania. A few Swiss and French set- 
tled in North Carolina in the early 18th century, but the majority of 
the white population was English, Scotch, and German. The so-called 
Scotch-Irish were "racially Scotch and geographically Irish." 

In 1760 the racial elements in the population were: English, 45,000; 
Scotch, 40,000; German, 15,000; Negro, 31,000. Since the Colonial period 
there has been little foreign immigration to North Carolina, and in 
1930 only three-tenths of one percent of the State's total population 
was foreign-born, with one exception the smallest proportion of any 
State in the Union. 

North Carolina was never a unit geographically, economically, or 
socially. Society was rather distinctly stratified into four classes. At the 
top was the planter aristocracy, living chiefly in the Cape Fear, Neuse, 
and Albemarle regions, where the plantation system took deepest root. 
Although very much in the minority as to numbers, this class never- 
theless controlled local government and exerted a great influence in 
social, economic, and religious affairs. 


Just below the planters in the social scale were the small farmers, the 
bulk of the population. The Piedmont, which has been described as a 
"prolongation of Pennsylvania," was the mecca of the small farmers. 
There the hardy German and Scotch-Irish settlers cultivated their lands 
with their own hands. They grew their foodstuffs, made their own 
clothing, and envied no man. They were self-reliant, thrifty, and dog- 
matic, and they did much to determine the character of society in the 

Below the small farmers were the indentured servants. These were 
of two kinds, voluntary (redemptioners) and involuntary, representing 
many classes. A few involuntary servants were convicts, shipped to the 
Colony as servants to pay for their crimes. Some, among them women 
and children, had been kidnaped in English cities, and spirited away 
to America, to be sold into bondage. But the majority of the servants 
were the voluntary ones, who agreed to sell their labor for a fixed num- 
ber of years (usually five to seven) to pay for their passage to the New 
World. After their period of servitude was over, many by hard work 
became landholders, some rising to the status of planters. 

At the bottom of the social scale were the Negro slaves. Slavery ex- 
isted from early days, encouraged by the proprietors, who offered 50 
acres of land for each slave above 14 years of age brought into the 
Colony. Because of the preponderance of small farmers who furnished 
their own labor, slavery at first grew slowly. After the middle of the 
1 8th century the number of slaves increased rapidly, as the following 
figures show: 1712, 800; 1730, 6,000; 1754, 15,000; 1765, 30,000; 1790, 
100,572. The increase was largely natural, for few Negroes were im- 
ported. By 1767 the Negroes outnumbered the whites in some of the 
eastern counties, where the plantation system prevailed. 

Ecclesiastically, North Carolina was not very active. The first church 
in the Colony was built in 1701-2 by the Vestry of Chowan Parish, after- 
wards St. Paul's (see edenton). In 1715, a Colonial law recognized the 
Church of England as the established church in North Carolina. Other 
Protestant denominations developed slowly, but by the end of the Co- 
lonial period, most of the Protestant sects were well represented. 

In the 1 8th century there were no public schools in North Carolina, 
but there were many teachers. Education was considered a function of 
the church, and nearly all of the teachers were ministers or candidates 
for the ministry. The first professional teacher of whom there is record 
was Charles Griffin, a lay reader of the Anglican Church, who opened 
a school in Pasquotank County in 1705. 

The lack of a public school system did not mean that the people in 
general were illiterate. Children were taught at home by their parents 
or by a tutor. The sons of wealthy planters were sent to William and 


Mary, Harvard, Yale, or Princeton, or to Scottish or English universi- 
ties. The education of the poor and of orphans was provided for through 
the apprenticeship system and by requiring guardians to educate their 

After the middle of the 18th century academies, or classical schools, 
were established. The first in North Carolina was Tate's Academy, 
opened in Wilmington in 1760. Crowfield Academy was opened the 
same year in Mecklenburg County. Hillsboro, Warrenton, New Bern, 
and Edenton also had early academies. The most famous of these schools 
was the "log college" of the Rev. David Caldwell at Greensboro. The 
first college in North Carolina was Queen's College, established at 
Charlotte in 1771. 

The first free public library was operating in Bath in 1705, but the 
date of its opening is uncertain. The first printing press was set up at 
New Bern in 1749, by James Davis, "the father of journalism in North 
Carolina." Davis published the first newspaper in the Colony, the North 
Carolina Gazette, a weekly paper launched in 1751. 

Tobacco and corn were the chief crops. Cotton was unimportant until 
the 19th century. Wheat, flax, hemp, and indigo were raised, as well as 
such "provisions" as beans and peas. The production of naval stores (tar, 
pitch, turpentine, and rosin) was the chief industry. 

Revolution and Independence 

North Carolinians participated in all the four wars between England 
and France for dominion in North America, particularly in the French 
and Indian War. At the close of this war England, faced with a huge 
debt, inaugurated a "new Colonial policy," one phase of which was a 
plan to tax the colonists by means of stamps on legal documents, news- 
papers, and many other articles. The people resisted enforcement of this 
act; at Wilmington and Brunswick there were demonstrations and 
an armed uprising, with the result that no stamps were sold in North 
Carolina. When the British Parliament in 1767 passed an act taxing 
glass, white lead, tea, and other articles, nonimportation associations 
made effective use of an economic boycott. Finally England removed 
all the taxes, except that on tea. 

Meanwhile, the farmers of the back country v/ere struggling against 
Colonial and local government that seemed to them inefficient, venal, 
and intolerable. They were burdened by dishonest sheriffs, extortionate 
fees, corrupt lawyers, and excessive taxes. When the legislature, dom- 
inated by the eastern aristocracy, failed to solve their problems, they 
organized in 1768 as the Regulators, pledged "to regulate" the govern- 


merit and to remedy the abuses. Later they resorted to violence and 
rioted in Hillsboro, dragging the judge from the bench, breaking up the 
court, and doing damage to the property of some of the officials. Finally 
Governor Tryon led the eastern militia to Hillsboro, and at the Battle 
of Alamance Creek on May 16, 1771, the Regulators were defeated. 
Seven were put to death; more than 6,000 accepted the Governor's 
pardon proclamation. Many of the Regulators were still disaffected, 
however, and hundreds migrated beyond the mountains. 

As the American Revolution approached in 1774, the people, in open 
defiance of the royal Governor, Josiah Martin, held a convention at New 
Bern to formulate plans of resistance and to elect delegates to the Con- 
tinental Congress. When the Revolution broke out in April 1775, the 
Governor fled, royal authority broke down, and a provisional govern- 
ment was set up. Meetings were held in various counties, and commit- 
tees were appointed to take charge of local government and raise 
troops. According to local history, a meeting was held in Charlotte, 
May 20, 1775, and a declaration of independence was drawn up. Some 
contend there is no conclusive proof of this meeting, although the date 
commemorating the event is on the State seal and the State flag. It 
is, however, certain that a meeting in Charlotte on May 31, 1775, drew 
up a set of resolutions, more moderate in tone than the so-called Meck- 
lenburg Declaration. Boyd's Cape Fear Mercury published the resolu- 
tions, and for this act was arraigned by the Governor as "a most 
infamous publication." 

Many North Carolinians were loath to go to war with England. These 
Tories, or loyalists, included most of the official class, some large planters, 
many of the Anglican clergy, numbers of the Scotch Highlanders, and 
many of the Regulators. Organizing into an army, the Tories met the 
North Carolina Whigs at Moores Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776, and 
suffered a crushing defeat. In 1777 the State legislature, controlled by 
the Whigs, began to pass laws by means of which they confiscated 
Tory property worth a million dollars during the course of the war. 
As a result many Tories left the State. 

On April 12, 1776 the Fourth Provincial Congress meeting at Halifax, 
drew up a resolution authorizing the North Carolina delegates in the 
Continental Congress to "concur with the delegates of the other Colonies 
in declaring Independency. . . ." This was "the first authoritative, explicit 
declaration, by more than a month, by any colony in favor of full, final 
separation from Britain." In the latter part of that year the Fifth Pro- 
vincial Congress framed the first State constitution, the salient features 
of which were a bill of rights; provision for legislative, executive, and 
judicial branches of government, with the legislative branch given vir- 
tual control over the other two divisions; property and religious quali- 


fixations for voting and officeholding; representation of six boroughs 
in the legislature, along with county representation; suffrage for free 
Negroes; separation of church and state; and a general provision for 
public education. The constitution went into effect in 1777, without 
being submitted to popular vote. Richard Caswell was the first Governor 
of the independent State, being chosen by the Provincial Congress. The 
capital was at New Bern. 

After the Battle of Moores Creek Bridge there was little fighting in 
the State until the last year of the war, but North Carolina soldiers were 
active elsewhere. State troops helped drive Lord Dunmore from Vir- 
ginia in 1775-76, and assisted in the defense of South Carolina and 
Georgia. The State militia under Rutherford defeated the Cherokee 
and drove them farther west. Many North Carolinians fought under 
Washington at Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth, and suf- 
fered at Valley Forge in the severe winter of 1777-78. They rendered 
valiant service against Ferguson at Kings Mountain on October 7, 
1780, and against Cornwallis at Guilford Courthouse, March 15, 1781. 
Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown, in October 1781, can be traced in 
part to the disastrous defeat at Kings Mountain, to Cornwallis' heavy 
losses at Guilford Courthouse, and to his failure to recruit many Tories 
in the State — reverses which caused his famous retreat through the 
State to Wilmington, and then to Virginia, culminating in the York- 
town surrender. 

The Revolutionary War left North Carolina divided into two main 
groups, conservatives and radicals. The constitution of 1776 was more 
conservative than radical. The east-west sectionalism, which had mani- 
fested itself so vigorously before the Revolution, continued, and the 
State government was dominated by the landed aristocracy of the east 
for half a century. 

The chief problems after the Revolution were the disposition of the 
State's western lands, the relation of North Carolina to the Union, and 
the function of the State government in education, building roads, 
canals, and other internal improvements. 

Before and during the Revolution intrepid pioneers like Daniel 
Boone and James Robertson, and land speculators like Richard Hender- 
son, had made their way into the transmontane country. The coloniza- 
tion of what later became the State of Tennessee began with the Watauga 
settlement just prior to the Revolution. By 1783 there were about 25,000 
people beyond the mountains, and four counties had been created; three 
other counties were formed within a few years. 

The legislature first ceded North Carolina's western lands to the 
United States in 1784. The settlers in the transmontane country, who 
favored the cession act, were antagonized by its repeal later the same 


year. They broke away from North Carolina and organized the State 
of Franklin, with a constitution, a separate legislature, and John Sevier 
as Governor. The new State collapsed in September 1787, after it failed 
to secure support from the Continental Congress or from other States. 
Finally, in 1789-90, North Carolina ceded its western lands to the Fed- 
eral Government; in 1796 the region was admitted to the Union as the 
State of Tennessee. 

As the Cherokee Indians retreated westward, and as population grew 
and roads were built, white settlers began to move into the mountain 
region. Buncombe County was created in 1792, and five years later the 
town of Asheville was incorporated. 

The people of North Carolina were from the beginning inclined 
toward individualism and democracy, and their fear of a strong central 
government led them to reject the Federal Constitution at the Hills- 
boro convention in 1788. Although adopting this course by a vote of 
185 to 84, the convention suggested a number of amendments, some 
of which were later incorporated in the Constitution as the first ten 

The Constitution was ratified, however, by all but North Carolina 
and Rhode Island, and went into effect in the spring of 1789. As a 
result, public opinion in the State changed, and at the Fayetteville 
convention, on November 21, 1789, North Carolina ratified the Con- 
stitution, and thus came under the "Federal Roof." North Carolina 
entered the Union too late to vote for Washington in 1789, and it left 
the Union too late to vote for Davis in 1861. It was next to the last 
of the Original States to enter the Union, and in 1861 it was next to 
the last State to leave it. 

Predominantly a State of small farmers, North Carolina was for a 
few years Federalist in its politics; but it soon changed and aligned 
itself with Thomas Jefferson and the Republican Party of that day. 
Under the leadership of Willie Jones, and later of Nathaniel Macon, 
the State was strongly Republican for many years. The Raleigh Register, 
founded in 1799 by Joseph Gales at the instigation of Macon, was a 
Republican organ; in 1850-51 it published the State's first daily news- 
paper. Macon, who seemed to personify North Carolina in his day, 
believed that government should be cheap, simple, and democratic; 
that the people should not be taxed for education and internal improve- 
ments, and that "that government is best which governs least." North 
Carolina was the only State in the Union which consistently opposed 
all protective tariff legislation. 

There were no public schools or colleges in North Carolina for many 
years after the Revolution, and a growing need was felt for better edu- 
cational facilities. The constitution of 1776 had provided "That a school 


or schools shall be established by the Legislature for the convenient 
Instruction of Youth, with such salaries to the Masters paid by the 
Public, as may enable them to instruct at low Prices; and all useful 
Learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more uni- 
versities." But the political leaders of the State did not interpret this to 
mean that the State should establish schools and colleges supported 
by public funds. They felt that the academies, which were chartered 
by the legislature, though not supported by it, fulfilled this constitutional 
provision. More than 40 academies were established prior to 1800 and 
more than 400 between the Revolution and the War between the States. 

The academies were private schools, many of them sectarian in char- 
acter. They were allowed to grant certificates but not diplomas or de- 
grees. The trustees ordinarily selected the teachers, fixed the curriculum, 
gave the examinations, and in some cases administered discipline. 

Thirteen years elapsed before the legislature did anything about 
establishing "one or more universities." Prominent Federalists, led by 
William R. Davie, often called "the father of the university," finally 
succeeded in getting a bill passed in 1789, chartering the University 
of North Carolina. New Hope Chapel, now Chapel Hill, was the site 
selected. In 1795 the university opened its doors to students, the first 
State university to do so. The legislature granted it a loan of $10,000, 
which was later converted into a gift, but made no appropriations for 
its support, and the trustees had to depend chiefly on gifts and tuition 

In early days there had been no fixed seat of government. New Bern 
was the capital when the Revolution began, but during the war the 
legislature met at Hillsboro, Halifax, Smithfield, Wake Court House, 
New Bern, Fayetteville, and Tarboro. Finally, in 1792, a legislative 
committee bought 1,000 acres of land from Joel Lane near Wake Court 
House, and laid out the city of Raleigh. The first capitol in Raleigh, 
a brick structure completed in 1794, was burned in 1831. The present 
capitol was begun in 1833 and completed in 1840. 

Ante-Bellum Days 

From 1 815 to 1835, North Carolina made so little economic and social 
progress that it was called the Rip Van Winkle of the States and the 
Ireland of America. The chief cause of this backwardness was its inac- 
cessibility to markets. In 1815 there were only twenty-three small iron 
works, three paper mills, and one cotton mill in the State. Many small 
gristmills and distilleries were operated, but there was little machinery. 
Manufacturing was still in the domestic or household stage. No large 


trading city existed, and only 7 towns in the State had more than 1,000 
people. From Wilmington, the chief port, only a million dollars' worth 
of goods were shipped in 1816. 

North Carolina dropped in population from third place among the 
States in 1790 to seventh place in 1840. Soil exhaustion, the lure of the 
West, lack of internal improvements and educational facilities, and un- 
happy conditions generally led many people to forsake the State. Thou- 
sands moved to other States, among them young Andrew Johnson and 
the families of two other Carolina-born Presidents, Jackson and Polk. 

Archibald De Bow Murphey and a few other leaders in the State 
urged as a remedy the building of transportation facilities, the stimula- 
tion of manufacturing, the promotion of education, and the develop- 
ment of the State's vast resources. But the government, dominated by 
the landed aristocracy of the east, was unwilling to launch such a pro- 
gram of internal improvements. 

By 1830 more than half the State's population lived west of Raleigh. 
Yet most of the Governors and the majority of the legislature came from 
the east. Whenever- a new county was created in the west, one would 
also be formed in the east, so that the east continued to control the 
government. The west demanded revision of the constitution of 1776 
and a program of internal improvements. The east opposed both. From 
1831 to 1835, North Carolina appeared to be on the verge of a revolution. 
Finally, at a convention held at Raleigh in 1835, significant changes 
were made in the constitution. Provisions were adopted for the reap- 
portionment of representation in the legislature, popular election of the 
Governor, abolition of borough representation, disfranchisement of the 
free Negro, and the partial removal of religious qualifications for voting 
and officeholding. 

A genuine educational revival began about 1836. The first public 
school law was passed in 1839, and the first public schools were opened 
in 1840. By 1850 more than 100,000 children were attending approxi- 
mately 2,600 schools. Under Calvin H. Wiley, who in 1853 became the 
first State superintendent of common schools, a unified school program 
was inaugurated. In i860, North Carolina had 2,854 schools, open nearly 
four months in the year, with 116,567 children in attendance. 

At the same time many denominational colleges were being estab- 
lished. Wake Forest College (Baptist) had its beginning as the Wake 
Forest Institute, opened in 1834. Davidson College (Presbyterian) near 
Charlotte, opened for students in 1837. Trinity College (Methodist), 
now Duke University, had its beginning about 1838 at Trinity in 
Randolph County. Salem Female Academy had been started by the 
Moravians in 1802. Between 1842 and 1858 other colleges for girls were 
established by various denominations: Greensboro Female, Saint Mary's, 


Davenport, Floral, Chowan, Oxford, and Statesville. In i860 there were 
6 colleges for men with 900 students, and 13 colleges for girls with 1,500 

The State also adopted a policy for the care of the blind, deaf, speech- 
less, and insane. A school for the blind and deaf was established in 
Raleigh in 1845. A State hospital for the insane was opened in Raleigh 
in 1856. 

During this period canals and roads were built, rivers and harbors 
improved, and railroads constructed. Two railroad lines were completed 
in 1840, the Wilmington and Raleigh (i6i 1 / 4 miles), which did not 
touch Raleigh, but ran from Wilmington to Weldon on the Roanoke 
River; and the Raleigh and Gaston, to Weldon. In 1856 the North 
Carolina Railroad was completed from Charlotte to Goldsboro, and by 
i860 the line had been extended from Goldsboro to the coast. The 
Western North Carolina Railroad was opened from Salisbury to Mor- 
ganton in 1861, and by 1880 had reached Asheville. In i860 the total 
railroad trackage was 889.42 miles. Many plank roads, or "farmers' rail- 
roads," were built between 1849 and i860, no fewer than 81 companies 
being incorporated for their construction. Many of the roads radiated 
from Fayetteville; one of these, running to Bethania by way of Salem, 
is said to be the longest plank road ever built. By the time of the War 
between the States, plank roads had about disappeared. 

Of 25 towns listed in the i860 census, only 2 had a population of more 
than 5,000, while 13 had less than 1,000 each. Wilmington, with 13,446, 
was the largest; and New Bern, Fayetteville, Raleigh, Salisbury, and 
Charlotte were next in size. Farming conditions had improved as a 
result of better transportation facilities, and there was a notable increase 
in manufacturing. 

The majority of North Carolinians never held slaves at any time. 
Most of those who held slaves owned fewer than ten, though there were 
some families that owned hundreds. North Carolina had more free 
Negroes than any other Southern State except Virginia and Maryland. 
Between 1790 and i860 they had increased from 4,975 to 30,463. Some 
had migrated from free States, others had achieved their freedom by 
meritorious work or military service. 

From 1 816 to 1830 the movement for emancipation in North Carolina 
was stronger than in any other Southern State. At least 40 abolition 
societies were operating in 1826. As early as 1819 the Underground 
Railroad had become an active force in the State. Branches of the 
American Colonization Society were formed, and some Negroes were 
sent to Liberia and elsewhere. 













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War and Reconstruction 

North Carolina, like other Southern States, believed in States' rights 
and opposed efforts to restrict slavery in the Territories. After the na- 
tional abolition movement began about 1830, North Carolina ceased to 
talk about slavery as a necessary evil and began to defend it from attack, 
enacting stronger laws for control of the Negroes. However, violent 
attacks on slavery were made by a few individuals in the State, among 
whom were Levi and Vestal Coffin, reputed founders of the Under- 
ground Railroad, and Hinton Rowan Helper, author of the Impending 
Crisis, published in 1857. 

Union sentiment was strong in the State even among many slave- 
holding planters. The State was not a party to the organization of the 
Southern Confederacy in February 1861. Delegates were sent to a peace 
conference held at Washington in an effort to avert hostilities. But when 
after Fort Sumter had been fired on, Lincoln asked for troops to fight 
the Confederacy, North Carolina refused. The State adopted an ordi- 
nance of secession on May 20, 1861, and cast its lot with the South. 

North Carolina furnished about one-fifth of all the southern soldiers, 
although it had only about one-ninth of the southern population. It 
sent into the war approximately 125,000 men, a number larger than the 
State's voting population. About one-fourth of the Confederates killed 
in action, or more than 40,000 men, were North Carolinians. The State's 
boast that it was "First at Bethel, farthest at Gettysburg, and last at 
Appomattox" has some basis. Eighty-four engagements, most of them 
small, were fought on North Carolina soil. 

While contributing heavily to the Confederate cause, no State was 
more jealous of its rights than North Carolina. Gov. Zebulon B. Vance 
protested against many policies of the Confederate Government, par- 
ticularly the conscription law, the impressment of property, the suspen- 
sion of the writ of habeas corpus, and the use of Virginia officers in 
North Carolina. 

Near the end of the war, Lee's army was dependent on the food and 
supplies that were run into Wilmington through the blockade and were 
shipped over the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, "the life line of 
the Confederacy." About $65,000,000 worth of goods, at gold prices, 
were brought into Wilmington during the war. Fort Fisher, the "Gibral- 
tar of America," was not captured by the Federal forces until January 
1865, and Wilmington, the last Confederate port, fell into northern 
hands soon after. 

North Carolina, like the rest of the South, was in a state of collapse 
following the downfall of the Confederacy. Economic exhaustion and 


political and social disorder were complete. One of the greatest problems 
was the freedmen. About 350,000 slaves, poor and without experience 
in taking care of themselves, were set free in the State. Many of these 
expected that the United States Government would give them "forty 
acres and a mule," and provide for them generally. White leaders tried 
to solve the problem, but accomplished little. 

North Carolina was not fully readmitted to the Union until 1868. In 
May 1865, Gen. John McA. Schofteld took military command of the 
State, and issued a proclamation announcing the cessation of war and 
the freedom of the slaves. On May 29 of that year, President Andrew 
Johnson, in an effort to carry out his plan of reconstruction, appointed 
W. W. Holden Provisional Governor. The President also issued a 
proclamation of pardon and amnesty, but the leading citizens of the 
State were not eligible. The Southern States were required to set up 
governments and accept the thirteenth amendment, abolishing slavery, 
before they would be readmitted to the Union. Before the close of 1865 
a regular government was set up and Jonathan Worth was elected 
Governor over Holden. 

Early in 1866 the North Carolina legislature adopted special laws, 
called the Black Code, defining the rights of Negroes. According to 
R. D. W. Connor, while "it did not admit the Negro to entire equality 
before the law with the whites, nevertheless it validated the marriages 
of former slaves; changed the law of apprenticeship so as to apply, with 
one minor exception, to both races alike; declared Negroes entitled to 
the same rights and privileges as whites in suits at law and equity; made 
the criminal law applicable to the two races alike, except in the punish- 
ment for an assault with intent to rape; provided for the admission of 
the testimony of Negroes in the courts, and made provision for the pro- 
tection of Negroes from fraud and ignorance in making contracts with 
white persons." 

The Wilmington Star, founded in 1867, is the State's oldest daily 

In 1867 Congress nullified the Presidential plan of reconstruction. The 
South was divided into five military districts, and North Carolina was 
thus again under military rule. Congress also laid down the conditions 
of readmission to the Union. North Carolina, like other Southern States, 
was required to form a new constitution, "framed by a convention of 
delegates elected by male citizens of the said State, 21 years old and 
upwards, of whatever race, color, or previous condition." The constitu- 
tion had to be approved by voters of the State, and the State had to 
ratify the fourteenth amendment, making Negroes citizens of the 
United States. 

A constitutional convention met in Raleigh on January 14, 1868, and 


drew up a document which, with the addition of many amendments, is 
still effective. Present at this convention were 107 Republicans, of whom 
18 were carpetbaggers and 15 Negroes. Only 13 Conservatives (Demo- 
crats) attended. Some of the most significant provisions of the new con- 
stitution were the abolition of slavery; elimination of religious or prop- 
erty qualifications for voting or officeholding; popular election of all 
State and county officials; abolition of the county court system and 
adoption of the township-county commission form of government; pro- 
vision for charities and public welfare; and a four-months public school 

For many years North Carolina had bad government, though it never 
suffered as much from carpetbaggers and Negro politicians as some of 
the other Southern States. There was a great increase in crime and vio- 
lence. The Union League, a Republican organization, was active among 
the Negroes. The whites began to organize the Ku Klux Klan and 
other secret societies, stating as their purpose the protection of woman- 
hood, combating the influence of the Union League, and restoring 
"white supremacy." 

Things came to a head in 1870. Maintaining that there was disorder 
in Alamance and Caswell Counties because of the activities of the Ku 
Klux Klan, Governor Holden proclaimed these counties in a state of 
insurrection. Military arrests were made and a number of leading citi- 
zens were imprisoned without jury trial. By this time the Conservatives 
had gained control of the legislature, and steps were taken to remove 
Holden. He was "impeached of high crimes and misdemeanors," and 
after a trial which lasted almost two months he was found guilty and 
removed from office on March 22, 1871. Thereafter the Conservatives 
gradually gained control of the State. 

Thirty amendments were added to the 1868 constitution in 1875, most 
of which were the result of the experiences of Reconstruction. Schools 
for white and black were to be kept separate; marriages between whites 
and blacks were forbidden; secret political societies were not to be tol- 
erated; residence requirements for voting were raised; the legislature 
was given control over the appointment of justices of the peace; and the 
power of the State government over local affairs was increased. 

Recovery and Progress 

North Carolina was still a very poor State when Reconstruction ended. 
The great task of rebuilding agriculture, industry, transportation, and 
commerce was yet to be accomplished. 

The farmers, in particular, suffered during the period from the close 


of the war to 1900. One of the most significant results of the war was 
the break-up of plantations into smaller farms and the rapid rise of 
farm tenancy. The majority of landlords rented their land "on shares." 
Although some leading farmers and a few farm papers opposed this 
system, circumstances forced it on North Carolina and it is still the 
prevalent system of land tenure. 

In manufacturing there was marked development almost immediately 
after the War between the States. Tobacco manufacture, the leading 
industry, developed rapidly after 1880. Durham, Winston-Salem, and 
Reidsville became the chief tobacco-manufacturing towns. By 1900 
there were 96 factories in the State, making tobacco products worth 
$14,000,000. Textile manufacturing and the furniture industry were next 
in importance. 

Both agriculture and manufacturing benefited by improved railroad 
facilities. In 1900 there were more than 3,800 miles of railroads in the 
State, connected with lines leading to all parts of the United States. 
Many short lines were consolidated into three large systems : the Southern 
Railway in the Piedmont and the west, the Atlantic Coast Line in the 
east, and the Seaboard Air Line between the two. 

There was further need for improved highways. Roads were built and 
kept in repair by the men of each township, who were required by law 
to work on the roads a few days each year — a system that never operated 
satisfactorily. Before 1900, Mecklenburg was the only county that had 
built good hard-surfaced roads. On December 17, 1903 — a date of great 
significance in the history of transportation — the first successful airplane 
flight by the Wright brothers took place at Kitty Hawk. 

Most of the colleges of the State, the university, and the public schools 
had been closed for a few years during Reconstruction. When they were 
reopened they were seriously hampered by lack of funds. In 1900, the 
schools were open only about 70 days in the year, and teachers were paid 
only about $24 a month. There were no compulsory attendance laws, 
and only a little more than half of the children attended. 

Toward the close of the century several institutions for higher educa- 
tion had been opened. In 1887 the legislature established at Raleigh the 
North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, now the 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering of the University of North 
Carolina. In 1891 the legislature created the State Normal and Indus- 
trial College at Greensboro, now the Woman's College of the University 
of North Carolina, to train women teachers. In the same year North 
Carolina Agricultural and Technical College for Negroes was estab- 
lished in Greensboro, and the North Carolina School for the Deaf 
and Dumb at Morganton. 

The year 1901 marks a turning point in North Carolina history. In 


that year Charles B. Aycock became Governor, and a new group, vitally 
interested in the development of the State's resources and the advance- 
ment of the people, took charge of the government. Aycock and other 
leaders traveled all over the State, urging the people to vote for school 
taxes and to provide better schoolhouses, better teachers, and longer 

Hundreds of school districts followed this advice, and the State gov- 
ernment itself began to help build schoolhouses. While Aycock was 
Governor, more than 1,200 new schoolhouses were built. Teachers' 
salaries were raised, the teachers were better trained, the number of stu- 
dents was increased, the school term was lengthened, libraries were 
started in rural communities, and better schoolbooks were obtained. 
Teacher-training schools were established, Negro education was im- 
proved, and a new day dawned for education. 

Soon after the United States entered the World War in 1917, a call 
for 5,100 volunteers for the National Guard in North Carolina was 
answered by 8,500 enlistments. Cantonments were established at Camp 
Polk, near Raleigh; Camp Greene, near Charlotte; Camp Bragg (later 
Fort Bragg), in Cumberland and Hoke Counties, and elsewhere, where 
several thousand troops were trained. The war was brought to North 
Carolina's coast on August 8, 1918, when a German submarine shelled 
and sank the Diamond Shoals lightship. On August 16, the submarine 
torpedoed and sank the British tanker Mirlo off Rodanthe. Members of 
the Chicamacomico Coast Guard Station, braving a sea of flaming oil, 
rescued the crew of 42. North Carolina provided 86,457 men for the 
Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. During the war, 833 North Carolinians 
died in battle or of wounds, and there were 1,542 deaths of disease. 
The Congressional Medal of Honor was posthumously awarded 
to Lester Blackwell, of Hurdle Mills, N. C, who was killed near 
Saint Souplet, France. The Distinguished Service Cross was be- 
stowed upon 184 North Carolinians and the Distinguished Service Medal 
upon 6. 

North Carolina, whose total population in 1930 was 3,170,276, has 
become industrialized without losing its rural character. About 80 per- 
cent of its people live in rural districts, and there is no city of 100,000 
population. Industries have not been concentrated to any great degree. 
Cotton mills, tobacco factories, furniture plants, and other industrial 
enterprises exist side by side in the same communities. 

Kannapolis has the largest towel mills in the world, and Durham the 
largest hosiery mill. Badin for years had the largest aluminum plant. 
Winston-Salem, Durham, and Reidsville have the largest tobacco fac- 
tories in the world, and Wilson, Greenville, and Rocky Mount are 
among the largest bright-leaf tobacco markets. Greensboro has the 


largest denim mills in the United States, and Canton the largest paper- 
pulp mills. High Point has the largest furniture factories in the South. 

Steady development of the State's natural resources and gradual 
improvement in its economic condition seem to be providing a firm 
basis for a richer civic, social, and cultural life. 


OF THE 3,170,276 people in North Carolina in 1930, 918,647, or 
( 29 percent, are Negroes. They are scattered throughout the 
State, in large numbers in the east and in a few cities of the 
Piedmont. Except for the concentration of Negroes in tobacco-manufac- 
turing centers the distribution follows rather closely the old plantation 
regions. The highest percentage of Negroes is 65.2 percent in Warren, 
a Coastal Plain county on the Virginia border, and the lowest is in 
Graham, a mountain county, where the 1930 census listed but one 
Negro. The ratio of Negroes to total population has shown a decline in 
every decade since 1880. 

History. When the earliest permanent settlements were made in 
North Carolina in the middle of the 17th century, Negroes were brought 
in as slave laborers. The plantation regime developed first in the tobacco 
belt along the eastern end of the Virginia boundary. By 1767 Negroes 
outnumbered whites in three eastern counties, and in three others were 
nearly as numerous. In 1880 they constituted 38 percent of the total 
population of the State. 

The headman among the slaves on a plantation was the driver, or 
foreman, who staked ofl the "tasks" in the morning and checked them 
off at night. When a slave finished his "task" he was through for the day 
and could use his time as he wished. Usually less than half of a planter's 
slaves were prime hands, able to do a full day's work. 

House servants and skilled tradesmen ranked above field hands. But- 
lers, coachmen, cooks, seamstresses, nurses, weavers, carpenters, black- 
smiths, cobblers, and other skilled slaves had a high value. The selection 
of the more teachable children for these trades, the opportunity offered 
them to acquire habits and skills, and their closer association with the 
white people, gave them a special status. 

Slaves could not own property in land, houses, or livestock, but they 
were not without money. Many masters gave rewards for work done 
beyond the allotted task. Slaves were given plots around the cabins and 
were encouraged to have gardens and fowls. Slave artisans were fre- 

5 1' 


quently hired out by their masters, or were permitted to hire themselves 
out — on paying the master a fixed annual sum. 

In numerous instances, slaves worked under less favorable circum- 
stances. The task system was not always well-regulated and it was not 
always used. The majority of plantations in North Carolina had fewer 
than 10 slaves. On the smallest plantations with two or three slaves 
the master and his family generally worked in the fields with the 

Restrictions increased after Nat Turner's rebellion in Virginia in 
1831, and a few slave conspiracies in North Carolina. Laws prohibited 
slaves from holding meetings, leaving the plantation without written 
permits, possessing firearms, learning to read and write, or being manu- 
mitted except for meritorious service (which had to be proved before a 
court), and limited the race in many other ways. All Negroes, bond and 
free, as well as Indians, were held incapable of witnessing in court 
against white persons. 

The number of free Negroes in 1790, the first accurate estimate, was 
4,975 — not a large number, but larger than in any State except Mary- 
land and Virginia. Slaves at that date numbered 100,572 and whites 
288,204. By i860 the number of free Negroes had increased to 30,463, 
and slaves to 331,059. 

Negroes were free if they had emigrated from free States, if they had 
been freed legally by former owners, or if they were the product of 
mixed unions in which the mother was free and the father a slave. The 
majority of the white people, rich and poor, resented the presence of 
free Negroes in their society. Masters could have caught runaways much 
oftener but for the numbers of free Negroes. Poor white laborers and 
mechanics resented them for both economic and social reasons. Many 
protests came from mechanics' associations against free Negro work- 
men and the practice of hiring out skilled slaves. 

Towns usually required free Negroes to register and wear badges. 
Curfew laws were passed for the purpose of clearing the streets of 
Negroes by 10 o'clock, or some other evening hour. They lost the vote in 
1835, a privilege until then of the few who could meet the property 
qualification that applied to whites as well. 

Rigorous as were the laws, however, many free Negroes prospered 
and some accumulated wealth. The fight for freedom continued despite 
the difficulties facing abolitionists working in a slave community. One 
of the prominent abolitionists of the State was Lunsford Lane, a former 
slave who had purchased his own and his family's freedom. Vestal and 
Levi Coffin, famed operators of the Underground Railroad along the 
banks of the Ohio, began their operations as early as 1819 during their 
residence in North Carolina. 


When emancipation was proclaimed, April 28, 1865, the natural reac- 
tion of the former slaves was to test their new freedom by moving about 
at will and doing those things which they had previously been restricted 
from doing. "To abandon his plow in the middle of the row," writes the 
historian Connor, "to stride defiantly by his former master, out of the 
yard, and down the dusty road — that, indeed, was a test of freedom that 
even the most ignorant Negro could understand. Thousands of Negroes 
followed Sherman's army as it marched through North Carolina; other 
thousands flocked into Wilmington, New Bern, Goldsboro, Raleigh, 
and other large towns, lured from the plantations by the excitements of 
town life and the presence of Federal troops. Relaxation of discipline, 
idleness, and crowding bore their inevitable harvest of destitution, 
disease, and crime." 

The problem of the freedmen was not one which the former masters, 
now destitute, were in any mood to consider sympathetically. The Fed- 
eral Government met the problem by creating the Freedmen's Bureau 
and giving it control of all matters relating to former slaves in the 
South. The bureau operated in North Carolina from July 1865 to Jan- 
uary 1869. About $1,500,000 worth of food was distributed in the State, 
431 schools were established enrolling 20,227 pupils, and more than 
40,000 patients were treated in hospitals. Many destitute whites shared 
in these benefits. 

Causes for bitterness between the races were many at this period. 
Theories of social and political equality antagonized not only the former 
owning class, but the great majority of white people. Even those mas- 
ters who, during the slave regime, supported a tradition of benevolent 
paternalism, could not adjust themselves readily to a new system. They 
were, besides, disfranchised and bankrupt. The nonowning class (two- 
thirds of the white population) never had cause to develop a feeling of 
responsibility and personal attachment to Negroes, but on the other 
hand had to meet their competition in labor. The poorest white labor- 
ers, artisans, and farmers, who frequently lived under harder conditions 
than the more favored slaves, were usually loudest in their assertions of 
superiority over the Negro. 

Health and Public Welfare. On January 1, 1936, through the cooper- 
ation of the Julius Rosenwald Fund, a Negro physician was added to 
the State division of county health work as field agent to work with 
local health officers for public health education among Negroes. This 
was the first service of its kind to be rendered in the United States. 

The death rate for Negroes in North Carolina was 15.2 per thousand 
in 1925, and 12.2 in 1935; for whites, 9.9 in 1925 and 8.7 in 1935. Although 
the white rate is lower than the average for the registration area, and the 
Negro rate is falling, the figures would be considerably smaller but for 


the infant and maternity death rate. This situation is due to the preva- 
lence of untrained midwives who deliver the great majority of Negro 
babies. The division of maternity and infancy of the State board, and 
the county offices are combating these evils by licensing, instructing, and 
supervising midwives, by distributing pamphlets on infant care and 
diet, and by sending out nurses to make visits and give personal advice. 

The State Orthopedic Hospital, established at Gastonia in 1921, has 
maintained a ward for Negro children since 1926. In 1930, the Benjamin 
N. Duke Memorial Ward, a 50-bed unit, was opened. Orthopedic clinics 
are held at 15 points in the State. Treatment is free for those unable to 
pay. In 1938 there were 30 hospitals in the State for white people only, 
11 for Negroes only, and 114 admitting both races. All hospitals sup- 
ported by city, county, or State funds, 24 in number, are in the last- 
named class. 

The incidence of tuberculosis is high among Negroes, and there is 
some evidence that they have less resistance to the disease than do white 
people. The State sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis has had 
a division for Negroes since 1923. 

A concerted, vigorous attack on venereal diseases was inaugurated in 
1938. The venereal morbidity rate is known to be higher among Negroes 
than whites. In eastern North Carolina the ravages of these diseases 
have been checked to some extent by the widespread but not unmixed 
evil of malaria. 

In 1925 a special division for Negro work was set up in the State 
Board of Charities and Public Welfare with funds provided by the 
Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial. The objectives of the division 
have been community organization, placement of trained workers, 
school attendance, studies of the Negro family and community, promo- 
tion of institutes for the supplementary training of social workers, and 
cooperation with the executive counsel in matters relating to pardons 
and paroles. 

State institutions for the welfare of Negroes in North Carolina are 
the Morrison Training School for Negro Boys at Hoffman, the Colored 
Orphanage of North Carolina at Oxford, the State Hospital for Negro 
Insane at Goldsboro, and the School for Blind and Deaf at Raleigh. The 
Memorial Training School, near Winston-Salem, was founded in 1900 
as the Colored Baptist Orphanage, and was incorporated under a new 
board of Winston-Salem citizens, and a new name, in 1923. The North 
Carolina Industrial School for Negro Girls at Efland is an institution 
for delinquent girls between the ages of 14 and 16. Its establishment in 
1925 was made possible by the efforts of the Federation of Negro 
Women's Clubs of North Carolina. 

The Negro Farmer. Probably the most crucial social problem in 


North Carolina and throughout the South is the system of farm tenancy. 
In 1935, Negroes owned or operated 69,373 farms. There were 20,373 
owners, 48,985 tenants and croppers, and 15 managers. The ratio of 
owners is greatest where Negro population is sparsest. 

Occupations and Town Life. Negroes are employed as operatives 
in tobacco factories in North Carolina, to a lesser extent as hosiery mill 
workers, but in furniture and textile plants they do only sweeping, 
cleaning, and freight handling. The only unionization of Negroes in 
the State is that of the tobacco factory workers. Plumbers, painters, 
brickmasons, and all skilled trades are not unionized to any extent. 
Negro women find most of their jobs in domestic service at low wages, 
and in laundries. Barber shops and pressing and cleaning concerns are 
generally the only Negro establishments to be found on the main streets. 
An occasional restaurant or tailoring establishment may be situated out- 
side the Negro section, as are the few large business houses. 

Insurance is the largest field of business in which Negroes are engaged 
in North Carolina. The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany of Durham is the largest business in the country run by Negroes. 
Of the 23 Negro banks in the country which survived the depression, 
two are in North Carolina, the Mechanics' & Farmers' Bank in Durham 
and ah affiliated bank in Raleigh. The State ranked third among the 
South Atlantic States in 1935 in the number of retail stores operated by 
Negroes. Nine hundred and seventy-three establishments made net sales 
of $1,088,000. 

Most Negroes of the professional class in North Carolina are public 
school teachers, the number in 1930 being 5,607. There were at that time 
372 registered nurses, 246 college professors and college presidents, 206 
musicians and music teachers of professional rank, 164 physicians and 
surgeons, 68 dentists, and 27 lawyers. Negro preachers vary greatly in 
their training and leadership, but among their number (1,575 m I 93°) 
many are of professional status. 

In North Carolina towns, as in most southern towns, there are seg- 
regated sections for Negroes, and in these sections housing and sanita- 
tion generally have been inadequate. Exploitive landlordism on the part 
of many white owners, and to a lesser extent, of Negro owners as well, 
has been an almost unregulated evil. 

Negro society is stratified in a way similar to white society, a fact 
seldom realized by white people. The average white person never has 
any dealings with Negro professors, lawyers, doctors, insurance men, 
merchants, or restaurant operators, though he has many contacts with 
Negro laborers. However, there is probably more feeling of identity of 
interest among all classes of Negroes than among all classes of white 
people, as they are all subject to the same restrictions. 


Education. An amendment to the State constitution was made in 
1875, providing that ". . . the children of the white race and the children 
of the colored race shall be taught in separate public schools; but there 
shall be no discrimination in favor of, or to the prejudice of, either 
race. . . ." 

White schools at the turn of the century were inadequate, and Negro 
schools lagged behind them. A revolution in public sentiment took place 
about 1901, when Charles B. Aycock, North Carolina's "educational 
Governor," took office after a campaign centering about white suprem- 
acy in politics, and better educational facilities for Negro as well as white 
children. Before that time Governor Vance, in 1877, had assisted in the 
establishment of a normal school for Negro teachers at Fayetteville. It 
is the earliest institution of its kind for either race in the South that has 
continued to operate. In the 20 years following 1917 the Julius Rosen- 
wald Fund, the Anna T. Jeanes Fund, the John F. Slater Fund, and the 
General Education Board contributed more than $2,500,000 to Negro 
education in this State. 

Emphasis upon the training of teachers for the public schools has 
been a large factor in the improvement of higher institutions for Ne- 
groes, both public and private. There are five State institutions of col- 
legiate grade in North Carolina, and eight private colleges. The general 
assemblies of 1921 and 1923 appropriated nearly $2,000,000 for perma- 
nent improvements at the Negro colleges and for a 10-year period 
(1921-31) gave support to the departments of education in certain private 
schools. The total enrollment of Negro college students increased from 
479 in 1924-25 to nearly 4,000 in 1935-36. 

In 1935 there was set up in the State the division of cooperation in 
education and race relations. The State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, the University of North Carolina, and Duke University organized 
to form the division and are carrying out plans to make available to 
Negro scholars the library resources of these institutions; to hold clinics 
for Negro physicians and surgeons, and institutes for Negro ministers, 
and to encourage research in several phases of Negro history. 

Customary Racial Discretions and Discriminations. Separate 
schools for Negroes as a policy in public education provide opportunities 
which mixed schools could not carry out in practice. 

The former deplorable lack of provision for Negroes in hospitals is 
being remedied. For example, work was begun in Wilmington in Sep- 
tember 1938 on a $125,000 community hospital for Negroes. The present 
tendency is for hospitals to have wards for both races. Separate hospitals 
for Negroes provide opportunity for the directorship and practice of 
Negro doctors and the training of Negro nurses, though Negro doctors 
may attend members of their race in hospitals that admit both races. 


The color line has divided all the churches since emancipation. Before 
the war there were some independent congregations of Negroes in the 
State, but after 1831 it was illegal for them to have Negro ministers. 
White ministers were assigned these congregations by church organiza- 
tions, but the usual custom was for slaves to attend the masters' churches 
in special galleries or sections of the buildings. After the war, Negro 
churches were organized with great rapidity. The latest census of re- 
ligious bodies (1926) lists 3,203 churches with a total membership of 
431,333 for Negroes in North Carolina. Negro ministers serve almost 
all churches of the race. 

Until recent years in North Carolina, but few recreational facilities 
were available for Negroes. Since 1933 some progress has been made in 
providing the Negroes with parks, playgrounds, and swimming pools 
in projects sponsored by the Federal Government in cooperation with 
local efforts. The races are separated in jails, prisons, and poorhouses but 
accommodations are generally the same. 

Negroes have their own motion picture houses, restaurants, and 
hotels, and occupy gallery seats at some white theaters. They have had 
only limited use of public libraries. Separate coaches are provided on 
trains. Pullman tickets can be bought on some lines, but the use of the 
dining car is prohibited. Separate waiting rooms are the rule in train 
and bus stations. Buses and streetcars assign the Negroes seats in the 

Even educated Negroes frequently find it difficult to register and vote. 
Participation in civic affairs such as officeholding, policing, and jury 
service is practically nonexistent. As a result of the Supreme Court 
decision in the much-publicized Scottsboro case, Negroes are, for the 
first time since Reconstruction, being drawn for jury panels, though few 
as yet have served as jurors. 

Aside from these traditional racial distinctions and discriminations, 
however, North Carolina bears a reputation for favorable race relations. 
This is perhaps partly due to the State's high educational rating. In 
education, social welfare, and economic advance much has been done 
for and by Negroes in North Carolina. It is likewise true that much 
more remains to be done. 


INDUSTRIAL development has brought no decline in agriculture 
in North Carolina, and the number of farms is constantly increasing. 
Although the crop land harvested represents only one-fourth of the 
total land area, North Carolina ranks among the five leading States in 
value of crop production. A variety of soils, equable temperature, and 
abundant rainfall make it possible to produce almost any crop that can 
be grown from Florida to Canada. 

The first settlers who came down from Virginia and occupied the 
seaboard found the inlets of the coast too treacherous and shallow to 
admit large vessels, and the agricultural produce of the Coastal Plain 
was sent to Norfolk, Va., for shipment abroad. The rivers that drained 
the North Carolina Piedmont flowed southeasterly into South Carolina, 
and the port of Charleston, therefore, received the agricultural produce 
of the back country. 

This commercial handicap had a direct bearing on the kind of settlers 
first attracted to North Carolina. Farmers with a large amount of capital 
were slow to move into the Colony. Extensive development of the plan- 
tation system was hindered by lack of capital, and Colonial North Caro- 
lina evolved a type of small farm, isolated and self-sufficing. 

In 1715 the population of the Colony was 11,200, and of these 3,700 
were slaves. There were a few people of considerable wealth who owned 
large plantations. On the other hand many industrious small farmers 
owned but two or three slaves, or none at all, but who managed to pro- 
duce tobacco, corn, livestock, and lumber products for export. 

Some indication of what was thought a "considerable estate" in early 
18th-century North Carolina is to be seen in a letter of about 1710 
describing the will of a planter who left : 

A very good plantation, upon which he lives, with all the houses and 
some household furniture, two slaves and their increase forever, together 
with a stock of cows, sheep, hogs and horses, with their increase forever, all 
which . . . may moderately be valued at ^200. 

Most of the settlers in the Coastal Plain were English farmers, but by 
1775 a large group of Scotch Highlanders occupied the upper Cape Fear 



River and its tributaries. Some Scotch-Irish immigrants landed at 
Charleston and moved up the Pee Dee and Catawba Rivers to the hill 
country. But the greater number of sturdy pioneer farmers, Scotch-Irish 
and German, landed at Philadelphia and came by wagon to North 

The Germans, who usually came in organized bodies, chose the rich 
bottom lands of the Piedmont and from the beginning practiced diver- 
sified farming. The cultivation of meadowlands was a distinctive fea- 
ture of German agriculture, and the livestock on German farms was 

Tobacco was the chief export crop of the Colony. Indian corn, peas, 
beans, potatoes, cotton, indigo, and some wheat were also exported. 
Many planters kept large herds of cattle, which they left to range 
unsheltered and to forage for themselves. Pork, tallow, and hides were 
important exports, and some cheese and butter were sent out of the 
Colony. Rice was grown for domestic use. Many varieties of native and 
European fruits were cultivated, hemp and flax were grown for home 
use, and, with wool and cotton, supplied materials for clothes. 

Farming in general was wasteful and extravagant, for land was plenti- 
ful and the bounties of nature seemed inexhaustible. "Surely," observed 
Byrd of Virginia, "there is no place in the World where the inhabitants 
live with less Labour than in N. Carolina, . . . where Plenty and a Warm 
Sun confirm them in their Disposition to Laziness for their whole 
Lives." Yet even in the Colonial period there were many farmers who 
called attention to wasteful methods and urged intensive farming. 

By 1852 a State agricultural society had been formed and many coun- 
ties were organizing similar societies. Several agricultural journals ap- 
peared, among them the Farmer's Advocate, the Carolina Cultivator, 
and the North Carolina Planter. Most significant of the agricultural 
studies was the report on soils made by Ebenezer Emmons, State geolo- 
gist from 1852 to 1863. 

The War between the States stimulated the production of foodstuffs, 
but from 1865 to 1900 the North Carolina farmer became steadily poorer. 
Cotton dropped from a dollar a pound in 1865 to 25 cents a pound in 
1868. In the next three decades it dropped to 12 cents, to 7 cents, and 
finally, in 1894, it fell below 5 cents a pound. 

The farmer, buying at high prices and selling near the level of pro- 
duction, was forced to run on a credit basis. The merchant financed the 
farmer, taking a lien on the crops. In return for the risk he took, the 
merchant demanded a price that averaged higher than the cash price, 
so that the farmer paid as much as 40 percent annual interest and 
sometimes more. The farmer was consequently driven to plant money 
crops — cotton and tobacco — at the expense of food crops. He was in the 


hopeless position of trying to pay for his food and his farm supplies out 
of the proceeds of his money crop. 

The rise of farm tenancy, more than any other factor, forced single- 
crop farming in North Carolina. The War between the States had 
broken the existing plantations into small farms, and changed the rela- 
tionship between landowners and laborers. Landowners, deprived of 
slave labor, had either to rent their land for cash, pay wages, or let the 
land to tenants on shares. 

Since both the landowners and the landless Negroes and whites who 
furnished the labor had practically no money, sharecropping was the 
logical development. Under this system the landowner furnished the 
tenant with team, implements, and seed, and received from the tenant 
one-half to two-thirds of the staple crops after harvest. He also advanced 
provisions for the tenant family, and received payment in either cash or 

There was opposition to sharecropping at the outset. The Recon- 
structed Farmer, edited at Tarboro, believed that: 

What demoralizes the labor of our country more than anything else is 
farming on shares. . . . The manner in which share laborers are managed 
is a curse to the country, for in many instances they are put off on land . . . 
that will not support them the first year, no matter how good the cultiva- 
tion of the crop may be. . 

North Carolina farmers were moved by the same desperation that 
was driving farmers all over the country to organize. Already the Farm- 
ers' Alliance Cooperative Union had swept the Southwest. In North 
Carolina the Grange had appeared in 1873, attained a membership of 
about 10,000 in 1875, and then declined. 

In 1887 the Farmers' Alliance was organized in the State under the 
leadership of Leonidas Polk. A practical farmer himself, Polk had begun 
publication of the Progressive Farmer at Winston in 1866, and had 
moved the weekly to Raleigh when he became State Commissioner of 
Agriculture. The Alliance spread until in 1890 local chapters had been 
formed in every county but one, and the total membership was more 
than 90,000. 

The Alliance drew the farmers together for education and entertain- 
ment. There were discussions of agricultural problems, institutes to 
spread the knowledge of scientific farming, agricultural clubs, and fairs. 
The farmers actively supported the reorganization of the State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the establishment at Raleigh of the North Carolina 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, and of the State Normal 
and Industrial College for women at Greensboro. 

Through a State agency set up by the Alliance, farmers were able to 


purchase directly from the manufacturer implements, fertilizers, and 
even food supplies at a saving of from 10 to 60 percent. The small capital, 
which was raised by selling shares to farmers, made long-time credit 
impossible, and most of the farmers were tied fast by the crop-lien system 
and could not take advantage of the saving offered them. Merchants 
fought the inexperienced cooperatives, until the panic of 1893 finally 
put an end to them. 

As conditions grew steadily worse, the farmers organized as the 
Populist Party. Joining with the Republicans this party succeeded in 
bringing about the election of a Fusionist ticket in 1896. 

Since 1900 the number of farms in the State has continued to increase, 
partly as a result of the great improvement in roads, partly because much 
potential farm land remained unused. One million six hundred thou- 
sand people live on North Carolina farms, the second largest farm popu- 
lation of the 48 States. In 1930 there were almost twice as many persons 
classified as farmers as there were persons classified as urban dwellers, 
and of the total population 50.5 percent lived on farms. Though the 
average size of farms is small, the average cash return per farm in 1930 
was high — almost a thousand dollars. In the value of farm products the 
State in 1937 ranked second to Texas among the Southern States, and 
fifth in the United States. 

Agriculture is not limited to any particular section, although the cen- 
tral and southeastern portions, comprising some 22,000 square miles, 
are particularly favored and contain some of the richest farm land in 
eastern America. 

In the southern part of the Coastal Plain diversified farming is increas- 
ing. Remarkable success has been achieved by individuals and groups 
through intensive truck farming and flower growing. Of increasing 
importance is the strawberry crop, valued at approximately $2,000,000 a 
year. Large productive farms in this region ship quantities of early truck 
to outside markets and also produce cotton, corn, tobacco, soybeans, and 
sweet and Irish potatoes. 

Tobacco, cotton, and corn are the chief crops of the State, and tobacco 
now brings to North Carolina farmers a greater revenue than any other 
crop. Tobacco is raised in the central Coastal Plain, the Piedmont, along 
the South Carolina border, and in the mountains, where burley is the 
variety produced. In 1937 the crop was valued at more than $141,000,000. 
In 1919, with cotton at 35 cents a pound, the total crop of the State was 
valued at $130,000,000; in 1935, at the low price of n 1 /^ cents per pound, 
the total crop value was approximately $41,000,000. 

The Sandhill section produces millions of bushels of peaches for 
northern and eastern markets. Dewberries, grown in great quantities in 
this section, are noted for their size and flavor. 


Farming is more diversified in the Piedmont, where a large urban 
population in the industrial centers provides a good market. The chief 
products are grain, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and cotton. The Pied- 
mont has a high percentage of farm owners and a more balanced farm 
program, but it, like the Coastal Plain, suffers from a deficiency in live- 
stock and dairy products. 

The Mountain Region is an area of diversified farming on a domestic 
scale. With the exception of potatoes, cabbage, and tobacco, products 
grown for sale represent only a small part of the total agricultural prod- 
uce. Tobacco is the only money crop of any importance. Other crops 
are corn, wheat, a little buckwheat, oats, rye, sorghum, late varieties of 
Irish potatoes, and hay. Beef cattle and sheep are raised in considerable 
numbers, and the region is particularly adapted to poultry raising and 
dairying. Cheese making is an important industry in the northwestern 
counties. Fertile valleys, especially those in the thermal belt, are par- 
ticularly suited to fruit growing and truck farming. 

Many farm families in the Mountain Region derive an income from 
the cultivation and gathering of drug plants, especially ginseng and 
golden seal. There is some income from the sale of ornamental leaves 
and shrubbery, and a trend toward the cultivation of mountain shrubbery 
for commercial purposes. 

Corn, one of the great crops of North Carolina before the coming of 
the white man, is produced in every county. In 1935 the value of the 
crop to the State was a little more than $32,000,000. 

Although North Carolina is still deficient in livestock, in 1935 there 
were 684,266 head of cattle, an increase of nearly 30 percent over the 
previous five years. In the same year, 2,500,000 pounds of dairy butter, 
26,000,000 pounds of farm butter, and 30,000,000 gallons of fluid milk 
were produced. There were 362,104 horses and mules, 947,143 swine, 
8,806,000 chickens, and 90,708 turkeys on North Carolina farms. 

Between 1932 and 1935 the gross income of North Carolina farmers 
rose to slightly over $300,000,000, more than doubling in three years. 
These figures indicate, among other things, the increasing interest the 
farmers are taking in a balanced farm program and the conservation 
of soil. 

One of the most serious economic and social problems with which 
North Carolina has to deal is farm tenancy. Almost half the farms in the 
State are operated by tenants who have little chance for farm owner- 
ship. Most of these tenants live on the Coastal Plain, where the large 
cotton and tobacco crops are produced. They frequently move from 
farm to farm, and are drawn to the factories by the promise of ready 

Extensive programs in reclamation, conservation, and rehabilitation 


are being carried on in North Carolina by State and Federal agencies. 
Experiment farms and nurseries are conducted by the State in the 
Coastal, Piedmont, and Mountain sections and many of the counties 
maintain farm agents and home demonstration agents. The State 
College Extension Service is conducting a program to encourage bal- 
anced farming, increased livestock production, and more scientific utili- 
zation of the land. The first 4-H club was organized in 1909 in Hertford 
County. There are now (1939) 1,500 such clubs in the State with a total 
membership of 43,000. 

The Farm Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture has organized subsistence homestead projects at Scuppernong 
Farms, on the border of Lake Phelps in Tyrrell and Washington Coun- 
ties, and at Penderlea, in Pender County. Projects for demonstration in 
soil conservation, especially erosion control, were established in numer- 
ous sections of the State by Federal Government agencies during the 


THE FIRST settlers in North Carolina found Indian trails that 
penetrated the dense forests in many directions. These trails, 
twelve to eighteen inches wide, which led by the most direct 
route from stream to stream, were the first trading paths of the colonists 
and were the basis for many of their roads. Wherever possible the 
Indians traveled by water; the white settlers wisely followed their 
example, learning from them how to build canoes from the materials 
at hand. 

The earliest settlements were made on the coast and along the many 
rivers of the Coastal Plain. Merchants and farmers found it necessary to 
be near navigable streams, and all towns of any commercial importance 
in the eastern part of the State were on rivers or sounds. 

Most common of the many kinds of small craft used on the inland 
waterways were canoes and "periaugers," which seem to be a North 
Carolina variation of the popular "pirogue." In A Voyage to Georgia, 
Begun in the year 1J35, periaugers are described as : ". . . long flat bot- 
tom'd Boats, carrying from 20 to 35 tons. They have a kind of a Fore- 
castle and a cabbin, but the rest open, and no deck. They have two masts, 
which they can strike, and sails like Schooners." 

Nearly all early household inventories included one or more canoes. 
Brickell, in 1735, wrote that there were some canoes so large that they 
"will carry two or three Horses over these large Rivers, and others so 
small that they will carry only two or three men." 

Among the pleasure boats, which were also necessary craft when there 
were few roads from plantation to town, is that described by Janet 
Schaw, who visited her brother's Tidewater plantation just before the 
Revolution. Miss Schaw made the journey from Schawfield plantation 
down the Cape Fear River to Wilmington in "a very fine boat with an 
awning to prevent the heat, and six stout Negroes in neat uniforms to 
row her down." 

Rafts or "flats" were in common use on the rivers to transport tobacco, 
tar, pitch, and turpentine. An Englishman, J. F. D. Smyth, who made a 
trip to North Carolina about 1770, notes at Halifax on the Roanoke 



River that "sloops, schooners, and flats, or lighters of great burden, come 
up to this town." 

The Intracoastal Waterway, following a continuous series of rivers, 
sounds, and canals lying within the Atlantic coast, had its beginning in 
1763 when George Washington made a survey of the Dismal Swamp 
Canal for the State of Virginia. Commercial transportation in small 
crafts is steadily increasing in this waterway. It is used also by yachts- 
men bound for Florida and by sportsmen who visit the hunting and 
fishing grounds that lie along the coast. 

Of the principal rivers of the State, the Meherrin is navigable 
from its mouth on the Chowan River to Murfreesboro; the Chowan, 
between Albemarle Sound and the confluence of Nottoway and Black- 
water Rivers; the Roanoke, between the mouth and Hamilton; the 
Pamlico and Tar, from the mouth to Washington (2.6-foot channel at 
Greenville) ; the Neuse to a point 23 miles above New Bern. Since the 
time of the early settlements the Cape Fear River was navigable to 
Fayetteville, a distance of 115 miles above Wilmington. In 1923 naviga- 
tion to Fayetteville was abandoned, but in 1936 the channel was deep- 
ened and new locks were constructed so that the river affords a channel 
27 feet over the ocean bar, 30 feet deep to Wilmington, 19 feet deep to 
a point 9 miles above Wilmington, and 9 feet to the head of naviga- 
tion at Fayetteville. 

From Colonial times Wilmington was the principal port, and since the 
channel was deepened the city has become an important point for dis- 
tribution of gasoline and other petroleum products and for a large 
export trade. Construction of great piers and deepening of the channel 
at Morehead City in 1935-37 have made the port available to large ships 
that may arrive, dock, and depart under their own power. Eliz- 
abeth City enjoys a thriving trade on the inner course of the Intra- 
coastal Waterway and along the Pasquotank River from Albemarle 

In the early days travel by land was more difficult than by water. 
Efforts at road building in eastern Carolina were hampered by the 
numerous creeks, rivers, and swamps. Yet many roads were made in 
the 1 8th century in both the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont. From 
north to south a highway ran through Edenton, Bath, New Bern, Wil- 
mington, and Brunswick. Brickell says that the road "from Edentown 
to Virginia" was "broad and convenient, for all sorts of Carriages, such 
as Coaches, Chaises, Waggons and Carts, and especially for Horsemen." 
The Northeast Branch of the Cape Fear was crossed by a bridge which, 
according to Janet Schaw, "opens at the middle to both sides and rises 
by pullies, so as to suffer Ships to pass under it." This was Herons 
Bridge, one of the few drawbridges in the Colonies. A later 18th-century 


road ran north and south from Halifax to Tarboro and another went to 
Cross Creek (now Fayetteville) . 

The constant stream of families moving from Pennsylvania and 
Maryland to North Carolina followed the "upper road" through the 
mountains or the "lower road" across the Coastal Plain. They traveled 
in large parties, camping out at night, and buying food from farmers 
along the way. Some of the men of the party, on horseback or on 
foot, preceded the wagons to clear the way, others followed as rear 

A party of Moravians moving in 1753 from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
to take up their lands in Piedmont North Carolina, followed the diffi- 
cult upper road along the Blue Ridge. In their diary the Moravians 
recorded that "the road sloped so that we could hardly keep the wagon 
from slipping over the edge of the mountain and we had to use the 
tackle frequently." In 1759 another party of Moravians came down by 
the lower road, "bad in many places it is true, but far easier to travel." 

The few taverns in 18th-century North Carolina generally were de- 
scribed by travelers as "wretched," yet the State made an effort to 
regulate them. Before 1741 tavern keepers had to obtain licenses from 
the Governor, and after that from the county court. The law specified 
that the tavern keeper set up plain signs and provide "good and suffi- 
cient Houses, Lodging, and entertainment for Travellers, their servants 
and Horses." 

However, there were a few excellent taverns and coffee houses. One 
at Bute Courthouse was run by Jethro Sumner, a Revolutionary soldier. 
Another, the Horniblow Tavern of Edenton, was a gathering place for 
lawyers, and the center of community discussions of law, politics, and 
literature. At Salem was a good tavern, built by the Moravians as early 
as 1772, and operated by the church. The landlord was instructed to 
treat his guests with "kindness and cordiality, but not to encourage 
them to be intemperate," and to behave so that the guests could tell 
"that we are an honest and a Christian people, such as they have never 
before found in a tavern." 

At the end of the 18th century, horseback was still the best means of 
travel. A man with a good horse could average 35 miles a day, pass- 
ing through rivers, swamps, and marshes that would have halted 
any vehicle. Four-wheeled wagons drawn by two or four horses carried 
the produce of planters and the wares of merchants. The Moravians in 
the Piedmont section, who carried on an extensive trade with Beth- 
lehem, Pennsylvania, and with the coast towns of the Carolinas, re- 
quired from 25 to 30 days to make the return trip by wagon from Charles 
Town to Salem, averaging about 18 miles a day. 

By 1789 a stagecoach was running between Washington and Edenton, 


and between Edenton and Suffolk, Virginia. In the early 19th 
century there were regular lines connecting all important towns, and 
over these the coaches usually ran three times a week. A letter to Gov- 
ernor Morehead, in 1849, complains that the cost of a journey from 
Charlotte to Goldsboro, 210 miles, is $23, while in Georgia or South 
Carolina the same distance could be covered for $5. As early as 1825 a 
line of United States mail coaches with two stages a week started at 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, passed through North Carolina by way of 
Greensboro, Salisbury, and Charlotte and went on to Milledgeville, 
Georgia, traversing 586 miles in 11 days. 

Toll roads, operated by private companies, had been in use for many 
years when North Carolina began in the 1850's to build plank roads. 
Following an experiment in Canada in 1834, a veritable fever for build- 
ing plank roads developed in the United States. In North Carolina the 
roads were mostly constructed by private companies and operated as 
toll roads. The principal plank roads radiated from Fayetteville, a com- 
mercial point on the Cape Fear River, and longest and most important 
of these was the road from Fayetteville via Salem to Bethania, a distance 
of 129 miles. Fifteen tollhouses on this road collected tolls as follows: 
l / 2 $ per mile for man on horseback; 1$ for one-horse vehicle; 20 for 
two-horse team; 30 for three-horse team; 4^ for six-horse team. In 1852 
there were 32 plank roads in the State. By the middle 1850's the North 
Carolina and Western North Carolina Railroads, having penetrated far 
into the Piedmont, began to carry produce to markets, and by i860 the 
plank roads had practically disappeared. 

Prior to 1885 public roads were laid out and maintained by local 
authorities in small road districts. The roads were merely routes and 
cannot be said to have been built, but only cleared of obstructions. The 
method of upkeep was to require labor, generally six days a year, of all 
able-bodied men, slaves as well as freemen. Any slave owner who 
should have as many as three slaves to send out for road work was 
excused from performing the service himself. Taxes were levied for 
bridges only. 

The first departure from the old labor-tax method took place in 1885, 
but at the opening of the 20th century the old method of road upkeep 
had been abandoned in only two counties in the State. About one-fourth 
of the counties had supplemented the labor-tax method with special 
road taxes and improved methods. Mecklenburg was the first county 
to establish a county road system, and for many years had the best 
roads in the State. They were built by convict labor at a cost of from 
$2,700 to $4,000 per mile, including the care and feeding of the con- 
victs. Buncombe and Guilford Counties were next to follow with county 


About 1900 the good roads movement received a great impetus from 
the establishment of the rural free delivery of mail, and the farmers, 
who as a class had opposed the movement, became converted by the 
prospect of a daily visit from the mail carrier. 

In October 1901 a Good Roads Train, one of several operating in the 
United States that year, was started by the Southern Railway Company 
from Alexandria, Virginia. Stops were made at Winston-Salem and 
Asheville in the fall, and at Raleigh in February. Road conventions were 
held in each of the towns, where Governor Aycock and other leading 
citizens addressed enthusiastic audiences. At a mammoth convention in 
Raleigh the crowning event was the organization of the North Carolina 
Good Roads Association, which became the focal point of the movement. 

In 191 1 the legislature appointed a central highway committee which 
was to get the counties to cooperate in routing a highway from Morehead 
City through Raleigh, Greensboro, Salisbury, and Asheville to the Ten- 
nessee Line. The route followed the line of a railroad built about the 
middle of the previous century. Today that roundabout course is closely 
followed by the excellent US 70. 

The importance of the automobile in the story of road building can 
scarcely be overestimated, as modern public roads are primarily motor 
highways. In 1913 there were 10,000 motor vehicles in the State; in 1919 
there were 109,000. Not only was public sentiment for good roads 
greatly increased by the increasing number of automobiles, but the 
whole purpose of road building was changed, and the county as an 
administrative unit was found to be inadequate. License fees and gaso- 
line taxes brought in new sources of revenue. 

The year 1919 stands out in North Carolina road history; in that year 
much larger sums were appropriated to match increased Federal allot- 
ments, and Frank Page was appointed chairman of the State Highway 
Commission. During the ten years he was in office Mr. Page served with 
marked ability and integrity. The 1919 program still adhered to the 
county maintenance plan, aided by State and Federal funds. 

Beginning in 1921, the State took sole responsibility for the construc- 
tion and maintenance of a system of hard-surfaced highways to connect 
all county seats. The change in public opinion that made possible a 
bond issue of $50,000,000 for this purpose was partly due to the indus- 
trial development of the World War period. In eight years a primary 
highway system of 7,500 miles was built, with all main routes con- 
structed of concrete or asphalt. In 1933 the State assumed full respon- 
sibility for maintaining the entire secondary road system, constituting 
about 4,500 miles. In 1938, North Carolina had 10,762 miles of num- 
bered highways which constituted the State highway system, and 48,216 
miles of improved county roads. A notable activity of the last few years 


has been the building or improvement of numerous farm-to-market 
roads with the aid of Federal funds. 

Agitation for railroads began in 1828 when Dr. Joseph Caldwell, 
president of the State university, proposed that a line be built from 
Beaufort and New Bern to the Tennessee Line. The State was divided 
over this proposal, however, and no such railroad was commenced for 
20 years. The Raleigh Experimental Railroad, a mile and a half 
long, was the first to be constructed (1833) and was successfully used 
to move stone for rebuilding the capitol. Horse power appears to have 
been used. 

Ten railroads were chartered by the general assembly of 1833-34, only 
two of which were constructed: the Wilmington & Raleigh and the 
Raleigh & Gaston, both completed in 1840. The Wilmington & Raleigh 
was 1 61. 5 miles long, and was reported to be the longest railroad in the 
world at the time. Rails were of heart pine faced with iron strips. The 
road cost nearly two million dollars and was built by private enterprise. 

As a result of State aid in the construction of the more important 
routes, the central part of North Carolina is now well provided with 
railroad facilities, both for north and south trunk lines and short haul 
lines. North Carolina commerce is not handled through home ports to 
any considerable extent; hence, there is no east-west railroad based upon 
the existence of an adequate port, and the State suffers from high freight 
rates to and from the East and Middle West. North Carolina is served 
(1939) by 4 trunk lines and some 30 independent lines with a total 
trackage of 4,800 miles. 

Asheville had the first electric street railway in North Carolina, its 
initial line being built in 1889. Similar systems were established soon 
after in the other large cities. In 1934 streetcars began giving way to 
buses throughout the State; since then a few trackless trolleys have been 

Bus transportation had begun in 1922, when the Carolina Motor Com- 
pany operated without a charter between Raleigh and Durham. The 
first chartered bus company was the Highway Motor Transit Company 
of Goldsboro, organized in 1925, operating between Raleigh and Wil- 
mington. In 1939, 24 bus companies were serving the State, under the 
supervision of the State Utilities Commission. There are approximately 
5,000 miles of bus lines in the State. 

North Carolina is crossed by two regular mail and passenger air 
routes, operated by Eastern Air Lines. On the New York to Miami 
route, Raleigh is the only stop between Washington and Charleston. 
The New York to New Orleans route has airports at Greensboro and 
Charlotte. There are 20 airports in the State; 13 are municipal, 
6 commercial, and 1 military. Six airports — Charlotte, Greensboro, 


Pope Field (Fort Bragg), Raleigh, Rocky Mount, and Winston-Salem 
— are equipped for night flying, as are the three intermediate landing 
fields at Lexington, Maxton, and Warrenton. In addition there are five 
auxiliary landing fields. Radio range beacons are operated at Raleigh 
and Greensboro. Seaplane anchorages are at Edenton and Ocracoke. 

In 1939 the United States Coast Guard had under construction at 
Elizabeth City an air base with a mile of water frontage on Pasquo- 
tank River. This will be the midway Coast Guard air base between 
Cape May, New Jersey, and Charleston, South Carolina. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA, as elsewhere in the South, there was 
comparatively little interest in manufacturing before the War be- 
tween the States. Capital and managerial skill were devoted chiefly 
to large-scale agriculture. The plantation economy, with its base in 
slavery, was not conducive to the growth of industrial enterprise. 

The first cotton mill not only in the State but in the South, and also 
the first mill south of the Potomac operated by water power, was estab- 
lished by Michael Schenck near Lincolnton in 1813. The second mill, 
which today is the oldest plant in the State, was erected by Joel Battle 
in 1817 at the Falls of the Tar River on the edge of what is now the 
city of Rocky Mount. In 1830 Dinny Humphries built in Greensboro 
the first mill in the South to be operated by steam, and during the 30's 
E. M. Holt established in Alamance County the first complete southern 
cotton mill, covering the entire line of processing from raw cotton to 
fabrics. During the 1840's mills were organized at Concord, Salisbury, 
Mocksville, and Winston-Salem. However, by i860 there were actually 
fewer spindles in operation in the State than there had been in 1840, 
although the South as a whole had made some progress. 

On the eve of the war, North Carolina had 39 small cotton mills em- 
ploying 1,764 wage earners. Of the seven woolen mills in the State, only 
two — those at Rock Island and Salem — were of any considerable size. 
The naval-stores industry, however, was of unusual importance. More 
than 1,000 small establishments accounted for 70 percent of the national 
output of crude turpentine, and nearly 500 were making the distilled 
product. Numerous small enterprises, gristmills, sawmills, cooperage 
firms, and others, supplied strictly local markets. By i860 only a few 
more than 14,000 wage earners were employed in all manufacturing and 
mechanical occupations. 

Four years of war shattered the old economy of the South. North 
Carolina was drained of its able-bodied white men, and production was 
in the hands of old men, women, children, and Negroes. Agriculture 



declined; the market for cotton was inaccessible. The vital imports 
upon which the State had formerly relied were excluded by the blockade. 
There was neither the time nor the capital to add to the rudimentary 
industrial structure already in existence. 

At the close of the war, the fundamental and immediate economic 
problem was the adjustment of agriculture to the changed status of the 
Negro. The revival of industry was less rapid than that of agriculture, 
but between 1870 and 1880 there was a slow upward movement in 
manufacturing. Invested capital increased from more than $8,000,000 to 
slightly more than $13,000,000; the average number of wage earners 
increased from 13,500 to more than 18,000. 

Beginning about 1880, an unprecedented interest in manufacturing 
began to develop. Local newspapers devoted increasing space to the 
subject, frequently issuing special industrial editions, and the State gov- 
ernment was manifesting its interest. The drive for manufactures took 
on something of the aspect of a crusade. This is reflected in the figures 
on industrial growth. In cotton textiles alone the number of wage 
earners increased from about 3,000 in 1880 to more than 30,000 in 1900, 
and the invested capital from $2,500,000 to more than $33,000,000. North 
Carolina is now second only to Massachusetts in the production 
of cotton textiles. In 1935 the 311 mills in operation employed 
93,964 workers, and the total output from these mills was valued at 

$ 2 33736,776. 

In industry as a whole, capital increased from $13,000,000 in 1880 to 
$76,000,000 in 1900, while wage earners increased in number from 18,000 
to 70,000. In 1935 the United States census of manufactures reported a 
total of 2,632 establishments, employing 229,534 persons, who received 
$152,037,000 in wages, and the value of finished products was 

Industrial Growth and Diversification. While population in North 
Carolina increased more than 100 percent between 1880 and 1930, the 
number of wage earners employed in manufacturing increased more 
than 1,000 percent. About 66 percent of all wage earners in manufac- 
turing in 1935 were employed in four industries: tobacco, furniture, 
lumber, and the various textile divisions (cotton, knitgoods, silk, rayon, 
wool, dyeing, and finishing) . 

The cotton-textile industry was the spearhead of industrial advance in 
the State. Its growth, with minor interruptions, was steady between 1880 
and 1930. Like the tobacco and furniture industries, cotton manufactur- 
ing is concentrated in the Piedmont. In the beginning, only the coarser 
yarns were spun, but numerous mills today spin medium and fine yarns. 

The knitgoods industry in North Carolina had little importance until 
after the beginning of the 20th century. In 1935 there were employed, 


principally in the hosiery mills, some 32,637 wage earners. Underwear is 
also manufactured. 

The other textile industries, wool and silk, are of relatively minor 
importance in North Carolina. Together they employ only a few thou- 
sand wage earners. The expansion of the rayon industry, however, 
seems likely. The 27 manufacturing plants existing in 1935 employed 
11,389 persons, and their total production for that year was valued at 
$33,205,761. More than 7,000 wage earners were employed in 1935 in 
dyeing and finishing cotton, rayon, and silk. 

North Carolina did not participate largely in either the culture or the 
manufacture of tobacco before the War between the States. The foun- 
dation of an extensive tobacco culture was laid by the notable discovery 
in Caswell County in 1852 that a sweeter and brighter leaf could be 
raised in porous and sandy soil. The new "bright tobacco" proved admir- 
ably adapted for a new tobacco product, the cigarette, as well as for other 
manufactured forms of the "weed." 

Durham was a creation of the tobacco industry. By 1884 there were 
eight smoking-tobacco factories in the town, in addition to one cigar 
factory and one plug-tobacco factory. It was here that Washington Duke 
and his sons forged to a position of leadership in the industry. Their 
triumph was assured when, on April 30, 1884, they installed the Bonsack 
cigarette machine, with a capacity of 120,000 cigarettes per ten-hour day. 

The centers of tobacco manufacture in North Carolina are Durham, 
Winston-Salem, and Reidsville. The cigarette branch of the industry 
has risen steadily in importance; the total value of the product in 1935 
amounted to $463,280,743. 

The first furniture factory in North Carolina, and probably in the 
South, was established at Mebane in 1881. By 1900 more than 1,700 
wage earners were employed in the 44 establishments reporting to the 
census of manufactures. High Point is today one of the major furniture 
centers of the country; the industry has also developed at Thomasville, 
Hickory, Statesville, Morganton, Mebane, and other points in the State. 
In 1935 there were 118 establishments in the State, and 13,640 wage 
earners were employed. In 1937 North Carolina ranked first among the 
States in the production of wooden dining room and bedroom furniture, 
and second in the manufacture of wooden kitchen furniture. 

Although the naval-stores industry began to decline about 1880, the 
production of lumber shortly thereafter assumed significant proportions. 
North Carolina pine first appeared in the New York market in 1886. 
The exhaustion of the white pine forests of the Great Lakes Region and 
the construction of railroads in the coastal region of the South stimulated 
the growth of the southern lumber industry. The industry in the State 
reached its peak about 1909. In that year, and again in 1914, North 


Carolina ranked fourth among the States in lumber production. In 
1935, according to the census of manufacturers, the principal lumber 
industries in the State — lumber and timber products, planing-mill 
products, wooden boxes, and cooperage — had a total output valued at 

Although these four industries are predominant, a number of other 
manufacturing activities round out the industrial structure in North 
Carolina. Among these activities are mineral products, stone cutting, 
and the making of fertilizer, clay products, leather, work clothing, cot- 
tonseed products, etc. In addition there are numerous minor industries, 
such as printing and baking, which cater almost exclusively to local 

Capital and Labor Supply. It is not known to what extent the growth 
of industry in North Carolina has depended upon outside capital. It 
seems likely, however, that this dependence has been relatively small. 
Lacy writes that he has been able to find no evidence of any cotton mill 
established in North Carolina by northern capital before 1895, and 
records of only a few between 1895 and 1900. In more recent years out- 
side capital has assumed greater importance in the textile industry, 
although it has been more important in some other Southern States than 
in North Carolina. 

The tobacco industry of the State was for the most part financed 
locally. The Dukes and the Reynolds based the expansion of their enter- 
prises on reinvested earnings, especially during the formative period. 
The furniture industry also was locally financed. Certainly the early 
adventurers in this industry operated with their own capital plus local 
borrowings. Some outside capital has gone into the lumber industry. 

Moreover, North Carolina industry has been manned almost wholly 
by local workers and by workers from the surrounding Southern States. 
From 1880 to the present time the farms have provided a steady stream 
of men, women, and children to perform the tasks created by industry. 
Although rates of remuneration in industry have been generally low, 
hours of labor long, and working and living conditions often unsatis- 
factory, tens of thousands of workers have preferred to leave a struggle 
on the farm for employment in the mill. 

The lumber and furniture industries employ only men, but cotton 
textiles, hosiery, and tobacco have used women and children. In 1929, 
more than 44 percent of the wage earners in manufacturing in the State 
were women. As late as 1909, more than 27 percent of the wage earners 
in the hosiery industry were under 16 years of age; in cotton textiles, 
nearly 19 percent; in tobacco, about 17 percent. After 1909 the employ- 
ment of children in manufacturing declined. The child labor law of 
1919 forbade employment of workers under 14 years of age, and the 


statute of 1937 prohibited the employment of workers under 16 years 
of age. 

Industrial Relations 

The Pattern. The determination of wages, hours, and other condi- 
tions of employment in North Carolina has been largely in the hands 
of the employer. Except for short periods, collective bargaining between 
workers and employers has not vitally affected industrial relations. 
There has been a large measure of industrial paternalism, particularly 
in the textile industry. 

In the early days there was a social basis for paternalism. Most of 
the textile mills, for instance, were locally owned and operated, and 
workers were recruited from the surrounding countryside. The rela- 
tionship between owner and worker was a personal one. The isolated 
position of many of the mills necessitated the construction of houses by 
the company, and thus the company-owned mill village developed. The 
mill owner "looked after" his workers. The worker had to adjust him- 
self to a new environment and to a new discipline. Paternalism, more- 
over, was rooted in the semifeudal agriculture that encircled the new 

Labor Organization. The first organized labor movement to reach 
the industrial workers of the State was that of the Knights of Labor in 
the 1880's. Before this time there had been local unions of skilled 
mechanics, but the Knights of Labor influenced the factory workers at 
the very beginning of industrial development in the State. 

The first assembly (the unit of organization) of the Knights of Labor 
in North Carolina was organized in Raleigh on June 18, 1884. A sur- 
prisingly large number of assemblies were formed in a very short time; 
in 1888, 64 such bodies in the State voted in a referendum held by a 
national organization. The assemblies were of the "mixed" variety, that 
is, they included workers from various occupations. A few short-lived 
labor papers appeared in the State. Nationally, the organization reached 
its greatest strength in 1886, and thereafter declined rapidly. The peak 
in the South came a year or so later, but the decline was equally pre- 
cipitous. Although few tangible benefits were won by the organization 
in North Carolina, many new problems were discussed, and the idea 
of labor solidarity was given some semblance of reality. 

Between 1898 and 1901, organization under the leadership of the 
American Federation of Labor proceeded on a considerable scale. Rising 
prices lent impetus to the movement. By 1901 there were at least 16 
locals in the State. A number of small strikes and lockouts resulted but 
the real test of strength came in Alamance County in the fall of 1900, 


when the workers in 17 or 18 small mills walked out. The strike lasted 
more than a month, and its defeat broke the back of the union move- 
ment among the textile operatives. 

Although organization among the factory workers had virtually dis- 
appeared by 1902, many locals of skilled workers survived. In 1905 a 
State Federation of Labor was formed, and thereafter craft-union mem- 
bership grew slowly. A union movement of unprecedented vigor began 
during the World War. The organization of skilled workers proceeded 
apace, and the factory operatives in tobacco and textiles built large 
although short-lived locals. The tobacco workers had their greatest suc- 
cess in Winston-Salem, where in 1919 the union obtained a signed 
agreement with the tobacco companies. This agreement covered 10,000 
workers. Locals were also formed in Durham and Reidsville. 

In August 1919 an organizer for the United Textile Workers in North 
Carolina claimed that 30,000 workers had joined the union during the 
previous few months. The estimate may not have been accurate, but 
the movement into the union was certainly extensive. Forty-three locals 
had been chartered in the State by that time. Two relatively successful 
strikes in Charlotte early in 1919 stimulated organization among the 
cotton-mill operatives. A number of other disputes followed, generally 
with some gain for the workers involved. Stoppages occurred in Con- 
cord, McAdensville, Mooresville, Salisbury, Raleigh, Gastonia, and else- 

By 1920, specific grievances in many cases had been adjusted, and 
textile-union membership began to decline slowly. During the sharp 
depression beginning in the latter part of 1920 and continuing through 
1921, textile unionism virtually disappeared in the State. The unsuccess- 
ful strike against severe wage cuts in 1921, involving 9,000 workers in 
Charlotte, Huntersville, Concord, and Kannapolis, marked the decline 
of the wartime movement. 

After 1922 a few of the textile locals were reorganized. Some disputes 
occurred. The most important stoppage was occasioned by an unor- 
ganized strike at Henderson in 1927. In 1929, when the "stretch-out" 
was added to grievances of longer standing, the dramatic disputes of 
Gastonia and Marion startled the Nation. The American Federation of 
Labor organizing campaign in the following year resulted in a con- 
siderable growth of textile membership in the State. These gains were 
soon lost, however, partly because of the depression and partly because 
no great effort was made to hold them. 

The business collapse beginning in 1929 brought a decisive drop in 
labor standards. One consequence was a remarkable series of more or 
less spontaneous strikes in furniture, hosiery, and cotton textiles in the 
summer of 1932. The chief struggle centered at High Point, where 5,000 


hosiery workers in 24 plants walked out. Cotton-mill workers in Rock- 
ingham, High Point, and Thomasville, silk operatives in High Point, 
and furniture workers in Thomasville were involved. There were 
minor disputes at Winston-Salem, Roxboro, and Spindale. Some of the 
settlements, especially in hosiery, represented partial victories for the 

The passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act, with its recog- 
nition of the right of collective bargaining, stimulated another wave 
of union organization. Something of the strength of the movement can 
be gaged from the fact that between 60,000 and 70,000 textile workers 
went out in the unsuccessful general strike in the fall of 1934. Since that 
time, although union membership has dropped off in some places, union 
organization has been maintained or strengthened in other places. 
Among the factory workers, union strength is greatest in cotton, hosiery, 
and tobacco. 

Labor Legislation. Labor legislation made little headway in North 
Carolina until 1937, when several laws of an advanced type were en- 
acted by the general assembly. Public opposition to the employment of 
children in industry had begun to emerge in the 1890's, and a number 
of child labor laws were passed between 1903 and 1931. All of these 
set the age limit too low — 12 years in 1903, increased to 14 years in 1919 
— and the earlier laws lacked provisions for enforcement. The law that 
went into effect on July 1, 1937, is regarded as a model measure of its 
kind. The employment of children in all manufacturing establishments, 
and in 50 occupations specifically defined as dangerous, is prohibited. 
Examination and certification of minors under 18 are required before 
employment, and they are excluded from a smaller number of excep- 
tionally hazardous occupations. Children between 14 and 16 may work 
during school vacations not more than 40 hours a week or 8 hours a day 
in approved occupations, and they are allowed part-time employment 
during school sessions provided that school and work hours combined 
do not exceed 8 hours a day. 

Until 1937, North Carolina had no maximum-hours law for men, 
and the 11 -hour law for women permitted a longer legal working day 
for women than in any other State. The law of 1937 provides a maxi- 
mum 9-hour day and a 48-hour week for women, with a 10-hour day and 
a 55-hour week for men. Despite exemptions written into the original 
bill, the law affects about 200,000 workers in the State and represents 
a sharp reduction in the maximum hours of labor permitted. 

A workmen's compensation law, administered by the State indus- 
trial commission, was passed in 1929; and at a special session held in 
December 1936 the general assembly enacted an unemployment com- 
pensation law, providing for the setting up of a fund, a commission of 


three members (including the commissioner of labor), and regulations 
governing benefits, contributions, and machinery for operating the law. 
The rate for 1938 and thereafter was set at 2.7 percent of wages paid. 
Benefits are payable through the State employment office, and are fixed 
at not more than $15 or less than $5 a week. 

The same session of the general assembly enacted a law accepting 
the provisions of the Federal Social Security Act and creating a division 
of public assistance in the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

A bureau of labor was established in the State government as early as 
1887. Its functions were gradually enlarged until, in 1931, a comprehen- 
sive reorganization resulted in the present department of labor. 


ON THE night of April 4, 1912, a large audience had gathered 
in Birmingham, Alabama, to hear Charles B. Aycock, former 
Governor of North Carolina and widely known as the 'educa- 
tional Governor." The subject of Aycock's speech was "Universal Edu- 
cation." After he had talked for a few minutes, amidst enthusi- 
astic applause, Aycock spoke the words: "I always talked about 
education — ." Here he stopped, threw up his hands, reeled backward, 
and fell dead. 

This dramatic event was the climax of a long and fruitful effort on 
behalf of public schools. In the ten years following Aycock's term as 
Governor, public school expenditures and property values in North 
Carolina increased threefold, the average salary of teachers was increased 
50 percent, 3,500 more teachers were employed, and 3,000 additional 
schools were opened for use. 

Much of the credit for this development belongs to Aycock. But he 
had in his time the support of Edwin A. Alderman, James Y. Joyner, 
Charles D. Mclver, and other able educators; and he had back of him 
more than a hundred years of interest and discussion, as well as more 
than a decade of actual operation of a State-wide system of public 
schools in the 1850's and 1860's. 

North Carolina wrote into its first constitution its intention of having 
a public school system and one or more centers of higher learning. A 
bill for the establishment of free schools was introduced in the Colonial 
assembly as early as 1749 and again in 1752, but was defeated; and in 
1754 an appropriation of ^6,000 was made for building and endowing a 
school, though this money was diverted to other uses. 

Milestones in the State's educational progress were Archibald D. 
Murphey's report to the legislature in 1817; the establishment of the 
"Literary Fund" in 1825; the passage of a public school law in 1839; 
the work of Calvin H. Wiley, first State Superintendent of Schools 
(1853-65); the State-wide canvass by Charles D. Mclver and Edwin A. 
Alderman as institute conductors in 1 890-1903; and the gubernatorial 
campaign of Charles B. Aycock in 1900. 



{For some account of the early development of educational activities 
and interests in North Carolina, see history and religion.) 

Many private academies had been established in the State by the 
middle of the 19th century. Even in the latter part of the century it was 
commonly believed that the constitutional provision for schools could 
best be fulfilled by subsidizing the academies. This idea slowly gave 
way to the belief in publicly supported schools for all the people. Steady 
progress in the 20th century, as evidenced by increased expenditures, 
better trained teachers, longer school terms, rural consolidation, and 
other improvements, continued until the economic depression of the 
early 1930's. 

State appropriations for the public schools in North Carolina were 
not reduced between 1931 and 1933, despite the fact that collections of 
State revenue during this period fell $22,000,000 below the budget esti- 
mates and county, city, and town revenue collections decreased in al- 
most the same proportion. The 1931 general assembly, anticipating some 
reduction in revenue, enacted a special law which prevented the Gov- 
ernor, as director of the budget, from making any reduction in the 
amount of money appropriated for the public schools. During this 
period other State appropriations were reduced several millions of dol- 
lars by budgetary control, but State school funds were not reduced. 

By January 1933, however, it became apparent that, though State aid 
for the schools should continue undiminished or even be increased, 
many schools would be forced to close as a result of the inability of coun- 
ties, cities, and towns to collect the school taxes levied on property. The 
general assembly therefore enacted a law providing a State-wide eight- 
months school term as the minimum for rural as well as city schools, 
and decreed that this term should be entirely supported from State 
revenues derived solely from indirect taxes. It then appropriated the 
amount needed to operate all the schools for the ensuing two years, 
thereby removing all taxes on property for school operating costs. The 
administrative units had to continue to provide for debt service, to pro- 
vide the school buildings and equip them. Under the law, any unit that 
so desired could, by a vote of the people, levy supplementary school 
taxes on property to provide a ninth month, employ additional teachers, 
or supplement the State salary schedule. In order to provide the appropri- 
ation of $16,000,000 a year for the maintenance of the eight-months 
school term, other State appropriations were drastically cut. The prop- 
erty tax load of the various subdivisions was reduced to the extent of 
about $20,000,000 a year. 

North Carolina is one of only two States with a State-supported and 
State-administered uniform school system, the other being the State 
of Delaware. Unusual economies in the cost of administration and 


operation have been brought about without any material sacrifice in 
teaching service. There has been a steady increase in the training and 
certification of teachers. 

The total annual expenditure in North Carolina for public schools 
amounts to more than $30,000,000. Most of the school buildings in the 
State are modern and of approved design and are valued at approxi- 
mately $110,000,000. More than $12,000,000 worth of new school facili- 
ties were erected (1937-39). 

There are more than 24,000 teachers in the State school system, whose 
salaries aggregate more than $20,000,000 a year. Some 73 percent of the 
more than 17,000 white teachers and 43 percent of the 7,000 or more 
Negro teachers are college graduates and hold Grade A certificates. 
In 1922 only 17 percent of the white teachers and 3 percent of the 
Negro teachers were college graduates. The salaries of teachers in the 
North Carolina public schools are based on their certification— that is, 
the amount of college training — plus the number of years of teaching 
experience, up to eight years. 

North Carolina transports more children to and from school every 
day than any other State in the United States. For 160 days of each 
year, a fleet of 4,200 buses transports 306,000 school children at a cost 
of $7.42 per child per year — the lowest net cost in the Nation. These 
4,200 school buses travel an average of 150,000 miles a day over some 
35,000 miles of State and county highways. 

Some one-room schoolhouses are still left in the State, especially in 
the mountains, where consolidation is difficult because of geographical 
conditions as well as bad weather during the winter months. Consoli- 
dation has been completed to a high degree in all the counties where it is 
feasible and economical. Vocational education is stressed in the con- 
solidated schools. Home economics and agriculture courses are offered 
in most of the rural high schools, virtually all of which are consolidated 

Approximately 830,000 children are (1939) enrolled in the public 
school system of which 665,000 are in the elementary grades and 165,000 
in the high schools. The largest school for Indian children in North 
Carolina is at Cherokee, where 289 boarding and day students are en- 
rolled. More than 200 Indian children attend day schools at Big Cove, 
Birdtown, Snowbird, and Soco. 

There are 918 high schools in North Carolina, of which 733 are for 
white children and 185 for Negroes. Approximately 135,000 are enrolled 
in the high schools for white children and about 30,000 in high schools 
for Negroes. Marked progress has been made in the schools for Negroes, 
especially in the high schools. Negroes comprise 29.73 percent of the 
total school population in North Carolina. 


Instructional service, the curriculum, and certification of teachers are 
under the administration of the State department of public instruction, 
while all fiscal affairs are under the general control of the State school 

The University of North Carolina, consisting of the university at 
Chapel Hill (3,500), the agricultural and engineering college at Raleigh 
(2,215) ana1 tne woman's college at Greensboro (1,697), nas a signifi- 
cant place in the cultural life of the South. State-supported institutions 
include also East Carolina Teachers College at Greenville, the Western 
Carolina Teachers College at Cullowhee, and three other standard 
normal schools for white students; the North Carolina Agricultural and 
Technical College at Greensboro and four standard normal schools for 
Negroes; and the Cherokee Indian Normal School at Pembroke in 
Robeson County. 

