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Library of the 
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UNIVERSITY OF N.C AT CHAPEL HILL 



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This BOOK may be kept out TWO WEl-.KS 
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FFVE 
CENTS a day thereafter. It was taken out on 
the day indicated below: 







Lib. IOM-Ap'34 




NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL 



ISSUED BY THE 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION 



FOR THE USE OF 



Members of the General Assembly 



SESSION 1917 



COMPILED AND EDITED 

BY 

R. D. W. CONNOR 

SECRETARY NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL 
COMMISSION 



RALEIGH 

EDWARDS a BROUGHTON PRINTING COMPANY 

STATE PRINTERS 

1917 



Calendar 


1917 


JANUARY 


APRIL 


JULY 


OCTOBER 


rImIt wt f s 


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mIt w t 


1 
F P 


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29 30 


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FEBRUARY 


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AUGUST 

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NOVEMBER 


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26 27 

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28 29 


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JUNE 


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PTEMBER 


DECEMBER 


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PREFACE. 



This volume is issued by the North Carolina Historical Commission 
in order to furnish to the members of the General Assembly of 1917, 
in convenient form, information about the State which otherwise 
would require much investigation in many different sources. It is 
also hoped that it may prove of value and service to others who 
desire to have in succinct form such data about North Carolina. 
Similar Manuals, issued in 1903, 1905, and 1907 "by the Secretary of 
State, and in 1909, 1911, 1913, and 1915 by the North Carolina Histor- 
ical Commission, have proven of very general utility and interest. 
Requests for copies have come not only from all over North Carolina, 
but from most of the States of the Union, and the demand for them 
has been so great that all of these editions except those for 1909 
and 1913 have long been exhausted, and it is now extremely difficult 
to secure a copy. 

The Historical Commission trusts that the members of the General 
Assembly of 1917 will find this volume of service to them in their 
work. 



in 
r 



>OI{TH ( AR(>LI> A MISTOKICAL COMMISSIO. 

J. Bryax Grimes, Chairman, Raleigh. 

W. J. Pf.ele * Raleigh 

M. C. S. NoiiLE Chapel Hill 

Tiio:\r AS M. Pittman , Henderson 

D. H. Him Raleigh 

R. D. W. CoxNOB, Secretary, Raleigh. 
W. S. Wilson, Legislative Reference Librarian, Raleigh. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Official Register for 1917 9 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT: 

Officers and Members of the Senate 17 

Ru^es of the Senate 20 

Standing Committees of the Senate 29 

Officers and Members of the House of Representatives 33 

Rules of tliB House of Representatives 36 

Standing Committees of the House of Representatives 46 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS: 

Department of the Governor 55 

Department of the Secretary of State 57 

Treasury Department 59 

Auditor's Department 61 

Department of Education 62 

Department of Justice 68 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT: 

Court of Impeachment 73 

The Supreme Court 74 

• Superior Courts 75 

Other Courts 75 

The Corporation Commission 76 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, COMMISSIONS: 

Department of Agriculture 83 

Department of Labor and Printing 95 

Department of Insurance 97 

North Carolina Historical Commission 103 

Legislative Reference Library 105 

State Library of North Carolina 107 

Library Commission of North Carolina 109 

State Board of Health Ill 

Board of Public Charities 117 

North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 120 

State Highway Commission 136 

Board of Internal Improvements 137 

North Carolina National Guard 140 

State Prison 142 



G Contents. 

STATK KnrCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: I''\<"'E 

VniviTKity of Nortli Caroliiin 147 

North riirolina A. and M. College •• • ■ 149 

North Ciiroliiin Stato Normal and Industrial College 152 

I'lillowhoo Normal and Indvistrial School 155 

Ai>i>alai-lii.'ui Traiiiinj,' School 156 

Kast Carolina Teachers Training School 157 

State School for (White) Blind and for (Colored) Blind and Deaf 158 

State School for the (White) Deaf 162 

Stonewall Jackson Training Scliool 164 

State Normal Schools for the Colored and Indian Races 165 

State A. and T. College for the Colored Race 168 

Caswell Training School 1''" 

STATK CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: 

Central Hospital for the Insane 177 

Western Hospital for the Insane 178 

Kastern Hospital for the (Colored) Insane 179 

North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 180 

Oxford Orphan Asylum 181 

The Soldiers' Home 183 

The Confederate Woman's Home 185 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

The North Carolina Railroad Company 189 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company 193 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society 195 

State Capitol 198 

State Administration Building 203 

North Carolina Day 205 

Legal Holidays 206- 

The State Flag 208 

The Great Seal 210 

State Motto and Its Origin 215 

PLATFOR^LS OF POLITICAL PARTIES. 1916: 

National Democratic Platform 221 

National Republican Platform 233 

National Socialist Platform '. 240 

National Prohibition Platform 249 

State Democratic Platform 256 

State Republican Platform 262 

State Socialist Platform 266 

LLEOTION RETURNS FOR 1916: 

Vote for President 272 

Vote for Governor and Other State Officers 278 

Vote for Congressmen 289 

Vote on Constitutional Amendments 294 



Contents. 7 

PAGE 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 297 

CONSTITUTIONS: 

Constitution of the United States 305 

Constitution of North Carolina • 321 

Index to the Constitution of North Carolina 352 

CENSUS: 

Population, area, etc., of the United States and Territories, 1910 and 1917 362 

Population, area, etc., of North Carolina by Counties, 179p-l£a0^ 364 

Estimated population of North Carolina from 1675 to 1756 368 

Population of North Carolina towns and cities 369 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES: 

Executive officials 379 

Supreme Court Justices 385 

Senators and Representatives in Congress 388 

Senators and Representatives in the General Assembly 395 



OFFICIAL REGISTER FOR 1917. 



LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

O. Max Gardner President of the Senate . Cleveland. 

Walter Murphy Speaker of the House of Representatives Rowan. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Thomas W. Bickett Governor Franklin. 

J. Bryan Grimes Secretary of State Pitt. 

W. P. Wood State Auditor Randolph. 

Benjamin R. Lacy State Treasurer Wake. 

James Y. Joyner Superintendent of Public Instruction Guilford. 

James S. Manning Attorney-General Wake. 

OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES OF THE STATE DEPARTMENTS. 

DEPARTMENT OF THE GOVERNOR. 

Thomas W. Bickett Governor ..Franklin. 

Santpord Martin Private Secretary..- Forsyth. 

Miss Mamie C. Turner Executive Clerk Wake. 

Mrs. Hattie S. Gay Executive Secretary Wayne. 

COUNCIL OF STATE. 

Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE. 

J. Bryan Grimes Secretary of State Pitt. 

Frank W. Brown Grant Clerk .Pitt. 

J. E. Sawyer ..Corporation Clerk Wake. 

Miss Minnie Bagwell Stenographer _ Wake. 

department of the STATE AUDITOR. 

W. P. Wood Auditor. _. Randolph. 

E. H. Baker ....Chief Clerk Wake. 

Baxter Durham Tax Clerk Wake. 

Mrs. Fannie Smith Pension Clerk and Stenographer Wake. 

DEP.\RTMENT of the STATE TREASURER. 

Benj.\min R. Lacy Treasurer Wake. 

W. F. Moody ...Chief Clerk Mecklenburg. 

Homer Peele. Teller Martin. 

Henry R. Williamson Institution Clerk Sampson. 

Miss Eva Warters Stenographer Lenoir. 

department of education. 

James Y. Joyner Superintendent of Public Instruction Guilford. 

W. H. PiTTMAN Chief Clerk Edgecombe. 

A. S. Brower Clerk of Loan Fund Cabarrus. 

E. E. Sams vSupervisor of Teacher Training Madison. 

N. C. Newbold . Rural School .A.gent Beaufort. 

N. W. Walker State Inspector Public High Schools Orange. 

L. C. Brogdbn Rural School Agent Wayne. 

W. C. Crosby Secretary Community Service Bureau Mecklenburg. 

State Board of Education. — Governor, President; Sviperintendent of Public Instruction, 
Secretary; Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorney-General, 

Slate Board of Examiners. — Jambs Y. Joyner, Chairman e.r officio: W. H. Pittman. 
Secretary; H. E. Austin, N. W. Walker, J. H. Highsmith, L. N. Hickerson. 



10 OiTiciAL Register, 1917. 

ADJUTANT OENERAI.'S DEPARTMENT. 

LAt'KKNCK W. You.NO .\iljut ant Gciierul.... - Buncombe. 

Conn IN .^MiTii .\s.si.Ht;mt .\djutant General Wake. 

Miss IvniKi. Wynne Secretary ^ir j ■ r- 

LiKLT. (\>i.. IIenuy Paoe Inspector Instructor Med. uorps, 

U . b. A. 

l.iF.rx. Coh. Henuv J. Hunt.. Inspector Instructor - "^"1*a'^'t?«''a' 

Majou Ai.exandehGueiq, Jr.. Inspector Instructor ..O.A.O., U.b.A. 

Cai'T. Hk.unaud Sharp Inspector Instructor •. Inft., L;. b. A. 

riu.sT I.u-.UT. Creed F. Co.x .Inspector Instructor - Cav., V. b. A. 

dep.irtment of justice. 

JvMKS S. Manning ..\ttorney-General Wake. 

RonKRT II. Sykks - Assistant Attorney-General Durham 

Miss Lillian Turner Stenographer Wake. 

corporation commission. 

E L Trwis Chairman ..Halifax. 

W. T. Lee Commissioner ^.Haywood. 

Georoe P Pell .Commissioner Forsyth. 

A. .T. Maxwell ..Clerk ....Craven. 

Miss K. C;. Uiddick Assistant Clerk Gates. 

Sliss Meta .\d.vms Assistant Clerk Haywood. 

Rate Department. 

W. G. WoMBLE Rate Clerk Wake. 

Wiley G. Barnes Stenographer Wilson. 

Tax Department. 

J. S. GniFFiN ...Tax Clerk Guilford. 

O. S. Thompson. _ .\ssistant Clerk Wake. 

Miss Myrtle Gates Assistant Clerk Durham. 

Banking Department. 

S. A. Hubbard Bank Examiner Rockingham. 

J. G. Nichols Assistant Examiner Rutherford. 

H. L. Newbold Assistant Examiner ...Pasquotank. 

department of labor and printing. 

M. L. Shipman ..Commissioner...... Henderson. 

George B. Justice .Assistant Commissioner Mecklenburg. 

G. F. Hale Clerk and Stenographer Bertie. 

EM. 1'ZZFLL& Cc 1 

EinvARDS & Brovohton > State Printers ...Wake. 

Printing Company J 

OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

State Board oj Agriculture . 

W. A. Graham Commissioner, f.T officio Chairman ...Raleigh. 

F. P. L\THAM First District Belhaven. 

C. W. Mitchell Second District Aulander. 

R. L. WooDARD Third District .Pamlico. 

Clarence Poe Fourth District Raleigh. 

R. W. .Scott ..Fifth District Haw River. 

A. T. McCallum Sixth District.. Red Springs. 

C. C. Wright Seventh District Hunting Creek. 

Wm. Bledsoe ...Eighth District Gale. 

W. J. Shuford .Xinth District Hickory. 

A. Cannon Tenth, District. Horse Shoe. 



Official Register, 1917. 11 



OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Executive Office. 

W. A. Graham Commissioner. 

K. \V. Barnes Secretary and Purchasing Agent. 

Miss S. D. Jones Bookkeeper and Private Secretary. 

Miss M. H. McKimmon Stenographer. 

C. W. H. Creighton Night Watchman. 

Analytical Division. 

B. W. KiLGORB State Chemist. 

J. M. Pickel Feed Chemi.st. 

W. G. Haywood Fertilizer Chemist. 

J. Q. Jackson Assistant Chemist. 

E. S. Dewar___ Assistant Chemist. 

F. C. Wiggins Assistant Chemist. 

D. M. McCarty Assistant Chemist (Animal Industry). 

R. W. Collett Assistant Test Farm Director. 

Miss M. S. Birdsong Clerk and Stenographer. 

J. F. Hatch Clerk and Stenographer. 

W. F. Pate Agronomist in Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Soil Survey. 

J. K. Plummer Soil Chemist. 

W. E. Hearn* State Soil Agent — Soil Survey. 

F. N. McDowell Soil Survey. 

Museum. 

H. H. Brimley Curator. 

T. W. Adickes - Assistant. 

Miss Annie Lewis Usher. 

Veterinary Division. 

B. B. Flowe Veterinarian. 

H. P. Flowe Assistant. 

O. H. Graham Assistant. 

Miss M argaret Newsom Stenographer . 

Division of Animal Husbandry. 

Dan T. Gray* Chief of Animal Industry. 

Earl Hostetler Assistant. 

Alvin J. Reed* Dairy Field Work. 

F. R. Farnham Cheese Work. 

J. Stanley Combs -.Assistant. 

W. H. Eaton Dairy Experimentation. 

J. A. Arey* Assistant. 

A. L. Jordan* Beef Cattle Work. 

B. F. Kaupp* Poultry Work. 

L. I. Case Assistant. 

Miss Annie Duckett Stenographer. 

Miss Emma Young Clerk . 

Division of Entomology. 

Franklin Sherman Entomologist. 

R. W. Leiby_._ Assistant. 

S. C. Clapp Field Work. 

B. Szymoniak* Demonstrator in Fruit and Truck Crops. 

G. H. Rea Beekeeping. 

Division of Horticulture. 

W. N. Hutt_ Horticulturist. 

R. G. Hill Assistant. 

C. D. Matthews Assistant. 

Miss Elizabeth Griffin ..Stenographer. 

*In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. 



12 Ori"i( lAi, Rkgister, 1917. 

Food and Oil Division. 

\\. M. Ai.i.KN Pure Food and Oil Chemist. 

C". K. Hki.i. . Assistant. 

L. H. Hhoukh - Assistant. 

!■:. \V. TiioHNTON Assistant. 

Ckohoe I-itti.e - --- Oil Clerk. 

MiMM 8. G. A1.1.EN Stenographer 

Division Farmers' Institutes. 

T. H. Taukkh --- Director Institutes. 

Miw. Jank S. MckiMMON - Assistant Director Institutes. 

Botany and Agronomy. 

J. I.. lU'noKSS Botanist and Agronomist. 

C. li. \Vai.i>uoN---" - Assistant. 

M1H8 Mahv Knight .Assistant, Seed Laboratory. 

Mirts I.orisK HAnKMACHEii. .\ssistant, Bacteriological Laboratory. 

Cooperative Dem.onstration . 

C. R. Hudson' ...State Demonstration Agent. 

T. E. BuowNK* -In Charge Boys Corn Clubs. 

A. K. KobKHTSON* Assistant, Boys Corn Clubs. 

M188 LorisE Wriqht Stenographer. 

Girls Demon:;trntion Work. 

Mrs. Jane S. McKimmo.n,* In Charge Girls Demonstration Work 

and .\ssistant Director of Institutes. 

Miss MiN.viE Jamison*. Assistant in Home Demonstration Work. 

Miss (iHace Schaefker' Assistant in Home Demonstration Work. 

M188 Madel Howell Clerk and Stenographer. 

Miss Cakiue .Moses*.. _-. Stenographer. 

Drainage Work. 

H. M. Lv.NDE* .-Drainage Engineer. 

F. H. Baker -. ...Assistant. 

Division of Agronomy. 

C. B. Wu-i.iAMS*. Agronomist in Extension Work. 

H. D. Lambert Assistant. 

E. C. Blair .Assistant. 

Division of Cooperative Marketing. 
W. R. Camp* Chief Cooperative Marketing. 

E. E. Cv lbrf.th Assistant . 

Miss Lella R. Smith Stenographer. 

Office of In format ion . 

F. II. Jeter Agricultural Editor. 

D. G. Conn .- Bulletin Clerk. 

.\. O. .\li-ord. Mailing Clerk. 

Test Farms. 

3. II. Jefferie.s, Supcriiitendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, X. C. 

F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 

C. E. Clark, .Superintendent ICdgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 

S. F. Davidso.v, Superintendent Bvincombe Test Farm, Swannanoa, N. C. 

E. G. Moss, Superintendent Granville Test Farm, Oxford, N. C. 

insurance dep.vrtment. 

James R. Young Commissioner .Vance. 

W. J. Camero.v ..Actuary Wake. 

S. W. Wade. .Deputy .Carteret. 

\V. .\. Scott Deputy Guilford. 



'In cooperation witli the United States Department of .\griculture. 



Official Register, 1917. 13 

E. E. Gray, Jr Rate Expert Forsyth. 

Sherwood BrockwelL- Chief of Fire Prevention Wake. 

F. M. Jordan Fire Inspector Buncombe. 

N. E. Canady Electrical Inspector Wake. 

Miss Pattie Jordan Stenographer Wake. 

Miss Ida Montgomery Cashier and Stenographer Warren. 

S. F. Campbell Chief Clerk Harnett. 

Miss Eva B. Powell Stenographer Wake. 

HISTORICAL commission. 

J. Bryan Grimes Chairman Pitt. 

W. J. Peele Commissioner Wake. 

Thomas M. Pittman Commissioner Vance. 

M. C. S. Noble Commissioner Orange. 

D. H. Hill Commissioner Wake. 

R. D. W. Connor Secretary Wake. 

W. S. Wilson Legislative Reference Librarian Caswell. 

Miss Marjory Terrell Stenographer Wake. 

F. A. Olds Collector for the Hall of History Wake. 

Mrs. J. M. Winfree Restorer of Manuscripts _.. .Wake. 

Mrs. W. S. West ..File Clerk Wake. 

Miss Frances Wilson Stenographer Caswell. 

library commission. 

Louis R . Wilson Chairman Orange. 

Charles Lee Smith Commissioner..^ Wake. 

James Y. Joyner Commissioner Guilford. 

Miles O. Sherrill Commissioner Wake. 

C. C. Wright Commissioner Wilkes. 

Miss Minnie W. LEATHBRMAN.Secretary Wake. 

Miss Alice Rodgers Assistant Wake. 

Miss Etta Perry Stenographer ....Wake. 

board op public buildings and grounds. 

Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Attorney-General. 

public buildings. 

L. C. Cherry Superintendent Edgecombe. 

state library. 

Miles O. Sherrill : Librarian Wake. 

Miss Carrie Broughton Assistant Librarian Wake. 

Miss Myrtle King Assistant Librarian Wake. 

Trustees of the State Library. ^Governor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secretary 
of State. 

Purchasing Committee. — Miles O. Sherrill, W.E. Stone, Miss Minnie W. Le.atherman, 
Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

justices op the supreme court. 

Walter Clark Chief Justice Raleigh Wake. 

Platt D. Walker Associate Justice Charlotte Mecklenburg. 

George H. Brown Associate Justice Washington Beaufort. 

William A. Hoke Associate Justice Lincolnton lancoln. 

W. R. Allen... Associate Justice... .Goldsboro Wayne. 

opficials of the supreme court. 

J. L. Seawell Clerk Raleigh W.ake. 

R. H. Bradley Marshal and Librarian Raleigh Wake. 

Robert C. Strong Reporter. Raleigh Wake. 



14 Ol'I'IClAL JlEGISTIiR, 1917. 

JUDGES OF THIC SUPERIOR COURTS. 

W. M. HoND K.lonlon ..Chowan. 

CiKoiiOK W. CoN.NOU Wilson - \\il.son. 

John- II. Kkur W^irrenlon \\arren. 

F. .v. Damki.s CJoldsbori) - ---Wayne. 

II. W. WiiKiMtKi: Crecnvillc - -.-Pitt. 

Olivk.u II. .Vi.i.E.v Kin.ston -..Lenoir. 

AU.EKT I-. Cox R;iki«h - ^^''•''^Lr 

W P St\cv -WiliiiiiiKton - _. New Hanover. 

C C I.YON Klizabelhlowii - Bladen. 

W. .\. Dk.vi.v Oxfortl - Granville. 

II. p. I.AVE - ..Rcidsville..- Rockingham. 

Thomas .1. Shaw Greensboro .-Guilford. 

W. .). .\i.AMS Carthage -- ---- .---Moore. 

W. V. IIardino Charlotte - Meek enburg. 

B. F. LoNO - f>latcsville k'',^"*'\'- , 

J. L. Wkhb Shelbv-- - Cleveland. 

K. H. Ci.iNE Hickory Catawba. 

M. II. JrsTicE Rutherfordton - Rutherford. 

Frank Cartf.r .\sheville --- Buncombe. 

G. S. Fkhouson Waynesville Haywood. 

SOLICITOR?. 

J. C. n. F.HRiNOHAi^s Elizabeth City -- .Pasquotank. 

Richard G. .Vllshrook Tarboro _-.. Edgecombe. 

Oakland Majktte lackson...... Northampton. 

Wai-tku IX .SiLKR. -..Silcr City.. Chatham. 

Chaui.k.s J.. Abernethy Beaufort Carteret. 

H. K. .Sh.\w Kinston ---Lenoir. 

H. E. XoRuis Raleigh. Wake. 

H. L. Lyon - Whiteville Columbus. 

S. B. McLean .Maxton Robeson. 

S. M. Gattis -..Hillsboro Orange. 

S. P. Graves Mount Airy Surry. 

John C. Bower .-Lexington Davidson. 

W. E. Brock W'adesboro Anson. 

G. W". Wilson - Gastonia.... .Gaston. 

Haydk.n Clement Salisbury Rowan. 

R. L. HrFFMAX - Morganton Burke. 

Johnson J. Hayes North Wilkesboro W'llkesboro. 

Michael Schenck -..Hendersonville Henderson. 

J. E. Swain Asheville. ..Buncombe. 

G. L. Jones Franklin Macon. 

SALARIES OF THE STATE OFFICERS. 

Governor _ S6,590 

Secretary of State 3,500 

State Auditor 3,000 

State Treasurer 3, .500 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 3,000 

.Attorney General 3, 01)0 

Insurance Commissioner 3,. 500 

Corporation Commissioner. 3,500 

Commissioner of Agriculture 3,250 

Commissioner of Labor and Printing 3,000 

SAL.\RIES OF THE JUDGES. 

Justices of the Supreme Court S-1,250* 

Judges of the Superior Court (including S750 for traveling and other 

necessary expenses incident to rotation) 4,000 



•Each Supreme Court Justice has, in addition to his salary, an allowance of -5900 an- 
nually for a stenographer. 



PART I. 



THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 



1. Officers and Members of the Senate. 

2. Senatorial Districts. 

3. Rules of the Senate. 

4. Standing Committees of the Senate. 

5. Officers and Members of the House of 

Representatives. 

6. Rules of the House of Representatives. 

7. Standing Committees of the House of 

Representatives. 



SENATE. 



OFFICERS. 

O. Max Gabdner President Cleveland 

F. C. Harding President pro tern Pitt 

R. O. Self Principal Clerk Jackson 

W. G. Gaston Sergeant-at-arms Cleveland 

C. C. Broughton Reading Clerk Montgomery 



SENATORS, 1917. 

First District— "E,. R. Johnson (D.), Currituck; James S. McNider 
(D.), Hertford. 

Second Dts^Hci— Lindsay C. Warren (D.), Washington; W. S. 
Davenport (D.), Mackeys. 

Third District— W. H. S. Burgwyn (D.), Woodland. 

Fourth District — George A. Holderness (D.), Tarboro; W. L. Long 
(D.), Roanoke Rapids. 

Fifth District— F. C. Harding (D.), Greenville. 

Sixth District— T. T. Ross (D.), Nashville; W. M. Person (D.), 
Louisburg. 

Seventh District— F. Brock (D.), Trenton; W. D. Pollock (D.). 
Kinston. 

Eighth District— M. H. Allen (D.), Goldsboro. 

Ninth District— J. H. Burnett (D.), Burgaw. 

Tenth District— E. H. Cranmer (D.), Southport. 

Eleventh District— A. M. Kelly (D.), Bladenboro. 

Tivelfth District— FvanK Gough (D.), Lumberton. 

Thirteenth District— John A. Gates (D.), Fayetteville. 

Fourteenth District— J. A. McLeod (R.), Lillington; Ezra Parker 
(R.), Benson. 



18 LEGISLAIIM. DKrAIMAIKM'. 

Fifteenth Distrirt—3. W. Buiin (D.), Raleigh. 

Sixteenth District— R. S. McCoin (D.), Henderson. 

Seventeenth District — Dr. E. .]. Tucker (D), Roxboro. 

Eighteenth District— Benehan Cameron (D.), Stagville; J. Elmer 
Long (D.), Graham. 

Nineteenth District— J. R. Joyce (R.), Reidsville. 

Ticentietn District— A. M. Scales (D.), Greensboro. 

Tiventy-first District— W. N. Everett (D.), Rockingham; L. M. Blue 
(D.), Gibson. 

Twenty-second District — "J. D. Gregg (R.), Liberty. 

Ticenty-third District— R. E. Little (D.), Wadesboro; C. M. Thomp- 
son (D.), Lexington. 

Ticenty-fonrth District— Chase Brenizer (D.), Charlotte; John A. 
Earnhardt (D.), Pioneer Mills. 

Tiventy-fifth District— Stahle Linn (D.), Salisbury. 

Tiventy-sixth District— J. A. Gray, Jr. (D.), Winston-Salem. 

Tiventy-seventh District— J. W. Hall (R.), Danbury. 

Ticenty-eighth Districts. C. Williams (R.), Yadkinville. 

Twenty-ninth District— W. D. Turner (D.), Statesville. 

Thirtieth District — C. A. Jonas (R.), Lincolnton. 

Thirty-first District — Robert R. Ray (D.), McAdenville. 

Thirty-seconct District— G. C. Harrell (D.), Rutherfordton; J. Foy 
Justice (D.), Hendersonville. 

Thirty-third District— C. P. Matheson (D.), Taylorsville; J. L. Nel- 
son (D.), Lenoir. 

Thirty-fourth District — Eugene Transou (D.), Sparta. 

Thirty-fifth District— J. D. Braswell (R.), Bakersville. 

Thirty-sixth District— Thomas A. Jones (D.), Asheville. 

Thirty-seventh District— Kelly E. Bennett (D.), Bryson City. 

Thirty-eighth District— A. G. Deweese (R.), Murphy. 



SENATORIAL DISTRICTS. 

First District — Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, Gates, Pasquotank, 
Camden, and Hertford shall elect two Senators. 

Second District— Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, Beaufort, 
Hyde, and Pamlico shall elect two Senators. 

Third District — Northampton and Bertie shall elect one Senator. 



Senatorial Districts. 19 

Foiirth District — Halifax and Edgecombe shall elect two Senators. 

Fifth District — Pitt shall elect one Senator. 

Sixth District — Franklin, Nash, and Wilson shall elect two Sena- 
tors. 

Seventh District — Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, and 
Onslow shall elect two Senators. 

Eighth District — Wayne shall elect one Senator. 

Ninth District — Duplin and Pender shall elect one Senator. 

Tenth District — New Hanover and Brunswick shall elect one Sena- 
tor. 

Eleventh District — Bladen and Columbus shall elect one Senator. 

Twelfth District — Robeson shall elect one Senator. 

Thirteenth District — Cumberland and Hoke shall elect one Senator. 

Fourteenth District — Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and Sampson shall 
elect two Senators. 

Fifteenth District — Wake shall elect one Senator. 

Sixteenth District — Vance and Warren shall elect one Senator. 

Seventeenth District — Granville and Person shall elect one Senator. 

Eighteenth District — Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and Durham shall 
elect two Senators. 

Nineteenth District — Rockingham shall elect one Senator. 

Ttventieth District — Guilford shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-first District — Chatham, Moore, Richmond, and Scotland 
shall elect two Senators. 

Tiventy-second District — Montgomery and Randolph shall elect one 
Senator. 

Ticenty-third District — Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and Union shall 
elect two Senators. 

Twenty-fourth District — Cabarrus and Mecklenburg shall elect two 
Senators. 

Twenty-fifth District — Rowan shall elect one Senator. 

Tioenty-sixth District — Forsyth shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-seventh District — Stokes and Surry shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-eighth District — ^Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin shall elect one 
Senator. 

Ticenty-ninth District — Iredell shall elect one Senator. 

Thirtieth District — Catawba and Lincoln shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-first District — Gaston shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-second District — Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, and Ruther- 
ford shall elect two Senators. 



20 Legislative Department. 

Thirty-third District — Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, and McDowell 
shall elect two Senators. 

Thirty-fourth District — Alleghany, Ashe, and Watauga shall elect 
one Senator. 

Thirty-fifth District — Avery, Madison, Mitchell, and Yancey shall 
elect one Senator. 

Thirty-sixth District — Buncombe shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-seventh District — Haywood, Jackson, Transylvania, and 
Swain shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-eighth District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, and Macon shall 
elect one Senator. 



SEJfATE RULES. 

ORDER OF BUSINESS. 

1. The President having taken the chair at the hour to which the 
Senate shall have adjourned, and a quorum being present, the Jour- 
nal of the preceding day shall be read, unless otherwise ordered by 
the Senate, to the end that any mistake may be corrected. 

2. After reading and approval of the Journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of Standing Committees. 

(2) Reports of Select Committees. 

(3) Announcement of Petitions, Bills and Resolutions. 

(4) Unfinished Business of preceding day. 

(5) Special Orders. 

(6) General Orders: First, bills and resolutions on third reading; 
second, bills and resolutions on second reading; but messages from 
the Governor and House of Representatives, and communications and 
reports from State officers, and reports from the Committee on En- 
grossed Bills and Enrolled Bills may be received and acted on under 
any order of business. 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE PRESIDENT. 

3. He shall take the chair promptly at the appointed time and pro- 
ceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. 
At any time during the absence of the President, the President vro 
tempore, who shall be elected, shall preside, and he is hereby vested, 



Senate Rules. 21 

during such time, witti all powers of the President, except that of 
giving a casting vote in case of a tie, when he shall have voted as a 
Senator. 

4. He shall assign to Doorkeepers their respective duties and sta- 
tions, and shall appoint such pages and laborers as may be author- 
ized by the Senate, each of whom shall receive the same compensa- 
tion as is now provided by law. 

POWEES AND DUTIES OF THE CLEBK. 

5. The President and Clerk of the Senate shall see that all bills 
shall be acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they stand 
upon the Calendar, unless otherwise ordered, as hereinafter provided. 
The Calendar shall include the numbers and titles of bills and joint 
resolutions which have passed the House of Representatives and have 
been received by the Senate for concurrence. 

6. The Clerk shall certify the passage of bills by the Senate, with 
the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed by a vote of 
three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may be 
required by the Constitution and laws of the State. 

ON THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF SENATORS. 

7. Every Senator presenting a paper shall endorse the same; if a 
petition, memorial, or report to the General Assembly, with a brief 
statement of its subject or contents, adding his name; if a resolution, 
with his name; if a report of a committee, a statement of such re- 
port, with the name of the committee, and member making the same; 
if a bill, a statement of its title, which shall contain a brief state- 
ment of the subject or contents of the bill, with his name; and all 
bills, resolutions, petitions and memorials shall be delivered to the 
Clerk and by him handed to the President, to be by him referred, and 
he shall announce the titles and references of the same, which shall 
be entered on the Journal. 

8. All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by the Presi- 
dent or any Senator, delivered at the table and read by the President 
or Clerk, before the same shall be debated; but any such motion may 
be withdrawn by the introducer at any time before decision or 
amendment. 

9. If any question contains several distinct propositions, it shall be 
divided by the President, at the request of any Senator: Provided, 
each subdivision, if left to itself, shall form a substantive proposition. 



22 Legislativk Depaktment. 

10. When the President is putting a question, or a division by 
counting shall be had, no Senator shall walk out of or across the 
house, nor, when a Senator is speaking, pass between him and the 
President. 

11. Every Senator wishing to speak or debate, or to present a peti- 
tion or other paper, or to make a motion or report, shall rise from 
his seat and address the President, and shall not proceed further un- 
til recognized by him. No Senator shall speak or debate more than 
twice nor longer than thirty minutes on the same day on the same 
subject without leave of the Senate, and when two or more Senators 
rise at once the President shall name the Senator who is first to 
speak. 

12. Every Senator who shall be within the bar of the Senate when 
the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon, unless he shall 
be excused by the Senate, or unless he be directly interested in the 
question; and the bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate 
Chamber. 

13. When a motion to adjourn, or for recess, shall be affirmatively 
determined, no member or officer shall leave his place until adjourn- 
ment or recess shall be declared by the President. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

14. The following named committees shall be appointed by the 
Lieutenant-Governor : 

On Agriculture. 

On Appropriations. 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Commerce. 

On Congressional Apportionment. 

On Constitutional Amendments. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, and Towns. 

On Distribution of Governor's Message. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 



Senate Rules. 23 

On Fish and Fisheries. 

On the Feeble-minded. 

On Game Law. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Journal. 

On Judicial Districts. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 

On Manufacturing. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mining. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions and Soldiers' Home. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Health. 

On Public Roads. 

On Railroads. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

On Senate Expenditures. 

On Shellfish. 

JOINT COMMITTEES. 

15. On Enrolled Bills. 

On Justices of the Peace. 

On Library. 

On Printing. 

On Public Buildings and Grounds. 

On Trusteees of University. 

On Revisal. 

16. The Committee on Engrossed Bills shall examine all bills, 
amendments and resolutions before they go out of the possession of 
the Senate, and make a report when they find them correctly en- 
grossed: Provided, that when a bill is typewritten, and has no inter- 



24 Legislativk Depaktment. 

lineations therein, and has passed the Senate without amendment, it 
shall be sent to the House without engrossment, unless otherwise 
ordered. 

17. The Committee on Appropriations shall carefully examine all 
bills and resolutions appropriating or paying any moneys out of the 
State Treasury, keep an accurate record of the same and report to 
the Senate from time to time. 

18. Every report of the committee upon a bill or resolution which 
shall not be considered at the time of making the same, or laid on 
the table by a vote of the Senate, shall stand upon the General 
Orders with the bill or resolution; and the report of the committee 
shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted. 

19. That no committee shall be composed of more than nine mem- 
bers, unless the Lieutenant-Governor shall, without objection from 
the Senate, appoint a greater number on any committee. 

ox GENERAL ORDERS AND SPECIAL ORDERS. 

20. Any bill or other matter may be made a Special Order for a 
particular day or hour by a vote of a majority of the Senators voting, 
and if it shall not be completed on that day it shall be returned to 
its place on the Calendar, unless it shall be made a Special Order for 
another day; and when a Special Order is under consideration it 
shall take precedence of any Special Order or a subsequent order for 
the day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately 
after the previous Special Order has been disposed of. 

21. Every bill shall receive three readings previous to its being 
passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be the 
first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion shall 
he made by some Senator, it shall be the duty of the President to 
refer the subject-matter to an appropriate committee. No bill shall 
be amended until it shall have been twice read. 

PROCEEDINGS WHEN THERE IS NOT A QUORUM VOTING. 

22. If, on taking the question on a -bill, it shall appear that a con- 
stitutional quorum is not present, or if the bill require a vote of a 
certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears that 
such a number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the 
question taken thereon; .if the bill fail a second time for the want of 
the necessary number being present and voting, the bill shall not be 
finally lost, but shall be returned to the Calendar in its proper order. 



Senate Rules. 25 

peecedence of motions. 

23. When a question is before the Senate, no motion shall be re- 
ceived except those herein specified, which motions shall have prece- 
dence as follows, viz.: 

(1) For an adjournment. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

24. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the 
affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, 
resolution or other matter under consideration; but when amend- 
ments are pending, the question shall be taken up on such amend- 
ments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. How- 
ever, any Senator may move the previous question and may restrict 
the same to an amendment or other matter then under discussion. 
If such question be decided in the negative, the main question shall 
be considered as remaining under debate. 

25. When the motion for the previous question is made, and pend- 
ing the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease, and only a 
motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be in order, which mo- 
tions shall be put as follows: Adjourn; previous question; lay on the 
table. After a motion for the previous question is made, pending a 
second thereto, any member may give notice that he desires to offer 
an amendment to the bill or other matter under consideration; and 
after the previous question is seconded, such member shall be enti- 
tled to offer his amendment in pursuance of such notice. 

OTHER QUESTIONS TO BE TAKEN WITHOUT DEBATE. 

26. The motions to adjourn and lay on the table shall be decided 
without debate, and the motion to adjourn shall always be in order 
when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 



26 Legislative Dkpakt.ment. 

27. The respective motions to postpone to a certain day, or to com- 
mit, shall preclude debate on the main question. 

28. All questions relating to priority of business shall be decided 
without debate. 

29. When the reading of a paper is called for, except petitions, and 
the same is objected to by any Senator, it shall be determined by 
the Senate without debate. 

30. Any Senator requesting to be excused from voting may make, 
either immediately before or after the vote shall have been called, 
and before the result shall have been announced, a brief statement 
of the reasons for making such request, and the question shall then 
be taken without debate. Any Senator may explain his vote on any 
bill pending by obtaining permission of the President before the vote 
is put: Provided, that not more than three minutes shall be con- 
sumed in such explanation. 

QUESTIOXS THAT REQUIRE A TWO-THIRDS VOTE. 

31. No bill or resolution on its third reading shall be acted on out 
of the regular order in which it stands on the Calendar, and no bill 
or resolution shall be acted upon on its third reading the same day 
on which it passed its second reading, unless so ordered by two-thirds 
of the Senators present. 

32. No bill or resolution shall be sent from the Senate on the day 
of its passage, except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise 
ordered by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

33. No bill or resolution, after being laid upon the table upon mo- 
tion, shall be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the 
Senators present. 

DECORUM IN DEBATE. 

34. No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator 
shall be in order in debate, unless preceded by a motion or resolution 
of censure. 

35. When a Senator shall be called to order he shall take his seat 
until the President shall have determined whether he was in order 
or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not proceed without 
the permission of the Senate, and every question of order shall be 
decided by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any 
Senator; and if a Senator is called to order for words spoken, the 



Sexxate Rules. 27 

words excepted to shall be immediately taken down in writing, that 
the President or Senate may be better enabled to judge of the matter. 

MISCELLANEOUS RULES. 

36. When a blank is to be filled, and different sums or times shall 
be proposed, the question shall be first taken on the highest sum or 
the longest time. 

37. When a question has been once put and decided, it shall be in 
order for any Senator who shall have voted in the majority to move 
a reconsideration thereof; but no motion for the reconsideration of 
any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, message, report, 
amendment or motion upon which the vote was taken shall have 
gone out of the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for 
reconsideration be in order unless made on the same day, or the 
next following legislative day, on which the vote proposed to be 
reconsidered shall have taken place, unless the same shall be made 
by the Committee on Enrolled Bills for verbal or grammatical errors 
in the bills, when the same may be made at any time. Nor shall any 
question be reconsidered more than once. 

38. All bills and resolutions shall take their place upon the Calen- 
dar according to their number, and shall be taken up in regular 
order, unless otherwise ordered. 

39. No smoking shall be allowed within the Senate Chamber dur- 
ing the sessions. 

40. Senators and visitors shall uncover their heads upon entering 
the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session, and shall con- 
tinue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber. 

41. No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart the service of 
the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for 
the time he is absent without leave. 

42. No person other than the executive and judicial officers of the 
State, members and officers of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, unless on invitation of the President or by a vote of the Sen- 
ate, shall be permitted within the bar. 

43. No rule of the Senate shall be altered, suspended or rescinded 
except on a two-thirds vote of the Senators present: Provided, that 
a majority of all the Senators elected may change the rules at any 
time. 

44. In case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall con- 



28 Legislative DEPAiiXMENT. 

vene, they are authorized to send the doorkeeper, or any other per- 
son, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present shall determine. 

45. The ayes and noes may be called for on any question before the 
vote is taken, and if seconded by one-fifth of the Senators present, 
the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes, and the same 
shall be entered upon the Journal. 

46. When any committee shall decide that it is advisable to employ 
a clerk for such committee, the chairman of the committee shall first 
obtain the consent of the Senate for such employment, and if the 
Senate shall allow the clerk as requested, he shall be appointed by 
the Lieutenant-Governor upon the recommendation of the committee. 

• 47. Every bill introduced into the Senate shall be printed or type- 
written. Amendments need not be typewritten. 

48. The Clerk of the Senate shall provide a box of sufficient size, 
with an opening through the top, for the reception of bills. Such box 
shall be kept under lock and key and shall be stationed on the Clerk's 
desk. The President of the Senate shall have in his charge and keep- 
ing the key to such box. All bills which are to be introduced into 
the Senate shall be deposited in such box before the session begins. 
At the proper time the President shall open the box and take there- 
from the bills. Such bills shall be read by their titles, which reading 
shall constitute the first reading of the bill, and unless otherwis dis- 
posed of shall be referred to the proper committee. A bill may be in- 
troduced by imanimous consent at any other time during a session. 

49. The Chief Engrossing Clerk of the Senate shall appoint, with 
the approval of the President of the Senate, as his assistants, not 
more than three competent stenographers and typewriters. Such 
stenographers and typewriters shall work under the direction and 
supervision of the Engrossing Clerk. They shall also make for the 
member of the General Assembly who introduces a bill, without 
extra cost, one original and two carbon copies of all bills. 

50. The Journal of the Senate shall be typewritten in duplicate, 
original and carbon, the original to be deposited in the office of Sec- 
retary of State as the record, and the other (carbon) copy to be de- 
livered to the State Printer. 

51. That in case of adjournment without any hour being named, 
the Senate shall reconvene the next legislative day at 11 o'clock a. m. 

52. All bills and resolutions reported unfavorably by the committee 
to w^hich they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie 



Senate Committees. - 29 

upon the table, but may be taken from the table and placed upon the 
Calendar at the request of any Senator. 

53. When a bill is materially modified or the scope of its applica- 
tion extended or decreased, or if the county or counties to which it 
applies be changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Sena- 
tor introducing the bill or by the committee having it in charge, or 
by the Engrossing Clerk, so as to indicate the full purport of the bill 
as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 



SENATE STANDING C03IMITTEES. 

Calendar — Burgwyn, chairman; Bennett, Burnett, Cranmer, Gray, 
Johnson, Justice, Long of Alamance, Warren, Parker. 

AgriculUire — Davenport, chairman; Holderness, Everett, Gough, 
Brock, Kelly, Blue, Barnhardt, Matheson, Transou, Braswell. 

Appropriations — Holderness, chairman; Gray, Everett, Turner, 
Brenizer, Bennett, Bunn, Nelson, Ray, Matheson, Linn, Burgwyn, 
Pollock, Barnhardt, Scales. 

Claims — Johnson, chairman; Davenport, Ross, Burnett, Kelly, 
Transou, Ray, Brenizer, Hall. 

Congressional Apportionment — Bennett, chairman; Person, Allen, 
Brock, Justice, Long of Alamance, McCoin, Pollock, Tucker, Wil- 
liams. 

Corporations — Harding, chairman; Long of Halifax, Burgwyn, Per- 
son, Pollock, Allen, Gates, Bunn, Barnhardt, Brenizer, Cameron, 
Joyce. 

Corporation Commission — Cranmer, chairman; Ray, Gray, Turner, 
Linn, Blue, Scales, Long of Alamance, McCoin, Gates, Harding, 
Gough, Jonas. 

Constitutio7ial Amendments — Warren, chairman; McNider, Long of 
Halifax, Harding, Allen, Jones, Nelson, Johnson, Harrill, Person, 
Hall. 

Comities, Cities, and Towns — Bunn, chairman; Gough, Allen, Long 
of Alamance, Tucker, Transou, Thompson, Burgwyn, Parker. 

Commerce — Barnhardt, chairman; Gough, Everett, Transou, Math- 
eson, Bennett, Johnson, Nelson, Deweese. 



30 . Legislaiivk Dkpaim mext. 

Banking and Currency — Harrill, chairman; Gray, Matheson, John- 
son, Holderness, Pollock, Cameron. Hall, Ray. 

Distribution of the Governor's Message — Transou, chairman; 
Gough, Bunn, Blue, Thompson, Nelson, Matheson, Burnett, Braswell. 

Education — Gates, chairman; Everett, Long of Alamance, Gough, 
Turner, Matheson, McNider, Bunn, Harding, Tucker, McCoin, De- 
weese. 

Privileges and Elections — Brock, chairman; Kelly, Little, McNider, 
Gates, Ray, Ross, Williams. 

Pensions and Soldiers' Home — Thompson, chairman; Tucker, Cam- 
eron, Kelly, Little, Gates, Bunn, Earnhardt, Joyce. 

Game Laics — Kelly, chairman; Blue, Tucker, Ross, Person, Earn- 
hardt, Parker, Johnson. 

Insane Asylums — McCoin, chairman; Gough, Gates, Burnett, Ray, 
Transou, Bennett, Matheson, Nelson, Bunn, Braswell. 

Institutions -for the Blind — Harding, chairman; McNider, Jones, 
Ross, Person, Kelly, Long of Alamance. Little, Harrill, Williams. 

Fish and Fisheries — McNider, chairman; Davenport, Warren, John- 
son, Cranmer, Brock, Pollock, Long of Halifax, Justice, Burgwyn, 
Braswell. 

Military Affairs — Burgwyn, chairman; McNider, Holderness, Hard- 
ing, Pollock, Allen, Gates, Eunn, Long of Alamance. Ray, Jonas, Jones. 

Internal Improvements — Ross, chairman; Warren, Holderness, 
Linn, Jones, Transou, Justice, Nelson. Gregg. 

Journal — Justice, chairman; Burnett, Long of Halifax, Allen, Cran- 
mer, Linn, Warren, Brock, Jonas. 

Judicial Districts — Jones, chairman: McNider, Justice, Scales, Mc- 
Coin, Bunn, Pollock, Harding, Erenizer, Warren, Parker. 

Insurance — Brenizer, chairman; Harrill, Gray, Holderness, Ever- 
ett, McCoin, Scales, Gough, Harding, Cameron, Ray, Jonas. 

Manufactures — Ray, chairman; Nelson, Cameron, Gray, Everett, 
Harrill, Tucker, Long of Halifax, Earnhardt, Turner, Deweese. 

Railroads — Gough, chairman; Harding, Allen, Blue, Burnett, Brock, 
Little, Joyce. 

Shellfish — Cranmer, chairman; Brock, Burgwyn, McNider, Burnett, 
Davenport, Johnson. 

Mining — Blue, chairman; Ross, Cameron, Gray, Transou, Justice, 
Bennett, Deweese. 



Senate Committees. 31 

Finance — Gray, chairman; Scales, Holderness, Matheson, Warren, 
Blue, Everett, McCoin, McNider, Gough, Johnson, Person, Tucker, 
Pollock, Deweese, Burgwyn, Cameron. 

Judiciary, No. 1 — Scales, chairman; Jones, Turner, Harding, Mc- 
Nider, Warren, Long of Halifax, Justice, Long of Alamance, Bunn, 
Burgwyn, Joyce. 

Judiciary, No. 2 — Allen, chairman; Person, Pollock, Linn, Brenizer, 
Burnett, Cranmer, Gates, McCoin, Hall, Williams, Parker. 

Rules — Linn, chairman; McNider, Allen, Long of Alamance, Long 
of Halifax, Gray, Bennett, Bunn, Gough, Williams. 

Institutions for the Deaf — Matheson, chairman; Long of Alamance, 
Little, Thompson, Brenizer, Barnhardt, Linn, Harrill, Nelson, Gregg. 

Immigration — Nelson, chairman; Long of Alamance, Brock, Cran- 
mer, Kelly, Cameron, Ray, Burgwyn. 

Penal Institutions — Turner, chairman; Harrill, Brenizer, Transou, 
Long of Halifax, Holderness, Gray, Ray, Williams. 

Propositions and Grievances — Long of Alamance, chairman; War- 
ren, Long of Halifax, Allen, Cranmer, Scales, Linn, Justice, Burnett, 
McLeod. 

Ptihlic Roads — Cameron, chairman; Bennett, Long of Halifax, Pol- 
lock, Cranmer, McCoin, Scales, Brenizer, Braswell. 

Public Health — Tucker, chairman; Gates, Ross, Pollock, Harding, 
Everett, Bennett, Bunn, Gregg. 

Federal Relations — Little, chairman; Long of Halifax, Blue, Bre- 
nizer, Barnhardt, Linn, Ray, Hall. 

Engrossed Bills — Burnett, chairman; Warren, Brock, Brenizer, 
Thompson, Nelson, Justice, Parker. 

Election Laws — Long of Halifax, chairman; Gates, Cranmer, Allen, 
McCoin, Jones, Matheson, Little, Thompson, Scales, Braswell. 

Feehle-minded — Pollock, chairman; Barnhardt, Blue, Brock, Daven- 
port, Thompson, Everett, Kelly, McLeod. 

Senate Expenditures — Long of Halifax, chairman; Allen, Gough, 
Ray, McCoin, McNider, Warren, Burgwyn, Parker. 

Salaries and Fees — Person, chairman; McNider, Davenport, Hard- 
ing, Kelly, Johnson, Holderness, Thompson, McLeod. 

Printing — Long of Halifax, chairman; Everett, Person, Burnett, 
Blue, Little, Thompson, Braswell. 



32 Legislativk Dei'Artment. 



JOINT COMMITTEES. 



Trustees of the University — Everett, chairman; Linn, Gray, Bur- 
gwyn, Warren, Brenizer, Cameron, Long of Alamance, Long of Hali- 
fax, Pollock, Jonas. 

Enrolled Bills — Cranmer, chairman; Brock, Harrill, Warren, 
Matheson, Linn, Long of Halifax, Burgwyn, Justice, Jonas, Deweese. 

Public Buildings and Grounds — Burnett, chairman; McCoin, Tur- 
ner, Blue, Gray, Transou, Gregg, McLeod. 

Committee on Library — Gates, chairman; Tucker, Johnson, Mc- 
Nider, Bunn, Scales, Parker. 

Committee on First Constitutional Amendment Relating to Coun- 
ties — Warren, chairman; Justice, Harding, Turner, Parker. 

Committee on Legislation for Cities and Toicns Provided by Con- 
stitutional Amendments — Brenizer, chairman; Allen, Linn, Scales, 
Jonas. 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 



OFFICERS. 

Walter Mxjephy Speaker Rowan. 

Alex Lassiteb Principal Clerk Bertie. 

O. P. Shell Engrossing Clerk Harnett. 

J. H. MoRiNG Sergeant-at-Arms Wake. 

D. P. Bellinger Reading Clerk Gaston. 



REPEESENTATIVES, 1917. 

Alamance — R. T. Kernodle (R.), Burlington. 
Alexander — Dr. S. T. Crowson (D.), Taylorsville. 
Alleghany — R. A. Dougliton (D.), Sparta. 
Anson — J. D. Home (D.), Wadesboro. 
Ashe — Ambrose Clark (R.), Lansing. 
Avery— T. C. Hicks (R.), Elk Park. 
Beaufort — William M. Butt (D.), Bonnerton. 
Bertie — J. H. Matthews (D.), Windsor. 
Bladen— A. McK. Council (D.), White Oak. 
Brunswick — D. L. Hewett (R.), Shallotte. 

Buncomhe — Gallatin Roberts (D.), Asheville; R. C. Crowell (D.), 
Candler, R. P. D. 
Burke — J. H. Pearson (D.), Morganton. 
Cabarrus — Thomas M. Widenhouse (R.), Kannapolis. 
Caldwell— E. Garland Suttlemyre (D.), Granite Falls, R. F. D. 
Camden— M. W. Ferebee (D.), Camden. 
Carteret — Nat H. Russell (R.), Beaufort. 
Caswell — P. M. Somers (D.), Altamahaw. 
Cataivha — J. Y. Killian (R.), Newton. 
Chatham— A. C. Ray (D.), Pittsboro. 
Cherokee— J. H. McCall (D.), Murphy. 
Chowan— T>T. E. J. Griffin (D.), Edenton. 
Clay — N. N. Rogers (D.), Shooting Creek. 
Cleveland — W. A. Mauney (D.), Kings Mountain. 
Columbus — Donald MacRackin (D.), Whiteville. 
3 



34 



Legislative Dep.uitment. 



Graven — George W. Dail (D.), New Bern. 

Cumberland — A. B. Breece (D.), Fayetteville. 

Currituck — "William D. Cox (D.), Moyock. 

Dare — I. P. Davis (D.), Wanchese. 

Davidson — John R. McCrary (R.), Lexington. 

Davie — Burr C. Brock (R.), Parmington. 

Dtiplin — George R. Ward (D.), Wallace. 

Durham — L. P. McLendon (D.), Durham; J. E. Pegram (D.), Dur- 
ham. 

Edgecombe— T. Jones Taylor (D.), Bethel, R. F. D. 

Forsyth— R. M. Cox (D.), Rural Hall; J. T. Parish (D.), Winston- 
Salem. 

Franklin — S. A. Newell (D.), Louisburg. 

Gaston — J. C. Puett (D.), Dallas; A. J. Rankin (D.), Belmont. 

Gates — C. R. Hinton (Ind.), Gatesville. 

Graham — P. M. Sawyer (D.), Robbinsville. 

Granville — D. G. Brummitt (D.), Oxford. 

Greene — J. C. Daniel (D.), Snow Hill. 

Guilford— Carter Dalton (D.), High Point; C. G. Wright (D.), 
Greensboro; W. A. Bowman (D.), Liberty. 

Halifax— F. M. Tayloe (D.), Brinkleyville; J. H. Darden (D.), 
Spring Hill. 

Harnett — G. K. Grantham (D.), Dunn. 

Hayivood — D. R. Noland (D.). Crabtree. 

Henderson — B. Jackson (R.), Hendersonville. 

Hertford — Stanley Winborne (D.), Murfreesboro. 

Hoke—W. T. Covington (D.), Raeford. 

Hyde— J. M. Clayton (D.), Engelhard. 

Iredell— U. P. Grier (D.), Statesville; W. L. Matheson (D.), 
Mooresville. 

Jackson — George W. Sutton (R.);, Sylva. 

Johnston — Rufus Sanders (D.), Pour Oaks; J. W. Barnes (D.), 
Clayton. 

Jones — B. B. Collins (D.). Maysville. 

Lee— S. R. Hoyle (D.), Sanford. 

Lenoir— H. W. Brothers (D.), LaGrange, R. P. D. 

Lincoln — Edgar Love (D.), Lincolnton. 

Macon — J. Prank Ray (D.), Pranklin. 

Madison — George M. Pritchard (R.), INIarshall. 

Martin — Harry W. Stubbs (D.), Williamston. 



Members of House of Representatives. 35 

McDowell — Miles P. Flack (D.), Vein Mountain. 

MecklenMirg — E. W. Pharr (D.), Charlotte; T. J. Renfrow (D.), 
Matthews; W. R. Matthews (D.), Charlotte. 

Mitchell— J. C. McBee (R.), Bakersville. 

Montgomery — B. S. Hurley (D.), Troy. 

Moore — H. A. Page (D.), Aberdeen. 

2V«s7i— Gray R. King (D.), Nashville; R. M. Moore (D.), Whitakers. 

ISleiv Hanover — L. Clayton Grant (D.), Wilmington. 

Northampto7i — W. H. Joyner (D.), Garysburg. 

Onslow — Horace V. Grant (D.), Snead's Ferry. 

Orange — Lueco Lloyd (R.), Chapel Hill. 

Pamlico — F. B. Hooker (D. ), Oriental. 

Pasquotank — Eugene S. Scott (D.), Elizabeth City. 

Pender— J. B. Scott (D.), Rocky Point. 

Perqxiimans — W. F. Morgan (D.), Winfall. 

Person — J. C. Pass (R.), Roxboro. 

Pitt— 3. C. Galloway (D.), Grimesland; D. M. Clark (D.), Green- 
ville. 

Polk—W. F. Swann (R.), Columbus. 

Randolph — James F. Pickett (D.), Liberty. 

Richmond — Alfred Baldwin (D.), Ellerbe. 

Robeson — J. S. Oliver (D.), Marietta; G. B. Sellars (D.), Maxton. 

Rockingham — J. M. Price (D.). Leaksville; J. L. Roberts (D.), 
Madison. 

Roivan — Walter Murphy (D.), Salisbury; Oscar Phillips (D.), 
Salisbury, R. No. 6. 

Rutherford— 3. P. Witherow (D.), Hollis. 

Sampson — Otis Ward (R.), Newton Grove. 

Scotland — A. E. Shaw (D.), Wagram. 

Stanly — T. R. Forrest (D.), Albemarle. 

Stokes— Bd. W. Kiser (R.), King. 

Surry — R. L. Haymore (R.), Mount Airy. 

Swain — G. P. Ferguson (R.), Bryson City. 

Transylvania — G. W. Wilson (D.), Brevard, R. F. D. 

Tyrrell—^. L. Swain (D.), .Jerry. 

Union — R. F. Beasley (D.), Monroe; James V. Price (D.), Monroe, 
R. F. D. 

Tance— R. G. Kittrell (D.), Henderson. 

Wake—T. E. Holding (D.), Wake Forest; K. B. Johnson (D.), 
Cardenas; R. W. Winston, Jr. (D.), Raleigh. 



36 Legislative Diitartment. 

Warren— S. G. Daniel (D.), Littleton. 
Washington — J. C. Coggins (D.), Plymouth. 
Watauga — Blaine Coffey (R.), Boone. 

Wayne— Dr. M. McI. Tatem (D.), Mount Olive; Archie Dees (D.), 
Goldsboro. 

ll")7At'.s— James M. Prevette (D.), Wilkesboro. 
Wilson— John L. Bailey (D.), Elm City. 
Yadkin — J. B. Stimson (D.), Siloam. 
Yancey — G. Ellis Gardner (D.), Burnsville. 



HOUSE RULES. 

TOUCHING THE DUTIES OF SPEAKER. 

1. It shall be the duty of the Speaker to have the sessions of this 
House opened with prayer in accordance with the order of this 
body. 

2. He shall take the chair every, day at the hour fixed by the 
House on the preceding legislative day, shall immediately call the 
members to order, and, on appearance of a quorum, cause the jour- 
nal of the preceding day to be read. 

3. He shall preserve order and decorum, may speak to points of 
order in preference to other members, rising from his seat for 
that purpose, and shall decide questions of order, subject to an 
appeal to the House by any member, on which appeal no member 
shall speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. 

4. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting. 

5. Questions shall be put in this form, namely: "Those in favor 
(as the question may be) will say, Aye," and after the affirmative 
voice has been expressed, "Those opposed will say, No." Upon a call 
for a division, the Speaker shall count; if required, he shall appoint 
tellers. 

6. The Speaker shall have a general direction of the hall. He 
shall have a right to name any member to perform the duties of the 
chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in 
case of sickness or by leave of the House. 

7. All committees shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless oth- 
erwise specially ordered by the House. . 



House Rules. 37 

8. In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other cases he 
may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until 
there is a tie; but in no case shall he be allowed to vote twice on 
the same question. 

9. All acts, addresses, and resolutions shall be signed by the 
Speaker, and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the 
House shall be under his hand and seal, attested by the Clerk. 

10. In case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the gal- 
leries or lobby, the Speaker (or Chairman of the Committee of the 
Whole) shall have power to order the same to be cleared. 

11. No persons except members of the Senate, officers and clerks 
of the two Houses of the General Assembly, Judges of the Supreme 
and Superior Courts, officers of the State, persons particularly in- 
vited by the Speaker or some member and such gentlemen as have 
been members of either House of the Legislature or of a convention 
of the people of the State, shall be admitted within the hall of the 
House: Provided, that no person except members of the Senate 
and officers of the two Honses of the General Assembly shall be al- 
lowed on the floor of the House or in the lobby in the rear of the 
Speaker's desk, unless invited by the Speaker or the House. 

12. Reporters wishing to take down debates may be admitted by 
the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or 
elsewhere, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the con- 
venience of the House. 

13. Smoking, shall not be allowed in the hall, the lobbies, or the 
galleries while the House is in session. 

ORDER OF BU.SINESS OF THE DAY. 

14. After the reading of the journal of the preceding day, which 
shall stand approved without objection, the House shall proceed to 
business in the following order, viz.: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials, and papers addressed 

to the General Assembly or to the House. 

(2) Reports of standing committees. 

(3) Reports of select committees. 

(4) Resolutions. 

(5) Bills. 

(6) The unfinished business of the preceding day. 



38 Legisl.\tive Department. 

(7) Bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, messages, and other 
papers on the Calendar, in their exact numerical order, 
unless displaced by the orders of the day; but motions 
and messages to elect officers shall always be in order. 

Every member wishing to present a petition, bill, or other paper, 
or make any report, shall rise from his seat and address the Speaker, 
and shall not proceed further until recognized by him. 

ON DECORUM IN DEBATE. 

15. When any member is about to speak in debate or deliver any 
matter to the House, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully ad- 
dress the Speaker. 

16. When the Speaker shall call a member to order, the member 
shall sit down, as also he shall when called to order by another 
member, unless the Speaker decide the point of order in his favor. 
By leave of the House a member called to order may clear a mat- 
ter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed in debate so long as the 
decision stands, but by permission of the House. Any member may 
appeal from the decision of the Chair, and if, upon appeal, the de- 
cision be in favor of the member called to order he may proceed; 
if otherwise, he shall not, except by leave of the House; and if 
the case, in the judgment of the House, require it, he shall be 
liable to its censure. 

17. No member shall speak until recognized by the Chair, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the Speaker 
shall name the member to speak. 

18. No member shall speak more than twice on the main question, 
nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fifteen min- 
utes for the second speech, unless allowed to do so by affirmative 
vote of a majority of the members present; nor shall he speak 
more than once upon an amendment or motion to commit or post- 
pone, and then not longer than ten minutes. But the House may, by 
consent of a majority, suspend the operation of this rule during 
any debate on any particular question before the House, or the Com- 
mittee on Rules may bring in a special rule that shall be applicable 
to the debate on any bill. 

19. While the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the 
House, no person shall speak, stand up, walk out of or across the 
House, nor when a member is speaking entertain private discourse, 
stand up, or pass between him and the Chair. 



House Rules. 39 

20. No member shall vote on any question when he was not pres- 
ent when the question was put by the Speaker, except by the con- 
sent of the House. Upon a division and count of the House on any 
question, no member without the bar shall be counted. 

21. Every member who shall be in the hall of the House for the 
above purpose when the question is put shall give his vote, upon a 
call of the ayes and noes, unless the House for special reasons shall 
excuse him, and no application to be excused from voting or to ex- 
plain a vote shall be entertained unless made before the call of the 
roll. The hall of the House shall include the lobbies, galleries, and 
offices connected with the hall. 

22. "When a motion is made and seconded, it shall be stated by the 
Speaker, or, if written, it shall be handed to the Chair and read 
aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

23. Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the Speaker or 
any two members request it. 

24. After a motion is stated by the Speaker or read by the Clerk, 
it shall be deemed to be in possession of the House, but may be 
withdrawn before a decision or amendment, except in case of a 
motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a member, shall 
be deemed and taken to be in possession of the House, and shall 
not be withdrawn without leave of the House. 

25. When a question is under debate no motion shall be received 
but to adjourn, to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to post- 
pone to a day certain, to commit or amend, which several motions 
shall have precedence in the order in which they stand arranged; 
and no motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to post- 
pone to a day certain, to commit or amend, being decided, shall be 
again allowed on the same day and at the same stage of the bill or 
proposition. 

2'6. A motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be decided with- 
out debate, and a motion to adjourn shall always be in order, ex- 
cept when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a 
motion to adjourn shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate 
or some business of the House has intervened. 

27. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, the same 
shall not be acted on again during the session, except upon a two- 
thirds vote. 

28. Any member may call for a division of the question, when the 
same shall admit of it, which shall be determined by the Speaker. 



40 Legislative Department. 

29. When a motion has heen once made and carried in tlie affirma- 
tive or negative, it shall be in order for any member of the majority 
to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or succeeding 
day, unless it may have already passed the Senate, and no motion 
to reconsider shall be taken from the table except by a two-thirds 
vote. But unless such vote has been taken by a call of the yeas and 
nays, any member may move to reconsider. 

30. When the reading of a paper is called for, which has been read 
in the House, and the same is objected to by any member, it shall 
be determined by a vote of the House. 

31. Petitions, memorials, and other papers addressed to the House 
shall be presented by the Speaker, or by a member in his place; a 
brief statement of the contents thereof may be verbally made by the 
introducer, and shall not be debated or decided on the day of their 
being first read, unless the House shall direct otherwise, but shall 
lie on the table, to be taken up in the order they were read. 

32. When the ayes and noes are called for on any question, it 
shall be on motion before the question is put; and if seconded by 
one-fifth of the members present, the question shall be decided by 
the ayes and noes; and in taking the ayes and noes, or on a call of 
the House, the names of the members will be taken alphabetically. 

33. Decency of speech shall be observed and personal reflection 
carefully avoided. 

34. Any member, after the expiration of the morning hour, may 
rise to a question of personal privilege; but if the question of per- 
sonal privilege be decided against him he shall not proceed unless 
the ruling of the Speaker be reversed by the House. 

35. Fifteen members, including the Speaker, shall be authorized 
to compel the attendance of absent members. 

36. No member or officer of the House shall absent himself from 
the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
inability. 

37. Any member may excuse himself from serving on any com- 
mittee if he is a member of two standing committees. 

38. If any member shall be necessarily absent on temporary busi- 
ness of the House when a vote is taken upon any question, upon 
entering the House he shall be permitted, on request, to vote, pro- 
vided that the result shall not be thereby affected. 

39. No standing rule or order shall be rescinded or altered with- 



House Rules. 41 

out one day's notice given on the motion thereof, and to sustain 
such motion two-thirds of the House shall be required. 

40. The members of this House shall uncover their heads upon 
entering the hall whilst the House is in session, and shall continue 
so uncovered during their continuance in the hall, except Quakers. 

41. A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, 
except a motion to reconsider an indefinite postponement, or a mo- 
tion to reconsider a motion tabling a motion to reconsider, which 
shall require a two-thirds vote. 

STANDI XG COMMITTEES. 

42. At the commencement of the session a standing committee 
shall be appointed on each of the following subjects, namely: 

On Agriculture. 
On Appropriations. 
On Banks and Currency. 
On Claims. 

On Constitutional Amendment. 
On Corporation Commission. 
• On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, Towns and Townships. 

On Courts and Judicial Districts. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Expenditures of the House. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fish and Fisheries. 

On Game. 

On Health. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 



42 Legislative Depaiitment. 

On Manufactures and Labor. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mines and Mining. 

On Oyster Interests. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions. 

On Privileges and Elections. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Roads and Turnpikes. 

On Regulation of the Liquor Traffic. 

On Regulation of Public-service Corporations. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

J0ri\^T COMMITTEES. 

On Enrolled Bills. 

On Appointment of Justices of the Peace. 

On Library. 

On Printing. 

On Public Buildings and Grounds. . 

On Trustees of University. 

On Revision of the Laws. 

To be appointed by the Speaker, and the first announced on each 
committee shall be chairman. 

43. In forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker 
shall leave the chair, and a chairman to preside in committee shall 
be appointed by the Speaker. 

44. Upon bills submitted to a Committee of the Whole House, the 
bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read 
and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. 
The body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amend- 
ments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk 
on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to by the Com- 
mittee, and so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall 
again be subject to be debated and amended by sections before a 
question on its passage be taken. 

45. The rules of proceeding in the House shall be observed in a 
Committee of the Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, 



House Rules. 43 

except the rule limiting the time of speaking and the previous 
question. 

46. In a Committee of the Whole House a motion that the Com- 
mittee rise shall always be in order, except when a member is speak- 
ing, and shall be decided without debate. 

47. Every bill shall be introduced by motion for leave, or by order 
of the House, or on the report of a committee, unless introduced in 
regular order during the morning hour. 

48. All bills and resolutions shall be reported from the committee 
to which referred, with such recommendation as the committee may 
desire to make. 

49. Every bill shall receive three several readings in the House 
previous to its passage, and the Speaker shall give notice at each 
whether it be its first, second, or third reading. 

50. Any member introducing a bill or resolution shall briefly in- 
dorse thereon the substance of the same. 

51. The Speaker shall refer all bills and resolutions, upon their in- 
troduction, to the appropriate committee, unless otherwise ordered. 
When a Public bill or resolution has been referred by the Speaker 
to a committee, and after it has remained with such committee for 
the space of five days without being reported to the House, it shall, 
at the option and upon the request of the member who introduced it, 
be recalled from such committee by order of the Speaker and by him 
referred to some other regular committee, which shall be indicated 
in the House by the introducer thereof, and the request and order 
recalling such bill and the reference thereof shall be entered on the 
journal. 

52. The Clerk of the House shall keep a separate calendar of the 
Public, Local, and Private bills, and shall number them in the order 
in which they are introduced; and all bills shall be disposed of in 
the order they stand upon the Calendar; but the Committee on 
Rules may at any time arrange the order of precedence in which 
bills may be considered. No bill shall be twice read on the same 
day without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members. 

53. All resolutions which may grant money out of the Treasury, 
or such as shall be of a public nature, shall be treated in all re- 
spects in a similar manner with Public bills. 

54. The Clerk of the House shall be deemed to continue in office 
until another is appointed. 



44 Legislative Department. 

55. Upon the motion of any member, there shall be a call of the 
House, a majority of the members present assenting thereto, and 
upon a call of the House the names of the members shall be called 
over by the Clerk and the absentees noted, after which the names 
of the absentees shall again be called over. The doors shall then 
be closed, and those from whom no excuse or sufficient excuses are 
made may, by order of those present, if fifteen in number, be taken 
into custody as they appear, or may be sent for and taken into cus- 
tody wherever to be found by special messenger appointed for that 
purpose. 

PREVIOUS QL'ESTIOIS". 

56. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the 
affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, 
resolution, or other matter under consideration; but when amend- 
ments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such amend- 
ments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. If such 
question be decided in the negative, the main question shall be con- 
sidered as remaining under debate: Provided, that no one shall 
move the previous question except the member submitting the re- 
port on the bill or other matter under consideration, and the mem- 
ber introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or 
the member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by 
the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the House at 
the time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to 
the House, or taken up for consideration. 

When a motion for the previous question is made, and pending 
the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease; but if any 
member obtains the floor, he may move to lay the matter under con- 
sideration on the table, or move an adjournment, and when both or 
either of these motions are pending the question shall stand: 

(1) Previous question, 

(2) To adjourn. 

(3) To lay on the table. 

And then upon the main question, or amendments, or the motion to 
postpone indefinitely, postpone to a day certain, to commit, or 



House Rules. 45 

amend, in the order of their precedence, until the main question is 
reached or disposed of; but after the previous question has been 
called by a majoritJ^ no motion, amendment, or debate shall be in 
order. 

All motions below the motion to lay on the table must be made 
prior to a motion for the previous question; but, pending and not 
after the second therefor, by the majority of the House, a motion 
to adjourn or lay on the table, or both, are in order. This consti- 
tutes the precedence of the motion to adjourn and lay on the table 
over other motions, in Rule 25. 

Motions stand as follows in order of precedence in Rule 26; 

Lay on the table. 
Previous question, 
Postpone indefinitely, 
Postpone definitely. 
To commit or amend. 

When the previous question is called, all motions below it fall, 
unless made prior to the call, and all motions above it fall after its 
second by a majority required. Pending the second, the motions to 
adjourn and lay on the table are in order, but not after a second. 
When in order and every motion is before the House, the question 
stands as follows: 

Previous question, 

Adjourn, 

Lay on the table, 

Postpone indefinitely. 

Postpone definitely. 

To commit, 

Amendment to amendment, 

Amendment, 

Substitute, 

Bill. 

The previous question covers all other motions when seconded by 
a majority of the House, and proceeds by regular gradation to the 
main question, without debate, amendment, or motion, until such 
question is reached or disposed of. 

57. All bills carrying appropriations, when reported favorably 
from the committee having them in charge, shall be referred to the 
Committee on Appropriations before reported to the House. 



46 Legislative Department. 

58. The Principal Clerk, the Engrossing Clerk, and the Door- 
keeper shall appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, and by af- 
firmative order of the House, such assistants as may be necessary 
to the efficient discharge of the duties of their various offices. 

59. The Speaker shall appoint twelve pages to wait upon the ses- 
sions of the House, and when the pressure of business may require, 
he may appoint three additional pages. 

60. The chairman of the Committees on the Judiciary, No. 1 and 
No. 2 jointly, and each of the Committees on Propositions and 
Grievances, Finance, Constitutional Amendments, and Appropria- 
tions, may appoint a clerk with the approval of the majority of 
said respective committees; and no other clerks of committees shall 
be appointed except upon motion, which shall first be referred to 
the Committee on Rules, and a favorable report from said commit- 
tee shall not allow the appointment of additional clerks of com- 
mittees unless such report be adopted by two-thirds vote of the 
House. 

61. The chairmen and five members of the Committees on the 
Judiciary and the chairmen and ten members of the Committees on 
Education, Finance, and Agriculture shall constitute a quorum of 
either of said respective committees for the transaction of business. 

62. The Speaker, on each Monday morning, shall appoint a com- 
mittee of three members, whose duty it shall be to examine daily 
the journal of the House before the hour of convening, and report 
after the opening of the House w^hether or not the proceedings of 
the previous day have been correctly recorded. 



HOUSE STANDING CO^IMITTEES. 

AariruVurc — Galloway, chairman; Butt, Darden, Daniel of Greene, 
Grantham, Brothers, Phillips. Price of Rockingham, Somers, Mathe- 
son. Home, Baldwin, Shaw, Bailey, Moore, Taylor of Edgecombe. Col- 
lins, Clayton, Scott of Pender, Cox of Forsyth, Griffin, Barnes, Cov- 
ington, Morgan, Wilson, Suttlemyre, Bowman, Dail, Stimpson, Butt. 

Avpyopriations — Wright, chairman; Ward of Duplin, Stubbs, 
Doughton, Dalton, Pearson, Dees, Hoyle, Cox of Currituck, Matheson, 
Brothers, McLendon, Pharr, Winston, Page, Love, Clark of Pitt. 
Roberts of Buncombe, Davis, Kittrell, Winborne, Grant of New Han- 
over, Hurley, Ferebee, Pritchard, McBee, McCrary, Haymore. 



House Committees. 47 

Banks and Currency — Kittrell, chairman; "Wright, Matthews of 
Mecklenburg, Sellers, Farish, McLendon, Winborne, Joyner, Darden, 
Daniel of Warren, Council, Bailey, Johnson, Brothers, Collins, Kil- 
lian, Sutton, Jackson. 

Caswell Training School — Brothers, chairman; Collins, Tatum, 
Griffin, Holding, Taylor of Edgecombe, Daniel of Greene, Coggins, 
Sanders, Hicks, Hewett. 

Claims — Oliver, chairman; Newell, Holding, Pegram, Barnes, Joy- 
ner, Taylor of Edgecombe, Cox of Currituck, Collins, Baldwin, Gran- 
tham, Ray of Chatham, Price of Rockingham, Covington, Council, 
Breece, Rogers, Sawyer, Scott of Pasquotank, Scott of Pender, Hicks, 
Haymore, Russell, Sutton. 

Constitutional Amendments — Grier, chairman; Ray of Macon; 
Doughton, Ward of Duplin, Daniel of Warren, Roberts of Buncombe, 
Dalton, Winborne, Dees, Pharr, McCrary, Haymore, Pritchard. 

Corporation Commission — Pearson, chairman; Ray of Macon, For- 
rest, Wright, Breece, Love, Renfrow, Baldwin, Home, Holding; 
Brothers, Darden, Taylor of Edgecombe, Galloway, Farish, Moore, 
Haymore, Widenhouse, Clark of Ashe, Ferguson. 

Corporations — Brummitt, chairman; Cox of Forsyth, Renfrow, 
Rankin, Withrow, Sawyer, Rogers, Pegram, Newell, Taylor of Hali- 
fax, Ferebee, Sellers, Matthews of Bertie, Grant of New Hanover, 
Joyner, Wright, Roberts of Rockingham, Somers, Bailey, King, John- 
son, Swain, Jackson, Russell, Killian. 

Counties, Cities, Towns, etc. — Gardner, chairman; Pearson, Crowell, 
Ray of Chatham, Scott of Pender, Matheson, Cox of Forsyth, Suttle- 
myre, Withrow, Griffin, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Renfrow, Collins, 
Hoyle, Bailey, MacRackin, Brothers, Daniel of Greene, Coggins, Mor- 
gan, Hinton, Joyner, Sellers, Shaw, Matthews of Bertie, Somers, 
Clark of Ashe, Hicks, Brock, Pritchard. 

Courts and Judicial Districts — Ray of Macon, chairman; Pharr, 
Grier, Roberts of Rockingham, Brummitt, Pegram, Ray of Chatham, 
Newell, Dees, Grant of New Hanover, Winborne, Matthews of Bertie, 
Breece, Hoyle, Prevette, Haymore, Ward of Duplin. 

Drainage — Clayton, chairman; Clark of Pitt, Grant of Onslow, Dail, 
Daniel of Greene, Hinton, Phillips, Matheson, Oliver, Council, Butt, 
MacRackin, Joyner, Ward of Sampson, Kiser, Sutton. 

Education— MdLerxAon, chairman; Butt, Dail, Ward of Duplin, 
Rankin, Wright, Grantham, Brothers, Cox of Forsyth, Ray of Macon, 
Flack, Collins, King, Daniel of Greene, Joyner, Griffin, Clark of Pitt, 



48 Legislative Department. 

Swain, Covington, Winston, Dees, Gardner, Roberts of Buncombe, 
Baldwin, Sellers, Beasley, Puett, Bowman, Pritchard, Lloyd, Killian, 
Swain, Hinton, Suttlemyre, Sawyer, Price of Rockingham, McCall. 

Election Lairs — Cox of Forsyth, chairman; Doughton, Ward of 
Duplin, Winborne, Grier, Ray of Macon, Breece, McLendon, Holding, 
Taylor of Halifax, Pharr, Dail, Sellers, Daniel of Warren, Roberts of 
Buncombe, Gardner, Brock, Hewett, Widenhouse. 

Emergency Committee, No. I — Winborne, chairman; Grant of New 
Hanover, Pharr, Doughton, Pritchard. 

Emergency Committee, No. 2 — Pegram, chairman; Grier, Daniel of 
Warren, Clark of Pitt, Haymore. 

Emergency Coinmittee, No. S — Winston, chairman; Roberts of Bun- 
combe, Ward of Duplin, Gardner, McBee, Holding, Price of Union, 
Dees, Dalton. Parish. 

Engrossed BiUs — Scott of Pasquotank, chairman; Collins, Scott of 
Pender, Clayton, Noland, Ferguson. 

Enrolled Bills — Sellers, chairman; Phillips, Butt, Stimpson, Mc- 
Call, Kiser, Ray of Macon, Matthews of Bertie. 

Expenditures of the House — Darden, chairman; Doughton, Stubbs, 
Grier, Cox of Currituck, Ferebee, Hinton, Dail. Taylor of Edgecombe, 
Matthews of Bertie. Winborne, Brummitt, Kittrell, Pritchard, Jack- 
son. 

Federal delations — Bailey, chairman; Pegram, Parish, Renfrew, 
Somers, Taylor of Edgecombe, Joyner, Hoyle, Breece, Sellers, Roberts 
of Rockingham, Beasley, McCrary, Pritchard. 

Finance — Doughton, chairman; Grier, Ray of Macon, Matthews of 
Mecklenburg, Brummitt, Dalton, Ward of Duplin. Roberts of Bun- 
combe, Parish, Johnson, Price of Rockingham. Daniel of Greene, 
Somers, Rankin, Dees, McLendon, Home, Beasley, Love, Collins, 
Griffin, Sellers, Shaw, Ferebee, Daniel of Warren, Jackson, Pritchard, 
Pickett. 

Fish and Fisheries — Winborne, chairman; Davis, Ferebee, Hinton. 
Hooker, Scott of Pasquotank, Clayton, Grant of Onslow, Dail, Gallo- 
way, Griffin. Grant of New Hanover, Tatum, Collins, Brothers, 
Matthews of Bertie, Taylor of Halifax, Joyner, Council, Scott of 
Pender, Russell, Prevette, Butt, Cox of Currituck. 

Game — Cox of Currituck, chairman; Ferebee, Davis, Swain, 
Joyner, Scott of Pasquotank, Griffin, Wright, Flack, Phillips, Grant 
of Onslow, Matheson, Russell, Pass, Pickett. 



House Committees. 49 

Committee on Recommendations Contained in the Message of the 
Governor — Pharr, chairman; Love, Doughton, Gardner, Ray of 
Macon, Ferebee, McCrary. 

Health — Page, chairman; Beasley, Wright, Farish, Crowsou, 
Tatum. Love, McLendon, Johnson, Holding, Brummitt, Joyner, 
Crowell, Pearson, Pritchard, Widenhouse, Ward of Sampson. 

Immigration — Holding, chairman; Pegram, Newell, King, Suttle- 
myre, Beasley, Ray of Chatham, Flack, Mauney, Oliver, Council, 
Shaw, Covington, Page, Hoyle, Dail, Stimpson, Somers, Coggins, 
Morgan, Brock, Ferguson. 

House Committee on Inauguration — Pegram, chairman; Winborne, 
Beasley, Roberts of Buncombe, Holding, Newell. 

Insane Asylums — Crowson, chairman; Holding, Tatum, Pearson, 
Matheson, Bowman, Taylor of Halifax, Daniel of Greene, Dail, 
Matthews of Mecklenburg, Butt, Beasley, Covington, Grantham, 
Rogers, Withrow, Johnson, Love, Flack, Suttlemyre, Hewett, Killian, 
Ferguson, Kernodle. 

Institution for the Blind — Tatum, chairman; Pearson, Barnes, 
King, Sanders, Shaw, Home, Forrest, Collins, Galloway, Somers, 
Price of Rockingham, Stimpson, Price of Union, Scott of Pasquotank, 
Brothers, Moore, Clark of Ashe, Pass, Lloyd, Kiser, Hicks, McCall, 
McLendon. 

Institution for Deaf and Dumb — Rankin, chairman; Ferebee, 
Joyner, Phillips, Covington, Council, Baldwin, Bowman, Dail, Moore, 
Taylor of Edgecombe, Grant of New Hanover, Rogers, Butt, Clayton, 
Morgan, Wilson, Coggins, Pickett, McBee, Widenhouse, Prevette, 
Crowson, Ward of Sampson. 

Instirance — Dalton, chairman; Love, Hurley, Flack, Clark of Pitt, 
Oliver, Hoyle, Ray of Chatham, Brothers, Griffin, Davis, Farish, Cox 
of Forsyth, Stimpson, Phillips, Puett, Pearson, Crowell, Clark of 
Ashe, Forrest, Pass, Hicks, Coffey, Swann. 

Internal Improvements — Covington, chairman; Page, Beasley, Phil- 
lips, Grier, Dalton, Farish, Matthews of Bertie, Ferebee, Newell, Mc- 
Lendon, Love, Rankin, Council, Dail, Morgan, McCrary, Pritchard, 
Pickett. 

Judiciary, No. l — Stubbs, chairman; Doughton, Grier, Ray of Chat- 
ham, Roberts of Buncombe, Ward of Duplin, Brummitt, Grant of 
New Hanover, Pharr, Hoyle, Cox of Currituck, Matthews of Bertie, 
Wright, Kittrell, Price of Union, Haymore, McCrary, Prevette, Brock, 
Dalton. 

4 



50 . Legislative Dkpahtjiext. 

Judiciary No. 2 — MacRackin, chairman; Ray of Macon, Daniel of 
Warren, Gardner, Dees, Clark of Pitt, Winborne, McLendon, Win- 
ston, Pegram. Newell, Davis, Roberts of Rockingham, Breece, Pritch- 
ard, McBee, Sutton, Swain, McCall. 

Justices of the Peace — Forrest, chairman; Ray of Chatham, Scott 
of Pender, Matheson, Cox of Forsyth, Phillips, Price of Rockingham, 
Taylor of Halifax, Scott of Pasquotank, Hurley, Home, Baldwin, 
Puett, Noland, Pritchard, Killian. 

Library — Moore, chairman; Clark of Pitt, Kittrell, Pharr, Pegram, 
Ferebee, Breece, Phillips, Russell, Coffey. 

Manufactures and Labor — Love, chairman; Rankin, Mauney, Dal- 
ton, Suttlemyre, Roberts of Rockingham, McLendon, Breece, Baldwin, 
Forrest, Dees, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Lloyd, Killian, McCrary. 

Military Affairs — Breece, chairman; McLendon, Ward of Duplin, 
Sellers, Doughton, Grantham, Brummitt, Wright, Noland, Pharr, 
Cox of Currituck, Council, Haymore, Russell. 

Mines and Mining — Mauney, chairman; Hurley, Forrest, Phillips, 
Renfrew, Price of Union, Flack, Ray of Macon, Withrow, Page, Hoyle, 
Noland, Pickett, McCall, Ferguson, McBee. 

Oyster Interests — Davis, chairman; Ferebee, Grant of Onslow, 
Dail, Clayton, Galloway, Griffin, Collins, Scott of Pasquotank, 
Matthews of Bertie, Grant of New Hanover, Hewett, Coffey. 

Fecial Institutions — Price of Union, chairman; Johnson, Beasley, 
Bowman, Harden, Taylor of Edgecombe, Grant of New Hanover, 
Bailey, Collins, Pegram, Crowell, Brothers, Davis, Griffin, Matheson, 
Saw^yer, Puett, Mauney, Moore, Dees, Ward of Sampson, Brock, Cof- 
fey, Doughton, Grier, Renfrew. 

Pe7isions — Winston, chairman; Mauney, Wilson, Renfrew, Darden, 
Taylor of Halifax, Daniel of Greene, Moore, Newell, Brummitt, Mc- 
Lendon, Grant of Onslow, Dail, Tatum, Barnes, Beasley, Cox of For- 
syth, Jackson, Heme, Shaw, Davis, Hewett, Ward of Sampson. 

Printing — Hurley, chairman; Beasley, Holding, Puett, Sanders, 
Dail, Forrest, Withrow, Noland, Rogers, Crowell, Wilson, Sawyer, 
Pass, Kernodle. 

Privileges and Elections — Clark of Pitt, chairman; Stubbs, Ray 
of Chatham, Grantham, Barnes, Newell, Breece, Hoyle, Covington, 
Baldwin, Council, Hinton. Joyner, Moore, Collins, Matheson, Flack, 
Suttlemyre, McCrary, Pritchard, Russell, Brock. 

Propositions and Grievances — Hooker, chairman; Home, Council, 
Cox of Currituck. MacRackin, Farish, Brummitt. Kittrell. Roberts of 



House Committees. 51 

Buncombe, Taylor of Edgecombe, Puett, Darden, Barnes, Collins, 
Brothers, Daniel of Greene, Griffin, Joyner, Grant of Onslow, Bald- 
win, Withrow, Phillips, Wilson, Swain, Johnson, Dees, Bailey, Pass, 
Swann, Jackson, Kernodle. 

Private and Public-Local Laivs — ■ Pharr, chairman; Daniel of 
Greene, Scott of Pender, Hoyle, Roberts of Rockingham, Noland, 
Flack, Collins, Suttlemyre, Matheson, Crowson, Cox of Forsyth, Ran- 
kin, Somers, Rogers, Morgan, Coggins, Lloyd, Sutton, Hicks, Clark 
of Ashe. 

Public Buildings and Grounds — Farish, chairman; Johnson, Broth- 
ers, Wright, Tatum, Clark of Pitt, Pearson, Taylor of Halifax, Mc- 
Call, Coffey. 

Public Roads and Turnpikes — Matthews of Mecklenburg, chair- 
man; Wright, Grier, McLendon, Beasley, Love, Winston, Rankin, 
Dail, Flack, Crowell, Withrow, Noland, Daniel of Warren, Taylor of 
Edgecombe, Taylor of Halifax, Cox of Forsyth, Phillips, Roberts of 
Rockingham, Brothers, Hurley, Covington, Scott of Pasquotank, Cof- 
fey, Widenhouse, Clark of Ashe. 

Regulation of Liquor Traffic — Beasley, chairman; Pegram, Bow- 
man, Page, Matheson, Clark of Pitt, Holding, Grier, Forrest, Home, 
Baldwin, Rankin, Shaw, Sellers, Council, Covington, Tatum, Broth- 
ers, Joyner, Hinton, Davis, Daniel of Greene, Collins, Hooker, Ward 
of Sampson, Hewett, Hicks. 

Regulation of Public Service Corporations — Daniel of Warren, 
chairman; Dees, Ward of Duplin, Stubbs, Pharr, Breece, Brummitt, 
Dalton, Roberts of Buncombe, Grier, Johnson, Price of Union, Jack- 
son, Sutton, Russell. 

Revision of the Latos — Roberts of Buncombe, chairman; Ray of 
Macon, Doughton, Stubbs, Daniel of Warren, Grier, Ward of Dup- 
lin, Pharr, Dees, McCrary, Pritchard, Ray of Chatham. 

Rules — Doughton, chairman; Stubbs, Grier, Price of Union, Pear- 
son, Haymore. 

Salaries and Fees — Grant of Onslow, chairman; Newell, Moore, 
. Barnes, Sawyer, Winston, Oliver, Hooker, Widenhouse, Swann. 

Trustees of the University — Wright, chairman; Dees, Davis, Cox 
of Currituck, Hoyle, Dalton, Ward of Duplin, Pharr, Taylor of Edge- 
combe, Love, Winborne, Doughton, Kittrell, McLendon, Pearson, 
Winston. Butt, McCrary, Pritchard. 



PART li. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. 



1. goveknor. 

2. Seceetaey of State. 

3. Teeasueee. 

4. AUDITOE. 

5. SuPEEINTENDENT OF PuBLIC InSTEUCTION. 

6. Attoeney-Geneeai,. 



THE GOVERNOR. 

Thomas W. Bickett, Governor. 

The Governor is the chief executive officer of the State. He is 
elected by the people for a term of four years. He receives a salary 
of $6,500 a year, and in addition is allowed annually $600 for travel- 
ing expenses, and a residence, with domestic servants. 

Article III, section 2, of the Constitution of North Carolina pre- 
scribes the following qualifications for the Governor: 

1. He must have attained the age of thirty years. 

2. He must have been a citizen of the United States for five years, 
and a resident of North Carolina for two years next before the elec- 
tion. 

3. No person shall be eligible for the office of Governor for more 
than four years in any term of eight years, unless he becomes Gov- 
ernor by having been Lieutenant-Governor or President of the 
Senate. 

The same qualifications apply to the office of Lieutenant-Governor. 
The Constitution prescribes the powers and duties of the Governor 
as follows: 

1. To take the oath of office prescribed for the Governor. 

2. To reside at the seat of government; to keep the General As- 
sembly informed respecting the affairs of the State; and to recom- 
mend to the General Assembly such measures as he deems expedient. 

3. To grant reprieves, commutations and pardons (except In cases 
of impeachment), and to report each case of reprieve, commutation, 
or pardon to the General Assembly. 

4. To receive reports from all officials of the Executive Depart- 
ments and of public institutions, and to transmit the same to the 
General Assembly. 

5. He is commander-in-chief of the militia of the State, except 
when they are called into the service of the United States. 

6. To call extra sessions of the General Assembly when he thinks 
necessary, by and with the advice of the Council of State. 

7. To appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
all officers whose offices are established by the Constitution and 
whose appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

8. To keep "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina," and 
use the same as occasion shall require. 



56 Executivt: Dep^vbtmexts. 

r 

He has no veto power, being the only Governor in the United 
States without such power. 
In addition to these duties the following are prescribed by statute: 

1. To supervise the official conduct of all executive and adminis- 
trative officers, and to visit all State institutions whenever he 
deems such visitation necessary to inquire into their management 
and needs. 

2. To see that all public offices are filled and their duties per- 
formed. 

3. To make appointments and supply vacancies not otherwise pro- 
vided for in all departments. 

4. To be the sole official organ of communication between the gov- 
ernment of this State and other States or the government of the 
United States. 

5. To use the civil and military power of the State to prevent the 
violation of the statute against prize-fighting in North Carolina. 

6. To convene the Council of State for consultation whenever he 
deems it necessary. 

7. To appoint a Private Secretary, who shall keep a record of all 
public letters written by or to the Governor in books provided for 
that purpose. 

8. To cause to be kept the following records: a register of all ap- 
plications for pardon or for commutation of any sentence; an ac- 
count of his official expenses, and the rewards offered by him for 
the apprehension of criminals, which shall be paid upon the warrant 
of the Auditor. 

9. Under certain conditions to employ counsel for the State. 

10. To appoint by proclamation one day in each year as a day of 
solemn and public thanksgiving to Almighty God for past blessings 
and of supplication for His continued kindness and care over us as 
a State and a Nation. 

11. To procure a seal for each department of the State Govern- 
ment to be used in such manner as may be established by law. 

In addition to the above duties the Governor is, ex officio, chair- 
man of the State Board of Education, of the Board of Public Build- 
ings and Grounds, of the State Board of Pensions, of the State Board 
of Internal Improvements, of the North Carolina Geological Board, 



Secretaky of State. 57 

of the Board of Trustees of the State Library, of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the University of North Carolina, of the State Text-book 
Commission, of the committee to let the contract for State printing, 
and of the State Board of Canvassers. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE. 

J. Bryan Grimes, Secretary of State. 

The Secretary of State is at the head of the Department of State. 
He is elected by the people for a term of four years and receives a 
salary of $3,500. He is, ex officio, a member of the Council of State, 
of the State Board of Education, of the State Text-book Commission, 
of the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, and is a trustee of 
the public libraries. 

The Secretary of State countersigns all commissions issued by 
the Governor, and is charged with the custody of all statutes and 
joint resolutions of the Legislature, all documents which pass under 
the Great Seal, and of all books, records, deeds, parchments, maps 
and papers now deposited in his office or which may hereafter be 
there deposited pursuant to law. 

Through the Secretary of State all corporations for business or 
charitable purposes under the general laws of the State are char- 
tered. This includes mercantile, manufacturing, banking, insurance, 
railroad, street car, electric, steamboat, and other companies. The 
certificates of incorporation are there filed and recorded. In the 
last two years there have been 1888 certificates for domestic cor- 
porations filed in the office of the Secretary of State on which 
$38,673.35 organization or dissolution taxes have been paid. In the 
last two years 40 banks have been incorporated and 12 railroad com- 
panies have filed articles of association or amendment with the Sec- 
retary of State. Foreign corporations, before being permitted to do 
business in North Carolina, are required to file copies of their char- 
ters in the office of the Secretary of State. 

All bills passed by the General Assembly are enrolled for ratifi- 
cation under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of State, 
and shall be typewritten or written with pen and ink, in the discre- 
tion of the Secretary of State. All bills are now typewritten, which 
change is very much in the interest of economy and accuracy. 
Copyists in the enrolling office are paid ten cents a copy sheet for 



58 Executive Departments. 

original and one carbon copy. The carbon copy is sent to the State 
Printer, from which copy are published the laws, resolutions, etc. 
An assistant to the Secretary of State prepares these laws for publi- 
cation, determines which are "public," "public-local," and which are 
"private"; side-notes them and prepares the captions and indexes 
the laws of the session. This work has grown very much in the 
last few years. 

The Secretary of State is charged with the work of distributing 
the Supreme Court Reports, The Revisal, Session Laws, Journals, etc. 

The Secretary of State furnishes to the various precincts, coun- 
ties, and boards all books, blanks, forms, and other printed matter 
necessary for holding elections; prepares blanks for the State Board 
of Canvassers and issues certificates of election to such persons as 
are declared elected by the State Board of Canvassers. He also 
keeps in his office a permanent roll of the voters of the precincts 
and counties who registered under the "grandfather clause" of the 
Constitution. 

All vacant and unappropriated land in North Carolina is subject 
to entry by residents or citizens of the State. Almost all the vacant 
land in the State has been granted to individuals or is the property 
of the State Board of Education, but small tracts are frequently 
discovered and entries for same made. The warrants, plats, and 
surveys and a record of grants for all lands originally granted by the 
Lords Proprietors, by the Crown of Great Britain, or by the State of 
Xorth Carolina, are preserved in the office of the Secretary of State. 

The General Assembly of 1909 increased the price of these lands 
to $1.50 an acre, and provided "that all lands entered under this 
act for which a grant has been obtained at the price of $1.50 an acre 
shall be free from all claims, title and interest now vested in the 
State of North Carolina or the State Board of Education." 

All automobiles in the State are required to be registered annually 
by the Secretary of State on or before the 1st of July. For the year 
ending June 30, 1917, there have been registered in his office 
from July 1st to November 30th, 33,904 automobiles. There has 
been paid into the State Treasury from this source for the two fiscal 
years ending November 30, 1916, $333,177.20. 

For the two years ending November 30, 1916, the collections made 
in the Secretary of State's office, paid into the State Treasury, were 
$410,410.00. 



State Treasueee. 59 

In the last few years the work in this office has been greatly in- 
creased, everything has been indexed and systematically filed, and 
the dangerous and unsightly paper boxes and files in wooded cup- 
boards have been replaced with steel, fireproof cases. 



TKEASUEY DEPARTMENT. 

B. R. Lacy, State Treasurer. 

The State Treasury is one of the Executive Departments of the 
State Government. The State Treasurer is elected by the people for 
a term of four years. His term of office begins the first day of Jan- 
uary next after his election and continues until his successor is 
elected and qualified. He receives a salary of $3,500 per annum. 

The duties of the State Treasurer as prescribed by law are as 
follows: 

1. To keep his office in the city of Raleigh and attend there be- 
tween the hours of 10 o'clock a. m. and 3 o'clock p. m., except Sun- 
days and legal holidays. 

2. To receive all moneys that may be paid into the Treasury of 
the State; to pay interest on State bonds and all warrants legally 
drawn on the Treasury by the Auditor, and to report to the Gov- 
ernor and the General Assembly the financial condition of the State, 
including a summary of the receipts and disbursements for each 
fiscal year. 

3. To make complete revenue bill to cover estimated expenses and 
recommend the tax rate. 

4. To construe Revenue and Machinery Acts. 



60 



Executive Depautments. 



SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS IN STATE TREASURER'S 
OFFICE DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDING NOVEMBER 30, 1916. 



Balance General Fund December 1, 1915 

Balance Educational Fund December 1, 1915 .. 


S2, 234, 048 .87 
420,648.84 


$ 130,008.20 
3,426.89 


S 133,435.09 


Receipts: 

Ad Valorem Taxes: 

General Purposes- - 


.52,654,697.71 

1,199,833.29 
1,116,347.87 


Pensions 








Corporations 


S 166,-391.74 

27,151.23 

805,038.65 

1,395.40 

2,978.75 

196,877.52 




Fees - - 




Licenses . . _ . 




Refunds . 




Seal Tax 




Miscellaneous 








Specific Purposes 


8 993,831.61 
122,516.26 




Federal Funds 










S 355,409.15 

469,. 392 .00 

352,087.84 

24,452.68 

627,3,50.00 

397,944.45 

287 .46 

375,000.00 

58,404.69 

92,028.06 

34,132.28 

1,664,217.58 
248,834.20 
180,424.74 


4,970,878.87 
122,916.28 


Board of Education.. .. 


§4,879,965.07 
122,642.09 






DiSBURSEMEXT.S: 

Agriculture. . . .... 


15,227,230.24 


Confederate Soldiers ..... 




Departments (various State) 




Fisheries. _. . .. . .. 




Hospitals and Homes . 




Interest . .. . .. 




Legislature ... 




Loans to State paid. 




National Guarc . ... 




Paper, Printing, Postage, Stationery 




Public Schools S 802,856.01 

Schools and Colleges 861,361.57 




State's Prison 




Miscellaneous 








Board of Education.. 








5,002,607.16 




$ 220,922.00 
3,701.08 


Balance both Funds December 1, 1916. 


S 224,623.08 


Balance General Fund . . 




Balance Educational Fund .. 






S 224,623.08 












State Auditor. 61 

AlDITOirS DEPARTMENT. 

W. P. Wood, State Auditor. 

The Department of the State Auditor is one of the Executive De- 
partments of the State Government. The Auditor is elected for a 
term of four years by the qualified voters of the State, at the same 
time and places and in the same manner as members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly are elected. His term of office begins on the first 
day of January next after his election and continues until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. (Constitution of North Carolina, 
Article III, section 1.) His duties as prescribed by law are as fol- 
lows (Revisal of 1905, section 5365): 

1. To superintend the fiscal concerns of the State. 

2. To report to the Governor annually, and to the General As- 
sembly at the beginning of each biennial session thereof, a complete 
statement of the funds of the State, of its revenues and of the 
public expenditures during the preceding fiscal year, and, as far as 
practicable, an account of the same down to the termination of the 
current calendar year, together with a detailed estimate of the ex- 
penditures to be defrayed from the Treasury for the ensuing fiscal 
year, specifying therein each object of expenditure and distinguish- 
ing between such as are provided for by permanent or temporary 
appropriations and such as must be provided for by a new statute, 
and suggesting the means from which such expenditures are to be 
defrayed. 

3. To suggest plans for the improvement and management of the 
public revenue. 

4. To keep and state all accounts in which the State is interested. 

5. To examine and settle the accounts of all persons indebted to 
the State, and to certify the amount of balance to the Treasurer. 

6. To direct and superintend the collection of all moneys due to 
the State. 

7. To examine and liquidate the claims of all persons against the 
State, in cases where there is sufficient provision of law for the 
payment thereof, and where there is no sufficient provision, to ex- 
amine the claim and report the fact, with his opinion thereon, to 
the General Assembly. 

8. To require all persons who have received any moneys belonging 
to the State, and have not accounted therefor, to settle their ac- 
counts. 



62 Executive Departments. 

9. To have the exclusive power and authority to issue all war- 
rants for the payment of money upon the State Treasurer; and it 
shall be the Auditor's duty, before issuing the same, to examine the 
laws authorizing the payment thereof, and satisfy himself of the 
correctness of the accounts of persons applying for warrants and to 
this end he shall have the power to administer oaths, and he shall 
also file in his office the voucher upon which the warrant is drawn 
and cite the law upon said warrant. 

10. To procure from the books of the banks in which the Treas- 
urer makes his deposits monthly statements of the moneys received 
and paid on account of the Treasurer. 

11. To keep an account between the State and the Treasurer, and 
therein charge the Treasurer with the balance in the Treasury when 
he came into office, and with all moneys received by him, and credit 
him with all warrants drawn or paid by him. 

12. To examine carefully on the first Tuesday of every month, or 
oftener if he deems it necessary, the accounts of the debits and 
credits in the bank book kept by the Treasurer, and if he discovers 
any irregularity or deficiency therein, unless the same be rectified or 
explained to his satisfaction, to report the same forthwith in writ- 
ing to the Governor. 

13. To require, from time to time, all persons who have received 
moneys or securities, or have had the disposition or management 
of any property of the State, of which an account is kept in his 
office, to render statements thereof to him; and all such persons shall 
render such statements at such time and in such form as he shall 
require. 

14. To require any person presenting an account for settlement to 
be sworn before him and to answer orally as to any facts relating to 
its correctness. 

In addition to the above, the State Auditor is a member of the 
Council of State, of the State Board of Education, of the State Text- 
book Commission, of the State Board of Pensions, and ex offlHo Sec- 
retary of the Soldiers' Home. All pension matters are managed in 
this department; all applications for pensions examined, and all 
pension warrants issued to more than fifteen thousand pensioners. 
The Auditor keeps the accounts of the Soldiers' Home. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 63 

PENSIONS FOR CONFEDERATE \T:TERANS. 

The first pension law was passed by the Legislature of 1885. It 
appropriated $30,000 annually for certain classes of disabled Con- 
federate soldiers. This appropriation has been increased from time 
to time, until the annual appropriation now amounts to $500,000. 

We have now on the pension roll of North Carolina in round 
numbers 15,000 pensioners, an increase of about 10,000 since 1900. 

To totally blind and disabled Confederate soldiers the law allows 
$120 each per year. That class received $13,280 in 1907. 

The Soldiers' Home was organized by the Legislature of 1891, and 
there was expended that year $2,250. That has gradually increased 
from year to year until the last Legislature appropriated $35,000 
for maintenance and $4,500 for building purposes. 



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 

James Y. Joyner, Superintendent. 

The Department of Education is one of the Executive Departments 
of the State Government. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
head of the department, is elected by the people for a term of four 
years. His term begins on the first of January next after his elec- 
tion and continues until his successor has been elected and qualified. 
His salary is $3,000 per annum, and in addition he is allowed "actual 
traveling expenses" when engaged in the performance of his official 
duties. 

Section XLI of the Constitution of North Carolina of 1776 is as 
follows: "That a school or schools be established by the Legisla- 
ture, for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to 
the masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at 
low prices, and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and 
promoted in one or more universities." 

Except for the establishment of the University of North Caro- 
lina, no attempt was made by the Legislature to carry out this in- 
junction of the Constitution until nearly three-quarters of a century 
had elapsed. The first efforts w^ere a failure, and nothing definite 
was accomplished until the creation of a Department of Education 
by the election in 1851 of Calvin H. Wiley Superintendent of Common 



64 Executive Departments. 

Schools. He entered upon the duties of his office in January, 1852, 
and was continued in office until October 19, 1865. The following 
figures tell the story of his work: Number of teachers in 1852, 800; 
in 1855, 2,064; in 1860, 2,286. Enrollment in the schools in 1853, 
83,373; in 1855, 115,856; in 1860, 116,567. Number of schools taught 
in 1855, 1,905; 1860, 2,854. School fund in 1853, $192,250; in 1860, 
$408,566. Expenditures in 1853, $139,865; in 1860, $255,641. The 
schools were kept open throughout the war, and in 1863 enrolled 
more than 50,000 pupils. In 1865, as one of the results of the war, 
the office of Superintendent of Common Schools was abolished. 

By the Constitution of 1868 the office of Superintendent of Public 
Instruction was created, and the Department of Education made one 
of the Constitutional Departments of the State Government. Since 
that time the following have filled the office: S. S. Ashley, Alexan- 
der Mclver, Stephen D. Pool, John C. Scarborough, Sidney M. Finger, 
Charles H. Mebane, Thomas F. Toon, and James Y. Joyner. 

The scope and general nature of the work of this department can 
be best understood from the following summary of the general pow- 
ers and duties of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction: 

The Superintendent is required to publish the school law, make a 
biennial report to the Governor, keep his office at the capital, and 
sign all orders for money paid out of State Treasury for educational 
purposes. He has general direction of the school system and the 
enforcement of the school law, all school officers being required to 
obey his instructions and his interpretation of the law. He is re- 
quired to be acquainted with the educational conditions of all sec- 
tions of the State, and he must also keep in touch with the educa- 
tional progress of other States. 

In addition to these general duties, the State Superintendent has 
the following duties: Supervision and control of normal depart- 
ment of Cullowhee High School, Rev. 1905, 4228; secretary Text- 
book Commission, Rev. 1905, 4057; trustee of State Library, Rev. 
1905, 5069; president of board of directors State Normal and Indus- 
trial College, Rev. 1905, 4252; chairman of trustees of East Carolina 
Training School, Laws 1907; chairman State Board of Examiners, 
Laws 1907; prescribes course of study for public high schools, Laws 
1907; makes rules and regulations for rural libraries. Rev. 1905, 
4175; and member board of trustees of Appalachian Training School, 
Laws 1907. 



Superintendent of Pxtblic Instruction. 



65 



SCHOOL FUND AND SOURCES, 1914-1915. 





Rural 1 City 


North 
Carolina 


Revenue Receipts: 

From general county property and poll 
taxes, 1914-'15 _. . 


$1,769,031.59 S 486.749.01 


$ 2,255,780.60 




602,839.41 
162,894.17 

241,217.98 

385,726.16 

89,000.00 

42,771.69 

44,030.61 


849,231.36 
1,054.55 


1,4.52,070.77 


Fines, forfeitures and penalties, 1914-'15 

State $250,000 per capita appropriation, 
1914-'15 . 


163,948.72 
241,217.98 


State equalizing fund appropriation, 1914- 

1915 




385,726.16 


Appropriation for high schools and farm 
life schools, 1914-' 15 


6,300.00 

4,342.57 

40,770.52 


95,300.00 


Private donations and State appropria- 
tions for libraries, 1914-'15 

Tuitions and all other revenue sources, 
1914-'15 


47,114.26 
84,801.13 






Total revenue receipts 

Non-eevenue Receipts: 


$3,337,511.61 
$ 64,710.33 


SI, 388, 448 .01 
$ 297,817.34 


$ 4,725,959.62 
$ 362,527.67 


From State loan fund 


94,800.00 7.000.00 


101,800.00 


Borrowed from banks, etc., (temporary 
loans^ - - -_ 


311,985.26 
17,830.58 


368,035.23 
4,575.45 


680,020.49 


Sale of school property, insurance, and all 
other non-revenue receipts, 1914-'15 


22,406.03 




S 779,317.47 
289,991.30 


$ 940,046 55 
262,6)8.53 


$ 1,719,364.02 


Balance brought forward July 1, 1914 


552,609.83 






Grand total of all receipts, 1914-'15... 


$4,116,829.08 


$2,328,494.56 


$ 6,445,323.64 



On account of a change in the form of the above table and the 
adoption of a more detailed distribution of the various items, it is 
impossible to follow the usual custom of making direct comparisons 
of the various items for the preceding year. For information, how- 
ever, the receipts as shown for the year 1913-1914 are given below: 



06 



Executive Departments. 



SCHOOL FUND AND SOURCES FOR THE YEAR BEGINNING JULY 1, 1913, AND 

ENDING JUNE 30, 1914. 




North 
Carolina 



Balance from 1912-'13 S 277,333.03 

Local tax, 1913-'U 544,582.48 

Loans, bonds, etc., 1913-'14 289,251.83 

County fund, 1913-'14 2,146,010.05 

Special State appropriations for elementary ' 

schools, 1913-'14 .._! 628,783.03 

Special State appropriations, rural public i 

high schools, 1913-'14 ._ ' 86,375 00 

Private donations. State appropriations for 

libraries, etc., 1913-'14 ' 40,153.46 

Total available school fund, 1913-'14 §4,012,488.86 §2,107,113.86 S6, 119, 602. 72 



158,200.96 
823,366.17 
578,858.18 
492,820.81 



53.867.74 



435,533.99 
367,948.65 
868,110.01 
638,830.86 



628,783.03 
86,375.00 
04,021.20 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



67 



SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1914-1915. 





Rural 


City 


North 
Carolina 


Expenses (Cost of Conducting School System): 
Total expenditures, 1914-'l5 


S3, 903, 191 .98 


§2,229,021.78 
1,944,483.63 


$ 6,132,213.76 
5,566,992.89 


Total expenditures, 1913-'14 


3,622,509.26 


Increase 


S 280 682 72 


S 284,538.15 

$1,113,741.19 
1,019,482.92 


1 565,220.87 

$ 3,732,6.59.42 
3,428,227.94 


Teaching and supervision, 1914-'15 

Teaching and supervision, 1913-'14 


$2,618,918.23 
2,408,745.02 


Increase 

Spent for administration, 1914-'15 

Spent for administration, 1913-'14 


$ 210,173.21 

S 164,731 ..52 
186,764.72 


S 94,258.27 

$ 35,437.94 
31,646.81 


8 304,431.48 

$ 200,169.46 
218 411 53 






Increase - . - . 


S *22,033.20 

$ 123,240.65 
t 


8 3,791.13 

•S 159,108.75 

t 


8 *18, 242.08 
8 282,3494 


Operation and maintenance of plants, 1914- 
1915 .. 


Operation and maintenance of plants, 1913- 
1914 


j 






Increase .. . -. 


$ 123,240.65 

$ 639,116.04 
790,379.45 


$ 159,108.75 

•S 595,349.33 
622,332.98 


$ 282,349.40 


Outlays (For Permanent Improvements, Re- 
payment of Bonds, Etc.): 
Outlay payments for new buildings, sites, 
and repairs, 1914-'15 . 


8 1,234,466.27 


Outlay payments for new buildings, sites, 
and reoairs, 1913-'14 . - . . 


1,412,713.43 






Increase— ._ - . 


S *151,262.51 

$ 357,184.84 
236,620.07 


$ *28,983.65 

$ 325,384.57 
271,020.94 


8 178,246.16 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 1914- 
1915 . 


8 682, .569 .21 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 1913- 
1914 


507,641.01 








S 120,564.57 
213,637.10 

67.1 

4.2 

3.2 
1.63 
16.3 

9.2 


S 54,363.63 
99,472.78 

50 
1.6 

7.1 
26.7 
26.7 
14.6 


8 174,928.20 


Balance on hand, June 30, 1915 


313,109.88 


Percentage spent for teaching and supervision- 
Percentage spent for administration 


61 
3.2 


Percentage spent for operation and mainte- 
nance 

Percentage spent for new buildings and equip- 
ment 

Percentage spent for repaying borrowed money- 


4.6 
20.1 
20.1 
11.1 



'Decrease. 

flncluded under heading " New Buildings and Supplies" in 1914. 



68 



Executive Departments. 



MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS, 1914-1915. 



Total school population 

Total enrollment 

Total average daily attendance 

Total number rural schools 

Total number teachers 

Average term of all schools in days 

Total nunihor schoolhouses 

Total value of school property 

Average value of all schoolhouses.. 
Average annual salary of teachers.. 



Rural 



645,314 

502,676 

333,286 

7,818 

11,447 

113.3 

7,719 

S5, 738, 209 .75 

S 743 .39 

$ 218.87 



City 



156,083 

103,674 

76,854 



2,428 

169.6 

330 

54,695,907.11 

i 14,230.02 

i 421.41 



North 
Carolina 



801,397 

606,350 

410,140 

7,818 

13,875 

123 

8,049 

SIO, 434, 116.86 

S 1,2M.32 

•S 253.12 



DEPARTMEIVT OF JUSTICE. 

James S. Manning, Attorney-General, Raleigh. 



The Attorney-General is a member of the Executive Department 
of the State Government. He is elected by the people for a term of 
four years. His term begins the first of January next after his elec- 
tion and continues until his successor is elected and qualified. He 
receives a salary of $3,000 per annum. 

It is the duty of the Attorney-General: 

1. To defend all actions in the Supreme Court in which the State 
shall be interested, or is a party; and, also, when requested by the 
Governor or either branch of the General Assembly, to appear for 
the State in any other court or tribunal in any cause or matter, civil 
or criminal, in which the State may be a party or interested. 

2. At the request of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
Auditor, Corporation Commissioners, Insurance Commissioner, or 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, he shall prosecute and defend 
all suits relating to matters connected with their departments. 

3. To represent all State institutions, including the State Prison, 
whenever requested so to do by the official head of any such insti- 
tution. 



Attorney-General. 69 

4. To consult with and advise the solicitors, when requested by 
them, in all matters pertaining to the duties of their ofllce. 

5. To give, when required, his opinion upon all questions of law 
submitted to him by the General Assembly, or either branch thereof, 
or by any official of the State. 

6. To pay all moneys received for debts due or penalties to the 
State immediately after the receipt thereof, into the Treasury. 

The Attorney-General is also a member of the State Board of Edu- 
cation, of the State Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, of the 
State Board of Pensions, and of the State Text-book Commission, 
and is the legal adviser of the Council of State. 



PART III. 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



1. Court of Impeachment. 
5, Supreme Court. 

3. Superior Courts. 

4. Other Inferior Courts. 

5. Corporation Commission. 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The judicial power of the State is vested in: 

1. A Court for the Trial of Impeachments. 

2. A Supreme Court. 

3. The Superior Courts. 

4. Courts of Justices of the Peace. 

5. Such other inferior courts as may be established by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 



COLKT OF IMPEACHMEJfT. 

Article IV, section 3, of the Constitution of North Carolina pro- 
vides that the court for the trial of impeachment shall be the Senate. 
A majority of the members are necessary to a quorum, and the judg- 
ment shall not extend beyond removal from, and disqualification to 
hold, office in North Carolina; but the party shall be liable to in- 
dictment and punishment according to law. The House of Repre- 
sentatives solely has the power of impeaching. No person shall be 
convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice pre- 
sides. The following causes, or charges, are sufficient, when proven, 
to warrant conviction: (1) corruption in office; (2) habitual drunk- 
enness; (3) intoxication while in the exercise of office; (4) drunk- 
enness in any public place; (5) mental or physical incompetence 
to discharge the duties of office; (6) any criminal matter the con- 
viction whereof would tend to bring the office into public contempt. 

Only once in the history of the State has the High Court of Im- 
peachment been organized for the purpose of impeaching the Gov- 
ernor. This was in 1870, when the House of Representatives im- 
peached Governor W. W. Holden before the Senate, for "high crimes 
and misdemeanors." The trial was conducted on both sides by the 
most eminent lawyers of the State, and resulted in the conviction of 
the Governor and his removal from office. In 1901 similar charges 
of impeachment were preferred against Chief Justice David M. 
Furches and Associate Justice Robert M. Douglas, but both were 
acquitted 



74 Judicial Depakttvient. 

THE SUPKExlIE COUKT. 

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four associate 
justices elected by the qualified voters of the State for a term of 
eight years. 

The Constitution of 1776 required the General Assembly to "ap- 
point judges of the Supreme Courts of Law and Equity, Judges of 
Admiralty, and Attorney-General," who were commissioned by the 
Governor and held office during good behavior. Acting under this 
authority, the General Assembly in 1776 divided the State into six 
judicial districts. In 1782 a seventh district, and in 1787 an eighth 
district were added. Under the act of 1777 three judges, Samuel 
Ashe, Samuel Spencer, and James Iredell, were chosen. The judges 
rode the circuits separately, but sat together as an appellate court. 
In 1790 the eight judicial districts were divided into an eastern 
and a western riding, and a fourth judge was added, two being as- 
signed to each riding. In each riding the two judges sat together as 
an appellate court. In 1797 the General Assembly created an ex- 
traordinary court for the purpose of trying the Secretary of State 
and other officials who had been discovered confederating with 
others in an elaborate scheme for defrauding the State by issuing 
fraudulent land warrants. For trial of these criminals the General 
Assembly deemed it expedient to create a new court to sit at Raleigh 
twice a year, not exceeding ten days at each term. The court was 
authorized to hear appeals of causes which had accumulated in the 
d.istrict courts. The existence of this court under the act was tO 
expire at the close of the session of the General Assembly next after 
June 10, 1802, but before the expiration of this time the General As- 
sembly continued the court for three years longer, for the purpose 
of hearing appeals from the district courts, and gave to it the name 
of "Court of Conference." By an act of 1804 the court was made a 
permanent Court of Record. The judges were ordered to reduce 
their opinions to writing and to deliver the same viva voce in open 
court. The next year (1805) the name of the court was changed to 
the Supreme Court. In 1810 the judges were authorized to elect one 
of their members a Chief Justice, John Louis Taylor being chosen 
to that office. The Supreme Court now consisted of six judges, but 
two continued to be a quorum, and all the judges still rode the cir- 
cuits. 



Supreme and Other Courts. 75 

In 1818 an act was passed establishing the present Supreme Court 
and requiring it to sit in Raleigh for the hearing of appeals. The act 
provided for three judges to be elected by the General Assembly. 
John Louis Taylor, Leonard Henderson, and John Hall composed the 
first court, which began its sessions January 1, 1819. The judges 
elected their own Chief Justice, Taylor being continued in that 
ofllce. The number of judges continued to be three until 1868, when 
the Constitution adopted by the convention of that year increased 
the number to a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices. The Con- 
vention of 1875 reduced it again to three, but by an amendment 
adopted in 1888 the number was raised to a Chief Justice and four 
Associate Justices, where it has continued until the present time. 
The Supreme Court holds annually two sessions of sixteen weeks, 
one beginning the first Monday in September, the other the first 
Monday in February. 

The court is authorized to choose its own clerk, marshal, reporter 
and other oflBcers. 



SUPERIOR COURTS. 

There are twenty Superior Court judges, one for each of the twenty 
circuits, or judicial districts, who are elected by the people and hold 
their offices for a term of eight years. The Superior Court has appel- 
late jurisdiction of all issues of law or of fact determined by a clerk 
of the Superior Court or justice of the peace, and of all appeals from 
inferior courts for error assigned in matters of law as provided by 
law. In the matter of original jurisdiction the law is: 

"The Superior Court shall have original jurisdiction of the civil 
actions whereof exclusive original jurisdiction is not given to some 
other court, and of all criminal actions in which the punishment may 
exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days; and 
of all such affrays as shall be committed within one mile of the place 
where and during the time such court is being held." 



OTHER COURTS. 

The Constitution gives to the General Assembly power to establish 
other courts inferior to the Supreme and Superior Courts, and to 
allot and distribute to them such powers and jurisdiction, within 



76 Judicium. Depabtment. 

constitutional limits, as it sees fit. From the decision of these 
inferior courts the Legislature has power to provide a proper system 
of appeals. 

The Constitution also requires the General Assembly to provide 
for the establishment of special courts for the trial of misdemeanors 
in cities and towns where the same may be necessary. 

Such courts are the mayors of cities and incorporated towns. 
Their election or appointment is usually provided for in the charters 
of incorporation, the acts of the General Assembly prescribing how 
particular towns and cities shall be governed. 

The jurisdiction of such special courts — also called in the law. 
Inferior courts — is usually set forth in the charters. 

The general law also provides that "the mayor of every city and 
incorporated town * * * within the corporate limits of his city or 
town, shall have the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace in all 
criminal matters arising under the laws of the State or under the 
ordinances of such city or town." 

Justices of the peace, in their respective counties, try (1) that 
class of civil actions which involve demands for small debts and 
property of little value and (2) that class of criminal actions, called 
petty misdemeanors, which involve only slight punishment. 

They try all cases of contract or promise to pay money where the 
sum demanded does not exceed two hundred dollars. 

They may try certain other civil actions where the value of the 
property in controversy or the amount claimed for damages does not 
exceed fifty dollars. 

They try criminal cases arising within their counties the punish- 
ment of which fixed by law cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or 
imprisonment for thirty days. 



NORTH CAROLINA CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

A. J. Maxwell, Clerk. 

The North Carolina Corporation Commission was established by 
an act of the General Assembly of 1899, superseding the Railroad 
Commission, which was established in 1891. The offices of the Com- 
mission now occupy the entire first floor of the remodeled State De- 
partments Building. 

Membership: E. L. Travis, chairman, Halifax County; W. T. Lee, 
Haywood County; George P. Pell, Forsyth County. 



CoRPOKATioN Commission. 77 

The Commission has general supervision over all railroad, tele- 
graph, telephone, street railway, steamboat, canal, waterworks, and 
all other companies exercising the right of ■ eminent domain, and 
also, under act of 1913, of electric light, power, water, and gas com- 
panies. 

It is authorized to hear and adjust complaints, to fix and revise 
tariffs of all railroads and all other transportation companies. 

The Commission is a Board of Appraisers and Assessors for all 
the railroads and other corporations mentioned above, and also 
assesses for ad valorem taxation the value of the capital stock of all 
North Carolina corporations. 

The Commission is also a State Tax Commission, having and ex- 
ercising general supervision over the tax listers and assessing of- 
ficers of the State. 

In 1899 the Commission was given supervision of all State banks. 
Since that time there have been very few failures of State banks in 
which creditors lost anything. State banks have increased in num- 
ber during the last ten years from 253 to 437, with a corresponding 
increase in resources. The Commission has authority to appoint 
Bank Examiners, whose duties are to examine the various banks of 
the State and report to the Commission. Three examiners are now 
regularly employed in this work. 

COMPLAINTS. 

The Commission has heard 5,098 formal complaints. These com- 
plaints consist principally of overcharges, discriminations, freigjit 
service, failure of railroad companies to provide cars for transport- 
ing freights, storage charges, petitions for depots and sidings. 

The Commission now has a regular department, in charge of an 
experienced freight rate clerk, for the handling and adjustment of 
all claims by shippers for overcharges in freight rates. 

The Commission is authorized to make rules for the handling of 
freight, and to require the building of depots, etc. 

When the complaint is filed, the attention of the company cem- 
plained against is called to the cause of the complaint; and if the 
matter be such that it cannot be settled by correspondence alono, the 
officers of the company complained against are cited to appear. In a 
large majority of cases these claims are amicably settled to the en- 
tire satisfaction of the parties concerned and without cost to the 
complainant; others have, however, required hearings. The records 



78 Judicial Department. 

of the Commission show that many complaints and claims, aggre- 
gating thousands of dollars, have been paid to shippers. Union and 
other stations have been established all along the various lines of 
railroads. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The correspondence of the office has been voluminous — many in- 
quiries touching taxation and matters pertaining to corporations, etc. 
Shippers have found that by applying to this office they can be ad- 
vised of the proper freight rates and of the rules governing the 
transportation of freight to and from all points, and they are taking 
advantage of the opportunity. Much correspondence is necessary in 
the preparation of cases and the gathering of such statistics as are 
contemplated by law. All of this involves a vast amount of labor 
and correspondence. 

ASSESSMENT AND VALUATION OF RAILROAD, TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE AND 
STREET RAILWAY PROPERTY BY THE CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

In the year 1900 — the year after the Commission was established — 
the railroad properties of the State were valued at $12,321,704; in 
the year 1911 the Commission assessed and valued the properties of 
railroads and other corporations as mentioned below at $131,022,968. 

The valuations are as follows: 



Corporation Commission. 



79 



ASSESSMENT AND VALUATION OF RAILROAD, TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE, 
STREET RAILWAY, STEAMBOAT, AND OTHER PROPERTY. 



Companies 



Mileage 



Main 
Line 



Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. 

Norfolk Southern Railroad 

Norfolk Sovithern Railroad — A. and N. C. Division. 

Seaboard Air Line Railway 

Southern Railway — owned lines 

Southern Railway — leased, etc 

Miscellaneous Railroads 



Totals 4,888.31 



Electric light and gas companies- 
Bridge and canal companies 

Refrigerator companies 

Steamboat companies 

Flume companies 

Turnpike companies 

Telephone companies 

Street railway companies 

Water works companies 

Southern Express Company 

Pullman Company, The 

Telegraph companies 



Totals- 



Grand total. 



952 .05 
688 .40 
95.00 
611.09 
590 .08 
773.21 
1,178.48 



Sidings 



Total 
Valuation 



!!"! 



23.25 
199.32 
135.58 
149.18 



32,995,567 
6,682,698 
1,479,055 
17,500,000 
23,602,400 
23,008,296 
11,033,174 



$ 116,301,190 



$ 6, 



258,748 

113,875 

89,830 

94,100 

3,400 

19,445 

607,439 

214,790 

272,200 

710,108 

398,947 

938,896 



$ 14,721,778 



$ 131,022,968 



TAXES PAID. 



Atlantic Coast Line.- . _. 


^ :;',iS,090.34 


Norfolk Southern . 


97,971.63 


Seaboard Air Line.. 


226,012.90 


Southern Railway . . _ . 


614,830.64 


Miscellaneous roads. _. . .. .... ...... 


115,436.33 






Total . ... . .. 


81,452,341.84 







EARNINGS AND OPERAIING EXPENSES. 





Earnings 


Operating 
Expenses 


Atlantic Coast Line . . . . 


S 9,5.32,554.14 

3,641,691,44 

6,792,785.33 

16,348,582.10 

4,735,036.22 


,S 6,783,688.27 


Norfolk Southern ... ...... 


2,671,386.81 


Seaboard .4ir Line. ... . . . 


4,153,027.02 


Southern Railway . .. 


10,3.54,675.59 


Miscellaneous Roads 


3,107,006.25 






Totals — all roads ._ . 


341,050,649.23 


$ 27,069,874.84 







80 JudicijVL Dkpartment. 



RAILROAD COMMISSIONERS. 

1891-1894 — James W. Wilson, Chairman, Burke County; Thomas 
W. Mason, Northampton County; E. C. Beddingfield, Wake County. 

1895-1896— James W. Wilson, Chairman, Burke County; E. C. Bed- 
dingfield. Wake County; S. Otho Wilson, Wilson County. 

1897-1898— L. C. Caldwell. Chairman, Iredell County; John H. Pear- 
son, Burke County; D. H. Abbott, Pamlico County. 

CORPORATION COMMISSIONERS. 

1899-1902 — Franklin McNeill, Chairman, New Hanover County; 
Sam L. Rogers, Macon County; D. H. Abbott, Pamlico County. 

1903-1908 — Franklin McNeill, chairman, New Hanover County; 
Sam L. Rogers, Macon County; E. C. Beddingfield, Wake County. 

1909 — Franklin McNeill, Chairman, New Hanover County; Sam L. 
Rogers, Macon County; B. F. Aycock, Wayne County. 

1910 — Franklin McNeill, Chairman, New Hanover County; Sam L. 
Rogers, Macon County; H. C. Brown, Surry County. 

1911 — Franklin McNeill, Chairman, New Hanover County; W. T. 
Lee, Haywood County; E. L. Travis, Halifax County. 

1911-1916— E. L. Travis, Chairman, Halifax County; W. T. Lee, 
Haywood County; George P. Pell, Forsyth County. 



PART IV. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, AND 

COMMISSIONS. 



1. Department of Ageiculttjee. 

2. Depaetment of Labor and Printing. 

3. Department of Insurance. 

4. ISToRTH Carolina Historical Commission. 

5. State Library. 

6. Library Commission of ISToeth Carolina. 

7. State Boaed of Health. 

8. State Boaed of Public Charities. 

9. North Carolina Geological and 

Economic Survey. 

10. State Highway Commission. 

11. Board of Internal Improvements. 

12. North Carolina National Guard. 

13. State Prison. 
6 



THE DEPARTxlIENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

W. A. Graham. Commissioner. Raleigh,. 

The Constitution of the State (1876) provides for a Department 
of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics. Under this fundamental 
law the General Assembly established the Department of Agricul- 
ture in 1877. (Chapter 274.) 

Since that time it has been greatly fostered and enlarged by the 
General Assembly, and its field expanded by the enterprise, energy, 
anc( capacity of its corps of workers. 

At present the Board consists of ten members, one member from 
each Congressional District, who are appointed by the Governor and 
confirmed by the Senate, for terms of six years; and of the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, who is a member of and ex officio chairman 
of the Board. All members are required by law to be practical 
farmers. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture, who is chief executive officer 
of the Department, was formerly elected by the Board; but the Legis- 
lature of 1899, in order to bring the Department in closer touch with 
the people, especially the farmers of the State, so changed the law 
as to make the Commissioner as elective officer. 

The Department is charged with the following: 

1. Investigations relating to the improvement of agriculture, the 
beneficial use of commercial fertilizers and composts, and to induce ■ 
capital and labor to enter the State. 

2. With investigations for the improvement of milk and beef 
cattle, especially with investigations relating to the diseases of cattle 
and other domestic animals — having power to quarantine infected 
.animals and to regulate the transportation of stock within the State. 

3. With investigations of the ravages of insects injuriously affect- 
ing market gardens, fruits, etc., and with dissemination of informa- 
tion essential for their abatement. 

4. With investigations directed to the introduction and fostering 
of new agricultural industries adapted to the various soils and 
climate of the State. 

5. With investigations relative to the subject of drainage and irri- 
gation, and mineral and domestic sources of fertilizers, including 
composting, etc. 



84 Administkative Departments. 

6. With the collection of information relating to the subject of 
farm fences, etc. 

7. With the enforcement of the laws enacted for the sale of com- 
mercial fertilizers, seed, food products, and with authority to make 
regulations concerning the same. 

8. With the dissemination of information relative to the ad- 
vantages of soil and climate, and to the natural resources and in- 
dustrial opportunities offered in the State. 

To these have been added: 

The issuing of monthly bulletins. 

The Museum. 

« 

Farmers' Institutes. 

Soil Survey. 

Enforcement by regulations of 

The Pure Food Law; 

Concentrated Commercial Feeding-stuff Law; 

Cotton-seed Meal Law; 

Law regulating the statistics of leaf tobacco; 

Crop-pest Commission; 

Law regulating the standard-weight packages of meal and flour; 

Registration and sale of condimental, patented, proprietary or 
trade-mark stock or poultry tonics, regulators or conditioners; 

The inspection of illuminating oils and fluids; 

Law to prevent and punish the sale of adulterated, impure, or 
misbranded agricultural and vegetable seed and those lacking 
viability; 

The manufacture and sale of anti-hog-cholera serum, also of inocu- 
lation germs of leguminous crops. 

The rapid spread of the "stock law" over the State has rendered 
unnecessary any action by the Board as to fences, as this is now 
largely local. A map showing the stock-law and no stock-law, quar- 
antine and free territory in the State has recently been issued. 

The Department is, to a considerable extent, a sub-legislature. 
The Legislature, in committing to its execution specified laws, con- 
fers upon the Board power to make regulations for this purpose, 
which are given the authority of law, and violation of them is made 
a misdemeanor, cognizable by the courts. The power to confer this 
authority has been tested in the courts and approved by decision of 
the Supreme Court. 



Depaktmejstt of Agmcuxture. 85 

things that have been done by the agbicttltural department 
during the past eight years. 

1. The source of the ingredients in fertilizers is made known. 
Analyses are reported in the Bulletin from each firm so as to have 
those of the same guarantee classed together, and a farmer can tell 
them and not make an extra trip when he can get goods of the com- 
position he wishes although under a different name. 

2. The feed inspection law has been amended to include all feeds 
and the value of feeds much improved. Ground red corn cobs can- 
not be sold as wheat bran nor sawdust or rotten corn used as a filler. 

3. Condimental Feed Laio. — Analyses are made of each brand and 
published. The people need not pay high prices for many of the in- 
gredients, such as charcoal, copperas, saltpetre, salt, salts, etc., 
which can be bought for a few cents a pound of grocers. Drugs for 
either stock or men must have a value corresponding with that 
printed on the container or they can be excluded from sale. 

4. Ten cheese factories are in operation and five additional ones 
being constructed, and these afford markets for milk in our moun- 
tain counties which were not available three years ago. Fifteen 
creameries are in operation and others are being constructed. 

5. Great advance has been made along all lines of animal hus- 
bandry, animal feeding and feeds for animals, including poultry. 
All cases of diseases of animals appearing in the State have been 
suppressed. We have had no epidemic which could not be eliminated. 

6. The manufacture of anti-hog-cholera serum and reduction of 
cost of a dose from fifty to fifteen cents. More than a million cubic 
centimeters of anti-hog-cholera serum have been made for the use 
of farmers, and while the cholera is not eradicated every outbreak 
has been abated. Preparations are being made at the serum plant to 
purify the serum by application of electricity. This may add a 
small amount to the cost, but it may make the serum more potent 
so that a smaller dose will be required. 

7. The eradication of the cattle tick from the territory beginning 
with the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east so as to 
leave only twenty-two counties in the extreme east infected. Eradi- 
cation will now be undertaken in "free range" territory when the 
counties will construct the vats for dipping; prior to this operations 
have been confined to stock-law boundaries. 



86 Administhative Departments. 

8. A pure seed law by which the farmers are protected from pur- 
chase of inferior seed either in purity or germination. Seed deficient 
in either are prohibited from sale in the State, and the introduction 
of injurious weeds is prohibited. 

9. Preparation of legume culture which is sold at one-fourth the 
former price. This pays the cost of production and sale. 

10. Great advance in the work in Entomology, especially in spray- 
ing. Many pests have been destroyed and others much curtailed in 
their injurious operations. 

11. Also in Horticulture. The Department has taken highest 
prizes in all exhibits for apples, and the North Carolina apples and 
other fruits are being recognized in the markets of the Nation. The 
pecan culture in the State has also been greatly extended. In many 
sections these plantings are beginning to bear nuts of very superior 
quality. 

12. Furnishing marl at $1.50 per ton f. o. b.; formerly the price 
was $3 and $4; and ground limestone at 50 and 85 cents and $1.20 
per ton f. o. b., price of which was formerly $1.50 and $1.60. 

13. The State in the value of its farm products has risen from 
the twenty-second to the thirteenth position, and the value of the 
agricultural crops has increased since 1910 at an average of 
$10,000,000 a year. 

14. The Women's Work. — Many wives and daughters of farmers 
are earning money for themselves. The girls' and women's clubs are 
carrying on the preserving of vegetables, fruits, and meats. The 
women have not lacked ability to do this work, but prior to this they 
lacked opportunity. Several hundred thousand dollars' worth of 
these goods will be produced and prepared this year. This work in 
its incipiency and growth is the product of the Farmers' Institute 
as conducted by the Department. 

15. Farm demonstrators in seventy counties, whose duty it is to 
give instructions al}out crops to the farmer in the field. 

16. Boys' corn clubs and pig clubs in all parts of the State. 

17. Cooperative work with the U. S. Department and the A. and M. 
College, especially under the Lever Act. 

18. The Pure Food Law. — The weight or quantity of contents to be 
marked on all containers, with which numbers the contents must 
comply. Adulteration is seldom found in the foods sold in the State. 

19. Inspection of illuminating oils, by which the quality and safety 
of the oils have been improved without cost to the consumer. 



Depaetment of Agrictjlture. 87 

20. The length and strength of staple is considered in forming 
standards of cotton by the National Department, and expert graders 
are furnished in counties which desire them. This has saved thou- 
sands of dollars to the farmers in the sale of their cotton. 

21. The National Department has been requested to consider the 
question of reduction for tare for bagging and ties on cotton bales, 
which is acknowledged to be unjust. This can be accomplished only 
by an international convention under the auspices of a national 
congress. 

22. Inspection of flour to detect that which is bleached and pre- 
vent the sale of it as unbleached. 

23. In all cases of inspection in the machinery of the Department 
the article which renders the inspection necessary is required to pay 
cost of the work. 

24. More than one-third of the State has been surveyed and a soil 
map issued of each county. 

25. Farmers of the State are not becoming renters. Since 1910, 
204 farmers have lost their farms and about 6,000 renters have 
bought land. 

26. There is corn and wheat enough in the State for its consump- 
tion. There may be a little imported, but enough will be exported to 
offset this. There are 180 pounds of flour to every man, woman, and 
child in the State, more per capita than was ever known before, and 
more meat has been cured than heretofore. 

27. A marketing system is being evolved which will acquaint the 
citizens of the State with knowledge of where they can find the 
various articles for sale and accomplish cooperation. 

28. For six years North Carolina has stood first in the production 
of cotton per acre, first in quantity of sweet potatoes and peanuts, 
and second in value of tobacco crop. 

29. Cotton-seed Meal. — No goods are permitted to be branded as 
"meal" unless they contain 7i/> per cent ammonia, but must be 
branded "cotton-seed feed." 

30. The Bulletin ranks with the highest of its class, and many 
letters of commendation are received from persons within and with- 
out the State. Requests are frequently received for publications of 
these bulletins in those of other States and also from the agricul- 
tural press. It has a circulation of more than 35,000 each month. 
Copies have been requested for use as text-books in the public schools 
of other States and the University of Wisconsin. 



88 



Administrative Departments. 



31. The Museum continues to be the most valuable south of Phila- 
delphia, except that at the National Capital. It is the State's great 
object lesson. Additions to the different departments are made each 
year. A represenative agricultural exhibit is now being collected. 

statisitics 

The follov^^ing statistics will show some of the results of the work 
of the Department. 

North Carolina produced in 



Corn (bushels) - 
Wheat (bushels) 
Cotton (bales)— 



1860 



30,000,000 

4,743,706 

145,514 



1910 



34,063,531 

7,433,000 

665,132 



1915 



64,050,000 

10,355,000 

732,000 



DRAINAGE. 

The Department has arranged with the National Department for 
an expert in this work who will give information to the farmers 
concerning the drainage of creeks, cutting ditches, and laying tiles. 

VETERINARY DIVISION. 

The Division of Veterinary Science is devoted to giving informa- 
tion as to the care and feeding of farm animals, improvement of 
live stock, treatment of diseases, the gradual extermination of the 
tick. 

Serum for vaccination of hogs to prevent the spread of cholera is 
manufactured by this division. 

ANTI-CHOLERA SERUM. 

Ninety-five per cent of the hogs vaccinated escaped cholera. The 
Department is now prepared to supply all requests for serum, and it 
is expected that the scourge of cholera will be much abated. 



CATTLE QUARANTINE AND ERADICATION OF THE FEVER TICK. 

The United States and State laws concerning the eradication of 
the cattle tick are simply improvements en the act of the Legislature 



Depabtment of Agricitltuee. 89 

of 1795 concerning the driving of cattle from the oak to the long- 
leaf pine sections of the State, which was continued as a statute 
until the Revisal of 1905. The disease was called murrain or dis- 
temper, and its malignity known, but not for a century was the cause 
ascertained and direct effort made for cure and eradication. 

Starting in 1899, with the crest of the Blue Ridge as the location 
of the quarantine line, it has been moved east to the Roanoke River 
in Warren County as the northern boundary, and to the Pee Dee 
in Anson as the southern boundary of the State. This quarantine 
line is established by the United States Agricultural Department. 
The movement of cattle is restricted to a few months each year and 
subject to inspections and regulations, while exempted territory is 
free from impediments. The price of cattle in the exempted section 
(that which is free of the tick) is thought to be one cent per pound 
live weight over that in the quarantined sections. The value of ex- 
emption is apparent. The stock law tends to destroy the tick, and 
where it has prevailed for several years, few ticks being found, the 
county is soon declared free. 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. 

This department does much valuable work. The Board has granted 
the use of the Edgecomlje County farm as far as needed to be used 
in its operations. 

At the suggestions of this Department, infected counties or parts 
of counties have been quarantined, and the clear territory has been 
given the benefit of exemption. 

farmers' institutes. 

Farmers' Institutes have been greatly extended and are now held 
in every county in the State. 

Meetings of farmers to hear matters pertaining to their vocation 
discussed by scientific men and also by practical farmers have met 
with great encouragement in the numbers attending and interest 
shown in the proceedings, and the beneficial results to farming in 
the communities where the institutes are held are very evident. 

Realizing that while "A good farmer without, it is needful there 
be," that "A good housewife within is as needful as he," institutes 
for the benefit of the farmers' wives and daughters were introduced 
in 1907. They have been well attended and have been equally as 



90 Administrative Departments. 

beneficial in the advancement of agricultural conditions as have 
the institutes for the men; usually one joint session is held at each 
institute. 

chemistry. 

The Division of Chemistry makes analyses of fertilizer, cottonseed 
meal, feed and foodstuffs, soils, minerals and marls, waters, etc. 

The law as to deficient fertilizers may. be found in the Revisal of 
1905, sec. 3949. 

SOIL SURVEY, TEST FARM, AND FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This is conducted, like the cattle quarantine, in conjunction with 
the United States Agricultural Department, the expenses being de- 
frayed by each department. The object is to locate the different 
types of soil in the State. Upon these types it is desired to locate 
test farms for practical and scientific purposes. Test farms have 
been established in Edgecombe County, at Willard Station in Pender 
County, Statesville, Blantyre in Transylvania County, near Swan- 
nanoa in Buncombe County, and arrangements are on foot to estab- 
lish one in the old tobacco belt at Oxford and another in the newly 
drained black lands of Eastern North Carolina in Beaufort County. 
The effort is to conduct these farms for the benefit of the crops 
grown in each section, first on small plats and then on a large scale, 
showing results of different kinds and amounts of home-made and 
commercial fertilizers, preparation of land, cultivation and rotation 
of crops and demonstration work. 

As it might be supposed that all children of the same parents 
would be exactly alike, so it might be inferred that all soils com- 
posed from decomposition of the same rocks would be identical; but 
this is known to be true in neither case. 

By demonstration work on different fields in the same locality, or 
type of soil, the variations of each can be ascertained, and the 
manures prepared and cultivation suitable learned. 

The demonstrator of the Department, as requested or as oppor- 
tunity offers, can visit localities of the State, make suggestions upon 
these lines, and gather statistics for promotion of the work. The 
National Department is doing a large amount of work along this 
line and there is hearty cooperation between the two departments. 



Department of Agriculture. 91 

the isothermal belt. 

In cooperation with the National Department, a survey is being 
made and a report will be made as to the extent and causes of this 
peculiar condition. 

PURE FOOD DIVISIOjN. 

The Pure Food Law passed by the General Assembly of 1899, 
amended in 1905 and redrafted and passed as a new act in 1907, 
forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or misbranded food 
or beverages and charges the Department of Agriculture with its 
enforcement. 

Inspections are made throughout the State and samples collected 
for analyses. The samples are examined for adulteration and the re- 
sults published, showing the brand name of the article and the name 
and address of the manufacturer. The first report was published as 
the Department Bulletin for December, 1900. Since that time sim- 
ilar reports have been published annually. 

There are two classes of adulterants found in food: 

1. Substances which are deleterious to health, and 

2. Substances which merely render the food less valuable. 

The use of the first is prohibited the second can be used, provided 
their presence is made known to the purchaser. 

Much of the food and beverages sold in the State is in the hands 
of unintelligent men, who can be imposed upon by shrewd and un- 
scrupulous manufacturers. Owing to various complications the en- 
forcement of the Food Law is far more diflJicult than one not familiar 
with the situation would think. 

The National Government has enacted a food law which requires 
weight of contents to be stamped on all packages or other containers 
of goods. The Legislature will have to enact this for the State be- 
fore it will apply to transactions between citizens of the State. 

, " FEED INSPECTIONS. 

The Legislature of 1903 passed a law regulating the sale and 
adulteration of feeds in North Carolina. This law was amended in 
1909, and is similar to the Fertilizer Law. It has for its object that 
all feeds sold in North Carolina shall be pure and unadulterated. 



92 Administrative Departments. 

It requires the Commissioner of Agriculture to employ Feed In- 
spectors, whose duty it is to visit the different towns in the State, 
see that the law is complied with as to the branding of bags, weight 
of bags, and to take samples of all feeds. These samples are ex- 
amined microscopically in the towns in which they are found, and 
if adulterated are immediately withdrawn from sale. 

All samples collected are analyzed by the Feed Chemist, and the 
results, along with such additional information as circumstances 
may advise, are published in the bulletins of the Department of 
Agriculture. 

In enforcing the law there are four main objects in view: 

1. To stop the sale of adulterated feeds in North Carolina. 

2. To educate the consumers to buy feed according to the analyses 
on the bags, just as he buys his fertilizer by an analysis. 

3. To teach the dairymen and farmers the best way to combine 
their home-grown feeds with those they are compelled to buy to get 
the greatest benefit from the amount consumed. 

4. To stimulate a desire on the part of the consumers for better 
feeds. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

The work of this division includes the inspection of fruit trees, 
which are not allowed to be sold in this State unless declared free 
from disease. Experts are sent to examine all nurseries for insect 
pests, and many commercial orchards are Inspected. Directions are 
furnished for preparation of material for spraying, and for its appli- 
cation. The San Jose scale is being controlled in many places, and 
further damage prevented by directions sent from this office. Other 
Insect pests and diseases have been prevented or cured, and much 
valuable information given the people of the State on matters per- 
taining to insects of all kinds. 

HOETICULTUEE. 

This division is devoted to promoting the interests of trucking, the 
home and market garden, also the culture, preservation and market- 
ing the fruits of the State. 

The test farm in Pender County is used in connection with the 
trucking interests of the eastern part of the State. On this farm 
$1,500 was realized from the sale of the lettuce raised on one and 
one-fourth acres of land. 



Depaetment of Agriculture. 93 

The Blantyre farm in Transylvania County will be used largely to 
illustrate the culture, harvesting and marketing of fruit and the pre- 
vention and cure of diseases of fruit trees, and for demonstration in 
reforestation. There were fine apples from this farm exhibited at 
the State and other fairs. 

In the apple section a short series of institutes is held annually 
to illustrate the proper packing of fruit for shipment. Institutes on 
pruning, spraying, etc., are held in proper season. 

For three successive years the exhibit of apples from North Caro- 
lina has taken the sweepstake prize at the exhibits at the National 
Horticultural Congress, and the western part of the State is now 
regarded as one of the most important apple-growing sections of the 
nation, both in quantity and quality. North Carolina in 1913 received 
the Wilder prize from the American Pomological Society. The sec- 
tion adjacent to Southern Pines is noted for its peaches, pears, and 
plums. 

AGRONOMY AND BOTANY DIVISION. 

Under the direction of this division experiments in plant breeding 
and selection are conducted upon the test farms and the farms of in- 
dividuals in different sections of the State. Inoculation germs for 
legumes are manufactured and sold at cost. 

The inspection prevents the introduction of seeds of noxious weeds 
into the State and enables the farmer to ascertain, before purchas- 
ing, the quality of the seed as to purity and germination. 

DEMONSTRATION AND INSPECTION OF ILLUMINATING OILS. 

The Pure Pood Chemist is also Oil Chemist. The quality of the oil 
has been kept at a good standard and the price has not been in- 
creased. When the law was enacted there were four firms transact- 
ing business in this State; at the present time there are nineteen. 

DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This work gives practical advice to and cooperates with the farm- 
ers upon their farms. It has been extended to eighty-one counties. 
Part of the expense is borne by the National Department of Agri- 
culture. 



94 Admixisthative DicPAiriAiKXTS. 



In these clubs more than 4,000 boys have been enrolled. The de- 
partment appropriates $500 annually in premiums. 

women's AM) CIKLS' WORK. 

This work in domestic economy has met with a ready response 
from the wives and daughters of the farmers. 

THE BULLETIN. 

The Bulletin is issued monthly, each month's issue being devoted to 
a particular subject. Its value seems to be appreciated both within 
and without the State, as is attested by its continually increasing 
mailing list. Besides the regular monthly Bulletin, special papers 
are issued when deemed of enough importance to justify the expense. 

THE MUSEUJr. 

The State Geologist had, since the establishment of his depart- 
ment in 1850, collected specimens of different kinds, principally of 
minerals, representing the natural resources of the State. In 1879 the 
care of the Museum and expense of maintenance were transferred to 
the Department of Agriculture. A building has been erected for its 
occupancy, and its contents greatly increased. It is now by far 
the most extensive in its contents of anything of its nature south of 
Philadelphia, save the National Museum at Washington, D. C. To 
it, more than any other source, is attributable the fine displays the 
State has made at international, national, and State expositions. It 
is the State's object lesson, representing its resources in agricul- 
ture, timber, minerals, fishes, birds, game animals, and fiora and 
fatuia in general. 

As articles affected by time become undesirable they are replaced. 
The idea is to keep the Museum constantly growing, with no chance 
for stagnation. 

IMMIGRATION. 

The Legislature in 1909 repealed the act of 1907 concerning immi- 
gration. There are now no agents of the State employed in foreign 
countries; a few young men come from Scotland each year, and 



DEPARTJIEXT of L2U3OR AND PRINTING. 95 

land and immigration companies bring some people to the State 
each year but no report is made to tlie Department ; however, it 
cooperates witli them as far as practicable. 

The Department has no lands of the State for sale, and can make 
no contracts, warrant titles, or do any work of like nature. It can 
only put parties desiring to purchase property in the State in com- 
munication with citizens who have property to sell, and leave them 
to perfect sales, if it is found desirable. 

Many letters are received from persons from the States of the 
Middle West requesting information as to the resources of the State, 
and several hundred have each year purchased homes. The Depart- 
ment had arranged to place exhibits at the fairs in these States, 
but this was abandoned when the law was repealed. 

SALES OF LEAF TOBACCO. 

Chapter 97, Laws 1907, requires the Department to preserve a 
record of the leaf tobacco sold on the floors of the warehouses of 
the State, and publish it monthly. Each warehouse is required to 
furnish an account of its sales, and is guilty of a misdemeanor for 
failure. 



DEPART3IENT OF LABOR VXD PRI\TIXG. 

M. L. Shipman, Commissioner. 

The Department of Labor and Printing w^as established by the 
Legislature of 1887 as the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Under this 
head its activities had to do with gathering and presenting statistics 
of industrial conditions. A high standard was set for this work, and 
it has ever since been the policy of the ofRce to improve upon its 
own work from year to year. The annual report is now recognized 
as one of the most succinct examples of statistical work issued in 
the United States. The matter has been boiled down, so to speak, 
and one chief aim has been to present the greatest possible informa- 
tion in the least possible space, accomplishing thereby two very de- 
sirable ends, i. e., ease of reference and convenience, and a minimum 
expense. Its circulation includes every State in the Union, and 
many foreign countries. The report is the chief medium by which 
the State's growth and progress is placed before the world. The 
number of requests for copies attests its worth. 



96 Administrative Depaetments. 

When the public printing had become of such importance that the 
old practice of assumption that it would take care of itself waa 
proven inadequate and unsatisfactory, the duty of systematizing 
and superintending this work was added to the duties of the office 
(Chapter 373, Public Laws of 1899). Since that time the growth of 
the State has been great, its progress indeed wonderful. Keeping 
pace with this progress, the Department of Labor and Printing 
shows a record of quality and economy in performance not touched 
by any other Commonwealth, and approached by but few. 

The Commissioner, Mr. Shipman, and the assistant, Mr. Justice, 
place especial emphasis on their invitation to the people of the State 
to make use of the Department. Any questions bearing on subjects 
touched by the report will be gladly answered, wherever possible; 
correspondence cheerfully and promptly attended to. 

The handling of the public printing has been brought down to 
the point where figures as to specifications and cost may be given 
before or after performance, which information serves well where 
economy enters as largely into any proposition as it does into the 
public printing. Changes in practice are made as often as it is 
found that improvement can be made, and the policy of the office 
at the present time makes impossible any of the abuses obtaining 
under the arrangement in force prior to the placing of the public 
printing under the Department's charge. 

Before a single item of printing expense is paid for by the State 
the account of the printer is examined, accompanied by an inspec- 
tion of the work itself, by a man who knows the printing business. 
Every pound of paper purchased is bought by the State to fit the 
particular need, and is subject to the decision of the expert of the 
Department — himself, according to the provisions of the act, a "prac- 
tical printer." The records of purchases of paper show a great sav- 
ing along this line also. 

The work of the Department of Labor and Printing is necessarily 
done away from the public eye. The watchful auditing of thousands 
of dollars of accounts, the economical purchase of thousands of dol- 
lars of supplies, the skillful exposition and appraisement of in- 
dustrial facts is not spectacular labor, but a work of the highest 
value and largest returns. 



Insurance Depaetment. 97 

THE DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE. 

James R. Young, Commissioner. 

Prior to 1899 the supervision of insurance companies of North 
Carolina was in the hands of the Secretary of State, who received 
certain fees and was allowed $1,000 for clerical help. The Legisla- 
ture of 1899 created the Insurance Department and placed the pres- 
ent Commissioner in charge of it. The insurance laws as set forth 
in the Revisal of 1905, with amendments thereto, are looked upon 
as the best code of insurance laws of any Southern State and are 
certainly admirably adapted to the conditions prevailing in this sec- 
tion. As revenue producers the law and Department are a success, 
and while the benefits accruing from a proper supervision of insur- 
ance companies in the State cannot be measured in dollars and 
cents, they are, in the opinion of those in a position to know, of 
much more value to the State and her citizens than the revenue 
collected. 

The duties required of the Insurance Commissioner are as impor- 
tant and involve as much "vvork and responsibility as those of any 
other department in the State Government. In addition to this, the 
Insurance Commissioner is taken from' his office about one-third of 
the time by official duties. The work of the Department calls for as 
much clerical ability and labor as the work of any other department. 
No part of the work should be neglected, and it is increasing every 
year, and becomes of more and more value to the State and her citi- 
zens. The efficiency of the Department can only be kept up by al- 
lowing sufficient clerical force, and this will call for such help as is 
commensurate with, and demanded by, the development and rapid 
increase of the work of the Department. The Commissioner should 
be relieved, as far as possible, of clerical work. He is worth more 
to the State in discharging the other duties of his office. 

Under the law it is made the duty of the Commissioner to collect 
all licenses, taxes and fees due the State by any company or associa- 
tion under the supervision of his Department. 

The Secretary of State paid into the State Treasury in 1898 
$84,879.28, and this was the largest amount ever reported for any 
one year prior to the creation of the Department. 

7 



98 Administrative Departments. 



DEPARTMENT. 



The Department has increased in size, -importance and value be- 
yond the expectation of its most ardent friends. The supervision 
required to be exercised over all companies, associations, and so- 
cieties doing or attempting to do an insurance business in the State 
is the most important work of the Department. The value of this 
supervision to the State and her citizens since the organization of 
the Department can hardly be estimated. As the insurance business 
in the State has increased, this supervision has become the more 
necessary and important for the citizens of the State, and the good 
results accomplished have far exceeded the value of the revenue 
collected by the Department during that time. 

REVENUE. 

The revenue collected and paid into the State Treasury by this 
Department has increased each year, until there was collected and 
paid in for the past fiscal year, $348,780.90. 

The gradual increase of the revenues collected from insurance 
companies through this Department and paid into the State Treas- 
ury is more clearly shown by a comparison with the amount 
($84,879.28) collected for the fiscal year ending April 1, 1899, the 
year prior to the formation of the Department. 

The Department is not run for revenue. Its main work is the 
supervision of the business, but those who have had occasion to 
look into the matter are satisfied more good is being accomplished 
for the State and her citizens by the supervision of the business 
than by the collection of taxes. It is of interest to know the amount 
collected by the Department and paid into the State Treasury each 
year since its formation, as follows: 

For the fiscal year 1899-1900 $ 91.973.49 

For the fiscal year 1900-01 91,072.92 

For the fiscal year 1901-02 132,034.03 

For the fiscal year 1902-03 153,667.12 

For the fiscal year 1903-04 174,633.60 

For the fiscal year 1904-05 197,402.23 

For the fiscal year 1905-06 205,124.07 

For the fiscal year 1906-07 215,331.56 

For the fiscal year 1907-08 224,680.58 



Insukance Department. 99 

For the fiscal year 1908-09 $ 234,469.63 

For the fiscal year 1910-11 270,300.08 

For the fiscal year 1911-12 285,040.50 

For the fiscal year 1912-13 319,389.67 

For the fiscal year 1913-14 344,546.28 

For the fiscal year 1914-15 352,047.20 

For the fiscal year . 191546 348,780.90 

Total $3,887,060.80 

Under the old law, prior to the organization of this Department, 
certain fees were allowed to the Secretary of State as compensation 
for the supervision of insurance companies. These fees are now 
paid into the State Treasury, and amount to more than double the 
whole cost of the Department, including salaries and every other 
expense. But there is no question but that the State should, with a 
collection of practically $349,000 annually from insurance companies, 
spend more money for the enlargement and efficiency of the Insur- 
ance Department. This certainly can be done to advantage. 

One great benefit that has accrued from the North Carolina insur- 
ance in them, thus keeping at home much of home money spent for 
of home insurance companies and the placing of considerable insur- 
ance in them, thus keeping at home much of home money spent for 
insurance. 

The North Carolina or home companies continue to show marked 
improvement each year, not only in the amount of business trans- 
acted, but in a steady and solid growth in financial ability and 
safety. It is gratifying, or should be, to every citizen of the State 
to know that he can not only keep his money in the State for in- 
vestment by patronizing home companies, but that he is fully pro- 
tected by the financial standing of the companies in so doing. 

BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS. 

The Legislature of 1905 placed all building and loan associations 
under the supervision of the Insurance Commissioner. There were 
then forty-three associations doing business in the State. There are 
now over 138 associations working in the State and no class of cor- 
porations is doing more in building up our cities and towns and pro- 



100 Administrative Departments. 

vidiiig homes for our citizens, especially the working classes. As- 
sociations are being organized rapidly throughout the State. The 
ownership of homes is very conducive to good citizenship and prog- 
ress. At the close of business in 1915, 154 associations reported in 
assets $14,396,400.43 and loaned out to build or pay for homes, 
$13,850,219.51, and with receipts during the year of $9,571,412.24. 
This is a remarkable showing; it is, in fact, second to that of no 
State in the Union. 

The Insurance Commissioner represents the State in all its deal- 
ings with the insurance companies, associations and orders. He must 
pass upon applications of companies under his Department and de- 
cide whether to license them, and then supervise them and see that 
they comply with the law and treat the citizens of the State right 
or revoke their license to do business in the State. 

He must collect all licenses and taxes due the State by companies 
and associations under his Department. 

He must collect reports of all fires in the State and investigate all 
suspicious ones and have all persons suspected of incendiarism prose- 
cuted where the evidence justifies it. One hundred and thirty-four 
persons have been convicted under this law since it was passed, and 
served their sentences in prisons. 

He must see that the laws regulating the erection and inspection 
of buildings are observed. Better buildings mean fewer fires and 
lower fire insurance rates. Seventy-five thousand dollars annually 
is now saved in fire premiums by this law. He must look into all 
violations of the insurance law and hear all complaints made by the 
citizens of the State against companies under his supervision and 
see that the citizen is protected in his rights. 

He must keep all State property insured as provided by law, and 
annually inspect all State Institutions and buildings, with a view to 
the protection from fire of them and their inmates. 

SUPERVISION. 

V 

It is very important and valuable to the State to have the collec- 
tion of the licenses and taxes from insurance companies above re- 
ferred to, but by far the most important work of the Department, 
and that of greatest benefit to the citizens of the State, is the proper 
supervision of insurance companies, societies, and orders, as well as 
their representatives operating in the State. The gradual improve- 



Insurance Department. 101 

ment in the practices of the companies and their agents shows the 
work accomplished in this respect. This supervision takes in: 

1. The admission and regulation of all companies doing or pro- 
posing to do any kind of insurance in the State. ThereJ are about 
four hundred companies, associations, and societies doing the fol- 
lowing classes of insurance: Life, health, accident, casualty, fire, 
marine, credit, burglary, plate-glass, liability, steam boiler, automo- 
bile, etc. 