Besides Duke University at Durham (3,364), outstanding among 
endowed institutions, the State has many accredited colleges and normal 
schools that are denominational or privately supported. These include 
Wake Forest College at Wake Forest (978), Davidson College at David- 
son (678), and Meredith College at Raleigh (538). Among institutions 
for Negroes are: Shaw University at Raleigh, North Carolina College 
for Negroes at Durham, and Johnson C. Smith University at Charlotte. 

Most of Cabarrus County has had a system of progressive schools since 
1930. The program emphasizes cooperation rather than competition as 
an incentive, and the correlation of the subject material in large units 
of work. 

Goldsboro, in the center of the Coastal Plain, began a program of 
progressive education in 1932. The Goldsboro High School is one of 
three in the State which are accredited by the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools without requirement of the customary 
units of credit for college entrance. The other two high schools similarly 
accredited are in Charlotte and Greenville. 

The school in the village of Ellerbe, Richmond County, has attracted 
national attention by successful teaching activities founded on socially 
valuable experience. Teachers College of Columbia University has sent 
a number of students to observe the work of this school. The students 
conduct a nursery of native plants, operate a print shop, make furniture 
and other handicraft products, have catalogued the school library of 
12,000 volumes, have built playground equipment and a cabin used for 
social gatherings. 

At Spring Hope in Nash County there is a special-opportunity school 
for retarded pupils. A completely changed curriculum has been set up 
for pupils whose needs are not met in the conventional curriculum and 
who, on reaching the age limit for compulsory attendance, ordinarily 


drop out of school after repeated failure to qualify. The work has been 
notably successful in avoiding the possible evils attendant upon segregat- 
ing children for special work. The school receives a subsidy from the 
General Education Board. 

Adult education in North Carolina had its beginning about 1919. 
The first State supervisor of adult education, Elizabeth Kelly, of Frank- 
lin, won public support for the work. The methods of teaching reading 
to adults, which were originated by Elizabeth C. Morriss in the com- 
munity schools of Buncombe County, have been a notable contribution. 
The John C. Campbell School at Brasstown is making an interesting 
experiment in handicraft and folk culture. Another distinctive under- 
taking is the Southern Summer School for Workers, which has held 
11 of its 12 sessions in North Carolina. During a six-weeks period, 
students from Southern States are given instruction in English and in 
the analysis of economic and labor problems as related to Southern 
industrial and rural workers. In 1938 and 1939 the school was held in the 
Asheville Normal and Teachers College. 

Since Aycock's time, illiteracy among whites has been reduced from 

19.5 percent in 1900 to 5.6 percent in 1930; and among Negroes, from 

47.6 percent in 1900 to 20.6 percent in 1930. The ratio of elementary 
and secondary school enrollment to total population between the ages 
of 5 and 17 increased from 63 percent for whites and 59 percent for 
Negroes in 1900 to 82 percent for whites and 79 percent for Negroes in 

IQ 35- 

More important than any figures which can be quoted from the 
records is the attitude of North Carolina toward its educational system. 
The spirit of Aycock, the belief in the necessity of education for every- 
one, is more alive today than ever. But no one now would think of 
merely advocating "education." The problems today involve the defini- 
tion of education: which kinds of training are to be given preference; 
the problem of making schoolhouses community centers; of discovering 
latent talents and diversifying training so as to develop these talents; 
of making the schools serve the needs of those who do not go to college 
as well as those who do; and of making education a continually devel- 
oping process in the lives of everyone, young and old. 


THOMAS HARRIOT, visiting in 1585 the coastal region of what 
is now North Carolina, found that the Indians believed in the 
immortality of the spirit and in "many gods, which they call 
Mantoac, but of different sorts and degrees, one only chief and great 
God, which has been from all eternity." The Indians of today, except 
for lingering traces of a tribal religion practiced by the medicine men 
and women and conjuring societies of the Cherokee, are predominantly 
Baptist and Methodist. 

The first baptism performed by English-speaking people in the New 
World took place on Roanoke Island on August 13, 1587. The convert 
was the Indian Manteo, and his baptism was followed a week later by 
that of the infant Virginia Dare. These ceremonies, however, contrib- 
uted no more toward the founding of a permanent religious establish- 
ment than did Sir Walter Raleigh's efforts at colonization lead to a 
permanent settlement in the region. 

Religion as an organized force was introduced by the Quakers, and 
their faith remained the only communion of importance until 1700. 
William Edmundson, a Quaker missionary, preached in 1672 in Per- 
quimans County, to a people with "little or no religion, for they came 
and sat down in the meeting smoking their pipes." He was followed a 
year later by George Fox, the founder of Quakerism, who spent 18 days 
"sowing the Seed" in the Albemarle section. Of his work there he said, 
"I have made a little entrance for truth upon the people." These pioneers 
were followed by a succession of itinerant preachers who kept alive the 
faith already implanted. 

Quakerism attained its greatest influence under John Archdale, 
Quaker and proprietor, Governor of the Province (1694-96). In 1701, 
through the exertions of his successor, Gov. Henderson Walker, the 
sect was divested of most of its political power. 

The first church in the Colony was built in 1701-2 by the Vestry of 
Chowan Parish, afterwards St. Paul's at Edenton. In 1715, a Colonial 
law recognized the Church of England as the established church in 
North Carolina. Other Protestant denominations developed slowly; in- 


deed, as late as 1739 Governor Johnston reported that there were still 
only two places in the Colony where church (Anglican) services were 
regularly held. By the end of the Colonial period, however, most of the 
Protestant sects were well represented. 

From the beginning there was strong opposition to the Anglican 
Church and the small gains made in the Colony were nullified by the 
Revolution. Efforts were made in 1790 to organize an American Epis- 
copal Church on the foundations of the Anglican, and in 1794 the 
Rev. Charles Pettigrew was elected bishop, though he was never con- 
secrated. Bishop John Stark Ravenscroft, holding office from 1823 to 
1830, strove to build up the church against the opposition engendered 
by the "political feelings associated with its very name." His successor, 
Bishop Levi Silliman Ives, who served for 23 years, manifested such 
strong Catholic leanings towards the close of his tenure as to disrupt 
the church membership; he joined the Roman Catholic communion 
before resigning his bishopric. 

To Bishop Thomas Atkinson fell the double task of healing the 
breach in the church ranks and of dislodging from the public mind the 
idea that the Episcopal Church was primarily for the well-to-do. In the 
latter respect he met with little success, for his denomination continued 
to draw its membership chiefly from the planter aristocracy and the of- 
ficial and professional classes. Consequently its members exerted greater 
influence on the State's affairs than their numbers alone would seem to 
warrant. Until after the War between the States, Episcopalianism was 
confined almost exclusively to the eastern section. 

Of the denominations that attained wide popular appeal, the first to 
gain a foothold was the Baptist, though the first congregation, surviving 
as the Shiloh Church, was not organized until 1727. By 1755 the Baptists 
outnumbered all other denominations combined. Membership came 
principally from the rural population and as late as i860 only 30 of the 
780 churches were in towns or villages. The original church split over 
doctrinal differences on several occasions. The most far-reaching divi- 
sion came in 1830, when a group, disagreeing with the regular church 
on the question of benevolences, withdrew and organized as the Primi- 
tive Baptists. They opposed all missionary and Bible societies and theo- 
logical seminaries as the "inventions of man and not warranted by the 
word of God." Eventually, Baptist churches became as much a part of 
the urban life of the State as other denominations. 

Methodism, facing extreme difficulties, achieved numerical strength 
second to the Baptists. Many manifested instant and violent opposition 
to the sect because of its stand against slavery and its practice of preach- 
ing directly to the Negroes. Methodist ministers were assaulted and their 
churches burned. One man, exasperated by his wife's connection with 


the faith, applied a blister plaster to her to cure her of Methodism. But 
evangelistic zeal did not weaken. Joseph Pilmoor, who in 1772 delivered 
a sermon at Currituck Courthouse, was soon followed by circuit riders 
who covered the State from swamp to mountaintop. Some of the early 
preachers were Negroes, and to that race belonged Henry Evans, founder 
of the Fayetteville Church. The most indefatigable proponent of Meth- 
odism in North Carolina was Bishop Francis Asbury, whose revealing 
diary, kept from 1771 to 1815, is extant. 

The Presbyterians preceded the Methodists by a number of years, but 
they had a slower numerical growth. Their prestige came chiefly from 
the scholarship of their ministers, who played a significant educational 
role. Organized congregations of Presbyterians originated with the com- 
ing of the Scotch-Irish from Pennsylvania into the Piedmont region 
between 1735 and 1775. They were further increased by the Scotch High- 
landers who came into the State by way of Wilmington after 1745. 

Various other sects have contributed to North Carolina's many-sided 
history, some with roots going back to Colonial days and others of more 
recent origin. The Lutheran, German Reformed, and Moravian ele- 
ments represent well-defined Teutonic waves, which came with the tide 
of immigration into the Piedmont between 1745 and 1775. The Luther- 
ans were the most numerous, but the Moravians attained particular 
distinction. Since 1758 the Moravians have held impressive Easter Sun- 
rise Services which attract as many as 50,000 people to the Home Church 
in Winston-Salem. 

Other denominations represented in the State include the Church of 
Christ, Scientist; the Seventh Day and other Adventist bodies; the 
Mormon; the Pentecostal and Pilgrim Holiness; the Universalist; the 
Dunkard in the upper Piedmont, and the Mennonite on the edge of 
Dismal Swamp. In the east near the Virginia border are congregations 
of "black Jews" — Negro adherents of the Church of God and Saints of 
Christ, who believe that they are descended from the lost tribes of Israel. 

Aided largely by northern and to some extent by southern denomina- 
tions, Negroes organized churches in great numbers after the War be- 
tween the States. The Reconstruction period witnessed the founding by 
northern churches of two universities, two colleges, and several lesser 
schools for Negroes. 

The bill of rights of the first State constitution declared that "all men 
have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God accord- 
ing to the dictates of their own conscience." But the 32nd article of the 
same document stated that "no person who shall deny the being of 
God, or the truth of the Protestant religion, or the divine authority of 
either the Old or New Testaments, or shall hold religious opinions in- 
compatible with the freedom or safety of the State, shall be capable of 


holding any office or place of trust or profit in the civil department 
within this State." Jacob Henry, a Jew of Carteret County, served as a 
member of the house of commons in 1808. In the year following, H. C. 
Mills requested the house to declare the seat vacant because of Henry's 
religion. Henry's defense was so stirring that the house voted in his 
favor, and the speech was accorded wide circulation in all the Atlantic 
Seaboard States. 

William Gaston, a brilliant young jurist of the Catholic faith, later 
influenced the modification of article 32. The change, made in 1835, 
substituted the word "Christian" for "Protestant" but was still discrim- 
inative since the term "Christian" excluded the Jews. In the 1868 con- 
stitution, the terminology of the offending clause was changed so as to 
debar from office only those who denied "the Being of Almighty God." 

North Carolina was strongly influenced by the "Great Revival" that 
swept the country after the Revolutionary War and lasted intermittently 
until the War between the States. Beginning as separate movements 
within a number of denominations, it grew into a mighty power that 
left few people untouched by its manifestations. By 1804 the tide had 
swept upward to its climax. 

This emotional preaching, interspersed with stirring hymns, induced 
physical manifestations known as "the exercises." These included the 
phenomena known as jerking, wheeling, dancing, laughing, barking, 
and falling down. 

Rarer but no less interesting were the marrying and "impression" 
exercises. Under their influence, one could claim to have a special revela- 
tion from the Lord that a certain individual was his rightful mate, and 
the person so designated, fearing damnation if he acted contrary to the 
Lord's wishes, usually consented to the marriage. The Rev. Joseph 
Moore wrote to the Rev. Jesse Lee in 1806 that "many got married, and 
it was said some old maids, who had nearly gotten antiquated, managed 
in this way to get husbands." One old woman had her entire crop of 
flax broken free of charge because her "impression" was that the Lord 
wanted a neighbor to perform the task for her. 

The camp meeting became an established feature of the Great Re- 
vival and its tradition still persists in the periodic revivals conducted 
by the evangelical denominations, in itinerant tent meetings, and in 
such scattered survivals as the annual interdenominational camp meet- 
ings of the Pentecostal Holiness Church at Falcon and of the Columbia 
Bible School and the Eliada Home, both near Asheville. 

Notwithstanding its many excesses, the Great Revival brought to the 
forefront trends in popular thought that had not yet lent their force 
in any perceptible degree to the State's development. The churchman 
received for a time a partial release from the restrictions of creed. His 


thoughts became focused on the individual and through him on the 
social welfare of mankind. The churches entered upon a definite period 
of benevolent activities, and interested themselves in the establishment 
of schools and poor relief. 

The history of education and the history of religion in North Caro- 
lina are closely interwoven. As early as 1715 the Quakers instructed 
their members to be diligent in imparting to their children the rudi- 
ments of learning. Some kind of school was the complement of each 
meetinghouse. The Moravians, noted for their scholarship, exercised 
considerable educational influence. During the Colonial era the Presby- 
terians established several classical schools, the most noted of which was 
the Rev. David Caldwell's school at Greensboro in 1767, where many 
ministers, lawyers, and physicians were trained; and Queen's College 
in Charlotte in 1771. Church-controlled academies were chartered by 
legislative enactment for New Bern in 1766 and Edenton in 1770. Such 
diverse and uncoordinated efforts toward education as were made prior 
to the Revolution grew for the most part out of North Carolina's reli- 
gious life. 

After the Great Revival, Sunday schools, offering free instruction for 
poor children in the rudimentary subjects, were established by nearly 
every denomination. In 1825, the Orange County Sunday School So- 
ciety, with 22 schools and an enrollment of 1,000, petitioned the State 
legislature without success to levy a tax in behalf of its organization to 
"save more children from a life of ignorance and vice." Out of such 
beginnings grew more denominational schools of secondary standing. 
However, it was only after the State university had been for 30 years 
a subject of bitter controversy that denominations began to establish 
colleges of their own. 

Though religion played a significant role in shaping the formative 
policies of the State university, the influence of William R. Davie, a 
deist and a spokesman for 18th-century rationalism, was strongly felt. 
Dr. Samuel McCorkle, Presbyterian preacher and teacher, and Davie, 
the most influential of the trustees, typified the conflicting concepts. From 
the beginning, charges of infidelity were brought against certain faculty 
members, and with each new charge church support was further with- 
drawn. In an effort to appease clerical criticism, the university required 
all students to attend divine service and examined them each Sunday 
afternoon in the general principles of religion and morality. But there 
were those in the churches who remained unimpressed and who called 
attention to the small number of ministers added to the clerical popu- 
lation of North Carolina by the university. 

The desire to provide a sectarian religious basis for higher education, 
coupled with a feeling of social responsibility that had found expression 


in the Sunday-school movement, gave rise to a number of denomina- 
tional colleges (see education). 

With their own colleges to foster, the denominations became increas- 
ingly opposed to the idea of any State-supported educational institution. 
When in 1837 the university trustees, desiring to increase its patronage, 
offered free tuition to any applicant "of good character native of the 
State, unable to pay Tuition Fees," and listed as one of the advantages 
of attending the institution "the formation of lasting friendships and 
associations . . . among those who are to constitute no small portion of 
our future rulers, by the patronage of a State institution," the denomina- 
tional colleges construed it as a challenge and powerful, unfair com- 
petition. Charges were made by denominational papers that the uni- 
versity was a source of positive evil and that it encouraged in its students 
a desire for "worldly greatness without any particular reference to the 
higher and grander interests of the soul." 

Strangely enough, while the denominations fought the university, 
each struggled for its proportionate share of control in the university's 
affairs. From the beginning an intense jealousy of the Presbyterians 
existed among the other denominations, because for many years a 
majority of the faculty members and most of the presidents were Pres- 
byterians. Opposition to the university and a struggle for adequate 
representation in its conduct continued as active forces in the denomina- 
tional life of North Carolina until the late 1890's. 

With the dawn of the 20th century came an era of conciliation between 
church and state in the educational field. This change can be attributed 
partly to the broader vision of leaders in both factions, and partly to the 
firmer financial foundations that the denominational colleges had estab- 
lished. Then, too, public school education had been provided for by 
the State and the charge could no longer be made that State education 
was aristocratic. Religious and secular forces achieved a spirit of amity 
which leaves little evidence of intolerance. An anti-evolution bill, for- 
bidding the teaching of evolution in any State-supported school of North 
Carolina, received very limited backing when introduced in the legisla- 
ture during the Scopes trial in Tennessee. 

Meanwhile, denominations have increased in number and in mem- 
bership. North Carolina has a church-going population of more than 
1,400,000, distributed among 67 denominations, and worshiping in more 
than 10,000 churches. In 1926 it ranked fifth among the States in num- 
ber of churches, twelfth in number of church members, and third in 
number of church members in rural areas. 


DESPITE the difficulties attending travel, the settlers of Colonial 
North Carolina would ride 50 miles to see a horse race, or leave 
their businesses to watch an impromptu cock fight outside a 

Dr. Brickell, in his Natural History of North Carolina, published 
in 1737, notes that there were "Race-Paths near each Town, and in many 
parts of the Country." Besides the public courses there were race tracks 
on most large plantations. Horses for racing not only were bred on 
plantations but were imported from England. The jockeys were often 
young Negroes who rode bareback. In North Carolina the quarter-race, 
a short swift dash made by two horses on parallel paths, was especially 

William Attmore, a Philadelphia merchant who visited the Colony 
in 1787, saw many evils in connection with racing. Not only were large 
numbers of people drawn from their work, but there was "wagering 
and betting; much quarreling, wrangling, Anger, Swearing & 
drinking. . ." Attmore saw "white Boys, and Negroes eagerly bet- 
ting Vi a quart of Rum, a drink of Grog, &c, as well as Gentlemen 
betting high. . ." The Gentlemen sometimes staked a plantation on a 

Cock fighting with birds imported from England and Ireland 
had as much attraction as races between thoroughbred horses. Cham- 
pion cocks were also bred in the Colony and were known by name and 
rated by their prowess. Such prize cocks fought the cocks of rival coun- 
ties and even those of neighboring Colonies, while great crowds gath- 
ered to watch, and betting was heavy. 

The crude sport of gander pulling was considered a prime amuse- 
ment. "This," wrote a Colonial gentleman, "consists in hanging an old 
tough gander by the heels, rubbing his neck well with grease and soap, 
then riding under him with speed, seizing him by the neck as you 
pass, and endeavoring to pull his head off." 

Militia musters were ordinarily celebrated with sports as well as with 
drinking and gambling. Elections and other public gatherings also 
furnished such opportunities. Favorite sports were throwing the sledge; 



wrestling; jumping over ditches and hedges; fives, which was a kind 
of hand tennis; long bullets, a kind of football; bandy, a forerunner of 
golf, sometimes called cambuc or goff ; football, an early variant of the 
modern game, somewhat like soccer; quoits; tenpins; shooting matches, 
and horse races. 

Dance frolics, as they were called, were popular from the early days 
until they received a widespread check from the camp-meeting move- 
ment not long before the War between the States. Although dancing 
and even the musical instruments associated with the dance were se- 
verely denounced by revivalists, the square dance with its numerous 
figures has persisted in all sections of the State. 

Men gathered at taverns to play billiards and cards, to bowl, and to 
drink and gamble. Peter de Bois, living in Wilmington, wrote that 
"an intollerable itch for gaming prevails in all companies." A favorite 
game was all-fours, which was similar to seven-up and muggins. 

In 1753 the general assembly passed an act "to prevent excessive and 
deceitful Gaming." Tavern keepers were forbidden to allow on their 
premises any game of chance and skill except billiards, bowling, back- 
gammon, draughts, and chess. An attempt was made also to limit the 
amount of tavern debts. But these and subsequent measures failed to 
check the passion for gambling. 

Hunting and fishing were favorite pastimes but the abundance of 
game and its use as food made these amusements less sport than business 
or slaughter. Deer were run down with dogs by men on horseback, or 
were hunted in the Indian fashion by which a man inclosed in a deer- 
skin managed to get into the midst of a herd. 

A common and destructive pastime was "fire-hunting." A band of 
men would set fire to the woods in a five-mile circle and drive the ani- 
mals to the center, where they could easily be surrounded and slaugh- 
tered. There were organized hunts for deer, elk, bear, and foxes. Smaller 
animals, such as opossums and raccoons, were hunted a great deal by 
boys and by the Negroes. 

The wild turkey was prized above all birds for the delicate flavor of 
its meat. Turkeys not only were shot for sport but were trapped in flocks 
by hunters who built fires at night under their roosting trees. They 
then would be shot in great numbers as they took wing. 

A picturesque sport and one which dates from Colonial times is the 
tilting tournament. The contest was an imitation of the jousts of the 
Middle Ages, providing displays of horsemanship, pageantry, flowery 
speeches, and chivalric honors to women. The "lists" were usually three 
arches, placed at suitable distances apart, from each of which was sus- 
pended a small metal ring. The knight, equipped with a pointed wooden 
lance, endeavored to pick off the rings while riding at a gallop. The 


winner chose the queen and crowned her, while the runners-up chose 

Knights still ride at the ring in some of the Southern States. In North 
Carolina the Tryon Riding and Hunt Club has been staging the Laurel 
Tilting Tournament annually since 1925. 

Although horse racing has declined as a sport, the State and some of 
the surviving county fairs have their grandstands crowded for the horse 
races, which almost always are trotting matches. Prizes, usually of 
money, are awarded to winners. Betting is an undercover practice as it 
is illegal. Efforts to legalize the pari-mutuel system of betting have been 
made at sessions of the general assembly in late years, but without 

Cock fighting has been under a legal ban for years and is sufficiently 
discredited in public opinion to have little chance of being legalized 
again. But the sport, locally always spoken of as "rooster fighting," 
goes on. 

The sporting events that draw the largest crowds at the present time 
are intercollegiate football games. Interest in the game and rivalry 
between colleges have increased in recent years, though the Thanksgiv- 
ing Day game between the Universities of North Carolina and Virginia 
had become a "classic" even before the era of good roads. However, there 
is as keen rivalry now between certain institutions within the State. 

Baseball is popular, and several of the larger cities maintain profes- 
sional teams in the Piedmont League. There are a number of semi- 
professional leagues in the State. During the 1930's softball has increased 
in popularity among amateur groups. 

Tennis receives more space than formerly on the sports pages of the 
State papers. The University of North Carolina has won first place in a 
number of national intercollegiate contests. Invitation tournaments at 
Asheville, Pinehurst, Sedgefield, Southern Pines, and Charlotte have 
stimulated interest in the game. 

Ever since the first golf courses were built at Wilmington and Winston- 
Salem about 1896, interest in the game has grown, and in recent years 
a number of municipal golf courses have been established. The State is 
now known for its many fine courses and its tournaments that draw 
star players from all over the country. The number of courses (1939) 
total 87 in 64 different locations. Of these 31 have 18 or more holes, 
and 26 are open to the public, while for most of the 61 private courses 
visitors can obtain courtesy cards through friends or hotels. 

Golf is available at every season of the year, and there is an almost 
endless variety of golfing terrain, the altitude of the courses ranging from 
8 feet above sea level at Cape Fear to 4,000 feet at Blowing Rock, which 
has the highest course east of the Rockies. Pinehurst has the reputation 


of being the place where more golf is played annually than anywhere 
else in the world. Its famous Number 2 course, built by Donald Ross, 
is known as the St. Andrews of America, and is the scene of the North 
and South championship tournaments. 

The most extensive recreational areas of the State are the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park, and the national forests. Swimming 
and boating can be enjoyed for a fairly long season on the lakes, sounds, 
and seashore of the State, and the rivers and lakes provide interesting 
canoe trips. 

Hunting is now regarded chiefly as a sport, though in remote sec- 
tions men and boys still go to the woods with guns for the purpose of 
filling the dinner pot. North Carolina offers the sportsman almost every 
type of game to be found in the country. The extensive hunting grounds 
are in the large areas of unsettled country and publicly owned lands, 
and in the lands of private owners. Bear, deer, wild turkey, and smaller 
game such as rabbits and squirrels, quail, geese, ducks, and brant, are 
protected by laws and game preserves. Fox hunts are held near Southern 
Pines, Asheboro, Tryon, and Asheville; and the opossum hunt, held 
at night, is popular. Migratory waterfowl in great numbers winter 
along the North Carolina coast. Currituck Sound and Lake Matta- 
muskeet are the best-known grounds for duck, goose, and brant shoot- 
ing, but there are many other hunting centers for these birds. 

From the coldest streams of the high altitudes to the warm seacoast 
waters, from the speckled trout to the tropical dolphin and amber jack, 
North Carolina has variety and a plentiful supply to offer the fisher- 
man. In the mountains, but at lower altitudes than the brook or speckled 
trout, are the rainbow and brown trout. In the power reservoirs of the 
Piedmont and the lakes and streams of the Coastal Plain are large- and 
small-mouthed bass, bream, and perch. Roanoke River is probably the 
best location in the country for striped-bass fishing. 

The long coast line and the sounds near the coast are famous fishing 
grounds. Channel bass, ranging from 30 to 50 pounds, occur along the 
entire coast. The powerful kingfish or cero, from 15 to 40 pounds, is 
caught near Beaufort and Morehead City. The sheepshead is found at 
several points from Nags Head to Little River. Off Cape Hatteras, Cape 
Lookout, and Cape Fear, points nearest the Gulf Stream, dolphin and 
amberjack have been taken in recent years. 


MANY BIZARRE customs and superstitions are hidden in the 
Great Smoky Mountains and the dunes of North Carolina's 
seacoast. It is a temptation to describe them first. But it seems 
more important to give an impression of the folkways of North Caro- 
lina as a whole — ways of doing and acting and talking that are observed 
as one travels about and talks to people in leisure hours or at their ordi- 
nary occupations. 

Americans, north and south, east and west, appear to be very much 
alike. Whether they cultivate cotton in the South or corn in the 
Middle West, they order the same hats and shirts from the same stores, 
ride in the same elevators, and buy hoes and plows from the same fac- 
tories. But there are variations in the language and customs surround- 
ing the use of these factory-made articles. The southerner "chops" his 
cotton instead of hoeing it, and says he has "laid-by his crop" when the 
last cultivating has been finished. The southern business man whips off 
his hat when a lady enters the elevator, while the hustling busy north- 
erner has partly abandoned this custom. The ante-bellum southern 
planter might have the languid rakish habit of wearing a hat indoors 
at his desk, while the northerner never did. 

With few exceptions the white population of North Carolina is made 
up of descendants of northern European stock from what may be called 
the yeoman class. Not so rich in lordly plantations as the neighboring 
States of Virginia and South Carolina, North Carolina had less diffi- 
culty in adjusting itself to social change after the War between the 
States and Reconstruction. As a result, people in this State, from 
Cherokee to Currituck, have a feeling of neighborliness, an almost 
pioneer closeness among people in all walks of life. Any Sunday in the 
social columns of the State newspapers a picture of some mill-town 
bride may appear alongside that of the mill owner's daughter. 

The omnipresent southern hospitality comes largely from a spirit 
of delightful informality, or from just plain "southern don't-care." The 
southern housewife is not unduly embarrassed by an unexpected guest. 
Good inns and even sizable towns are still comparatively far apart in 
the South. For generations southerners accepted travelers as a respon- 



sibility, and enjoyed them as links with the world beyond their reach. 
Furthermore, where the pattern of. eating and sleeping is fairly elastic, 
no one bothers much over one more "name in the pot" or one more 
sleeper in a bedroom. The poorest backwoods housewife will offer the 
best she has, with perhaps a cheerful, apologetic, "Come in if you can 
get in for the dirt." 

The speech of the southerner appears to ignore effort in its slow, 
carelessly articulated syllables. And prominent North Carolinians still 
cling to their " 'tain't so" and " 'twan't nothin' " because their fathers 
found these expressive, and they just don't want to change. Perhaps 
provincial, this spirit nevertheless makes for an individual flavor of 
speech and thought, a sort of shrewd peasant devotion to things native 
and tried. Everywhere, from the country store and filling station to the 
halls of the State legislature, pithy sayings are quoted, salty yarns are 
spun. For North Carolinians possess the genuine countryman's humor. 
They live in a State that is primarily agricultural. Practically all of them 
have had some contact with farm life. Even the mill operatives are apt 
to drift back and forth between sharecropping and mill work. 

Largely because of this closeness to the soil there are some customs 
and habits common to all classes in the State, and there remain prefer- 
ences that stay with a man no matter how wealthy he may become or 
how well-traveled. The real North Carolinian loves his turnip salad 
cooked with pork, his country butter and fried ham, sweet yams and 
chopped barbecue. He will send home from far places for a supply of 
white corn meal ground by the old-fashioned water mill. One of the 
hardships of town life for the mountaineer in a Piedmont cotton mill 
is the absence of spring water, cold and clear, from the depths of the 
granite hill. Similarly, many wealthy city dwellers never lose their taste 
for well water. In town as well as country may be seen patchwork quilts 
sunning on the back fence, pliable home-made sedge brooms standing 
behind the "cook-room" door, fat pine lightwood supplied for kindling, 
and the "old-timy" hickory cane-bottomed chair tilted back on two legs 
against the porch for perfect comfort. 

Many forms of recreation illustrate this kinship between classes : games 
and beliefs of children are the same in town and country; similar meth- 
ods are used by all hunters who go out after foxes, rabbits, birds, 'coons, 
and 'possums, and fishing is a democratic sport. Court week is observed, 
and holidays are numerous. The high spot of the year, Christmas, is a 
day of true southern gayety, hailed often with firecrackers at daybreak 
and a heavily laden dinner table at noon, with gifts and eggnog. The 
South has never been solemn in the observation of this sacred day, and 
for a long time Christmas has been doubling for the Fourth of July. 
In recent decades the National Independence Day has regained some 


recognition, but Christmas continues to be the big day, big in joy, big in 
the returns to trade. Merchants have stimulated the development of 
certain harvest celebrations such as the strawberry, peach, and tobacco 
festivals, and of special occasions like the dogwood festivals and moun- 
tain-music contests that have the avowed purpose of encouraging the 
folk arts. These are good examples of traditions arising to meet certain 
needs of the people. In similar fashion customs may pass and be for- 
gotten — witness the growing neglect of the Confederate Memorial Day 
since the World War unified North and South. 

Life everywhere in North Carolina is still influenced by a code of 
religious observation. The urge to a simple faith gives the town dweller 
his habit of churchgoing, just as it inspires his more primitive country 
kin to "get religion" at revivals. After listening to "preaching," the 
former may leave his fine brick church determined to swear off ciga- 
rettes. The latter may take a more violent turn and, like one brother in 
Harnett County, go home and pull up his excellent tobacco crop, con- 
vinced it is of the Devil's planting. The behavior is different in degree 
but the underlying urge is the same. Sometimes a revivalist will sweep 
together all the elements of a section, rich and poor, town and country, 
into a fanatical band. 

In its ordinary manifestations the religious code shows its influence 
throughout the State: in the lack of liberality in the daily press, in the 
strictness of Sunday blue laws, in the rules of certain sects that frown 
on card playing, in the prohibition of dancing at some of the largest 
colleges. In town and country there are various church entertainments: 
children's day with dialogues, recitations, and pageants; homecoming 
days that attract the old attendants, and birthday suppers and "pound- 
ings" given for the pastor. A wake, with the less sophisticated, becomes 
something of a social occasion as neighbors gather to "set up." 

Perfect geographical conditions for preserving old lore occur in the 
southern mountains. Here a delighted explorer, Cecil Sharp, the student 
of folk music and dances, found old English forms of speech, Eliza- 
bethan songs and ballads, and people who wove their homespun clothes 
and made their soap by the signs of the moon just as the country people 
used to do in England. Most readers of folklore have heard of the 
Great Smoky Mountain natives and their ways. So celebrated has this 
section become that few realize the very same customs and forms of 
speech may be found in isolated sections in all parts of North Carolina 
and in other States as well. Almost every county has its backwoods 
districts where old English ballads are still sung, where old women know 
how to dye and weave, and where pottery churns and jugs are made 
from the local clay. There is, too, an isolation arising from social con- 
ditions and wherever there are underprivileged people with scanty edu- 


cation, families cling to the old ways and the old speech, unconsciously 
preserving folklore that harks back to pioneer days, and beyond these 
to England. 

Few realize that the Negro race has been an agency for perpetuating 
Anglo-Saxon folkways, and that in remodeling and adapting this lore 
the Negro has made one of his most distinctive contributions. But a 
careful source study has shown that many so-called African supersti- 
tions are accepted as African in origin simply because they are strange 
to present-day white people. Actually many of these beliefs and customs 
were picked up from their white masters by the early slaves, who 
handed them on to their descendants as part of their own folk belief. 
English witchcraft influencing Negro conjure and hoodoo ritual, cures 
and charms of Shakespeare's time preserved by Negro midwives, old 
English phrases in the softened Negro speech, are some of the discov- 
eries of students of the South. 

Although similarities occur in every section of the State, each isolated 
geographical division, created by the great natural barriers of mountains 
and sea, has developed special characteristics. The remote and stormy 
shoals and islands of the seaboard have a distinctive folklore, fully as 
interesting as that of the mountains, but practically unknown to out- 
siders. Similarities in the customs of coast and mountain people point 
to their common origin. Some people of both sections use the obsolete 
forms of "holp" for help, "airy" for any, "j'int" for joint, "air" for 
are — these and many other expressions were good English in Shake- 
speare's time. Certain superstitions, too, are recognized in both parts of 
the State; for example, meeting a woman is bad luck for a mountain 
huntsman just as it is for a fisherman of the banks — and as it was in 
past times for the natives of Sussex or Ireland. 

However, the coast people, the "bankers" in particular, have lived so 
long isolated that their ways have a distinct flavor of their own. Espe- 
cially is this true of their speech, though it is difficult to convey the 
impression. Subtle differences of dialect depend not only on phrases 
and their pronunciation but on the intonation, drawl, and rhythm of 
the utterance, impossible to indicate in print. People sensitive to dialect 
rhythms can tell by a man's speech whether he comes from Hatteras or 
Roanoke Island, or even from which end of Roanoke Island, but they 
can hardly define the differences, and they could never transcribe the 
pronunciation phonetically. There are some easily recorded distinctions 
of North Carolina coastal speech — one the quality of the vowels, "oi" 
for i. "Hoigh toide, no feesh," says the fisherman, "Oi'm goin' home." 
Another young native complains of the girls ("darlin's" in his dialect), 
"Oi loike the darlin's but the darlin's don't loike me." Not everywhere 
on the coast, but on certain banks and islands, the "v" is pronounced 


"w," so that it might be remarked of Virgil, for instance, that "Woigil 
is a good prowider of wictuals." 

To the banker the mainland is "the country" or "the country over 
the sound." Daylight is "calm daylight" or "calm of day," and he prom- 
ises to do a task "morning soon," meaning the next day. When a person 
is dying he is said to be "going to leeward." "Rock" is a word seldom 
heard, for there are no rocks on the sand dunes. Instead of the expression 
"to throw a rock," the schoolboy of the coast uses the phrase "to chunk." 

There are many picturesque items of folklore current among unso- 
phisticated people, both white and Negroes, throughout the State. The 
speech of the countryman is full of imaginative phrases, especially those 
referring to the mystery of the sky and of the seasons. The names of 
constellations include "Job's Coffin in the Sky" and "the Lost Ell and 
Yard" (Orion). Late afternoon is "the pink of the evenin' " or "day 
down," or the time when "evenin' is a-pinkin' in." 

Common phrases of the household may be quaint and humorous. A 
mother speaks proudly of her boy, "ain't he a show," "ain't he a mess," 
"he's' something on a stick," "plenty smart," "right smart and sassy," or 
"smart as a briar," "a regular little Trojas man." On the other hand she 
may declare "the little varmint's not worth the salt that goes into his 
bread," and that she will "git a switch to him and wear him out," "lick 
the livin' lard out'n him," or "purely pour the hickory on" and see if 
that will "learn him manners." The boy, or "chap," may be called a little 
"shirttail boy" to distinguish him from her "arm baby and her knee 
baby." The "arm baby" is also the "least 'un," the "teeniney," or "teeny 
chap," her youngest. The kitchen is a "cook room," the poker is a "fire- 
stick," a shoehorn is a "slipper-slide," the storeroom a "plunder room," 
and she herself is always busy " 'suaging young'uns." A common usage 
among older people is "gran'boy" for grandson. 

Among some farm people, if the cow is sick she has doubtless lost 
her cud and another must be made of an old greasy dishcloth and given 
her to chew; or if she suffers from hollow horn, her horn must be 
bored and salt inserted. If the crop is being planted it must be in the 
right time of the moon, for there are such things as good and bad luck. 
And then there are "bug days." "Pa was a-plantin' his potatoes when 
Alex come along and says, 'Mr. Jones, stop right where you are. Them 
'taters won't git a chanct to make. The bugs'll git 'em. This here is bug 
day.' " Naturally Pa stops and waits till bug day has passed. For crops 
that fruit underground he must plant while the moon is dark, but the 
light of the moon is best for beans and such plants as fruit above the 
ground. The almanac is a necessity in these prognostications, for so 
many things are governed by the phases of the moon. A woman is said 
to have a hard time in childbirth if her child comes at the wrong time 


of the moon. The light or darkness of the heavens also governs the 
making of soap and the killing of hogs and curing of meat. 

These rules vary in different localities. In one place hogs must be 
killed in the dark of the moon; another neighborhod swears that such 
action will cause the meat to shrivel in the cooking. In writing of South 
Carolina Negroes, DuBose Heyward describes the stampede away from 
the graveyard because the last person to leave is fated to be the next 
person to die. In North Carolina the reverse appears to be believed, and 
no one is anxious to be the first away from the graveyard. 

Folk beliefs concerning sickness and death are numerous and most 
of them date from early times. Notorious omens of bad luck are the 
screeching of owls, baying of dogs, and "ticking" of the death watch 
(a small insect) in the walls of a room. A corpse is carried out of the 
house feet foremost and buried facing the east, to be ready for the 
second coming of Christ. At the funeral it is customary in country 
districts to open the coffin and allow the neighbors to pass by. A funeral 
sermon is generally preached, and in some places the men who have 
known the dead person take turns shoveling the dirt into the grave. 
Where headstones are not erected little fences are sometimes built or 
even miniature roofed shelters are placed over the grave. Glass orna- 
ments or the toys of a child are sometimes found on graves even today, 
and in certain Negro graveyards the half-used bottles of medicine of the 
deceased are placed there. 

Among unlucky omens the bird in the house is one most to be feared. 
Often the tale goes about that this bird of ill fortune is white, and it is 
somehow linked with the idea of the departing soul of the sick person; 
or it may be a spirit of warning. 

The tales that are told around the fire at night are apt to take on a 
droll sly humor, especially those "tall tales" of exaggeration. In eastern 
North Carolina there is a legendary folk character whose deeds of 
strength make him comparable to the Paul Bunyan of the northern lum- 
bermen. This is a hefty giant of a man named Broadhuss, who used to 
eat a cow or a hog at a meal and, when he wanted to drink, lifted up a 
whole cask and of course drank out of the bung. Extravagant tales are 
improvised about Broadhuss and his extraordinary family. Similar char- 
acters exercise the imagination in other sections. 

Strange things are told about certain animals. A 'coon that is bothered 
by fleas is supposed to get into a creek, lure the pests onto the tip of 
his nose, and then duck under to drown them. The 'possum is said to 
give birth to its young by way of its nostrils. Hoop snakes are supposed 
to be fantastic reptiles that take their tails in their mouths and pursue 
their victims down a hill, rolling along like a hoop. Whip snakes are 
thought to have the habit of wrapping their victim against a tree and 


whipping him with their tails. Around Wilmington, when the sora rails, 
a kind of marsh bird, migrate for the winter, people explain their sudden 
disappearance by saying that they go into the ground to come out in the 
spring as bullfrogs. 

Many old and lovely ballads and folk songs are still current in all 
sections of North Carolina. These, as well as old dances and children's 
singing games, have been carefully collected by folklorists. Newer 
ballads on subjects of current interest are found here and there, usually 
the work of one individual who sometimes sells his poems on sheets like 
the old broadsides. A striking event, such as a flood, the sinking of the 
Titanic, or a local murder, will inspire the making of verses and their 
attachment to a familiar tune or to one invented especially for the song. 
Then, its origin forgotten, its form changing, the song spreads from 
place to place and becomes a part of living folklore to be added to the 
great body of oral tradition. 


IN THE LATE 18th century a traveler, lost in the wilds of North 
Carolina, was hospitably received at a farmhouse. "Here," he re- 
cords in his diary, "I found a large table loaded with fat roasted 
turkies, geese and ducks, boiled fowls, large hams, hung-beef, barbecued 
pig etc. enough for five-and-twenty men." 

Had the traveler happened upon a small frontier cabin instead of a 
large farmhouse he would have found less variety. Corn and pork were 
the staple foods, often the only ones. It was said of the average 18th- 
century North Carolinian that if he could raise enough corn and pork 
for subsistence, he cared for nothing more. John Lawson, an early 
historian of the Colony, thought the Carolina pork "fed on peaches, 
maiz, and such other natural produce" to be "some of the sweetest meat 
that the world afTords." William Byrd "made a North Carolina Dinner 
upon Fresh Pork." "Meat" still means pork to many people in the State. 

Kitchen equipment was meager in most Colonial homes, rich or poor. 
The kitchen itself was a log room that usually stood in the back yard a 
little distance from the house. Cooking was done over the coals in a 
large fireplace with a deep stone or brick hearth. Big pots for boiling 
were hung from hooks on an iron crane, and the small pots rested on 
an iron trivet, which was a ring supported by three legs. Spiders and 
skillets were set directly on the coals. For baking there was an iron oven 
that stood on legs and had a tight cover, so that the coals could be piled 
on top as well as raked beneath. Chicken pies and deep-dish pies of 
apples and peaches were cooked in these ovens without being put into 
pans. Sometimes brick ovens with close-fitting iron doors were built 
either inside or outside the chimneys. For hours before baking was to 
be done, hot fires of oak or hickory were kept burning in the oven. 
Then the coals were raked out and the food was put in to bake in 
the stored heat. Whole hams, suckling pigs, chickens, and turkeys, 
great thick loaves of salt-rising bread, and delicate cakes were cooked 
to a turn in these ovens. 

The wills and inventories of early settlers reveal that table equipment 
was highly prized. Although the wealthier planters lived in rude sur- 


roundings, they were well supplied with glass, china, pewter, and even 
silver, imported or made on the place by traveling silversmiths. The 
majority of the people ate from plain earthenware, made good use of 
their fingers, and, like the planters, valued their tin, iron, and pewter 
spoons, steel knives, and two-tined iron forks with buckhorn handles. 

In a land where the most critical travelers agreed there was "every 
gift of nature," the tables of the industrious farmers were well laden. 
No meal was complete with only one meat dish. There was ham — a 
whole one — and perhaps a smothered chicken, roasted turkey or guinea 
hen, barbecued lamb or pig, and often some wild game. The smoke- 
houses stood near the kitchen. Hanging from the rafters were cured 
smoked hams, bacon, hog jowl, and sausage, highly seasoned with sage 
and red pepper and stuffed in long muslin sacks or tied in clean corn 
shucks. In the wintertime there was also souse meat, scrapple, and liver 
pudding. When the dinner bell, suspended from a pole, called the hands 
from the field, the children said it rang, "Run nigger run, the pigtail's 
done!" White folk as well as Negroes liked their "chitlin's" (chitter- 
lings) fried and seasoned with pepper sauce. 

"Indian meal," of water-ground corn, was made into many kinds of 
bread: johnnycake, hoecake, ash cake, corn pone, corn dodger, cracklin' 
bread, spoon bread, and corn light bread. Corn meal was made into 
mush for a breakfast or supper dish. From corn also came big hominy 
and hominy grits. 

Besides corn breads, there were hot biscuits, buckwheat and plain 
battercakes, and waffles. Salt-rising bread and light bread were baked 
in large batches to last several days. Beaten biscuits were for festive 

Tea cakes, ginger puddings, potato pudding made from sweet pota- 
toes grated raw, gingersnaps, and gingerbreads were popular sweets. 
Pies were great favorites and many varieties appeared on the table: 
chess pies, molasses pies, green apple, sweet potato custard, sliced sweet 
potato pies, and the deep-dish pies called cobblers, made of peaches, 
apples, wild dewberries, or blackberries. 

The favorite cakes were pound, marble, spice, walnut or hickory-nut, 
sponge, and fruit cakes. For big occasions such as weddings and Christ- 
mas dinners a dozen kinds of cake might be made. Boiled custard, bran- 
died peaches, and syllabub made from cream and wine were also part 
of such festivities. 

Wine was often served with cake. Except where religious prejudice 
barred it, every household had a variety of wines, imported or made 
at home from the many wild and cultivated grapes, berries, and other 
fruits. The scuppernong, a white grape native to the State, furnished 
an especially fine-flavored sweet wine. 


In the 18th century it was "very much the custom" in North Carolina 
"to drink Drams of some kind or other before Breakfast." Rum, whis- 
ky, and brandy were imported at high prices, but the planter soon 
began to distill his own liquor. Beer was imported or home-brewed. 
Apple cider and persimmon beer were country favorites. The "sober 
liquors" — tea, coffee, and cocoa — were imported, and therefore were 
luxuries. Native herb teas were used as substitutes by some. Both the 
Indians and the white settlers made tea from the yaupon, a holly of the 
eastern section of the State. 

Old recipes have been handed down by word of mouth and in a few 
cookbooks, but few people today have the knack of interpreting direc- 
tions that require "a handful of sugar," a "pinch" of salt, or a "dash" 
of mustard. Recently when an old Negro cook was being questioned 
on a recipe she said: "Now I takes a double han'ful of flour and lot of 
butter; and if I has a dozen eggs, I puts them in . . ." When asked to 
interpret in cupfuls, she said, "Law, Miss, you knows I don't know 
nuthin' 'bout dis messin' science!" Nevertheless, the art of seasoning 
and mixing and cooking that came from the plantation kitchen has left 
its impress on the food customs of most North Carolina homes. 

The old plantation kitchen is gone, but the iron bake-oven, the kettle, 
and the frying pan still play an important part in cooking. Many small 
cabins that dot the cotton and tobacco farms, or cling to the mountain- 
sides, use open fireplaces for cooking today. The hotels and restaurants 
of the towns and cities now use little of the traditional North Carolina 
ways of cooking, but in the small homes that make up this rural State, 
and in the "big houses" where "Aunt Nancy" still measures by hand 
and taste, the art of cooking famous old dishes lives on. 

Southern cooks have a reputation for frying everything: meats, vege- 
tables, breads, and even pies. Fried chicken and country ham, fried 
corn, sweet potatoes, okra, and squash, fried corn fritters, and fried 
half-moon pies (apple and peach) are food experiences never to be 

Hot biscuits, fried chicken, and gravy have followed the southerner 
wherever he has gone. Fried chicken in North Carolina is properly a 
chicken weighing about two pounds, unjointed, seasoned with salt and 
pepper, rolled in flour, and sizzled in hot lard. It is covered or put in 
the oven during part of the process to make it tender, but it has a crisp 
crust. Biscuits always mean hot biscuits, and are usually made with 
buttermilk, soda, and lard. They are lightly kneaded to produce a fine 
texture, rolled, and baked in a hot oven until brown, then split open 
and buttered while hot. 

Chicken and dressing is a favorite combination for Sunday dinner. 
Fat fowls, always called "hens" in the South, are baked with stuffing 


and outside dressing, and served with rich giblet gravy. The dressing 
consists of crumbled cold biscuits, and sometimes corn bread, seasoned 
with onions, celery, black pepper, and a little sage, and made into a 
rich mixture with chicken broth and fat. Chicken salad, chicken pie, 
chicken and dumplings, chicken hash, and smothered chicken delight 
the southern palate. 

Every North Carolinian thinks, too, that country-cured hams are 
among the finest foods. They are fried and served with red gravy; or 
they are boiled or baked. The fat pork that is fried or used for seasoning 
boiled vegetables is called fat back, salt pork, side meat, middlin' meat, 
or sowbelly. 

Corn bread in some form is served every day in many homes. Corn 
meal is still made from white corn and generally stone-ground. Corn 
bread frequently is the plain variety, made by adding water or milk 
to the meal to make a stiff batter. Salt and lard are usually added, 
though unsalted bread is more common in eastern Carolina. It is shaped 
into pones with the hands and cooked in the oven. Sometimes it is 
dropped by spoonfuls on a hot greased hoe or griddle and cooked on 
top of the stove. Corn pones are not cut, but are broken at the table when 
served. "Cracklin' bread" is made by adding cracklings (fatty left-overs 
in the lard pot) to corn pones. It is commonly made on the farm after 
"hog-killing" time. 

Corn bread is made more often by adding buttermilk, soda, salt, lard, 
and eggs to the corn meal to make a batter. This is poured into a greased 
pan or skillet and cooked in the oven or baked in muffin or corn-stick 
pans, or fried on top of the stove as cakes. When cooked in the pan, this 
bread is also called egg bread. Batter bread or spoon bread is richer in 
milk and eggs than other corn breads. The meal is scalded or cooked 
as a mush, and the buttermilk, soda, and eggs are then added to make 
it like a custard or souffle. 

Dear to the heart and the health of every southerner are the greens 
or "sallet," turnip, mustard, poke, and water cress, or "creases," according 
to the section from which one comes. A "mess of turnip sallet" boiled 
with hog jowl or fat meat is a common dish. It is always considered best 
when cooked in an iron kettle. The "pot likker," made famous in 
plantation days, is the juice left in the pot after the greens have been 
removed. Corn meal dumplings, generally called "dodgers," are some- 
times cooked in the pot liquor. 

Most vegetables are seasoned with fat meat, especially string beans, 
black-eyed peas, cabbage, and greens; and most of them are cooked a 
long time. In some sections the people follow the custom of eating peas 
and hog jowl on New Year's Day to insure good fortune throughout the 
year. Cooking two or more vegetables together is regularly done. Okra 


and tomatoes may be combined; also string beans and corn. Butter beans 
and corn make a combination called succotash. Black-eyed peas and 
rice cooked together are "hoppin' John." Beets are nearly always pickled 
or served with vinegar. Green corn, usually field corn, is used frequently 
and is called "roastin' ears." It is boiled on the cob, or cut and scraped 
from the cob and stewed, fried, or made into a pudding. 

To a southerner, potatoes always mean sweet potatoes, for the white 
variety is usually spoken of as "Irish" or "white" potatoes. Many prefer 
sweet potatoes baked in the peeling until the juice oozes out, and served 
with butter. Candied sweet potatoes are a favorite also. The raw slices 
are cooked with sugar, butter, and water in a deep dish until tender and 
candied. They are also fried, and made into pies and puddings. 

Sorghum molasses, as the southerner calls it, is an amber-colored, 
thick syrup to be eaten with hot biscuits and butter, or with battercakes, 
or used in making desserts and candies. The mule-drawn mill still 
crushes most of the sorghum cane that is cut from the small patches. 
The juice is boiled down and stored for the winter. 

Truly native are the black walnuts, hickory nuts, chinquapins, and 
wild grapes. The best native grapes are the scuppernongs, which have 
a thick white skin and delightful fragrance and taste, and the purple 
muscadine. The fall of the year brings the luscious " 'simmon pudding" 
and locust and persimmon beer. Watermelons and muskmelons are 
served out-of-doors as well as at the table, for it takes a large slice of 
either to satisfy a southerner. 

Barbecues, so popular and common throughout the State, are a relic 
of the old open-fire cooking. Whole pigs and often lambs, chickens, 
and cuts of beef are cooked over live coals. They are basted frequently 
with a special highly seasoned sauce, called barbecue sauce. Brunswick 
stew, often cooked out-of-doors to serve community groups, is a thick 
stew usually made of chicken, butter beans, onion, corn, and tomatoes, 
and seasoned with salt pork. Fish muddle, a typical eastern Carolina 
dish, is made by putting several kinds of fish in a kettle with layers 
of onions and potatoes, seasoning with fried fat meat, adding water to 
cover, and cooking to a stew. "Brush roasts," or oysters cooked on a wire 
netting over an open wood fire, are a popular out-of-doors shore meal. 
The oysters are served with bowls of melted butter, chow-chow, and 
plain corn bread. 

In eastern Carolina the proverbial Sunday breakfast is broiled salt 
roe herring and hot biscuits. In the spring there is the choice roe shad, 
and in summer crabs and shrimps. Salt mullet is eaten the year round. 
There is a distinct dividing line at the edge of the Piedmont where the 
sale of mullet ends and sale of salt mackerel begins. In Winston-Salem 
the Moravian Christmas cookies, old-fashioned sugar cake, citron pies, 


and buns, are traditional. In the northwest counties sourwood honey 
is a prized delicacy. From the Brushy Mountains come the famed Lim- 
bertwig apples; from Waynesville, the cooperative-canned wild huckle- 
berries and blackberries; from the Sandhills, peaches, and from Tryon, 
grapes. In the Cherokee Indian Reservation, corn, beans, and acorns 
are still made into bread by a centuries-old custom; in Valdese another 
bread of a distinctive flavor and aroma is made and marketed by the 
Waldensians. Around Mount Mitchell deer and bear meat are cured for 
home consumption, while in Jones and Onslow Counties hams are 
cured for the market. In the fall, along the highways, are jugs of fresh 
apple cider for sale, and deep in the hills the famous corn liquor is 
still made. 

Thus cookery in North Carolina is as varied as the State topography. 
Every section — Coast, Sandhills, Piedmont, and Mountain — offers a 
distinctive food to lure the gourmet. Yet all parts of the State share in 
common many of the food customs of the old South. 



ANY ACCOUNT of the literature of North Carolina must prop- 
erly begin with a recognition of two descriptions of the Colony 
b. which are valuable to historian and naturalist : A New Voyage 
to Carolina, later issued under the title History of Carolina, by John 
Lawson, "Gent. Surveyor-General of North Carolina," first published 
in London in 1709; and the Natural History of North-Carolina by 
John Brickell, a physician who practiced medicine in Edenton about 
1731. Lawson's history is an account of his travels in Carolina from 
1700 to 1708, valuable as a source book and charming in style. John 
Brickell's natural history is an expansion of Lawson's book with the 
addition of a systematic description of the plants and animals of North 

The literature of ante-bellum North Carolina was in no way unlike 
the picture of southern literature at that time as the historian R. D. W. 
Connor describes it: 

In the ante-bellum South, the professional writer, other than the jour- 
nalist, was looked at askance. Men wrote history from patriotic motives; 
they delivered addresses to grace public occasions; and they sometimes 
"indited" poems sheepishly to "please the fair sex." But all this was the 
work of leisure; few wrote for a living. Of pure literature, therefore, the 
output was small and the quality low. 

The most influential book written by a North Carolinian before the 
War between the States was Hinton Rowan Helper's Impending Crisis 
of the South, published in 1857 and dedicated to the nonslaveholding 
whites. While holding no brief for the Negro, Helper attempted to 
prove by comparison of statistics the superiority of free States over slave 
States. His book attracted little attention until Republicans announced 
their intention of printing 100,000 copies of a Compendium of the Im- 
pending Crisis for use in the Presidential campaign. John Brown's raid 



heightened public interest, and the Compendium (1859), which added 
to the original book a chapter of extracts from the writings of promi- 
nent abolitionists, had an enormous circulation and became an issue of 
the Presidential campaign of i860. The vituperative style and distorted 
statistics of the Impending Crisis provoked numerous replies in the 
North and South, and in North Carolina and other Southern States it 
was a felony to own or to circulate the book. 

Among early Negro writers of whom there is record was David 
Walker, born in Wilmington in 1785, author of Walter's Appeal. 
which has been called "the boldest and most direct appeal for freedom 
... in the early days of the antislavery movement." George Moses 
Horton, born in 1797 in Northampton County, lived most of his life in 
Chapel Hill, and published several volumes of poetry. 

During the years immediately following the War between the States, 
in North Carolina as in other Southern States "the contest which was 
lost on the battlefield had to be fought again with pen and ink." The 
Land We Love, a journal devoted to history of the war, was edited 
by Gen. D. H. Hill at Charlotte from 1866 to 1869. Our Living and Our 
Dead, edited at Raleigh by Stephen Pool and Theodore Kingsbury 
from 1874 to 1876, was concerned with North Carolina's part in the war. 
The South Atlantic, edited in Wilmington by Mrs. Carrie A. Harris 
from 1877 to 1881, was a monthly magazine of literature, art, and 

Probably the best-known book produced in Reconstruction days in 
North Carolina, A Fool's Errand (1879), was a novel written by Judge 
Albion W. Tourgee, a native of Ohio who settled in Greensboro after 
the War between the States, and who was the author of numerous other 
novels, pamphlets, and legal works. A Fool's Errand has its setting in 
North Carolina and describes the plight of the southern Negro during 
Reconstruction, and the operations of the Ku Klux Klan. In the year 
of its publication 135,000 copies of the book were sold. 

The novels of the late 19th century and first decade of the 20th 
century followed the pattern of American fiction of that day. Some, 
like Robert Ballard's Myrtle Lawn, published in 1880, helped to 
create that rosy picture of the sunny South that is now seen rarely 
outside of motion pictures. Ballard's heroine epitomizes the virtues 
ascribed to the southern girl of the time: "Jeannette Evarts was a pure 
child of the heart; she never read much, or paled the freshening color 
of her cheek by poring over musty books, endeavoring to solve mys- 
terious problems, or gather knowledge from profound sciences." One 
contemporary critic declared that in Myrtle Lawn there were passages 
that "Scott or Macaulay might have dashed off in a happy hour of 
literary excitement." 


The novels of Thomas Dixon were more lurid and melodramatic. 
The Leopard's Spots, published in 1903, was "A Romance of the White 
Man's Burden — 1865-1900," and was dedicated to a "sweet voiced 
daughter of the old-fashioned South." Dixon is best known for his 
novels of Reconstruction days, which in 1915 were translated into the 
screen play the Birth of a Nation. 

Frances Fisher Tiernan, of Salisbury, was the most popular North 
Carolina novelist of her day. Writing under the name Christian Reid 
she produced some 50 novels, and many of them, including her first, 
Valerie Aylmer, published in 1870, were widely read. Her travel 
sketches, published in 1876 under the title the Land of the S%y, gave 
to subsequent writers a favorite phrase to describe the mountains of 
the State. 

Two books describing this mountain region deserve special notice. 
Shepherd M. Dugger's the Balsam Groves of Grandfather Mountain, 
published in 1892, is a literary curiosity as well as a travel book. Our 
Southern Highlanders (1913) by Horace Kephart is full of keen anec- 
dote and folklore. More than any other book it has drawn attention to 
the beautiful mountains of North Carolina and to the mountaineer's 
manner of living. 

Perhaps the most famous literary figure North Carolina has produced 
was William Sydney Porter (1862-1910) who was born and grew up 
in Greensboro. Under the pseudonym of O. Henry he wrote the short 
stories that won him a public all over the world. Imagination, bril- 
liant narrative skill, and deep human sympathies mark all of Porter's 
work. Wilbur Daniel Steele, who also was born in Greensboro, has 
written short stories that rank with the best contemporary American 

In the field of fiction, national literature has lately suffered a serious 
loss in the death of the North Carolinian, Thomas Wolfe, interna- 
tionally known as the author of two novels, Loo\ Homeward Angel 
(1929) and Of Time and the River (1935). For one leading critic "he 
bestrode American literature like a colossus" and gave "an assured 
promise that he would encompass the whole vocabulary of the adven- 
turous, romantic, impressionistic, plastic language of America." 

James Boyd has written two distinguished historical novels, Drums 
(1925) and Marching On (1927). Jonathan Daniels, liberal editor of 
the Raleigh News and Observer, is the author of Clash of Angels (1930) 
and A Southerner Discovers the South (1938). Under the name "Field- 
ing Burke," the poet Olive Tilford Dargan has written two novels 
of social import with their setting in the State, Call Home the Heart 
(1932) and A Stone Came Rolling (1935). William T. Polk has written 
fine stories, and Marian Sims is the author of many popular magazine 


stories as well as the novel, Call It Freedom (1937), which has been a 
"best seller." 

John Henry Boner, who wrote "Poe's Cottage at Fordham," is also 
known for such fine poems as "Hatteras" and "The Light'ood Fire." The- 
ophilus H. Hill, another North Carolina poet, is best remembered for his 
"Sunset" and "A Ganges Dream"; Henry Jerome Stockard, for "Unat- 
tained" and "Review of Our Dead." John Charles McNeill showed 
authentic talent in his two volumes of verse, Songs Merry and Sad, 
published in 1906, and Lyrics from Cottonland (1907) collected and 
published after his death. Among contemporary poets are Anne Black- 
well Payne, who has published the volume Released (1930), and John 
Van Alstyne Weaver, whose highly original verse in the vernacular 
includes the popular collection In American (1921). Olive Tilford 
Dargan, a native Kentuckian but now living in Asheville, is the author 
of the Cycle's Rim (1916), a prize volume of poetry, and numerous 
plays and poems that give her high rank in American poetry. 

Among other writers of note who are associated with North Carolina 
because of their long residence in the State are Edwin Bjorkman, 
author, critic, and translator, who now lives in Asheville; Struthers 
Burt, Katherine Newlin Burt, and Walter Gilkyson, of Southern Pines. 

The deep interest of North Carolinians in their own State and in the 
South is evident in oratory, journalism, historical writings, and even 
casual memoirs. The speeches of Archibald D. Murphey, William R. 
Davie, Edwin A. Alderman, Charles B. Aycock, Thomas L. Clingman, 
and Edward Kidder Graham are a permanent contribution to the his- 
tory of American oratory. Through them runs a strong consciousness 
of the State and region. The same consciousness is evident in the letters 
of Walter Hines Page, the editorials of Gerald Johnson, the reporting 
of W. T. Bost, and the writing of the columnist, Nell Battle Lewis. 

Much of the writing of State history has been done by patriots rather 
than by trained historians. John H. Wheeler's Reminiscences (1884), a 
repository of family and local history, and his Sketches of North Caro- 
lina (1851), though marred by numerous errors, are full of valuable 
material. Hawk's History of North Carolina, written with charm of 
style and narrative skill, is valuable for the early chapters of State his- 
tory. The History of North Carolina (1919) by R. D. W. Connor, W. K. 
Boyd, and J. G. de R. Hamilton, and the more recent North Carolina 
(1925) by Connor are reliable reference works. Samuel A'C. Ashe's 
History of North Carolina (1908-25) is another standard work, accu- 
rate and meticulous. 

Of particular interest among local histories are: Kemp P. Battle's 
History of the University of North Carolina (1907-12), two large vol- 
umes crowded with an amazing collection of historical information, 


somewhat contradictory and not always accurate; James Sprunt's 
Chronicles of the Cape Fear River (1914) ; John P. Arthur's Western- 
North Carolina (1914), and Forster Alexander Sondley's two-volume 
History of Buncombe County, all of them rich in anecdote, legend, and 

Several historians have won national recognition; R. D. W. Connor 
is (1939) National Archivist; Holland Thompson is noted for two vol- 
umes in the Chronicles of America series, the New South (1919) and 
the Age of Invention (1921); John Spencer Bassett for his Federalist 
System (1906), A Short History of the United States (revised edition, 
•1934), and other capable historical writings. 

North Carolina ranks well in comparison with other States in the 
possession of printed collections of historical documents. The Colonial 
Records of North Carolina (1886-90) have been edited by Col. William 
L. Saunders, and the State Records of North Carolina (1 886-1 907) by 
Judge Walter Clark. Collections of letters, diaries, and documents, note- 
worthy among them the Moravian Records (1922-30), have been pub- 
lished by the North Carolina Historical Commission. Two university 
presses, one at the University of North Carolina and the other at Duke, 
have exercised an important influence in stimulating literary effort as 
well as scholarly research and publication. 

North Carolina claims many writers of biography who have won a 
large public. Thomas Hart Benton was the author of a famous political 
autobiography Thirty Years' View (1854-56). Griffith J. McRee wrote 
the Life and Correspondence of James Iredell (1857-58), which con- 
tains valuable historical material. Archibald Henderson is the author of 
the authoritative biography Bernard Shaw — Playboy and Prophet 
(1932), a life of Mark Twain (191 1), Washington's Southern Tour 
(1923), and some 20 works on drama, history, and mathematics. William 
E. Dodd edited the Riverside History of the United States (1915), has 
contributed a standard biography in Woodrow Wilson and His Wor\ 
(revised edition, 1932), and is the author of Statesmen of the Old South 
(1911), and other historical narratives. Robert W. Winston's biographies 
of Andrew Johnson (1928), Robert E. Lee (1934), and Jefferson Davis 
(1930) are widely known. Gerald Johnson, now on the staff of the 
Baltimore Sun, is the author of Andrew Jackson, an Epic in Home- 
spun (1927) and Randolph of Roanoke (1929). Among the biographies 
of Phillips Russell are Benjamin Franklin, the First Civilized American 
(1926), and John Paul Jones: Man of Action (1927). 


The Theater 

The first tragedy written by an American and produced on the 
American stage was the Prince of'Parthia, by Thomas Godfrey, a Penn- 
sylvanian living at Wilmington, North Carolina. It was performed at 
the Southwark Theater in Philadelphia, April 24, 1767, and was given 
a production in 1847 by the Wilmington Thalian Association, one of 
the earliest amateur theatrical societies in the State. Two comedies 
written by North Carolinians during this early period were Nolens 
Volens, or the Biter Bit, by Everard Hall, published in New Bern in 
1809, and Blac\beard, by Lemuel Sawyer, of Camden County, a promi- 
nent politician of the State. 

Other North Carolinians made significant contributions to the 19th 
century theater. John Augustin Daly (183.8-99), of Plymouth, was 
one of America's greatest theatrical managers. Henry Churchill De 
Mille (1850-93), of Washington, had a varied stage career as actor, 
teacher, and playwright, and worked with David Belasco. His two sons, 
William De Mille and Cecil B. De Mille, are distinguished directors of 
motion pictures in Hollywood. 

Many amateur theatrical societies flourished in North Carolina be- 
tween 1790 and 1850. Most important of these was the Wilmington 
Thalian Association, which still exists and maintains a high standard 
in acting and production. Others were the Salisbury Thespian Society, 
the Fayetteville Thalian Association, the Raleigh Thespian Society, the 
Roscian Society of Halifax, the Polemic Society of Raleigh, and the 
Thespian Society of New Bern. After 1850 interest in the drama de- 
clined and did not revive until Frederick H. Koch launched the Carolina 
Playmakers in 1918. 

Up to that time North Carolina was considered — in theatrical terms — 
"a dead State," to which it did not pay to send even the ubiquitous 
French catalogue of plays for amateur production. Koch came from 
North Dakota, where he had successfully developed the North Dakota 
Playmakers, to found a school of creative writing at the State university. 
He instituted courses in playwriting and augmented these with authors' 
readings, tryouts, and productions. The success of the Carolina Play- 
makers is due in part to Koch's personality and his genius for teaching, 
and in greater part to the philosophy which motivated the group. Its 
aim was threefold: "To promote and encourage dramatic art, espe- 
cially by the production and publishing of plays; to serve as an experi- 
mental theater for young playwrights seeking to translate into fresh 
dramatic forms the traditions and present-day life of the people; and 
to extend its influence in establishing: a native theater in other States." 


The most outstanding among the playwrights developed by the Play- 
makers is Paul Green, who won the Pulitzer Prize for his play of Negro 
life, In Abraham's Bosom, produced by the Provincetown Players in 
1926. Green had already written one-act plays for the Playmakers but 
In Abraham's Bosom was his first full-length play and his first excursion 
into the professional theatrical world. "As yet," wrote the dramatic 
critic, Barrett M. Clark, in 1926, "we have no genuine folk dramatists 
besides Paul Green." Although unschooled in the professional theater, 
his plays show integrity and a sensitive feeling for theatrical effective- 
ness which he undoubtedly owes largely to the Playmakers. Among his 
later plays are Tread the Green Grass (1929), the House of Connelly 
(1931), Roll Sweet Chariot (1935), Johnny Johnson (1937), and the Lost 
Colony (1937). The last-named play was presented at Roanoke Island 
during the summers of 1937 and 1938 by the Roanoke Island Commis- 
sion in cooperation with the North Carolina Historical Commission, 
the Federal Theater Project, and other agencies of the Works Progress 

Thomas C. Wolfe, who later won fame as a novelist, wrote his first 
play the Return of Buc^ Gavin in Professor Koch's first playwriting 
course in 1918. In the preface to this play Wolfe wrote "The dramatic 
is not the unusual. It is happening daily in our lives." 

Since 1920 the Playmakers have given plays in all parts of the State 
and have carried their tours far afield into other States. Koch tells of 
a production in a North Carolina village so small that it housed barely 
a dozen families, but an audience of 700 trudged through a blinding 
rain from the outlying farms, to see the play given in the new consoli- 
dated school. Another production was the first play the town had seen 
in six years. The plays have been published in several volumes under 
the title Carolina Fol^ Plays. 

The group has also initiated a bureau of community drama as part 
of the extension division of the university, has developed an extension 
library containing 1,000 volumes of plays, which are in constant use, 
and sends a dramatic director to any community needing help in pro- 
ducing plays. This service is free. An annual dramatic festival is held at 
Chapel Hill, in which schools, colleges, and little theater groups par- 

In addition to Green and Wolfe, many other Carolina dramatists 
have been influenced by the Playmakers. Among them are Hatcher 
Hughes, author of the 1922 Pulitzer Prize play Hell-bent fer Heaven, 
and the folk comedy Ruint; Lula Vollmer, author of the war play 
Sun-Up; and Anne Preston Bridgers, who wrote Coquette in collabora- 
tion with George Abbott. 



True folk music is found in North Carolina, as elsewhere, among 
people whose lives are least subject to changing standards. Isolation and 
lack of printed literature have helped to perpetuate old folk music. 

Cecil J. Sharp, English folk-song specialist, published in 1918 a vol- 
ume of 122 ballads and their variant texts and tunes, which he had col- 
lected in the mountains of North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and 
Kentucky. He cites an instance in which one woman in Hot Springs 
sang to him 64 ballads and songs. Arthur Palmer Hudson, ballad spe- 
cialist at the University of North Carolina, points out that singing, 
although more common in the mountains, plays an equally important 
part in the lives of country people generally. 

In rural communities of North Carolina, the old-time singing school 
and singing convention survive, although many changes have occurred 
in the type and form of music. Of late the old five-note notation and 
shape-note have generally been supplanted by the round-note in simple 
melodic form. During the autumn, annual singing conventions are held 
throughout the State. The one at Steel Creek Church, near Charlotte, is 
especially noted, and is attended by thousands from all over the State 
and from adjoining States. The convention held at Wesley Chapel, 
Catawba County, and the Mountain Song and Dance Festival at Ashe- 
ville are also well known. 

A kind of music, commonly known as "hillbilly" or string band 
music, is popular in most small agricultural and mill villages. Songs and 
instrumental selections, both old and new, are rendered in a monotonous 
style, varying but little in harmonization. 

On the Cherokee Indian Reservation it is hard to differentiate be- 
tween what is traditional, and what is new and synthetic. Many of the 
old songs have been preserved in records, but some, unfortunately, 
have been lost. Ceremonial and medicine songs, belonging to men now 
dead, can be sung with reasonable correctness by the Indians who have 
heard their forebears sing them, but "civilized" influences with the 
younger Indians favor simple hymn melodies and popular music, not 
characteristically Indian. 

The songs of the Negro in this State, as in other Southern States, 
may be divided into two distinct groups: the work and dance songs, 
and the religious songs, or spirituals. The work song is heard often, 
for almost any group working by hand uses rhythmic singing to speed 
the task and improvises to fit the occasion. Contrary to general opinion, 
these secular songs of the Negro are more numerous and more nearly 
reflect the everyday life and thought of the people than do the spirituals. 


Howard W. Odum, of the University of North Carolina, called serious 
attention to these songs for the first time in his articles on Fol\-Songs 
and FolkjPoetry as Found in the Secular Songs of Southern Negroes, 
published in 191 1. Collections of Negro songs by Odum, Guy B. John- 
son, of the University of North Carolina, and Newman Ivey White, 
of Duke University, give prominence to ballads, blues, and work 

The Negro spiritual is a distinctive contribution to American music, 
of universal appeal for its beauty, emotional depth, and sincerity. Though 
it derives its materials from the religious songs of the white man, its 
special character is an original contribution of the Negro. Technically, 
the Negro spiritual achieves its individual quality, according to George 
Pullen Jackson, of Vanderbilt University, by modifications in pitch, 
compass, scale intervals, and rhythmic trend. Jackson agrees with John- 
son's conclusion that the spirituals "are selections from white music, 
selections influenced by the Negro's African musical heritage." Negro 
colleges and universities in North Carolina have advanced in musical 
training; their choirs are made up of trained voices and the singing 
shows a knowledge of formal music. 

The Federal Music Project of the Works Progress Administration has 
several teaching units in the State. Its symphony orchestra was merged 
with that of Virginia, and its concert tours in both States were well 

Composers who have won national reputation for symphonic treat- 
ment of local folk music are Charles Vardell, of Salem College, and 
Lamar Stringfield, who won the Pulitzer Prize with his composition 
From the Southern Mountains. Rob Roy Peery, of Salisbury, now on 
the staff of Etude, has won many prizes in music and has published 
about 150 works. 

Painting and Sculpture 

During the Colonial and early Republican periods, fine art in North 
Carolina, as in other communities without large cultural centers, con- 
sisted of portraits by visiting artists and a few works purchased outside 
the State. Paintings by such representative American artists as Benjamin 
West, Henry Inman, and John Neagle found their way into private 
collections. A number of canvases by the indefatigable portraitist of the 
last century, Thomas Sully, remain in the homes of North Carolinians. 
A collection given to the Wachovia Museum in Winston-Salem by Miss 
Irene Welfare in 1904 contains several portraits by Sully, including the 
noted and much-sought Self Portrait. In St. James Church at Wilming- 


ton is an early work of unusual historic interest — an anonymous painting 
of Christ found in 1748 on a Spanish pirate ship seized after an attack 
on the town of Brunswick. 

The Englishman William Garle Browne lived at Raleigh in the 
middle years of the 19th century and painted excellent portraits 
of many notable persons of that day. Eleven of his works are in the Hall 
of History of the North Carolina Historical Commission. 

The first North Carolina artist of national reputation was Elliott 
Daingerfield. Born at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859, he was brought 
in infancy to North Carolina, where he spent his youth. He studied at 
the Art Students' League in New York City, exhibited there at the 
National Academy, and also lectured and wrote on art. Works by 
Daingerfield, comprising oils, murals, and illustrations, chiefly of re- 
ligious subjects and landscapes, appear in well-known galleries and 
churches. He was head of the Permanent Art School at Blowing Rock, 
where he resided for 30 years until his death in 1932. 

A contemporary of Daingerfield, John Elwood Bundy, woodland 
landscapist, is represented in leading museums in the United States. 
Bundy was born in Guilford County in 1853, but left the State at an 
early age, and his career is not conspicuously identified with North 

Until recent years North Carolina had no publicly owned art mu- 
seums or galleries. Since the 1920's, however, there has been a significant 
increase of popular interest in painting, sculpture, and graphic work. 
Groups of artists and art sponsors have sprung up in many communi- 
ties, and their devoted labors have begun to produce gratifying results. 
The circulating exhibitions of the American Federation of Arts made 
paintings available to many areas where original works had rarely been 
seen before. The North Carolina State Art Society was organized in 
1923 to promote the study and appreciation of art; it possesses a growing 
collection, conducts exhibitions and lectures, and calls attention to the 
work of local artists. Other notable collections in North Carolina are 
the Flora Macdonald College collection of modern European and 
American canvases at Red Springs; the collection at Biltmore House, 
home of George W. Vanderbilt at Asheville, which contains sculptural 
decorations by Karl Bitter; and the growing collection of modern paint- 
ings in the Mint Museum of Art at Charlotte. Person Hall Gallery in 
Chapel Hill has a current program of exhibitions under the direction 
of the university art department. 

A stimulating influence has been created by the establishment of com- 
munity art centers by the Federal Art Project. The first of these spon- 
sored by the Federal Art Project in the United States was set up in 
Raleigh in 1935. It emphasized chiefly its art-teaching program and has 


since succeeded in giving instruction to all children in grade and high 
schools in the city. It has also sought to vitalize the local folk arts and 
crafts through work in handweaving and the reproduction of indigenous 
designs in textiles, copper, and clay. 

Another center, at Greensboro, was established by the Federal Art 
Project in July 1936. Its program includes art classes, exhibitions, and 
community work in the arts and crafts. An extension division for 
Negroes sponsored, financed, and staffed by the Negroes themselves, has 
already received much popular support. To bring American art closer 
to the life of the community, the center has circulated representative 
works of art produced in other sections of the country, and at the same 
time has brought to the foreground the work of North Carolina artists. 
The Greensboro Federal Art Center is housed in the permanent Com- 
munity Center made possible by a gift of $225,000 by Mrs. Lunsford 
Richardson of Greensboro, and her daughters. A permanent civic or- 
ganization known as the Greensboro Art Association has been formed 
to develop the varied activities of the center. 

The Community Art Center of Asheville conducts classes and ex- 
hibits of drawings and paintings, pottery, woodcarving, copper, pewter, 
and silver work, and fabrics. The city of Asheville furnishes a gallery 
and room for lectures, and regular exhibitions are held by the Asheville 
Art Guild and the Federal Art Project. 

Francis Speight, a leading landscapist, and Charles Baskerville, Jr., 
Donald Mattison, and Mary Tannahill are among North Carolina 
artists who have gained reputations outside the State. While few of 
these painters are associated with North Carolina in the public mind, 
a considerable number of artists who have remained at home, or who 
have come from other parts of the country to reside in North Carolina, 
are today furthering the local cultural development, and are also receiv- 
ing attention in wider art circles. Clement Strudwick of Hillsboro 
studied in New York City, has exhibited extensively in North Carolina 
as well as in Washington and New York, and is well known for his 
portraits of prominent North Carolinians. Other artists working in the 
State at present are Gene Erwin of Durham and Chapel Hill, State 
Director of the Federal Art Project (1939); Mary de Berniere Graves, 
Chapel Hill portrait painter; James A. McLean, director of the Raleigh 
Community Art Center and former director of the Southern School of 
Creative Arts; Katherine Morris of Raleigh, formerly associated with 
the Southern School and at present assistant director at the Raleigh Art 
Center; Isabel Bo wen Henderson, Raleigh portraitist, and Mabel Pugh 
and Mary Tillery, both of Raleigh. 

A number of mural decorations have been executed in North Carolina 
by native and visiting artists. At the Rockingham post office and court- 


house Edward Laning has executed, under commission of the Treasury 
Department Art Projects, a mural with the subject: the Post as a Con- 
necting Thread in Human Life; and at the Wilmington post office 
different historical and contemporary themes relating to Wilmington 
and its surroundings have been depicted in eight reliefs by Thomas Lo 
Medico, also working under the auspices of the Federal Treasury De- 
partment. James McLean has done murals for the State College, Raleigh, 
and David Silvette for the court room in the Federal building at New 
Bern; Clifford Addams has decorated the council chamber of the city 
hall at Asheville; and Ada Allen and Gene Noxon have prepared murals 
for Salem College, Winston-Salem. 

Outstanding possessions of the State in sculpture, besides the work of 
Karl Bitter mentioned above, are the memorial to the women of the 
Confederacy by Augustus Lukeman, the statue of Lawson Wyatt by 
Gutzon Borglum, the bronze statue of Washington by Houdon, the 
statue of Charles D. Mclver (a replica of which is on the campus of 
Woman's College, Greensboro) by F. Wellington Ruckstuhl, all in the 
Capitol Square at Raleigh; the busts of John A. Morehead, William A. 
Graham, and Matt W. Ransom by Ruckstuhl in the rotunda of the 
capitol; the sarcophagi of James B., Benjamin N., and Washington Duke 
by Charles Keck at Duke University; the Motherhood group and Roc/{ 
of Ages of James Novelli at Durham; the George Davis monument at 
Wilmington, and the statue of Gen. Nathanael Greene on Guilford 
battlefield by Francis Herman Packer. 

The camera studies of Bayard Wootten and Charles A. Farrell have 
been used as book illustrations and have been exhibited in leading 
American cities. These camera artists have recorded life in the State, 
and their collections include character studies, landscapes, crop cycles, 
and such picturesque subjects as fishing on the North Carolina coast. 
George Masa, who died in 1933, made notable photographs of mountain 
scenery in western North Carolina. James Dougherty, born in Ashe- 
ville, is a graphic artist and illustrator of literary works. 


Colonial handicrafts have survived in North Carolina despite the 
flood of machine-made products from the factories. Isolation, poverty, 
the influence of tradition, and some steady local markets have served to 
keep alive these native skills. In the mountain counties women have 
often continued to weave and sometimes to spin because factory prod- 
ucts were not easily available. In some families the tradition of weaving 
or making pottery products has been strong enough in itself to preserve 


the art for generations. The presence of raw materials and a local market 
have often encouraged the making of such articles as simple furniture 
and brooms. 

Weaving, although widely practiced in the mountains and occa- 
sionally in the countryside, is now largely done on new looms and 
the products are designed for sale. However, some fine old family looms 
still exist after generations of use. Such a loom, more than 160 years 
old, was still being operated (1938) by Mrs. John Seagle in her shop 
near Lincolnton. At Valle Crucis in the Finley Mast weaving cabin, 
built in 1812, are two family looms still used for weaving, and a com- 
plete man's suit of blue and white homespun, made early in the 19th 
century by Mr. Mast's great-grandmother. 

The woolen coverlet is the favorite product of the mountain looms. 
Patterns are handed down from generation to generation under the 
same names; the Saint Anne's Robe, Bony Part's March, Whig Rose, 
and many others are known to North Carolina weavers but are not 
peculiar to this State alone. Today many articles besides coverlets are 
woven from wool, silk, linen, and cotton directly for markets. Blankets, 
draperies, table covers, luncheon sets, shawls and scarves, baby robes, 
handbags, and many kinds of cloth noted for fine quality of workman- 
ship and dyes come from the modern mountain looms. 

In the making of baskets and brooms the mountaineer craftsman 
excels. A variety of baskets are made in native shapes, and in designs 
suggested by demands outside the mountains. White oak splits are the 
common material although willow, honeysuckle, hickory, the inner 
bark of pine, cornstalks, cane, rye, and wheat straw are also used. 
Usually mountain baskets are left white, but they are sometimes colored 
with native dyes of walnut, butternut, or hickory nut. 

Brooms are made from the broom corn that grows in nearly all parts 
of the mountains and must be cut at a certain stage of growth and 
cured by the broom makers. Variety in brooms comes from the methods 
of tying the corn, the different colors used in dyeing, and the type of 
handle attached. The handles are cut out with a knife and the straw is 
tied and attached by hand. No mountain home is without some of these 
brooms, and there is a wide commercial demand for the smaller types 
such as hearth and whisk brooms. 

The few simple types of mountain-made furniture, chairs, stools, and 
benches, are comfortable and durable. Made from maple, hickory, 
and oak, and sometimes walnut, the chairs have seats of hickory bark, 
white oak splits, corn husks, or reeds. They are fashioned with in- 
genuity and without the use of pegs or nails. Frames are made of green 
wood and rungs and seats of dry wood so that as the green wood dries 
it shrinks and the frames tighten their hold on the rungs and slats. 


The chair maker does his work usually under an open shed, and his 
only tools are a drawing knife, a pocket knife, and sometimes a hand 

Most of the potteries of North Carolina are in the Piedmont section, 
although there are several in the mountains. In the 18th century a 
colony of potters from Staffordshire, England, settled in the Piedmont 
at the juncture of Moore, Randolph, and Montgomery Counties. Here 
their descendants continue to fashion churns, crocks, bowls, and jugs, 
grinding the local clay by mule power and turning it on the old- 
fashioned kick wheel. Best known of the potteries of this region is 
Jugtown Pottery, near Steeds, fostered and directed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Jacques Busbee. In addition to preserving the native traditional de- 
signs, the Jugtown Pottery has produced many special forms inspired 
by old Chinese pottery. At Cole's Pottery, near Seagrove, where the 
pieces are also made by hand, some of the most beautiful glazes in the 
South have been developed. Hilton Pottery in Catawba County has also 
produced special glazes, particularly combinations of gray and blue. 
Two craftsmen of the Mountain Region who have achieved distinction 
as potters are W. B. Stephens of Pisgah Forest Pottery near Asheville, 
and the late O. L. Bachelder of the Omar Khayyam Art Pottery, near 
Candler. The Germans in Catawba, and the Moravians in Forsyth 
County have produced much good pottery, contributing the utensils 
that are so much used in rural North Carolina homes. 

The making of rugs, hooked, braided, and woven, is today providing 
the mountain woman with a new source of income. Most of the rugs 
displayed along mountain highways are hooked with a needle provided 
by the mail-order house; they are of rags bought by the pound 
and colored with cheap dyes, and follow ready-made patterns. Here 
and there the rugs displayed show the careful workmanship and 
originality of design that the schools and handicraft guilds have 

In the mountains, especially, much ingenious metal work and wood 
carving are done. Confiscated copper liquor stills are sometimes trans- 
formed into trays, teapots, and novelties. Andirons, lanterns, and book 
ends are made from iron. Native woods are used to make trays, spoons, 
brackets, and many kinds of toys. In the toy shop at Tryon, children do 
most of the designing and carving. 

The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild, organized at Penland in 
1928, has been a great stimulus to mountain handicrafts by bringing 
craftsmen together, setting high standards of workmanship, and open- 
ing new markets. The guild is composed of members of most of the 
important handicraft centers and schools in the mountain area and 
now operates successfully its own salesroom in Asheville. Among the 


schools now teaching handicrafts are the John C. Campbell Folk School, 
Brasstown; the Appalachian Mountain Center, Penland; Markle Handi- 
crafts and Community Center, Higgins; Crossnore School, Crossnore; 
Dorland Bell School, Hot Springs, and the Asheville Normal and 
Teachers College, Asheville. 


THE STORY of architecture in North Carolina is the story of 
architecture in America, with local variations to suit the place and 
the people. During the years of striving for a foothold on the land, 
the Colonial builders modified the types they had known at home to 
suit the conditions of a new country. With increasing prosperity, cul- 
tivated amateurs essayed strict imitation of English Georgian examples 
on a small scale. The consciousness of independent nationality after the 
Revolution turned the thoughts of individual architects to the styles of 
the ancient republics for architectural expression. 

Uncertainty as to the appearance of the earliest makeshift of structures 
of the 16th century at Roanoke Island is only equaled by the haze of 
doubt obscuring the 17th-century scene. However, since the inhospitable 
coast line compelled settlers to enter the region about Albemarle Sound 
by way of Virginia, their dwellings may well have resembled closely 
the structures of the Tidewater. An unnamed and undated brick house 
on Harveys Neck in Perquimans County would be quite at home along 
the lower James River, laid up as it is in Flemish bond with a pattern 
of light headers outlining the steep gable on the face of the sturdy end 

Eighteenth-century accounts seem to bear out this supposition. In 
describing domestic architecture of the Albemarle settlements about 
1731, Dr. John Brickell of Edenton wrote: "The most substantial Plant- 
ers generally use Brick and Lime, which is made of Oyster-shells . . . ; 
the meaner sort erect with Timber, the outside with Clap-Boards, the 
Roofs of both Sorts of Houses are made with Shingles, and they gen- 
erally have Sash Windows, and affect large and decent Rooms with 
good Closets. . . ." 

Whether of brick or timber, such Colonial houses doubtless followed 
the pattern of the English medieval cottage. In plan this usually con- 
tained two rooms, with perhaps a passage between; in elevation the 
single story was surmounted by a steeply pitched gable roof, sometimes 
with dormer windows, and flanked by massive chimneys at either end. 
Extant examples indicate that the gambrel roof was sometimes sub- 


stituted for the gable; in either case, shingles replaced the English 
thatch. Similar structures of one or two stories continued to be built 
within the State far down into the 19th century, as the frontier moved 
westward into the Mountain Region. A weatherboarded frame house, 
transitional between this type and the more elaborate houses of the 
subsequent Georgian Colonial style, is the Cupola House in Edenton, 
1758, which through some chance preserved the medieval European 
tradition of the overhanging second story. 

Wood was the material used first for churches as well as for dwell- 
ings; but judging from the harassed letters of the Rev. John Urmston, 
written in 171 1 to his superiors of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, London, a church in any material was a matter of supreme 
indifference to his carefree parishioners. This negligence must have 
given way to a degree of pious industry by 1734, when the tiny brick 
church of St. Thomas was erected at Bath in Beaufort Precinct. Almost 
domestic in scale, it is quite frankly a house of God, without pretense 
to tower or apse. 

The brick church of St. Paul's in Edenton, designed to replace certain 
wooden structures deplored by the Rev. Mr. Urmston, was begun in 
1736, but the interior woodwork was not finished until 1774. The 38 
years required to complete this second-oldest church now standing in 
North Carolina were fertile ones for English architecture at home and 
in the Colonies, and the changes which they brought are reflected in this 
single building. Almost as severely simple on the exterior as the St. 
Thomas Church at Bath, except for the square tower with octagonal 
spire that marks the entrance, the interior detail of St. Paul's fol- 
lows closely the decorative formulas laid down in the books of ar- 
chitectural engravings that were currently spreading abroad the fashion 
of English Renaissance elegance, known in this country as Georgian 

In the 1750's came the accelerated movement into North Carolina of 
peoples of racial stocks other than English. Several thousand Scottish 
Highlanders took up lands in the vicinity of what is now Fayetteville, 
and Presbyterian Scots from the lowlands as well as Scotch-Irish 
also arrived in great numbers. Like the Lutheran, Reformed, and Mo- 
ravian Germans and the English Quakers, the Scotch-Irish settled gen- 
erally in the foothill regions of central North Carolina. Instead of the 
large plantations of the English coastal settlements, smaller farms were 
usually cultivated by these Piedmont settlers. Racial diversity, dissimi- 
larity of religion, geographical and economic differences, and uncertain 
means of communication tended to develop contrasting customs and 
opinions in the two regions; and their buildings were at first as unlike 
as their points of view. 


Perhaps the typical Scotch house of the late 18th century was one 
described as having "one room, one door, and one window closed with 
a wooden shutter . . . built of hewn logs, the interstices stopped with 
clay, the roof covered with riven boards." Later examples of the type 
still dot the countryside, despite the fact that frame houses soon super- 
seded the original log ones. 

The Moravians, too, used logs, which they sometimes covered with 
weatherboarding after the fashion of frame houses. Such was the con- 
struction of the north end of the Moravian Brothers House in Salem, 
erected in 1768-69 to house the unmarried men and boys of the com- 
munity. The steep roof with dormer windows, the entrance hoods, and 
the unsymmetrical placing of doors and windows illustrate the persist- 
ence of medieval tradition in German examples at a time when the 
formal symmetry of the Georgian Colonial style was already well estab- 
lished in the English coastal settlements. The south end of the house, 
added in 1786, was of brick, as were all the important buildings in the 
later history of the Colony. 

Dunn's Mountain granite was sometimes used by the Germans who 
settled south of the Moravians, but log houses, such as the Matthias 
Barringer House, Catawba County, were more common in the 18th 
century. Continental tradition seems to have become less and less marked 
in the structures of the Piedmont settlers, and the last quarter of the 
century witnessed the merging of the German with the English archi- 
tectural styles. 

Notice has already been taken of a suggestion of Georgian Colonial 
formality and elegance in the Cupola House and in St. Paul's at Eden- 
ton. It is to that town, therefore, that one may best return for illustration 
of the further development of this consciously elaborate fashion which 
began to supplant the unaffected early American style in the English 
coastal settlements after about 1750. 

The Chowan County Courthouse at Edenton, built possibly by Gil- 
bert Leigh in 1767, is not unlike the typical Georgian structures in Wil- 
liamsburg, Philadelphia, or at Harvard College. Built of brick with 
white trim, it rises in two stories, differentiated by a string course, to a 
level cornice beneath the hipped roof. Two inconspicuous flues replace 
the massive end chimneys of the Colonial buildings. The entrance 
pavilion is accented with a pedimented doorway framed by orders, and 
crowned by a graceful cupola in the center of the symmetrical composi- 
tion. Features such as these represent some of the universal characteris- 
tics imparted to all Georgian Colonial buildings by individual study 
of architectural books from England. Local stylistic differences prevail- 
ing through the leaner years of the early settlements now melted away 
in the comfortable warmth of increasing economic stability, and the 




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urbane graciousness of the new vogue reflected the growing maturity of 
the Thirteen Colonies. 

Quite the most ambitious residence built in North Carolina prior 
to the War of Independence was Tryon Palace in New Bern, begun the 
same year as the Chowan County Courthouse and finished three years 
later. Governor Tryon wrote of its construction in 1767: "I have em- 
ployed Mr. Hawks, who came with me out of England to super- 
intend this work in all its branches. He goes soon to Philadelphia to 
hire able workmen, as the province affords none capable of such an 
undertaking." In 1798 the house was accidentally fired, and the main 
block together with the east wing destroyed; the remaining west wing 
has been remodeled and covered with stucco. Until the discovery in 
1939 of John Hawks' drawings for the house, an engraving made from 
them in the 1850's offered the sole visual evidence on which to judge 
the magnificence of this mansion, unique in the Province. 

When George Washington visited New Bern in 1791 he is said to 
have been entertained at the John Wright Stanly House, now the public 
library. The building has many points of comparison with his own 
residence on the Potomac, despite the absence of a long colonnade. 
That edifices on such a grand scale were scarcely typical of pre-Revolu- 
tionary towns in North Carolina is apparent from the accounts of con- 
temporary travelers. In 1787 William Attmore, a Philadelphia merchant, 
described the prosperous town of New Bern thus : ". . . about 500 or 600 
Houses . . . are built mostly of Wood . . . many . . . are large and com- 
modious, some are one story and some are two Stories high There 

are to many of the houses Balconies or Piazzas in front and sometimes 
back of the house this Method of Building is found convenient on 
account of the great Summer Heats here. . . ." 

One of the houses which this traveler may have seen is the so-called 
Louisiana House in New Bern, according to tradition built in 1776. In 
Wilmington a white weatherboarded house of similar design, which 
served as headquarters for Earl Cornwallis in April 1781, has been res- 
cued recently from possible destruction, through the efforts of the North 
Carolina Society of Colonial Dames. It was built on the site of a town 
jail which was shown on a map dated 1769, hence must have been 
erected in the 1770's. Both this and the Louisiana House in New Bern 
have gable rather than hip roofs, and their two-story porches are sup- 
ported by superimposed orders. This type was found to be so well 
adapted to the climate, and capable of so many variations in detail to 
accord with the whims of fashion, that the two-story weatherboarded 
house, with two rooms on each floor, with gable roof, and with or with- 
out porches, became fairly standardized throughout the State well into 
the 19th century. 


Of the 18th-century examples, several such town houses are still in 
daily use in coastal communities, but many of the isolated plantation 
mansions have fallen victim to fire and decay. A map of the lower Cape 
Fear River for the period from 1725 to 1760 shows the location of over 
60 such estates, many with plantation houses, in an area about 40 miles 
long by 15 miles wide along the river and its branches. The present 
house on Orton Plantation in Brunswick County gives some idea of 
the scale of the vanished buildings, even though the exterior detail of 
the 18th-century structure has been altered to conform with the ideals 
of the Greek Revival, and wings have been added since the beginning 
of the present century. 