2. Fire Marshal. — The Commissioner is also ex officio Fire Mar- 
shal, and has charge of the investigation of all suspicious fires, and 
the prosecution of those thought to be responsible for the same. 
There have been many of these prosecutions, which have been very 
valuable in their results. The Commissioner has secured the con- 
viction and punishment of 134 persons, and there are now 34 persons 
bound over for trial to the Superior Courts of the State. 

3. Building and Inspection Laws. — The Commissioner is charged 
with the enforcement of the building and inspection laws, also the 
law in regard to the erection of fire-escapes and proper exits from 
buildings. This involves not only having inspections made through- 
out the State by men sent from the Department, but also in seeing 
that the work is kept up and the laws enforced by the officers of 
the different cities and towns. 

4. Publication of Statements. — The Commissioner is required to 
make an abstract of the financial statement filed with him by the ■ 
different companies operating in the State; to collect the fees for 
the publication of same and have them published in the newspapers 
of the State. 

6. Firemen's Relief Fund. — The Commissioner is also required to 
collect from insurance companies operating in the State the taxes 
for the benefit of our firemen and to distribute these taxes among 
the firemen of seventy-odd towns of the State. 

6. Complaints and Violations. — It is also the duty of the Insurance 
Com'missioner to seek out and prosecute all violations of the insur- 
ance law, and to look into all complaints made to him by the citi- 
zens of the State, and to give them such information as they may 
desire at his hands in regard to companies and associations under 
his supervision. 

7. Give Rates. — It is also the duty of the Insurance Commissioner 
to receive and file all fire insurance rates promulgated on property 



102 Administrative Departments. 

situate in this State and to pass upon all complaints as to discrim- 
ination in or unfairness of rates. 

8. Building and Loan Associations. — The Commissioner is now- 
charged with the supervision of building and loan associations, and 
the great work being done by these associations, the organization 
of new associations almost continually, as well as the suggestion that 
these associations can be adapted to and made of great benefit to 
the farmers of the State, as well as to those living in cities and 
towns who have received their benefits, makes this a most im- 
portant part of the work of the Department. 

Since the formation of this Department in 1899 and the adoption 
of the present insurance laws there has been a gradual but decided 
improvement in the insurance conditions of the State. Better prac- 
tices prevail and there is less friction betw^een the people and this 
class of corporations. Contracts have been improved and rates re- 
duced, and will, no doubt, be still further reduced under the present 
insurance laws and their strict enforcement, although the citizens 
of the State are now paying over $225,000 annually for their fire 
insurance less than they would pay at the rates prevailing in any 
other Southern State. 

The Insurance Department has now for the first time since its 
formation permanent and adequate quarters in which to transact its 
rapidly increasing business. This has always hampered the Com- 
missioner and his force in carrying on the work, and should have 
been remedied before. The large business being yearly transacted 
demands proper and adequate files, that the business may be effi- 
ciently done, while the value and importance of the Department 
records and statistics are such as to demand their safe-keeping and 
filing for ready reference by the Department and citizens of the 
State. 

Any further information about the Department or its work will 
be furnished upon application to the Commissioner. 



Historical Commission. 103 

NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 

R. D. W. Connor, Secretary, Raleigh. 
W. S. Wilson, Legislative Reference Librarian, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Historical Commission was created by an 
act of the Legislature of 1903. It consists of five members appointed 
by the Governor for terms of six years. They receive no salary or 
per diem, but are allowed their actual expenses when attending to 
their ofBcial duties. 

The offices of the Commission are in the State Administration 
Building, a new fireproof structure erected under an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1911. 

The duties of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To have collected historical data pertaining to the history of 
North Carolina and the territory included therein from the earliest 
times. 

2. To have such material properly edited, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the directions 
of the Commission. 

3. To care for the proper marking and preservation of battlefields, 
houses, and other places celebrated in the history of the State. 

4. To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources 
of North Carolina. 

5. To encourage the study of the history of North Carolina in 
the schools of the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical 
investigation and research among the people of the State. 

6. To make a biennial report of its receipts and disbursements, its 
work and needs, to the Governor, to be by him transmitted to the 
General Assembly. 

The powers of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To adopt a seal for use in official business. 

2. To adopt rules for its own government not inconsistent with 
the provisions of the law. 

3. To fix a reasonable price for its publications and to devote the 
revenue arising from such sales to extending the work of the Com- 
mission. 

4. To employ a secretary. 

5. To control the expenditure of such funds as may be appropriate 
for its maintenance. 



104 Administrative Departments. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



Following is a general summary of the work of the Historical 
Commission: 

1. The Commission has saved from destruction, classified and filed 
many thousands of letters and other documents of the Executive 
and Legislative Departments from colonial times to the present. 

2. It has secured for the State the following private collections, 
numbering many thousands of valuable manuscripts: Letters and 
papers of Zebulon B. Vance, James Iredell, Bryan Grimes, Mrs. 
Cornelia P. Spencer, David L. Swain, E. J. Hale, Calvin H. Wiley, 
John H. Bryan, Jonathan Worth, William L. Saunders, William A. 
Graham, William R. Davie, the Pettigrew Family, Charles B. Aycock, 
Archibald D. Murphey, John Steele. W. H. S. Burgwyn, Nathaniel 
Macon, Thomas Ruffin, David S. Reid, Willie P. Mangum, and sev- 
eral small collections. 

3. It has issued the following publications: "Public Education 
in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Documentary History," 2 vols.; 
"Schools and Academies in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Docu- 
mentary History;" "The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth," 2 
vols.; "Literay and Historical Activities in North Carolina, 1900- 
1905"; "A Legislative Manual of North Carolina" for 1909, 1911, 
1913, 1915, 1917, and twenty bulletins. 

4. It recovered for the State, through the gift of the Italian Gov- 
ernment, Canova's famous statue of Washington. 

5. It has erected in the rotunda of the Capitol a marble bust of 
William A. Graham; and obtained, without cost to the State, simi- 
lar busts of Matt. W. Ransom, Samuel Johnston, John M. Moorehead, 
Calvin H. Wiley, and W. S. Ashe. 

6. The Commission maintains in its Hall of History one of the 
most extensive historical museums in America. It contains about 
12,000 objects, illustrative of every period of the history of North 
Carolina from the earliest colonial times to the present. 

7. It has assisted a large number of students in their investiga- 
tions into North Carolina history, and gave information about the 
history of the State wherever it was possible, and has encouraged in 
many ways the study of our history in the schools of the State. 

8. It maintains a Legislative Reference Library for supplying in- 
formation to members of the General Assembly and others interested 
in the affairs of the State. 



HiSTOKiCAL Commission. 105 

THE LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE LIBRARY. 

The Legislative Reference Library idea is not a new one. For 
twenty-five years such departments in other States have been render- 
ing valuable service. They have been provided for in thirty States, 
and in more than fifty cities of the United States. Recently there has 
been established a Legislative Reference Bureau in the Congressional 
Library which is rendering similar aid to the national government. 

For ten years progressive citizens have urged the establishment 
of such a department in North Carolina. In response to that de- 
mand the Legislature of 1915, by a unanimous vote in the Senate 
and House of Representatives, passed a bill entitled "An act to -es- 
tablish a Legislative Reference Library," under the supervision of 
the North Carolina Historical Commission. 

Among the duties of the Librarian set forth in this act are the 
following: "To collect, 'tabulate, annotate and digest information 
for the use of the members and committees of the General Assem- 
bly, and the officials of the State," and of the various counties and 
cities included therein, upon all questions of State, county and 
municipal legislation." 

As indicated by the caption as well as the subject matter of the 
act, this Department is created primarily for the benefit of the 
members and committees of the General Assembly. 

These representatives of the people serve practically without com- 
pensation and in most cases make considerable personal sacrifice 
in order to be of service to the State. During the short sessions 
of the General Assembly they do not have time to study and thus 
secure for themselves information about the hundreds of measures 
they are called upon to consider. Heretofore there has been no 
agency to collect and classify the sort of information needed by the 
busy legislator. 

To fill this want is the particular field of service of the Legisla- 
tive Reference Library. For that purpose more than ten thousand 
books, laws, pamphlets, and clippings have been gathered and clas- 
sified so that they are instantly available for use by interested per- 
sons. Additional material is received daily, and an attempt is 
made to procure as full information as is obtainable about all leg- 
islation in other States and countries. 

Information relating to the following . subjects, which are taken 
from a list of more than fifteen hundred headings, will serve to il- 



lOG Administkativk Departments. 

lustrate the scope of service which is rendered: Agriculture, Appro- 
priations, Automobiles, Banks, Bill Drafting, Budgets, Campaign 
Expenses, Capital Punishtnent, Charities, Child Labor, Civil Ser- 
vice, Constitutions, Contracts, Convicts, Cooperative Buying and 
Marketing, Corporations, Courts, Credit, Crime and Criminals, 
Democratic Party, Drainage, Education, Elections, Employment, 
Factories, Farm Problems, Finance, Fires, Fish and Game, Food, 
Forests, Freight Rates, Health, Immigration, Initiative and Refer- 
endum, Insane, Insurance, Judges, Juries, Labor, Lawyers, Liens, 
Legislation, Loans, Manufactures, Marriage and Divorce, Medicine, 
Militia, Municipalities. Negroes, Newspapers, Pardons, Parole, Pas- 
senger Rates, Pensions, Pharmacy, Platforms, Primaries, Prisons, 
Procedure, Prohibition, Public Service Corporations, Railroads, Re- 
publican Party, Roads, Rural Credits, Schools, State Government, 
Statutes, Strikes, Taxation. Trusts, Universities and Colleges, 
Vital Statistics, Vocational Education, Wages, Woman Suffrage, 
Women, Workmen's Compensation. 

The province of the Legislative Reference Library is not to pro- 
mote legislation, but to furnish data and information so that the 
best and most widely approved laws may be enacted. 

With the cooperation and assistance of the persons for whose 
benefit the Legislative Reference Library was created, it hopes to 
achieve the same measure of success that similar agencies have had 
in other States. 

MEMBEBS OF THE HISTORIC^VE COMMISSION. 

W. J. Peele 1903- 

J. D. HuFiiAM 1903-1905 

F. A. SoNULEY 1903-1905 

Richard Dileard 1903-1905 

R. D. W. Connor 1903-1907 

Charles L. Rarer 1905-1907 

Thomas W. Blount 1905-1911 

J. Bryan Grimes 1905- 

M. C. S. Noble 1907- 

D. H. Hill 1907- 

Thomas M. Pittman 1911- 

secretary. 
R. D. W. Connor . . . ; 1903- 



State Library. 107 

THE STATE LIBBART OF ]SORTH CAROLINA. 

• Miles O. Siierrill, Librarian. 

During the last two years the library has made substantial prog- 
ress. The patronage has grown considerably and each day during 
the winter months finds almost every chair occupied by school girls 
and boys, members of the women's clubs, professional men, etc. 

The greater liberty given the visitors and pupils in the use of the 
reference room and stack room by keeping all cases unlocked has 
largely increased the popularity of the library. Pupils debating in 
the various high schools draw largely upon the library for their 
material. The Library tries each year to collect all useful material 
on debatable subjects from magazines, newspapers, pamphlets and 
Congressional records, and arrange it in such a manner that it will 
be readily accessible to the student. This patronage is not confined 
to any particular school or race. It comes from the schools and col- 
leges of Raleigh, of the State at large, from universities such as 
Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Harvard, and from students who are not 
connected with educational institutions at all. The practical poli- 
tician studying modern problems comes along with the historian 
whose researches are among records centuries old. 

To meet all these various needs, the Trustees are directing their 
efforts to the building up of a great reference library. No works 
of fiction, unless they be by North Carolina authors, or portray 
North Carolina life, are purchased. The meager appropriation is 
better expended, in the judgment of the Trustees, in the purchase of 
works of reference, history, biographies, treatises on problems of 
modern life, etc., etc. 

All works written by or about North Carolinians, or about North 
Carolina, are purchased. The North Carolina collection now forms 
one of the most interesting and valuable features of the library. 

Another peculiarly valuable feature of the Library is the collec- 
tion of bound newspapers. This now contains 3,379 volumes. There 
is no other such collection of North Carolina newspapers in exist- 
ence. Ranging from 1791 to date, they contain history of the State 
during the most important periods of her existence. 



108 Administkative Departments. 



SUMMARY. 

Total number of volumes in Library 34,259 

Total number of Government books 6,252 

Total number of bound newspapers 3,379 

Total number of bound magazines 1,951 



LIBRARY CODIMISSIOJf OF NORTH CAROLOA. 

Minnie W. Leatherman, Secretary'. 

The Library Commission of North Carolina was created by the 
General Assembly of 1909, and active work was begun September 15th 
of the same year. The Commission consists of five members, two of 
whom are appointed by the North Carolina Library Association and 
one by the Governor; the State Librarian and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction complete the membership. 

The purpose of the Commission, as expressed in the law, is to 
"give assistance, advice, and counsel to 'all libraries in the State, to 
all communities which may propose to establish libraries, and to all 
persons interested, as to the best means of establishing and admin- 
istering such libraries, as to the selection of books, cataloging, main- 
tenance and other details of library management as may be prac- 
ticable." 

The following are the important lines of activity: 

1. EstabHsTiment of Public Libraries. — The Commission endeavors 
to secure the establishment of public libraries in localities able to 
support them, and gives advice and assistance in arousing public 
interest. After preliminary correspondence, communities proposing 
to establish libraries are visited by the Secretary, and the practical 
details of organization explained. In many instances she classifies 
the books, starts the accession record and shelf-list, installs a proper 
charging system, and teaches the librarian how to keep the neces- 
sary records. The service is rendered without cost to the Library, 
except that, when the Secretary remains more than one day in a place 
the total expense is borne by the library aided. 

The Commission is now w'aging an active public library campaign 
for "A Public Library in Every Town in North Carolina by 1910." 
Tw'O or three libraries have already been opened, a number of towms 
have started the library campaign, and library elections will be held 
in several tow-ns next spring. 



Library Commission. 109 

2. Reorganization of Old Libraries. — The Secretary visits libraries 
already established to confer with the Librarian and Library Board 
regarding methods of work and plans for further development. While 
much information and advice may be given by letters and circulars, 
personal visits are much more effective, as they invariably give new 
impulse to the local work and enable the Secretary to become familiar 
with library conditions in all parts of the State. 

3. Library Statistics. — Every public library in the State, including 
free public libraries, subscription libraries, school, college and uni- 
versity libraries, Young Men's Christian Association, legal asso- 
ciation, medical association. Supreme Court and State libraries, is 
required by law to make an annual report to the Commission. From 
the data thus secured the Commission compiles an annual report of 
library conditions in North Carolina. 

4. The North Carolina Library Bulletin. This is a magazine of 12 
pages, published quarterly. It is sent free to every library in the 
State, and upon application, to library trustees and to others inter- 
ested in library extension. The first issue appeared in December, 
1909. Each number contains important library articles, book lists, 
editorial notes, and general library news. It is intended to serve as a 
means of communication with each and every library, to bring the 
libraries into closer relation with one another, and, in general, to 
increase the interest in libraries throughout the State, and to improve 
the quality of their service to the public. 

5. Traveling Libraries. For the benefit of communities without 
library facilities the Library Commission maintains a system of free 
traveling libraries. A library contains from thirty-five to forty vol- 
umes, about fifteen being fiction, fifteen children's books, and the 
remaining volumes popular and attractive books of biography, travel, 
science, etc. The books are shipped in a stout case equipped with 
shelves so that it may be used as a bookcase when it reaches its- 
destination. The rules governing the loan of libraries are as few 
and simple as possible. The application may be signed by the presi- 
dent and secretary of a local library association, by five taxpayers, 
or by the officers of a Parmer's Union Local, a Woman's Betterment 
Association, or a Community Service League. Borrowers agree to 
pay the freight both from and to Raleigh, to take good care of the 
books and to return them promptly, to make good any loss or dam- 
age beyond reasonable wear and tear, and to lend the books without 
charge to all responsible persons in the community. 



110 Administrative Departments! 

6. Package Libraries. Package Libraries are of three kinds: The 
Debate libraries, the Farmers' library, and the Study Club libraries. 
The Debate libraries are carefully prepared colletitions on the polit- 
ical, social, and economic questions which are being debated by 
schools and societies throughout the State. They consist of books, 
pamphlets, and magazine and newspaper articles. These little 
libraries contain the best material available on a subject and as 
much as the ordinary library would be able to furnish. Hence they 
are not lent to individuals, but to schools and debating societies, and 
on condition that all taking part in the debate have the use of the 
material. Libraries are now available on seventy-nine different sub- 
jects. These Debate Libraries not only furnish the best material 
available to schools and societies which otherwise would have little 
or no material of any kind, but they are also a very effective means 
of bringing the Commission into close touch with the schools, and in 
many cases the Commission is able to awaken interest in the improve- 
ment of the school library or in the establishment of a traveling 
library station in the community. 

The Farmers' Library is a collection of 12 books on Agriculture 
and Country Life. The collections were purchased with an appro- 
priation made for the purpose by the S^ate Board of Agriculture and 
are lent for a period of two months to Farmers' Union Locals or 
otiier groups of farmers. The Commission also maintains a special 
collection of books on Agriculture and Country Life from which small 
collections of six to ten volumes are made up and lent in the same 
way as the Farmers' Library. 

7. The General Loan Collection. This is a miscellaneous collec- 
tion of books on all subjects and it enables the Commission to send 
books to individuals and to supplement the various fixed collections 
so that they will meet the needs of each community and organiza- 
tion to which they are lent. In order that citizens may secure books 
as easily and as promptly as possible, they are sent in response to 

.applications signed by a teacher, minister, postmaster, county or 
town official, or the officers of a book club, society, or other organiza- 
tion. The books from this section are lent for four weeks, and the 
borrower pays the postage both from and to Raleigh. 

8. Distribution of Lihrary Literature. In addition to the ]\^ort}i 
Carolina Library Bulletin, the following publications have been is- 
sued and distributed by the Commission: 



State Boakd of Heaxth. Ill 

The Public Library. 

Free Traveling libraries. 

Debating: list of books for libraries, high schools, and debating 
societies. 

Work of the North Carolina Library Commission. 

Agricultural and Country Life. 

North Carolina Package Libraries: Material for debate. 

Select Bibliography of North Carolina, by Stephen B. Weeks. 

The Farmers' Library. 

North Carolina Package Libraries. 

How to Start a Public Library. 

Other library literature, including tracts of the American Library 
Association, book lists, building plans, etc., is sent out as required. 

9. School Libraries. The development of school libraries is a spe- 
cial feature of the work. A close connection has been established 
with the schools by giving advice on the care and use of school 
libraries, assistance in starting the necessary records, and help in 
the selection and purchase of books. A bulletin on school libraries, 
prepared by the Secretary, has been published and distributed by 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction to all schools in the State. 
Other literature on the subject is distributed by the Commission, and 
talks are given at teachers' meetings to arouse the interest of super- 
intendents and teachers in building up good school libraries. A spe- 
cial effort is made to bring the public schools and the public libraries 
into close cooperation. 

MEMBERS OF THE LIBRARY COMMISSION. 

Louis R. Wn.soN, Chairman Orange. 

C. C. Wright, Vice Chairman Wilkes. 

Charles Lee Smith Wake. 

James Y. Joyner Wake. 

Miles 0. Sherrill Wake. 

Miss Minnie W. Leatherman, Sec'y Wake. 



THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

W. S. Rankin, Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh. 

personnel. 
The personnel of the State Board of Health consists of nine mem- 
bers; of these, five are appointed by the Governor and four are 
elected by the State Medical Society. Members of the Board serve 



112 Administrative Departments. 

six years. The appointment and election of members, as authorized 
in the original act, is such that not more than four are elected and 
appointed during any biennial period. 

HISTORICAL. 

Coincident with the beginning and growth of public confidence in 
the possibilities of health work in North Carolina, the General As- 
sembly of 1877 created the State Board of Health, and from time to 
time, as experience justified, has added to its powers. The first an- 
nual appropriation for the work of the Board was $100, and this 
was given by the General Assembly of 1879. The General Assem- 
bly of 1881 increased the annual appropriation from $100 to $200; 
the General Assembly of 1893 increased the appropriation from 
$200 to $2,000; the General Assembly of 1899 increased the appro- 
priation to $4,000; ten years later, in 1909, the General Assembly 
raised the appropriation to $10,500; in 1911 the General Assembly 
increased the appropriation to $22,500; the General Assembly of 
1913 made the appropriation $40,500; and the General Assembly of 
1915 raised it to the sum of $53,000. 

In 1905 the State Laboratory of Hygiene was established and all 
public water companies were required to submit samples of water 
monthly, or oftener when necessary, for analysis, for which they were 
required to pay the Laboratory an annual tax of $64. With the in- 
crease in the number of public water companies in the State, this 
tax now amounts to $6,000 a year. It must be understood here that 
this tax is solely for the payment of the expenses of the analyses of 
water, and for that reason it is questionable whether it should be in- 
cluded as a part of the revenue of the State Board of Health. 

PRESENT INCOME OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

If we shall include the $6,000 collected in the form of water taxes 
with the $53,000 appropriated directly from the State Treasury, we 
find that the State Board of Health has an annual income of $59,000. 

DIVIDENDS ON INVESTMENT IN PUBLIC HEALTH. 

Item No. 1. — The State Laboratory of Hygiene examines annually 
5,000 microscopic specimens, which would cost the people and the 
physicians of this State, if examined in other laboratories, $7,500. 
This $7,500 is one dividend that is paid on the State investment of 
$59,000 in the health of her people. 



State Board of He.u.th. 113 

Item No. 2. — The State Laboratory of Hygiene examined last year 
3,2'89 samples of drinking-water. These analyses made by other 
State laboratories, or by private laboratories, would have cost our 
State $16,445. This is a second dividend paid on the State's invest- 
ment of $59,000 in the health of her people. 

Item No. 3. — The State Laboratory of Hygiene treated last year 175 
citizens of North Carolina who had been bitten by rabid animals. It 
would have cost the 175 citizens of the State $10,000 to have secured 
the Pasteur treatment outside of the State. This $10,000 is a third 
dividend paid on the State's investment of $59,000 in the health of 
her people. 

Item No. J/. — Before the State Laboratory began to supply typhoid 
vaccine free to the people, the vaccine would, for each immunization, 
cost $1.50, and consequently relatively few people were immunized. 
With free vaccine there will probably be at least 100,000 to 125,000 
vaccinations this year, on which will be saved $1.50 each, or a total of 
not less than $150,000, which is a fourth dividend on the State's in- 
vestment of $59,000 in the public health. 

Item No. 5. — The General Assembly of 1911 gave the State Board 
of Health the authority to contract with those manufacturers of diph- 
theria antitoxin that hold a United States license for a State supply 
of antitoxin to be purchased from the lowest bidder by the State 
Laboratory of Hygiene and distributed through antitoxin stations in 
the various counties to the people at exactly the cost of the antitoxin 
at the State rate. We might say right here that the quality of the 
antitoxin is guaranteed by the United States Government. Antitoxin 
is sold in packages, which are graded, according to the units of 
potency per package, into packages of 1,000, 3,000, and 5,000 units. 
The price of these packages of antitoxin, before this arrangement 
was made, were as follows: 

1,000 units $2.00 

3,000 units 5-00 

5,000 units 7.50 

Under the present arrangement the same antitoxin can be pur- 
chased in North Carolina at the following prices: 

1,000 units $0.50 

3,000 units 1-35 

5,000 units 1-95 

8 



114 Administrative Depaetments. 

Estimating the amount of saving on this vital necessity from the 
amount of antitoxin distributed per 100,000 population by the States 
keeping such records, and on the difference in cost of antitoxin, this 
law is saving the State annually at least $30,000. This is a fifth divi- 
dend paid on the State's investment of $59,000 in the State's health. 

Item No. U. — In 1911 the State Board of Health was instrumental in 
securing from the General Assembly a law making the quarantine of 
smallpox optional with the counties, and giving the right to the State 
Board of Health of advising that no quarantine be established except 
under exceptional circumstances. An inquiry sent to county physi- 
cians the year before this law was passed showed that there were an- 
nually 7,500 cases of smallpox in North Carolina, with a cost for 
quarantine of $66,000 a year. An inquiry sent out to county physi- 
cians one year after this law went into effect showed a decline in 
the number of cases of smallpox from 7,500 to 3,300 and a decline in 
the public cost of the disease from $66,000 to $2,600. It is reasonable 
to conclude that through the enactment of this law the State Board 
of Health is saving the State every year something like $50,000, and 
at the same time more effectually controlling the disease. This $50.- 
000 may therefore be considered as a sixth dividend paid on the 
State's investment of $59,000 in the public health. 

Item No. 7. — The General Assembly of 1909 enacted a law requiring 
that all plans and specifications for water-works and sewerage sys- 
tems should be submitted to and approved by the State Board of 
Health before being accepted by the municipalities for which the 
plans and specifications were designed. This law has safeguarded the 
municipalities of our State against the work of cheap engineers and 
contractors. For example, in one North Carolina town before this 
law went into operation, a public water supply was constructed with- 
out being approved by the State Board of Health and, on account of 
the faulty location of the water supply, it was necessary to abandon 
it, so that that town lost from $10,000 to $15,000 in its investment; 
Many such losses have been saved the municipalities of the State by 
this law which requires all plans and specifications for water sup- 
plies and sewerage systems to be submitted to and approved by the 
State Board of Health before acceptance. 

Item No. 8. — A continuous, well-organized, and extensive educa- 
tional campaign against insanitary and unhygienic conditions has 
been waged. This campaign has embraced the following measures: 
(a) The issuance of an educational monthly bulletin of 51,000 copies; 



State Board of Health. 115 

(&) the furnishing of newspaper articles, directed toward the im- 
provement of sanitary and hygienic conditions, to 350 daily and 
weekly newspapers: (c) the publication and distribution upon re- 
quest, of health literature, placards, leaflets, etc.; {d) an extensive 
correspondence with the people of the State in regard to the preven- 
tion of unnecessary disease; (e) the furnishing of illustrated or 
stereopticon lanterns and appropriate slides for public lectures to 
teachers, doctors, Y. M. C. A. workers, social workers, and others; 
and lastly, (/) the equipment and operation of a motion picture out- 
fit for teaching disease prevention. 

Item No. 9. — A careful supervision has been maintained over all 
public water supplies of the State. This supervision has been carried 
on through a knowledge of the watersheds and surroundings of wells, 
as shown by maps in the office, through a knowledge of sanitary con- 
ditions on the watersheds, as shown through quarterly reports to the 
office and as shown through monthly, weekly, or even daily analyses 
of the public water supplies. No one can estimate the number of epi- 
demics, the number of cases of sickness, and the number of deaths 
that have been prevented through this supervision. 

Item No. 10. — One hundred and forty-seven schools have been vis- 
ited by competent medical inspectors, 10,108 children examined, 
3,250 children found suffering from minor defects which sooner or 
later would develop into a serious menace to health, and at this time 
over 800 of those afflicted have been treated and cured. 

Item No. 11. — The State Board of Health, by its educational activ- 
ities, has fostered, strengthened, and directed an interest on the part 
of the counties in local health work, so that today North Carolina has 
more whole-time county health officers than any State in the Union. 
Local rural health work, through the eleven whole-time county health 
officers and through the development of the unit system of county 
health work, now in active process of development, is far ahead of 
such work in the other States of the Union with only two or three 
exceptions. The proper development of county health work is bring- 
ing sanitary instruction and sanitary government closer to the 
people, and will result in the saving of thousands of lives tliat would 
be lost without active and effective county sanitary administration. 

Ite7n, No. 12. — Probably the most important, certainly the most 
fundamental, health measure that any State may enact was passed 
by the General Assembly of 1913. This measure is known as the 
Vital Statistics Law. 



116 Administrative Departments. 

For each individual the Vital Statistics Law requires the State to 
keep a complete and permanent record, in a fire-proof vault, of the 
two principal events in the individual's life, his or her birth and 
death. The State believes that none of its citizens are so humble 
that North Carolina should not take official notice of their coming 
and going and preserve such records for all time. By such records 
the children and grandchildren of the State will be enabled to keep 
track of their ancestors and their relatives; will be enabled to prove 
their age in the courts, and thereby their right to suffrage, their 
right to marriage, their right to insurance, their right to work in 
various industries, their right to inheritances, etc. 

For the State this law means that the number of deaths per thou- 
sand of the population occurring in North Carolina, or in any county 
or township or town or city of the State, shall be known; it means 
that the number of deaths from various diseases per thousand ol 
the population of the State, or any part of the State, shall be re- 
corded; that the number of births per thousand of the population in 
the State, in the counties, in any part or subdivision of the State, 
shall be known; that by comparing such figures with similar figures 
from the other States of the Union, the people of this State, the 
people of other States and of the world, may know, not guess, what 
health conditions in North Carolina are. 

And best of all, the Vital Statistics Law has shown and caused to 
be published on the authority of the United States Government the 
fact that this State is one of the healthiest in the Union, as demon- 
strated by a death rate of 13.3 per thousand of ther population per 
year and a birth rate of 31.0 per thousand of the population per year. 
Our high birth rate of 31.0 per thousand of our population, which is 
considerably higher than the birth rate of any State in the Union 
and as high as the highest birth registration country in the world — 
Holland — coupled with our low death registration, proves that our 
State has an enviable health record. 

MEMBERS OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

J. HovPELL Way, M.D., President . . . . Waynesville. 

Richard H. Lewis, M.D., L.L.D Raleigh. 

.J. L. Lt-I)I-ow, C. E Winston-Salem. 

W. 0. Spencer, M.D Winston-Salem. 

Thomas E. Anderson, M.D Statesville. 



Board of Public Charities. 117 

Chas. O'H. Laughinghouse, M.D. . . Greenville. 

Edward J. Wood, M.D Wilmington. 

F. R. Harris, M.D Henderson. 

Cyrus Thompson, M.D Jacksonville. 

executive staff. 

W. S. Rankin, M.D., Secretary and Treasurer. 

C. A. Shore, M.D., Director State Laboratory of Hygiene. 

Warren H. Booker, C.E., Chief Bureau Engineering and Education. 

J. R. Gordon, M.D., Chief Bureau Vital Statistics. 

L. B. McBrayer, M. D., Superintendent State Sanatorium. 

Geo. M. Cooper, M.D., Chief Bureau Rural Sanitation. 

Miss Mary Robinson, Bookkeeper. 



BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES OF JfORTH CAROLINA. 

Miss Daisy Denson, Secretary, Raleigh. 

State Constitution, Article XI, section 7: "Beneficent provision 
for the poor, unfortunate, and orphan being one of the first duties of 
a civilized and Christian State, the General Assembly shall, at its 
first session, appoint and define the duties of a Board of Public 
Charities, to whom shall be intrusted the supervision of all Chari- 
table and penal institutions, and who shall annually report to the 
Governor upon their condition, with suggestions for their improve- 
ment." 

Section 3916, Revisal of 1905: "This board shall, besides their 
own observation, avail themselves of correspondence and exchange 
of facts of the labors of others in these departments, and thus be able 
to afford the General Assembly data to guide them in future legis- 
lation for the amelioration of the condition of the. people, as well as 
to contribute to enlighten public opinion and direct it to interests 
so vital to the prosperity of the State." 

It has the right to inspect and report upon the management of 
State charitable and penal institutions, including access to all por- 
tions of the premises, and the right to examine all books and papers; 
to visit and inspect county and municipal institutions, jails, camps, 
and Homes in the same manner and to the same extent as the State 
institutions. It must visit, inspect, and issue license to private 



118 Administrative Depaktments. 

hospitals established for the care of insane, inebriates, and feeble- 
minded, and can prescribe rules and regulations for licensed hos- 
pitals. It has the right to require reports for officials in charge of 
all public charitable and penal institutions, both State and county. 

The inspections of the State institutions are made personally by 
the members of the Board or the Secretary. Local boards of visitors 
(volunteer workers) have been organized in the counties by the 
Board, who inspect the county institutions and make semi-annual 
reports. These local boards cannot be too highly praised for the 
noble work which they have accomplished in many of the counties, 
bettering the condition of the unfortunates. 

Printed circulars Indicating the information desired are mailed 
to all boards of county commissioners annually, and to boards of 
visitors semi-annually. Questions are sent to all State institutions 
annually and to licensed private orphanages, hospitals, and miscel- 
laneous charitable bodies of the State which report upon blanks 
sent out from the office of the Board. 

An annual report is made to the Governor, and a biennial re- 
port, which the Board "shall print," is made to the General As- 
sembly. These reports contain in detail the proceedings of this 
Board, the reports of the institutions, and recommendations for 
changes or improvements. In addition, the Secretary makes a 
monthly report to the Chairman, and a quarterly report to the Board 
at their regular meetings. 

* It is charged with the duty of collecting, collating, and publishing 
such facts as may conduce to a correct judgment of the needs ot 
the several institutions. 

Another important duty is "to avail themselves of correspondence 
and exchange of facts of the labors of others in these departments." 
With this end in view, a systematic exchange of reports with other 
States and countries has been maintained. The library of philan- 
thropic books and pamphlets, numbering over 2,000, has not cost the 
State a cent. 

For the same reason members of the Board and the Secretary 
have affiliated with the National Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection, the American Prison Association, and the Southern Socio- 
logical Congress, and from time to time attended the meetings of 
these notable bodies at their own expense. Also, without expense 
to the State, the Secretary has attended a session of the School of 



Board of Public Chakities. 119 

Philanthrophy of New York, the meeting of the International Prison 
Congress at Washington, and has visited the institutions of a num- 
ber of other States. 

The Governor annually appoints delegates to the National Confer- 
ence of Charities and Corrections and to the American Prison Asso- 
ciation and other similar organizations. Reports and proceedings 
of these and other National bodies are collected for reference. 

The Board of Public Charities is an advisory board; it is non- 
partisan, and its members receive no compensation. It is untram- 
meled and free to call the attention of those officials who have ex- 
ecutive duties to perform in institutions or who are legally over 
them to any lack of proper care of the inmates. The Board repre- 
sents primarily the inmate and the general public. It investigates 
complaints, and if necessary calls upon judges and solicitors to 
prosecute. 

The policy of the Board has been not to criticise unless it can 
offer something better, some ideal towards which we may 'strive, 
which has been tried and found successful elsewhere. These ideals 
are embodied in the recommendations and suggestions which are 
made in each annual report, as the law requires. Constructive phi- 
lanthrophy must be the foundation-stone for the proper develop- 
ment of our charitble and penal systems. 

The influence of the Board is seen in the gradually improved con- 
dition of the county homes and jails, new buildings for these classes 
having been erected in many counties; in the separation of white 
and black prisoners in the camps; the enforcement of the laws re- 
quiring proper apartments in the jails, and the separation of tuber- 
culosis prisoners from others, and the increased accommodations 
for the insane. Also its influence has been exerted in behalf of the 
several new State institutions which have been established since its 
organization, viz., the School for the White Deaf at Morganton; the 
Dangerous Insane Department; the Jackson Training School; the 
Soldiers' Home; the School for the Feeble-minded; the Epileptic 
Colony; the Tuberculosis Sanatorium, and the Confederate Woman's 
Home. The Board has taken an active part in securing the estab- 
lishment of all except the Sanatorium, and has aided their subse- 
quent growth. The State's record of the development of her char- 
ities is one to be proud of, and there is no reason why her penal in- 
stitutions and care of all her prisoners should not be properly syste- 
matized so that we may feel an equal pride in the State's policy 



120 Administrative Departments. 

towards them. She has been one of the first States to recognize the 
benefit of outdoor work for prisoners and to put it into practice. 
The Board has steadily and persistently pressed for a change of atti- 
tude toward the prisoner and for a State system of management. 

The reports of the institutions and pay-rolls are on file in the of- 
fice of the Board in the Capitol, and are open to the inspection of 
the members of the Assembly, who are cordially invited to visit the 
office and make use of the data gathered there for this purpose. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF CHARITIES. 

William A. Blair, Chairman Forsyth. 

Carey J. Hunter Wake. 

J. A. McAuLA Y Montgomery. 

Charles W. Horxe Johnston. 



NOETH CAEOLIXA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SUEVET. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist. 

The act establishing the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey was passed by the Legislature of 1905, and outlines in detail 
the phases of work to be carried out by this Department as follows: 

(1) The examination of the mineral, forest, fishery, and other 
resources of the State. 

(2) The examination of the geological formations of the State 
with reference to their economic products. 

(3) The examinations of the road-building materials and the best 
methods of utilizing same. 

(4) The examination and classification of the soils and forests and 
other physical features of the State, with special reference to their 
bearing upon the occupations of the people. 

(5) The examination of the streams and water-powers of the 
State, with special reference to their development in manufacturing 
enterprises and the preservation of the sources of these streams 
through the protection of the forests. 

(6) The examination of the water supplies of the State, with 
special reference to sinking deep artesian wells. 

(7) The preparation of reports regarding these investigations. 
To carry on all the lines of work outlined as being the objects 

of the Geological Survey at one time, with the small annual appro- 



Geological, and Economic Survey. 121 

priation at present allotted for this work, would be an impossibility; 
but the State Geologist, with the advice and consent of the Geo- 
logical Board, undertakes and carries out such of these investiga- 
tions as seem to be most urgent and as can be accomplished witli 
the said appropriation, supplemented by the heartiest cooperation on 
the part of the various Federal bureaus, such as the United States 
Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineering, the United States 
Geological Survey, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the 
United States Forest Service, the United States Fisheries Commis- 
sion, the National Association of Audubon Societies, the American 
Association of State Highway Officials, and various State associa- 
tions such as the North Carolina Good Roads Association, the South- 
ern Appalachian Good Roads Association, the North Carolina Drain- 
age Association, the North Carolina Forestry Association, and the 
North Carolina Fisheries Society. 

The Survey not only examines into the present conditions of these 
various natural resources and conditions affecting the State's ad- 
vancement, but, where there seems to be a crying need for the con- 
servation and perpetuation of certain of our resources, such as our 
forests and the commercial fisheries, it seeks to acquire all possible 
information and to give such publicity as will acquaint the citizens 
of the State with the great necessity for conserving and perpetuating 
the wealth with which nature has so abundantly endowed us. No 
attempt is made on the part of the Survey to cloak any adverse 
conditions but an effort is made to reveal the true state of affairs 
with the idea that by making a correct diagnosis a cure can the 
sooner be reached. It is believed by those familiar with the work 
of this Department that many of the great economic problems of the 
present and future are involved in its work. Every effort has been 
made to educate and arouse the people of the State to the importance 
of proper methods of conservation of not only our so-called natural 
resources, but of our time, labor, and money in the construction of 
better roads. Such educational work is carried on by means of ad- 
dresses, bulletins, correspondence, newspaper articles, conventions, 
exhibits, demonstration work, etc. 

One of the greatest handicaps to the work of the Survey during 
the past two years has been the lack of funds for printing its re- 
ports. As outlined above, the work of the Survey consists mainly 
in studying conditions and making reports to the people as to the 
results of these investigations. To be of value to the State, these 



12*2 Administkative Departments. 

reports should be distributed at the time when they would have the 
most value, either in conserving the interests of the people or ad- 
vertising our resources at the time when these resources are in 
most demand. Delay in publication may mean, and often does mean, 
the withholding of information which costs the State many dollars 
because of delayed action which may have resulted through the pub- 
lication and distribution of the information compiled from a given 
investigation. The people of North Carolina have a right to the 
results of the work which they have authorized. 

Below is given in some detail the work of the Survey under differ- 
ent headings. 

GEOLOGY AXD MINERALOGY. 

The geological work carried on by the Survey during the past two 
years has related particularly to the occurrences of certain gold ores, 
lime deposits, and copper deposits. The general study of the Coastal 
Plain geology has been continued in cooperation with the United 
States Geological Survey and a volume on the Paleontology of the 
Coastal Plain is now in preparation for publication. Since the rise 
in price of copper, occasioned by the war in Europe, the North Caro- 
lina deposits have become of distinct interest and the report on the 
Virgilina Copper District, prepared in cooperation with the State 
Geological Survey of Virginia, will be of interest and value to the 
State. This is now in the hands of the printer, and should be ready 
for distribution early in 1917. 

Statistics relating to the production of the various minerals and 
ores of the State were collected in cooperation with the United States 
Geological Survey. Mineral specimens are constantly being received 
at the office from all over the State, tested and reported on. While 
the majority of these specimens have no value, yet occasionally one 
is sent in which is of value either commercially or of scientific in- 
terest. Through this avenue deposits of commercial minerals have 
been located which have proven to be of considerable value. 

The following publications have been printed and distributed dur- 
ing the past two years: 

Bulletin : 

25. Zircon, Monazite, and Other Minerals Used in the Production of Chemical 
Compounds Employed in the Manufacture of Lighting Apparatus. 

Press BiiUetin : 

150. Mineral Production in North Carolina During 1914. 



Geological and Economic Survey. 123 

eoad work. 

The phenomenal growth in the sentiment for good roads in North 
Carolina during the past score of years has been due largely to the 
efforts of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, and 
the various organizations fostered through the work of the Survey. 
This work has of necessity been largely of an educational character 
through pamphlets published and distributed by the Survey; through 
press articles prepared by members of the Survey staff; through cir- 
culars distributed broadcast over the State; through lectures and ad- 
dresses by the State Geologist and his assistants in practically every 
county and most of the townships of the State; through State con- 
ventions held annually and sometimes oftener; through exhibits of 
road pictures, road materials, road models, etc., at the State Fair 
and at local county fairs; and in short, through every avenue for 
the dissemination of information in regard to the value of good roads 
and best methods of road building have been employed. 

During the past two years (1915-16) the Survey has worked along 
the following lines with reference to the road work of the State: 

It has completed the work on the Hickory Nut Gap road (part of 
Asheville-Charlotte Highway) as authorized by the Legislature of 
1913. This work required a longer time than was at first expected 
it would take to complete it because of the fact that all of the work 
had to be done by private subscriptions, mostly in Asheville and 
Buncombe County; and long periods of rain and bad weather lim- 
ited the time which could be given to actual work. Notwithstanding 
these conditions, this stretch of road was completed and late in 1915 
turned over to the commissioners who had been appointed to take 
charge of its maintenance in accordance with the act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. It may be stated here, however, that the floods 
which visited western North Carolina in July, 1916, did great damage 
to this road; but it is expected that it will be in good shape by 
the beginning of the tourist season of 1917. 

The Survey also continued its general supervision in Madison 
County in connection with the special act of the Legislature relat- 
ing to the portion of the Central Highway in that county. 

The great object for which the Survey has been working for many 
years may be said to have been accomplished with the establishment 
of the State Highway Commission by the Legislature of 1915. It 
is believed that this is the most valuable and far-reaching road act 
ever passed by a General Assembly of North Carolina because it 



124 Administrative Departments. 

means the beginning of systematic, scientific and economical road 
worlv in tlie State. The establishment of a State Highway Com- 
mission also makes it possible for North Carolina to receive the bene- 
fits of the Federal Aid Road Bill passed by Congress in July, 1916, 
which places at the disposal of the State Highway Commission for 
road construction in North Carolina a sum of approximately $115,000 
the first year and an increasing amount each succeeding year. The 
State Geologist is Secretary of the State Highway Commission, and, 
in this connection, his work for good roads throughout the State has 
had a broader opportunity for accomplishing definite results. He 
has served for the past two years as Secretary of the American 
Association of State Highway Officials, and it is largely through the 
efforts of this Association that the Federal Aid Road Law became 
an accomplished fact; so that it may be said that the State has re- 
ceived a very direct benefit from the work of the State Geologist in 
this National organization. 

Another form of educational w^ork undertaken by the Survey, first 
in cooperation with the State University and later with the aid of 
the State Highway Commission and the University, has been the 
holding of a Road Institute at the University during the winter of 
each year for three consecutive years. That this Institute is supply- 
ing a vital need in North Carolina is evidenced by the fact that there 
has been a steady increase in its attendance, those present represent- 
ing every kind of official connected with road work in the counties 
and townships from the county commissioner, road commissioner, 
road engineer, road superintendent, road foreman, road supervisor, 
road trustee to private citizens interested in this work. At the first In- 
stitute, held in March 1914, there were twenty-four counties repre- 
sented, with fifty-four men attending. At the second Institute held 
in February, 1915, there were tw^enty-nine counties represented, with 
eighty men attending. At the third Institute held in February, 1916, 
there were one hundred and twenty-seven men present, representing 
forty-three counties. At these Institutes every sort of road prol> 
lem to be met with in North Carolina is discussed by experts; there 
is an interchange of ideas and experiences by those wiio are actually 
doing the road work in North Carolina, to their very great mutual 
benefit. Demonstrations of road machinery and methods of moving 
dirt, surfacing, testing road materials, etc., are given. The Survey 
is making every effort at these Institutes to give every opportunity 
to those actually engaged in road building in North Carolina to hear 



Geological and Economic Survey. 125 

the best lecturers that can be had; and to give the most practical in- 
structions possible as to the best known methods of road location, 
construction, maintenance, demonstration and cooperation. 

The Survey has continued to cooperate with the United States 
Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineering in the collection of 
data relating to the financing and building of roads in North Caro- 
lina. These data enable us to take stock of where we stand along 
this line and help us to realize the efficiency or non-efficiency of our 
present methods by comparing what we are spending with what we 
are getting for this expenditure. It might be stated here, however, 
that the report for 1914 (the most complete yet obtained) is still in 
the hands of the Commissioner of Labor and Printing, not published 
because of lack of printing funds. The value of this report to the 
people of the State is being greatly diminished because of its not 
being published at the proper time. The collection and tabulation 
of these data cost us a great deal of money and time, and the non- 
publication of this report is a disdihct loss to the State. 

The Survey, cooperating with the North Carolina Good Roads As- 
sociation, held in .June, 1916, at Wilmington, Wrightsville Beach, the 
largest Road Convention ever held in the State, or in the South. Al- 
most twelve hundred delegates were registered, representing practi- 
cally every county in the State. The slogan of the Convention was 
"State Roads"; and it is believed that an impetus was given to the 
building of long continuous stretches of good road connecting county 
seat with county seat, and the eastern with the Piedmont and west- 
ern sections of the State. A getting away from the old idea of 
sitoply building short stretches of neighborhood road, resulting in a 
few miles of good road followed by many miles of very bad road, 
is felt to have been a distinct advance. As a direct result of this 
Convention there is a movement on now for the building of certain 
intra-^state highways which extend across many counties, such as 
the Wilmington-Fayetteville Highway, Wilmington-Goldsboro High- 
way, Charlotte-Pinehurst-Raleigh Highway, Wilmington-Newbern 
Highway, and many others. 

It is with distinct satisfaction that the Survey is now seeing 
many of the principles which it has been enunciating for many years 
being put into practice. Public opinion, however, has just begun to 
awaken and needs guidance in the paths of efficiency, economy and 
cooperative effort between local and State officials in an endeavor 
to get the greatest values from the public moneys spent in terms 



12'6 Administrative Departments. 

of the most desirable locations from the standpoint of service to 
the people as well as most efficient grade; durability of surfacing 
materials used in relation to density of population; mileage ob- 
tained; and of greatest importance, efficient maintenance— ever 
keeping in mind the desirability of having a system of roads, begin- 
ning somewhere and ending somewhere, avenues for inter-communl- 
cation which will make our State a unit physically, socially and 
spiritually. To mould public opinion along the lines suggested is 
the future work of the Survey, the State Highway Commission, the 
various organizations, and the duty of all forward looking citizens. 
During the past two years the Survey has issued the following 
publications relating to roads: 

Economic Papers : 

39. Proceedings of the Good Roads Institute held at the University of North 
Carolina, March 17-19, 1914. Held under the auspices of the Depart- 
ments of Civil and Highway Engineering of the University of North 
Carolina and the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 

43. Proceedings of the Second Road Institute, held at the University of North 
Carolina, February 23-27, 1915. 

Good Roads Circulars : 

104. Decision of the Supreme Court Regarding Road Bonds. 

105. Statistics Regarding Road Work in North Carolina During 1915. 

106. Annual Convention of the North Carolina Good Roads Association held at 

Asheville, N. C, July 14-.16, 1915. 

The following reports have been prepared and are in the hands of 
the Commissioner of Labor and Printing, publication having been de- 
layed because of lack of printing funds: 

Economic Papers : 

4:4:. Highway Work in North Carolina During the Calendar Year Ending De- 
cember 31, 1914. 

FORESTRY DIVISION. 

The Forestry work of the Survey is to examine, study, and report 
on the forest resources of the State in their relation to the life and 
activities of the people. By recent acts of the Legislature, there 
has been added the duty of protecting the forests from fire and of 
making experiments in forestry practice for the benefit of the people 
of the State. Studies of the forest resources of the various counties, 
of the wood using industries of the State, and o various other fea- 



Geological and Economic Survey. 127 

tures have been made. Many private woodland tracts have been ex- 
amined and advice for their conservative management given to the 
owners. Illustrated lectures have been given at the public schools 
and talks on practical forest management made at Farmer's Insti- 
tutes and on many other occasions. 

The most important work of the Survey, however, has been in 
connection with the prevention of forest fires. With the idea of 
securing reliable information on the damage done by fires and at 
the same time interesting leaders of thought in each township in fire 
prevention, annual inquiries by correspondence have been carried on 
for the past seven years. The results show an average annual loss of 
$622,644 reported from an average of somewhat less than half the 
townships of the State. The value to the State of these annual 
studies has recently been greatly reduced by its failure to have the 
reports printed and distributed. The people must know conditions 
before they can be expected to correct them. 

The most important and far-reaching action of the Last Legis- 
lature in regard to forestry was the passage of the Forestry Bill 
which had been advocated and urged before several previous legisla- 
tures. This measure, which beca,me a law on March 9, provides for 
a State system of fire protection, to be administered by the State 
Geological Board. It provides for the appointment of township and 
district forest wardens, defines their duties and compensations, and 
clothes them with power to enforce the forestry laws. It also 
amends the old law against burning the woods and against leaving 
camp fires, by incorporating those sections of the general law which 
dealt with these offenses, and changing them slightly to make them 
more effective. If enforced, this would be one of the best State 
forestry laws in the South. It lacks, however, the appropriation 
to cany it into effect. 

In spite of this lack of appropriation, the Survey has done every- 
thing it could to carry out the spirit as well as letter of this law. 
It has printed and distributed large placards for posting in public 
places, calling the attention of the people to the provisions of the 
State law and warning them against forest fires. The Forestry 
Laws, together with explanations as to their value and the manner 
of their enforcement, have also been published and distributed. Dis- 
tinctive and appropriate badges, which will be immediately recogniz- 
able by the public, have been secured for the township and district 
wardens; but, owing to the insecurity of their present appointments, 



12'8 Administrative Departments. 

few badges have yet been given out. No general advantage, how- 
ever, can be taken of this law until the State can appropriate money 
for the payment of wardens. 

By reason of the enactment of the Forestry Law, the State Geol- 
ogist has been enabled to secure from the Federal Government a 
sum not exceeding $2,000 a year for the purpose of employing Fed- 
eral Patrolmen under the Weeks Law. Several of these patrolmen 
have been appointed to cooperate with such organizations of land- 
owners as the Tryon Forestry Club, the Mt. Mitchell Protective 
Association and the Linville Forest Protective Association, as is 
intended by the Federal Government. These men have done good 
work not only by actually preventing and extinguishing fires but 
by forming centres of information and activity which will bear good 
fruit in the future. 

Under the law of 1915 (Chap. 253), the General Assembly recog- 
nized the duty of the State to experiment in and demonstrate practi- 
cal methods of forestry. One of the most pressing needs at the 
present time is to determine what are the best ways of reforesting 
the nonagricultural lands of the different regions of the State. 
Through the cooperation of Dr. L. B. McBrayer and the Board of 
Directors, part of the tract controlled by the State Sanatorium for 
the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Hoke County has been set aside 
for tbe use of the Survey in conducting experiments along these 
lines. Some seed has already been sown in experimental plots, and 
it is planned to continue work there next spring on a much more 
extended scale. The State should acquire areas in other regions 
where similar experiments can be conducted. 

Amongst other educational and publicity measures urged by the 
Survey to better acquaint the people of North Carolina with forest 
conditions and interest them in the intelligent care of forest and 
shade trees, the observance of a State Arbor Day has been especially 
stressed. Following the passage of the law (Chap. 51, Laws of 1915) 
for the establishment of an Arbor Day, the Survey, at the request 
of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, prepared an Arbor 
and Bird Day Manual for the use of the Public Schools. This was 
published and distributed by the Department of Education. A 
second Arbor and Bird Day Manual was, with the cooperation of 
the State Federation of Women's Clubs, prepared by the State 
Forester in 1916, and this was published in the same way. Special 
addresses to school children have been given both by the State 



Geologicax, and Economic Survey, 129 

Geologist and the State Forester, on Arbor Day as well as at other 
times. The Survey has materially assisted the North Carolina 
Forestry Association in its activities, especially in holding its semi- 
annual meetings, which have attracted favorable attention far 
beyond our own borders. The last summer meeting, largely through 
the efforts of the Survey and the interested cooperation of kindred 
organizations, was expanded into the Southern Forestry Congress, 
Which resulted in a meeting of nation-wide importance and interest. 

The Forestry Division has before it a large and important work. 
To be effective it must keep abreast of the times. It was created 
for leadership, and in order to lead it must receive the liberal 
support of the General Assembly. The Survey plans to continue the 
study of the Forest Resources of the various counties, nearly half 
of which have already been covered; it must continue to furnish 
speakers to schools and organized gatherings; it should greatly 
extend its usefulness to the farmers, who are demanding not only 
advice in forest management but assistance in the proper disposal 
of their timber crops; it must experiment and show the landowners 
the best forestry and protective methods; and above all it must 
administer the forest fire law so that the forest lands of the State 
may be enabled to produce a permanent supply of timber for the 
ever widening demands of our people and industries. 

During the past two years the Survey has prepared and distributed 
the following publications relating to Forestry: 

Bulletin : 

24. Loblolly or North Ccarolina Pine, by W. "W. Ashe, Forest Inspector, U. S. 
Forest Service (and former Forester of the North Carolina Geological 
and Economic Survey). Prepared in Cooperation with the Forest 
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Economic Papers : 

40. Forest Fires in North Carolina During 1914 and Forestry Laws of North 
Carolina, by J. S. Holmes, Forester. 

42. Organization of Cooperative Forest Fire Protective Areas in North Caro- 
lina, being the Proceedings of the Special Conference on Forest Fire 
Protection held as part of the Conference on Forestry and Nature 
Study, Montreat, N. C, July 8, 1915. Prepared by J. S. Holmes, 
State Forester. 

Biennial Report, 1913-14: 

Special reports relating to the examination of forest lands; report on the Ash 
in North Carolina; report on Spruce Forests of Mount Mitchell; report 
of work of U. S. Forest Service in North Carolina in connection with 
purchase of forest reserves, etc. Pp. 57-110. 

9 



150 Administrative Departments. 

Press Bulletins Relating to Forestry : 

138. Mount Mitchell State Forest. 

139. Forest Fire Protection Demanded by the Thinking Public. 

140. What the Forests of North Carolina Mean to Her Citizens and Why 

They Should be Preserved, by Joseph Hyde Pratt. 

141. Forestry in North Carolina. 

142. Demonstration Forests for North Carolina. 

143. Timber Resources of Franklin County. 

144. Timber Resources of Wake County. 

145. Timber Resources of Chatham County. 

146. Timber Resources of Lee County. 

147. Forestry Laws of North Carolina. 

148. Suggestions Regarding Arbor Day Program. 

149. Loblolly or North Carolina Pine. 

151. A Year of Progress in Forestry in North Carolina. 

152. North Carolina's Forestry Laws. 

The following reports were prepared by the Survey for the State Board of Ed- 
ucation : 

Arbor and Bird Day Manual for North Carolina, 1915. 
Arbor and Bird Day Manual for North Carolina, 1916. 

The proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress held at Asheville, N. C, July 
11-15, 1916, have been prepared for publication by the Survey. 

DRAINAGE WORK. 

One of the undertakings of the North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Survey has been the promotion of the reclamation of the 
swamp lands of the Coastal Plain Region and the overflowed areas 
of Piedmont and Western North Carolina, through drainage. The 
object of this reclamation is three-fold: First, to increase the health- 
fulness of the section of the country in which the swamp or over- 
flowed areas exist; second, to make a nonproducing area productive, 
thus increasing the revenue of the commonwealth; and. third, to fa- 
cilitate intercourse between communities adjacent to these swamp 
areas by the construction of good roads, which always follows the 
drainage of any swamp area. 

The work of the Survey in this connection has consisted in: Help- 
ing to organize and foster the work of the North Carolina Drainage 
Association, which banded together a number of progressive citizens 
who undertook to bring to the attention of our General Assembly 
the need for legislation to promote and render possible this mammoth 
undertaking; helping to draft the North Carolina Drainage Law, 
which was passed by the Legislature of 1909, together with amend- 
ments passed by successive Legislatures; approving the appointment 



GEOLOGICAIi AND ECONOMIC SUEVEY, 131 

of drainage engineers and the expenses of preliminary examina- 
tions of districts; publishing and distributing circulars giving the 
briefs and decisions, regarding cases taken to the Supreme Court for 
ultimate decisions on points affecting the workings of the drainage 
districts, the Drainage Law with amendments, and a set of Forms 
for Organizing of Drainage Districts. The use of these forms is 
greatly facilitating the ease and accuracy with which these drainage 
districts can be organized. The State Geologist has been able, 
through correspondence and by personal visits to districts and ad- 
dresses at meetings, to straighten out many tangles which have 
arisen in the organization of districts, and has offered his services 
in every way possible toward the promotion of this great work. 

The survey has cooperated with the North Carolina Drainage As- 
sociation in holding annual conventions for the discussion of drain- 
age problems by experts, and interchange of experiences and ideas 
by those actually engaged in the drainage work; and it is felt that 
these conventions have been a stimulus to the work, encouraging the 
form.ation of new districts by showing land-holders the necessity for 
drainage and the ease with which it can be accomplished through 
cooperative effort, made possible by the North Carolina Drainage 
Law. 

Through these conventions an interest has been awakened in gen- 
eral farm drainage, particularly tile drainage, which will undoubt- 
edly add untold values to most of our farms now under cultivation, 
and will be the ultimate process in bringing the swamp and over- 
flow land to yield their greatest possibilities. At the convention held 
in Greensboro in November, 1916, reports were made on the results 
of tile drained fields, and these reports showed results which were 
not only gratifying, but astonishing as well. Returns of from fifty 
to one hundred per cent on money invested in tile drain were re- 
ported as having been received even the first year after drainage. 
The proceedings of these conventions have been printed and distrib- 
uted by the Survey from year to year; but, owing to the lack in our 
printing fund, the proceedings of the 1915 convention are still in the 
hands of the Commissioner of Labor and Printing. 

It is gratifying to know that North Carolina has been in a way 
the pioneer in this reclamation work among the Southern States; 
and that, since our law was put into operation, the Survey has been 
called upon by other Southern States to assist them in regard to 



132 Administkative Departments. 

their legislation, and in many instances these States have used the 
North Carolina Drainage Law as a model. 

Up to the present time there have been organised 123 districts 
under our Law, 38 of which have been fully organized and the drain- 
age completed; 20 have been completely organized, and the drain- 
age work is now being done; 42 are still in the process of organi- 
zation; 11 have been organized, but for one reason or another the 
work has not started in the construction of ditches and canals; and 
12 have been abandoned. 

It is estimated that the cost of draining the swamp land varies 
from four to six dollars per acre. The cost of clearing the land 
after drainage is from ten to twenty dollars per acre, and the yield 
from this land varies from sixty to one hundred bushels of corn to 
the acre, a bale of cotton, or seventy to one hundred bushels of Irish 
potatoes, giving two yields to the season. In fact, it has been demon- 
strated that this land will produce in abundance any crop which can 
be grown in this climate. When it is realized that the taxable value 
of this land before being drained is from twenty-five cents to one 
dollar per acre, that it costs from ten to fifteen dollars per acre to 
drain and clear it, and that after that is done, it can be sold at 
from fifty to one hundred and fifty dollars per acre, some idea can 
be gained of the tremendous import to the State of draining approxi- 
mately 800,000 acres of swamp lands. A conservative estimate of 
the net agricultural value to the people of North Carolina through 
this drainage work is fifty million dollars, without even taking into 
consideration the gain from the standpoint of health. 

It is now the plan of the Survey to assist in drafting such amend- 
ments to the Drainage Law as seem best for making the law more 
elastic, and the drainage bonds more salable. It will also continue 
its present policy of encouraging the district drainage in every way 
possible. In addition to this work, however, the Survey is planning 
to begin educational work for more complete farm drainage, which 
includes tile draining, terracing, etc. Already the Survey has issued 
a bulletin relating to terracing and a number of pamphlets regard- 
ing methods of tile drainage. It is believed that through the gen- 
eral introduction of this type of complete drainage of our farm 
lands, many millions of dollars will be added to the productive 
values of our farm lands. 

The Survey has spent many years bringing our people to realize the 
necessity for drainage, and it looks now with pride upon the actual 



Geological and Economic Survey, 133 

accomplishment of an undertaking which, like all new ideas, met 
with little favor in its beginnings, but is more than justified in its 
actual accomplishments. 

The following publications have been issued during the past two 
years relating to drainage: 

Economic Paper: 

41. Proceedings of Seventh Annual Drainage Convention of the North Car- 
olina Drainage Association, held at Wilson, N. C, November 18 and 19, 
1914. 
Press Bulletin .- 

153. Amendments to the North Carolina Drainage Law by the General Assem- 
bly of 1915. 

The following have been prepared and sent to the Commissioner 
of Labor and Printing, but publication is delayed on account of lack 
of funds: 

Economic Paper : 

45. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Drainage Convention. Held under the 
auspices of the North Carolina Drainage Association and the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Belhaven, North Carolina, 
November 29, 30, and December 1, 1915. 

Press Bulletins : 

154-155. Supreme Court decisions relating to drainage. 

FISHING INDUSTRIES. 

For a series of years the Survey, in cooperation with various Fed- 
eral bureaus, has undertaken to study conditions governing our 
commercial fisheries, and to ascertain remedies for the adverse 
conditions which appear to have been operating to the destruction 
of this great natural resource. Through a series of investigations, 
the fact seemed to be established that the growing scarcity of fish 
was due in the main to over-fishing, and that the remedy lay in 
some form of State restriction which would give the fish a chance 
to enter their spawning grounds at the proper season, and prevent 
the marketing of fish under a certain size. 

It has also been ascertained through a series of experiments that 
certain shellfish, such as the oyster, clam, diamond-back terrapin, 
etc., can be economically cultivated in North Carolina waters; and 
that there are possibilities for great industries growing from the es- 
tablishment of this fact. 



134 Administrative Departments. 

Believing that the State should intervene to protect this great 
natural resource for the benefit of all the people, and that it would 
be to the best Interests of the State to foster industries capable of 
producing a great food supply and source of revenue to the State, the 
Survey has steadfastly advocated for a long time the establishment 
of a State Fisheries Commission, which would have jurisdiction over 
all the waters of the State. Legislation to this effect has been advo- 
cated by the Survey for a number of years, but it remained for the 
Legislature of 1915 to establish a Commission with State-wide juris- 
diction. Up until the time this State-wide Commission was estab- 
lished, the Survey was charged with the duty of auditing and ap- 
proving the accounts of the Fisheries Commission and cooperated 
with the old Commission in marking out restricted areas, etc. Since 
the Commission was organized under the Act passed by the Legisla- 
ture of 191.5, the Survey has acted in an advisory capacity only 
when called upon. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

A general study and investigation is being conducted by the Sur- 
vey in regard to the natural history of North Carolina, and already 
one volume has been published on "Fishes of North Carolina." 

The Survey has prepared, in cooperation with the National Audu- 
bon Society a very elaborate volume on "The Birds of North Caro- 
lina," which was almost through the press, all proof having been 
read, indexed, etc., when the entire volume was destroyed in the 
plant of E. M. Uzzell & Co., in November, 1915, entailing a loss on 
the Survey of between five and six thousand dollars. Fortunately 
the Survey has a page proof of this volume, which can be used when 
funds are available for reprinting. The State Audubon Society has 
made arrangements for re-drawing the black and white illustra- 
tions for this volume. Because of the great demand for this volume 
(hundreds of requests having been received for it) and of its value 
to the State, it is hoped that funds will become immediately avail- 
able for giving this volume to the public. 

A volume has been prepared and is now ready for press on "The 
Mushrooms of North Carolina," This volume is of great commer- 
cial value to the State, containing a chapter relating to the economic 
use of the mushroom, which should have a direct economic value 
to the State. 



Geological and Economic Survey, 135 

Other lines of investigation which will be taken up as funds be- 
come available will be a study of the ferns of North Carolina; also 
the trees, the medicinal plants, insects and mammals of the State. 
This series of volumes has a distinct economic value to all classes 
of people in the State, including the farmer, the merchant, profes- 
sional man, and teacher. 

In this natural history series, we have had the financial assistance 
of people who have been particularly interested in seeing these 
reports prepared so that the actual cost to the State has not been 
one-half of the real cost of the preparation of the report. This in- 
dicates the feeling amongst many in the State of the value these re- 
ports will be to the citizenship of North Carolina. 

EXHIBITS. 

The Survey has always believed that one way of advertising the re- 
sources of the State is through expositions, and it has not only as- 
sisted and made exhibits wherever the State has taken part in Na- 
tional expositions, but has also cooperated wiih the State Fair and 
several of the county fairs. These exhibits have consisted of samples 
of minerals illustrating not only those which are of commercial 
value in the State, but samples of minerals (including gems) which 
are rare and of educational interest; photographs and maps of roads 
in the State, together with road building materials, models, etc.; 
photographs and maps illustrating the drainage work of the State; 
photographs, maps, etc., relating to Forestry, together with samples 
of the various kinds of merchantable woods found in the State. 

GEOLOGICAL BOARD. 

Governor Locke Craig, ex officio C/iairman. .Buncombe. 

F. R. Hewitt Buncombe. 

Hugh MacRae New Hanover. 

Henry E. Fries Forsyth. 

John Sprunt Hill Durham. 



^"^^ Administrative Depaktments. 

STATE HIGHWAY C03OIISSI0N. 

W. S. Pallis, State Highway Engineer, Raleigh. 

By an act of the General Assembly of 1915, Chapter 113, there was 
created a North Carolina State Highway Commission. The duties 
of this Commission are to assist the counties in developing a State 
and county system of highways. 

The State Highway Commission consists of the Governor, three 
citizens of the State who are appointed by the Governor — one from 
the eastern, one from the central, and one from the western portion 
of the State, one of whom shall be a member of the minority polit- 
ical party — the State Geologist, a Professor of Civil Engineering of 
the University of North Carolina, and a Professor of the North Caro- 
lina Agricultural and Mechanical College, said Professors to be 
designated by the Governor. Such assistants and clerks as may be 
needed are to be appointed by the State Highway Engineer. 

Among the engineers connected with the Commission are R. P. 
Coble, Ira B. Mullis, R. E. Snowden, Samuel D. Scott, D. Tucker 
Brown, "Wythe M. Peyton, J. Roy Pennell, R. T. Brown, F. A. 
Brown, George F. Syme, Samuel B. Howard, R. L. James, and M. S. 
Davis. 

The first meeting of the Commission was held March 31, 1915, 
at which time the Commission was fully organized and a discussion 
entered into as to the law and future work of the Commission. 

The work of the Commission ranges from advice and cooperation 
to taking complete charge of egineering work in the different coun- 
ties and townships of the State. The Commission has constructed 
concrete and steel bridges at a nuimber of places and the records 
show the value of this work to the State to exceed in money saved 
(in less than five counties) more than the State's entire appropria- 
tion for the use of the Commission for the two years the Commission 
has been at work. 

Since the organization of the Commission it has worked out for 
the counties many methods by which the road work can be done 
more economically and successfully than heretofore. The State 
Highway Engineer has arranged with the different railroads for a 
special low rate on road material, which arrangement has to come 
through the State Highway Commission, and this is proving of value 
in much of the road work in the Slate. 



BOAED OF InTEENAL IMPROVEMENTS. 137 

The survey and work on the Wilmington-Fayetteville Highway, the 
Charlotte-Albemarle-Pinehurst Highway, and other State and inter- 
State roads was done under the supervision of the Commission. The 
Commission at all times takes active part in any proposed projects 
which make for a better system of State Highways. 

The Commission is carrying out a very satisfactory maintenance 
scheme on the Central Highway. This work is done in cooperation 
with the United States Office of Public Roads. The work is being 
done as an object lesson in maintenance, and we hope will carry 
home to the counties the importance of proper maintenance. 

Since the July flood in the western part of the State the Commis- 
sion has been very busy assisting the counties whose roads and 
bridges were damaged by this disastrous flood. It has prepared 
bridge plans for a number of the bridges that were destroyed, and 
assisted in the reconstruction of same, putting in temporary bridges 
and advising in a general way. It has also assisted in the road work 
making surveys and giving all the assistance possible in every way. 

The Federal Aid Road fund will come through the State Highway 
Commission, and the Commission is now having surveys made for 
projects in this connection. This fund amounted to $114,381.92 for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. The approximate amount for 
the year 1918 is $228,763.84; for 1919, $343,145.76; for 1920, $457,527.- 
68; and for 1921 the sum of $571,909.60, making a total of $1,715,- 
728.80 for the five-year period for which Federal Aid is available. 



BOARD OF INTERNAL BIPROVEMEIVTS. 

B. C. Beckwith, Former Member of the Board, Raleigh* 

The State Board of Internal Improvements was created and made 
a body corporate by chapter 982, Acts of the General Assembly of 
North Carolina, 1819. In 1836 the board was made to consist of 
the Governor of the State, president ex officio, and two commis- 
sioners, to be biennially appointed by the Governor with the advice 
of the Council of State. 



*This article is brought forward from the Manual of 1913. The editor regrets 
that he has been unable to get a revised statement of the duties, powers, and work 
of the Board up to date. 



138 Administrative DepjUitments. 

Chapter 101 of the Revisal of 1905 provides that the tv^'o commis- 
sioners be now appointed biennially by the Governor with "the ad- 
vice of the Senate." The private secretary of the Governor Is secre- 
tary ex officio of the board, which meets in the Governor's office, 
or at any other place in the State, as it may see fit 

The Board has charge of all the State's interest in all railroads, 
canals, and other works of internal improvement; and the Legis- 
lature of 1905 added, "also all public institutions in which the State 
has an interest, excepting the higher educational institutions that 
are not also charitable." 

The board shall biennially report to the General Assembly the 
condition of all public or State institutions and buildings in their 
charge, railroads, roads and other works of internal improvements 
in which the State 'has an interest; shall suggest such improve- 
ments, enlargements, or extensions of such works as they shall 
deem proper, and such new works of similar nature as shall seem 
to them to be demanded by the growth of trade or the general pros- 
perity of the State; the amount, condition, and character of the 
State's interest in railroads, roads, and other works of internal 
improvements in which the State has stock or whose bonds she 
holds as security; the condition of such roads or other corporate 
bodies and State institutions in detail, financial condition, receipts 
and disbursements, etc. 

The board may require of the president or chief officer of any 
railroad or other works of public improvement or any public in- 
stitution in which the State has an interest, a written report, under 
oath, of the affairs of his company or institution for the year, and 
a failure on part of such chief officer cf any public institution or 
company in which the State has an interest to make a true report 
is made a misdemeanor, punishable by fine or imprisonment. 

Provision is also made for the appointment of a special auditor 
to audit the accounts and books of all institutions, corporate bodies 
and State departments whenever the Governor and the board may 
deem it necessary. 

When the board, as it is authorized to do, is making an investi- 
gation of the affairs of any public institution or company in which 
the State has an interest, or of the official conduct of any official 
thereof, if any person shall refuse to obey any summons of, or 
shall refuse to answer any question when requested so to do. by a 
member of the board, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may 



Board of Internal Improvements. 139 

be fined and imprisoned. And upon report of the board, the Gov- 
ernor may suspend or remove from office any of said officials, if in 
the opinion of the board and the Governor the interest of the State 
demands it. 

The Legislature of 1909 amended chapter 101 of the Revisal so 
that whenever the General Assembly shall direct or authorize 
directly or indirectly the erection or alteration of any building or 
buildings at any State institution, charitable, educational, or penal, 
the Board of Internal Improvements shall let the same out by con- 
tract, and take from the contractor a bond with sufficient security 
payable to the State, in such sum as the board may deem sufficient, 
with the condition that he will faithfully perform his contract ac- 
cording to plans or specifications agreed upon. And chapter 101 
of the Revisal was also amended by the Legislature of 1911, pro- 
viding that no corporation, company or institution in which the 
State has an interest shall lease, mortgage, or otherwise encumber 
its property except by and with the consent of the Board of In- 
ternal Improvements and the Council of State. 



140 Administeative Departments. 

NOETH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD. 

B. S. RoTSTER, Acting Adjutant General, Oxford. 

George L. Peterson, Acting Asistant Adjutant General, Raleigh. 

Commissioned officers, land forces 2'25 

Enlisted men, land forces 3455 

Commissioned officers, naval militia 21 

Enlisted men, naval militia 125 

Total strength ; 3826 

The National Guard of North Carolina is divided into organiza- 
tions as follows: 

The general or administrative staff. 

Three regiments of Infantry of twelve companies, one headquar- 
ters company, one machine gun company, one supply company, one 
band and one detachment of sanitary troops each. The three regi- 
ments constitute the First Brigade. 

The Coast Artillery Corps of six companies and one detachment 
of sanitary troops, organized into a battalion. 

Two troops of cavalry. 

Two companies of engineers. 

One field hospital. 

One ambulance company. 

The Naval Militia of North Carolina is composed of three di- 
visions organized into a battalion. i 

All organizations of the National Guard of North Carolina with 
the exception of the Coast Artillery Corps were called into the ser- 
vice of the United States by the call of the President of June 18, 
1916, and at the present time* are located at El Paso, Texas, in the 
Southern Department. 

The annual appropriation by the State for maintenance of the 
Militia is $50,000. This amount is expended principally for amiory 
rent and for drill service of enlisted men. The brigade and 



"•December 1, 1916. 



National Guard. 141 

regimental commanders each receive $200 per annum, the com- 
mander of the Coast Artillery Corps and the commanding ofScer of 
each organization of Infantry, Cavalry, Coast Artillery, Engineers, 
Field Hospital, Ambulance Company and Division of Naval Re- 
serves receives $100 per annum with which to defray the legitimate 
expenses of his respective office. 

Under the Act of Congress approved June 3, 1916, it becomes nec- 
essary for the State to increase its militia. Already two new or- 
ganizations have been added. It is expected that the State will be 
required to maintain at least one = thousand additional militiamen 
within the next two years. In order for the State to do its part it 
will be necessary for the next General Assembly to make an appro- 
priation of practically one hundred thousand dollars for the support 
of the militia. 

The Federal government under the new militia law does not bear 
any expense of providing quarters for the militia; it only pays the 
officers and enlisted men for service in addition to furnishing equip- 
ment, subsistence and transportation when attending camps of in- 
struction. The participation in Federal funds allotted by Congress 
is conditioned upon the compliance of the State with the regulations 
prescribed for the National Guard under the Act of Congress ap- 
proved June 3, 1916. 

Every member of the National Guard of North Carolina both in 
and out of the Federal service has subscribed to the dual oath as 
provided by the National Defense Act. 

The Naval Militia of the Stale has been placed upon practically 
the same footing in its relation to the Federal government as the 
National Guard. 

The National Guard of North Carolina at the present time is 
operating under the new National Guard law and while some obstacles 
are still in the way it is believed that the efflciency of the Guard 
will be very much increased by the new reqirements. Officers and 
men are required to attend armory service drill of one and one-half 
hours' duration forty-eight times a year. The attendance upon 
these drills is necessary in order that they may receive Federal pay. 

During the year the Coast Artillery Corps attended a camp of in- 
struction at Fort Caswell, N. C, for a period of twelve days. The 
The Naval Militia cruised upon the U. S. S. Louisiana for a period 
of fifteen days. The instruction received has been of great benefit, 



142 Administrative Departments. 

as the recent examinations of the officers of both branches of the 
service show. 

adjutant generals of north CAROLINA. 

J. G. Martin 1861- 

Abial W. Fisher 1868-1871 

John G. Gorman 1871-1876 

Johnstone Jones 1877-1888 

James D. Glenn 1889-1892 

Francis H. Cameron 1893-1896 

A. D. Cowles 1897-1898 

Beverly S. Royster 1899-1904 

Thomas R. Robertson 1905-1909 

Joseph F. Armfield 1910-1911 

Roy L. Leinster 1911-1912 

Gordon Smith 1912-1913 

Laxjrence W. Young 1913-1916 

B. S. Royster 1916- 



THE STATE PKISON. 

J. S. Mann, Superintendent, Raleigh. 

This institution was founded by an act of the General Assembly, 
ratified the 12th day of April, A. D. 1869, entitled "An Act to Pro- 
vide for the Erection of a Penitentiary." Reference is made to the 
act cited, and also to the Report of the Commission to Erect a Peni- 
tentiary, Document No. 18, Legislative Documents, 1868-70. 

The prison building is a magnificent brick structure, erected upon 
granite foundation. The prison wall is of granite, and is twenty feet 
in height and six feet broad at the top, and its base is said to extend 
sixteen feet below the surface. The building and wall are estimated 
to have cost the State more than a million and a quarter dollars. 

The institution is situated about one mile west of the Capitol on 
the extension of Morgan Street and near Hillsboro road. 

The affairs of the prison are administered by a board of five direct- 
ors appointed by the Governor. 

The Dangerous Insane Department is maintained out of the State 
prison earnings. 



State Pbison. 143 



SUMMARY. 



Founded 1869 

Number of buildings* 1 

Cost (estimated by prison authorities) $1,225,000 

Number of acres of land 7,300 

Number of employees 150 

Number of inmates 900 

Liabilities None 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

W. T. Hicks Wake 

Paul F. Faison Wake 

A. Leazar Iredell 

John R. Smith Wayne 

J. M. Mewborne Lenoir 

W. H. Day Wake 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

J. J. Laughinghouse Pitt 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

present board of directors. 

H. B. Varner, Chairman Lexington 

Thomas Gilliam Windsor 

R. H. Buckingham Fayetteville 

N. E. Edgerton Selma 

R. M. Chatham Elkin 



*Two camps on State farm; each have living quarters and many farm buildings 
of commodious size. 



PART V. 



STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



1. Univeksity of Xorth Carolina. 

2. JSToRTH Caeoli^^a a. and M. College. 

3. State jSToemal and Industrial College. 

4. CuLLOWHEE ISTOEMAL AND INDUSTRIAL ScHOOL. 

5. Appalachian Training School. 

6. East Carolina Teachers Training School. 

7. State School for the (White) Blind and 

FOR the (Colored) .Blind and Deaf. 

8. State School for the (White) Deaf. 

9. Stonewall Jackson Training School. 

10. State I^ormal School for the ISTegro Race. 

11. State A. and T. College for the I^egro Race. 

12. Caswell Training School. 



10 



THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Edward K. Graham, President, Chapel Hill. 

The University of North Carolina is located at Chapel Hill. Its 
charter was granted in 1789 ; the corner-stone of the first building 
was laid in 1793, and it was opened for students in 1795. The cam,- 
pus of 48 acres and about 550 acres of forest contiguous to it were 
given by the citizens of Orange County. Its first buildings were 
also given by friends of the University, the Legislature granting a 
loan of $10,000 in 1793, which was afterwards converted into a gift, 
and making the first direct appropriation for a building in 1905, 
when $50,000 was given for a chemical laboratory. Of the total 
amount received by the University from all sources, one-half has 
been contributed by alumni and friends. 

The State made no appropriation for the maintenace of the Uni- 
versity for the first eighty years of its existence. In 1875 the in- 
terest from the Land Scrip Fund ($7,500 was paid over to the 
University, and withdrawn in 1887. In 1881 the annual sum of 
$5,000 was appropriated for the maintenace and support of the 
University. This annual appropriation is now $115,000. 

In 1861-65 and the following Reconstruction period the Univer- 
sity was stripped of its funds, landed property, and much of its 
equipment. From 1871 to 1875 its doors were closed. It was re- 
opened in 1875 with practically nothing but empty halls and the 
contributions of its friends amounting to about $20,000 for the 
purchase of new equipment. 