After the break from England there arose a period of self-conscious 
nationalism in which the Thirteen Colonies came of age architecturally 
as well as politically. English influence continued but it was mingled 
with a cultural strain from France. The two infant democracies on 
either side of the Atlantic were both to seek inspiration, for govern- 
mental and architectural theory alike, in the traditions of the republics 
of Greece and Rome. Appropriately enough the individual designer 
was to attain prominence. In the United States one of the first to revive 
classic forms was Thomas Jefferson, who personally had examined 
Roman remains in France and accordingly in 1785 designed the capitol 
in Richmond on a temple plan. 

The architectural principles of the Sage of Monticello, based on French 
orderliness coupled with Roman grandeur as interpreted through the 
books of Palladio, were maintained in North Carolina when the new 
capital city of Raleigh was laid out in 1792. The plan was smaller than 
L'Enfant's scheme of 1791 for the National Capital at Washington, but 
equally monumental in concept. At the center was to be a statehouse 
in Union Square (later Capitol Square), approached from each side by 
a 99-foot avenue named for one of the assembly towns; and in each 
of the four quarters parks were to be left open. The statehouse, of 
brick, built by Rhody Atkins between 1792 and 1794, was burned in 
1831; and destroyed with it was the statue of Washington by Canova, 
which had but recently arrived from Italy. 

With a seat of government provided for, it was only fitting that build- 
ings should be erected for the education of future legislators in a democ- 
racy. The University of North Carolina had already been chartered in 
1789. Accordingly the cornerstone of Old East Building in Chapel 
Hill was laid in 1793, while the statehouse was still in process of con- 
struction. This building, erected by James Patterson between 1793 and 
1795 and enlarged by Alexander Jackson Davis in 1848, may be more 
notable for sentimental associations than for architectural distinction, 
yet it was eminently suited to its function of housing students. 


The first trustee of the university was a notable public servant, Samuel 
Johnston, of Edenton. Shortly after 1800 he built on his estate overlook- 
ing Edenton Bay the house which he called Hayes (see tour ia), after 
the seat of Sir Walter Raleigh. This mansion preserves a number of 
Georgian Colonial features that might occasion its being labeled post- 
Colonial, as for example the two outlying wings connected with the 
main house, the hip roof, and the spacious cupola; but the two-story 
colonnade on the bay side shows the influence of Jefferson's Classical 
Revival. The doorway on the town side, unlike the Georgian Colonial 
pedimented openings, is flanked by side lights and surmounted by a 
segmental fanlight. Sheltering the doorway is a graceful portico of 
slender columns with delicate iron railings wrought in elliptical de- 
signs. It is semicircular in plan after the manner of Samuel Mclntire's 
contemporary mansions in Salem, Mass. Both were derived from the 
fashionable work of the Adam brothers in 18th-century England. 

The extent of New England influence in North Carolina coastal 
architecture is undetermined as yet. Since sea trade between the two 
regions was a commonplace in the 18th century it would have been 
strange had there not been some interchange of architectural ideas. The 
Masonic Opera House in New Bern, built in 1808, exhibits forms char- 
acteristic of the work of the gifted gentleman-amateur of Boston, Charles 
Bulfinch; as, for example, the shallow elliptical surface arch in the stuc- 
coed brick wall, the corner quoins, and the prominent voussoirs over 
the flat-arched windows. Such similarities might be accounted for by 
the fact that the details for the design of this structure were perhaps 
taken from one of Asher Benjamin's volumes of architectural details. 
Such could scarcely be the case with the white weatherboarded First 
Presbyterian Church built by Uriah Sandy from 1819 to 1822. It re- 
sembles closely a New England meetinghouse with its fanlighted door, 
graceful Ionic portico, and square tower diminishing in stages to an 
octagonal cupola. 

The detail of several early 19th-century New Bern houses likewise 
is strongly reminiscent of that in the Massachusetts seaport towns, and 
suggests in its fine scale and craftsmanship the work of ships' carpen- 
ters. Typical is the brick Smallwood-Ward House, with the entrance 
at one side of the facade, and with beautifully executed wood carving 
in its slender pedimented porticoes, interior cornices, and mantels. 

It is possible that land travel also may have had some influence upon 
architecture in the State; for example, in the style of the plantation 
houses in the region close to the main stagecoach route, which ran from 
Washington through Richmond and Petersburg to Raleigh, and thence 
south to New Orleans. Such a premise might account for the slender 
detail of the early 19th-century houses in Warren and Halifax Counties, 


which are fast disappearing through fire and neglect. Two of the finest, 
of which little remain, were built by one Mr. Burgess: Montmorenci 
near Warrenton, and Prospect Hill near Airlie. The latter, erected be- 
tween 1825 and 1828 on an ashlar basement, was a two-story weather- 
boarded mansion with gable roof, end chimneys, and an unusual corner 
loggia on the garden side. Dependencies were located some distance 
from the house. The entrance doorway was framed by semicircular 
fanlights and side lights, and sheltered by a slender pedimented portico, 
and the first-floor windows on either side of the doorway were triple, 
with elaborate crowning motifs in carved woodwork. Within were a 
curved staircase, delicately carved wainscot and cornices, mantels with 
the Adam ellipse, and plaster ceiling medallions. Other contemporary 
houses in the region, such as Burnside near Williamsboro, exhibit all 
manner of combinations of channeling, reeding, and interlacing, com- 
bined with stars, ovals, urns, classic figures, and delicate festoons, all 
characteristic of the period. Cabinetmakers of German descent used 
similar forms to some extent in Rowan and Cabarrus Counties. 

Traditionally, due to trade and cultural ties, southern mansions have 
owed their detail to individual interpretations of English rather than 
American carpenters' books. Whatever the source of Mr. Burgess' in- 
spiration, it appears to have been quite different from that pervading 
the plantation houses in some other sections of the State. The Leigh 
Mansion, begun on Durants Neck near Hertford in the same year as 
Prospect Hill (1825), is one of several which retain that feature so suit- 
able to the climate, the double porch fore and aft. These Classic Revival 
examples are easily distinguishable from their Georgian Colonial prede- 
cessors by the great colonnades, running through two stories, which 
they carry in place of the small superimposed orders of the earlier time. 
Such houses have often been styled Southern Colonial, although erected 
after the Revolution and the War of 1812, but they belong rather to the 
revival of Roman forms by Thomas Jefferson. 

The logical expansion of Jefferson's theory to include the ancient 
democracy of Greece received additional impetus in this country by 
reason of the modern Greek war for independence waged in the 1820's. 
Towns such as Old Sparta in Edgecombe County were given Greek 
names, and Bracebridge Hall near Old Sparta gives visible testimony 
to the prevailing fervor of the Greek Revival. No longer is the pedi- 
mented porch carried on tall slender supports but on four sturdy Doric 
columns without bases, and characteristic Greek fretwork replaces the 
delicate detail of the preceding years. 

The destruction by fire of the original statehouse in Raleigh necessi- 
tated the erection, between 1833 and 1840, of a new and more monu- 
mental building under the successive superintendence of W. S. Drum- 


mond and Col. Thomas Bragg. The most prominent features of the 
structure, the porticoes to east and west of the cross-shaped plan, again 
reflect the spirit of the times in their strict Greek Doric order. The 
nationally known architect, Ithiel Town, then at work on the custom- 
house in New York, was called into consultation on the building. Upon 
his recommendation the commissioners engaged as superintendent of 
construction a young Scotsman, David Paton, who had assisted the 
eminent London architect, Sir John Soane, designer of the Bank of 
England. Paton made some 229 drawings of the building and its details 
before his departure for Scotland in 1840. With the exception of the 
door and window casings, the capitol is executed throughout in cream- 
colored granite. 

After Ithiel Town's death in 1844, his partner, Alexander Jackson 
Davis, was responsible for some work in Raleigh and Davidson. As 
already noted, he remodeled Old East and other buildings at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, and designed the old library, 
Smith Hall, which is now the Playmakers Theater. The strict temple 
form was adopted for this little building, but the pseudo-Corinthian 
capitals of the pedimented portico display an individual touch in the 
substitution of ears of corn and other grains for the traditional acanthus 
leaves. A similar departure from usage had been made at the National 
Capitol during the early years of the century by Benjamin Henry 
Latrobe, who is credited by some with the design for Ingleside in Lin- 
coln County. 

Latrobe's pupil, Robert Mills, of Charleston and Washington, is re- 
puted to have designed the Rowan County Courthouse in Salisbury, but 
no connection has yet been established. An equally fine example of the 
small public building in the Greek Revival style is the Orange County 
Courthouse in Hillsboro, erected in 1846 by John Berry, whose name is 
also connected with Wake Forest College. Two contemporary build- 
ings, constructed under the supervision of the United States Treasury 
Department, are of special interest: the Branch Mint at Charlotte, 
1845-46, now reconstructed on a different site as the Mint Museum; and 
the old customhouse at Wilmington, 1844-46. 

One of the most striking houses in Wilmington is the wooden Bellamy 
Mansion, designed by James F. Post and built between 1857 and 1859 
by Negro artisans. It is approached by a broad flight of steps and is 
surrounded on three sides by a tall Corinthian peristyle after the fashion 
of mansions in the deep South. Another residence on a grand scale is 
the Belo House in Salem, built in 1849. Aside from the Corinthian 
porticoes, the distinguishing features of the painted brick house are its 
ornamental balconies combining wrought and cast iron, and the cast- 
iron lion and dogs that stand guard at the entrance. This decorative use 


of metal during the first 60 years of the 19th century gained favor with 
the development of the product, until the mechanical era reduced the 
practice to vulgarity through interminable repetition. 

The Roman and Greek phases of classicism in American architecture 
were essentially a romantic return to the past, but the most obvious 
romantic trend developed around a literary interest in the medieval 
picturesqueness of Gothic forms as opposed to classic symmetry. The 
Gothic Revival involved a superficial adoption of such characteristic 
details as the pointed arch, buttresses, and castellated battlements, rather 
than the accurate interpretation of Gothic principles of construction. 
That American cabinetmakers' books, printed even before 1800, gave 
directions for finishing such detail may explain the presence of two 
pilasters, paneled with Gothic pointed arches, which were incorporated 
with otherwise classic detail in the afore -mentioned Prospect Hill, built 
in 1825-28. David Paton indulged in similar combinations for the third 
story of the capitol, 1833-40; and the Old Market House in Fayetteville, 
remodeled in 1837, also combines Gothic arches with classic detail. 

Probably the most noteworthy building in the State done wholly in 
the Gothic Revival style is Christ Church in Raleigh with its slender 
stone spire; it was erected between 1848 and 1853. Richard Upjohn, 
architect of Trinity Church in New York, based the design upon the 
principles of the English medieval parish churches that he had known 
before his emigration to America. 

During the later years of the Greek and Gothic Revivals came other 
movements, of which one new current is discernible in the church of 
St. John's-in-the-Wilderness at Flat Rock, built in 1833-36, remodeled 
in 1854. In plan and in its tower buttresses it belongs to the Gothic 
Revival, but its round-arched windows, and the wide eaves of its tower 
roof are features of the Early Renaissance in Italy. 

Perhaps the South was fortunate in that the lean years of Reconstruc- 
tion coincided with a period of dubious architectural taste, for it was in 
some measure spared the plague of ugly buildings that sprang up in 
Europe and America alike, from the 1860's through the 90's; spared, 
that is, except for the array of ponderous post offices through which a 
paternal government proclaimed its renewed stability. 

Henry Hobson Richardson, noted for his revival of Romanesque de- 
sign, probably had no immediate connection with North Carolina, but 
imitation of his use of rugged masonry, towers, and broad low arches 
is noted in a number of public buildings, such as the old post office at 
Wilmington, 1889-91, in Carr Building at the university, and in a few 

A later phase of the Gothic Revival, often called Victorian Gothic, 
also had its protagonists in North Carolina. Old Memorial Hall at the 


university, built by Samuel Sloan about 1885, embodied this movement, 
as do many heavy brick churches standing throughout the State. The 
exterior of the brick Governor's Mansion in Raleigh (1884), with its 
many gables, patterned roof, paneled chimneys, and lathe-turned 
porches, illustrates the features of the fashionable "Queen Anne" style 
of the '70's. Many lesser buildings are dated unmistakably by an 
assortment or combination of such features. Even Egyptian details ap- 
peared, as in the cornice of the old memorial arches at Guilford Battle- 
ground (one of which has been restored on the Davidson College 
campus), and Moorish details as in the Jewish synagogue in Wilming- 
ton. But most popular of all for courthouses, city halls, hotels, banks, 
theaters, and other public buildings was the ornate and showy late 
French Renaissance, with its mansard roof and baroque detail. The 
Second Empire phase appeared in somewhat restrained form in the old 
post office in Raleigh, 1874-79, an< ^ the Flemish version, with stepped 
gables and scroll ornaments, in the old city hall in Charlotte, built 
before 1895. 

The interminable revivals of misunderstood historic styles were pro- 
longed by the material expansion of the industrial era. One of the few 
voices crying aloud in this architectural wilderness was that of Richard 
Morris Hunt, the first American to be trained in architecture at the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. North Carolina has a distinguished 
example of his work in Biltmore House, erected between 1890 and 1895 
on the George W. Vanderbilt estate outside of Asheville. Biltmore House 
is a veritable French chateau of the period of Francis I; but in Hunt's 
intelligent handling of the mass of the building and of the beautifully 
executed details, there is revealed an understanding of the spirit that 
produced the original style, instead of the copybook attitude of most 
of his contemporaries. 

This understanding of the structure beneath surface ornament has 
guided the worthiest successors of Hunt who have worked in the his- 
toric styles during the present century, of whom but a few may be men- 
tioned. Rafael Guastavino, a Spaniard who developed a light acoustical 
tile much used for vaults even today, is said to have been inspired by the 
Chapel of Nuestra Sefiora de los Desamparados in Valencia when he 
created the St. Lawrence Roman Catholic Church in Asheville. The 
main altar and Chapel of Our Lady have been attributed to Stanford 
White of the famous architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White. 
Alfred Charles Bossom, a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, adapted Greek forms to modern needs in his Charlotte National 
Bank; and in the Fidelity Bank of Durham, which he designed in 
1914-15, Mr. Bossom used to good effect the characteristic forms of the 
Early Renaissance in Italy. 


Charlotte and Durham are two among the cities of the State which 
have developed systematic plans for further expansion, closely related 
to architectural practice. In 191 1, Aymar Embury II had an opportunity 
seldom afforded to city planners and architects — the creation of a new 
settlement. In the Sandhills region of the State, the lumber and fruit 
center of Aberdeen, and the resort towns of Pinehurst and Southern 
Pines, this architect is known not so much as a designer of country 
homes, on which he has written books, nor as the architectural member 
of the Triborough Bridge Authority in New York, but as a man who 
can turn his hand with equal success to inns and country clubs, office 
buildings and stores, theaters and schools. Since the section possessed no 
particular architectural tradition of its own, Mr. Embury employed in 
many of the buildings, such as that for the Mid-Pines Country Club, a 
modern derivative of the Georgian Colonial and early Classical Revival 

In Pinehurst also is the Village Chapel, designed by Hobart Upjohn, 
the grandson of the architect of old Christ Church in Raleigh, whose 
wide practice in the State has included churches, parish houses, and 
other buildings in many towns. Some of his work continues the stylistic 
traditions of the coastal region; some represents a modern rendering of 
the Gothic style. 

Similar styles have been reinterpreted by Horace Trumbauer on the 
two campuses of Duke University in Durham. The earlier of the two 
groups, completed in 1928, is the Woman's College, built on the site 
occupied by Trinity College until 1924. Its open quadrangle and rotunda 
are reminiscent of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia; but the 
individual buildings are put to different uses and bear a stronger stamp 
of the Georgian Colonial style than do those of Jefferson's "academical 
village." The later group of buildings, situated about two miles dis- 
tant from the Woman's College, includes Trinity College for under- 
graduate men, the graduate and professional schools, the hospital, and 
the dominating chapel, which was the first of the buildings to be de- 
signed (1923) and, with the exception of the graduate dormitory (1938), 
the last to be finished (1932). The Woman's College follows the archi- 
tectural traditions of the South; but the buildings of the university 
proper are designed in the traditional Tudor Gothic style of Oxford and 
Cambridge. Their fidelity to this style recalls the intellectual heritage 
of these older universities. 

The first thought of the earliest builders in North Carolina was to 
utilize known methods and the materials at hand. So it has been with 
succeeding generations. But the intervening years have brought a need 
for new and complex structures such as railroad stations, hospitals and 
prisons, libraries and social centers, hotels and office buildings, in addi- 


tion to the older and simpler needs for shelter and worship, govern- 
ment and education. The architect of today must be able to solve the 
problems involved in all these varied types of building, and he has at 
his disposal all the mechanical and decorative resources that scientific 
invention has provided in steel and its alloys, in concrete, in glass, and 
in electrical illumination, heating, cooling, and humidifying. 

When confronted with new problems and new materials, architects 
who had been designing in terms of the whole range of historic orna- 
ment attempted quite naturally to clothe their steel skeletons in the 
garments of the past. Of the many stylistic garments tried, perhaps the 
most suitable was the Gothic, which had developed as an expression of 
the desire for height. The towering Jackson Building, built in Asheville 
in 1924 by Ronald Greene, was designed in that spirit. But to many 
architects it seemed that the new materials should express, not the forms 
originated for heavy stone construction, but forms derived from their 
own especial properties: the lightness and potential height of steel and 
reinforced concrete construction; the textures and decorative possibili- 
ties of concrete, of glass, and of metal alloys; and the effective values 
of modern lighting. 

These are some of the means by which architects today are working 
toward a new style designed to utilize new materials in meeting new 
needs. Some call it Functionalism, which in its logical clarity and com- 
plete honesty it may well be. Two commercial structures in the State 
that represent worthy efforts in this direction are the R. J. Reynolds 
Building, erected in Winston-Salem in 1927 by Shreve, Lamb, and 
Harmon; and the One Eleven Corcoran Street Building in Durham, 
completed in 1937 by George Watts Carr of Durham in consultation 
with the same firm. Nevertheless, a better correlation of materials and 
human needs remains a challenging problem for the architects of the 

Part II 



Railroad Stations: Depot St. (Asheville) and Biltmore Village for Southern Ry. 

Bi:s Station: Union Bus Terminal, 99 Patton Ave., for Greyhound, Smoky Mountain 

Trailways, Queen City Coach Co., East Tennessee and Western North Carolina, Carolina 

Scenic Coach Lines, and Carolina Stages. 
Suburban Buses: Leave Pack Sq. 

City Buses: Meet at Pack Sq. and Pritchard Park, fare 6$. 
Sightseeing Buses: Operated by private concerns to Great Smoky Mountains National 

Park, Mount Pisgah, and other scenic points; inquire Chamber of Commerce. 
Airport: Asheville-Hendersonville, 11 m. S. on US 25 to Calvary Church; L. 2 m.; no 

scheduled service. 
Taxis: 25$ and up. 

Traffic Regulations: Turns prohibited at intersections indicated by signs on traffic lights. 
Accommodations: 19 hotels (2 for Negroes); boarding houses, tourist inns, and tourist 

camps; no seasonal rates. 
Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 19 O. Henry Ave.; Carolina Motor Club, 

16 S. Pack Sq. 
Radio Station: WWNC (570 kc). 
Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: City Auditorium, Haywood St. at head of Flint St. 

(under construction 1939); Lee H. Edwards Auditorium, McDowell St., occasional 

productions, concerts, etc.; 8 motion picture houses (2 for Negroes). 
Swimming: Recreation Park, 5 m. E. on Swannanoa Rd.; Aston Park, S. French Broad 

Ave. and Hilliard St.; Horney Heights Park, Haywood Rd., West Asheville; Beaver 

Lake, Merrimon Ave. 
Golf: Asheville Country Club, off Kimberly Ave., 18 holes, greens fee, $1.50; Biltmore 

Forest Country Club, 18 holes, greens fee, $2; Beaver Lake Golf Course, 18 holes, 

greens fee, $1; Municipal Golf Course, 5 m. E. on Swannanoa Rd., 18 holes, greens 

fee, 50</-; Malvern Hills Golf Course, Haywood Rd., 9 holes, greens fee, 50^. 
Tennis: Free courts, Aston Park, Montford Park, Horney Heights Park, inquire City Hall. 
Baseball: McCormick Field, Biltmore Ave. at Valley St., leased to Asheville Tourists, 

Piedmont League (Class B). 
Football: Memorial Stadium, off Biltmore Ave. near McCormick Field. 
Riding: Grove Park Riding Academy, off Macon Ave.; Biltmore Forest Riding Academy, 

Biltmore Forest. 
Shooting: Skeet and Gun Club range, Rhododendron Park, inquire Chamber of Com- 
Camping: Free camping sites in National Forests, inquire U. S. Forest Service, Arcade 

Bldg., or Chamber of Commerce. 
Hunting and Fishing: Inquire Chamber of Commerce. 

Annual Events: Land of the Sky Open Golf Tournament, late Mar. or early Apr.; Sunrise 
Service, Easter Sunday; Women's Spring Golf Tournament, 3rd week Apr.; Rhodo- 
dendron Festival, 2nd or 3rd week June; North Carolina Open Tennis Tournament, 
2nd week July; Women's Invitation Golf Tournament, 4th week July; Mountain Folk 
and Dance Festival, Aug.; Men's Invitation Golf Tournament, 2nd week Aug. and 
3rd week Aug.; Negro Fair, Sept.; Kennel Club Show, Oct.; Big Game Hunts in 
Pisgah Forest, Nov. and Dec. 

ASHEVILLE (2,216 alt., 50,193 pop.), is situated on a plateau ringed by 
ranges of the Blue Ridge. It is the economic and cultural center of 18 moun- 



tain counties in western North Carolina and combines the features of a 
tourist and health resort with those of an industrial center. 

Near the eastern entrance of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
and bordered by national forest lands, the city is in the midst of recreational 
areas containing more than a million acres. Some of the finest primeval for- 
ests in the United States are accessible by motor roads and hiking trails. 

Asheville's streets roll and twist to follow natural contours. The business 
section presents an uneven mixture of old and new buildings, with Pack 
Square in the center at the junction of the principal highways and dominated 
on the east by the civic center. The French Broad River, whose gorge pro- 
vides the only railroad outlet to the north, borders the western section known 
as West Asheville. Along the river's banks, as well as those of its tributary, 
the Swannanoa, are railroad yards and numerous industrial plants. 

The city's population, coming from all parts of the country, is cosmopoli- 
tan rather than typically southern. The finer homes are in such sections as 
Lake View Park, Grove Park, suburban Biltmore Forest, and on some of 
the older streets. On the west slope of Beaucatcher Mountain, surrounding 
the modern high school for Negro children and a few churches, are numer- 
ous houses occupied by Negroes. Hundreds of white millworkers and other 
families of the low-income group reside in the West End. The preponderant 
tone of the residential sections, however, is that of the middle-income group 
who live in new subdivisions or on the more attractive streets. 

The 14,255 Negroes in Asheville, 28.4 percent of the total population, 
maintain a business center on Eagle and Valley Streets and another on 
Southside Avenue. The better Negro homes are on the east end of College 
Street and on streets in the north central part of town. While the bulk of the 
race is employed in unskilled and domestic labor, the Negroes are represented 
in most of the professions as well as in business. They have their own 
churches and schools, including the fully accredited Stephens-Lee High 

The site of Asheville was a part of the Cherokee Indian hunting ground. 
In 1673 James Needham and Gabriel Arthur came into Cherokee territory 
to establish trade with the Indians, who, by 1700, were bartering skins for 
guns. Long before the Revolution white hunters explored what is now Bun- 
combe County. 

There were no settlements before the Revolution because the English had 
fixed the boundary of white domain at the foot of the Blue Ridge and 
guaranteed the territorial integrity of the Indians. This assurance made the 
Cherokee allies of the British during the Revolution, and inspired their raids 
upon Colonial settlements. To end Indian aggression, Gen. Griffith Ruther- 
ford led his Colonial force through the region in 1776, marching down the 
Swannanoa River as far as present Asheville, then proceeding westward to 
crush the Cherokee and destroy their villages. 

In 1792 Buncombe County was formed from Rutherford and Burke Coun- 
ties, its territory extending to the western boundary of the State. It was 
named for Col. Edward Buncombe, a Revolutionary War figure. 

The definition of "buncombe" (spelled also bunkum and contracted to 
bunk), as meaning anything said, written, or done for mere show, had its 


origin in a speech made in the Sixteenth Congress by Felix Walker, Repre- 
sentative from the district of which Buncombe County was a part. The 
address was a masterpiece of fence-sitting, and when a colleague asked the 
purpose of it, Walker replied: "I was just talking for Buncombe." 

In 1794 John Burton laid out a town tract of 21 acres for the county seat 
near the heart of the present business district and named it Morristown in 
honor of Robert Morris who helped finance the American Revolution and 
who once had large land holdings in this section. Three years later when 
the settlement was incorporated it was renamed in honor of Samuel Ashe, 
Governor of North Carolina (1795-98). 

With the construction of the Buncombe Turnpike in 1824 the region 
became more accessible from South Carolina, Georgia, and other Southern 
States. Visitors and health seekers came in increasing numbers to escape 
the summer heat of the southern coastal plains and many remained to build 
homes. A fashionable resort grew up at Sulphur Springs, west of the town, 
when Asheville was little more than a stage stop "between the two Green- 
villes" (S. C. and Tenn.). 

To the Confederate Army the county contributed seven of the ten com- 
panies composing the 60th North Carolina Regiment, including the Bun- 
combe Riflemen. Battery Park Hill took its name from an artillery unit 
stationed on that eminence. Federal troops occupied the city during the 
final months of the conflict after a minor skirmish a few miles north of 
town, and burned an armory on Valley Street. 

Tobacco became a profitable crop during the Reconstruction period and 
several warehouses were built. Falling prices led to abandonment of the 
industry until 1931, when, because of the successful cultivation of burley 
tobacco in the region, the city again became a tobacco market center. 

From 1880, with completion of the first railroad, Asheville experienced a 
slow but steady growth as industrial plants increased in number and size 
and new residents built homes. Textile mills were established and plants 
were set up for the manufacture of wood and mica products, foodstuffs, and 
other commodities. 

The coming of George Vanderbilt, New York capitalist, in 1889, and of 
E. W. Grove, St. Louis manufacturer, in 1900, and the improvement projects 
they conducted, served to attract wider attention to the city and to accelerate 
its growth. Vanderbilt founded Biltmore Village, south of the city, purchased 
130,000 acres of mountain lands, and developed Biltmore Estate with its 
great chateau. Grove established the residential section bearing his name, 
built Grove Park Inn, and cut the top off Battery Park Hill, using the mass 
of earth and stone to fill a ravine south of Patton Avenue, now the Coxe 
Street section. The first streetcar was operated in 1889; the last was replaced 
by buses in 1934. 

In the middle 1920's the Florida real estate boom spread to Asheville. 
Wild speculation and unwholesome overexpansion, both public and private, 
caused several bank failures and a distressing public debt. In 1936 a debt 
settlement, based on a long-time amortization plan, was effected with the 
creditors of the city and county. 

Among well-known writers who have made their homes in Asheville are: 


Edwin Bjorkman, author, critic, and translator; Olive Dargan (Fielding 
Burke), poet and author of Highland Annals and Call Home the Heart; 
Helen Topping Miller, novelist and short-story writer; William Sydney 
Porter (O. Henry), short-story writer; Lula Vollmer, author of Sun-Up, and 
Thomas Wolfe, author of hoo\ Homeward Angel and Of Time and the 

The Civic Music Association engages outstanding artists and groups dur- 
ing the winter. The Asheville Art Guild conducts occasional exhibits 
on the first floor of the city hall. The Negro Community Chorus of 40 
voices, and the Gospel Chorus of Mount Zion Baptist Church, 30 members, 
appear in public concerts featuring Negro spirituals. 


1. PACK SQUARE, at the intersection of Biltmore Ave., Broadway, and 
Patton Ave., named for George Willis Pack, philanthropist, a native of New 
York State, was formerly the courthouse square. The first courthouse, of logs, 
erected in 1793, was succeeded in turn by four other buildings. The fifth, a 
three-story brick structure, was torn down in 1903 after Mr. Pack had given 
land on East College Street for a new building. 

The Vance Monument, on the west side of the square, is a 75-foot hewn- 
granite obelisk erected in 1897 to honor Zebulon Baird Vance (1830-94). 
A native of Buncombe County, Zebulon Vance was in succession a member 
of Congress, Colonel of Confederate troops, twice Governor of the State, and 
at the time of his death United States Senator. It is said that he loved every 
foot of North Carolina soil from the Dismal Swamp to Cherokee, and that 
he gave $5 to every baby named for him until they became too numerous. 
The monument was financed through popular subscription aided by a gift 
from Mr. Pack. 

2. THE PACK MEMORIAL LIBRARY (open 9-6:30 Mon.-Fri., 9 - 7 Sat.), 
4 S. Pack Sq., is the outgrowth of a private library organization started in 
1879; a building was donated to the group by Mr. Pack in 1899. The asso- 
ciation in 1919 conveyed its property to the city. The three-story limestone 
structure was erected in 1925. 

3. The CITY-COUNTY PLAZA, E. of Pack Sq., is terraced and land- 
scaped with winding streets and walks. Behind it rise the city hall and the 
county courthouse. 

The CITY HALL (R), is built of brick, marble, and terra cotta in shades 
harmonizing with the natural colors of the clay soil. Designed by Douglas 
Ellington and built in 1927, the nine-story building is surmounted by a 
tower covered with varicolored tiling. A feather-motif, recalling early Indian 
history, is the prevailing feature of the decorations. The trim and wainscot 
of the entrance loggia are of Georgia pink marble; the vaulted ceiling is of 
dull gold tile, bordered in pink, black, and orange. Symbolic murals in the 
council chamber on the second floor, the work of Clifford Addams of New 
York, depict the story of the Indians and white settlers. The carillon in the 






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tower was presented to the city by the Buncombe County War Mothers as a 
memorial to the World War dead. On the seventh floor is the Sondley 
Reference Library {open 9-6 weekdays), of which 29,000 books and 
pamphlets have been catalogued (1939). It was bequeathed to the city by 
Dr. Forster Alexander Sondley (1 857-1 931), lawyer, scholar, and book col- 
lector. The oldest printed volume here is the St. Jerome's Epistles, published 
in Parma, Italy, in 1480. The earliest imprint in the fine collection of Caro- 
liniana is Harriot's Brief e and true report of the new found land of Virginia, 
published by DeBry in Germany in 1590. The library has the second printing 
of the first edition in Latin, and a reprint of the English. The notable col- 
lection of North Carolina law books includes the famous Yellow Jacket 
(named for the color of its cover), being a Collection of all the public Acts 
of the province of North Carolina, published at New Bern in 1752. In the 
Indian collection are 300 books including the Acts of the Apostles, printed 
in the Cherokee syllabary in New Echota, Ga., in 1833, and a copy of Vol. 1, 
No. 50 of the Cherokee Phoenix and Indians' Advocate (Feb. 25, 1829), a 
weekly newspaper published by E. Boudinott at New Echota. The 2,100- 
volume collection of Bibles and related works includes works in Greek, 
Burmese, Cherokee, Armenian, and English, the Breeches Bible, and a 
reprint of Coverdale's translation known as the Bug Bible. 

The BUNCOMBE COUNTY COURTHOUSE (L), 15 stories in height, 
was designed by Milburn and Heister of Washington, D. O, and built 
during the boom period (1925-27). The structure is of cream-colored brick 
with classic details of Indiana limestone and granite. The upper five stories 
serve as a county jail. 

4. The FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, SE. corner Oak and Woodfin Sts, 
is constructed of buff brick, wood, and metal with tall brick columns front- 
ing the facade. Designed by Douglas Ellington and completed in 1927, it has 
an octagonal dome of varicolored tile, surmounted with a copper lantern. 

5. The ST. LAWRENCE CHURCH {Roman Catholic), NW. corner 
Haywood and Flint Sts., completed in 1909, was designed by Rafael Guasta- 
vino, whose body rests in a crypt near the entrance of the Chapel of Our 
Lady. Guastavino, a native of Spain, won a wide reputation for originating 

Key to Asheville Map 

1. Pack Square. 2. Pack Memorial Library. 3. City-County Plaza. 4. First Baptist 
Church. 5. St. Lawrence Church. 6. McDowell House. 7. Biltmore Estate. 8. Col- 
burn Museum. 9. Lee H. Edwards High School. 10. Riverside Cemetery. 11. Grove 
Park Inn. 12. Sunset Mountain. 13. Tobacco Market. 14. Site of the Swain House. 
15. Beaucatcher Mountain. 

a. Post Office, b. Chamber of Commerce, c. Carolina Motor Club. d. Bus Station. 
e. Southern Railway Station, f. Southern Railway Station — Biltmore. g. Airport. 
h. Play Park. 1. Aston Park. k. Recreation Park. l. Horney Heights Park. m. Base- 
ball Park. n. Football Stadium, o. Asheville Country Club. p. Beaver Lake Country 
Club. q. Malvern Hills Golf Course, r. Biltmore Forest Golf Course, s. Municipal 
Golf Course, t. Skeet Club & Rhododendron Park. 


a cohesive type of self-supporting arch. He came to the United States in 
1 88 1, and to Asheville as a consulting architect on the Biltmore House. 
Finding the facilities of the Catholic church inadequate, he proposed con- 
struction of a new building to which he contributed his services and part 
of the funds. The architecture of the brick structure is of modified early 
Renaissance design. The entrance is flanked by twin towers and surmounted 
with statues of St. Lawrence, St. Stephen, and St. Aloysius Gonzaga. The 
auditorium is spanned by a large elliptical dome having a clear span of 82 
by 58 feet. The self-supporting dome is built wholly of tile, so woven that 
of its three layers no two joints coincide. The main altar and that of the 
Chapel of Our Lady were designed by Stanford White. The reredos, in 
carved walnut, was obtained from an old church in northern Spain. Sur- 
rounding the reredos are figures of the saints in polychrome terra cotta by 

6. The McDOWELL HOUSE (private), 283 Victoria Rd., the oldest house 
in Asheville, was built in 1840 by James M. Smith, the first white child 
born (1787) west of the Blue Ridge. The brick structure of post-Colonial 
architecture has 18-inch brick walls, massive end chimneys, and a two-story 
gallery porch on the front. There is a fan transom over the front door. The 
original mahogany doors and mantels are retained. 

BILTMORE VILLAGE, lying south of the Swannanoa River at the 
south end of Biltmore Avenue, now a part of the city of Asheville, was 
designed and built by George Vanderbilt as a model English-type com- 
munity of which Biltmore House was the manor. A native of Staten Island, 
N. Y., Vanderbilt in 1889 began buying land southeast of Asheville, includ- 
ing Mount Pisgah and several other forested mountains and valleys. A 
village plaza and a score or more of houses were erected, in the medieval 
half-timber type of construction. All Souls Episcopal Church became the 
cultural center of the village and Biltmore Hospital, later replaced by a 
modern structure, the health center. The village proper was sold to an 
investment company after Mr. Vanderbilt's death. The original architectural 
style has given way to modern brick stores and filling stations but many of 
the old houses, the stores on the plaza, and the church remain. 

7. The BILTMORE ESTATE (open 9:30-6 daily; adm. $2 per person), 
entrance on Lodge St. from Biltmore Village, comprises 12,000 acres of farm 
and forest lands including the landscaped grounds surrounding Biltmore 
House, the Biltmore Dairies, a reservation for wildlife propagation, and 15 
highly developed farms operated by tenants. 

In 1892 Mr. Vanderbilt appointed young Gifford Pinchot superintendent 
of the Biltmore forests, enabling him to institute the first large-scale refor- 
estation project in the United States. On the appointment of Pinchot as chief 
of the United States Division of Forestry he was succeeded in 1895 by Dr. 
Carl Alvin Schenck, forest assessor of the Grand Duchy of Hesse, whose 
work as a practical forester and as founder of the Biltmore School of For- 
estry contributed to the development of scientific forestry in this country. 


The reforestation project was later made the object of special study by the 
Appalachian Forest Experiment Station. 

In 19 1 6, Mrs. Vanderbilt sold 80,600 acres to the United States Govern- 
ment to form the nucleus of the Pisgah National Forest. Later she sold a 
tract from the estate for development into the Biltmore Forest residential 
village. The 50 acres immediately surrounding Biltmore House are laid out 
in terraces and gardens. The front approach is a grass-carpeted esplanade 
with a circular pool in the center. At the eastern end of the esplanade the 
Rampe Douce, an ornate stone structure designed in the manner of the one 
in the gardens of the chateau of Vaux le Vicomte in France, gives access 
to bridle paths that traverse the thickly wooded slopes. Beyond a hedge are 
the spring gardens containing one of the most complete collections of trees 
in the South. 

The BILTMORE HOUSE (guides on duty), designed by Richard Morris 
Hunt in the early French Renaissance style of Francis I, recalls the palatial 
chateaux at Blois and at Chambord. Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., designer 
of Central Park in New York City, was landscape architect, and Chauncey 
D. Beadle, landscape engineer. 

Completed in 1895 after five years of construction, with skilled artisans 
from this country and from Europe, the house covers an area of 4 acres with 
frontage of 780 feet. The facade rises in three distinct stories, graduating 
in height from the elaborate portal to the finial cresting on the roof. The 
severity of the mass is relieved by the characteristic French peaked roof with 
dormer windows and lofty chimney stacks. The walls are of hand-tooled 
Indiana limestone; the roof is of slate. 

The main portal opens into the front hall, 75 feet in height, with Guasta- 
vino tile ceiling. At the left of the hall a spiral stairway, modeled after that 
of the Chateau de Blois, and supported by its own arch construction, leads 
to the topmost floor. The hand-wrought bronze railing of the stair encircles 
a chandelier of wrought iron with a cluster of lights for each landing. 
Adjoining the front hall is the court of palms containing a fountain orna- 
mented with the figures of a boy and a swan by Karl Bitter, Austro- American 

The dining room walls are covered with Spanish leather above a marble 
wainscot. At one end is a Wedgwood fireplace. The banquet hall is designed 
in the Norman tradition. Over the triple fireplace that almost covers one 
end of the room is a frieze by Bitter, representing the Return from the Chase. 
Five 16th-century tapestries depicting the story of Vulcan and the loves of 
Venus and Mars, hang from the wall. They are said to have been made in 
Brussels after the original cartoons by the Bolognese painter Primaticcio. At 
the end of the hall opposite the fireplace is a great rack of Swedish copper- 
ware reaching to the ceiling. 

In the print room are engravings by McArdell, Earlom, C. Turner, 
Cousins, Ward, and Cole. On the center pillar of the entrance, an engraving, 
the Executioner, by Prince Rupert after Spagnoletto, hangs above the Virgin 
and Child by Theodore Caspara Furstenberg after Correggio. The large 
assembled engraving on the left wall shows the family tree of Maximilian 
the Great by Albrecht Diirer (1516). The six engravings on each side of 


this piece are likewise by Diirer. In this room is an inlaid chess table 
reputed to have been used by Napoleon I during his exile on St. Helena. A 
dull stain in the table drawer, tradition relates, marks the place where the 
heart of the Emperor lay hidden until it could be smuggled into France 
for burial. 

In the tapestry gallery, adjoining the print room, covering almost the 
entire 100-foot length of the walls, are three Flemish tapestries of the late 
15th century depicting Prudence, Faith, and Charity. The library is paneled 
in Circassian walnut. The ceiling painting is the work of Giovanni Battista 
Tiepolo (1696-1770), last outstanding artist of the Venetian school. The 
canvas was obtained from an Italian palace with Mr. Vanderbilt's agreement 
that the name of the original owner should never be revealed. The shelves 
contain some 25,000 volumes, among them rare works on art, architecture, 
and gardening. An upstairs corridor displays the red velvet train of Cardinal 

BILTMORE FOREST, a suburban area lying south of Biltmore Village, 
was developed from a portion of the Biltmore Estate. With its natural 
wooded setting, landscaped drives, country club, riding academy, and a few 
shops, this incorporated village, which has its own municipal facilities, is 
considered one of the most attractive in the South. 

8. The COLBURN MUSEUM (open to mineralogists by permission of 
owner), at the residence of Burnham S. Colburn, Greystone Court, Biltmore 
Forest, contains one of the finest collections of southern Appalachian minerals 
and Cherokee Indian relics in existence, including specimens of almost 
all the 300 minerals found in North Carolina. Hiddenite, the rare emerald- 
green variety of spodumene which occurs in this form only in North Caro- 
lina is displayed. Native minerals and gems are shown with similar gems of 
foreign origin. The Cherokee relics include ancient clay pots found in 
graves, stone weapons, and gorgets, carved from conch shells. 

9. The LEE H. EDWARDS HIGH SCHOOL, McDowell St., was de- 
signed by Douglas Ellington in 1927. It is constructed of granite in tones 
ranging from white through gray to pink. A tower, banded in orange brick 
and terra cotta, rises above the central rotunda. Besides the class rooms the 
structure contains an auditorium seating 1,800. 

10. In RIVERSIDE CEMETERY, entrance on Birch St., is the Grave of 
William Sydney Porter (O. Henry), short-story writer (1862-1910), whose 
second wife was Miss Sarah Lindsay Coleman of Weaverville. O. Henry 
did some of his writing while living near Weaverville, 9 miles north of 

A Monument marks the grave of 18 interned German sailors who died 
of typhoid fever during the World War in the United States hospital, 
Kenilworth. With several hundred others, they were held in an internment 
camp at Hot Springs (see tour 22a) after being taken from German mer- 
chant ships in United States harbors. The monument was erected in 1932 


by Kiffin Rockwell post of the American Legion, and other legionnaires 
throughout the State. 

Here also is the Grave of Thomas L. Clingman (1812-97), Representa- 
tive in Congress and later United States Senator, who served as brigadier 
general in the Confederate Army. After the war he measured several moun- 
tain peaks in western North Carolina and assisted in developing the mineral 
resources of the section. 

The Grave of Zebulon Baird Vance is marked by a rough block of 
granite, and nearby is the Grave of Gen. Robert B. Vance (1828-99), his 
brother. General Vance served in the Confederate Army as commander of 
the military district of western North Carolina. 

n. GROVE PARK INN, off Macon Ave., on the west slope of Sunset 
Mountain, a resort hotel built in 1912-13 for E. W. Grove, resembles a Swiss 
mountain hostelry. With a frontage of almost 500 feet, the mass of the 
building rises in a series of terraces, giving a rambling, horizontal effect. The 
walls are of native granite boulders. Massive dormer windows lend variety 
to the red-tiled roof. The lobby is notable for two fireplaces of unusual size. 
The Biltmore Industries {open g-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-12 Sal.), adjoining the 
Grove Park Inn premises, are housed in a group of buildings including work- 
shops, offices, and salesrooms. Here are produced the Biltmore homespuns 
(piecegoods), made on hand-operated looms from yarns dyed in the wool. 

12. SUNSET MOUNTAIN (toll 50$ for one-seated cars, J5<f- for two-seated 
cars), at end of Macon Ave., presents an extensive view of Asheville and 
the surrounding mountain ranges. The mountain was named because of the 
impressive sunsets that can be seen from its summit (3,100 alt.). The moun- 
tain may be reached by a hiking trail (free) starting near the end of Macon 

13. The TOBACCO MARKET (open in season). Two warehouses for the 
sale of burley tobacco are operated in Asheville: the Carolina, on Valley 
Street, and Bernards, in Biltmore. The market usually opens the second week 
in December and closes about January 15. Mountain farmers bring in their 
tobacco to be sold by auctioneers who use the rapid-fire jargon peculiar to 
the trade. In 1937-38 season sales on the local market aggregated 5,500,000 


The Elk Mountain Scenic Tour along the ridges of mountains skirting 
the city on the northeast and east affords views of mountain peaks, coves, 
and valleys from numerous vantage points. 

North from Pack Square on Broadway; R. on Merrimon Ave. to junction 
with Beaverdam Rd., 2.5 m. ; R. on Beaverdam Rd. to the junction with 
a dirt road, 5.1 m. Left on the dirt road to (14), the SITE OF THE SWAIN 
HOUSE (private), 200 yds., birthplace of two cousins, David Swain and 
Joseph Lane, who became Governors of different States. The original log 


dwelling was built in 1795 by George Swain. The present two-story struc- 
ture was built of hewn logs taken from the original house. David Lowry 
Swain, son of George and Caroline Lane Lowry Swain, who was born here 
Jan. 4, 1801, served as Governor of North Carolina (1832-35), the youngest 
man who ever occupied that position, and was president of the University 
of North Carolina from 1835 until his death in 1868. Joseph Lane was born 
in the Swain house on Dec. 4, 1801, the son of John and Elizabeth Street 
Lane. He moved to Kentucky, later to Indiana, and was brevetted major- 
general for service in the Mexican War. In 1848 he was commissioned by 
President Polk as Governor of the Territory of Oregon, was elected United 
States Senator in 1859, and Governor of the new State in 1861. In i860 he 
was candidate for Vice President with Breckinridge. 

Retrace dirt road to Beaverdam Rd. At 5.2 m. the Scenic Loop takes R. 
fork, following State 694 markers. The route ascends the mountain by a 
steep climb following a sand-clay road. 

At 9.2 m. is MOUNTAIN MEADOWS INN (open in summer), a 
rustic hotel set in mountain surroundings with a sweeping view of the 
Swannanoa Valley. 

At 12 m. is the junction (R) with the toll road to Sunset Mountain, and 
at 13.7 m. is another junction (R) with the Sunset Mountain toll road. 
The Scenic Drive turns sharply L. at this junction. 

At 14.9 m. the route turns R. to pass through an underpass at the gap 
of (15) BEAUCATCHER MOUNTAIN, 15.1 m., at the eastern edge of 
the city overlooking Asheville and the ranges to the west. According to tra- 
dition the mountain received its name because young women kept trysts 
with their beaux here. 


Birthplace of Zebulon B. Vance, 13.5 m., Craggy Rhododendron Gardens, 29 m. 
(see tour 21 a); American Enka Plant, 7 m., Spivey Mountain observation tower, 7 m., 
Lake Junaluska (Methodist summer assembly), 27 m. (see tour 21b); Mount Pisgah, 
25 m. (see tour 21 A); Montreat (Presbyterian summer assembly), 17 m., Blue Ridge 
(Y.M.C.A. summer assembly), 17 m., Ridgecrest (Baptist summer assembly), 18 m. 
(see tour 30); Mount Mitchell, 29 m- (see tour 30A); Chimney Rock and Lake Lure, 
25 m. (see tour 31c). 


Railroad Station: Nearest at Durham, N. C, 12 m. 

Bus Station: 121 N. Columbia St. for Carolina Coach Co. 

Airport: Martindale Field, 2 m. NE. on old Hillsboro Rd.; no scheduled service. 

Accommodations: 1 hotel; boarding houses. 

Information Service: Alumni Headquarters, Carolina Inn; campus Y.M.C.A.; Graham 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Playmakers Theater, campus; Forest Theater, Coun- 
try Club Rd.; 2 motion picture houses. 

Athletic Fields: Kenan Stadium (football); Emerson Field (baseball); Fetzer Field (track 
and intramural contests). 

Golf: Chapel Hill Country Club, Country Club Rd., 9 holes, greens fee, 50^. 

Annual Events: State-wide Dramatic Festival and Tournament of the Carolina Dramatic 
Association, Mar.; High School Week, Apr.; University Day, Oct. 12. 

CHAPEL HILL (501 alt., 2,699 P°P-)> seat °f the University of North Caro- 
lina, first of the Nation's State universities, is situated on a granite elevation 
250 feet above the eastern Coastal Plain near the center of the State. The 
village takes it name from the little New Hope Chapel that stood in the late 
1 8th century at the crossing of the roads from Petersburg, Va., and New 
Bern, N. C. 

The single business block is as undistinguished as the main street of any 
southern small town but on the 552-acre campus are dignified ivied buildings 
bearing the names of men and women outstanding in State and university 
affairs. Pleasant streets are shaded by lichened oaks, hickories, hollies, cedars, 
flowering fruit trees, redbud, and dogwood. Homes, old and new, are set in 
shady yards and banked with flowers and shrubs. Stone walls clad with ivy 
or rambler rose vines border university as well as private property. Fraternity 
houses, mostly Georgian, cluster about the edges of the campus among the 
village churches, the post office, and the Carolina Inn. Forested Battle Park, 
with brooks, springs, and picnic grounds, is at the east end of the campus. 
With no industries and no commercial interest other than to serve the uni- 
versity community, Chapel Hill has remained a friendly village, its sociability 
interwoven with intellectual liberalism. 

In 1776 the Halifax convention framed a constitution which provided that 
"All useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more 
universities." Sponsored by Gen. William R. Davie, "father of the univer- 
sity," a charter issued by the general assembly in 1789 stipulated that the 
university should not be "within five miles of the seat of government or of 
any place holding courts of law or equity." In 1792 the commissioners, 
"because of its healthiness," chose this hill where "the flat country spreads 



out below like the ocean," and where "an abundance of springs of the 
purest and finest water . . . burst from the side of the ridge." The first 
trustees, with Gen. William Lenoir as president, were men who had been 
or later became Governors, legislators, Senators, and State and Federal 

The village grew with the new institution. On Oct. 12, 1793, when Davie 
as grand master of Masons laid the cornerstone of Old East, the first build- 
ing, the first town lots were sold. Oct. 12 is annually celebrated as University 

On the opening day, Jan. 16, 1795, in spite of bitter weather and almost 
impassable roads, many prominent men, including Gov. Richard Dobbs 
Spaight (see new bern), assembled at Chapel Hill. The first student, 
Hinton James, who walked the 170 miles from Wilmington to Chapel Hill, 
did not arrive until Feb. 12; for two weeks he was the student body. By 
the end of the second term there were 100 students. Although the young 
institution was accused of being "aristocratical," tuition fees were low and 
living conditions primitive. The boys seldom saw a newspaper and weeks 
intervened between letters. The only way to travel the red clay roads was 
by horseback, cart, "chairs," or double sulkies. Feather beds were rented 
from the steward for $24 a year or the boys slept on hard boards; meals at 
commons were $40 for the year. Some of the boys brought body servants 
from home to forage for firewood, carry water, and sometimes cook their 

The university's original endowment consisted of old claims on sheriffs 
and other officers, and escheats, including unclaimed land warrants granted 
to Continental soldiers, collection of which was uncertain and often made 
enemies for the new school. By constant struggle and periodic appeals for 
private benefactions, the institution grew despite general poverty, opposition 
to taxation, denominational hostility, and sectional controversies between the 
east and west. The general assembly did not appropriate public funds for 
its maintenance until 1881. 

Joseph Caldwell came from Princeton in 1796 to accept the chair of 
mathematics and until he was elected the first president in 1804, the school 
was under a succession of "presiding professors." Notable in Caldwell's 
regime (1804-12, 1817-35) was tne erection in 1830 of a modest observatory, 
the first in connection with an American university, to house instruments he 
had purchased in London. Under Caldwell, the institution grew from a 
small classical school into a creditable college. He was succeeded by David 
Lowry Swain, youngest Governor of the State (1832-35), an astute poli- 
tician and practical financier who did much to popularize the university 
over the whole State and to build up its endowment before the termination 
of his long tenure (1835-68). 

The university remained open during the War between the States, although 
as each Southern State seceded its student sons summarily departed until, at 
the 1865 commencement, there were but four graduates and 10 or 12 students. 
Union troops protected college property when they occupied the village in 
April 1865. Unable to weather the storms of Reconstruction, its endow- 
ment dissipated in worthless securities, the institution was closed by a 


carpetbag administration in 1868. It was not successfully reopened until 
1875 after a heroic fight led by Cornelia Phillips Spencer and friends and 
alumni headed by Kemp Plummer Battle. Dr. Battle, president (1876-91), 
established the first summer normal session in the South (1877), and wrote 
a comprehensive two-volume history of the university. 

During the administration of Dr. Francis Preston Venable (1900-14) the 
university's finances were set in order, student athletics were encouraged, 
and creative scholarship was required of the faculty. Venable Hall, the 
chemistry building, recalls his eminence in that field. 

The brief administration of Edward Kidder Graham (1914-18) was no- 
table for the enlargement of the university's service to the State at large, 
increased resources for administrative and building purposes, and a strength- 
ening of student morale and honor standards. During his regime, Mrs. 
Robert Worth Bingham (Mary Lily Kenan Flagler) endowed the Kenan 
professorships in memory of her parents and her uncle. Under President 
Harry Woodburn Chase (1918-30), the university achieved an international 
reputation for high standards of scholarship and for freedom in research 
and teaching. In 1922 the institution was elected to membership in the 
Association of American Universities and in 1931 to its presidency. The 
administrative consolidation of the university, the woman's college at 
Greensboro, and the college of agriculture and engineering at Raleigh into 
the Greater University with Frank Porter Graham as president, was effected 
in 1932. 

In the regular session (1936-37) there were 250 faculty members and 
3,052 students, 1,077 correspondence students, and 868 in extension classes, 
with an estimated 2,000 for the summer session. The student body includes 
representatives of 36 States other than North Carolina, though most of the 
21,000 alumni live in the State. Women, who in 1938 constituted 10 per- 
cent of the enrollment, are not admitted to the general college (freshman 
and sophomore classes) except in the School of Pharmacy. 

The College of Liberal Arts has been expanded into the Schools of 
Commerce, Law, Library Science, Medicine, Pharmacy (largest in the 
South), Public Health, the College of Arts and Sciences, the Graduate School, 
the Summer School, the School of Fine Arts, and the Extension Division. 

The Institute for Research in Social Science was organized in 1924 with 
Howard W. Odum as director. It promotes social science and research. 
Numerous specialized studies on southern life have been published, with 
the attainment of a cultural inventory of the whole region as the ultimate 

The Carolina Playmakers have made a distinguished contribution to 
American folk drama, finding their sources in the life and history of the 
State. Their founder and director, Frederick H. Koch, came to the uni- 
versity in 1918. The Playmakers annually present six plays, six experimental 
productions (written and directed by students), and eight readings of con- 
temporary plays. Four volumes of original plays have been published. Koch 
also organized the Bureau of Community Drama and helped organize the 
State-wide Carolina Dramatic Association. Among "Prof" Koch's pupils 
have been Maxwell Anderson, Paul Green, Hatcher Hughes, Lula Vollmer, 


IS N0S8311Vd 


Anne Preston Bridgers, Shepherd Strudwick, Sidney Blackmer, and Thomas 

Faculty members include Archibald Henderson, mathematician, historian, 
and biographer of George Bernard Shaw; Paul Green, philosopher and 
Pulitzer prize playwright; Phillips Russell, biographer of John Paul Jones, 
Emerson, and others; Howard W. Odum, sociological writer. Judge Robert 
W. Winston, who reentered the university at the age of 60, has since written 
biographies of Andrew Johnson, Jefferson Davis, and Robert E. Lee. 

The University Press publishes annually about 30 books and issues five 
periodicals and technical journals. The press specializes in books about the 
South's social, economic, and racial problems, and experimental textbooks. 


{Unless otherwise stated, all university buildings are open during school 

1. The OLD WELL, in a little classic temple on maple-shaded Cameron 
Avenue, in the heart of the campus, is the shrine and symbol of the univer- 
sity, and center for outdoor "pep" meetings, though for years its chief 
mission was to furnish the only water available to students. 

2. SOUTH (MAIN) BUILDING, opposite the well, modeled after Prince- 
ton's Nassau Hall, is a three-story brick building with a Westover River 
Front entrance and a two-story Ionic porch at the rear. It dates to 1798 when 
its cornerstone was laid and walls for a story-and-a-half building erected. 
Students made little huts in the structure, which remained roofless until a 
lottery and President Caldwell's canvass of the State in his stick-back gig 
provided money for its completion (1814). When the university was closed 
in 1868, horses and cows were stabled on the lower floor. Remodeled (1926), 
South Building houses administrative offices. 

3. OLD EAST, flanking the well on the E., is the country's oldest standing 
State university building. Designed and built by the "mechanic," James 
Patterson, its cornerstone was laid in 1793. It is a simple well-proportioned 
three-story brick building, without architectural distinction. Originally in- 

Key to Chapel Hill Map 

1. The Old Well. 2. South (Main) Building. 3. Old East. 4. Old West. 5. The 
Davie Poplar. 6. Person Hall. 7. Hill Music Hall. 8. New West. 9. Memorial Hall. 
10. Gerrard Hall. 11. The University Library. 12. The Morehead -Patterson Bell Tower. 
13. Kenan Stadium. 14. The Playmakers Theater. 15. New East. 16. Davie Hall. 
17. The Coker Arboretum. 18. The President's House. 19. Spencer Hall. 20. The Stone 
Cottage. 21. The Widow Puckett House. 22. The Hooper House. 23. The Chapel of the 
Cross. 24. Graham Memorial. 25. The Sprunt Memorial Presbyterian Church. 26. 
Gimghoul Castle. 

a. Post Office, b. Bus Station c. Information Service, d. Emerson Field, e. Fetzer 
Field. f. Golf Course. 


tended as the south wing of a larger structure to face east along a mile-long 
avenue, Old East was two stories high and had 16 rooms, each accom- 
modating four students. Bricks were burned from clay with wood taken 
from university lands. Sea shells given by a Wilmington friend were brought 
by boat to Fayetteville and thence by wagon to Chapel Hill where they were 
converted into lime. In 1824 Old East was lengthened and made one story 
higher to conform to Old West, built in that year. In 1924 the danger of 
collapsing walls and foundations entailed remodeling the interior of Old 
East, but the work did not destroy the original lines. 

4. OLD WEST (1824), flanking the well on the W., matches Old East, and 
serves as a dormitory. 

5. The DAVIE POPLAR, N. of the well in the heart of the old campus, 
is a great ivy-covered tree named for the father of the university. Under it 
the commissioners supposedly paused to eat lunch when they were inspecting 
the site for the new university. 

6. PERSON HALL, W. of the poplar, first chapel of the university, was 
started in 1793 and finished in 1797 through the gift of Gen. Thomas Person. 
It was built in three sections, the original laid in Flemish bond with care- 
fully designed post-Colonial details. The H-shaped one-story building is, 
architecturally, one of the most notable structures in Chapel Hill. It is used 
(1939) by the School of Fine Arts. 

7. HILL MUSIC HALL, NW. of Person Hall facing the poplar, is a white 
sandstone and buff brick building originally the Carnegie Foundation Li- 
brary (1907-29). Through the gift of alumnus John Sprunt Hill and his 
wife, it was remodeled as a center for university musical activities. The 
auditorium seats 796, has a four-manual pipe organ, can accommodate a 
chorus of 125 and a 60-piece orchestra. 

8. NEW WEST, W. of Old West, was begun in 1857, as was its companion 
building, New East, to provide much-needed accommodations, when, after 
the gold rush, the enrollment increased from 170 students in 1850 to 456 
in 1858. It is a three-story building of stuccoed brick and sandstone trim, 
with a large central pavilion flanked by wings. The architecture is of Italian 
influence with well-executed detail. New East is similar in design but has 
four stories. New West houses the department of psychology and has on its 
third floor the Dialectic Society Hall {open on application to janitor). 
The "Di" and the "Phi" literary societies, organized in 1795, were long in 
charge of all student activities and expulsion from the society was tanta- 
mount to dismissal from the university. Their tradition of violent political 
disagreement arises from the fact that the Di was for western and the Phi 
for eastern students. Sectionalism still plays a part in the choice of members, 
but the organizations are largely forensic and parliamentary. They annually 
sponsor State-wide high school triangular debating contests; finals are held 
in Chapel Hill. 


9. MEMORIAL HALL, opposite New West, is a white-columned, buff- 
painted brick convocation hall. Erected in 1 931, it contains memorial tablets 
to war dead, prominent alumni, and benefactors of the university. One 
honors James Knox Polk, nth President of the United States, who was 
graduated with the first honors of his class in 1818 and "never missed a duty 
while in the institution." He attended the 1847 commencement while he was 

10. GERRARD HALL, between Memorial Hall and South Building, built 
in 1822, is a small rectangular brick structure, which served for many years 
as a chapel. It was named for a university benefactor, Maj. Charles Gerrard. 
There was formerly a classic portico on the south side intended to face an 
east-west avenue, abandoned when merchants complained that it would 
divert traffic from Franklin Street. It was used for years to accommodate 
small audiences, but in 1938 was condemned for use, awaiting restoration. 

11. The UNIVERSITY LIBRARY {open 8:15 a.m.-u p.m. weekdays; 2-6 
Sun.), at the end of the unfinished quadrangle behind South Building, 
erected in 1929, is the heart of the new campus. It is an impressive lime- 
stone structure with monumental granite steps, a Corinthian portico, and a 
low dome. The interior, conservatively decorated in the classic style, is finished 
in plaster and travertine. The 343,832 volumes constitute one of the three 
largest book collections in the South. The extension service lends some 
50,000 volumes yearly. Among important special collections are those dealing 
with North Carolina and the South, consisting of books, letters, diaries, 
plantation records, and maps. The Hanes Collection for the Study of the 
Origin of the Book includes Babylonian tablets, Egyptian papyri, 1,000 
medieval manuscripts, and 560 books printed in the 15th century. There 
are separate departmental libraries and a union catalogue showing also 
holdings of the Library of Congress, the John Crerar and Duke University 

12. Rising behind the dome of the library, facing on South Road, is the 
MOREHE AD-PATTERSON BELL TOWER, erected in 193 1, an impos- 
ing Italian Renaissance campanile in a setting of boxwoods, presented by 
John Motley Morehead and Rufus Lenoir Patterson. Names of their fami- 
lies, long associated with the university, are inscribed on the bells. Each 
afternoon at 5 o'clock the chimes ring out old hymns, university songs, and 
occasionally popular music. 

13. KENAN STADIUM, behind the bell tower, built in 1927, is approached 
by roads and paths through the woods that encircle it. This concrete amphi- 
theater nestles in a natural bowl and seats 24,000 in its permanent stands. 
The end walls of the oval are terraced in native shrubs and slope down to a 
gateway on the western end and a field house on the eastern end. The 
stadium was the gift of William Rand Kenan, Jr., in memory of his parents. 
It is used for major athletic events and commencement exercises and in 
the summer for plays, pageants, and concerts. 


14. The PLAYMAKERS THEATER, SE. of South Building, when built 
in 1849, was called the Smith Building for Gov. Benjamin Smith, first bene- 
factor of the university, who gave land warrants for 20,000 acres. It was 
designed by Alexander J. Davis at the height of the Greek Revival and has 
a portico of the Corinthian order. The column capitals are designed with 
ears of corn and other grains in place of the traditional acanthus leaves. 
This was the first library of the university (used only by faculty and visitors) 
and scene of the annual commencement balls. After a period as the law 
school it was converted into the experimental theater of the Carolina Play- 
makers who also maintain a Forest Theater for occasional outdoor produc- 
tions on Country Club Road in Battle Park. 

15. NEW EAST, opposite the Playmakers Theater, erected in 1857, houses 
the geology department. On the 1st floor is the Geological Museum {open 
9-4 Mon-Fri.; 9-1 Sat.; and on special occasions). In the collection are 
specimens of rare North Carolina gems, fossil wood from sedimentary rocks, 
and itacolumite, flexible sandstone from Stokes County. On the 4th floor is 
the Philanthropic Assembly Hall {open all hours). 

16. DAVIE HALL, E. of New East, built in 1908 and named for the uni- 
versity's founder, houses the botany and zoology departments. In the build- 
ing are many specimens of mounted plants and animals and the Herbarium 
{open 9-5 weekdays), one of the largest in the South. 

17. The COKER ARBORETUM, NW. corner Cameron Ave. and Hills- 
boro St., is a 5-acre university garden transformed from a boggy cow pasture 
by Dr. W. C. Coker. It is one of the most complete botanical gardens of its 
kind in America and contains almost every shrub or tree that grows in the 
temperate zone. A loose rock wall marks its boundaries and a wistaria 
trellis borders Cameron Avenue. 

18. The PRESIDENT'S HOUSE, SE. corner Franklin and Hillsboro Sts., 
built in 1909, is a large dwelling with colonnaded portico and porches on 
three sides, erected in President Venable's regime on the site of President 
Swain's former home. President Graham holds open house Sunday nights 
for students and faculty. 

19. SPENCER HALL, SW. corner Franklin and Hillsboro Sts., women's 
dormitory, bears the name of Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer (1825-1908), 
ardent supporter of the university after the War between the States. She 
climbed to the tower of South Building and rang out the glad tidings when 
word was received that the university would reopen. The LL.D. conferred 
upon Mrs. Spencer in 1895 was the first honorary degree bestowed upon a 
woman by the university. Among her many writings was Last Ninety Days 
of the War (1866), written at the request of Gov. Zebulon B. Vance. 

20. The STONE COTTAGE {private), NE. corner Franklin and Hills- 
boro Sts., was originally the law office of Judge William H. Battle and_ 
Samuel F. Phillips, later United States Solicitor General. Italian in style it 
is of field stone construction covered with stucco. Here in 1845 began the 
university's first professional school, that of law. 


21. The WIDOW PUCKETT HOUSE {private), 501 E. Franklin St., 
built about 1799 by John Puckett, is one of the few remaining houses with 
the narrow front porch and open-work "veranda supports" peculiar to early 
Chapel Hill dwellings. A characteristic loose rock wall borders the lawn. 
For many years this was the home of the Rev. Dr. James Phillips, mathe- 
matics professor and father of Cornelia Phillips Spencer. 

22. The HOOPER HOUSE {private), NE. corner Franklin St. and Battle 
Lane, was built in 18 14 by William Hooper, grandson of the signer of the 
Declaration of Independence of the same name, and once professor at the 
university. The original lines and proportions of the frame structure are well 
preserved. It has a gambrel roof and end chimneys which step back unat- 
tached above the second story. 

23. The CHAPEL OF THE CROSS {Episcopal), Franklin St. adjoining 
Spencer Hall, has three buildings connected by a cloister. The original 
church, built with slave labor (1842-46), is a small brick building in the 
Gothic Revival style, and contains an old slave gallery. The new church 
building and the parish house, designed by Hobart B. Upjohn in the same 
style and built in 1924-25, were the gift of the Durham industrialist, William 
A. Erwin, in memory of his grandfather, Dr. William R. Holt. The brick 
parish house forms the rear of the garth, connecting the two church buildings. 
The new buildings were constructed of pink Mount Airy granite; the 
stained-glass windows were designed by Bacon, of London. 

24. GRAHAM MEMORIAL (1932), off Franklin St. on the old campus, 
student union and major center of student activity, was a gift to the uni- 
versity from alumni and friends, including an anonymous donation of $80,000. 
The red brick building has an 8-columned portico with balustraded parapet. 
It was named in honor of Edward Kidder Graham, whose portrait hangs in 
the lounge with those of other university presidents. 

opposite Graham Memorial, is a noteworthy example of village church archi- 
tecture, designed by Hobart B. Upjohn in the Wrenn tradition. An oval 
stairway connects the parish house with the main body of the church. 

26. GIMGHOUL CASTLE, on Point (Piney) Prospect, Gimghoul Rd., is 
a turreted, native stone structure which affords a sweeping view of the 
countryside. It belongs to the Gimghouls, a junior social order. Beneath 
Dromgoole Rock at the castle entrance, according to college legend, is the 
grave of Peter Dromgoole, killed in a duel with a fellow student over his 
sweetheart and buried secretly by the terrified survivor and the seconds. 


Fossil Forest, 3 m. (see tour 10); University Lake, 3 m. (see tour //); Duke Uni- 
versity, 12 m. (see durham). 


Railroad Stations: 60 1 W. Trade St. for Southern Ry.; 401 W. 4th St. for Piedmont & 
Northern R.R.; N. Tryon at 13th St. for Seaboard Air Line R.R. 

Bus Station: Union Terminal, 410 W. Trade St., for Atlantic Greyhound, Carolina Coach, 
Queen City Coach, and Smoky Mountain Trailways; Selwyn Hotel, 132 W. Trade St., 
reservations for Pan-American Bus Line. 

Airports: Municipal Airport, 7 m. W. on US 74-29, for Eastern Air Lines; Cannon 
Airport, 2.5 m. W. on Tuckaseege Rd., sightseeing trips. 

Taxis: Cruisers 10^, baggage extra; cabs on call, four passengers 25$ within city limits. 

City Buses: Fare 7^; meet on Independence Sq. 

Traffic Regulations: No turns on Independence Sq.; 30 min. parking in downtown sec- 
tion; other regulations indicated by signs. 

Accommodations: 18 hotels (2 for Negroes); boarding houses, tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 123 W. 4th St.; Carolina Motor Club, 
437 S. Tryon St. 

Radio Stations: WBT (1080 kc), WSOC (1210 kc). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Armory Auditorium, 310 N. Cecil St., festivals, 

concerts, etc.; Charlotte Little Theater, 211 E. 9th St., occasional productions; 10 

motion picture houses (3 for Negroes). 
Swimming: Wilora Lake, 3 m. NE. on State 27; Willamette Pool, 5 m. SW. on US 29; 

Fairview Pool for Negroes, Fairview Park, Martin St. 
Golf: Carolina Golf Club, 3 m. SW. on US 74-29, 18 holes, greens fee, 75^; Sharon Golf 

Club, 3 m. SE. on State 262, 18 holes, greens fee, 75^; Hillcrest Golf Club, 1412 

Westover, 9 holes, greens fee, 40^. 
Baseball: Hayman's Field, off S. Mint St., Piedmont League (Class B). 
Football: Municipal Stadium, N. Cecil St. and Park Dr. 
Riding: Marsh-Connell Riding Academy, 1 m. S. on US 21. 

Annual Events: Golden Gloves Boxing Tournament, Jan. or Feb.; Kennel Club Show, 
Apr.; Garden Club Show, May; Food Show, usually in Sept.; County Fair, Oct.; Tex- 
tile Show, variable date in autumn; North Carolina-South Carolina High School 
Football Championship, 1st Sat. Dec. 

For further information regarding this city, see Charlotte, a Guide to the Queen 
City of North Carolina, another of the American Guide Series, sponsored 1939 
by Hornet's Nest Post No. 9, American Legion. 

CHARLOTTE (732 alt., 82,675 P°P-)> trie population of which more than 
quadrupled during the first 30 years of the 20th century, is characteristic of 
the industrial North Carolina Piedmont. Towering business buildings, great 
warehouses, and numerous factories betoken its importance as a commercial 
and manufacturing center. Near the South Carolina boundary, a score of 
miles east of the Appalachian foothills, the city reaches into fertile, cultivated 
lands from which it draws much of its life and wealth. 



Independence Square, formed by the intersection of Trade and Tryon 
Streets, is the center of the city, within six blocks of which are tall office 
buildings and the principal stores. In the shadow of the larger buildings, 
on side streets, are old structures of dull red composition stone or crumbling 
brick, giving way gradually to buildings of mirrored surfaces, expanses of 
plate glass, and chromium trim. 

A few blocks north of the square and extending to the Seaboard Air Line 
passenger station are some remnants of early Charlotte — old houses and 
spreading lawns, once the charm of the community — most of which have 
disappeared in the expansion of the business area. 

Fine old trees, landscaping and gardening characterize the residential sec- 
tions of Eastover, Myers Park, and Dilworth, east and southeast of the center 
of the city, where many of the finer homes are situated. Beyond these devel- 
opments are large estates, marking the trend of the wealthy toward the coun- 
try. The bulk of the city's population lives in middle-class homes on attrac- 
tive, tree -shaded streets and in the newer suburbs. 

Save on the southeastern edge, the city is surrounded by textile-mill villages 
where long rows of square, identical four-room houses are occupied by 
hundreds of white operatives. These suburbs, chiefly Chadwick-Hoskins on 
the west and North Charlotte, are sizable towns in themselves, having their 
own stores and branch post offices. 

Charlotte's 25,163 Negroes, 30 percent of the total population, live in 
scattered, segregated districts. Biddleville, the western suburb where Johnson 
C. Smith University is situated, contains the homes of the business and pro- 
fessional groups. Lying between South McDowell and South Brevard Streets 
is Blue Heaven, typical of the sections inhabited by the poorer Negroes. 
Although the bulk of the Negro population is employed in common labor 
and in domestic service, the race is well represented in business and in the 
professions. A religious publication firm and two insurance companies oc- 
cupy their own office buildings. 

The present Charlotte area was occupied by the Catawba Indians when 
the first permanent settlers began arriving about 1748 — Scotch-Irish and Ger- 
mans who came south through Pennsylvania and Virginia, and English, 
Huguenots, and Swiss from Charleston, S. C. Catawba and passing Cherokee 
Indians gave the settlers trouble and there were skirmishes with some hostile 
northern Indian allies of the French. In 1761 the Catawba withdrew into the 
territory that had been assigned them just inside the South Carolina Line 
and by 1763 the settlers were no longer molested by the Indians. 

The section was a part of Anson County until 1762 when Mecklenburg 
County was formed. The original conveyance of 360 acres for the town site 
was made by Henry E. McCulloch, agent for George A. Selwyn, in 1765 
for "ninety pounds, lawful money." The county seat was built around a 
log courthouse and chartered in 1768. Town and county were named for 
Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of George III. 

Fertility of the soil brought more settlers and prosperity to the region. 
In 1 77 1 a college was established. The area around Charlotte became a focal 
point of dissatisfaction with British rule under Gov. Josiah Martin because 
of the imposition of ever-increasing taxes and disallowance of the college 


charter by the English Crown due to Whig and Presbyterian influence on 
the board of trustees. Finally, news that the blood of colonists had been shed 
by the British at Lexington and Concord was climaxed by a meeting of 27 
representative men, called by Col. Thomas Polk, a military leader, county 
assemblyman, and great-uncle of President Polk. The session convened May 
19, 1775. On the following day, according to local history, the delegates 
affixed their signatures to a declaration of independence (Mecklenburg Dec- 
laration). It met with wild acclaim by the excited crowd milling about the 
courthouse. The date is inscribed upon the State flag and upon the Great 
Seal of North Carolina and is observed as a State holiday. 

Capt. James Jack was chosen to take the message to Philadelphia where 
Congress was then sitting. After a hazardous ride on horseback, partly 
through Tory country, he arrived at the Congress only to meet with refusal 
on the part of the members to consider the measure. The records containing 
the declaration were destroyed by fire in 1800. 

Because of the controversy that later arose over the authenticity of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration, Captain Jack in 18 19 issued a statement attesting 
that he rode to Philadelphia with the document. This statement, along with 
those of delegates, is believed by many to establish proof of the genuineness 
of the first declaration of independence in the Thirteen Colonies. However, 
other historians hold that there is no evidence of the May 20, 1775 meeting. 
Proof exists of a meeting in Charlotte on May 31, 1775, which adopted a 
set of resolves more moderate in tone than the so-called declaration. 

On Sept. 26, 1780, Charlotte was occupied by the British under Cornwallis, 
but not until the invader's advance had been hotly contested by the local 
militia. The Whigs harassed the British outposts and a number of skirmishes 
took place in the vicinity. At the Mclntyre Farm, angry bees helped a hand- 
ful of Whigs to disperse the British raiders. 

A week after Cornwallis learned of the defeat and death of Colonel Fer- 
guson at Kings Mountain (Oct. 7, 1780), he withdrew into South Carolina, 
asserting: "Let's get out of here; this place is a damned hornets' nest." The 
epithet is perpetuated on the city's seal, and in the names of local organi- 

Shortly before the British invasion, 13-year-old Andrew Jackson, his 
mother and two brothers moved from the Waxhaw settlement, then a part 
of Mecklenburg County where Andrew was born (1767), into South Caro- 
lina. One of the brothers, Hugh, was killed at the Battle of Stono. Andrew 
and the other brother, Robert, were taken captives. Tradition relates that 
British soldiers ordered the boys to blacken the soldiers' boots and when 
they refused, they were set upon by the British and severely wounded. Robert 
died from the effects of his wounds and Mrs. Jackson died a few days later. 
The future President carried the scars of his wounds the rest of his life. 
He lived in the Waxhaw settlement for a few years, spending part of his time 
in Charlotte. 

President Washington visited the town in 1791. James Knox Polk, nth 
President (1845-49), was horn near Charlotte in 1795. 

At the end of the 18th century Charlotte was the center of a gold rush 
and until the discovery of gold in California in 1848 this was the most 


productive region in the country. A branch of the United States Mint was 
built in Charlotte in 1836, and with the exception of the years of the War 
between the States, was operated until 1913. 

Charlotte and Mecklenburg County sent several units to the Confederate 
Army, including the Charlotte Grays, the Hornets' Nest Rifles, and officers 
of the Bethel Regiment. The last meeting of the Confederate Cabinet was 
held in the city and at the end of the war there were 1,200 soldiers in local 
hospitals. While in Charlotte, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, 
learned of Lincoln's assassination (Apr. 15, 1865). 

The abolition of slavery and the introduction of wages into the economy 
of agriculture changed the principal occupation of this and other sections 
of the Piedmont from farming to manufacturing. Development of enormous 
quantities of hydroelectric power on the Catawba River, which flows a short 
distance west of the city, aided the expansion of industry. 

Textile mills are the lifeblood of the Piedmont and in Charlotte they are 
the barometers of prosperity, though the city's 265 manufacturing plants 
produce a wide variety of other goods. Its central position and shipping facili- 
ties have made the city the most important distribution point in the Caro- 
linas. Numerous wholesalers and jobbers maintain warehouses and offices 
here and employ fleets of trucks to transport materials over an area of several 
hundred square miles. 

Charlotte is headquarters for the Duke Power Company's system in North 
and South Carolina, serving 160 communities, with 3,000 miles of high- 
tension transmission lines. 

Churches have played a prominent part in Charlotte's life. Founded by 
staunch Presbyterians at a time when the Church of England dominated the 
church and school life of the Colony, this has always been a Calvinist strong- 
hold. Not until 1771, however, were Presbyterian ministers allowed to 
perform marriage ceremonies. Virtually all denominations are now well rep- 
resented and Sunday observance has long been a contention between church 
leaders and those who would have a more "open" town. 

Since the World War there has been an increasing interest in music, lit-. 
erature, the fine arts, and the drama. A symphony orchestra of 60 members 
is supported by popular subscription. Queens-Chicora College maintains a 
student symphony orchestra. The Community Concert Association brings 
artists to the city; the Charlotte Festival Chorus of 400 singers gives outdoor 
performances of light opera and concerts sponsored by the municipality. The 
North Carolina Poetry Society has a membership of 90. The Little Theater 
group presents 12 programs each season in its own auditorium. Works of 
art, historic relics, and handicraft products are displayed in the Mint 

The faculty and student body of Johnson C. Smith University exert an 
important influence on the cultural advancement of the Negroes. The music 
department of the institution is widely known and the university quintet 
tours the continent presenting programs of spirituals. 



i. INDEPENDENCE SQUARE, at the intersection of Trade and Tryon 
Sts., is the Site of the First Courthouse, indicated by a circular iron marker 
at the center of the intersection. The courthouse, built about 1765, was a log 
structure, set upon piers 10 feet high, and had an outside stairway. The upper 
floor was used for sessions of court, church, and public meetings, while the 
lower floor served as a market house. Here the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence was read, and here militiamen and armed citizens resisted 
the advance of Lord Cornwallis and his British regulars. During their occu- 
pancy of the city the British damaged the courthouse and court was held 
at the home of Joseph Nicholson until 1782. The Site of Cornwallis' Head- 
quarters is marked by a plaque in the sidewalk at the northeast corner of 
Trade and Tryon Streets. 

2. A MONUMENT TO CAPT. JAMES JACK, 211 W. Trade St. marks 
the site of the tavern conducted by Patrick Jack, father of "The Paul Revere 
of the South." The stubby gray stone with a bronze plaque showing a rider in 
bas-relief bears the roster of the Capt. James Jack Chapter of the Children 
of the American Revolution, who subscribed for the monument. 

3. The FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, W. Trade St. between N. 
Church and Poplar Sts., rebuilt in 1894, is a stuccoed brick building of 
Norman-Gothic design. Its spire rises above old trees shading a broad yard 
in the midst of business structures. The McAden memorial window, on 
the left of the front entrance, is by Sir Edward Burne-Jones. In 1815, when 
this block was set aside for the church, the first structure served all denomina- 
tions, though Presbyterians predominated. In 1832 this group paid a small 
debt and took over the church. During Reconstruction meetings of the Ku 
Klux Klan were held in the basement, many of Charlotte's first citizens 
being members. Within two years the group came to believe that the organi- 
zation was getting out of hand and they resigned. Thereafter meetings were 
no longer held in the church. 

The Old Cemetery, lying at the rear of the church and fronting on West 
5th St., served the town as a common burying ground until about 1854 and 
was used for interments by the Presbyterians until 1870. Among the out- 
standing citizens buried here are Nathaniel Alexander, Governor of North 
Carolina (1805-7), Col. Thomas Polk, and Gen. George Graham. Many of 
the headstones are crumbling from age. One epitaph reads: "Her Breach 
in the Social Circle Will Long Be Severely Missed." 

4. The SHIPP MONUMENT, corner" S. Mint St. and W. 4 th St. at the 
rear of the post office, memorializes the military reinstatement of the South- 
ern States after the War between the States. The granite shaft is 30 feet high 
and weighs 15 tons. Lt. William Ewen Shipp, the first southerner graduated 
from West Point after the conflict, chose service with the 10th Cavalry 
(Negro), and was killed in the Battle of Santiago, Cuba, July 2, 1898. His 


body was interred at Lincolnton. Subscriptions to defray the cost of the 
monument were made by school children throughout the State. 

5. The BIRTHPLACE OF JULIA JACKSON (private), 832 W. 5th St., 
built in the 1820's, is a two-story, white frame structure of Classic Revival 
design, with a wide Ionic portico and green blinds. Here Mrs. Anna Jack- 
son, wife of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, came from Virginia to live with her 
sister, Mrs. James P. Irwin, and here the general's only daughter, Julia, was 
born Nov. 23, 1862. Two other sisters of Mrs. Jackson married men who 
became Confederate generals: D. H. Hill and Rufus Barringer. 

6. The CHARLOTTE PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays except 
Wed., 9-1), 310 N. Tryon St., is a stone building designed in the Renaissance 
manner, with a four-column central portico rising the full height of the 
building. On each side of the portico are three tall arched window openings 
with pilasters between. The hip roof has a square base at its center and is 
surmounted by a dome. The library contains the collection of Gen. Stone- 
wall Jackson, a small library of only 300 volumes, but of a diversity that 
reveals the intellectual depth of a man remembered principally for his mili- 
tary genius — and the Bessie MacLean Memorial Collection of Musical Ref- 

7. The HOME OF WILLIAM PHIFER (closed), 722 N. Tryon St., 
built in 1848-52, was the scene of the last meeting of the Confederate Cab- 
inet (Apr. 20, 1865). The session convened at what is now 122 South Tryon 
Street but adjourned to the Phifer house to consult with Secretary of the 
Treasury George A. Trenholm, who was ill and a guest in the home. The 
two-story, square, brick building with square tower and cupola was closed 
about 1915. Plans were being considered in 1939 for restoring the building. 

8. The LITTLE THEATER (open; apply to director), 211 E. 9th St., 
occupies the auditorium of the old Presbyterian College building, which was 
converted into the College Apartments. The theater section has a portico 

Key to Charlotte Map 

1. Independence Square. 2. Monument to Capt. James Jack. 3. The First Presbyterian 
Church. 4. The Shipp Monument. 5. The Birthplace of Julia Jackson. 6. The 
Charlotte Public Library. 7. The Home of William Phifer. 8. The Little Theater. 
9. The Public Buildings. 10. The Site of the Confederate Navy Yard. n. The Site of 
Liberty Hall Academy. 12. The Mint Museum. 13. The Martin L. Cannon Residence. 
14. The Queens-Chicora College for Women. 15. Dilworth Methodist Church. 16. The 
Tulip Gardens. 17. The Rudisill Gold Mine. 18. Johnson C. Smith University. 

a. Post Office, b. Chamber of Commerce, c. Carolina Motor Club. d. Southern Ry. 
Station, e. Piedmont & Northern R.R. Station, f. Seaboard Air Line R.R. Station. 
g. Union Bus Station, h. Armory Auditorium. 1. Municipal Stadium, k. Hyman's 
Field (baseball), l. Independence Park. m. Latta Park. n. Bryant Park. o. Carolina 
Golf Club. p. Sharon Golf Club. q. Hillcrest Golf Club. r. Charlotte Country Club. 
s. Myers Park Golf Club. t. Municipal Airport, u. Cannon Airport. 




with Ionic columns, and seats about 400. The theater has a membership 
of more than 900, and publishes its own magazine. The group presents six 
major productions and six workshop programs each season. 

9. The PUBLIC BUILDINGS (C. C. Hook, architect), 600-700 blocks of 
E. Trade St., erected in the early 1920's, are in a landscaped setting. The 
City Hall, of modified classic design with limestone exterior and fireproof 
construction, houses the offices of mayor, city manager, and various depart- 
ments and contains the council chamber. Three other buildings of the munici- 
pal group are of gray brick with limestone trim, standing behind the city 
hall and harmonizing in design. The County Courthouse, of neoclassic 
design, contains the county executive offices, superior and county court rooms, 
and the county jail. In the plaza at the entrance is a Monument to the 
Signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration, a granite shaft erected in 1898 
and moved from the former courthouse to the present site. 

10. The SITE OF THE CONFEDERATE NAVY YARD is indicated by 
a marker on the wall of the railway underpass near 226 E. Trade St. In 
May 1862 it was decided to move the center of naval ordnance from Norfolk, 
Va., to Charlotte, which had the advantage of safety from invasion from the 
sea yet rail connection with the port of Wilmington. 

11. The SITE OF LIBERTY HALL ACADEMY is commemorated by a 
marker at the SE. corner of 3rd and S. Tryon Sts., now occupied by a filling 
station. Until the early 1920's the county courthouse stood on the site. In 
December 1770 Governor Tryon suggested to the assembly that a school for 
higher learning was needed in the back country. Within a month a bill was 
enacted providing for the establishment of Queen's College in Charlotte. 
Controversy over land titles and the Regulator movement hampered progress. 
In June 1773 Governor Martin issued a proclamation to the effect that the 
King had disallowed the charter. A local historian states that "the King 
objected to the number of dissenting ministers among the trustees," and 
complained that "a College under such auspices was well calculated to ensure 
the growth of a numerous democracy." 

The school continued in spite of fruitless efforts to obtain a charter under 
the name of Queen's Museum. The meetings that led to the drafting of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration were held in the building. Diplomas were issued 
under the name of Queen's Museum in 1776, but soon after, for patriotic 
reasons, the name was changed to Liberty Hall Academy, and thus it was 
incorporated in 1777. When Cornwallis occupied the town in 1780 he 
burned the building. 

12. The MINT MUSEUM (open 10-5 Tues.-Sat.; 3-5 Sun.), corner Hamp- 
stead Place and Eastover Rd., now an art gallery, was reconstructed from 
materials of the original branch of the United States Mint, being an almost 
exact reproduction. The original building was designed by William Strick- 
land (1787-1854) of Philadelphia, who was architect for the United States 
Customhouse, the Masonic Temple, and the Merchants Exchange in Phila- 


delphia. Designed in the Federal style, the two-story structure is T-shaped 
in plan, the stem of the letter forming a long well-proportioned gallery on 
the main floor. The cross arm is formed by the foyer with rooms to the 
right and left of the entrance. The interior has vaulted ceilings and walls of 
local stone. 

The long facade of the central section is broken by a severe pedimented 
portico approached by a flight of steps. Beneath the sloping eaves of the 
pediment a golden American eagle is perched with outspread wings. Stuart 
Warren Cramer, Sr., assayer of the mint (1889-93), wr °te: "This eagle was 
a landmark in Charlotte when I first came here and a pet of Charlotte people, 
as well it might be, for it was perhaps the largest eagle in the world, 
being 14 feet from tip to tip, and five feet high. When I had to re- 
decorate it, it took over 165 books of gold leaf and 10 books of silver leaf 
to cover it." 

The assay office, established as a coinage mint in 1835, began operations 
two years later. It served the gold-producing districts of the southern Ap- 
palachian region, at that time the only gold-yielding territory in the country. 
The new building was occupied in 1845. During the War between the States 
it served as Confederate headquarters and hospital. Closed in 1913, the 
structure was razed in 1933 and rebuilt on the present site the following 
year. In the galleries are exhibited historic relics, ceramics, native and foreign 
handicrafts. The works of art include a canvas, Madonna and Child, by 
Francesco Granacci, from the Samuel H. Kress collection. 

13. The MARTIN L. CANNON RESIDENCE {grounds open by permis- 
sion), 400 Hermitage Rd., is the former home of James B. Duke, tobacco 
and power magnate {see Durham). The original house, erected by Z. V. 
Taylor about 19 15, was purchased in 1920 by Mr. Duke who enlarged and 
remodeled it. The landscaped 10-acre estate, from early spring to fall, blooms 
with flaming azalea, pink and white dogwood, and other plants and shrubs. 

14. QUEENS-CHICORA COLLEGE (Women) {buildings open during 
school hours), between Queens Road and Radcliffe Ave., has seven buildings 
of dark red brick trimmed with white stone, on a large wooded campus. 
Its small sorority houses are of the bungalow type. This institution was 
founded in 1857 as the Charlotte Female Academy, and first occupied a 
building on North College Street. Continuing under various names until 
closed in 1890, it was reopened in 1895 as the Presbyterian College for 
Women. In 1912 the name was changed to Queen's College, in honor of the 
Colonial institution, and the college was moved to its present site. In 1930 
it was consolidated with Chicora College of Columbia, S. C, and the present 
name was taken. Operated by the Presbyteries of Mecklenburg, Kings Moun- 
tain, and Greenville in the Synods of North Carolina and South Carolina, 
the college has an enrollment of about 350 and is a member of the Southern 
Association of Grade A Colleges. 

15. DILWORTH METHODIST CHURCH, 603 E. Boulevard, a lime- 
stone structure of English Gothic design with lofty twin towers, was erected 


in 1922 with funds raised by private subscription and augmented by a con- 
tribution of the Duke Foundation. 

16. The TULIP GARDENS {open during blooming season in March), at 
the residence of J. B. Ivey, 1628 E. Morehead St., contain about 20,000 plants 
in numerous varieties that bloom usually the last two weeks of March. 
Plantings of tulips border the walks and driveway. Each variety is marked 
for the information of visitors. 

17. The RUDISILL GOLD MINE {closed), corner Gold and Mint Sts., pro- 
duced from 40 to 60 tons of ore per day averaging about $12 a ton until the 
company suspended work in 1938 on account of the low gold content. Hav- 
ing operated from 1826 until the California rush, the mine lay inactive until 
1934 when operations were resumed. 

18. JOHNSON C. SMITH UNIVERSITY (Negro) {buildings open dur- 
ing school hours), entrance on Beatties Ford Rd., between Martin and 
Mill Sts., occupies an 85-acre wooded campus with 22 buildings most of 
which are of Greek Revival design. Degrees are conferred in liberal arts, 
science, and theological courses. A premedical course is under supervision 
of a branch of the American Medical Association. Students from other col- 
leges make use of the well-equipped laboratories. The senior division of the 
College of Liberal Arts is coeducational. The library has an extensive musical 
collection, including facsimiles of the original manuscripts of Stephen Collins 
Foster. Although controlled by the Presbyterian Church of the U.S.A., the 
university is nonsectarian. Student enrollment is about 350. 

The first land acquired was by gift of Col. William R. Myers, a former 
slave owner, who saw the need of educational facilities for the Negro race. 
When founded in 1867 the school was known as Biddle Memorial Institute. 
In recognition of a substantial endowment made by the widow of Johnson C. 
Smith of Pittsburgh, Pa., the present name was adopted in 1923. James B. 
Duke made a large contribution to the institution in 1925. 


Sugaw Creek Crossroads (Revolutionary battle), 3 m. {see tour 12); Birthplace of 
James K. Polk, 12 m. {see tour 16); St. Joseph's Church, 15 m., Rhyne Homestead, 
16 m. {see tour 19A); Mclntyre Farm (Battle of the Bees), 6.5 m., Capps Hill Gold 
Mine, 6 m., Old Hopewell Church, 10 m., Birthplace of Andrew Jackson, 26 m. {see 
tour 31b); Steel Creek Church, 9 m., Belmont Abbey and schools, 14 m. {see tour 
Sic); Wallis Rock House, 5 m. {see tour 32). 


Railroad Station: Union Station, Peabody St. for Southern Ry., Seaboard Air Line R.R., 
Norfolk Southern R.R., Norfolk & Western R.R., Durham & Southern R.R. 

Bus Station: Mangum, Chapel Hill, and Riggsbee Sts. for Atlantic Greyhound, Carolina 
Coach, Virginia Stage Line, and Queen City Bus. 

Taxis: 25^-45^, 1-5 passengers. 

City Buses: io(\ 4 tokens for 25^; meet at Five Points. 

Accommodations: 8 hotels (2 for Negroes) ; boarding houses, tourist camps. Duke Uni- 
versity cafeteria open to public. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Washington Duke Hotel, 207 N. Corcoran 
St., Market St. entrance; Carolina Motor Club, 206 E. Chapel Hill St. 

Radio Station: WDNC (1500 kc). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Carolina Theater, corner Roney and Morgan Sts., 
opera, legitimate plays; Page Auditorium, Duke campus, concerts, lectures; Little 
Theater, 1st floor City Hall, 120-24 Morris St., lectures, musicales, amateur productions; 
Erwin Auditorium, corner W. Peabody St. and Erwin Rd., W. Durham, plays, con- 
certs; 6 motion picture houses (1 for Negroes). 

Swimming: Duke Park, end of N. Mangum St., US 501; Forest Hills Clubhouse, 1639 
University Dr.; Crystal Lake Park, 6 m. NW. on Guess Rd. 

Golf: Hope Valley Country Club, 4 m. SW. on Chapel Hill Rd. (US 15-501), 18 holes, 
greens fee, fi weekdays, $1.50 Sat. and Sun.; Hillandale Golf Club, 2 m. NW. on 
US 70, 18 holes, greens fee, 50^ women, $1 men. 

Tennis: Forest Hills Park, Duke Park, Hope Valley Club, Duke University courts. 

Hunting and Fishing: Inquire Chamber of Commerce. 

Baseball: El Toro Park (municipally owned), N. end Morris St., Piedmont League 
(Class B). 

Football: Duke Stadium. 

Riding: Fisher Riding Academy, 2 m. W. on S. Erwin Rd.; Hope Valley Riding Club, 
6 m. SW. on Hope Valley Rd. 

Polo: 1 m. N. on US 501. 

Annual Events: Kennel Club Show, Apr.; Flower Show, May; Carillon Recitals by Anton 
Brees, Thursdays at dusk and Sundays, 4:30 p.m., June-Sept.; Horse Show, Sept.; 
County Fair, 3rd wk. Sept.; Dahlia Show, Oct. 

DURHAM (405 alt., 52,037 pop.), is a modern industrial city in the eastern 
Piedmont. The universal demand for tobacco, coupled with the business 
genius of the Duke family, is exemplified in long rows of red-faced factories 
where thousands toil daily, filling whole trains with their products. Here was 
created the fortune that endowed Duke University. 