Its property now consists of 

Campus— 48 acres, and woodland 550 acres.. $ 125,500.00 
Equipment — books, apparatus, furniture, etc... 276,000.00 
Buildings— 27, and 3 faculty houses 752,500.00 



$1,154,000.00 
Its endo^Tiient, including loan funds, amounts to 277,298.85 



Total $1,431,298.85 



148 Educational Institutions. 

The income of the University was derived from the following 
sources for the year 1915-'16: 

State appropriation $115,000.00 

Students' fees 72,189.04 

Invested funds 9,771.21 

Total $196,960.25 

■The University is comprised of the following departments: Col- 
legiate, applied science, teachers' training, graduate, law, medicine, 
and pharmacy. There are 37 professors, 9 associate professors, 4 
assistant professors, 15 instructors, 23 assistants. A number of 
the assistants help in the laboratories and library and do no actual 
teaching. The number of students for the present session. 1916-17, 
is 1,162. There were 1,050 students in attendance upon the sum- 
mer school. Of the students attending the regular session 92.6 per 
cent are from North Carolina. As the University has been cramped 
for equipment and accommodations, no special effort has been made 
to attract students from outside the State. 

The parents of the students represent all professions, creeds and 
parties in the State. The leading professions represented are farm- 
ers, 386; merchants, 168; lawyers, 63; physicians, 50, manufacturers, 
48; ministers. 36; teachers, 23. The leading churches are: Meth- 
odist, 315; Baptist, 317; Presbyterian, 197; Episcopalians, 119. All 
but 6 of the counties in the State are represented. 

Over one-half of the students earn or borrow, in part or in whole, 
the money for their education. Some 60 of them earn their board 
by waiting at the table. Few of the families from which these stu- 
dents come are able to stand the strain of the support of a son at 
college without stringent economy or even many sacrifices. About 
one-half of the graduates start out as teachers. 

There is a splendid spirit of democracy about the institution 
which opens the doors of achievement to all alike and places attain- 
ment upon merit alone. It is emphatically a place "where wealth 
is no prejudice and poverty is no shame." 

The State has not been able to equip the University fully for its 
work. It should, if possible, be placed on a footing which would 
enable it to meet every proper demand made upon it by the people 
of North Carolina. 



College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 149 



SUMMARY. 

Charter granted 1789 

Opened 1 795 

Acres of land owned 598 

Value of buildings, equipment, and land $1,154,000.00 

Invested funds $277,298.85 

Number of volumes in library 75,000 

Number of Students 1,162 

Number of faculty 88 

Income from State $115,000.00 

Income from students $72,189.04 

Invested funds $9,771.21 

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

No president 1795-1804 

Joseph Caldwell 1804-1835 

David L. Swain 1835-1868 

Solomon Pool 1869-1870 

University closed 1870-1876 

Kemp P. Battle 1876-1891 

George T. Winston 1891-1896 

Edwin A. Alderman 1896-1900 

Francis P. Venable 1900-1914 

Edward K. Graham 1914- 



IVOETH CAKOLIJVA COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND 
MECHANIC ARTS. 

W. C. RiDDicK, President, West Raleigh. 

During the years in which North Carolina was slowly emerging 
from the economic havoc wrought by Civil War and Reconstruction, 
some far-sighted men began to see the necessity of rearing indus- 
trially equipped men. They felt keenly the need of competent men 
to build and direct new industries, and to restore the land which 
had been impoverished by slave labor. They recognized that men 
capable of doing what was needed would have to be educated in in- 
dustrial schools and technical colleges. This recognition came 
slowly, because the Southern people up to that period had been 
wedded to classical education. 

The first organized body to take steps for the establishment of an 



150 Educational Institutions. 

industrial institution in NorttL Carolina was the Watauga Club. 
This club, composed of bright young men, explained its mission by 
declaring that it was "an association in the city of Raleigh designed 
to find out and make known information on practical subjects that 
will be of public use." In 1885 this club presented to the Legisla- 
ture the following memorial: 

"We respectfully memorialize your honorable body: 
"First. To establish an industrial school in North Carolina which 
shall be a training place for young men who wish to acquire skill in 
the wealth-producing arts and sciences. 

"Second. To establish this school in Raleigh in connection with 
the State Agricultural Department. 

"Third. To make provision for the erection of suitable buildings 
and for their equipment and maintenance. 

(Signed) Arthur Winslow, Chairman; 

W. J. Peele, 
Walter H. Page." 

This memorial quickened general interest in the proposed school, 
and several bills looking to its foundation were introduced in the 
Legislature of 1885. On March 7th, one of these bills, introduced by 
Hon. Augustus Leazar of Iredell County, became a law. This law 
provided that the Board of Agriculture should seek proposals from 
the cities and towns of the State, and that the school should be 
placed in the town offering most inducements. The Board of Agri- 
culture finally accepted an. offer from the city of Raleigh. 

Meantime, the ideas of the advocates of the school has been some- 
what broadened as to the character of the proposed institution. They 
saw that Congress was about to supplement the original land grant 
by an additional appropriation for agricultural and mechanical col- 
leges in each State. The originators of the conception then sought 
the aid of progressive farmers in order to change the school into 
an Agricultural and Mechanical College. Col. L. L. Polk, the editor 
of the newly established Progressive Farmer, threw the weight of his 
paper heartily into the new idea. Meetings were held in various 
places, and two very large meetings in Raleigh considered the 
proposition. As a result, the school already provided for was by 
action of the Legislature of 1887 changed into an Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, and the Land Scrip Fund was given the newly 
formed institution. In addition, the law directed that any surplus 



College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 151 

from the Department of Agriculture should go into the treasury of 
the college. Mr. R. Stanhope Pullen, one of Raleigh's most broad- 
minded citizens, gave the institution eighty-three acres of land in a 
beautiful suburb of Raleigh. The first building was completed in 
1889 and the doors of the college were opened for students in Octo- 
ber, 1889. Seventy-two students, representing thirty-seven counties, 
were enrolled the first year. The faculty consisted of six full pro- 
fessors and two assistants. 

From this small beginning in 1889 the college has grown to be the 
second in size in students and faculty among the colleges for men 
in the State. 

The college confines its curriculum entirely to technical and in- 
dustrial education. No general or academic courses are offered. 

The courses of study are as follows: 

First, Agriculture, including under this general terai Horticul- 
ture, Trucking, Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Veterinary Science. 

Second, Engineering. This course includes Civil, Electrical, Me- 
chanical, and Mining Engineering. The equipment for field and 
for laboratory work in these courses makes them very practical. 

Third, Textile Industry. Students in Textiles have an entire mill 
building for their use. In addition to carding, spinning, weaving 
and designing, they have a thoroughly practical course in dyeing 
and in the chemistry of dyes. 

Fourth, Industrial Chemistry. A four-year course in Industrial 
Chemistry. 

In all these courses, mathematics, English, physics, chemistry, and 
one modern language are required. 

For young men who have not time or means to spend four years 
in college, and yet who want to fit themselves as far as possible 
for industrial employments, short courses of one and two years are 
offered in Agriculture, and two years in Mechanic Arts and Textiles. 

summary. 

Founded ^^^^ 

Number of buildings 30 

Number of acres of land 48.5 

Value of buildings and equipment $823,352 

Value of land $108,310 

Number of volumes in library 7,280 

Number of students 800 

Number of faculty 65 

State appropriation per annum $85,000 



152 Educational Institutions. 



PRESIDENTS. 



Alexander Q. Holladay 1889-1899 

George Tayloe Winston 1899-1908 

D. H. Hill 1908-1916 

W. C. RiDDicK 1916- 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL 

COLLEGE. 

Julius I. Pousx, President, Greensboro. 

The North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College was es- 
tablished by an act of the General Assembly of 1891. The purpose 
for Avhich the institution was created, as stated in section 5 of the 
act establishing it, is as follows: 

"The object of this institution shall be (1) to give young women 
such education as shall fit them for teaching; (.2) to give instruc- 
tion to young women in drawing, telegraphy, typewriting, stenog- 
raphy, and such other industrial arts as may be suitable to their 
sex and conducive to their support and usefulness. Tuition shall 
be free to those who signify their intention to teach upon such con- 
ditions as may be prescribed by the board of directors." 

In 1892 the Institution began with $30,000 donated by the city of 
Greensboro and ten acres of land, the gift of Mr. R. S. Pullen, Mr. 
R. T. Gray, Mr. E. P. Wharton, and others, and with an annual ap- 
propriation of $10,000 from the State. In addition to the State ap- 
propriation and tuition fees, the institution received during the 
nrst years about $3,000 annually from the Peabody Fund and for 
three years received $2,500 annually from the General Education 
Board. It also received about $11,000 from the faculty and students, 
and a small amount from 'Mr. George Foster Peabody, and a library 
building from Mr. Andrew Carnegie. The plant is now worth more 
than $700,000. the annual State appropriation is $100,000, and the 
loan and scholarship funds received from various sources in the 
State and out of it now amount to $25,000. The faculty numbers 
81. and there were enrolled during the past session 702 students, and 
during the summer session 614 students. Total, 1,316. 

The chief mission of the institution lies in furnishing the public 
school system of the State well-equipped teachers who are capable 



NOKMAX AND iNDUSTEIAt COLLEGE. 153 

of rendering the State intelligent and useful service. It provides 
regular degree courses, whose admission requirements, curriculum 
of instruction, and standards of scholarship are in keeping with 
the requirements of our best Southern colleges for men and women. 

Special industrial and commercial courses are open to those who 
do not have free tuition and are not under contract to teach. Pro- 
vision is also made for teachers who may wish to take brief courses 
in pedagogy and in the subjects taught in the public schools. For 
those who cannot remain longer, a one-year course is offered. For 
various reasons a number of ambitious teachers are not able to avail 
themselves of the one-year course, and to meet the demands of these 
a regular summer session has been inaugurated. The advantages 
of the institution are thus open to every worthy young white woman 
who has availed herself of the opportunities offered in the public 
schools of the State. 

The patronage of the Institution has justified the wisdom of the 
founders. During the twenty-four years of its life, beginning Oc- 
tober, 1892, and closing with the session of May, 1916, the college 
has had an average enrollment of about 525 students. These stu- 
dents have come from all the 100 counties of the State, and in their 
political and religious faith, their financial condition, their profes- 
sional and social life, their intellectual ability and previous educa- 
tional opportunities, are representative of the people of North Caro- 
lina. Of the more than 7.000 young women who have sought the 
help and strength thus provided, more than 80 per cent received 
their training in the rural public schools, one-third defrayed their 
own expenses, and two-thirds, according to their own written state- 
ment, would not have attended any other North Carolina college. In 
brief, one of the strongest forces of the college, and a prime source 
of its usefulness, has been the representative character of its pat- 
ronage. This coming together of all classes from all sections of the 
State necessarily results in creating an atmosphere of wholesome 
democracy and equal opportunity. The spirit of the State College 
for Women, is, therefore, what the spirit of every State college 
should be, and, as a result, its representatives acquire that larger 
sympathy, that breadth of vision, and that intelligent insight into 
the needs of their State that no text-books, or lectures or mere aca- 
demic training can ever hope to give. 

Some indication of the serviceableness of the college is suggested 
by what has been said of the scope and character of its patronage. 



154 Educational Institutions. 

It has, since its establishment, been an open door of opportunity 
for the white women of North Carolina. Through it the State has 
added to its resources over 7,000 educated women, who have taught 
lessons of patriotism and right living to at least 350,000 North 
Carolina children. Two-thirds of all the students enrolled and 
nine-tenths of all who graduate become teachers in North Carolina. 
No large movement for the uplift of the State has failed to have 
support from its faculty and students, and today there is not a 
county in the State where representatives of the college are not to 
be found actively engaged in public service. 

SUMMER SESSION. 

The special purpose of the State Nonnal and Industrial College in 
organizing the Summer Session was to offer the advantages of its 
instruction to those women in the State, whose occupation during 
other months of the year prevent their attendance upon the regular 
session. In the selection and arrangement of its summer courses 
the college has in view the needs of the following classes: 

1st. Teachers wishing special work in the principles and methods 
of teaching (Primary, Grammar, and High School), with opportuni- 
ties for practice and observation work under experienced super- 
visors. 

2d. Teachers desiring advanced or collegiate courses in Philoso- 
phy, Science, Psychology, and the History of Education. 

3d. Teachers of special subjects, such as Agriculture, Domestic 
Science, Vocal Music, Drawing, and Manual Arts. 

4th. High school teachers who desire advanced or extra work 
along the line of their specialties with free use of good department 
libraries and well-equipped laboratories. 

5th. College students who wish to earn advanced credit or to re- 
move conditions. 

6th. Students prepa^ring for college. 

7th. Mothers, wives, and home-makers who feel the need of prac- 
tical help in such subjects as food and food values, cookery, kitchen 
conveniences, home nursing, sanitation, and household decoration. 

SUMMARY OF ENROLLMENT DURING THE SESSION OF 1913-1914. 

Enrolled during the regular session. 702 students. 
Enrolled during the summer session, 614 students. 



CrLLOWHEE NOEMAL SCHOOL. 155 

Total enrollment in college during the session 1915-1916, 1,316 
students. 

Pupils enrolled in Training school, 384. 

Total enrollment in all departments of college during the session 
of 1915-1916, 1,700. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildings used 15 

Number of acres of land 100 

Value of buildings and land $800,000 

Number of volumes in library 8,000 

Number of pupils in training school 384 

Number of students in college, regular session 702 

Number of students in college, summer session 614 

Total number of students enrolled during sessions 

1915-1916 1.700 

Number of faculty 81 

Annual State appropriation (maintenance) $100,000 

presidents. 

Charles D. McIver 1891-1906 

Julius I. Foust, Dean 1906-1907 

Julius I. Foust 1907- 



CULLOWHEE NORMAL AlVD INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

A. C. Reynolds, President, Cullowhee. 

The Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School is a State co-edu- 
cational institution for the training of teachers. It has prepared 
more than one thousand public school teachers and has furnished 
to the State ten county superintendents. The school was char- 
tered in 1891, and in 1905 became a State institution. During its 
regular session it is touching every part of the great western moun- 
tain section of the State, and during the summer session it has stu- 
dents from all parts of the State. It has a modern and well equip- 
ped home for girls. The old administration building has been con- 
verted into a home for boys. A new brick administration building 
now accommodates the classes, the literary societies, the library, 
and furnishes room for the practice school and for a large lecture 
hall. All the buildings are furnished with steam heat, electric 
lights and baths. 



156 Educatioxal Institutions. 

The organization of the school embraces the following depart- 
ments: 

Graded School, Normal, Industrial, Practice School, Music. Three 
successful summer terms have already been conducted, and the 
summer session is now a permanent feature of the school. 

SUMMABY. 

Number of buildings 8 

Number of acres of land 27.5 

Number of instructors 12 

Value of buildings and land $110,000 

Annual appropriation $10,000 

PRESIDENTS. 

R. L. Madison 1888-1912 

A. C. Reynold.s 1912- 



THE APPALACHIA>: TKAIXOG SCHOOL. 

B. B. Dougherty, Superintendent, Boone. 

The Appalachian Training School for Teachers was established 
by act of the Legislature of 1903. The school is located at Boone, 
Watauga, County, North Carolina, in the midst of North Carolina's 
unsurpassed mountain scenery. It is the center of education for the 
northwestern section of North Carolina, embracing some of the best 
of her mountainous counties. 

The institution makes no pretension to being a college. It Is a 
normal school, and its mission is to give a high school and profes- 
sional education to hundreds of young people who cannot go else- 
where. 

During the year 1913-1914 there were 453 students in the school. 
It supplies a large proportion of the public school teachers for the 
surrounding counties, and has had a marked influence upon the 
improvement of scholarship and professional training of these teach- 
ers. In addition to this, the school has opened a way to the State 
University and the State Normal College to a large number of stu- 
dents who otherwise would not have entered those institutions. 

The first appropriation made by the Legislature was $2,000 for 
maintenance, voted by the Legislature of 1903. The Legislature of 
1907 increased this to $4,000, and made an additional appropriation 



East Carolina Teachers' Training School. 157 

of $10,000 for the enlargement of the plant. In 1909 the Legisla- 
ture appropriated $6,000 a year for maintenance, and $8,000 per year 
for general improvements. The Legislature of 1911 appropriated 
$10,000 per annum for maintenance and $10,000 for improvements. 
The Legislature of 1913 appropriated $15,000 for a new dormitory 
and $12,500 for maintenance. 

summary. 

Founded 1903 

Number of buildings 7 

Number of acres of land owned 450 

Value of buildings and equipment $200,000 

Value of land $25,000 

Number of students 556 

Number of faculty 13 

Income from State appropriation for maintenance 

per annum $20,000 

superintendent. 
B. B. Dougherty 1903- 



EAST CABOLIiVA TEACHERS TRAIMNG SCHOOL. 

Robert H. Wright, President, Gi'eenville. 

The East Carolina Teachers Training School was established by 
act of the General Assembly of 1907. The school is located at Green- 
ville. The site contains 50 acres of land, a large part of which is 
natural forest. 

Seven buildings have been erected; two dormitories with a capa- 
city for 240 students; an administration building containing the 
offices, auditorium, and classrooms; a building for the kitchen and 
dining-room (this building contains storerooms for supplies and a 
refrigerating plant) ; an infiraiary, a building containing the power 
plant and laundry, and a residence for the President. 

The buildings and equipment are modern in every sense and are 
valued at $240,000. The town of Greenville and county of Pitt 
voted $100,000 in bonds for this school, and the State has made 
an appropriation of $129,697.12 for buildings and equipment. These 
buildings, for lack of funds, have not yet been thoroughly equipped, 
but enough equipment has been installed to enable the school to do 



158 Educational Institutions. 

efficient work. The equipment installed is of the best type pro- 
curable. 

Section 3 of the charter reads: "That the said school shall be 
maintained by the State for the purpose of giving to young white 
men and women such education and training as shall fit and qualify 
them to teach in the public schools of North Carolina." This clearly 
sets forth the purpose of this school. To those students who agree 
to teach there is no charge for tuition. Out of an enrollment of 691 
during the past school year, there were only 6 students who paid 
tuition. This shows that the management of the school is adhering 
rigidly to the purpose of the school as stated in its charter. 

The school first opened its doors for students October 5, 1909. 
During the past seven years, including the summer temis, there have 
been enrolled 4,454 students. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1907 

Number of buildings 7 

Number of acres of land 50 

Value of buildings and grounds $2'40,000 

Number of students 1915-1916 691 

Annual appropriation $50,000 

Other income $2,170 

president. 
Robert H. Wright 1907- 



TlIE STATE SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND AND THE DEAF.* 

John E. Ray, Principal, Raleigh. 

This institution was established by act of the General Assembly 
passed January 12, 1845, while Hon. W. A. Graham was Governor 
of North Carolina. On the first day of May following the school 
opened with seven pupils, which number increased to seventeen 
during the session. The first appropriation amounted to $5,000 an- 
nually. Two years later it was made $10,000. W. D. Cooke, of Vir- 
ginia, was elected first principal, and for some years the school was 
conducted in a building on Hillsboro street, rented for the purpose. 

On April 14, 1849, the corner-stone of the present main building 



School for the Blind and the Deaf. 159 

on Caswell Square was laid by the Grand Lodge of Masons. At first 
deaf children only were received, but later blind children were also 
admitted. 

In 1868 a department for the education of the negro deaf and 
blind children of the State was established on Bloodworth street, 
In the southeastern part of the city. This has grown to be the 
largest and best equipped school for the negro deaf and blind in the 
South. 

In 1894 the white deaf children were removed to their elegant 
new school at Morganton. The old school continued to grow until 
there were 186 pupils actually present in both departments, and the 
annual appropriation was $40,000. It has now grown to be one of 
the largest of its kind in America, and North Carolina has the proud 
distinction of doing more for its deaf and blind children, in pi'o- 
portion to its population, than any State in the Union. 

The auditorium building furnishes dormitories for the boys, with 
all modern conveniences, and a good auditorium, but it is now far 
too small to accommodate the number of students already in at- 
tendance. 

The school has a small library and a partially equipped gym- 
nasium which have aided much in the work to be done, but it has 
almost no school room, or scientific apparatus, and but slight dormi- 
tory furniture. 

The industrial building furnishes room for the broom, mattress, 
and cane-seating departments of the school. Similar buildings are 
at the colored department. 

The increased attendance has made it necessary to increase the 
appropriation for maintenance, and the Legislature has made addi- 
tions from time to time until the annual income is now $72,500. 

This is equivalent to only about $195 per child — an amount far 
less than that used by any school for the blind in the United States. 
Seventeen years ago the allowance per child was more than $214. 
With the increased cost of living, one can readily see how cramped 
must be the financial condition. 

A distinguished visiitor to the State said recently in a public ad- 
dress made at the annual meeting of the State Association of the 
Blind held at Fayetteville: "Your school for the blind at Raleigh 
* * * needs, and should have, more funds. In many respects it 



*The State schools for blind white children nnd for the blind and deaf ncKro 
children, tho\iE;h separate institntions, in separate buildinRs located in different 
parts of the city, are under the same supervision. — Editor. 



160 Educatioxai, Institutions. 

is the best of the forty State schools for the blind in this country. 
It has more pupils than any other State. It fits more of them for 
independence than any other school. Between 80 and 90 per cent 
of the pupils of your school for the blind become self-supporting. 
No other State makes such a showing, and no other of the forty 
schools have so little money provided for the pupils as your State 
school. The money spent in your State school for the blind is the 
best investment your State ever made. Through its influence doubt- 
less many blind are now self-supporting, useful and happy citizens 
of your State, who otherwise would be dependent on their fajtnily 
or friends or be inmates of almshouses at the expense of the State. 

"When I asked Dr. Eraser, the great educator of the blind, at 
Halifax (Nova Scotia), after his recent visit to the schools for the 
blind of this country, which he considered the best, he replied that 
none was better than the school at Raleigh, and that he could not 
understand how such a school could be run for such a small amount 
of money. * * * i am sure, when your people realize your needs 
and the great work you are doing, they will come liberally to your 
aid." 

The school is now seriously handicapped for lack of room and of 
funds. The present quarters are entirely too circumscribed. There 
is no room for exercise ground, and if any children need exercise, it 
is the blind ; nor is there any place for additional buildings. The 
overcrowded condition of the buildings demands serious atiention. 
His Excellency, the Governor, recommended in his message to the 
General Assembly six years ago the purchase of 100 acres in the 
suburbs of the city upon which to erect new buildings upon the 
cottage system. This suggestion was emphasized by the State Board 
of Internal Improvements, the State Board of Health, and the Board 
of Charities. 

Four years ago the General Assembly provided for the purchase 
of more than 80 acres of land adjacent to other State property and 
the city park, and hence most admirably located; but unfortunately 
made no provision for buildings nor even for repairs to the old 
buildings. Hence the condition is much worse than formerly. The 
situation is well-nigh alarming. It is hoped that relief will soon be 
at hand. Is it not deplorable that an institution doing such good 
work should be hindered for lack of funds? 

The literary work of the school may be well understood when it 
is known that the course of study pursued is modeled after the re- 



School for the Blind and the Deaf. 161 

port made by the "Committee of Ten" appointed by the General 
Government several years ago, and covers a thorough course in 
kindergarten, primary, grammar, and high school work, as good as 
that done in the very best schools in the State. 

One naturally vs^ants to know what comes of all this. In general 
terms 85 per cent of the graduates of the school are self-supporting, 
and a good many of them have accumulated a good competency. 
Time and space will not permit a detailed statement. Let a few 
suffice. Two of the former students are employed as telephone 
operators in their respective homes, and one is a successful tele- 
graph operator. The musical directors of Salemburg Academy and 
of Anniston (Alabama) Seminary are graduates of our school, and 
both totally blind. A substantial merchant and mill man of Glass 
is another; a very successful farmer of Alexander County is another; 
until recently one of the leading teachers in Caldwell County was 
another. Another is a successful church organist in Wilmington; 
the principal of one of the high schools in Union County is another; 
one is a successful merchant in West Virginia; one a newsdealer 
in New Bern; one a band master and music teacher in Winston- 
Salem. There are many more of the graduates who are filling hon- 
orable positions as public school teachers, music teachers, piano 
tuners, band masters, merchants, etc., etc. — men and women who are 
a credit to the State and an honor to the school. 

The handicraft exhibits made at the State Fair for the past few 
years have not only received universal praise, but have been awarded 
the first premium over all schools exhibiting. The band of the 
school also makes music at the Fair each year. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1845 

Number of buildings 7 

Number of acres of land 122 

Value of buildings and equipment $200,000 

Value of land $80,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 1,900 

Number of volumes in library (Tactile print) 5,200 

Number of students 187 

Number of faculty 24 

State appropriation (including both departments) . . $72,500 

Income from other sources None 

11 



162 Educational Institutions. 



NAMES AND TERMS OF SERVICE OF AIX PRINCIPALS. 

W. D. CooKE 1845-1860 

WiLLEY J. Palmer 1860-1869 

John Nichols 1869-1871 

S. F. ToMLiNSON 1871-1873 

John Nichols 1873-1877 

Hezekiah a. Gudger 1877-1883 

William J. Young 1883-1896 

Frederick R. Place June, 1896-September, 1896 

John E. Ray 1896- 

colored department. 

Founded 1869 

Number of buildings 4 

Value of buildings and equipment $75,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 500 

Number of volumes in library (Tactile print) 1,600 

Number of students 179 

Number of faculty 18 



THE NOETH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE (WHITE) DEAF. 

E. McK. GooDVPiN, Sicperintendent, Morganton. 

In 1845 this State first attempted the education of her deaf and 
dumb children, being the ninth State in the Union to undertake the 
education of this class of children. The first year seven pupils were 
admitted. Soon thereafter the blind children of the State were pro- 
vided for under the same management, and the institution became 
the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb and the 
Blind. Both classes were admitted into the institution 'at Raleigh 
till the Legislature of 1891 was made to realize that there was only 
a small part of either class being educated, for up to that time 
only about 25 per cent were being even partially educated. 

In 1891 the General Assembly passed an act creating and estab- 
lishing the North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb for the 
white race only, and located it at Morganton. The school was 
opened for the reception of pupils in 1894. All the white deaf chil- 
dren then in school at Raleigh were admitted to the new school, 
which had very limited support. There were only 102 present the 
first year, but as soon as the Legislature made provision, the school 



School for the Deaf. 163 

admitted 162, and the attendance has increased steadily till 289 
were admitted last year. But there are still, perhaps, 33 per cent 
of the eligible deaf children not in school, and there are many 
adult deaf in North Carolina now entirely uneducated. It is a 
significant fact, however, that this State has the largest attendance 
in proportion to her population of any Southern State, and, indeed, 
compares favorably with the Northern States in this respect. 

The statute prescribes the public school course of the State, and 
allows high school work for those who want to go to college. 

In addition to the regular school work, we have four industrial 
departments for the boys, where they are given, as far as possible, 
the knowledge of handicraft in the elementary branches. The four 
departments for the boys are farming and gardening, woodwork and 
carpentry, typesetting and printing, and shoemaking. The girls are 
taught general domestic work, including cooking, plain sewing and 
dressmaking. Primary handicraft is taught to the small children. 

America leads the world in her provision for the education of the 
deaf. Prom 1817, when the first school was established in America, 
till about 1868, all the schools used the French system, which is the 
manual or sign method; but in 1868 the German or oral method was 
introduced, and while the progress has been slow, the proportion has 
constantly increased till at present about 85 per cent of all the deaf 
children in the United States, now in school, are being taught by 
the oral method. Many of these children learn to speak and read 
speech of others sufl[iciently to become invaluable to themselves and 
to the great convenience of the members of their families. But even 
if their speech is not natural nor good, the written language of the 
orally taught deaf is more natural and smother in expression than 
that of the deaf taught manually. 

The North Carolina School has two departments to meet the de- 
mands, and is known in the profession as a combined school. Our 
orally taught pupils become as adept "sign makers" as the manually 
taught. They acquire the manual language by association with those 
who sign and spell on their fingers. The orally taught get all the 
manually taught get, and also what speech and speech-reading they 
get from the oral system, beyond what those manually taught even 
claim to get. Some of the largest and best schools for the deaf in 
America are "pure oral" schools. 

The North Carolina School has prepared a number of students for 
Gallaudet College, where they have graduated with distinction. Many 



164 Educational Institutions. 

of our former students have done well in the race of life, making a 
good living and good citizens. 

Our school plant is worth at least $500,000, and our greatest needs 
today are a hospital building and industrial equipments. The school 
from its creation has had a broad and liberal-minded board of direc- 
tors of practical business men. The present board is composed of 
J. L. Scott, Jr., president; A. C. Miller, Dr. I. P. Jeter, W. W. Neal, 
W. R. Whitson, Archibald Johnson, and Dr. J. 0. Atkinson, and E. 
McK. Goodwin has been superintendent since its establishment. 

The school has now a staff of twenty-nine regular grade teachers 
and an educational principal, a supervising teacher in Goodwin 
Hall, our new primary school, and five industrial teachers. 

Over 900 pupils have been enrolled since opening in 1894. 

SUMMARY. 

Pounded 1894 

Number of buildings 4 

Number of acres of land 327 

Value of buildings and equipment $500,000 

Value of land $30,000 

Number of volumes in library 3,700 

Number of faculty (including one principal) 36 

State appropriation $67,500 

Income from other sources, about 5,000 



THE STONEWALL JA{ KSOX 3IAXIAL TRAINING AND 
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

Charles E. Boger, Superintendent, Concord. 

In accordance with an act of the Legislature of 1907, the Stonewall 
Jackson Manual Training and Industrial School was established. The 
law permits the school to receive donations, and it is largely due to 
several liberal-minded people that the school has made such wonder- 
ful progress for the few years it has been in existence. Mr. Ceasar 
Cone, of Greensboro, has furnished the material to make the work 
uniforms for the boys since the opening of the school. In January, 
1909, the first cottage was completed, which was a gift of the King's 
Daughters of North Carolina; it was erected on a 298-acre tract of 
land, which was donated by the City of Concord. Since that time 



NORMAJL Schools for Negroes and Indians 165 

many additions have been made: Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Reynolds, of 
Winston-Salem, contributed $1,000 towards the building of a barn; 
Mr. and Mrs. G. T. Roth, of Elkin, furnished $3,500 to erect the In- 
dustrial Building, in which is located the school department, print- 
ing office, woodworking shop, engine room, and space for the storage 
of lumber and supplies; the Administration Building and two more 
cottages have been constructed. A beautiful Chapel has been built 
of rough granite, which cost $6,500. It is another gift of the King's 
Daughters. A fourth cottage is now practically complete, giving 
room for thirty additional boys. 

SUMMARY. 

Opened 1909 

Buildings 11 

Value of buildings and equipment $107,150 

Value of land $25,000 

Number of acres of land 298 

Pupils 97 

STATE APPROPRIATION. 

Maintenanace $18,000 

Permanent improvements $11,000 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR THE COLORED RACE AND FOR 
THE CHEROKEE INDIANS OF ROBESON COUNTY. 

E. E. Sams, Supervisor, Raleigh. 

The State maintains three normal schools for the training of 
negro teachers, and one for the training of teachers for the Cherokee 
Indians of Robeson County. The normal schools for the negroes are 
located at Fayetteville, Elizabeth City, and Winston-Salem; the 
school for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County is located at 
Pembroke. 

The first superintendent of these schools was Charles L. Coon, 
elected in 1904. In January, 1907, he was succeeded by John Duckett, 
who died November 16, 1908. J. A. Bivins was superintendent from 
January, 1909, until his death, March 2, 1913. E. E. Sams has been 
superintendent since March, 1913. 

Most of the negro teachers in the sections where these schools are 



166 Educationai. Institutions. 

located have received their training in these schools. Industrial, 
training, especially in domestic science, is required in all of them. 
In the Slater School at Winston-Salem shop and farm work are 
taught. At Fayetteville shop and farm work are also taught to a 
limited extent. These industrial features are not as successful as 
they should be, owing to lack of funds. Last June the General Edu- 
cation Board donated $4,050 to these three negro normal schools for 
industrial equipment. The salaries of the teachers of domestic 
science in these schools are paid out of the Slater Fund, for which 
purpose the trustees of this fund appropriate $900 annually. 

Six years ago a dormitory was erected at Fayetteville at a cost 
of about $10,000; four years ago one was erected at Elizabeth City 
costing about $20,000, including equipment, and two years ago a new 
dormitory at Winston-Salem was built at a cost of about $19,000. 
The State has one dormitory and one administration building at each 
of these schools. At each there is great need for a dormitory for 
boys. At present the boys at Winston-Salem are cared for in the 
administration building, formerly occupied by the girls. At the 
other two schools there is no provision whatever for dormitories 
for the boys. This is the greatest present need. In the lack of such 
adequate provisions is the greatest moral menace and danger. 

The trustees of the Indian Normal School at Pembroke by deed, 
made and executed in the year 1911, conveyed the title and owner- 
ship of their property to the State Board of Education. This prop- 
erty had formerly belonged to the trustees of the Croatan Normal 
School, as it was then styled. A dormitory costing about $4,000 was 
erected last year, but because of insufficient funds has not been 
equipped. It is hoped that an appropriation of $500 may be made 
for equipment of dormitory and repairs to the school building. 

FAYETTEVILLE COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 

E. E. Smith, Principal. 

Founded 1877 

Number of buildings 3 

Number of acres of land 39 

Value of buildings $26,000 

Value of land $4,000 

Value of furniture and equipment $3,000 

Value of live stock and vehicles $250 

Number of students (primary) 81 

Number of students (preparatory) 107 



Normal Schools for Negroes and Indians. 167 

Number of students (normal) 168 

Number of faculty 9 

State appropriation (maintenance) $5,200 

From Slater Fund $300 

State appropriation (building and permanent im- 
provements) $3,3)33.33 



ELIZABETH CITY COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 

P. W. Moore, Principal. 

Founded 1892 

Number of buildings 3 

Number of acres of land 41 

Value of buildings $3.5,000 

Value of land $8,000 

Number of students (primary) 127 

Number of students (preparatory) 34 

Number of students (normal) 224 

Number of faculty 10 

State appropriation (maintenance) $5,900 

State appropriation (building and permanent im- 
provements) $3,333.33 

From Slater Fund $300 



STATE INDUSTRIAL AND NORMAL SCHOOL AT 
WINSTON-SALEM. 

S. G. Atkins, Principal. 

Founded 1895 

Number of buildings 3 

Number of acres of land 17 

Value of buildings $38,000 

Value of land $20,000 

Number of volumes in library. 1,000 

Number of students (preparatory) 272 

Number of students (normal) 234 

Number of faculty 13 

State appropriation (maintenance) 5,800 

From Slater Fund $300 

State appropriation for building and permanent im- 
provement $3,333.33 



168 Educational Institutions. 



INDIAN NORMAL SCHOOL AT PEMBROKE. 

H. A. Neal, Principal. 

Founded 1887 

Number of buildings 2 

Number of acres of land 10 

Value of building $7,000 

Value of land $500 

Number of students (primary) 56 

Intermediate and normal 86 

Number of faculty 4 

State appropriation (maintenance) $2,750 

State appropriation (building) $2,000 

superintendents. 

Charles L. Coon 1904-1907. 

John Duckett 1907-1908. 

J. A. Bivixs 1908-1913. 

E. E. Sams 1913- 



THE NEGRO AGRICULTURAL AND TEC HMCAL COLLEGE. 

James B. Dudley, President, Greensboro. 

The Negro Agricultural and Technical College was established 
by an act of the General Assembly of North Carolina, ratified March 
9, 1891. The leading object of the institution is declared by the act 
to be instruction in practical agriculture, the mechanic arts, and 
such branches of learning as relate thereto. 

The management and control of the college and the care and 
preservation of all its property is vested in a board of trustees, con- 
sisting of fifteen members, who are elected by the General Assembly, 
or appointed by the Governor, for a term of six years. 

The trustees, by the act of the Legislature, have power to prescribe 
rules for the management and preservation of good order and morals 
at the college; to elect the president, instructors, and as many other 
officers and servants as they shall deem necessary; have charge of 
the disbursements of the funds, and have general and entire super- 
vision of the establishment and maintenance of the college. 

The financial support of the college for the payment of salaries and 
purchase of apparatus and equipment is derived, for the most part. 



Negro Agbiculturax, and Technical College. 169 

from the United States, under an act of Congress, known as the 
"Morrill Act," passed August 20, 1890. This act makes an annual 
appropriation for each State and Territory for the endowment and 
support of colleges for the benefit of agriculture and mechanic arts, 
to be applied "only to instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, 
the English language and the various branches of mathematics, physi- 
lac, natural, and economic sciences, with special reference to their 
application in the industries of life and to the facilities of such in- 
struction." 

The college also receives an appropriation from the State for gen- 
eral maintenance, which cannot be provided for under the laws 
governing the use of Federal appropriations. 

The citizens of Greensboro donated fourteen acres of land and 
$11,000, to be used in construction of buildings. In 1893 this was 
supplemented by an appropriation of $10,000 by the General As- 
sembly. The main building, one of the finest school edifices in North 
Carolina, was completed in 1893, and the school opened in the fall 
of that year. 

Every negro who will observe the splendid record of s'uccess and 
of usefulness which the graduates, almost without exception, are 
making, must naturally feel grateful to the "Old North State" for 
the excellent work that this Commonwealth is doing for the uplift 
of its negro citizens. Every intelligent citizen, black or white, who 
will note the substantial interest and splendid support that this in- 
stitution is receiving from every State official and from the repre- 
sentatives of the people in every Legislature, must admire the wise 
and liberal treatment North Carolina is giving for the maintenance 
of helpful institutions for her negro citizens, and ever appreciate 
the excellent results that are being accomplished. It is certain no 
negro can study the important work of this institution and its in- 
fluence for the advancement of all people without feeling a stronger 
sense of obligation to his State that he should strive to be a better, 
truer, and more patriotic citizen of the great State of North Carolina. 

The institution is located in the eastern part of the city of Greens- 
boro, about one mile from the railway station, upon an elevated 
tract of about twenty-five acres of land. About a mile from the col- 
lege the institution has a farm of IO31/2 acres, most of which is under 
cultivation. 

The college has four modern brick buildings, one brick veneered 



170 EIducational Institutions. 

building, three barns, a small dairy building, two greenhouses, a 
broom shop, a poultry plant and a few smaller buildings. 

The college has outgrown its facilities for instruction in the 
mechanic arts. The present equipment, which is the original with 
very few exceptions, is wearing out, and in some cases obsolete. 
The influence of this department is far-reaching, as is evidenced 
by the work of its graduates. Among the graduates of this institu- 
tion are some of the best and most progressive mechanics in North 
Carolina. There are substantial evidences of their work at Raleigh. 
St. Agnes Hospital is probably the most conspicuous. This building 
was erected by J. W. Holmes, a graduate of the A. and T. College. 
He is Superintendent of Industries at St. Augustine's School, Raleigh. 
The Tupper Memorial Building at Shaw University was designed 
and built by G..A. Edwards, a graduate of A. and T. College. G. A. 
Edwards is in charge of the mechanical department at Shaw. There 
is a large demand for graduates in mechanics from this institution 
to organize and take charge of the mechanical courses in schools 
of the State, showing that the other institutions are using the me- 
chanical department of the A. and T. College as a model. J. I. Pope 
is in charge of the machine shop and heating plant at Lincoln In- 
stitute, Jefferson City, Mo. J. W. Mask is teacher of manual train- 
ing in the colored graded schools at Washington, N. C. 

The negroes of the State are appreciating better every day the 
advantages of this school as a trade school, and this is due to the 
success of the trade students. 

The A. and T. College, in order to keep its standard of instruc- 
tion and usefulness, will have to increase its equipment for instruc- 
tion in the trades. More room is needed for the brick shop, machine 
wood-working shop, and blacksmith shop. The efficiency of the me- 
chanical department of the A. and T. College would be greatly in- 
creased if provisions were made for a thorough overhauling of such 
machines and tools as are now in that department, and the addition 
of a few new machines and tools to meet the greatly increased 
demands for instruction. 

For instruction in agriculture the college has no building and 
practically no facilities, yet the college has made greater advance- 
ment and has achieved greater success along this than any other 
line. 

The best evidence of the value of the instruction in agriculture 
as given at the A. and T. College is found in the success of the 



Negro Agricultural and Techniqal College. 171 

graduates. One graduate in Cumberland County, who is operating 
his own farm, has been recently appointed United States Farm Dem- 
onstration Agent for his county. A graduate of the class of 1908, 
who is operating his own farm in Cumberland County, has recently 
organized a dairy company in Fayetteville which is doing a thriv- 
ing business. Another graduate of the class of 1907 is running his 
own farm of 100 acres in Chatham County. In a Civil Service ex- 
amination to secure eligibles for the appointment of a teacher of 
agriculture at the Carlise Indian School, one of our graduates stood 
the highest and received the appointment. A number of our grad- 
uates are employed in dairy industries. A member of the class of 
1910 is employed by the Rennie Dairy Company, of Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, as buttermaker. This company churns over a thousand gal- 
lons of cream daily. This young man made the butter that scored 
the highest and took first prize at the Virginia dairy exhibit held 
last winter. A graduate of the class of 1907 is operating his own 
farm and dairy near Louisburg, N. C. One is superintendent of a 
1,200-acre farm at the Brick School, Edgecombe County; another is 
running his own farm in Alamance County; a graduate of the class 
of 1902 is florist at Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala. One of our 
graduates was recently appointed State agent in charge of the negro 
farm clubs on the Smith-Lever Fund. 

Several graduates are teaching in agricultural schools. One is in 
charge of the agricultural department of the Colored A. and M. Col- 
lege of West Virginia; one of the graduates of the class of 1909 is 
teaching in the State Normal School at Winston, N. C; one is in 
charge of the agricultural department of the State Normal School, 
Nashville, Tennessee; one in charge of the dairy at Lincoln Insti- 
tute, Lincolnridge, Ky. A graduate was recently appointed super- 
intendent of the farm at an orphan home on Long Island, N. Y. A 
number of our graduates are farming and teaching rural schools dur- 
ing the winter months. A graduate in Halifax County is one of the 
few colored teachers who has succeeded in establishing a rural 
library in connection with his school. 

The number of the students in the agricultural department has 
increased fivefold in the past five years, which goes to show that 
the thoughtful colored boy is recognizing the fact that farming 
offers better inducements than any other line of industry, and he is, 
therefore, seeking training to that end. 

Most of the graduates of last year's class were from the agricul- 



172 Educational Institutions. 

tural department. These students come directly from the farm for 
the purpose of getting instruction in the modern methods of farm- 
ing in order to produce maximum crops at a minimum cost. It is 
a business proposition to them, pure and simple. They are seeking 
an education in order to increase their productive capacity. Every 
time the A. and T. College increases the productive capacity of a 
student, it increases the productive capacity of the State, and 
thereby increases the wealth of the State to that extent. 

Therefore every dollar expended by the State in increasing the 
productive capacity of its colored citizens is a business proposition. 

In order that the A. and T. College may meet the demands made 
upon it for instruction in agriculture, it is necessary that a building 
and equipment be provided for this purpose similar to that already 
provided by the State for instruction in mechanic arts. Money in- 
vested by the State for this purpose will, in course of time, revert 
to the State in the form of taxes from increased agricultural de- 
velopment. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildngs 11 

Number of acres of land owned 128i/^ 

Value of buildings and equipment $115,179 

Value of land $30,000 

Number of volumes in library 2,000 

Number of students 468 

Number of faculty 26 

Income from State appropriation $ 15,000 

Income from Federal appropriation $ 16,500 

presidents. 

John O. Crosby 1892-1896 

James B. Dudley 1896- 



THE CASWELL TKAIMXG} SCHOOL. 

C. B. McNairy, M.D., Superintendent, Einston. 

The Legislature of 1915 changed the name of this institution from 
the North Carolina School for the Feeble-minded to the Caswell 
Training School, and appropriated $14,000 for a new dormitory for 



Caswell Tkakxing School. 173 

girls, and $2,500 for repairs. A building was erected which accom- 
modates 80 pupils; the first floor is used exclusively for low-grade 
idiots, the second floor for imbeciles. The institution has now en- 
rolled 60 boys, and 119 girls, with 4 regular teachers, 10 matrons, 
and 12 other helpers, including those in charge of the different de- 
partments inside the building and out. 

Owing to the advance in the price of everything and the lack of 
proper equipment for carrying on the school work as planned, the 
authorities were compelled to take the wood-carving and carpenter 
shop building for rooms for help. 

In order that we may carry out the purpose of the institution, 
segregate, care for, train, and educate these mental defectives along 
such lines as their mentality will permit, and disseminate knowledge 
concerning the extent and menace of mental defectiveness and sug- 
gest and initiate methods for its control and ultimate eradication 
from our people, our necessities are: better equipment along 
all lines, more school room, industrial building, mechanical equip- 
ment, cold storage, extra boiler for heating, more water, more room 
for matrons and attendants, extra team, farm machinery, motor 
truck, etc. 

Our Opportunity: We have 300 applicants now asking for admis- 
sion, that they may have the care, protection, and training of the 
Institution. This will necessitate a new building which will cost ap- 
proximately $250 to $275 per bed. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1911 

Number of buildings *4 

Number of acres of land 900 

Value of buildings and equipment $110,000 

Value of land $ 30,000 

Number of pupils 179 

Number of faculty 26 

Income from State (1916) $ 40,000 

superintendents. 

Dr. Ira M. Hardy 1911-1913 

Dr. C. Banks McNairy 1914-1916 



*Besides cottages and outbuildings, barns, etc. 



PART VI. 



STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 



1. Centkal Hospital FOR THE Insane. 

2. Western Hospital for the Insane. 

3. Eastern Hospital for the Insane. 

4. IsToRTH Carolina Sanatorium for the 

Treatment of Tuberculosis. 

5. Oxford Orphan Asylum. 

6. The Soldiers' Home. 

7. Confederate Woman's Home. 



CENTRAL HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

AIJ3EET Anderson, M.D., Superintendent, Raleigh. 

The State Hospital at Raleigh is situated one mile directly south- 
ward of the city of Raleigh, just over the city's boundary line. The 
house was erected on the apex of the watershed between Walnut 
Creek on the south and Rocky Branch on the north, and is drained 
in the best natural sanitary manner possible. 

Every one knows that this institution was built for the unfortu- 
nate of North Carolina by the unceasing and persistent efforts of 
Miss Dorothy Dix, who appeared before the Legislature in 1848, and 
with the effective help and eloquent plea of Hon. James C. Dobbin, 
of Fayetteville, secured the passage of the bill by a vote of 101 yeas 
to 10 nays. 

The act provided for the appointment of six commissioners, John 
M. Morehead, of Guilford; Calvin Graves, of Caswell; T. N. Cameron, 
of Cumberland; G. W. Mordecai, of Wake; C. L. Hinton, of Wake, 
and G. O. Watson, of Johnston, to select and purchase a tract of land 
upon which to erect a building for the purpose of providing for the 
insane. These commissioners did their work without compensa- 
tion, and that they did it well is manifested by the elegant and sub- 
stantial structure upon this site. 

In 1856 the building was near enough to completion for the first 
board of directors to instruct Dr. E. C. Fisher to order in 40 patients, 
Dr. Fisher having been elected superintendent by the board. Dr. 
Fisher held this office until July 7, 1868, when he was superseded 
by Dr. Eugene Grissom. Dr. Grissom held the office until succeeded 
by Dr. William K. Wood, of Halifax County, who remained in office 
but a short while and was succeeded by Dr. George L. Kirby, who 
died of pneumonia in February, 1901. Dr. James McKee was elected 
the following March as his successor. He died in office in 1912 and 
was succeeded by Dr. J. L. Picot, who was elected to fill the unex- 
pired term of one year. On May 14, 1913, Dr. Albert Anderson, of 
Raleigh, N. C, was elected for a term of six years. 

The Legislatures have gradually awakened to the necessity of pro- 
viding for the insane. The Legislature of 1914 gave the Hospital 

12 



178 State Charitable Institutions. 

$40,000, and with it a more commodious fireproof building was erected, 
with a capacity of 80 additional female patients. The Legislature 
of 1907 enacted a law providing for a Hospital Commission, and gave 
them $500,000 to add to the building and erect upon the grounds 
such structures as would be conducive to the comfort and restora- 
tion of the health of the insane.* A storehouse was the first build- 
ing put up by the Commission, at a cost of $4,200; then a carpenter 
shop at a cost of $3,800. Next an annex for 100 men, at a cost of 
$48,265. 

In 1908 the Commission disbursed the following amounts: In 
February, $11,405.75 for heating, plumbing, sewer pipes, sewers, and 
an addition to complete storeroom; in October, 1908, one building 
for women, $21,900; three groups of buildings, making nine, at 
$14,813 apiece, one of these groups being for male convalescent 
patients, and the other two for male and female epileptics, respect- 
ively, and with the cost of sewer and pipe connection with the A. 
and M. College, costing $500. aggregating $66,919. 

The Legislature of 1915 gave $5,000 for repairing and improving 
the heating plant, and $35,000 for erecting a receiving building. 
Out of the receipt account of the institution our board ordered a 
nurses' home built, costing $23,000, and the equipment of the above 
two buildings with plumbing fixtures and heating outfit at a cost 
of several thousand dollars. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1856 

Number of buildings 17 

Number of acres of land ,. 1,311 

Total number patients under treatment last 2 years. 1,584 

Number of attendants and nurses 84 

Annual appropriation $175,350 



WESTERX HOSPITAL FOR THE I?fSA]VE. 

JoHX McCampbell, M.D., Superintendent, Morganton. 

The State Hospital at Morganton was founded in 1875, but was not 
regularly opened for the reception of patients until 1883. At the 



''$53,500 of this amount was specifically appropriated for the purchase of land. 



Hospital for Colored Insank. 179 

time of its opening it had a capacity of about 225 patients. Com- 
pletion of the north wing brought the capacity up to 420 beds. From 
time to time buildings have been added until the entire plant now 
comprises 15 buildings for patients, with a total capacity of approxi- 
mately 1,450 beds. The present population, including those away 
on parole, is 1,534. The demand for admission is in excess of the 
capacity of the house, and many meritorious cases have to be re- 
jected. The hospital is in sore need of increased capacity and better 
facilities for the treatme;it of acute cases. The annual appropriation 
during the past two years has been $200,000 for 1915, and $205,000 
for 1916. 

SUMMARY. 

Institution founded 1875 

Number of buildings 15 

Number of acres of land 900 

Number of inmates 1,534 

Number of attendants 106 

Annual appropriation $205,000 

superintendents. 

Dr. p. L. Murphy 1882-1907 

Dr. John McCampcell 1907- 



STATE HOSPITAL (FOR COLORED RACE) AT GOLDSBORO. 

Dr. W. W. Faisox, Superintendent, Goldsboro. 

This institution was opened for the reception of patients August 
1, 1880. The number of patients received since its beginning is 
4,550; number discharged, 3,670; number of patients remaining on 
roll, 880. 

summary. 

Founded 1880 

Number of buildings 13 

Number of acres of land 690 

Value of buildings and equipment $300,000 

Value of land 50,000 

Number of inmates 1,005 

Number of attendants 62 

State appropriation per annum $105,000 



180 State Charitable Institutions. 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 

W. H. Moore 1880-1882 

J. D. Roberts 1882-1888 

J. F. Miller 1888-1906 

W. W. Faison 1906- 



AOllTH CAROLINA SANAT0RIU3I FOR THE TREAT3IENT OF 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

L. B. McBrayer, M.D., Superintendent, Sanatorium. 

The North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 
was authorized by an act of the General Assembly of 1907. For this 
purpose the General Assembly appropriated the sum of $15,000 for 
construction and $5,000 annual maintenance. The sum of $7,750 
was expended for land amounting to 950 acres. 

The General Assembly of 1913 appropriated $20,000 per year for 
maintenance and $20,000 for building and equipment. The General 
Assembly of 1915 appropriated $60,000 for permanent improvements 
and $25,000 per year for maintenance and $10,000 as an extension 
fund. Out of the $60,000 we were required to pay $19,500 of old in- 
debtedness running back for two to four years. 

Out of the permanent improvement fund we have built the left 
wing of what will be the main building, which is intended to hold 
48 patients, but we have in it at this time 64. We have also built a 
power house and laid steam mains to all the buildings on the hill 
and from which power house we heat all the buildings on the hill, 
make our electric lights and power current. We have built a seven- 
room house for the engineer and a two-room house for the fireman 
and a freight storage room. 

We have repaired all the old buildings, and screened them, re- 
painting them, patching the roofs, underpinning them with brick, 
and making such other repairs as might be needed. We have re- 
paired the old kitchen and dining room, putting a new tile floor in 
the kitchen and equipping it with modern utensils, in many of which 
live steam is used for cooking We have repaired the dining room 
and run a partition through it, using one end for an assembly room. 
We have furnished the dining room with white opalite table tops. 
We have converted the club house into an office building, running 
partitions where needed. The postoflice is now quartered in the of- 



Oxford Orphan Asylitm. 181 

fice building and we have built a sleeping porch along the side of 
the old postofSce building, painted it inside and out, and have ar- 
ranged one room with sleeping porch for the pupil nurses in the 
training school for i\urses and the other room for the stenographers. 
Bath and toilet facilities have been placed in each room of this 
building. 

We have had the land owned by the institution surveyed and 
platted, and the survey shows a little more than 1,200 acres. The 
farm, garden, etc., comprises about 100 acres cleared. "We have in 
process of clearing about 40 acres more, most of which has been 
completed. 

We have on hand 30 milk cows, 6 heifers, and 4 calves. Of the 
calves 2 are registered Holsteins, one male and one female; another 
is a registered Jersey female. We have in the herd three registered 
Holstein cows and three registered Jersey cows. 

Our water is furnished from two deep wells, one 8-inch, 245 feet 
deep, and one 6-inch, 225 feet. Both wells when running at capacity 
are estimated to furnish about 40 gallons of water per minute. We 
are running these pumps by electricity instead of gasoline, as here- 
tofore, and find that the money we are saving on gasoline and ice is 
nearly sufficient to run our power plant. 

SUMMARY. 

Number of buildings 17 

Value of buildings $125,000 

Number of acres of land 1,200 

Value of land $24,000 

Number of patients 130 

Annual appropriation for maintenance $25,000 

Receipts from patients' fees 3,600 

SXJPERINTENDENTS. 

J. E. Brooks, M.D 1907-1912 

M. E. Street, M.D 1912-1914 

L. B. McBrayer, M.D 1914- 



OXFOTJD ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

R. L. Brown, Superintendent, Oxford. 

In the year 1872 the Oxford Orphan Asylum was established by 
the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Order of Masons of 
North Carolina. 



182 State Charitable Institutions. 

It was the first institution of its character established in the State 
and one of the first in the South. 

This property was originally the old St. John's College, and was 
established in 1855 by the Grand Lodge of North Caro'ina for edu- 
cational purposes. After being tried for a number of years and 
proving a failure financially, the Grand Lodge in 1872 decided to 
turn the property into a home for the orphan children of the State. 

This was accomplished largely through the instrumentality of 
John H. Mills, who offered the resolution at the meeting of the 
Grand Lodge and worked for its adoption without very great en- 
couragement. It was, therefore, quite fitting that he should have 
been chosen to be the first superintendent of the orphanage. 

The purpose of the institution is to provide a temporary home and 
training school for the homeless boys and girls of the State. 

The conditions of admission of the white children of North Caro- 
lina are: That they are really destitute and homeless; that they 
are of sound mind and body; and they are not over twelve years 
of age. 

The benefits of Oxford Orphan Asylum have never been restricted 
to the children of Masons alone. Only about 15 per cent of its chil- 
dren had fathers w^ho were Masons. 

About 3,100 children have received the care and training of the 
institution since 1872. 

The institution is providing the necessities of life for these chil- 
dren, the opportunity to acquire an English education, industrial 
training in cottages, kitchen, sewing room, domestic science, laun- 
dry, shoe shop, printing office, telegraphy and typewriting, wood- 
working shop, dairy, and on farm. Each child is in school at least 
the half of each school day during the school term of nine months. 
Moral and religious instruction is prominent in the work. 

In recognition of the -services of the Oxford Orphan Ayslum, its 
value to our Commonwealth in its work, the State of North Caro- 
lina appropriates $20,000 annually to aid in its maintenance and 
extension. 

Annually a report of the operations of the institution is made to 
the Governor of the State and to the State Board of Public Charities. 

At the request of the Grand Lodge of Masons, the State of North 
Carolina is represented by three members on the board of directors 
of the Orphanage. These are appointed by the Governor of the 
State. 



The Soldiers' Home. 183 



SUMMARY. 



Founded 1872 

Number of buildings 26 

Number of acres of land 242 

Value of land, buildings, and equipment $200,000 

Number of volumes in library 1,800 

Number of children in institution (Nov. 1, 1916) 375 

Number of officers and teachers 36 

Annual income (State appropriation) $20,000 

Annual income (other sources) $38,000 

Annual per capita cost $111.60 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

J. H. Mills 1872-1882 

B. F. Dixon 1883-1890 

Julius T. Harris (Sept. 1-Nov. 21) 1890- 

B. F. Dixon (Nov. 21-Dec. 31) 1890- 

W. S. Black 1891-1894 

N. M. Lawrence 1894-1898 

W. J. Hicks 1898-1911 

R. L. Brown 1911- 



THE SOLDIERS' HOME.* 

CoL. D. H. Milton, Superintendent, High Point. 

So far as can be ascertained from the records on file in the oflace 
of the Soldiers' Home, a home for indigent Confederate soldiers was 
first established in a rented house at the corner of Polk and Blood- 
worth streets, in the city of Raleigh, and declared to be opened on 
October 15, 1890, with five inmates. W. C. Stronach, under the au- 
spices of the Daughters of the Confederacy, acted as Superintendent, 
and looked after the personal comforts of the men. 

The General Assembly of 1891, chapter 60, Private Laws, incor- 
porated Gen. Robert F. Hoke, Col. William L. Saunders, Col. A. B. 
Andrews, Capt. S. A. Ashe, Gen. Rufus Barringer, Gen. A. M. Scales, 
Gen. Robert B. Vance, Gen. Thomas L. Clingman, Gen. W. P. Roberts, 
Gen. Julian S. Carr, Capt. Thomas J. Jarvis, Col. W. P. Wood, Gen. 
Matt. W. Ransom and other members of the Confederate Veterans'. 



*This article was prepared for the MANU.-iL by Capt. W. F. Drake. 



184 State Charitable Institutions. 

Association, under the name and style of "The Soldiers' Home As- 
sociation," and conferred upon this association the usual corporate 
powers. The act gave to the Soldiers' Home Association a tract of 
land near the eastern section of the city of Raleigh, known as Camp 
Russell, to be used for the purposes of a soldiers' home, and, if it 
should cease to be so used, to revert to and belong to the State. The 
same act appropriated $3,000 for the maintenance of the Soldiers' 
Home and the support of its inmates. Section 6 of the act is as 
follows: 

"The directors shall cause to be kept a minute-book of the home, 
in which full entries shall be kept concerning memorable incidents 
in the lives of its inmates. They shall also take steps to form a 
museum of Confederate relics and to perpetuate such historical 
records of the Confederate soldiers of North Carolina as they shall 
find it practicable to do." 

The act was ratified February 14, 1901. 

On April 27, 1891, the number of inmates of the Soldiers' Home 
having increased to nine, they were removed to an old building at 
Camp Russell which had been fitted up for the purposes of the home. 
Miss Mary Williams was appointed matron and served in that capac- 
ity until February 15, 1893, when Capt. J. H. Fuller was made resi- 
dent superintendent. On February 1, 1898, Superintendent Fuller 
resigned. Feebleness of age and the increase in number of inmates 
had made the duties too arduous for one of his strength. 

Capt. R. H. Brooks was elected to succeed Captain Fuller, and 
served until his death on June 14, 1910. The number of inmates 
continued to increase during his term, and the necessity for new and 
larger buildings became urgent. A dormitory was built to accommo- 
date 70 inmates, and furnished by liberal donations from the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy and others. A large hospital was built, medi- 
cal attention given, nurses employed, water, sewerage, and electric 
lights provided and the grounds made attractive. Such heavy ex- 
pense exceeded the appropriation made by the State, and at the close 
of Captain Brooks' term the books showed the home to be in arrears 
to the extent of $6,000; but all felt confident that the Legislature 
would provide for the deficiency. 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry was elected to succeed Captain Brooks, and 
entered upon his duties July 20, 1910. 

Col. D. H. Milton, who was elected to succeed Capt. W. S. Line- 
berry, September 26th. 1916, took charge October 1, 1916. 



The Confedekate Women's Home. 185 

An appropriation of $35,000 was made by the Legislature of 1915 
for tlie support of the home. The home is now out of debt; the 
buildings bright with new paint; the grounds ornamented with trees 
and shrubbery, and the walks clean. The comrades are, as a rule, 
contented. The fare is good, the rooms comfortable, the regulations 
reasonable, and an air of cheerfulness pervades. All this has come 
from the humble beginning of Octpber, 1890. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1890 

Number of comrades received since its founding. . . . 1,255 

Number received since last report 130 

Number of comrades died since its founding 561 

Number died since last report 76 

Number of comrades in the Home, December 1, 1916. 146 

sxjpekintendents. 

Miss Mary Williams 1891-1893 

Capt. J. H. Fuller 1893-1898 

Capt. R. H. Brooks 1898-1910 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry 1910-1916 

Col. D. H. Milton 1916- 



THE CONFEDERATE WOMAN'S HOME.* 

The Confederate Woman's Home of North Carolina was established 
by chapter 62 of the Public Laws of 1913. The act incorporated the 
Confederate Woman's Home Association, with Julian S. Carr, John 
H. Thorpe, Robert H. Ricks, Robert H. Bradley, E. R. Preston, 
Simon B. Taylor, Joseph F. Spainhour, A. D. McGill, M. Leslie Davis, 
T. T. Thorne, and W. A. Grier as incorporators. The object of the 
Association was "to establish, maintain, and govern a home for de- 
serving, needy, and dependent wives and widows of North Carolina 
Confederate soldiers, and other worthy dependent women of the Con- 
federacy who are bona fide residents of this State." Ample power 
for carrying out this purpose was conferred by the act upon the 



*This statement is brought forward from the Manual of 1915. The editor regrets 
that lie liiis not been ab'e to .secure a revised statement bringing the data up to date 
for this edition of tlie Manual. 



186 State Chaiutabie Institutions. 

Association. The act authorized the Governor to appoint a board 
of directors of seven members who should be the governing board 
of the institution. The board appointed by the Governor consisted 
of J. A. Turner, James A. Bryan, W. H. Bahnsou, Haywood Parker, 
A. G. McGill, and Ashley Home. Upon the death of Colonel Home 
the Governor appointed T. T. Thorne to the vacancy. An advisory 
board of lady managers was established to assist the board of direct- 
ors in the equipment and management of the Home. This advisory 
board consists of the following: Mrs. Hunter Smith, Mrs. N. B. 
Mann, Mrs. T. L. Costner, Mrs. R. F. Dalton, Mrs. F. A. Woodard, 
Mrs. W. H. Mendenhall, Mrs. E. C. Chambers, Mrs. Charles S. Wal- 
lace, Mrs. M. O. Winstead, and Mrs. Marshall Williams. The board 
of directors, after considering the offers from various towns and 
cities for the location of the Home, selected the city of Fayetteville, 
where the Home will be built as soon as the General Assembly pro- 
vides the necessary funds. 



PART VII. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



1. The North CAROLiiirA Railroad Company. 

2. The Atlantic and IsToeth Carolina Eailroad 

Company. 

3. The ISTorth Carolina Agricultural Society. 

4. History of the State Capitol. 

5. History of the State Administration 

Building. 

6. ISToRTii Carolina Day, 

7. Legal Holidays in North Carolina. 

8. State Flag. 

9. The Great Seal. 

10. State Motto and Its Origin. 



THE :N0RTH CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY.* 

A. H. Eller, Secretary and, Treasurer.-^ 

The greatest of all enterprises so far attempted by the State of 
North Carolina in the nature of a public or internal improvement 
was the building of the North Carolina Railroad from Goldsboro by 
way of Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, to Charlotte. 

Considering the experimental state of railroading at that time, the 
dread of public or private indebtedness, and the limited resources, 
the movement was a monumental enterprise — and one in advance of 
anything attempted by almost any other State in the Union. The 
success, however, which has crowned the labors and sacrifices of our 
fathers has established beyond all question that their wisdom was 
equal to, or superior to, any displayed before or since their day. 

In 1833 the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company and the Wil- 
mington and Raleigh, afterwards known as the "Wilmington and Wel- 
don Railroad Company, were chartered, and later these roads were 
built. In 1848 the former was in the hands of the State, and was in 
a bankrupt condition for the want of patronage. It was necessary to 
give it some connection, or to extend it. At the session of Novem- 
ber, 1848, the western counties urged a charter for a road from 
Charlotte to Danville, asking no State aid; but the eastern members 
opposed that project. The finances of the State were in such an 
Impoverished condition that it was generally deemed impracticable 
for the State to give any considerable aid to any railroad; but Wil- 
liam S. Ashe, the Democratic Senator from New Hanover, intro- 
duced a bill to construct a road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, under 
the name of the North Carolina Railroad, and appropriating two mil- 
lions of dollars for that purpose, on condition, however, that private 
parties could subscribe one million, and to secure the payment of the 
State bonds, when issued, a lien was given on the State's stock. 

When the western men brought up the Charlotte and Danville bill 
in the House, Stanley and other eastern men opposed it so bitterly 
that it could not pass, and then in a dramatic scene, the friends of 



*This article is brought forward from the Manual of 1913. The editor regrets 
that he has been unable to secure from the present secretary of the company a re- 
vised statement bringing it up to date. , • ^ • i 

fThe writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Capt. S. A. Ashe for the historical 
data contained in this sketch. 



190 Miscellaneous. 

internal improvement agreed to send to the Senate and take the 
Ashe bill from the files and offer it as a substitute. After a great 
and prolonged struggle the bill passed the House of Commons. In 
the Senate it failed by an adverse majority of one; but the Senator 
from Cumberland was led to support it by passing the bill for the 
State to build the plank road from Fayetteville to Salem; and then 
the vote in the Senate was a tie. Speaker Graves, who had up to 
that moment maintained an impenetrable silence as to the measure, 
broke the tie in favor of building the road by State aid; and the 
measure was passed. Speaker Graves was never again elected to any 
office by the vote of his people. 

To secure the needed one million of private stock. Speaker Graves, 
Governor Morehead, and Mr. William Boylan made great exertions, 
and by their efforts, aided by Joseph Caldwell, Governor W. A. Gra- 
ham, Paul C. Cameron and others, the necessary stock was eventu- 
ally raised. On January 29, 1856, the railroad was ready for passage 
of trains from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and charters had been granted 
for two other roads — from Goldsboro to Morehead City and from 
Salisbury to the Tennessee line. 

By act, ratified 14th of February, 1855, the General Assembly in- 
creased the capital stock to $4,000,000, and subscribed for the State 
the whole of the added capital. From that time till now the State 
has owned three-fourths, and individuals one-fourth of this road, 

The first president of the company was Governor John M. More- 
head, to whom so much w^as due for securing the subscription of the 
private stock, and under his direction the road was constructed. His 
successors were Charles F. Fisher, of Rowan; Paul C. Cameron, 
Josiah Turner, Jr., of Orange, and William A. Smith, of Johnston. 
During the administration of Mr. Smith the road was, on the 11th 
day of September, 1871, leased to the Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road Company for thirty years, at a rental of 6 per cent per annum. 
The subsequent presidents of the company have been: Thomas M. 
Holt, Lee S. Overman, S. B. Alexander, J. F. Kornegay, R. M. Nor- 
ment, J. L. Armstrong, H. G. Chatham, Charles M. Stedman, and 
Benehan Cameron. 

On the 16th day of August, 1895, in view of the approaching ter- 
mination of the lease, the property was leased to the Southern Rail- 
way Company for a term of ninety-nine years at an annual rental of 
6% per cent for six years and 7 per cent for the remaining ninety- 



North Caeolina Railroad Company. 191 

three years, and the stock of the company was selling at $186 per 
share until the panic of 1907. 

On the readjustment of the debt of the State, the State renewed 
the bonds issued for the purchase of the North Carolina Railroad 
stock, pledging the original lien on the stock for the payment of 
the debt. 

Col. Peter B. Ruffin, for more than thirty years, was the faithful 
and efficient secretary and treasurer of the company. 

The secretaries of the company in the order of their election and 
service are as folUows: Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Julius B. Ramsey, R. M. 
Mills, F. A. Stagg, J. A. McCauley, W. P. Thornburg, P. B. Ruffin, 
H. B. Worth, Spencer B. Adams, D. H. McLean, and A. H. Eller. 

The State, as is well known, has continued to own its $3,000,000 of 
the original capital stock, and has acquired two (2) additional shares, 
thus giving it 30,002 shares at par value, amounting to $3,000,200, 
which, however, at the recent market value aggregates $5,580,372. 
And it is confidently believed that if the State desired to part with a 
controlling interest in the company, its stock would command a 
much greater price, and those who have watched the constant ad- 
vance in the price of this stock expect it to go to $200 per share at 
an early day. 

Under the lease of 1871 to the Richmond and Danville Railroad 
Company, the company could not have claimed the betterments made 
by the lessee; but under the present lease the company is not only 
amply secured by bond for the prompt payment of its lease money 
and organization expenses, to wit, $143,000 on the first day of Jan- 
uary and July of each year, but upon the termination of said lease 
for any cause, the company acquires the betterments made thereon. 

In addition to the railroad and rolling stock leased to the South- 
ern Railway Company, the company still owns valuable lands in and 
about Company Shops, now known as the city of Burlington. 

When the Board of Directors, appointed by Governor Aycock, took 
charge of the company's affairs, there was a floating indebtedness of 
$10,000. The May balance, 1912, of the present secretary and treas- 
urer shows that said indebtedness has been paid and a special divi- 
dend of one-half of one per cent, amounting to $20,000, and the com- 
pany has to its credit in the bank the sum of $21,128.64, all of which, 
except a small balance, is drawing 4 per cent interest. Again on 
August 1, 1912, an extra one-half of one per cent dividend, amount- 
ing to $20,000 was paid. Promptly upon the payment of the lease 



192 Miscellaneous. 

money on the first of January and July in each year, the directors 
declare a dividend, and the secretary and treasurer pays to the 
State Treasurer immediately $105,000, and like dividend is paid to 
the private stockholders on the first day of February and August of 
each year. The present Board of Directors, as appointed by Gov- 
ernor Kitchin on the part of the State, are given below. The State's 
proxy is Jo. M. Reese; the expert is John W. Thompson, and the 
company's attorney is Frank R. McNinch. 

A true sketch of this company would be incomplete without call- 
ing attention to the long and invaluable services of Gen. R. F. Hoke 
as director. His experience and great knowledge of affairs, and life- 
long devotion to the best interest of the company, entitle him to the 
gratitude of the State, as well as the private stockholders. His 
death on July 3, 1912, was deeply and universally lamented. 

The question is sometimes asked why the organization of the 
North Carolina Railroad Company is kept up, and what particular 
functions it performs. 

This company, as some people think, does not belong to the State 
of North Carolina. It is a qvasi-TpuhUc corporation like all other 
railroad companies, in which the State owns three-fourths of the 
stock. It is managed practically as any private corporation would 
be managed, the principal difference being that the Governor has 
the appointment of eight of the directors, while the private stock- 
holders have the election of four of the directors. 

The organization is maintained for the purpose of enforcing the 
terms of the lease to the Southern Railway Company, and, in case 
of the termination of that lease for any cause, to resume the opera- 
tion of the road. 

It is required to see that the bonds given for the prompt payment 
of the rent, and also the bond to maintain the rolling stock in good 
condition, are kept in force. It receives the rent money of $280,000 
per year, payable semiannually, and declares a dividend and pays 
the same to the stockholders of record. It transfers stock like other 
corporations. 

In leasing its property to the Southern Railway Company it re- 
served its office building, which is the residence of the secretary and 
treasurer, containing its vault and records, at Burlington, N. C. It 
owns certain real estate in and about the city of Burlington, which 
is sold by its land committee from time to time. 

The secretary and treasurer is required to give a bond in the sum 



Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad. 193 

of $50,000, and his books and accounts are audited by a finance com- 
mittee at stated times. It is required to file a report annually with 
the State Corporation Commission and one with the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission as other railroad companies must do. It also 
reports its income for Federal taxation like other corporations. Its 
stock is the most valuable holding that the State of North Carolina 
has amongst its assets, and whether it will be the policy of the State 
to hold its stock perpetually or to dispose of the same, is a matter for 
the Legislatures of the future. 



THE ATLANTIC AND NORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

[Reprinted from the North Carolina Manual of 1915. The editor regrets that he has 
not been able to get the data necessary to bring the article up to date.] 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad was chartered by the 
General Assembly of North Carolina in 1852, duration of the charter 
being ninety-nine years. The charter was amended in 1854 and 1855. 
Work on the railroad was begun shortly afterwards, and pushed to 
completion from Goldsboro to a point on the seacoast now known 
as Morehead City, a distance of 95 miles, in 1858. 

Not having the necessary data at hand, I state from memory, and 
from information gained from other sources, the names of the differ- 
ent presidents of the railroad company, in the order of their service 
from the beginning up to the time when the railroad was leased to 
the Rowland Improvement Company, during the administration of 
Hon. C. B. Aycock as Governor of North Carolina, on September 1, 
1904, as follows: John D. Whitford, Charles R. Thomas, John D. Whit- 
ford, E. R. Stanley, R. W. King, L. W. Humphrey, John Hughes, John 
D. Whitford, Washington Bryan, W. S. Chadwick, Robert Hancock, 
D. W. Patrick, James A. Bryan. 

The road was capitalized at $1,800,000; the par value of the stock 
was fixed at $100 per share. The State of North Carolina owns 12,666 
shares of the stock. The county of Craven owns 1,293 shares, the 
county of Lenoir owns 500 shares,* the county of Pamlico owns 202 
shares. The balance of the stock of the road is owned by private 
individuals. The equipment of the road was by no means complete 



*Sold to private individuals. 
13 



194 MiSCEIXANEOUS. 

when the War between the States began (1861), and by reason of the 
fact that a good portion of the road was under the control of the 
Federal arms from the fall of New Bern in 1862 to the close of the 
war in 1865, the road when turned over to its rightful owners was 
little more, if any, than a burden to carry, which was in part the 
cause of no returns to the stockholders on their investments for 
thirty-four years after the road was constructed. 

During the administration of the Hon. T. J. Jarvis, Governor of 
North Carolina, the railroad was leased to W. J. Best, who had con- 
trol and operated same for a short time only, and then returned it 
back to its owner. 

There is an outstanding bonded indebtedness against the road of 
$325,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per annum, the interest pay- 
able semiannually. Bonds for same were issued in 1887 and will 
mature in 1917. During the last year of the presidency of James A. 
Bryan, two suits were instituted in the Federal Court for the Eastern 
District of North Carolina for the appointment of receivers of the 
road — first by K. S. Finch, of New York, and the second by John P. 
Cuyler, of New Jersey. Receivers were appointed in both cases, but 
relief was granted by higher courts. 

The vast amount of unsettled business in which the Atlantic and 
North Carolina Railroad Company was in any way interested at the 
time the Rowland Improvement Company, "lessees," assumed control 
of the railroad, was very largely adjusted during the first two years. 
The expiration of the third year of the lease found only a small 
amount of difference to be looked after, which in time was settled. 
Suit was brought in the Superior Court of Craven County in 1906, to 
annul the lease to the Rowland Improvement Company, resulting in 
a decision upholding the lease, which decision was afl[irmed by the 
Supreme Court. 

The contract for lease with the Howland Improvement Company 
terminates in ninety-one years and four months from the date of its 
execution, and the stipulations contained in same have, up to the last 
meeting of the stockholders of the Atlantic and North Carolina Rail- 
road Company, in 1912, been largely complied with, as will be seen 
from the annual reports to the stockholders' meeting of the president, 
treasurer, and expert cf the lessor company. The Atlantic and North 
Carolina Railroad has, with some other short lines in Eastern North 
Carolina, been merged into and now forms part of the Norfolk South- 
ern Railway system. 



North Carolina Agricultural Society. 195 

The following have been presidents of the company: James A. 
Bryan, J. W. Grainger, S. W. Ferrebee, L. P. Tapp, H. H. Grainger, 
and Thomas D. Warren. 



THE IVOKTII CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Joseph E. Pogue, Secretary, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society, which operates the State 
Fair annually at Raleigh in the third week of October, was char- 
tered by special act of the Legislature more than a half century ago, 
"to provide a place for the holding of annual fairs, in order that the 
citizens may be encouraged by exhibitions, premiums, and other 
means to develop and improve the productions of agriculture, and 
every species of native industry; and to this end, and for these great 
and valuable purposes, and to no other, shall the corporation apply 
all the funds which by any means it may acquire." 

No capital stock was provided for in that charter. Various public- 
spirited citizens of the State loaned to the society a sum of money 
sufficient to purchase grounds and erect buildings for the purposes of 
an annual fair, taking therefor the bonds of the society. The real 
property, pledged to secure this bonded debt, is held in trust. The 
bonded debt was originally $26,550, but was reduced in 1905 to $22,- 
600, and refunded for twenty years at 5 per cent, instead of 6 per 
cent, the former rate. These bonds are now generally held at par 
value. 

Any profits made in the operation of the fair go into a surplus 
fund, which Is spent in permanent improvements of all kinds at the 
fair grounds, for increased premiums, and other betterments that go 
toward making the fair more efficient. 

The present fair grounds are just west of the city of Raleigh, at 
the terminus of the electric street car line. They were purchased 
about thirty-seven years ago, and cover more than 60 acres of land, 
in one of the most desirable sections of Raleigh's suburbs. The 
society has nine large buildings on these grounds, some of which 
were erected at the time this site was acquired. The others have 
been put up within the last few years. The three live-stock build- 
ings were erected in 1913. 

The new grandstand was built a half dozen years ago with a seat- 



196 Miscellaneous. 

ing capacity of about 2,00Q. This is a very substantial structure, with 
a metal roof, and is now in good condition. Two years ago its seat- 
ing capacity was considerably enlarged by the addition of bleachers 
reaching from the front of the stand down almost to the race track 
fence, and extending nearly the width of the grandstand. 

Several years ago a shed, covered with a metal roof, 48 x 200 feet, 
was put up for the accommodation of the exhibitors of large farm 
machinery. It proved a great boon to these exhibitors, and is much 
appreciated by the general public. 

In 1910 a modern reinforced concrete building, 60 x 150 feet, was 
erected especially for the use of exhibitors of agricultural and horti- 
cultural products. Tliis is a very handsome addition to the equip- 
ment of the grounds, being up to date in its appearance, and well 
arranged and convenient in its appointments. 

The following year another building of the same size, also of 
modern fireproof construction, was built for the housing of poultry. 
It harmonizes perfectly as to architecture with the agricultural 
building just spoken of, and in its arrangement and lighting facili- 
ties offers all the advantages which the best experience of years has 
brought into use in such buildings. 

Among other recent improvements might be mentioned the widen- 
ing three times of the midway within the last dozen years, to afford 
room for the ever-increasing crowds, and the macadamizing of this 
thoroughfare; the overhauling and remodeling of the Arts and Crafts 
building, known as Floral Hall; the addition of about one hundred 
new box stalls for the accommodation of exhibit and race horses; 
the wiring of the buildings for electric lights; the extension of the 
city water pipes into the grounds, and the consequent providing of 
running water throughout. 

In 1913 three large live-stock buildings were erected at a cost of 
nearly $10,000, each 60 x 150 feet, with feed rooms and all modern 
conveniences. The swine and sheep barn has a concrete floor. 

The auditing committee of the society, in their report last year, 
took occasion to state that after a brief but comprehensive review of 
the expenditures on the fair grounds since January, 1900, they found 
that the present management had paid out, in round figures, nearly 
$30,000 for permanent improvements. In this connection the audit- 
ing committee also found that during that period about $13,000 had 
been paid out for past-due coupons, bonds paid and canceled, unpaid 
debts, and premiums due from former fairs. 



North Carolina Agricultur.vl Society. 197 

Altogether, it may be said in tlie most conservative terms that the 
fair has grown from modest beginnings until in recent years, just as 
the Old North State is taking her proper place among the foremost 
commonwealths of the Union, her State Fair is taking rank with the 
leading institutions of its kind in the country. Moreover, it has been 
gaining more and more the enthusiastic support, cooperation, and 
advice of men in all industries of the State, a thing that is absolutely 
necessary for the making of a larger and a greater fair. 