Three streets converge at Five Points, center of the business district, which 
in the 1860's was a country crossroads. A few skyscrapers along the principal 
streets tower above crowded rows of lesser buildings. The great tobacco fac- 
tories lie close to the heart of the business district and the railroad tracks that 
serve them cross up-town streets. 

Many of the finer homes are in the southwest part of the city along Chapel 



Hill Road and beyond in the Hope Valley subdivision. Commonplace dwell- 
ings throughout the town house the families of mill and factory workers. 
In South Durham is a section known as Hayti, where 12,000 Negroes live and 
operate their own business firms. 

The two campuses of Duke University lie to the northwest and west of 
the city's center. Throughout the town are parks and playgrounds for both 

Often the air is permeated by the pungent scent of tobacco from the stem- 
meries, and the sweetish odor of tonka bean used in cigarette manufacture. 
From 9 to 5 o'clock Durham's streets reflect the activity of its business houses 
and professional offices. Then the hoarse bellow of the bull whistle at the 
American Tobacco factory reverberates over the town, joined by the shriek- 
ing blasts of the Liggett and Myers whistle. The iron gates of the factory 
yards are flung wide and an army of workers pours forth — men and women, 
white and colored. Buses and trucks, heavily laden, rumble along the thor- 
oughfares. For an hour or two the streets are alive with the hurry and noise 
of a big city. Then the bustle subsides and relative calm is resumed. 

The region around Durham was occupied by the Occoneechee, Eno, Schoc- 
coree, and Adshusheer Indians, who had migrated elsewhere before 1750 
when the first white settlers, of English and Scotch-Irish extraction, secured 
land grants from the Earl of Granville. The section was then a part of Orange 
County, and by 1777 contained only a few hundred inhabitants. 

Durham is new by North Carolina reckoning, dating from the 1850's 
when a settlement known as Prattsburg contained wheat and corn mills serv- 
ing the farmers. Construction of the North Carolina Railroad in 1852-56 
gave some impetus to growth. William Pratt, a large landowner, refused to 
give a right-of-way or land for a station. Dr. Bartlett Durham offered 4 acres 
about 2 miles west of Prattsburg and the station was named for him. The 
railroad detoured around Prattsburg and the Pratt property. 

The town of Durham was incorporated in 1867, and when Durham County 
was created from Orange and Wake in 1881, it was made the seat. In 1865 
there were fewer than 100 people in Durham, but by 1880 the number had 
increased to 2,041. In the spring of 1865 Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrendered 
to Gen. William T. Sherman at the Bennett House near Durham. 

The rise of the tobacconists marked the beginning of the town's industrial 
life. As early as 1858 Robert F. Morris was manufacturing tobacco. Sher- 
man's soldiers liked the product of this factory, which in 1865 was being 
operated by John R. Green, originator of the Bull Durham blend; later 
William T. Blackwell joined the business. 

Meanwhile Washington Duke, mustered out of the Confederate Army in 
1865, walked 137* miles to his old farm near Durham to start life over again. 
He began grinding tobacco, which he packed, labeled Pro Bono Publico, and 
sold to soldiers and others. This venture proved so successful that soon he was 
joined by his three sons, Brodie, Benjamin N., and James B. (Buck); by 
1874 a ^ f° ur were established in Durham as manufacturers of smoking to- 
bacco. To escape the sharp competition in this field, "Buck" Duke decided 
to start making cigarettes, which by 1880 had become important. A few 
years later the installation of cigarette machines increased daily production 


from 2,500 to 100,000 and made large-scale exportation to Europe pos- 

After a period of sharp competition, during which Blackwell and others 
were gradually absorbed, the Duke organizing genius formed (1890) the 
American Tobacco Company, embracing practically the entire tobacco indus- 
try in the United States, with James B. Duke as its guiding spirit. The adver- 
tising campaign inaugurated about that time was unusually comprehensive. 
Billboards, signs, and even cliffs displayed the giant figure of the Bull of 
Durham. When Anne Thackeray called upon Lord Tennyson "she found 
the poet laureate peacefully smoking Bull Durham." 

In 191 1 the American Tobacco Company was dissolved into smaller units 
as a result of a decree by the United States Supreme Court, but by that time 
the Duke fortune was firmly founded and Durham was established as the 
world's tobacco capital. The city manufactures about one-fourth of all the 
cigarettes produced in this country and nine warehouses conduct sales of 
leaf tobacco. In addition to this domestic supply, several million pounds of 
foreign-grown tobaccos are imported annually. 

James B. Duke did with tobacco what Rockefeller did with oil and Car- 
negie with steel. Through bartering at crossroads he became adept at trade. 
Unwilling to spend much time in school, he did not consider college training 
essential to success. After amassing a fortune, however, he provided the 
means for establishing a great university. In the latter part of his life he 
engaged in the development of water power in the Piedmont and Mountain 
sections of North and South Carolina. The Southern Power System (the 
Duke Power Company and its subsidiaries) was the result. 

In December 1924 the Duke Endowment of $40,000,000 for numerous 
benefactions, including aid for hospitals but particularly for Duke University, 
was announced. Mr. Duke died the following October and by the provisions 
of his will the endowment was increased to nearly $80,000,000. This benefac- 
tion is the largest emanating from the South and the largest yet made for 
the exclusive benefit of the region. 

The other large industries of Durham are cotton-textile and hosiery mills. 
In all some 87 manufacturing establishments employ 13,000 persons. The 
city is an important medical center. 

Notable in Durham is the status of the Negro population. The Negroes 
have a college and operate business firms, including banks, a large insur- 
ance company, schools, newspapers, a library, and a hospital. In 1887 Negroes 
owned but two lots in the city and 1,366 acres in the county. In 1935 their 
city holdings alone amounted to more than $4,000,000, and their business 
assets aggregated $7,000,000. Negro industry has expanded since 1865 from 
a single blacksmith shop owned by Lewis Pratt, a former slave. Gen. Julian 
S. Carr lent the Negro John Merrick money to start his business career, first 
as a barber then as a real estate investor. Washington Duke gave the print- 
ing press used in publishing the first Negro newspaper. White bankers 
helped organize the first Negro bank. 

The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company has grown from 
a small beginning in 1898 into the largest Negro insurance company in the 
world, operating in eight States and employing 1,067 persons. Oldest among 


the 23 churches for Negroes in the city are St. Joseph's African Methodist 
Episcopal, and the White Rock Baptist. 


1. The DURHAM HOSIERY PLANT {open by permission), 115 S. Cor- 
coran St., manufactures full-fashioned and seamless silk hosiery and cotton 
socks. A branch mill on Walker Street spins cotton yarn. In 1925 the plant 
was the largest producer of hosiery in the country — 300,000 pairs per day. 
About 1,000 persons are normally employed. 

2. TRINITY M.E. CHURCH (1922), W. corner Church and Liberty Sts., 
was designed in the neo-Gothic style by Ralph Adams Cram. It is built of 
rough local stone with semicircular steps and stained-glass windows. 

3. The DURHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY {open 10-6 Mon,Fri., g-g Sat.), 
311 E. Main St., erected in 1921, contains about 27,000 volumes and a col- 
lection of foreign dolls. It was first opened at Five Points in 1898. 

North Sts., is one of four churches in the United States built exclusively for 
deaf-mutes. Services are in the sign language. 

5. THE LIGGETT AND MYERS PLANT {open 8-11, 1-4 Mon.-FrL; 
guides), W. Main between Cigarette and Fuller Sts., produces Chesterfield, 
Picayune, and other cigarettes, as well as smoking tobaccos. Acres of brick 
buildings, mostly three stories in height, contain the mass of machinery that 
processes the tobacco from redrying the "hands" to the packed products. 
After aging in storage for two or three years the tobacco is carefully blended 
and placed in the hoppers of cigarette machines where it is encircled by 
cigarette paper, and issues as a continuous cylinder to be cut into proper 
lengths. Each machine turns out 1,200 cigarettes a minute. After inspection 
the cigarettes are transferred to another machine for packaging and then 
to another for incasing in cellophane covers. Finally cases filled with cartons 
are loaded into freight cars from conveyor belts. 

6. The ERWIN COTTON MILLS {not open to public), between 9th and 
14th Sts., Mulberry St. to Hillsboro Rd., manufacture wide sheeting, sheets, 
and pillow cases. Denims are made at the company mills in Erwin; outing 
flannels, suitings, coverts, and ticking in the mill at Cooleemee. The three 
local mills employ 1,800 workers, most of whom occupy company-owned 
houses around the mills. The Erwin Auditorium (1922) contains a library, 
reading room, and game room. Since 1892, when the Erwin chain of mills 
began making muslin tobacco bags, it has become the second largest con- 
cern in the State manufacturing cotton goods. 

7. The DUKE MEMORIAL M.E. CHURCH (1914), 500 Chapel Hill St., 
of cream-colored pressed brick with limestone trim, is designed in a modified 

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English Gothic style. Chimes in the tower were given by Mrs. J. Edward 
Stagg, granddaughter of Washington Duke, as a memorial to her husband. 
They are played each day at noon. 

8. In old MAPLEWOOD CEMETERY, both sides of Chapel Hill St., S. of 
Duke University Rd., is the mausoleum of the Duke family, an austere 
building shadowed by overhanging trees; and the grave of Gen. Julian S. 
Carr (1845-1924), who made a fortune in the tobacco business, contributed 
to Trinity and other colleges, helped equip and maintain two Durham 
companies in the Spanish-American War, and was prominent in the affairs 
of the Methodist Church, the Democratic party, and the Confederate 

weekdays; guides), SW. corner Pettigrew and Blackwell Sts., manufactures 
Bull Durham smoking tobacco, Lucky Strike, and some 35 other brands of 
cigarettes and smoking tobaccos. It employs about 2,500 persons. Although 
this is the smallest unit for production of Lucky Strikes, the plant manu- 
factures about 5,000,000 of these cigarettes an hour. The entire process from 
the "toasting" to the packed product is handled by machinery. 

apply at office), 2002 E. Pettigrew St., is a continuation of the community's 
first textile mill, established in 1884. Various kinds of colored cotton cloth 
are manufactured by a force normally numbering 400. 

11. The PUBLIC LIBRARY FOR NEGROES (open 10-8 Mon.-Fri., 9 -6 
Sat.), 501 S. Fayetteville St., was established by Dr. A. M. Moore in 1913. 
From a small Sunday school library in the White Rock Baptist Church it 
has grown to 7,000 volumes. 

tional), 191 1 S. Fayetteville St., is housed in eight buildings on a 50-acre 

Key to Durham Map 

1. The Durham Hosiery Plant. 2. Trinity M. E. Church. 3. The Durham Public 
Library. 4. The Ephphatha Episcopal Church. 5. The Liggett and Myers Plant. 6. The 
Erwin Cotton Mills. 7. The Duke Memorial M.E. Church. 8. Maplewood Cemetery. 
9. The American Tobacco Company Plant. 10. The Durham Cotton Manufacturing 
Plant. 11. The Public Library for Negroes. 12. The North Carolina College for 
Negroes. 13. The Tobacco Warehouses. 


14. East Campus. 15. West Campus. 

a. Post Office, b. Union Station, c. Bus Terminal, d. Chamber of Commerce. 
e. Carolina Motor Club. f. Five Points, g. El Toro Baseball Park. h. Hope Valley 
Country Club. 1. Hillandale Golf Course, k. Duke Park. l. Forest Hills Club House. 
m. Crystal Lake Park. 




campus. The school was begun in 191 as a training school for ministers, 
through the efforts of the Rev. James E. Shepherd, who raised funds by sub- 
scriptions. The emphasis on religious training was dropped in 191 6 and 
the name was changed to National Training School. Ownership was trans- 
ferred to the State in 1923. A faculty of 22 teaches a student body of about 
280. The institution is a member of the Association of Colleges for Negro 
Youth and of the Association of American Colleges. It confers A.B., B.S., 
and B.S.C. degrees. The college mixed chorus of 50 members gives con- 
certs and broadcasts. The college plant includes an administration building, 
a gymnasium, dining hall, two dormitories for men, a dormitory for women, 
laboratories, and a library with more than 12,000 volumes. 

13. The TOBACCO WAREHOUSES {open during season), Morgan St., 
N. of Main St., in the center of the bright-leaf belt, sold a total of 35,446,826 
pounds of tobacco in 1935-36. The season opens about the middle of Septem- 
ber and closes the first of March. Buyers representing the large manufac- 
turers and independents purchase tobacco at daily auctions. 

{Buildings open during school hours unless otherwise indicated.) 

Duke University has two separate campuses covering more than 5,000 
acres: the East, or Woman's Campus, and the West, or University Campus. 
The two are connected by a 1.5-mile drive bordered by the homes of faculty 

Springing from Union Institute, a community school founded by Meth- 
odists and Quakers in Randolph County in 1838, the university has an 
unbroken history. Brantley York was the first director. Under Braxton 
Craven, Union Institute expanded (1852) into a teacher-training school. 
Seven years later the name was changed to Trinity College and the institu- 
tion became Methodist sectarian. Under Dr. John Franklin Crowell, the col- 
lege was moved to Durham in September 1892, where it was established on 
the present East Campus. The administration of Bishop John C. Kilgo (1894- 
19 10) was notable for strong denominational emphasis and a courageous 
defense of academic freedom. 

Rapid expansion followed increased benevolences by the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, and by private contributions. In 1924 the Duke Endow- 
ment Fund was established by James B. Duke and the name was changed 
in his honor. Since then the university has been nonsectarian except in the 
School of Religion. 

Including the Woman's College, the university occupies 55 buildings and 
has a faculty and administrative staff of more than 500. Enrollment gen- 
erally exceeds 3,400, and for the summer term averages 2,000, more than 
half of them graduate students. 

The professional Schools of Law, Religion, and Medicine overshadow all 
other features of the institution. Emphasis on religion was one of the inten- 
tions of the founder. The Medical School, adjoining Duke Hospital, is the 


only school granting the M.D. degree in North Carolina; it has excellent 
equipment for the work, and its faculty members are active in research. A 
germicidal ray is used for sterilizing the air of operating rooms. 

Among the authors who are or have been connected with the university 
are: John Spencer Bassett, William K. Boyd, Charles Abram Ell wood, Hope 
Summerell Chamberlain, Edwin C. Mims, and William McDougall. The 
Duke University Press publishes books of educational significance and nine 
scientific and literary periodicals. 

The university maintains a symphony orchestra and glee clubs for men 
and women. The Duke University Choir has 150 members. The Artist 
Series brings famous musicians to the city. 

14. EAST CAMPUS (WOMAN'S COLLEGE), W. Main between Bu- 
chanan and Broad Sts., 120 acres in area, has a quadrangle of buildings 
designed in the Federal style, with a domed auditorium forming the focal 
point. The rotunda of the auditorium is flanked by a library and a student 
union. The older buildings were utilized by Trinity College; eleven were 
added 1925-27. Trees and rolling lawns surrounded by a wall of local stone 
provide an attractive setting. 

15. On the WEST CAMPUS are Trinity College, undergraduate school 
for men; the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Schools of Religion, 
Law, Medicine, Nursing, and the Duke Forest. The buildings, designed by 
Horace Trumbauer, were erected (1923-32) of stone from the university's 
quarries near Hillsboro. The Law School, the Chemistry Building, and the 
Nurses' Home are designed in the Collegiate Gothic style, based upon the 
Tudor Gothic and Elizabethan traditions of the early Renaissance in Eng- 
land. The campus is penetrated by walks and drives winding about rock 
gardens and terraces, while rolling wooded hills form a background. 

a. The campanile of DUKE UNIVERSITY CHAPEL rises above the 
buildings of the entire unit. The tower, 38 feet square at the base, rises to a 
height of 210 feet, and is similar in composition to the Bell Harry Tower 
of Canterbury Cathedral. The cruciform chapel seats 2,000. The stained- 
glass windows are designed in the medieval manner but the decorative com- 
positions are the original work of G. Owen Bonawit. The choir of Amiens 
was the source of inspiration for the woodwork. In the tower is a carillon 
of 50 bells, the gift of George A. Allen and William R. Perkins, chairman 
and vice-chairman, respectively, of the Duke Endowment. Recitals are 
given by Anton Brees, Belgian carilloneur for the university and for the 
Bok Singing Tower in Florida. 

b. The DUKE MEMORIAL CHAPEL, adjoining the western transept of 
the main chapel, contains three sarcophagi wherein lie the bodies of Wash- 
ington Duke, and his sons, James B. and Benjamin N. Duke. These are 
carved with life-size reclining figures, the work of Charles Keck of Phila- 
delphia, who also executed the bronze statue of James B. Duke, which 
stands, cigar in hand, in a plot before the main chapel. The design of the 


grisaille windows is based upon that of the windows of Norbury, Derbyshire, 
England. Subscriptions from all parts of the United States paid for the 
memorial chapel. 

c. The GENERAL LIBRARY {open 9-10:30 weekdays, 2-6, y-10 Sun.), 
stands between the Schools of Law and Religion. It houses departmental 
libraries in religion, chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. The uni- 
versity's library facilities provide 421,517 volumes, 2,154 periodicals, and files 
of 76 newspapers. The Peacock Collection is Caroliniana. In the Treas- 
ure Room, 2nd floor, are out-of-print early editions and documents. Por- 
traits of men prominent in the growth of the university hang in the reference 

d. The UNION has rooms for visitors and two dining halls. In Hall A are 
corbels on which are carved the shields of 14 colleges of the University of 
Cambridge. Sixteen college shields of the University of Oxford are on the 
corbels of Hall B. 

e. The GRAY BUILDING has a Fossil Collection on the 3rd floor {open 
8:30 0.171.-12:30 p.m. M on. -Sat.), one of the most complete in the South. 

/. DUKE HOSPITAL, a $4,000,000 plant, opened in July 1930, maintains 
a public dispensary of 14 clinics (open 12:30 daily). The hospital contains 
406 beds and 50 bassinets. Besides the usual departments of surgery, gen- 
eral medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, and gynecology, there are subsidiary 
divisions including pathology, medical instruction, radiology, and social 
service. Braces and special shoes for orthopedic patients are made in a shop 
in the building. The hospital employs more than 500 aides, including 100 
staff members and 100 workers engaged solely in research. 

g. The MEDICAL SCHOOL LIBRARY {open 8:30 a.m.-n p.m. Mon, 
Fri., 8:30 a.m.-io p.m. Sat., 9 a.m.-io p.m. Sun.) contains 13,941 volumes. 
On its paneled walls hangs a collection of Chatham prints. 

h. DUKE STADIUM, seating 40,000 in its permanent stands, is of horse- 
shoe shape built in a natural hillside amphitheater. 

i. In the SARAH DUKE IRIS GARDEN are 50,000 iris of more than 500 
varieties; 100,000 daffodils of almost 300 varieties; 20,000 tulips of nearly 
100 varieties; 500 Japanese cherry trees, and thousands of other plants, 
shrubs, and trees. 

Key to Duke University Campus 

a. Duke University Chapel, b. Duke Memorial Chapel, c. The General Library, 
d. The Union, e. The Gray Building, f. Duke Hospital, g. The Medical School 
Library, h. Duke Stadium, i. The Sarah Duke Iris Garden, j. The Herbarium. 


/'. Behind the University Chapel is the HERBARIUM, covering 300 acres, 
a project of the forestry department. 


Duke Homestead, 6 m., Fairntosh Plantation, 10 m., O'Kelly Grave, 10 m., Quail 
Roost Farm, 14 m. (see tour 10); Bennett Memorial, site of the Johnston surrender to 
Sherman, 6 m., Hillsboro, Colonial borough town, 12 m. (see tour 25); University of 
North Carolina, 12 m. (see chapel hill). 

E D E N T O N 

Railroad Station: E. Queen St. for Norfolk Southern R.R. 

Bus Station: E. King and Broad Sts. for Carolina Coach Co. and Norfolk Southern Bus 

Accommodations: 2 hotels; boarding houses. 

Information Service: Carolina Motor Club, 116 E. King St.; Edenton-Chowan Chamber 
of Commerce, Municipal Building, E. King St. 

Motion Picture Houses: 1. 

EDENTON (16 alt., 3,653 pop.), seat of Chowan County and one of the 
three oldest communities in the State, is a placid town on a peninsula formed 
by Pembroke and Queen Anne's Creeks near the western extremity of Albe- 
marle Sound. Here lived men who helped shape the Colony's destiny and 
made the town a political, commercial, and social center. Its citizens played 
prominent parts in defying the British Crown, assisting the Revolutionary 
forces, and launching the new State. 

The business section occupies a few tidy blocks along and adjacent to Broad 
Street, which bisects the town in its course to the bay front. Once distin- 
guished by a double row of great elms and a public well, the thoroughfare 
has been modernized to provide parking space. Old wharves, with fish houses 
and packing plants, oil-storage tanks and lumber mills, edge the bay. Inter- 
secting Broad Street are mulberry- and elm-shaded King, Queen, Eden, 
Church, Gale, Albemarle, and Carteret Streets, named long before the Re- 
public was established. Along the sound are old plantation estates that have 
always been a part of the community's life. The Negroes, 33 percent of the 
total population, live on the sprawling northeast and northwest fringes of 
the town, and are largely employed in lumber, veneer, peanut, and fishing 

In 1622 John Pory, secretary of the Virginia Colony, explored the rich 
bottom lands to the Chowan River and by 1658 settlers had come down from 
Jamestown. In 1710 the Edenton settlement was a borough of some impor- 
tance, virtual capital of the Colony, and the Governor's residence. The Indians 
called it the Town in Matecomak Creek and it was also known as the port of 
Roanoke. The assembly in 1715 passed an act "... to build a Courthouse and 
House to hold the Assembly in ... in the forks of Queen Anne's Creek." The 
forks were known as Queen Anne's Towne until 1722 when the place was in- 
corporated as Edenton in honor of Governor Charles Eden, who had just 
died, having, according to the inscription on his tombstone, administered the 
affairs of the Province for eight years "to ye great satisfaction of ye Lords 
Proprietors and ye ease and happiness of ye people." In time the town was 


outstripped by contemporaries and the seat of government moved to a "more 
sentrical" location. 

Two early shipyards did a thriving business and "against the delicate hori- 
zon stretched a fairy lattice, the masts and riggings of ships . . . deep sea 
ships, full-rigged ships, men-o'-war, merchantmen, sneaking coasters, rum 
boats, whalers." Hewes' shipyard was off the point where Pembroke Creek 
empties into Edenton Bay. A severe storm in 1936 revealed for a short time 
large bulkheads and ways put together with wooden pegs, indicating that 
ships of considerable size had been built there. As early as 1769 seine 
fishing was employed; great catches were salted and shipped over a wide 

Matching the patriotism of Edenton matrons who held the first feminine 
Revolutionary tea party, the men dispatched to beleaguered Boston a ship- 
load of corn, flour, and pork. Edenton's merchant prince, Joseph Hewes, one 
of North Carolina's three signers of the Declaration of Independence, placed 
his vessels at General Washington's disposal and Dr. Hugh Williamson, at 
his own expense, provided cargoes of army supplies. Williamson, who was 
surgeon general of the North Carolina militia (1780-82) and a signer of the 
Federal Constitution (1787), began his political career as a member of the 
general assembly from the borough of Edenton in 1782. From 1790 to 1793 
he served in Congress, and in 1812 published a two-volume history of the 
State. Samuel Johnston, whose home still stands, was outstanding in the 
assembly and in both Provincial and Continental Congresses, Governor 
(1787-89), and first United States Senator from North Carolina. Gen. Ed- 
ward Vail, Col. Thomas Benbury, and Col. James Blount were among 
those who organized troops to aid Washington. 

In 1 78 1, when Jeremiah Mixson, 80-year-old town crier, brought the news 
that a British force was coming from Suffolk to burn the town, the terrified 
population evacuated by boat, skiff, and barge to Windsor on the Cashie 
River. They returned to their undamaged homes a week later when the 
British were recalled to join Cornwallis. 

Edenton sent several units to fight in the southern cause, among them 
the Edenton Bell Battery organized in 1861-62 by Capt. William Badham. 
Artillery was scarce and, in response to Beauregard's request, virtually all 
the bells in town were cast into cannon. Federal troops occupied town and 
vicinity from February 1862 until the end of the war. Off Sandy Point in 
the sound near Edenton the ironclad Albemarle engaged a Federal fleet, 
May 5, 1864. 

From the earliest days Edenton's principal occupation has been the shad 
and herring fisheries. Cotton, corn, soybeans, tobacco, early and late truck, 
cantaloupes, and watermelons are shipped out by boat, train, and truck. 
However, the most important crop produced from the fine loamy soil of 
the region is Jumbo peanuts; the town is the largest peanut market in the 
State and the second largest in the world. There are storage warehouses and 
two processing plants, shipping annually a half-million 85-pound bags. The 
town's 23,000-spindle textile mills make it the cotton-yarn center of north- 
eastern North Carolina. Nearby waters afford good angling for bass and 
perch, as well as facilities for boating and bathing. 



1. ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, NW. corner Broad and Church Sts., erected 
1736-60, is the second oldest church standing in North Carolina. Its slim 
steeple and ivy-covered brick walls are partly hidden by great elms, mag- 
nolias, and crapemyrtles. Its graveyard forms a charming park. The Vestry 
of Chowan Parish, afterwards St. Paul's, was organized in 1701. It was the 
first religious body in the State and the first corporation. Parish records, 
dating from 1701, preserve much of the recorded history of the day. 

The original wooden building erected in 170 1-2 on what is now Hayes 
Plantation (see tour id) was the first church in North Carolina. In 171 1 the 
Rev. John Urmston wrote that "The Vestry met at an Ordinary where rum 
was the chief of their business," that the church had "neither floor nor 
seats," and that, as the key was lost and the door open, "all the Hoggs and 
Cattle flee thither for shade in the Summer and Warmth in the Winter." 
Ground was cleared for the present brick structure in March 1736 and the 
vestry expended "for 250 bu. of shells £J& 7s. 6d." and "in part of bricks 
^100." In 1740 the assembly provided a tax levy upon every tithable person 
in the county for the church's completion and ordered that it be used for 
vestry meetings as soon as "fit for Divine Worship," under penalty of fine if 
it then met elsewhere. "Ye roof was righted" by 1745, but the first Divine 
Worship was not held until Apr. 10, 1760. The interior woodwork was not 
finished until 1774. 

The exterior, although simple in design, is marked by a semicircular apse, 
enlarged in 1828, and a square three-story tower with an octagonal spire. 
The main entrance is in the base of the tower. The side doors are paneled 
and framed with brick quoins. The plan of the building suggests a medieval 
parish church measuring 40 by 60 feet, although in detail it follows the 
Georgian Colonial mode. The interior is divided into nave and aisles by 
rows of wooden columns supporting a sectional vaulted ceiling of ornamental 
plaster. The high box pews, free since 1868, have doors; aisle galleries and 
certain pews in the body of the church were once set aside "for the use of 
our people of color." The church was lighted only with candles until 1869 
when oil lamps were added. 

The Rev. Daniel Earle, D.D., served the parish from 1757 until his death 
in 1790, though not allowed to hold services during the Revolution because 
he combined fiery Revolutionary activities with adherence to the Church of 
England. He was also a planter and pioneer in the fishing industry. Before 
the church windows were glazed in 1771, the rector arrived one morning to 
find a verse attached to the church door: 

A half-built church, 
A broken-down steeple, 
A herring-catching parson, 
And a damn set of people. 

Parson Earle presided over a mass meeting on Aug. 22, 1774, to protest 
against the Boston Port Act, declaring that "the cause of Boston is the cause 
of us all." Yet it was not until June 19, 1776, that his vestry signed the Test, 


an ecclesiastical declaration of independence, averring that "the people of 
this Province singly and collectively are bound by the Acts and Resolutions 
of the Continental and Provincial Congresses." 

The Rev. Charles Pettigrew, first bishop-elect of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in North Carolina, served as rector of St. Paul's for a time in 1775 
and in 1791, after Parson Earle's death. 

The silver chalice and paten used every Holy Communion day bear the 
maker's mark, crude capitals AK in a rectangle. There is mystery connected 
with the silver's maker and donor. In 1703 Gov. Francis Nicholson of Vir- 
ginia gave ;Tio to the church, whereupon the vestry ordered, according to 
the minutes, "that the ten pounds in pieces of eight wt. 17 p.w.t. shall be 
sent to Boston to purchase a chalice for the use of the church with this 
Motto Ex Dono Francis Nicholson Esq. her Majesty's Lieutenant Govr. of 
her Majesty's Colony and Dominion of Virginia." In July of 1714 Col. 
Edward Moseley, a prominent early vestryman, wrote to inform Governor 
Nicholson that his laudable design had been executed, though not without 
difficulty, and that he had lodged the ^10 "in Mr. Pere Dummer's hands of 
Boston towards procuring church plate." Jeremiah Dummer was a Boston 
silversmith (1645-1718) who produced some of the finest ecclesiastical and 
convivial pieces of the period, but the identity of the mysterious AK is un- 
determined. When the actual presentation of the silver was made to the 
parish in 1727, it was inscribed, not with the name of the donor, but as 
"The Gift of Collonell Edward Mosely for ye use of ye church in Edenton 
in ye year 1725." The church's pewter service, a chalice and paten (c. 1700), 
was the gift of Queen Anne. 

In ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD are buried the proprietary Governors 
Henderson Walker, Thomas Pollock, and Charles Eden, other persons 
prominent in Colonial times, and several Revolutionary patriots. The tomb- 
stone of Mrs. Ann Booth Pollock Clark Cox carries an account of the Revo- 
lutionary activities of her grandfather, Col. Edward Buncombe. 

occupied by the Penelope Barker Hotel. Mistress Barker was the leading 
spirit in the Edenton Tea Party. Tradition relates that she horsewhipped a 
British officer whom she discovered trying to make off with her horses. 

3. The JOSEPH HEWES HOUSE {private), 105 W. King St., was built 
in 1750-60 by Maj. Nathaniel Allen, a Revolutionary figure; his uncle, Joseph 

Key to Edenton Map 

1. St. Paul's Church. 2. The Site of the Penelope Barker Home. 3. The Joseph Hewes 
House. 4. Beverly Hall. 5. The Cupola House. 6. The Site of Hewes Store. 7. The 
Site of Horniblow's Tavern. 8. The Chowan Courthouse. 9. Edenton Green. 10. The 
Revolutionary Cannon. 11. The Site of the Edenton Tea Party. 12. The Site of 
Edenton Academy. 13. The Iredell House. 14. Peanut Processing Plants. 

a. Railroad Station, b. Union Bus Station, c. Carolina Motor Club. d. Federal Building 
and Post Office, e. Mackey's Ferry. 


Hewes, once made his home here with Major Allen. Here was born the 
latter's son, William Allen (1803-79), who settled in Ohio and became Con- 
gressman, Senator (1837-49), an d Governor of that State (1874-76). The 
framework of the original house is intact, a two-story clapboarded structure 
on a foundation of coral rock brought in as ship's ballast. The two-story ell 
with upper and lower porches was added in 1825. The small Doric entrance 
portico at the King Street entrance is a restoration (1934) of the original 

4. BEVERLY HALL {private; grounds and gardens always open), 114 W. 
King St., stands in a setting of magnolias, cape jessamine, Japanese cherries, 
weeping willows, and many plants and shrubs indigenous to the region. It 
is a Georgian Colonial structure of white-painted brick with green shutters. 
Shallow steps lead to the main porch on the east elevation, which has slim 
Doric columns and a delicate second-floor latticed rail. The central columns 
extend to the hip roof forming a two-story portico over the entrance. The 
doorway is ornamented with fanlights and side lights. The west elevation 
also has a portico. The four great chimneys are enclosed. 

This house was built in 1810 for use as a State bank with living quarters 
for two officers and their families. The vault, of solid brick walls 2 feet thick, 
rises 12 feet above the foundation to the banking floor. Steel bars cover 
bottom, sides, and domed roof of the vault. The 2-pound key is a curiosity. 
After the bank ceased operations (1835) the house was converted into a 
residence. For a time during the War between the States it was headquarters 
for Federal Maj. Edward Terwilliger. 

5. The CUPOLA HOUSE {open 3-5 daily; y-g p.m. Mon. and Fri.; adm. 
25<f), 408 S. Broad St., is the oldest standing house in Edenton. Inscribed on 
the front gable finial in raised letters is "F.C.-1758," indicating the year it 
was built by Francis Corbin, the notorious land agent of Lord Granville. This 
two-story early Georgian Colonial frame house with native pine clapboards 
was originally painted white, with green shutters and trim. A 12-inch 
framed overhang across the second-story front, reminiscent of 17th-century 
structures, has corbeled brackets. Three great buttressed end chimneys rise 
clear of the house from the eave line. The small entrance portico has a 
vaulted, plastered ceiling. The fenestration is symmetrical, with solid shutters 
fastened with large-headed bolts and slotted sticks securing first-floor win- 
dows and louvered shutters at the others. 

The house takes its name from its octagonal cupola, or "lantern," used 
for sighting incoming ships and illuminated on the King's birthday, public 
holidays, and other festive occasions. A Chippendale stair leads to the attic 
whence a circular stair winds around an octagonal mahogany newel post 
to the cupola. 

Most of the rooms have the original hand-carved paneling, chair rails, 
mantels, and over-mantels. The woodwork from one room was sold to the 
Brooklyn Museum of Art, where it was reconstructed as part of the repro- 
duction of the first floor of the Cupola House as it appeared in Corbin's day. 
This sale was made before acquisition of the property by the Cupola House 


The drawing room on the first floor contains the Shepard-Pruden 
Memorial Library, with a small collection of early Caroliniana. In an up- 
stairs room is the Edenton Museum of relics and documents, including an 
original treaty with the Tuscarora Indians (1712) written on parchment. 
Other items are the tea set used at the Edenton Tea Party, a portrait of 
Mistress Penelope Barker, and a large iron fireback bearing the likeness of 
George II and the royal arms in bas-relief. 

6. The SITE OF HEWES STORE, NE. corner Broad and E. King Sts., is 
marked by a tablet in the south wall of a brick building. Hewes shipped 
provisions for Valley Forge up the Chowan River to South Quay in Nanse- 
mond County, Va., whence they were relayed by wagon to the Continental 

7. The SITE OF HORNIBLOW'S TAVERN, E. King St. at head of 
Colonial Ave., is occupied by the Hotel Joseph Hewes. This is one of the 
five tavern sites in America continuously occupied as such since Colonial 
days. Mrs. Horniblow was required to post bond as a guarantee that the 
house would not "on the Sabbath day suffer any person to tipple or drink 
more than is necessary." In James Boyd's Drums, the tavern is called Horn- 
blower's, although it was first known (1729) as the King's Arms. A point on 
the sound near Edenton is called Hornblower's Point. 

8. The CHOWAN COURTHOUSE, E. King St. at the head of the green, 
was built in 1767, supposedly by Gilbert Leigh who resided in Edenton at 
the time. It replaced the first courthouse erected in 1719. This is one of 
the finest surviving examples of Georgian Colonial public-building architec- 
ture. It is constructed of warm red brick with white trim. A horizontal belt 
course marks the second-floor line, white lintels accent the heads of the 
windows, and a level cornice ornamented with modillions forms a continuous 
line beneath the hip roof. The central pavilion, projecting slighdy from the 
facade, has a classic pediment, and a pedimented, pilastered doorway fronted 
by sandstone steps worn 3 inches deep. Two slender flues rise near the 
center of the building on either side of the square clock tower whose domed 
octagonal cupola is surmounted by a patriarchal cross. The "spring floor" 
on the second story was both assembly and ballroom, modeled after such 
rooms at Bath and Tunbridge Wells in England. It is one of the largest 
solidly paneled rooms of the Colonial period, hand-carved, with painted 
panels of native white pine 1/4 inches thick, 33 inches wide, and 48 inches 

On the second floor, in the master's station of the Unanimity Masonic 
Lodge Room {open upon application at Chowan Herald office), is the 
Washington Chair. Elaborately carved and embellished with Masonic sym- 
bols, it was used by George Washington when he was master of the Alex- 
andria, Va., lodge. Upon threatened British invasion, Alexandria lodge was 
suspended and the chair given into the keeping of Capt. G. B. Russell, who 
eventually found safety in Edenton Bay. In 1778, the Alexandria lodge 
being still dormant, the captain presented the chair to the Edenton lodge. 


Old courthouse records reveal that complaints of bewitchment were com- 
mon in Colonial times. In one case Martha Richardson was charged with 
"not having ye fear of God before her Eyes, but being led by ye Instigation 
of ye Devil" into bewitching sundry of Her Majesty's subjects. The accusa- 
tion against another defendant was that she did "Devilishly and Maliciously 
bewitch and by assistance of the Devil afflict with Moral paynes of the body 
of Deborah Bounthier whereby the sd. Deborah departed this life." The 
husband of the alleged witch in this case insisted that the plaintiff "bring ye 
same to proof" else he would "much bruse" the body of the plaintiff. How- 
ever, most records of these cases close with the notation: "Wee of ye Jury 
find no Bill." 

9. EDENTON GREEN, lying between King St., Colonial Ave., Water, 
and Court Sts., is without owner or record of title but is maintained by the 
town. It was once called the "Publick Parade" and equipped with stocks, 
rack, and pillory. The grassy lawn with flower beds, fountain, and casual 
walkways, shaded by arching oaks, slopes gently down to the bay. 

The Confederate Monument, N. edge of the green, is the granite figure 
of a Confederate soldier atop a slim shaft. 

The Hewes Monument, S. edge of the green, is the only marker erected 
by Congressional appropriation to a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. The granite shaft, designed by Rogers and Poor, was dedicated in 
1932. Joseph Hewes (1730-79) was a vestryman of St. Paul's, delegate from 
North Carolina to the Continental Congress, and as chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Marine of that body was virtually first Secretary of the Navy. 
John Paul Jones wrote to his patron, Hewes: ". . . to your friendship I owe 
my present enjoyments, as well as my future prospects. You more than any 
other person have labored to place the instruments of success in my hands." 
Hewes' presentation of North Carolina's Halifax Resolves to the Continental 
Congress on May 27, 1776, was the first utterance for independence in that 
body. He died while attending the Congress, and is buried in Christ Church- 
yard, Philadelphia. 

10. The REVOLUTIONARY CANNON, mounted on the sea wall at the 
foot of the green, are 3 of a shipment of 45 purchased in France for the 
Continental Army by Thomas Benbury and Thomas Jones, Edenton patriots. 
They were cast in 1748 and brought to Edenton in 1778 by Capt. William 
Boritz. Unable to collect transportation charges, the captain unloaded his 
cargo, sank the ship, and became a citizen of Edenton. Tradition has it 
that during the War between the States patriotic citizens mounted the old 
pieces on wagon wheels with the intention of defending the town. When 
forces from the Federal fleet disembarked Feb. 12, 1862, the commanding 
invader ordered his men to break the trunnions and spike the guns, as "there 
were more danger standing behind them than marching in front." Two of 
the cannon were presented to the State and are mounted on Capitol Square 
in Raleigh. 

11. The SITE OF THE EDENTON TEA PARTY, Colonial Ave. facing 
the W. side of the green, is marked by a large bronze teapot mounted on a 


Revolutionary cannon. Here stood the home of Mrs. Elizabeth King, where on 
Oct. 25, 1774, gathered 51 ladies, with Mrs. Penelope Barker presiding. They 
endorsed the resolutions of the First Provincial Congress (see new bern) 
and further resolved: "We the Ladys of Edenton do hereby solemnly engage 
not to conform to that pernicious practice of drinking tea, or ... ye wear 
of any manufacture from England, until such time that all acts which tend 
to enslave this our native country shall be repealed." The beverage con- 
sumed was a concoction made from dried raspberry leaves. The names of 
the signers of this pact are inscribed on a tablet on the courthouse facade. 
An original mezzotint of this first feminine Revolutionary tea party is in 
the Metropolitan Museum in New York, and a plaque in the rotunda of the 
capitol at Raleigh commemorates the event, which elicited contemporary 
reference to Edenton's "female artillery." 

12. The SITE OF EDENTON ACADEMY, Court St. between E. Queen 
and Church Sts., is occupied by a graded school. The academy, which stood 
until 1906, was chartered in 1770. The first legislative enactment for the 
promotion of schools in North Carolina was a bill to erect a schoolhouse in 
Edenton, adopted by the assembly in April 1745. 

13. The IREDELL HOUSE (open by permission), 107 E. Church St., is 
a severely plain white-painted frame structure, the main portion erected in 

1790 and the east wing added in 1821. In the chimney is a tablet to James 
Iredell (1751-99), outstanding jurist and Revolutionary political leader. In 

1 79 1 he published Iredell's Revision, the most comprehensive compilation 
of North Carolina statutes up to that time. Judge Iredell was the ablest 
defender of the Federal Constitution while it awaited ratification by the 
people of North Carolina (see fayetteville), and was appointed Jus- 
tice of the first United States Supreme Court by George Washington. His 
son, Judge James Iredell, Jr., was Governor of North Carolina (1827-28). 

In an upstairs room occurred the death of James Wilson (1742-98), a 
Pennsylvania signer of the Declaration of Independence and United States 
Supreme Court Justice. He was buried at Hayes (see tour ia), but in 1906 
his remains were removed to Pennsylvania and a cenotaph was placed at the 
original grave. 

14. PEANUT PROCESSING PLANTS (open 8-5 weekdays; guides). The 
Albemarle Peanut Co., 2nd St. and Badham Rd. in North Edenton, and the 
Edenton Peanut Co., Soundside Rd. across Johnston's Bridge, are both five- 
story structures. The two mills employ about 250 people, mostly Negroes, 
and have an annual capacity of about 40 million pounds each. Goobers 
grown in 12 northeastern counties are cleaned, sorted, and graded for sale 
and shipment, shelled or unshelled, to roasters, salters, and makers of con- 
fectioneries and salad and cooking oils. 


U. S. Fish Hatchery at Pembroke, 0.5 m., Hayes Plantation, 0.5 m. (see tour ia). 


Railroad Station: W. end of Main St. for Norfolk Southern R.R. 

Bus Station: Virginia Dare Hotel, McMorine St. between Main and Fearing Sts., for 

Carolina Coach Co. and Norfolk Southern Bus Corp. 
Piers: Norfolk Southern docks, Water St. at foot of E. Burgess, for Elizabeth City (Nor- 

folk-Hatteras), Wanchese, C. H. Mellison, and Cooper Bros. 
Airport: i m. S. on US 170; no scheduled service. 

Accommodations: 3 hotels, boarding houses, tourist homes. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce-Merchants' Association, Virginia Dare Hotel 
arcade; Carolina Motor Club, 106 N. Road St. 

Motion Picture Houses: 3(1 for Negroes). 

Golf: Elizabeth City Country Club, 5 m. E. on State 30 and Country Club Rd., 9 holes, 

greens fee, $1. 
Swimming: Municipal pool, N. Pennsylvania Ave. {open in summer); river beaches. 

Annual Events: International Moth Class Association National Regatta, 3 days in mid- 
Oct.; Racing Pigeon Club, national shows, May and Dec. 

ELIZABETH CITY (8 alt., 10,037 pop.), shipping point and retail trade 
center for a large section of northeastern North Carolina, is connected with 
outside markets by water, rail, and highway. It is the only town on the 40- 
mile length of the Pasquotank River, and its landlocked harbor at the head 
of the State's great system of sounds is 30 miles from the ocean in a direct 
line. The town is a convenient base from which to visit the duck-hunting 
country of Currituck, the game grounds of the Dismal Swamp, historic and 
vacation spots along the sounds and ocean, and sport-fishing waters off the 
banks and inlets. 

Pasquotank River is a link in the Intracoastal Waterway, and at Elizabeth 
City forms one of the finest inland harbors along the Atlantic seaboard. 
Fresh water, free from teredos and barnacles, good wharfage, and marine 
railways induce many yachtsmen to winter their craft here. The town is 
headquarters for the 7th District, U. S. Coast Guard, which maintains a ship- 
yard and supply base here. The Coast Guard Air Base (under construction 
1938-39) occupies a 300-acre site with a mile of water frontage on Pasquo- 
tank River. 

Visible from any of a half-dozen streets that sweep down to the water or 
parallel the shore, the river mirrors moving or anchored craft. The harbor 
is the home port of freighters, tugs, barges, cruisers, yachts, bugeyes, and 
catboats, as well as the locally developed moth boat. Elizabeth City is one of 
the largest fish-marketing centers in the South. Fish houses, shipyards, and 
other marine facilities cluster about the water front. Upon occasion the box- 
like James Adams Floating Theater is moored at the foot of Main Street. 
For years this old river queen has opened her season at Elizabeth City, 



though her annual tour extends from Wilmington, Del., to Wilmington, 
N. C. 

The business district is concentrated around the three blocks of Main Street 
between the river and the public square. On the north and west outer edges 
of the town near the railroad tracks are the lumber, veneer, cotton, and 
hosiery mills, as well as the sections where the cotton-mill workers live. The 
Negroes, representing 37 percent of the population, live in rambling, scat- 
tered districts, the most populous at the south end of town along Shepard 
and South Road Streets and Roanoke Avenue. 

The harvesting of the Irish potato crop about the middle of June brings 
an influx of buyers, inspectors, and truckers, impartially referred to by the 
townsfolk as "potato bugs." A similar situation exists during the May pea 
and early fall sweet potato seasons. Cotton, corn, peanuts, and soybeans are 
the staple crops. The latter are grown mainly for seed purposes and are 
gathered with harvesters manufactured locally. Lumber and cotton manu- 
factories are the chief industries. 

As early as 1666 Bermudians established themselves on the Pasquotank 
River where they engaged in shipbuilding. In 1672 Pasquotank County, 
named for an Indian tribe in the region, was constituted a precinct in the 
Great County of Albemarle and the first courts were held at Relfe's Point. 
William Edmundson and George Fox made Quaker converts through the 
section the same year. In 1706 the first meetinghouse of that faith in the 
State was erected in the county near the earliest school. Blackbeard roved 
these waters for a time and maintained headquarters at the Old Brick House. 
Trading vessels called at the port and customs inspections were held as 
early as 1722 at the Narrows of Pasquotank, as the town site was then 
called. In 1739 Pasquotank was erected into a county. 

The West India trade, spurred by the cutting of the Dismal Swamp Canal 
in 1790, and the attendant swarm of "shingle-getters" who came to grub 
out the swamp timber, led to the formation of the town. The 50-acre Nar- 
rows Plantation of Adam and Elizabeth Tooley was conveyed to the town 
commissioners to be laid off in small tracts and assigned by lot. First in- 
corporated (1793) as Reading, the name was changed to Elizabeth Town, 
either in honor of Elizabeth Tooley or of Queen Elizabeth. In 1799 it re- 
placed Nixonton (Old Town) as county seat and in 1801 was named Eliza- 
beth City. 

In the early 1800's ocean-going vessels crowded the docks where Negro 
slaves loaded shingles, barrel staves, and ship parts to be exported to the 
West Indies, or unloaded cargoes of molasses, rum, sugar, and tropical fruits. 
Three shipyards did a thriving business building, overhauling, and repairing 
sailing vessels. Many of the builders, blacksmiths, and caulkers were Negro 
slaves. Oak bark stripped from staves was used to tan leather and William 
Steiger's combined tannery and bakeshop at Canal Bridge gave the name 
Leather Hill to the slight rise at the south end of town. Stagecoaches made 
regular stops, traveling along the canal bank from Norfolk, Va. 

Federal occupation of the town in 1862 was a "grand, gloomy, and peculiar 
time." The sheriff and many citizens set fire to their own houses at the 
approach of the Federal fleet and the brick courthouse was also burned. 


Elizabeth City experienced a slow but steady growth after the War 
between the States, particularly in connection with the farming, lumbering, 
and fishing interests in the surrounding territory, and the establishment of 
cotton and hosiery mills. However, in this period the town's interests, like 
those of all the section east of Chowan River and north of Albemarle Sound, 
were much more closely linked with those of neighboring Virginia cities 
than with the rest of North Carolina. Before 1921 a north-south railroad 
and a few sound steamers formed the only oudet. The construction of good 
roads, begun in 1921, and the Chowan River Bridge (1926) connected the 
town and the surrounding section economically with North Carolina, and 
the Albemarle country was "bought back from Virginia, which long had 
held it as hostage." 


1. The PUBLIC SQUARE, lying between Martin, Main, and Elliott Sts. 
and Colonial Ave., is a broad double square of grassy lawn shaded by great 
elms, oaks, and pecans, and flanked on three sides by residences. 

The FEDERAL BUILDING (open 6 a.m.-n p.m.), NW. corner Main 
and Martin Sts., erected in 1908 and enlarged in 1938, occupies half of the 
square. In proportion and detail, this building is in the style of the later 
Italian Renaissance. 

days), SW. corner of the square, was designed and built by A. L. West in 
1882 of red brick heavily trimmed with granite. Four stone-faced piers sup- 
port a columned and pedimented porch above the Main Street entrance. The 
porch is surmounted by a cupola with a clock and bell. The latter strikes the 
hours, rings the alarm for fires and lost children, and sounds the summons 
to court. Deed books date from 1700 and will books from 1752. 

Behind the courthouse, facing Colonial Avenue, is the Agricultural 
Building, a red brick structure in the Georgian Colonial style erected 
(1937-38) with Federal aid. It houses county offices and the Elizabeth City 
Public Library (open 10-1 Mon., Wed., Thur., Sat.; 2-6 Mon.-Fri.; j-y p.m. 
Tues. and Fri.). On the 2nd floor is an auditorium seating 240. 

2. The JUDGE SMALL HOUSE (private), 204 Colonial Ave., long the 
Pool home, was erected in 1800 on the site of the present Federal Building, 
from which it was removed in 1902 to make way for that structure. It is a 
weatherboarded frame house painted white with green blinds. Doric columns 

Key to Elizabeth City Map 

1. The Public Square. 2. The Judge Small House. 3. The Nash House. 4. The Site 
of Tooley's Grog Shop. 5. Christ Church. 6. The Fearing House. 7. The Charles 
House. 8. The Pasquotank River Yacht Club Barge. 9. The Elizabeth City Shipyards. 
10. The Miles Clark House. 11. The Beveridge House. 

a. Post Office, b. Courthouse, c. Chamber of Commerce-Merchants' Association. 
d. Carolina Motor Club. e. Bus Station, f. Railroad Station. 


rise across the front elevation to a level cornice beneath the gabled roof, 
forming a portico with a second-story balustraded gallery. The building is 
constructed of hand-hewn timbers, joined with wooden pegs and hand- 
wrought nails. The interior is notable for hand-carved mantels, wainscot, and 
arched doorways. Officers used the house as headquarters during Union 
occupation of the town. 

3. The NASH HOUSE (private), NW. corner Colonial Ave. and Martin 
St., is a large white weatherboarded structure with massive chimneys, many- 
paned windows, and dormers in the gabled roof. The facade is adorned with 
a two-story Doric portico. The house was erected in the early 1800's and was 
originally owned by Quaker Benjamin Albertson, who in 1834 published 
the Herald of the Times, "a family newspaper devoted to news, literature, 
science, morality, agriculture, and amusements." 

4. The SITE OF TOOLEY'S GROG SHOP, 112 S. Water St., is occupied 
by a hardware store. Here Elizabeth Tooley catered to the Dismal Swamp 
"shingle-getters," her tippling house being one of several, also called "dog- 
geries" or "three-cent shops." Thieving slaves found them a ready market 
for plunder, according to a petition presented to the legislature by aggrieved 
planters in 1859. The grog shops, however, met strong competition from 
the grocery stores, whose proprietors kept a free whisky barrel and plenty 
of honey and sugar to mix with the liquor. 

5. CHRIST CHURCH (Episcopal), SE. corner Church and McMorine 
Sts., is the oldest in the city. The original building was erected in 1825 on 
ground deeded to the parish in 1790 by descendants of Isaac Sawyer, who 
in 1761 purchased a 250-acre tract from Lord Granville for 10 shillings. The 
present Gothic Revival structure with its ivy-clad walls and steeple was 
erected in 1856. 

6. The FEARING HOUSE (private), SE. corner S. Road and Fearing Sts., 
is the oldest residence in Elizabeth City. The original portion was built about 
1740 by Charles Grice, a shipbuilder from Germantown, Pa., who was one 
of the town's founders. Isaiah Fearing, a New Englander, moved to Eliza- 
beth City after the War of 1812 and married the sixth and widowed Mrs. 
Grice. Members of the Fearing family still own and occupy the house. The 
original part of the structure includes four large rooms and two hallways 
with hand-carved paneling and hand-hewn heartwood timbers, fastened with 
wooden pegs and hand-wrought nails. The south ell was added in 1825 and 
the two-story columned portico and the north ell were added shortly after 
the War between the States. 

7. The CHARLES HOUSE (private), 710 W. Colonial Ave., was built 
in the early 1800's by William Charles. This Greek Revival mansion was 
formerly surrounded by the broad acres of a plantation and was approached 
by a characteristic double row of elms and boxwoods. The street facade is 
adorned with a two-story Doric portico with six columns. The dentils, 


paneled eaves, and soffit of the cornice reveal a high order of craftsmanship. 
Brick for the massive end chimneys and foundation were probably made on 
the plantation. Inside are hand-carved mantels and two mahogany stair- 
ways, one of which terminates in a gracefully proportioned "monkey tail." 
Behind the big house are the old winery and dairy houses of red brick with 
stout wooden doors and latticed windows. During the War between the 
States the mansion served as a hospital. 

moored just offshore Riverside Ave. beyond the Coast Guard shipyard, is 
club headquarters for moth-type sailboat enthusiasts. The moth is a small 
sailing yacht developed by Capt. Joel Van Sant, after whose design the 
original Jumping Juniper was constructed at Elizabeth City in 1929. There 
are 1,500 registered moths. The n-foot craft with a 15-foot sail and center- 
board is easy to maneuver and transport. The hull is of native juniper (white 
cedar). The harbor is the scene of the annual International Moth Regatta for 
the Antonia Trophy. 

9. The ELIZABETH CITY SHIPYARDS (open all hours; telephone office 
for guide and appointment to board yachts) on Riverside Ave. extend along 
the river shore for several hundred yards on what has been a shipyard site 
since the early 1800's. The marine railway accommodates boats up to 200 
feet and 800 tons and there are facilities for repairing machinery and hulls 
of wooden and steel vessels. Between Riverside Avenue and the Yacht 
Basin just offshore, is a shaded, gardened lawn with an ingenious sun dial 
showing the time in Eastern Standard and solar time. 

10. The MILES CLARK HOUSE (private), 11 14 Riverside Ave., is some- 
times mistaken for a yacht club; its spacious landscaped grounds, gay awn- 
ings, and tall flagpole reflect the owner's hobby. The Clark yacht, the Dons, 
a 77-foot cabin cruiser formerly the property of Doris Duke Cromwell, is 
often at the sea wall at the edge of the lawn. The two-story house is of red 
brick roofed with tile and topped with broad flat sun decks. The south ele- 
vation in the form of a semicircular bay is topped with a low dome. Inside, 
the circular stair well has a mural decoration representing the coast between 
Cape Henry and Cape Hatteras with a lighting arrangement that produces 
cloud, storm, or fair-weather effects. The floors are calked like a ship's decks, 
and the vaulted ceiling and mahogany paneling of the drawing room suggest 
the saloon of a palatial yacht. 

11. The BEVERIDGE HOUSE (private), 1208 Riverside Ave., is a shingled 
cottage built over the river on brick piers and reached only by a narrow rustic 
bridge from the riverbank or by boat. This type of construction was long 
used on the sound side at Nags Head (see tour iA). 


Old Brick House, 10 m., Great Dismal Swamp, 15 m. (see tour ic); Wright 
Memorial, Kitty Hawk, 63.8 m., Fort Raleigh, 83 m. (see tour iA); Bayside Planta- 
tion, 3 m., Enfield House, 3 m. (see tour iB). 


Railroad Stations: Hay and Hillsboro Sts. for Atlantic Coast Line R.R.; Russell and 
Maxwell Sts. for Aberdeen & Rockfish R.R.; depot on Hay St. at E. end of Rankin 
for Norfolk Southern R.R. 

Bus Station: Franklin and Donaldson Sts. for Carolina Coach, Queen City Coach, Greens- 
boro-Fayetteville, and Greyhound lines. 

Airport: Municipal, 5 m. N. on US 15 A; no scheduled service. 

Accommodations: 4 hotels (1 for Negroes); tourist homes, and camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Carolina Motor Club, Prince Charles Hotel, 
Hay St.; Travelers Aid, ACL station. 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Lafayette Opera House, Person and Dick Sts., 
concerts, local productions, occasional road shows; Little Theater, Bradford Ave., local 
productions; 3 motion picture houses. 

Swimming: Victory Lake, Faytex Mill, 2 m. S. on Cumberland Rd.; Page's Lake and 
picnic grounds, 20 m. SE. on State 28. 

Golf: Country Club of Fayetteville, 3 m. N. on US 15 A, 9 holes, greens fee, 50$. 

Annual Events: Community Sing, 1st Sun. July: Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry 
anniversary, Aug. 23; Cumberland County Fair and Gala week, usually in Oct. 

FAYETTEVILLE (107 alt., 13,049 pop.), seat of Cumberland County, lies 
on the west bank of the Cape Fear River. The most conspicuous point of 
interest is the century-old Market House, standing "where all roads meet," 
and containing the old bell that still rings the curfew at 9 o'clock every 

Business houses line Gillespie, Green, Hay, and Person Streets at the foot 
of the Haymount Hills. Older residential sections contain tree-shaded struc- 
tures more than 100 years old. Sherwood Forest, in the western suburbs, has 
some of the finer homes. Negroes of the city live in several communities, the 
largest of which is Murchison Heights, on the north side of town. 

The white population is largely descended from the first Scottish settlers. 
While the majority of the city's 5,357 Negroes, 41 percent of the total popu- 
lation, are at the bottom of the economic scale, a number have worked their 
way to financial security. The State Normal School for Negroes has exerted 
an important cultural influence upon the race. 

Fayetteville dates from 1739 when Scots led by Colonel McAllister settled 
Campbelltown, whose orderly streets are still distinguishable in the eastern 
part of town along the river. In 1746-47, a group of expatriated Scots, men 
who had escaped "the penalty of death to one of every 20 survivors of 
Culloden," established a gristmill and village at Cross Creek, a mile north- 
west of Campbelltown, where they found two streams crossing each other. 

The preponderance of Scottish population made the town a center of 
Tory influence. Here in 1774 came Flora Macdonald and her husband, Alan, 



who led troops of Highland Scots against Whigs at the Battle of Moores 
Creek Bridge (see tour 29). Nevertheless, Whigs met here, at Liberty Point, 
June 20, 1775, and signed resolutions pledging themselves to "resist force 
by force," and to "go forth and be ready to sacrifice our lives and fortunes 
to secure freedom and safety." 

A number of minor encounters took place in and about Fayetteville dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War and in 1781 Cornwallis occupied the town en 
route to Wilmington. In 1783 the settlements of Campbelltown and Cross 
Creek united and were incorporated. Having shifted their allegiance, the 
citizens named the place Fayetteville, the first community so honoring the 
Marquis de Lafayette. 

Fayetteville served as the State capital from 1789 to 1793 and in the latter 
year missed by one vote becoming the permanent seat of government. On 
Nov. 21, 1789, the State convention held here ratified the Federal Consti- 
tution. In the same year the general assembly, meeting in Fayetteville, char- 
tered the University of North Carolina. 

By 1823, with a population of 3,532, Fayetteville was second only to 
Wilmington in size and commerce. The town was accessible to vessels of 
light draft that brought imports from the Atlantic and carried back products 
of the fields, looms, potteries, and forges. A network of roads radiated from 
the town, the most important being the noted Plank Road of timbers upon 
heavy stringers, which ran 129 miles northwest to Bethania. 

On May 29, 1831, the most destructive fire in the United States up to that 
time destroyed 600 homes, 125 business houses, several churches, and the 
convention hall where sessions of the general assembly had been held. In 
1865 Sherman occupied the town, wrecked the only printing press, and 
burned some of the mills. 

Railroads aided the town's growth after 1870 and the advent of the textile 
mills offset the decline of the turpentine and lumber industries. River traffic 
was suspended in 1923, but in 1936 a lock and dam built at Tolar's Land- 
ing made a 9-foot slack-water channel available to Fayetteville. A dock 
and terminal were built to provide facilities for revival of the river trade. 
Six textile mills are operated, most of them in the southern part of the 


1. The MARKET HOUSE (open 10-6:30 weekdays), Market Sq., at the 
intersection of Green and Gillespie, Person and Hay Sts., houses a public 
library and relics of the War between the States. This three-bay brick build- 
ing has a hipped-roof central section surmounted by a tower whose clock 
has run accurately since 1838, when the building was erected. Three arched 
passageways pierce the central section and Ionic pilasters on the upper walls 
separate the many-paned arched windows. Single-story arcaded wings with 
balustraded roofs flank the central section. The bell in the cupola is rung 
each day at 7:30 for breakfast, at 1 p.m. for dinner, at sunset, and at 9 p.m. 
for curfew. The building served originally as a slave market; later it housed 
a public realty exchange and the town hall. 


The Market House occupies the Site of Convention Hall, destroyed by 
the fire of 1831. Here was held the convention that ratified the Federal 
Constitution (1789), and sessions of the general assembly (1789-93). On 
Mar. 4, 1825, General Lafayette addressed a large crowd of people from a 
stage erected at the door, thanking them for naming the town in his honor. 
On the northwest corner is a bronze tablet commemorating events that took 
place on the site. 

2. The SANFORD HOUSE (private), 225 Dick St., is a two-story weath- 
erboarded structure, painted white, with a hip roof. It rests on high brick base- 
ment walls. The porch is four columns wide with Ionic details superimposed 
upon Doric. The upper doorway has the original fanlight and side lights 
but the lower door has been remodeled. The building housed a bank as early 
as 1807 and the vault is intact in the basement. Lafayette was entertained 
here in 1825. In one of the rooms is a marble mantel with a hand-carved 
design of two doves in the center and vases of flowers on the posts. Here as 
a boy resided Elliott Daingerfield (1 859-1932), painter. 

3. LIBERTY POINT, Person and Bow Sts., was the scene of a meeting of 
39 patriots who pledged resistance to Great Britain, June 20, 1775. 

4. The FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, E. corner Bow and Ann Sts, 
was built about 1816, gutted by fire in 1831, and rebuilt with the original 
walls in 1832. This oblong brick building has a spacious portico with six 
square columns and a simple steeple. In the vestibule are a marble-topped 
mahogany table and sacramental silver dating from 1824. For many years 
whale oil was burned in the ornamental chandeliers. 

5. The MACKEITHAN HOUSE (private), Cool Spring St. and Cool 
Spring Lane, built in 1778, served in ante-bellum days as a tavern. This 
white-painted frame house has a two-story porch across the front. The steep- 
pitched roof is flanked by massive end chimneys. 

6. COOL SPRING, NW. corner Cool Spring St. and Cool Spring Lane, on 
the bank of Cross Creek, was a source of drinking water before the War 

Key to Fayetteville Map 

1. The Market House. 2. The Sanford House. 3. Liberty Point. 4. The First Pres- 
byterian Church. 5. The Mackeithan House. 6. Cool Spring. 7. The Site of Pember- 
ton's (McNeill's) Mill. 8. The Site of Cross Creek. 9. The McLaughlin House. 10. The 
James Dobbin McNeill Monument. 11. The Site of Flora MacDonald's Home. 
12. McNeill's Mill. 13. St. John's Episcopal Church. 14. The Masonic Building. 
15. The Armory. 16. The Methodist Church. 17. The Hale (McNeill) Home. 18. The 
Site of the Confederate Arsenal. 19. The State Normal School for Negroes. 20. James 
Square. 21. Cross Creek Cemetery. 

a-b. Chamber of Commerce and Carolina Motor Club. c. Norfolk Southern R.R. 
Station, d. Atlantic Coast Line R.R. Station, e. Aberdeen & Rockfish R.R. Station. 
f. Bus Station, g. Cross Creek Park. h. Highland Ball Park. 1. Fayetteville Country 
Club. k. Victory Lake. l. Page's Lake. 


between the States. At the head of the steps leading to the spring is the Site 
of the Flora Macdonald Rally, where she spurred the Highland Scots 
to fight for England. According to tradition Flora Macdonald, then 52 years 
of age, rode up and down the line on a white horse, cheering the soldiers. 

opposite the spring, is occupied by a water-driven machine shop. In 1861 
a mill that manufactured gray cloth for Confederate uniforms stood here. 

8. The SITE OF CROSS CREEK is visible from the intersection of Grove 
and Kennedy Sts. The name derives from two small creeks, Cross from the 
west and Blount from the south, that met and apparently separated, forming 
an island of some size. It was said that the streams, when swollen from the 
rains, actually crossed each other in their rapid course. A cotton mill, built 
about 1840 by De Gross, a Frenchman, eliminated the crossing. The mill was 
razed by Sherman's troops in 1865. 

9. The McLAUGHLIN HOUSE (closed), SW. corner Person and B Sts., 
is a century-old dwelling of hand-hewn weatherboards, 12 inches wide. A 
winding stairway and a walnut mantel carved with a fan design are unusual 
features of the interior. 

and Bow Sts., is a rough-hewn, flat-faced boulder carved with fire hose 
winding around small bronze tablets surmounted by a bronze eagle. A cen- 
tral tablet bears a profile and record of James D. McNeill (1850-1927), six 
times mayor, commander of the Fayetteville Division of North Carolina 
Naval Reserves, captain of the Red Shirts (see Wilmington), and organizer 
and for 26 years president of the State Firemen's Association. 

and Bow Sts., where she lived in 1775, is occupied by a filling station. Born 
in the Hebrides in 1722, Flora was a member of the Clanranald branch of 
the Macdonald clan, whose men supported Bonnie Prince Charlie, last of 
the Stuart pretenders to Britain's throne. After his defeat at Culloden, the 
royal fugitive, with a price upon his head, fled to the Hebrides. Determined 
to save him, Flora disguised the prince as a servant girl and smuggled him 
safely across the water to the Isle of Skye whence he escaped to France. Her 
ruse discovered, she was arrested, but her courage and beauty won the public 
heart and she was released to become an idol of London society. In 1750 
she married Alan Macdonald, son of the Laird of Kingsbury, and in 1774, 
the Macdonalds, with the blessing of George III, emigrated to America and 
settled on Cross Creek. Because of their strong royalist sentiments, their 
properties were confiscated and Alan Macdonald was imprisoned. Flora fled 
to Wilmington, sold part of her possessions for passage, and returned to 
Scotland. A college at Red Springs is named in her honor. 

12. McNEILL'S MILL, NW. corner Green and Old Sts., a square wooden 
building darkened by age, rests on the foundations of the town's oldest in- 


dustrial plant, a gristmill erected in 1764 by Robert Cochrane of Pennsyl- 
vania. Capt. James D. McNeill, an early owner, evolved the slogan: "The 
mill was here before the town was; the mill will be here when the town 
ain't." The present mill, built in 1832 and still owned by the McNeill family, 
uses parts that are more than a century old. 

13. ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 242 Green St., was erected in 
1 8 17, burned in 1831, and rebuilt with the original walls in the Gothic Re- 
vival style. The 181 7 structure was one of the most elaborate brick churches 
of the period. It was "built something in the Gothic" and had a fine organ, 
clock, and bell. 

14. The MASONIC BUILDING (open to members only), 221 Mason St., 
home of Fayetteville Masons since it was built in 1858, is a two-story clap- 
board structure with small porches on two sides, painted gray and trimmed 
in white. When organized and chartered in 1760 by the Grand Lodge of 
Masons in Scotland, it was called Union Lodge; in 1788 its name was changed 
to Phoenix Lodge. 

15. The ARMORY (open for dances, boxing matches, etc.), 214 Burgess 
St., a one-story white brick building erected in 1933, is headquarters for the 
Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry, organized in 1793 and reputed to 
be the second oldest military organization in continuous service in the United 
States. The unit has served in every national war since its founding and was 
a part of the 30th Division in the World War. Its motto is: "He that hath 
no stomach to this fight, let him depart." 

16. The METHODIST CHURCH, NW. corner Hay and Old Sts., dedi- 
cated in 1908, is the red brick steepled edifice of a Methodist organization 
that originated in the late 1770's from a weekly "preaching" by Henry 
Evans, a free Negro shoemaker. White members of the congregation erected 
a chapel for themselves in 1803, and their Sunday school, organized in 1819, 
is the earliest Methodist Sunday school in the State of which there is 
authentic record. 

17. THE HALE (McNEILL) HOME (private), NW. corner Hay and 
Hale Sts., is a two-story brick dwelling built in 1847 and first called Green- 
bank. The mahogany rails and posts of the interior stairway were made 
in Scotland. Two rooms have mantels of black marble, fanciful heavy mold- 
ings, and gas fixtures. The thick doors are dressed with huge locks. All 
timbers are mortised and fastened with wooden pins. 

St. and Maple Ave., destroyed by Confederates before Sherman's occupation 
in 1865, is identified by a marker. 

at NW. city limits, established in 1877, is the oldest normal school in North 


Carolina. The plant includes 12 brick buildings and a library of 30,000 vol- 
umes. There are more than 500 students and a faculty of 52. Dr. E. E. Smith, 
who served as principal (1 883-1 933), and during leaves was United States 
Minister to Liberia and an adjutant in the Spanish-American War, is hon- 
ored by a marble tablet on the campus. Charles W. Chesnutt (1 852-1932), 
one-time principal, was the author of short stories and novels. 

20. JAMES SQUARE, intersection Ramsey, Green, Rowan, and Grove Sts., 
is on the site of the first Cumberland County Courthouse, built about 1755. 
In the center of a grassy circle is a Confederate Monument, the heroic iron 
figure of a soldier, mounted on a 15-foot granite pedestal. The square was 
named for James Hogg, a prominent early citizen. 

21. CROSS CREEK CEMETERY, Grove St. between Ann St. and Cross 
Creek, shaded by ancient cedars and pines, contains the graves of many 
Scottish settlers. Confederate soldiers are buried around the Confederate 
Monument, erected Dec. 30, 1868, earliest memorial to the Lost Cause. It is 
a 10-foot octagonal shaft on a white marble base surmounted by a cross, de- 
signed by George Lauder. Here also is the grave of the artist, Elliott Dainger- 


Old Bluff, Scottish Presbyterian Church, 14.5 m. (see tour 3); Fort Bragg, U. S. 
Military Reservation, 10 m. (see tour 3A); the Parapet (earthen fortress), 1 m., 
Duncan Shaw House, 9.5 m., State Fish Hatchery and Game Farm, 10 rrr. (see 
tour 9). 


Railroad Station: Joint terminal, E. Washington and Forbis Sts., for Southern Ry. and 
Atlantic & Yadkin R.R. 

Bits Station: Union terminal, 226 E. Market St., for Carolina Coach Co., Atlantic Grey- 
hound, and Greensboro-Fayetteville lines. 

Airport: Greensboro-High Point (Lindley Field), 9.4 m. W. of Jefferson Sq. on US 421, 
for Eastern Air Lines. 

Taxis: 1 to 4 passengers, 25^ and up. 

City Buses: Fare io</', trackless trolleys 7^; trolleys and buses meet at Jefferson Sq.; 
4 tokens 25^ on each line. 

Traffic Regulations: Turns prohibited at intersections indicated by signs on traffic lights: 
parking restrictions indicated by signs. 

Accommodations: 10 hotels (2 for Negroes); boarding houses and tourist homes. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Jefferson Standard Life Insurance Bldg. ; 
Carolina Motor Club, 229 N. Elm. St. 

Radio Station: WBIG (1440 kc). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Aycock Auditorium, Woman's College, U. N. C, 

Spring Garden and Tate Sts.; Odell Memorial Auditorium, Greensboro College, College 

Place off W. Market St.; Senior High School Auditorium, Westover Terrace, concerts, 

lectures, and plays; 8 motion picture houses (1 for Negroes). 
Swimming: Hamilton Lakes, 3 m. W. of Jefferson Sq. on US 421; Greensboro Country 

Park, 5 m. NW. of Jefferson Sq. on US 220, R. 0.5 m.; Nocho Recreation Park 

(Negro), E. Bragg St. and Benbow Rd.; Ritter's Lake, 5 m. S. on US 220; Oakhurst 

Swimming Pool, W. on US 29-70 at city limits. 
Golf: Sedgefield Country Club, 9 m. W. of Jefferson Sq. on US 29-70, 18 holes, greens 

fee, $1.50 weekdays, $2 Sat., Sun., and holidays; Starmount Golf Club, Hamilton 

Lakes, 3 m. W. of Jefferson Sq. on US 421, 18 holes, greens fee, $1 weekdays, $1.50 

Sat., Sun., and holidays. 
Tennis: Memorial Stadium, Bagley and Dewey Sts., 8 courts; Sedgefield, 9 m. W. of 

Jefferson Sq. on US 29-70. The city maintains 30 other courts; call City Recreation 
. Dept. to reserve court for 1 hi. 

Baseball and Football: Memorial Stadium, Bagley and Dewey Sts. 
Riding: Sedgefield Riding Academy, 7.2 m. W. on US 29-70, L. on Groome Town Rd.; 

Mary Lee Riding Academy, 4.1 m. W. of Jefferson Sq. on US 29-70, L. on Yow St. 
Hunting and Fishing: Lake Brandt (municipal), 10 m. NW.; Greensboro Country Park, 

5.5 m. NW. of Jefferson Sq. on US 220; inquire Chamber of Commerce, or game 

warden, county courthouse. 

Annual Events: State high school music contest, 3rd wk. Apr.; Garden Club show, around 
May 15; golf tournaments, spring and fall for women, championship for men in fall; 
Kennel Club show, in fall; Central North Carolina Fair, in fall; State high school 
track meet, in fall. 

GREENSBORO (838 alt., 53,569 pop.), at the eastern point of the triangle 
of close-lying cities that includes Winston-Salem, the tobacco town, on the 
west, and furniture-manufacturing High Point at the southern apex, is typi- 
cal of the industrial Piedmont from which the community draws its raw 
materials, electric energy, manpower, and trade. The city is an educational 



and textile-manufacturing center, though its diversified industries also pro- 
duce structural steel, chemicals, and terra cotta. 

In the business section, new structures tower above old outmoded build- 
ings. The Jefferson Standard Building dominates the sky line and marks 
the city's center at Jefferson Square, where Market and Elm Streets cross. 
The streets are broad, and in the residential sections are shaded by stately 
oaks, maples, and other trees. 

The newer homes are in such subdivisions as Sunset Hills, Westerwood, 
Lake Daniel, Fisher, Lathan, and Irving Parks; many fine old houses lie 
along the city's original streets. Trim lawns and gardens are everywhere in 
evidence and public parks and playgrounds are numerous. 

The industrial areas stretch along the railroads for 2 miles on either side 
of town. Four white-cottaged mill communities in the northeast section 
indicate the importance of the textile industry. 

The city's 14,050 Negroes, 26 percent of the total population, live in more 
or less scattered segregated areas. Warnerville, in the southwest part of the 
city, has hundreds of commonplace houses occupied by Negroes of the labor- 
ing class. The largest Negro section is in the eastern part of the city, where 
the professional and cultural groups occupy attractive homes. Negroes of the 
city maintain their own library, theater, dramatic and literary societies, and 
have recreational facilities such as ball parks, swimming pools, and play- 

The earliest Quaker, German, and Scotch-Irish settlers in the country 
around Greensboro were small freeholders, whose zeal for religious, eco- 
nomic, and political freedom dotted the region with churches, wrested pros- 
perity from the wilderness, and helped win independence from the British 

The city occupies part of the original grant in 1749 from John Carteret, 
Earl of Granville, to the Nottingham Company, for settlement of a colony 
of Scotch-Irish Presbyterians on the waters of North Buffalo and Reedy Fork 
Creeks. To the east, on Stinking Creek, a German colony settled at the 
same time, and to the west, along Deep River and its tributaries, two groups 
of Quakers took up lands. 

In 1770 Guilford County, also known as Unity Parish, was created from 
portions of Orange and Rowan Counties. The name honors Lord North, 
Prime Minister of England and Earl of Guilford. The first courthouse, of 
logs, was built 5 miles northwest of Greensboro in 1774. Around it grew 
up the straggling village of Guilford Courthouse, whose name, after the 
Revolution, was changed to Martinsville in honor of Alexander Martin, 
Governor of North Carolina (1782-85; 1789-92), and delegate to the Con- 
stitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Of this village there is no remaining 

Men from Guilford County played a prominent part in the Battle of 
Alamance in 1771, where Regulators clashed with Governor Tryon's troops. 
Cornwallis, who invaded the county in 1781, was all but defeated at the 
Battle of Guilford Courthouse on Mar. 15 {see tour 13). Such leaders as 
Colonels John Paisley, William Dent, and Arthur Forbis commanded troops 
recruited from the region. 


Because Martinsville was not centrally situated, the general assembly in 
1808 authorized commissioners to purchase and lay off a tract of 42 acres 
at the geographic center of the county. The new town was named Greens- 
boro in honor of Gen. Nathanael Greene, leader of the Colonial forces at 
Guilford Courthouse. 

Two companies were recruited for the War of 1812. People of the county 
were generally opposed to secession in i860, but when North Carolina took 
its stand with the Confederacy, 180 men marched away with the Guilford 
Grays, besides those who enlisted in other units. The city served as a Con- 
federate depot for supplies and specie. Jefferson Davis, fleeing southward 
after the fall of Richmond, met Gen. J. E. Johnston here to decide on sur- 
render to Sherman and also held here a meeting with his cabinet in April 
1865. Nearly 7,000 Confederate troops were paroled in Greensboro after the 

Early in the 19th century there were factories for making chairs, carriages, 
wool and fur hats, and tobacco products. About 1833 the first steam cotton 
mill, the nucleus of the textile industry, was placed in operation. 

After the War between the States, the Negro district known as Warner- 
ville was founded by Yardley Warner, a Quaker, who purchased 34 acres, 
divided the land into half-acre tracts, and sold them to the freedmen on 
liberal terms. In later years the land has been divided, added to, and resold. 

Since 1890, when the city's population was 3,317, Greensboro's progress 
has been rapid. Ceasar and Moses Cone established textile mills, which were 
followed by other mills and factories. Greensboro's 115 manufacturing estab- 
lishments employ about 12,000 persons and produce annually products val- 
ued at 60 million dollars. The home offices of several large insurance com- 
panies are maintained in the city. 

Since Dr. David Caldwell established his "log college" in 1767, Greens- 
boro encouraged learning and now has six colleges in the city or immediate 
environs, three of them for Negroes. Minister, physician, teacher, and states- 
man, Dr. Caldwell served as a delegate to the first constitutional convention in 
Halifax in 1776. His log college had an enrollment of about 50 and served 
as "an academy, a college, and the theological seminary." From it were 
graduated men who became leaders in this and neighboring States. By 1820 
the Greensboro Female Academy had been founded, and other academies, 
boarding schools, and seminaries followed. 

The Euterpe Club, organized in 1889 as the Coney Club, has helped 
develop music appreciation, and the Civic Music Association brings noted 
musicians to the city. Woman's College sponsors an annual North Carolina 
High School music contest which in 1938 brought 5,100 participants. Well- 
trained glee clubs are maintained by the Woman's College, Greensboro Col- 
lege, and by two of the Negro colleges: Bennett, and the Agricultural and 
Technical College. 

William Sydney Porter (O. Henry, 1862-1910) was born in Greensboro 
and as a boy worked in a local drug store. About 1880 he was playing second 
violin in a string orchestra formed primarily for serenading the young 
women of Greensboro Female Academy. The Greensboro Record quoted an 
associate of Porter's: "I can see Will Porter right now with his foot on a 


stump and his fiddle across his knee saying to Charlie Collins, 'Charlie, 
gimme your A'. . . One number we sure could play — the old Saltello Waltz — 
because we played it at every concert . . . The funny thing about this waltz 
was that so far as we knew it had no stopping place, no end. We just kept 
on playing and playing until Charlie Collins would say, 'Look out fellers, 
I'm going to stop!' " 

Other literary figures associated with the city are Wilbur Daniel Steele 
(b. 1886), four times winner of the O. Henry Memorial Award, and Albion 
Winegar Tourgee, a prolific writer of Reconstruction days, who came to 
Greensboro in 1865, and is best known for his A Fool's Errand. 

Richard Berry Harrison, Negro actor who played the character of "De 
Lawd" in Marc Connelly's play, the Green Pastures, was for seven years 
head of the dramatic department of the Agricultural and Technical College. 
Charles Winter Wood, his successor in the role and organizer of the first 
professional stock company for Negroes in America, is head of the drama 
department of Bennett College. 


(1923), Jefferson Sq., NW. corner Market and Elm Sts., was designed by 
Charles C. Hartmann. This 17-story structure of modified Gothic design, is 
the tallest building in the city. The top floor, occupied by a restaurant, gives 
a panoramic view of the surrounding country. 

2. The MASONIC TEMPLE (open 9-1 1, 2-5 daily), 426 W. Market St., is 
a two-story marble and granite structure of neoclassic architecture. It was 
designed by John B. Crawford, and built in 1928. A marker in front recalls 
that the building stands on the site of O. Henry's birthplace. The Masonic 
Museum, founded in 1933, contains Masonic relics. 

3. The SHERWOOD HOME {private), 426 Gaston St., was erected in 
1843. This red brick dwelling with white colonnaded portico was built by 
M. S. Sherwood, who once published the Greensboro Patriot, founded in 
1826. Lyndon Swaim, a later editor, and his step-daughter, Mary Swaim — 
mother of O. Henry — lived here. 

4. The main building at Keeley Institute, 447 W. Washington St., is 
BLANDWOOD (open; telephone for permission), a rectangular two-story 
structure of gray stuccoed brick. At the entrance is a square flat-topped tower 
of three stories with arches in three sides of the first story. Built in 1825, 
Blandwood was originally the home of John Motley Morehead, Governor of 
North Carolina (1841-45). Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard and his staff, mov- 
ing troops to join Lee in Virginia, were guests here for several days in 
1865. In 1897 the house was converted into a sanitarium. The east and west 
wings were added in 1905. 

5. GREENSBORO COLLEGE, main entrance on W. Market St. between 
S. Cedar St. and College PL, is one of the oldest Methodist colleges for 


women in the world. Its ivy-covered brick buildings are set in a 25-acre, 
tree-shaded campus. The 1937-38 enrollment was about 250. 

A year before the charter was obtained (1838), the trustees of the Greens- 
boro Female College purchased 210 acres west of Greensboro, 40 of which 
they reserved, while the rest eventually was sold for nearly enough to pay 
the original purchase price. The cornerstone of the first building was laid 
in 1843 and the school opened in 1846 with the Rev. Solomon Lea, of Leasburg 
{see tour 24b), as head of the first faculty. After a disastrous fire in 1863 the 
school was rechartered in 1869, though not reopened until 1873. 

The Main Building (1904) is a three-story brick structure of wide pro- 
portions trimmed with white stone. From the central rotunda, supported 
by Doric columns and topped with a low open cupola, wings extend in three 
directions. The reception hall contains portraits of former officials of the 
college. The second floor of the rotunda contains the library. The art depart- 
ment is housed on the third floor. Fitzgerald Hall, erected in 191 2 and 
named for J. W. Fitzgerald, is a two-story brick building ornamented with 
three Doric porticoes. Hudson Hall, built in 19 17, a duplicate of Fitz- 
gerald Hall, was named in honor of Mrs. Mary Lee Hudson. Odell 
Memorial Building, containing the college auditorium {open for school 
entertainments , etc.) on College Place just off the campus, erected in 1922 
and named for J. A. Odell, is a two-story brick building with a Roman 
arched entrance. Atop the structure is a flat balustraded promenade. 

6. The OLD BUMPASS HOME {private), 114 S. Mendenhall St., was 
erected in 1847 by the Rev. Sidney Bumpass, prominent Southern Methodist 
minister. The red brick structure of modified Georgian Colonial architec- 
ture is fronted by a portico with four limestone Doric columns and is shaded 
by great oaks. A Methodist paper, the Weekly Message, was published here 
and the house was used for religious meetings. After the death of the Rev. 
Mr. Bumpass in 1857, his widow continued the work. Because of her active 
participation in the temperance movement, community betterment, and the 
religious life of the region, the section around this house became known 
as Piety Hill. 

CAROLINA {buildings open during school hours unless otherwise noted), 

Key to Greensboro Map 

1. The Jefferson Standard Life Insurance Building. 2. The Masonic Temple. 3. The 
Sherwood Home. 4. Blandwood. 5. Greensboro College. 6. The Old Bumpass Home. 
7. The Woman's College of the University of North Carolina. 8. Idlewood. 9. The 
Buffalo Presbyterian Church. 10. The Cone Textile Mills. 11. World War Stadium. 
12. Dunleith. 13. Community Center. 14. The Agricultural and Technical College of 
North Carolina. 15. Bennett College. 16. The Settle Home. 

a. Post Office, b. Chamber of Commerce, c. Carolina Motor Club. d. Railroad Station. 
e. Union Bus Terminal. F. Stadium, g. Central Carolina Fair Association Grounds. 
h. Greensboro Country Club. 1. Sedgefield Country Club. k. Starmount Golf Club. 
l. Airport. 


Tate and Spring Garden Sts., one of the largest woman's colleges in the 
United States, has a no-acre campus and 45 buildings. It was founded by 
Dr. Charles D. Mclver as the State Normal and Industrial School, and 
opened in 1892. The institution later became known as the North Carolina 
College for Women. In 1931 it was made a unit of the Greater University. 
The college confers five degrees for courses in liberal arts, sciences, educa- 
tion, home economics, and music, and had an enrollment of 1,891 for the 

The main entrance is from Spring Garden Street on College Street. A 
driveway runs (R) from College Street past the Administration Building, 
constructed in 1892 of red brick with Mount Airy granite and limestone 
trim. Towerlike structures flanking the entrance and containing bay win- 
dows rise to the roof level where they terminate in low spires. The McIver 
Building, built in 1908, is a three-story structure of red brick with lime- 
stone trim in three sections, east and west wings having been added. A 
pedimented two-story Ionic portico rises from the second story level. The 
building contains lecture rooms, laboratories, and offices. On the front lawn 
is the life-size, bronze Monument to Charles Duncan McIver, founder, 
by F. Wellington Ruckstuhl, a replica of that on the capitol grounds at 

The Alumnae Building, erected in 1935 of red brick and marble trim, 
houses offices of the alumnae, student government association, and student 
publications. Three brick walks approach the marble entrance portico, 
adorned with Corinthian columns and a classic entablature. The Students' 
Building, of red brick with granite and limestone trim, was erected in 
1901. It is of modified Romanesque-Gothic design with ornamented gables. 

The Library Building (open weekdays, summers y:^ a.m.-g:^o p.m.; 
winter 8 a.m.-io p.m.) was erected in 1905, a gift of Andrew Carnegie, 
damaged by fire in 1932, and rebuilt and enlarged in 1933. The two-story 
red brick structure, trimmed with limestone, has a central entrance orna- 
mented with Ionic pilasters. It contains 45,000 volumes. 

Spencer Hall, built in 1904, is a succession of red brick buildings trimmed 
with granite. On the Walker Avenue facade is a Georgian Colonial portal, 
and on the College Street side are gabled entrances with colonnaded por- 
ticoes and peaked dormers. 

West of the dormitory group is the new athletic field and the new gym- 
nasium. The Aycock Building (open for chapel, lectures, plays, etc.), cor- 
ner Tate and Spring Garden Sts., contains offices and an auditorium. 

8. IDLEWOOD (rose garden open May and ]une, day and night), Inde- 
pendence Rd., estate of Mrs. C. C. Hudson, contains 8,000 varieties of plants 
and flowers on an estate of 12 acres, including 1,500 varieties of roses. 

9. The BUFFALO PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Church St. extension at 
northern city limits, commonly called Old Buffalo, was built in 1827, the 
third church on the site. The congregation was organized in 1756. The 
structure of hand-made brick is of southern post-Colonial architecture. It 


was originally designed as a one-story building, but space was added before 
the War between the States for a loft, just over the entrance, to be occupied 
by Negroes, and a portico with four white columns was erected across the 
front. The fine oaks surrounding the structure are older than the church. 
The old burying ground behind the church contains the graves of the first 
pastor, Dr. David Caldwell, and other Revolutionary patriots including 
Gen. Daniel Gillespie. 

10. The CONE TEXTILE MILLS (not open to public) are situated in four 
villages occupying the northeastern section of the city, in a 2V2 square-mile 
area north of East Bessemer Avenue and east of North Elm Street. The 
villages, once outside the corporate limits, are now incorporated with the 
city. The Revolution mills and village lie in the north of the area, Proximity 
mills and village in the south, and White Oak mills and village and Prox- 
imity print works in the northeast. The combined population of the section 
is 15,000, of whom 5,500 are employed in the mills. A Negro mill village 
with a population of 750 has its own public school and Y.M.C.A. The mills, 
established in 1895, are Greensboro's largest industry and one of the most 
important textile-manufacturing groups in the South. 

n. WORLD WAR STADIUM, on Bagley St. between Dudley St. and 
Park Ave., with seating capacity of 10,000 including sections for Negroes, 
was designed by Harry Barton, associated with Leonard White, and erected 
by citizens of Guilford County in honor of local residents who lost their 
lives in the World War. 

12. DUNLEITH (private), 480 Church St., the home of Judge Robert P. 
Dick, built in 1857, stands in a beautiful grove of elms, oaks, cedars, and 
Norway pines. The white frame house is of three sections. The central 
towerlike portion contains the main entrance, a Georgian Colonial doorway 
with a fanlight and side lights. The portico, rising to the second story, is 
surmounted by an iron balustrade. There are two-story gabled wings, extend- 
ing north and south from the central section. 

General Cox occupied the residence for a period during the War between 
the States, when tents of Union soldiers dotted the spacious grounds. Robert 
P. Dick was a member of the North Carolina Supreme Court (1868-72), and 
later served as Federal district judge. For many years, with Judge John H. 
Dillard, he conducted a private law school. 

13. COMMUNITY CENTER (W. C. Holleyman, architect), Summit Ave. 
and Church St., reconstructed in 1938 in the Romanesque style from the 
old Presbyterian Church and Smith Memorial Building, was presented to 
the city of Greensboro by Mrs. Lunsford Richardson, Sr., and her three 
daughters. The original tower and exterior of the church are preserved and a 
new structure unites the two buildings to form a single composition. The 
center houses the public library, art center, and historical museum, besides 
providing quarters for social welfare organizations. 

The Presbyterian congregation was organized in 1824 with four slaves 


among the 12 original members. The building, erected in 1892, third on the 
site, was vacated in 1928 when a new church was built on Fisher Park Circle. 
The adjacent cemetery contains many old graves including that of the first 
pastor, John A. Gretter (d. 1853). The John M. Morehead Monument 
marks the grave of a prominent citizen who became Governor. 

The Greensboro Public Library {open 9-6 weekdays) has 36,365 vol- 
umes, including a valuable collection of books on North Carolina with full 
sets of Colonial and State records, and the complete O. Henry collection of 
C. Alphonso Smith. In the latter is an original manuscript. 

The Greensboro Historical Museum contains relics of the Revolutionary 
period such as weapons, household furnishings, and coins. 

NORTH CAROLINA (Negro, coeducational), a standard four-year college, 
occupies a 28-acre campus lying between Laurel, Dudley, Lindsay, and East 
Market Streets. The institution was established in 1891 by an act of the 
general assembly for the instruction of Negroes in agriculture and the me- 
chanical arts. The course was later expanded to include the liberal arts. The 
plant includes 11 buildings and two farms. The college maintains a Little 
Symphony Orchestra which tours adjacent States, and a band. The enroll- 
ment for 1937-38 was 655. 

The buildings, two and three stories in height, are of brick with sandstone 
trim, arched doorways, balconies, and balustrades. Forming sides of a quad- 
rangle are the Dudley Memorial Building, housing the college library of 
20,000 volumes; Morrison Hall, and Noble Hall. 

15. BENNETT COLLEGE (Negro women), on E. Washington St., be- 
tween Macon and Bennett Sts., occupies a landscaped campus of 40 acres 
with 14 buildings. Established as Bennett Seminary in 1874 by the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, the institution became Bennett College (coeducational) 
in 1889, and Bennett College for Women in 1926. The college has a capital 
endowment of nearly a million dollars, an enrollment (1937-38) of 305, and 
is a member of the Association of American Colleges. The A.B. and B.S. 
degrees are conferred. The Bennett College Dramatic Club has won a repu- 
tation for the excellence of its presentations, and the glee club frequently 
makes public appearances. 

Most of the buildings were erected since 1922 and the older ones were 
rebuilt in recent years. The Carnegie Public Library for Negroes {open 
9-9 Mon.-Fri., 9-5 Sat.), a one-story building of mottled brick, on the 
campus, serves the Negroes of the city. The L. Richardson Memorial Hos- 
pital comprises a training school that enables student nurses to pursue a 
college course. 

16. The SETTLE HOME {private), 400 Asheboro St., was built in 1873 by 
Judge Thomas Settle, who served twice as Associate Justice of the North 
Carolina Supreme Court and was Minister to Peru when he was nominated 
for Governor by the Republicans in 1876 and defeated by Zebulon Vance. 


The structure stands well back from the street in a yard shaded by white 
and red oaks. A porch extends across the Asheboro Street front with a small 
second-story porch rising above the entrance. A Georgian Colonial door has 
side lights and a fanlight. Of the four bay windows, three rise to the roof. 
The building serves as an apartment house. 


Sedgefield, 9 m. (see tour 12); Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, 5 m. 
(see tour 13) ; Gudford College, 6 m., Lindley Nurseries, 9 m. (see tour 25) ; Alamance 
Church, 6 m. (see tour 2g). 


Railroad Stations: Southern Ry. passenger station, W. High and S. Main Sts., for Southern 

Ry., High Point, Randleman, Asheboro & Southern R.R. 
Bus Station: Union Terminal, 224 N. Wrenn St., for Atlantic Greyhound, Carolina Coach, 

and Greensboro-Fayetteville lines. 
Airport: Greensboro-High Point, US 311 to State 68, R. 9 m. to Friendship, R. on US 

421, 0.6 m., for Eastern Air Lines. 
Taxis: 25^ and upward. 

City Buses: Fare io<?, 4 tokens 25^, meet at intersection of Washington and N. Main Sts. 
Traffic Regulations: Street turns and parking restrictions indicated by signs. 

Accommodations: 3 hotels; boarding houses, and tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce (Giant Bureau), 415 N. Main St.; Carolina 
Motor Club, 213 N. Main St. 

Radio Station: WMFR (1200 kc). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Paramount Theater in city hall auditorium, occa- 
sional productions, concerts, lectures; Amphitheater, City Lake Park, 5 m. E. on US 
29-70, open air spectacles and meetings; 4 motion picture houses. 

Swimming: City Lake Park, 1.5 m. E. on US 29-70; Negro Park, Gordon St. 

Golf: Emerywood Country Club, Country Club Dr. and Hillcrcst Dr., 9 holes, greens 
fee, 50^; Blair Park links (municipal), S. Main St. (US 311) at city limits, 9 holes, 
greens fee, 60^; Sedgefield Country Club, 8 m. E. on US 29-70, 18 holes, greens fee, 
$1.50 weekdays, $2 Sundays. 

Tennis: Blair Park, S. Main St. at city limits; City Lake Park, Jamestown; Negro Park, 
Gordon St. 

Hunting and Fishing: Quail, dove, and squirrel hunting in season, inquire Chamber of 
Commerce; fishing at City Lake Park. 

Riding: Sedgefield Riding Academy, 8 m. E. on US 29-70. 

Shooting: Skeet Club, 5 m. W. on US 311. 

Baseball: Willie Park, English and Oakdale Sts.; Thomasville Chair Company Park, 
4 m. W. on US 29-70. 

Annual Events: Southern Furniture Exposition (open to trade only) Jan. and July; Caro- 
lina A.A.U. basketball championship meet, Feb.; Carolina A.A.U. wrestling cham- 
pionship meet, Mar.; South Atlantic Intcrscholastic golf championship, Apr.; Western 
North Carolina track meet, Apr.; Carolina A.A.U. swimming championship, July 15-16. 

HIGH POINT (980 alt., 36,745 pop.), an industrial center on a level plateau 
in the Piedmont, is known chiefly for its large-scale production of furniture. 
The city, rectangular in shape, is divided north and south by the railroad 
tracks, and east and west by the 100-foot-wide Main Street, with the railroad 
station in the center. 

On Main Street, from the railroad crossing, the retail business section 
extends for several blocks on both sides of the tracks. The residential dis- 
trict lies almost wholly on the north side of town, although many beautiful 
homes still stand along South Main, Hamilton, and Willowbrook Streets. 
On the northwest in Emerywood, a recent development with landscaped 



grounds, are many of the finer homes. The streets of the city are shaded 
by great oaks and elms extending to the outer edges of the business section. 
Scattered about the city are 15 parks with a total of 132 acres. 

Covering about 4 square miles on the south are scores of furniture fac- 
tories, hosiery and silk mills, and other manufacturing plants. Two of the 
cotton mills have their own villages containing hundreds of small modern 
cottages for the factory workers, churches, community buildings, and play- 

Uptown streets show constant activity, for this industrial community is 
visited by salesmen, buyers, and factory representatives. Several large con- 
ventions are held here every year. On Saturday afternoons the streets take 
on a carnival appearance and sidewalks are jammed with pedestrian traffic. 

The city's 7,229 Negroes, 20 percent of the total population, live in scat- 
tered sections on East Washington Street, Kivett Drive, Welch Street, Fair- 
view Street, and on Burns Hill, where many own their own homes. They 
have a well-equipped park on Gordon Street in the eastern part of town. 

Guilford County, in which High Point lies, was originally settled by the 
Quakers about 1750, but the town was not laid out until 1853 when the 
State-built North Carolina & Midland Railroad was brought through. In 
that year Solomon Kendall sold part of his farm for $5,000 for a town site 
which was laid out exactly square, 2 miles long and 2 miles wide. So intent 
were the surveyors on making the town of precise dimensions that they ran 
the eastern boundary "through the doors of Jane Parson's house." 

Named because it was the highest point on the railroad line between 
Goldsboro and Charlotte, the new village became an important trading center 
with completion in 1854 of the plank road between Salem and Fayetteville. 
This road, 130 miles long, followed part of the old Indian trail and pioneer 
wagon road from the mountains to the Cape Fear River and was the most 
important highway in the State. Mileposts were placed along the west side 
of the road, with the mile numbers carved instead of painted, so night trav- 
elers could feel the figures. One of the old mileposts is in the Quaker Museum 
at Springfield Meetinghouse (see tour 14). 

High Point was incorporated in 1859 and soon became the trading center 
of surrounding farm communities. In the late 1880's it had two tobacco fac- 
tories and three warehouses, but this industry was overshadowed by its rapid 
expansion in neighboring cities. In 1888 furniture manufacturers were at- 
tracted by the abundance of hardwood timber available, and the quiet coun- 
try town quickly changed into a modern industrial center. Since then the 
population has increased ninefold. The city limits were extended in 1923. 

The town's 160 manufacturing plants, which employ 12,000 people, in- 
clude 30 furniture factories with an annual output valued above $21,000,000, 
and 22 hosiery mills which produce 150 million pairs of hose per year. 
Other industries produce rayon cloth, art glass, paints, paper boxes, and 
electrical machinery. There is a local saying that "Only a wise man knows his 
own factory whistle in High Point." 

High Point's Negroes were at first employed in the tobacco plants. In later 
years large numbers were attracted from Georgia and South Carolina by an 
expanding program of local public works. Many are now engaged in busi- 


ness and the professions. In 1891 the Society of Friends founded a school 
to provide education for Negroes. 


1. The GIANT BUREAU (open 8-12, 7-5 weekdays), 415 N. Main St., 
symbolizing the city's position as a furniture-manufacturing center, houses 
the office of the Chamber of Commerce. It was built in 1925 of wood painted 
white, is 32 feet high, 27 feet long, and 14 feet wide. A square screen on 
the top represents a mirror. The front of the building is designed to simulate 
a bureau with drawers and knobs. 

2. The WORLD WAR MEMORIAL, W. Broad and College Sts., a gift to 
the city by Mr. and Mrs. M. J. Wrenn, was sculptured in Italy by Maurecinni 
from stone quarried at Flatresanti, and erected in 1923. The statue is of a 
soldier, facing west. On the base are names of High Point men who served 
in the World War. 

3. TOMLINSON OF HIGH POINT PLANT (open by special permis- 
sion), 305 W. High St., is one of the largest furniture factories in the South, 
producing more than 200 patterns with an annual value of about $3,000,000. 
Besides the office and mill on West High Street, there are three mills on 
South Hamilton Street. The buildings, of red brick, ranging from three to 
five stories in height, contain approximately 650,000 square feet of floor 
space. The company, founded by S. H. Tomlinson, was organized in 1900 
and began operation the following year in a small sheet-iron building. The 
first few years of operation were devoted to production and jobbing of chairs. 
The factory expanded in 19 12 and again in 19 16. Although the routine opera- 
tions are by machinery, each piece is finished by hand. The Williamsburg 
Gallery (open by permission), in the W. High St. office building, contains 
reproductions of old furniture at Williamsburg, Va., representing the work 
of early American craftsmen. 

4. The OLD FIELD HOME (private), 217 W. High St., erected in 1852, 
is the second residence built in High Point. This two-story brick structure 
has a front portico level with the ground, with four Doric columns. An ell 
contains the dining room and kitchen. 

5. The HIGH POINT PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays), corner S. 
Main and E. Commerce Sts., occupies the main floor of the old Federal 
Building, a two-story stone structure with flat roof, surrounded by a stone 
balustrade. The raised portico has six columns. The library contains 16,000 
volumes and the Dalton collection of bird eggs. 

trade only), 209 S. Main St., was built in 1921. The 10-story, red brick 
structure, trimmed in granite, limestone, and marble, occupies the entire 
width of the block between Main and Wrenn Streets and has 208,000 square 


feet of floor space. Twice a year, in January and July, a furniture exposition 
conducted in the building is attended by approximately 200 exhibitors and 
2,500 buyers. 

7. OAKWOOD CEMETERY, at the N. end of Steele St., contains the 
graves of many Confederate soldiers. Here is the Grave of Laura Wesson, 
called the Florence Nightingale of the War between the States. As a girl in 
her teens she enrolled as a nurse in the Wayside Hospital, where 5,000 Con- 
federate soldiers were treated. When a smallpox epidemic broke out, Laura 
Wesson served the segregated patients until she contracted the disease and 
died (Apr. 25, 1865). 

8. The JOHNSON FARMHOUSE (private), 102 Louise Ave., bears the 
date of its construction (1842) on an original chimney. Although additions 
have been built, much of the old house, with its low beamed ceilings, re- 
mains. The two-story, white frame residence has a portico with 10 Doric 
columns arranged in clusters of two and three. Old elms, magnolias, and 
large boxwoods grace the lawn. 

Across the street, on a site occupied by an apartment house, was Johnson's 
Camping Ground. Its position on the plank road between Fayetteville and 
Salem made it popular with travelers in the early 19th century. Around a 
blazing campfire news of the day was exchanged, ballads and hymns were 
sung, and horses and other chattels were swapped. Construction of railroads 
put an end to the camping grounds. 

9. On the SITE OF WELCH'S INN, 1425 E. Lexington Ave., a section of 
the original building remains. Probably used as a dining room, it is now a 
residence (private). The oblong building of hand-made brick, erected in 
1786, has a single story with gabled roof. Welch's Inn was a tavern on the 
stagecoach road from Raleigh to Salisbury during the early 1800's, noted for 
its comfortable beds and palatable food. A sign proclaimed "J. Welch, Enter- 
tainment." The highway runs through the site of the main portion of the 
building, leaving the remaining ell upon a bank close to the road. 

10. HIGH POINT COLLEGE, Montlieu Ave. between E. and W. College 
Drive, was established as a coeducational institution by the Methodist Prot- 

Key to High Point Map 

1. The Giant Bureau. 2. The World War Memorial. 3. Tomlinson of High Point 
Plant. 4. The Old Field Home. 5. The High Point Public Library. 6. The Southern 
Furniture Exposition Building. 7. Oakwood Cemetery. 8. The Johnson Farmhouse. 
9. The Site of Welch's Inn. 10. High Point College. 11. William Penn High School. 
12. Blair Park. 13. Log House of the Blair Family. 

a. Post Office, b. Chamber of Commerce — Giant Bureau, c. Carolina Motor Club. 
d. Southern R.R. — High Point, Randleman, Asheboro & Southern R.R. Station, e. High 
Point, Thomasville & Denton R.R. Station, f. Union Bus Terminal, g. Airport. 
h. Baseball Park. 1. Emorywood Country Club. k. Sedgefield Country Club. l. Blair 
Park Links (municipal), m. Parks. 




estant Church in 1920, aided by a donation to the building fund and a gift 
of 52 acres by the city of High Point. The college has a Grade A rating and 
in the 1938-39 school year had 458 students. The long, red brick buildings 
occupy a landscaped campus with winding walks and drives. Roberts Hall, 
erected in 1922, faces Montlieu Avenue, near the center of the campus. The 
building is three stories in height and houses the administrative offices, class- 
rooms, assembly rooms, laboratories, dining room, and kitchen. Woman's 
Hall (R), and McCulloch's Hall (men's) (L), were completed when the 
college opened in 1924. The M. J. Wrenn Memorial Library {open during 
school hours), erected in 1936-37 by Mrs. M. J. Wrenn in honor of her hus- 
band, is on the east front of the campus near the highway. The Harrison 
Gymnasium, just north of McCulloch's Hall, is well-equipped. The Stadium, 
on the field near Lexington Avenue and East and West College Drives, has 
a grandstand with a seating capacity of 3,000. 

11. WILLIAM PENN HIGH SCHOOL (Negro), Washington St. exten- 
sion 0.5 m. from center of city, was established in 1923 when the buildings 
originally belonging to the High Point Normal and Industrial Institute 
were taken over by the city. The first building was erected in 1892 by the 
Society of Friends of New York to provide education for Negroes of the 
town. James A. Griffin, the first Negro principal, served from 1897 to 1923. 
In 1900 the men students made and burned 200,000 bricks and built Congdon 
Hall for the girls. 

Before the War between the States the site was used as a slave market 
and during the war, for Camp Fisher, mobilization camp for Confederate 
soldiers, named for Col. Charles E. Fisher, who was killed in the first Battle 
of Manassas. Four regiments were trained here. 

12. BLAIR PARK, S. Main St. at city limits, 86 acres in area, includes the 
municipal golf course, clubhouse, tennis courts, and children's playgrounds. 
The land was a gift to the city of High Point by the Blair family. 

13. The original LOG HOUSE of the Blair family, S. Main St. at city 
limits, stands across the highway from Blair Park, adjacent to the present 
Blair home. Erected in 1798, the house remains as first built except for a 
brick chimney and new floors. 


Old Gold Mines, 5 m., Quaker Meetinghouse and Museum (Jamestown) 5 m., Brum- 
mell's Inn (1814) 9 m. {see tour 12); Springfield Meetinghouse, museum, and ceme- 
tery, 4 m., Deep River Meetinghouse, 5 m., Grave of Martha Bell (Revolutionary 
heroine), 10 m. {see tour 14). 


Railroad Station: Union Station, Hancock and Queen Sts. for Atlantic Coast Line R.R.. 

Norfolk Southern R.R., and Atlantic & North Carolina R.R. 
Bus Station: 140 Broad St. for Seashore Transportation and Norfolk Southern. 
Airport: Trent Marsh, New, S. Front, and End Sts. at city limits; no scheduled service. 
Taxis: 25^ anywhere in city. 

Accommodations: 4 hotels (1 for Negroes); tourist homes, boarding houses; tourist 
camps near city. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Old City Hall, Craven St. 

Motion Picture Houses: 3 (1 for Negroes). 

Golf: New Bern Country Club, 4 m. W. on Pembroke Rd., 9 holes, greens fee, $1. 

Hunting and Fishing: Inquire Chamber of Commerce or U. S. Forest Service, Post Office 

Swimming: River beaches at Bridgeton, 2 m. E. on US 17; Minnesott Beach, 25 m. E. 

and S. on State 306, 302. 

Annual Events: Boat Races on Neuse River, Labor Day. 

NEW BERN (18 alt., 11,981 pop.), one of North Carolina's oldest towns, 
retains the flavor of past centuries. The community, which possesses a domes- 
tic architecture of charm and distinction, is spread across a bluff at the 
confluence of the Neuse and Trent Rivers, 35 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. 
Massive brick town houses, stately Georgian residences, and wistaria-cur- 
tained clapboard cottages line narrow streets shadowed by oaks, poplars, 
elms, and pecan trees. Many of the old streets retain their original brick 
pavements. Residential East Front Street has aged homes, three lines of 
arching trees, and a wide promenade along the Neuse River sea wall. The 
outlying Negro sections are similar to those in other southern towns. 

The first settlers were survivors of an expedition of 650 German Palatines, 
Protestants expelled from Baden and Bavaria. Under the leadership of the 
Swiss Baron Christopher de Graffenried, and aided by a gift of ^4,000 
from Queen Anne of England, this group planned a colony in America. 
De Graffenried placed Christopher Gale and John Lawson in charge of the 
expedition. In January 1710, two ships sailed from Gravesend, England. 
Storms impeded the vessels and disease ravaged the voyagers, more than half 
of whom succumbed. A French vessel captured one of the transports as it 
entered Chesapeake Bay in April, and plundered the colonists. Fever fur- 
ther reduced the number and only a sickly remnant reached the Chowan 
River, where Thomas Pollock, a wealthy planter, provided them with trans- 
portation to the Neuse and Trent Rivers. 

In September 1710, de Graffenried himself arrived with a colony of Swiss. 
He purchased 10,000 acres, paying the Lords Proprietors at the rate of 5 cents 
an acre. He recompensed King Taylor, Tuscarora Indian chief, and John 


Lawson, who also claimed an interest because of his position as surveyor 
general of the Colony. 

The town was laid out, probably by Lawson, with the principal streets 
in the form of a crucifix, one running northwest from the rivers' junction 
and one from river to river. This served the dual purpose of religious ex- 
pression and defense against the Indians, since ramparts were erected along 
the transverse road. De Graffenried named the town for his country's capi- 
tal, Bern. 

In September 171 1 the settlement was almost wiped out by a Tuscarora 
uprising. In the first attack 80 settlers were slain. Lawson and de Graffenried 
were taken to the Indian fort, Nohoroco, where Lawson was tortured to 
death and de Graffenried was held prisoner for six months. The war raged 
intermittently for two years and the colonists were reduced to such despera- 
tion that in 1713 many of them returned with de Graffenried to Switzerland. 

The settlement made a new start under the leadership of Col. Thomas 
Pollock, proprietary Governor (1712-14, 1722), who had acquired de Graffen- 
ried's interests. In 1723 it was incorporated as a town, and made the seat of 
Craven County, named for William, Earl of Craven, one of the Lords 

Sessions of the Colonial assembly met here from 1745 to 1761 with the 
exception of 1752. From 1770 to 1774 it was the seat of the royal Governors. 
On Aug. 25, 1774, Col. John Harvey, former speaker of the assembly, called 
a convention, which met in New Bern, formed a provincial congress, and 
elected Harvey moderator. This First Provincial Congress decided that after 
Sept. 1, 1774, all use of East India tea should be prohibited; after Nov. 1, 
1774, importation of African slaves should cease, and after Jan. 1, 1775, no 
East India or British goods should be imported. 

The Provincial Congress appointed Richard Caswell, Joseph Hewes, and 
William Hooper delegates to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, on 
Sept. 5, 1774. The following April, the royal Governor, Josiah Martin, or- 
dered dissolution of the assembly, then fled aboard a British man-of-war, 
thereby ending royal rule in North Carolina. 

After the Revolution shipbuilding became an important activity, and tim- 
ber, iron, and rope were produced locally. Race tracks, fox hunts, 
and balls were popular. New Bern became noted for its gay social life. 
Trade was carried on chiefly with the New England ports of Salem and 
Boston; exports consisted mostly of leaf tobacco, molasses, lumber, and 
naval stores. The Bank of New Bern was chartered by the general assembly 
in 1804. 

This commerce is perhaps the most logical explanation of the late 18th- 
century New England character of many New Bern houses, preservation of 
which is due to a series of favorable circumstances. The town was spared 
the ravages of the War between the States because of continued Federal 
occupation after Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's defeat of Confederate Gen. L. 
O'Bryan Branch on Mar. 14, 1862. The Confederates tried to retake the 
town Mar. 14, 1863, and Feb. 1 and 5, 1864, but were unsuccessful. New 
Bern also escaped the effects of rapid progress. With the advent of the rail- 
road in 1858, its importance as a port and distributing point declined and 


gradually it subsided into a placid river town. A 40-block, 3-day fire in 1922 
was confined, by a shift of the wind, to the Negro section. 

New Bern has a few industries connected with agriculture and fishing, a 
shipyard, tobacco warehouses, lumber and wood-working mills. Nearby 
waters afford good fishing and hunters take duck, goose, quail, turkey, deer, 
and squirrel from the surrounding area. New Bern is connected with the 
Intracoastal Waterway by the Neuse River. The municipality owns its 
water and electric systems. 

Prominent early citizens were Richard Dobbs Spaight, and his son of 
the same name, and Abner Nash, Governors; Martin Howard, Provincial 
Chief Justice (1767-73), who presided at all the Regulator trials; and Eliza- 
beth Shine, mother of Admiral David G. Farragut. Later figures were 
William Gaston, jurist and orator; Gabriel and'George W. Rains, prominent 
Confederate Army officers, and Furnifold M. Simmons, U. S. Senator 
(190 1 -31), and outstanding political leader. The most prominent Negro citi- 
zen was John Cook, brought to the city as a slave in 1805. Obtaining his 
freedom, he devoted his life to charitable works. When he died in 1856 he 
was buried in the white cemetery and a monument was raised to his 
memory by popular subscription. In 1916 his body was removed to Green- 
wood Cemtery. 

Negroes, who represent 52 percent of the city's total population, work in 
the mills, on the farms, and in domestic service, though a few are engaged 
in business and professional activities. The first public schools for Negroes 
in North Carolina were established at New Bern in 1862, when soldiers of 
a New England regiment volunteered as teachers. 


The city has identified its points of interest with numbers and signs of the Bear of Bern. 
In the following section these numbers are indicated in parentheses. 

i (1). UNION POINT, junction of the Neuse and Trent Rivers, at the 
SE. corner of E. Front and S. Front Sts., was occupied by the Indian village 
Chattawka before de Graffenried erected a government house and fort here 
in 1710. Successively occupied by oyster plants, wharves, turpentine stills, 
and a trash dump, it was converted in 1932 into a public park surrounding 
the modern Woman's Clubhouse. 

2 (2). The SIMPSON-DUFFY (OAKSMITH) HOUSE {private), SE. 
corner E. Front and Pollock Sts., a large three-story brick house with dormer 
windows in the hip roof and a captain's walk, was built about 18 10 by 
Samuel Simpson. In the late 1860's it was acquired by Capt. Appleton Oak- 
smith, who remodeled it, and placed over the Pollock Street entrance a 
stone panel, carved with the head of a woman between two lions' heads. 
Legend ascribes the panel to de Graffenried, and the woman's head as a 
representation of Queen Anne, since de Graffenried is supposed to have 
been in love with the queen. The Site of the Treaty Tree, near the house, 
is the spot, tradition relates, where de Graffenried signed a peace pact with 
the Indians. 


3 (3). The HASLEN HOUSE KITCHEN {private), 46 E. Front St., is 
locally credited with being the oldest standing building in Craven County, 
though the date of its construction is not known. The kitchen has been 
converted into a Dutch-type house of two stories with a gambrel roof. John 
Bird Sumner, Archbishop of Canterbury (1842-62), was a visitor in the 
house during his boyhood. His mother was a sister of Dr. Thomas 

CAROLINA, SW. corner E. Front and Broad Sts., is indicated by a marker. 
James Davis set up his press here in 1749 and two years later began publi- 
cation of the North Carolina Gazette, first newspaper in North Carolina. In 
1 75 1 he published Swann's revisal of North Carolina laws, familiarly known 
as the "Yellow Jacket" because of the yellow cover on the second edition 
(1752). This was the first book published in the State. 

5 (8). The EMORY-BISHOP HOUSE {private), NW. corner E. Front 
and New Sts., was originally the home of wealthy Sir George Pollock, who 
in 1819 here entertained President Monroe and Vice President Calhoun. 
Later it became the home of Matthias Manly, Justice of the North Carolina 
Supreme Court (1860-65). The two-story frame house has been remodeled 
and enlarged. Dormer windows and broad porches have been added and 
the small-paned windows replaced with single-paned ones. The interior hand- 
carved mahogany staircase, cornices, and wainscot are retained. 

corner E. Front and Change Sts., is identified by a marker. Colonel Leech 
( 1 720-1 803) was a member of the First Provincial Congress, the assembly, 
the council of safety, and the State constitutional convention, as well as State 
treasurer, custodian of Tryon Palace, and mayor of New Bern at the time 
of President Washington's visit in 1791. 

Key to New Bern Map 

1. Union Point. 2. The Simpson-Duffy (Oaksmith) House. 3. The Haslen House 
Kitchen. 4. The Site of the First Printing Office in North Carolina. 5. The Emory- 
Bishop House. 6. The Site of the Home of Col. Joseph Leech. 7. The Louisiana House. 
8. The Smallwood-Ward House. 9. The Jarvis-Hand House. 10. The Slover-Guion 
House. 11. The Richardson House. 12. The Jerkins-Duffy House. 13. The Gaston 
House. 14. The Courthouse Lawn. 15. City Hall. 16. The First Baptist Church. 
17. Christ Episcopal Church. 18. The Site of the Old Courthouse. 19. The Federal Build- 
ing. 20. The Centenary Methodist Church. 21. St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church 22. The 
John Wright Stanly House. 23. The First Presbyterian Church. 24. New Bern Academy. 
25. The Masonic Temple. 26. The Site of the Rains House. 27. Cedar Grove Ceme- 
tery. 28. Kafer Park. 29. The National Cemetery. 30. The Site of James Gill's Shop. 
31. The Jones-Lipman House. 32. The Bryan-Ashford House. 33. The West Wing of 
Tryon Palace. 34. The Remains of Fort Totten. 

a. Post Office, b. Chamber of Commerce, c. Union Railway Station, d. Union Bus 


7 (12). The LOUISIANA HOUSE {private), NW. corner E. Front and 
Change Sts., a two-and-a-half-story frame clapboarded structure, according 
to tradition was built in 1776. The galleried portico is supported by two tiers 
of square wooden columns and protected at the second story by a simple 
wooden railing. There are two brick end chimneys on the right side and a 
low service ell in the rear. There was originally a portico of similar design 
in the rear. William Attmore wrote in 1787 that "this Method of Building 
is found convenient on account of the great Summer Heats here." The gable- 
roofed house was named for its resemblance to old types in Louisiana. 
Mary Bayard Devereux Clark, poet, lived in the house until her death in 

8 (13). The SMALLWOOD-WARD HOUSE {private), 95 E. Front St., 
built between 1812 and 18 16 for Eli Smallwood, is a three-story, nearly square 
structure with the entrance at one side of the facade. The weathered red 
brick exterior walls are laid in Flemish bond. The house has beautiful wood 
carving in the slender, pedimented porticoes, interior cornices, and mantels. 
The deeply recessed and paneled front doorway with its delicately leaded 
glass transom is protected by a classic pediment with an arched soffit. The 
pediment is supported by slender coupled columns; the floor of the porch 
is raised on a low platform, approached by a short flight of steps. The side 
porch, similar in detail, is of somewhat broader proportions and has a simple 
triangular pediment. The white-shuttered windows are topped with wide 
stone lintels and have narrow stone sills. A single chimney at the left gable 
end and trim pedimented dormers break the lines of the steeply pitched 
metal roof, which was originally covered with shingles. The interior is noted 
for its broad stair hall, whose winding stair is cut off from the entrance hall 
by a graceful elliptical arch. On the first floor are the counting room, now 
used as a drawing room, and the dining room. On the second floor are two 
bedrooms and the original drawing room converted into a bedroom. The 
chair rails and pedimented overmantels in the dining and drawing rooms 
display exceptional craftsmanship. The nautical rope molding in the cor- 
nices and door trim gives credence to the theory that James Coor, an English 
naval architect, is responsible for much of this work. Under the Cypress 
Tree (11), at the rear of the house and near the Neuse River, Indian treaties 
and Revolutionary parleys were held. One of the first ships built in North 
Carolina was launched within the tree's shadow. Here Richard Dobbs 
Spaight conferred with Gen. Nathanael Greene and pledged his assistance to 
the cause of the Revolution. President Washington, Edward Everett, and 
other notables have viewed the river from this spot. 

9 (14). The JAR VIS-HAND HOUSE {private), SE. corner E. Front and 
Johnson Sts., built in 1803, is late Georgian Colonial in design, of soft-textured 
red brick, with carved wooden cornice and portico. The detail of its sheltered 
and recessed doorway is particularly fine. Iron bars protect basement win- 
dows, and the doors, 46 inches wide, have 7-inch keys for the double-bolt 
locks. The interior hand-carved woodwork is especially noteworthy. Federal 
troops used the house as a hospital during the War between the States. 


10 (16). The SLOVER-GUION HOUSE {private), SW. corner E. Front 
and Johnson Sts., erected about 1835, is a massive, three-story brick house of 
Early Republican type with a central portico. The large windows have shut- 
ters divided into three sections fastened with iron catches. The first-floor 
windows have wrought-iron balconies. The brick kitchen and slave house in 
the rear have been modernized. General Burnside made his headquarters 
here in 1862. 

11 (17). The RICHARDSON HOUSE (private), SE. corner Johnson and 
Craven Sts., is a massive four-story frame house with a railed one-story front 
porch which has curved cement steps at both ends. Built in 1828, it is one 
of several in New Bern that has a captain's walk, also called catwalk or 
widow's walk. These railed platforms between the chimneys, reached by a 
trap door in the roof, were used to sight approaching ships. In 1863 the 
house was used by the 9th New Jersey Infantry for a hospital. The original 
staircase and several hand-carved mantels were removed by Federal "bum- 
mers" (plundering stragglers). 

12 (18). The JERKINS-DUFFY HOUSE {private), SW. corner John- 
son and Craven Sts., was built by Alonzo T. Jerkins in 1790. The white clap- 
board dwelling, L-shaped in plan, has an entrance with carved pediment 
and fanlight, flanked by slender columns and approached by shallow steps 
on both sides. In the angle of the ell is a two-story gallery porch with square 
wooden columns and a delicate railing at each level. There is a captain's 
walk between the chimneys at the west end of the house. The interior is 
finished with wide paneling. The house is on the Site of the Birthplace 
of William Gaston (1778-1844), who served as Justice of the North Caro- 
lina Supreme Court, wrote the words of the State song, "Old North State," 
and influenced adoption of a constitutional amendment permitting Catholics 
to hold State offices. Gastonia and Gaston County are named for him (see 
tour igb). 

13 (19). The GASTON HOUSE (private), SW. corner Craven and New 
Sts., is a two-story frame structure built close to the street and fronted by a 
double-gallery porch with a noteworthy balustrade at the second floor. The 
entrance is on the west of the facade and the roof is marked by dormer win- 
dows. Fine mantels and wainscot are used throughout the spacious house, 
which was erected in 181 8. In the rear yard is Judge Gaston's original law 
office, a one-story frame building painted red and falling into disrepair. 

14. On the COURTHOUSE LAWN, W. side of Craven between New and 
Broad Sts., is the Washington Oak (20), planted in 1925 as a memorial of 
President Washington's visit, and a Marker (21) with bronze memorial 
tablets to the three New Bernians who were Governors of the State: Richard 
Dobbs Spaight, Richard Dobbs Spaight, the younger, and Abner Nash. 

15 (22). CITY HALL (open 9-5 weekdays), NW. corner Craven and Pol- 
lock Sts. (erected as a post office in 1897, remodeled in 1935), is of yellow 


brick trimmed with terra cotta. Over its arched entrances are two copper 
black bears, symbols of the town. Inside hangs a framed banner, gift of the 
Burgesses of Bern in 1896, after New Bern had adopted the armorial bear- 
ings and colors of the patron city. Here also are the original parchment 
grants from Queen Anne to de Graffenried. 

16 (26). The FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, Middle St. between S. Front 
and Pollock Sts., a Gothic Revival brick structure, was built in 1848. The 
congregation was organized in 1809. Early pastors of this church have left 
an imprint upon Baptist affairs in North Carolina. Thomas Meredith was 
long prominent in the denomination and the Baptist woman's college in 
Raleigh bears his name. William Hooper, a leader in founding Wake Forest 
College, and Samuel Wait, its first president, were pastors of this church. 

17 (27). CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, NE. corner Pollock and Mid- 
dle Sts., a weathered red brick edifice whose lofty, gold-crowned spire rises 
above great trees shading an old graveyard, was erected in 1873 upon the 
site of two earlier churches. The parish was organized in 1715 and the first 
church was built in 1750. A Bible, Book of Common Prayer, and silver com- 
munion service given by George II are retained, though royal Governor 
Martin attempted to take them with him when he fled the town in 1775. 
When Parson Reed, the royalist rector, prayed for the King, lads prompted 
by patriot parents drummed at the door and shouted "Off with his head!" 
This church was razed during the Revolution, reputedly because the brick 
had been brought from England. The second church was erected in 1825. 
Its outer walls were used in construction of the present building. In a corner 
of the churchyard fence, with its muzzle imbedded in the ground, is the 
Lady Blessington Cannon (28), taken from the British ship Lady Blessing- 
ton, captured in the Revolution. 

18 (29). The SITE OF THE OLD COURTHOUSE, at the intersection 
of Middle and Broad Sts., is the spot where, on May 31, 1775, patriots 
adopted resolutions pledging their support to the cause of independence. 

19 (31). The FEDERAL BUILDING {lobby always open), SW. corner 
Middle and New Sts., erected in 1933-35, is designed in the Georgian 
Colonial style with tapestry brick walls and limestone trim. The architect 
was Robert F. Smallwood. David Silvette painted the murals in the court- 
room {open in court season or upon request), depicting scenes in the early 
history of the section. The building occupies the original site of the John 
Wright Stanly House. 

Middle and New Sts., built in 1905, is a buff brick structure of modified 
Romanesque design with a semicircular arcade at the main entrance between 
two towers of different heights. The first church, Andrews Chapel, was 
built in 1802. A church called Centenary, erected on New Street in 1843-44, 
remains, though unused. 


21 (33). ST. PAUL'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, Middle St. be- 
tween New and Johnson Sts., was erected in 1841. It is a white clapboard 
structure with a square, steepled entrance tower. The parish, organized in 
1820, was the first of the Catholic faith in North Carolina. 

22 (36). The JOHN WRIGHT STANLY HOUSE, New St. between 
Middle and Hancock Sts., now a Public Library {open 10-12, j-S week- 
days), was built prior to 1790. It contains a collection of items from Tryon 
Palace, including door knobs, locks, keys, and bricks. The building formerly 
stood on the lot occupied by the Federal Building; it was moved to its present 
location and remodeled in 1935-36. The main block of the frame house with 
its corner quoins and flush siding is rectangular in plan with a continuous 
cornice. The windows of the lower floor, like the doorway, are pedi- 
mented. Its Georgian hip roof has three hipped dormers and a flat deck, 
which is surrounded by a balustrade and flanked by two chimneys. This was 
the home of John Wright Stanly, merchant and patriot, who lost 14 privateers 
in the Revolution. Washington, Lafayette and Nathanael Greene were 
entertained here. It was also the home of the builder's son, John Stanly, 
jurist and legislator, and the birthplace (1817) of John Stanly's grandson, 
Gen. Lewis Addison Armistead, who was killed while leading a Con- 
federate division at Gettysburg. 

23 (37). The FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH {always open), New 
St. opposite the Stanly House, was built by Uriah Sandy (1819-22). This 
white weatherboarded meetinghouse, with fanlighted door, a graceful Ionic 
portico, and a square tower diminishing in five stages to an octagonal cupola, 
is 55 by 70 feet. Early prints show urns on each set-back of the tower but 
they have disappeared. The many-paned windows on the first story are 
rectangular, while those at the gallery level are arched with traceried mun- 
tins. The hand-carved pulpit is between the two doors, and the floor rises 
toward the rear. In 1893 the rear entrance was added and conventional pews 
were installed. Originally there were straight seats under the balconies and 
mahogany box pews in the center. Printed deeds were issued to holders of 
these pews who paid from $150 to $300 for their use. During Federal occu- 
pation the church was used as a military hospital. Church relics are kept 
in the building, including the original church deed, a sperm-oil lamp once 
used here, and the original communion service. The congregation was 
organized in 1817. 

24 (38). NEW BERN ACADEMY, Hancock St., between New and John- 
son Sts., housing a section of the city schools, is a late Georgian Colonial 
structure, erected in 1 806 on the site of the original academy building burned 
in 1795. The red brick building rises in two stories to a level hand-carved 
cornice beneath a hip roof, broken by two central chimneys. A central 
pavilion projects slightly from the facade and is surmounted by a pediment. 
A classic semicircular entrance portico was restored in 1935. New Bern 
Academy, the first incorporated school in the State, opened in 1764 and 


received its charter in 1766. It was partially maintained by a tax of a cent 
a gallon on all liquors brought up the Neuse River. 

25 (39). The MASONIC TEMPLE (open 9-12, 7-5 daily), SE. corner 
Hancock and Johnson Sts., was completed in 1808 and is one of the oldest 
in continuous service in the country. The brick building of Classical Revival 
architecture has a shallow surface arch of elliptical outline in the stuccoed 
wall, corner quoins, and prominent voussoirs over the flat-arched windows. 
The second-floor lodge room contains notable hand-carved paneling, and 
Masonic relics. St. John's Lodge, No. 3, A.F. and A.M. was chartered Jan. 
10, 1772, by Joseph Montfort, only Provincial grand master for America. 
The Masonic Theater, on the first floor, is one of the oldest theaters still 
in use in the United States. The building was renovated in 1938, the decora- 
tions based upon Egyptian design. 

Under the trees behind the Masonic Temple is the Site of the Duel 
(Sept. 5, 1802) between Gov. Richard Dobbs Spaight, the elder, and John 
Stanly, the younger. As rival leaders of the Republican and Federalist parties, 
they clashed frequently. Stanly charged that Spaight, as Senator, had avoided 
voting on important legislation under pretense of illness. Spaight retaliated 
with a forcefully worded handbill. A challenge from Stanly was promptly 
accepted. Mortally wounded on the fourth fire, Spaight died the following 
day. Criminal proceedings were instituted against Stanly but he was par- 
doned by Gov. Benjamin Williams. 

26 (40). The SITE OF THE RAINS HOUSE, 61 Johnson St., is occupied 
by the Presbyterian manse (private). In a home on this site Gabriel J. 
Rains was born in 1803, and his brother, George Washington Rains, in 1817. 
Gabriel invented submarine explosives used against blockading Federal ships 
and was superintendent of the Torpedo Bureau of the C.S.A. George, in- 
ventor and author, was connected with munitions operations in the Confed- 
erate service. 

27 (41). CEDAR GROVE CEMETERY, NE. corner Queen and George 
Sts., was opened in 1800 by the Episcopalians and turned over to the city in 
1854. At the Queen Street entrance is the Weeping Arch, so named because 
its highly absorbent coquina rock retains moisture that drips like tears. Some 
believe that the touch of a drop marks one as the next to pass in a hearse. 
The Confederate Monument, a 15-foot marble shaft, identifies a mass Con- 
federate grave. Tradition says that his law desk and chair were buried in this 
cemetery with the body of William Gaston. Interred here are William J. 
Williams, who painted the Masonic portrait of Washington owned by the 
Alexandria, Va., lodge, a photograph of which is in the New Bern Public 
Library, and Moses Griffin, benefactor of city schools. 

28 (42). KAFER PARK, NW. corner Queen and George Sts., is the city 
athletic field, part of the area taken over by the municipality after the Decem- 
ber 1922 fire. 


29 (43). The NATIONAL CEMETERY, N. end of National Ave., con- 
tains the graves of 3,500 Union soldiers. 

30 (44). The SITE OF JAMES GILL'S SHOP, Broad St. between George 
and Burn Sts., is indicated by a marker. Gill, a locksmith and silversmith, 
in 1829 invented an early revolver, a percussion cap weapon with 14 cham- 

31 (46). The JONES-LIPMAN HOUSE (private), SW. corner Pollock 
and Eden Sts., is a small frame structure. Here Emeline Pigott, Confederate 
spy, was imprisoned during Federal occupation. She was caught trying to 
slip through the lines into New Bern without a pass. Her story that she was 
attempting to take a chicken to her sick mother failed to impress the captain 
who questioned her. She was released from jail without trial and given a 
military escort to her home county of Carteret. She later admitted having 
swallowed incriminating papers which she had on her person when arrested. 

32 (48). The BRYAN-ASHFORD HOUSE {private), 115 Pollock St., 
was built in 1804 by James Bryan. It is a two-and-a-half-story brick structure 
with a story-and-a-half clapboard wing. The entrance is set in paneled reveal 
and has a transom. The small porch has four slender columns on high square 
bases. Iron guardrails of balcony height and full-length louvered shutters pro- 
tect the first-floor windows, which extend down to the floor. The wing, 
built in 1824 for a law office, has the ridge of its roof running perpendicular 
to the street and a well-proportioned entrance, with hand-carved pediment 
and sunbursts, in the center of the front gabled facade. 

33 (50). The WEST WING OF TRYON PALACE (private), 24 George 
St., is all that survives of Tryon Palace, the town's first show place, once 
regarded as one of the most beautiful structures in British America. This 
relic retains no vestige of past glory, beauty, or elegance. It served as ware- 
house, dwelling, stable and carriage house, parochial school, and chapel 
prior to its conversion (1931) into an apartment house. In 1798, a Negro 
woman, searching for eggs in the cellar with a lightwood torch, started a fire 
that destroyed the central section and east wing. 

Tryon Palace was built in 1767-70 under the supervision of John Hawks, 
who came from England with Tryon. It was the Governor's residence and 
statehouse, containing assembly hall, council chamber, and public offices. 
This was the seat of government under royal Governors Tryon and Martin, 
and under Richard Caswell, first constitutional Governor (1777). Here was 
held North Carolina's First Provincial Congress, in defiance of royal author- 
ity (1774), and the first constitutional general assembly (1777). In 1791, 
when Washington was tendered a magnificent ball, his horses were stabled 
in the executive offices and he described the palace as "now hastening to 

Tryon was able to secure the appropriation for the erection of the palace 
from an assembly tractable because of the recent repeal of the unpopular 
Stamp Act. The amount involved was more than ^16,000. Wide disapproval 


of such expenditure of the people's tax money was a factor in precipitating 
the War of the Regulation, in which Tryon resorted to armed force to quell 
the Regulators. 

The Hawks design included a brick house of two main stories, 87 feet 
wide and 59 feet deep, with two outlying wings of two low stories each, con- 
nected with the main block by semicircular colonnades. One wing contained 
servants' quarters and a laundry, the other, granary and hayloft. Written 
accounts describe the construction from the shingled roof "More beautiful 
than slate or tyle" down to "two wells with Pumps Compleat." 

William Attmore, besides describing in 1787 the "grand Staircase lighted 
from the Sky by a low Dome, which being glazed kept out the weather," 
noted that "the King of G. Britain's Arms are still suffered to appear in a 
pediment at the front of the Building; which, considering the independent 
spirit of the people averse to every vestige of Royalty appears Something 

Over the vestibule door was a Latin inscription, ironic to tax-burdened 

A free and happy people, opposed to cruel tyrants, has given this edifice to virtue. 
May the house and its inmates, as an example for future ages, here cultivate the arts, 
order, justice, and the laws. 

34. The REMAINS OF FORT TOTTEN lie at the western edge of the 
city between US 17 and 70. Trenches and breastworks thrown up by Federal 
troops in 1862 are in a remarkably good state of preservation. Trenches were 
built across New Bern from the Neuse to the Trent River and a fort was 
erected at each terminus and in the center. Plans were considered in 1939 for 
restoring the central fort. 


Croatan National Forest, 10 m. (see tour 28). 


Railroad Station: Union Station, Dawson and W. Martin Sts., for Seaboard Air Line R.R., 

Southern Ry., and Norfolk Southern R.R. 
Bus Station: McDowell and W. Martin Sts. for Atlantic Greyhound, Carolina Coach, 

Southerland Bros., and Norfolk Southern. 
Airport: Municipal, 3.5 m. S. on US 15A for Eastern Air Lines; taxi 50^. 
Taxis: 25^, 1-4 passengers, anywhere in city. 
City Buses: <$. 
Traffic Regulations: Turns on red lights and parking indicated by signs. 

Accommodations: 10 hotels (2 for Negroes); tourist homes, tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 17 W. Davie St.; Carolina Motor Club, 
15 W. Davie St.; State Highway Dept., 112 E. Morgan St. 

Radio Station: WPTF (680 kc). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Memorial Auditorium, Fayetteville and South Sts., 

Ambassador Theater, Fayetteville St., and State Theater, S. Salisbury St., concerts, 

local productions, occasional road shows; 6 motion picture houses (1 for Negroes). 
Swimming: Pullen Park, approached from Hillsboro St. or US 1 ; John Chavis Memorial 

Park (Negro), Lenoir St. at city limits. 
Golf: Raleigh Golf Assn., 4 m. S. on county road S. of airport, 18 holes, greens fee, 50^; 

Carolina Pines, 3.5 m. S. on US 15A, 18 holes, greens fee, 50^; Cheviot Hills, 9 m. 

NE. on US 1, 9 holes, greens fee, 25^. 
Tennis: Raleigh Tennis Club, Dover Rd. off Oberlin Rd.; Carolina Pines, 3.5 m. S. on 

US 1 5 A. 
Riding: Batchelor Riding Academy, 2 m. E. on US 64; Carolina Pines, 3.5 m. S. on 

US 1 5 A. 
Boating: Pullen Park, approached from Hillsboro St. or US 1. 
Baseball, Football: Riddick Stadium, State College. 

Annual Events: Governor's Inaugural Ball, 1st wk. Jan. in years following those divisible 
by 4; Southern Conference Basketball Tournament, 3 days, early Mar.; Engineers Fair, 
State College, spring; Flower Show, Raleigh Garden Club, May, Oct.; Farmers Con- 
vention, July; 4-H Club meeting, July; Debutante Ball, Sept.; State Fair, 3rd wk. 
Oct.; State Literary and Historical Assn., State Folklore Society, State Art Society, 1st 
wk. Dec. 

RALEIGH (363 alt., 37,379 pop.), the capital of North Carolina, was made 
to order in a wooded wilderness on a Piedmont hill near the geographical 
center of the State. In the center of the city is oak-shaded Capitol Square, 
covering 6 acres and dominated by the stately old Capitol Building. Sur- 
rounded by State departmental buildings, the square forms a hub from 
which the principal streets radiate. 

Of the four squares set aside for parks in the quarters of the original town 
plan two survive: Nash on the southwest, still a park, and Moore on the 
southeast, used as a produce market. Caswell Square, on the northwest, is 
occupied by the State Board of Health buildings. Burke Square, on the north- 
east, contains the Governor's mansion. 


Fayetteville Street, running south from Capitol Square to the modern 
Memorial Auditorium, was once the Sunday promenade for Raleigh's 
beaux and belles. Now it is the chief commercial artery, lined with stores, 
hotels, theaters, the Federal Building, courthouse, and city hall. The 
streets paralleling and crossing Fayetteville form the main business 

Raleigh is predominantly a city of comfortable, unpretentious homes with 
broad lawns and gardens beneath tall old trees. Suburbs such as Cameron 
Park, Mordecai, and Boylan Heights perpetuate the names of prominent 
families. The residential section Hayes Barton was named for the home of 
Sir Walter Raleigh in England. Most Negroes live in the northeast, east, and 
south sections. 

The atmosphere of Raleigh reflects its varied functions as a governmental, 
educational, social, and shopping center. Life in Raleigh has two distinct 
aspects: one, the political and official, changing every four years with each 
new State administration; the other, that of a community of southern tradi- 
tion and charm whose families have been neighbors for generations. When 
the general assembly is in biennial session, social life attains its gayest tempo; 
hotel lobbies swarm with delegations and hotel rooms glow with midnight 

In 1 771 when Wake County was formed from parts of Cumberland, John- 
ston, and Orange Counties, a courthouse and jail were erected on the hillside 
in front of the residence of Joel Lane, who, with his brothers Joseph and 
Jesse, had come here in 1741. This home became so popular with travelers 
that the owner built a tavern and helped to erect a log church, the Asbury 
Meetinghouse. The settlement was known as Wake Courthouse or Blooms- 
bury. Joel Lane served as one of Tryon's lieutenants at Alamance in 1771 
(see tour 25). The county was made coextensive with St. Margaret's Parish, 
and both were named for Margaret Wake, wife of Governor Tryon. 

Despite objections from North Carolina's principal towns, the State con- 
vention in 1788, seeking a central location for an "unalterable seat of govern- 
ment," resolved that the site should be within 10 miles of Isaac Hunter's 
plantation. Hunter's land was among the 17 tracts considered, but the com- 
mission of legislators purchased 1,000 acres of Joel Lane's land for ^1,378, 
and it has been suggested that Lane's excellent punch played a part in the 

The town was laid out by William Christmas in April 1792 with Union 
(now Capitol) Square reserved for the statehouse. The four parks were 
named for the first three Governors under the constitution and for Attorney 
General Alfred Moore. The streets were named for the eight districts, each 
identified by the name of its principal city, for the commissioners, and for 
other prominent citizens. In pursuance of instructions the commissioners 
built a brick statehouse "large enough for both houses of the assembly," and 
upon its completion (1794) Raleigh was taunted with being a "city of streets 
without houses." 

In 1799 two newspapers championed the rival creeds of the Federalist and 
Whig parties. By 1800 the population numbered 669, and during that year 
Methodist Bishop Francis Asbury held a "big meeting" in the statehouse, 


which at the time was used for religious gatherings, balls, and public 

With State aid, the Raleigh Academy for boys and girls was established 
on Burke Square in 1801. The Indian Queen Tavern, on the site of the 
present Federal Building, advertised in 1803 that it was the best in town with 
"13 rooms, 9 of which have fireplaces." Casso's Inn, opened in 1804 at the 
corner of Morgan and Fayetteville Streets, was an early political rendezvous. 
The town bell hung at this corner. 

Destructive fires occurred in 181 8, 1821, and 1831. In the last the State- 
house was destroyed and with it the marble statue of George Washington by 
the Italian sculptor, Canova, reputed to have been the most precious work of 
art in the United States. 

In 1840 a three-day celebration, with parades, orations, and subscription 
balls marked the completion of the new statehouse and the entrance of the 
first train over the Raleigh & Gaston R.R., first standard-gage railway in the 
State. The Raleigh Guards, organized in 1846, served in the Mexican War. 
In 1850 the Raleigh Register published the first daily newspaper in North 

Although Union sentiment was strong in Raleigh, 100 guns were fired on 
Capitol Square and bells were rung when the State convention adopted the 
secession ordinance on May 20, 1861. The city became a concentration point 
for Confederate troops, and gunpowder and other supplies were manufac- 
tured here. Saltpeter was stored in the capitol rotunda. When Sherman's 
army entered without resistance, Apr. 14, 1865, David L. Swain {see ashe- 
ville and chapel hill) delivered the keys to the capitol in the absence of 
Governor Vance. 

After a period of military control, a State regime was set up under Presi- 
dent Johnson's Reconstruction plan, but this was upset by the Congressional 
Reconstruction program in 1867. Military rule again prevailed pending the 
adoption of a new constitution and ratification of the 14th amendment. 

W. W. Holden was elected Governor in 1868. A Negro-controlled carpet- 
bagger assembly took charge of State affairs, indulged in lavish expenditure, 
voted themselves salaries of $8 per day and 20^ per mile for travel, and 
installed an open bar in the capitol, which was dubbed the "third house." 
Nicks in the capitol steps remain where whisky barrels were rolled in and 
out. This situation stimulated Ku Klux Klan activity in the State, which was 
met by drastic action on the part of Governor Holden and resulted in his 
impeachment in 1870 on charges of malfeasance {see history). The 
Democrats were finally restored and Reconstruction was brought to an end 
with Zebulon B. Vance's return to the Governorship in 1877. 

By 1900 cotton and knitting mills, a tobacco warehouse, and an electric 
power plant had been established. A union passenger station was built for 
the three railroads serving the city. In 1920 the corporate limits were 
extended to cover 7% square miles. 

Raleigh's population includes some 2,000 State and numerous Federal 
employees, since the city is the administrative center of the national recovery 
program in the State. Manufactured products include cotton goods, cotton- 
seed oil, furniture, building supplies and automobile bodies. Raleigh is a 


center for the distribution of cotton and bright-leaf tobacco. Large printing 
establishments publish books and periodicals. 

Raleigh's literary history began with Joseph Gales, State printer (1800-29), 
publisher of the first two volumes of the Annals of Congress, His wife, Wini- 
fred Marshall Gales, wrote Matilda Berkley (1804), first novel printed in the 
State. Capt. Samuel A. Ashe (1840-1938), journalist and historian, was the 
author of History of North Carolina; Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the 
Navy under Wilson, and Ambassador to Mexico (1933- ), wrote Our 
Navy at War, and Life of Wilson. Raleigh poets include Henry Jerome 
Stockard (1858-1916), who wrote Fugitive Lines, and Theophilus Hunter 
Hill (1836-1901), whose Hesper and Other Poems was the first book pub- 
lished under the copyright laws of the Confederate States. Thomas Dixon, 
author of Leopard's Spots and the Clansman, is clerk of the United States 
district court in Raleigh (1939). Clarence Poe, editor of the Progressive 
Farmer, has written books on agriculture and travel. Jonathan Daniels, editor 
of the News and Observer, wrote Clash of Angels and A Southerner Dis- 
covers the South; Anne Preston Bridgers, coauthor of Coquette, was one of 
the founders of the Raleigh Little Theater. 

At the annual meeting of the North Carolina Literary and Historical 
Association, the Mayflower Cup is awarded for the year's outstanding book 
by a North Carolinian. The State Art Society owns and exhibits the Robert 
Phifer collection of prints and paintings. 

In 1808 Raleigh was the home of John Chavis, Negro schoolmaster who 
taught both white and colored people. As early as 1816, Archibald D. 
Murphey introduced resolutions in the assembly favoring establishment of 
a Government-controlled colony for "persons of colour who have been or 
shall be emancipated." The Raleigh Auxiliary Society for Colonizing the 
Free People of Colour of the United States was organized in 18 19. By 1829 
there were nine such societies in the State. John Rex, taciturn Raleigh tanner 
who originally endowed Rex Hospital, left a sizable part of his estate (1838) 
in trust to finance transportation to Africa for all his slaves who were willing 
to go. While the State did not officially support any colonization effort, 
there were many private contributions, notably by the Quakers. 

The 12,575 Negroes of the city, 33 percent of the total population, own 
and operate hotels, newspapers, banks, and a savings association. They have 
two colleges, libraries, municipal playgrounds, churches, hospitals, and other 
institutions. Many are represented in the professions, although the bulk of 
the Negro population is engaged in domestic work and in business estab- 


1. The STATE CAPITOL {open 9-5 Mon.-Fri.; g-i Sat.) rises in impres- 
sive simplicity from the center of Capitol Square at the N. end of Fayette- 
ville St. Solid and imposing, yet of graceful lines, the structure is an excellent 
example of the Greek Revival mode. The building is illuminated at night 
by tinted floodlights. Sentimental attachment to the century-old building has 
resisted efforts to replace it with a larger modern structure. 

The capitol was authorized by the general assembly in 1832. W. S. Drum- 


mond and Col. Thomas Bragg were the architects, with Ithiel Town, then at 
work on the New York Customhouse, as consultant. Through Town, 
David Paton was secured in 1834 t0 ta ^ e complete charge. Paton imported 
stonemasons from Scotland, whose cutting and finishing he personally di- 
rected. The cornerstone was laid in 1833, and the building was completed 
in 1840 at a cost of $530,684. 

The cruciform structure, 160 feet long north to south, 140 feet east to 
west, and 97 1 /% feet high at the center, is constructed of rectangular granite 
blocks of irregular size, quarried a mile southeast of the site. Once streaked 
with black, the stone has weathered to a warm tan. The Raleigh Experi- 
mental Railway, first in North Carolina, ran from the east portico of the 
capitol to the quarry to haul the stone. Horse-drawn cars were operated over 
this strap-iron tramway, and a passenger car was run after working hours 
"for the accommodation of such ladies and gentlemen as desired to take the 
exercise of a railroad airing." 

Doric porticoes on the east and west wings and the weathered green copper 
roof and dome with its crownlike cresting, provide the dominant architec- 
tural motifs of the exterior. The difficulty of adapting the Doric order to a 
three-story building was overcome by using the first story as a base and 
permitting the columns to run through the upper stories to an adequate 
pediment. Paton employed Greek methods of construction, stone-cutting, 
and finishing. No color was applied, but an adjustment of light and shadow 
was obtained by recessing the windows between simple piers. In the entrance 
hallways are worn stairs with wrought-iron handrails, uneven flooring of 
slabs, and monolithic Ionic columns, all of granite. Wood was used for the 
heavy studded doors and light window frames. 

The carved ornamental detail in the halls and public rooms is Greek, em- 
ploying Ionic and Corinthian forms, but the private offices show touches of 
the English Gothic. The vestibules are decorated with columns and pilasters 
similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acropolis. The 

Key to Raleigh Map 

1. The State Capitol. 2. The State Supreme Court Building. 3. The State Office 
Building. 4. The State Agricultural Building. 5. The Richard B. Haywood House. 
6. Christ Church. 7. The Treasurer Haywood House. 8. The Governor's Mansion. 
9. The Henry Clay Oak. 10. Peace, a Junior College for Women. 11. The Mordecai 
House. 12. Oakwood Cemetery. 13. St. Augustine's College. 14. National Cemetery. 
15. The Site of the Birthplace of Andrew Johnson. 16. The Richard B. Harrison Library. 
17. The Wake County Courthouse. 18. The Memorial Auditorium. 19. Shaw Univer- 
sity. 20. The Sacred Heart Cathedral. 21. The St. Paul A.M.E. Church. 22. The 
Joel Lane House. 23. St. Mary's School. 24 Confederate Breastworks. 25. Pullen 
Park. 26. The North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering of the 
University of North Carolina. 27. The State School for the Blind. 28. Central Prison. 
29. The State Hospital for the Insane. 

a. Post Office, b. Union Station, c. Bus Station, d. Chamber of Commerce, e. Caro- 
lina Motor Club, f. Caswell Square — State Board of Health, g. Nash Square, h. Moore 
Square. 1. Airport, k. Raleigh Golf Association, l. Carolina Pines, m. Cheviot Hills. 
n. Negro Park. 

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remainder is groined with stone and brick pilasters of the Roman Doric 

At the intersection of the principal axes of the plan is a rotunda crowned 
by a low dome which, despite its stylistic inconsistency, harmonizes with 
the Doric detail of the exterior. The interior of the rotunda has a maximum 
height of 93V2 feet. Bronze plaques on the walls of the first floor com- 
memorate important events or personages in North Carolina history. There 
are niches containing busts of John M. Morehead {see Greensboro), William 
A. Graham {see tour //), Samuel Johnston {see tour ia), and Matt W. 
Ransom {see tour 24a). All were sculptured by F. Wellington Ruckstuhl 
between 1909 and 1912. 

The floor of the rotunda at the second story is in the form of a gallery 
around a 17-foot circular well, overhanging the lower floor about 9 feet with- 
out apparent support. Mortised curving stone stairs to the third floor, at the 
north of the west entrance, are supported by their own construction. 

On the first floor are offices for the Governor, secretary of state, State treas- 
urer, and State auditor. The second floor contains the senate chamber and 
the hall of the house of representatives. The plan of the house of representa- 
tives is that of a Greek amphitheater, with a semicircular Greek Doric colon- 
nade. The senate chamber, with columns of similar order, is cruciform in 
plan with a rostrum at the north side. 

The third floor, used for clerical purposes, is finished in the florid Gothic 
style. The lobbies as well as the rotunda are lighted with cupolas. 

On the east grounds is a bronze statue of Zebulon Baird Vance {see ashe- 
ville) by Henry J. Ellicott, erected in 1903. Beside it are fountains in two 
lily ponds and two mortars from Fort Macon. To the southeast of the capitol 
is a statue of Charles D. Mclver {see greensboro) sculptured by Ruckstuhl 
and erected in 191 1. On the south, within an iron fence, is a bronze copy 
of Houdon's Washington from the original in the capitol at Richmond, Va., 
placed here in 1858. It is flanked by a pair of French-cast cannon made in 
1748, mounted at Edenton in 1778, and brought here in 1903. West of this 
is a statue of Charles Brantley Aycock by Gutzon Borglum, erected in 1924. 
At the southwest corner, facing Morgan Street, is a monument to the women 
of the Confederacy by Augustus Lukeman. To the west of the capitol is a 
statue by W. S. Packer of Ensign Worth Bagley of Raleigh, first American 
officer killed in the Spanish-American War. Beside it is a Spanish gun, 
mounted here in 1908. On the northwest is Borglum's statue of Henry Law- 
son Wyatt, first North Carolina soldier killed in action in the War between 
the States, at Bethel Church, June 10, 1861. Dominating the west grounds 
and Salisbury Street is a reproduction of Muldoon's Confederate Monument, 
a 70-foot shaft surmounted and flanked with bronze figures of Confederate 
soldiers. Two 32-pounders cast in 1848, are mounted beside the monument. 

2. The STATE SUPREME COURT BUILDING (all depts. open ?- 5 week- 
days), facing the capitol between Salisbury and Fayetteville Sts., is a four-story 
limestone structure of modified French Renaissance design. Completed in 
1913, it houses several State departments. The State Library, on the 1st 
floor, originated in a miscellaneous collection of books for the use of legislators 


and State officials. It contains works on genealogy, material relating to the 
War between the States, early newspapers, Colonial and State records. On the 
3rd floor are the Supreme Court Chamber, the offices of court officials and 
of the attorney general. The Library of the Supreme Court, founded in 
1 81 2, occupies the 4th floor. 

3. The STATE OFFICE BUILDING (1938), NW, corner Salisbury and 
Edenton Sts., is a five-story white granite structure of modern design. The 
1 st floor is occupied by the North Carolina Historical Commission. The 
Hall of History {open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-1 Sat., winter; half -hour earlier in 
summer) is the commission's museum containing items dating from the 
Roanoke Island colony, and works of art, literature, sculpture, manufactur- 
ing, handicraft, and commerce, as well as archives, and relics of the wars 
in which North Carolina has participated. There is a copy of Canova's statue 
of George Washington. State departments and commissions occupy the other 

4. The STATE AGRICULTURAL BUILDING (1923), NW. corner Eden- 
ton and Halifax Sts., is a four-story limestone structure designed in the neo- 
classic style with a three-story Ionic colonnade above a rusticated first story. 
Housed in an annex, built in 1925, with entrance at 101 Halifax St. is the 
State Museum {open 9-5 weekdays), which contains numerous species of 
invertebrates, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, fossil forms, min- 
erals, and plant life. The building also contains offices of various State de- 
partments and houses the Phifer collection of paintings of which the North 
Carolina State Art Society is custodian. 

5. The RICHARD B. HAYWOOD HOUSE {private), 127 E. Edenton St., 
was built in 1854 of bricks made by family slaves for Dr. Richard Benehan 
Haywood, whose descendants own and occupy it. The rectangular two-story 
structure has a hip roof, four chimneys, and a four-column Doric portico. 
This house was commandeered during Federal occupation as headquarters 
for Maj. Francis P. Blair, Jr., a classmate of Dr. Haywood at the University 
of North Carolina, and was visited by Generals Sherman and Grant. 

6. CHRIST CHURCH {Episcopal), SE. corner Edenton and Wilmington 
Sts., is probably the most noteworthy Gothic Revival building in the State. 
It was designed by Richard Upjohn, architect of Trinity Church in New 
York, and erected between 1848 and 1853. The design is based upon that 
of an English medieval parish church. The main block is of local red-gray 
stone neatly squared and faced. Joined to it by a three-arched cloister is a 
square bell tower of gray stone, accented with darker red-gray stone and 
with three levels of small windows. A slender octagonal spire tapers from the 
tower to a height of about 100 feet. Its weathercock is said to be the only 
chicken Sherman's army left in Raleigh. The subdued interior is dominated 
by the altar and reredos of Caen limestone carved in France. A slave gallery 
extends across the western end of the nave. Built partly with slave labor, the 
church replaced an 1829 structure. Records of the parish date from its organi- 


zation in 1821. The first rector was John Stark Ravenscroft, first Episcopal 
Bishop of North Carolina. 

The Parish House and Chapel of the Annunciation (19 13) is con- 
nected by a cloistered walkway to the north and east of the church. Designed 
by Hobart Upjohn, grandson of the church's architect, and constructed of 
granite from the same quarry, it harmonizes with the old church. 

The Rectory (private), 11 Newbern Ave., oldest building of the church 
group, was erected about 181 8. It is of brick with granite lintels and sills, 
and has double-gallery porticoes on the east and west elevations, each of 
which has eight massive modified Doric columns in two tiers of four. It was 
originally constructed as the North Carolina State Bank and the residence of 
its president. The vault was removed when the parish acquired the property 
in 1873. 

7. The TREASURER HAYWOOD HOUSE (private), 211 Newbern Ave., 
was built about 1794 by John Haywood, State treasurer. It is owned and occu- 
pied by his descendants, remaining much as it was when built and contain- 
ing many of the original furnishings. The house is of Classical Revival design, 
finished with beaded weatherboarding. A small double-gallery entrance 
porch, with Doric columns and single wrought-iron railings flanking the 
steps, rises to a level dentiled cornice beneath the gabled roof. There is a 
wing on the left and two great end chimneys. Lafayette dined here in 1825. 

8. The GOVERNOR'S MANSION (telephone housekeeper for appoint- 
ment), 210 N. Blount St., stands on Burke Square, which in 1792 was sug- 
gested as a "proper situation for the Governor's house." The building was 
authorized by the assembly in 1885 and finished with convict labor in 1891. 
Gustavus Adolphus Bauer, the designer, employed numerous gables, pat- 
terned roof, paneled chimneys, and lathe-turned porches in the then-fash- 
ionable Queen Anne style. The mansion is of red brick and sandstone with 
broad marble entrance steps. Spacious rooms finished in native pine contain 
relics including a chair from Tryon's Palace (see new bern), a gold-framed 
mirror and walnut sideboard from the Confederate blockade runner Ad- 
Vance, and a silver service from the U.S.S. North Carolina. 

9. The HENRY CLAY OAK, North St. no ft. NW. of Blount St., 6 feet 
in diameter, is believed to be between 500 and 600 years old. Under this tree 
in 1844 while he was a guest of Kenneth Rayner, Henry Clay wrote the well- 
known Raleigh letter to the National Intelligencer which, because of its 
evasive treatment of the question of admitting Texas as a slave State, was a 
factor in his defeat for the Presidency. 

10. PEACE, A JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, N. end of Wilmington 
St., in a 10-acre grove, was opened in 1872 by the Rev. Robert Burwell after 
it had been organized in 1857 as a Presbyterian girls school by the Rev. 
Joseph M. Atkinson and William Peace, prominent Raleigh merchant who 
donated the site. During the War between the States the partially com- 
pleted main brick building was used for a Confederate hospital and after- 


wards housed a Freedmen's Bureau. Since 1907 the Presbyterian Church of 
North Carolina has owned and controlled the institution, which is an ac- 
credited Grade A junior college and high school with a faculty of 20 and a 
student body of 200. 

11. The MORDECAI HOUSE {private), NW. corner Wake Forest Rd. and 
Walnut St., is a Greek Revival mansion of heart-pine timbers painted white 
with green blinds. In 1758 Joel Lane gave the older portion, with its hand- 
hewn timbers and wooden pegs, to his son, Henry. The four front rooms 
and the two-story columned portico as well as the east portico were added 
in 1824 by Moses Mordecai, whose descendants own and occupy it. Lafayette 
stopped here in 1825, and in i860 Gen. Joseph Lane (see asheville), grand- 
son of one of Raleigh's earliest settiers, and then a Vice-Presidential candi- 
date, was a guest. 

12. In OAKWOOD CEMETERY, NE. corner Linden and Oakwood Aves., 
are buried six North Carolina Governors: Aycock, Bragg, Holden, Worth, 
Swain, and Fowle. 

13. ST. AUGUSTINE'S COLLEGE (Negro), NE. corner Oakwood Ave. 
and Tarboro Rd., was founded in 1867 by the Episcopal Church. Its 20 
buildings stand on a 35-acre campus. There are 300 students and 22 teachers. 
The curriculum includes a preparatory course, a four-year college course 
leading to A.B. and B.S. degrees, and the Bishop Tuttle School of Religious 
Education and Social Service. St. Agnes Hospital and Training School is 
affiliated with the college. According to tradition, Willie Jones, commissioner 
for the State-at-large when Raleigh was founded, and one of the framers 
of the State constitution, is buried in an unmarked grave on the grounds, 
once a part of his plantation. 

14. NATIONAL CEMETERY, SE. corner E. Davie St. and Rock Quarry 
Rd., established in 1867, covers 7 acres and contains the graves of 1,274 
Union soldiers, many of whom were originally buried on Bentonville Battle- 
field in 1865 {see tour 3). 

Fayetteville St., is indicated by a granite marker. At the head of this street 
stood Casso's Inn, early political meeting place. In the innyard was the home 
of Jacob Johnson, hosder, janitor, and town constable, whose wife, Polly, did 
the weaving for the inn. On Dec. 29, 1808, when pretty Peggy Casso was 
attending her wedding ball in the statehouse, a little girl summoned her: 
"Come quickly, Ma'am! Polly the weaver wants you." Polly had a baby son 
and wouldn't Peggy name him? Dropping on her knees beside the infant, 
she said: "I name thee, on this my wedding night, Andrew." Sixteen years 
later the Star and North Carolina Gazette advertised a reward of $10 for 
the return of two runaway apprentices, William and Andrew Johnson, 
brothers. Andrew worked as a tailor's apprentice at Carthage {see tour 52) 
and later settled in Tennessee. On his return to Raleigh in 1867, President 
Johnson called first on Mrs. Peggy Stewart, his godmother. 


16. The RICHARD B. HARRISON LIBRARY (Negro) {open 2-6 Tues., 
Thurs., Fri.; 2-9 Wed.; 1-9 Sat.), 135 E. Hargett St., was founded in 1935 
by an interracial group and the State Library Commission, and named for 
the Negro actor (see Greensboro). The library contains 20,000 volumes. 

17. The WAKE COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 316 Fayetteville St., stands 
on property conveyed to the county for 5 shillings by Theophilus Hunter and 
James Bloodvvorth in 1795 for erection of a "large and eligant" wooden 
building. The present courthouse is a rectangular, four-story building of 
granite and terra cotta designed in the neoclassic style with recessed loggias 
in front and rear elevations fronted by Corinthian columns. 

18. The MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM, S. end of Fayetteville St., harmonizes 
with the Greek Revival design of the capitol. Erected in 1932 by the city and 
designed by Atwood and Weeks, it memorializes Wake County citizens 
who served in various wars. Of white brick and marble, it contains an audi- 
torium seating 3,600, committee rooms, banquet hall, kitchen, and a fire 
station. The ballroom is the scene of the annual Debutante Ball in September, 
when young ladies from all sections of the State make their bows to society. 
The Governors' inaugural balls are also held here. 

19. SHAW UNIVERSITY (Negro, coeducational), SE. corner E. South 
and Wilmington Sts., had its beginning in December 1865 in a theological 
class for freedmen conducted by Dr. Henry M. Tupper, Union Army chap- 
lain, and his wife. Chartered in 1875 under its present name, the university 
is supported by the Negro State and Northern Baptist Conventions. It has 
400 students taught by a faculty of 30, and grants the degrees of A.B., B.S., 
B.D. and B.S. in Home Economics. Ten red brick buildings of eclectic design 
occupy a 25-acre wooded campus. 

20. The SACRED HEART CATHEDRAL, NW. corner Hillsboro and 
McDowell Sts., was constructed in 1924 of gray granite and designed in the 
neo-Gothic style with pointed-arch windows and low corner tower. It adjoins 
the residence of the Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Raleigh. 

21. The ST. PAUL A.M.E. CHURCH, NW. corner Edenton and Harring- 
ton Sts., originated in 1849 when Negro members of Edenton Street Meth- 
odist Church organized as the city's first Negro congregation. In 1853 they 
acquired the old Christ Church building, which they moved to this site on 
rollers at night amid singing and shouting. The present red brick, steepled 
edifice was erected in 1884. Occasionally the topic of the morning sermon 
is reenacted at night by pantomime dramatizations that have been compared 
v/ith early morality plays. 

22. The JOEL LANE HOUSE (open; resident caretaker), 728 W. Hargett 
St., built before 1771 by Joel Lane, is the oldest house in Raleigh, though 
150 feet removed from its original site. This Dutch Colonial structure has a 
gambrel roof, dormer windows, a vine-embowered entrance stoop, and great 
end chimneys. The rear wing is a later addition and the whole has been 


remodeled. Refurnished in the style of its period, the house serves as head- 
quarters for the Wake County Committee of the Colonial Dames. 

23. ST. MARY'S SCHOOL, 900 Hillsboro St., founded in 1842 by the Rev. 
Aldert Smedes, was conducted successively by him and his son, the Rev. Ben- 
nett Smedes, as an Episcopal school for young ladies until 1897, when it was 
acquired by the Episcopal Church. St. Mary's, the largest Episcopal high 
school and junior college in the United States, is fully accredited and has a 
student body of 200 and a faculty of 20. On the shady 20-acre campus are 
14 buildings connected by covered ways. Smedes Hall, the main building, 
is a substantial red brick structure with white columned portico and broad 
steps, flanked by wistaria-covered East and West Rock Buildings. The little 
frame cruciform Chapel, with a hooded entrance, was designed by Richard 
Upjohn. Ravenscroft, 802 Hillsboro St., at the E. end of the grove, is the 
residence of the Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of North Caroina. 

24. CONFEDERATE BREASTWORKS, E. of 11 15 Hillsboro St., marked 
by a line of young trees, were erected in 1865 for defense of the town, though 
never used. The earthen battlements are well preserved. 

25. PULLEN PARK, approached from Hillsboro St. and from the Western 
Outlet (US 1-70), was established in 1887 on 80 acres by R. Stanhope Pullen. 
The tract has been enlarged, with Federal aid, into a picnic and recreation 
ground with public swimming pool and playground facilities. 

LINA {buildings open during school hours unless otherwise noted), Hills- 
boro St. at Oberlin Rd., has 40 buildings in a 30-acre campus. College prop- 
erty includes 35 acres in orchards and gardens, 15 acres in poultry yards, and 
400 acres in a nearby experiment farm. The plant is valued at $5,300,000. 
Six additional experimental test farms are maintained in different parts of 
the State in cooperation with the State Department of Agriculture. 

With a teaching staff of 256, the college annually enrolls about 2,150 resi- 
dent students and offers undergraduate and graduate training for technical, 
scientific, and professional service in 36 vocations. It includes the Schools of 
Agriculture, Engineering, Science, Textile Arts, and the Summer School. 
The college also has an extension service with 2,700 students enrolled in 
correspondence and night classes, and a Department of Home Demonstration. 
A unit of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps gives four years instruction 
in military science and tactics. 

Opened in 1889 as the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts, the college was established through the efforts of the Watauga 
Club, an organization of Raleigh young men interested in the establishment 
of an industrial school, and Col. L. L. Polk, whose Progressive Farmer 
sponsored a farmers' movement for an agricultural college. One of the first 
buildings, Holladay Hall (1888), named for the first president, serves as 
the administration building. It was erected on land donated by R. Stanhope 
Pullen and accommodated the original student body of 72 and their 8 


teachers. In 19 17 the name was changed to North Carolina State College of 
Agriculture and Engineering. In 1932 it became a unit of the Greater Uni- 
versity {see chapel hill), but through all these changes it has been popu- 
larly referred to as State College. 

Since 1926 the Engineers Fair has been an annual spring event, open to 
the public, sponsored by the Engineering Council, a student organization. 
The fair exhibits engineering models, charts, and devices. 

Dominating the Hillsboro Street campus entrance is the War Memorial, 
a 116-foot campanile of white Mount Airy granite, designed by William 
Henry Deacy, begun by alumni in 1921 as a monument to the 33 State Col- 
lege men who lost their lives in the World War, and completed in 1937 with 
Federal aid. 

The D. H. Hill Library {open 8:30 a.m.-ioi^o p.m. weekdays) is a 
domed and colonnaded red brick structure in the Federal style, designed by 
Hobart Upjohn. It was erected in 1926 and named for the third president of 
the college. Modern murals adorn the rotunda. The library contains 35,000 
bound volumes and much unbound material. The Frank Thompson Gym- 
nasium (1924) has accommodations for 2,500 at indoor contests, and Riddick 
Stadium seats 15,000, or 20,000 with temporary stands. 

On the campus is the Andrew Johnson House {admission upon applica- 
tion to \eeper), a tiny, gambrel-roof frame structure, the birthplace (1808) 
of the 17th President of the United States. It was removed from its original 
site on Fayetteville Street to Pullen Park, and in 1937 was moved here. 

27. The STATE SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND {admission upon applica- 
tion at superintendent' s office}, coeducational, S. end Ashe Ave., occupies a 
dozen buildings on a 100-acre tract. Established in 1845, it was removed to its 
present site in 1923. 

28. CENTRAL PRISON {no visitors except prisoners' relatives'), W. end of 
Morgan St., authorized by the general assembly in 1869, is a battlemented 
structure that required 14 years to erect. Its 12-acre area is surrounded by a 
gray granite wall. The prison contains the only lethal gas execution chamber 
east of the Mississippi. 

open), Boylan Dr. at Boylan Ave., was authorized in 1848 by the general 
assembly at the instigation of Dorothea Lynde Dix. The site she selected is a 
forested tract of 1,248 acres. The main building, designed in the Gothic 
Revival style by Alexander Jackson Davis, was opened in 1856. 


Meredith College, 3.5 m., Method, Negro rural community, 4 m., State Fair Grounds 
and highway shops, 5 m., Cary, birthplace of Walter Hines Page, author and Ambassador 
to the Court of St. James's, 8 m., Crabtree Creek Park, National recreation and demon- 
stration area, 11 m. (see tour yb); State College Experiment Farm, 3 m., State School 
for Negro Deaf and Blind, 3 m., State Forest Nursery, 7 m., Nancy Jones House, where 
the Governor of North Carolina made his observation ("It's a long time between 
drinks") to the Governor of South Carolina, 10 m. (see tour 28). 


Railroad Stations: Union Station, Redcross and Front Sts., for Atlantic Coast Line R.R.; 
end of Brunswick. St. for Seaboard Air Line R.R. 

Bus Station: SW. corner 2nd and Walnut Sts., for Seashore Transportation, Queen City 
Coach, and Atlantic Greyhound. 

Airport: County-owned, 3 m. N. on US 117, 1 m. E. on Airport Rd.; no scheduled service. 

Taxis: 25^. 

City Buses: Fare S<t; Carolina Beach 25^. 

Piers: Ann St. for line to Norfolk, Baltimore, and Philadelphia; freight, occasional pas- 

Traffic Regulations: Right turn on red lights from right lane; no parking on streets, 
1 a.m. to 6 a.m.; 30-min. parking in restricted zones. 

Accommodations: 4 hotels; boarding houses and tourist homes in city and at nearby 
beaches. Free tourist campground, Greenfield Park, N. bank of Greenfield Lake. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce and Carolina Motor Club, both in Cape Fear 
Hotel, 2nd and Chestnut Sts. 

Radio Station: WMFD (1370 kc). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Thalian Hall in City Hall, NE. corner 3rd and 

Princess Sts., occasional road shows, local productions; 3 motion picture houses. 
Swimming: Greenfield Lake, S. end of 3rd St. 

Golf: Municipal Golf Course, 4 m. E. on US 74-76, 18 holes, greens fee, 50^. 
Tennis: Pembroke Jones Park, Market and 14th Sts.; Wallace Park, Market and 21st Sts.; 

Robert Strange Playground, 8th and Nun Sts.; Greenfield Lake Park. 
Hunting and Fishing: Inquire Chamber of Commerce. 

Annual Events: Old Christmas celebration, Jan. 6; Easter Carols; Wilmington Light 
Infantry outing, Wrightsville Beach, May 20; Municipal Christmas Tree. 

WILMINGTON (32 alt., 32,270 pop.), seat of New Hanover County, is a 
river port city at the head of a narrow peninsula between Cape Fear River and 
the Atlantic Ocean, 30 miles from the river mouth. The city, with a history 
of more than two centuries, is in a region noted for the variety of its vege- 

The river is so thickly lined with piers and warehouses that it is visible 
only at street ends and at the customhouse wharf. Several residential streets 
have landscaped parkways where palmettos grow in profusion. Fine old 
homes, many surrounded by informal gardens and some inclosed by high 
walls, are sheltered by oaks, maples, and magnolias. Fountains and monu- 
ments mark many street intersections. Negro homes are scattered about the 
city near the industrial plants, though a few are in better sections. 

The city bustles with activity on weekdays. White and Negro hucksters 
cry their wares in the early morning on residential streets and Negro steve- 
dores sing work songs on the docks as they handle cotton, sugar, and odorous 
fertilizer. Saturday brings a horde of farmers from outlying farms. The peal 



of many church bells breaks the Sunday calm. In summer, tourists throng 
the streets, en route to and from nearby beaches. 

Before the advent of the white man, Indians traveled, fished, and fought on 
Cape Fear River. The first Barbadian settlers came in 1665 and by 1725 the 
first permanent plantations had been established. For years the river was the 
only means of communication, social and commercial. Every home of con- 
sequence had its barge and a crew of Negro slave oarsmen. 

Wilmington dates from 1730 when English yeomen built log shacks on a 
bluff east of the junction of the Northeast and Northwest Branches of the 
river. The settlement, called New Liverpool, shortly admitted colonists from 
the lower peninsula, who sought protection from pirates and better harbor 
facilities. In 1733 John Watson obtained a grant of 640 acres adjoining New 
Liverpool and called the place New Town (or Newton). Gov. Gabriel John- 
ston, in 1734, changed the name to honor his patron, Spencer Compton, Earl 
of Wilmington, and the town became a commercial center. In 1745 the as- 
sembly authorized the building of Fort Johnston at the mouth of the river 
as a protection against Spanish pirates; it was completed in 1764. 

Resentment against the Stamp Act reached a climax in Wilmington in 
1765 when the funeral rites of Liberty were performed on Market Street. 
The resignation of the stamp master was demanded and obtained. At Bruns- 
wick {see tour iC) His Majesty's Ship Diligence was prevented from land- 
ing the obnoxious stamps. 

Patriotism flamed during the Revolution among such residents of Wilming- 
ton as Cornelius Harnett, statesman; Gen. Robert Howe, trusted friend of 
Washington; and William Hooper, signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Following the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, Cornwallis occupied the 
town, June 29, 1781, and conducted numerous raids in the vicinity before 
starting on his march to Yorktown. 

Innes Academy was established in 1783, with funds bequeathed by Col. 
James Innes "For the use of a free school." In 1804 the Bank of Cape Fear 
was incorporated. Women of the town organized the Female Benevolent 
Society in 1817. After a slave uprising in 1831, six of the leaders were tried 
and hanged. 

During the War between the States, the town, protected by Forts Fisher, 
Caswell, and Johnston at the mouth of the river, was the chief port of entry 
for Confederate blockade runners. In 1862 they brought in yellow fever from 
Nassau, causing hundreds of deaths. When forts and town fell to Union 
forces in January 1865, the fate of the southern cause was sealed, for Wilming- 
ton was the last port in use by the Confederacy. Disastrous fires during and 
after the war destroyed many homes, churches, and warehouses. 

The Wilmington Star, North Carolina's oldest daily newspaper, was 
founded Sept. 23, 1867, by Maj. William H. Bernard, and has had a continu- 
ous existence since that date. In 1875 Government engineers, under Henry 
Bacon, closed New Inlet, which had been deepened by a hurricane in 1871, 
thus saving Wilmington's harbor by insuring a sufficient depth over the main 
bar. The dam is known as the Rocks. 

Under a carpetbag administration the surviving institutions of disfranchised 
white citizens were steadily undermined, though the Democrats regained 


control in 1876. In 1895 a fusion of Republicans and Populists acquired 
control and elected or appointed several Negroes to municipal offices. Resent- 
ful whites organized a clan called the Red Shirts, who, in the election of 
1898, so intimidated Negro voters that the Democrats won a sweeping vic- 
tory. A few days later (Nov. 10) the Red Shirts compelled the resignation 
of all Negro officeholders. The mayor and councilmen were forced to resign 
and elect successors named by the Red Shirts. A Negro printing office 
was burned. A Negro shot and killed a white man, general gunfire started, 
and 20 or more Negroes were slain. This action presaged final recov- 
ery of the State administration by the Democratic party and restriction of 
the franchise for Negroes, eliminating their influence in North Carolina 

Until 19 10 Wilmington was the largest city in North Carolina. The shallow 
channel and the distance from the sea limited its development, and its indus- 
try and trade failed to match the more spirited stride of inland cities. During 
the World War three shipyards were built here by the United States Gov- 
ernment and several vessels were launched for naval duty. Deepening of the 
channel brought a resurgence of trade to the city. Oil companies built ter- 
minals and chemical industries were established to extract bromine from sea 
water. One of the largest cotton compresses in the United States is located 
here. Fertilizer plants produce about 400,000 tons annually. Other industries 
include lumber mills, creosoting plants, and a shirt factory. 

The harbor handles more than a million tons of cargo annually and port 
revenue collections exceed $12,000,000 a year. The controlling depth is 30 
feet over the ocean bar and 29 feet in the river channels, with a 30-foot depth 
in the anchorage basin. The city is accessible to the Intracoastal Waterway 
through the Cape Fear River, where at the old Liberty Shipyard property, 
there is a free yacht basin. Wilmington is an important railroad center, with 
the general offices of the Atlantic Coast Line and division headquarters for 
the Seaboard Air Line. 

The Thalian Association, one of the earliest theatrical organizations in 
North Carolina, was formed prior to 1800. The group was revived in 1814, 
and again in 1846, continuing until the War between the States. A little 
theater group, formed in 1929, assumed the old name. Full-length plays are 
presented, including the works of members. Jews of the city maintain a 
social center called Harmony Circle. The Brigade Boys Club, outgrowth of a 
semimilitary organization known as the Boys Brigade, maintains a library 
and gymnasium, and conducts a character-building program for Wilmington 

The bulk of the city's 13,106 Negroes, 40 percent of the total population, 
are employed at manual and domestic labor, though many are engaged in 
the skilled trades and a few are represented in the professions. 


1. THE U. S. CUSTOMHOUSE, Water St. between Princess and Market 
Sts., stretches the length of a city block. Designed by James A. Wetmore and 
built in 1914-16 of natural sandstone, its three stories are marked by classic 


simplicity. A recessed court between the end wings on the river elevation 
forms a gardened esplanade with fountain, trees, flowers, and stone benches, 
fronted by a massive balustrade. From the wharf, where the U. S. Coast 
Guard cutter Modoc docks, there is a wide view of the river. Across the 
river on the Eagle Island shore is the Site of Berry's Shipyard, also called 
the Confederate Navy Yard, where in 1862 the ironclad North Carolina was 
built. Upstream the water front is crowded with docks and warehouses 
served by railroad tracks. Within this area are cotton compress plants and 
facilities for handling the export and import trade. Downstream are more 
docks and warehouses for cotton, chemical, cooperage and other concerns. A 
mile to the south, on a point jutting into the river, is the Dram Tree, an 
ancient cypress. Tradition relates that in ante-bellum days, ships' crews in- 
dulged in a dram of rum as their craft passed the point. Farther south are 
the tanks of the oil companies, which annually distribute millions of gallons 
of petroleum products. 

2. The SITE OF THE OLD COURTHOUSE, NE. corner Front and Mar- 
ket Sts., occupied by business structures, where on Nov. 16, 1765, Dr. William 
Houston, the royal stamp master, was forced to vacate his office, is indicated 
by a marker that also recalls the action of militia in preventing the landing 
of stamped paper and the defense pledge adopted by citizens of the county 
on June 19, 1775. 

ket and 3rd Sts., occupied by an automobile service station, is indicated by a 
marker. This was the military center when Wilmington was a strategic port 
as the "life line of the Confederacy." John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, on 
Apr. 12, 1 819, was entertained in the old building, which was torn down 
during the World War. 

4. The GEORGE DAVIS MONUMENT, Market and 3rd Sts., memorializ- 
ing the Confederate States Senator and Attorney General, is a heroic por- 
trait statue of bronze on a granite pedestal, executed by Francis Herman 
Packer and erected in 191 1. 

5. The CORNWALLIS HOUSE {private), SW. corner Market and 3rd 
Sts., is State headquarters of the North Carolina Society of Colonial Dames, 
who plan (1939) to establish a museum of Colonial relics in the building. 
The two-story, white, weatherboarded structure, shaded by huge magnolias, 
is believed to have been built in the 1770's. The roof is gabled and the front 
porches are carried on two superimposed ranges of Ionic columns. The cen- 
tral bay of the colonnade, slightly wider than the rest, is surmounted by a 
pediment. The first floor of the house is raised well above the ground on a 
high latticed basement. The double cellars have apartments locally referred 
to as dungeons. Tradition tells of a tunnel that led two blocks west to the 
river. Cornwallis maintained his headquarters here while in possession of the 
city in 1781. The original floor boards bear marks reputedly made by British 


6. ST. JAMES CHURCH {Episcopal), SE. corner 3rd and Market Sts., of 
Gothic Revival design, T. U. Walter, architect, was erected in 1839 near the 
site of an earlier church built in 1751. The parish was founded in 1735. The 
building rests on a raised foundation wall extending to the high stone steps 
of the front entrance. A transept was added in 1879. Until the War between 
the States the interior had galleries around three sides of the nave "for the 
use of our people of color." The wooden altar and reredos were carved by 
Silas McBee and his sister, of Sewanee, Tenn. The church was used for a 
hospital during Union occupation of the town. 

In the vestry room hangs a painting of the head of Christ, Ecce Homo 
(Behold the Man), artist unknown, taken from a captured Spanish ship that 
attempted to seize the town of Brunswick in 1748. Other booty from the ship 
was sold and the proceeds contributed to the building funds of St. Philip's, 
Brunswick, and St. James. For generations children of the parish have greeted 
the rising Easter sun with carols sung from the tower of St. James above the 

In the Churchyard is the grave of Cornelius Harnett (1723-81), member 
of 13 Colonial assemblies, deputy provisional grand master of the Masonic 
order in North America, and delegate to the Continental Congress. He wrote 
the clause for religious freedom in the constitution of North Carolina. Here 
also is the grave of Thomas Godfrey (1736-63), author of the Prince of 
Parthia, the first drama written by a native American and produced on the 
professional stage. It was published in 1765 and produced in Philadelphia in 

Princess Sts., was built in 1892 of red brick with white granite trim. The 
annex, erected in 1925, is of white granite in Georgian design. On the 3rd 
floor is the New Hanover County Museum {open 3-5 Wed. and Fri.), con- 
taining a collection of early Wilmingtoniana, Oriental curios, geological speci- 
mens, Confederate and World War relics. 

Key to Wilmington Map 

1. The U. S. Customhouse. 2. The Site of the Old Courthouse. 3. The site of the 
Confederate Headquarters. 4. The George Davis Monument. 5. The Cornwallis House. 
6. St. James Church. 7. The New Hanover County Courthouse. 8. The City Hall. 
9. The Cornelius Harnett Monument. 10. The Hebrew Temple, n. The Wilmington 
Light Infantry Armory. 12. The Bellamy Mansion. 13. The Hugh McRae House. 
14. St. Mary's Cathedral. 15. The Council Tree. 16. The Site of the Birthplace of 
Ann Whistler. 17. The First Presbyterian Church. 18. The Dudley Mansion. 19. The 
Confederate Memorial. 20. St. Thomas Church. 21. The DeRossett House. 22. Hilton 
Park. 23. Oakdale Cemetery. 24. The United States National Cemetery. 25. Green- 
field Park. 

a. Post Office, b. Union Station, c. Seaboard Air Line Station, d. Union Bus Station. 
e. Chamber of Commerce, f. Cape Fear Twin Bridges, g. Airport, h. Yacht Basin. 
1. Pembroke Jones Park. k. Robert Strange Playground, l. Cape Fear Country Club. 
m. Municipal Golf Course. 






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8. The CITY HALL, NE. corner 3rd and Princess Sts., built in 1855, has 
18-inch walls surfaced with cream stucco and is fronted by a Corinthian 
portico. Besides housing municipal offices the building contains Thalian 
Hall, an auditorum seating 1,000, and the Wilmington Public Library 
{open 10-9 weekdays except June i-Sept. 1, 9-5), with 25,000 volumes. 

9. The CORNELIUS HARNETT MONUMENT, E. Market and 4 th Sts., 
is a white marble obelisk erected by the North Carolina Society of Colonial 
Dames in honor of the Revolutionary statesman. 

10. The HEBREW TEMPLE, SE. corner E. Market and 4th Sts., built in 
1875, is the first temple erected by Jews in North Carolina. The design is 
based upon Oriental tradition, employing Saracenic detail. 

between 4th and 5th Sts., a two-story structure of pressed brick and marble, 
built in 1852, served as a residence until acquired by the Wilmington Light 
Infantry in 1892. Fixtures include a built-in stove and wall safe. There are 
remnants of a tunnel that once connected the basement with the old Corn- 
wallis House. 

The company was organized in 1858 and equipped by Jefferson Davis, 
Secretary of War under President Pierce. During the War between the States 
the unit occupied Forts Johnston and Caswell. In the World War its members 
were assigned to various regiments. 

12. The BELLAMY MANSION (private), NE. corner E. Market and 5th 
Sts., used by the North Carolina Society of Colonial Dames for assembly 
rooms, is an example of Greek Revival architecture. It was designed by 
James F. Post and built in 1859. A massive Corinthian portico borders three 
sides of the wooden structure. The wide entrance door with its segmental, 
pedimented heading, is carved in a design of roses and leaves. The front 
yard is enclosed by an elaborate cast-iron fence. During Union occupation 
Federal troops maintained offices in the building. 

13. The HUGH MacRAE HOUSE (private), E. Market St. between 7th 
and 8th Sts., a Gothic Revival house designed in the style of a Tudor baronial 
castle, was built about 1850 by James Post and remodeled in 1902 by Henry 
Bacon, designer of the Lincoln Memorial in the Capital. The ivy-clad brick 
building with brown stucco and stone trim has two main stories, a basement, 
an attic, and a flat roof with low battlements. Beneath the main cornice are 
a series of pointed arches. The south elevation has a conservatory with 
wrought-iron supports surmounted with a wrought-iron balustrade. The 
yard is enclosed by a wrought-iron fence with wide gates, designed by Bacon, 
at both north and south carriage entrances. During the War between the 
States the house was used by Federal troops as a hospital. 

14. ST. MARY'S CATHEDRAL (Roman Catholic), NW. corner Ann and 
5th Sts., of Spanish Renaissance design, is the work of Rafael Guastavino, 


built (1912-13) under the supervision of Rafael Guastavino, Jr. Graceful 
towers flank the front entrance and a dome spans the main section of the 
glazed-brick building. The interior walls are decorated with mosaic figures 
of the saints in varicolored tile. The stained-glass windows were made by 
Franz Meyer in Munich, Germany. 

15. The COUNCIL TREE, near SE. corner 4th and Ann Sts., is a great oak, 
which in 1740 marked the town boundary and under whose shade, tradition 
relates, were held political and other gatherings. 

the artist, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, SW. corner 4th and Orange Sts., 
is occupied by a residence. 

17. The FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NE. corner 3rd and Orange 
Sts., was erected in 1928 after a design by Hobart Upjohn. The body of the 
church, granite with limestone trim, is English Gothic with a clerestory. 
The front with its spire suggests the French Gothic, particularly the Cathe- 
dral at Chartres, while the brick Sunday school building is Tudor. The 
structure replaced an earlier church on the same site whose onetime pastor, 
the Rev. Joseph Ruggles Wilson, was the father of Woodrow Wilson. A 
mosaic tablet in the vestibule memorializes the 28th President, who, as a boy, 
was a member. 

18. The DUDLEY MANSION (private), SW. corner Front and Nun Sts., 
was constructed between 1830 and 1835 of red brick, since painted white. It 
is designed in the Federal style. The two-story main block of the house 
is flanked by recessed wings. Twin stone steps, with iron railings, rise to a 
small landing in front of the porticoed, fanlighted doorway. At the rear is 
a two-story conservatory, from which stone steps lead to the garden, terraced 
broadly down to the water's edge. An iron railing mounted on brownstone 
marks the Front Street entrance. Around the house are luxuriant palmettos. 
This was originally the home of Edward B. Dudley, Governor of North 
Carolina (1836-41), participant in one version of the famous "It's a long 
time between drinks" anecdote. In 1847 Governor Dudley entertained Daniel 
Webster here. In 1909 President William H. Taft was the guest of James 
Sprunt, who owned the house at that time. 

19. The CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL, 3rd and Dock Sts., designed by 
Francis H. Packer, is a bronze group of soldiers in bas-relief set against pol- 
ished white granite. 

20. ST. THOMAS CHURCH, Dock St. near 2nd, now a Roman Catho- 
lic mission and school for Negroes, conducted by the Sisters of Mercy, was 
built in 1845 as St. Thomas Pro-Cathedral. James Cardinal Gibbons was an 
early priest. Upon completion of the new cathedral in 1913, St. Thomas was 
given to the Negroes by the white congregation. The building is of brown- 
stone with buttressed sides and a battlemented roof. 