It is the intention of the management to continue to put up new 
permanent buildings as fast as the profits from the fairs will permit, 
or the public policy of the State towards her agricultural and indus- 
trial interests as expressed at the State Fair will make possible, 
finally replacing all of the old wooden structures with buildings that 
are adapted to the rapidly increasing needs of the more representa- 
tive exhibitors that are year by year demanding in tones less mis- 
takable larger and better accommodations. 

Some definite idea of the tremendous growth of the fair during the 
last few years may be gathered from the fact that in one year the 
number of solid car-loads of exhibits jumped from 42 to 83, and the 
number of separate entries from 1,201 in 1909 went to 3,501 in 1910, 
and 4,136 in 1911, and in 1912-13-14 showed steady growth. 

As to attendance, no other occasion in North Carolina draws any- 
thing like the throngs that visit the "Great State Fair" at the Capital 
City each year. The railroads for years have been putting on special 
rates and extra trains to handle the crowds. 

Keeping pace with the most modern methods of stimulating the 
efforts to produce better and better crops of all kinds, the manage- 
ment during the last few years has instituted the corn contest feature 
for boys, cotton contests for men and boys, the tomato contest for 
girls, and still more and larger prizes for county and individual ex- 
hibits and agricultural products. The boys and girls in the State 
Poultry Club were invited to enter our poultry show free of the entry 
fees, and they made a fine initial showing, being a large percentage 
of the entries at the 1914 fair, and winning a liberal share of the 
prize money in this department. 

The fair of 1914, by common consent, was pronounced the best in 
its long history of fifty-three years. Especially did the exhibits in 
cattle, horses, swine and sheep, and in agricultural products excel 
anything yet seen at the State Fair. 

The list of great national live-stock associations offering their spe- 



198 Miscellaneous. 

cial premiums at the State Fair keeps growing longer as the years 
go by, and in the case of one of the most prominent of these associ- 
ations the North Carolina State Fair is honored among only four 
Southern fairs. It is thus apparent that the State Fair is recognized 
as one of the greatest gathering points for pure-bred live stock in 
the South. 

For years the management has been working away from the big 
midway and little exhibit condition of a fair back to the fundamental 
purpose of its existence, the competition of the best to make better, 
until the executive committee, upon the recommendation of the sec- 
retary, resolved unanimously that all questionable shows and doubt- 
ful games be absolutely forbidden in the grounds, and so gave a clear 
field to the best shows in the country offering legitimate amusement 
as well as educational features, and reached far toward the final rung 
of the climax, the ideal State's Fair, which shall be the meeting 
place of agriculture and industry, a delightful outing for all the mem- 
bers of the family, a summer school for the men and women and boys 
and girls, the best short course in agriculture in the State, a great 
industrial exchange, a university of experience and experiment, an 
annual advertisement of the greatness of a great State. 



THE JfORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL. 

On the morning of June 21, 1831, the State Capitol of North Caro- 
lina was destroyed by fire. Though the public records of the State 
were saved, the State Library, containing many valuable books and 
manuscripts, was lost. 

The citizens of Raleigh naturally bemoaned the destruction of the 
building, but Governor Stokes did not regard it as a great loss. In 
his opinion there were some mitigating circumstances. In his mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, when it met the following November, 
he said that the calamity was not so great, because the old State- 
house, built in 1794, was almost ready to tumble down of its own 
accord, and that perhaps many valuable lives had been saved by its 
being destroyed by fire instead of tumbling down on the Legislature 
while in session. 

At once Senator Seawell, of Wake, brought forward a bill provid- 
ing for the erection of a new Capitol on the site of the old one. At 
the same time a similar bill was introduced in the House of Com- 



The State Capitol. 199 

mons. As there was a strong sentiment in the State favorable to the 
removal of the capital from Raleigh to Fayetteville, these two bills 
to rebuild at Raleigh met with vigorous opposition. Accordingly 
Senator Seawell's bill was quickly disposed of. Senator Wilson, of 
Edgecombe, moved to table it, and it was tabled. The House bill was 
longer discussed. Tlie discussion was prolonged for two days, but 
on a yea and nay vote the bill failed, 65 to 68. The Assembly of 1831 
refused to rebuild. 

A year passed, and the ruins of the old Statehouse still marked 
the site of the former Capitol. But the Constitution, or rather the 
Ordinance, of 1789 located the capital at Raleigh, and the Legislature 
had no power to move it. It was even questioned with great seri- 
ousness whether the Assembly could hold its sessions in the Gov- 
ernor's Mansion, at the end of Fayetteville Street, as that was out- 
side of the limits of the town. To move the capital a convention was 
necessary, and a majority of the Legislature was not favorable to a 
convention. 

At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly, by a vote of 35 to 
28 in the Senate and 73 to 60 in the House, resolved to rebuild on the 
old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the purpose. 

William Boylan, Duncan Cameron, Henry Seawell, Romulus M. 
Saunders and William S. Mhoon were appointed commissioners to 
have the work done. The commissioners, with $50,000 at their com- 
mand, did not dally. The rubbish was cleared away, the excavations 
made and the foundations were laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner- 
stone was set in place. Up to that time W. S. Drummond was the 
superintendent and chief architect, and he was one of the principal 
persons in the ceremony of laying the cornerstone. 

After the foundations were laid the work progressed more slov/ly, 
and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted. The 
Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more. To do the 
stone and finer work many skilled artisans had been brought from 
Scotland and other countries. Part of the work was conducted under 
the supervision of W. S. Drummond and another part under Colonel 
Thomas Bragg, but these arrangements did not prove satisfactory, 
and a year later, in September, 1834, Mr. L Theil Town, of New York, 
acting for the commissioners, contracted with David Paton to come 
to Raleigh and superintend the work. 

Mr. Paton was an architect who had come from Scotland the year 
before. He was then thirty-three years of age. He was the son of 



200 ■ Miscellaneous. 

John Paton, of Edinburgh, who was an extensive builder in that city 
and vicinity and who had built the greater part of the new town and 
constructed the famous Dean Bridge across the water of Leith, and 
he ranked high in his profession. Having received a liberal educa- 
tion at the University of Edinburgh, David Paton took up the pro- 
fession of his father and was regularly bred as an architect and 
builder under his father and under Sir John Sloan, R.A., professor 
of architecture to the Royal Academy of London. He soon demon- 
strated his capacity. When he first came to Raleigh the cost of over- 
seeing the work on the Capitol, was $25 a day. He reduced that cost 
to $9. Twenty-eight stone-cutters were paid $81 a day. This he 
reduced to $56. He made a saving in these two items alone of $42 
a day. He found himself to be not merely supervisor of the work, 
but the superintendent; not merely the superintendent, but the book- 
keeper and paymaster. He had every detail of the work on his 
shoulders. And then he had to make the working drawings. He was 
the builder, the architect, the designer. 

Both the commissioners and the architect had large ideas. The 
former were wise enough to expend the original $50,000, which the 
General Assembly expected would complete the structure, 07i its 
foundation. Their work being severely criticised, they resigned Jan- 
uary 1, 1835. Their successors were Beverly Daniel, chairman, Sam- 
uel F. Patterson, Charles Manly, and Alfred Jones. The Legislature 
was compelled to make appropriations for the work from time to 
time. The following is a table of the several appropriations made: 

Session of 1832-33 $ 50,000.00 

Session of 1833-34 75,000.00 

Session of 1834-35 75,000.00 

Session of 1835 75,000 00 

Session of 1836-37 120,000 00 

Session of 1838-39 105,300.00 

Session of 1840-41 31,374.46 

Total $531,674.46 

It must be remembered that the stone with which the building was 
erected was the property of the State. Had the State been compelled 
to purchase this material the cost of the Capitol would have been 
considerably increased. 

The following is a description of the Capitol, written by David 
Paton, the architect: 

"The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 



The State Capitol. 201 

feet from east to west. The whole height is 97 1/^ feet in the center. 
Tlae apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate is 18 feet 
in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 5 feet 
2% inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, 
is continued around the building, 12 feet high. 

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from 
the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was 
erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An octagon tower 
surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Grecian cornices, 
etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to 
that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the 
Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, 
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro- 
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Comp- 
troller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one containing 
an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two com- 
mittee rooms, each containing 200 square feet, and four closets; also 
the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and piazzas, contain an area of 
4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with columns and 
antse, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the 
Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and 
brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' 
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber, two 
of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other two 
contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from 
Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square 
feet; of two committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 feet; 
of four presses and the passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, 
containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and 
antse of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, and the plan 
of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theater and the columns 
and antse in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of the Temple 
of Erectheus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of 
Athens, near the above named Parthenon. 

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Su- 
preme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square 



202 Miscellaneous. 

feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet; 
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These 
lobbies, as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed 
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style." 

In the summer of 1840 the work was finished. The Assembly had, 
in December, 1832, appropriated $50,000 for the building. Mr. Boy- 
Ian, Judge Cameron and State Treasurer Mhoon and their asso- 
ciates spent that sum in the foundation. They proposed to have a 
Capitol worthy of the State. At every subsequent session the As- 
sembly made additional appropriations. There was some caviling, 
and the commissioners resigned; but the Legislature and the new 
commissioners took no step backwards. Year by year they pressed 
on the work as it had been begun, until at last, after more than 
seven years, the sum of $531,674.46 was expended. As large as that 
sum was for the time, when the State was so poor and when the 
entire taxes for all State purposes reached less than $100,000, yet 
the people were satisfied. The building had been erected with rigor- 
ous economy, and it was an object of great pride to the people. In- 
deed, never was money better expended than in the erection of this 
noble Capitol. 

Speaking of this structure, Samuel A. Ashe, in an address on 
David Paton, delivered in 1909, says: 

"Not seventy years have passed since the completion of this build- 
ing, yet it has undying memories. It was finished the year Henry 
Clay was set aside and his place as the Whig leader given to Gen- 
eral Harrison. Four years later Clay spoke from the western por>' 
tico; but, like Webster and Calhoun, the prize of the presidency was 
denied him. The voices of other men of large mould also have been 
heard within this Capitol. Here, too, our great jurists — Gaston, 
Ruffin, Pearson and their associates — held their sessions and brought 
renown to North Carolina. Here Badger, Mangum, Dobbin, and 
scores of men known to fame held high debates. Here was brought 
forth in great travail our system of internal improvements, and of 
education, ramifying the State, disseminating enlightenment and 
opening the pathways to prosperous, contented and happy homes for 
our people. 

"Here Ellis and Clark and the mighty Vance directed the affairs of 
State in the trying days of war and suffering and desolation, the 
glories mingled with pain and sorrow, and fading away in heart- 



State Administration Building. 203 

rending defeat; but through it all the women and men, alike heroes, 
worthy the poets' loftiest strains. Then, when the people were still 
bowed in anguish, Carolinians turned their faces, to the future, and, 
with resolution and intelligence, themsel\ies modified their laws 
and institutions to meet the new conditions; but in vain, for these 
mute walls are witnesses of the saturnalia of Reconstruction still 
awaiting some Dante to portray the scenes with realistic power. 
Yet the dark cloud had its silver lining, and the courageous devo- 
tion of Jarvis, John Graham and their Spartan band adds historic 
interest to that time of fearful storm. 

"Later, here was the scene of the great State trial, the impeach- 
ment of the Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth and the contest 
between the intellectual giants of that generation, Governor Graham 
and Bragg and Merrimon, contesting with Smith and Conigland and 
Richard Badger. 

"And these walls have witnessed the reversal of that State policy 
forced on an unwilling people by the mailed hand of the conquering 
power, and the full restoration of Anglo-Saxon control. Never in 
history has a people been so clearly and effectually vindicated as 
those gallant souls of North Carolina, who, emulating the constancy 
of Hamilcar, swore their children to undying opposition to those 
who would destroy their civilization. Let the oppressed of future 
ages gaze on the scene and take courage. Already hallowed are 
the memories that these chambers evoke. What grand occasions 
yet await them! We may not lift the veil of the future, but experi- 
ence warns us that history constantly repeats itself, and as the 
web woven by destiny unrolls itself there will yet occur within 
these enduring walls occasions of surpassing magnitude affecting 
the weal and woe of our posterity." 



STATE ADMINISTRATIOIV BUILDING. 

Mindful of the fact that only a little more than a generation ago 
the State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed by fire, entailing 
the loss of many valuable records and papers, for some years prior 
to the convening of the 1911 session of the General Assembly the 
demand has been insistent for a safer housing of several depart- 
ments of the State Government at Raleigh, notably the books and 



204 Miscellaneous. 

records of the North Carolina Historical Commission, which has 
now grown to be one of the most important branches of worli at the 
seat of government. 

Early in the session a movement was started for the building of 
a State administration buildng at the capital, and after numerous 
conferences and compromises of differences as to the amount that 
should be appropriated for that purpose, a bill was at length unani- 
mously passed by both houses, appropriating the sum of $250,000 
for this purpose and conferring upon the Governor the appoint- 
ment of a State Building Commission for the consummation of this 
worthy undertaking. Soon after the adjournment of the Legislature 
Governor W. W. Kitchin named as the members of the Commission 
Ashley Home of Clayton, William E. Springer of Wilmington, Julian 
S. Carr of Durham, W. L. Parsons of Rockingham, A. S. Rascoe of 
Windsor, J. A. Long of Roxboro, and J. Elwood Cox of High Point, 
men of affairs and recognized business ability in the State. 

The State Building Commission held its first meeting in the office 
of the State Auditor at 12:30 p. m.. May 9, 1911, and organized by 
the election of Ashley Home, of Clayton, as chairman, and William 
E. Springer, of Wilmington, as secretary. Following organization, 
a conference was held with the Board of Public Buildings and 
Grounds, composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
and Attorney-General. It was stated as the purpose of the General 
Assembly to provide ample room for the Supreme Court, all valuable 
State records, the State Library, offices for the Attorney-General, and 
several of the other State departments. The grounds were care- 
fully gone over, the situation canvassed, and a sub-committee com- 
posed of Chairman Home, Secretary Springer, and Commissioner 
Cox was appointed to go further into the matter of a building and 
site. 

At a subsequent meeting, on May 19, 1911, the committee reported 
that it had secured an option on three sites, and recommended the 
purchase of the Grimes tract for $45,000. This recommendation 
was accepted by the Commission as a whole, and on June 6, 1911, 
plans as prepared by P. Thornton Marye, of Atlanta, were accepted 
after hearing a number of others and after several conferences. 
These plans were later reviewed by Glenn Brown, of Washington, 
D. C, another expert in building construction, and were declared 
eminently proper and in order in every respect. The plans call 



North Carolina Day. 205 

for a modern fireproof building four stories in height and admirably 
adapted to the purpose to which it will be put. 

On November 1, 1911, the Commission met again in Raleigh, after 
proposals had been invited for the building, and after considering a 
number of bids for the construction, the contract was at length 
awarded to the John T. "Wilson Company, of Richmond, Va., at a 
cost of $188,000, the building to be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy by January 19, 1913. 

How well the State Building Commission wrought ig attested by 
the splendid building which now stands opposite the Capitol grounds 
and which was occupied in January, 1914, by the several depart- 
ments of government as agreed upon after the numerous confer- 
ences of the Commission. The departments occupying the building 
are as follows: First floor. State Library; second floor, North Caro- 
lina Historical Commission and the Library Commission; third 
floor, the Supreme Court and Attorney-General; fourth floor, Supreme 
Court Library. 



NORTH CAROLINA DAT. 

The following act, entitled "An Act to Provide for the Celebration 
of North Caj-olina Day in the Public Schools," is chapter 164 of the 
Public Laws of 1901: 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the 12th day of October in each and every year, 
to be called "North Carolina Day," may be devoted, by appropriate 
exercises in the public schools of the State, to the consideration of 
some topic or topics of our State history, to be selected by the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction: Provided, that if the said day shall 
fall on Saturday or Sunday, then, the celebration shall occur on the 
Monday next following: Provided, further, that if the said day shall 
fall at a time when any such schools may not be in session, the 
celebration may be held within one month from the beginning of 
the term, unless the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall desig- 
nate some other time. 

Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 
In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 
9th day of February, A. D. 1901. 

October 12th, the date selected for North Carolina Day, is the 
anniversary of the laying of the corner-stone of the University of 



206 



MiSCEIXANEOUS. 



North Carolina, October 12, 1793. In accordance with the provisions 
of this act, the Superintendent of Public Instruction has had pre- 
pared and distributed to the schools of the State each year a pro- 
gram of exercises devoted to the study of some phase of North 
Carolina history. 

Since the creation of North Carolina Day the following subjects 
have been studied each year (back numbers of the programs can 
be secured from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Raleigh, N. C.): 

1901. The Roanoke Island Colonies. Prepared by Fred A. Olds. 

1902. The Albemarle Section. Prepared by a Committee. 

1903. The Lower Cape Fear Section. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1904. The Pamlico-Neuse Section. Prepared by Charles L. Coon. 

1905. The Scotch Highlanders in North Carolina. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1906. Charles D. Mclver Memorial Day. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1907. The Scotch-Irish in North Carolina. Prepared by Charles H. Mebane. 

1908. The German Settlements in North Carolina, \ 

1909. Western North Carolina. ) 

1910. North Carolina Poets and Poetry. l^''><"'^ prepared by 

1911. Local and County History. ( ^' ^- ^^'- Connor. 

1912. Charles B. Aycock Memorial Day. j 

1913. North Carolina Rural Life and Knapp Memorial Day. Edited by N. C. 

Newbold. 

1914. Community Service. 

1915. School and Neighborhood Improvement Day. 

1916. Murphy Day: Archibald DeBow Murphy. Prepared by Edgar W. Knight. 



LEGAL HOLIDAYS. 

Although certain great days in each year — such as New Year's Day, 
Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day — have long 
been observed as general holidays, there were no "legal" holidays in 
North Carolina prior to 1881. The Legislature of that year, in the 
interest of commercial transactions, passed an act to make these 
customary holidays "legal" holidays. It is chapter 294, Public Laws 
of 1881, and was brought forward in The Code of 1883 as sections 
3784-3786 of chapter 61. It provides: 



"That the first day of January, twenty-second day of February, 
tenth day of May, twentieth day of May, fourth day of July, and a 



Legal Holidays. 207 

day appointed by the Governor of North Carolina as a thanksgiving 
day, and the twenty-fifth day of December of each and every year be, 
and the same are hereby declared to be public holidays; and that 
whenever any such holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday next 
following shall be deemed a public holiday, and papers due on such 
Sunday shall be payable on the Saturday next preceding, and papers 
which would otherwise be payable on said Monday shall be payable 
on the Tuesday next thereafter. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That whenever either of the above 
named days shall fall on Saturday, the papers due on the Sunday 
following shall be payable on the Monday next succeeding. 

"Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That whenever the above named 
days shall fall on Monday, the papers which should otherwise be pay- 
able on that day shall be payable on Tuesday next succeeding." 

Ten years later, the nineteenth of January was made a "legal" 
holiday, by chapter 58, Public Laws of 1891, which provides— 

"That the nineteenth day of January, the birthday of the peerless 
Robert E. Lee, in each and every year hereafter, shall be a public 
holiday." 

In 1899, the first Thursday in September was designated as Labor 
Day and made a "legal" holiday. The Legislature of 1901 amended 
this Act by changing the holiday from the first Thursday to the first 
Monday in September. The reason for this change was recited in 
the preamble of the act as follows: 

"Whereas it is desirable that the same date should be set aside by 
both State and Federal statutes for the observance of the same holi- 
day; 

"And whereas the first Monday in September is designated by stat- 
utes in various States and also by Federal Statute as Labor Day, 
while the first Thursday in September is designated as Labor Day by 
statute of this State, thereby causing confusion and annoyance in 
mercantile transactions, therefore," etc. 

These several Acts were all brought forward in the Revisal of 1905 
as section 2838. 

The Legislature of 1907 added another legal holiday to the list by 
setting aside as a holiday "Tuesday after the first Monday in No- 
vember, when a general election is held." This is chapter 996, Pub- 
lic Laws of 1907. 

The latest of our legal holidays is the twelfth day of April. This 

was provided for by chapter 888, Public Laws of 1909, which is as 

follows: 

"Whereas the Provincial Congress which met at Halifax, in this 
State, in April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, after 



208 Miscellaneous. 

providing for the military organization of the State, did, on the 
twelfth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, 
adopt the following resolutions, generally known as the 'Halifax 
Resolutions,' to wit: 

" 'Resolved, That the delegates for this colony in the Continental 
Congress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a 
constitution and laws for this colony.' 

"And whereas said resolution is the first declaration in favor of in- 
dependence by the people of the whole State, through their duly 
authorized representatives, and was adopted more than two months 
before the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congiess; 
and whereas an occurrance so momentous in the history of our State 
and Nation, and so illustrative of the patriotism and wisdom of the 
whole people of North Carolina, should be commemorated, therefore, 

"The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

"Section 1. That the twelfth day of April in each and every year 
be, and the same is hereby made a legal holiday in North Carolina." 

Legal holidaj's in North Carolina, therefore, are as follows: 

January 1 — New Year's Day. 

January 19 — Birthday of General Robert E. Lee. 

February 22 — Birthday of George Washington. 

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolutions adopted by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolna at Halifax, April 12, 1776, in- 
structing the delegates from North Carolina to the Continental Con- 
gress to vote for a Declaration of Independence. 

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day. 

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." 

July 4 — Independence Day. 

September, first Monday — Labor Day. 

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day. 

November, last Thursday — Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25 — Christmas Day. 



THE STATE FLAG. 

The first legislation on the subject of a State flag was enacted 
by the Convention of 1861. May 20, 1861, the Convention adopted 
the Ordinance of Secession. 

On that same day Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the Con- 



The State Flag. 209 

vention from Craven County, introduced the following ordinance, 
which was passed and referred to a select committee of seven: 

"Be it ordained that the flag of this State shall be a blue field 
with a white V thereon, and a star, incircling which shall be the 
words 'Surgit astrum, May 20th, 1775.' " 

Colonel Whit ford was made chairman of the committee to which 
this ordinance was referred. The committee secured the aid and 
advice of William Garl Brown, an artist of Raleigh. Brown pre- 
pared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the Convention on the 22d day of June, 1861. It 
will be observed that the Brown model, to be hereafter explained, 
was vastly different from the one originally proposed by Colonel 
Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears on the Journals of 
the Convention: 

"an ordinance in relation' to a state flag." 

"Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by 
the authority of the same. That the Flag of North Carolina shaU 
consist of a red field with a w^hite star in center, and with the in- 
scription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20th, 1775,' 
and below the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20, 1861.' That 
there shall be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field 
shall be equal to the bar, the width of the field being equal to both 
bars; the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white; and 
the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. (Rati- 
fied the 22d day of June, 1861.)" 

This State flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to 
the first ten regiments of State troops during the summer of that 
year, and was borne by them throughout the war, being the only 
flag, except the National and Confederate colors, used by the North 
Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885, 
when the Legislature of that year adopted a new model. 

The bill, which was introduced by General Johnstone Jones on 
the 5th of February, 1885, passed its final reading one month later 
after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AN act to establish A STATE FLAG. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a tlue 
union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter 
N in gilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the right of said star, 
the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of the union. 

14 



210 Miscellaneous. 

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally propor- 
tioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; that 
the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the perpendicular 
length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be one- 
third more than its width. 

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there shall 
be a gilt scroll in semi-circular form, containing in black letters this 
inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star there shall be 
a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscription: "April 
12th, 1776." 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th day 
of March, A. D. 1885. 

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this act. 
By an act of 1907 it is provided: 

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State insti- 
tutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, of 
such dimensions and material as they may deem best, and the same 
shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and every such 
building at all times except during inclement weather, and upon 
the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen the flag 
shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person shall have 
taken place. 

"That the Board of County Commssioners of the several counties 
in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Caro- 
lina fiag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the top, or draped be- 
hind the Judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in the State, 
and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and every term of 
court held, and on such other public occasions as the Commissioners 
may deem proper." 



THE GBEAT SEAL.* 

The Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, section 16, requires 

that 

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the Gov- 
ernor, and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called 
'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants and 
commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority of 
the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal of the 
State', signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary 
of State." 



*Abridsed fiom "Tlie Great Seal of Nortli Carolina," by .J. Bryan Grimes; Pub- 
lications of the North Carolina Historical Commission, Bulletin No. 5. 



The Great Seal. 211 

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important documents 
began with the institution of government in Nortli Carolina. There 
have been at various times nine different seals in use in the colony 
and State. The first seal was adopted by the Lords Proprietors of 
Carolina soon after receiving their charter from the Crown in 1665. 
This seal is to be seen in the Public Record OflBce in London. It is 
described as follows: 

"The obverse side has a shield bearing on its face two cornucopias 
crossed, filled with products and having for supporters, on the sinister 
side, an Indian chief holding an arrow. On the dexter is an Indian 
squaw with a papoose by her side and one in her arms. These 
natives, I imagine, are supposed to be bringing tribute. The crest is 
a stag upon a wreath above a helmet from which there is a mantling. 
On the srroU below the shield is the motto, Domitus Ciiltoribiis Orbis. 
Around the shield are the words MAGNUM SIGILLUM CAROLINAB 
DOMINORUM. On the reverse side is a disc bearing a cross, around 
which are arranged the coats-of-arms of the Lords Proprietors in the 
following order: Clarendon, Albemarle, Craven, John Berkeley, 
Cooper, Carteret, William Berkeley, and Colleton. The size of this 
seal is 3% inches in diameter, and was made by placing together 
two wax cakes with tape between before being impressed, and was 
about 1/4 inch thick. This seal was used on all the official papers 
of the Lords Proprietors for Carolina, embracing North and South 
Carolina." 

About 1665 the government of Albemarle County was organized, 
and for a seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors 
was adopted. It bore the word A-L-B-E-M-A-R-L-E, beginning with 
the letter A between the arms of Clarendon and Albemarle, L be- 
tween the arms of Albemarle and Craven, BE between the arms of 
Craven, Lord John Berkeley, etc. 

This was a small seal 1 7-16 inches in diameter, with one face 
only, and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. 
It was first used for the government of the County of Albemarle, 
and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being 
used until just after the purchase by the Crown. 

In 1730, after the purchase of the colony by the Crown, the Lords 
of Trade proposed to the King a new seal "whereon Liberty is repre- 
sented introducing Plenty to your Majesty with this motto, Quae sera 
tamen 7-espexit, and this inscription round the circumference, Sigil- 
lM7)i Provinciae Nostrae Carolinae. Septevtrionalis." The backgro.und 
on which the King and these figures stand is a map of the coast 
of North Carolina, and in the offing is a ship. On the reverse of this 
seal are the Royal Arms. Crown, Garter, Supporters and Motto, with 



212 Miscellaneous. 

this inscription round the circumference, Georgius Secundus Dei 
Gratia Magnae Britaniae Franciae, et Hiberniae, Rex, Fidei Defensor, 
Brunsvici et Lunenbergi Dux, Sacri Romani Imperii Archi The- 
saurarius, et Elector. 

This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax to- 
gether, between which was the ribbon or tape with which the in- 
strument was interlaced and by which the seal was appended. It 
was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of these cakes 
before they were impressed. The seal complete was 4% inches in 
diameter and from i^ to % inch thick and weighed about 514 ounces. 

In 1767, Governor Tryon received from the King a new Great 
Seal for the Province. The new seal was engraved on the one 
side with the Royal Arms, Garter, Crown, Supporters and Motto, 
and this inscription round the circumference "Georgius III D: 
G: Mag. Bri. Fr. et Hib. Rex, F. D. Brun, et Lun. Dux. S. R. I. ar 
Thes. et El.'" On the other side are figures of the King and Liberty 
who is introducing Plenty to the King with this Motto. Quae Sera 
Tamen Respexit. Round the cicumference is the following legend: 
Sigillium, Provinciae Nostrae Carolinae, SeptentrionaUs. This seal 
was 4 inches in diameter, 1/0 to % inches thick, and weighted 4% 
ounces. 

Sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as com- 
missions and grants are often found with a small heart-shaped seal 
about one inch wide and a quarter of an inch thick which was 
impressed with a crown. Also a seal was occasionally used about 
three inches long and two inches wide and half an inch thick, in 
the shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made 
by putting the wax far enough under the edge of the Great Seal to 
take the impression of the crown. The royal governors also some- 
times used their private seals. 

When the government of the independent State of North Caro- 
lina was organized, the Constitution adopted at Halifax, December 
18, 1776. provided. Section XVII, "That there shall be a seal of this 
State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as 
occasion may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina and be affixed to all grants and commis- 
sion." 

The Convention of 1868 changed the section of the Constitution, 
with reference to the seal, to read as it now stands. 



The Geeat Seal. 213 

The Assembly of 1778 appointed William Tisdale to cut and en- 
grave the first State seal, under the direction of the Governor. This 
seal was used until 1794. Its actual size was three inches in 
diameter and % inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of 
wax together with paper wafers on the outside and pressed between 
the dies forming the obverse and reverse sides of this seal. 

The seal of 1778 is described as follows: 

"On one side is the figure of Minerva or Liberty holding in the 
right hand the pole with cap and in the left hand with arm ex- 
tended is held a large scroll on which appears in large capital let- 
ters the word 'Constitution.' Under the figure the words, IN LEGI- 
BUS SALUS. Around the circumference are the words, THE GREAT 
SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. On the other side 
of the shield is the figure of a woman, probably Plenty. The right 
arm is folded across her breast and in her right hand inclining 
toward her left shoulder is held a distaff. In the left hand with arm 
extended is held an ear of corn. In the distance beyond a tree 
browses a cow. Under these figures appear the word and letters 'IN- 
DEPENDENCE— MDCCLXXVL' Around the circumference appear 
the words O. FORTUNATOS, NIMIUM. SUA. SI. BONA. NORINT, 
COLONOS." 

In December, 1781, the General Assembly authorized the Governor 
to procure a seal that should "be prepared with one side only, and 
calculated to make the impression on the face of such grant, com- 
mission, record, or other public act," etc. An artist in Philadel- 
phia submitted a sketch to the Governor as follows: Minerva is 
represented in the act of introducing Ceres with her horn of plenty 
to Liberty, who is seated on a pedestal holding in her right hand 
a book on which is inscribed the word "Constitution." In the 
background are introduced a pyramid, denoting strength and dura- 
bility and a pine tree which relates immediately to the products of 
the State. 

This sketch, omitting Minerva and with some minor changes, 
was accepted by Governor Speight. The new seal was very much 
like the present one. It has two figures. Liberty and Plenty. Lib- 
erty is seated on a pedestal with her pole in her right hand, and 
her cap on the pole; in her left hand is a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" upon it. Plenty is standing to the left and front of 
Liberty; around her head is a circlet of flowers; in her right hand, 
leaning against her shoulder, is her cornucopia, mouth upwards, 
overflowing with fruits and produce. In her left is an ear of corn. 



214 Miscellaneous. 

Around the circumference are the words THE GREAT SEAL OF 
THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

This seal was 2i4 inches in diameter, slightly larger than the 
present one, and was used until about 1835. 

In 1834 the Legislature authorized the Governor to procure a new 
seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in 
use since the first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, 
which was used until 1883, was very similar to its predecessor. 
On it I.,iberty and Plenty faced each other. Liberty was standing, 
her pole with cap on it in her left hand, and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty is sit- 
ting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, three 
heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small end 
of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the 
contents of her horn rolling out. Around the circumference were 
the words THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAR- 
OLINA. This seal was 2i/i inches in diameter. 

In 1883 an act was passed relative to the seal, which was incor- 
porated ill the Code as section 3329. The seal therein provided for 
is described as follows: 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina shall be two and 
one-quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representa- 
tion of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, 
but not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed 
as follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on 
it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed 
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, 
her right arm half extended towards Liberty, three heads of wheat 
in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, the 
mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of the horn 
rolling out." 

In 1893 an act, introduced by Jacob Battle, added at the foot of 
the coat-of-arms of the State as a part thereof the motto "Esse 
Quam Videri," and required that the words "May 20, 1775," be in- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is described 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one- 
quarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of the 
figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not 



The State Motto. 215 

more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed as fol- 
lows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on it in 
her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed 
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, 
her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of wheat in 
her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, the mouth 
of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of horn rolling out. 
In the exergon is inserted the words May 20, 1775, above the coat of 
arms. Around the circumference is the legend 'The Great Seal of 
the State of North Carolina' and the motto 'Esse Quam Videri.' " 



STATE MOTTO AND ITS ORIGm.* 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words 
"Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these 
words with the date "20 May, 1775," should be placed with our 
Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." 
Nearly every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The 
reason for their mottoes being in Latin is that the Latin tongue 
is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to 
express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. 
It is found in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Ami- 
citia, chap. 26). He says, "Virtue enim ipsa non tam multi prediti 
esse quam videri," i. e., "Virtue is a quality which not so many de- 
sire to possess as desire to seem to possess," or, translated literally. 
"For indeed not so many wish to be endowed with virtue as wish 
to seem to be." 

The phrase is a striking one, and Cicero's version of it has been 
caught up and often used as a motto. No less than three houses 
of British nobility have adopted it, to wit: the Earl of Winterton, 
Earl Brownlow and Lord Lurgan. 

It has been adopted by many associations, especially literary 
societies. In this State it is the motto of Wilson Collegiate Insti- 
tute and, with some modifications, of one of the societies at "Wake 
Forest College. 

The figures on our State Coat of Arms are Liberty and Plenty. 



*Adapted from an article bv Chief Justire Walter Clark in The North Carolina 
Booklet, Vol IX, No. 3. 



216 Miscellaneous. 

It has been objected that the motto has no reference or application 
to the figures on the coat of arms. It is very rarely that such is 
the case. The national motto, "E Pluribus Unum," has no ref- 
erence to the Eagle and Shield and the Thunderbolts on the 
national coat of arms. Nor has the "Excelsior" of New York, the 
"Dirigo" of Maine, the "Qui Transtulet, Sustinet" of Connecticut 
any application to the figures above them. Indeed Virginia's "Sic 
Semper Tyrannis" is one of the very few instances in which the 
motto bears such reference. But, in fact, is our motto so entirely 
without reference to the coat of arms as is usually the case? The 
figures are, as just stated, Liberty and Plenty. Is it inappropriate 
to say we prefer to 6e free and prosperous than seem to he so. 
There have been States that had all the appearance of liberty and 
prosperity, when in truth having lost the reality of both, they 
were tottering to their fall. 

It is a little singlar that until the act of 1893 the sovereign State 
of North Carolina had no motto since its declaration of indepen- 
dence. It was one of the very few States which did not have a 
motto, and the only one of the original thirteen without one. 

It may be noted that up to the time it became a "sovereign and 
independent State" the Colony or Province of North Carolina bore 
on its great seal "Quae sera tamen respexit." This was taken from 
the first Eclogue of Virgil (line 27) and, referring to the figure of 
Liberty, meant "Which, though late, looked upon me" — the full line 
in Virgil being "Liberty, which though late looked upon me indo- 
lent." No wonder that this was dropped by the new State. Noth- 
ing could possibly have been more inappropriate. Liberty came 
not to her late; and it came not to a people inert or unseeking 
her rewards. To such, liberty never comes. 

It may be mentioned, to prevent any misunderstanding as to the 
scope of the Act of 1893, (now Revisal. sec. 5320) that it does not 
apply to county seals. Each county is authorized to adopt its own 
seal. Revisal, sec. 1318 (24). Many counties now have on their 
county seals the appropriate phrase, "Leges Jaraque Vindicamus." 
Some have adopted the State motto. But this is a matter left to 
the discretion of the county commissioners in each county. 

Note by the Edttoks [of The Booklet]. — The bill which was 
passed in 1893 to adopt our State motto was introduced by Senator 
«acob Battle, of Nash, afterwards Judge of the Superior Court. 



The State Motto. 217 

"We have before us a letter from him in which he states that the 
motto was selected by Judge — since Chief Justice — Walter Clark, 
who also drew the bill and requested him to present it. He adds 
that the words "20 May, 1775," secured the hearty cooperation of 
Senator Brevard McDowell, of Mecklenburg, and by their joint 
efforts the bill passed by the unanimous vote of both houses of the 
General Assembly, and without amendment. 



PART VIII. 



PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1916. 



1. National Democratic Platform. 

2. National Republican Platform. 

3. JSTational Socialist Platform. 

4. jSTatioa^al Prohibition Platform. 

5. State Democratic Platform. 

6. State Republican Platform. 

7. State Socialist Platform. 



NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PLATFOKM, 1916. 

The Democratic Party, in national convention assembled, adopts 
the following declaration to the end that the people of the United 
States may both realize the achievements wrought by four years 
of Democratic administration and be apprised of the policies to 
which the party is committed for the further conduct of national 
affairs. 

RECORD OF ACHIEVEMENT. 

We indorse the administration of Woodrow Wilson. It speaks 
for itself. It is the best exposition of sound Democratic policy at 
home and abroad. 

We challenge comparison of our record, our keeping of pledges 
and our constructive legislation, with those of any party of any 
time. 

We found our country hampered by special privilege, a vicious 
tariff, obsolete banking laws and an inelastic currency. Our foreign 
affairs were dominated by commercial interests for their selfish 
ends. The Republican Party, despite repeated pledges, was impo- 
tent to correct abuses which it had fostered. Under our adminis- 
tration, under a leadership which has never faltered, these abuses 
have been corrected, and our people have been freed therefrom. 

Our archaic banking and currency system, prolific of panic and 
disaster under Republican administration — long the refuge of the 
Money Trust — has been supplanted by the Federal Reserve Act, a 
true democracy of credit under Government control, already proved 
a financial bulwark in a world crisis, mobilizing our resources, 
placing abundant credit at the disposal of legitimate industry and 
making a currency panic impossible. 

We have created a Federal Trade Commission to accommodate 
the perplexing questions arising under the antitrust laws so that 
monopoly may be strangled at its birth and legitimate industry 
encouraged. Fair competition in business is now assured. 

We have effected an adjustment of the tariff, adequate for revenue 
under peace conditions, and fair to the consumer and to the pro- 
ducer. We have adjusted the bin-dens of taxation so that swollen 



222 Platforms of Political Pauiies. 

incomes bear their equitable sliare. Our revenues have been suffi- 
cient in times of world stress, and will largely exceed the expendi- 
tures for the current fiscal year. 

We have lifted human labor from the category of commodities 
and have secured to the workingman the right of voluntary asso- 
ciation for his protection and welfare. We have protected the 
rights of the laborer against the unwarranted issuance of writs 
of injunction, and have guaranteed to him the right of trial by 
jury in cases of alleged contempt committed outside the presence 
of the court. 

We have advanced the parcels post to genuine efficiency, enlarged 
the Postal Savings System, added 10,000 rural-delivery routes and 
extensions, thus reaching 2,500,000 additional people, improved the 
Postal Service in every branch, and for the first time in our history 
placed the postoffice system on a self-supporting basis, with actual 
surplus in 1913, 1914, and 1916. 

ECOXO-AriC FREEDOM. 

The reforms which were most obviously needed to clear away 
special privilege, prevent unfair discrimination and release the 
energies of men of all ranks and advantages, have been effected by 
recent legislation. We must now remove, as far as possible, every 
remaining element of unrest and uncertainty from the path of the 
business men of America, and secure for them a continued period 
of quiet, assured and confident prosperity. 

TARIFF. 

We reaffirm our belief in the doctrine of a tarift' for the purpose 
of providing sufficient revenue for the operation of the Government 
economically administered and unreservedly indorse the Underwood 
tariff law as truly exemplifying that doctrine. We recognize that 
tariff rates are necessarily subject to change to meet changing con» 
ditions in the world's production and trade. The events of the 
last two years have brought about many momentous changes. In 
some respects their effects are yet conjectural and wait to be dis- 
closed, particularly in regard to our foreign trade. 

Two years of a war which has directly involved most of the chief 
industrial nations of the world and which has indirectly affected 
the life and industry of all nations, are bringing about economic 
changes more varied and far-reaching than the world has ever 



National Democratic Platform. 223 

before experienced. In order to ascertain just what those changes 
may be, the Democratic Congress is providing for a nonpartisan 
tariff commission to make impartial and thorough study of every 
economic fact that may tlirow liglit eitlier upon our past or upon 
our future fiscal policy with regard to the imposition of taxes on 
imports or with regard to the changed and changing conditions 
under which our trade is carried on. We cordially indorse this 
timely proposal and declare ourselves in sympathy with the princi- 
ple and purpose of shaping legislation within that field in accord- 
ance with clearly established facts rather than in accordance with 
the demands of selfish interests or upon information provided 
largely, if not exclusively, by them. 

AMERICANISM. 

The part which the United States will play in the new day of in- 
ternational relationships that is now upon us will depend upon our 
preparation and our character. The Democratic Party, therefore, 
recognizes the assertion and triumphant demonstration of the indi- 
visibility and coherent strength of the Nation as the supreme issue 
of this day in which the whole world faces the crisis of manifold 
change. It summons all men of whatever origin or creed who 
would count themselves Americans, to join in making clear to all 
the world the unity and consequent power of America. This is an 
issue of patriotism. To taint it with partisanship would be to 
defile it. In this day of test, America must show itself not a Nation 
of partisans but a Nation of patriots. There is gathered here in 
America the best of the blood, the industry and the genius of the 
world, the elements of a great race and a magnificent society to be 
welded into a mighty and splendid Nation. 

Whoever, actuated by the purpose to promote the interest of a 
foreign power, in disregard of our own country's welfare or to 
injure this Government in its foreign relations or cripple or destroy 
its industries at home, and whoever by arousing prejudices of a 
racial, religious or other nature creates discord and strife among 
our people so as to obstruct the wholesome process of unification, 
is faithless to the trust which the privileges of citizenship repose 
in him and is disloyal to his country. We, therefore, condemn as 
subversive of this Nation's unity and integrity, and as destructive 
of its welfare, the activities and designs of every group or organiza- 
tion, political or otherwise, that has for its object the advancement 



224 Platforms of Political Parties. 

of the interest of a foreign power, whether such object is promoted 
by intimidating the Government, a political party, or representa- 
tives of the people, or which is calculated and tends to divide our 
people into antagonistic groups and thus to destroy that complete 
agreement and solidarity of the people and that unity of sentiment 
and purpose so essential to the perpetuity of the Nation and its 
free institutions. We condemn all alliances and combinations of 
individuals in this country of whatever nationality or descent, who 
agree and conspire together for the purpose of embarrassing or 
weakening our Government or of improperly influencing or coerc- 
ing our public representatives in dealing or negotiating with any 
foreign power. We charge that such conspiracies among a lim- 
ited number exist and have been instigated for the purpose of ad- 
vancing the interests of foreign countries to the prejudice and det- 
riment of our own country. We condemn any political party 
which, in view of the activity of such conspirators, surrenders its 
integrity or modifies its policy. 

PREPAREDNESS. 

Along with the proof of our character as a nation must go the 
proof of our power to play the part that legitimately belongs to us. 
The people of the United States love peace. They respect the 
rights and covet the friendship of all other nations. They desire 
neither any additional territory nor any advantage which cannot 
be peacefully gained by their skill, their industry, or their enter- 
prise; but they insist upon having absolute freedom of national 
life and policy, and feel that they owe it to themselves and to the 
role of spirited independence which it is their sole ambition to 
play, that they should render themselves secure against the hazard 
of interference from any quarter, and should be able to protect 
their rights upon the seas or in any part of the world. We, there- 
fore, favor the maintenance of an Army fully adequate to the re- 
quirements of order, of safety and of the protection of the Na- 
tion's rights; the fullest development of modern methods of sea- 
coast defense and the maintenance of an adequate reserve of citi- 
zens trained to arms and prepared to safeguard the people and 
territory of the United States against any danger of hostile action 
which may unexpectedly arise; and a fixed policy for the continu- 
ous development of a Navy worthy to support the great naval tra- 
ditions of the United States and fully equal to the international 



National Demockatic Platfokm. 225' 

tasks which this Nation hopes and expects to take part in perform- 
ing. The plans and enactments of the present Congress afford sub- 
stantial proof of our purpose in this exigent matter. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

The Democratic administration has throughout the present war 
scrupulously successfully held to the old paths of neutrality and to 
the peaceful pursuit of the legitimate objects of our national life 
which statesmen of all parties and creeds have prescribed for them- 
selves in America since the beginning of our history. But the cir- 
cumstances of the last two years have revealed necessities of inter- 
national action which no former generation can have foreseen. 
We hold that it is the duty of the United States to use its power, 
not only to make itself safe at home, but also to make secure its 
just interests throughout the world, and, both for this end and 
in the interest of humanity, to assist the world in securing settled 
peace and justice. We believe that every people has the right to 
choose the sovereignty under which it shall live; that the small 
states of the world have a right to enjoy from other nations the 
same respect for their sovereignty and for their territorial integ- 
rity that great and powerful nations expect and insist upon; and 
that the world has a right to be free from every disturbance of its 
peace that has its origin in aggression or disregard of the rights 
of peoples and nations; and we believe that the time has come 
when it is the duty of the United States to join with the other 
nations of the world in any feasible association that will effectively 
serve those principles, to maintain inviolate the complete security 
of the highway of the seas for the common and unhindered use 
of all nations. 

The present administration has consistently sought to act upon 
and realize in its conduct of the foreign affairs of the Nation the 
principle that should be the object of any association of the nations 
formed to secure the peace of the world and the maintenance of 
national and individual rights. It has followed the highest Ameri- 
can traditions. It has 'preferred respect for the fundamental rights 
of smaller states even to property interests, and has secured the 
friendship of the people of such states for the United States by 
refusing to make a mere material interest an excuse for th as- 
sertion of our superior power against the dignity of their sovereign 
independence. It has regarded the lives of its citizens and the 

15 



226 Platforms of Political Parties. 

claims of hiiinanity as of greater moment than material rights, 
and peace as the best basis for the just settlement of commercial 
claims. It has made the honor and ideals of the United States 
its standard alike in negotiation and action. 

PAN-AMERICAN CONCORD. 

We recognize now, as we have always recognized, a definite and 
common interest between the United States and the other peoples 
and Republics of the Western Hemisphere in all matters of national 
independence and free political development. We favor the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of the closest relations of amity and 
mutual helpfulness between the United States and the other Repub- 
lics of the American continents for the support of peace and the 
promotion of a comimon prosperity. To that end we favor all 
measures which may be necessary to facilitate intimate inter- 
course and promote commerce between the United States and our 
neighbors to the south, and such international understanding as 
may be phacticable and suitable to accomplish these ends. 

We commend the action of the Democratic administration in 
holding the Pan-American Financial Conference at Washington in 
May, 1915, and organizing the International High Commission 
which represented the United States in the recent meeting of repre- 
sentatives of the Latin-American Republics at Buenos Aires, April, 
1916, which have so greatly promoted the friendly relations be- 
tween the people of the Western Hemisphere. 

MEXICO. 

The ]\lonroe doctrine is reasserted as a principle of Democratic 
faith. That doctrine guarantees the Independent Republics of the 
two Americas against aggression from another continent. It im- 
plies, as well, the most scrupulous regard upon our part for the 
sovereignty of each of them. We court their good will. We seek 
not to despoil them. The want of a stable, responsible govern- 
ment in Mexico, capable of repressing and punishing marauders 
and bandit bands, who have not only takefi the lives and seized 
and destroyed the property of American citizens in that country, 
but have insolently invaded our soil, made war upon and murdered 
our people thereon, has rendered it necessary temporarily to occupy, 
by our armed forces, a portion of the territory of that friendly 
state. Until by the restoration of law and order therein, a repeti- 



National Democratic PLATFORii. 227 

tion of such incursions is improbable, the necessity for their re- 
maining will continue. Intervention, implying as it does military 
subjugation, is revolting to the people of the United States, not- 
withstanding the provocation to that course has been great and 
should be resorted to, if at all, only as a last recourse. The stub- 
born resistance of the President and his advisers to every demand 
and suggestion to enter upon it, is creditable alike to them and to 
the people in whose name he speaks. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

Immediate provision should be made for the development of the 
carrying trade of the United States. Our foreign commerce has in 
the past been subject to many unnecessary and vexatious obstacles 
in the way of legislation of Republican Congresses. Until the recent 
Democratic tariff legislation, it was hampered by unreasonable 
burdens of taxation. Until the recent banking legislation, 
it had at its disposal few of the necessary instrumentalities 
of international credit and exchange. Until the formulation of 
the pending act to promote the construction of a merchant 
marine, it lacked even the prospect of adequate carriage by 
sea. We heartily indorse the purposes and policy of the pending 
shipping bill and favor all such additional measures of constructive 
or remedial legislation as may be necessary to restore our flag to the 
seas and to provide further facilities for our foreign commerce, par- 
ticularly such laws as may be requisite to remove unfair conditions 
of competition in the dealings of American merchants and producers 
with competitors in foreign markets. 

CONSERVATION. 

For the safeguarding and quickening of the life of our own people, 
we favor the conservation and development of the natural resources 
of the country through a policy which shall be positive rather than 
negative, a policy which shall not withhold such resources from 
development but which, while permitting and encouraging their use, 
shall prevent both waste and monopoly in their exploitation, and 
we earnestly favor the passage of acts which will accomplish these 
objects, reaffirming the declaration of the platform of 1912 on this 
subject. 

The policy of reclaiming our arid lands should be steadily adhered 
to. 



228 I'LATiUKMS UF POLITK AL PAKTIES. 

THE ADMI>nSTUATIOX AND THE FARMER. 

We favor the vigorous prosecution of investigations and plans to 
render agriculture more profitable and country life more healthful, 
comfortable and attractive, and we believe that this should be a 
dominant aim of the Nation as well as of the States. With all its 
recent improvement, farming still lags behind other occupations in 
development as a business, and the advantages of an advancing civ- 
ilization have not accrued to rural communities in a fair proportion. 
Much has been accomplished in this field under the present adminis- 
tration, far more than under any previous administration. In 
the Federal Reserve Act of the last Congress and the Rural Credits 
Act of the present Congress, the machinery has been created which 
will make credit available to the farmer constantly and readily, 
placing him at last upon a footing of equality with the merchant and 
the manufacturer in securing the capital necessary to carry on his 
enterprises. Grades and standards necessary to the intelligent and 
successful conduct of the business of agriculture have also been es- 
tablished or are in the course of being established by law. The long- 
needed Cotton Futures Act, passed by the Sixty-third Congress, has 
now been in successful operation for nearly two years. A Grain 
Grades Bill, long needed, and a Permissive Warehouse Bill, intended 
to provide better storage facilities and to enable the farmer to ob- 
tain certificates upon which he may secure advances of money, have 
been passed by the House of Representatives, have been favorably 
reported to the Senate, and will probably become law during the 
present session of the Congress. Both Houses have passed a good- 
roads measure which will be of far-reaching benefit to all agricul- 
tural communities. Above all, the most extraordinary and signifi- 
cant progress has been made, under the direction of the Department 
of Agriculture, in extending and perfecting practical farm demon- 
stration work which is so rapidly substituting scientific for empiri- 
cal farming. But it is also necessary that rural activities should be 
better directed through cooperation and organization, that unfair 
methods of competition should be eliminated and the conditions 
requisite for the just, orderly and economical marketing of farm 
products created. We approve the Democratic administration for 
having emphatically directed attention for the first time to the 
essential interests of agriculture involved in farm marketing and 
finance, for creating the Office of Markets and Rural Organization 
in connection with the Department of Agriculture, and for extend- 



N^TioxAL Demockatic Platfobm. 229 

ing the cooperative machinery necessary for conveying information 
to famiers by means of demonstrations. We favor continued lib- 
eral provision, not only for the benefit of production, but also for the 
study and solution of problems of farm marketing and finance and 
for the extension of existing agencies for improving country life. 

GOOD ROADS. 

The happiness, comfort and prosperity of rural life, and the de- 
velopment of the city, are alike conserved by the construction of 
public highways. We, therefore, favor national aid in the construc- 
tion of post roads and roads for military purposes. 

GOVER X MEXT EM PLO Y MENT. 

We hold that the life, health and strength of the men, women and 
children of the Nation are its greatest asset, and that in the con- 
servation of these the Federal Government, wherever it acts as the 
employer of labor, should both on its own account and as an exam- 
ple, put into effect the following principles of just employment: 

1. A living wage for all employees. 

2. A working day not to exceed eight hours, with one day of rest 
in seven. 

3. The adoption of safety appliances and the establishment of 
thoroughly sanitary conditions of labor. 

4. Adequate compensation for industrial accidents. 

5. The standards of the "Uniform Child Labor Law" wherever 
minors are employed. 

6. Such provisions for decency, comfort and health in the employ- 
ment of women as should be accorded the mothers of the race. 

7. An equitable retirement law providing for the retirement of 
superannuated and disabled employees of the civil service, to the 
end that a higher standard of efficiency may be maintained. 

We believe also that the adoption of similar principles should be 
urged and applied in the legislation of the States with regard to 
labor within their borders and that through every possible agency 
the life and health of the people of the Nation should be conserved. 

LABOR. 

We declare our faith in the Seamen's Act, passed by the Demo- 
cratic Congress, and we promise our earnest continuance of its en- 
forcement. 



230 Platfokjis of Political Pakties. 

We favor the speedy eiiac'tmeiU of an effective Federal Child La- 
bor Law, and the regulation of the shipment of prison-made goods 
in interstate commerce. 

We favor the creation of a Federal Bureau of Safety in the De- 
partment of Labor, to gather facts concerning industrial hazards, 
and to recommend legislation to prevent the maiming and killing 
of human beings. 

We favor the extension of the powers and functions of the Federal 
Bureau of Mines. 

We favor the development upon a systematic scale of the means, 
already begun under the present administration, to assist laborers 
throughout the Union to seek and obtain employment, and the 
extension by the Federal Government of the same assistance and 
encouragement as is now given to agricultural training. 

We heartily commend our newly established Department of Labor 
for its fine records in settling strikes by personal advice and through 
conciliating agents. 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

AVe favor a thorough reconsideration of the means and methods 
by which the Federal Government handles questions of public 
health to the end that human life may be conserved by the elimina- 
tion of loathsome diseases, the improvement of sanitation, and the 
diffusion of a knowledge of disease prevention. 

We favor the establishment by the Federal Government of tuber- 
culosis sanitariums for needy tubercular patients. 

SEXATE RULES. 

We favor such alteration of the rules of procedure of the Senate 
of the United States as will permit the prompt transaction of the 
Nation's legislative business. 

EC03ST0MY AND THE BLT)GET. 

We demand careful economy in all expenditures for the support 
of the Government, and to that end favor a return by the House of 
Representatives to its former practice of initiating and preparing 
all appropriation bills through a single committee chosen from its 
membership, in order that responsibility may be centered, expendi- 
tures standardized and made uniform, and waste and duplication 



National Democratic Pi^atform. 231 

in the public service as much as possible avoided. We favor this as 
a practicable first step tovi^ard a budget system. 

CIVIL SERVICE. 

We reaffirm our declarations for the rigid enforcement of the Civil 
Service laws. 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

We heartily indorse the provisions of the bill, recently passed by 
the House of Representatives, further promoting self-government in 
the Philippine Islands as being in fulfillment of the policy declared 
by the Democratic Party in its last National platform, and we reit- 
erate our indorsement of the purpose of ultimate independence for 
the Philippine Islands, expressed in the preamble of that measure. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

We recommend the extension of the franchise to the women of the 
country by the States upon the same terms as to men. 

PROTECTION OF CITIZENS. 

We again declare the policy that the sacred rights of American 
citizenship must be preserved at home and abroad, and that no 
treaty shall receive the sanction of our Government which does not 
expressly recognize the absolute equality of all our citizens irrespec- 
tive of race, creed or previous nationality, and which does not rec- 
ognize the right of expatriation. The American Government should 
protect American citizens in their rights not only at home, but 
abroad, and any country having a government should be held to a 
strict accountability for any wrongs done them, either to person or 
to property. At the earliest practicable opportunity our country 
should strive earnestly for peace among the warring nations of 
Europe and seek to bring about the adoption of the fundamental 
principle of justice and humanity, that all men shall enjoy equality 
of right and freedom from discrimination in the lands wherein 
they dwell. 

PRISON REFORM. 

We demand that the modern principles of prison reform be ap- 
plied in our Federal Penal System. We favor such work for pris- 
oners as shall give them training in remunerative occupations so 



232 Platforms of Poliucal Parties. 

that they may make an honest living when released from prison; 
the setting apart of the net wages of the prisoner to be paid to his 
dependent family or to be reserved for his own use upon his release; 
the liberal extension of the principles of the Federal Parole Law. 
with due regard both to the welfare of the prisoners and the interests 
of society; the adoption of the probation system, especially in the 
case of first offenders not convicted of serious crimes. 

PENSIONS. 

We renew the declarations of recent Democratic platforms relat- 
ing to generous pensions for soldiers and their widows and call 
attention to our record of performance in this particular. 

WATERWAYS AN'D FLOOD CONTROL. 

We renew the declarations of recent Democratic platforms relat- 
ing to development of our waterways. The recent devastation of the 
lower Mississippi Valley and several other sections by floods accent- 
uates the movement for the regulation of river flow by additional 
bank and levee protection below, and diversion, storage and con- 
trol of the flood waters above, and their utilization for beneficial 
purposes in the reclamation of arid and swamp lands, and develop- 
ment of water power, instead of permitting the floods to continue a:? 
heretofore agents of destruction. We hold that the control of the 
Mississippi River is a national problem. The preservation of the 
depth of its waters for purposes of navigation, the building of levees 
and works of bank protection to maintain the integrity of its channel 
and prevent the overflow of its valley resulting in the interruption 
of interstate commerce, the disorganization of the mail service, and 
the enormous loss of life and property, impose an obligation which 
alone can be discharged by the National Government. 

We favor the adoption of a liberal and comprehensive plan for 
the development and improvement of our harbors and inland water- 
ways with economy and efficiency so as to permit their navigation by 
vessels of standard draft. 

ALASKA. 



It has been and will be the policy of the Democratic Party to 
enact all laws necessary for the speedy development of Alaska and 
its great natural resources. 



National Republican Platfokm. 23c 



TERRITORIES. 



We favor granting to the people of Alaska, Hawaii and Porto Rico 
the traditional Territorial government accorded to all Territories of 
the United States since the beginning of our Government, and we 
believe that the officials appointed to administer the government of 
these several Territories should be qualified by previous bona fide 
residence. 

CANDIDATES. 

We unreservedly indorse our President and Vice-President. 
Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, and Thomas Riley Marshall of In- 
diana, who have performed the functions of their great offices faith- 
fully and impartially, and with distinguished ability. 

In particular we commend to the American people the splenditi 
diplomatic victories of our great President, who has preserved the 
vital interests of our Government and its citizens, and kept us out 
of war. 

Woodrow Wilson stands today the greatest American of his gen- 
eration. 

CONCLrSION. 

This is a critical hour in the history of America, a critical hour 
in the history of the world. Upon the record above set forth, which 
shows great constructive achievement in following out a consistent 
policy for our domestic and internal development; upon the record 
of the Democratic administration which has maintained the honor, 
the dignity and the interests of the United States, and at the same 
time, retained the respect and friendship of all the nations of the 
world; and upon the great policies for the future strengthening of 
the life of our country, the enlargement of our national vision and 
the ennobling of our international relations, as set forth above, we 
appeal with confidence to the voters of the country. 



NATIONAL REPIBLICAN PLATFORM. 

Adopted by the I'JIG Chicago Convention. 

In 1861 the Republican Party stood for the Union. As it stood for 
the union of States, it now stands for a united people, true to Amer- 
ican ideals, loyal to American traditions, knowing no allegiance ex- 



234 Platfok.ms of Political Parties. 

cept to the Constitution, to the Government and to the flag of the 
United States. We believe in American policies at home and abroad. 

FROTECTION OF AMERICAN RIGHTS. 

We declare that we believe in and will enforce the protection of 
every American citizen in all the rights secured to him by the 
Constitution, treaties and the law of nations, at home and abroad, 
by land and by sea. These rights, which in violation of the specific 
promise of their party made at Baltimore in 1912 the Democratic 
President and the Democratic Congress have failed to defend, we 
will unflinchingly maintain. 

FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

We desire peace, the peace of justice and right, and believe in 
maintaining a straight and honest neutrality between the belligerents 
in the great war in Europe. We must perform all our duties and 
insist upon all our rights as neutrals without fear and without favor. 
We believe that peace and neutrality as well as the dignity and in- 
fluence of the United States cannot be preserved by shifty expe- 
dients, by phrase-making, by performances in language, or by atti- 
tudes ever changing in an effort to secure votes of voters. The 
present administration has destroyed our influence abroad and hu- 
miliated us in our own eyes. The Republican Party believes that a 
firm, consistent and courageous foreign policy, always maintained by 
Republican Presidents in accordance with American traditions, is the 
best, as it is the only true way to preserve our peace and restore us 
to our rightful place among the nations. We believe in the pacific 
settlement of international disputes and favor the establishment of 
a world court for that purpose. 

MEXICO. 

We deeply sympathize with the 15,000,000 people of Mexico who 
for three years have seen their country devastated, their homes de- 
stroyed, their fellow-citizens murdered and their women outraged 
by armed bands of desperadoes led by self-seeking, conscienceless 
agitators, who when temporarily successful in any locality have 
neither sought nor been able to restore order or establish and main- 
tain peace. 

We express our horror and indignation at the outrages which 
have been and are being perpetrated by these bandits upon American 



National Republican Platform. 235 

men and women who were or are in Mexico by invitation of the 
laws and of the government of tliat country, and whose rights to 
security of persons and property are guaranteed by solemn treaty 
obligations. We denounce the indefensible methods of interference 
employed by this administration in the internal affairs of Mexico and 
refer with shame to its failure to discharge the duty of this country 
as next friend to Mexico, its duty to other powers who have relied 
upon us as such friend, and its duty to our citizens in Mexico, in 
permitting the continuance of such conditions, first by failure to act 
promptly and firmly, and second, by lending its influence to the 
continuation of such conditions through recognition of one of the 
factions responsible for these outrages. 

We pledge our aid in restoring order and maintaining peace In 
Mexico. We promise to our citizens on and near our border, and to 
those in Mexico, wherever they may be found, adequate and absolute 
protection in their lives, liberty and property. 

MONROE D00*rRINE. 

We reaffirm our approval of the Monroe Doctrine, and declare its 
maintenance to be a policy of this country essential to its present 
and future peace and safety and to the achievement of its manifest 
destiny. 

i^tin-america. 

We favor the continuance of Republican policies, which will result 
in drawing more and more closely the commercial, financial and 
social relations between this country and the countries of Latin- 
America. 

PHILIPPINES. 

We renew our allegiance to the Philippine policy innaugurated by 
McKinley, approved by Congress and consistently carried out by 
Roosevelt and Taft. Even in this short time it had enormously im- 
proved the material and social conditions of the islands, giving the 
Philippine people a constantly increasing participation in their gov- 
ernment and if persisted in it will bring still greater benefits in the 
future. 

We accepted the responsibility of the islands as a duty to civiliza- 
tion, and the Filipino people. To leave without the task half done, 
would break our pledges, injure our prestige among nations and im- 
peril what has already been accomplished. 



236 Platb'okms of Political PAitxiEs. 

We condemn the Democratic administration for its attempt to 
abandon the Philippines, which was prevented only by the vigorous 
opposition of Republican members of Congress, aided by a few patri- 
otic Democrats. 

BROTHERHOOD AMONG NATIONS. 

We reiterate our unqualified approval of the action taken in 
December, 1911, by the President and Congress to secure with Rus- 
sia, as with other countries, a treaty that will recognize the absolute 
right of expatriation and prevent all discrimination of whatever 
kind between American citizens, whether native born or alien, and 
regardless of race, religion or previous political allegiance. We re- 
new the pledge to observe this principle and to maintain the right 
of asylum which is neither to be surrendered nor restricted, and we 
unite in the cherished hope that the war which is now desolating the 
world may speedily end, with a complete and lasting restoration of 
brotlierhood among the nations of the earth and the assurance of 
full equal rights, civil and religious, to all men in every land. 

PROTECTION OF THE COUNTKY. 

In order to maintain our peace and make certain the security of 
our people within our own borders, the country must have not only 
adequate, but thorough and complete national defense ready for any 
emergency. We must have a sufficient and efficient regular army, 
and a provision for ample reserves, already drilled and disciplined, 
who can be called at once to the colors when the hour of danger 
comes. 

We must have a navy so strong and so well proportioned and 
equipped, so thoroughly ready and prepared, that no enemy can gain 
command of the sea and effect a landing in force on either our west- 
ern or our eastern coast. To secure these results we must have a 
coherent continuous policy of national defense, which even in these 
perilous days the Democratic party has utterly failed to develop, 
but w'hich we promise to give to the country. 

TARIFF. 

The Republican Party stands now, as always, in the fullest sense 
for the policy of tariffs protection to American industries and Ameri- 
can labor, and does not regard an antidumping provision as an ade- 
quate substitute. Such protection should be reasonable in amount. 



National Republican Platform. 237 

but sufficient to protect adequately American industry and American 
labor, and be so adjusted as to prevent undue exactions by monopolies 
or trusts. It should, moreover, give special attention to securing the 
industrial independence of the United States, as in the case of dye- 
stuffs. 

Through wise tariff and industrial legislation our industries can 
be so organized that they will become not only a commercial bul- 
wark, but a powerful aid to national defense. 

The Simmons-Underwood Tariff Act is a complete failure in every 
respect. Under its administration imports have enormously in- 
creased in spite of the fact that the intercourse with foreign coun- 
tries has been largely cut off by reason of the war, while the reve- 
nues of which we stand in such dire need have been greatly reduced. 
Under the normal conditions which prevailed prior to the war it 
was clearly demonstrated that this act deprived the American pro- 
ducer and the American wage-earner of that protection which en- 
titled them to meet their foreign competitors, and but for the adven- 
titious conditions created by the war, would long since have para- 
lyzed all forms of American industry and deprived American labor of 
its just reward. 

It has not in the least reduced the cost of living, which has con- 
stantly advanced from the date of its enactment. The welfare of 
our people demand its repeal and the substitution of a measure 
which in time of peace as well as in war will produce ample revenue 
and give reasonable protection to all forms of American production 
in mine, forest, field and factory. 

We favor the creation of a tariff commission with complete power 
to gather and compile information for the use of Congress in all 
matters relating to the tariff. 

BUSINESS. 

The Republican Party has long believed in the rigid supervision 
and strict regulation of the transportation and of great corporations 
of the country. It has put its creed into its deeds and all really 
effective laws regulating the railroads and the great industrial corpo- 
rations are the work of Republican Congresses and Presidents. For 
this policy of regulation and supervision the Democrats, in a stum- 
bling and piecemeal way, are undertaking to involve the government 
in business which should be left within the sphere of private enter- 
prise and in direct competition with its own citizens, a policy which 



238 PLATFOR:vrs of Pouttcal Parties. 

is sure to result in waste, great expense to the taxpayer and in an 
inferior product. 

The Republican Party firmly believes that all who violate the laws 
in regulation of business should be individually punished. But 
prosecution is very different from persecution, and business success, 
no matter how honestly attained, is apparently regarded by the 
Democratic party as in itself a crime. Such doctrines and beliefs 
choke enterprise and stifle prosperity. The Republican Party be- 
lieves in encouraging American business, as it believes in and will 
seek to advance all American interests. 

RURAL, CRESHTS. 

We favor an effective system of rural credits as opposed to the in- 
effective law proposed by the present Democratic administration. 

RURAL FREE DELIVERY. 

We favor the extension of the rural free delivery system and con- 
demn the Democratic administration for curtailing and crippling it. 

MERCHANT ]V];AEINE. 

In view of the policies adopted by all the maritime nations to en- 
courage their shipping interests, and in order to enable us to com- 
pete with them for the ocean-carrying trade, we favor the payment 
to ships engaged in the foreign trade of liberal compensation for 
services actually rendered in carrying the mails, and such further 
legislation as will build up an adequate merchant marine and give 
us ships which may be requisitioned by the government in time of 
national emergency. 

We are utterly opposed to the government ownership of vessels 
as proposed by the Democratic party, because government-owned 
vessels, while effectively preventing the development of the Ameri- 
can merchant marine by private capital, will be entirely unable to 
provide for the vast volume of American freights and will leave us 
more helpless than ever in the hard grip of foreign syndicates. 

traxsportation. 

Interstate and intrastate transportation have become so interwoven 
that the attempt to apply two and often several sets of laws to its 
regulation has produced conflicts of authority, embarrassment in 
operation and inconvenience and- expense to the public. 



National Republican PLATFOEii. 239 

The entire transportation system of the country has become essen- 
tially national. We therefore favor such action by legislation or, if 
necessary, through an amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States, as will result in placing it under exclusive federal control. 

ECONOMY AND A NATIONAL BUDGET. 

The increasing cost of the National Government and the need for 
the greatest economy of its resources in order to meet the growing 
demands of the people for government service call for the severest 
condemnation of the wasteful appropriations of this Democratic 
administration, of its shameless raids on the treasury, and of its 
opposition to and rejection of President Taft's oft-repeated proposals 
and earnest efforts to secure economy and efficiency through the es- 
tablishment of a simple business-like budget system to which we 
pledge our support and which we hold to be necessary to effect a 
real reform in the administration of national finances. 

CONSERVATION. 

We believe in a careful husbandry of all the natural resources of 
the nation — a husbandry which means development without waste; 
use without abuse. 

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM. 

The civil service law has always been sustained by the Republi- 
can Party and we renew our repeated declaration that it shall be 
thoroughly and honestly enforced and extended wherever practicable. 
The Democratic Party has created since March 4, 1913, 30,000 offices 
outside of the civil service law at an annual cost of $44,000,000 to 
the taxpayers of the country. 

We condemn the gross abuse and the misuse of the law bj^ the 
present Democratic administration and pledge ourselves to a reor- 
ganization along lines of efficiency and economy. 

TERRITORIAL MATTERS. 

Reaffirming the attitude long maintained by the Republican Party, 
we hold that officials appointed to administer the government of any 
territory should be bona fide residents of the territory in which their 
duties are to be perforaied. 



240 Platforms of Political Parties. 

labor laws. 

We pledge the Republican Party to the faithful enforcement of all 
Federal laws passed for the protection of labor. We favor vocational 
education; the enactment and rigid enorcement of a Federal child 
labor law; the enactment of a generous and comprehensive work- 
men's compensation law within the commerce power of Congress, 
and an accident compensation law covering all government em- 
ployees. We favor the collection and collation under the direction 
of the Department of Labor of complete data relating to industrial 
hazards for the information of Congress, to the end that such legis- 
lation may be adopted as may be calculated to secure the safety, 
conservation and protection of labor from the dangers incident to 
industry and transportation. 

SI'FFKAGE. 

The Republican Party, reaffirming its -faith in government of the 
people, by the people, for the people, as a measure of justice to one- 
half the adult people of this country, favors the extension of the 
suffrage to women, but recognizes the right of each State to settle 
this question for itself. 

APPEALS to all a:\iericaxs. 

Such are our principles, such are our purposes and policies. We 
close as we began. The times are dangerous and the future is 
fraught with peril. The great issues of the day have been confused 
by words and phrases. The American spirit, which made the coun- 
try and saved the Union, has been forgotten by those charged with 
the responsibility of power. We appeal to all Americans, whether 
naturalized or native born, to prove to the world that we are Ameri- 
cans in thought and deed, with one loyalty, one hope, one aspiration. 
We call on all Americans to be true to the spirit of America, to the 
great traditions of their common country, and, above all things, to 
keep the faith. 



NATIONAL SOCIALIST TLATFORM. 

In the midst of the greatest crisis and bloodiest struggle of all 
history the Socialist Party of America reaffirms its steadfast adher- 
ence to the principles of international brotherhood, world peace and 
industrial democracy. 



National Socialist Platform. 241 

The great war which has engulfed so much of civilization and de- 
stroyed millions of lives is one of the natural results of the capitalist 
sjstem of production. 

The Socialist Party, as the political expression of the economic In- 
terests of the working class, calls upon them to take a determined 
stand on the question of militarism and war, and to recognize the 
opportunity which the Great War has given them of forcing disarma- 
ment and furthering the cause of industrial freedom. 

An armed force in the hands of the ruling class serves two pur- 
poses; to protect and further the policy of imperialism abroad and 
to silence the protest of the workers against industrial despotism at 
home. Imperialism and militarism plunged Europe into this world- 
war. America's geographical and industrial situation has kept her 
oiit of the cataclysm. But Europe's extremity has been the oppor- 
tunty of America's ruling class to amass enormous profits. As a 
result, there is a surfeit of capital which demands the policy of 
imperialism to protect and further investments abroad. Hence the 
frenzy of militarism into which the ruling class has made every at- 
tempt to force the United States. 

The workers in Europe were helpless to avert the war because 
they were already saddled with the burden of militarism. The work- 
ers in the United States are yet free from this burden and have 
the opportunity of establishing a working class policy and program 
against war. They can compel the government of the United States 
to lead the way in an international movement for disarmament and 
to abandon the policy of imperialism which is forcing the conquest 
of Mexico and must, if carried out, eventually plunge the United 
States into a world-war. 

The working class must recognize the cry of preparedness against 
foreign invasion as a mere cloak for the sinister purpose of imperial- 
ism abroad and industrial tyranny at home. The class struggle, like 
capitalism, is international. The proletariat of the world has but 
one enemy, the capitalist class, whether at home or abroad. We 
must refuse to put into the hands of this enemy an armed force 
even under the guise of a "democratic army," as the workers of 
Australia and Switzerland have done. 

Therefore the Socialist Party stands opposed to military prepared- 
ness, to any appropriations of men or money for war or militarism, 
while control of such forces through the political state rests in the 
hands of the capitalist class. The Socialist Party stands commit- 

16 



242 Platfokms of Political Pakties. 

led to ihe class war, and urges upon the workers in the mines and 
forests, on the railways and ships, in factories and fields, the use 
of their economic and industrial power, by refusing to mine the coal, 
to transport soldiers, to furnish food or other supplies for military 
purposes, and thus keep out of the hands of the ruling class the 
control of armed forces and economic power, necessary for aggres- 
sion abroad and industrial despotism at home. 

The working class must recognize militarism as the greatest 
menace to all efforts toward industrial freedom, and regardless of 
political or industrial affiliations must present a united front in the 
fight against preparedness and militarism. 

Hideous as they are, the horrors of the far-stretched battlefield of 
the old world are dwarfed by the evil results of the capitalist system, 
even in normal times. Instead of being organized to provide all 
members of society with an abundance of food, clothing and shelter, 
and the highest attainable freedom and culture, industry is at pres- 
ent organized and conducted for the benefit of a parasitic class. All 
the powers of government, and all our industrial genius, are directed 
to the end of securing to the relatively small class of capitalist in- 
vestors the largest amount of profits which can be wrung from the 
labor of the ever-increasing class whose only property is muscle and 
brain, manual and mental labor power. 

The dire consequences of this system are everywhere apparent. 
The workers are oppressed and deprived of much that makes for 
physical, mental and moral well being. Year by year poverty and 
industrial accidents destroy more lives than all the armies and na- 
vies in the world. 

To preserve their privilege and power is the most vital interest of 
the possessing class, while it is the most vital interest of the work- 
ing class to resist oppression, improve its position, and struggle to 
obtain security of life and liberty. Hence there exists a conflict of 
interests, a social war within the nation, which can know neither 
truce nor compromise. So long as the few ovra and control the 
economic life of the nation the many must be enslaved, poverty 
must coexist with riotous luxury, and civil strife prevail. 

The Socialist Party would end these conditions by reorganizing 
the life of the nation upon the basis of Socialism. Socialism would 
not abolish private property, but greatly extend it. We believe 
that every human being should have and own all the things which 
he can use to advantage, for the enrichment of his ovm life, without 



National Socialist Platform. 243 

imposing disadvantage or burden upon any other human being. So- 
cialism admits the private ownership and individual direction of all 
things, tools, economic processes and functions which are individu- 
alistic in character, and requires the collective ownership and dem- 
oratic control and direction of those which are social or collectivistic 
in character. 

We hold that this country cannot enjoy happiness and prosperity 
at home and maintain lasting peace with other nations, so long as 
its industrial wealth is monopolized by a capitalist Oligarchy. In 
this, as in every other campaign, all special issues arising from tem- 
porary situations, whether domestic or foreign, must be subordinated 
to the major issue — the need of such a reorganization of our economic 
life as will remove the land, the mines, forests, railroads, mills and 
factories, all the things required for our physical existence, from the 
clutches of industrial and financial freebooters and place them se- 
curely and permanently in the hands of the people. 

If men were free to labor to satisfy their desires there could be 
in this country neither poverty nor involuntary unemployment. But 
the men in this country are not free to labor to satisfy their desires. 
The great industrial population can labor only when the capitalist 
class, who own the industries, believe they can market their product 
at a profit. The needs of millions are subordinated to the greeds of 
a few. The situation is not unlike that of a pyramid balanced upon 
its apex. Oftentimes this pyramid tumbles and industrial depres- 
sion comes. There was such a crash in 1907. If the capitalist own- 
ers had been willing to get out of the way, industry could have been 
revived in a day. But the capitalist owners are never willing to 
get out of the way. Their greeds come first — the people's needs, if at 
all, afterward. Therefore business did not quickly revive after the 
industrial depression of 1907. Mr. Taft was elected to bring good 
times, but in four years failed to bring them. Rlr. Wilson was elected 
to bring good times, but not all of the measures he advocated had 
the slightest effect upon industry- The European war has brought to 
this country tremendous orders for military supplies and has created 
a period of prosperity for the few. For the masses of the people 
there is but an opportunity to work hard for a bare living, which is 
not prosperity, but slavery. As against the boast of the present na- 
tional administration that its political program, now fully in force, 
■\as broiv^ht prosperity to the masses, we call attention to the state- 
ment of the Federal Public Health Service that $800 a year is re- 



244 Platforms of Political Pauties. 

quired to enable a family to avoid physical deterioration through 
lack of decent living conditions, that more than half of the families 
of working men receive less than that amount, that nearly a third 
receive less than $500 a year, and that one family in tvi^elve receives 
less than $300 a year. 

The capitalist class, for a great many years, has been trying to 
saddle upon this country a greater army and a greater navy. A 
greater army is desired to keep the working class of the United 
States in subjection. A greater navy is desired to safeguard the 
foreign investments of American capitalists and to "back up" Amer- 
ican diplomacy in its efforts to gain foreign markets for American 
capitalists. Tlie war in Europe, which diminished and is still dimin- 
ishing the remote possibility of European attack upon the United 
States, was nevertheless seized upon by capitalists and by unscrupu- 
lous politicians as a means of spreading fear throughout the country, 
to the end that, by false pretenses, great military establishments 
might be obtained. We denounce such "preparedness,'" as both false 
in principle, unnecessary in character and dangerous in its plain 
tendencies toward militarism. We advocate that sort of social pre- 
paredness which expresses itself in better homes, better bodies and 
better minds, which are alike the products of plenty and the neces- 
sity of effective defense in war. 

The Socialist Party maintains its attitude of unalterable opposi- 
tion to war. 

We reiterate the statement that the competitive nature of capital- 
ism is the cause of modern war, and, and that the cooperative nature 
of Socialism is alone adapted to the task of ending war by remov- 
ing its cause. We assert, however, that, even under the present cap- 
italist order, additional measures can be taken to safeguard peace, 
and to this end, we demand: 

MEASURES TO INSURE PEACE. 

1. That all laws and appropriations for the increase of the military 
and naval forces of the United States shall be immediately repealed. 

2. That the power be taken frcm the President to lead the nation 
into a position which leaves no escape from war. No one man, how- 
ever exalted in ofRicial station, should have the powder to decide the 
question of peace or war for a nation of a hundred millions. To 
give one man such power is neither democratic nor safe. Yet the 
President exercises such power when he determines what shall be 



Nation^u. Socialist Platform. 245 

the nation's foreign policies and wliat shall be the nature and tone 
of its diplomatic intercourse with other nations. We, therefore, de- 
mand that the power to fix foreign policies and conduct diplomatic 
negotiations shall be lodged in Congress and shall be exercised pub- 
licly, the people reserving the right by referendum to order Con- 
gress at any time, to change its foreign policy. 

3. That no war shall be declared or waged by the United States 
without a referendum vote of the entire people, except for the pur- 
pose of repelling invasion. 

4. That the Monroe Doctrine shall be immediately abandoned as a 
danger so great that even its advocates are agreed that it consti- 
tutes perhaps our greatest single danger of war. The Monroe Doc- 
trine was originally intended to safeguard the peace of the United 
States. Though the Doctrine has changed from a safeguard to a 
menace, the capitalist class still defends it for the reason that our 
great capitalists desire to retain South and Central America as 
their private trade preserve. We favor the cultivation of social, in- 
dustrial and political friendship with all other nations in the west- 
ern hemisphere, as an approach to world confederation of nations, 
but we oppose the Monroe Doctrine because it takes from our hands 
the peace of America and places it in the custody of any nation that 
would attack the sovereignty of any state in the western world. 

5. That the independence of the Philippine Islands be immediately 
recognized as a measure of justice both to the Filipinos and to our- 
selves. The Filipinos are entitled to self-government; we are en- 
titled to be freed from the necessity of building and maintaining 
enough dreadnoughts to defend them in the event of war. 

6. The government of the United States shall call a congress of 
all neutral nations to mediate between the belligerent powers in an 
effort to establish an immediate and lasting peace without indemni- 
ties, or forcible annexation of territory, and based on a binding and 
enforcible international treaty, which shall provide for concerted dis- 
armament on land and at sea and for an International Congress 
with power to adjust all disputes between nations, and w^hich shall 
guarantee freedom and equal rights to all oppressed nations and 
races. 

WORKING program. 

As general measures calculated to strengthen the working class in 
its fight for the realization of its ultimate aim, the Cooperative 



246 Platforms of Politicu\x P^UixiES. 

Commonwealth, and to increase its power of resistance against cap- 
italist oppression, we advocate and pledge ourselves and our elected 
officers to the following program: 

Political Demands. 

1. Unrestricted and equal suffrage for men and women. 

2. The immediate adoption of the so-called "Susan B. Anthony 
amendment" to the constitution of the United States granting the 
suffrage to women on equal terms with men. 

3. The adoption of the initiative, referendum and recall and of 
proportional representation, nationally as well as locally. 

4. The abolition of the Senate and of the veto power of the Pres- 
ident. 

5. The election of the President and the Vice-President by direct 
vote of the people. 

6. The abolition of the present restriction upon the amendment 
of the constitution so that that instrument may be made amenable 
by a majority of the voters in the country. 

7. The calling of a convention for the revision of the constitution 
of the United States. 

8. The abolition of the power usurped by the Supreme Court of the 
United States to pass upon the constitutionality of legislation en- 
acted by Congress. National laws to be repealed only by act of 
Congress or by a referendum vote of the wjiole people. 

9. The immediate curbing of the power of the courts to issue in- 
junctions. 

10. The election of all judges of the United States Courts for 
short terms. 

11. The free administration of the law. 

12. The granting of the right of suffrage in the District of Colum- 
bia with representation in Congress and a democratic form of munic- 
ipal government for purely local affairs. 

13. The extension of democratic government to all United States 
territory. 

14. The freedom of press, speech and assemblage. 

15. The increase of the rates of the present income tax and corpo- 
ration tax and the extension of inheritance taxes, graduated in pro- 
portion to the value of the estate and to nearness of kin — the pro- 
ceeds of these taxes to be employed in the socialization of industry. 

16. The enactment of further measures for general education and 



NATioNAi Socialist Platform. 247 

particularly for vocational Education in useful pursuits. The Bu- 
reau of Education to be made a department. 

17. Tlie enactment of further measures for the conservation of 
health and the creation of an independent department of health. 

18. The abolition of the monopoly ownership of patents and the 
substitution of collective ownership, with direct rewards to inven- 
tors by premiums or royalties. 

Collective Otvnership. 

1. The collective ownership and democratic management of rail- 
roads, telegraphs and telephones, express service, steamboat lines 
and all other social means of transportation and communication 
and of all large-scale industries. 

2. The immediate acquirement by the municipalities, the states 
or the federal government, of all grain elevators, stock-yards, stor- 
age warehouses and other distributing agencies, in order to relieve 
the farmer from the extortionate charges of the middlemen and to 
reduce the present high cost of living. 

3. The extension of the public domain to include mines, quarries, 
oil wells, forests and water power. 

4. The further conservation and development of natural resources 
for the use and benefit of all the people: 

(a). By scientific forestation and timber protection. 

(&). By the reclamation of arid and swamp tracts. 

(c). By the storage of flood waters and the utilization of water 

power. 
(d). By the stoppage of the present extravagant waste of the soil 

and the products of mines and oil wells, 
(e). By the development of highway and waterway systems. 

5. The collective ownership of land wherever practicable, and in 
cases where such ownership is impracticable, the appropriation by 
taxation of the annual rental value of all land held for speculation 
or exploitation. 

6. All currency shall be issued by the Government of the United 
States and shall be legal tenders for the payment of taxes and im- 
post duties and for the discharge of public and private debts. The 
Government shall lend money on bonds to counties and municipali- 
ties at a nominal rate of interest for the purpose of taking over or 
establishing public utilities and for building or maintaining public 
roads and highways, and public schools — up to 25 per cent of the 



248 Platforms of Politic.vl Parties. 

assessed valuation of such counties or municipalities. Said bonds 
are to be repaid in twenty equal and annual installments, and the 
currency issued for that purpose by the Government is to be can- 
celled and destroyed seriatim as the debt is repaid. All banks and 
banking instutions shall be owaied by the Government of the United 
States or by the States. 

7. Government relief of the unemployed by the extension of all 
useful public works. All persons employed on such work to be en- 
gaged directly by the Government under a work day of not more 
than eight hours and at not less than the prevailing union wages. 
The Government also to establish employment bureaus; to lend 
money to States and municipalities without interest for the purpose 
of carrying on public works, to contribute money to unemployment 
funds of labor unions and other organizations of workers, and to 
take such other measures within its power as will lessen the wide- 
spread misery of the workers caused by the misrule of the capital- 
ist class. 

Industrial Demands. 

The conservation of human resources, particularly of the lives and 
well-being of the workers and their families: 

1. By shortening the work day in keeping with the increased pro- 
ductiveness of machinery. 

2. By securing the freedom of political and economical organiza- 
tions and activities. 

3. By securing to every worker a rest period of not less than a 
day and a half in each week. 

4. By securing a more effective inspection of workshops, factories 
and mines. 

5. By forbidding the employment of children under eighteen years 
of age. 

6. By forbidding the interstate transportation of the products of 
child labor and of all uninspected factories and mines. 

7. By establishing minimum wage scales. 

8. By abolishing official charity and substituting a non-contribu- 
tory system of old age pensions, a general system of insurance by 
the State of all its members against unemployment and invalidism, 
and a system of compulsory insurance by employers of their workers, 
without cost to the latter, against industrial diseases, accidents and 
death. 

9. By establishing mothers' pensions. 



Natiox^vl Pkohibition Platform. 249 

NATIONAL PEOIIIBITIOIV PLATFORM. 

Adopted at St. Paul, Minn., July 21, 1916. 

The Prohibition Party, assembled in its twelfth national conven- 
tion in the city of St. Paul, Minn., on this 21st day of July, 191,6, 
thankful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty, grateful for 
our institutions and the multiplying signs of early victory for the 
cause for which the party stands, in order that the people may know 
the source of its faith and the basis of its action should it be clothed 
with governmental power, challenges the attention of the Nation 
and asks the vote of the people on this declaration of principles. 

PROHIBITION. 

We denounce the traffic in intoxicating liquors. We believe in its 
abolition. It should be made a crime, not a business, and ought not 
to have governmental sanction. 

We demand, and if given power we will effectuate the demand, that 
the manufacture, importation, exportation, transportation, and sale 
of alcoholic liquors for beverage purposes shall be prohibited. 

To the accomplishment of this end, we pledge the exercise of all 
governmental power, the enactment of statutes, and the amendment 
of constitutions. State and National. Only by a political party com- 
mitted to this purpose can such a policy be made effective. We call 
upon all voters believing in the destruction of the drink traffic to 
place this Prohibition Party in power on this issue as a necessary 
step in the solution of the liquor problem. 

SUFFRAGE. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote should not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 
of sex. We declare in favor of the enfranchisement of women by 
amendment to State and Federal Constitutions. 

We condemn the Republican and Democratic Parties for their 
failure to submit to the States an equal-suffrage amendment to the 
National Constitution. 

We remind the 4,000,000 women voters that in 1872 we declared 
for their political rights — the first so to do — and we invite their 
cooperation in electing the Prohibition Party to power.. 



250 Platforms of Political Paeties. 



PEACE AND PKEPAREDNESS. 



We are coramitted to the policy of peace and friendliness to all 
nations. We are opposed unalterably to the wasteful military pro- 
gram of the Democratic and Republican Parties. Militarism pro- 
tects no worthy institution. It endangers them all and violates the 
high principles which have brought us as a Nation to the present 
hour. We are for a constructive program in preparedness for peace. 
We declare for and will promote a world court, to which national 
difference shall be submitted, so maintained as to give its decrees 
binding force. 

We will support a compact among nations to dismantle navies and 
disband armies; but until such world court and compact are estab- 
lished we pledge ourselves to maintain an effective Army and Navy 
and to provide coast defenses entirely adequate for national pro- 
tection. 

We are opposed to universal military service and to participation 
in the rivalry which has brought Europe to the shambles and now 
imperils the civilization of the race. 

Private profit, as far as constitutionally possible, should be taken 
out of the manufacture of war munitions and all war equipment. 

In normal times we favor the employment of the Army in vast 
reclamation plans; in reforesting hills and mountains; in building 
State and National highways; in the construction of an inland 
waterway from Florida to Maine; in opening Alaska; and in un- 
numbered other projects, which will make our soldiers constructive 
builders of peace. For such service there should be paid an ade- 
quate, industrial wage. 

Those units of our Navy which are capable of being converted 
into merchantmen and passenger vessels should be constructed 
with that purpose in view, and chiefly so utilized in times of peace. 

We condemn the political parties which for more than 30 years 
have allowed munition and war-equipment manufacturers to plunder 
the people and to jeopardize the highest interests of the Nation by 
furnishing honey-combed armor plate and second-rate battleships, 
which the Navy League now declares are wholly inadequate. 

We will not allow the country to forget that the first step toward 
physical, economic, moral, and political preparedness is the enact- 
ment of national prohibition. 



Nationaj. Prohibition Platform. 251 



MEXICO AND THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 



Mexico needs, not a conqueror, but a good Samaritan. We are 
opposed to tlie violation of tlie sovereignty of the Mexican people, 
and we will countenance no war of aggression against them. We 
pledge the help of this country in the suppression of lawless bands 
of marauders and murderers who have taken the lives of American 
citizens on both sides of the border as well of Mexicans in their own 
country. 

The lives and property of our citizens when about their lawful 
pursuits, either in the United States or Mexico, must and will be 
protected. In the event of a breakdown of government across the 
border we would use, in the interests of civilization, the force 
necessary for the establishment of law and order. 

In this connection we affirm our faith in the Monroe doctrine, 
proclaimed in the early days of the Nation's life and unswervingly 
maintained for nearly a hundred years. 

We cannot claim the benefits of the doctrine, and refuse to assume 
or discharge the responsibilities and the duties which inhere therein 
and flow therefrom. 

These duties have long been unmet in Mexico. We should meet 
them now, acting not for territory, not for conquest or for ourselves 
alone, but for and with the nations of North and South America. 

The Democratic Party has blundered, and four years ago the 
Republican Party evaded and passed on the problem it now seeks the 
opportunity to solve. 

THE PHILIPPINES. 

The abandonment of the Philippines at this time would be an 
injustice to them and a violation of our plain duty. As soon as they 
are prepared for self-government by education and training, they 
should be granted their independence on terms just to themselves 
and to us. 

TARIFF AND RECIPROCITY. 

The countries at war are preparing for a fierce industrial struggle 
to follow the cessation of hostilities. As a matter of commercial 
economy, international friendliness, business efficiency, and as a help 
to peace, we demand that reciprocal trade treaties be negotiated with 
all nations with which we have trade relations. 

A commission of specialists free from the control of any party 
should be appointed with power to gather full information on all 



252 Platfokms of Political P^umEs. 

phases of the questions of tariff and reciprocity, and to recommend 
such legislation as it deems necessary for the welfare of American 
busines and labor. 

MEiRCIIANT MARINE. 

The nesessity of legislation to enable American shipbuilders or 
owners to meet foreign competition on the most favorable terms 
is obvious. 

Materials for construction should be admitted free of duty. 

The purchase of ships abroad when low prices invite should be 
allowed, and when so purchased should be admitted to American 
registry. 

Harbor rules and charges and navigation laws should not be oner- 
ous, but favorable to the highest degree. 

Liberal payment should be made by the Government for carrying 
the mails and for transport services. 

All shipping from the United States to any of our possessions 
should be reserved to ships of American registry. 

The people should not overlook the fact that the effect of nation- 
wide prohibition, on labor and industry generally, will be such as 
to lower the cost of shipbuilding per unit, and at the same time 
permit the payment of higher wages. The increased volume of trade 
and commerce which will result when the wastage of the liquor 
traffic is stopped will quicken our shipping on every sea and send our 
flag on peaceful missions into every port. This is urged as an inci- 
dental effect of wise action on the liquor question, but is none 
the less to be desired, and will aid in the solution of the problem of 
our merchant marine. 

CIVIL SERVICE. 

In order that the public service may be of the highest standard, 
the Government should be a model employer in all respects. To 
enforce the civil-service law, in spirit as well as in letter, all pro- 
motions should be nonpolitical, based only upon proven fitness; 
all recommendations for demotions or removals from the service 
should be subjected to the review of a nonpartisan board or com- 
mission. 

The merit system should be extended to cover all postmasters, 
collectors of revenue, marshals, and other such public officials whose 
duties are purely administrative. 

We reaffirm our allegiance to the principle of secure tenure of 



Natiojn'al Pkohibition Platform. 253 

office during good behavior and capable eiTort, as the means of 
obtaining expert service. AVe declare for the enactment of an ade- 
quate retirement law for disabled and superannuated employees, in 
return for faithful service rendered in order to maintain a high 
degree of efficiency in public office. 

LABOK AND CAPITAL. 

Differences between capital and labor should be settled through 
arbitration, by which the rights of the public are conserved, as well 
as those of the disputants. We declare for the prohibition of child 
labor in factories, mines, and workshops; and eight-hour maximum 
day, with one day of rest in seven; more rigid sanitary require- 
ments and such working conditions as shall foster the physical and 
moral well-being of the unborn; the protection of all who toil, by the 
extension of employer's liability acts; the adoption of safety appli- 
ances for the protection of labor and for laws that will promote the 
just division of the wealth which labor and capital jointly produce. 
Provision should be made for those who suffer from industrial acci- 
dents and occupational diseases. 

SOCIAL JUSTICE. 

We stand for justice to humanity and for its rights, safety, and 
development; we believe in the equality of all before the law; in old 
age pensions and insurance against unemployment, and in help 
for needy mothers, all of which could be provided from what is now 
wasted for drink. 

AGKICULTXJKE. 

While it is admitted that grain and cotton are fundamental factors 
in our national life, it can not be denied that proper assistance and 
protection are not given these commodities at terminal markets in 
the course of interstate commerce. 

We favor and pledge our efforts to obtain public grain elevators 
at necessary terminal markets, such elevators to be owned and oper- 
ated by the Federal Government; also to secure Federal grain 
inspection under a system of civil service, and to abolish any board 
of trade, chamber of commerce, or ofher place of gambling in grain 
or trading in "options" or "futures" or "short selling" or any other 
form of so-called speculation, wherein products are not received or 



254 Platforms of Political P^vbties. 

delivered, but wherein so-called contracts are settled by the payment 
of "margins" or "differences" through clearing houses or otherwise. 

This party stands committed to free and open markets, based upon 
legitimate supply and demand, absolutely free from questionable 
practices of market manipulation. We favor Government ware- 
houses for cotton at proper terminals, where the interests of pro- 
ducers so require; and the absolute divorce of all railroad elevators 
or warehouses owned by railroad companies, whether for public or 
private use, from operation or control by private individuals in 
competition with the public in merchandising grain, cotton, and 
other farm products. 

We furthermore indorse all proper cooperative methods which tend 
toward broader and better markets for producer and consumer. 

* 

PUBLIC OWNERSHIP. 

Public utilities and other resources which are natural monopolies 
now are exploited for personal gain under a monopolistic system. 
We demand the ownership or control of such utilities by the people 
and the operation and administration in the interest of all. 

FREE IXSTITIITIONS. 

We stand for the preservation and development" of our free institu- 
tions and for absolute separation of church and state, with the 
guaranty of full religious and civil liberty. 

DEPARTMENTAL DECISIONS. 

Departmental decisions ought not to be final, but the rights of 
the people should be protected by provisions for court review. 

CONSERVATION. 

We reaffirm our declaration in favor of conservation of forests, 
waterpower, and other natural resources. 

EFFICIENCY. 

We pledge a businesslike administration of the Nation's affairs, 
the abolition of useless offices, bureaus, and commissions; economy in 
the expenditure of public funds, efficiency in governmental service, 
and the adoption of the budget system. 



Nationai. Pkoiiibition Platform. 255 

The President should have power to veto any single item or items 
of an appropriation bill. 

We condemn, and agree when in power to remedy, that which is 
known as "pork-barrel" legislation, by which millions of dollars 
have been appropriated for rivers where there is no commerce, har- 
bors where there are no ships, and public buildings where there is 
no need. 

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. 

We favor uniform marriage and divorce laws, the extermination 
of polygamy, and the complete suppression of the traffic in girls 
and women. 

SINGLE PRESIDENTIAL TERM. 

We are in favor of a single presidential term of six years. 

RULE OF THE PEOPLE. 

We favor the initiative, referendum, and recall. 

AMERICANISM. 

We stand for Americanism. We believe this country was created 
for a great mission among the nations of the earth. We rejoice in 
the fact that it has offered asylum to the oppressed of other lands 
and to those more fortunately situated who yet wished to improve 
their condition. It is the land of all peoples and belongs not to any 
one; it is the heritage of all. It should come first in the affections 
of every citizen, and he who loves another land more than this ig 
not fit for citizenship here; but he is a better citizen who, loving 
this country, has reverence for the land of his fathers and gains 
from its history and traditions that which inspires him to nobler 
service to the one in which he lives. 

The Federal government should interest itself in helping the 
newcomer into that vocation and locality where he shall most quickly 
become an American. Those fitted by experience and training for 
agricultural pursuits should be encouraged to develop the millions 
of acres of rich and idle land. 

CONCLUSION. 

This is the day of opportunity for the American people. The 
triumph of neither old political party is essential to our safety or 



256 Platforms of Political PAirriES. 

progress. The defeat of either will be no public misfortune. They 
are one party. By age and wealth, by membership and traditions, 
by platforms and the character of their candidates, they are the con- 
servative party of the United States. 

The Prohibition Party, as the promoter of every important measure 
of social justice presented to the American people in the last two 
generations and as the originator of nearly all such legislation, re- 
mains now the only great progressive party. 

The patriotic voters who compose the Republican and Democratic 
parties can by voting the Prohibition ticket this year elect the issue 
of national prohibition. 

To those of whatever political faith who have the vision of a land 
redeemed from drink, we extend a cordial invitation to join with us 
in carrying the banner of prohibition to Nation-wide victory. 



STATE DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM. 

Adopted April 27, 1916. 

The Democratic Party welcomes the opportunity to present to our 
people, after three years of power in the Nation and sixteen in the 
State, its record of service and achievement, and it confidently ap- 
peals thereon to them for endorsement and approval. 

EEPtJBLIC IX HANDS OF PUBLIC SERVANTS. 

We find it our first duty and highest privilege to endorse the ad- 
ministration of Woodrow Wilson. Under his leadership as President 
more important constructive legislation of benefit to the great body 
of our people has been enacted than in any decade of our history. Un- 
der him and the Democratic Congress it has been demonstrated that 
our Republic is at last in the hands of public servants who exercise 
their powers in the interest of the whole people as opposed to the 
interest of any class whatsoever. He has maintained the highest 
traditions of his great office and the noblest ideals of the party under 
whose banner he serves. And not only so; this Republic and-, the 
human race have found in him in the supreme crisis of world affairs 
a leader equal to every emergency and worthy of universal confi- 



State Democratic Platform. 257 

dence. With a wisdom, patience, and courage that have added lustre 
to his office, he has managed the many complicated international sit- 
uations that have arisen in such a way as to command universal ad- 
miration. And as he labors today to preserve to humanity the fruits 
of centuries of civilization as embodied in international law and at 
the same time to uphold every right dear to the hearts of Americans, 
we commend him to all men and send to him the assurance of our 
unfaltering support. 

Now that our Republic stands alone as the one remaining great 
nation of the earth at peace, while the conditions abroad are so 
fraught with source of alarm and unrest, we feel assured that the 
President who has amidst the confusion of the times held the Repub- 
lic in so safe and wise a course can be trusted more confidently than 
any other to guide our country in its foreign relations and to direct 
our people in all the steps necessary to prepare her against attack 
from any source. We, therefore, commend to our representatives in 
Congress and to our people his program of preparedness. 

We have enacted a revision of the tariff in the Underwood-Sjmmons 
Act in the interest of the whole people, and tariff duties are no longer 
levied for the benefit of a favored few. At the same time we have 
given to the nation a system of revenue entirely adequate to its 
necessities. We have supplemented this tariff with an income tax, 
the effect of which is to remove from the rank and file of our people 
the heavier burden of taxation and to place that burden upon those 
who are more able to bear it and who, in common justice, ought to 
bear it. 

CURRENCY SYSTEM PREVENTER OF PANICS. 

In the Federal Reserve Banking Act our party has given to the 
country a currency system that commands universal commendation. 
It has made money monopolies impossible and provided an elasticity 
of the currency that assures to the farmers and other producers a 
supply of money that automatically prevents the depression of prices 
and facilitates the marketing of crops. It has removed the control 
of the money of the country from the financial centres of Wall 
Street, in New York, to the Treasury of the United States at Wash- 
ington, and has thereby made financial stringencies and panics a 
thing of the past. Under the supreme test of a world-war this act 
has served not only to save our people from disaster but to vouch- 
safe to them an unparalleled prosperity. 

17 



258 Platforms of PoliticjVl Parties. 

In the Clayton antitrust law we have successfully grappled with 
the great problem of trusts and monopolies without injury to any 
lawful industry. 

In a word, throughout this land under the Democratic Party the 
powers of government have been exercised now for three years in 
the interest of the whole people resulting in a degree and extent of 
justice, prosperity, and order the like of which no people has ever 
known. 

With so much already done the administration is just now pro- 
ceeding to crown its record of constructive service with a Rural 
Credits Act, under which it is proposed to provide at the lowest 
expense an abundant credit for the farmers of the Nation, and this 
convention gives hearty endorsement to this act. 

We endorse the record of our Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress; and we view with pride the positions of responsibility, honor, 
and service our sons are so worthily occupying in Congress and 
Cabinet. To few States has fallen the honor of having at once the 
floor leaders in the Senate and the House of Congress. And it 
should be a matter of pride to every North Carolinian that in the 
great program of progress achieved by the Democratic Party our 
State has had so large a part. 

STATE ACHIEVEMENTS PLEDGE OF FUTURE. 

In State affairs the achievements of the past furnish the surest 
pledge of the future. We endorse the administration of Governor 
Locke Craig and other State officers for its fidelity to the highest 
ideals of public service and 'notable achievement in the public inter- 
est. We point to sixteen years of Democratic State administration — 
subjected regularly to the closest scrutiny, investigation, and audit 
without an instance of scandal or unfaithful public service — as a 
record meriting the unlimited approval and good will of the whole 
people of the State. They have covered sixteen years in which 
constant progress and development of public education, of temper- 
ance, of public health laws and administration, and in every branch 
of public service have kept the pace with agricultural, commercial, 
and industrial progress. Construction of improved public highways 
has in every legitimate way been encouraged, institutions for techni- 
cal and literary education for both sexes have been enlarged and 
strengthened, the public health service has been developed to a high 
state of efficiency, and public institutions for the care of the diseased 



State Democratic Platform. 259 

and unfortunate have been increased in number and enlarged in 
capacity and equipment. 

Corporations that serve the public have been wisely and justly 
regulated in the public interest, and there is now saved annually to 
the people of the State in their freight bills alone in specific reduc- 
tion of interstate and intrastate freight rates in the last two years 
not less than one and a half million dollars per year — an amount 
in excess of the entire administration of State government. 

LOWEST PEK CAPITA TAX IN WHOLE UNION. 

It is not accidental that after sixteen years of the most notable 
progress in the entire history of the State in all these lines of public 
effort the reports of the United States Census Department show that 
our State government is maintained upon a payment of taxes by the 
people of this State less per capita than that of any other State in 
the Union. This result has been achieved by the Democratic Party 
being true to its pledges of the utmost economy in the administra- 
tion of public affairs. Public office in this State is still a public 
trust and must be administered with the utmost fidelity to the pub- 
lic interest. 

We find cause for congratulation that we have passed the period 
of apprehension that the State revenues may not be sufficient to 
meet the necessarily increased public needs of a growing State 
Treasury, under a decreased rate of tax levy for solely State pur- 
poses, and we have a balance in the Treasury; that the demand for 
an equalized basis of taxation has been conservatively met, and that, 
with a modern inheritance tax statute large fortunes, in their trans- 
mission, are already contributing substantially to the State's revenue 
and will in a large measure take care of the increased needs of the 
State for future progress. "We pledge the party to a continuation of 
the policy of strict economy and to turning back into channels of 
direct benefit to the people of the State every dollar of public revenue 
raised by the State that is not essential for State administration, for 
the benefit of public education, for State assistance in public road 
construction, for safeguarding the public health, and in liberal pen- 
sions for the remaining Confederate soldiers and widows, and other 
appropriate channels of serving and conserving the public interest. 
We declare and reiterate our firm belief in the great Democratic 
principle of strict publicity in the receipts and expenditures of all 
public funds by all State and county officials and State institutions, 



260 Platforms of Political Pakties. 

so that every citizen of North Carolina can easily and intelligently 
acquaint himself with all reasonable information pertaining to such 
receipts and expenditures of public funds. 

We challenge a comparison of this clean, progressive, Democratic 
record with the Republican record which preceded it— a record too 
well seared into the minds of the people of this State to need review 
— or with any previous or future service that can reasonably come 
from the present leadership of the Republican Party, and declare: 

educated citizenship goal. 

1. The development of puublic education has been the chief pride 
of the Democratic Party, and nothing less than an educated citizen- 
ship must be the goal of our continued and untiring efforts. Our 
public school term has been increased to a point much beyond the 
constitutional requirements, and we are building schoolhouses at 
the rate of one for every day that passes. 

CONSERVE PUBLIC HEALTH. 

2. The conservation of public health is now recognized as a prob- 
lem demanding consideration of all enlightened governments. We 
rejoice in the splendid progress made by our State in combating dis- 
eases among our people, in reducing our death rate, in increasing 
the sum total of health, happiness, and efficiency of our citizens, and 
in establishing a justifiable record of healthfulness as compared with 
other States of the Union. We advocate a continuance and strength- 
ening of the humane policy now in force in this State for the pro- 
tection of the public health and the eradication of preventable dis- 
eases. 

STAND POR GOOD ROADS. 

3. The construction and maintenance of improved public roads is 
one of the greatest problems in the development of our State, and 
particularly in the development of rural communities. Four years 
ago there were only 5,000 miles of modern roads in the State. To- 
day we have 15,000 miles of such roads, and every day sees the 
mileage extended. We pledge our party to a policy of sympathetic 
aid and encouragement to road building in this State. 



State Democratic Platform. 261 

PLEDGE to rural STATE. 

4. We must ever be mindful of the fact that the State derives its 
strength from its toiling citizens and its rural communities, and we 
pledge the party to a continuance of the policy of encouraging the 
best development of the rural community. Under Democratic rule 
the conditions of country life in respect to schools and roads have 
been vastly improved, and by means of the State Department of 
Agriculture, the A. and M. College, and Fami-Life Schools intelli- 
gent and helpful direction has been given to our farmers, the result 
of which is manifest in the tremendous increase in the variety and 
value of the farm products. It is a matter of fact that the value of 
our farm products doubled from 1900 to 1910 and it has again 
doubled in the last six years. We favor legislation providing for the 
incorporation, supervision, and control of warehouses for the storing 
of farm products, in order to facilitate the proper marketing of 
such products. 

MUST FOSTER ENTERPRISE. 

5. Every enterprise looking to the investment of capital and em- 
ployment of labor should be fostered and encouraged by the State. 
We pledge, not only to citizens of this State, but to citizens of other 
States that all capital invested in legitimate enterprises in North 
Carolina, whether foreign or domestic, shall have the equal and 
friendly protection of our laws in their observance, and will be 
held equally amenable to our laws in their violation. 

SUFFRAGE AMENDMENT JUST. 

6. We reaffirm our confidence in the wisdom and justice of the 
suffrage amendment to our State Constitution. Under its influence 
we have had freedom from race issues, and both races have enjoyed 
contentment and prosperity. The hazard to its valid continuance 
makes it imperative for the public good that Democratic supremacy 
in the State be maintained. 

We submit that the record shows that the Democratic Party can 
be trusted to conserve all that makes for the welfare of our people. 
So long as the Democratic Party is in power the forces that have 
made for the great progress of the last sixteen years will be main- 
tained. So long as it is in power the people have assurance that 
the State is safe from the designs of those who would inflict upon 
it the payment of the fraudulent bonds issued in its name under a 



262 Platforms of Political Pakties. 

Republican regime; and ihey cannot have that assurance otherwise. 
So long as the Democratic Party is in power the people have assur- 
ance that this State shall be conducted by white men; and they can- 
not have that assurance otherwise. So long as the Democratic party 
is in power the assurance of half a century of faithful service that 
all that makes for peace, the progress, the order and the prosperity 
of this Commonwealth shall be sacredly conserved; and they cannot 
have that assurance otherwise. 



STATE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM. 

The North Carolina Republican State Convention, duly assem- 
bled In Raleigh on March 1st, 1916, congra.tulates its voters that all 
internal dissentions are so happily ended and that the calamity of 
a National Democratic administration, coupled with an extravagant 
and inefficient Democratic State administration, has brought about 
a reunion, based upon mutual respect and understanding, which re- 
union is being strengthened daily by the addition of voters who are 
casting aside prejudice and are joining in the advancement of the 
common good. 

We are determined to bring back our Nation to Protection for 
American industry and labor and to the prosperity which follows our 
time-honored protective policies; we are determined to rid our State 
of useless officeholders and official extravagance and scandals to the 
end that the reckless spending of the people's money shall not be 
permitted to increase taxes to the point of confiscation. 

We demand in State affairs: 

1. Pair elections. 

2. Equitable taxation upon a basis of economy. 

3. Auditing of all our financial affairs. 

4. Improved school system and agricultural education. 

5. Convict employment in public works. 

6. General progressive and labor legislation. 

We demand in National affairs: 

(a) Return to Protection. 

(b) Preparedness for peace. 

(c) Honest Civil Service. 



State Republican Platform. 263 

(d) Rural Credit System. 

(e) Restriction of immigration. 

(f) Upholding rights of Americans. 

These demands in our State may be enlarged upon as follows: 

1. Fair Elections: The safety of our State and Nation depends 
upon the free and untrammeled expression of the will of the people 
at the ballot box; we demand an Australian voting system that each 
citizen may vote his choice and sentiments, free from exposure, mo- 
lestation or dangerous influence; frauds at the ballot box must 
cease. 

2. Equitable Taxation Upon a Basis of Economy: We demand tajc- 
ation reform in which every citizen, individually or collectively, and 
all property shall bear their just share of the burden of govern- 
mental support, and no more; such a system as will not place a 
premium upon dishonest avoidance of taxes nor leave taxpayers at 
the mercy of unscrupulous and scheming officials, who try to make 
party gains by discrimination against those who will not make polit- 
ical contributions, and by favors to those who do. 

In addition to equitable taxation we demand the strictest business 
economy compatible with efficiency, and to the end that no bond 
issue shall be made or debt incurred beyond the constitutional lim- 
itation, except it be ordered or approved by a majority of at least 
three-fifths of the qualified voters who shall also name those who 
shall control the expenditure of moneys, and we hereby pledge our- 
selves to a reduction of the burdensome taxes now imposed upon our 
people. 

We demand for our educational and other institutions liberality to 
their utmost needs; we denounce the treatment by the Democratic 
party of our old soldiers, who are the most sacred heritage of our 
generation, and we demand for these patriots that care and comfort 
which is theirs by right and ours by duty. 

3. Auditing of All Our Financial Affairs: Our financial affairs 
are in a most desperate condition, as evidenced by reports of commit- 
tees officially appointed, and we demand an expert accounting of 
same from the accounts of the State Treasurer, through all our 
public institutions of education and charity, down to the smallest 
boards or individuals who use the public funds. 

This is demanded that the people may know the whole truth of 
their financial condition, about which they have been kept in igno- 
rance so long; such expert auditing of our affairs would have pre- 



264 Platforms of Political Pai{ties. 

vented the scandals which have become so common in our depart- 
ments and institutions. 

4. Improved School System and Agrivultural Education: We 
demand the selection of our superintendents of public instruction 
and of our school boards by the people in every county and thus 
place education in the hands of parents instead of at the mercy of 
political demagogues; certainly more than fifty years of Democratic 
education and good government should have fitted our people to be 
able to control the education of their own children; we demand a 
school system based upon the evident intents of our Constitution 
which provides for "a general and uniform system" which would 
give equal school advantages to all, wherever located; such a Con- 
stitutional system should be provided that will give a six months' 
school term in every district, which can be done with a great saving 
of taxes now wasted under the present scheme of politically governed 
schools with the flagrant extravagance; we demand the extending 
of agricultural education and the encouraging of a movement back 
to the soil; we favor legislation that will assist more direct distri- 
bution of farm products; such education and such legislation, as will 
encourage producers, will make our State great and self-supporting. 

5. Convict Employment in Public Works: We demand the employ- 
ment of our convicts on public works for the public good, such as 
great public highways, instead of in lines which will bring them in 
competition with producers and laborers; furthermore, we demand 
just and humane treatment of convicts and punishment of crimi- 
nal guards and overseers who vent their brutal spite upon these 
helpless unfortunates. 

6. General Progressive and Labor Legislation: We demand of the 
General Assembly such progressive legislation as this advanced age 
has proven necessary, and we suggest among such attention to the 
following: All precautions of modern science for the preservation 
of health and the protection of life and limb; workmen's compen- 
sation laws that damages for accidents may be equitably adjusted 
without unnecessary expense or delay; laws for healthful housing 
and for fire protection; an exemption of moderate savings from tax- 
ation that our savings institutions may be placed upon the same 
plane as the postal savings bank system; some form of mutual or 
social insurance which will protect the home against the hazards of 
sickness, irregular employment and old age. Such laws must be so 
formed as not to offer public aid as a substitute for industry and 



State Republicajs Platform. 265 

frugality. We demand protection and promotion of the flsli and 
oyster industry of the State and relief from unjust and burden- 
some laws passed by the last legislature in regard thereto. 

These demands in our nation may be enlarged upon as follows: 

(a). Return to Protection: Protection for American industry and 
labor is the cornerstone of Republican principles. This faith has 
been tried and proven by the present disastrous, near-free-trade tariff 
which had brought this country to the verge of distress and ruin 
before the European war. Spasmodic and scattered war contracts, 
bringing gains from the misfortunes and miseries of others are a 
poor substitute for steady markets and universal prosperity under 
Protection. Desertion of Protection has brought all kinds of direct 
taxation, including a socalled war tax in time of peace; has depleted 
our treasury just when Democratic expenditures were the greatest 
in our history; has crippled our greatest industries, and has thrown 
millions out of regular employment. 

Protection must be reestablished as a right to all and not sold, 
under some other name, as a favor to a few. 

(b). Preparedness 'for Peace: We demand a preparedness for this 
country against any aggression from any foreign power. 

The present war has demonstrated that no unprepared nation is 
safe and we cannot permit a noble love for peace to leave us help- 
less. 

While we will not prepare for war, we must be in a state of 
preparedness for peace. 

(c). Honest Civil Service: We stand for honest civil service re- 
form, which has been so dishonestly outraged by the present Demo- 
cratic administration; we denounce the backward step taken in the 
assaults upon the merit system in order to place socalled "deserving 
Democrats" in offices held by those who have stood the test, and we 
denounce the further misuse of power by trying now to "cover under 
civil service" those who have received reward under the spoils sys- 
tem, because they see "the handwriting on the wall" foretelling the 
downfall of their unfaithful party. 

(d) Rural Credit System: We demand a Rural Credit System 
such as was promised in the last national Republican platform and 
such as is now being formulated and perfected by the farmers' or- 
ganizations over the State and Nation. 

(e) Restriction of Immigration: It would be but an act of folly 
to protect our products against unfair competition of cheap foreign 



266 Platforms of Political Pabties. 

labor and yet permit the pauper, and often criminal, foreign laborer 
himself to enter our country and lower the plane of living of our 
own people. 

We demand such laws as will forever keep the ignorant, the dis- 
eased, and the criminal from our shores. 

(f) Upholding Rights of Americans: We demand the protection 
of the lives and property of American citizens wherever such citi- 
zens may be lawfully abiding or traveling. The national policy to- 
ward Mexico and European countries has been weak and vacillating, 
by turns unduly timid and unwisely pugnacious. 

Americans have been, robbed, violated, and slaughtered without 
redress and American prestige lowered in every country on the 
globe; we demand a return to a strictly American policy. 

Upon the principles here enunciated we appeal to the patriotic 
voters to join us in redeeming the Old North State and in making 
her better, greater, and grander. 



STATE SOCIALIST PLATFORM. 

The Socialist Party of the State of North Carolina again reaflBrms 
its allegience to the principles of international Socialism, and in- 
dorses the national platform of the Socialist Party of the United 
States. 

In entering the campaign of 1916, the Socialist Party presents it- 
self as the sole political representative of the working class. It 
maintains that no other political party can be trusted to enact and 
enforce effective labor legislation or otherwise serve the interests of 
the workers of this State. 

We maintain that the evils of the present system will be removed 
only when the working class wholly abolish private ownership in 
the social means of production, collectively assume the manage- 
ment of the industries and operate them for use and not for profit, 
for the benefit of all and not for the enrichment of a privileged 
class. In this the Socialist party stands alone in the political field. 

But the Socialist Party also believes that the evils of the modern 
system may be materially relieved and their final disappearance may 
be hastened by the introduction of social, political and economic 
measures which will have the effect of bettering the lives, strength- 



State Socialist Platfokm. 267 

ening the position of the workers and curbing the power and domi- 
nation of the capitalists. 

The Socialist Party therefore supports the struggles of the work- 
ing class against the exploitation and oppression of the capitalist 
class, and is vitally concerned in the efficiency of the parliamentary 
and administrative means for the fighting of the class struggle. 

Therefore, We favor the following measures as immediate de- 
mands: 

political. 

We demand the public ownership of all public utilities. 

That any citizen of the United States shall have the right to vote 
in North Carolina after a residence in the Stale of three months 
and in the county thirty days; and that the registration books be 
kept open ten days, beginning fifteen days before election. 

That each party having on the ticket a nominee to be voted for 
shall be entitled to representation at the polling precincts to see the 
ballots counted and prevent fraud. 

That stringent laws are to be enacted for the punishment by fine 
or imprisonment in the State prison, or both, of individuals or cor- 
porations convicted of fraud or intimidation in election or of conniv- 
ance therein. 

We demand the initiative, the referendum and the right of recall. 

That the rights of women shall be co-equal with, the rights of men. 

That, since under the present system, poverty is the unavoidable 
condition of the many, therefore we demand the repeal of the law 
requiring the payment of the poll tax before being allowed to vote — 
holding that poverty should be no bar to participation in the gov- 
ernment. 

That the State Senate is an obstructive and unnecessary legislative 
body, and we favor its abolishment. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

That nowhere in the State shall the school year be less than six 
months. 

That sufficient school houses be erected to accommodate all chil- 
dren of school age, and every child under sixteen years of age be 
compelled to attend school one term every year. Widows dependent 
for support upon their children of school age shall be provided for by 
the State. 



268 Platforms of Political Paeties. 

That, the teeth, eyes, throat and lungs of all public-school children 
be examined on entering public school by a competent physician, and 
where treatment is found necessary, the same to be given at public 
expense. 

Wherever a child is found attending public school, suffering for 
a lack of proper food and clothing, the same shall be reported to the 
superintendent, who shall provide same at public expense, if investi- 
gation proves the report true. 

Women teachers shall be paid the same as men when holding the 
same grade certificates. All teachers shall pass examination on hy- 
giene in addition to their regular examination as teachers. 

general. 

A graduated income and inheritance tax. 

We demand the immediate repeal of the delinquent-tax law, known 
as the "Land-Grabbers" law: and that in its place a law be instituted 
designed to perpetually revert to the State all lands seized for delin- 
quent taxes. That said lands shall not be leased to private individ- 
uals or corporations. That five years be allowed the disposessed own- 
er to pay his tax and reclaim his land. 

A strict employers' liability law. 

That the State provide a suitable pension for public school teachers 
who, after twenty-five years of service, may wish to retire; also for 
all citizens over sixty years of age who may apply for same. 

That the State furnish to the farmers pure seed and fertilizers at 
cost; that the same, as far as possible, be produced in and by the 
State. 

That the State give employment to all its unemployed who, through 
no fault of their own, are out of work; and that, until this be done, 
all vagrancy laWs be repealed. 

That on all government and public corporation work the employees 
shall be paid their wages weekly at a legal union rate. Eight hours 
shall be a legal work day. 

That the State provide for a rigid factory and mine inspection. 

That the State establish — 

(a) A State printery, to be conducted under union rules, and that 
the State furnish public school pupils with books free of cost. 

(&) A free State employment bureau. 

(e) Life, fire, accident and industrial insurance at cost. 



State Socialist Platform. 269 

We oppose the leasing out of convicts to work in factories, mines or 
on roads in competition with non-convict labor. All prison-made 
goods shall be so designated; and that all county convicts, whether 
of county, city or State, when at work be paid the wages paid free 
labor for such work, less the cost of their maintenance; that the re- 
mainder be paid their families or dependents, but if without depend- 
ents or families it be paid them upon the expiration of their term of 
imprisonment, or be expended for their comfort during confinement, 
as they may elect. 



PART IX. 



ELECTION RETURNS. 



1. Vote for Peesidekt. 

2. Vote for Governor and Other State Officers. 

3. Vote for Congressmen. 

4. Vote on Constitutional Amendments. 



272 



Election Returns. 



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Vote for President. 



273 



CI t- f-" 'CO 



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« 



VOTE FOR 



Counties 



Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany. 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery.- 

Beaufort 

Bertie_.. 

Bladen 

Brunswick.,. 
Buncombe... 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell...... 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin ._ 

Durham 

Edgecombe. - 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston ._ 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke. 

Hvde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 



CI 
OS 

>, 

m 



1,923 

774 

709 

1,856 

1,513 



1900 






a 

s 

CI 



2,256 
938 
662 
673 

1,937 



a 



m 



38 
26 



a> 

03 
PL, 



1,907 

770 

699 

1,226 

1,254 



1904 



> 

CO 

o 
o 



1,770 
937 
543 
207 

1,651 



c 



2 
1 

'ii 

12 



2,316 
2,420 
1,102 

525 
3,724 
1,389 
1,485 
1,111 

498 
1,046 
1,342 
1,612 
1,489 

774 

898 

404 
2,228 
1,623 
2,028 
1,964 

927 

404 
1,823 

831 
1,879 
2,373 
3,009 
2,482 
2,781 
1,931 
1,125 

358 
2,288 
1,385 
3,335 
3,990 
1,342 
1,735 

973 
1,337 



1,799 

1,067 

1,192 

643 

4,140 

1,110 

1,112 

1,317 

535 

767 

1,277 

1,522 

2,240 

1,157 

932 

394 

1,311 

1,237 

1,502 

2,138 

435 

331 

2,329 

1,251 

1,081 

2,026 

1,635 

2,588 

1,602 

1,626 

564 

387 

1,587 

820 

3,296 

2,174 

1,199 

1,257 

1,482 

732 



20 
26 
35 
15 
41 
35 



4 
2 

158 

26 

6 



40 



11 



45 
43 
20 
19 
1 
27 
70 
58 



16 

7 

45 



1 

19 



1,803 


867 


1,264 


252 


927 


558 


564 


487 


3,181 


2,591 


1,080 


1,001 


1,509 


1,254 


1,169 


1,419 


389 


99 


1,012 


656 


874 


201 


1,497 


1,309 


1,551 


1,477 


663 


980 


573 


148 


336 


325 


2,162 


1,036 


1,447 


876 


1,555 


268 


1,594 


1,129 


543 


33 


415 


350 


2,017 


2,054 


739 


1,072 


1,386 


815 


1,603 


1,080 


1,588 


126 


2,301 


2,209 


2,099 


282 


1,958 


896 


677 


273 


362 


401 


1,595 


518 


949 


283 


2,763 


1,716 


2,427 


181 


1,169 


723 


1,631 


1,125 


887 


1,341 


778 


186 



4 
25 



42 
41 



277 
10 



28 
26 
46 
10 
49 
12 



6 
'21 
'31 



867 
2,523 
1,080 
3,154 

714 



798 
2,044 
1,047 
1,997 

602 



2 

17 
20 
17 



614 
2,126 
1,015 
2,572 

638 



318 
1,510 

947 
1,553 

250 



45 
10 



PRESIDENT. 



1908 



a 
m 



2,113 

793 

633 

1,490 

1,639 



1,828 

1,258 

1,132 

607 

3,506 

1,310 

1,610 

1,413 

398 

1,152 

820 

1,864 

1,521 

782 

621 

343 

2,282 

1,845 

1,399 

1,832 

701 

416 

2,126 

780 

1,508 

1,859 

1,753 

2,472 

1,984 

2,398 

653 

418 

1,561 

876 

3,822 

2,165 

1,501 

1,952 

917 

839 






2,184 

1,074 

576 

301 

1,674 



1,304 

360 

660 

841 

3,572 

1,358 



662 

2,465 

1,022 

2,593 

585 

832 



821 

745 

164 

1,060 

373 

2,010 

1,497 

1,310 

213 

321 

1,459 

1,381 

449 

1,453 

68 

370 

2,340 

1,185 

1,225 

1,820 

438 

2,876 

561 

1,970 

337 

465 

734 

538 

2,863 

380 

1,047 

1,304 

1,602 

353 



223 

1,803 

1,086 

2,827 

315 

562 



a 



54 



1912 



31 



131 



2,132 

852 

652 

1,487 

1,643 

217 

1,605 

1,571 

1,140 

777 

3,716 

1,365 

1,738 

1,627 

303 

1,153 

705 

2,110 

1,652 

906 

663 

372 

2,351 

1,668 

1,819 

1,678 

622 

397 

2,484 

823 

1,757 

2,197 

1,851 

3,042 

1,856 

2,333 

618 

416 

1,561 

894 

830 

300 

364 



3 
2 
1 
2,068 



,092 
742 
626 
636 
,528 
,210 
,757 
635 
862 






• 150 
523 
208 
125 
478 
138 
295 

43 

33 
280 
426 

48 
389 
482 

40 
218 
154 
203 

70 
734 

60 

17 

81 
155 

79 

235 

6 

238 

1,509 

810 

33 

124 

102 

1,689 

71 
244 

95 
261 
192 
124 
460 

42 
148 
354 
801 

61 

63 

76 

392 

315 

1,335 

35 
451 



1,637 

497 

266 

118 

1,241 

950 

548 

61 

511 

456 

2,285 

1,288 

1,684 

1,167 

62 

537 

45 

1,872 

1,343 

477 

77 

387 

943 

892 

190 

870 



80 

1,143 
345 

1,066 

1,204 
77 

1,262 
346 

1,279 
179 
223 
343 
152 

1,979 
136 

1,035 
861 
380 
105 
40 
300 

1,047 
729 

1,083 

125 

60 






10 



1 

2 
61 



101 



11 



10 



a 
O 



10 



3 
1 

49 

325 

1 

46 



43 



4 

'22 



1916 



26 
.... 



2,476 

954 

796 

2,046 

1,898 

360 

1,957 

1,461 

1,261 

810 

4,229 

1,621 

2,080 

1,725 

368 

1,165 

849 

2,569 

1,839 

1,362 

610 

400 

2,764 

2,143 

1,780 

1,971 

945 

470 

2,675 

910 

1,824 

2,463 

2,028 

4,115 

2,057 

3,019 

826 

476 

1,713 

1,066 

4,616 

2,312 

1,992 

2,403 

1,166 

977 

780 

840 

3,335 

1,306 

3,468 

712 

1,064 



bO 



2,278 

1,187 

641 

301 

1,939 

1,158 

1,274 

116 

651 

989 

3,830 

1,474 

2,314 

1,659 

86 

1,246 

338 

2,624 

1,601 

1,362 

91 

463 

1,497 

1,327 

642 

1,217 

87 

363 

2,801 

1,245 

1,527 

1,837 

135 

3,585 

396 

2,542 

309 

460 

648 

294 

3,670 

299 

1,603 

1,523 

1,796 

209 

110 

277 

2,073 

1,288 

2.857 

233 

573 



ffl 



a 



22 



4 
14 



10 



12 
6 



24 
238 



11 



44 
1 



276 



Electiox Retukns. 



VOTE FOR 



Counties 



Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg- - 

Mitchell- 

Montgomery-. 

Moore 

Nas"h 

New Hanover. 
Northampton- 
Onslow 

Orange,- 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank--- 

Pender-. 

Perquimans--. 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham-.. 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanlv 

Stokes 

Surry -.. 

Swain 

Transylvania- - 

Tyrrell 

L'nion 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wavne 

Wilkes -.. 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey _. 



a 
P3 



1,492 

892 

977 

1,268 

1,819 

1,014 

3,786 

491 

1,100 

1,606 

2,600 

2,247 

1,992 

1,322 

1,275 

597 

1,196 

1,137 

830 

1,466 

3,264 

484 

2,264 

1,264 

3,280 

2,652 

2,460 

2,081 

1,257 

925 

1,265 

1,443 

1,898 

590 

529 

466 

1,790 

1,233 

4,774 

1,573 

834 

923 

3,104 

1,704 

2,816 

950 

954 



Totals 157,733 



1900 



1904 



"a 
3 

o 



1,224 

1,133 

1,035 

2,377 

1,088 

1,024 

2,234 

1,958 

920 

2,029 

1,337 

60 

1,587 

618 

1,280 

729 

1,282 

543 

846 

1,274 

2,156 

652 

2,487 

504 

1,144 

2,252 

1,555 

1,981 

2,002 

44 

792 

1.798 

2,451 

782 

622 

383 

864 

881 

3,947 

1,337 

784 

1,439 

1,965 

2,840 

1,194 

1,733 

1,082 



tit 

a 



03 
o 

m 



.22 
4 




10 



7 
36 

7 
28 

5 



3 
275 

1 
155 

2 



22 
50 
15 



2 
37 

2 
2 

7 



132,997 



1,727 



a 

c3 
« 



1,386 

1,009 

904 

994 

1,419 

836 

3,142 

408 

937 

1,424 

1,428 

1,254 

1,509 

828 

900 

574 

947 

903 

610 

942 

2,329 

497 

2,334 

927 

2,274 

1,934 

2,424 

1,860 

1,079 

646 

1,024 

1,104 

1,741 ; 

499 

556 

343 

1,181 

1,019 

3,410 

1,060 

450 

773 

2,060 

1,318 

1,363 

691 

1,013 



o 

o 

Pi 



674 

761 

987 

1,959 

216 

931 

748 

1,384 

858 

1,178 

645 

91 

116 

451 

558 

438 

275 

168 

378 

473 

429 

559 

1,808 

306 

982 

1,276 

1,215 

1,322 

1,777 

65 

1,080 

1,478 

2,475 

828 

526 

367 

379 

443 

1,267 

165 

428 

1,143 

1,162 

2,470 

623 

1,433 

864 



a 



1 

11 
4 



25 
43 



23 
6 



56 
25 



17 



21 



6 

19 
20 



20 

6 

23 

17 



31 
34 



124,121 



82,442 



1,180 



Vote for President. 



271 



PRESIDENT— Continued. 



1908 


1912 




19H 






a 




a 
■c 


a 


i 


C3 


-(J 

1 

CD 

§ 



CO 

Q 


a 

IS 




a 


i 


3 


m 


>> 


1 393 


966 

1,217 

1,045 

2,027 

421 

1,000 

1,645 

1,808 

1,087 

1,077 

1,334 

511 

186 

710 

1,073 

601 

405 

373 

502 

969 

890 

621 

2,676 

462 

1,300 

2,008 

2,009 

1,766 

2,465 

85 

1,685 

1,711 

2,870 

931 

611 

395 

834 

. 641 

2,960 

296 

556 

1,313 

1,604 

3,382 

1,014 

1 644 


3 

'""12" 
'""26' 

'"'ll' 
35 


1,568 

1,280 

1,020 

897 

1,251 

1,037 

3,967 

385 

1,012 

1,167 

1,862 

2,021 

1,625 

901 

997 

694 

972 

967 

647 

820 

2,303 

675 

2,665 

1,319 

2,706 

1,939 

2,748 

2,180 

1,265 

761 

1,702 

1,144 

1,919 

766 

631 

297 

1,786 

1,204 

3,996 

987 

503 

933 

2,293 

1,636 

1,741 

713 

1,112 


122 

49 
134 
430 
229 
343 
284 
203 
144 
262 
172 
140 

57 

66 
172 

74 

77 

19 
228 
784 
347 
153 
370 

82 
154 
694 
280 

82 

■ 84 

9 

105 

1,450 

2,277 

220 

107 

224 

92 
168 
282 
112 
384 
420 

95 
331 

82 
791 

60 


347 

1,066 

841 

1,320 

34 

773 

533 

716 

846 

678 

676 

107 

63 

650 

821 

329 

184 

268 

44 

184 

433 

501 

1,809 

174 

660 

778 

1,537 

1,653 

2,520 

75 

1,548 

2in 

608 
858 
537 
100 
457 
234 

1,617 

46 

149 

819 

1,090 

2,571 
661 
599 

1,336 






1,666 


667 

1,369 

1,069 

1,965 

281 

1,218 

1,257 

1,298 

1,196 

1,047, 

826 

492 

45 

785 

1,168 

627 

270 

400 

288 

917 

719 

760 

3,031 

650 

1,453 

1,957 

2,320 

1,871 

2,727 

137 

1,941 

1,852 

2,977 

1,128 

841 

392 

702 

558 

2,461 

227 

486 

1,362 

1,446 

3,470 

730 

1,721 

1,082 


2 

8 




1,222 
927 


3 


12 


1,621 
1,146 

972 
1,472 
1,274 
4,508 

462 
1,222 
1,337 
2,189 
2,355 


1 


862 










1,338 
950 

3,926. 
550 










10 
38 




...... 


2 


1.008 
1,109 
1,678 
1 867 










17 
42 




22 
19 




1 726 






1,518 
1,197 
1,230 






870 








4 


1,017 


4 
20 






628 
929 




710 

1,177 

970 

645 

963 

2,839 

679 

2,747 

1,563 

2,864 

2,316 

3,053 

2,445 

1,369 

938 

2,110 

1,569 

2,029 

829 

821 

416 

2,662 

1,461 

4,627 

1,217 

661 

1,141 

2,625 

1,632 

2,052 

879 

1,273 


18 


. 


930 








568 








1 


750 








2,419 

511 

2,472 

1 029 


3 
1 
6 
3 


.--... 






1 


3 


2,698 
1,887 






,51 
50 

7 


9 
7 
1 






2 392 






1,978 






1,335 


...... 




714 








1,491 






5 
21 
12 


4 


1,061 
1,709 


22 


1 




602 








570 


1 
4 

19 








312 






2,029 
1,121 


4 




3,713 
1,066 


12 




6 




495 










962 


2 
16 


...... 






2,207 
1 559 


3 


2 


1,732 










597 










978 


950 























136,928 


114,887 


345 


144,507 


29,139 


69,130 


1,025 


117 


168,383 


120,890 


509 


63 



VOTK BY ( 01>TIES FOR (liOVERNOK IN DEMOCRATIC 
PRIMARY, JUNE 3, 1916. 



Counties 


Bickett 


3 

Q 


Alamance _ _ _ _ . 


386 
214 
124 

1,4.58 
200 
131 
708 
971 
644 
216 

1,.398 
398 
295 
347 
368 
710 
509 
614 
697 
231 
271 
98 

1,012 

1,081 
563 
644 
280 
190 

1,115 
316 
662 
968 
353 
663 

1,528 

1,186 
118 
185 
818 
688 

1,212 

1,495 
640 

1,258 
261 
582 
283 
178 

1,555 
479 
980 
238 
480 ' 
599 
559 


67 


Alexander _._ _ _ . . . . _-.... 


14 


Alleghany „ . . . . 


18 


Anson - - 


276 


Ashe . _ - 


22 


Avery - _ _ _. .. . . _ . 


16 


Beaufort _... 


376 


Bertie _. 


689 


Bladen ._ 


.306 


Brunswick _ .... . 


247 


Buncombe . . . 


1,943 


Burke . .. ._ . _ . 


531 


Cabarrus .. . . ... 


89 


Caldwell . . 


181 


Camden.. . ._ .. 


84 


Carteret .. .... 


123 


Caswell 


161 


Catawba.. .. ... 


111 


Chatham, ....... 


212 


Cherokee. .. ..... . .. . .... .. .. 


90 


Chowan . .. ...._._.. 


78 


Clay- 


32 


Cleveland .. . . ... 


671 


Columbus.- .... - 


826 




268 


Cumberland- . . . . . 


968 




406 


Dare .. ... 


46 


Davidson.- - ._ 


237 


Davie . . ..... 


39 


Duplin.- .- .... ... _ .. .. 


436 


Durham - - . . 


605 




1,181 


Forsvth . 


295 




■ 527 


Gaston.- .... ......... 


364 


Gates . . 


41 


Graham. .. 


19 


Granville.- . 


565 


Greene. . . ..... 


73 


Guilford . . ... ... . . ._ 


1,010 


Halifax 


396 




375 


Havwood 


704 


Henderson ..... . . .. 


313 


Hertford... ... . ... . .......... 


258 


Hoke .... 


346 


Hvde 


139 


Iredell 


915 


Jackson .. . 


76 


Johnston . _ ....... 


848 


.Jones 


102 


Lee 


140 


Lenoir ... 


650 


Lincoln . . . 


74 



Vote for Goverxok. 



279 



Counties 


CI 

s 


o 

3 

Q 


Alacon *- - - 


280 
148 
197 
237 

1,742 
93 
558 
516 
619 
813 

1,267 
458 
374 
238 
746 
586 
306 
363 
869 
191 
811 

1,294 

1,830 
940 
800 

1,093 
435 
583 
232 
245 
394 
254 
81 
63 

1,850 
865 

2,483 
888 
172 
201 

1,030 
549 
922 
237 
111 


20 




194 


Martin - 


280 


McDowell - --- 


268 


Meoklenburff - 


1,207 


Mitchell . ._ _ . 


42 


Montffomerv - - - - - - 


114 


Moore - - 


486 


Nash 


1,021 


New Hanover - - - 


1,587 




428 


On*^low -- - - - - - - 


236 


Orange - - - - 


199 




95 


Pasouotank _ _ _ _ 


379 


Pender _ - - - - 


348 


Perouimans - - - - - 


117 




227 


Pitt - - - - - - 


1,052 


Polk - - --- - 


174 




311 


Piohniond. _ - _ _ _ 


394 




669 




376 




755 




530 




73 


Scotland - -- 


300 




76 


Stokes - - - - -- - - -- 


39 




148 




121 




209 


Tyrrell 


20 




303 




536 




1,765 




471 




164 




5 




441 


Wilkes - - - 


411 




647 


Vadkin - - - -. -- . - 


59 




141 








63,121 


37,017 







570/7 



lOC^i,y 



> 













VOTE FOR 




G 


svernor. 1900 


Superintendent Public 
Instruction, 1902 


Counties 


o 
c 
o 

< 
m 

CO 

o 
a 
O 


71 

< 
ffl 

£ 


u 


■a 
o 

1-5 

tn 

B 
c3 
►-5 


c 
o 

< 

'c 

03 

Q 


& 
C 
O 

s 

o: 

1-5 


Alamance _ 


2,488 

892 

784 

2,015 

1,659 


2,321 

1,027 

607 

522 

1,969 


18 
8 


1,895 
881 
701 


1,487 
908 
536 




Alexander . .. 




Alleghany 




Anson 




1,293 i 59 
1,449 • 1,530 




Ashe .- 


2 




Avery... 




Beaufort 

Bertie... . ... .. ... 


.. 

2,933 
2,675 
1,589 

915 
4,332 
1,509 
1,915 
1,248 

545 
1,363 
1,421 
2,008 
1,755 

778 
1,055 

388 
2,652 
2,178 
2,611 
2,719 
1,002 

524 
2,406 

956 
2,125 
2,765 
3,758 
2,913 
3,021 
2,514 
1,232 

396 
2,540 
1,474 
4,071 
6,618 
1,515 
- 1,736 
1,J21 
1,'368 


1,525 

996 

1,375 

948 

3,401 

1,171 

1,550 

1,272 

567 

957 

1,313 

1,863 

1,894 

1,080 

948 

418 

1,172 

1,201 

932 

1,629 

374 

406 

2,275 

1,367 

1,297 

2,170 

385 

2,432 

1,831 

1,584 

603 

343 

1,527 

774 

3,343 

877 

1,339 

1,244 

1,468 

429 


g' 
.. 

13 

.- 

2 
14 
2 

7 

3 

19 
24 

2 
10 

8 

7 

1 
18 


1,719 ! 172 
1,443 82 
1,057 1 505 

637 ! 323 
3,246 1 2,483 
1,239 ' 733 
1,417 1 1,186 
1,143 : 1,019 

486 i 95 




Bladen 




Brunswick 




Buncombe ._ 





Burke 




Cabarrus _ 




Caldwell 




Camden 




Carteret ... 


903 

1,099 

1,658 

1,537 

631 

762 

352 

2,379 

1,571 

1,420 

1,741 

829 

466 

1,961 

872 


613 

175 

1,391 

1,351 

855 

60 

307 

745 

600 

92 

873 

6 

366 

1,866 

998 




Caswell 




Catawba 

Chatham . ... ... 




Cherokee . ... . . 




Chowan .... 




Clay.. 




Cleveland. . . . ... 




Columbus 

Craven 




Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie _. . . 




Duplin .. 


1,588 711 




Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin _ 

Gaston 

Gates - - 


1,821 
1,720 
2,304 
2,253 
2,057 
763 
386 
1,754 


888 
32 
1,952 
384 
589 
171 
363 
491 




Graham 

Granville 




24 




Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax . 


1,091 1 196 
3,094 1 1,265 
2 , 288 59 





Harnett ^ 

Haywood .'. . _ .^ . . . 

Henderson . .. .-_ .^ 


6 
2 

1 


1,294 

1,628 

948 

1,004 


639 

1,153 

1,166 

85 




Hertford . 




Hoke . . 






Hvde . 


>•-* 971 

2,779 
1,118 
3,777 


905 
2,319 
1,025 
1,750 




723 
2,295 

968 
2,861 


192 
1,121 

886 
924 




Iredell 

Jackson 


6 




Johnston. 





STATE OFFICERS. 



Governor, 1904 


Corporation Com- 
missioner, 1906 


Prohibition 


May, 1908 


a 
a 

V 

O 

m 

o 


o 


a 

o 

m 


'S 

3 
d 


O 
Q 


£•■!. 
S ° 

lis 

h s « 

g 5j O 


catK S 
«^ 5 ^ 


1,922 
784 


1,778 
919 
520 
155 

1,638 


7 


1,879 

885 

726 

1,150 

1,528 


1,851 

924 

458 

54 

1,495 


946 
697 
396 
464 
540 


2,097 
667 


723 




1K4 


1,247 




1,008 


1,278 


11 


985 


i 943 


770 
148 
528 
415 

2,523 
995 

1,249 

1,372 

36 

608 

195 

1,433 

1,443 

989 

95 

326 

1,046 
741 
206 

1,038 

26 

351 

2,002 

1,058 
820 

1,034 
135 

2,152 
266 
816 
218 
397 
502 
262 

1.718 
144 
705 

1,09S 

1,320 
143 




1,658 

906 

1,082 

693 

3,007 

1,213 

1,595 

1,309 

312 

964 

1,809 

1,769 

569 

804 

519 

314 

1,904 

1,580 

1,226 

1,530 

427 

431 

2,118 

720 

1,609 

1,459 

1,463 

2,457 

1,869 

1,756 

671 

403 

1,629 

906 

3,254 

1,916 

1,298 

1,663 

848 

586 


768 

67 

449 

625 

2,162 

1,005 

1,416 

1,409 

42 

701 

150 

1,560 

1,162 

902 

42 

288 

988 

1,017 

134 

704 

30 

354 

2,000 

1,047 

741 

822 

137 

2,149 

200 

652 

180 

410 

478 

213 

1.685 

149 

800 

858 

1,204 

113 


959 

686 

223 

384 

593 

546 

1,232 

627 

217 

559 

518 

951 

635 

118 

298 

23 

195 

907 

799 

952 

167 

7 

1,613 

498 

1,138 

1,909 

1,100 

1,101 

1,098 

643 

348 

60 

598 

369 

1,849 

808 

869 

81 

191 

258 


1,491 


1,327 




808 


999 




1,007 


631 




499 


3,253 
1,110 
1,538 


27 
3 


4,263 
1,239 
1,356 


1,222 
412 


12 


1,240 
176 


1 020 




877 


870 




323 


1,537 

1,616 

673 


23 
1 


1,784 
1,299 
1,646 


625 




432 


346 




343 


2,209 




2,114 


1,610 




1,062 


1,614 




845 


1,678 




1,524 


548 




478 


429 




462 


2,154 

764 

1 456 


19 
3 


1,934 

925 

1,121 


1,716 
1,632 


12 


1,278 
888 


2,421 
2 149 


90 


2,668 
1,080 


2,029 
736 


9 


2,058 
452 


373 




224 


1,589 




1,045 


990 




793 


2,924 
2,478 


5 


3.445 
1,169 


1,656 


4 


944 
1,928 


906 




1,212 


804 




653 








686 


228 

1,507 

950 

' 1,513 




587 
2,406 

974 
2,442 


229 
1,539 

909 
2,088 


120 

985 

38 

3,237 


550 


2,147 
1,021 

2.586 


6 
1 


2,169 
1,032 
1,647 



282 



Electio-n Retukxs. 



VOTE FOR STATE 





Governor, 1908 


Governor, 1912 


Counties 


a 
S 

£ 
.2 


X 

o 
O 

■a 
o 
o 

& 

s 


2 

53 


'3 
(-1 
O 

S 

o 


-*^ 

a> 

CO 

s 

o 


'a 

-3 






'^ 


-; 


CO 


ij 


H 


1— t 


ffi 


.\lamance 


2,220 

793 

643 

1,538 

1,700 


2,130 

1,076 

541 

263 

1,701 


2 


2,168 

871 

676 

1,513 

1,700 

227 

1,825 

1,636 

1,229 

827 

3,875 

1,375 

1,864 

1,661 

317 

1,165 

830 

2,136 

1,683 

949 

695 

381 

2,398 

1,894 

1,859 

1,788 

629 

391 

2,505 

835 

1,829 

2,264 

1,823 

3,119 

1,941 

2,363 

640 

431 

1,670 

921 

3,874 

2,334 

1,409 

2,087 

1,086 

764 

658 

685 

2,649 

1,233 

2,959 


324 

852 

366 

135 

1,027 

172 

293 

28 

43 

380 

1,045 

91 

1,094 

593 

29 

222 

202 

300 

155 

1,165 

48 

9 

114 

343 

118 

499 

21 

243 

2,118 

1,082 

46 

349 

93 

2,646 

113 

390 

110 

411 

289 

163 

661 

40 

208 

561 

695 

88 

24 

59 

512 

764 

1,761 


1,416 
141 
103 

80 
641 
847 
482 

57 
414 
201 
1,493 
1,211 
782 
828 

48 
489 

10 
1,763 
1,219 

74 

60 
386 
845 
424 
135 
480 
4 

14 
567 

68 
970 
932 

43 

312 

202 

1,076 

100 

72 
198 

99 
1,685 
120 
901 
625 
805 

53 

32 

236 

1,000 

220 

507 


10 


.Alexander ^ 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe. 

Averv 





Beaufort _. 

Bertie. 

Bladen.. 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke. 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 


1,914 

1,328 

1,213 

671 

3,629 

1,353 

1,616 

1,476 

405 

1,173 

878 

1,961 

1,594 

823 

658 

348 

2,304 

2,056 

1,520 

2,019 

734 

443 

2,231 

802 

1,642 

1,962 

1,839 

2,653 

2,093 

2,568 

700 

422 

1,746 

915 

3,948 

2,285 

1,550 

1,983 

998 

880 


1,209 

274 

599 

774 

3,434 

1,315 

1,817 

1,685 

141 

998 

323 

2,012 

1,428 

1,273 

176 

318 

1,452 

1,192 

340 

1,250 

49 

354 

2,481 

1,163 

1,139 

1,693 

392 

2,782 

432 

1,820 

278 

461 

592 

504 

2,765 

276 

1,012 

1,253 

1,497 

291 


29 

48" 

1 

._ 

.- 

3 

.. 

.. 
....... 

'""lis' 

37' 
1 
1 


72 

78 
2 
5 

12 


Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba . . . 


2 


Chatham . . . . 


2 


Cherokee 

Chowan.. . 




Clav . - 




Cleveland 




Columbus. .... 




Craven .. 




Cumberland ... 


7 


Currituck 




Dare 

Davidson _ . 


3 

5 


Davie 

Duplin.. 

Durham. .... 


15 
3 

6 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth.. 


49 
301 


Franklin 

Gaston . 


1 
39 


Gates 

Graham . . 




Granville 

Greene.. . . . 




Guilford... 

Halifax 


39 


Harnett 


10 


Havwood 

Henderson 


4 

2 


Hertford... 

Hoke. 




Hvde.. 

Iredell 


701 
2,533 
1,028 
2,816 


177 
1,746 
1,073 
2,596 


i" 

3 


. 


Jackson.. ._ . ...• 


4 


Johnston.. _. 





Vote for State Officers. 



283 



OFFICERS— Continued. 



United States Senator, 1914 



Corporation Com- 
missioner, 1914 



Governor, 191p 



> 
O 






1,942 

930 

715 

865 

1,817 

247 

1,149 

744 

957 

757 

3,751 

1,395 

1,896 

1,612 

140 

1,113 

635 

2,186 

1,589 

887 

329 

357 

1,960 

1,592 

839 

1,298 

687 

344 

2,271 

770 

1,403 

1,455 

892 

3,327 

953 

2,070 

598 

440 

1,137 

622 

2,555 

1,058 



,391 

1,958 

1,002 

418 

444 

233 

2.814 

1,159 

2,504 



a 



1,528 

1,139 

503 

94 

1,753 

919 

534 

34 

614 

826 

2,620 

1,247 

2,039 

1,461 

11 

582 

115 

2,380 

1,172 

1,129 

2 

406 

1,064 

579 

129 

891 

18 

288 

2,349 

1,086 

1,122 

574 

53 

2,977 

128 

1,605 

156 

397 

183 

160 

1,461 

26 

1,576 

1,174 

1,523 

39 

34 

31 

1,643 

1,054 

2,242 



6 

1-5 



49 



5 
7 
3 
3 
19 
213 



50 
2 






1,936 

929 

713 

864 

1,810 

246 

1,146 

744 

907 

757 

3,771 

1,400 

1,897 

1,612 

140 

1,065 

637 

2,174 

1,591 

886 

328 

357 

1,960 

1,490 

839 

1,294 

687 

344 

2,269 

765 

1,400 

1,468 

896 

3,328 

953 

2,068 

598 

440 

1,134 

612 

2,504 

1,048 

1,390 

1,957 

1,003 

417 

443 

233 

2,800 

1,159 

2,502 



c4 



o 



1,531 

1,140 

503 

94 

1,754 

850 

534 

33 

614 

826 

2,620 

1,253 

2,043 

1,469 

11 

453 

115 

2,427 

1,175 

1,130 

2 

406 

1,064 

527 

125 

892 

18 

288 

2,349 

1,087 

1,108 

578 

61 

2,981 

129 

1,604 

156 

397 

183 

160 

1,452 

29 

1,576 

1,172 

1,524 

38 

34 

31 

1,641 

1,054 

2,243 



a 



O 



m 



49 



5 
7 
3 
3 
19 
213 



48 
2 



2,483 

922 

784 

2,047 

1,889 

324 

1,949 

1,475 

1,269 

825 

4,487 

1,585 

2,091 

1,724 

374 

1,142 

838 

2,547 

1,813 

1,003 

604 

398 

2,705 

2,192 

1,787 

1,996 

921 

458 

2,647 

901 

1,836 

2,505 

2,018 

4,108 

2,092 

3,019 

800 

475 

1,702 

1,062 

4,588 

2,337 

1,979 

2,376 

1,154 

967 

794 

792 

3,290 

1,302 

3,227 



a 

03 



2,293 
1,208 

616 

274 

1,950 

1,283 

1,256 

60 

598 

981 
3,835 
1,484 
2,308 
1,707 
64 
1,263 

342 

2,685 

1,514 

1,361 

80 

464 
1,469 
1,245 

507 

1,173 

72 

375 
2,814 
1,259 
1,516 
1,786 

117 
3,629 

381 
2,531 

287 

460 

642 

286 
3,643 

246 
1,624 
1,526 
1,794 

178 
85 

284 
2,076 
1,293 
2,946 



S 
J 



63 
"3 



18 
3 



4 
13 



13 



6 

25 

215 



47 
1 
9 



284 



Electiox REiruxs. 



VOTE FOR STATE 





Governor, 1900 


Superintendent Public 
Instruction, 1902 


Counties 


«■ 
m 

S 

O 


e 

03 

< 
m 

a 
a 


a 

03 


u 

c 
>i 

o 

£ 


a 
o 

■< 

"3 

03 

Q 


o 
c 
o 
<-i 

s 

E 

03 
1-5 


Jones 


906 


694 




664 


143 




Lee.- -- -. -. 






Lenoir 


2,101 
1,341 
1,044 
1,176 
2,002 
1,174 
5,095 

413 
1,341 
1,890 
2,957 
2,963 
2,438 
1,548 
1,471 

657 
1,502 
1,260 

959 
1,607 
3,433 

534 
2,468 
1 , 645 
4,100 
2,913 
3,157 
2,389 
1,356 
1,065 
1,453 
1,519 
2,154 

540 

596 

591 
2,379 
1,304 
5,732 
2,133 

976 
1,055 
3,828 
1,435 
2,916 
1,011 

986 


1,123 

1,288 




1,624 i 181 






Lincoln _._ 




1.168 701 




Macon-. 

Madison --•. 


1,059 L-- .-! 917 937 

2,374 1 ; 1,088 1,996 

990 1 1.480 38 

1,034 812 803 




Martin _.- .. _. 




McDowell .. 




Mecklenburg- ._ 

Mitchell 


1,627 
1,940 

868 

1,875 

1,360 

3 

1,096 

637 
1,469 

599 

926 




2,997 
385 


570 

1,271 

743 

fl78 

565 

63 

62 

145 

439 

304 

142 

94 

263 

445 


1 


Montgomery 




1,110 
1,664 
1,840 
1,393 
1,694 
1,092 
1,081 

546 
1,105 
1,055 

718 
1,146 
2,683 

507 
2,509 

966 




Moore 


1 




Nash 




New Hanover .. 






Northampton 






Onslow .- 






Orange. 






Pamlico . . . . 






Pasquotank 






Pender ... 


276 

732 

1,286 

2,096 

650 

2,513 

18.5 

557 

1,946 

1,519 

2,092 

1,954 

25 

837 

1,944 

2,594 


6 




Perquimans. . . 




Person 






Pitt . 

Polk 


2 


33 

475 




-- 


Randolph 

Richmond. .• 


30 


2,188 
271 




-- 


Robeson- ,- 




2,675 871 
2,297 752 




Rockingham . . 






Rowan . .. . 


87 


2,290 907 






Rutherford 


1,933 1,153 
1,283 ! 1,728 
764 : 44 
1,285 1 714 
1,275 ; 1,436 
1,929 2.200 






Sampson 

Scotland .. 


2 


-- 


Stanly 






Stokes -. - - 






Surry. . .. . 






Swain . 


816 


527 
531 
471 

1,212 
983 

4,198 


722 
500 
186 
124 
322 
757 




Transylvania 


607 
410 

660 






Tyrrell 






Union .. .... 






Vance .. . 


944 

4,448 4 
1,069 ; 






Wake- 




Warren -. . 


1,059 68 
635 182 




Washington- 


571 ; 
1,411 
1,878 
2,257 
1,430 






Watauga.- . 




944 1,243 




Wayne 


12 


2,653 590 

1,468 1 2,243 

1,810 I 544 

810 1,460 

937 1 930 






Wilkes 




Wilson . 






Yadkin 


1,821 9 
1,081 i 






Yancey. . .- 








Totals .-- 


186,650 


126,296 367 


135,840 68,209 




1 



Vote for State Officers. 



285 



OFFICERS— Continued. 



Governor, 1904 


Corporation Com- 
missioner, 1906 


Prohibition 


, May, 1908 










OQ 


2 -a 

S d "> 




a 


■a 




3 


53 

■a 


ij3 

b'5 m 


a 
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bO 


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3 
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P 


a o CT 


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■5 <u g £ 


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o =s o 


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662 


228 




605 


171 


286 

95 

639 


423 




_. 


639 


i',m' 


'631" 




' 1^484' 


583" 


1,134 


1,062 


711 


2 


1,205 


807 


195 


1,175 


924 


963 


1 


882 


922 


70 


841 


1,012 


1,929 
179 
917 




824 
1,327 
. 842 


1,552 
255 
862 


120 

1,032 

187 


1,715 


1,446 


_.- 


590 


856 




1,093 


3,229 


668 


5 


2,383 


449 


1,151 


3,069 


417 


1,361 

824 




290 
1,038 


1,156 

945 


43 
620 


1,276 


967 


.- 


720 


1,487 


1,127 


4 


1,653 


1,052 


352 


792 


1,489 


577 
56 
103 
439 
556 
397 
211 




1,623 
1,286 
1,088 
894 
875 
582 
776 


364 
65 
91 
276 
489 
415 
141 


1,261 
1,508 
332 
1,273 
926 
429 
578 


1,264 


1,284 




1,347 


1,539 




1,206 


908 




490 


952 




612 


612 


-. 


504 


1,001 




606 


972 


124 
311 




917 
595 


98 
277 


416 

404 


657 


663 


i' 


411 


94£ 


558 
439 




837 
2,342 


567 
630 


682 
845 


547 


2,298 


.- 


1,809 


502 


552 
1,894 




483 
2,395 


531 

2,267 


107 
813 


431 


2,409 


--- 


2,146 


955 


274 

846 

1,214 

1,198 




681 
2,470 
1,862 
2,324 


184 

687 

1,283 

1,293 


432 

347 

1,496 

1,851 


674 


2,449 




2,275 


2,023 




1,624 


2,497 


-. 


2,493 


1,873 


1,294 
1,776 




1,894 
1,199 


1,382 
1,823 


426 
955 


1,559 


1,046 


i 


1,557 


662 


54 
1,060 
1,483 




593 
1,515 
1,220 


43 
1,366 
1,516 


48 
1,320 
1,264 


576 






1,044 


1,117 


— 

1 


819 


1,833 


2,408 


6 


1,827 


2,316 


1,755 


1,461 


521 


804 
500 
274 
297 
428 
1,091 




514 
515 
413 
856 
1,044 
3,354 


844 
450 
237 
95 
401 
960 


105 
178 
337 
638 
475 
3,188 


610 


587 




380 


392 




186 


1,233 




1,737 


1,042 




892 


3,647 


7' 


2,445 


1,185 


134 


2 


822 


141 


395 


667 


500 


354 
1,233 




495 
843 


395 
1,192 


387 
157 


445 


898 


5 


1,106 


2,091 


1,114 


26 


2,158 


941 


1,352 


1,520 


1,360 


2,437 


1 


1,507 


2,600 


2,521 


1,225 


1,387 


586 
1,411 




1,547 

578 


426 
1,313 


734 
1,131 


1,503 


703 


r 


673 


1,035 


938 




1,012 


804 


10 


1,210 








128,761 


79,505 


349 


123,272 


77,017 


69,416 


113,612 



286 



Dlectiox Reti'rxs. 



VOTE FOR STATE 





Governor, 1908 




Governor, 1912 




Counties 




o 

O 




M 






to 




s 


O 
O 




O 


03 




o 




.s 


s 






E 

o 


13 


w 










o 


J3 








g: 


^ 


m 


>A 


H 


hH 


a 


Jones 


631 


272 : 


694 


76 


66 




Lee.. 