2r. The DeROSSETT HOUSE (private), NE. corner 2nd and Dock Sts., 
believed to have been designed by James Post, was built about 1840. It is of 
modified Georgian Colonial design with a facade of fluted Doric columns and 
a hip roof crowned with a cupola. The terraced garden is surrounded by a 
6-foot openwork brick wall. 

22. HILTON PARK, N. end of 4th St. at the river, occupies the site of the 
former estate of Cornelius Harnett. The one remaining wing of the Harnett 
House serves as a mill office. The 3-acre park was named for William 
Hilton, Cape Fear explorer. Here is what is claimed to be the World's 
Largest Christmas Tree, a live oak festooned with moss, 70 feet in height, 
15 feet in circumference at the base, its limbs spreading 115 feet. The tree is 
decorated for the Christmas season. 

23. OAKDALE CEMETERY, N. end of 15th St., shaded with live oaks 
draped with Spanish moss, is brightened in the spring by dogwood blooms. 
Dr. W. W. Wilkings, the last man killed in a political duel in North Caro- 
lina (1857) is buried here. The gravestone of Henry Bacon, also buried here, 
was designed by his brother, who copied a pattern of honeysuckle buds that 
Henry Bacon had admired in Egypt. 

A marble cross marks the Grave of Mrs. Rose O'Neill Greenhow, a 
Confederate spy. As a leader in Washington society she obtained and trans- 
mitted military information to southern commanders. Her message revealing 
the Federal order for McDowell's advance on Manassas is credited with en- 
abling Confederates to forestall a surprise attack and win the first battle of 
Bull Run. Arrested by Allan Pinkerton, Federal detective, in August 1861, 
she was imprisoned until April 1862, when she was sent to Richmond, Va. 
While returning from England aboard the Confederate blockade runner 
Condor, the ship grounded off New Inlet near Wilmington. Mrs. Greenhow 
was sent ashore in a small boat, which capsized in the surf. Weighted with 
a belt containing gold coin, she was drowned. 

In another grave Capt. William W. Ellerbrook and his dog, Jocho, lie in 
the same casket. The dog died in a futile effort to rescue his master from a 
burning building. 

A simple granite cross bearing the name Nance, marks the grave of Nancy 
Martin who was buried in a cask of rum in 1857. To preserve the body when 
the girl died at sea her father seated it in a chair and enclosed both in the 

A monument over the Grave of Lizzie B. Turlington records that she 
was "Murdered by W. L. Bingham," her fiance. She and Bingham were deaf 
mutes and Miss Turlington was a teacher in the State school for the deaf and 
dumb. When she wished to postpone their marriage Bingham persuaded her 
to take a ride with him. Her body, found a few days later, was buried here 
on Christmas day, 1886. Bingham disappeared and his fate is unknown. 

24. In the NATIONAL CEMETERY, Market and 20th Sts., along the 
banks of Burnt Mill Creek, are buried 2,400 Union soldiers. Many of the 


bodies were disinterred from battlefields after the war and removed to this 

25. GREENFIELD PARK, S. end of 3rd St., surrounding Greenfield Lake, 
originally a mill pond, has a sunken garden of native flowers. The insectivo- 
rous Venus's-flytrap grows here. A playground, bathing beach, and boating 
facilities are maintained. Wild fowl find shelter here during the winter 


Airlie (azalea gardens), 8 m., Wrightsville Beach, 10 m., Fort Caswell, 35 m. {see 
tour ib); Orton Plantation and Ruins of St. Philip's Church at site of Old Brunswick, 
16 m. {see tour iC); Castle Hayne (immigrant farm colony), 10 m., Carolina Beach, 
15 m., Kures Beach and fishing pier, 19 m., Ethyl-Dow Plant, 20 m., Fort Fisher, 
20 m., the Rocks, 21 m., Moore's Creek Battlefield, 31 m. {see tour 29). 


Railroad Station: Union Station, 300 S. Claremont St., for Southern Ry. and Norfolk & 
Western R.R. 

Bus Stations: 426 N. Cherry St. for Atlantic Greyhound and Queen City Coach. Pan- 
American Bus Lines stop at Zinzendorf Hotel, 233 N. Main St. 

Airport: Miller Municipal, 3 m. N. of Courthouse on Liberty St. extension; taxi fare 45^; 
no scheduled service. 

Taxis: 1 to 4 passengers, 25^. 

City Buses: 4 bus lines start at Courthouse Sq.: Duke Power Co., jtf, 4 for 25^; Inde- 
pendent (Waughtown line) 10^, 4 for 25^, (Polo and Country Club) 10^, 3 for 
25^; Blue Eagle, 5^ within city, 5<? additional outside city limits; Brown's 5$. Safe 
Bus Inc. (Negro) stop on Church and 3rd Sts., 5^. Transfers to buses of same line; 
no intercompany transfers. 

Accommodations: 8 hotels (2 for Negroes); tourist homes, auto camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce and Carolina Motor Club, Robert E. Lee 
Hotel building, 5th and Marshall Sts. 

Radio Stations: WSJS (1310 kc); WAIR (1250 kc). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: R. J. Reynolds Memorial Auditorium, N. Haw- 
thorne Rd., lectures, concerts; State Theater, SE. corner Liberty and 5th Sts., motion 
pictures and occasional road shows; 6 other motion picture houses (2 for Negroes). 

Swimming: City -owned pool in Lligh School Gymnasium, Hanes Park, Northwest Blvd.; 
Crystal Lake (outdoor), Reynolda Rd. (US 421), 5 m.; Negro recreational center and 
swimming pool, Cameron Ave. and E. 14th St. 

Golf: Forsyth County Country Club, Country Club Rd., 1.5 m. W. of city limits, 18 
holes, greens fee, $1.50; Hill Crest, 3 m. W. of city limits on US 158, 9 holes, greens 
fee, 50$. 

Tennis: Municipal courts at various places; call city Recreation for reservation. 

Riding: Anderson Riding Academy, Main and 5th Sts. to Polo Rd., 5.4 m. 

Skfet Shooting: Forsyth County Gun Club, Cherry St. extension, one block N. of inter- 
section with 25th St.; Izaak Walton Skeet Club, Thomasville Rd. (State 109), 4 m. 

Baseball: Southside Park, Waughtown St., SE. of Salem Creek and Main St., Piedmont 
League (Class B). 

Polo: Polo Rd., 0.5 m. W. from US 421, 2 m. beyond city limits; riding horses available. 

Annual Events: Moravian Sunrise Service on Easter Sunday; Easter Monday German, 
Twin City Club; May Day pageant; Candle Tea, Nov.; Moravian Love Feast and 
Candle Service, Christmas Eve; Moravian Watch Night, New Year's Eve. 

WINSTON-SALEM (884 alt., 75,274 pop.), in the north-central section of 
the North Carolina Piedmont, is the leading industrial city of the State. The 
two towns, Winston and Salem, became one municipality in 19 13. 

Salem Square is still the heart of Salem; around it stand the first buildings, 
bearing witness in their dignity of design and the beauty of their stone and 
brick masonry to the patience and craftsmanship of their builders. Salem's 
streets are lined with arching trees; its houses, built in rows flush with the 
sidewalk, have plain exteriors and dormers with small glass panes. The For- 
syth County Courthouse is the center of Winston. Nearby is the business 



district, dominated by the 22-story Reynolds office building, a set-back sky- 
scraper of vigorous design, and the 18-story Nissen Building. Winston's 
streets are comfortably wide and the houses are well set back. 

East of the city hall and extending north beyond the courthouse, the 
tobacco factories lie in solid masses, block upon block, with here and there 
a textile mill. Here the pungent odor of tobacco and the whirring rattle of 
spindles and looms furnish a dominant note. 

The newer homes of the wealthy are in suburbs such as Buena Vista and 
the Country Club section; in West Highlands, Southside, and Ardmore 
within the city limits. Many of the older families live in ancestral homes in 
Salem. To the north and east are crowded unpainted shacks, housing the 
bulk of the city's large Negro population, 42 percent of the total. Between 
these extremes are hundreds of homes of well-to-do whites and prosperous, 
educated Negroes. Along East 14th Street is a half-mile of Negro homes 
with neat premises and front yards adorned with shrubbery and flowers. A 
few fine houses are in this group. 

The Negroes of the city have their own schools, churches, hospital, Y.M. 
and Y.W.C.A., library facilities, and professional and cultural activities. 
Many are employed in the Reynolds Tobacco Company in which a number of 
them own stock. Negroes operate an insurance company, a large bus business, 
and a weekly newspaper. The Twin City Glee Club and the Smith Glee Club 
are talented Negro singing groups, composed for the most part of factory 
workers. The Winston-Salem Teachers College is developing choral music, 
chiefly Negro spirituals. 

The minutely accurate records of the first Moravian settlers hold the key 
to an understanding of the modern city. In January 1753, a small party of 
Moravians from Bethlehem, Pa., led by Bishop August Gottlieb Spangen- 
burg, in their search for desirable land for a settlement, reached "the three 
forks of Muddy Creek," where they found a fertile country of forested hills. 

From Lord Granville, the only one of the Lords Proprietors who had kept 
his share of Carolina, the Moravians bought 98,985 acres and called the tract 
"der Wachau," for the Austrian estate belonging to ancestors of Count 
Zinzendorf, patron of the Moravian Church. The name became Wachovia 
when the English language was employed. The deed was made to James 
Hutton of London "in trust for the Unitas Fratrum," as the Moravians were 
called. To finance their settlements they organized a land company in which 
each stockholder received 2,000 acres and bore his proportionate share of the 
expense of colonization. 

On Oct. 8, 1753, 12 settlers set out on foot from Bethlehem with three 
guides who later returned. The records show that they were chosen for use- 
fulness in a pioneer community. The little band arrived at the Wachovia 
tract on Nov. 17, 1753, and stopped where there was an abandoned cabin 
and meadowland that could be cultivated for a quick yield of necessary 
food. For this shelter and their safety they "rejoiced heartily," holding their 
first Carolina Love Feast, or fellowship meeting. Thus was founded the first 
setdement, Bethabara, House of Passage, sometimes known as Oldtown 
{see tour 25), 354 miles from the present Winston-Salem. 

They were welcome in a country that lacked ministers, doctors, and skilled 


craftsmen. Where scattered settlers were of different religious faiths, the 
Moravians held fast to their own church customs. On New Year's Eve, they 
observed Watch Night by reading the Memorabilia, or annual record of com- 
munity and world events. Love Feasts were occasions for rejoicing and the 
remembrance of friends. The Easter Sunrise Service proclaimed the Chris- 
tian's triumph over the grave. Nor would they do without musical instru- 
ments even in the crude surroundings of Bethabara. Soon after their arrival 
a wooden trumpet was made from a hollowed limb. Later they brought French 
horns, trombones, a violin, and even an organ. 

In spite of hardships, the Bethabara settlement, enlarged by families from 
Pennsylvania and from Europe, grew and prospered. In 1758 Indian alarms 
drove the settlers of scattered farms into Bethabara for food and protection. 
Crowded conditions, which led to an epidemic of typhus, and the desire 
of some to discard the communal system led to the founding of a new 
settlement, Bethania, in 1759 {see tour 25), 6 miles from the present city. 

When the Wachovia tract was bought, a town was planned at the center 
of it. Tradition says the name Salem, meaning "peace," was selected by 
Count Zinzendorf before he died in 1760. On a bitter cold January day in 
1766, 12 men went to the new town site, on a hill above a creek, and began 
cutting logs for the first house, singing hymns as they worked. This cabin 
stood until 1907; its heavy door and stairsteps are on exhibition in the 
Wachovia Museum. 

By the fall of 1771, Salem had several family houses and community 
buildings. Civil and religious affairs were under the supervision of congre- 
gation boards whose control was facilitated by a lease system. No lots in 
Salem were sold outright, but were leased for one year subject to renewal 
as long as the tenant was satisfactory. 

Bishop John Michael Graff's diary gives an account of Revolutionary days 
in Salem. Some members claimed exemption from military service on the 
grounds of conscientious objections. Heavy fines and threefold taxes were 
collected in lieu of service. A legislative act confirmed the validity of their 
property titles, endangered by the Confiscation Act of 1777. The years 1780 
and '81 were particularly trying. Detachments of Continentals poured into 
Wachovia for supplies. Although the Moravians raised no troops, they fur- 
nished aid to the patriots, and Traugott Bagge, a Salem merchant, acted as 
a purchasing agent for the army in this section. After the Battle of Kings 
Mountain {see tour 31c) British prisoners were brought to the settlement, 
chiefly to Bethabara. Whigs engaged a party of Tories at Shallow Ford, 10 
miles west of Salem, in 1780. Cornwallis came this way in pursuit of Greene, 
spending the night of Mar. 16, 1781 in Bethania, where the British de- 
stroyed much property, then passed through Salem. President Washington 
visited Salem in 1791 and was lodged at the new tavern. He and his secre- 
tary, with Governor Martin, attended a Moravian singing meeting "to their 
great edification." Washington inspected the town, "seeming especially 
pleased with the waterworks." 

Matthew Micksch was the first tobacconist, opening a "shop for tobacco" 
in 1773. In 1828 John Christian Blum established a printing shop and began 
publication of his famous Almanac. Probably the earliest wool-carding ma- 


chinery in the State was that introduced by Vaneman Zevely in 1815. In 
1836, as agent for the Salem Cotton Manufacturing Company, Francis Fries 
built the first cotton mill in the town. He began business on his own account 
in 1840 with a small wool-carding establishment, and in 1849 he and his 
brother operated a wool and cotton mill. 

When Forsyth County was formed in 1849, Salem lay near the center 
of it and was the natural choice for a courthouse site. The congregation 
agreed to sell land just north of Salem for a county town on condition that 
the courthouse should be placed on the crest of a hill and that the streets 
of the new town should be continuous with the streets of Salem. For two 
years the county seat had no separate designation, but in 1851 the legislature 
named the new community for Maj. Joseph Winston of Kings Mountain 
fame. During the building of the courthouse, the Forsyth courts were per- 
mitted to meet in the Salem Concert Hall on condition that no whipping 
posts be placed within the town limits. In 1854 tne pl an k road to Fayetteville, 
120 miles long, was completed. 

Salem was incorporated by the assembly of 1856-57; Winston by the 
assembly of 1859. Incorporation marked the separation of town and church 
affairs in Salem. After Winston became the county seat it attracted residents 
from the North Carolina Piedmont, Virginia, and elsewhere who built mills 
and factories. As the members of denominations other than Moravian in- 
creased they erected their own churches. 

At the outbreak of the War between the States the younger generation 
of Moravians, free from scruples against bearing arms, enlisted with their 
neighbors. The Forsyth Rifles were uniformed by Francis Fries. Wachovia 
saw Union soldiers only when Stoneman's raid reached Salem, and when 
the 10th Ohio Calvary was quartered there after the war. At that time F. and 
H. Fries woolen goods and Nissen wagons were widely known, but gradu- 
ally the tobacco industry assumed first place, the first tobacco factory and 
the Winston-Salem Tobacco Market opening in 1872. R. J. Reynolds built 
his first tobacco factory in 1875 and in the same year the Western North 
Carolina R.R. began serving the town. This was followed by rapid expan- 
sion as new factories were started and banking and commercial firms 
sprang up to meet the requirements of the growing community. 

Winston-Salem is the center of the State's largest banking organization, 
a trading point for a large section of the Piedmont, and the home of six- 
score industries with an annual production valued at $300,000,000. 

Calvin Henderson Wiley (1819-87), first State superintendent of schools 
in North Carolina (1853-65), spent many years in the city, and assisted in 
founding its graded-school system. Largely through his efforts the perma- 
nent public school endowment was not touched for military purposes during 
the War between the States. 

The present local bands are developed from trombone bands that played 
at Moravian festivals long before the Revolution. The largest is the band of 
the Home Moravian Church with 150 members; its leader, Bernard J. Pfohl, 
has been with the organization since 1879. The Mozart Club, organized in 
1932, founded a loan fund for music students. The Civic Music Association 
arranges concerts by talented artists. Salem College annually presents a May 


Day pageant, and at commencement time the School of Music gives a pro- 
gram of choral and orchestral music. 


1. The COFFEE POT, SW. corner S. Main and Belew Sts., was erected 
in 1857 by Julius Mickey as a sign for his tin shop. The pot with its support 
is 16 feet 10 inches high. Tradition relates that a Confederate soldier hid 
within the pot during the raid by Stoneman's Federal troops. 

2. The BELO HOUSE {private), 455 S. Main St., built in 1849 by Edward 
Belo as a store and residence, is well preserved. The three-story structure was 
once a center of social and commercial life, but has been converted into an 
apartment house. The weatherboarded central bay is recessed between 
brick wings, and the whole is painted white. A pedimented Corinthian portico 
rises to the full height of the Main Street fagade, shielding a roofed second- 
story balcony supported by smaller columns of similar design and guarded 
by an elaborate cast-iron grille. The severity of the walls is relieved by the 
dull black of the shingled roof and three long rows of green-shuttered small- 
paned windows. Street-level paneled doors open into the ground floor, which 
served for the mercantile establishment; the north wing housed the clerks. 

The family occupied the south wing which faces a higher level on Bank 
Street. Here the two-story fagade is marked by a pedimented Corinthian 
portico and a second-story balcony with an ornate grille. Terraces descend 
to the Main Street corner. On the broad stone facings of the retaining wall 
are the heavy cast-iron figures of two dogs and a lion. 

3. The SALEM LAND OFFICE BUILDING {private), SE. corner S. 
Main and Bank Sts., was erected in 1797 as the office and home of the 
church warden, who administered all town affairs, including the sale of 
land. Now a residence, it is one of the finest examples of early Salem architec- 
ture. Flush with the sidewalk, its first-floor walls are of stone, some of the 
blocks being more than 8 feet long and 6 inches thick, taken from a quarry 
north of the town; the second floor is of hand-made brick. Most of the 
joists are held together by wooden pegs; its nails were hammered out on 
the blacksmith's anvil. Sprawling hinges extend across the front door, whose 
heavy lock and great key were made by Lewis Eberhardt, early Salem lock- 
smith. In 1876 the lower floor was made into offices for the congregational 
and provisional secretaries. 

Church St., built in 1800, is a well-preserved three-story building of red, 
hand-made brick. Its numerous small-paned windows are set closely together 
in regular rows. This was the residence of Dr. Vierling, early Salem physi- 
cian, whose amputating saw and other instruments are in the museum of 
the Wachovia Historical Society. 

5. The MORAVIAN GRAVEYARD, entrance by way of Cedar Ave., 
known throughout the South as "God's Acre," was consecrated in 1771. 


Five wooden arches inscribed with quotations from the Bible lead into the 
graveyard. The field is divided into square plots, surrounded by wide paths. 
To the north are the graves of married women; east of these are single 
women, girls, and female infants; south are married men, and east of these 
single men and male children. The uniformity of the white marble markers 
lying flat on the ground is intended as a reminder that "in death all are 

6. The HENRY LINEBACK HOUSE {private), 508 S. Main St., built 
in 1822 and later occupied by Henry Lineback, a photographer, is a one- 
and-a-half-story clapboarded dwelling with two large dormers and a chim- 
ney of hand-made brick. The symmetrical, five-bay facade has a plain door- 
way with simple molded trim, a dark paneled Dutch door, and a four-light 
transom. The original design has been altered by an addition on the north 

7. The WINKLER BAKERY, 527 S. Main St., occupied by a tearoom, was 
erected about 1800 and for a century operated by the Winkler family. The 
main floor was used for the bakery, the second floor as the family residence. 
In 1936 a stoop entrance replaced a porch which extended over the side- 
walk. Otherwise the building, its first story of uncut stone and the second 
of hand-made brick, remains unaltered. 

{open by appointment; W. /. Hall, custodian, 4 E. Ban\ St.), NE. corner 
S. Main and Academy Sts., maintained Jby the Wachovia Historical Society, 
was erected in 1794 and occupied until 1896 by a boys school. The building 
has two stories and an attic. The basement and first story are of stone, 
covered with stucco, and the superstructure is of hand-made brick, laid in 

Key to Winston-Salem Map 

1. The Coffee Pot. 2. The Belo House. 3. The Salem Land Office Building. 4. The 
House of the Community Physician. 5. The Moravian Graveyard. 6. The Henry Line- 
back House. 7. The Winkler Bakery. 8. The Museum of the Wachovia Historical 
Society. 9. The Brothers House. 10. The Home Moravian Church. 11. Salem Col- 
lege. 12. The Community Store. 13. The John Vogler House. 14. The Blum House. 
15. The Christian Reich House. 16. The Salem Tavern. 17. The Chimney House. 
18. The Brown-Williamson Tobacco Factory. 19. The R. J. Reynolds Office Building. 
20. The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Plant. 21. The P. H. Hanes Knitting Plant. 22. The 
Tobacco Warehouses. 23. The Nissen Building. 24. The Journal and Sentinel Building. 
25. The Centenary Methodist Church. 26. The Richard J. Reynolds Memorial Audi- 
torium. 27. The Chatham Manufacturing Plant. 28. The Winston-Salem Teachers Col- 
lege. 29. The Nissen Wagon Plant. 

a. Courthouse, b. City Hall. c. Central Park. d. Twin City Athletic Park. e. Wash- 
ington Park. f. Waterworks, g. Union Station, h. Fair Grounds. 1. Airport, k. Post 
Office, l. Chamber of Commerce, m. Bus Station, n. P. H. Hanes Park. o. Polo 
Field, p. Crystal Lake. q. Runnymede Iris Park. r. Forsyth County Golf Course. 
s. Hill Crest Golf Course, t. Municipal Stadium. 


Flemish bond. The severity of its five-bay facade is relieved only by the 
graceful, segmental arched headings of the window openings and by a 
wrought-iron lamp above the simple six-paneled door. Above the door is a 
four-light transom. The gable roof of hand-made tile is broken by two end 
chimneys. The house has an old oven, a vaulted cellar room, and a winding 
staircase to the third floor. The museum contains the first fire engine used 
in Salem; a printing press used in Hillsboro before 1776 and brought to 
Salem by John C. Blum; a carriage driven from Salem to New York in 
1825; a Self-Portrait painted by Thomas Sully in 1837 for Daniel Welfare 
of Salem; tools used in constructing the town's first waterworks; old musical 
instruments; household equipment; early surgical instruments, uniforms, 
weapons, and flags. In 1937 the old museum building was augmented by the 
addition of a new hall of history on the north. 

9. The BROTHERS HOUSE {private), SW. corner S. Main and Academy 
Sts., was built in two units, the clapboarded portion in 1768, being one of 
the oldest standing. structures in Salem, and the brick in 1786. The building 
has two stories in front on the Main Street side and three stories in the rear. 
Its two arch-hooded doorways, shuttered windows, and hand-wrought guard- 
rails are typical of old Salem architecture. The steeply pitched gable roof is 
broken by two tiers of dormer windows and three chimneys with hooded 
tops. Originally occupied by the unmarried men of the Unitas Fratrum, it 
has been used during recent years as a home for widows and unmarried 
women belonging to the Home Moravian Church, and is sometimes referred 
to as the Widows House. Here each year are made the small slender wax 
candles used at the Christmas Love Feast. Candles are made at a candle 
tea, given in November by the Moravian women in Colonial dress. Formerly 
there was a spring back of the Brothers House and a marker records that 
Cornwallis' soldiers drank from its waters. 

10. The HOME MORAVIAN CHURCH, 529 S. Church St., like the oldest 
Moravian church in North Carolina (Bethabara), is notable for its beautiful 
brick masonry of simple design, its massive proportions, and for the char- 
acteristic architectural features of the exterior — the arch-hooded doorway, the 
long many-paned arched windows on the front facade, the octagonal cupola 
with its open arcade and onion-shaped dome, the latter topped with a sphere 
and weather vane, and the fine cove cornice on the two long sides. A small 
wing with hooded doorway extends to the right. 

The cornerstone of the building was laid in 1798, and the dedication took 
place two years later. Bachman came from Lititz, Pa., to install the first 
organ. A clock in the front gable, operated by stone weights, was made by 
Abraham Durninger and Sons, Herrnhut, Germany, and in 1791 was in- 
stalled in a tower on the square, where the bell had been placed in 1772. 
Clock and bell were installed in the church while the building was under 
construction. The clock still strikes the hours and quarter-hours. The interior 
of the church has been rebuilt and the original plan has been enlarged. 

Standing upon the stone stoop at the entrance, the bishop each year con- 
ducts the Easter Sunrise Service of the Moravian Church, to which thou- 


sands of visitors come. This service, the most widely known of Moravian 
customs, originated in Herrnhut in 1732, when young men of the congrega- 
tion assembled in the graveyard before dawn for an hour of prayer and song 
in celebration of the Resurrection. They acted upon their own initiative, 
but the following year the Moravian Church adopted the service. Count Zin- 
zendorf, chief official of the church, introduced instrumental music into the 
service, an unusual practice in Protestant churches at that time. The first 
Moravian Sunrise Service in North Carolina was held at Bethabara in 1758. 
The first Sunrise Service in the graveyard at Salem took place in 1773 at the 
grave of John Birkhead, a British soldier. 

The Moravians commemorate the birth of Jesus with Love Feasts in the 
Home Church on Christmas Eve. A service for children is held at 4:30, and 
another at 7:30 is for the adult congregation. A group of women in white 
distribute buns from baskets, and men serve mugs of coffee. Then the choir 
sings an anthem and the congregation "breaks bread together as one Chris- 
tian family." After an address, candles are distributed, and during the 
closing hymn they are held aloft by the congregation, symbolizing "the com- 
bined light of individuals who let their light so shine, even as Jesus came as 
a light into the world." 

On New Year's Eve the Bishop of the Southern Province reads the 
Memorabilia, or summary of the closing year's events, from the pulpit of 
the Home Moravian Church. This record is drawn from daily diaries kept 
by the minister of each congregation; from accounts of local and national 
events; from minutes of the various church boards, church registers, and 
biographies read at funerals. Wars, politics, the state of the weather, fashions, 
and the homely details of daily living have all been faithfully preserved since 
1753, with the result that these records constitute a valuable and authentic 
historical source. Until 1856 they were written in German, but a full trans- 
lation to the end of 1783 exists in Records of the Moravians in North Caro- 
lina, edited by Dr. Adelaide L. Fries, archivist of the Moravian Church in 
America, Southern Province. When the clock in the gable peals the hour 
of midnight, the instruments of the band outside announce the New Year. 
Since 1771 this tune has been the same: 147-A, Marenzo: 

Now thank we all our God, 

With heart and hands and voices. 

11. SALEM COLLEGE (nonsectarian), Church St. facing Salem Sq., one 
of the oldest schools for women in the State, is owned and operated by the 
Moravian Church. In 1772 a day school was opened, offering instruction in 
French, German, music, drawing, painting, and fine needlework, as well as 
in arithmetic, history, and other academic subjects. Reorganized in 1802, 
with a boarding school to accommodate many outside students not of the 
Moravian faith, it became Salem Female Academy, and later Salem College. 
It offers a premedical course and opportunity for training in social and 
domestic sciences. The student body in the college usually numbers about 
350. The associate preparatory school, Salem Academy, on a hill east of the 
campus, has about 80 students. 

The college buildings {open during school hours unless otherwise noted), 


on a 50-acre campus, are designed in the characteristic German-Moravian 
style, based upon the 18th-century architecture of middle Europe. The more 
recently constructed buildings have/ been designed to conform to the style 
and plan of the original Salem structures. 

The College Office Building, corner Church and Academy Sts., 
was completed in 1810 and first served as home of the Inspector of Salem 
Female Academy. The one-and-a-half-story brick structure has a wide, arch- 
hooded doorway approached by a double flight of stone steps. The arched 
transom above the door is filled with delicate tracery. Two white-trimmed 
double-hung windows on both sides have arched brick headings and dark 
louvered shutters. A fine cove cornice carries the overhang of the eaves. The 
tile roof is pierced with four gabled dormers. Beneath the structure is a 
stone-paved cellar. In Memorial Hall is an organ whose specifications were 
prepared by Harry A. Shirley (1865-1928), former dean of the School of 
Music. Main Hall, used for classes, is designed with a large white Doric 
portico, supported by four columns. The bases and steps are of hewn granite. 
South Hall, south of Main Hall, was erected in 1803-4 f° r tne boarding 
school. Adjoining South Hall is the building known as the Sisters House, 
occupied by the college faculty. Completed in 1786, this well-proportioned 
structure, of hand-made clay brick laid in Flemish bond, has dormer win- 
dows, tile roof, and floors of wide plank and stone. Here the single sisters 
lived and worked at their spinning and weaving. The Salem College 
Library {open during school term 8 a.m.-io p.m. weekdays, 2-5 Sun.), 
dedicated in 1938, is of modified late Georgian Colonial architecture. The 
exterior harmonizes with its adjacent neighbor on Salem Square, the Sisters 
House. Several paintings and old music manuscripts are included in the 
library collection. 

12. The COMMUNITY STORE (private), NW. corner S. Main and West 
Sts., served as a center of trade during the period 1775-1817. The size of the 
building is unchanged but the front has been altered. The exterior, of 
uncut stuccoed stone, has dormers and square, small-paned windows. 

13. The JOHN VOGLER HOUSE (private), 700 S. Main St., was erected 
in 1819 by John Vogler, a silversmith and cabinetmaker. This sturdy, three- 
story building of red, hand-made brick, standing flush with the sidewalk, 
is well preserved. The windows are narrow and small-paned and the usual 
dormers are omitted. 

14. The BLUM HOUSE (private), 724 S. Main St., built in 1 815, is a plain, 
two-story frame structure, with two rows of close, narrow-paned windows 
and solid wooden blinds. Adjoining front doors lead to different parts of 
the building. The south door was the entrance to Blum's residence, the 
north door opened upon the book shop. His print shop occupied a frame 
building in the rear that was torn down several years ago. Since 1828, 
when John Christian Blum bought a second-hand Washington hand press 
and began to publish Blum's Almanac, the publication has ranked second 
only to the Bible in literary popularity with thousands of Tar Heel agricul- 
turists who have tilled and planted upon its advice. Not one issue has been 




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missed in 1 1 1 years. The original front-page design and wood-cut illustrations 
that embellished the first copies are still used although the Almanac issues 
from a modern plant at 218 North Main Street. 

15. The CHRISTIAN REICH HOUSE {private), NE. corner S. Main 
and Blum Sts., was built in 1792 by John George Ebert, who sold it to Scho- 
bar, who in turn sold it to Christian Reich for use as a home and tin shop. 
Reich's tools are preserved in the museum of the Wachovia Historical Society. 
The frame structure with thick, clapboarded walls, was on the verge of 
collapse when a program of restoration was begun in 1938. The two-and-a- 
half-story gabled home is notable for its pedimented entrance portico. 

16. The SALEM TAVERN {private), 800 S. Main St., was built in 1784 
by Abraham Loesch, replacing an older frame structure erected in 1772 and 
burned in 1784. George Washington was entertained here in 1791. The mas- 
sive three-story brick structure is raised a half story above the sidewalk. 
Across the front is a two-story gallery porch with white latticed railings and 
square wooden posts at each level. The porch is covered with a lean-to roof. 
The broad gable roof of the main structure is pierced with a simple, gabled 
dormer on the front. 

17. The CHIMNEY HOUSE {open 8-5 weekdays; adm. 25$), 113 W. 
Walnut St., was built by Abraham Loesch in 1789 and named for the huge, 
twisting, central chimney of local stone. The house is of hand-hewn logs 
but was weatherboarded about 1800. The doors have hand-made iron latches 
and hinges, no two being of the same type. The house contains a collection 
of old china, furniture, and household effects. 

application at office), NW. and SW. corners 1st and Liberty Sts., manufac- 
tures smoking and chewing tobaccos. The plant includes five buildings with 
125,000 feet of floor space, and employs 950 persons. 

19. The R. J. REYNOLDS OFFICE BUILDING (1928-29), by Shreve, 
Lamb, and Harmon, designers of the Empire State Building, NE. corner N. 
Main and 4th Sts., 22 stories, is the tallest structure in North Carolina with 
the pinnacle of its tower 315 feet above street level. An Observation Tower 
{open 8-12:30, 1:30-5, Mon.-Fri.) gives a view of the entire city and its en- 
virons. From a distance the building has the appearance of a fluted column, 
crowned by a stepped pyramid. Floodlighted at night, the tower is an out- 
standing landmark in the city. 

20. The R. J. REYNOLDS TOBACCO CO. PLANT {portions of factory 
open on application igth floor Reynolds office building; guides) occupies 
10 city blocks from 1st to 6th Sts., and between Main and Linden Sts. The 
company manufactures cigarettes, smoking and chewing tobacco, and oper- 
ates its own tinfoil factory. In the Camel cigarette plant great banks of 
machinery shred the tobacco and feed it into other machines that wrap, cut, 
and package the cigarettes at the rate of several thousand per minute. The 
process is automatic, even to the placing of cellophane wrappers and revenue 


stamps, though inspectors watch for and eliminate any defective materials. 
The process is likewise automatic in the Prince Albert smoking tobacco fac- 
tory, including the making of tin containers, sealing, stamping, and final 

The plant, which started in 1875 in one small frame building, occupies 
129 acres of floor space, employs 13,000 persons, and ships 100 standard 
cars of tobacco products each week. Forty-three billion cigarettes were 
manufactured in 1936. Seventy-five tobacco sheds are in the northern part 
of the city. Because of the heavy importation of Turkish tobacco, and of 
cigarette papers from France, Winston-Salem, 250 miles from the sea, is 
the ninth port of entry in the United States. 

21. The P. H. HANES KNITTING PLANT (open on application at 
office; guides), N. Main St. between 6th and 7th Sts., manufactures men's 
and boys' underwear. The company operates six factory units, three here 
and three in Hanes, N. C. In the latter the raw cotton is manufactured into 
yarn; the Winston-Salem units turn the yarn into finished products. Auto- 
matic knitting machinery carries on the process of manufacture. About 2,500 
persons, most of them skilled operatives, are employed in the plants. 

22. The TOBACCO WAREHOUSES (open in season), between 5th, 
Trade, Liberty, and 9th Sts., are humming centers of activity from the first 
Monday in October until the middle of February, as the Old Belt flue-cured 
tobacco of this section is brought in for sale. Each of the warehouses covers 
an acre or more. As much as a million pounds is sold in a single day from 
10 warehouses, nearly 60,000,000 pounds being an average season's turnover. 

23. The NISSEN BUILDING, SW. corner 4 th and Cherry Sts., designed 
by W. L. Stoddard, is 18 stories high and was completed in 1927. Built of 
buff brick laid in Flemish bond, the mass is relieved by granite, marble, and 
limestone facings. This structure was financed by a business that can be 
traced back to 1787, when the first Nissen wagon was built. 

24. The JOURNAL AND SENTINEL BUILDING (open on application 
at office), 420 N. Marshall St., designed by Harold Macklin, was con- 
structed in 1927. The style is in keeping with the simplicity of the old 
German Moravian architecture. The design of the cupola on the roof and 
the Palladian window in the front and center of the second story are based 
upon those of Independence Hall, Philadelphia. 

25. The CENTENARY METHODIST CHURCH, W. 5th St. between 
Poplar and Spring Sts. (1931), designed by Mayer, Murray, and Phillip, 
is a massive yet simple stone structure of modified Gothic design. Over the 
wide-arched entrance, slightly recessed, is a traceried window with a carved 
limestone facing. On both sides of the entrance the walls are fashioned into 
huge square tower-like masses which rise to the pointed arch that surmounts 
the central portion of the front facade. The plan of the building is cruciform 
with transepts flanking both sides of the long nave. There are three galleries, 
one over each transept and one over the narthex. Nine Gothic lancet win- 
dows rise above the apse. 



for school assemblies, entertainments, etc.), N. Hawthorne Rd. (1924), 
designed by Charles Barton Keene, was the gift of Mrs. Katherine S. 
Reynolds. It was erected as a memorial to her husband, Richard J. Reynolds, 
founder of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. Standing on an eminence 
known as Silver Hill, the auditorium is connected by a walkway with the 
Reynolds High School and the Music Building. The structure seats 1,030 
on the main floor and 1,087 m tne balcony. Six huge Corinthian columns 
of Indiana limestone support the roof of the portico. The structure, of 
modified Georgian Colonial design, is built of red brick with limestone cor- 
nices and trim. In the lobby are two marble statues, the Discus Thrower 
and the Wrestlers, made in Florence, Italy, and given to the high school by 
a citizen of Winston-Salem. 

plication at office), Chatham Rd. between R.R. tracks and Northwest Blvd., 
is the largest producer of woolen blankets in the United States. These are 
manufactured in the company plants at Elkin (see tour 16), and finished 
here. Most of the wool used is from the mountains of Tennessee, Virginia, 
and North Carolina, although some is imported. 

tional), at the end of Wallace St. facing Bruce and Slater Sts., occupying a 
55-acre campus with seven brick buildings, is a Grade-A college for the train- 
ing of Negro elementary teachers. The institution is a monument to the 
perseverance of Dr. S. G. Atkins who resigned the superintendency of the 
Negro schools in Winston-Salem in 1892 to found the Slater Industrial 
Academy. At first designed to teach Negro boys and girls the manual arts 
and home economics, it was recognized by the State in 1895, and in 1897 
was chartered as the Slater Industrial and State Normal School. The State 
assumed full control in 1905. A new charter issued in 1925 changed the name 
to Winston-Salem Teachers College. The B.S. degree in education is con- 
ferred. The faculty numbers 22 and the student enrollment is 550. A 15-acre 
tract is used for growing truck and farm crops. 

29. The NISSEN WAGON PLANT (open Mon.-Fri.; guides on applica- 
tion to office), 1539 Waughtown St., is the successor of the factory estab- 
lished in Salem in 1787 by George E. Nissen. Except for fire and reorganiza- 
tion the business has operated continuously since that time, making prairie 
schooners for emigrants to the West and wagons used in three wars. Still 
employing white oak and hickory, though using modern machinery, the 
firm produces about 2,500 wagons a year. 


Friedberg Church, 7 m., Adam Spach House, 8 m. (see tour 15); Hanes, 2 m. 
{see tour 24); Reynolda Estate, 2 m., Bethabara Church, 3.5 m., Bethania, 6 m., 
Korner's Folly, 11m. (see tour 25). 

Part III 



(Portsmouth, Va.) — Elizabeth City — Edenton — Williamston — Washington 
— New Bern — Wilmington — (Myrtle Beach, S. C); US 17. 
Virginia Line — South Carolina Line, 285 m. 

The Norfolk Southern R.R. parallels route between Moyock and Edenton, and between 
Washington and New Bern; the Atlantic Coast Line R.R. between New Bern and 
Wilmington; the Wilmington, Brunswick & Southern between Wilmington and Southport. 
Roadbed paved throughout except on portions of side routes. Hotel accommodations in 
cities and larger towns; few tourist accommodations between towns. 

Section a. VIRGINIA LINE to WILLIAMSTON; 87 m. US 17 

US 17 runs through the ancient Albemarle region, passing level stretches of 
truck farms, penetrating dense swamps, crossing picturesque bridges, and 
skirting the great indentations of coastal sounds and broad river estuaries. 
The section is famous for duck hunting and sport fishing. 

Possession of the section was wrested from the Indians by the English. 
Troublous times marked the regime of the Lords Proprietors (1 663-1 729) 
and that of the Crown (1729-76). Pirates sailed the sounds and rivers spread- 
ing terror in their wake. There was fighting here during both the Revolution 
and the War between the States. 

The counties north of Albemarle Sound were long referred to as the 
Lost Provinces because of the difficulty of communication with the rest of 
the State. A network of modern highways, connected over the numerous 
inland waters by bridges, causeways, and ferries, has opened up formerly 
isolated areas. 

Almost all the people of the section are native-born. Families take pride 
in their descent from early settlers, and many trace their ancestry to the 17th 
century when this was the scene of the first permanent settlements in the 
State. Though some towns give the impression that their people live largely 
in the past, others are frankly new and modern. 

US 17 (the Ocean Highway) crosses the North Carolina Line 19 
miles south of Portsmouth, Va. (see va. tour 6), following the banks of 
the Dismal Swamp Canal from Deep Creek, Va. Between Deep Creek 
and South Mills, N. C, the route is known as the George Washington 

The GREAT DISMAL SWAMP has been reduced by drainage from 
2,200 to 750 square miles. It is 30 miles long north to south and varies in 
width. With its northern border a little south of Norfolk, Va., the swamp 
covers parts of Norfolk and Nansemond Counties in that State and in North 


276 TOURS 

Carolina extends through portions of Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, and 
Gates Counties. The swamp was named by Col. William Byrd of Virginia, 
a member of the 1728 expedition that charted the dividing line between the 
two Colonies. Byrd's Description of the Dismal with proposal to drain it, 
written about 1730, says: 

. . . the ground of this swamp is a meer quagmire, trembling under the 
feet of those that walk upon it. . . . Towards the south end of it, is a very 
large tract of reeds without any trees at all growing amongst them which 
being constantly green and waving in the wind is called the Green Sea. . . . 
Near the middle of the Dismal the trees grow thicker — the cypresses as well 
as the cedars. These being always green and loded with very large tops, are 
much exposed to the winds, and easily blown down. ... By these the pas- 
sage is in most places interrupted, they lying piled in heaps and horsing on 
one another; nor is this all for the snags left on them point every way, and 
require the utmost caution to clamber over them. 'Tis remarkable that, to- 
wards the heart of this horrible desart, no beast or bird approaches, nor so 
much as an insect or reptile. This must happen not so much from the moisture 
of the soil, as from the everlasting shade occationed by the thick shrubbs 
and bushes, so that the friendly warmth of the sun can never penetrate them 
to warm the earth. Nor indeed do any birds fly over it . . . for fear of 
the noisome exhalations that rise from this vast body of dirt and nasti- 
ness. . . . With all these disadvantages the Dismal is in many places pleasant 
to the eye, though disagreeable to the other sences, because of the perpetual 
verdure, which makes every season look like spring, and every month 
like May. 

George Washington, who with Fielding Lewis and others, surveyed the 
swamp in 1763, described the region as a "paradise." Washington became 
one of the stockholders in the company which hoped to reclaim the land 
and to provide transportation facilities between Hampton Roads in Virginia 
and the rivers and sounds of North Carolina. The Dismal Swamp Canal, 
dug by Negro slaves although authorized by the legislature, was constructed 
(1790-1822) by private subscription. The Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal 
also connects Albemarle Sound with Chesapeake Bay. 

In the dense forests of bald cypress, black gum, and juniper, the sunlight 
filters down upon a tangle of woodbine and honeysuckle. Game is still 
plentiful, especially in the almost inaccessible Coldwater Ditch section, where 
bear, deer, opossum, and raccoon occur. The swamp is also a haven for 
many species of birds, among them the rare ivory-billed woodpecker. In 
summer the canal bank is a mass of honeysuckle, reeds, myrtle, and Virginia 

Fire and ax have made ruthless attacks on the swamp without materially 
altering it. It is virtually an unbroken wilderness, owned by lumber com- 
panies who operate sawmills along the borders. There are miles of scattered 
clearings where the peat has burned down 8 or 10 feet to the sand and clay. 
After a fire in 1923 had destroyed 150 square miles of swamp timber, peat- 
land continued to burn until 1926. Lightning, sparks from a log train, or the 
carelessness of a smoker can start a fire that will smolder for months. 

TOUR I 277 

LAKE DRUMMOND, connected with the canal by the 3-mile Feeder 
Ditch, is a fresh-water lake in the heart of the swamp. Although on the 
Virginia side, it is named for William Drummond, first Governor of North 
Carolina (1663-67), who supposedly discovered it. The Irish poet, Thomas 
Moore, visited the lake in 1803 and wrote a melancholy ballad, the Lake of 
the Dismal Swamp. 

The swamp water, colored by the leachings of gum, cypress, maple, and 
juniper, resembles old Madeira wine. Pure juniper water is considered de- 
licious and healthful, and was once carried by ships on long sea voyages. 
Juniper tea, made from steeped cedar "straw," was once a common beverage 
in swamp lumber camps and was believed to give immunity from malaria. 

Legend has endowed the Dismal with imaginary terrors. Stories of ghosts, 
savages, moonshiners, desperate fugitives, poisonous plants, and stealthy 
serpents once kept all but the most intrepid from penetrating its inner depths, 
though it was long a favorite refuge of runaway slaves. In reality, treacherous 
quicksands are probably the most serious danger to the unwary traveler. 

On the Virginia-North Carolina Line, m., is the Site of the Halfway 
House. Built about 1800, half in North Carolina and half in Virginia, the 
house was a stagecoach stop. There was much gambling in the taproom and 
the place was notorious as a dueling ground and hide-out. Fugitives from 
Virginia rested as contentedly on the North Carolina side as did North 
Carolina fugitives on the Virginia side. An unsupported legend is that while 
visiting here Edgar Allen Poe wrote the Raven. 

SOUTH MILLS, 8 m. (8 alt., 404 pop.), was formerly named Old Leb- 
anon. A 120-foot drawbridge crosses the canal near the locks. South Mills 
is known as a Gretna Green; local magistrates actively compete for the trade. 

Left from South Mills on graded State 343 to SAWYERS' LANE BATTLEFIELD, 
3 m., scene of an engagement, Apr. 19, 1862, between Union and Confederate troops. 
Breastworks and trenches remain. 

At 10 m. is the junction with paved State 30. 

Right on State 30 the highway penetrates a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp which, 
at 7 m., presents an appearance of desolation. In places gaunt dead cypress masts rise 
above thick, gray underbrush; in others the boggy surface is littered with charred logs 
and stumps. 

GATESVILLE, 25 m. (27 alt., 225 pop.), is the seat of Gates County, named in 1780 
for Revolutionary Gen. Horatio Gates. Here is annually held the Fishermen's (February) 
Court {3rd Mon. in Feb.), which developed, after slaves had been freed, as a day on 
which Negro labor was employed for the fishing season. When the hiring was over, the 
ensuing celebration at times became an orgy of drunkenness and gambling. Free liquor 
flowed from barrels on the hotel porch. Fist fights were common and "hell-raising was 
the order of the day." People still observe the occasion by coming to town, with no set 
purpose other than meeting old friends, seeing, and being seen. 

Bennetts Creek {fishing, hunting, and trapping) borders the town on the south; freight 
and passenger boats once plied its waters, now used chiefly by pleasure craft. 

Gates County Courthouse (1836), Court St., is a stuccoed structure, one of the few 
public buildings in the State designed in the Gothic Revival style. Its bell was purchased 
in 1 78 1. The Confederate Monument, Court St. opposite the courthouse, was erected 
in 1 91 5. It bears an inscription to Wm. P. Roberts, the youngest general in the Con- 
federate Army. 

278 TOURS 

Right from Gatesville on State 37, in BUCKLAND, 7 m. (45 pop.), is the Dr. Smith 
House {visitors welcome). This old columned house, built in 1775, is owned and 
occupied (1939) by former slaves of the family. Its interior carved woodwork has been 

At 40 m. on State 30 is the Chowan (cho-wan') River. 

WINTON, 43 m. (65 alt., 582 pop.), seat of Hertford County, incorporated in 1754, 
was named for the DeWinton family of England; the county*s name honors the Marquis 
of Hertford. During the War between the States the town was burned except for one 
log cabin. The first courthouse was set on fire in 1830 by Wright Allen, who sought thus 
to destroy a forged note. He was exposed, tried, and publicly hanged on the courthouse 
grounds. Winton levies no local taxes; its revenue is derived from municipally owned 
and operated farm lands. Citizens protested so vigorously against the noise, smoke, and 
dust of trains that the railroad tracks were laid 30 miles away. Winton was the birthplace 
of Richard J. Gatling (1818-1903), inventor of the Gatling gun. 

Right from Winton 3 m. on a dirt road is TUSCARORA BEACH {bathing, boating, 
and dancing), on the south bank of the Chowan River. 

At 19 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to the Old Brick House {visitors welcome), 0.7 m., on the bank 
of the Pasquotank River, traditionally a haunt of the pirate Blackbeard {see tour 33 A). 
The house is of wood except for the brick ends, one of which bears the date 1700. At 
the doorstep formerly rested a circular stone slab marked "E. T. 1709." The initials 
are supposed to stand for Edward Teach, or Thatch, both of which are given as Black- 
beard's real name. 

The interior once contained fine paneling and richly carved mantels. On either side 
of the fireplace were closets communicating with a concealed passage leading from the 
basement to the river. Blackbeard confined his prisoners and hostages in the basement, 
legend relates, and if pressed by the approach of his enemies, escaped through the 
tunnel to his boat. 

ELIZABETH CITY, 22 m. (8 alt., 10,037 P°P-) ( see Elizabeth city). 

Points of Interest: Public Square, Judge Small House, Fearing House, Charles House, 
Shipyards and Yacht Basin, Beveridge House, and others. 

Elizabeth City is at the southern junction with State 30 (see tour jA) 
and the junction with State 170 (see tour iB). 

At 37 m. is the junction with a side road. 

Left on this road, which is paved for 8 miles and then graded, to the peninsula 
known as DURANTS NECK, between Little and Perquimans (per-quim'-ans) Rivers. 
The peninsula was named for George Durant, whose land title is the oldest recorded 
in the State. 

NEW HOPE, 10 m. (153 pop.), a farm settlement, adjoins the Hecklefield Farm, 
estate of Capt. John Hecklefield, prominent in the affairs of the Albemarle Colony. The 
Albemarle assembly and the county courts frequently met here in the early 1700's. 

At 16 m. is the Leigh Mansion, a Greek Revival house built in 1825 by Col. James 
Leigh. The estate includes a major portion of the 1,000-acre Durant grant, which has 
been reduced to about 850 acres by the encroachment of the surrounding waters. 

This mansion, of red brick burned on the place by slaves, has a double-gallery porch 
front and rear. The Doric columns of the portico are white and the steps are marble. 
The paneled ballroom on the third floor is lighted at each end by a triple window 
crowned with an elliptical fanlight. The separate kitchen is reached by a balustraded 
walk raised on brick piers. Tradition says that recalcitrant slaves were punished in the 
gloomy depths of the cellar. 

In the yard is a stone slab, said to be the gravestone of Seth Sothel, North Carolina's 
"most despised Governor." Appointed in 1678, he was captured by pirates on his way to 

T O U R I 279 

Carolina. He took office in 1683 and served until 1689 when he was seized and banished 
by the colonists who had become incensed over his corrupt conduct. Buried in the mud 
under an old elm tree is a slab supposed to have marked George Durant's grave. 

WINFALL, 38 m. (16 alt., 426 pop.), is a village in the bend of the high- 
way, shaded by ancient trees arching overhead, its calm undisturbed by the 
busy hum of its eight-stack sawmill. 

Right from Winfall on State 37 is BELVIDERE, 6 m. (101 pop.), a village settled 
by Quakers in the early 18th century. Strong believers in education, the Quakers founded 
here one of the State's earliest schools, Belvidere Academy. 

South of Winfall US 17 crosses the broad Perquimans River, which rises 
in the Great Dismal Swamp and flows southeast to Albemarle Sound. The 
hard-surfaced highway is built on what was formerly a corduroy road that 
had as its foundation a causeway placed by the Indians. The road is bulwarked 
on both sides by curved sheets of corrugated iron, bombproofs salvaged from 
World War supplies. The causeway leads to a modern drawbridge. As early 
as 1784 there was a floating bridge here supported on whisky barrels. 

HERTFORD, 40 m. (15 alt., 1,914 pop.), seat of Perquimans County, is 
a peninsula town in the bend of the river. It was first called Phelps Point for 
the owner of the site, and was a port of entry as early as 1701. When incor- 
porated in 1758 it was renamed for the Marquis of Hertford. 

The Edmundson-Fox Memorial (L), south of the bridge, erected (1929) 
by the North Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends, bears an inscription claim- 
ing that here was held "the first religious service on record in Carolina." This 
claim ignores the baptisms of Manteo and Virginia Dare on Roanoke Island 
{see tour 1 A and religion) and services in Charleston, S. C. 

In 1672 William Edmundson, follower of George Fox, the founder of the 
Religious Society of Friends, preached a sermon to the settlers on the Wor\ 
of God. In September of the same year Fox spent 18 days "in the north of 
Carolina" and had many "meetings among the people." 

The Perquimans County Courthouse, Main St., is a Georgian Colonial 
structure of kiln-burned brick with a columned entrance portico and a clock 
cupola above the fanlighted window in the gable. The original building, 
probably constructed in 1731 or earlier, was of one story with the jury room 
detached. In 18 18 the Masons added the second story in return for which 
they were allowed the use of the large upper room. In an 1890 remodeling, 
extensive changes were made. In 1932 Clinton W. Toms, tobacco-manufac- 
turing executive, made possible restoration of the building. Small-paned 
windows, interior paneling, and heavy inside wooden shutters were again 
installed, the clock cupola was added, and the original worn red brick were 
painted a warm ivory. 

County records are unbroken from the first deed book, dated 1685, and 
include the Durant deed, oldest on record in North Carolina. On Mar. 1, 
1661 (1662), George Durant acquired from Kilcocanen, chief of the Yeopim 
Indians, a tract of land known as Wecocomicke. Durant's deed mentions a 
still earlier purchase of adjoining lands by Samuel Pricklove, giving support 
to the contention that the earliest permanent settlements in the State were 

280 TOURS 

on Durants Neck. However, there is evidence of an earlier settlement be- 
tween the Roanoke and Chowan Rivers. 

The Site of the Old Eagle Tavern, which was razed in 1920, covered 
six lots in the heart of town. It is known to have existed as early as 1754. 
George Washington was supposedly a guest while in the vicinity surveying 
the Dismal Swamp Canal. Tradition says William Hooper, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, once lived here. 

The Harvey Home (private), Main St., built before 1800, has a two-story 
porch fronted by tall columns. The hand-hewn heart pine timbers are fas- 
tened with wooden pegs. Beneath an old tree shading the house is a spot 
believed to be Kilcocanen's Grave. The sidewalk, flanked by markers, 
crosses the grave. 

Left from the center of Hertford, at the point where US 17 swings R., a branch road, 
paved for half its length, runs into HARVEYS NECK, a peninsula 12 miles long. Here 
was the Colonial seat of John Harvey, Governor of North Carolina (1679) and Thomas 
Harvey, Governor (1694-99). The latter's son, Col. John Harvey (1725-75), was known 
as the Father of the Revolution in North Carolina because of his activities in behalf 
of independence while speaker of the assembly, a post which he held at his death. Colonel 
Harvey, known as Bold John, remarkable for his decision of character and strong 
political principles, was moderator of the First Provincial Congress (see new bern). 

At 9-7 m. is the junction with a lane leading (L) to Ashland (visitors welcome), a 
well-preserved old frame plantation house built in 1775 by John Skinner. The portico 
columns are of the Ionic order and the house is notable for the gracefully arched masonry 
cf the foundation and massive end chimneys. There are four rooms in the arcaded base- 

At 10.5 m. are the Ruins of Belgrade Mansion, home of the Harvey family until 
burned during the War between the States. In the family burying ground is the Grave of 
Gov. Thomas Harvey. The tombstone bears the date 1729. Thomas and Miles Harvey, 
also buried here, were members of the 1776 North Carolina General Assembly. 

EDENTON, 53 m. (16 alt., 3,563 pop.) (see edenton). 

Points of Interest: St. Paul's Church, Beverly Hall, Cupola House, Chowan Courthouse, 
Edenton Green, Peanut-Processing Plants, and others. 

1. Right from Edenton on paved State 32 which follows the old stagecoach route known 
for years as the Virginia Rd. 

At WINGFIELD, 10 m., on the banks of the Chowan River, are the Ruins of the 
Union Fort captured and partially destroyed in 1863. Wingfield plantation house, burned 
during the same engagement, was the Colonial seat (1760) of Richard Brownrigg, 
pioneer in the section's fishing industry. 

At BANDON, 15 m., was the home, built in 1757, of Daniel Earle, Revolutionary 
rector of old St. Paul's (see edenton). He conducted here an early classical school for 
boys. Bandon, named for the Earle estate in Ireland, was the site of a Chowanoke Indian 
village; many relics have been found in mounds nearby. 

2. East from Edenton on Water St. and across Johnston's Bridge to the unpaved Soundside 
Rd.; R. on this road to Hayes (private), 0.5 m., in a beautiful grove (R) on the edge 
of Edenton Bay. The 1,500-acre plantation was acquired in 1765 by Samuel Johnston 
( I 733" I 8i6), and he built the mansion in 1801. It was named for the estate of Sir 
Walter Raleigh in England. Ivy culled from Hayes in England flourishes here as well as 
in St. Paul's Churchyard and on the Chowan Courthouse. Johnston served as Governor 
(1787-89) and was the first U.S. Senator from North Carolina. During his lifetime 
Hayes was a social, intellectual, and political center. 

The two-story central section of the house is surmounted with a large cupola and 

TOUR I 201 

is connected to the one-story wings by curved, covered passages. One of the smaller 
buildings contains the library, the other the kitchen. The southwest elevation, facing the 
bay, has a two-story Doric portico supported upon shallow brick arches and ornamented 
at the second floor with a wrought-iron railing. The northeast elevation, five bays 
in width, has a small semicircular portico. Fanlights and side lights grace the doorway. 
The shutters are permanently fixed over the upper halves of the windows to lessen the 
sun glare. The house contains steel engravings and portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
and Thomas Sully, and a 5,000-volume library whose catalogue, written with a quill 
pen, looks like an exquisite engraving. 

The Soundside Road is believed to have been made by early settlers along the course 
of an old Indian trail. Doubling and redoubling upon itself, it passes several plantations 
that have existed since Colonial times, and at the mouth of Yeopim River reaches 
Drummonds Point {fishing boats for hire), 8 m., named for Gov. William Drummond. 
In the mouth of the river is BATTS {BATZ) GRAVE or BATTS ISLAND. An early 
deed (1696) of Chowan Precinct records the sale of 27 acres known as Batts Grave, but 
tide erosion has reduced it to but one acre. Early in the 18th century it belonged to 
George Durant, Jr. The Indians called the island Kalola for the sea gulls that alone 
disturbed its solitude until Jesse Batts, a hunter and trapper, came here. Batts fell in love 
with Kickowanna, daughter of a Chowanoke chief, Kilcanoo. She returned his love, 
spurning the suit of Pamunky, chief of the Chasamonpeaks. For his bravery in helping 
defeat the Chasamonpeaks, Batts was adopted into the tribe. Thereafter the couple 
lived on the upper waters, but Batts made frequent visits to his island home. Kickowanna 
often went in her canoe to visit him there. One night in a raging storm she was drowned. 
Batts never left the island again and died a brokenhearted man. 

South of Edenton on US 17 (L) at Pembroke Creek, 53.5 m., is a U. S. 
Fish Hatchery {open), where shad, herring, bass, and other fishes are 
propagated. Here is the Site of the Home of Stephen Cabarrus (1754- 
1808), a Frenchman who came to America during the Revolution. He be- 
came a member of the North Carolina General Assembly in 1783, and for 
10 of the 15 years that he served was speaker of the lower house. He was z 
member of the first board of trustees of the University of North Carolina. A 
North Carolina county and a street in Raleigh bear his name. 

South of EMPEROR, 60 m., the highway crosses the Chowan River 
Bridge. At the southern end of the bridge is EDENHOUSE POINT, 61.5 
m., near the Site of the Home of Charles Eden, proprietary Governor 
of North Carolina, who died in 1722 and was buried in a grove of willows 
nearby; the Governor's remains were exhumed and reburied in St. Paul's 
Churchyard (see edenton). 

There is some evidence that the earliest permanent settlement in North 
Carolina was on a point of land between the mouths of the Chowan and 
Roanoke Rivers, and that some form of government existed before the Durant 
purchase. The first recorded exploration to the Chowan River was John 
Pory's in 1622. In 1653 the Virginia assembly granted to Roger Green, who 
had just explored the region, 1,000 acres for himself and 10,000 acres for 
the first 100 people who would settle on the Roanoke River south of the 
Chowan "next to those persons who have had a former grant." There is no 
record that Green's grant was ever settled, but its language, according to 
Connor, the historian, "leads irresistibly to the conclusion that when it was 
issued there were already settlers along the waters of the Chowan." On the 
Nicholas Comberford map of 1657 is shown a neatly drawn house at the 
west end of Albemarle Sound, marked "Batt's House." This lends weight to 

282 TOURS 

an entry in George Fox's Journal (1672), in which he mentions meeting in 
Connie-Oak (Edenton) Bay "Nathaniel Batts, who had been Governor of 
Roanoke. He went by the name of Captain Batts, and had been a rude, des- 
perate man." Batts may have been appointed Governor of South Albemarle 
by Sir William Berkeley, a Lord Proprietor and Governor of Virginia. 

Left from Edenhouse Point on a dirt road to EDENHOUSE BEACH (bat hi fig, boating, 
fishing), 1 m., a quiet resort on the banks of the Chowan, close by Albemarle Sound. 

At 63 m. US 17 crosses Salmon Creek. South of the bridge, on both sides 
of the highway, is Mill Landing Farm, an estate Lord Duckenfield held by 
grant from the Crown. The only estate building remaining is an old mill 
erected in 1710, which still grinds corn for the neighborhood. 

WINDSOR, 74 m. (10 alt., 1,425 pop.), on the Cashie (cah-shy') River, 
was a port of entry before the War between the States. Merchandise was 
relayed from here to the interior by wagons over the old Halifax Road. The 
town boasted a Million Dollar Bank, branch of the North State Bank. The 
three main streets are King, Queen, and York, and the cross streets are 
named for the various Lords Proprietors, according to the plan drawn in 
England. Windsor became the seat of Bertie County in 1750. 

Surrounding plantations grow cotton, tobacco, peanuts, and truck produce. 
The town has sawmills, barrel mills, and peanut and tobacco warehouses. 
Fishing with seine, net, and hook and line is available in the vicinity. Game 
includes deer, squirrel, quail, wild goose, and duck. Raccoon hunting on the 
Cashie is popular with local sportsmen. 

The Site of Windsor Castle, Belmont Ave., is on a hill overlooking the 
town. The castle was an eight-room log house built by William Gray, who 
named it for the royal residence in England. The present house (private), 
near the site of the earlier house, was erected in 1855 by Patrick Henry Win- 
ston, whose descendants still own it. The stately white columns and broad 
verandas are characteristic of ante-bellum southern dwellings. 

Rosefield Homestead (L), at the southern limits of the town on Wind- 
sor's other hill, overlooks the beautiful valley of the Cashie. It was named 
for the wild roses that once bloomed there, and was the original home of 
John Gray, who donated the town site in 1722. The frame house, built in 
1856, has not been altered since 1861. 

Right from Windsor on State 308 to Hope House, 3.5 m., the abandoned home of 
David Stone, Governor of North Carolina (1808-10). It was once the show place of the 
county, with a secret stairway, spacious ballroom, gambling rooms, and solid wooden 

South of Windsor the highway runs through green swampland, spicy 
with the odor of pine and cedar, and in spring and early summer fragrant 
with the blooms of wild grape, sweetbrier rose, and honeysuckle. 

At 81.2 m. is the junction with a marked dirt road. 

Right on this road to the tract known as the INDIAN WOODS, 5 m., a reservation 
set up in 1717 for the Tuscarora Indians remaining after the war of 1711-13. They 
lived here until 1803 when they entered into a 99-year lease with some of the settlers 

TOUR I 203 

and left to join their kinsmen in New York. About 1857 their descendants came from 
New York to make final settlement with the heirs of the lessees. 

US 17 crosses Conine Swamp and the Roanoke River over a long bridge 
and viaduct. Framed by hedges of honeysuckle, the viaduct passes over 
tangled swamp where gnarled and moss-draped cypresses shadow clumps of 
lush ferns. 

WILLIAMSTON, 87 m. (76 alt., 2,731 pop.), seat of Martin County, lies 
on the western bank of the Roanoke River. First called Skewarky, the 
town was later named in honor of Col. William Williams of the Martin 
County militia. The county was named for Josiah Martin, North Carolina's 
last royal Governor (1771-76). A port of entry before the Revolutionary War, 
the town had an old courthouse built in 1774 on stilts over the river. To enter 
the courthouse people climbed ladders from their boats. When court was 
declared in session the ladders were removed and no one was permitted to 
leave. Chief amusements during court week were oyster roasts and fist fights. 

Williamston, a tobacco-marketing town, has also a peanut factory, fer- [ 

tilizer plants, lumber mills, and commercial fisheries. l 

The Asa Biggs Home {private), Church St., is a square structure distin- 
guished by a railed balcony under each second-story window. Judge Biggs 
(181 1-78) was prominent in the State's political life and held, among his 
many offices, Federal and Confederate district judgeships. 

Right from Williamston on State 125 to Rainbow Banks, 10 m., site of an old fort 
where Union gunboats were driven from the Roanoke River. | 

Section b. WILLIAMSTON to SOUTH CAROLINA LINE; i 9 y m. US 17 

In this section are relics of Provincial rule, ivy-grown Colonial houses, and 
forts thrown up during the War between the States. The route runs through 
forests of longleaf and loblolly pine, traverses cypress swamps where black- 
water creeks meander, and crosses broad rivers that empty into island-bound, 
brackish sounds to the east. 

Forests and fields run with game; most of the streams teem with fish. 
Several State parks, game preserves, and resorts are close at hand. Rivers and 
sounds offer boating, fishing, and bathing; beaches for surf bathing line the 
outer banks. 

South of WILLIAMSTON, m., US 17 passes fields planted with pota- 
toes, tobacco, corn, cotton, peanuts, and garden produce. Bright-leaf tobacco 
is the principal crop. Almost every farm has a small fruit orchard. At 10 m. 
the route crosses Great Swamp, overgrown with brush, scrub pine, and scat- 
tered gum and cypress. 

WASHINGTON, 23 m. (11 alt., 7,035 pop.), seat of Beaufort County, is 
on the north bank of the Tar-Pamlico River. Narrow streets, parallel with 
or at right angles to the river, indicate an 18th-century plan, though the 
town, almost wiped out by two fires in 1864, has few old houses. The river 
laps at foundations of mercantile establishments on Main Street and 

284 TOURS 

borders yards and gardens. In spring the farther shore, covered with 
clematis, called virgins-bower by some of the older inhabitants, is a mass of 
purple bloom. 

The scuppernong grape and related varieties are indigenous to the region. 
The Meish grape was developed in Beaufort County by Albert Meish, who 
came from Westphalia, Germany. Washington is a marketing center for 
cotton, tobacco, and garden produce. 

Originally Beaufort County was part of Pamtecough (Pamticoe) Precinct 
of the County of Albemarle, which in 1696 became the Great County of 
Bath. Pamtecough was the name of a tribe of Indians in the region. In 1705 
Bath was divided, the portion north of Pamtecough River constituting 
Pamtecough Precinct. The name was changed to Beaufort in 1712, honoring 
Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, who had inherited the proprietary rights 
of the Duke of Albemarle. 

On Nov. 30, 1 77 1, the general assembly authorized James Bonner to estab- 
lish a town at the Forks of Tar River, which Colonel Bonner later named 
for his commander in chief. The George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion established the fact that of the 422 cities and towns in the Nation named 
for George Washington, this town was the first. Earliest recorded mention of 
the place as Washington is in an order of the council of safety at Halifax 
dated Oct. 1, 1776. 

The Beaufort County Courthouse, SW. corner 2nd and Market Sts., is 
a square two-story structure of brick painted white, built about 1800. A mod- 
ern annex in the rear is of red brick. The clock in the cupola antedates the 
building. In the courthouse is a will, inscribed in French and dated 1820, 
which indicates that Col. Louis Taillade lived in Washington at that time. 
Taillade accompanied Napoleon from Elba to France when the ex-Emperor 
attempted to regain his lost domains. 

The Johnston House {private), Market St., a two-story frame house with 
wide porch, notable for its Georgian doorway and exterior front stair, was 
occupied in 1810 by Thomas Harvey Myers I, whose wife, Margaret, was 
the daughter of Dr. Gustavus Brown, personal physician to George Wash- 

St. Peter's Episcopal Church, NE. corner Bonner and Main Sts., is a 
vine-clad Gothic Revival structure erected in 1868. It is of weathered brick 
with a large square tower. The original wooden church (1822) was destroyed 
in 1864 by a fire that started when a citizen burned valuable documents to 
prevent their being taken by Federals. As the tower burned, heat caused the 
bell to toll until it fell from its supports. After the bronze had melted an old 
Negro carried it in a wheelbarrow to his home. After the war, he returned 
the metal, and proceeds from its sale were added to the building fund. Fed- 
eral troops burned the town later in the same year. 

The Myers House (c. 1814) and the Telfair House (c. 1818) {private), 
Water St. next to the NE. corner of Bonner St., are square old town houses 
with stoops close to the street, after the New England fashion. They are of 
frame construction, two stories on a brick foundation, and topped with a 
shingle roof. During the War between the States a shell passed entirely 

TOUR I 285 

through the Telfair house. Both houses are owned by descendants of the 

Washington Field Museum {open 2-5, j-10 p.m. daily), Charlotte and 
2nd Sts., a log cabin in a grassy yard, was founded in 1923 by young people 
who refer to it as "the Bug House Laboratory." Exhibits include birds, in- 
sects, frogs, reptiles, fossils, and minerals of local origin, together with some 
historical items. 

On W. Main St. is the Dimock. House {private), onetime home of Dr. 
Susan Dimock (1847-75), first North Carolina woman licensed as a phy- 
sician. After being denied admission to Harvard Medical School, she studied 
at Zurich and in Vienna. Upon her return to America she became physician 
for the Hospital for Women and Children in Boston, where a street is named 
in her honor. 

The De Mille House {now a tourist home), SE. corner Bridge and 2nd 
Sts., is a three-story red brick house with a one-story front porch built about 
1830 by Thomas De Mille, one of the first vestrymen of St. Peter's. His 
great-grandsons, Cecil and William, have attained prominence in the motion- 
picture industry. The latter was born in this house. 

The Brown House {private), NW. corner 2nd and Washington Sts., is a 
two-story frame house distinguished by curving porch steps at either end 
of the square-columned, one-story front porch. The first-floor windows ex- 
tend down to the floor and all windows have louvered shutters. Modillions 
ornament the level cornices of the porch and of the hip roof. The house 
was used as a hospital when Federal troops occupied the town; soldiers 
destroyed all but one of several marble mantelpieces. 

A square frame house painted tan with red trim, 219 Harvey St., was 
formerly at 242 E. Main St. This is the Birthplace of Josephus Daniels, 
Secretary of the Navy (19 13-21); Ambassador to Mexico (1933- ). Also 
born in Washington was Churchill C. Cambreleng (1 786-1 862), Minister 
to Russia during the Van Buren administration. 

Washington is at the junction with US 264 {see tour jj). 

South of Washington US 17 crosses the Pamlico River and passes Rodman 
Quarters, an ante-bellum plantation bequeathed by John Gray Blount to 
his grandson, Judge W. B. Rodman, who, after the war, found it so desolated 
from Union and Confederate occupation that he never went there again. 

CHOCOWINITY {MARSDEN), 26 m. (40 alt., 150 pop.), is a village 
junction for the Norfolk Southern R.R. Here is Trinity Episcopal Church, 
a small, square, one-story frame building painted white and topped with a 
cross. The church was founded in 1775 by the Rev. (Parson) Nathaniel 

Chocowinity is at the junction with US 264 {see tour 2j). 

At VANCEBORO, 41 m. (24 alt., 742 pop.), is the Craven County Farm 
Life School, educational center of the section. 

286 TOURS 

In BRIDGETON, 56 m. (8 alt., 721 pop.), on the Neuse River, are 
lumber mills and a crate factory. 

Left from Bridgeton on paved State 302 through forest lands, swamps, and potato 
fields is GRANTSBORO, 11 m. (500 pop.), a shipping point for Irish potatoes, at the 
junction with paved State 306. Right 12 m. on State 306 to MINNESOTT BEACH 
(small hotel, cottages, overnight cabins; trout and croaker fishing; duc\, goose, and 
brant shooting), on the Neuse River. 

At 15 m. on State 302 is BAYBORO (468 pop.), seat of Pamlico County. Bay River 
is a link in the Intracoastal Waterway. Commercial fishing, oyster culture, and the 
raising of Irish potatoes are the principal occupations. 

US 17 makes a sharp L. turn across the Neuse River bridge. 

NEW BERN, 58 m. (18 alt., 11,981 pop.) {see new bern). 

Points of Interest: Smallwood-Ward House, Slover-Guion House, John Wright Stanly 
House {public library), First Presbyterian Church, Tryon Palace, and others. 

New Bern is at the junction with US 70 {see tour 28). 

At 70 m. (L) is the Foscue House, an old brick plantation dwelling built 
in the early 18th century. House and lands are traditionally haunted. 

POLLOCKSVILLE, 71 m. (13 alt., 357 pop.), on the banks of the nar- 
row Trent River, was named for Col. Thomas Pollock {see new bern), a 
large landowner and proprietary Governor of North Carolina (1712-14, 
1722). In Colonial days this town was surrounded by plantations on which 
remain a few houses of faded splendor. 

At 73 m. is the junction with State 12. 

Right on State 12 is TRENTON, 10 m. (28 alt., 500 pop.), seat of Jones County, 
built half around Brock Mill Pond where huge gnarled cypresses, shrouded with Spanish 
moss, overhang unruffled blue water. The mill has operated continuously since before 
the War between the States. The old courthouse was burned by Union troops in 1863. 

Great Dover Swamp lies in the northern section of the county and Whiteoak Swamp 
in the south-central portion. Small game and fish are plentiful, and deer thrive in the 
eastern savannas. A few lumber mills comprise the sole industry. 

When George Washington visited Trenton in 1791, he was entertained at the Old 
Shingle House (private), then a Colonial tavern. The shingles were removed when it 
was remodeled into a dwelling. Pegs were used in constructing the Thomas Webber 
House (private), Jones St., a modernized two-story wooden building where the first 
court in Jones County was held in 1784. 

MAYSVILLE, 78 m. (41 alt., 797 pop.), depends on farming and lumber 
milling. In the vicinity are broad savannas and shallow ponds where at- 
tempts were made to raise rice in Colonial days. The border of the CROAT- 
AN NATIONAL FOREST {see national forests and tour 28), first to be 
created in coastal North Carolina, is near the eastern edge of the town. 

1. Left from Maysville on the Catfish Rd. to CATFISH LAKE, 3 m., one of five lakes 
within the forest. Deer and other game occur in the bog lands of this LAKES POCOSIN 
AREA. Pocosin is derived from an Algonquian term for a swamp or dismal. The 
permanently saturated peaty soil is overlain with sand or sandy loam bearing a sparse 
growth of trees, mostly black pine, and a dense undergrowth of evergreen shrubs and 
vines. In places the streams are coffee-colored. 

TOUR I 287 

2. Left from Maysville on the Maysville-Swansboro Rd. to Yellowhouse Field, 4.5 m., 
site of the home of Col. John Starkey (d. 1765), staunch defender of the colonists' 
rights and pioneer advocate of a public school system. At 7 m. is the three-story frame 
Home of Daniel Russell {private), Governor of North Carolina (1 897-1901). Governor 
Russell, a kinsman of Colonel Starkey, is buried on Hickory Hill nearby. 

JACKSONVILLE, 95 m. (23 alt., 783 pop.), seat of Onslow County, 
stands on baylike New River. Dominating the village from the small central 
square is the red brick Onslow County Courthouse (1904). The earliest 
mention of Wandand's Ferry, which preceded Jacksonville, is in a record j 

of court held there in July 1757. 

Onslow was formed (1734) from the Great County of Bath, and named 
for Arthur Onslow, then Speaker of the British House of Commons. Most \ 

of the settlers were English and German. Spanish buccaneers and pirates 
beset the region in the 1740's. j 

This is one of the few coastal counties of the State whose mainland bor- 
ders the ocean without an intervening sound, and it gives its name to the 
long curve between Beaufort Harbor and Cape Fear. Holly Shelter Swamp 
is in the southern portion. New River, whose upper reaches are lost in 
Whiteoak Swamp, is the only large river in North Carolina with headwaters 
and mouth in the same county. It is 5 miles wide at the mouth, where exten- 
sive oyster beds are under cultivation. New River oysters are large, grow 
singly instead of in clusters, are finely flavored, and command a high price 
in the markets. Tobacco is the chief money crop. 

South of Jacksonville US 17 runs through well-wooded country with few 
farms. Natural gardens of wild flowers cover many acres displaying blooms 
every month but January. Here grow insectivorous pitcher-plants including 
the rare Venus's-flytrap {see tour 4). 

FOLKSTONE, 111m. (69 alt., 53 pop.), is at the junction with State 38, 
a dirt road. 

Left on State 38 is SNEADS FERRY, 9 m. (125 pop.), on New River {limited accom- 
modations for fishermen). A free ferry crosses to MARINES, 10 m. (300 pop.). 

HAMPSTEAD, 129 m. (56 alt., 350 pop.), is the scene of a fiddler's con- 
test each fall. The first prize one year was a mule. 

Left from Hampstead on a dirt road through woods to the water, 1 m. {boats and 
guides available). Topsail Inlet nearby is a favorite spot for angling for bluefish, drum, 
sheepshead, and mackerel. 

South of Hampstead is a marker (R) at the Washington Tree, under 
which the first President stopped to rest on his way to Wilmington in 1791. 

Passing BAYMEADE, 140 m., US 17 enters a plantation where the 
resinous sap of longleaf pine trees is gathered, and then along an avenue 
of spreading moss-strewn oaks set in thick, subtropical vegetation. 

WILMINGTON, 146 m. (32 alt., 32,270 pop.) {see Wilmington). 

Points of Interest: Customhouse, Cornwallis House, St. James Church, Bellamy 
Mansion, Hilton Park, Greenfield Park, and others. 

200 TOURS 

Wilmington is at the junction with US 421 (see tour 29). 

Left from Wilmington on paved US 76 to the junction with the improved Masonboro 
Loop Rd., 5 m.; R. 4 m. on this road to MASONBORO SOUND. Here is Eschol 
(private), the summer home (1760) of Gen. Alexander Lillington, a prominent figure 
before and during the Revolution (see tour 29); it is occupied by his descendants. All 
along Masonboro are old summer homes and sites of homes that served distinguished 
families of the Colonial and Revolutionary periods. George Moore cut a road from 
his plantation at Rocky Point on the Northeast Cape Fear River to Masonboro, over 
which his wife and 28 children traveled on horseback each summer to the coast. 
Luggage and household belongings were transported the 25 miles on the heads of 
Negro slaves. On many of the old estates are pans used during the War between the 
States for obtaining salt from sea water. Signs indicate small resorts where roasted 
oysters are served during the winter months. 

From BRADLEYS CREEK, 7.5 m., Wrightsville Beach is visible (R) in the distance. 

Airlie (private; open occasionally in early spring), 8 m., is a rambling white-painted 
frame house with green blinds and a green roof. A broad porch on the southeast over- 
looks the sound. 

In the landscaped gardens of the estate are found almost every known variety of azalea, 
and the Topel tree, an unusual hybrid developed by R. A. Topel, who grafted the yaupon 
on another holly. It has broad, shiny, dark-green leaves without sharp points, and clusters 
of brilliant red berries, about three times the size of the holly berry. 

On the bank of Bradleys Creek is the Moorings, the estate to which Capt. John 
Newland Maffitt, one of the most noted of the Confederate blockade runners, retired 
after the War between the States. 

US 76 runs along Wrightsville Sound to Wrightsville Sound Station, 9 m. 

Left from Wrightsville Sound Station on a paved road across the electric car tracks 
to the Babies Hospital (1928), a model institution. 

US 76 crosses a bridge and causeway over Wrightsville Sound to HARBOR ISLAND, 
9.5 m., where are a public dance pavilion and summer headquarters of the Cape Fear 
Country Club. 

Wrightsville Beach, 10 m. (109 pop.), a seashore resort (surf, sound, and channel 
bathing; yachting, motorhoating, deep-sea fishing, and dancing), has an average summer 
population of 4,000. Many business and fraternal organizations hold conventions here. 
There are hotels, inns, and cottages (open in summer), and headquarters of the Carolina 
Yacht Club. 

Boats are available for deep-sea fishing or for pleasure trips. At the southern end of 
the island, reached both by road and trolley, is Lumina (dance pavilion, picnic grounds, 
and bathhouses). Grounded upon the sands off Wrightsville Beach are the skeletons of 
the Emily and Fanny and Jenny, Confederate blockade runners scuttled during the War 
between the States. 

US 17 crosses the Cape Fear River to EAGLES ISLAND. Some of the 
numerous flowers along the causeway were brought here from foreign ports 
in the soil used as ballast by ships calling for cotton and naval stores. The 
waterlily, marsh bluebell, marsh aster, spiderlily, marshmallow, and numer- 
ous other plants thrive on the marshy land. The highway, along the course 
of the first toll road authorized by the legislature, has been successively a 
corduroy, plank, and rock-ballast road and has carried traffic for two cen- 
tures. Bridges span Alligator Creek and the Brunswick River. 

At 150 m. is the junction with the Old River Rd. (see tour iC). 

At 151 m. is the junction with US 74 (see tour j/«). 

In SUPPLY, 175 m. (37 alt., no pop.), guides are available for deer and 
quail hunting. 

TOUR I 289 

1. Left from Supply on a dirt road to LOCKWOODS FOLLY INLET, 5 m., whose 
name appears on maps as early as 1671. Lockwood probably came from Bermuda, 
and the name recalls his foolhardiness in starting a settlement exposed to both sea and 
Indians; it was promptly destroyed by the latter. The beach reveals the skeletons of 
several Confederate blockade runners scuttled when cornered by Federal gunboats, or 
sunk by gunfire; among them are those of the Spunky, Georgiana McCaw, Bendigo, 
Elizabeth, Ranger, Dare, and Vesta. 


1. Left from Supply on paved State 30 is SOUTHPORT, 17 m. (26 alt., 1,760 pop.), 

seat of Brunswick County, on a beautiful estuary of the Cape Fear River (bathing \ 

beaches; still- and deep-water fishing; hunting). When founded by Benjamin Smith 1 

(see tour iC), Governor of North Carolina (1810-11), and others in 1792 it was called \ 

Smithville; the present name was adopted in 1889. In one year nearly 2,000 boats, 

including 500 yachts, touched at Southport, which is midway between New York and 

Florida on the Intracoastal Waterway. Sea breezes make the summers cool, and proximity 

to the Gulf Stream tempers the winters. The town is attractive with groves of wind-swept 

live oaks, spiny Mexican poppies growing along the streets, and a profusion of western 

gaillardia and sea evening primrose. 

Fort Johnston, on a 6-acre bluff was the first fort built in North Carolina, named in 
honor of Gabriel Johnston, Governor (1734-52). It was completed in 1764 and in 1775 
it became the refuge of Josiah Martin, Governor (1771-76), who remained until patriots 
forced him to flee, July 18, 1776, on which date it was destroyed by fire. The State 
owned the property until 1794 when it was ceded to the Government on condition that 
a new fort be built. The substantial brick masonry then erected is in good repair. It 
was seized by Confederates in 1861. It is now used by Army Engineers as a base for 
dredge crews and survey parties, and by the Lighthouse Service for crews working on 
lighthouses and buoys. 

The Ruins of Fort Caswell are 2 miles by water and about 8 miles by land south 
of Southport. Constructed in 1825, the fort was manned during the War between the 
States, Spanish-American, and World Wars. It is now operated as a summer beach 

The forts at the mouth of the Cape Fear River afforded protection to blockade 
runners during the War between the States, giving access to the port of Wilmington and 
constituting the "life line of the Confederacy." Because of the configuration of the coast, 
it was difficult to effect a close blockade. The blockade-running ships were designed 
for speed and easy maneuvering, usually side-wheelers armored with iron and rigged 
as schooners. They would reach the coast and steam noiselessly along at night until the 
protection of the forts was reached. If overhauled, they had orders to ground and fire 
the boat rather than submit to capture. More than 30 such ships were scuttled between 
Topsail Inlet and Georgetown, S. C, a few of which are still visible at low tide. 

SMITH ISLAND, sometimes called Bald Head, about 17,000 acres in area, is available 
by boat from Fort Caswell, 2 m., or from Southport, 4 m. The extreme tip of the island 
forms the dread CAPE FEAR, the "promontorium tremendum" of DeBry's map. FRY- 
ING PAN SHOALS, 20 miles off Cape Fear, marked by a lightship, are among the 
most dangerous along the coast. Cape Fear is described by George Davis (see Wil- 
mington), in An Episode in Cape Fear History in the South Atlantic Magazine, January 

l8 79 = 

"Looking then to the Cape for the idea and reason of its name, we find that it is the 
southernmost point of Smith's Island, a naked bleak elbow of sand jutting far out into 
the ocean. Immediately in its front are Frying Pan Shoals pushing out still farther 20 
miles to sea. Together they stand for warning and woe; and together they catch the long 
majestic roll of the Atlantic as it sweeps through a thousand miles of grandeur and 
power from the Arctic towards the Gulf. It is the playground of billows and tempests, the 
kingdom of silence and awe, disturbed by no sound save the sea gull's shriek and the 
breakers' roar. Its whole aspect is suggestive, not of repose and beauty, but of desolation 
and terror. Imagination cannot adorn it. Romance cannot hallow it. Local pride cannot 
soften it. There it stands today, bleak and threatening and pitiless, as it stood three 
hundred years ago when Grenville and White came near unto death upon its sands. 
And there it will stand bleak and threatening and pitiless until the earth and sea give 


up their dead. And as its nature, so its name, is now, always has been, and always will 
be the Cape of Fear." 

Pirates including Blackbeard, Stede Bonnett, and Richard Worley preyed upon shipping 
in this region. Finally Robert Johnson, Governor of South Carolina (1717-19), sent 
Col. William Rhett against Bonnett. A desperate encounter occurred within Southport 
Harbor during the summer of 171 8. Bonnett's vessel escaped up the Cape Fear to the 
Black River, where it was overtaken by Rhett's ship. Bonnett at last surrendered with 
40 survivors of his band. They were taken to Charleston, S.C., for trial. Bonnett managed 
to escape in woman's apparel but was soon recaptured. All were hanged and their bodies 
buried in Charleston Harbor below the high-water line. While awaiting execution, Bonnett 
wrote an appeal asking to be spared that he might devote the remainder of his life 
to good works. 

SHALLOTTE, 183 m. (33 alt., 214 pop.), is on the Shallotte River (fish- 
ing; boats and guides available). In 1729, according to the Pennsylvania 
Gazette of Apr. 29, 1731, this settlement was known as Shelote, but there is 
no record of its origin. 

US 17 crosses the South Carolina Line 23 miles north of Myrtle Beach, S. C. 
(see s. c. tour /). 


Elizabeth City — Kitty Hawk — Nags Head — Manteo — Fort Raleigh — Oregon 
Inlet — Hatteras Inlet; State 30, 34, 345. 129 m. 

Paved roadbed to Manteo; uncertain travel S. of Oregon Inlet along sand bar beach road. 

Limited accommodations as far as Kitty Hawk; hotels and boarding houses at Kitty 
Hawk, Nags Head, Manteo, and Hatteras. 

This route, known as the Virginia Dare Trail between Elizabeth City and 
Fort Raleigh, runs along the picturesque banks, narrow strips of sand that 
form the eastern boundary of the State, separating the ocean from the sounds. 
The Indians called the banks "out islands." Along this treacherous, wreck- 
strewn stretch of the Atlantic coast, is the site of the first successful airplane 
flight and of the first English settlements in America. 

State 30 branches northeast from US 17 {see tour /) in ELIZABETH 
CITY, m. {see Elizabeth city), and crosses Pasquotank River drawbridge. 
At night the illumination from moored craft and the streets of Elizabeth 
City, topped by the beacon on the water tank, is visible for several miles. 
The so-called FLOATING ROAD, 1.5 miles long, begins at the east side of 
the bridge and crosses small MACHELHE ISLAND, known locally as Goat 
Island. Its owner combined the first two letters of the names of his four 
children — Mary, Charles, Eloise, and Helen — to form the name. A deep 
but narrow cut is spanned by Stinking Gut bridge and thence the road 
crosses FERRY SWAMP. The first course over this swamp was a corduroy 
road flanked by bogs that meant death to anyone who fell into them. After 
piles had been driven down 100 feet, only to disappear, the State decided to 
"float" a road. A 16-foot-wide jointed strip of concrete was suspended on 
steel netting. For a time this rose and fell with the tides, but eventually set- 
tled below tidewater. The problem was finally settled by the present asphalted 
roadbed, elevated on pilings joined by steel cables. The fragrant swamp 
woodlands of pine and cedar are gay in spring with dogwood, honeysuckle, 
wild rose, and Carolina yellow jessamine; cattails rise from the waving reeds 
and smilax twines around the taller trees. From the Floating Road the high- 
way runs through a large pecan grove. 

CAMDEN, 4 m. (9 alt., 116 pop.), a rural community, is the State's 
smallest county seat. Originally called Jonesboro, the village was named for 
Charles Pratt, Earl of Camden, as was the county when it was cut off from 
Pasquotank in 1777. The Camden County Courthouse, with a portico of 
four massive columns on brick piers, was built in 1847. Originally the ground 
floor was used to quarter horses. Potatoes are grown extensively in the section. 


292 TOURS 

During the harvest season, people work day and night digging and shipping 
the crop. 

1. Left from Camden on graded State 343 to the junction with the dirt Shipyard Ferry 
Rd., 3.5 m. ; L. on this road 0.5 m. to the Sawyer House {private), built by Charles 
Grice in 1746 and believed to have been used as a hospital and refuge during the 
War between the States. It is a rectangular, two-story brick house, with concealed end 
Chimneys, a one-story front porch, and a small frame ell in the rear. 

2. Right from Camden on paved State 343 to the junction with the old dirt Indiantown 
Rd., 2 m. ; L. on this road 0.5 m. to Fairfax Hall, also called the Brick House because 
it is one of the two brick houses in the county. The old mansion was supposedly built 
about 1700. The interior paneling and front stoop have been removed. It was the home 
of Brig. Gen. Isaac Gregory, who led the gallant North Carolina brigade at the Battle of 
Camden, Aug. 16, 1780, in which he suffered two bayonet wounds and had his horse 
shot from under him. 

Shiloh Baptist Church, at SHILOH, 12 m. (500 pop.), bearing the date 1727, is 
the oldest organized Baptist church in the State. The building, erected in 1841, is of 
hand-hewn pine, joined with pegs. On the floor are marks made by musket butt plates 
when the church was used as a Federal arsenal. In the churchyard is the Grave of 
Dempsey Burgess, major and later lieutenant colonel in Gregory's Continental brigade. 
Burgess was a member of the Provincial Congress in 1775 and 1776 and of the Fourth 
and Fifth Continental Congresses (1795-99). 

OLD TRAP, 16 m. (318 pop.), a truck-marketing village, became a storm center 
when many of its nonslaveholding citizens refused to support the Confederacy. When 
young men were conscripted for the Confederate Army, the resulting controversy was 
bitter and prolonged. Northern sympathizers of southern birth were here, as elsewhere in 
the South, opprobriously known as "buffaloes." 

In Old Trap and all through the district that borders the broad mouth of the 
Pasquotank River is heard frequently the colloquialism: "Did you travel or come by 
boat?" "Travel" is the old Elizabethan word for walk. 

In SHAWBORO, 12 m. (15 alt., 300 pop.), a rural village, is (L) a Twin 
House, consisting of two story-and-a-half gabled houses built one behind the 
other about 10 feet apart and connected by a one-story gabled structure. The 
first was built about 1820 and the other added, it is said, after a quarrel be- 
tween the husband and wife, who decided to live apart. 

SLIGO, 15 m. (15 alt.), was named by Edward Dromgoole, Methodist 
circuit rider, from Sligo, Ireland, who visited here in 1783. 

Left from Sligo on State 34 is the village of MOYOCK, 10 m. (5 alt., 500 pop.), 
which has the only bank in Currituck County. The local Woman's Club sponsored the 
planting of cannas the length of the town. Left from Moyock on a dirt road 11 m. to 
PUDDING RIDGE, on the edge of the Dismal Swamp. Until 1935, an Amish-Mennonite 
colony, called "hook-and-eye" Mennonites, because they wore no buttons, was here. 
This custom, like that of shaving the upper lip, was adopted by their progenitors 
when they were opposing civil authority in Switzerland, where buttons and mustaches 
were taxed. The Mennonites came here in 1907 from Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. 

Church rules decree that no member may serve on a jury, bring a lawsuit, hold public 
office, swear oaths, attend theaters, or use tobacco or liquor. The men wore long hair, 
flowing beards, and straight-hanging coats. The women wore a quilted or slatted bonnet 
except on Sundays, when they put on the "prayer covering," a white bonnet trimmed 
with lace and frills and tied under the chin. From infancy children were appareled like 
their elders. They spoke the "Pennsylvania Dutch" dialect, but church services were 
conducted in German. All but one family have moved elsewhere. 

State 34, now the main route, runs southeast from Sligo to CURRITUCK 
'boats and guides available), 19 m. (10 alt., 213 pop.). The name of the 

TOUR I A 293 

town, the county and the beautiful fresh-water sound which it borders is 
from Coratank (Ind. wild geese). The sound is a link in the Intracoastal 
Waterway. Currituck was formerly a part of the Great County of Albe- 
marle. Early settlers were jubilant when, in 1728, following the boundary 
dispute between North Carolina and Virginia, the line was established to 
include them in North Carolina. 

The sound abounds with migratory waterfowl, attracted by the wild 
celery, sago grass, and pondweed. Sportsmen from all over the country 
utilize the clubhouses and lodges that dot the islands and the shores. Fish 
taken include bass, rock, mullet, white and ring perch, herring, pickerel, and 

The whistling swan (Cygnus columbianus) breeds in Alaska and north- 
western Canada but winters on Currituck Sound. When full-grown they 
weigh from 12 to 16 pounds. They seem to mate for life and are accom- 
panied by their young during the first winter. 

Timothy Hanson in 1720 brought to Currituck County the seeds of the 
grass (Phleum pratense) which he developed into the fodder grass, timothy. 

Around Currituck firesides is still told the legend of 16-year-old Betsy 
Dowdy's ride in December 1775. The bankers feared that if Gen. William 
Skinner did not go to Col. Robert Howe's aid at Great Bridge, Va., the British 
would defeat the small American force there, invade North Carolina, and 
pillage their homes. On her wiry banker pony Betsy rode all night from the 
dunes of Currituck to General Skinner's headquarters in Perquimans, 50 
miles distant. Meanwhile the Battle of Great Bridge was won, Dunmore 
evacuated Norfolk, and eastern Carolina was saved from British invasion. 

Currituck Courthouse, built in 1876, is of weathered red brick. This is 
the governmental center since there are no incorporated towns, and local 
affairs are administered by the county. People of the section refer to the 
town as "the courthouse." 

South of Courthouse Point, on a little rise (R) overlooking the sound, is 
Pilmoor Memorial Methodist Church, a neat structure of red brick with 
small steeple and white trim, erected in 1928 on the spot where Joseph Pil- 
moor, on Sept. 28, 1772, preached the first Methodist sermon ever delivered 
in North Carolina. It operates one of the few Sunday school buses in the 
State, Miss Memorial. 

COINJOCK, 29.5 m. (12 alt., 216 pop.), is on the bank of the Albe- 
marle and Chesapeake Canal, a link in the Intracoastal Waterway. Coinjock 
is a shipping point for watermelons. 