912 


501 


888 


95 


386 




Lenoir 


1,490 


896 


1,666 


214 


201 




Lincoln 


1,286 


1,180 


1,324 


67 


1,015 


5 


Macon 


940 


1,017 ' 2 


1,056 


314 


614 




Madison 


878 


2,001 ! 


925 


842 


900 




Martin.-- - 


1,385 


360 


1,264 


231 


18 





McDowell 


973 


984 '......-. 


1,062 


886 


189 


7 


Mecklenburg 


4,233 


1,385 1 2 


4,110 


452 


342 


30 


Mitchell .- 


010 


1,797 1 


412 


177 


717 




Montgomery 


1,047 


1,047 ; 


1,132 


291 


668 




Moore- 


1,219 


976 


11 


1,208 


464 


410 


18 


Nash- . 


1,848 
2,110 
1,691 


1,222 
283 
121 


1 


1,922 
1,990 
1,672 


200 

211 

43 


426 
69 
42 


39 


New Hanover . . 




Northampton 




Onslow. 


988 
1,077 


559 : 1 
1,014 • 2 


904 
1,096 


55 
516 


444 
468 




Orange 


2 


Pamlico.-- 


671 


478 : 18 


703 


108 


279 


17 


Pasquotank 


1,048 


265 


1,011 


61 


117 




Pender 


1,019 


294 


988 


21 


234 




Perquimans 


598 
890 


427 


686 


310 
811 


42 
62 




Person 


847 1 847 




Pitt 


2,500 


811 2,420 


457 


239 


4 


Polk 


536 


594 ; 


676 


621 


5 


1 


Randolph -.. 


2,546 


2,647 4 


2,828 


475 


1,759 




Richmond 


1,106 


366 


1,357 


116 


85 


4 


Robeson 


3,005 


1,115 


3,103 


211 


344 




Rockingham 


2,039 


1,883 10 1,997 


899 


453 


57 




2,719 
2,011 
1,400 


1,723 2.839 


808 
165 
176 


961 
1,423 
2,366 


27 


Ruthertord . . 


1,739 

2,423 i 


2,241 
1,289 











752 
1,537 
1.123 


47 1 

1,630 i 

1,671 1 5 


774 
1,742 
1,168 


8 

600 

1,585 


48 

1,005 

48 




Stanlv - -. - - 


i 


Stokes 


21 


Surrv 


1,820 


2,781 i 2 


2,006 


2,529 


288 


6 


Swain . . - 


614 
600 


902 

579 


799 
640 


789 
310 


246 
321 




Transylvania 


1 


Tvrrell 


357 


345 


382 


309 


43 




L'nion 


2,086 


701 1 


1,724 


114 


326 


19 


Vance 


1,187 


587 : 


■ 1,223 


199 


151 


1 


Wake-. 


4,149 


2,583 




4,221 


593 


943 


10 


Warren 


1,171 


191 




1,044 


88 


22 




Washington. . 


534 

998 

2,274 

1,599 

1,905 


526 
1,279 
1,450 
3,331 

831 




509 

981 

2,390 

1,622 

1,877 


471 
723 
131 
528 
65 


39 

455 

948 

2,332 

442 




Watauga . 





Wavne 


2 


Wilkes 




Wilson 




Yadkin.- 


718 


1,649 




774 


1,068 


426 




Yancey 


1,002 


912 




1,150 


50 


1,028 




Totals 


145,102 


107,760 1 313 149,975 


43,625 


49,930 


944 



Vote for State Officer.s. 



287 



OFFICERS— Continued. 



United States Senator, 1914 


Corporation Com- 
missioner, 1914 


Governor, 1916 


C3 

e 

> 

O 


c 
a 

< 


> 

O 


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> 

T3 

w 


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o 

s 

Ph 

o 


2 

13 

d 

1-5 

d 


m 

CO 

£ 

O 

H 


>> 

o 
a 
a 

a 
us 


H- 1 


353 


79 

560 

320 

1 , 134 

930 

1,441 

125 

1,003 

1,044 

930 

1,027 

854 

208 

50 

15 

390 

850 

146 

100 

232 

308 

653 

242 

664 

2,183 

132 

527 

1,306 

1,689 

1,724 

2,688 

32 

1,640 

1,613 

2,678 

1,011 

697 

372 

322 

214 

980 

58 

451 

1 , 150 

1,226 

2,811 

276 

1,340 

1,006 




352 

848 

916 

1,215 

942 

822 

777 

1,120 

3,329 

419 

1,151 

1,215 

1,003 

768 

874 

719 

952 

414 

454 

789 

587 

867 

1,891 

649 

2,323 

1,201 

1,821 

1,738 

2,329 

1,923 

1,017 

394 

1,683 

1,307 

1,876 

701 

693 

356 

991 

1,042 

3,553 

1,154 

602 

1,083 

1,877 

1,635 

824 

696 

1,196 


79 
560 
320 




705 
1,049 
1,696 
1,502 
1,126 

941 
1,463 
1,268 
4,403 

462 
1,225 
1,361 
2,174 
2,499 
1,462 


231 

581 

653 

1,386 

1,053' 

1,961 

270 

1,234 

1,163 

1,297 

1,188 

1,029 

826 

251 

30 

804 

1,159 

530 

229 

353 

286 

929 

740 

743 

3,037 

593 

1,435 

1,978 

2,4,54 

1,871 

2,758 

161 

1,945 

1,871 

2,982 

1,141 

836 

388 

635 

537 

2,298 

133 

486 

1,381 

1,425 

3,471 

676 

1,738 

1.101 




850 








919 








1,213 




1,132 
930 






944 








822 





1,442 

125 

1,008 

1,061 

930 

1,027 

854 

207 

47 

15 

391 

857 

146 

97 

230 

308 

653 

237 

666 

2,184 

131 

527 

1,302 

1,651 

1,726 

2,600 

32 

1,640 

1,613 

2,772 

1,011 

699 

372 

322 

212 

979 

58 

451 

1,151 

1,223 

2,814 






779 








1,124 

3,322 

419 


3 

2 


4 
2 


7 


1,149 








1,209 

1,010 

808 


12 
4 


12 
4 


19 
20 


873 








719 






1,144 




963 






1,213 

700 

1,168 

973 

631 

937 

2,762 

683 

2,761 

1,606 

3,068 

2,288 

3,001 

2,432 

1,326 

944 

2,105 

1,543 

2,022 

794 

821 

410 

2,758 

1,459 

4,71S 

1,279 

651 

1,134 

2,627 

1,.595 

2,050 

858 

1,263 




414 






8 


450 








782 








586 








871 








1,880 








648 








2,322 






2 


1,202 








1,823 








1,748 
2,265 
1,928 


4 

8 


4 

8 


35 


1,020 








394 






2 


1,691 
1,307 
1,906 


i 

6 


1 
5 


13 

20 

9 


701 








693 








356 








992 
1,048 


3 


3 


13 


3,553 


1 




2 


1,161 






602 








1,083 








1,876 


7 




, 


1,634 




2 


827 




275 






699 
1,196 


2 


1,343 
1,006 


2 














121,342 


87,101 


425 


120,997 


86,901 


411 


167,761 


120,157 


590 



288 Elkction Rktihns. 



VOTE FOR STATE OFFICERS IX DEMOCRATIC PRDIARY, 

JUXE 3, 1916. 

For GOVERNOR: 

T. VV. BicKETT 63,121 

E. L. Daughtridge 37,017 

For secretary OF STATE: 

J. Bryax Grimes 53,841 

J. A. Hartness 27,300 

Haywood Clark 16,231 

For STATE TREASURER: 

B. R. Lacy 60,008 

J. S. Mann 34,548 

For ATTORNEY-GENERAL: 

J.S. Manning _..__^ 43,332 

Edmund Jones 18,902 

N. A. Sinclair 18,036 

T. H. Calvert 12,847 

For COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING: 

M. L. Shipman 62,817 

D. P. Bellinger 25,559 

For corporation COMMISSIONER: 

W. T. Lee.__ 61,943 

D. L. Boyd 27,619 

For COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE: 

W. A. Graham - 50,250 

A. J. McKiNNON 33,596 

S. H. HoBBS 8,971 

For insurance COMMISSIONER: 

,1. R. Young 69,998 

C. T. McClennaghan... 22,247 



VOTE FOR CONGRESS. 



FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 



Counties 


"3 
S 
m 

a 

a 
o 

1-5 


CI 

o 

c4 

.2 
■f 


Beaufort . . .. .. ... 


1,842 
344 
583 
922 
457 
629 
914 
664 

1,399 

1,016 
594 

2,803 
419 
625 


1,240 


Camden . 


64 


Chowan.-- 


89 


Currituck . - . ... 


40 


Dare . 


355 


Gates - .... .... 


279 


Hertford . 


165 


Hyde. 


477 


Martin . . .... ... . . ... 


267 


Pasquotank . . . 


256 


Perquimans 


287 


Pitt . . 


718 


Tyrrell 


374 


Washington 


487 






Totals - 


13.221 


5,098 







SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 



Counties 




a 
o 

s 

d 


Bertie 


1,446 
2,010 
1,070 
2,320 
1,678 
1,433 
1,242 
2,056 


58 


Edgecombe _ ..... ... 


14 


Greene 


283 


Halifax 


238 


Lenoir . . . . . . . 


611 


Northampton 


23 


Warren . . 


134 


Wilson . . 


638 








Totals .. 


13,255 


1,999 









19 



290 



Election Retxiens. 



THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 



Counties 



Carteret 

Craven 

Duplin 

Jones 

Onslow 

Pamlico 

Pender 

Sampson 

Wayne 

Totals 




FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 



Counties 



Chatham 

Franklin 

Johnston 

Nash 

Vance 

Wake 

Totals 




Vote foe Congress, 



291 



FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 



Counties 


a 

H 

S 
m 

% 
S 

A 

o 


E 
o 

J 

O 

s 
3 


a 
o 

s 

o 


Alamance. . 


2,448 
841 
2,469 
4,075 
1,625 
4,587 
1,177 
927 
2,233 
1,557 
1,993 


2,303 

359 

1,815 

3,609 

734 

3,622 

1,191 

927 

2,032 

1,866 

2,971 


3 


Caswell 




Durham . . . 




Forsyth 


215 


Granville 




Guilford 


21 


Orange.. 




Person . . 




Rockingham ; 




Stokes.. ... . . .... .. 


8 


Suriy ... . . 


11 






Totals 


23,932 


21,429 


258 







SIXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 







fl 
















& 


;_3 






"S 


^ 






o 


tn 






O 






Counties 


i-i 


o 








s 






e« 








42 


l-I 






a 








d 


M 






03 


O 






w 


< 


Bladen . ... . .. 


1,194 

819 
2,123 
1,944 
1,983 
2.4.33 
2,841 


659 


Brunswick _ . 


975 


Columbus 


1,260 


Cumberland . . .... 


1 , 203 


Harnett . 


1 , 607 


New Hanover 


275 


Robeson 


1,542 








Totals 


13,337 


7,521 









292 



Election RetItrns. 



SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 



Counties 


Leonidas D. Robinson 


Presley E. Brown 




2,078 
2,755 

898 

781 
1,052 
1,2.30 
1,348 
2,761 
1,634 

933 
2,647 
1,5.57 

844 


254 


Davidson 


2,804 


Davie 


1,254 


Hoke 


102 


Lee ' __ ------_-_----- 


584 


Montgomery. __---_- _ _ _ 


1,190 




1,051 


Randolph 


3,031 


Richmond 


579 


Scotland 


182 


Union .. - ------- - - - 


697 


Wilkes --- - . 


3,. 544 




1,749 






Totals . 


20,518 


17,021 







EIGHTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1916. 



Counties 


a 

O 

.a 

M 

3 
O 

P 


cn 

s 

i 

M 

'a 



Alexander 


961 
822 
1,956 
2,095 
1,754 
3,356 
3,016 
2,107 
1,182 


1,177 


Alleghany 


567 


Ashe 


1,837 


Cabarrus 


2,313 


Caldwell - 


1,679 


Iredell . 


2,078 


Rowan-- 


2,502 


Stanly 


1,936 


Watauga - - - 


1,322 








Totals -. 


17,249 


15,411 









Vote fok Congress. 



293 



NINTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 1910. 





Counties 


1 

>< 

a 
'% 

H 


<u 
a 

g 

U 

W 

CD 

JO 

M 

o 


Avery - 


363 
1,588 
2,532 
2,713 
2,985 
1,498 

991 
4,489 

432 
1,264 


1,185 


Biirke - - - 


1,476 


Catawba 


2,683 


Cleveland - - 


1,503 




2,562 


Lincoln -__- 


1,399 


Madison - . - _ _ . 


1,943 


MeclvlenburE - - - _ _ _ _ 


1,212 


Mitchell - - - 


1,318 




1,100 








Totals 


18,855 


16,381 







TENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 1916. 



Counties 


>■ 

(U 


't-t 

m 

m 

a 

1-! 


Buncombe 


4,353 

992 

397 

478 

2,380 

1,134 

1,295 

1,249 

1,101 

663 

2,377 

777 

827 


4,043 


Cherokee 


1,364 


Clay : - - - - - 


446 


Graham . . 


465 


Haywood -- __ ------- 


1,534 


Henderson - - - 


1,810 


Jackson _ - - . - 


1,313 


McDowell- - ------ ------- - 


1,266 


Macon-- - - -- 


1,093 


Polk . . - - - - . . 


758 


Rutherford - - . - - - - 


1,931 


Swain .- 


1,155 


Transylvania - --------- - 


836 






Totals ... -.- 


18,023 


18,014 







294 



Electiox Returns. 



VOTE FOR AND AGAINST PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS, 1914. 



For 



Against 



I. Amendment to Article I, Sec. 6, and to Article VII, Sec. 13. Sub- 

stituting the phrase "War between the States" for the words 
''Insurrection or rebellion against the United States" 

II. Amendment to Article II, Sec. 28. Increasing compensation of 

members of the General Assembly and decreasing mileage. .. 

III. Amendment to Article II (new section). Restricting local, pri- 

vate, and special legislation 

IV. Amendment to Article III, Sec. 1. Fixing day of inauguration 

of Governor 

V. Amendment to Article IV, Sec. 1. To prevent delays in trials by 

providing emergency judges 

VI. Amendment to Article IV, Sees. 20, 26, and 33. Removing ob- 

solete sections from Constitution 

VII. Striking out Article V, and Sec. 9 of Article VII, and substitut- 

ing therefor an article to revise and reform the system of 
revenue and taxation --.. 

VIII. Amendment to Article VIII, Sec. 1. To prevent special 

charters to corporations by the General Assembly 

IX. Amendment to Article VIII, Sec. 4. To prevent special charters 

to towns, cities, and incorporated villages _-. 

X. Amendment to .\rticle IX, Sec. 3. To require six months public 

school term 



57,816 
50,722 
54.726 
57,321 
56,255 
54,414 

50,520 
54,358 

53,887 
59,519 



61,031 
68,149 
62,953 
60,220 
62,981 
62,728 

68,148 
63,201 
63,027 
61,317 



VOTE FOR AND AGAINST PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS, 1916. 



I. Amendment to Article II (new section). Restricting local, private 

and special legislation _ 

II. Amendment to Article IV, Sec. 11. To prevent delays in trials 

by providing emergency judges 

III. Amendment to Article VIII, Sec. 1. To prevent special charters 

to corporations by the General Assembly 

IV. Amendment to Article VIII, Sec. 4. To nrevent special charters 

to towns, cities, and incorporated villages — I 55,783 




Against 



22,171 
23,132 
22,250 
22,681 



PART X. 



THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 



THE DECLARATION OF ^DEPENDENCE. 

In Congress,, July 4, m6. 

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of 

America. 

When in. the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with 
another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate 
and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God 
entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires 
that they should declare the causes which impel them to the sepa- 
ration. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created 
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalien- 
able Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of 
Happiness. That to secure these rights. Governments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destruc- 
tive of these ends, it is the Right 01 the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such 
principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall 
seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, 
indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experi- 
ence hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while 
evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms 
to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to 
reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their 
duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these 
Colonies; and such is *now the necessity which constrains them to 
alter their former Systems of Goverment. The history of the pres- 
ent King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usur- 
pations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute 
Tyranny over these States. To provide this, let Facts be submitted 
to a candid world. 



298 Declaration of Independence. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and neces- 
sary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his 
Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly- 
neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of 
Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and 
formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for 
the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his mea- 
sures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing 
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of 
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; 
the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of 
invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for 
that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreign- 
ers; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, 
and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his 
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of 
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms 
of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without 
the Consent of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior 
to the Civil Power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign 
to' our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his 
Assent to their acts of pretended legislation: 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 



Declakation op Independence. 299 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any 
Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these 
States: 

For cutting off of Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses: 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring 
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarg- 
ing its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit in- 
strument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: 

P^or taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, 
and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves 
invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his 
Protection and waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercena- 
ries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already 
begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in 
the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civi- 
lized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high 
Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners 
of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeav- 
oured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless 
Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished 
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Re- 
dress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been 
answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is 
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free People. 

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. 
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legis- 
lature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have 
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 



300 DeCLAUxVTION of I^UEPENDE^•CE. 

ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magna- 
nimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kin- 
dred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt 
our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, ac- 
quiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold 
them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace 
Friends. 

We, therefore, the' Representatives of the united States of America, 
in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of 
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by 
Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish 
and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to 
be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all 
Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection 
between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be to- 
tally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have 
full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish 
Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent 
States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with 
a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually 
pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor. 

JOHN HANCOCK. 

New Hampshire^JosiAu Bartlett. Wm. Whipple, ^M.vtthew 
Thorxtois'. 

Massachusetts Bay — Saml. Adams. John Adams, Rort. Treat 
Paixe. Ei.bridge Gekry. 

Rhode Island — Step. Hopkins, William Ellery. 

Connecticut — Roger Sherman, Sam'el Huntington, Wm. Will- 
iams, Oliver Wolcott. 

New York — Wm. Floyd, Phil. Livingston, Frans. Lewis, Lewis 
Morris. 

New Jersey — Riciid. Stockton, Jno. Witherspoon, Fras. Hopkin- 
SON, John Hart, Abra. Clark. 

Pennsylvania — Robt. Morris, Benjamin Rush, Ben.ta. Franklin 
John Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. Smith, Geo. Taylor, James Wilson, 
Geo. Ross. 

Delaware — Gesar Rodney. Geo. Read. Tho. M'Kean. 



Declaration of Independence. 301 

Maryland — Samuel Chase, Wm. Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton. 

Yirginia — George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Th. Jefferson, 
Benja. H^vrrison, Thos. Nelson, jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter 
Braxton. 

North Carolina — ^Wm. Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn. 

South Carolina — Edward Rutledge. Thos. Heyward, Junr., 
Thomas Lynch, Junr., Arthur Middleton. 

Georgia — Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, Geo. Walton.* 



*This arrangement of the names is made for convenience. The States are not 
mentioned in the original. 



PART XI. 



CONSTITUTIONS. 



1. Constitution of the United States. 

2. Constitution of North Carolina. 

3. Index to the Constitution of E"orth 

Carolina. 



COSTITUTIOK OF THE IMTED STATES OF AMERICA.' 

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more per- 
fect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide 
for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure 
the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Coxstitution for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative Poweis herein granted shall be vested 
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second .Year by the People of the several 
States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State 
Legislature. 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of 
the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabi- 
tant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within this Union, according 
to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to 
Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three 
fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made 
within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the 
United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in 
such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Repre- 
sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each 
State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enum- 
eration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be en- 
titled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Prov- 
idence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six. New Jersey 



*Reprinted from the text issued by the State Department. 
20 



306 L'.MTKU States Co.n.stitutiox. 

four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. 
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such 
Vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for 
six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first p::iection, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated 
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expira- 
tion of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second 
Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during 
the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the 
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that 
State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President 
pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall 
exercise the Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Afl^irmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice 
shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Con- 
currence of two thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than 
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor. Trust or Profit under the United States: but the 
Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indict- 
ment. Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to law. 



United States Constitutio.n. 307 

Sectiom 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections 
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State 
by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by 
Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of 
chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and 
such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they 
shall by Law appoint a different Day. 

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, 
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of 
each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Num- 
ber may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel 
the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such 
Penalties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, Punish 
its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of 
two thirds, expel a member. 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time 
to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judg- 
ment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of 
either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Com- 
pensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out 
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, ex- 
cept Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from 
Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in 
any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he 
was elected, be appointed to any civil OflSce under the Authority of 
the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments 
whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Per- 
son holding any Office under the United States, shall l)e a .Member 
of either House during his Continuance in Ofllce. 



308 Umtkd Statk.s Constitltio.n. 

Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the 
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur 
with Amendments as on other Bills. 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives 
and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the 
President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but 
if not he shall return it, with his Objections, to that House in which 
it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on 
their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsid- 
eration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall 
be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which 
it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of 
that House, it shall become a law. But in all such Cases the Votes 
of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the 
Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be en- 
tered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall 
not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays ex- 
cepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be 
a Law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by 
their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be 
a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on 
a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of 
the United States: and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be ap- 
proved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to 
the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect 
Taxes. Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for 
the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but 
all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the 
United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the sev- 
eral States, and with the Indian Tribes; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws 
on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, 
and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures: 



United States Constitution. 309 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current Coin of the United States; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing 
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to 
their respective Writings and Discoveries; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court: 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to 
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Goverment and Regulation of the land and 
naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the 
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, 
and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the 
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, 
the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the 
Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over 
such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of 
particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat 
of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Author- 
ity over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of 
the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, 
Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings: — And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carry- 
ing into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers 
vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, 
or in any Department or Officer thereof. 

Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any 
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Im- 
portation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 



31U • Umted Si'ates Constitution. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safetymay 
requiie ii. 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax, shall be laid, unless in Pro- 
portion to the Census or Enumeration hereinbefore directed to be 
taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 
Revenue to the Forts of one State over those of another: nor shall 
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or 
pay Duties in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence 
of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Ac- 
count of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be 
published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no 
Persons holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, with- 
out the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, 
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or for- 
eign State. 

Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; 
emit Bills of Credit; make any thing but gold and silver Coin a 
Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder ex post facto 
Law or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any 
Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Im- 
posts or Duties on Imports or Exports except what may be absolutely 
necessary for executing its inspection Laws; and the net Produce 
of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, 
shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all 
such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Con- 
gress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into 
any Agreement cr Compact with another State, or with a foreign 
Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such immi- 
nent Danger as will not admit of Delay. 



United States Constitution. 311 



Article. II. 



Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the 
Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen 
for the same Term, be elected, as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature there- 
of may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of 
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in 
the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding 
an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be ap- 
pointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List 
of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; 
which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate. The President of the Senate, shall, in the 
Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person hav- 
ing the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; 
and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an 
equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall 
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no 
Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the 
said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing 
the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation 
from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall 
consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and 
a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In 
every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having 
the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice 
President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal 
Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice Pres- 
ident. 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, 
and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall 
be the same throughout the United States. 



312 UxiTEi) States Constitutiox. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the 
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall 
be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of 
thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the 
United States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death. Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Du- 
ties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, 
and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, 
Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice 
President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President and 
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall at stated Times, receive for his Services, a 
Compensation, which shall neither be Increased nor diminished dur- 
ing the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the 
following Oath or Affirmation: — 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my 
Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United 
States." 

Sectiox. 2. The President 'Shall be Commander in Chief of the 
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the M.ilitia of the sev- 
eral States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; 
he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in 
each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the 
Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant 
Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except 
in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators pres- 
ent concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and 
Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public I\lin- 
isters and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, w^iose Appointments are not herein 



U^IXEU StATKS Co.NSllXUllOM. 313 

otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law; but 
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior 
Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts 
of Law, or in the fieads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may 
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions 
which shall expire at the End of their next Session. 

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Infor- 
mation of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Con- 
sideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; 
he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either 
of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to 
the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he 
shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public 
Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, 
and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. 

Section. 4. The President, Vice-president and all civil Officers of 
the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, 
and Conviction of. Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Mis- 
demeanors. 

Ainui.E. III. 

Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be 
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, 
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices dur- 
ing good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Ser- 
vices, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their 
continuance in Office. 

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law 
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United 
States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Ati- 
thority; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers 
and Consuls; — to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction: 
— to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to 
Controversies between two or more States; — between a State and 
Citizens of another State; — between Citizens of different States, — 
between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of 
different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and 
foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects. 



314 UxiTED Staiks Constitution. 

Ill all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme 
Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before 
mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both 
as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such regula- 
tions as the Congress shall make. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be 
by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said 
Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within 
any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress 
may by Law have directed. 

Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only 
in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giv- 
ing them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or 
on Confession in open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of 
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of 
Blood or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. 

Akticle. IV. 

Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to 
the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other 
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Man- 
ner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, 
and the effect thereof. 

Sectiox. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Priv- 
ileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other 
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State 
shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from 
which he fled, be delivered up. to be removed to the State having 
Jurisdiction of the Crime. 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any Law, or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but 
shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or 
Labour may be due. 



United States Constitutiox. 315 

Sectiox. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into tliis 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the 
Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all need- 
ful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall 
be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or 
of any particular State. 

Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each 
of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or 
of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against 
domestic Violence. 

Article. V. 

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
Application of the Legislature of two thirds of the several States, 
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either 
case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes as part of this Con- 
stitution, when ratified by the Legislature of three fourths of the 
several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one 
or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; 
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the 
Year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner 
affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first 
Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of 
its equal Suffrage in the Senate. 

Abticle. VI. 

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall 
be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall 
be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the 



316 Umteu States Co.nstitutiox. 

supreme Law of the land; and the Judges in evei'y State shall be 
bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State 
to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the 
Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and 
judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, 
shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; 
but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or public Trust under the United States. 

Article VII. 

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be suf- 
ficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States 
so ratifying the Same. 

THE AMENDMENTS. 



Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re- 
ligion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the free- 
dom of speech, or of the press: or the right of the people peaceably 
to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of griev- 
ances. 

II. 

A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be 
infringed. 

III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, with- 
out the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to 
be prescribed by law. 

IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, pa- 
pers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable 
cause, supported by Oath or aflfirmation, and particularly describing 
the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



United States Constitution. 317 



V. 



No person shall be h'eld to answer for a capital, or otherwise in- 
famous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
Militia, when in actual service in time of "War or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb: nor shall be compelled in any Criminal 
Case to be witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, 
or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall 
have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining Wit- 
nesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his de- 
fence. 

VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall ex- 
ceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and 
no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court 
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 

VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

IX. 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not 
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec- 
tively, or to the people. 



318 United States Constitution . 

XI. 

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens 
or Subjects of any Foreign State. 

XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for 
each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to 
the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having 
the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors ap- 
pointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the per- 
sons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of 
those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall 
choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the 
President, the vote shall be taken by states, the representation 
from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall 
consist of a member or members from tw^o-thirds of the states, and 
a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if 
the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day 
of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as Presi- 
dent, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as 
Vice-President, shall be Vice-President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person 
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the 
Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the w'hole number of senators, and a 



United States Coxstitutiox. 319 

majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 

XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, 
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make 
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities 
of citizens of the United States: nor shall any State deprive any per- 
son of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the 
laws. 

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives 
in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the 
members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male in- 
habitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens 
of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall 
be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citi- 
zens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one 
years of age in such State. 

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Con- 
gress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, 
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who 
having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an 
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature 



320 UjVitkd Statks Constitution. 

or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection 
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies 
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House 
remove such disability. 

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, 
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insur- 
rection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and 
claims shall be held illegal and void. 

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appro- 
priate legislation, the provisions of this article. 

XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 

XVI. 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

APPENDIX D. 

Aim CLE XVII. 

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators 

from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years: and 

ach Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall 

have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 

l)ianch of the State Legislatures. 

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the 
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of 



State Coxstitvtiox. 321 

election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of 
any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary 
appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the 
Legislature may direct. 

(This Article replaces the provision in Article 1, Section III, of 
the Constitution for the choosing of Senators by the Legislatures.) 

ratification of the constitution. 

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in the 
following order: 

Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; 
New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2 1788; Connecti- 
cut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, 
April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23. 1788; New Hampshire, June 
21, 1788; Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26. 1788; North 
Carolina, November, 21,. 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790. 

ratification of the amendments. 

The First to Tenth, inclusive, were declared in force December 15, 
1791; the Eleventh, January 8, 1798; the Twelfth, September 25, 
1804; the Thirteenth was proclaimed December 18, 1865; the Four- 
teenth, July 28, 1868; the Fifteenth, March 30, 1870; the Sixteenth, 
February 25, 1913; the Seventeenth, May 30, 1913. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

PREAMBLE. 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina grateful to Al- 
mighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of 
the American Union, and the existence of our civil, political and re- 
ligious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for 
the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do for 
the more certain security thereof, and for the better government of 
this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

21 



322 State Co.nstitutio.x. 

ARTICLE I. 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free 
government may be recognized and established, and that the rela- 
tions of this State to the Union and Government of the United 
States, and those of the people of this State to the rest of the 
American people, may be defined and affirmed, we do declare: 

Section 1. That we hold it to be self-evident that all men are 
created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain 
inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment 
of the fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, the 
people; all government of right originates from the people, is 
founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good 
of the whole. 

Sec. 3. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole, and 
exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police 
thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution and form 
of government whenever it may be necessary for their safety and 
happiness; but every such right .should be exercised in pursuance of 
law, and consistently with the Constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 4. That this State shall ever remain a member of the Ameri- 
can Union; that the people thereof are a part of the American na- 
tion; that there is no right on the part of the State to secede, and 
that all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pretext, 
to dissolve said Union, or to sever said nation, ought to be resisted 
with the whole power of the State. 

Sec. 5. That every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance 
to the Constitution and Government of the United States, and that 
no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion 
thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. The State shall never assume or pay, or atithorize the col- 
lection of any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid 
of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim 
for the loss or emancipation of any slave; nor shall the General 
Assembly assume or pay, or authorize the collection of any tax to 
pay, either directly or indirectly, expressed or implied, any debt or 
bond incurred, or issued, by authority of the Convention of the 
year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, nor any debt or 



State Coxstitutiox. 323 

bond incurred or issued by tlie Legislature of the year one tliousand 
eight hundred and sixty-eight, at its special session of the year one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, or at its regular sessions 
of the years one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight and one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine and one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy, except the bonds issued to fund the interest on the 
old debt of the State, unless the proposing to pay the same shall 
have first been submitted to the people and by them ratified by the 
vote of a majority of all the qualified voters of the State, at a regu- 
lar election held for that purpose. 

Sec. 7. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate 
emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration 
of public services. 

Sec. 8. The legislative, executive and supreme judicial powers of 
the government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each 
other. 

Sec. 9. All povi'er of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by 
any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the 
people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised. 

Sec. 10. All elections ought to be free. 

Sec. 11. In all criminal prosecutions, every man has the right to 
be informed of the accusation against him and to confront the ac- 
cusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for 
his defense, and not to be compelled to give evidence against himself 
or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the defense, 
unless found guilty. 

Sec. 12. No peron shall be put to answer any criminal charge, 
except as hereinafter allowed, but by indictment, presentment, or im- 
peachment. 

Sec. 13. No person shall be convicted of any crime but by the 
unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court. 
The Legislature may, however, provide other means of trial for petty 
misdemeanors, with the right of appeal. 

Sec. 14. Excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 15. General warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may 
be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the 
act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose 
offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are 
dangerous to liberty and ought not to be granted. 



324 State Coxstjtutiox. 

Sec. 16. There shall be no imprsionment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 

Skc. 17. No person ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of 
his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any 
manner deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the law of 
the land. 

Sf:('. 18. Every person restrained of his liberty is entitled to a 
remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the 
same, if unlawful; and such remedy ought not to be denied or de- 
layed. 

Sec. 19. In all controversies at law respecting property, the an- 
cient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights 
of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 20. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of 
liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained, but every indi- 
vidual shall be held responsible for the abuse of the same. 

Sec. 21. The privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be 
suspended. 

Sec. 22. As political rights and privileges are not dependent upon, 
or modified by, property, therefore no property qualification ought to 
affect the right to vote or hold office. 

Sec. 23. The people of the State ought not to be taxed, or made 
subject to the payment of any impost or duty, without the consent 
of themselves, or their representatives in General Assembly, freely 
given. 

Sec. 24. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of 
a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not 
be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous 
to liberty, they ought not to be kept up, and the military should be 
kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. 
Nothing herein contained shall justify the practice of carrying con- 
cealed weapons, or prevent the Legislature from enacting penal stat- 
utes against said practice. 

Sec. 25. The people have a right to assemble together to consult 
for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to ap- 
ply to the Legislature for redress of grievances. But secret political 
societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free people, and should 
not be tolerated. 

Sec. 26. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences. 



State Coxstitutioa'. 325 

and no human authority should, in any case whatever, control or in- 
terfere with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, 
and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that righi. 

Sec. 28. For redress of grievances, and for amending and strength- 
ening the laws, elections should be often held. 

Sec. 2'9. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is abso- 
lutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 30. No hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors ought to 
be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 31. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of 
a free State, and ought not to be allowed. 

Sec. 32 Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the 
existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal are op- 
pressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex 
post facto law ought to be made. No law taxing retrospectively 
sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, ought to be passed. 

Sec. 33. Slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than for 
crime, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be 
and are hereby forever prohibited within the State. 

Sec. 34. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and re- 
main as they now are. 

Sec. 35. All courts shall be open; and every person for an injury 
done him in his lands, goods, persons or reputation, shall have rem- 
edy by due course of law, and rights and justice administered with- 
out sale, denial or delay. 

Sec. 36. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in 
a manner prescribed by the law. 

Sec. 37. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to im- 
pair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not herein 
delegated remain with the people. 

ARTICLE II. 

legislative departmeiyt. 

Section 1. The legislative authority shall be vested in two dis- 
tinct branches both dependent on the people, to wit, a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 



326 State Coxstitutiox. 

Skc. 2. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet bien- 
nially on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January 
next after their election; and, when assembled, shall be denominated 
the General Assembly. Neither house shall proceed upon public busi- 
ness unless a majority of all the members are actually present. 

Sec. 3. The Senate shall be composed of fifty Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 4. Tlie Senate Districts shall be so altered by the General 
Assembly, at the first session after the return of every enumeration 
by order of Congress that each Senate District shall contain, as 
near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens 
and Indians not taxed, and shall remain unaltered until the return 
of another enumeration, and shall at all times consist of contiguous 
territory; and no county shall be divided in the formation of a 
Senate District unless such county shall be equitably entitled to two 
or more Senators. 

Sec. 5. The House of Representatives shall be composed of one 
hundred and twenty Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot, to 
be elected by the counties respectively, according to their population, 
and each county shall have at least one representative in the House 
of Representatives, although it may not contain the requisite ratio of 
representation. This apportionment shall be made by the General 
Assembly at the respective times and periods when the districts of 
the Senate are hereinbefore directed to be laid off. 

Sec. 6. In making the apportionment in the House of Representa- 
tives, the ratio of representation shall be ascertained by dividing 
the amount of the population of the State, exclusive of that compre- 
hended within those counties which do not severally contain the one 
hundred and twentieth part of the population of the State, by the 
number of Representatives, less the number assigned .to such coun- 
ties; and in ascertaining the number of the population of the State, 
aliens and Indians not taxed shall not be included. To each county 
containing the said ratio and not twice the said ratio, there shall 
be assigned one Representative; to each county containing two but 
not three times the said ratio, there shall be assigned two Repre- 
sentatives, and so on progressively, and then the remaining Repre- 
sentatives shall be assigned severally to the counties having the 
largest fractions. 

Sec. 7. Each member of the Senate shall not be less than twenty- 
five years of age, shall have resided in the State as a citizen two 



State Constitution. 327 

years, and shall have usually resided in the district for which he is 
chosen one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Each memher of the House of Representatives shall be a 
qualified elector of the State, and shall have resided in the county 
for v^^hich he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his elec- 
tion. 

Sec. 9. In the election of all officers whose appointments shall be 
conferred upon the General Assembly by the Constitution, the vote 
shall be viva voce. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to pass gen- 
eral laws regulating divorce and alimony, but shall not have power 
to grant a divorce or secure alimony in any individual case. 

Sec. 11. The General Assembly shall not have power to pass any 
private laws to alter the name of any person, or to legitimate any 
person not born in lawful wedlock, or to restore to the rights of 
citizenship any person convicted of an infamous crime, but shall 
have power to pass general laws regulating the same. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall not pass any private law, 
unless it shall be made to appear that thirty days notice of appli- 
cation to pass such law shall have been given, under such direction 
and in such manner as shall be provided by law. 

Sec. 13. If vacancies shall occur in the General Assembly by 
death, resignation or otherwise, writs of election shall be issued by 
the Governor under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec 14. No law shall be passed to raise money on the credit of 
the State, or to pledge the faith of the State, directly or indirectly, 
for the payment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon the people 
of the State, or allow the counties, cities or towns to do so, unless 
the bill for the purpose shall have been read three several times in 
each house of the General Assembly and passed three several read- 
ings, which readings shall have been on three different days, and 
agreed to by each house, respectively, and unless the yeas and nays 
on the second and third readings of the bill shall have been entered 
on the journal. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly shall regulate entails in such man- 
ner as to prevent perpetuities. 

Sec. 16. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedintrs, which 
shall be printed and made public immediately after the adjournment 
of the General Assembly. 



228 State Coxstitutioa. 

Sec. 17. Any member of either house may dissent from and pro- 
test against any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the 
public, or any individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered 
on the journal. 

Sec. 18. The House of Representatives shall choose their own 
Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 19. The Lieutenant Governor shall preside in the Senate, but 
shall have no vote unless it may be equally divided. 

Sec. 20. The Senate shall choose its other officers and also a 
Speaker (pro tempore) in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor, 
or when he shall exercise the office of Governor. 

Sec. 21. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly 
of North Carolina do enact." 

Sec. 22. Each house shall be judge of the qualifications and elec- 
tion of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from 
day to day, prepare bills to be passed into laws; and the two houses 
may also jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. 

Sec. 23. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be 
read three times in each house before they pass into laws, and shall 
be signed by the presiding officers of both houses. 

Sec. 24. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his 
seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Con- 
stitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution of the 
State of North Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his duty as a 
member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 25. The terms of office for Senators and members of the 
House of Representatives shall commence at the time of their elec- 
tion. 

Sec. 26. Upon motion made and seconded in either house by one- 
fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question 
shall be taken and entered upon the journals. 

Sec. 27. The election for members of the General Assembly shall 
be held for the respective districts and counties at the places where 
they are now held, or may be directed hereafter to be held, in such 
manner as may be prescribed by law, on the first Thursday in Au- 
gust, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and every 
two years thereafter. But the General Assembly may change the 
time of holding the elections. 

Sec. 28. The members of the General Assembly for the term for 
which they have been elected shall receive as compensation for their 



State Constitution. 329 

services the sum of four dollars per day for each day of their ses- 
sion, for a period not exceeding sixty days; and should they remain 
longer in session they shall serve without compensation. They shall 
also be entitled to receive ten cents per mile, both while coming to 
the seat of government and while returning home the said distance 
to be computed by the nearest line or route of public travel. The 
compensation of the presiding officers of the two houses shall be 
six dollars per day and mileage. Should an extra session cf the 
General Assembly be called, the members and presiding officers 
shall receive a like rate of compensation for a period not exceeding 
twenty days. 

Sec. 29. The General Assembly shall not pass any local, private or 
special act or resolution: Relating to the establishment of courts 
inferior to the Superior Court; relating to the appointment cf jus- 
tices of the peace; relating to health, sanitation and the abatement 
of nuisances; changing the names cf cities, towns and townships; 
authorizing the laying out. opening, altering, maintaining or discon- 
tinuing of highways, streets or alleys; relating to ferries or bridges; 
relating to non-navigable streams; relating to cemeteries; relating 
to the pay of jurors"; erecting new townships, or changing township 
lines, or establshing or changing the lines of school districts; re- 
mitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 
paid into the public treasury, regulating labor, trade, mining or 
manufacturing: extending the time for the assessment or collection 
of taxes or otherwise relieving any collector of taxes from the due 
performance of his oflRcial duties or his sureties from liability; 
giving effect to informal wills and deeds; nor shall the general As- 
sembly enact any such local, private or special act by the partial 
repeal of a general law, but the General Assembly may at any time 
repeal local, private or special laws enacted by it. Any local, private 
or special act or resolution passed in violation of the provisions of 
this. section shall be void. 

ARTICLE III. 

executive DEPART:\rEXT. 

Section 1. The Executive Department shall consist of a Governor, 
in whom shall be vested the supreme executive power of the State;- 
a Lieutenant Governor, a Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, 
a Superintendent of Public Instruction, and an Attorney-General, 
who shall be elected for a term of four years by the qualified electors 



330 State Constitution. 

of the State, at the same time and places and in the same manner as 
members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office 
shall commence on the first day of January next after their election, 
and continue until their successors are elected and qualified: Pro- 
vided, that the officers first elected shall assume the duties of their 
office ten days after the approval of this Constitution by the Con- 
gress of the United States, and shall hold their offices four years 
from and after the first day of January. 

Sec. 2'. No person shall be eligible as Governor or Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, shall 
have been a citizen of the United States five years, and shall have 
been a resident of this State for two years next before the election; 
nor shall the person elected to either of these two offices be eligible 
to the same office more than four years in any term of eight years, 
unless the office shall have been cast upon him as Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor or President of the Senate. 

Sec. 3. The return of every election for officers of the Executive 
Department shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of gov- 
ernment by the returning officers, directed to the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, who shall open and publish the same in 
the presence of a majority of the members of both houses of the 
General Assembly. The persons having the highest number of votes 
respectively shall be declared duly elected; but if two or more be 
equal and highest in votes for the same ofiice, the one of them shall 
be chosen by joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly. 
Contested elections shall be determined by a joint ballot of both 
houses of the General Assembly in such manner as shall be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 4. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of his office, 
shall, in the presence of the members of both branches of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, or before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an 
oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws 
of the United States, and of the State of North Carolina, and that he 
will faithfully perform the duties appertaining to the office of Gov- 
ernor, to which he has been elected. 

Sec. 5. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this 
State, and he shall, from time to time, give the General Assembly 
informaton of the affairs of the State, and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 



State Coxstitutiox. 331 

Sec. 6. The Grovernor shall have power to grant reprieves, commu- 
tations, and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses (except in 
cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he may think 
proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law rela- 
tive to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall biennially 
communicate to the General Assembly each case of reprieve, commu- 
tation, or pardon granted, stating the name of each convict, the 
crime for which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, the 
date of the commutation, pardon, or reprieve and the reasons there- 
for. 

Sec. 7. The officers of the Executive Department and of the public 
institutions of the State shall, at least five days previous to each 
regular session of the General Assembly, severally report to the 
Governor, who shall transmit such reports with his message to the 
General Assembly; and the Governor may, at any time, require in- 
formation in writing from the officers in the Executive Department 
upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, 
and shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. 

Sec. 8. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the militia 
of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of the 
United States. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall have power, on extraordinary occasion, 
by and with the advice of the Council of State, to convene the 
General Assembly in extra session by his proclamation, stating 
therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus convened. 

Sec. 10. The Governor shall nominate and, by and with the advice 
and consent of a majority of the Senators-elect, appoint all officers 
whose offices are established by this Constitution and whose appoint- 
ments are not otherwise provided for. 

Sec. 11. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President of the Senate, 
but shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. He 
shall, whilst acting as President of the Senate, receive for his ser- 
vices the same pay which shall, for the same period, be allowed to 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and he shall receive 
no other compensation except when he is acting as Governor. 

Sec. 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his failure 
to qualify, his absence from the State, his inability to discharge the 
duties of his office, or, in case the office of Governor shall in any- 
wise become vacant, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office 
shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor until the disability shall 



332 State Co-nstitutiox. 

cease or a new Governor shall be elected and qualified. In every 
case in vi'hich the Lieutenant Governor shall be unable to preside 
over the Senate, the Senators shall elect one of their own number 
President of their body; and the powers, duties and emoluments of 
the office of Governor shall devolve upon him whenever the Lieuten- 
ant Governor shall, for any reason, be prevented from discharging 
the duties of such office as above provided, and he shall continue 
as acting Governor until the disabilities are removed, or a new Gov- 
ernor or Lieutenant Governor shall be elected and qualified. When- 
ever, during the recess of the General Assembly, it shall become 
necessary for the President of the Senate to administer the govern- 
ment, the Secretary of State shall convene the Senate, that they 
may select such President. 

Sec. 13. The respective duties of the Secretary of State, Auditor, 
Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Attorney-Gen- 
eral shall be prescribed by law. If the office of any of said officers 
shall be vacated by death, resignation or otherwise, it shall be the 
duty of the Governor to appoint another until the disability be re- 
moved or his successor be elected, and qualified. Every such vacancy 
shall be filled by election at the first general election that occurs 
more than thirty days after the vacancy has taken place, and the 
person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of the unex- 
pired term fixed in the first section of this article. 

Sec. 14. The Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction shall constitute, ex officio, the Council 
of Slate, who shall advise the Governor in the execution of his office, 
any three of whom shall constitute a quorum. Their advice and pro- 
ceedings in this capacity shall be entered in a journal to be kept for 
this purpose exclusively, and signed by the members present, from 
any part of which any member may enter his dissent; and such jour- 
nal shall be placed before the General Assembly when called for by 
either house. Tlte attorney-General shall be, ex officio, the legal ad- 
viser of the Executive Department. 

Sec. 15. The officers mentioned in this article shall, at stated 
periods, receive for their services a compensation to be established 
by law, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
time for which they shall have been elected, and the said officers 
shall receive no other emolument or allowance whatever. 



State Cojmstittjtion. 333 

Sec. 16. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by 
the Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall 
be called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." All 
grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the 
authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The Great 
Seal of the State," signed by the Governor and countersigned by 
the Secretary of State. 

Sec. 17. The General Assembly shall establish a Department of 
Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics, under such regulations as 
may best promote the agricultural interests of the State, and shall 
enact laws for the adequate protection and encouragement of sheep 
husbandry. 

ARTICLE IV. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

Sectiox 1. The distinction between actions at law and suits in 
equity, and the forms of all such actions and suits shall be abol- 
ished; and there shall be in this State but one form of action for 
the enforcement or protection of private rights or the redress of 
private wrongs, which shall be denominated a civil action, and every 
action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party against a 
person charged with a public offense, for the punishment of the 
same, shall be termed a criminal action. Feigned issues shall also 
be abolished, and the fact at issue tried by order of court before a 
jury. . 

Sec. 2. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a Court 
for the Trial of Impeachments, a Supreme Court, Superior Courts, 
Courts of Justices of the Peace and such other courts inferior to the 
Supreme Court as may be established by law. 

Sec. 3. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the Sen- 
ate. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, 
and the judgment shall not extend beyond removal from, and dis- 
qualification to hold, office in this State; but the party shall be liable 
to indictment and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The House of Representatives solely shall have the power 
of impeaching. No person shall b.e convicted without the concur- 
rence of two-thirds of the Senators present. When the Governor is 
impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside. 



334 State Cojmstitution. 

Sec. 5. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war 
against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. 
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 
No conviction of treason or attainder shall work corruption of blood 
or forfeiture. 

Sec. 6. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief .Justice and 
four Associate Justices. 

Sec. 7. The terms of the Supreme Court shall be held in the city 
of Raleigh, as now, unless otherwise provided by the General As- 
sembly. 

Sec. 8. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review upon 
appeal, any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or 
legal inference. And the jurisdiction of said court over "issues of 
fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the same exercised by it be- 
fore the adoption of the Constitution of one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-eight, and the court shall have the power to issue any 
remedial writs necessary to give it a general supervision and control 
over the proceedings of the inferior courts. 

Sec. 9. The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction to hear 
claims against the State, but its decisions shall be merely recom- 
mendatory; no process in the nature of execution shall issue 
thereon; they shall be reported to the next session of the General 
Assembly for its action. 

Sec. 10. The State shall be divided into nine judicial districts, for 
each of which a Judge shall be chosen ; and there shall be held a ' 
Superior Court in each county at least twice in each year, to con- 
tinue for such time in each county as may be prescribed by law. 
But the General Assembly may reduce or increase the number of 
districts. 

Sec. 11. Every Judge of the Superior Court shall reside in the 
district for which he is elected. The Judges shall preside in the 
courts of the different districts successively, but no Judge shall hold 
the courts in the same district oftener than once in four years; 
but in case of the protracted illness of the Judge assigned to pre- 
side in any district, or of any other unavoidable accident to him, by 
reason of which he shall be unable to preside, the Governor may re- 
quire any Judge to hold one or more specified terms in said dis- 



State Co:?«STiTUTiOiV. 335 

trict, in lieu of the Judge assigned to hold the courts of the said 
district; and the General Assembly may by general laws provide 
for the selection of special or emergency judges to hold the Superior 
Courts of any county or district when the judge assigned thereto, 
by reason of sickness, disability, or other cause, is unable to attend 
and hold said court, and when no other judge is available to hold 
the same. Such special or emergency judges shall have the power 
and authority of regular judges of the Superior Courts, in the courts 
which they are so appointed to hold; and the General Assembly shall 
provide for their reasonable compensation. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the 
Judicial Department of any power or jurisdiction which rightfully 
pertains to it as a coordinate department of the Government; but 
the General Assembly shall allot and distribute that portion of this 
power and jurisdiction which does not pertain to the Supreme Court 
among the other courts prescribed in this Constitution or which 
may be established by law, in such manner as it may deem best , 
provide, also, a proper system of appeals, and regulate by law, when 
necessary, the methods of proceeding, in the exercise of their pow- 
ers, of all the courts below the Supreme Court, so far as the same 
may be done without conflict with .other provisions of this Consti- 
tution. 

Sec. 13. In all issues of fact, joined in any court, the parties may 
waive the right to have the same determined by a jury, in which 
case the finding of the Judge upon the facts shall have the force and 
effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall provide for the establishment 
of special courts, for the trial of misdemeanors, in cities and towns 
where the same may be necessary. 

Sec. 15. The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the 
Court and shall hold his office for eight years. 

Sec. 16. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be 
elected by the qualified voters thereof, at the time and in the man- 
ner prescribed by law for the election of members of the General 
Assembly. 

Sec. 17. Clerks of the Superior Courts shall hold their offices for 
four years. 

Sec. 18. The General Assembly shall prescribe and regulate the 
fees, salaries and emoluments of all officers provided for in this 



336 State Coastitutiojv\ 

article; but the salaries of the Judges shall not be diminished dur- 
ing their continuance in office. 

Sec. 19. The laws of North Carolina, not repugnant to this Con- 
stitution, or the Constitution and laws of the United States, shall be 
in force until lawfully altered. 

Sec. 20. Actions at law, and suits in equity, pending when this 
Constitution shall go into effect, shall be transferred to the courts 
having jurisdiction thereof, without prejudice by reason of the 
change; and all such actions and suits commenced before, and pend- 
ing at the adoption by the Greneral Assembly of the rules of practice 
and procedure herein provided for, shall be heard and determined 
according to the practice now in use, unless otherwise provided for 
by said rules. 

Sec. 21. The Justices of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State, as is provided for the election of mem- 
bers of the General Assembly. They shall hold their offices for 
eight years. The Judges of the Superior Courts, elected at the first 
election under this amendment, shall be elected in like manner as 
is provided lor Justices of the Supreme Court, and shall hold their 
offices for eight years. The General Assembly may, from time to 
time, provide by law that the Judges of the Superior Courts, chosen 
at succeeding elections, instead of being elected by the voters of the 
whole State, as is herein provided for, shall be elected by the voters 
of their respective districts. 

Sec. 22. The Superior Courts shall be at all times open for the 
transaction of all business within their jurisdiction, except the trial 
of issues of fact requiring a jury. 

Sec. 23. A Solicitor shall be elected for each judicial district by 
the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, who shall hold office for the term of four years, and 
prosecute on behalf of the State, in all criminal actions in the Su- 
perior Courts, and advise the officers of justice in his district. 

Sec. 24. In each county a sheriff and coroner shall be elected by 
the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and shall hold their offices for two years. In each 
township there shall be a constable elected in like manner by the 
voters thereof, who shall hold his office for two years. When there 
is no coroner in a county, the Clerk of the Superior Court for the 



State Constitution. 337 

county may appoint one for special cases. In case of a vacancy 
existing for any cause in any of the offices created by this section, 
tlie commissioners of the county may appoint to such office for the 
unexpired term. 

Sec. 25. All vacancies occuring in the offices provided for by this 
article of the Constitution shall be filled by the appointment of the 
Governor, unless otherwise provided for, and the appointees shall 
hold their places until the next regular election for members of the 
General Assembly, when elections shall be held to fill such oflaces. If 
any person, elected or appointed to any of said offices, shall neglect 
and fail to qualify, such offices shall be appointed to, held and filled 
as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All incumbents 
of said office shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 26. The officers elected at the first election held under this 
Constitution shall hold their offices for the terms prescribed for 
them respectively, next ensuing after the next regular election for 
members . of the General Assembly. But th-eir terms shall begin 
upon the approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United 
States. 

Sec. 27. The several justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction, 
under such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, of 
civil actions, founded on contract, wherein the sum demanded shall 
not exceed two hundred dollars, and wherein the title to real estate 
shall not be in controversy; and of all criminal matters arising 
within their counties where the punishment cannot exceed a fine of 
fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days. And the General 
Assembly may give to justices of the peace jurisdiction of other civil 
actions wherein the value of the property in controversy does not 
exceed fifty dollars. When an issue of fact shall be joined before 
a justice, on demand of either party thereto, he shall cause a jury 
of six men to be summoned, who shall try the same. The party 
against whom judgment shall be rendered in any civil action may 
appeal to' the Superior Court from the same. In all cases of a crimi- 
nal nature, the party against whom judgment is given may appeal 
to the Superior Court, where the matter shall be heard anew. In 
all cases brought before a justice, he shall make a record of the pro- 
ceedings and file same with the Clerk of the Superior Court for his 
county. 

22 



338 State Constitution. 

Sec. 28. When the office of justice of the peace shall become va- 
cant otherwise than by expiration of the term, and in case of a fail- 
ure by the voters of any district to elect, the Clerk of the Superior 
Court for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy for the unex- 
pired term. 

Sec. 29. In case the office of Clerk of a Superior Court for a county 
shall become vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, 
and in case of a failure by the people to elect, the Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy until an 
election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 30. In case the General Assembly shall establish other courts 
inferior to the Supreme Court, the presiding officers and clerks 
thereof shall be elected in such manner as the General Assembly 
may from time to time prescribe, and they shall hold their offices 
for a term not exceeding eight years. 

Sec. 31. Any Judge .of the Supreme Court, or of the. Superior 
Courts, and the presiding officers of such courts inferior to the Su- 
preme Court as may be established by law, may be removed from 
office for mental or physical inability, upon a concurrent resolution 
of two-thirds of both houses of the General Assembly. The Judge or 
presiding officer, against whom the General Assembly may be about 
to proceed, shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of 
the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty days before the 
day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act thereon. 
Sec. 32. Any Clerk of the Supreme Court, or of the Superior 
Courts, or of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be 
established by law, may be removed from office for mental or physi- 
cal inability; the Clerk of the Supreme Court by the Judges of said 
Court, the Clerks of the Superior Courts by the Judge riding the 
district, and the clerks of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court 
as may be established by law by the presiding officers of said courts. 
The clerk against whom the proceedings are instituted shall receive 
notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his 
removal, at least ten days before the day appointed to act thereon, 
and the clerk shall be entitled to an appeal to the next term of the 
Superior Court, and thence to the Supreme Court as provided in 
other cases of appeals. 



State Constitution. 339 

Sec. 33. The amendments made to the Constitution of North Caro- 
lina by this Convention shall not have the effect to vacate any office 
or term of office now existing under the Constitution of the State 
and filled or held by virtue of any election or appointment under the 
said Constitution and the laws of the State made in pursuance 
thereof. 

ARTICLE V. 

REVENUE AND TAXATION. 

Section 1. The General Assembly shall levy a capitation tax on 
every male inhabitant in the State over twenty-one and under fifty 
years of age, which shall be equal on each to the tax on property 
valued at three hundred dollars in cash. The commissioners of the 
several counties may exempt from capitation tax in special cases, 
on account of poverty and infirmity, and the State and county capi- 
tation tax combined shall never exceed two dollars on the head. 

Sec. 2. The proceeds of the State and county capitation tax shall 
be applied to the purposes of education and the support of the poor, 
but in no one year shall more than twenty-five per cent thereof be 
appropriated to the latter purpose. 

Sec. 3. Laws shall be passed taxing, by a uniform rule, all moneys, 
credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint-stock companies, or other- 
wise; and, also, all real and personal property, according to its true 
value in money. The General Assembly may also tax trades, profes- 
sions, franchises, and incomes: Provided, that no income shall be 
taxed when the property from which the income is derived is taxed. 

Sec- 4. Until the bonds of the State shall be at par, the General 
Assembly shall have no power to contract any new debt or pecuniary 
obligation in behalf of the State, except to supply a casual deficit, 
or for suppressing invasions or insurrections, unless it shall in the 
same bill levy a special tax to pay the interest annually. And the 
General Assembly shall have no power to give or lend the credit of 
the State in aid of any person, association or corporation, except to 
aid in the completion of such railroads as may be unfinished at the 
time of the adoption of this Constitution, or in which the State has 
a direct pecuniary interest, unless the subject be submitted to a 
direct vote of the people of the State, and be approved by the ma- 
jority of those who shall vote thereon. 



340 SXAXp COASTIT.UTIOK. 

Sec. 5. Property belonging to the State, or to municipal corpora- 
tions, shall be exempt from taxation. The General. Assembly may 
exempt cemeteries and property held for educational, scientific, liter- 
ary, charitable or religious purposes; also wearing apparel, arms 
for muster, household and kitchen furniture, the mechanical and 
agricultural implements of mechanics and farmers, libraries and 
scientific instruments, or any other personal property, to a value not 
exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Sec. 6. The taxes levied by the commissioners of the several coun- 
ties for county purposes shall be levied in like manner with the State 
taxes, and shall never exceed the double of the State tax, except for 
a special purpose, and with the special approval of the General 
Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Every act of the General Assembly levying a tax shall 
state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be 
applied to no other purpose. 

ARTICLE VI. 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE. 

Section 1. Every male person born in the United States, and every 
male person who has been naturalized, twenty-one years of age, and 
possessing the qualifications set out in this article, shall be entitled 
to vote at any election by the people in the State, except as herein 
otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. He shall have resided in the State of North Carolina for 
two years, in the county six months, and in the precinct, ward or 
other election district in which he offers to vote, four months next 
preceding the election: Provided, that removal from one precinct, 
ward, or other election district, to another in the same county, shall 
not operate to deprive any person of the right to vote in the precinct, 
ward or other election district from which he has removed until 
four months after such removal. No person who has been convicted, 
or who has confessed his guilt in open court upon indictment, of any 
crime, the punishment if which now is or maj^ hereafter be impris- 
onment in the State's Prison, shall be permitted to vote unless the 
said person shall be first restored to citizenship in the manner pre- 
scribed bv law. 



State Constitution. 341 

Sec. 3. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time a legally 
registered voter as herein prescribed and in the manner hereafter 
provided by law, and the General Assembly of North Carolina shall 
enact general registration laws to carry into effect the provisions of 
this article. 

Sec. 4. Every person presenting himself for registration shall be 
able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the Eng- 
lish language; and before he shall be entitled to vote he shall have 
paid, on or before the first day of May of the year in which he pro- 
poses to vote, his poll tax for the previous year as prescribed by 
Article V, section 1, of the Constitution. But no male person who 
was on January 1, 1867, or at any other time prior thereto, entitled to 
vote under the laws of any State in the United States wherein he 
then resided, and no lineal descendent of any such person, shall be 
denied the right to register and vote at any election in this State 
by reason of his failure to possess the educational qualifications 
herein prescribed: Provided, he shall have registered in accordance 
with the terms of this section prior to December 1, 1908. The Gen- 
eral Assembly shall provide for the registration of all persons en- 
titled to vote without the educational qualifications herein pre- 
scribed, and shall, on or before November 1, 1908, provide for the 
making of a permanent record of such registration, and all persons 
so registered shall forever thereafter have the right to vote in all 
elections by the people in this State, unless disqualified under section 
2 of this article: Provided, such person shall have paid his poll tax 
as above required. 

Sec. 5. That this amendment to the Constitution is presented and 
adopted as one indivisible plan for the regulation of the suffrage, 
with the intent and purpose to so connect the different parts and to 
make them so dependent upon each other that the whole shall stand 
or fall together. 

Sec. 6. All elections by the people shall be by a ballot, and all elec- 
tions by the General Assembly shall be viim voce. 

Sec. 7. Every voter in North Carolina, except as in this article 
disqualified, shall be eligible to office, but before entering upon the 
duties of the office he shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will sup- 
port and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States 



342 State Constitution. 

and the Constitution and laws of North Carolina not inconsistent 
therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of my 
office as So help me, God." 

Sec. 8. The following classes of persons shall be disqualified for 
office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 
Second, all persons who shall have been convicted or confessed their 
guilt on indictment pending, and whether sentenced or not, or under 
judgment suspended, of any treason or felony, or of any other crime 
for which the punishment may be imprisonment in the penitentiary, 
since becoming citizens of the United States, or of corruption or mal- 
practice in office, unless such persons shall be restored to the rights 
of citizenship in a manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. That this amendment to the Constitution shall go into 
effect on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and two, if a ma- 
jority of votes cast at the next general election shall be cast in favor 
of this suffrage amendment. 

ARTICLE VII. 

MUNICIPAL CORPOKATIO^iS. 

Section 1. In each county there shall be elected biennially by the 
qualified voters thereof, as provided for the election of members of 
the General Assembly, the following officers: A treasurer, register 
of deeds, surveyor, and five commissiohers. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the commissioners to exercise a 
general supervision and control of the penal and charitable institu- 
tions, schools, roads, bridges, levying of taxes, and finances of the 
county, as may be prescribed by law. The register of deeds shall 
be, ex officio, clerk of the board of commissioners. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the commissioners first elected in 
each county to divide the same into convenient districts, and to 
report the same to the General Assembly before the first day of 
January, 1869. 

Sec. 4. Upon the approval of the reports provided for in the fore- 
going section by the General Assembly, the said districts sliall have 
corporate powers for the necessary purposes of local government, 
and shall be known as townships. 



State Constitution. 343 

Sec. 5. In each township there shall be biennially elected by the 
qualified voters thereof a clerk and two justices of the peace, who 
shall constitute a board of trustees, and shall, under the supervision 
of the county commissioners, have control of the taxes and finances, 
roads and bridges of the townships, as may be prescribed by law. 
The General Assembly may provide for the election of a larger num- 
ber of the justices of the peace in cities and towns and in those 
townships in which cities and towns are situated. In every town- 
ship there shall also be biennially elected a school committee, con- 
sisting of three persons, whose duties shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. The township board of trustees shall assess the taxable 
property of their townships and make returns to the county commis- 
sioners for revision, as may be prescribed by law. The clerk shall 
be ex officio, treasurer of the township. 

Sec. 7. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation shall 
contract any debt, pledge its faith or loan its credit, nor shall any 
tax be levied or collected by any officers of the same except for the 
necessary expenses thereof, unless by a vote of the majority of the 
qualified voters therein. 

Sec. 8. No money shall be drawn from any county or township 
treasury except by authority of law. 

Sec. 9. All taxes levied by any county, city, town or township 
shall be uniform and ad valorem upon all property in the same, ex- 
cept property exempted by this Constitution. 

Sec. 10. The county officers first elected" under the provisions of 
this article shall enter upon their duties ten days after the approval 
of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States. 

Sec. 11. The Governor shall appoint a sufficient number of justices 
of the peace in each county, who shall hold their places until sec- 
tions four, five and six of this article shall have been carried into 
effect. 

Sec. 12. All charters, ordinances and provisions relating to munici- 
pal corporations shall remain in force until legally changed, unless 
inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 13. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation shall 
assume to pay, nor shall any tax be levied or collected for the pay- 
ment of any debt, or the interest upon any debt, contracted directly 
or indirectly in aid or support of the rebellion. 



344 State Constitution. 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall have lull power by statute 
to modify, change or abrogate any and all of the provisions of this 
article and substitute others in their place, except sections seven, 
ftine and thirteen. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

COKPORATIONS OTHER THAN MUNICIPAL. 

Section 1. No corporation shall be created nor shall its charter be 
extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corporations for 
charitable, educational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be 
and remain under the patronage and control of the State; but the 
General Assembly shall provide by general laws for the chartering 
and organization of all corporations, and for amending, extending, 
and forfeiture of all charters, except those above permitted by 
special act. All such general laws and special acts may be altered 
from time to time or repealed; and the General Assembly may at any 
time by special act repeal the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual 
liabilities of the corporations and other means as may be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 3. The term corporation, as used in this article, shall be con- 
strued to include all associations and joint-stock companies having 
any of the powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by 
individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the 
right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts in like cases 
as natural persons. 

Sec. 4. "It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide by gen- 
eral laws for the organization of cities, towns, and incorporated vil- 
lages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing 
money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent 
abuses in assessment and in contracting debts by such municipal 
corporations." 

ARTICLE IX. 

EDUCATION. 

Section 1. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to 
good government and to the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged. 



State Coxstitutiox. 345 

Sec. 2. The Greiieral Assembly, at its first session under this Con- 
stitution, shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a general and 
uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be free of 
charge to all the children of the State between the ages of six and 
twenty-one years. And the children of the white race and the chil- 
dren of the colored race shall be taught in separate public schools; 
but there shall be no discrimination in favor of or to the prejudice 
of either race. 

Sec. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a convenient 
number of districts, in which one or more public schools shall be 
maintained at least four months in every year; and if the commis- 
sioners of any county shall fail to comply with the aforesaid require- 
ments of this section they shall be liable to indictment. 

Sec. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may 
be granted by the United States to this State and not otherwise 
appropriated by this State or the United States, also all moneys, 
stocks, bonds, and other property now belonging to any State fund 
for purposes of education, also the net proceeds of all sales of the 
swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other grants, gifts, or 
devises that have been or hereafter may be made to the State and 
not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the grant, 
gift, or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury, and, together 
with so much of the ordinary revenue of the State as may be by law 
set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated for estab- 
lishing and maintaining in this State a system of free public schools 
and for no other uses or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds and other property belonging to 
a county school fund, also the net proceeds from the sale of estrays, 
also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all 
fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal 
or military laws of the State, and all moneys which shall be paid 
by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall 
belong to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully 
appropriated for establishing and maintaining free public schools in 
the several counties in this State: Provided, that the amount col- 
lected in each county shall be annually reported to the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction. 



346 State Coxstitution. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for the 
election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in whom, 
when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchises 
and endowments thereof in anywise granted to or conferred upon 
the trustees of said University; and the General Assembly may make 
such provisions, laws and regulations from time to time as may be 
necessary and expedient for the maintenance and management of 
said University. 

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits of 
the University, as far as practicable, be extended to the youth of the 
State free of expense for tuition; also that all the property which 
has heretofore accrued to the State or shall hereafter accrue from 
escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the estates 
of deceased persons, shall be appropriated to the use of the Uni- 
versity. 

Sec. 8. The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, 
Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and At- 
torney-General shall constitute a State Board of Education. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall be president and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the Board of Education. 

Sec. 10. The Board of Education shall succeed to all the powers 
and trusts of the president and directors of the literary fund of 
North Carolina and shall have full power to legislate and make all 
needful rules and regulations in relation to free public schools and 
the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules and regulations 
of said board may be altered, amended or repealed by the General 
Assembly, and when so altered, amended or repealed they shall not 
be reenacted by the board. 

Sec. 11. TTie first session of the Board of Education shall be held 
at the capital of the State within fifteen days after the organization 
of the State Government under this Constitution; the time of future 
meetings may be determined by the board. 

Sec. 12. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business. 

Sec. 13. The contingent expenses of the board shall be provided by 
the General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Constitu- 
tion the General Assembly shall establish and maintain in connec- 



State Coxstitutiox. 347 

tion with the University a department of agriculture, of mechanics, 
of mining, and of normal instruction. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact that 
every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the 
public schools during the period between the ages of six and eighteen 
years for a term of not less than sixteen months, unless educated by 
other means. 

ARTICLE X. 

HOMESTEADS AND EXEMPTIONS. 

Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State to 
the value of five hundred dollars, to be selected by such resident, 
shall be and is hereby exempted from sale under execution or other 
final process of any court issued for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Every homestead, and the dwellings and buildings used 
therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be selected 
by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, 
any lot in a city, town or village, with the dwellings and buildings 
used thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and 
not exceeding the value of one thousand dollars, shall be exempt 
from sale under execution or other final process obtained on any 
debt. But no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes or for 
payment of obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises. 

Sec. 3. The homestead, after the death of the owner thereof, shall 
be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of his 
children or any one of them. 

Sec. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article shall 
not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and 
performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic's 
lieu for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow but no 
children, the same shall be exempt from the debts of her husband, 
and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit during 
her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a homestead in her own 
right. 

Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this State 
acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to 



348 State CoxsTiTfTiox. 

which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall 
he and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such 
female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engage- 
ments of her husband, and may. be devised and bequeathed, and, with 
the written assent of her husband, conveyed by her as if she were 
unmarried. 

Sec. 7. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use and 
benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death of the 
husband the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the wife and 
children, or to the guardian if under age, for her or their own use, 
free from all the claims of the representatives of her husband or 
any of his creditors. 

Sec. 8. Nothing contained in the foregoing sections of this article 
shall operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing 
of the same by deed; but no deed made by the owner of a home- 
stead shall be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of 
his wife, signified on her private examination according to law. 

ARTICLE XI. 

PUNISHMENTS. PENAL INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC CHARITIES. 

Section 1. The following punishments only shall be known to the 
laws of this State, viz., death, imprisonment with or without hard 
labor, fines, removal from office, and disqualification tO' hold and 
enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State. The fore- 
going provision for imprisonment with hard labor shall be con- 
strued to authorize the employment of such convict labor on public 
works or highways, or other labor for public benefit, and the farm- 
ing out thereof, where and in such manner as may be provided by 
law; but no convict shall be farmed out who has been sentenced on 
a charge of murder, manslaughter, rape, attempt to commit rape, or 
arson: Provided, that no convict whose labor may be farmed out 
shall be punished for any failure of duty as a laborer except by a 
responsible officer of the State; but the convicts so farmed out shall 
be at all times under the supervision and control, as to their govern- 
ment and discipline, of the penitentiary board or some officer of the 
State. 

Sec. 2. The object of punishment being not only to satisfy justice, 
but also to reform the offender, and thus prevent crime, murder. 



State Constitution. 349 

arson, burglary, and rape, and these only may be punishable with 
death, if the General Assembly shall so enact. 

Skc. 3. The General Assembly shall, at its first meeting, make pro- 
vision for the erection and conduct of a State's prison or peniten- 
tiary at some central and accessible point within the State. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly may provide for the erection of a 
house of correction, where vagrants and persons guilty of misde- 
meanors shall be restrained and usefully employed. 

Sec. 5. A house or houses of refuge may be established whenever 
the public interests may require it, for the correction and instruc- 
tion of other classes of offenders. 

Sec. 6. It shall be required by competent legislation that the struc- 
ture and superintendence of penal institutions of the State, the 
county jails and city police prisons secure the health and comfort of 
the prisoners, and that male and female prisoners be never con- 
fined in the same room or cell. 

Sec. 7. Beneficent provisions for the poor, the unfortunate and 
orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian 
State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and 
define the duties of a board of public charities, to whom shall be 
entrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal State institu- 
tions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their 
condition, with suggestions for their improvement. 

Sec. 8. There shall also, as soon as practicable, be measures de- 
vised by the State for the establishment of one or more orphan 
houses, where destitute orphans may be cared for, educated, and 
taught some business or trade. 

Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as practi- 
cable, to devise means for the education of idiots and inebriates. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly may provide that the indigent deaf- 
mute, blind, and insane of the State shall be cared for at the charge 
of the State. 

Sec. 11. It shall be steadily kept in view by the Legislature and 
the Board of Public Charities, that all penal and charitable institu- 
tions should be made as nearly self-supporting as is consistent with 
the purposes of their creation. 



350 State Constitution. 

ARTICLE Xn. 

militia. 

Section 1. All able-bodied male citizens of the State of North Car- 
olina, between the ages of twenty-one and forty years, who are citi- 
zens of the United States, shall be liable to do duty in the militia: 
Pfovicled, that all persons who may be averse to bearing arms, 
from religious scruples, shall be exempt therefrom. 

Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall provide for the organizing, 
arming, equipping and discipline of the militia, and for paying the 
same when called into active service. 

Sec. 3. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief, and shall have 
power to call out the militia to execute the law, suppress riots or 
insurrection, and to repel invasion. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have power to make such ex- 
emptions as may be deemed necessary, and enact laws that may be 
expedient for the government of the militia. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. No convention of the people of this State shall ever be 
called by the General Assembly, unless by the concurrence of two- 
thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly, 
and except the proposition. Convention, or No Convention, be first 
submitted to the qualiiied voters of the whole State, at the next 
general election in manner to be prescribed by law. And should a 
majority of the votes cast be in favor of said convention, it shall 
assemble on such day as may be prescribed by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 2. No part of the Constitution of this State shall be altered 
unless a bill to alter the same shall have been agreed to by three- 
fifths of each house of the General Assembly. And the amendment 
or amendments so agreed to shall be submitted at the next general 
election to the qualified voters of the whole State, in such a mannef 
as may be prescribed by law. And in the event of their adoption 
by a majority of the votes cast, such amendment or amendments 
shall become part of the Constitution of the State. 



State Constitution. 351 

ARTICLE XIV. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Section 1. All indictments which shall have been found, or may 
hereafter be found, for any crime or offense committed before this 
Constitution takes effect, may be proceeded upon in the proper 
courts, but no punishment shall be inflicted which is forbidden by 
this Constitution. 

Sec. 2. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in 
the same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge 
therefor, or agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall hold 
any office in this State. 

Sec. 3. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in con- 
sequence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate account of 
the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be annually 
published. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall provide, by proper legislation, 
for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on the subject 
matter of their labor. * 

Sec. 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers of 
this State, whether heretofore elected or appointed by the Governor, 
shall hold their positions only until other appointments are made by 
the Governor, or, if the offices are elective, until their successors 
shall have been chosen and duly qualified according to the provisions 
of this Constitution. 

Sec 6. The seat of government of this State shall remain at the 
city of Raleigh. 

Sec. 7. No person who shall hold any office or place of trust or 
profit under the United States, or any department thereof, or under 
this State, or under any other State or Government, shall hold or 
exercise any other office or place of trust or profit under the author- 
ity of this State, or be eligible to a seat in either house of the Gen- 
eral Assembly: Provided, that nothing herein contained shall ex- 
tend to officers in the militia, justices of the peace, commissioners 
of public charities, or commissioners for special purposes. 

Sec. 8. All marriages between a white person and a negro, or be- 
tween a white person and white person of negro descent to the third 
generation, inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. 



352 State Constitution, 

INDEX TO STATE CONSTITUTION. 

A. Article. S. Section. 

Abuses in assessments and contracting debts by municipal corporations, General 

Assembly to prevent, A. 8, S. 4. 
Actions at law and equity suits, no distinction, A. 4, S. 1. 

Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 
Acts of General Assembly, style of, A. 2, S. 21. 

Levying taxes, must state object, A. 5, S. 7. 
Agriculture, Department of, A. 3, S. 17. 

In connection with University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Alimony, General Assembly does not secure, A. 2, S. 10. 
Allegiance to U. S. Government, A. 1, S. 5. 
Amendments, A. 13. 

Do not vacate existing offices, A. 4, S. 33. 
Answer to criminal charge, A. 1, S. 12. 

Apportionment of Senators and Representatives, A. 2, SS. 4, 5, 6. 
Arms, right to bear, A. 1, S. 24. 

Article VII, General A.ssembly may modify or repeal certain sections. A. 7, S. 14 
Assemblage, right of, A. 1, S. 25. 
Attorney-General advises executive, A. 3, S. 14. 

Duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Auditor, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Bail, excessive, A. 1. S. 14. 
Ballot, elections to be by, A. 6, S. 3. 
Bills of General Assembly read three times, A. 2, S. 23. 
Blind provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Board of Charities, A. 11, S. 7. 
Boundaries of State, A. 1, S. 34. 
Capitation tax, application of proceeds from, A. 5, S. 2. 

Exempts, A. 5, S. 1. 
Capital punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 
Charities, public, A. 11. 

Deaf-mutes and the blind, A. 11, S. 10. 

Idiots and inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 

Provision for orphans and the poor, A. 11, S. 7. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 
Cities organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 
Citizenship, restoration to, A. 2, S. 11. 
Civil and criminal actions, A. 4, S. 1. 
Claims against the State, A. 4, S. 9. 
Clerk of the Superior Court, election of, A. 4, S. 10. 

Removal for inability, A. 4, S. 32. 

Term of office of, A. 4, S. 17. 

Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 15. 



State Co>'Stitution. 353 

Clerks, removal of, A. 4, S. 32. 

Commutations, A. 3, S. 6. 

Compulsory education. General Assembly may provide, A. 9, S. 15. 

Concealed weapons, carrying not justified, A. 1, S. 24 

Constitution, how changed, A. 13, S. 2. 

Controversies at law about property, A. 1, S. 19. 

Conventions, how called, A. 13. 

Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 

Coroner and sheriff, A. 4. S. 24. 

Correction, house of, A. 11, S. 4. 

Corporations, municipal, A. 7. 

Charters remain in force till legally changed, A. 7, S. 12. 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 12. 
Corporations other than municipal, A. 8. 

Debts of, how secured, A. 8, S. 2. 

Definition of, A. 8, 3. 

Under general laws, A. 8, S. 1. 
Correction, houses of, A. 11, S. 4. 
Council of State, A. 3, S. 14. 
Counsel allowed defendant, A. 1, S. 11. 
County commissioners, election and duty of, A. 7, SS. 1, 2. 

Commissioners divide into districts, A. 7, S. 3. 

Districts have corporate powers as townships, A. 7, S. 4. 

Majority of voters necessary to levy taxes, etc., A. 7, S. 7. 

Money, how drawn from its treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 

Officers enter on duty, when, A. 7, S. 10; of town.ships, A. 7, S. 5. 

School districts, A. 9, S. 3 ; fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Taxes to be ad valorem, A. 7, S. 9. 

Township trustees assess property, A. 7, S. 6. 
County treasurer, A. 7, S. 1. 
Courts to be open, A. 1, S. 3.5. 
Kinds of, A. 4, S. 2. 

Criminal charges, answers to, A. 1, S. 12. 
Criminal and civil actions, A. 4, S. 1. 

Courts for cities and towns, A. 4, S. 14. 

Prosecutions, A. 1, S. 11. 
Deaf-mutes provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Death punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 
Debt does not affect homestead, A. 10, S. 3. 

County, city, or town cannot contract, except by majority of qiialified voters, 
A. 7, S. 7. 

Imprisonment for, A. 1, S. 16. 
In aid of rebellion, void, A. 7, S. 13. 
Debt, restrictions upon increase of public, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 
Declaration of rights, A. 1. 
Department of Agriculture. A. 3, S. 17. 

23 



354 State Co.xsTnrTTox. 

Divorce, General Assembly does not grant, A. 2, S. 17. 
Disqualification for office, A. 6, S. 5 ; A. 14, S. 7. 

Dueling disqualifies, A. 14, S. 2. 
Education, board of, A. 9, S. 8 ; officers, A. 9, S. 9; expenses, A. 9, S. 13. 

First session of, A. 9, S. 11; power of, A. 9, S. 10. 

Quorum, A. 9, S. 12. 

County school fund, A. 9, S. .0. 

Encouraged, A. 9, S. 1 ; A. 1, S. 27. 

Property devoted to, A. 9, SS. 4, 5. 
Election of officers by General Assembly, viva voce, A. 2, S. 9. 
Elections, by people and General Assembly, A. 6, S. 3. 

Contested, returns of, A. 3, S. 3. 

Free, A. 1, S. 10; frequent, A. 1, S. 28. 
Electors, oath of office of, A. 6, S. 4. 
Eligibility to office, A. 6. 

Qualification of, A. 6, S. 1. 
Electors, registration of, A. 6. S. 2. 
Emoluments, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 

Hereditary, A. 1. S. 30. 
Entails to be regulated, A. 2, S. 15. 