BERTHA, 35 m. (26 pop.), is at the junction with paved State 3. 

Left on State 3 is POPLAR BRANCH (boats on charter to the banks), 2 m. (325 pop.). 
To the east on the outer banks is Currituck Beach Lighthouse, generally known as 
Whaleshead, though the post office is COROLLA (no pop.). The lighthouse is of rough 
unpainted brick, 163 feet high, with a light of 160,000 candlepower. It was erected 
in 1875 t0 fill a dangerous unlighted gap between Cape Henry to the north and 
Bodie Island to the south, where south-bound ships keep well inshore to avoid the 
north-flowing current of the Gulf Stream. 

On Ian. 31, 1878, the Metropolis was wrecked 3 miles south of the lighthouse with 

294 TOURS 

a loss of more than ioo lives. Victims were buried on the beach in graves marked with 
rude boards. 

JARVISBURG, 41 m. (550 pop.), the birthplace of Thomas Jarvis, Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina (1879-84), one of Currituck's favorite sons. 

At POINT HARBOR, 52 m. (60 pop.), the highway crosses the 3-mile- 
long Wright Memorial Bridge, marking the confluence of four sounds — 
Albemarle, Currituck, Croatan, Roanoke — and giving entrance to Dare 
County through an iron archway whose inscription recalls that this county 
was the birthplace of the Nation (1584) and of aviation (1903). 

Dare, youngest of Albemarle counties, was erected in 1870 from Hyde, 
Currituck, and Tyrrell, and named for Virginia Dare. Its area includes 
300 square miles of land and 1,200 square miles of water. 

At intervals along the 80-mile stretch of beach from the Virginia Line to 
Hatteras Inlet, several Coast Guard Stations are maintained. Day and 
night patrols watch for signals from ships in distress, notify summer cot- 
tagers of storm warnings, and rescue motorcars stranded in the soft sand. 

From the archway the highway passes for nearly a mile through a dense 
forest in which pine and dogwood predominate, and then opens suddenly 
into a wide expanse of sand dunes, with the blue waters of the Atlantic 
beyond. Under Federal agencies (1936-37), sand fences were built and 
grasses planted to stabilize the migratory ridges, whose steady westward 
progress had engulfed hundreds of acres of forest lands and destroyed or 
endangered dwellings and villages. 

The highway swings R. to parallel the ocean beach, lined for several 
miles with cottages and boarding houses. 

KITTY HAWK, 59.5 m. (250 pop.), is hidden in the wind-swept trees 
(R) beyond the dunes. The name, according to some, is derived from the 
mosquito hawks that swarm here at certain seasons. A more colorful ex- 
planation is that the name comes from the cry of the wild goose. The Indians 
evolved \illy from kill, and computed the white man's year "Fum a Killy 
Hauk to a Killy Hauk," the time between killing of the first goose of one 
season and the first killing of the next season. However, a map prepared 
for the Lords Proprietors in 1729 designates the place as Chickahauk. 

It is generally believed that the beautiful Theodosia Burr, daughter of 
Aaron Burr and wife of Joseph Alston, Governor of South Carolina 
(1812-14), perished off the coast here. On Dec. 30, 1812, she sailed from 
Georgetown, S. O, on the Patriot, a small pilot boat, to visit her father in 
New York, and was never seen again. The boat was then believed to have 
been wrecked off Hatteras during a storm. 

In 1869, Dr. W. G. Pool was called to attend a poor banker woman, who 
gave him a portrait from her wall for a fee, and told him its story. In 1812 
a small pilot boat with sails set and rudder lashed, drifted ashore at Kitty 
Hawk. There were no signs of violence or bloodshed on the deserted ship — 
an untouched meal was on the table, and silk dresses hung within a cabin. 
On the wall was the portrait of a young and beautiful woman, painted in 
oil on polished mahogany and set in a gilded frame. The bankers stripped 

TOUR I A 295 

the boat, and the portrait fell to the woman's sweetheart, who gave it to her. 
The bankers believed that pirates had forced all on board to walk the 
plank, only to be frightened away before they could plunder the ship. 

Upon comparison, Dr. Pool was impressed by the resemblance of his 
portrait to a picture of Aaron Burr; photographs of the portrait were sent 
to members of the Burr and Edwards families, who, almost without excep- 
tion, proclaimed the likeness that of Theodosia. Compared with the Sully 
portrait, features and expression were found to be similar. The Nags Head 
portrait is in a private museum in New York City. 

Legendary confessions round out the story. Years later, two criminals, 
later executed, admitted they were members of a pirate crew that boarded 
the Patriot and forced passengers and crew to walk the plank. A dying 
beggar in a Michigan almshouse confessed he was one of the pirates, and 
that he had been haunted by the face of the beautiful woman who pleaded 
for her life that she might go to her father in New York. 

At intervals along the beach are the wrecks of several ships. In 1927 the 
Greek steamer Paraguay broke in two when she grounded on a reef. A year 
later the Carl Gerhard was driven ashore between the bow and stern of the 
Paraguay. At low tide the decks of the Carl Gerhard furnish footing for 
fishermen, though at high tide her decks are awash, and in rough weather 
her masts are hardly visible. 

The beach has other and less tragic associations. In the summer of 1900 
the postmistress at Kitty Hawk received a letter from Dayton, Ohio, asking 
information about the topography of the section with reference to proposed 
"scientific kite-flying experiments" which Wilbur Wright and his brother 
Orville planned to make during their September vacation. Capt. W. J. Tate, 
whose wife was postmistress, answered the letter and served as host when 
they arrived. Over a period of three years the Wrights carried on glider 
experiments, eventually equipping a glider with a gasoline motor. 

On May 22, 1928, there was unveiled at Kitty Hawk a commemorative 
marble marker, erected with contributions solely from Kitty Hawk citizens, 
and inscribed: "On this spot, Sept. 17, 1900, Wilbur Wright began the 
assembly of the Wright brothers' first experimental glider which led to man's 
conquest of the air." 

At 63.8 m. is the junction with an asphalted Government road. 

Right on this road the Wright Memorial Monument, 1 m. (R), erected by the 
Federal Government in 1932, rises from the top of Kill Devil Hill. The surrounding 
350-acre park is a landscaped spot in the barren expanse of glaring dunes. Native wire 
grass and transplanted sod were used to anchor the hill. A spiral walk leads to the 
summit of the 90-foot dune. The monument, of Mount Airy granite, 60 feet high, has 
a star-shaped base resting on a sunken foundation 35 feet deep. On its top is a three-way 
beacon, visible for 30 miles on a clear night. On the outer walls are wings in bas- 
relief, and the inscription: "In commemoration of the conquest of the air by the 
brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright conceived by Genius, achieved by Dauntless Resolu- 
tion and Unconquerable Faith." At night the monument is illuminated by floodlights. 

Within the monument massive bronze doors lead to a memorial room of Salisbury 
pink granite, which has a central niche for a small model of the original Wright 
plane, and on either side niches for busts of the Wright brothers. Engraved on a stainless 
steel table is a map, charting notable flights in the first 25 years of aviation. Inscriptions 

296 TOURS 

record the date of the first flight of a power-driven airplane, Dec. 17, 1903. Curving 
inner stairs ascend to the observation platform atop the monument, which affords an 
extensive view of the surrounding area. 

North of the monument, 600 feet, is the granite boulder marker erected by the 
National Aeronautic Association, unveiled Dec. 17, 1928, the 25th anniversary of the 
flight. It stands on the spot where the crude and fragile machine left the earth under its 
own power. Four flights were made, the brothers alternating at the controls, until a 
sudden gust of the 21-mile wind rolled the machine over, damaging it so that further 
experiments were impossible. Orville was at the controls on the first flight when the 
plane stayed in the air 12 seconds, traversing 120 feet. On the fourth flight, with Wilbur 
at the controls, it was flown 852 feet in 59 seconds, and the news was flashed around the 

KILL DEVIL HILL, one legend relates, was named for a brand of Medford rum so 
potent that it was considered strong enough to "kill the devil." Tribute to the power 
of this liquor was paid in the Ballad of Kill Devil Hills, or the Ballad of Medford Rum, 
and according to William Byrd, in his History of the Dividing Line: "Most of the Rum 
they get in this country comes from New England, and it is so bad and unwholesome, that 
it is not improperly call'd 'Kill Devil.' " 

Right from the monument 1 m. on a paved road to the FRESH PONDS, the largest 
of which covers 125 acres. Lying on this narrow sand bar between the salt waters 
of ocean and sound, these pools are covered with pond lilies and contain fresh-water fish. 
They are popularly considered bottomless, and the mystery of their existence has been 
variously explained; an inlet may have once existed at this point, connecting the ocean 
with Kitty Hawk Bay. 

Left from the Fresh Ponds on a sand road 1.2 m., across two free bridges, is 
COLLINGTON (200 pop.), a fishing village on Collington Island in Kitty Hawk Bay. 
Originally named Carlyle Island, it was granted in 1663 to Sir John Colleton, a Lord 
Proprietor. Some believe this to be the Trinity Harbor of DeBry's map. John Lawson 
wrote in 1709: "I cannot forbear inserting here a pleasant story that passes for an 
uncontested Truth amongst the inhabitants of this Place; which is that the Ship which 
brought the first Colonies, does often appear amongst them under sail, in a gallent 
posture, which they call Sir Walter Raleigh's Ship; and the truth of this has been 
affirmed to me by men of the best Credit in the Country." 

Most of the inhabitants are of English and Swedish descent. Delicious figs grow on 
the island, where a few of the old two-wheeled oxcarts, formerly common on the banks, 
are still in use. 

At 67 m. is NAGS HEAD BEACH. Garages border the highway and 
boardwalks and driveways lead to the rear of cottages facing the ocean. 

The Wreck of the Huron is indicated by a marker recalling the disaster 
of Nov. 24, 1877, when 108 lives were lost. When the sea is calm, tank, 
boiler, and bell are visible about 175 yards offshore. The wreckage swarms 
with fish, particularly sheepshead. 

NAGS HEAD, 68.2 m. (39 pop.), has been a resort for more than a 
century. Until 1929 the sound side was the site of the larger cottages and 
hotels, and cottagers and Sunday excursionists came by boat to a long 
pier jutting out into Roanoke Sound. Opening of the Virginia Dare Trail 
and the Wright Memorial Bridge has directed development along the ocean 

An explanation for the name Nags Head is that in the early days of the 
settlement "land pirates" deliberately sought to wreck ships. On a stormy 
night a lantern was tied to the neck of an old nag, which was then ridden 
along the beach. Mistaking the light for a beacon, ships were lured to the 
treacherous reefs, there to be boarded and looted by the wily shoremen. 

TOUR I A 297 

In the folklore of this coast are a headless horseman who gallops silently 
over the dunes, and an everlasting stain on the sandy beach from the blood 
of a banker woman slain by her husband who found her in the embrace 
of another and did not wait to learn that the stranger was her long-absent 

The White Doe, reincarnation of Virginia Dare, supposedly still roams 
the hills, visible to humans only on the stroke of midnight. According to 
one tale, the Lost Colony was adopted by an Indian tribe. Virginia was 
loved by the young brave Okisco and by the magician Chico. To thwart his 
rival, Chico changed the young woman into a white doe. Wenando, magi- 
cian of another tribe, gave Okisco a silver arrow that would magically 
restore the maiden to human form if it pierced the heart of the white doe. 
When Okisco shot the doe through the heart, a mist arose revealing the 
form of Virginia Dare — dead. 

The sea constantly encroaches at Nags Head and steadily the span of 
sandy beach between cottage line and ocean grows narrower. The shore is 
building up on the sound side so that cottages, originally erected on pilings 
over the water, stand on dry sand. JOCKEYS RIDGE and ENGAGEMENT 
HILL are more than 100 feet high. Hardly less imposing are the SEVEN 
SISTERS and lesser dunes farther south. 

At intervals paved roads lead (R) to the sound side. High dunes give way 
to rolling beachland and flat meadows. At the Whalebone Filling Station, 
74 m., is the skeleton of a whale washed up on the beach in 1927. 

At the Whalebone Filling Station is the junction with a beach road {see 
drive on the banks). 

State 34 branches R. across 2.5 miles of causeway and bridges over Roa- 
noke Sound, to enter ROANOKE ISLAND, 76.5 m., 12 miles long with an 
average width of 3 miles. 

At 78 m. State 34 makes a junction with paved State 345. At the junc- 
tion is the Site of the Battle of Roanoke Island. After the fall of 
Hatteras, Roanoke Island was the only hope of defense for Albemarle 
Sound and its tributary rivers. When Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside with 
15,000 troops sailed up Croatan Sound and landed on the island, the Con- 
federates under Col. Henry M. Shaw engaged the Federals but were forced 
to retreat and finally to surrender on Dec. 7, 1862. 

Left on State 345 is WANCHESE, 4 m. (1,040 pop.), which has one of the best 
harbors in the section and is a trading point for northern Pamlico Sound {one boat 
daily to Hatteras). It is the center of Dare's shad-fishing industry in which 90 percent of 
the county's population is employed. 

Right from the Junction on State 345 is MANTEO, 79.5 m. (12 alt., 547 
pop.), seat of Dare County and its only incorporated town. The village was 
named for the Indian Manteo. Old docks line the water front and two- 
wheeled oxcarts occasionally rumble up and down the shell-paved streets. 

Manteo {guides and boats available for fishing and hunting) has numer- 
ous freight, passenger, and mail boats besides those engaged in fishing. 

290 TOURS 

Government surveys show a greater variety of fishes in Dare County waters 
than in any other county in the United States. Game fish attract sportsmen 
the year around. Channel bass weighing 50 to 75 pounds are frequently 
taken. Other varieties are bluefish, speckled or gray trout, rock or striped 
bass, pigfish, blackfish, and several kinds of perch. 

Numerous varieties of waterfowl migrate to this natural feeding ground — 
the white swan and many species of wild duck and wild goose. Shore birds 
such as golden plover and yellowlegs, furnish sport for hunters. The section 
also affords quail and snipe shooting. 

Roanoke hominy, commonly called big or lye hominy, is still prepared 
in some rural sections as the Indians made it. Tradition says they served it 
to Amadas and Barlow in 1584. 

At 80 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to Mother Vineyard (not open to public except by special arrange- 
ment), 0.5 m. Here is an unusually fine scuppernong grapevine, covering more than an 
acre. Local tradition is that the vine was planted by Amadas and Barlow from roots 
brought from the Scuppernong River. Another theory claims discovery of the vine in 
Tyrrell County, near Columbia (see tour 26a). 

Fort Raleigh {always open), 83 m., is the site of the first attempted 
English settlement in America, the Citie of Ralegh (or New Fort) in what 
was then Virginia. Between 1584 and 1591 seven separate English expedi- 
tions visited Roanoke Island {see history). 

On July 4, 1584, Amadas and Barlow touched the present North Carolina 
coast, planted the arms of England, and took possession of the continent 
for Sir Walter Raleigh under his patent from Queen Elizabeth. After two 
months of exploration they returned to England, taking with them the 
Indians, Manteo and Wanchese, and samples of the strange products of the 
land, including tobacco and potatoes. In 1585, Sir Richard Grenville brought 
over a Raleigh colonizing expedition of 108 persons under Gov. Ralph 
Lane, landing on Roanoke Island, Aug. 17. Grenville returned to Eng- 
land and the colonists built a fort. Trouble with the Indians and near- 
starvation ensued, and when Sir Francis Drake's fleet appeared in 1586 the 
Lane colonists departed with him. Two weeks later Grenville returned 
with supplies and, finding the Lane colony gone, left 15 men to hold Eng- 
land's claim. 

Gov. John White's expedition arrived in 1587 and found no trace of the 
men except an unburied skeleton, the fort and dwellings in ruins. They 
rebuilt the fort and restored friendly relations with the Indians, aided by 
Manteo, who, on Aug. 13, 1587, was baptized and, by order of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, invested with the title, Lord of Roanoke. This is the first recorded 
celebration of a sacrament by English-speaking people in America. 

Among the colonists was Governor White's daughter, Eleanor, wife of 
Ananias Dare. The daughter of this couple, born on Aug. 18, 1587, was the 
first white child born of English parents on American soil. The following 
Sunday, Aug. 25, she was christened Virginia, for the Colony was then 
called Virginia. 

On Aug. 27, 1587, John White sailed for England "for the present and 

TOUR I A 299 

speedy supply of certain known and apparent lacks and needs, most requisite 
and necessary for the good and happy planting of us, or any other in the 
land of Virginia." White was detained in England by the Spanish Armada 
and not until Mar. 20, 1591, was he able to embark to America. He arrived 
at Roanoke Island Aug. 15, 1591, searched for two days, and "found the 
houses taken down and the place very strongly enclosed with a high pali- 
sade of great trees, with curtains and flankers, very fortlike; and one of the 
chief trees or posts at the right side of the entrance had the bark taken 
off, and five feet from the ground, in fair capital letters were graven 
CROATOAN, without any sign or cross of distress." So ends the romantic 
story of that tragic Lost Colony of 116 men, women, and children. There 
have been numerous conjectures as to their ultimate fate, but the truth has 
never been discovered. 

Governor White made minute and careful drawings, now in the British 
Museum, of the activities of the colonists and their Indian neighbors. These 
drawings, as well as other pertinent records of the time, were consulted in 
the reconstruction of the fort and other buildings. 

Small blockhouses flank the entrance to the palisaded reservation and rise 
from the four corners. Reproductions of the colonists' log houses stand 
among the pine, oak, dogwood, and holly. They are built, as is the palisade, 
of split, unpeeled juniper logs and are chinked with Spanish moss. The stone 
used for foundations and fireplaces is ancient ballast rock, recovered from 
the waters around the island. 

The Fort, on the original foundations within its own palisade, is of pine 
with a projecting upper story and sides pierced for gunfire. Here are the 
stone monument erected in 1896 in memory of the Lost Colony, and a 
bronze plaque bearing the one word Croatoan. The Museum contains im- 
plements used in Colonial days. The Chapel, of juniper logs, 20 by 30 feet, 
thatched with native reeds, stands on a little hummock north of the fort. 
Rough backless benches are set in the sand, which serves as a floor. Each 
year, on Aug. 18, the Roanoke Colony Memorial Association celebrates the 
birthday of Virginia Dare at Fort Raleigh. The 350th anniversary took an 
elaborate form in 1937. 

State 345 continues to WEIR POINT, 84 m., at the tip of Roanoke 
Island. Here, in 1902, Reginald A. Fessenden, of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 
built an experimental wireless station and established communication with 
a ship similarly equipped. He subsequently completed his experiments else- 
where and secured patents for his system. 

A ferry runs between Roanoke Island and Manns Harbor {see tour 26a). 

300 TOURS 


This route is recommended for the adventurous 

Whalebone Filling Station to Hatteras Inlet, 55 m. 

Unpaved sandy road, unusable at certain times of the year and during high tide; safest 
when ground is frozen. Inquire locally about conditions. Automobile tires should be 
somewhat deflated before leaving paved roadbed; motorists should carry long strips 
of coarse canvas or an old sail for use under the wheels to provide traction if needed. 
Coast Guard Stations between Oregon and Hatteras Inlets assist motorists. Hotel at 
Hatteras village. 

The constantly shifting dunes of this long narrow reef created by the 
restless currents of the Atlantic form fantastic shadows, contrasting with the 
gray green or blue of the waters in a scene of primitive splendor. 

Bodie (body) Island Lighthouse {open), 5 m., was built in 1872. The 
first light here was erected in 1848 to mark the dangerous stretch of low- 
lying coast between Capes Henry and Hatteras. Rebuilt in 1859, it was 
destroyed during the War between the States; Fort Oregon was built near 
the site during that conflict. When rebuilt it was placed on a new site west 
of the inlet that had recently been opened. Five sailing vessels were wrecked 
in the vicinity while the tower, finished in 1872, was under construction. 
The lighthouse is 163 feet high and throws a 160,000-candlepower beam 
visible for 19 miles. 

OREGON INLET, 8 m., a mile wide, is crossed by a toll ferry {50$ 
trip for car and driver; extra passengers 10$ each way). This is one of the 
best points on the coast for drum (channel bass) fishing. While drum 
and bluefish are running, scores of fishing boats with shining lures 
trailing astern pass through the inlet, and millions of pounds of fish are 

The 6,500-acre area between Oregon Inlet and Rodanthe constitutes the 
of the U. S. Biological Survey; it is a part of the Cape Hatteras National 

Pea Island Station {open), 15 m., is the only one in the Coast Guard 
service manned by Negroes. In the surf nearby is the rusty boiler of a 
grounded Confederate blockade runner. 

NEW INLET, 17 m., opened in 1933 by a severe northeast storm and 
ocean tides, is crossed by free bridges. 

RODANTHE, 21 m. (420 pop.), is on the most easterly point on the 
North Carolina coast. Here, folk celebrate the birth of the Christ Child on 
Jan. 6, Old Christmas, or Twelfth Night, a custom for generations. 

Chicamacomico Station {open) marks the dangerous coast at Rodanthe. 
Here is the surfboat in which, on Aug. 16, 1918, Capt. John Allen Midgett 
and a crew of 5 braved a sea of blazing oil and gasoline to rescue 42 
persons from the torpedoed British tanker, S.S. Mirlo. For this deed Con- 


gress awarded them bronze Medals of Honor. Close by the station is the 
burial mound of British seamen drowned in the wreck of the St. Catharis, 
Apr. 16, 1891, in which 90 lives were lost. 

At SALVO, 27 m., on a barren sand hill, grows an immense fig tree 
whose branches spread over an area 250 feet in circumference. It produced 
from 50 to 100 bushels of figs annually until 1933, when it was damaged 
in a storm. 

AVON, 39 m., (489 pop.), is a fishing village also known locally by 
the Indian name Kinnakeet. Big Kinnakeet Station (open) is here. Tons 
of bluefish are caught near here every season. Fruit trees, vineyards, and 
truck gardens evidence the fertility of this little area. 

South of Avon the beach road winds through woods where palmettos 
grow in abundance, trees are hung with Spanish moss, and the vegetation 
is generally subtropical. The open beach is strewn with wreckage, attesting 
the aptness of Cape Hatteras waters being called "the Graveyard of the 
Atlantic." A grisly joke is the local observation that Hatteras' chief importa- 
tion is wrecks. 

On CAPE HATTERAS, 45 m., wildlife is abundant. For years herds 
of wild ponies, cattle, and hogs ranged at will, till the Federal program of 
sand fixation by grass plantings necessitated a strict stock law. In 1938 the 
county placed a bounty on the few remaining wild ponies, traditional de- 
scendants of Barbary ponies brought over by the Raleigh colonists or saved 
from wrecked Portuguese ships. In winter the waters are dotted with ducks 
and geese, and there is frequently the gleam of a white swan. Sandpipers 
and gulls feed in flocks, undisturbed by scurrying sandfiddlers. Eagles and 
ospreys wheel above the water on the lookout for prey, and schools of por- 
poises sport just beyond the breakers of the roaring Atlantic. 

At the tip of the cape, 1,200 acres, including the gently shelving beach 
on the south, were given to the Federal Government by Frank Stick and 
J. S. Phipps to be developed as the CAPE HATTERAS NATIONAL SEA- 
SHORE, which will eventually be included in a greater recreational area 
embracing 50 miles or more of beachland and bordering sound. 

Within the area is Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, abandoned in 1936. Spi- 
rally painted black and white, the structure is 193 feet high and commands 
a view of a great wreck area. Within 125 yards, 15 or more ship skeletons 
protrude from the sands. The first lighthouse, built in 1798, was blown 
up during the War between the States. The present abandoned lighthouse, 
when built in 1869-70, was 2 miles inland, but when the encroaching Atlantic 
was only 100 feet away the Government decided to retreat to higher 
ground. A 166-foot skeleton tower at the edge of Buxton woods replaces the 
older, more picturesque structure; it has a revolving light visible for 19 
miles on a clear night. 

After the engagement between the Merrimac and the Monitor in Hampton 
Roads, Mar. 9, 1862, the Monitor was dispatched to Charleston Harbor Dec. 
29 in tow of the side-wheeler Rhode Island. The following night the unsea- 

302 TOURS 

worthy little "cheese box" sank in a gale off Hatteras, with a loss of 4 
officers and 12 men; 49 of her crew were saved by the Rhode Island. 

DIAMOND SHOALS, most treacherous shallows on the coast, extend 
25 miles out to sea from the cape. They are vast shifting ridges of sand, 
swept down the coast by powerful ocean tides. Few ships stranded on the 
shoals are ever refloated, but the Matinee R. Thurlow proved an exception 
when she ran aground during a storm on Oct. 13, 1927. Her crew of nine 
signaled for help and coast guardsmen took them ashore in a surfboat. 
The Coast Guard cutter Mascoutin, which was dispatched from Norfolk, 
Va., could find no trace of the schooner and reported her lost. Thirteen 
days later the Dutch tanker Sleidrecht sighted the schooner in the North 
Atlantic. A general order to run down the modern Flying Dutchman was 
broadcast. Every few days the sea wanderer was reported in a different place 
but she was never overtaken and her fate is unknown. 

The shoals are marked by Diamond Shoals Lightship, moored 13 miles 
off the tip of Cape Hatteras. With radio signals and a beacon visible for 
14 miles, the ship serves continuously for a year, when she and her crew of 
16 are relieved by another "wave wallower." 

Early efforts to maintain a lightship here proved futile, but there has been 
one since 1897 except for brief intervals. One such interval occurred on Aug. 
8, 1918 when a German submarine opened fire on a merchant ship about a 
mile and a half away. The lightship wirelessed a warning to vessels in the 
vicinity and the submarine located and sank her. The crew escaped in small 
boats to Cape Hatteras. 

West of the cape the road passes sand hills whose thickly timbered ridges are 
clothed with loblolly pine, live oak, and holly including the yaupon (yo'pon), 
locally called cassena holly. The trees incline westward, bent by the prevail- 
ing winds. These woods contain deer and small game. Yaupon {Ilex cassine 
and Ilex vomitorid) is a dark evergreen with bright red berries. The small 
glossy leaves are dried and used for tea, emetic to those unaccustomed to it, 
though it contains much caffeine. It was called the "black drink" when used 
by the Creeks at their annual "busk" or green-corn thanksgiving for cere- 
monial purification. 

At 46.5 m., is BUXTON (315 pop.), most of whose houses cluster 
around the sound-side docks. 

FRISCO, 50 m. (115 pop.), has neat white houses with bright blue 
blinds and dooryards gay with flowers and picket fences. The Frisco Station 
{open) is on the beach here. 

Southwest of Frisco the route continues through the woods, which at 
length give way to open beachland strewn with still more wreckage. 

HATTERAS, 54 m. (5 alt., 500 pop.), is the largest community on the 
beach. Sportsmen interested in deep-sea fishing have materially aided its 
development. Houses, some flamboyantly painted, nestle among scrubby, 

TOUR I A 303 

stunted live oaks and waterbushes teeming with mockingbirds. The people 
are weathered and bronzed, possessed of a sturdy independence and self- 
reliance. Occupations are limited almost entirely to fishing and boating and 
to Government employment in the Lighthouse Service and the Coast Guard. 

These people speak in broad Devon accents. Many older families believe 
they are descended from shipwrecked English sailors. Most are members of 
well-defined clans. Old words and phrases survive and the distinctive banker 
enunciation gives the speech a special quality. Couthy is the banker's word 
for capable; heerd for heard. "Don't fault me if I'm scunnered" means 
"Don't blame me if I'm disgusted." The mainland is usually referred to as 
the country, and day begins at "calm daylight." Disremember and disen- 
courage are frequently heard. Fleech means to flatter, although the native 
is sparing with his praise. 

In this neighborhood a "model T" is driven as if it were a ship in sail. 
To turn left is to "port the helm," and when the right front tire blows 
out, "she's listin' by the starb'rd beam." A wife riding in the rear seat is 
"supercargo in the stern sheets." 

Towns are called neighborhoods, and while there are no boarding houses 
proper, tourists {comers n goers) find shelter along the way. Graves are 
usually close by the houses in the yards, but there is always the chance that 
the bones of the departed may be blown out if the winds are high. A canoe 
is a cunner, and some of the houses rest on blocks because of the toids 

The woods disappear at the western end of the island, which is low and 
wet, and marsh joins the sandy beach. 

HATTER AS INLET, 55 m., is the principal inlet on the northern Caro- 
lina coast, and famous for angling {boats available for trips to the Gulf 
Stream, 20 miles offshore). Dolphin, amberjack, tarpon, sailfish, marlin, 
and swordfish provide sport for deep-sea fishermen {fishing best in late May, 
early ]une, and Oct.). 

Where the marsh and beach converge at the inlet are traces of Fort 
Hatteras and its outlying flank defense, Battery Clark. Col. W. F. Martin 
was in charge of Fort Hatteras when, on Aug. 27, 1861, a Federal fleet ap- 
peared, equipped with Dahlgren guns, secure beyond the range of the old- 
style smooth-bore pieces of the Confederate defenders. After most of the 
fort's guns had been silenced, Federal troops landed on the beach, and 
Colonel Martin surrendered, Aug. 29. The fall of Fort Hatteras opened to 
Union forces an effective entrance into North Carolina. 


Elizabeth City — Weeksville — Halls Creek; State 170. 17.5 m. 

Paved roadbed between Elizabeth City and Symons Creek, narrow graded road between 
Symons Creek and Halls Creek. 

State 170 branches southeast from US 17 (see tour ia) in ELIZABETH 
CITY, m. {see Elizabeth city). 

At 1 m. is the junction with a dirt road 

Left on this road to the Elizabeth City State Normal School (colored), 1 m. Started 
in 1 89 1 in a single wooden building, the school now occupies nine, most of which are 
brick. Students work for the school to pay part of their tuition. About one-fifth of the 
500 students are boys. The two-year course is for teacher training. 

At a country church, 1.5 m., is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to Enfield Farm (private), 2 m., on the bank of the Pasquotank 
River. Here was erected in 1670 the home of Thomas Relfe, provost marshal of the 
general court and one of the first vestrymen of Pasquotank Parish. Two rooms of the 
original building, with brick walls 3 feet thick, are incorporated in the present farmhouse. 

Enfield Farm was the Scene of the Culpepper Rebellion in 1678. The conduct 
of acting Governor Miller had become so repugnant that the people of the section, led 
by John Culpepper, former surveyor general of South Carolina, George Durant (see tour 
1 a), and other planters, seized Miller and six members of the council and imprisoned 
them at Enfield. They then convoked a legislature, appointed courts and for two years 
exercised all the rights and powers of government. When Culpepper went to London 
to defend his conduct the Lords Proprietors declined to punish him. Arrested by royal 
authorities on charges of embezzlement and treason for seizing the King's customs, 
he was acquitted. 

Cobbs Point, formerly called Pembroke, on Enfield Farm, was the scene of a minor 
naval battle in 1862. Visible are the remains of a rude fort, hastily thrown up to defend 
the harbor when Federal gunboats came up the river from Roanoke Island. 

Bayside {private), 3 m., is a Classical Revival plantation house on the 
highest point of land along the Pasquotank River. It was built by John 
Hollowell about 1800. The white-columned mansion faces the highway, in 
a setting of wide lawns, spreading trees, and spacious gardens. The over- 
seer's dwelling and one of the slave cabins are still standing and in use. 

WEEKSVILLE, 7.5 m. (8 alt., no pop.), on New Begun Creek, is the 
center of the most fertile farming territory in northeastern North Carolina. 

At SYMONS CREEK, 11 m., is the Site of the First Quaker Meet- 
inghouse in North Carolina (1706). A marker indicates the Site of the 
First School in North Carolina, established in 1705 by Charles Griffin, 
a lay reader of the Established Church sent out by the Society for the 


TOUR IB 305 

Propagation of the Gospel. He was the first professional teacher in North 
Carolina of whom there is record. 

NIXONTON, 14.8 m. (115 pop.), on Little River, originally Old Town, 
was the seat of Pasquotank County until 1800. Nixonton was the center 
of a flourishing trade with the West Indies in the early 1800's. 

The Old Customhouse {private), on a hill sloping to the river, is a one- 
story wooden structure built in 1745 and now serving as a dwelling. The 
original structure contained three rooms and paneling that has been removed. 
The claim is made that the lumber, bricks, and paneling were brought from 
England. Two rooms and two porches have been added. 

At HALLS CREEK, 17.5 m., opposite Halls Creek Church, is a memorial 
tablet marking the Site of the Grand Assembly of the Albemarle 
(1665), the first assembly of settlers ever held in North Carolina. It con- 
vened by order of William Drummond, North Carolina's first Governor; 
George Catchmaid was speaker. The assembly petitioned the Proprietors to 
allow the North Carolinians to hold their lands under the same conditions 
as the Virginians. Accession to this request was made in what is known as 
the Great Deed of Grant (1668). Tradition relates that one of the bylaws 
of the assembly provided that "the members should wear shoes, if not 
stockings" during the session of the body and that they "must not throw 
their chicken and other bones under the tree." 


Junction with US 17 — Orton — Old Brunswick — Southport; Old River Rd. 
26 m. 

Sand-clay road. 

Hotel accommodations at Southport. 

The Old River Rd. branches south from US 17, m. (see tour ib), 
4 miles west of Wilmington, parallels the Cape Fear's western bank through 
woodlands shaded by century-old oaks. 

CLARENDON (private), 8 m., a 1,000-acre estate, in 1730 was the seat 
of Marsden Campbell. The Colonial frame house was torn down about 1920 
to make way for a modern residence. Clarendon was once the name for the 
whole Cape Fear region. 

TOWN CREEK, 9 m. (100 pop.), is the site of the first settlement 
(1664) on the Cape Fear River, although a party of New Englanders in 
1660 had attempted to settle here. In 1661 and 1663 exploring parties 
from Barbados, headed by Capt. William Hilton, paved the way for the 
party of royalist refugees who in 1664 established a settlement at the mouth 
of Town Creek, which they called Charles Town. They were joined the 
following year by other Barbadians, among them Sir John Yeamans, who 
had been appointed their Governor. These Barbadians planted cotton and 
exported boards, staves, and shingles. The settlement was abandoned in 
1667, and in 1670 Yeamans became one of the founders of the Charles 
Town on the Ashley River in South Carolina. 

On the Site of Lilliput, 10 m., was one of the earliest plantations on 
the river, that of Eleazar Allen, receiver general of the Colonies for the 
southern district (1745-48), noted for his hospitality. According to his tomb- 
stone, he was serving as chief justice of the Colony at his death. Lilliput 
later became the property and for a time the residence of Sir Thomas Frank- 
land, a great-grandson of Oliver Cromwell. 

On Orton Plantation (open occasionally), 14 m., is the only surviving 
mansion of the Colonial period on the Cape Fear River. The estate was 
probably named for the village of Orton in the lake district of England, seat 
of the Moore family. The house was built in 1725 by "King" Roger Moore, 
so called because of his imperious manner. It was subsequently occupied by 
his grandson, Gen. Benjamin Smith, Governor of North Carolina (1810-11). 
Following a dispute between Benjamin and his brother James, the latter 
dropped the name Smith to assume his grandmother's name of Rhett, and 


TOUR I C 307 

went to South Carolina where he became the founder of the Rhett family 
of that State. 

Entrance to the 10,000-acre estate is marked by massive gray stone pillars 
surmounted by iron spread-eagles. The drive winds between tall trees and 
past ponds once planted with rice. Across the diked marshland were rails 
for a small car on which visitors rode to the house from the river. 

On a high bluff overlooking the river is the mansion, in a formal setting 
of boxwoods, camellias, and azaleas. It is of brick, painted white, almost 
square in plan, with a Doric portico. Above the heavy wooden entrance 
door is a small balcony. Dimensions of the original building were about 
60 by 75 feet, but subsequent owners added wings and modernized the 

On Orton Estate, half a mile southeast of the mansion, is Old Palace 
Field, the site of Russellborough. This 55-acre tract was bought from Roger 
Moore's estate by Captain Russell of the British Navy, who once owned 
the Campbelltown tract {see fayetteville). It was later sold to Arthur 
Dobbs, Governor (1754-65), and in 1767 became the property of William 
Tryon, Governor (1765-71). A rubble of ruins, almost hidden by trees 
and vines, is all that remains of the winter mansion occupied by Tryon 
when he was in Brunswick. Here a marker, of brick and stone from 
the ruins, commemorates the Stamp Act Defiance. When the British 
Parliament passed the Stamp Act, citizens of the region, headed by Alder- 
man Moses John DeRossett, demanded and received the resignation of Stamp 
Master William Houston {see Wilmington), and by ordered demonstra- 
tions so evinced their dissatisfaction that when H.M.S. Diligence arrived in 
November 1765 with the stamps, they were not unloaded. Incited by the 
seizure of two ships whose papers had not been stamped, 1,000 partly armed 
citizens, headed by Speaker John Ashe and Col. Hugh Waddell, proceeded 
to Brunswick. On Feb. 19, 1766, in defiance of two armed British vessels, 
the Diligence and the Viper, and garrisoned Fort Johnston at the river's 
mouth, the mob forced the release of the seized ships and the resignation 
of William Pennington, His Majesty's comptroller, who agreed to issue no 
more stamped paper. Two months later Parliament repealed the act. 

Just south of Old Palace Field is the Site of Old Brunswick, 15 m., 
founded in 1725 when Col. Maurice Moore laid off the town and named 
both town and county for the Prince of Brunswick. After the Tuscarora 
massacres of 171 1 {see tour 2), Colonel Moore headed the relief force from 
South Carolina and, attracted by the river lands as he crossed the Cape Fear, 
conceived the idea of settling here. This was not possible until 1725, the 
Lords Proprietors having prohibited settlements within 20 miles of the river 
up to that time. In 1731 Dr. John Brickell, in his Natural History of North- 
Carolina, wrote: "Brunswick Town is most delightfully seated, on the 
South-side of that Noble River Cape Fear; and no doubt but it will be 
very considerable in a short time, by its great trade, the number of Mer- 
chants, and rich planters, that are settled upon its banks." As many as 42 
vessels carrying valuable cargoes sailed from the port in one year. 

After Spanish vessels attacked, captured, and partially destroyed the town 

308 TOURS 

in 1748, it was almost immediately retaken and rebuilt. A painting, Ecce 
Homo, taken from a captured Spanish ship, is in St. James Church, Wil- 
mington. Cornelius Harnett {see Wilmington) was reared here in his 
father's Brunswick tavern. 

As early as 1733 Brunswick felt the growing importance of New Town 
(Wilmington). The roadstead had proved unsafe in stormy weather and 
exposed to pirates, and although royal Governors lived here during the 
winter months, everyone fled in summer to escape the swarms of mosquitoes. 
In 1735 Gov. Gabriel Johnston bought land at Wilmington and moved 
courts, council and port offices thither. Wilmington flourished while Bruns- 
wick dwindled, and after the Revolutionary War was finally abandoned. 

St. Philip's Church (1740-65) is Brunswick's most noted ruin. Cedar 
trees grow within the 33-inch-thick brick walls which survived the Federal 
bombardment of Fort Anderson. The chancel windows, slender and arched, 
are flanked by doorways. The side walls have four windows each, 15 feet 
high and 7 feet wide. At first utilizing a mere shed, Brunswick churchmen 
improved their place of worship until finally in 1765 this once-handsome 
little edifice was sufficiently completed for services. Built of English brick 
combined with some locally made, it was His Majesty's Chapel in the Colony, 
and the royal Governors, Dobbs and Tryon, had their pews raised above the 
others. Behind the church lie many of Brunswick's citizens. Among them 
are Arthur Dobbs, royal Governor (1754-65), and Alfred Moore, Justice 
(1799-1805) of the U. S. Supreme Court {see tour //). 

At 18 m. is the Site of Fort Anderson, part of the defense line of Wil- 
mington, captured by Union troops after a severe bombardment, Feb. 17-19, 
1865. Only grass-clad ruins mark the spot. 

Howes Point, 19 m., is the site of the plantation of Job Howe, birthplace 
of Gen. Robert Howe (1732-86), aide of George Washington. The planta- 
tion was plundered by British troops under Cornwallis, May 12, 1776. After 
destroying mills in the vicinity, the British embarked for Charleston. Their 
advance upon Orton's mill was halted at a small spring-fed lake since called 
Liberty Pond. 

The Old River Rd. runs to SOUTHPORT, 26 m. {see tour ib). 


Junction with US 158 — Tarboro — Kinston — Junction with US 17; US 258. 
143 m. 

Seaboard Air Line R.R. parallels the route between Murfreesboro and Rich Square; 
Atlantic Coast Line R.R. between Scotland Neck and Tarboro; Eastern Carolina R.R. 
between Tarboro and Farmville; Norfolk Southern R.R. between Snow Hill and Kinston. 
Roadbed paved throughout. 
Hotels in towns; tourist homes and camps along route. 

US 258 traverses a section of the Coastal Plain where bright-leaf tobacco 
is the staple crop. Small farms lie between pine forests containing a few 
maple, ash, gum, oak, and hickory trees. The highway crosses several 
eastward-flowing rivers which in spring and fall rise to torrential proportions 
and rage through fertile bottom lands. 

At m. US 258 branches south from US 158 {see tour 24a), 2 miles 
west of Murfreesboro. 

The route crosses the Roanoke River, 22 m., on Edwards Ferry Bridge, 
built in 1926 and named for an early ferry run by Cullen Edwards, holder 
of a pre-Revolutionary land grant. Indians called the Roanoke the River of 
Death, because of its rapids and sudden floods. Near this point Gilbert 
Elliott of Elizabeth City built the Confederate ironclad ram Albemarle {see 
tour 26a). 

Old Trinity Episcopal Church (L), 28 m., is built of deep-toned red 
brick in modified English Gothic style. Ivy growing on the church tower 
was reputedly brought from Westminster Abbey. The church was organized 
in 1832 from Kehukee Parish. In the garden-like cemetery is the Tomb 
of Whitmel Hill (1743-97)? colonel in the Continental Army. As a mem- 
ber of the State constitutional convention at Halifax in 1776, he was on the 
committee that drafted the document and was a member of the Continental 
Congress (1778-81) and of the State senate. In the Hillsboro convention of 
1788 he stood with the Johnston-Iredell-Davie minority for adoption of the 
Federal Constitution. 

SCOTLAND NECK, 29 m. (102 alt., 2,339 P°P-)> on a fertile neck of 
land in a bend of the Roanoke River, was settled in 1722 by a colony of 
Scottish Highlanders from Virginia. Several factories manufacture peanut 
products and there are two hosiery mills. The brick building of Vine Hill 
Academy, founded in 18 10, still stands, though it is now used for storage. 
Until closed in the early 1900's the school exerted an important influence in 
this part of the State. 


310 TOURS 

Legend has it that after the Stuart restoration, John and Edward Crom- 
well, brothers of the Protector, fled to America (1675). While on the ocean 
they decided to change their names to escape possible persecution and per- 
formed a solemn ceremony of writing their names on paper and cutting 
the letter M from the Cromwell and casting it into the sea. The brothers 
first landed in New Jersey, but later settled near Scotland Neck, at what is 
still called Crowell's Crossroads. 

At 37 m. US 258 crosses Deep Creek, whose waters are darkened by 
passage through upland swamps of cypress and juniper. 

PRINCEVILLE, 49 m. (39 alt., 614 pop.), is one of the country's few 
incorporated villages politically dominated by Negroes. Chartered in 1885, 
it has an all-Negro administration including a volunteer fire company. The 
place is really a suburb of Tarboro, where most of its male inhabitants are 

At Prince ville is the junction with US 64 {see tour 26a), which unites 
with US 258 between Princeville and Tarboro. 

TARBORO, 50 m. (58 alt., 6,379 pop.), seat of Edgecombe County, is 
a tobacco-selling and cotton-manufacturing center on the western bank of 
Tar River. The county was formed in 1735 and named for the Earl of 
Edgecombe, British commissioner for trade and plantations. The town was 
laid out in 1760 on or near the site of an earlier Tar Burrow established by 
people of English descent from Virginia. At the insistence of the rector of 
St. Mary's Parish, such names as St. John, St. Andrew, and St. Patrick were 
given to the shady winding streets branching from Tarboro Common. 

Tarboro was one of several towns that played host to North Carolina's 
itinerant legislature in its early days. The 1787 session, with 180 members 
in attendance, met here. About 50 legislators were packed into Toole's 
Tavern; others were quartered in private homes. William Attmore, a Phila- 
delphia merchant in Tarboro at the time, notes in his journal: "Every family 
almost received some of the members; Beds were borrowed from the 
Country, 3 or 4 placed in a room and two of their Honors in a bed." After 
the fuel had been exhausted at the tavern, the members resorted to "Drams of 
some kind or other before Breakfast; sometimes Gin, Cherrybounce, Egg 
Nog, etc." 

The assembly met at the courthouse; it had a long room for the commons 
and a smaller room for the senate. Every member sat with his hat on except 
when addressing the chair. Members gambled in a tavern at an "E.O. 
table" brought thither by a Mr. Faulkner of Philadelphia, and at other games, 
one New Bern trader losing £600 in a night. 

In providing entertainment for the visitors, attempts were made to "repre- 
sent dramatic pieces, but with very bad success. . . . Two of the actresses 
were adventuresses from Charleston." One Billy Ford emerged from a "jovial 
meeting" of the legislature wearing a silk handkerchief to hide a black eye 
caused by a swiftly hurled orange skin. "Somebody also threw the leg of 
a Turkey which miss'd him, but fell not guiltless to the floor, giving Toole 
a violent blow on the back," in which connection Attmore remarks that at 

TOUR 2 311 

the tavern they "invited me to go upstairs to be introduced to some great 
Men, but I was engaged!" 

Edgecombe County's principal crops are cotton, tobacco, and peanuts; 
Tarboro factories manufacture cotton cloth, cottonseed products, veneers, 
corn meal, and feed. The municipality operates a creamery and maintains 
a high standard for its milk supply. 

Tarboro Common, a shaded park in the center of the business section, 
contains a monument to Col. Louis D. Wilson (1789-1847), who represented 
Edgecombe County for 19 years in the general assembly. In the course of a 
speech urging North Carolina's participation in the war against Mexico, a 
younger senator remarked that it was well enough for Wilson to favor "this 
contemptible war," as he was too old to go. Wilson rallied a volunteer militia 
from Edgecombe, and proceeded to Mexico. He died of fever at Vera Cruz. 
Wilson and Wilson County bear his name (see tour 3). Other monuments 
honor Confederate soldiers of Edgecombe County and Henry L. Wyatt, 
slain at Bethel Church, June 10, 1861, whose death was remembered by his 
Confederate comrades as the "First at Bethel" (see raleigh). 

Local legend places the Bark House (private), 501 W. Wilson St., on the 
site of an early fort built by settlers as protection against Indians, who were 
numerous in the region until about 1720. The frame structure is covered 
over with slabs of bark. 

Dr. J. P. Keech's Office (open), 115 E. Church St., contains a collection 
of early novels and school texts, Indian relics, old weapons, and wooden 
gavels from a community house erected by Thomas Blount in 1808. 

Calvary Episcopal Church, NE. corner Church and David Sts., was or- 
ganized as St. Mary's Parish in 1741. The present building, third on the site, 
was begun in i860, though not completed until 1867. Its twin towers are 
green with English ivy. In the wall-enclosed churchyard is the Grave of 
William Dorsey Pender (1834-63), killed at Gettysburg, youngest major 
general in the Confederate Army. Here also is the Grave of Col. William 
Lawrence Saunders, secretary of state of North Carolina (1879-91) and 
compiler of the Colonial Records of North Carolina. His tombstone bears 
the statement, "I decline to answer," made by Colonel Saunders when ques- 
tioned in a Ku Klux Klan investigation (see tour //). 

At 59 m. is the junction with paved State 43. 

Left on State 43 to the junction with an improved road, 3.2 m. ; L. 1 m. on this road 
to Bracebridge Hall {private), birthplace and lifetime residence of Elias Carr, leader 
in the agrarian movement in the 1890's and Governor of North Carolina (1893-97). 
The two-story mansion with Doric portico, set in a grove of oaks with the usual 
dependencies, was probably built in the i83o's. 

FARMVILLE, 75 m. (82 alt., 2,056 pop.), is an agricultural and tobacco- 
marketing center with warehouses scattered about the town. 

Farmville is at the junction with US 264 (see tour 27). 

At 84 m. is a bronze tablet on a boulder marking the course of the Old 
Hull Rd., cut by British troops during the Revolution. A second tablet on 

312 TOURS 

the boulder indicates the Grave of Gen. Thomas Holliday, Greene County 
soldier of the War of 1812. 

SNOW HILL, 87 m. (64 alt., 826 pop.), seat of Greene County, is an 
agricultural center in a prosperous tobacco-producing area. It was founded 
in 1799 but not incorporated until 1855. 

Snow Hill is on the site of the Indian town of Cotechney, the Tuscarora 
stronghold, to which in 171 1 were brought the captives John Lawson and 
Baron de GrafTenried, founders of New Bern (see new bern). Lawson, who 
as surveyor general of North Carolina had disposed of large areas of land 
claimed by the Indians, was tortured to death. Legend says his captors thrust 
lightwood splinters into his flesh and set them afire. De Graffenried was 
released after six months' imprisonment. 

Greene County, named for Revolutionary Gen. Nathanael Greene, was 
laid out in 1791 from the now extinct Dobbs County. It was first named 
for James Glasgow, but was renamed in 1799 after Glasgow had been con- 
victed of fraud in connection with the issuance of land grants. 

When Samuel Ashe, Governor (1795-98), heard of Glasgow's plans to 
remove incriminating records and burn the statehouse at Raleigh, his com- 
ment was, "An angel has fallen." A special court of circuit judges found 
Glasgow and his associates guilty. He was fined ^2,000, but the Negro, 
who at his behest had attempted to burn the statehouse, was hanged. This 
special court, directed by an act of 1799 to sit at Raleigh, was the nucleus of 
the State's highest tribunal, an act in 1805 constituting it the State supreme 
court. Glasgow's body was moved to an unmarked grave in Raleigh. 

Greene County was settled about 1710 by families from Virginia, Mary- 
land, and North Carolina counties to the north. Though one of the smallest 
counties in the State, it is one of the richest agriculturally, yielding abundant 
crops of tobacco, corn, and cotton. 

The Greene County Courthouse (1935) is the third to serve the county. 
Constructed of brick and limestone, it is two stories in height with a third- 
story attic. The symmetrical facade is designed with a portico of four Doric 
columns and consonant Greek detail. The first courthouse was erected in 

The Episcopal Church is a simple four-bay structure with white over- 
lapped vertical siding. A rude, unpainted cross surmounts the peak of the 
front gable and a bell rack stands to the left rear of the church in the yard. 

A marker at the principal business intersection designates the Granville 
Line, surveyed in 1743. Snow Hill lies on the southern boundary of the "one- 
eighth part" of Carolina retained by Lord Granville in 1729 when the other 
Lords Proprietors surrendered their charters (see history). This marker also 
commemorates an Indian battle at Fort Nohoroco, a Tuscarora fortress 
nearby on Contentnea Creek. On Mar. 20-23, I 7 I 3' m perhaps the severest 
battle fought with the Indians up to that date, Col. Maurice Moore broke 
the power of the Tuscarora and their allies in North Carolina. The Tus- 
carora surrendered 20 of their chief men to Moore and later emigrated to 
New York to join the Five Nations. 

TOUR 2 313 

Right from Snow Hill on paved State 102 to the junction with a dirt road, 5.7 m. ; L. 
0.4 m. on this road to the junction with a lane; R. 0.2 m. up the lane to the Henry 
Best House {private; open on request). This was the home of a Greene County soldier 
of the Revolution and was built probably in the early 1800's. It is a two-story, clap- 
boarded house, one room deep, with end chimneys and ell at the rear. A two-story 
porch, the length of the front, is supported on two ranges of square columns, vaguely 
Doric in detail, which are a later addition. There is a fine dentiled and modillioned 
cornice at the rear. The upper gallery of the porch is enclosed by a delicate wood railing. 
Inside, a wainscot with beveled paneling runs around the hall and the two lower 
rooms; the staircase has a spiral newel. 

KINSTON, 102 m. (46 alt., 11,362 pop.), on the northern bank of the 
Neuse River, is the seat of Lenoir County and a tobacco center. Queen Street, 
named for Charlotte, queen of George III, extends north from the river, 
traverses the business section, surmounts a low hill, and becomes the prin- 
cipal residential avenue. Old streets, with the exception of Queen, resemble 
alleys in their narrowness. Commercial life at Kinston attains its peak during 
the tobacco-selling season each fall. Nine warehouses, tobacco stemmeries, 
three textile mills, a lumber mill, and radio broadcasting station WFTC are 
operated in the town. 

The site of Kinston in 1740 was the homestead of William Heritage, a 
New Bern planter and jurist who had removed to Atkins Banks on the 
Neuse. In 1762 Governor Dobbs authorized establishment of a town at 
Atkins Banks, with Richard Caswell, Francis McLewean, Simon Bright, Jr., 
John Shine, and David Gordon as trustees. They laid out the town and 
named the streets for themselves and Heritage. The main street of the new 
King's Town (Kingston) was designated King Street in honor of George 
III. During the Revolution zealous patriots adopted the form Kinston. 

Lenoir County, named for Revolutionary Gen. William Lenoir {see tour 
iga), was formed in 1791 from Dobbs County, but before 1758 it was part 
of the Great County of Bath. 

Before the War between the States, the Dibble family established a buggy 
factory here and operated a fleet of freight and passenger boats to New Bern. 
The firm, oldest in Kinston, still maintains a repair shop. Among the earliest 
industries was the shoe-manufacturing plant of John Cobb Washington and 
George Washington, relatives of President Washington. The section near 
the factory was called Yankee Row when Federal troops were quartered 
there, Dec. 13-14, 1862. 

On the SE. corner of Gordon and Heritage Sts. is the Site of the Birth- 
place of Dr. James Augustus Washington, who with Dr. Isaac E. Taylor 
in 1839-40 first administered medicine with a hypodermic needle. 

The Lenoir County Courthouse (1887), SE. corner Queen and King 
Sts., a two-story white stuccoed building with a clock cupola, replaced two 
earlier ones. The first of wood (1792) was burned. A brick building erected 
in 1845 was set afire by the clerk of the court in 1878. The few records that 
could be saved were removed to a store building which the determined clerk 
fired a few nights later. The incendiary served a term in the penitentiary, 
but Lenoir is without its early records. 

On the courthouse green is a Monument to Richard Caswell (1729-89), 

314 TOURS 

a Maryland surveyor who came to North Carolina with letters to Governor 
Johnston. After serving as deputy surveyor of the Colony and clerk of Orange 
County Court, he started his long career in the general assembly (1754-71), 
where he evinced vigorous interest in court reforms. Caswell commanded 
Tryon's right wing at Alamance (see tour 25) and led a patriot force at 
Moores Creek Bridge {see tour 29). He was a delegate to the Continental 
Congress (1774-76) and first Governor under the constitution (1776-80), 
during which time he helped organize and equip troops. In 1780 he was 
elevated to a major generalship in command of the entire State militia. He 
served as Governor a second time (1785-87), and died in 1789 while Speaker 
of the assembly at Fayetteville. His body was returned to Kinston, where 
he had resided for 25 years (see tour 28). 

The Public Library (open 9-5 weekdays}, 109 King St. opposite the court- 
house, is supported jointly by the city and its civic organizations. The central 
section of the house, two stories in height, is flanked by one-story wings. 
Usually referred to as the Peebles House, it is the oldest in Kinston, having 
been built by a man named Lovick and sold to Abner Nash in 1824. Re- 
modeling has changed its original appearance. 

St. Mary's Episcopal Church, SW. corner King and Independent Sts., 
is a red brick structure built in 1901 on a cruciform plan, with a tower topped 
with battlements to the left of the facade. The organization of its parish 
antedates the act establishing the town of Kinston. 

Kinston is at the junction with US 70 (see tour 28). 

At 103 m. US 258 crosses the Neuse River. 

At 103.1 m. is the junction with paved State 55. 

Left on State 55 to the junction with paved State 12, 0.7 m. ; R. 14.2 m. on State 
12 to the junction with a dirt road; R. 2.7 m. on the dirt road to the Whitaker 
Plantation House {private), a story-and-a-half structure, sloping in the manner of a 
New England "salt-box" to one story at the rear, with extended front porch on square 
piers. The pegged frame house is covered with weatherboarding. The massive right 
chimney is still standing but only the base of the left remains. Plainly visible in the one- 
story section are holes made by a cannon ball which went through the house during the 
War between the States. Here on Mar. 8, 1865, Gen. Braxton Bragg repulsed Federal 
forces led by General Cox, capturing many prisoners. This was one of the last Con- 
federate victories, since Federal reinforcements forced Bragg to retire immediately to 
Goldsboro. Twelve days later these same Confederate troops met defeat in the "last stand 
of the Confederacy" at Bentonville {see tour 5). 

RICHLANDS, 131 m. (64 alt., 503 pop.), is a sawmill and farming town 
that grew up on Avirett, ante-bellum plantation of James Battle, who owned 
the 7-mile stretch of land from this point to Catherine Lake. 

At 143 m. is the junction with US 17 (see tour ib), 1 mile west of Jack- 


(Emporia, Va.) — Rocky Mount — Fayetteville — Lumberton — (Florence, S. 

C); US 301. 

Virginia Line — South Carolina Line, 196 m. 

Atlantic Coast Line R.R. parallels entire route; Seaboard Air Line R.R. between Garysburg 

and Weldon. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Hotels in cities and towns; tourist homes, inns, and camps at intervals. 

Section a. VIRGINIA LINE to WILSON; 64 m. US 301 

Between the Virginia Line and Wilson, US 301 runs through the Coastal 
Plain, traversing a countryside broken by pine forests, stands of hardwood, 
and occasional swamps. Sand-clay roads lead into farming country that pro- 
duces peanuts, tobacco, cotton, potatoes, and corn. Rivers on the lower slopes 
of the Piedmont Plateau have been developed into power sources for manu- 
facturing enterprises. 

US 301 crosses the Virginia-North Carolina Line, m., 11 miles south of 
Emporia, Va. (see va. tour 14). 

The route follows part of the old Petersburg-to-Halifax highway used by 
Cornwallis' army in 1781, and over it southern troops hauled supplies during 
the siege of Petersburg in 1864-65. 

GARYSBURG, 7 m. (145 alt., 284 pop.), is a farm village at the junction 
with US 158 (see tour 24a). 

At 8 m. a steel and concrete bridge spans the Roanoke River, 100 feet 

WELDON, 9 m. (77 alt., 2,323 pop.), the market town of a peanut- 
growing district, began to assume importance after railroad links from Vir- 
ginia had been built in 1832-34. When these terminals were connected with 
Wilmington on completion of the Wilmington & Raleigh R. R., in 1840, the 
161.5-mile stretch was described as the longest railroad in the world. The 
line was renamed the Wilmington & Weldon R. R. in 1854. 

In 1835 a 9-mile canal was chartered from Rock Landing to Weldon's 
Orchard, in which the masonry of the three original locks is still sound. 
Power is developed from the Roanoke River. Besides cotton and knitting 
mills, Weldon has peanut-processing factories, tobacco warehouses, a brick 
plant, and lumberyards. Forests and streams of the vicinity abound with game 
and fish. 


316 TOURS 

Before the first frosts of fall the peanuts grown throughout this section 
are plowed out and, still attached to their vines, are stacked in the fields to 
cure for several weeks. The actual harvest is marked by clouds of dust attend- 
ing the operation of the giant mechanical "pickers" as the threshing-machines 
are called that dot the fields among the black stacks. 

HALIFAX, 15 m. (135 alt., 321 pop.), ancient borough town and seat 
of Halifax County, was the scene of North Carolina's first constitutional 
convention. Men whose names live in the State's early history walked beneath 
the oaks and sycamores along narrow, crooked King, Dobbs, and Granville 
Streets in the days when Halifax was noted for its gay social life. 

As early as 1723 settlers were established in this region, and when the 
county was set up in 1757, it was named for the second Earl of Halifax, 
president of the British board of trade, which then administered Colonial 
affairs. In 1758 Halifax succeeded the older Enfield as the county seat. In 
1760 Halifax was made a borough and from 1776 to 1782 nearly every session 
of the general assembly was held here. 

Agriculture has always been the chief occupation in this section of the 
State and the factories that have grown up relate to agriculture: peanut- 
processing plants, cottonseed oil mills, and fertilizer factories. 

The Courthouse Green, part of the 4 acres set aside for public buildings 
when the town was laid out in 1758, is at the intersection of King (Main) 
St. and the Weldon Rd. The Halifax County Courthouse (1910), a brick 
structure with a Corinthian portico and surmounted with a dome, succeeds 
two previous buildings (1759 and 1847). When the first courthouse was 
built here, the office of the clerk of the court occupied a separate building. 
In the archives is a complete set of will books, beginning in 1759. From a 
platform in front of the first courthouse, on Aug. 1, 1776, Cornelius Harnett 
(see Wilmington) read the Declaration of Independence to the assembled 
citizens who carried him through the streets on their shoulders. On the 
green is a marker honoring Brig. Gen. Junius Daniel (1828-64), gallant 
Halifax soldier killed at the Battle of Spottsylvania and buried in an un- 
marked grave in the old Colonial Churchyard. 

The Old Jail (closed), two blocks NE. of the courthouse on King St., is 
a high square structure built in 1759 and used (1939) for a storehouse. Be- 
hind the barred windows in its two-foot-thick brick walls, Flora Macdonald, 
the Scottish heroine who had helped Prince Charlie to escape, visited her 
husband, Alan, after his capture at the Battle of Moores Creek Bridge (see 
tour 2g). After his liberation, Alan rejoined his wife in Scotland. 

Near the jail is the Site of the Eagle Hotel, designated by a marker. 
This old hostelry served as headquarters for members of Provincial con- 
gresses and assemblies that met in Halifax. Cornwallis and Tarleton lodged 
at the inn when they arrived May 4, 1781, and with 4,000 troops occupied 
the town for about a week. The tradition is that great banquets and balls 
were held at the Eagle Hotel for President Washington on Apr. 17, 1791, 
and for the Marquis de Lafayette on Feb. 27, 1825. 

Adjacent to the jail is the old Clerk's Office (private), a one-story, red 

TOUR 3 317 

brick building with swinging iron shutters, constructed about 1780. After its 
use as the office of the clerk of the court it was the printing shop of Abraham 
Hodge, who came from New Bern to Halifax in 1784 to publish a weekly 
newspaper, the Journal. The house is (1939) a Negro dwelling. 

Across the road are (R) the Colonial Churchyard and the Site of 
Quanky Chapel (Church of England), a frame structure (1760) in which 
all denominations worshiped between 1820 and 1830. Buried in the cedar- 
shaded enclosure are many of Halifax's early citizens, including Abraham 
Hodge (1755-1805). 

The Masonic Temple (not open), Weldon Rd. W. of the courthouse, a 
two-story clapboarded structure, 30 by 30 feet, was erected shortly after 
1769, and is the oldest Masonic temple built for that purpose and still in use 
in the United States. The first floor was used for a schoolroom until 1829. 
The Royal White Hart Lodge held its first meeting in 1764, though not 
chartered until 1767. The master's chair was installed in 1765, silver candle- 
sticks in 1784, and the handsome ballot box in 1820. A bell, cast in 1810, 
hangs between 10-foot posts in the yard. 

In the adjoining sedge field is a fenced enclosure; the plaque on the gate 
bears the inscription: "The grave of montfort. This gate swings only by 
order of the Worshipful Master of Royal White Hart Lodge." Col. Joseph 
Montfort (1724-76) was clerk of Halifax court from 1758 until his death, 
clerk of the district court, town commissioner, and a member of several 
Colonial assemblies. In 1772 he received from the Duke of Beaufort, grand 
master of Masons of Great Britain, an appointment as Provincial grand mas- 
ter of North America. 

Northwest of the Masonic Temple on the Weldon Rd. (L) is Loretta 
(private), a gray clapboard house with sharply pitched roof, central gable, 
and an ornate curving front porch, somewhat remodeled since it was the 
Halifax home (1783-1805) of Gen. William R. Davie (1756-1820). One of 
North Carolina's five delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in 
Philadelphia, Davie was instrumental in securing from the general assembly 
in 1789 an act to establish the University of North Carolina, and as grand 
master of Masons in the State laid the cornerstones of the university's first 
two buildings (see chapel hill). In 1798 Davie was elected Governor, but 
resigned in 1799 to become Ambassador to France. After his defeat for a 
seat in Congress, in 1805 he retired to Tivoli plantation near Landford, 
S. C, where he remained until his death. 

The Grove, in the SW. part of Halifax, was the property of Willie (pro- 
nounced Wiley) Jones (1741-1822). The Colonial mansion he built on this 
estate in 1765 was famous for its lavish hospitality, racing stable, and track. 
Nothing remains of the house but a brick chimney. Jones, planter, legislator, 
and coauthor of the first State constitution, acted as Governor of North Caro- 
lina in 1776 while president of the council of safety. He served several terms 
in the Continental Congress and as the ultra States'-rights advocate opposed 
ratification of the Federal Constitution by the Hillsboro convention; though 
elected to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, he declined to serve. 

318 TOURS 

John Paul Jones, "father of the American Navy," was a guest at the Grove 
for more than a year. John Paul, as he was then known, having killed the 
ringleader of a mutiny on his ship in 1773 and having been advised to stay 
in hiding for a time, fled to America and assumed the surname Jones. There 
is a tradition that he selected the name to honor his friends, Willie and Allen 

In 1781 Cornwallis quartered a portion of his troops at the Grove; during 
the War between the States. Confederate Colonel McRae camped on the 
estate with an entire regiment, and Union soldiers occupied the house at the 
close of the war. 

St. Mark's Episcopal Church, King St., was built on the Grove property 
in 1830 to replace the old frame Colonial Church. It is of wood, painted 
gray, four bays long with steeply pointed roof and belfry at the front. The 
vertical siding has overlapped joints. The building was at one time damaged 
by fire and has been remodeled. 

Constitution House was restored in 1920 and moved from its original 
site behind the Colonial Churchyard to the Grove property. It is a small, 
square, clapboarded frame building raised on brick piers, with a narrow 
front porch, well-proportioned doorways, and two outside brick chimneys. 
Here on Apr. 4, 1776, 139 delegates to the Provincial Congress met. Samuel 
Johnston, of Chowan County {see edenton), as president of the congress, 
appointed a committee to "take into consideration the usurpation and vio- 
lences attempted and committed by the King and Parliament of Britain 
against America." On Apr. 12 the committee reported, designating Joseph 
Hewes, William Hooper, and John Penn as North Carolina's delegates to 
the Continental Congress, ". . . to concur with the delegates from the other 
Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances, reserv- 
ing to this Colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a Constitution 
and laws for this Colony . . ." These Halifax Resolves constitute the first 
official action by any Colonial legislature for absolute separation from Great 
Britain and for national independence. In recognition of this fact the 
North Carolina flag bears the date, and Apr. 12, Halifax Day, is a State 

On Nov. 12, 1776, an elected congress assembled in Constitution House, 
drew up a constitution not submitted to the people and elected Richard 
Caswell Governor by ordinance {see tour 2). 

Across Quanky Creek from the Grove is the Site of Quanky Place, the 
plantation of Col. Nicholas Long (1728-98), a wealthy planter who served 
as commissary general of the North Carolina Revolutionary forces. Colonel 
and Mrs. Long erected workshops here to make implements of war, clothing, 
and other supplies for the soldiers. Tradition says the Longs entertained 
President Washington at Quanky Place in 1791. 

In one of the dashes into Halifax made by the patriots while the British 
were in possession of the town, an American cavalryman was cut off from 
his command on Quanky Creek Bridge. The trooper forced his horse to 
leap the railing and plunge into the water 30 feet below; his mount was 
killed but he escaped. 

TOUR 3 319 

ENFIELD, 26 m. (113 alt., 2,234 P°P-)> trie oldest town in Halifax 
County and formerly a tobacco-marketing center, has plants for the manu- 
facture of peanut products. From 1745 until supplanted by Halifax in 1758, 
Enfield, then known as Huckleberry Swamp, was the seat of Edgecombe 
County. As a protest against British oppression, in 1759 Francis Corbin (see 
edenton) and Joshua Bodley, agents of Lord Granville, were seized by 
armed men and lodged in jail at Enfield until the agents readjusted their 
captors' tax levies. 

At the Columbian Peanut Plant (open) peanuts are stored, cleaned, 
shelled, and packed in jute bags for shipment. 

Right from Enfield on a sand-clay road to Branch Plantation (private), 0.7 m., home 
of John Branch, Governor of North Carolina (1817-20). He served as U. S. Senator 
(1823-29), Secretary of the Navy under Andrew Jackson, Congressman, and Governor 
of the Territory of Florida (1843-45). The two-story house, painted gray, is one room 
deep with one end chimney at the left and two at the right. The eave is lined with a 
coarse dentiled cornice. General Lafayette is said to have addressed admirers from the 
upper porch in 1825. Governor Branch is buried in the family graveyard 100 yards 
east of the house. 

At 27 m. is the junction with an avenue of oaks. 

Right on this road to the East Carolina Industrial Training School, 0.3 m., a 
college for Negroes whose four red brick buildings stand at the corners of a grassy court. 

At 28 m. US 301 crosses FISHING CREEK near which bones of an 
ichthyosaurus were excavated some years ago. On the creek bank is a large 
flat stone impressed with human and animal footprints and intricate designs. 

WHITAKERS, 33 m. (134 alt., 930 pop.), was named for Richard and 
Elizabeth Carey Whitaker, the first white settlers to venture into this Tus- 
carora stronghold. They settled on Fishing Creek and in 1740 built Whitakers 
Chapel, a Church of England chapel used by Methodists in 1786 when 
Bishop Asbury preached there. 

BATTLEBORO, 38 m. (131 alt., 330 pop.), started (1840) as a rail- 
road stop in a rich agricultural area. The station was named for James and 
Joseph Battle, stockholders in the Wilmington and Raleigh R. R. 

At 44 m. is the junction with paved State 95. 

Left on State 95 to the junction with a lane, 4.5 m. ; R. on the lane to the Battle 
Homestead (visitors welcome), property of the Battle family since c. 1742 when Elisha 
Battle purchased this rich Tar River bottom land, then a part of Cool Spring Plantation, 
from the Earl of Granville. Elisha Battle was a member of the Halifax convention in 
1776 and chairman of the committee of the whole in the assembly at Tarboro in 1787 
for consideration of the Federal Constitution, adoption of which he opposed in 1788 
at Hillsboro. 

The one-and-a-half story house has a gambrel roof and massive end chimneys. In 
the eastern chimney was a brick dated 1742, lost in repairing. Three dormers in front, 
a porch the length of the house, and additions to right and rear are later alterations. 
The wide-paneled doors, the 12-light windows, and the interior paneling are excellent 
examples of 18th-century craftsmanship. The east facade has two 8-light windows on 
each side of the chimneys, set high so that a person sitting in the room could not be 
shot from ambush. 

320 TOURS 

US 301 crosses Tar River, 45.5 m., on a high concrete bridge. Legend 
recalls that Cornwallis' soldiers, fording the river near here, found their feet 
black with tar that had been dumped into the river. Their observation that 
anyone who waded North Carolina streams would acquire tar heels is said 
to have given North Carolinians the nickname of "Tar Heels." 

ROCKY MOUNT, 46 m. (121 alt., 21,412 pop.), the fifth largest bright- 
leaf tobacco market in the world (1938) and an industrial and railroad 
center, was named for the mounds near the site at the Falls of the Tar. The 
town, incorporated in 1867 with 50 inhabitants, lies half in Nash and half 
in Edgecombe Counties, the Atlantic Coast Line tracks bisecting Main Street 
and marking the county boundary, so that citizens living on one side of the 
street have to attend court in Nashville while those on the other side go 
to Tarboro. 

Rocky Mount has seven tobacco-redrying plants and 10 tobacco-auction 
warehouses with a combined capacity of 8,000,000 pounds. The output of 42 
manufacturing establishments includes cotton yarns, pile fabrics, broad silks, 
shirts, overalls, cottonseed oil and meal, fertilizer, cordage, and lumber 
products. From a station on the pioneer Wilmington & Raleigh R. R. (1840) 
the town has developed into a modern railroad center and division point 
with repair shops and yards for four divisions of the Atlantic Coast Line. 
Rocky Mount has a radio broadcasting station, WEED, 1420 kc. The Gal- 
lopade, an annual spring carnival, was inaugurated in 1935. 

The Rocky Mount Cotton Mills {not open to public), 1151 Falls Rd., 
second largest in the State, were established by Joel Battle in 181 8, and have 
been continuously under the management of the Battle family. The original 
building, burned in 1863 by Federal forces, was rebuilt after the war only 
to be destroyed by an incendiary. Rebuilt in 1871, the plant has been en- 
larged and modernized. The output is cotton yarns. 

Mangum's Warehouse, covering a city block, is the scene of the annual 
all-night June German {2nd Friday in June), given by the Carolina Cotillion 
Club, and attended by thousands of guests from several States. This ball has 
been an important social event since 1880 when a group of young men 
formed the club. On Saturday night after the ball Negroes use the same 
warehouse and decorations for their June German. 

The Thomas Hackney Braswell Memorial Library, near the junction 
of US 301 and State 43, given in 1923 by Dr. Mark Russell Braswell in 
memory of his son, contains a collection of Indian artifacts, paper money, old 
records, and curios. The red brick building with white limestone trim is of 
one story with end pavilions and a central portico. 

Rocky Mount is at the junction with US 64 {see tour 26a). 

Right from Rocky Mount on State 43 to the Lewis Home (private), 1.3 m., built in 
1839 by Bennet Bunn on the western bank of Tar River. The deep red bricks for the 
three-story mansion are reputed to have been brought from England wrapped individually 
in paper. The house has a hip roof and an entrance with a simple fanlighted doorway 
on the second floor level. The balcony and the four-column portico, resting on a raised 
arcadcd brick basement, are modern. 

TOUR 3 321 

On State 43 at 5.4 m. is the Dortch House (private). The old part, moved from a 
nearby field to be added as a kitchen ell at the rear, was built c. 1798; it has a steep 
roof, small windows, heavy chimney, and fireplace with beveled panels. 

On the lower floor, front and rear, are Palladian windows framed with Ionic fluted 
pilasters and entablature. The modillioned cornice returns at the corners and follows 
the raked line of the gable. Interior woodwork includes a mahogany stair rail, paneled 
wainscot and mantelpieces, and finely carved door and window casings with arabesque 
panels above. This part of the house was built c. 1803. 

At 9.7 m. on State 43 is the junction with a dirt road; R. 1.1 m. on this road to (L) 
the Hilliard Home (p-ivate), built about 1908. The pegged frame was brought to this 
site from Woodlawn, about 6.5 miles away, where William and James Hilliard settled 
in 1760. The plantation once covered 30,000 acres. 

The Cooper House (private), 12 m., was formerly the Battle home. The kitchen, 
dining room, and parlor connected by a passageway are later additions to the original 
small wooden building, which was mortised and assembled with wooden pegs. The 
house stands on a little hill on a mile-square tract purchased by William Battle from 
the State in 1779 for 50 shillings per hundred acres. 

WILSON, 64 m. (147 alt., 12,613 P°P-)» tne largest bright-leaf tobacco 
market in the world (1938) and the seat of Wilson County, was named for 
Col. Louis D. Wilson {see tour 2). The county, formed in 1855, was settled 
largely by Irish and English families who came from Virginia as early as 

I79 °- 
Uptown, Nash is a narrow and bustling business street, but west of Pine 

Street it broadens into a mile-long, tree-shaded arcade through a section of 
comfortable homes surrounded by landscaped lawns and gardens. The in- 
dustrial section has cotton and fertilizer factories, 10 stemmeries and redry- 
ing plants, and 8 tobacco warehouses, including sprawling Smith's Ware- 
house, called the world's largest. 

Tobacco, the State's first commercial crop, originally produced only for 
export, was packed in huge hogsheads and rolled through the woods to 
water-edge inspection houses where sailor-buyers broke open the casks for 
examination before bargaining. This gave rise to the warehouse auction 
system still used and the practice of terming it a "break," though the loose- 
leaf method is now employed. 

When the graded tobacco "hands" are "in order," the farmer hauls them 
to market. The warehouses are one-story buildings with plenty of open floor 
space and numerous skylights to allow natural lighting, as tobacco is judged 
for color as well as for texture and aroma. Lots are piled in shallow baskets 
and arranged in rows down which pass the auctioneer and buyers. 
The procedure moves so swiftly that more than 300 lots are sold in an 
hour and 86,000,000 pounds have been sold in a season. However, a 
visitor may watch the sale without understanding a word of the auc- 
tioneer's patter and without hearing a single word spoken by a buyer, as 
a mere gesture or change of expression indicates a bid to the watchful 

A tobacco festival and exposition are held annually in August. 

Wilson's manufactured products include cotton yarns, cottonseed meal 
and oil, fertilizers, bale covering, bus bodies, and wagons. The town main- 
tains a radio broadcasting station, WGTM, 13 10 kc. 

The Wilson County Courthouse, Nash and Goldsboro Sts., three stories 

322 TOURS 

and attic high, was built in 1924 in neoclassic design, replacing a building 
erected in 1855. 

Fronting on Whitehead and Lee Sts. is the 12-acre campus of the Atlantic 
Christian College, incorporated in 1902, a coeducational institution with 
350 students, operated by the North Carolina Christian Church. The build- 
ings, of brown brick, are of various styles. The adjoining Jacksonville Farm 
was bought by the school in 191 4. 

Natives of Wilson were Dempsey Bullock (1863-1928), local poet and 
historian, and Henry Groves Connor (1852-1924), Associate Justice of the 
North Carolina Supreme Court and Federal district judge. Two sons of 
Judge Connor attained prominence: George W. Connor, Associate Justice 
of the North Carolina Supreme Court (1924-38), and Robert D. W. Connor, 
first U. S. Archivist (1934- )• Josephus Daniels, wartime Secretary of 
the Navy and Ambassador to Mexico (1933- ), lived in Wilson as a 
boy; his mother was postmistress of the town for years. 

Wilson is at the junction with State 58 (see tour 6) and US 264 (see 

TOUR 2j). 

Section b. WILSON to SOUTH CAROLINA LINE; 132 m. US 301 

Between Wilson and the South Carolina Line US 301 swings along the 
edge of the fertile Piedmont Plateau. Forests of longleaf and shortleaf pine 
are sprinkled with oak, maple, ash, and gum. Shallow streams have worn 
sloping ravines in many places. 

At 5 m. is the junction with US 117 (see tour 4). 

SELMA, 26 m. (214 alt., 1,857 P°P-)» ^ s an industrial town with two 
textile mills. The section north of the Southern Ry. tracks is known as 
OLD MR. ATKINSON'S DEER PARK; here a spring attracted deer 
before the town was established. Near Mitchiner's Station, the early name 
of the village, a detachment of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's Confederates, 
retreating from Bentonville in March 1865 (see tour 5), fought a rearguard 

At 28 m. is the northern junction with US 70 (see tour 28). 

SMITHFIELD, 31 m. (140 alt., 2,543 P°P-)> seat °f Johnston County, 
is a tobacco-market town on a bluff above the Neuse River. The town's most 
cherished tradition is that in 1789 it missed becoming the capital of North 
Carolina by only one vote. The assembly in 1746 created the county and 
named it for Gabriel Johnston, Governor under the Crown (1734-52), and 
also set up St. Patrick's Parish of the Church of England, coextensive with 
the county. Founded in 1770, Smithfield was named for Col. John Smith 
(1687- 1 777), an early settler from Virginia who was a delegate to the Halifax 
convention and who owned the land on which the town was built. In Co- 
lonial days the town was the head of navigation on the Neuse. 

Gov. William Tryon, taking militia to quell the Regulators in May 1771 

tour 3 3 2 3 

(see tour 25), stopped at Smithfield to augment his force with a detach- 
ment of Johnstonians, but liberty meetings condemning British tyranny were 
held in 1774. The general assembly convened at Smithfield on May 3, 1779. 
In April 1781, Cornwallis and his army, going from Wilmington to York- 
town, passed through the town. 

The Johnston County Courthouse (1921) is a three-story granite and 
limestone structure of neoclassic design. The main facade is adorned with 
Roman Doric columns and pilasters, forming an entrance loggia. On the 
green is a statue of a soldier dedicated to the citizens of Johnston County who 
died in the World War, and a fountain to veterans of the same conflict. The 
county's first courthouse (1747) was at Clayton (see tour 28). 

Smithfield is at the southern junction with US 70 (see tour 28). 

The Smithfield Art Pottery (open), 32 m., is operated by a craftsman 
whose family have been potters for four generations. 

At HOLTS LAKE, 35 m., a recreation center (fishing, bathing, boating), 
is the junction with US 701 (see tour 5). 

DUNN, 53 m. (214 alt., 4,558 pop.), is the marketing center of a farm- 
ing area where, it is claimed, there has never been a crop failure. The town 
was founded by descendants of early English and Scotch settlers. 

Dunn is at the Junction with US 421 (see tour 2g). 

At 61 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to FALCON, 2.7 m. (279 pop.), a settlement and gathering place 
of the Pentecostal Holiness Church, which maintains an orphanage and school and 
conducts annual camp meetings in August. The work is interdenominational. 

At 64 m. is the junction with a marked dirt road. 

Right on this road 0.6 m. to the junction with another dirt road; L. 0.6 m. on the dirt 
road to Old Bluff (Bluff Creek) Church {f(ey available at last house before 
reaching church), named for a high point of land on which it stands. Built in the 1840's, 
the well-preserved, white weatherboarded structure, with pedimented gable ends and 
recessed entrance loggia, is used for services only once a year (4th Sunday in Sept.). The 
interior has galleries on three sides. Near the church is a monument to its founder, 
the Rev. James Campbell, a Scottish missionary sent from Philadelphia in 1758, who in 
three years organized Old Bluff, Barbecue, and Long Street Churches {see tour 3A). 

FAYETTEVILLE, 78 m. (107 alt., 13,049 pop.) (see fayetteville). 

Points of Interest: Market House, First Presbyterian Church, Cool Spring, Site of Cross 
Creek, Site of Flora Macdonald's House, and others. 

Fayetteville is at the junction with US 15A (see tour 9) and State 24 (see 
tour 3A). 

Left from Fayetteville on paved State 28 to the junction with a dirt road, 28 m. ; L. 
0.3 m. on the dirt road to the Purdy House {private), a two-story brick mansion with 
porches across the front and rear at both floor levels. The porches and kitchen have 
been added to the original structure. It was erected in 1808 by James S. Purdy on land 
granted the Purdy family by George III before the Revolution. The brick of the 16-inch 

324 TOURS 

walls is laid in Flemish bond. Notable features of the interior are a fireplace with Ionic 
detail, wainscot of beveled paneling, and a fairly ornate cornice in the right-hand room. 

Between Fayetteville and the South Carolina Line US 301 penetrates part 
of the cotton kingdom where "clay hills combine with the beaming sun, the 
Negro, the landless white, and the mule to supply the world's demand for 
a cheap fabric." Spring plowing turns up dull red soil, sometimes making 
the earth seem cloud-shadowed even on bright days. Grown men do the 
plowing, but at chopping time in midsummer women and children, black 
and white, ply their hoes. Cotton-picking time in the autumn brings out 
entire families. 

LUMBERTON, 111 m. (143 alt., 4,140 pop.), seat of Robeson County, 
is on the eastern bank of the Lumber (Lumbee) River. Here are textile mills, 
a fertilizer factory, and five tobacco warehouses; the town is also a shipping 
point for truck produce. Farmers' cooperatives are represented in stores, 
groups, and a curb market. 

Robeson County was formed in 1787. Col. Thomas Robeson, Whig hero 
of the Battle of Elizabethtown (see tour 5) and later State senator, opposed 
the creating of a new unit from his own county of Bladen until it was sug- 
gested that the new county be given his name. Robeson County was the first 
in the State to prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages (1886). The Robeson 
County Courthouse (1908) is the fourth to serve the county. It has a com- 
plete series of will and deed books beginning with 1787; the first courthouse 
was built in 1788. The present structure, of Italian Renaissance design, has 
walls of buff brick set in yellow mortar with heavy quoins at the corners. 
It is three stories in height with a colonnaded and domed cupola. 

Early inhabitants of this section were Croatan Indians who, some con- 
tend, are descended from survivors of Raleigh's Lost Colony (see tour iA). 
Others maintain that they are descended from Portuguese traders who came 
here from Florida (see tour 31a). The first white settlers (1725), Scottish 
Highlanders, chose the eastern and western parts of the county; English and 
a few French settled the southern portion. 

By the latter half of the 18th century Lumberton had become a trading 
center for timber and naval stores. Rafts of pine logs on which were piled 
other pine products such as tar, pitch, turpentine, and resin, were floated 
down the Lumber River to Georgetown, S. C. When the timber was depleted, 
Robeson County residents turned to farming and cattle raising. 

During the Revolutionary War the section seethed with conflict between 
Whig and Tory factions; the royalists usually emerged victorious. 

Lumberton is at the junction with US 74 (see tour 31a). 

ROWLAND, 129 m. (151 alt., 915 pop.), named for a pioneer family of 
the section, was once only a cotton market, but has become the marketing 
center of a prosperous agricultural region producing corn, grain, and melons. 

Left of US 301 at its junction with State 71 in Rowland is a marker 
pointing out the Grave of Dr. James Robert Adair in the family grave- 
yard. Dr. Adair was a surgeon on the staff of King George III, and later 

TOUR 3 325 

surgeon in Gen. Francis Marion's army during the Revolution. He spent 
nearly 40 years among the Indians, chiefly the Chickasaw, and published in 
1775 the History of the Indian Tribes, a book expounding his theory that 
the Indians are of Semitic origin, but valued for its intimate account of the 
habits and customs of the tribes. He was able to win the allegiance of the 
Indians from the French and Spanish to the English. The song, Robin Adair, 
written by Lady Caroline Keppel, resulted in his return to England and their 

Right from Rowland on paved US 501 to Ashpole Presbyterian Church, 1.5 m., 
successor to a log church built here in 1796. The present building, third on the site, 
was partly completed during the War between the States. Simple lines are accentuated 
by a small belfry over the front entrance. The gallery, whose east side was reserved 
for slaves, remains unchanged. Timbers are hand-hewn, mortised with wooden pegs. 
Weatherboarding, flooring, and seats are hand-planed and put together with hand-made 
nails. The origin of the name is accredited to John Cade, one of the early settlers, who 
built bridges of ash poles across the millrace just below his dam. 

Once the church gave each member in good standing a small metal disc or token, 
which allowed them to partake of communion. The principal event of the year was the 
Spring Sacrament, which persists as Homecoming Day (3rd Sunday in May). 

Ashpole Cemetery, in use for more than 150 years, is on the eastern side of 
Mitchells Creek, near the site of the old Adair home. 

At 132 m. US 301 crosses the South Carolina Line, 26 miles north of 
Florence, S. C. {see s. c. tour 24). 


Fayette ville — Fort Bragg — Manchester — Spout Springs; State 24. 23 m. 

The Atlantic Coast Line R.R. parallels the entire route; Cape Fear R.R. serves Fort Bragg 
Military Reservation. Roadbed paved throughout. 

The route between Fayetteville and Spout Springs runs through sandy hills 
forested with pine and scrub oak. 

State 24 branches northwest from US 301 {see tour j) in FAYETTE- 
VILLE, m. {see fayetteville). 

At 4 m., in a grove, is the Nott House {private), an ante-bellum planta- 
tion house sheathed with wide clapboards and having broad, double gal- 
leries at the front and rear. Hand-made iron hinges and fasteners are attached 
to solid paneled doors and shutters. 

information concerning artillery practice and directions to Long Street 
Church inquire at headquarters), is a field artillery training center covering 
120,000 acres in Cumberland and Hoke Counties, the largest military reser- 
vation in the United States. The post was established in 1918 and named for 
Gen. Braxton Bragg, Confederate corps commander {see tour 24). 

Gen. Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox, made this site his headquarters 
while he harassed British forces. CornwalliSj after the Battle of Guilford 
Courthouse {see tour /j), maintained headquarters here. 

Fort Bragg has a complete system of municipal and recreational facilities, 
a chapel, and a school for children; the buildings are modern, built of brick 
and stucco. The post organization is made up of four regiments of field 
artillery with latest equipment. A field artillery board tests experimental 
materiel on the firing range. Pope Field, the Air Corps station, is garrisoned 
by Flight C, 16th Observation Squadron, and the Second Balloon Squadron. 
The landing field has a mile-long runway. 

In summer the Reserve Officers Training Corps comes to Fort Bragg for 
training, units of the North Carolina National Guard encamp for two weeks, 
and the Citizens Military Training Camp is conducted. Since the establish- 
ment of the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1932, Fort Bragg has been head- 
quarters of District A. 

Long Street Church, organized in 1758, is on the old Yadkin Rd. within 
the reservation. Highland Scots settled the region as early as 1736. The Rev. 
Hugh McAden, a Presbyterian missionary, first held services at the home 
of Alexander McKay in 1756. Two years later Long Street, Old Bluff, and 


TOUR 3 A 327 

Barbecue Churches were organized, with the Rev. James Campbell, a native 
of Argyllshire, as first pastor. For 137 years services were held continuously 
in Long Street Church, whose name is believed to refer to the settlements 
lining the road for a mile or more. The simple hip-roof structure was built 
(1845-47) of hand-dressed longleaf pine timbers. The interior is entered 
through two front doors between which is the pulpit, set high up against the 

Near Long Street Church is the Site of the Battle of Monroes Cross- 
roads (Mar. 10, 1865). Maj. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick commanded the Federals 
and Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton the Confederate forces. Upon the arrival of 
Federal reinforcements the Confederates retreated. 

Beyond the rock wall of the church cemetery a stone marks the graves of 
30 unidentified men who fell in the battle. Highlanders and their descendants 
are also buried here. 

In MANCHESTER, 13 m. (190 alt., 49 pop.), once a turpentine shipping 
point on Lower Little River, is the Site of Holly Hill, now occupied by a 
story-and-a-half house. It was the Murchison family seat from the days when 
Kenneth Murchison, a Revolutionary soldier, erected his home in a mag- 
nificent grove of hollies. 

At 17.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to OVERHILLS (197 alt., 200 pop.), 1.2 m., the Percy Rockefeller 
Estate, which at one time covered 40,000 acres. The rambling red brick mansion with 
tile roof and iron balcony was erected in 1928. There is a smaller, white-painted brick 
house, and a golf course. 

Visible on either side of the highway at 22 m. is a rare variety of pyxie 
plant, the flowering moss (Pyxidanthera breuijolia) . Apparently a relic of 
an almost extinct family, it survives in compact mats, three to five feet wide, 
of tiny white wheel-shaped flowers, closely overlapped on slender, branching 
stems. It was discovered in 1928 by Dr. B. W. Wells, head of the Botany 
Department of State College, Raleigh, and is believed to exist only within a 
6-mile area around SPOUT SPRINGS, 23 m. (333 alt., 106 pop.). 


Junction with US 301 — Goldsboro — Warsaw — Junction with US 421; US 
117. 101 m. 

Atlantic Coast Line R.R. parallels route. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Hotels in towns; tourist homes and camps along the highway. 

US 117 crosses eastern North Carolina flat lands where shadowy cypress 
swamps are almost as common as tobacco fields. Cotton farms are numerous 
though truck is also produced in large quantities. 

US 117 branches south from its junction with US 301, m. (see tour 3), 
5 miles south of Wilson. 

At 2.1 m. the highway spans Black Creek, a mile north of where Corn- 
wallis crossed during his retreat from Wilmington in 1781 over Old Fort 
Road, now called Cornwallis Trail. 

FREMONT, 9 m. (152 alt., 1,316 pop.), was the birthplace of Charles 
Brantley Aycock (1859-1912), Governor of North Carolina (1901-5), and a 
champion of public education. 

GOLDSBORO, 21 m. (in alt., 14,985 pop.), seat of Wayne County, is 
a manufacturing and agricultural town on the Neuse River in the approxi- 
mate center of eastern North Carolina's bright-leaf tobacco belt. Miniature 
firs, pines, and other shrubs grow in the midstreet parks of the residential 
boulevards. Tobacco warehouses and 30 manufacturing enterprises give the 
town a flourishing trade. The Wayne County Fair is an annual (Oct.) event 

Wayne County, established in 1779 from part of Dobbs, and named for 
"Mad Anthony" Wayne, Revolutionary hero, has a gently rolling surface 
suitable to diversified farming. From here are shipped Irish potatoes, cucum- 
bers, string beans, strawberries, and watermelons. 

Goldsboro, formerly Goldsborough, founded soon after completion in 1840 
of the Wilmington & Raleigh R.R., now part of the Atlantic Coast Line, 
was named for a civil engineer who assisted in the rail line survey. Goldsboro 
and Waynesboro were settled by English immigrants from whom most of 
the present white inhabitants are descended. When the county seat was 
moved from Waynesboro in 1847 to the new railroad village, many houses 
and stores were torn down and rebuilt at Goldsboro. In 1865 a part of Sher- 
man's troops were concentrated here. 

Dr. Edwin A. Alderman, president of the University of North Carolina 


TOUR 4 329 

(1896-1900), of Tulane University (1900-1904), and of the University of 
Virginia (1904-31), was a resident of this town. 

The Wayne County Courthouse occupies the original courthouse site. 
A whipping post stood on the lawn until after the War between the States. 

The City Hall is a light brick structure of two stories with Ionic portico, 
a pedimented, Italian Baroque cupola, and statues of Liberty and Justice 
surmounting low square towers at the front corners. The Memorial Com- 
munity Building (1924), N. William and E. Walnut Sts., whose construc- 
tion was financed by popular subscription, is headquarters of various civic 
organizations and has a gymnasium. The I.O.O.F. Childrens Home, E. 
Ashe and N. Herman Sts., occupies a half-dozen brick buildings surround- 
ing a large playground with recreational facilities. 

The Colonel Washington Home, 215 SW. Center St., in an oak grove, 
was a headquarters for Gen. W. T. Sherman in 1865. The two-story frame 
structure with its double-gallery porch is boarded up and in a state of dis- 
repair. The Slocumb House {private), Ashe and Jackson Sts., a two-story 
frame building with bracketed cornice, peaked dormer, and broad front 
porch supported by modified Ionic columns arranged in pairs, was head- 
quarters for General Logan of the Union Army. 

The Borden House {private), S. George St. facing Chestnut St., was 
headquarters for General Schofield. This remodeled two-story brick resi- 
dence has an unusually heavy cornice and a small arched portico. 

In the Willow Dale Cemetery, Elm St., is a Confederate Monument 
with the statue of a southern soldier on a granite base. It was erected in 
1883 from proceeds of a bazar to which contributions were made by north- 
ern business firms. 

Goldsboro is at the junction with US 70 {see tour 28). 

At 23 m. on the northern bank of Neuse River is the Site of Waynes- 
boro, former seat of Wayne County (1782- 1847), first known as the Court 
House. Dr. Andrew Bass, delegate to the Provincial Congress of 1775 and 
to the Hillsboro convention of 1788, who owned the land on which Waynes- 
boro stood, is believed to have been its founder. Waynesboro disappeared 
after removal of the seat to Goldsboro. 

At 23.1 m. the route crosses the muddy Neuse River. Along these shores, 
on Dec. 14, 1862, General Evans repulsed Federal troops under General 
Foster, who had won a skirmish two days earlier at Kinston. 

At 25 m., embedded in the cement pavement of the highway, is a Tomb- 
stone (R) broken during the War between the States by the wheels of a 
gun carriage. Inscribed "Gone But Not Forgotten," it marks the grave of a 
circus clown who died near here in the 1840's. 

At 31 m. is a marker indicating the former Grave of Ezekiel and Mary 
Slocumb, Revolutionary figures of the Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, who 
were buried on the Slocumb farm here until they were moved to Moores 
Creek Battlefield {see tour 2g). Lieutenant Slocumb made a leap on horse- 

330 TOURS 

back over a wide ditch and high wall on this farm to escape British soldiers. 
Mrs. Slocumb, left at home with an infant when her husband departed for 
Moores Creek, had a dream in which she beheld her husband lying mortally 
wounded. She saddled a mare and rode 75 miles until she heard the sound of 
the cannon. Quickening her pace, she arrived at a clump of woods. ". . . . Just 
then I looked up, and my husband, as bloody as a butcher and as muddy as a 
ditcher, stood before me." She spent the remainder of the day succoring the 
wounded on the battlefield. 

MOUNT OLIVE, 35 m. (165 alt., 2,685 P°P-)> 1S m a farming area that 
produces bright-leaf tobacco, cotton, vegetables, berries, and melons. The 
town is the State's largest bean market, handling about 250,000 baskets 
annually. Mount Olive was founded upon the advent of the railroad in 
1839-40. Its first industrial plant was a turpentine still. Confederate troops 
were encamped here for a few days in March 1865, prior to the Battle of Ben- 
tonville (see tour 5). A farm near Mount Olive was the birthplace of Curtis 
H. Brogden, Governor of North Carolina (1874-76), father of Willis }. 
Brogden, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina 

FAISON, 42 m. (166 alt., 589 pop.), is one of the largest cucumber mar- 
kets in the world. A local pickle plant (open; apply at office) annually uses 
about 70,000 bushels of cucumbers besides cauliflower, onions, and sweet 
peppers. Strawberries and produce are shipped. 

The Faison Home (private) was built prior to 1785, as the residence of 
Henry Faison, first settler and founder of the town. The white frame house 
with green blinds has lost its early character through remodeling. In the 
Town Cemetery are old gravestones and ground-level vaults. 

Right from Faison on State 403 to the Williams Home, 0.3 m., a square frame two- 
story sttucture erected in 1853. A six-column portico rises to the eaves, and there are 
two one-story wings. The fine proportions are said to be the result of the influence 
of an aunt who was deeply interested in Ruskin's writings on art. General Terry of the 
Union Army maintained his staff here in 1865. In the Williams Art Gallery of Plan- 
tation Life {open by permission) is a collection of paintings by Mrs. Marshall Williams 
(b. 1866), including ante-bellum scenes and portraits. 

East of Faison are level piney uplands penetrated by streams bordered 
with swamps; south and southeast are pocosins (see tours ib and 28). 

WARSAW, 51 m. (160 alt., 1,222 pop.), is a truck market center border- 
ing on the cotton belt. 

Right from Warsaw on paved State 24 is TURKEY, 5 m. (153 alt., 213 pop.), a 
pepper market. Each year in June and July farmers and traders bring in great loads of 
bell peppers, hot peppers, and the tiny bird's-eye variety which rivals the output of 
Mexico. Up to 12,000 baskets are sold daily during the season. Inhabitants of Turkey pay 
no city property taxes; municipal funds are provided by license taxes, fines, and other fees. 

KENANSVILLE, 59 m. (127 alt., 450 pop.), seat of Duplin County, 
was named for the family of Col. James Kenan (d. 1810), who in 1765 led 
a force of volunteers from Kenansville to Brunswick (see tour iC) to op- 
pose enforcement of the Stamp Act. He served as county sheriff, trustee of 

TOUR 4 331 

the University of North Carolina, councilor of State, and for many years was 
in the general assembly. 

Among documents in the Duplin County Courthouse is a record of the 
trial of Darby and Peter, two Negro slaves convicted Mar. 15, 1787, of mur- 
dering their master with an ax. Darby was sentenced to be ". . . tied to a 
stake on the courthouse lot and there burned to death and to ashes and his 

ashes strewed upon the ground " Peter, less severely punished because of 

his youth, was to have "one half of each of his ears cut off and be branded 
on each cheek with the letter M," and receive n lashes. Also in the court- 
house is the signed Oath of Allegiance and Abjuration, adopted in Duplin. 

Grove Academy was conducted here in the middle 1800's. Among its 
students were William R. King, Vice President of the United States (1853- 
57), and F. M. Simmons, U. S. Senator from North Carolina (1901-31). A 
school for young women, known as the Female Seminary, was operated here 
until the 1920's. An early philanthropist was Alexander Dickson (d. 1814), 
who bequeathed most of his large estate to the poor children of his county. 

The first church built by Scotch-Irish settling here about 1736 was near 
what is now the old Rutledge Cemetery. The Golden Grove Church, the 
congregation's third, near the center of town, is weatherboarded, painted 
white, and has a square tower and pointed windows. 

In the Duplin County jail, in September 1831, Dave Morisy, a Negro, was 
incarcerated for fomenting a plot in which insurgent slaves were to murder 
all the white people between Kenansville and Wilmington, and then to seize 
Fort Caswell at Smith ville (Southport). The revelation of the plan caused 
intense excitement. Some 15 Negroes were arrested, and prominent citizens 
asked Gov. Montfort Stokes for militia to guard the jail. Dave confessed, 
implicating David Hicks, a Negro preacher. The two were convicted and 
publicly hanged. Their heads were cut off and placed on poles at highway 
intersections and slaves were marched by to gaze upon them. Dave's head 
was placed on the Wilmington Road (now US 117), which became known 
as the Negro Head Road. 

TIN CITY, 75 m., is a farm village. 

Right from Tin City on paved State 41 is WALLACE 2 m. (51 alt., 734 pop.), market- 
ing center of a large strawberry-raising section. An auctioneer conducts the sale of ber- 
ries in a shed, open on all sides. An annual Strawberry Festival is held early in June. The 
time was selected, according to an auctioneer, because "the growers won't have time to 
count their money until the market closes." 

At 77 m. is the junction with graded State 401. 

Right on this road is WILLARD, 1 m. (50 alt., 100 pop.), and the North Carolina. 
Coastal Experiment Station, conducted by the State in cooperation with the Federal 
Government. Here experiments are being carried on to produce a variety of scuppernong 
grape that will bear in clusters, thus facilitating transportation. The scuppernong, a mem- 
ber of the muscadine family, is a white grape of delicious flavor, probably the oldest 
cultivated native American variety. It is common in the Cape Fear River section, originat- 
ing, it is believed, along the banks of the Scuppernong River in Tyrrell County (see 
tour 26a). 

A field day and farmers' picnic, held annually since 191 7 (2nd Thurs. Sept.) at the 
station, attracts thousands of farmers and their friends. For 10 cents a person may enter 

33 2 TOURS 

the vineyard and eat all the grapes he wishes. On the following day a similar gathering 
of Negro farmers is held. 

Adjoining the experiment station on the west is Penderlea Farms, a project inaugu- 
rated by the Division of Subsistence Homesteads and managed (1939) by the Farm 
Security Administration. It contains 192 farmstead units of about 20 acres; each has a 
one-story frame house, a barn, a pigpen, a poultry house, and a corncrib. All the houses 
have complete bathrooms, and are equipped with electricity and water under pressure. 
The cost of the complete farm units, $5,750, has been prorated so that their occupants 
can acquire them with payments extending over a period of 40 years. Some of the families 
selected have been removed from submarginal land taken out of cultivation by the Gov- 
ernment, others were promising but impoverished tenant farmers. They raise as much of 
their subsistence as possible and are given advice on farming and the preservation of their 
foodstuffs by agents of the Farm Security Administration. The project contains approxi- 
mately 10,500 acres, which includes a community pasture, a timber lot, a playground, and 
an athletic field. The schoolhouse serves also as a community building; tractors and other 
heavy equipment are owned by the project. 

At 85 m. in the Graveyard of Old Hopewell Presbyterian Church 
is the Grave of Hinton James, who, after walking 170 miles to Chapel 
Hill, became, on Feb. 12, 1795, the first student to matriculate at the 
University of North Carolina. He studied engineering and later did much 
to improve the channels in the Cape Fear River. 

BIG SAVANNAH, 87 m., is a railroad station in an area noted for the 
variety of its wild flowers and shrubs. Here grow the wild orchid, and 
several insectivorous plants including the bladderwort, the pitcherplant, and 
the rare Venus's-flytrap, which is found only near the Carolinas' coast. This, 
described by Darwin as "the most wonderful little plant in the world," 
grows to a height of from 4 to 12 inches and produces a white showy flower 
in early May. In a group of three near the center of each half of the leaf 
are triggers which, when touched, cause the leaf to close like a trap. Insects 
thus caught are digested by enzymatic juices secreted by the plant. 

In the swamps the prevailing trees are the bald cypress and juniper (white 
cedar), usually festooned with Spanish or gray moss, which is not moss 
nor a parasite but is related to the pineapple and the aerial orchids of the 

BURGAW, 89 m. (49 alt., 1,209 pop.), is the seat of Pender County. 
The county was formed in 1875 and named for William Dorsey Pender 
(1834-63), youngest major general of the Confederacy. The county claims 
the greatest diversification of crops in the State but strawberries are the 
main product. 

Left from Burgaw on sand-clay State 53 to State-owned HOLLY SHELTER GAME 
REFUGE, 15 m. About 15,000 of its 35,000 acres have been opened as public hunting 
grounds where bear, deer, quail, and waterfowl are taken in season (see general infor- 
mation). The refuge is in Holly Shelter Pocosin, which covers more than 100 square 
miles in the eastern central section of Pender County. 

ST. FIELENA, 91 m. (55 alt.), is the first of several agricultural colonies 
developed for immigrants by Hugh MacRae, Wilmington real estate oper- 
ator. Land acquired by the development company was cut into small farms 
of 10 to 30 acres. These were improved, equipped, and sold to the colonists 
on easv terms. 

tour 4 333 

The first group at St. Helena was composed of seven families from 
northern Italy, thrifty, industrious, and experienced grape growers. Forage 
crops are grown in summer and cover crops in winter to keep the land 
constantly in productivity. Scientific methods of agriculture are followed. 

Settled on MacRae's other developments are: Hollanders at Van Eden, 
in Pender County; Germans at New Berlin, in Columbus County; Poles 
and Ruthenians at Marathon, and a mixed group, principally Dutch, at Castle 
Hayne (see tour 29). 

At 101 m. is the junction with US 421 (see tour 29). 


Junction with US 301 — Clinton — Whiteville — (Conway, S. C); US 701. 
Junction with US 301 — South Carolina Line, 111 m. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Hotels in towns; summer hotels at White Lake; tourist homes and camps along the high- 

Between the junction with US 301 and the South Carolina Line, US 701 
crosses generally level countryside having many lakes, and is bordered by 
long stretches of pine forests and marshlands of luxuriant growth. The 
farms produce truck and berries except near the South Carolina Line where 
cotton and tobacco are the principal crops. 

US 701 branches south from its junction with US 301, m. (see tour j£), 
at a point 4 miles southwest of Smithfield. 

At 12 m. is the junction with an unpaved road. 

Left on this road to BENTONVILLE BATTLEFIELD, 7 m., where the Confederates 
under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston were defeated, Mar. 19-21, 1865, by Sherman's army in 
the last major battle of the War between the States. Federal casualties were reported as 
1,646 and Confederate losses, 2,606. Approximately 10 miles of Confederate trenches, 
still well preserved, run across the battleground. 

The Bentonville Battle Monument (1927), erected jointly by the North Carolina 
Historical Commission and the United Daughters of the Confederacy, stands in a tri- 
angular grassplot. On a half-acre park, over a mass grave of 300 unidentified Confederates 
killed at the Harper House, is a stone pyramid, erected in 1934 by the Goldsboro Rifles. 

The Harper House, 9 m., a two-story wooden structure, with its blacksmith shop and 
outbuildings was filled with Confederate wounded. It bears bullet holes and other marks 
■of battle. 

CLINTON, 33 m. (158 alt., 2,712 pop.), the seat of Sampson County, 
was founded and laid off in 1818 and named for Richard Clinton, who 
gave five acres for the county seat. The local industrial establishments in- 
clude a large lumber plant. The county, formed in 1784 from part of Duplin 
and named for Col. John Sampson, is noted for its large huckleberries, 
locally referred to as Sampson Blues. 

On the courthouse square is a Monument to William Rufus King, 13th 
Vice President of the United States (1853), who was born near here and 
practiced law in Clinton. In the Daniel Joyner House (1810) white women 
and children sought refuge from the threatened Negro insurrection of 
September 1831 (see tour 4). 

Clinton is at the northern junction with US 421 (see tour 29). 


tour 5 335 

Right from Clinton on paved State 24, in a farming section where quail and small 
game are plentiful, is ROSEBORO, 12 m. (137 alt., 768 pop.). The Culbreth family, who 
are said to have furnished more ministers of the gospel than any other family in the State, 
live here. 

1. Left from Roseboro on Butlers Island Rd. across Big Swamp, 3 m. to the junction 
with a trail; at the west margin of the swamp L. on this trail to the end of the floodgate 
dam. Cross two streams on the log footway and follow path to high land on HICKS 
ISLAND (open), 4.5 m., a primitive beauty spot, thickly grown with shrubs and moss- 
hung trees, and brilliant in the spring and summer with wild flowers. This privately 
owned 1,000-acre island is surrounded by the waters of South River, Big Swamp, and 
Little Swamp. The first English trappers who came here are said to have found blue- 
eyed Indians who spoke a dialect similar to 16th-century English. Some people believe 
that these Indians were descendants of Raleigh's Lost Colony (see tour iA). 

2. Right from Roseboro on State 242, on Little Coharie Creek, is the Site of the 
Home of Gabriel Holmes, 2 m., Governor of North Carolina (1821-24). At SALEM - 
BURG, 6 m. (318 pop.), is the Duke-endowed coeducational Pineland College, estab- 
lished in 1914. It offers elementary, preparatory, and junior college courses. A 500-acre 
farm provides food for 175 students, employment for many of them, and a crop surplus 
that is marketed. 

At 36 m. is the southern junction with US 421 (see tour 29). 

GARLAND, 46 m. (62 alt., 509 pop.), on the South River, was formerly 
an important lumber-market center but is now chiefly a shipping point for 

Between Garland and the South Carolina Line are numerous lakes and 
dry basins known as bays. Many geologists believe these were formed by 
the fall of meteors. 

WHITE LAKE, 62 m. (89 alt.), is a resort village. 

1. Left from the town on an improved road to WHITE LAKE (hotels, cottages, and 
bathhouses; good rod fishing), 1 m., spring-fed and surrounded by large areas of white 
sand broken by pines and turkey oaks. The lake is about 1.3 miles wide, and its water is 
unusually clear. 

2. Left from the village of White Lake on unpaved State 41 to BLACK LAKE (swim- 
ming, boating, fishing), 6 m., about the same size as White Lake. 

At 63.7 m. is the junction with sand-clay State 53. 

Left on State 53 to SINGLETARY LAKE (bathing beach, boathouses, picnic grounds, 
tennis courts), 6 m., a recreation center in the 35,000-acre JONES AND SALTERS 
LAKES LAND UTILIZATION PROJECT. The assembly hall and bunkhouses are for 
the use of boys and girls camps. Within the project the Government has built highways 
and truck trails; fire hazards have been reduced and a wildlife conservation program 

At 68 m. is the junction with sand-clay State 242. 

Right on State 242 to evergreen-bordered JONES LAKE, 3 m., in the Land Utilization 
Project, a recreation center for Negroes. 

US 701 crosses the valley of the rushing Cape Fear River on a high cause- 
way. The Cape Fear has often overflowed its banks, causing much damage 
to the bottom lands. 

336 TOURS 

ELIZABETHTOWN, 69 m. (85 alt., 765 pop.), seat of Bladen County, 
on the western bank of the Cape Fear River, was settled by Scotch, English, 
and Irish soon after the county had been formed in 1734, and in 1773 was 
named for Queen Elizabeth. In front of the community building is a marker 
commemorating the Battle of Elizabethtown. 

Old plantations along the river have fallen into ruins although at present 
there are many prosperous farms. For several years lumbering was an 
important industry here. A peanut-products factory is one of the chief indus- 
trial plants. 

The Tory Hole, Site of the Battle of Elizabethtown, is on Broad St., 
near the center of town. In 1781 the region around Elizabethtown, Camp- 
bellton, and Fayetteville was a Tory stronghold. Whigs were driven from 
their homes and their estates pillaged. One August night a small band of 
patriots, having decided to strike back, reached the banks of the Cape Fear 
opposite Elizabethtown, which was then held by 300 Tories under Godden 
and Slingsby. They waded across and launched an attack. After Godden and 
Slingsby had been mortally wounded the Tories retreated, some taking refuge 
in houses, others leaping to safety into a deep ravine, since called the Tory 

At 78.3 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road 2.3 m. to the Brown Marsh Presbyterian Church (R), a weather- 
boarded structure with an entrance on the left side, and another on the gable end. The 
building has remnants of solid shutters for the windows of the five bays. Within are rude 
benches and a rear gallery. The building was erected in 1825, replacing one built in 1787. 
Dr. Joseph R. Wilson, father of Woodrow Wilson, occasionally preached here. In the 
cemetery are buried the ancestors of Anna Mathilda McNeill Whistler, mother of James 
Abbott McNeill Whistler, the painter. 

CLARKTON, 79 m. (93 alt., 458 pop.), an agricultural village, is one 
of the oldest tobacco markets in the State. There was a Highland Scotch 
settlement here as early as 1760. 

In WHITEVILLE, 92 m. (66 alt., 2,203 pop.), founded in 1810, and the 
seat of Columbus County, are several tobacco warehouses. Some contend that 
the name commemorates John White, associated with the Lost Colony (see 
tour 1 A), but it probably honors John B. White, member of the general 
assembly of 1809, whose family deeded (1809) the land for the first court- 
house. The county was formed from Bladen in 1808. Woodrow Wilson and 
his father were guests at the old White house when it was occupied by Col. 
W. M. Baldwin. When young Woodrow was caught climbing a tree in the 
White yard on the Sabbath, Presbyterian wrath is said to have broken the 
Sabbath calm. 

The Memory grape that bears a large black fruit, was introduced here in 
1868 by Col. T. S. Memory, who discovered it growing among his Thomas 

Whiteville is at the junction with US 74 (see tour 31a). 

In Welsh Creek Township, about 4 miles northeast of Whiteville, are sev- 

tour 5 337 

eral hundred so-called Free-issues, people of mixed Indian, white, and 
Negro blood, whose ancestors were woodsmen when turpentine was profit- 
ably produced in this region. 

At 94 m. is the junction with State 130 (see tour 5A). 

Between 94 m. and the South Carolina Line, US 701 crosses TRUCE 
LAND, set apart in June 1781 as a refuge for non-combatants during the 
Revolutionary War by an agreement between Colonel Gainey and Gen. 
Francis Marion. The area was under rigid military rule. Toward the end of 
the war the section became a refuge for robbers and renegades. 

TABOR CITY, 110 m. (1,165 pop.), is a market for tobacco and other 
agricultural products. From 50 to 75 thousand hampers of beans are sold 
here annually. 

At 111 m. the highway crosses the South Carolina Line, 28 miles north 
of Conway, S. C. (see s.c. tour 24). 


Junction with US 701 — Old Dock — Crusoe Island; State 130, county road. 
18 m. 

Paved highway to Old Dock. 

State 130 branches southeast from its junction with US 701, m. (see 
tour 5) 2 miles south of Whiteville, and runs through lowland swamps and 

OLD DOCK, 15 m. (35 pop.), a waning farm village, in ante-bellum 
days was an important shipping point for naval stores; its name refers to 
wharfs that once stood along the Waccamaw River. 

Left from Old Dock on a dirt road through Green Swamp to CRUSOE 
ISLAND, 18 m., a community isolated for several generations. Not prop- 
erly an island, this point is an elevated knoll in country consisting of 
meandering streams of dark water and tangled swamps where large herds 
of deer survive and bears often overrun the section, preying upon livestock. 
Almost every home has a kennel of bear hounds. 

The country around the Green Swamp and Lake Waccamaw was first 
granted to Patrick Henry. It is said that later owners, not interested in settling 
the land, divided it into 640-acre tracts and used it chiefly for stakes in 

One of the many explanations of the origin of Crusoe Island's inhabitants 
is that they are descendants of a band of pirates who fled to the back country 
to avoid capture after an unsuccessful raid on the river settlements. Another 
is that their ancestors were a tribe of coastal Indians who were forced into 
the swamp by the early settlers. A third, and more widely accepted version, 
is that the island was settled by French refugees. 

This story is that in 1804, during Napoleon's rule, a number of men were 
sentenced to death for treason. Some of the officers in charge, including a 
young French surgeon, Jean Formy-Duvall, conspired to help the prisoners 
escape and a pseudo death report was returned by Formy-Duvall. After one 
of the supposedly dead men had been captured, the young surgeon, with a 
number of others involved, left France for Haiti. Shortly after their arrival, 
the island was thrown into a panic by Jean Jacques Dessalines, the Negro 
who expelled the French and from 1804 to 1806 reigned as emperor. Formy- 
Duvall, his family, and three other French families, to escape Dessaline's 
cruelty, fled the island, finally reaching Smithville, now Southport. Learning 
of the isolated section in the Green Swamp and fearing that they might be 
returned to France, they moved into the interior. Still another theory is that 


tour 5 a 339 

during the War between the States many nonslaveholding whites fled here 
to avoid being drafted for military service. For many years there was a 
definite line beyond which no Negro could pass. 

Most of the inhabitants are sturdy, blond, and have florid complexions. 
Their speech, which contains no trace of Latin, bears a close resemblance to 
certain northern English dialects. Particularly noticeable is the manner in 
which they linger on the last letter or syllable. "Th'ust a daid stick inter 
t'land," they say, speaking of the fertility of their soil, "an' u'd grow-awe." 
Handicrafts were being taught the islanders by WPA workers during the 
late 1930's. 


Junction with US 158 — Nashville — Wilson — Junction with State 102; State 
58. 78 m. 

Norfolk Southern R.R. parallels route between Wilson and Stantonsburg. 
Roadbed paved throughout. 
Hotels in towns. 

This route crosses rolling hills and small, rapid streams in farming coun- 
try where bright-leaf tobacco and cotton are the staple crops. In the forests 
pine predominates over the hardwoods. 

State 58 branches south from its junction with US 158, m. (see tour 
24a), a mile east of Warrenton. 

At CENTER VILLE, 19 m. (100 pop.), is the junction with unpaved 
State 561. 

Left on this road is the Portis Gold Mine, 6 m., at the confluence of Shocco and Fish- 
ing Creeks, discovered about 1845 by a settler named Portis who was amazed by the 
firelight gleam of gold particles in the clay with which he chinked his cabin. The mine, 
operated intermittently until 1936, produced gold worth $3,000,000. 

At 28 m. is the Site of Belford, in ante-bellum days an important junc- 
tion of the Halifax-Raleigh stage route. A neighborhood church retains the 

At 32 m. is Rose Hill (private), a mansion built in 1792 by George 
Boddie on land granted to his father, Nathaniel Boddie, by Lord Granville. 
Its double porch is fronted by Doric columns and a circular drive winds to 
the entrance. The flower garden was laid out by a landscape gardener from 
England. In 1876 the house was enlarged and it has been subsequently re- 
modeled and modernized, but the original lines have been preserved. 

NASHVILLE, 35 m. (180 alt., 1,137 pop.), and Nash County, of which 
it is the seat, were named for the Revolutionary patriot, Brig. Gen. Francis 
Nash (see tour //). This pleasant tobacco-belt town has a wide business 
street which develops into a residential boulevard planted with broadleaf 
Norway maples. This region is favorable to diversified farming as well as to 
tobacco culture. The cornerstone of the brick Nash County Courthouse 
(1883) contains a quart of Nash County brandy. 

Nashville is at the junction with US 64 (see tour 26a). 

SILVER LAKE, 48 m., is a recreation center. 



WILSON, 54 m. (147 alt., 12,613 pop.) {see tour 3), is at the junction 
with US 301 {see tour j) and US 264 {see tour 2j). 

STANTONSBURG, 65 m. (92 alt., 607 pop.), incorporated in 1817 and 
supposedly named for the founder, was a thriving village before the Revo- 
lution; it has become a marketing center for a tobacco-producing area. 

At 78 m. is the junction with State 102 {see tour 2), 2 miles west of 
Snow Hill. 


(South Hill, Va.) — Henderson — Raleigh — Southern Pines — Rockingham — 

(Cheraw, S. C); US i. 

Virginia Line — South Carolina Line, 180 m. 

Seaboard Air Line R.R. parallels the route between Norlina and Rockingham. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Hotels in cities and towns; tourist homes, inns, and camps along route. 

Section a. VIRGINIA LINE to RALEIGH; 66 m. US i 

This route runs through rolling cotton, corn, and tobacco farm lands, 
and occasional pine and oak forests. US i crosses the Virginia-North Carolina 
Line, m., 15 miles south of South Hill, Va. {see va. tour /). 

At NORLINA, 8 m. (438 alt., 761 pop.), is the northern junction with 
US 158 (see tour 24a). 

Between Norlina and Henderson lies part of the State's "black belt," 
populated by descendants of slaves, numerous in this plantation region. 
Many Negroes bear the names of the families to whom their ancestors 
belonged. Operating in this section prior to the War between the States were 
groups of white men called by the Negroes "paddyrollers." The name 
referred to the patrols of six men from each militia company established by 
legislative acts, whose duty it was to patrol each district at least once every 
two weeks, apprehending and punishing Negroes found outside their masters' 
plantations without passes or making themselves otherwise objectionable. 
In Negro dialect the patrols became "patteroles," or "patter-rollers," which 
forms are used by Joel Chandler Harris in Uncle Remus and by Charles W. 
Chesnutt in the Conjur Woman. As the common punishment was to place 
the offender across a barrel and apply a paddle instead of the legal lash, and 
as the barrel was apt to roll under the impact, the administrators became 
facetiously known as "paddle-rollers," and finally "paddy-rollers." 

At 9.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to the junction with another dirt road, 1.4 m. ; R. 2 m. on this 
road to Poplar Mount {private), in a grove of great oaks (R). Before the War between 
the States the house was surrounded by a grove of imported yew trees, of which only a 
single magnificent tree remains. The rambling story-and-a-half house is covered with 
beaded weatherboarding, with entrance door protected by a low gabled porch. There are 
two end chimneys at the right end, beyond which are several additions. On the left is a 
small office building with hip roof and a small porch supported by octagonal posts. 

Poplar Mount was built as the home of Weldon Nathaniel Edwards (1 788-1 873), 


tour 7 343 

Congressman (1815-27), State senator (1833-36, 1850-54), speaker of the State senate 
1850-54), leader in the organization of the secession party early in 1861, and president 
of the North Carolina secession convention in 1862. Edwards practised scientific agricul- 
ture. Instead of planting cotton he concentrated on the growing of grain, hay, fruit, and 
tobacco, and the breeding and improvement of stock. Game chickens were his pride and 
joy and furnished entertainment for his numerous guests. 

RIDGEWAY, 10 m. (422 alt., 100 pop.), is in a region of prosperous 
small farms producing vegetables, berries, fruits, and Ridgeway cantaloups. 
Most of the farmers came here in the 1880's from southern Germany by 
way of New York and Pennsylvania. Since the beginning of the settlement, 
when most of the people spoke no English, the Lutheran Church has been 
the center of social life. The church served also as a schoolhouse and, until 
the children began attending State schools, both English and German were 
taught. Part of the church services are still conducted in German. 

MANSON, 12 m. (429 alt., 70 pop.), is a community of farmhouses. 
About 1850 the Roanoke Ry. built a line from this point to Clarksville, Va. 
During the War between the States, General Longstreet's soldiers took up the 
entire railroad and laid it between Greensboro and Danville, Va., to trans- 
port supplies from western North Carolina to Richmond. 

MIDDLEBURG, 17 m. (489 alt., 138 pop.), a farming community 
founded in 1781, was midway between terminals of the Raleigh & Gas- 
ton R.R. Dr. Joseph Hawkins established one of the State's earliest medical 
schools at his home here in 1808. Several granite quarries are operated in the 

At 17.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to Pleasant Hill (private), 0.6 m., a two-and-one-half-story clap- 
boarded house with gable roof, dormers, and twin end chimneys. The low wings on each 
side of the central section and some of the ornaments in the cornice, notably the Greek 
fret, are possibly additions of the 1850's when the house changed ownership. An in- 
appropriate porch with rough stone columns was added in 1869. 

Pleasant Hill was erected by Col. Philemon Hawkins, Jr. (1752-1833). Hawkins fought 
alongside his father, Tryon's chief aid at Alamance (see tour 25), but father and son 
later became ardent patriots. The son was a colonel in the Provincial militia, member of 
Provincial Congresses and of the 1789 convention that ratified the Federal Constitution 
(see fayetteville). Pleasant Hill in 1777 was the birthplace of Colonel Hawkins' son, 
William Hawkins, Governor of North Carolina (1811-14). 

At 2.1 m. is the junction with a dirt road; L. 1.5 m. on this road to the junction 
with a sand-clay road; R. 2 m. on this road to Ashland (private). This two-story house, 
three bays wide, has a doorway on the right-hand bay and a story-and-a-half addition on 
the right with end chimneys matching the twin chimneys on the left side of the main 
house. The beaded weatherboarding is painted white, and both eaves and window head- 
ings have well-designed cornices. A later porch extending across the entire facade is sup- 
ported by Roman Doric columns, supplemented by log posts. Ashland was built in 1746 
by Samuel Henderson, farmer and miller. He was one time high sheriff of Granville 
County and became the father of Richard Henderson. 

Near Ashland is the Grave of Richard Henderson (1735-85), judge of the Crown 
who was driven from the bench at Hillsboro by the Regulators (see tour 23); they later 
burned his home. Judge Henderson was the founder and president of the Transylvania 
Colony, organized in 1775 to form a new State in the Indian territory that later became 
Tennessee and Kentucky. Daniel Boone helped in the negotiations with the Indians for 

344 tours 

the purchase of the land and, with 30 axmen, went ahead to cut a passage through the 
tangled laurel thickets for the emigrants. 

HENDERSON, 23 m. (513 alt., 6,345 P°P-)> an industrial town in the 
bright-leaf tobacco belt, is the seat of Vance County. Its huge warehouses 
bustle with activity in the fall as tobacco farmers bring in their crops by 
automobile, truck, and wagon. Auction sales of tobacco (Mon.-Fri., Sept. 
to Christmas) are bewildering scenes. Only warehouse habitues can under- 
stand the jargon of the auctioneer as he works with lightning rapidity. In- 
dustrial plants include cotton mills, a fertilizer plant, and motor truck 

Henderson is the residence of the Castello family, former circus riders, 
whose real name is Loughlin. The mother of the family is descended from 
one of the last jesters of the English court. The old barn in which they had 
a practice circus ring for winter rehearsal is still standing. 

On the courthouse lawn is a Monument to Leonard Henderson (1772- 
1833), Chief Justice of the State Supreme Court, for whom the town was 
named when laid out in 1840. 

Henderson is at the southern junction with US 158 (see tour 24a). 

Right from Henderson on paved State 39 to WILLIAMSBORO, 7 m., settled about 
1740 and called Nutbush until 1780 when Col. Robert Burton named the town Williams- 
borough for his father-in-law* Judge John Williams, who had given him the land. By 
the early 1800's the place was a thriving community with the finest race track in the 

The Site of the Sneed Mansion House is on one of the original town lots. The 
mansion was such a favorite with lawyers and judges that, until about i860, court was 
often said to have "adjourned to Sneed Mansion House." 

St. John's Episcopal Church, a white clapboarded structure with gable roof was built 
in the late 18th century. The entrance in the front gable end, which is topped with a 
small wooden cupola, is protected by a small gabled portico with four slender posts; in 
the pediment of the portico is a symbolic star. The parish was organized in 1746. The 
first rector was the Rev. John Cupples, sent out in 1766 by the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel. The roster of the first vestry includes names prominent in the section. 

On the south side of Main St. is a long lane leading to Cedar Walk {private), hidden 
from view by a few of the cedars that gave the place its name. It was built in 1750 by 
Hutchins Burton for a boarding school, and called Blooming Hope. Burton hanged him- 
self from the attic stairwell and visitors testify to the presence of his ghost. The house is 
two stories high with a central door flanked by pilasters. The wing at the left, a later 
addition, has a fine dentiled cornice, the detail of which resembles the work at Burnside 
and Prospect Hill (see architecture). 

1. Right from Williamsboro 1 m. on a dirt road to the Ruins of Oakland. Four chimneys 
are all that remain of the summer home occupied about 1820 by James Turner, Governor 
of North Carolina (1802-5), and U. S. Senator (1805-16). 

2. Left from Williamsboro 0.9 m. on a dirt road to the junction with another dirt road; 
R. 1.3 m. on this road to the junction with a marked lane; R. 0.6 m. on the lane to 
Burnside (private). This two-story weatherboarded house has a dentiled cornice and 
upper and lower doorways with semicircular fanlights and side lights. A brick in the 
east end chimney bears the date 1801. The interior carved woodwork, designed with 
varying detail, is characteristic of the Classic Revival period. 

Tradition is that in 1760 this was the home of Col. Memucan Hunt, first State 
treasurer, and later that of his son, Dr. Thomas Hunt, who inherited the place about 
1820. It was named Burnside in 1824, after Dr. Hunt had sold it to Patrick Hamilton, 
one of five brothers who came here from Scotland about 1806. The Hamiltons were 

tour 7 345 

born in Burnside, Lanarkshire, according to the tombstone of William Hamilton (1779- 
1840) in St. John's Churchyard. 

On State 39 at 12.7 m. in Townsville (421 alt., 244 pop.), is the Nutbush Presby- 
terian Church (1805), whose congregation was organized in 1754. This little white 
weatherboarded box of a church with square-headed windows was one of the few 
churches for white people where John Chavis often preached between 1809 and 1832. 
Chavis, a free Negro, displayed unusual intelligence as a child and was sent to Prince- 
ton — according to tradition, to demonstrate whether a Negro could acquire a college 
education. He became a Presbyterian minister and taught school in Raleigh and other 
North Carolina towns. Among his pupils were Willie P. Mangum, later a U. S. Senator, 
Charles Manly, Governor of North Carolina (1849-51), and the sons of Chief Justice 
Leonard Henderson. 

BEARPOND, 28 m. 

Left from Bearpond on a graveled road to the Site of Gillburg, 2 m., marked by 
stone slave houses built before 1820. 

KITTRELL, 31 m. (372 alt., 220 pop.), is surrounded by the flowering 
fields and rows of evergreens of a nursery. 

Right from Kittrell on the unpaved Lynbank Rd. to RUIN CREEK, 2 m., Site of 
Popcastle Inn, a Colonial tavern and gaming house operated until about i860. It is said 
to have been built by a nobleman, a political refugee from Europe, and later owned by 
Captain Pop, a pirate who hid gold nearby. 

At 35 m. US 1 crosses Tabbs Creek on which John Mask Peace, first 
known white settler of this region, lived in 1713. 

FRANKLINTON, 40 m. (432 alt., 1,320 pop.), is a textile-manufacturing 
and lumber-milling town as well as a shipping point for cotton and bright- 
leaf tobacco. 

Left from Franklinton on paved State 56 is LOUISBURG, 10 m. (226 alt, 2,182 
pop.), seat of Franklin County. This town, the "old fords of the Tar," was first settled 
in 1758, and in 1764 was named in commemoration of the capture by American forces 
of the French fortress at Louisburg, Nova Scotia. Lumber is the principal manufactured 
material. Louisburg is the birthplace of Edwin W. Fuller, author of the Angel in the 
Cloud and Other Poems and Sea Gift (1873), a novel once so popular at the University 
of North Carolina that the work was known as the Freshman's Bible. 

Louisburg College, in a 10-acre oak grove, is a Methodist coeducational junior col- 
lege, with a student body of about 400. The buildings of red-painted brick are scattered 
about the administration center (1855), which has a Greek Doric portico; the later 
wings have small Roman Doric porticoes. A chimney, remains of a building erected in 
1 814 and burned in 1928, bears a tablet with the date 1802. The school was chartered 
as the Louisburg Female Seminary in that year when it was decided to separate the male 
and female departments of the Franklin Academy for Males and Females, whose first 
building was erected in 1779. 

In 1855 tne school was reorganized as a private college. In 1891 it came into the 
possession of Washington Duke, who operated it until his death in 1907; his son, 
Benjamin N. Duke, gave it to the North Carolina Methodist Conference. 

The Drinking Fountain and Marker, Courthouse Sq., was erected to commemorate 
the designing by Orren Randolph Smith, a North Carolinian, of the Stars and Bars — 
first of the Confederacy's four flags — and its first display in North Carolina at Louis- 
burg, Mar. 18, 1 861. 

1. Left from Louisburg on oil-treated State 561 to the junction with a dirt road, 2.5 m. ; 
L. 2 m. on the dirt road to the John Allen Place {private). The house is covered with 
beaded weatherboarding and fronted by a one-story bracketed porch. The east chimney 

346 TOURS 

is said to date from 181 8, but the part belonging to this date has been incorporated with 
the rest of the story-and-a-half structure and is indistinguishable. The west chimney bears 
the date 1837. 

Inside are beautiful old furniture and interesting relics. John Allen was known as 
"Spelling John" because of his phenomenal memory. He could spell a word and tell 
where it stood by page and line in the old blue-back speller. The family has a lustre 
goblet that he won as the best speller in North Carolina, and a letter signed by Robert E. 
Lee testifying to the excellence of John Allen's scholarship at Washington (later Wash- 
ington and Lee) College. The family also has a book of calculations used for dictation 
in the schools when textbooks were not available; it was written about 1814 with a 
goose quill and illustrates the "rule of threes." John Allen's half brother, Orren Randolph 
Smith, was living here when his Confederate flag was first displayed. 

On State 561 is (R) the Old Collins Place {private), 9.4 m., a two-story house, two 
rooms wide, with two stone end chimneys. Every opening in the facade is designed with 
a Palladian motif. 

2. Left from Louisburg on paved State 39 to the Home of Green Hill (private), 1 m., 
where Bishop Coke held the first North Carolina Methodist Conference in 1785. This 
well-preserved white frame farmhouse has dormer windows, three great brick end 
chimneys, and high porches. Green Hill was prominent in State as well as Methodist 
affairs, represented Bute County in four Provincial Congresses (1774-76), and was a 
major of the Bute militia in the Revolution. 

3. Right from Louisburg on paved State 39 to the junction with a dirt road, 2 m. ; L. 
2 m. on this road to the point where Lynch's Creek enters Tar River, the Site of the 
Hanging of Major Lynch (1767). This British officer, commissioned to collect taxes 
in the frontier Colony, was here summarily executed, carrying out the sentence of a 
mock court; the term "lynch law" is believed by some to have so originated. One of the 
last remaining bands of Tuscarora Indians in North Carolina was exterminated here in 
1725. Skeletons and relics have been found nearby. 

At 49.5 m. US 1 follows a boulevard whose grassy parkway is planted 
with dwarf magnolias and shrubs. In WAKE FOREST, 50 m. (400 alt., 
1,536 pop.), a college town, the streets are bordered with fine trees, and old 
houses harmonize with the ivy-grown buildings on the wooded campus of 
Wake Forest College (Baptist) in the heart of the village. When Wake 
Forest Institute opened in 1834, each of its 16 students was required to bring 
an ax and a hoe in addition to two sheets and two towels. 

Reorganized as a college in 1838, Wake Forest in 1894 added a school 
of law and in 1896 a department of religion, first in connection with an 
American college of liberal arts. The standard four-year course leads to 
degrees of B.A. and B.S., and graduate work is offered leading to the M.A. 
degree. A summer school is conducted. 

The college buildings occupy a beautiful 25-acre campus shaded by mag- 
nolias, oaks, maples, elms, and cedars. Wait Hall, erected in 1839 and named 
for the institution's first president, Samuel Wait, was destroyed by fire in 
1933. A building program in the 1930's included a new Wait Hall, three- 
story brick building in modified Georgian Colonial style; the William 
Amos Johnson Memorial Medical Building; a combination gymnasium 
and auditorium; concrete stadium and field house. The Old Dormitory 
was built about 1839 by Capt. John Berry (see architecture). Off the 
campus are the Calvin Jones House (1820); the North Brick House 
(1838) which served as the home of early presidents; and the South Brick 
House (1838). 

tour 7 347 

The marked Site of Isaac Hunter's Tavern, which Hunter operated 
in 1788, is at 60 m. The North Carolina General Assembly ruled that the 
State capital should be placed within 10 miles of this point. 

RALEIGH, 66 m. (363 alt., 37,379 pop.) {see raleigh). 

Points of Interest: State Capitol, Christ Church, Site of the Birthplace of Andrew 
Johnson, Joel Lane House, N. C. State College of Agriculture and Engineering, and 

Raleigh is at the junction with US 15A {see tour 9), US 64 {see tour 
26), and US 70 {see tour 28). 

Section b. RALEIGH to SOUTH CAROLINA LINE; 114 m. US 1 

Between RALEIGH, m., and 14 m., US 1 unites with US 64 {see 
tour 26). 

This route swings into thickly wooded farming country where cotton, 
corn, and tobacco are the predominant crops. 

MEREDITH COLLEGE, 3.5 m., is a four-year Baptist college with a 
student body of more than 500 young women. Fourteen buildings, most of 
them of brick, lie at the end of a tree-lined avenue (R). Established in 1899, 
the institution was named for the Rev. Thomas Meredith, for many years 
a leader of the Baptist denomination in North Carolina. A summer session 
is conducted in conjunction with Wake Forest College. 

METHOD, 4 m. (444 alt., 300 pop.), Negro village, was developed by 
Berry O'Kelly (d.1932), Negro educator, merchant, and leader, who founded 
the school which bears his name. The plant includes three large brick build- 
ings and a church. 

At 5 m. is the junction with US 70 {see tour 28), which unites with US 
1-64 between this point and 8 m. 

In the State Fairgrounds, 5 m. (R), the annual fair {yd w\. Oct.) is 
attended by about 250,000 people. A steel grandstand and concrete bleachers, 
race tracks, agricultural exhibit buildings, machinery sheds, stock barns, 
offices, and a hospital are included in the equipment. 

State Highway Shops, 5.1 m., a group of sprawling, barnlike buildings 
(R), include a supply depot, garage, and repair shop. 

At 8 m. US 70 {see tour 28) branches R. 

At 8.5 m. on US 1-64 is CARY (496 alt., 900 pop.), a farming com- 
munity founded about 1852 by A. Frank Page, father of Walter Hines 
Page, the author, editor, and wartime Ambassador to Great Britain (1913- 
18). The Birthplace and Home of Walter Hines Page {private) is 
across the railroad tracks, half a block from Schoolhouse St. The two-story 
white dwelling stands in a grove of elms, surrounded by a picket fence. 

348 TOURS 

Page as a boy of 12 is said to have walked the railroad tracks 8 miles to 
Raleigh to hear President Andrew Johnson speak. 

Right on a graveled road from a brick filling station at the outskirts of Cary to the 
junction with dirt Reedy Creek Rd., at a schoolhouse, 2 m. ; R. 2.5 m. on this road through 
a pine forest to the Old Company Mill, on the bank of Crabtree Creek beside a dam. 
Walter Hines Page laid some of the scenes of his novel the Southerner in this neighbor- 
hood. The old mill, owned by his grandfather and operated as a powder factory during 
the War between the States, is in good condition, its overshot wheel intact after 100 
years. In front of the mill are marks of an old trail, probably a portion of the old Rams- 
gate Road cut by Governor Tryon on his way to quell the Regulators {see tour 25). Boy 
Scout cabins and a pond (swimming) occupy the space in the woods. The site is part of 
Crabtree Creek Park, a 6,000-acre national recreation and demonstration area. 

At 14 m. US 64 (see tour 26) branches R. 

At 16 m. on US 1 is APEX (504 alt., 863 pop.), which received its name 
in the early 1870's when a survey for the Raleigh & Augusta R.R. showed 
this to be the highest point on the right-of-way between Norfolk and San- 
ford. After North Carolina had adopted prohibition in 1907, Apex was 
used by the Baldwin gang as headquarters for distributing liquor run in 
from Virginia. 

The route crosses the Haw River, 30 m., through a region where the hills 
attain the elevations of small mountains, and the landscape takes on a 
rugged aspect seldom found in the Piedmont. Swift-flowing streams, Rocky 
River, Robinson, and Bear Creeks, furnish power for many small mills that 
grind the wheat grown in the region. 

US 1 crosses the Deep River, 31.5 m., a narrow stream that twists through 
green valleys. High abrupt banks in places become hanging cliffs with a 
drop of 100 feet or more. Rabbits, squirrels, and birds are abundant. Deep 
River joins the Haw a mile to the southeast, their confluence forming the 
Cape Fear. 

LOCKVILLE, 41 m., formerly known as Ramseys Mill, was the scene 
of a British encampment after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse (see tour 
13). Cornwallis' troops remained only long enough to build a bridge across 
Deep River. 

Between this point and 52 m., US 1 unites with US 15-501 (see tour 10). 

South of Lockville US 1, called the Jefferson Davis Highway, has bronze 
and granite markers placed at 10-mile intervals by the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy to honor the President of the Confederacy. 

At 42 m. the highway crosses the Granville Line (see tour 2 and 

SANFORD, 46 m. (375 alt., 4,253 pop.), seat of Lee County, on the edge 
of the pine belt bordering the Sandhill section, is the market town for four 
counties. Loads of tobacco and cotton on the way to the warehouses give the 
town animation in the fall. In the surrounding country descendants of Staf- 

tour 7 349 

fordshire potters who came here 200 years ago continue their craft, using the 
old-time kick wheel and mule-power grinding mills. 

The North State Pottery {open) is one of the largest and best known 
in the State. 

Sanford is at the junction with US 421 {see tour 29). 

At 47.5 m. is the junction with a country road. 

Left on this road a short distance to the Buffalo Presbyterian Church. The white 
frame Victorian Gothic building, erected between 1878 and 1880, is the fourth to serve 
the congregation. The Scottish congregation was organized before April 1796. 

CAMERON, 57 m. (304 alt., 287 pop.), is one of the largest dewberry 
markets in the world, shipping an average of 60,000 crates each May. 

VASS, 61 m. (287 alt., 602 pop.), is likewise a dewberry market. 

At 62 m. the route crosses Little River. Beyond are the dry, white ridges 
of the Sandhills. Shortleaf pines give way to the lighter green, longleaf 
variety. The region abounds with fox, raccoon, opossum, squirrel, rabbit, 
quail, and dove. Many deer stray into this section from the game refuge at 
Fort Bragg {see tour 3A). 

SOUTHERN PINES, 72 m. (516 alt., 2,524 pop.) 

Transportation: New York -Florida Limited via Seaboard Air Line R.R. Additional trains 

with through Pullman service in winter. 
Accommodations: 11 modern hotels, most of them open only during winter season; 

tourist homes and boarding houses; rates slightly higher in winter. 
Information Service: City Clerk, Library, E. Broad St. 
Golf (rates also by season): Mid-Pines Country Club, 18 holes, greens fee, $2; Pine 

Needles Country Club, 18 holes, greens fee, $2; Southern Pines Country Club, two 

18-hole courses, greens fee, $1.50. 


Golf Tournaments: Weekly matches between Dec. 15 and Apr. 1; Women's Mid-South 
Championship (54 holes), 3rd wk. Mar. Horse Events: Sandhills Steeplechase and 
Racing Assn. meet, 3rd Sat. Apr.; gymkhanas on alternate Fridays throughout season; 
horse shows, Jan. and Apr.; hunter trials, Mar. Tennis: Spring tournament, 2nd wk. 
Mar.; Dogwood tournament, 4th wk. Apr. 

This winter resort whose golf courses attract the foremost professionals 
and amateurs of the country, was established primarily as a health resort. 
Exploitation of the mild dry climate, coupled with the adaptability of the 
Sandhills to peach growing and truck raising, helped to develop this region 
of pine barrens, which, after the exhaustion of its hardwoods, had almost 
reverted to a wilderness. 

During the season Southern Pines' population swells to about 5,000 resi- 
dents. The town, incorporated in 1887, centers around the landscaped rail- 
way station. Broad Street, running parallel with the tracks, is a two-way 
boulevard with a parkway of magnolias, pines, and blossoming shrubs. 
Here are gift shops, book stores, newsstands, specialty shops, and a motion 
picture theater. 

350 TOURS 

The writers' colony at Southern Pines had as its founder James Boyd, 
author of Drums, and his wife, who influenced Katherine Newlin Burt, 
the novelist, and Struthers Burt, novelist and essayist, to join them here. 
Other members of the colony are Lawrence B. Smith, author of fishing and 
hunting stories; Walter and Bernice Gilkyson, short-story writers, and Almet 
Jenks and Maude Parker, contributors to national magazines. 

Southern Pines is at the junction with State 2 {see tour J A). 

ABERDEEN, 76 m. (500 alt., 1,382 pop.), is a trading town and shipping 
point for tobacco, truck, and fruit. A. Frank Page, a miller, and father of 
Walter Hines Page, came here from Wake County. The family built the 
railroad that is now part of the Norfolk Southern. Originally called Blues 
Crossing, the town became Aberdeen when it was incorporated in 1893. 
Many of the early settlers in this section were Scottish. 

Left from Aberdeen on paved State 5 to Old Bethesda Church (adm. by permission 
of Mrs. Belle Pleasants whose house is 100 yds. R. Homecoming usually 1st Sun. in Oct.), 
1 m. The church (1850), a rectangular white clapboarded structure with tower and spire 
in the center of the facade, contains an old slave gallery with a separate entrance. At the 
close of the War between the States, part of General Sherman's army encamped in and 
around the building. 

The congregation, organized in 1790 by the Philadelphia Presbytery, built its first 
church that year in the midst of a 5-acre tract which had been granted in 1766 by King 
George III to John Patterson. 

In Bethesda Cemetery is the Tomb of Walter Hines Page. On a simple slab of 
gray granite is inscribed only his name and the dates Aug. 15, 1855— Dec. 21, 1918. 
Here also is the Grave of Frank Page, his brother, first chairman of the North Carolina 
Highway Commission, which started the State's present highway system. Beneath the 
cedars in the older portion of the cemetery lie crumbling, crude, and stained monuments 
to early settlers. One is inscribed: "In Memory of COLIN BETHUNE (an honest man). 
A native of Scotland by accident, but a citizen of the U.S. from choice who died Mar. 29, 
1820. Aged 64 years. 

His dust must mingle with the ground 

Till the last trump's awakening sound 

It will then arise in sweet surprise 

To meet its savior in the skies." 

PINEBLUFF, 80 m. (307 alt., 289 pop.), a small winter resort, has a few 
scattered houses, many of them winter residences, on its wide streets. The 
large hotel was converted into a club, later into a sanatorium. 

At 84 m. the route crosses the Lumber River and runs through the Sand- 
hills into a region of dark pine forest and darker cypress swamp, draped in 
vines and Spanish moss. 

HOFFMAN, 88 m. (428 alt., 569 pop.), is the center for the 62,000-acre 
Agricultural Economics is (1939) demonstrating the restoration of economic 
value to submarginal farm lands and cut-over forests by developing them as 
recreation, forestry, and wildlife conservation areas. With the exception of 
the fish hatchery, this project when completed will be administered by the 

Within this area are: the Indian Camp Recreational Park {cabins, 

TOUR 7 351 

trailer camp, recreation pavilion), on the shore of 80-acre Lake McKinney 
{boating, bathing); the Bureau of Fisheries' McKinney Lake Hatchery 
containing 20 one-acre ponds for propagating bass, bream, and crappie; the 
Hoffman Nursery, growing from 15 to 25 million forest seedlings for 
reforestation work on its 175 acres, and the Pine Forest Game Farm, 
equipped with a brooder house, incubator house, fences, and coops for the 
propagation of quail and turkeys. 

ROCKINGHAM, 102 m. (211 alt., 2,906 pop.), seat of Richmond 
County, was established in 1785 and named for the Marquis of Rockingham 
who befriended the Colony before the Revolutionary War. Many of the 
inhabitants are descendants of original settlers and the town has retained 
somewhat the air of another generation. Although the county has over a 
million peach trees, cotton constitutes 75 percent of the farm output. The 
10 mills in the region employ white operatives exclusively. 

In Rockingham Saturday is still "Negro day." The Negro population of 
the section is almost as large as the white. Since they live mostly on the 
cotton plantations, where the land is level, the rows long, and the summer 
sun scorching, Rockingham grants them one day to call their own. The 
carnival spirit prevails as whole families stroll about in their best clothes. 
In picking time cotton hands discuss the price of cotton and the wages 
planters are paying for labor in order to bargain with their overseers. 

Rockingham is at the junction with US 220 {see tour 13) and US 74 
{see tour 31b). 

South of Rockingham US 1 parallels the Pee Dee River and at 114 m. 
crosses the South Carolina Line, 10 miles north of Cheraw, S. C. {see s. c. 
tour 6). 


Southern Pines — Pinehurst; State 2. 7 m. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Resort hotels, many open only in winter. 

State 2, known as Midland Rd., branches northwest from its junction 
with US 1 in SOUTHERN PINES, m. (see tour 7). Midland Rd., a 
boulevard with pine-planted central parkway, is paralleled in stretches by 
bridle paths. 

The residential suburb, KNOLLWOOD, 2 m., is composed of country 
estates, winter cottages, and year-round residences. 

At 2.5 m. is the junction with a marked paved road. 

Right on this road to KNOLLWOOD AIRPORT, 2.5 m. 

At 2.6 m. is the junction with a marked sand road. 

Left on this road is the Carolina Orchid Growers Greenhouses (open 2:30-4:30 
weekdays; adm. $1; proceeds to charity), 100 yds. The climatic conditions of the tropics 
are maintained for the many rare orchids grown here. 

At 6 m. is the Sandhills Steeplechase and Racing Association Track 
and Arena (meet yd Sat. Mar.). 

PINEHURST, 7 m. (536 alt., 1,600 pop.). 

Railroad Station: South edge of village at US 15-501 for Norfolk Southern R.R. 

Airport: Knollwood Airport, 5 m. east on State 2 and paved road. 

Accommodations: 5 large hotels; rates higher Oct. to May. 

Information Service: Pinehurst, Inc., 1 Dogwood Rd. at Market Sq., or E. C. Mignard, 

Hotel Ambassador, New York City. 
Golf: Pinehurst Country Club, four 18-hole courses; greens fee, $1 to $2.50. 
Tennis: 6 sand-clay courts. 


Golf Tournaments: Mid-South Professional Tournament, mid-Nov.; Seniors Tournament, 
2nd wk. Mar.; United North and South Open Championship, 3rd wk. Mar.; North 
and South Invitation Championship for Women, last wk. Mar., 1st wk. Apr.; North 
and South Invitation Amateur Championship, 2nd wk. Apr. Tennis: United North 
and South Tournament, 2nd and 3rd wks. Apr. Races: Sandhills Steeplechase and 
Racing Assn. meet, 3rd Sat. Mar. Horse Show: Pinehurst Jockey Club, Mar. 28-29. 
Field Trials: Continental Field Trial Club, late Nov.; Pointers Club of America mem- 
bership events, 1st wk. Dec; open events, 2nd wk., Dec; Pinehurst Field Trial 
Club, 2nd wk. Jan. Kennel Show: Pinehurst Kennel Club, auspices American Kennel 
Club, early Apr. 


tour 7 a 353 

Pinehurst is a winter resort, resembling a country village. Roads and drives 
ramble past great estates, many of which are open the year around, com- 
fortable hotels and inns, and numerous smaller residences and cottages de- 
signed in a modified Georgian Colonial style. Aymar Embury II, of New 
York and Pinehurst, set the architectural style of the colony. Frederick Law 
Olmsted, landscape architect, laid out the parks and open spaces, ornamenting 
the curving roads with evergreens, hollies, and flowering shrubs. Sweet- 
scented longleaf pines give the village its name. 

The Market Place, Pinehurst's business district, is the focal point of the 
village, which does not depend on the surrounding country for patronage 
or supplies. While tennis courts and country club verandas attract gay 
throngs, groups of elderly ladies take the air in old-fashioned tallyhos or 
victorias, and children pile into wagonettes when they go on picnics. 

James W. Tufts, of Boston, in 1895 bought 5,000 sandy acres from the 
family of Walter Hines Page for $1 an acre. His early plans for using 
some of his millions to build a health resort did not materialize but later 
he established a recreational and sports center here. The founder's son, 
Leonard Tufts, further developed the resort. 

Pinehurst, not incorporated as a town, is a private business enterprise oper- 
ating under the corporate laws of North Carolina. A special charter in 191 1 
granted the owners the right to exercise police powers. The village regulations 
prohibit locomotives from operating at night, dogs from howling at night, 
and roosters from crowing. 

The Village Chapel (nonsectarian, Episcopal ritual; Sun. services during 
winter season; frequent organ recitals), one block south of Market Sq., is a 
pale red brick structure suggestive of old New England meetinghouses. The 
facade is marked by a portico of four Corinthian columns supporting a simple 
pediment. A square tower in the Wren tradition, with a four-faced clock, 
diminishes in stages to a slim octagonal spire that rises high above a back- 
ground of dense foliage. There are urns on each set-back of the tower. 
Hobart Upjohn's design for this church (see architecture) was awarded a 
Diploma of Merit at the International Exhibit at Turin, Italy, in 1926, the 
year of its completion. 

The Woman's Exchange, opposite the chapel, occupies a log cabin, built 
in 1823 and once the kitchen of an early plantation house. Moved here to 
serve as a museum, the cabin is a clearing house for home products of 
Moore County, including needlework and antiques. 

The Pinehurst Country Club, two blocks southwest of the chapel, is a 
center of social and sporting life. Broad verandas and terraces overlook the 
four golf courses. Donald Ross, golf architect whose home is in Pinehurst, 
planned the courses. Number Two is used for championship play. Number 
One was designed especially for ladies and Number Four for beginners. 


(Clarksville, Va.) — Oxford — Durham; US 15. 
Virginia Line — Durham, 47 m. 

Southern Ry. parallels route between the Virginia Line and Durham; Seaboard Air Line 
R.R. between Oxford and Durham. 
Roadbed paved throughout. 
Hotels at Oxford and Durham. 

Between the Virginia Line and Durham, US 15 traverses rolling country- 
side and elevated flat lands where tobacco and corn are produced on small 
farms. The route is marked by granite squares and bronze tablets every 10 
miles to designate this as part of the Jefferson Davis Highway. 

US 15 crosses the Virginia-North Carolina Line, m., 6 miles south of 
Clarksville, Va. (see va. tour 3). 

STOVALL, 7 m. (478 alt., 415 pop.), is dependent on the growing of 
tobacco and vegetables. 

Right from Stovall on an unpaved road to the marked Site of the Home of John 
Penn, 4 m., a North Carolina signer of the Declaration of Independence; Penn came 
from Virginia in 1774 and resided here until his death in 1788. He was buried here 
until 1895 when his remains were moved to Guilford Battleground (see tour /j); the 
body of his wife, Susannah Lyne, lies in the family burying ground. 

At 8 m. is the junction with a narrow concrete road. 

Left on this road to the Home of Col. William T. Gregory (private), 1 m. Near 
his home Colonel Gregory (1868-1933), an eccentric landowner and tobacco planter, 
operated a general store where he gave away rather than sold articles. 

At 17 m. is the northern junction with US 158 (see tour 24a), which 
unites with US 15 between this point and Oxford. 

OXFORD, 18 m. (476 alt., 4,101 pop.), seat of Granville County, is a 
manufacturing town and tobacco market where autumn sales are conducted 
in nine large warehouses. The State's first storage warehouse devoted solely 
to aging cured leaf tobacco was built here in 1866. 

Oxford was founded in 1764 when Bute County was formed from Gran- 
ville (see tour 24A) and the seat of Granville was moved to Samuel Benton's 
plantation, called Oxford. Granville County had been formed in 1746 and 
named for John Carteret, Earl of Granville, who retained his domain when 
the other Lords Proprietors surrendered their charters to the Crown in 1729. 
The Oxford Academy, authorized in 181 1 when the general assembly 
empowered trustees to raise funds by means of a lottery, was established 


tour o 355 

in 1817 and existed until 1880. At the eastern city limits on US 158 is the 
Site of Horner Military School, established in 1851 by James Hunter 
Horner and moved to Charlotte in 1914. 

Oxford Orphanage, College St., occupies the site of St. John's College, a 
Masonic seminary for male students that existed between 1858 and the War 
between the States. The orphanage, opened in 1873 by the Grand Lodge of 
Masons in North Carolina, provides academic courses and vocational train- 
ing for about 400 children. The Oxford Colored Orphanage, founded by 
Negro Masons in North Carolina, is maintained by the State. 

The Granville County Courthouse, whose front portion was built in 
1838, contains county records from 1786. At Capehart Cleaners, opposite 
the courthouse, is a Collection of Indian Relics found in this section. In 
the 17th and early 18th centuries, Granville County was the home of 17 
Indian tribes, most powerful of whom were the Tuscarora. 

Between Oxford and Creedmoor the route passes the homes of white and 
Negro tenant farmers and traverses fields of tobacco and corn. 

At 28 m., across the railroad to the L., is HESTER (90 pop.), a farm 
village dominated by the meeting hall of Hester Grange, a farmers club. 

Right from Hester on a sand-clay road to Indian Grave Hill, 1 m., where many 
Indian relics have been found and carried away by amateur archeologists. 

At 32 m. US 15 skirts (L) the edge of CREEDMOOR (358 alt., 388 
pop.), sustained by a small lumber mill and a farm trade. 

Creedmoor is at the junction with US 15A (see tour 9). 

In NORTHSIDE, 38 m. (56 pop.), the highway spans the Neuse River, 
narrow and shallow in this upland reach. 

DURHAM, 47 m. (405 alt., 52,037 pop.) (see durham). 

Points of Interest: Durham Hosiery Plant, Liggett and Myers Tobacco Co. Plant, 
Erwin Cotton Mills, American Tobacco Co. Plant, Duke University, and others. 

Durham is at the junction with US 501 (see tour 10) and US 70 (see 
tours 25 and 28). 


Creedmoor — Raleigh — Fayetteville — Laurinburg — (Bennettsville, S. C); US 

15A, 15. 

Creedmoor — South Carolina Line, 132 m. 

Norfolk Southern R.R. parallels the route between Raleigh and Fayetteville; Aberdeen & 

Rockfish R.R. between Fayetteville and Raeford; Laurinburg & Southern R.R. between 

Raeford and Laurinburg. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Hotels in cities and towns; tourist homes, inns, and camps along the highway. 

Between Creedmoor and Laurinburg US 15A winds along the eastern 
slopes of the Piedmont Plateau. Thick forests of cedar, holly, and stubby- 
leaved slash pine rise over growths of dogwood and redbud in the northern 
portion; longleai pine dominates the southern. Fields are planted with 
tobacco, cotton, and occasionally vegetables. 

US 15A branches south from US 15 at CREEDMOOR, 0. m. {see tour 8). 

Between 9 m. and 15 m. is the HARRICANE SECTION, once notorious 
for the illicit manufacture of corn liquor in stills concealed among the hills 
and pine woods. 

RALEIGH, 24 m. (363 alt., 37,379 pop.) {see raleigh). 

Points of Interest: State Capitol, Christ Church, Site of the Birthplace of Andrew 
Johnson, Joel Lane House, N. C. State College of Agriculture and Engineering, and 

Raleigh is at the junction with US 64 {see tour 26), US 1 {see tour 7), 
and US 70 {see tour 28). 

South of Raleigh US 15A passes through a section that contains some of 
the most productive farming land in North Carolina. Peach orchards blossom 
along the route in spring, and in summer miles of cotton fields show their 
delicate blooms. 

CARALEIGH, 26 m. (355 alt., 200 pop.), is a village built to house 
the employees of a cotton mill, since closed. 

At 27.5 m. is the entrance (R) to CAROLINA PINES, a recreational 
development {hotel, clubhouse, restaurant, golf course, la\e, tennis courts, 
riding stables). Frogs are propagated here and mineral water bottled. 

The 219-acre Raleigh Municipal Airport, 28 m., a regular stop on the 
Eastern Air Lines route, has three paved runways, a Weather Bureau station, 
and passenger accommodations. 


tour 9 357 

At 28.1 m. a tablet imbedded in a boulder commemorates the Ramsgate 
Road. This highway between Wake Crossroads, now Raleigh, and Orange 
County was built by Gov. William Tryon in 1771 before his expedition 
against the Regulators (see tour 25). The route, so named for the old 
Ramsgate Road in England over which pilgrims to Canterbury journeyed 
centuries ago, was nicknamed Ramcat or Rhamkatte in derision of Tryon. 

FUQUAY SPRINGS, 43 m. (963 pop.), a tobacco-market town, was once 
a health resort. It has a mineral spring covered by a springhouse in a wooded 

At 55 m. is the northern junction with US 421 (see tour 29). 

The highway crosses the deep Cape Fear River at 55.5 m. 

LILLINGTON, 56 m. (752 pop.), the seat of agricultural Harnett 
County, was named for Revolutionary Col. Alexander Lillington (see tour 

At the McKinnon House (R), 75 m., during the War between the States, 
Federal soldiers hanged McKinnon for refusing to reveal where he had 
hidden his share of the money distributed by directors of the local banks 
when Union troops were approaching. After the soldiers had left, a slave 
cut down and revived his master. 

At 76 m. is the junction with an unpaved road. 

Left on this road to Carvers Falls, 0.5 m. Here the Cape Fear River is 60 feet wide 
and drops 18 feet. The falls serve as shower baths for youngsters who use the thick 
forest and ravine for bathhouses. 

Tokay Vineyard, 80 m., once the site of a large winery, was replanted 
in 1934 after a long interval of neglect. 

The Parapet, 82 m., is the name given to ruins of breastworks thrown 
up during the War between the States by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army 
in anticipation of a Federal attack on Fayette ville. 

FAYETTEVILLE, 83 m. (107 alt., 13,049 pop.) (see fayetteville) . 

Points of Interest: Market House, First Presbyterian Church, Cool Spring, Site of 
Cross Creek, Site of Flora Macdonald's House, and others. 

Fayetteville is at the junction with US 301 and State 28 (see tour 3) 
and with State 24 (see tour 3A). 

Southwest of Fayetteville whites and Negroes of all ages work in the 
cotton and tobacco fields along the road. Occasionally in late summer, when 
immediate harvest is necessary to prevent cotton rotting on the stalks, girls 
and women incongruously dressed in beach pajamas or shorts work in the 

The Duncan Shaw House, 92.5 m., built in i860, is a plantation dwelling 
with a two-story front porch supported by columns made to simulate stone. 
Beams and clapboards are pegged together. 

358 TOURS 

LAKE RIM, 93 m., has a 240-acre STATE FISH HATCHERY and 
GAME FARM, established in 1924. The hatchery propagates large-mouthed 
black bass, blue bream, and crappie; the game farm, quail, pheasants, and 
wild turkeys. Demonstration and experimental areas are planted with Asiatic 
chestnuts, pines, and black locusts. 

RAEFORD, 105 m. (262 alt., 1,303 pop.), seat of Hoke County, is a 
cotton-manufacturing town. 

At Raeford is the junction with paved State 211. 

1. Left from Raeford on State 211 to the Antioch Presbyterian Church (L), at a 
bend in the road, 6.9 m. This weatherboarded building painted white is six bays 
long. Above the entrance doors are four rectangular windows, with a quatrefoil opening 
in the gable. Galleries run around three sides of the interior. The church was built 
about 1883 near the site of an older building whose pews were used by Union soldiers 
to build a bridge over Raft Swamp River. In the church cemetery are the graves of 
early Scottish settlers including that of the Rev. John Mclntyre (1750-1852), who came 
to America in 1791, was ordained in 1809, and preached in both English and Gaelic 
at several churches in this area. He was one of the organizers of the Fayetteville 
Presbytery in 1813 and the Synod of North Carolina at Alamance Church the same year. 
Local legend says he preached a sermon on his 100th birthday. 

Right from Antioch Church 2 m. on a sand-clay road to a granite marker, indicating 
the Site of the Battle of McFall Mill or Raft Swamp, Sept. 1, 1781. Less than 
100 Whig patriots under Colonel Wade met a much larger number of Tories under 
Colonels Ray, McDougal, David Fanning, and "Sailor" Hector McNeill. The Con- 
tinentals were defeated and pursued by Fanning, who killed 19 Whigs and captured 
54 prisoners. The Tory loss was negligible. 

On Oct. 15, 1 78 1, McNeill, encamped on the edge of the swamp, heard that Ruther- 
ford was resting at McFall Mill, and proceeded to take up the causeway. When Whig 
dragoons under Major Graham launched a surprise attack the Tories fled, their horses 
floundering through the water; many were overtaken and killed. This marked the end 
of armed Tory opposition in this section. 

At RED SPRINGS, 12 m. (204 alt., 1,300 pop.), is a medicinal spring whose sulphur 
water is colored by a red pigment. Chief industrial plants are silk, rayon, and lumber 
mills. The population is composed of three racial groups, exemplified by separate doors 
at the local theater: for whites, for Robeson County Indians, and for Negroes. 

The town is built on land granted to "Sailor" Hector McNeill in 1775; a large 
portion of it is still owned by his descendants. By 1850 this was a recognizable community 
known as Dora, the general assembly authorizing the change of name to Red Springs 
in 1885. 

Flora Macdonald College, a Presbyterian school for girls, started as Floral College 
(see tour jia). In 1914 the name was changed to honor Flora Macdonald, the Scottish- 
American heroine who helped Bonnie Prince Charlie escape during the last Stuart 
uprising in Scotland (see fayetteville). Although some historians maintain that 
none of Flora's children were buried in America, memorial services were held Apr. 28, 
1937, for two children supposedly hers, whose remains were moved from an isolated 
spot in Montgomery County to the college campus. The college owns a collection of 
paintings, mostly modern American. 

Flora Macdonald College confers A.B. and B.S. degrees. Seven modern brick buildings 
occupy a gardened campus, shaded by longleaf pines, particularly lovely when the 
azaleas bloom in April. 

2. Right from Raeford on State 211 is TIMBERLAND, 4 m., (50 pop.), an agricultural 
village and winter resort. SANATORIUM, 10 m. (57 pop.), is a small village in which 
is the North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis, established 
in 1907 and maintained by the State since 1909. A tablet at the entrance to the main 
building honors the founder and first superintendent, Dr. James E. Brooks. The modern 

tour 9 359 

$3,000,000 plant accommodates 550 resident patients. There is a separate Negro division. 
The institution issues a monthly paper, the Sanatorium Sun. 

Across a ravine about 200 yards at 108.6 m. is Bethel Presbyterian 
Church, a weatherboarded, white-painted building erected in 1855. The 
porch gable is supported by four slender columns and an octagonal domed 
cupola surmounts the center of the roof. The church society was organized 
about 1780. In the church Bible are entries reputedly indited by General 
Sherman but probably written by some wag in the Federal Army: 

"Mr. McNeill will please preach a sermon on the illusions of pleasure and 

"Mr. McNeill will please prove the absurdity of the Universalist doctrine. 

"Mr. McNeill will please preach a sermon from the First Epistle of John, 
4 Chapter. 

"Mr. McNeill will please pray for Old Abe. 

"By order of W. T. Sherman, Major Genl. Comd. U. S. Forces." 

WAGRAM, 115 m. (309 pop.), on the edge of the Sandhills, is a shipping 
point for peaches. 

Right from Wagram on a graveled road to the Site of the Old Spring Hill Baptist 
Church, 0.8 m. In the church cemetery is the Grave of John Charles McNeill (1874- 
1907), author of Songs Merry and Sad, and Lyrics from Cotton Land. 

Near the cemetery is the small brick Hexagon House, in the 1860's a meeting place 
of the Richmond County Temperance and Literary Society. The hexagonal building has 
a window on each side and a door facing the road. On the hip roof is a wooden 
goblet, turned upside down. 

At 121.5 m. is the junction with the dirt Wire Rd., so named when a 
telegraph line was run beside the road; it was part of the ante-bellum stage 
route between Cheraw, S. C, and Fayetteville. 

Right on this road to the Laurel Hill Church (R) 2.6 m., a weatherboarded build- 
ing with an octagonal cupola and two doors in the front gable end. One of General 
Sherman's buglers carved his name in the belfry in 1865. 

In the graveyard is buried Duncan McFarland, Congressman (1805-7) and wealthy 
landowner. Tradition relates that he once rode horseback all the way to Washington, 
but slaves had to cut a bridle path to the road before he could set out on his journey. 

LAURINBURG, 125 m. (227 alt., 3,312 pop.), seat of Scotland County, 
was founded in the 1870's. The county was formed from Richmond County 
in 1899 an d named for the homeland of its first settlers. 

The Scotland County Courthouse (1901-2), Church St., is a square 
building with a Corinthian portico. In the yard is the William Graham 
Quakenbush Monument, an obelisk on a granite base. Quakenbush was 
principal of the Laurinburg High School (1879-1900). The Confederate 
Monument is a 30-foot column supporting the figure of a soldier. 

At McDougald's Funeral Home, half a block south of the courthouse, 
hangs the Mummy of Ferrenzo Concepio, an itinerant Italian musician 
who was murdered with a tent stake at Laurinburg in 1909. The undertaker 
embalmed the body but has waited in vain for relatives or friends to claim it. 

The privately owned Laurinburg Industrial Institute, occupying sev- 

360 TOURS 

eral brick buildings, offers its 800 Negro students academic and vocational 

Laurinburg is at the junction with US 74 (see tour 31a), and US 15, now 
the route. 

At 126 m. is the southern junction with paved US 501. 

Left on US 501 to Stewartsville Cemetery, 3 m., an old Scotch burying ground. 
Many of the monuments are ornamented with thistles. 

Buried here is the Rev. Colin Lindsay, born in Scotland, according to the story, 
several years after the supposed death of his mother. After Mrs. Lindsay had apparently 
died, she was interred in the family vault. Roused by grave robbers seeking valuables, 
she lived to regain her full health and some years later to become the mother of Colin. 
He came to America in 1792, and shortly afterward settled in this region. 

At 132 m. US 15 crosses the South Carolina Line, 10 miles north of 
Bennettsville, S. C. (see s. c. tour 3). 


(South Boston, Va.) — Roxboro — Durham — Junction with US i; US 501. 
Virginia Line — Junction with US 1, 85 m. 

Norfolk & Western Ry. parallels the route between the Virginia Line and Durham. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Hotels in cities and towns; tourist homes and camps along the route. 

Between the Virginia Line and Durham US 501 crosses generally level 
terrain; between Durham and Pittsboro the country is broken by ridges 
and ravines utilized for woodland and pasture. Bordering the highway are 
fields of tobacco and corn interspersed with pine and oak forests. 

US 501 crosses the Virginia-North Carolina Line, m., 14 miles south 
of South Boston, Va. {see va. tour //). 

ROXBORO, 13 m. (671 alt., 3,657 pop.), a cotton-manufacturing and 
tobacco-marketing center, is named for Roxburgh in Scotland; it is the seat 
of Person County, formed in 1791 and named for Revolutionary Gen. 
Thomas Person {see tour 24a and chapel hill). This region is an exten- 
sion of the Virginia Blue Wing copper district, containing novaculite, a 
quartz used for whetstones; silver, and in the western part, granite valuable 
for building. 

Manufactured products include toweling, upholstery and drapery fabrics. 
One cotton mill has a yearly output of 60 million pounds of yarn. 

The town was founded when the temporary seat of Person County was 
moved here from Payne's Tavern and a courthouse was erected between 
two springs. John R. Green, a Roxboro native, originated Bull Durham 
tobacco {see Durham). William W. Kitchin, Governor of North Caro- 
lina (1909-13), was a native of Person County. 

The white stone, box-shaped Person County Courthouse was built in 
1930. On the lawn is a square granite block inscribed with the names of the 
county's Confederate soldiers, and honoring Capt. E. Fletcher Satterfield 
(1837-63), killed at Gettysburg. 

Roxboro is at the junction with US 158 {see tour 24a). 

South from Roxboro on the sand-clay Hurdles Mill Rd., which was the Colonial rou'e 
between Virginia and Hillsboro, to the Site of Payne's Tavern, 4 m. Local tradition 
asserts that this was the birthplace of Dolly Payne Madison, wife of President James 
Madison, though records of New Garden Meetinghouse {see tour 25) fix her birthplace 
there. A farmhouse occupies the tavern site, but there are traces of a brick wall that once 
surrounded the tavern. At this inn — referred to as Payne's "onery," presumably a cor- 
ruption of "ordinary" — Cornwallis passed a night in 1781. After the death in Phila- 


362 TOURS 

delphia in 1793 of her first husband, John Todd, and one of her two children, Dolly 
is said to have returned here with her small son while James Madison visited at the 
Taylor home near the tavern. 

At 27 m. US 501 passes (L) the edge of Rougemont (275 pop.), whose 
name (Fr., red mountain) was suggested by the color of the soil on nearby 
Riggs Mountain. 

Quail Roost Farm (open), 29 m. (R), is a model 1,500-acre dairy farm 
stocked with purebred Guernseys. 

At 30 m., beside the junction with a paved road, is a Memorial Tablet 
to Willie (Wiley) Person Mangum, president of the U.S. Senate (1842-45). 

Left on this road to 4-mile-long LAKE MICHIE, 3 m., Durham reservoir. Shrubs, 
holly trees, and wild flowers line the shore. This territory, in which many Indian relics 
have been found, was the home of the Occoneechee, Eno, and Adshusheer Indians 
until about 1750. At 7 m. on the paved road is the junction with a narrow, unimproved 
road (impassable in wet weather); L. 4 m. on this road to the Grave of Willie P. 
Mangum, marked by a simple, crumbling headstone. 

An arrowhead (R) 35 m., bearing a bronze tablet, points out part of the 
Indian Trading Path. A natural outcropping of rock nearby is shaped like 
a horseshoe. Here, tradition says, an Indian chief came frequently to invoke 
the assistance of the war god for his tribe. 

At 39 m. is the junction with a marked unpaved road. 

Right on this road to the Duke Homestead (open 3-5 p.m. Sun.), 1 m., a small 
white clapboarded dwelling built in 1851 by Washington Duke, founder of the Duke 
tobacco family (see Durham). The walls and floors are of hand-hewn pine. The 
house has been restored, and the original furniture, with supplementary pieces also used 
in the 1860's, has been placed in the rooms. 

At BRAGGTOWN, 40 m., is the junction with a paved road. 

Left on this road to Fairntosh Plantation (grounds and out-buildings open), 7 m. 
The square, green-shuttered manor house, of white clapboards and fronted by a broad 
porch, was built in 1802 by Duncan Cameron, who defended North Carolina landowners 
when the heirs of Lord Granville sued for recovery of property confiscated by the State 
at the outbreak of the Revolution. The house contains much of the original furniture. 
In the carriage house is the Cameron carriage and nearby are the old red brick kitchen, 
the white-painted law office of the master, a row of slave cabins, and a schoolhouse. 
A gray frame chapel containing a hand-made walnut altar and pews is lighted by a 
cluster of stained-glass windows. 

DURHAM, 43 m. (405 alt., 52,037 pop.) (see Durham). 

Points of Interest: Durham Hosiery Co. Plant, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. Plant, 
Erwin Cotton Mills, American Tobacco Co. Plant, Duke University, and others. 

Durham is at the junction with US 15 (see tour 8) and US 70 (see tours 
25 and 28). 

Between 50 m. and 54 m. US 501 traverses a shallow valley called the 
Triassic Sea by geologists. 

TOUR 10 363 

At 52 m. is the junction with the Mount Moriah Church Rd. 

Right on this road 300 yds. to the Fossil Forest, fields from which petrified wood has 
been unearthed. 

CHAPEL HILL, 55 m. (501 alt. 2,699 P°P-) ( see chapel hill). 

Points of Interest: Old East, University Library, Kenan Stadium, Playmakers Theater, 
Coker Arboretum, Widow Puckett House, Gimghoul Castle, and others. 

Left from Chapel Hill on paved State 54 to the junction with paved State 55, 6 m. ; 
R. 4 m. on State 55 to the O'Kelly Church, a two-story white clapboarded structure 
with a small steeple. Here a monument marks the grave of James O'Kelly (1757-1826), 
founder of the O'Kellite sect. O'Kelly objected to the episcopal powers of Bishops 
Coke and Asbury and, in 1792, followed by a group of dissenting ministers, broke away 
from the Methodist Episcopal Church. This schism was first known as the Republican 
Methodist but the name was later changed to the Christian Church, and in 1932 merged 
to become the Congregationalist-Christian Church. 

PITTSBORO, 72 m. (409 alt., 675 pop.), seat of Chatham County, is the 
market town for an agricultural region and has a plant that manufactures 
silk garment labels. The county was named for the Earl of Chatham and 
the town for his son, William Pitt, champion of Colonial rights in the 
British Parliament. The town was setded in 1771 by planters of the Cape 
Fear region, attracted by its pleasant summer climate. 

Chatham County Courthouse (1882), is a three-story square structure 
with a raised basement, a pedimented portico, and red-painted brick walls 
having stuccoed white columns and pilasters. The building is topped with 
a tower and octagonal, domed belfry. It occupies a central square from 
which branch Pittsboro's old streets. On July 16, 1781, when Pittsboro was 
still called Chatham Courthouse, David Fanning with a party of Tories 
raided the town while a court martial was in progress, capturing 44 persons. 
Fanning terrorized a wide area (see tours ii, zj, 26b, and 32). Cornwallis 
spent the night at Chatham Courthouse in the course of his march to 
Wilmington after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. 

The Yellow House (private), on the south side of the square, was moved 
from the west side. The right end of the house, which has weathered clap- 
boards and sagging sills, survives from the house built by Patrick St. Law- 
rence, early town commissioner and trustee of Pittsborough Academy, which 
was so luxurious that it bankrupted both St. Lawrence and his contractor. 
A device for fastening folding doors to the ceiling allowed the entire lower 
floor to be thrown into a ballroom. 

The Waddell House (private), Hillsboro St., a two-story yellow frame 
house with red blinds and red brick end chimneys, was the birthplace of 
Capt. James Iredell Waddell (1824-86), commander of the Confederate 
cruiser, Shenandoah, which carried the only Confederate flag that ever went 
around the world. After the collapse of the Confederacy, Waddell, then in 
the Pacific, sailed around Cape Horn to England where he remained until 
the members of his crew were granted amnesty. 

St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church (1833), Salisbury St., is a small 
rectangular building, its entrance marked by a low square tower and steeple 

364 TOURS 

on the right of the facade. A veneer of red brick was applied (1938) over 
the original clapboard construction. The congregation was organized in 
Revolutionary days. Within the building, finished in stained pine, are a 
slave gallery and furnishings carved from native walnut by one of the rectors, 
the Rev. R. B. Sutton. The communion service was made of family silver 
given by communicants. In the old graveyard is the Crypt of John Owen, 
Governor of North Carolina (1828-30). 

The Pittsborough Scientific Academy Building {private), a gabled 
white frame structure of one room, is now incorporated into a residence. 
Erected in 1886, it once housed the academy, established by legislative act 
in 1787. William Bingham was its first principal and among its pupils were 
John Owen and Charles Manly, Governor of North Carolina (1849-51). 

The village of LOCKVILLE, 85 m., is at the junction with US 1 (see 
tour yb). 


(Danville, Va.) — Yanceyville — Hillsboro — Chapel Hill; State 14. 
Virginia Line — Chapel Hill, 57 m. 

Southern Ry. intersects the route at Hillsboro. 

Roadbed paved throughout. 

Hotels and boarding houses in towns. 

This route traverses an agricultural region of low, rounded hills, the "up- 
country" to which the early planters of Tidewater Carolina took their house- 
holds in summer. The section is rich in history and legends of Colonial, 
Revolutionary, and ante-bellum days. 

State 14, a continuation of Va. 86, crosses the North Carolina Line in 
DOWDY TOWN, m., 3 miles south of Danville, Va. (see va. tour 4). 
South of this point the road widens and runs through a wooded countryside 
dominated by pine, oak, walnut, sycamore, and poplar. The bottom lands 
are planted with tobacco, cotton, and corn. 

Bright-leaf tobacco was developed on the Slade brothers farm on Rattle- 
snake Branch near PURLEY, 10 m. (600 alt., 75 pop.). Here a piece of 
gray sandy loam unsuited to other crops was planted with tobacco. It pro- 
duced a leaf lighter in color, sweeter, and finer in texture, which 
proved highly suitable for smoking mixtures, cigarettes, and plug-tobacco 

Bright-leaf culture spread from this section, known as the Old Bright 
Belt, to other counties having the same type of soil. Barns used for curing 
are usually built of hand-hewn logs chinked with red clay, and roofed with 
hand-riven shingles. Fireboxes, fed from the outside of the building, have 
metal flues that extend to the far side of the barn and back to an exit above 
the firebox. 

During the four days required for curing a barn full of tobacco an 
attendant must keep up the fires and guard against accidents. Sometimes, 
the process becomes a social occasion to which neighbors are invited. In 
late summer they feast on watermelons and roasted corn; when nights grow 
colder a hot stew or other food is served and young and old gather around 
the fire to sing familiar hymns and ballads. 

At 10 m. is the northern junction with US 158 (see tour 24b). 

In YANCEYVILLE, 12 m. (619 alt., 500 pop.), seat of Caswell County, 
people arise early, and open their stores on the courthouse square before 
breakfast, but close them for midday dinner. Ample time remains for dis- 


366 TOURS 

cussing the news under the trees in front of the brick courthouse, which was 
erected soon after Person County was cut off from Caswell in 1791. 

Until 1 8 10 the community was known as Caswell County Courthouse, for 
Richard Caswell, first constitutional Governor (see tours 2 and 28). When 
incorporated the town was named for Bartlett Yancey (1785-1828), a na- 
tive of Caswell County who served four years in Congress. He was gradu- 
ated from the University of North Carolina despite his mother's protests 
that she "had never known a young man to enter that institution who was 
ever of any account afterwards." Except when an uncle lent him a horse, 
he walked the 40 miles to Chapel Hill. Later he studied law under Judge 
Archibald Murphey, and helped create the educational fund that was the 
beginning of the public school system of the State. 

For half a century Yanceyville was an important town but it was handi- 
capped by lack of transportation facilities. Laurence Stallings, co-author of 
What Price Glory? once lived here. 

Caswell County, like Alamance and Orange with a population pre- 
dominantly Negro, was visited by carpetbaggers and was the scene of con- 
siderable Ku Klux Klan activity during the Reconstruction period. The 
slaying of carpetbagger John W. Stephens at Yanceyville in 1870 by mem- 
bers of the Klan resulted in a reign of terror and finally in the impeachment 
of Gov. William Holden (see history). When Capt. John G. Lea (see tour 
24b), former Klan leader, died in 1935, he left a sworn statement relating 
that "Chicken" Stephens was tried in absentia by a Klansmen's jury and 
sentenced to die for the burning of buildings and the destruction of crops. 
Lured to a purported conference in the courthouse, Stephens was disarmed 
and stabbed to death. 

Martial law followed; Colonel Kirk and his regiment of Tennesseans took 
charge. Prominent men, including Colonel Lea, were arrested. However, 
it was never proved who killed Stephens nor even that there was a Klan 
in Caswell until Colonel Lea's death. The Negroes, frightened by the 
mysterious and unpunished slaying, ceased their political activity. Klan 
records show that besides the Stephens case, in Caswell County two 
white men and six Negroes were whipped, a Negro wounded, and another 

At 13 m. is the junction with paved State 62. 

Left on State 62 is MILTON, 12 m. (314 pop.), founded in 1728 and long noted 
for its horse races. It was the social and trade center of this tobacco- and corn-growing 
section when tobacco was brought by flatboats up the Dan River. Early citizens refused 
for a time to let a railroad run through the town lest the noise demoralize the slaves 
and frighten the horses. Many of the public records were destroyed during the Revolution 
when Cornwallis and his troops were pursuing General Greene. A few ante-bellum houses 
remain on the elm-shaded streets. 

An Apothecary Shop is identified by glass jars of colored liquids in the window. A 
"sody water" fountain installed in the 1890's has never been popular. Hitching posts 
remain from horse and buggy days and benches still line the street in front of stores. 

In the Presbyterian Church are pews which, according to tradition, were made 
and presented by Tom Day, a freed mulatto, who made furniture still prized in the 
Carolinas and Virginia. 

TOUR II 367 

PROSPECT HILL, 29 m. (714 alt., 100 pop.), a farming village, was 
settled shortly after the Revolutionary War. 

Left from Prospect Hill on unpaved State 144 to Bushy Fork Crossroads, 7 m.; R. 
2 m. on an unpaved road to the junction with a dirt road at a white house; R. 1.5 m., 
on the dirt road to Union Grove. Baptist Church, built by Negroes in 1893. Three 
stone gateways each have granite tablets inscribed with names of four families of the 
congregation symbolical of the 12 tribes of Israel. The church bell, mounted on a little 
hill, can be heard for 10 miles. In a clear spring are white pebbles each placed by a 
church member. The leader of a church-owned flock of chickens, a pet rooster named 
for the Apostle Paul, lies buried beneath a marker inscribed: "PAUL, Killed Nov. 10, 
1933, Aged 10 years." 

At 40 m. is the junction with the sand-clay Caldwell Rd. 

Left on this road to the junction with a side road, 1 m. (opposite a two-story frame 
dwelling); R. 1.5 m, on this road to Tyaquin, site of the home of Thomas Burke 
(1747-83), Governor of North Carolina (1781-82). He named the estate for his family's 
seat in Ireland, though he had emigrated to America because of a family quarrel. Here 
Burke retired at the expiration of his term as Governor. His grave, in a grove on the 
plantation, is marked by a heap of stones. 

At 41 m. is the junction with a lane. 

Left on the lane a short distance to the Kirkland Place, also called Ayrmount 
{private), on land granted to William Few in 1763. The two-story building of brick 
laid in Flemish bond is three bays wide, with flanking one-story, two-bay wings. The 
end chimneys are flush with the wall. William Few, father of William Few, Jr., the 
autobiographer, and of James Few, the Regulator, operated a tavern here and ran 
a mill on the Eno River. James Few was hanged from a tree on the battlefield 
immediately after the Alamance engagement {see tour 25). 

HILLSBORO, 42 m. (543 alt., 1,232 pop.), seat of Orange County, is in 
the fertile valley of the Eno River, just east of the low-lying Occoneechee 
Mountains. The Haw, Eno, and Occoneechee Indians lived here and left 
many relics and legends (see tour 25). The factories in this little industrial 
village contrast with weathered old houses and massive trees. 

Hillsboro's manufactures include cedar chests, oil, flour, timber products, 
cotton, and rayon. Nearby deposits of granite, sandstone, and other minerals 
are a commercial asset. Much of the stone used in the Duke University build- 
ings {see Durham) was quarried 2 miles to the north. 

Almost the entire white population is descended from the Scotch-Irish, 
Welsh, English, and Germans who took up land in the Earl of Granville's 
territory. When the town was platted in 1754 by William Churton, Gran- 
ville's surveyor, it was called Orange as was the county. Later it was named 
Corbinton for Francis Corbin {see edenton), but in 1759 it was incorporated 
as Childsboro for the attorney general. In 1766 Governor Try on named it 
Hillsborough in honor of the Earl of Hillsborough, kinsman of Lady Tryon 
and Secretary of State for the Colonies. Planters from the low country, 
including Governors Tryon and Martin, seeking refuge from the heat 
and mosquitoes, brought their families to Hillsboro, making it a gay summer 

As the court town and county seat it became the center of Regulator dis- 
turbances {see tour 25). On Sept. 24, 1768, Regulators took possession of 
the town, and for two days conducted mock courts. They plundered and 

368 TOURS 

burned the homes of officials, many of whom fled. After their defeat May 16, 
1771, at the Battle of Alamance (see tour 25), six of their leaders were 
hanged here. 

The Provincial Congress met at Hillsboro August 1775, as did the general 
assemblies in 1778, 1780, 1783, and 1784. During the Revolution the town 
served as a concentration point. Before the Battle of Guilford Courthouse 
(see tour 73) Cornwallis occupied the town (Feb. 20-25, I 7^ 1 ) anQl invited 
all loyalists to join him. He paved the muddy main streets with great cobble- 
stones, part of which remained until 1909. 

On Sept. 13, 1781, Hillsboro was raided by a Tory band under Col. David 
Fanning and Col. Hector McNeill, who seized Governor Burke and his 
suite and took them to Wilmington. Burke was transferred to Charleston 
as a prisoner and closely confined on Sullivans Island. He was paroled to 
James Island, where he lived in constant danger of his life. After his appeal 
for protection was ignored, he escaped, fled to North Carolina, and resumed 
his official duties. 

Here in the 1788 convention anti-Federalists, led by Willie Jones (see 
tour 3), prevailed against the Johnston-Iredell-Davie followers to reject 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, delaying North Carolina's entry into 
the Union until November 1789 (see fayetteville). 

Brig. Gen. Francis Nash (1742-77), brilliant young Hillsboro officer, left 
his name to a North Carolina county and town (see tour 6), and to the 
capital of the State of Tennessee. A star in a pavement at Germantown 
marks the spot where he fell. Other noted residents were: Willie P. Mangum 
(1793-1861), Whig political leader, Congressman (1823-25), and U.S. Sena- 
tor (1830-35, 1840-52); Dr. Edmund C. F. Strudwick (1802-79), nrst presi- 
dent of the State medical society, and J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton (1878- 
), whose writings include Reconstruction in North Carolina, North 
Carolina Since i860, and numerous historical monographs. 

Orange County Courthouse, SE. corner King and Churton Sts., two 
stories in height and constructed of hand-pressed red brick, was built in 
1845 by Capt. John Berry. At the center of the low-pitched roof is a low 
square tower and octagonal cupola. The temple-like Doric portico is of Greek 
Revival design. The first of the building's predecessors burned in 1790; 
the second was razed and its timbers used to build the colored Methodist 
church, still standing. Records date from 1755. The cupola clock was made 
in Birmingham, England, in 1766 and presented to the town supposedly by 
George III about 1769. It once reposed in the tower of St. Matthew's Church 
and for a time in the old market house. Its original bell was lost, the story 
goes, when the clock was thrown into the river by raiding Tories and the 
bell was perhaps used to make cannon. A chest in the sheriff's office con- 
tains old measuring cups and the standards of weights sent from London. 

Eagle Lodge (private), Churton St., a severe two-story brick building, 
three bays long, fronted by a four-columned, pedimented Ionic portico, is a 
good example of Greek Revival design. It was erected (1823-25) with pro- 
ceeds from a lottery conducted by the lodge. The building stands on the 
Site of the Residence of Edmund Fanning — the house was destroyed by 

TOUR II 369 

the Regulators. In ballads sung by the Regulators, Fanning, register of deeds