Enumeration of rights, not to impair others retained by people, A. 1, S. 37. 
Equity suits and actions at law, distinction abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 

Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 
Evidence against himself, criminal not compelled to give, A. 1, S. 11. 
Executive, Attorney-General advises, A. 3, S. 14. 

Department of, A. 3; distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 

Officers, A. 3, S. 1 ; compensation. A. 3. S. 8. 

Duties, A. 3, S. 13; reports of, A. 3, S. 7. 

Terms of office of, A, 3, S. 1. 

Seal of State, A. 3, S. 16. 

Vacancy in, how filled, A. 3, S. 13. 
Exemption, A.' 10. S. 1. 

By reason of military duty, etc.. A. 12, S. 4. 

Property of feme coi'eft not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. C. 
Ex post facto laws, A. 1, S. 32. 
Extra session of General Assembly, A. 3, S. 9. 
Feigned issues abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 

Feme sole, property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Fines, excessive, A. 1, S. 14. 
Freedom of the press, A. 1, S. 20. 

Fundamental principles, frequent recurrence to, A. 1, S. 29. 
General Assembly, acts, style of, A. 2, S. 21. 

Article VII may be modified or repealed by, A. 7, S. 14. 

Bills and resolutions read three times, A. 2, S. 23. 

Compulsory education may be enforced by, A. 9, S. 1.5. 

Election by, A. 6, S. 3. 

Entails regulated by, A. 2, S. 15. 



State Constitutiox. 355 



General Assembly, extra sessions, A. 2, S. 28; A. 3, S. 9. 

Journals kept, A. 2, S. 16; protests entered on, A. 2, S. 17. 
Members of, A. 2, S. 24. 

Assemble when, A. 2, S. 2. 

Election for, when held, A. 2, S. 27. 

Office a disqualification, A. 14, S. 7. 

Terms commence with election, A. 2, S. 25. 

Vacancies, how filled, A. 2, S. 13. 
Municipal corporations controlled by, A. 7, S 14. 
Names, personal, not changed by, A. 2, S. 11. 
Officers of, election viva voce. A. 2, S. 9. 

Pay of, A. 2, S. 28. 

President of Senate, A. 2, S. 19. 

Speaker of House, A. 2, S. 18. 
Powers of, A. 2, S. 22. 

In relation to divorce and alimony, A. 2, S. 10. 
Representation apportioned by, A. 2, SS. 4, 5. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14. 
Schools provided by, A. 9, S. 2. 
University to be maintained by, A. 9, SS. 6, 7. 
Yeas and nays, A. 2, SS. 14, 27. 
Government, allegiance to U. S., A. 1, S. 5. 
Internal, of State, A. 1, S. 3. 
Origin of, A. 1, S. 2. 

Seat of, remains in Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 
Governor commands militia, A. 3, S. 8. 

Commutations, pardons, reprieves, A. 3, S. 6. 
Justices of peace appointed by, vi'hen, A. 7, S. 11. 
Governor, compensation, A. 3, S. 15. 
Duties of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Extra session called by, A. 3, S. 9. 
Impeachment of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Lieutenant, qualification of, A. 3, S. 2. 
Oath of office, A. 3, S. 4. 

Officers appointed by, A. 3, S. 10 ; A. 14, S. 5. 
Residence of, A. 3, S. 5. 
Qualification of, A. 3, S. 2. 
Vacancy in office of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Habeas corpiis, A. 1, S. 21. 
Hereditary emoluments, A. 1, S. 30. 

Homestead and exemption,' A. 10, S. 2. 
Benefit of widow in, A. 10, S. 5. 
Exempted from debt, A. 10, S. 3. 
Laborer's lien attaches, A. 10, S. 4. 
Privy examination of wife to dispose of, A. 10, S. 8. 
House of correction, A. 11, S. 4. 

Orphans, A. 11, S. 8. 
House of refuge, A. 11, S. 5. 



356 State Coastitutiox. 

House of Representatives, apportioMment, A. 2, S. 5. 

Officers of, A. 2, S. 18; term begins when, A. 2, S. 25; ciualification for, A. 
S. 8 ; ratio of, A. 2, S. 6. 
Husband can insure life for benefit of family, A. 10, S. 7. 
Idiots provided for, A. 11, S. 9. 
Immigration, Department of, A. 3, S. 17. 
Impeachment, A. 4, S. 4. 

Court of, A. 4, S. 3. 

Of Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 
Imprisonment, for debt, A. 1, S. 16. 

Except by law, wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 
Indictments for crimes committed before Constitution took effect, A. 14, S. 1. 
Inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 
Inferior courts, A. 4, S. 12. 

Officers of, A. 4, S. 30. 
Insane provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Institutions, charitable, A. 11. 

Penal, A. 11. 

Public, annual reports from, A. 3, S. 7. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes to be separated, A. 11, S. 6. 
Instruction, Superintendent of Public, A. 3, S. 13. 
Intermarriage of whites and negroes prohibited, A. 14, S. 8. 
Internal government of State, A. 1, S. 3. 
Issues of fact, by whom tried and how waived, A. 4, S. 13. 
Judges, election, terms of, etc., A. 4, S. 21. 

Fees, salaries, emoluments, A. 4, S. 18. 
Judges, removal of, for inability, A. 4, S. 31. 

Residence of, A. 4, S. 11. 
Judicial Department, A. 4. 

Districts for Superior Courts, A. 4, S. 10. 

General Assembly not to deprive of jurisdiction, A. 4, S. 12 

Powers, division of, A. 4, S. 2. 

Term of first officers under Constitution, A. 4, S. 26. 

Vacancies, A. 4, S. 2.5. 
Judicial remedy allowed all, A. 1, S. 35. 
Judiciary distinct, A. 1, S. 8, 
Jurisdiction, courts inferior to Supreme, A. 4, S. 12. 

Justices of the peace, A. 4, S. 27. 

Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 8. 
Jury, right of, A. 1, S. 13. 

Trial by, waived, A. 4, S. 13. 

Sacred and inviolable, A. 1, S. 19. 
Justices of the peace, Governor appoints, when, A. 7, S. 11. 

Jurisdiction of, A. 4, S. 27. 

Vacancies in office, A. 4, S. 28. 
Laborers' and mechanics' lien. A. 14, S. 4. 

Attaches homestead, A. 10, S. 4. 



State CoxNstitutio^". 357 

Law of the land, no person imprisoned or deprived of life, etc., but by, A. 1, S. 17. 
Laws, ex post facto and retrospective, A. 1, S. 32. 

Private, thirty days notice before passage, A. 2, S. 12. 

What in force, A. 4, S. 19. 
Legislature, distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 

Two branches of, A. 2, S. 1. 
Legislature provides for organizing towns, etc., A. 8, S. 4. 

Trials other than jury, A. 1, S. 13. 
Legitimation, General Assembly can pass general laws for, A. 2, S. 11. 
Liberty, deprivation of, except by law, A. 1, S. 17. 

Religious, A. 1, S. 26. 

Restraint of, remedied, A. 1, S. 18'. 

Warrants without evidence, dangerous to, A. 1, S. 15. 
Lien of laborers and mechanics, A. 14, S. 4. 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of Senate, duties of, A. 3, S. 11. 

When Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 
Literary fund, Board of Education to succeed to rights of, A. 9, S. 10. 
Marriages between whites and negroes forbidden, A. 14, S. 8. 
Married woman, husband can insure life for benefit of, A. 10, S. 7. 

Privy examination of, to dispose of homestead, A. 10, S. 8. 

Property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. ' 

Mechanics' lien, A. 14, S. 4. 
Men, equality, rights of, A. 1, S. 1. 
Militia, A. 1, S. 24; A. 12. 

Exemptions from duty, A. 12, S. 4. 

Governor commands, A. 3, S. 8 ; A. 12, S. 3. 

Organization of, A. 12, S.*2. 

Who liable to bear arms, A. 12, S. 1. 
Money, how drawn from State Treasury, A. 4, S. 1. 

County or township treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 
Monopolies are injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 
Municipal corporations, A. 7. 

Cannot contract debt except by majority of qualified voters, A. 7, S. 7. 

Charters remain in force till changed, A. 7, S. 12. 
Municipal corporations, General Assembly to provide for oragnization of, taxation, 
etc., by, A. 8, S. 4. 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 14. 
Names, personal, how changed, A. 2, S. 11. 

Normal school to be maintained by General Assembly at University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Oath of member of General Assembly, A. 2, S. 24. 
Oath of Governor, A. 3, S. 4. 
Oath of Office, A. 6, S. 4. 
Office, cannot liold two, A. 14, S. 7. 

Disqualification, A. 6, S. 5. 

Dueling disqualifies for, A. 14, S. 2. 
Office, eligibility to, A. 6. 

Qualification, property, none, A. 1, S. 22. 



358 State Constitution. 

Officers, county, A. 7, SS. 1, 10. 

First elected, A. 4, S. 26. 

What, appointed by Governor, A. 3, S. 10; A. 14, S. 5. 
Orphans, houses for, A. 11, S. 8. 

Provisions for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Pardons, A. 3, S. 6. 

Peace, soldiers quartered in time of, A. 1, S. 36. 
Penitentiary, A. 11, S. 3. 

Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes separated, A. 11, S. 6. 
People, right of, to assemble together, A. 1, S. 25. 
Perpetuities injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 

General Assembly shall prevent, A. 2, S. 15. 
Political power and government, A. 1, S. 2. 

Societies in secret dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 
Poor, provisions for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Power of General Assembly, A. 2, S. 22. 

To suspend laws injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 
Powers, executive, judicial, and legislative, distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 

Judicial, division of, A. 4, S. 2. 
Press, freedom and abuse of, A. 1, S. 20. 
Principles, recurrence to fundamental, A. 1, S. 29. 
Prisoners, health and comfort secured, A. 11, S. 6. 
Private laws, A. 2, SS. 11, 12. 
Privileges, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 
Property, controversies at law about, A. 1, S. 19. 

Deprivation of, except by law, wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 

Devoted to education, A. 19, S. 4. 

Exemptions from taxation, A. 5, S. 5. 

Feme sole not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 

Qualifications, none, A. 1, S. 22. 
Prosecution, criminal, A. 1, S. 11. 
Protest, by whom and when made, A. 2, S. 17. 
Public debt, increase of, restricted, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 
Public money, how drawn, A. 14, S. 3. 

Public schools. General Assembly to provide for, A. 9, S. 2. 
Punishments, penal institutions and public charities, A. 11. 

Cruel or unusual, A. 1, S. 14; A. 14, S. 1. 
Qualification and election of members of General Assembly, each house judge of, 

A. 2, S. 22. 
Rebellion, debt in aid of, not to be paid, A. 7, S. 13. 
Recurrence to fundamental principles, A. 1, S. 29. 
Refuge, houses of, A. 11, S. 5. 
Register of Deeds, A. 7, S. 1. 
Registration of electors. A. 6, S. 2. 



State Constitution. 359 



Religious liberty, A. 1, S. 26. 

Scruples against bearing arms, A. 12, S. 1. 
Removal of judges, A. 4, S. 31; of clerks, A. 4, S. 32. 
Representation and taxation, A. 1, S. 23. 
Reprieves, A. 3, S. 6. 
Retrospective laws, A. 1, S. 32. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14; A. 5. 
Right of assemblage, A. 1, S. 25. 

Jury, A. 1, S. 13. 

Secession, none, A. 1, S. 4. 

To bear arms, A. 1, S. 24. 

To suspend laws, injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 
Rights, declaration of, A. 1. 

Of men, A. 1, S. 1 ; A. 1, S. 37. 
Salaries and fees. General Assembly to regulate, A. 4, S. li 
Schools, attendance of children, A. 9, S. 15. 

County divided into districts, A. 9, S. 3. 

Fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Provided by legislation, A. 9, S. 2. 
Schools, races separate, A. 9, S. 2. 
Seal of State, A. 3, S. 16. 

Search warrants without evidence, wrong, A. 1, S. 15. 
Seat of government at Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 
Secession, no right of, A. 1, S. 4. 
Secretary of State, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Senate, presiding officer, A. 2, S. 19. 

Pro tern. Speaker, when elected, A. 2, S. 20. 
Senators, number of, A. 2, S. ^. 

Other senatorial officers, A. 2, S. 20. 

President of, A. 2, S. 19. 

Qualifications for, A. 2, S. 7. 

Regulating senatorial districts, A. 2, S. 4. 
Sexes separated in confinement, A. 11, S. 6. 
Sheriff and coroner, A. 4, S. 24. 
Slavery prohibited, A. 1, S. 33. 
Societies, secret political, dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 
Soldiers, how quartered, A. 1, S. 36. 
Solicitor, how elected, A. 4, S. 23. 
Special courts, A. 4, S. 14. 
State boundaries, A. 1, S. 34. 

Claims against, A. 4, S. 9. 

Internal government of, A. 1, S. 3. 
Statistics, department of, A. 3, S. 17. 
Suffrage and eligibility to office, A. 6. 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, A. 3, S. 13. 

Reports of county scliool fund to be made to, A. 9. S. 



360 State Co.xsi nri iox. 

Superior Court clerk, his election, A. 4, S. 16. 

Term, A. 4, S. 17; vacancy, A. 4, S. 29. 

Districts, A. 4, S. 10. 

Judges, election and term, A. 4, S. 21. 
Superior Court judges, residence, A. 4, S. 11; rotation, A. 4, S. 11. 

Open at all times except for jury trials, A. 4, S. 22. 

Solicitor for each district, A. 4, S. 23. 

Special term, A. 4, S. 12. 

Transaction of business, A. 4, S. 22. 
Supreme Court clerk, A. 4, S. 15 ; jurisdiction, A. 4, SS. 8, 9. 

Justices, A. 4, S. 6; election and terms of, A. 4, S. 21. 

Terms of, A. 4, S. 7. 
Surveyor, A. 7, S. 1. 

Suspending laws Avithout consent of Representatives, not to be exercised, A. 1, S. 9. 
Taxation, ad valorem and uniform, A. 5, S. 3. 

And revenue, A. 5 ; A. 1, S. 23. 

Property, exemptions from, A. 5, S. 5. 

Of purchases and sales retrospectively not to be pasfed, A. 1, S. 32. 
Taxes, acts to levy, to state object, A. 5, S. 7. 

Except for necessary expenses, not levied by county, city, or town without as- 
sent of majority of voters, A. 7, S. 7. 

Levied by county commissioners, A. .5, S.' 6. 

Of county to be ad valorem, A. 7, S. 9. 
Towns, etc., organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 
Townships, officers of, A. 7, S. 5. 
Treason against State, A. 4, S. 5. 
Treasurer, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 

University, agricultural department of, mechanics, mining, and normal instruction 
connected with, A. 9, S. 14. 

Benefits of, A. 9, S. 7. 

Election of trustees, A. 9, S. 6. 

General Assembly shall maintain, A. 9, S. 7. 

Maintenance of, A. 9, S. 6. 

Property devoted to, A. 9, S. 7. 
Vacancies in General Assembly, A. 2, S. 13. 
Vacancies, other, A. 3, SS. 12, 13; A. 4, SS. 2.3, 28, 29. 
Vagrants, house of correction for, A. 11, S. 4. 
Warrants without evidence injurious, A. 1, S. 15. 
Vliites and negroes cannot intermarry, A. 14, S. 8. 

Separated in schools, A. 9, S. 2. 
Widow, homestead benefits, A. 10, S. 5. 
Yeas and nays, when entered, A. 2, SS. 14, 26. 



PART XII. 



CENSUS. 



1. Population, Area, etc., of the United States axd 

Territories, 1910 and 1917. 

2. Population, Area, etc., of iSToRTii Carolina by 

Counties, 1790 to 1910. 

3. EsTi]NrATED Population of I^orth Carolina, 1G75-17SG. 

4. Population of North Carolina Towns and Cities, 

1910, 1900, 1890. 



362 



Census. 



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364 



Census. 



CENSUS OF >()I{TI1 



Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


Alamance 


1840 
1847 
1859 
1749 
1799 
1705 
1722 
1734 
1764 
1791 
1777 
1792 
1841 
1777 
1722 

184^ 
1770 
1839 
1672 
1861 
1841 
1808 

1754 

1672 

1870 

1822 

1836 

1749 

1881 

1732 

1849 

1779 

1846 

1779 

1872 

1746 

1799 

1770 

1758 

1855 

1808 

1838 

1759 

1705 

1788 

1851 

1746, 

1779 

1907 

1791 

1779 

1828 

1851 














Alexander .. 














Alleghany 
















5,133_ 


8,146 
2,783 
6,242 
11,249 
7,028 
4,110 
5,812 
9,929 
5,094 


8,831 
3;6^ 
7,203 

11,218 
5,671 
4,778 
9,277 

11,007 
6,158 


12,534 

4,335 

9,850 

10,805 

7,276 

5,480 

10,542 

13,411 

7,248 


6,687 
10,969 
12,262 

f,'sn 

1.0,281^ 
f,810 


15 077 


Ashe. 


7,467 


ji^'Beaufort 


. _5J:fi2 

12;606 

5,084 

3j(m 


19 99.5 


^Bertie - 


12 175 


fBladffn 


8 0'^' 


GJBrunswick 


5 265 


.vBuncombe . . 


10,084 


wcBurke 


8JL18. 


15 799 


Cabarrus 


9 259 


Caldwell 








4,033 

3,732. 

10,056 


4,191 
4,399 

8,701 


5,347 

4,823 

11,757 


6,347 

5,609 

13,253 


6,733 

6,597 

lo,7S5 


5,663 


Jt- Carteret . _ _. 


6,591 


WCaswell 


14,693 


Catawba 




i^Gnatham _^ _ 


9j2i_ 


, 11,861 


12,977 


12,661 


15^405_ 


16,242 


Cherokee.. 


3,427 


«<<CSowan 


5,011 


5,132 


5,297 


6,464 


6,697 


6,690 


Clay 


Cleveland.. 














L-^olumbus 






3,022 

12,676 

9,382 

6,985 


3,912 
13,394 
14,446 

8,098 


4,141 
13,734 
14is3i- 

7,655 


3,941 


J^aven ... 


10,469 
^,671 
5,219 


10,245 
9,264 
6,928 


13,438 


k-Cumberland ... 


15,284 
6,703 


Dare ... 




"-Davidson 










13,389 


14,606 


Davie. . 








7,574 


. Duplin 

Durham. _ . _ . 


5,662 


6,796 


7,863 


9,744 


11,291 


11,182 


' Edgecombe . _ _ 


10,225 


10,421 


12,423 


13,276 


14,935 


15,708 


Forsvth - . 




L-Franklin 

Gaston... _ . 


7,559 


8,529 


10,166 


9,741 


10,665 


10,980 




5,392 


5,881 


5,965 


6,837 


7,866 


8,161 


Graham. . . 




/G-Fflnville 


10,982 
6,893 

7,m 

13,9B5 


14,015 
4,218 
9,442 

13,945 


15.576 

4,867 

11,420 

13,620 


18,222 

4,533 

14,511 

17,237 


19,3.55 

6,413 

18-7731 

ff,-f3? 


18,817 


TGreene* 


6,. 595 


'Guilford 


19,175 


■Halifax 


16,865 


Harnett 




Havvvood . .. 






2,780 


4,073 


4,578 


4,975 


Henderson 






5 129 


Hertford 

Hvde 


5,828 
4,120 
^435 


6,701 
4,829 
8,856 


6,052 

6,029 

10,972 


7,712 

4,967 

13,071 


8,537 
•6rl84 
14,918 


4,484 
6,4.58 


Iredell 


15,685 








5,634 
-4,822 


6,301 
4,339 


6,867 
4,968 


9,607 
5,216 


10,938 
5,608 


10,599 


Jones 

' Lee 


4,945 


^^ienoir 




4,005 
12,660 


5,572 
16,359 


6,799 
18,147 


7,723 

22,4.55 

5, "333 


7,605 


' -Lincoln . . " 


9,224 


26,160 


Macon 


4,869 


Madison 













North Carolina. 



365 



CAROLINA, 1790—1910.* 

















Land Area 


1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


in Square 
Miles 


11,444 


11,8.52 


11,874 


14,613 


18,271 


25,665 


28,712 


494 


5,220 


6,022 


6,868 


8,. 355 


9,430 


10,960 


11,592 


297 




3,598 


3,691 


5,486 


6,523 


7,759 


7,745 


223 


""13^489' 


13,664 


12,428 


17,994 


20,027 


21,870 


25,465 


551 


8,777 


7,956 


9,573 


14,437 


15,628 


19,581 


19,074 


399 


13,816 


14,766 


13,011 


17,474 


21,072 


26,404 


30,877 


819 


12,851 


14,310 


12,950 


16,399 


19,176 


20,. 538 


23,039 


712 


9,767 


11,995 


12,831 


16,158 


16,763 


17,677 


18,006 


1,013 


7,272 


8,406 


7,754 


9,389 


10,900 


12,657 


14,432 


812 


13,425 


12,654 


15,412 


21,909 


35,266 


44,288 


49,798 


624 


7,772 


9,237 


9,777 


12,809 


14,939 


17,699 


21,408 


534 


9,747 


10,546 


11,9.54 


14,964 


18,142 


22,456 


26,240 


387 


6,317 


7,497 


8,476 


10,291 


12,298 


15,694 


20,579 


507 


6,049 


5,343 


5,361 


6,274 


5,667 


5,474 


5,640 


218 


6,939 


8,186 


9,010 


9,784 


10,825 


11,811 


13,776 


538 


15,269 


16,215 


16,081 


17,825 


16,028 


15,028 


14,8.58 


396 


8,862 


10,729 


10,984 


14,946 


18,689 


22,123 


27,918 


408 


18,449 


19,101 


19,723 


23,4.53 


25,413 


23,912 


22,635 


785 


6,838 


9,166 


8,080 


8,182 


9,976 


11,860 


14,136 


451 


6,721 


6,842 


6,4.50 


7,900 


9,167 


10,258 


11,303 


161 






2,461 


3,316 


4,197 


4,532 


3,909 


185 


"'10^396' 


"""l2;348' 


12,696 


16,571 


20,394 


25,078 


29,494 


485 


5,909 


8,597 


8,474 


14,439 


17,856 


21,274 


28,020 


937 


14,709 


16,268 


20,516 


19,729 


20,. 533 


24,164 


■ 25,594 


685 


20,610 


16,369 


17,035 


23,836 


27,321 


29,249 


35,284 


1,008 


7,236 


7,415 


5,131 


6,476 


6,747 


6,529 


7,693 


273 






2,778 


3,244 


3,768 


4,757 


4,841 


405 


""15^325' 


""ie^eoi" 


17,414 


20,333 


21,702 


23,403 


29,404 


563 


7,866 


8,494 


9,620 


11,096 


11,621 


12,115 


13,394 


264 


13,514 


15,784 


15,542 


18,773 


18,690 


22,405 


25,442 


830 










18,141 


26,233 


35,276 


284 


""i7;i89' 


""17^376" 


'"'22^970' 


"'26481' 


24,113 


26,591 


32,010 


Sl5 


11,168 


12,692 


13.050 


18,078 


28,434 


35,261 


47,311 


369 


11,713 


14,107 


14,135 


20,829 


21,098 


25,116 


24,692 


471 


8,173 


9,307 


12,602 


14,254 


17,764 


27,903 


37,063 


359 


8,426 


8,443 


7,724 


8,897 


10,252 


10,413 


10,455 


356 








2,335 


3,313 


4,343 


4,749 


302 


"'21^249' 


"""23^396" 


"'2i,m 


31,286 


24,484 


23,263 


25,102 


504 


6,619 


7,925 


8,687 


10,037 


10,039 


12,038 


13,083 


258 


19,754 


20,056 


22,736 


23,585 


28,052 


39,074 


60,497 


674 


16,589 


19,442 


20,408 


30,300 


28,908 


30,793 


37,646 


681 




8,039 


8,895 


10,862 


13,700 


15,988 


22,174 


596 


'""'7;'674' 


5,081 


7,921 


10,271 


13,346 


16,222 


21,020 


,541 


6,853 


10,448 


7,706 


10,281 


12,589 


14,104 


16,262 


362 


8,142 


9,504 


9,273 


11,843 


13,851 


14,294 


15,436 


339 


7,636 


7,732 


6,445 


7,765 


8,903 


9,278 


8,840 


596 


14,719 


15,347 


16,931 


22,675 


25,462 


29,064 


34,315 


.592 




5,515 
15,656 


6,683 
16,897 


7,343 
23,461 


9,512 
27,2.39 


11,853 
32,250 


12,998 
41,401 


494 


"'n',T2& 


688 


5,038 


5,730 


5,002 


7,491 


7,403 


8,226 


8,721 
11,376 
22,769 


403 


""'7^828" 


""i6;22o' 


""10^434" 


"'15^344' 


u',m' 


18^639' 


'""436 


7,746 


8,195 


9,573 


11,061 


12,. 586 


15,498 


17.132 


296 


6,389 


6,004 


6,615 


8,064 


10,102 


12,104 


12,191 


531 




5,908 


8,192 


12,810 


17,805 


20,644 


20, 132 


431 



366 



Cexsus. 



CENSUS OF NORTH 



Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 . 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


Ir- Martin 


1774 

1842 

1762 

1861 

1779 

1784 

1777 

1729 

1741 " 

1734 

1752 

1872 

1672 

1875 

1672 

1791 

1760 

1855 

1779 

1779 

1786 

1785 

1753 

1779 

1784 

1899 

1841 

1789 

1771 

1871 

1861 

1729 

184^ 

1881 

1770 

1779 

1799 

1849 

1779 

1777 

1855 

1850 

1833 


6,080 


5,629 


5,987 


6,320 


8,539 


7,637 


McDowell 




; Mecklenburg- 

Mitchell 


11,395 


10,439 


14,272 


16,895 


20,073 


18,273 


i_-MoJitgomery.- 

•-Moore- 

^ash-.- .-, 


4,725 
3,770 
7,393 
6,831 
9,98r 
5,387 
12,216 


7,677 

,4,767 

6,975 

7,060 

~ '32TB53 

5,623 

16,362 


8,430 

6,367 

7,268 

11,465 


8,693 

7,128 

8,125 

10,866 


10,919 

7,745 

8,490 

_ 10,959 


10,780 
7,988 
9,047 


^^e\v Hanover-.. 

1 . Northampton 

/UOnslow 

L-CTrange 

Pamlico 


13,312 


13,082 

6,669 

20,135 


13,242 

7,016 

23,492 


13,391 

7,8r4 

23,908 


13,309 

7,527 

24,356 


{^Pasquotank 

Pender 


5,497 


5,379 


7,674 


8,008 


8,641 


8,514 


!,^erquinians 


5,440 


5,708 
6,402 
9,084 


6,052 
6,642 
9,169 


6,857 

9,029 

10,001 


7,419 
10,027 
12,093 


7,346 


t-'^erson 


9,790 


1 Pitt 


8,275 


11,806 


^olk" 




i- -Randolph 

j.-^ichmond 

— Robeson 

1^ Rockingham 

Rowan 

■ "Rutherford 

uSampson 


7,276 
5,0'55 
5,326 
6,187 
15_,828 
7,808 
6,065 


9,234 
5,623 
6,839 
8,277 
20,064 
10,753 
6,719 


10,112 

6,695 

7,528 

10,316 

21,543 

13,202 

6,620 


ii,33i 

7,537 

8,204 

11,474 

26,009 

15,351 

8,908 


12,406 
9,396 
9,433 
12,935 
20,786 
17,557 
11,634 


12,875 
8,909 
10,370 
13,442 
12,109 
19,202 
12,157 


Stanly 

i^xStokes 

L-Surry 

Swain 


^- r 






8,528 
7,19T 


11,026 
9,509 


11,645 
10,366 


14,033 
12,320 


16,196 
14,504 


16,265 
15,079 


Transylvania 

, Terrell 




' ■ - . .i 1-— '— - 




4,744 


3,395 


3,364 


4,319 




4,732 


4,657 


c -fr'. ^ 














JVake 

i-^arren 


10,192 
9^397 


13,437 

11,284 

2,422 


17,086 

11,004 

3,464 


20,102 

11,158 

3,986 


20,398 

11,877 

4,^52 


21,118 

12,919 

4,525 


Watausfa 






1 Wayne - 


6,133 
8,143 


6,772 
7,247 


8,687 
9,054 


9,040 
9,967 


10,331 
11,968 


10,891 


CWilkes . -- 


12,577 


Wilson 


.. 










1 
. __ 1 


Yancey 










! 5,962 














Totals -- 




393,751 


478,103 


555,500 


638,829 


737,987 


! 753,409 






i 



*In 1758 Dobbs County was formed from part of Johnston. In 1791 Dobbs was divided 
nto Lenoir and Glasgow. In 1799. the name of Glasgow was changed to Greene. 



NoKTii Carolina. 



367 



CAROLINA, 1790-1910*— Continued. 

















Land Area 


1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


in Square 
Miles 


8,307 


10,195 


9,647 


13,140 


15,221 


15,383 


17,797 


438 


6,246 


7,120 


7,592 


9,836 


10,939 


12,567 


13,. 538 


437 


13,914 


17,. 374 


24,299 


34,175 


42,673 


55,268 


67,031 


590 






4,705 

7,487 


9,435 
9,374 


12,807 
11,239 


15,221 
14,197 


17,245 
14,967 


362 


6^872' 


""'"7^649' 


489 


9,342 


11,427 


12,048 


16,821 


20,479 


23,622 


17,010 


798 


10,657 


11,687 


11,077 


17,731 


20,707 


25,478 


33,727 


584 


17,668 


21,715 


27,978 


21,376 


24,026 


25,785 


32,037 


199 


13,335 


13,372 


14,749 


20,032 


21,242 


21,150 


22,323 


523 


8,283 


8,856 


7,569 


9,829 


10,303 


11,940 


14,125 


645 


17,055 


16,947 


17,507 


23,698 


14,948 


14,690 


15,064 


386 








6,323 
10,369 


7,146 
10,748 


8,045 
13,660 


9,966 
16,693 


358 


'"'s^gso' 


"'"s^gio" 


"'8^131' 


231 








12,468 
9,466 


12,514 
9,293 


13,381 
10,091 


15,471 
11,054 


883 


'""'7^332" 


""7/238" 


""K74.5" 


251 


10,781 


11,221 


11,170 


13,719 


15,151 


16,685 


17,356 


386 


13,397 


16,080 


17,276 


21,794 


25,519 


.30,889 


36,340 


644 




4,043 
16,793 


4,319 
17,551 


5,062 
20,836 


5,902 
25,195 


7,004 
28,232 


7,640 
29,491 


258 


""15^832" 


795 


9,818 


11,009 


12,882 


18,245 


23,948 


15,855 


19,673 


466 


12,826 


15,489 


16,262 


23,380 


31,483 


40,371 


51,945 


1,043 


14,495 


16,746 


15,718 


21,744 


25,363 


33,163 


36,442 


573 


13,870 


14,589 


16,810 


19,965 


24,123 


31,066 


37,521 


483 


13,550 


11,573 


13,121 


15,198 


18,770 


25,101 


28,385 


547 


14,585 


16,624 


16,436 


22,894 


25,096 


26,380 
12,553 
15,220 


29,982 
15,363 
19,909 


921 

387 


""'6^922' 


""f^soi' 


""8^315' 


"'10^505' 


127136' 


413 


9,206 


10,402 


11,208 


15,353 


17,199 


19,866 


20,151 


472 


18,443 


10,380 


11,252 


15,302 


19,281 


25,515 


29,705 


531 








3,784 
5,340 
4,545 


6,577 
5,881 
4,225 


8,401 
6,620 
4,980 


10,403 
7,191 
5,219 


560 






""3^536" 
4,173 


371 


'""5433' 


""4^944' 


397 


10,151 


11,202 


12,217 


18,056 


21,259 


27,150 


33,277 


561 










17,. 581 
49,207 


16,684 
.54,626 


19,425 
63,229 


276 


""24^888' 


""28^627' 


"'35^617' 


""47;939' 


841 


13,912 


15,726 


17,768 


22,619 


19,360 


19,151 


20,266 


432 


5,664 


6,357 


6,516 


8,928 


10,200 


10,608 


11,062 


334 


3,400 


4,957 


5,287 


8,160 


10,611 


13,417 


13,. 556 


330 


13,486 


14,905 


18,144 


24,951 


26,100 


31,356 


35,698 


597 


12,899 


14,749 


15,539 


19,181 


22,675 


26,872 


30,282 


718 




9,720 

10,714 

8,655 


12,258 

10,697 

5,909 


16,064 

12,420 

7,694 


18,644 

13,790 

9,490 


23,. 596 
14,0.83 
11,464 


28,269 
15,428 
12,072 


392 




334 


8^204" 


302 


869,039 


992,622 


1,071,361 


1,399,750 


1,617,947 


1,893,810 


2,206,287 


48,580 



368 Cexsus. 



ESTIMATED POPULATION OF NOKTH CAROLINA, 1675-1786. 

1675 4,000 

1701 5,000 

1707 7,000 

1715 11,000 

1729 35,000 

1752 100,000 

1765 200,000 

1771 250,000 

1786 350,000 



North Carolina. 



369 



POPULATION OF NORTH CAROLINA CITIES AND TOWNS 1910, 

1900, 1890. 



City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Abbottsburg _ 


Bladen. .. . 


159 
794 
283 
924 

2,116 
118 
98 
936 
221 
486 
681 
145 
151 

1,865 

18,762 

115 

524 

543 

440 

77 

990 

195 

416 

283 

211 

370 

56 

2,483 

2,863 

1,176 
800 

1,529 
469 
162 
173 
697 
219 
311 
^76 
261 
796 
85 
179 
282 
209 
919 
50 
348 
149 
725 
612 
66 
249 
956 

4,808 






Aberdeen . ._ 


Moore. . 


559 

273 

302 

1,382 


227 


Advance . ._ . 


Davie . 




Ahoskie 


Hertford 




Albemarle .. 


Stanly 


248 


Alexander .. .. ._ 


Buncombe . _ 




Almand 


Swain . 






Andrews 


Cherokee... ..... ... 


" 




Angier-- 


Harnett ... 






Ansonville 


Anson . . . 






Apex . 


Wake 


349 
182 
137 
992 
14,694 


269 


Archdale 


Randolph ,_ 


''24 


Arden . _- 


Buncombe 


229 


Asheboro 


Randolph 


510 


Asheville. .. 


Buncombe 


10 235 


Atkinson 


Pender. . _ 




Atlantic... .. 


Carteret .... .. 






Aulander ... _ _ 


Bertie. ... . . 


342 

314 

61 

557 


163 


Aurora 

Autryville _ 


Beaufort. 

Sampson. ._ .. 


251 


Ayden 


Pitt • 




Bailey 


Nash 




Bakersville _ . _ . 


Mitchell 


511 
400 
229 
292 




Bath 


Beaufort. ... . _ 




Battleboro . 


Edgecombe and Nash _ 

Pamlico 

Martin 

Carteret 




Bayboro 

Beargrass . 


252 




2,195 
383 
145 
384 

1,100 

457 

132 

71 

196' 
200 

33i' 
604 


2,007 


Belhaven 


Beaufort _ .. . 




Belmont 


Gaston 




Benson ... .. 


Johnston .. 


191 


Bessemer City ....._ 


Gaston 




Bethel 


Pitt 


377 


Big Lick 


Stanly _ .. . 


69 


Biltmore 


Buncombe .. . . 






Montgomery. 




Black Creek 


Wilson . 


191 


Black Mountain 


Buncombe .. . 




Bladenboro _ 


Bladen 




Blowing Rock... _._.._ 


Watauga. _. 




Boardman . 


Columbus _ . . 






Chatham and Wake 

Watauga .. 




Boone- . _ 


155 
183 

97 
584 

42 


144 


Boonville .. 


Vadkin 




Bostic 


Rutherford . 




Brevard 


Transvlvania . 


327 


Bridgersville 


Wilson 




Bridgeton 


Craven 




Broadway _ 


Lee _ _ 








Catawba.. 






Brvson 


Swain. 


417 




Buie _ 


Robeson 




Biiies Creek 


Harnett 








Pender 


387 
3,692 


366 


Burlington 


Alamance 


1,716 



24 



370 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Co.ntixued. 



City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Burnsville. 


Yancey 


422 
259 
160 

1,393 
863 
383 
219 
222 
323 

1,242 

1,149 

34,014 

76 

1,153 
852 
127 
297 
147 
276 

1,441 
426 

1,101 
344 
169 
189 
80 
848 
122 

8,715 
158 
421 
246 
833 
74 
308 
324 
329 
289 
175 
300 

1,065 

1,056 
320 
282 
277 
360 
737 
164 

1,823 
18,241 
522 
383 
577 
881 

1,729 

2,789 
171 


207 
218 




Cameron 


Moore... 


236 


Candor 


Montgomery. 


Canton _ ... 


Haywood. . . 


230 
605 
333 
163 
169 
123 
243 
1,099 
18,091 




Carthage . 


Moore . 


485 
423 
159 
196 
129 
156 


Cary 


Wake 


Castalia... . . 


Nash 


Catawba . 


Catawba 


Cerro Gordo . . 


Columbus -. 


Chadbourri-- 


Columbus. .._ 


Chapel Hill. 


Orange 


1.017 
11,557 


Charlotte . 


Mecklenburg 


Cherry... .... . ... ... 


Washington.- .... 


Cherry ville . . 


Gaston . 


1,008 
887 

160' 




China Grove 


Rowan.. 


174 


Chocowinit y 

Claremont 

Clarendon 

Clarkton 


Beaufort 

Catawba 

Columbus 

Bladen 

Johnston 

Rowan 




Clayton 

Cleveland. . 


754 

198 
958 
244 

207' 
57 
3.82 
334 
7,910 
132 
413 

224' 
78 


478 


Clinton 

Clyde 

Coats . . _ 


Sampson 

Haywood^ 

Harnett . _. 


839 
90 


Colerain .. 


Bertie. 

Caldwell 

Tyrrell .. 

Polk 

Cabarrus 

Edgecombe 

Catawba.. 

Greene 




Collettsville 




Columbia 

Columbus 

Concord 

Conetoe 

Conover 


209 

4^339 

88 

337 


Contentnea 




Cornelius 

Council 

Cove City. ._ .. .. 


Mecklenburg 

Bladen 

Craven 




Creedmoor 

Creswell 


Granville 

Washington . . 


202 


Cronly 

Crouse. 


Columbus 

Lincoln. 

Cumberland 

Gaston ....... 


122 


Cumberland 

Dallas 


343 
514 
904 


242 
441 


Davidson 

Denton . . . . 


Mecklenburg 

Davidson. . 


481 


Denver. ... . 


Lincoln . 


199 
279 
327 


185 


Dillsboro .... 


Jackson.. 




Dobson. ... . ... .. 


Surry _ 




Dover... . . 


Craven 




Dudley 


Wayne 

Harnett... . . 






Dunn .. . . ... 


1,072 

6,679 

444 


419 


Durham... 


Durham 


5,485 


East Bend 


Yadkin _ 




East Kings Mountain . . 


Gaston .. . ... 




East Laurinburg 


Scotland.. . ... 






East Lumberton. .. 


Robeson . .. 






East Spencer .. ... 


Rowan.. . _ . 






Edenton 

Edwards 


Chowan 

Beaufort 


3,046 
99 


2,205 
62 



NoKTii Carolina. 



371 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 




City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


F.li/nhpth Oitv 


PasQUOtank _ _ -_ 


8,412 
117 
377 
886 
293 
200 

1,167 
81 
162 
146 
248 
441 
730 
519 
352 
132 
816 

7,045 

1,592 
137 
189 
329 
379 
809 
951 
127 
284 
169 

5,759 
203 
154 

1,162 
308 
119 
102 
304 
126 

6,107 

■ 240 

2,504 

381 

363 

15,895 

4,101 
291 
330 
209 
314 
4.52 

2,173 
205 
230 
140 
90 
162 
428 

4,. 503 

2,818 


6,348 
144 
498 
860 
172 
638 
361 
93 
123 
127 


3,251 


Elizabethtown- 

Elk Park 


Rlaclen 




Mitchell--- 


313 


Elkin 


Surry, 


288 


T^llpnlioro 


Rutherford --. 




Elon College 


Alamance _. -. 




Enfield 


Halifax. -- - 


568 




Rowan __ 






Wayne .. - 






Martin, . -- 






Columbus. . 




Fair Bluff 


Columbus - - 


328 
432 
308 


243 










l^uplin. 


256 


Faith 


Rowan .. -- . - . . 




Falkland 


Pitt 


139 

262 

4,670 

1,000 

157 


61 




Pitt 


140 


Fa yetteville 

Fiirpst Citv 


Cumberland _. . - 


4,222 


Rutherford . . . 


419 


Frtrpst ville 


Wake - - 






Pitt -- 






Johnston.- - 


171 
335 
761 
435 


62 






281 






583 




Wavne -. .. 


377 




Wake 






Wake 






rTirvshurer 


Northampton _ 


269 
4,610 
200 
129 
521 
137 








1,033 




Gates -- 


232 




Stokes -- -- .._.--. 






Alamance — Guilford . 






Burke - 


252 


01fn\v<iofl 


McDowell -. 












Gold Hill 


Rowan -. . -- 


514 
124 

5,877 


335 












4,017 


Oolrlston 


Chatham.. _ . . 




Grill am 


Alamance . 


2,052 

277 


991 




Caldwell 


207 


Ornnito Ouarrv 


Rowan - - -- . 




Ot'oonsboro 


Guilford- - .. 


10,035 
2,565 
229 
277 
174 
306 
493 
639 


3,317 




Pitt - -- -- 


1,937 


Grifton - - - 


Pitt. 


121 




Pitt 






Cleveland- .- 


126 


Halifax 


Halifax 


361 




Martin - -. 


781 


Haiulot 


Richmond- -_ _ 






Rutherford-- . 




Hardin Mills 




205 
109 


_ 


Harrollsville 


Hertford _ 


110 


Hassell 


Martin - - 






Chatham _ 








H avwood 






Hondfrson 


\'anco 


3,746 
1,917 


4,191 


Hendersonville 


Henderson _ - 


1,210 



ST^ 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS-Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Hertford 


Perciuinians 


1,841 

3,716 

9,525 
487 
267 
140 
857 
165 
175 
261 
126 
204 
964 
443 
411 
591 
398 
154 
124 
107 
527 

■ 505 
398 
60 
184 
799 
621 
111 
316 
270 
726 

1,128 
170 

2,218 

6,995 
242 

1,007 
437 
203 
297 

2,322 
568 

1,127 
151 
153 

3,364 
279 
262 

4,163 
474 
386 
380 

2,413 

1,152 
243 

1,775 
876 
266 


1,382 
2,535 
4,163 


733 


Ilickorv . 


Catawba 


2 023 


High Point 


Guilford.. .. . 




Highland . . 


Catawba. 




Highlands 




249 
109 
707 
122 
184 
219 


233 


Hildebran . ._ 


Burke .. 




Hillsboro. . 


Orange 


662 


Hobgood 


Halifax 




Hoffman.- . . 


Richmond 




Hollv Springs ... 


Wake 


218 


HollyviUc 


Pamlico .... 




Hookerton. _. 


Greene 

Cumberland 


139 
881 
445 


173 


Hope Mills.- .. . _ 


456 


Hot Springs . 




695 


Hudson . - . . 


Caldwell . 




Huntersville . . 


Mecklenburg. - 


533 


431 


Icemorlee . ... _ ... 


L'nion 

L'nion 




Indian Trail .. _ . 






Ingold.. . .... 




86 


78 


Iron Station . 


Lincoln 




Jackson 




441 
309 
235 


750 


Jacksonville 




170 


Jamesville 

Jason ....... . .. 


Martin 

Greene 

Ashe 

Lee 

Yadkin .. . . 


346 


Jefferson ..... 


230 
640 


413 


Jonesborc. . 


541 


Jonesville 




Jupiter 




127 
167 
271 
260 
652 
180 
2,062 
4,106 
168 
853 




Kelford . . 


Bertie 




Kenansville. 


Duplin 

Johnston 


291 


Kenly . . . 


137 


Kernersville _ . 


Forsyth 


900 


Keyser . 


Moore . . 


295 


Kings Mountain 


Cleveland— Cast on 

Lenoir 

Vance 

Lenoir 

Rowan 


429 


Kinston 

Kittrell 

LaGrange 

Landis- 


1,726 
317 
775 


Lasker .. 


Cleveland 

Cleveland 


121 

108 

1,334 




Lattimore ... . . 




Laurinburg- ... ' 


1,357 


Lawndale.. . . 


Cleveland 

Rockingham . 




Leaksville 


688 

100 

126 

1,296 


726 


Leechville ..... 


BeaufoTt. . 




Leicester 


Buncombe 

Caldwell . . . 




Lenoir 


673 


Lewarae . .. .. 






Lewiston. _ ._ .. .. 




163 

1,234 

304 

213 

65 

828 


373 


Lexington. .. .. . 




1,440 


Liberty 


Randolph 


366 


Lilesville... _ 


Anson 


222 


•Lillington . 


Harnett 




Lincolnton.. 


Lincoln 


957 


Littleton .. ...... 


Halifax — Warren. .. 


534 


Longview .. 


Catawba . 






Louisburg 




1,178 
290 
236 


667 


Lowell. 


Gaston 




Lucama ... . 


Wilson.. .. 





North Carolina. 



373 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Lumber Bridge 

Lumberton 

McAdenville 

McFarland 

Macon 

Madison 

Magnolia 

Maiden 

Manly 

Manteo 

Mapleton 

Margarettsville 

Marion 

Marlboro 

Mars Hill 

Marshall 

Marshville 

Matthews 

Maupin 

Maxton 

Mayodan 

Maysville 

Mebane — --- 

Merry Oaks 

Micro 

Middleburg 

Middlesex. 

Milton 

Mineral Springs 

Mint Hill- -- 

Mocksville 

Moncure 

Monroe. 

Montezuma 

Mooresboro 

M oores ville 

Morehead City 

Morganton. 

Morrisville 

Mortimer 

Morven 

Mount .\iry 

Mount Gilead 

Mount Holly 

Movmt Olive 

Mount Pleasant — 
Mountain Island... 

Murfreesboro 

Murphy 

Nashville 

Nebo 

New Hill 

New London 

New Bern 

Newport 

Newton 

Newton Grove 

North Wilkesboro. 



County 



Robeson 

Robeson 

Gaston 

Anson 

Warren 

Rockingham 

Duplin 

Catawba. _. 

Moore.. 

Dare. 

Hertford 

Northampton 

McDowell 

Pitt 

Madison 

Madison 

Union 

Mecklenburg 

Pitt -. 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Jones 

Alamance — Or ange. 

Chatham 

•Johnston 

Vance 

Nash ---. 

Caswell 

Union 

Mecklenburg 

Davie 

Chatham 

Union 

Mitchell 

Cleveland 

Iredell 

Carteret 

Burke 

Wake 

Caldwell.. 

Anson 

Surry 

M ontgomery 

Gaston 

Wayne 

Cabarrus 

Gaston 

Hertford... .- 

Cherokee 

Nash 

McDowell 

Wake 

Stanly.... 

Craven.. 

Carteret. 

Catawba 

Sampson... — 

Wilkes 



1910 



1 



165 

2,230 
983 
186 
189 

1,033 
653 
664 
220 
408 
52 
107 

1,519 
225 
301 
802 
499 
396 
141 
321 
874 
345 
693 
88 
74 
117 
467 
419 
86 
194 

1,063 
100 

4,082 
254 
198 

3,400 

2,039 

2,712 
151 
261 
498 

3,844 
723 
526 

1,071 
753 
347 
809 
977 
750 
160 
95 
312 

9,961 
321 

2,316 

73 

1,902 



1900 



181 
849 
1,144 
112 
157 
813 
454 
614 
176 
312 



123 
,116 
HI 
289 
337 
349 
378 



935 

904 

98 

218 



1890 



61 
169 



490 



192 
745 



2,427 
219 
144 

1,533 



584 



450 
460 
264 
192 



63 

799 

92 



203 
"3.35 
'694 



705 



1,866 
'""197 



1,379 


1,064 


1,928 


1,.557 


100 


149 


447 
2,680 




1,768 


395 
630 




472 


617 


393 


444 


375 


450 


376 


057 


674 


604 


803 


479 


401 






299 


317 


9,090 


7,843 


328 


218 


1,583 


1,038 


75 


63 


918 





374 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS-Continued. 



City or Town 



Norwood 

Oak City__ 

Oakley 

01dFort_._ . 

Ore Hill 

Orient al 

Orruni 

Oxford 

Pactolus 

Palmyra 

Pantego 

Parkersburg 

Parkton 

Parmele.-J 

Patterson 

Peachland 

Pee Dee 

Pembroke 

Pendleton 

Pikeville 

Pilot Mountain _._. 

Pine I^evel 

Pine Bluff 

Pinetops-- 

Pineville. 

Pink Hill 

Pittsboro 

Plymouth 

Po'lkton 

Pollocks\ ille 

Powellsville 

Princeton 

Princeville 

Raeford 

Raleigh 

Ramseur 

Randleman 

Red Springs 

Reidsville 

Rennert 

Rhodhiss 

Rich 8(iuare 

Richfield 

Richlands __. 

Ring wood 

Roanoke Rapids 

Robbinsville 

R oberdel 

Robersonville 

Rockingham 

Rockwell 

Rocky Mount 

Rocky Mount Mills 

Rolesville. 

Roper _ _ 

Rose Hill 

Roseboro 

Rosman 



County 



Stanly 

Martin.. J 

Pitt... 

McDowell 

Chatham 

Pamlico 

Robeson 

Granyille 

Pitt 

Halifax _ 

Beaufort 

Sampson 

Robeson 

Martin 

Caldwell 

Anson. 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Northampton. 

Wayne 

Surry 

Johnston 

Moore 

Edgecombe 

Mecklenburg.. 



Lenoir. 

Chatham 

Washington 

Anson 

Jones 

Bertie 

Johnston 

Edgecombe 

Cumberland 

Wake 

Randolph 

Randolph 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Robeson 

Caldwell 

Northampton 

Stanly 

Onslow 

Halifax. 

Halifax 

Graham 

Richmond 

Martin.. 

Richmond 

Rowan 

Edgecombe — Nash. 

Nash 

Wake 

Washington 

Duplin 

Sampson 

Transylyania 



1910 


1900 


1890 


928 


663 


159 


251 
57 

778 


115 






253 


249 


94 
645 






300 




214 
3,018 






2,059 


2,907 


154 


52 


105 


94 


131 


114 


324 


253 


151 


67 
219 
272 


57 






336 




86 
232 


1 




156 


58 


628 
258 
62 
210 
652 
394 










86 
168 
710 
266 








264 


92 
211 

688 

58 

502 

2,165 










585 






424 
1,011 




1,212 


287 


276 


247 


227 


198 


143 


75 


44 




354 


281 


248 


627 


552 


428 


580 






19,218 


13,643 


12,678 


1,022 


769 




1,950 


2,190 


1,754 


1,089 


858 
3,262 




4,828 


2,969 


179 


133 




370 




367 


232 


643 


210 


73 
160 




445 


198 


147 


98 


92 


1,670 


1,009 




122 






422 






616 


275 


228 


2,155 


1,507 




249 




8,051 


2,937 


816 


480 


605 
155 




170 


150 


819 






364 






183 


63 




145 





North Carolina. 



375 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Rowland . 


Robeson 


787 

1,425 
491 
437 
229 

1,062 
419 

5,533 

7,153 
235 

2,282 
136 

1,726 
280 

1,331 
139 
121 

3,127 
315 
308 
895 

1,347 
450 
238 
390 
202 
542- 

1,484 
199 

1,915 

1,246 
321 
204 
239 

4,599 
79 
159 
404 
161 
82 
305 
185 
390 
698 
418 

4,129 
662 
154 

3,877 
269 
500 
331 
332 
230 

1,055 

700 

43 

139 


357 
1,021 

227 


72 


Roxboro-. . _. . _ 


Person _ 


421 


Roxobel . - - - 


Bertie .__ .. 




Rovall Cotton Mills 


Wake .... 




Rutherford College .._ _ 


Burke 






Rutherfordton _ 


Rutherford _. 


880 




St. Pauls 


Robeson 




Salem.. 


Forsyth. 


3,642 

6,277 
211 

1,044 
123 

1,348 
287 
816 
149 


2,711 


Salisbury 


Rowan 


4,418 


Saluda 


Polk.. 


Sanford 


Lee 


367 


Saratoga 


Wilson... .- 


102 


Scotland Neck. ...... __ 


Halifax 


778 


Seaboard 


Northampton .. 


201 


Selnia 


Johnston 


527 


Shallotte City 


Brunswick 




Sharpsburg _. 


Nash 




Shelby 


Cleveland. 


1,874 


1,394 


Shelnierdine _ .. 


Pitt 




Shore . . 


Yadkin- 






Siler City . .. 


Chatham 


440 
764 
405 
312 


254 


Smithfield... _ 


Johnston. 


550 


Snow Hill 


Greene. 


283 


South Biltmore 


Buncombe 




South Mills 


Camden . . 




South Wadesboro ... 


Anson . . . 


154 

517 

1,336 

501 




Southern Pines-- . . 


Moore .. 




Southport 


Brunswick 


1,207 


Sparta 

Spencer 


Alleghany 

Rowan _ . 


95 


Spring Hope. 


Nash . 


666 
441 


248 


Stanley Creek. 


Gaston 




Stantonsburg _ 


Wilson . 




Star... .. .- . . 


Montgomery. 


211 
3,141 




Statesville. 


Iredell . 


2,318 


Stokes 


Pitt _ 




Stokesdale. 


Guilford .. .. 






Stoneville.. 


Rockingham 




115 


Stonewall 


Pamlico .. 


168 


196 


Stouts ... ... 


L'nion.. 




Stovall 


Granville .. 






Swan Quarter . 


Hyde 






Swansboro.. _ 




265 
281 


233 


Sylva 


Jackson 




Tabor. ___ 


Columbus 




Tarboro 

Taylorsville. .. ' . 


Edgecombe 

Alexander 


2,499 
413 


1,924 


Teacheys .. . . 


Duplin 

Davidson. 


52 


Thomasville 


751 
258 
560 
338 
274 


590 


Tillerv 


Halifax 




Toisnot _. 


Wilson - 


482 


Trenton 


Jones.. ... ._ . 


207 


Trinity 


Randolph 


380 


Troutnian 


Iredell... 

Montgomery 




Troy 


878 
324 




Tryon 


Polk. 

Hertford 

Hertford 




Tunis 




Union _ 


176 


102 



376 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



County 



Rutherford- 
Craven 

Pamlico 

Moore 

Warren 

Cleveland-.. 

Anson 

Wake. 

Wake. 



Union Mills 

Vanceboro... 

Vandcmere 

Vass -- 

Vaughan 

Waco , 

Wadesboro 

Wake Forest 

Wakefield.... 

Wallace Duplin. 

Walnut Madison 

Walnut Cove Stokes.. 

Walstonburg- Greene 

Warrenton. Warren 

Warsaw.. Duplin 

Washington Beaufort 

Watha Pender 

Waxhaw... Union 

Way nesville Haywood 

Weaverville. Buncombe 

Webster Jackson 

Weldon Halifax 

Wendell Wake 

West Hickory Catawba 

West Lumberton Robeson 

Westray Nash 

Whitakers Edgecombe — Nash. 

Whitehall-. : Wayne.. 

Whiteville Columbus 

Whittier Jackson — Swain 

Wilbanks Wilson 

Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Williams Yadkir. 

Williamston Martin 

Wilmington New Hanover 

Wilson Wilson 

Windsor Bertie 

Winfall Perquimans 

Wingate Union 

Winston Forsyth 

Winterville Pitt _ 

Winton __ Hert f ord 

Woodland Northampton 

Woodleaf Rowan 

Worthville Randolph 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 

Yadkin College Davidson. 

Yadkinville Yadkin. 

Yancey ville Caswell 

Youngsville ._| Franklin 

Zebulon ■ Wake 



1010 



1900 



17 



155 

392 

296 

273 

420 

185 

2,376 

1,443 

287 

444 

215 

480 

127 

807 

723 

6,211 

169 

602 

2,008 

442 

227 

1,999 

759 

846 

231 

46 

755 

179 

1,368 

216 

45 

799 

53 

1,574 

5,748 

6,717 

684 

289 

353 

167 

484 

624 

312 

187 

393 

54 

130 

432 

338 

431 

483 



291 
169 



160 
,546 
823 
142 
218 



336 



836 

576 

4,842 



752 

1,307 

329 



1,433 



213 



388 
114 
643 



46 
635 



912 

20,976 

3,525 

597 

•2'22 



1890 



90 



105 

1,198 

853 



119 
'320 



740 

401 

3,545 



455 
216 



1,286 



372 



336 



751 

20,056 

2,136 

522 



10,008 


8,018 


243 




688 


419 


242 


247 


467 


328 


22 




210 




292 


175 


345 


205 



PART XIII. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



1. Executive Officials. 

2. Justices of the Supreme Court. 

3. Senators and Representatives in Congress. 

4. Senators and Representatives in the General 

Asse:mbly. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICIALS. 



THOMAS WALTER BICKETT. 

GOVEENOR. 

Thomas W. Bickett, Democrat, of Franklin County, was born at 
Monroe, N. C, February 28, 1869. Son of T. W. and Mary A. (Cov- 
ington) Bickett. Educated at Wake Forest College, A.B., 1890. Studied 
law at University of North Carolina, 1892-1893. Lawyer. Represent- 
ative in General Assembly, 1907. Attorney-General of North Caro- 
lina, 1909-1916. Elected Governor of North Carolina in 1916. Ma- 
son. Episcopalian. Married Miss Fannie Yarborough, November 
29, 1898. One child. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



JOHN BRYAN GRIMES. 

SECRETARY OF STATE. 

J. Bryan Grimes. Democrat, of Pitt County, was born in Raleigh, 
N. C, June 3, 1868. Son of Bryan and Charlotte Em'ily (Bryan) 
Grimes. Educated at private schools: Raleigh :\lale Academy; Trin- 
ity School (Chocowinity, N. C.) ; Lynch's High School (High Point. 
N. C); University of North Carolina: Bryant & Stratton Business 
College (Baltimore, Md.). Planter. Member of State Farmers' Alli- 
ance. Member of North Carolina Agricultural Society. Member 
State Board of Agriculture, 1899-1900. Was elected Secretary of 
State in 1900, reelected in 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1916. Term expires 
1920. Ex-President Tobacco Growers' Association of North Carolina. 
Chairman North Carolina Historical Commission. Member State 
Literary and Historical Association. President of the North Caro- 
lina Society of Sons of the Revolution. Member Executive Com- 
mittee, Trustees University of North Carolina; member of the 
Farmers' Cooperative and Educational Union. Aide-de-camp on staff 
of Governor Elias Carr, with rank of Colonel. Fraternal orders: 
Masons, Knights of Pythias, Jr. O. U. A. M. Episcopalian. Married, 



380 BlOGRAPHICAJL SKETCHES. 

November 14, 1894, Miss Mary Octavia Laughinghouse; February 3, 
1904, Miss Elizabetli Forest Laughinghouse. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



BENJAMIN RICE LACY. 

STATE tre;asurer. 

Benjamin R. Lacy, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Ra- 
leigh, N. C, June 19, 1854. Son of Rev. Drury and Mary Richie 
(Rice) Lacy. Ediucated at Preparatory School of R. H. Graves (Gra- 
ham, N. C), 1868; Bingham School (Mebane, N. C), 1869-1870. Fif- 
teen years a locomotive engineer. Member of Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers. Delegate to three Grand Conventions of B. of L. 
E. Alderman of City of Raleigh. State Commissioner of Labor and 
Printing for six years. Elected State Treasurer in 1900; reelected in 
1904, 1908, 1912, 1916. Term expires 1920. Mason, Odd Fellow, Jr. 
O. U. A. M. Presbyterian, deacon. Married, June 27, 1882, Miss 
Mary Burwell. Seven children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM PENN WOOD. 

. STATE AUDITOR. 

William Penn Wood, Democrat, of Randolph County, was born at 
Asheboro, N. C, May 2, 1843. Son of Penuel and Calista (Birkhead) 
Wood. Educated in common schools of Randolph County, 1850-1861. 
Merchant. Member Randolph Business Men's Club. Town Treas- 
urer, 1880-1888; County Treasurer, 1890-1894. Represented Randolph 
and Moore counties in State Senate, 1901; Representative in General 
Assembly from Randolph County, 1905, 1907. Nominated State Au- 
ditor in October, 1910, by the Democratic State Executive Committee, 
to fill vacancy caused by the death of Dr. B. F. Dixon, and was 
elected in the general election in November, 1910; reelected 1912 
and 1916. Term expires 1920. Sergeant in Confederate Army. Fra- 
ternal orders: Knights of Pythias, Mason, Royal Arch Mason, 
I. O. O. F., Jr. 0. U. A. M. Methodist: steward since 1866. Mar- 
ried, September 4, 1872, Miss Etta Gunter. Three children. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



Executive Offici-\is. 381 

JAMES YADKIN JOYNER. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

James Yadkin Joynkr, Democrat, of Guilford County, was born in 
Davidson County, N. C, August 7, 1862, and reared in Lenoir County. 
Son of John and Sallie A. (Wooten) Joyner. Educated at La Grange 
Academy: University of Nortli Carolina, Ph. B., 1881; LL.D. (Uni- 
versity of North Carolina). Principal of LaGrange Academy, 1881- 
1883; County Superintendent of Schools of Lenoir County, 1882-1883; 
teacher in graded schools at Winston, N. C, 1884-85; lawyer in 
Goldsboro, N. C, 1886-1889; Chairman of Wayne County Hoard of 
Education, 1887-1889; Superintendent of Goldsboro graded schools, 
1889-1893; President North Carolina Teachers' Assembly; member 
of the Rockefeller Sanitation Commission; Professor of English 
Language and Literature at the State Normal and Industrial Col- 
lege of North Carolina, 1893-1902; Chairman of Sub-text-book Com- 
mission of North Carolina, 1901; appointed by Governor Aycock Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina February, 1902, 
to fill unexpired term made vacant by the death of Gen. T. F. Toon; 
elected at general election, November, 1902; reelected 1904, 1908, 
1912, 1916. Term expires 1920. Secretary of the Association of 
State Superintendents of the Southern States, 1903-1907; president, 
1907-1912. President National Education Association, 1910. Mem- 
ber of the Board of Aldermen of Greensboro, N. C, 1899-1902. Mar- 
ried at La Grange, December, 1887, Miss Effie E. Rouse. Two chil- 
dren. Baptist. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



JAMES SMITH MANNING. 

ATTOIINEY-GENERAX-. 

Jamks Smith IManning, Democrat, of Durham County, was born 
June 1, 1859. Son of John and Louisa Jones (Hall) Manning. Edu- 
cated at Pfttsboro Female Academy (Dr. Sutton) and A. H. Merritfs 
school; University of North Carolina, A. B., 1879; University of 
North Carolina Law School. Lawyer. Nominated for Superior 
Court Judge, 1896. Attorney for City of Durham, 1886-1887. Repre- 
sentative from Durham County in General Assembly of 1907. State 
Senator from Nineteenth District in 1909. Associate Justice of the 



382 Biographical Sketches. 

Supreme Court, 1909-1910. In 1912' moved to Raleigh and joined a 
partnership with former Governor W. W. Kitchin under the firm 
name of Manning and Kitchin. Elected Attorney General in 1916. 
Trustee University of North Carolina. Episcopalian. Married, De- 
cember 12, 1888, Miss Julia Tate Cain. Six children. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM. 

COMMISSIOXEK OF AGRICULTURE. 

Willi a:\i A. Graham. Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born De- 
cember 26, 1839, at Hillsboro, N. C. Son of William A. and Susan 
(Washington) Graham. Educated at private schools, 1847-1848; 
Caldwell Institute (Hillsboro, N. C.) ; Union Academy (Washington, 
D. C); University of North Carolina, 1856-1859; Princeton College, 
A.B., 1860. Farmer. President North Carolina Farmers' Alliance 
two terms; State Senator, 1874-1875, 1879; Representative, 1905. 
Member of North Carolina Board of Agriculture, 1899-1908. Elected 
Commissioner of Agriculture in 1908, and reelected in 1912, and 
1916. Term expires 1920. Captain Co. K, 2d N. C. Cavalry, C. S. A. 
Major and Assistant Adjutant General of North Carolina State 
Troops. Baptist. Moderator of South Fork Association. Thirty 
years Chairman of Executive Committee. President Baptist State 
Convention. Author: Gen. Joseph Graham and His Revolutionary 
Papers; History of South Fork Association; Life and Services of 
Gen. William L. Davidson; Battle of Ramsaur's Mill; History of 
Second Regiment North Carolina Cavalry, and North Carolina Ad- 
jutant General's Department (North Carolina Regiments, 1861-1865, 
Walter Clark, Editor . Married, first. Miss Julia R. Lane, June 9, 
1864; second, Miss Sallie Clark. November, 1914. Eleven children. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



MITCHELL LEE SHIPMAN, 

COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING. 

M. L. Shipman, Democrat, of Henderson County, was born at Bow- 
man's Bluff, Henderson County, December 31, 1866. Son of F. M. 
and Martha A. (Dawson) Shipman. Educated in public schools and 



Executive Officials. 383 

private high schools. Editor. Teacher. Superintendent Public In- 
struction Ti'ansylvania County, 1892-1895. Twice First Vice-Presi- 
dent, twice Historian, and once President North Carolina Press As- 
sociation. Member National Editorial Association. Chairman Hen- 
derson County Democratic Executive Committee, 1898-1906; Chair- 
man Senatorial and Congressional District committees; member 
State Democratic Executive Committee; Calendar Clerk, State Sen- 
ate, 1899-1905; Assistant Commissioner of Labor and Printing, 1905- 
1908. Elected Commissioner of Labor and Printing, 1908: reelected 
1912 and 1916. Term exuires 1920. Second Vice-President Inter- 
national Association of Labor Commissioners and Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. Fraternal orders: Odd Fellows (Past Gran J 
Master), Knights of Pythias (Past Chancellor), Royal Arcanum, Jr. 
0. U. A. M. Baptist; Clerk of North Carolina Association, 1902. 
Married Miss Lula Osborne, of Brevard, July 12, 1896. Four children. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



•JAMES R. YOUNG, 

INSURANCE COMMISSIONER. 

James R. Young, Democrat, of Vance County, was born February 
13, 1853, in Granville County, N. C. Son of Dr. P. W. and Jane 
Eliza (Cooper) Young. Educated at Horner's Military School (Ox- 
ford, N. C.) ; Hampden-Sidney College (Va.) Insurance agent. Clerk 
Vance County Superior Court, 1881-1890. State Insurance Commis- 
sioner since 1899. Fraternal orders: Masons, Elks, Odd Fellows. 
Presbyterian. Elder. Married Miss Virginia Nichols. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



MILES OSBORNE SHERRILL, 

STATE LIBRARIAN. 

Miles Osborne Shebrill, Democrat, of Catawba Couniy, was born 
at Sherrill's Ford on the Catawba River in Catawba County, N. C, 
July 26, 1841. Son of Hiram and Sarah Sherrill. Was educated in 
the common schools, Rhehobeth Academy, 1859, and at Taylorsville, 
N. C, in 1860 and 1861. Volunteered in the Catawba Rifles, 1861. 
Was elected Judge of Probate and Clerk of the Superior Court of 



384 BioGKAPUicAi. Sketches. 

Catawba County in 1868 and served for fourteen years. Representa- 
tive in General Assembly 1882 and 1883, and State Senator 1885, 1893. 
Cashier in the Collector's office under Hon. C. Dowd, and also under 
Hon. Kerr Craige, during Cleveland's administrations. Served in 
the Confederate Army from the beginning of the war until he lost a 
leg at Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May, 1864, and spent the re- 
maining months of the war in prison. Past Grand Master of I. O. 
O. F. Methodist. Many times a delegate to annual conferences, also 
to General Conference. Married Miss Sarah R. Bost in May, 1867. 
Seven children. 



JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT 



WALTER CLARK. 

CHIEF JUSTICE. 

Walter ClxVrk, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Halifax 
County, N. C, August 19, 1846. Son of David and Anna M. (Thorne) 
Clark. Graduated from University of North Carolina 1864. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, C. S. A. Admitted to the bar, 1868. Judge of Supe- 
rior Court, 1885-1889. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 1889- 
1902. Chief Justice since January 1, 1903. Frequent contributor to 
periodical literature. Author: Clark's Annotated Code of Civil Pro- 
cedure. Translator from the French: Constant's Memoirs of Napo- 
leon (3 vols.). Editor: The State Records of North Carolina (16 
vols.); The North Carolina Regiments, 1861-1865 (5 vols.); Reprints 
of North Carolina Supreme Court Reports, with annotations (132 
vols.). President North Carolina Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion, 1900-1901. Trustee of Trinity College. LL.D. (University of N. 
C). Methodist. Married Miss Susan W., daughter of William A. 
Graham, January 28. 1874. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



PLATT DICKINSON WALKER, 

ASSOCIATE .JUSTICE. 

Platt D. Wai.kek, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, was born in 
Wilmington, N. C. Son of Thomas D. and Mary Vance (Dickinson) 
Walker. Educated at George W. Jewett's School, Wilmington, and 
James H. Horner's School, Oxford, N. C; University of North Caro- 
lina. Class of 1869. Finished collegiate course at University of Vir- 
ginia and studied law there under Prof. John B. Minor and Prof. 
Southall, received LL.B. diploma in 1869. Obtained his license to 
practice law at June Term, 1870, of Supreme Court; admitted to the 
Bar of North Carolina and settled at Rockingham, 1870, and prac- 
ticed law with the late Hon. Walter L. Steele, afterwards member of 

25 



386 BioGKAi'uicAi. Sketches. 

Congress. Representative from Richmond County in General As- 
sembly of North Carolina, 1874-1875. Removed to Charlotte, 1876, 
and entered into partnership with the late Hon. Clement Dowd 
(afterwards member of Congress) for the practice of the law, and in 
November, 1880, with Hon. Armistead Burwell, afterwards Justice 
of the Supreme Court, and in 1892' with E. T. Cansler, Esq. Has 
been Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina 
since January 1, 1903. First President of the North Carolina Bar 
Association, 1899. President State Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion, 1909-10. Trustee of the University of North Carolina. Direc- 
tor of the Highland Park Manufacturing Company of Charlotte. 
LL.D. (Davidson College, 1903, and University of North Carolina, 
1908). Episcopalian. Married Miss Nettie Settle Covington, .lune 
5, 1878, at Reidsville, X. C, Miss Alma Locke Mordecai, June 8, 1910. 
Residence: Charlotte, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



GEORGE H. BROWN, 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

George H. Browx, Democrat, of Beaufort County, was born in 
Washington, N. C, May 3, 1850. Son of Sylvester T. and Elizabeth 
(Bonner) Brown. Educated at Horner's Military School (Oxford, 
N. C.) Studied law and was admitted to the Bar, and engaged in 
the practice at Washington, N. C, from 1872 to 1889. Judge of the 
Superior Court of North Carolina, 1889-1904. Elected Associate Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court. 1904: reelected, 1912. Term expires, 
1920. On December 17, 1874, was married to Mrs. Laura Ellison. 
Residence: Washington, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER HOKE, 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

Willia:\i a. Hoke. Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born at Lin- 
colton, N. C„ October 25, 1851. Son of Col. John Franklin and 
Catherine Wilson (Alexander) Hoke. Educated at private schools. 
Studied law under Chief Justice Richmond Pearson, at Richmond 



Justices of Supreme Court. 387 

Hill, N. C. Admitted to Bar, 1872. Practiced law at Shelby and 
Lincolton, N.' C, until 1891. Representative in Legislature of North 
Carolina in 1889. Judge of the Superior Court, 1891-1904. Elected 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1904; re- 
elected, 1912. Term expires 1920. Member Society of the Cincin- 
nati. Episcopalian. At Lincolnton, December 16, 1897, married to 
Miss Mary McBee. Residence: Lincolton, N. C. Office: Raleigh, 
N. C. 



WILLIAM REYNOLDS ALLEN, 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

William Reyxolds. Allen, Democrat, of Wayne County, was born 
at Kenansville, North Carolina, March 26, 1860. Son of William A. 
and Maria Goodwin (Hicks) Allen. Educated at R. W. Millard's 
and Samuel Clement's schools, Kenansville, 1868-1876, and at Trinity 
College, 1876-1877. Studied law under his father. Lawyer. Repre- 
sentative from Wayne County in General Assembly 1893, 1899, 1901. 
Chairman Board of Education Wayne County. Judge Superior Court, 
1894-1895; 1903-1911. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of North Carolina, 1910. Methodist. Has been a member 
Board of Stewards and now Trustee Methodist Orphanage. Mar- 
ried, November 3, 1886, Miss Mattie M. Moore. Five children. Ad- 
dress: Goldsboro, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF CONGRESS. 



SEMTORS. 



FURNIFOLD M. SIMMONS. 

F. M. Simmons, Democrat, of Trenton (R. F. D.), Jones County, 
was born January 20, 1854, in the county of Jones, N. C. Graduated 
at Trinity College with the degree of A.B., in June, 1873; was ad- 
mitted to the Bar in 1875, and has practiced the profession of law 
since then. In 1886 was elected a member of the Fiftieth Congress 
from the Second Congressional District of North Carolina. In 1893 
was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for the Fourth Collec- 
tion District of North Carolina, and served in that ofhce during the 
term of Mr. Cleveland. In the campaigns of 1892, 1898, 1900, 1902, 
1904, and 1906, was Chairman of the Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee of the State. Received the degree of LL.D. from Trinity Col- 
lege, N. C, June, 1901. He was elected to the United States Senate 
to succeed Marion Butler, Populist, for the term beginning March 
4, 1901, and reelected in 1907, and again in 1913, having been chosen 
in the Democratic primary, November 5 1912, over two opponents. 
Governor W. W. Kitchin and Chief Justice Walter Clark. Chairman 
of Finance Committee in the Sixty-fourth Congress. His term of 
service will expire ]\Iarch 3, 1919. 



LEE SLATER OVERMAN. 

Lee Sl.vter OvEintAx. Democrat, of Salisbury was born January 
3, 1854, in Salisbury. Rowan County. Graduated Trinity College, 
North Carolina, with the degree of A.B., June, 1874; the degree of 
M.A. was conferred upon him two years later; taught school two 
years; was Private Secretary to Governor Z. B. Vance in 1877-1878, 
and Private Secretary to Goveinor Thomas J. Jarvis in 1879. Began 
the practice of law in his native town in 1880; has had a leading 



M'lEMBEHS OF CONCUESS. 389 

practice; was five times a member of the Legislature, sessions of 
1883, 1885, 1887, 1893, and 1899; was the choice of the Democratic 
caucus for Speaker in 1887, and was defeated by one vote, through 
a combination of Independents and Republicans; was the unanimous 
choice of his party and elected Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, session of 1893; was President of the North Carolina Railroad 
Company in 1894; was the choice of the Democratic caucus for 
United States Senator in 1895, and was defeated in open session by 
Hon. Jeter C. Pritchard, through a combination of Republicans and 
Populists; was Chairman of Democratic State Conventions, 1900- 
1910; has been for ten years a member of the Board of Trustees of 
the State University; is also a Trustee of Trinity Colege; was 
chosen Presidential Elector for the State at large in 1900. Married 
Miss Mary P., the eldest daughter of United States Senator, after- 
wards Chief Justice, A. S. Merrimon, October 31, 1878. Was elected 
to the United States Senate to succeed Jeter C. Pritchard, Republi- 
can, for the term beginning March 4, 1903. His first term expired 
March 3, 1909. By unanimous choice of the Democratic caucus, he 
was reelected January 19. 1909, for a second term. November 3, 
1914, he was elected for a third term, being the first Senator elected 
in North Carolina by a direct vote of the people. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 



JOHN HUMPHREY SMALL. 

{First District. — Counties: Beaufort, Camden, Chowan, Curri- 
tuck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde-, Martin, Pasquotank, Perquimans, 
Pitt, Tyrrell and Washington. Population (1910). 193,250.) 

John Humphrey Small, Democrat, of Beaufort County was born 
in Washington, N. C. Educated in the schools of Washington and at 
Trinity College, North Carolina. Is a lawyer in active practice. 
Left College in 1876 and taught school from 1876 to 1880. Licensed 
to practice law in January, 1881. Elected Reading Clerk of the State 
Senate in 1881. Elected Superintendent of Public Instruction of 
Beaufort County in the latter part of 1881. Elected and continued 



390 BioGKArmcAi. SKi:TtHES. 

to serve as Solicitor of the Interior Court ot Beaufort County from 

1882 to 1885. Proprietor and editor of the Washington Gazette from 

1883 to 1886. Attorney of the Board of Commissioners of Beaufort 
County frojn 1888 to 1896. A member of the City Council from May, 
1887, to May, 1890, and for one year, during that period, was Mayor 
of Washington. Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee 
of the First Congressional District in 1888. Chairman of the Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee of Beaufort County from 1889 to 1898. 
Democratic Presidential Elector in the First Congressional District 
in 1896. Has been for several years, and is now. Chairman of the 
Public School Committee of Washington. Elected to the Fifty-sixth, 
Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty- 
second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, and Sixty-fifth Congresses. Ad- 
dress: Washington, N. C. 



CLAUDE KITCHIN. 

(Second District. — Counties: Bertie, Edgecombe, Greene, Halifax, 
Lenoir, Northampton, Warren, and Wilson. Population (1910), 199,- 
405.) 

Claude Kitchix, Democrat, of Halifax County, was born in Hali- 
fax County, N. C, near Scotland Neck. March 24, 1869. Graduated 
from Wake Forest College, June, 1888, and was married to ]\Iiss Kate 
Mills, November 13th of the same year. Admitted to the Bar Sep- 
tember, 1890, and has since been engaged in the practice of the law 
ar Scotland Neck. Elected to Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, 
Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, and Sixty- 
fifth Congresses. Majority Leader in the Sixty-fourth Congress. 
Address: Scotland Neck, N. C. 



GEORGE E. HOOD. 

(Third District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven. Duplin, Jones. Ons- 
low, Pamlico, Pender, Sampson, Wayne. Population (1910), 178.775.) 

Geokge E. Hood. Democrat, from Third District, was born in 
Wayne County. N. C, January 25, 1875. Son of Edward B. and 
Edith (Bridgers) Hood. Received his education in the Goldsboro 



Members of Co.nghess. 391 

Graded Schools. Studied law under the late Isaac F. Dortch and 
D. M. Hardy, and received his license to practice February 3, 1906. 
Member Wayne County Bar Association; Goldsboro Chamber of 
Commerce. Treasurer of Wayne County, 1898-1900. In 1901 repre- 
sented Wayne County in the State Legislature. Mayor of Golds- 
boro, 1901-1907. Presidential Elector of the Third Congressional 
District in 1912. Captain of Company B, Second North Carolina 
Regiment, from 1898 to 1905. On November 23, 1905, was promoted 
by Governor R. B. Glenn to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and was 
Assistant General of Ordnance of the North Carolina National 
Guard. Retired in 1909 with the rank of Colonel. Odd Fellow. K. of 
P.; J. O. U. A. M.; in 1903-1904 was State Chancellor, and since 1905 
has been member of the National Supreme Judiciary of that order. 
Methodist. Married, September 23, 1903, Miss Julia Annie Flowers. 
On November 3, 1914, he was elected a member of the Sixty-fourth 
Congress and reelected to the Sixty-fifth Congress. Address: Golds- 
boro, N. C. 



EDWARD WILLIAM POU. 

(Fourth District. — Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Johnston, Nash, 
Vance, and Wake. Population (1910), 205,109.) 

Edward William Pox^. Democrat, of Johnston County, was born at 
Tuskegee. Ala., September 9, 1863. Presidential Elector in 1888. 
Elected Solicitor of the Fourth Judicial District of North Carolina 
in 1890, 1894, and 1898. Elected to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, 
Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty- 
fourth and Sixty-fifth Congresses. Address: Smithfield, N. C. 



CHARLES MANLY STEDMAN. 

(Fifth District. — Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Forsyth. 
Granville, Guilford, Orange Person, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry. 
Population (1910), 330,474.) 

Charles Manly Steuman, Democrat, of Greensboro, was born Jan- 
uary 29, 1841. in Pittsboro, Chatham County; moved with his father's 
family to Fayetteville when he was 12 years of age. Prepared for 
college at the Pittsboro Academy, and at the Donaldson Academy in 



392 Bror.RAPHK Ai. Skkkhks. 

Fayetteville. Graduated from the University of North Carolina in 
1861. In response to the call for volunteers, he left the University 
before the commencement exercises and volunteered as a private in 
the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Company, which was 
in the first North Carolina (or Bethel) Regiment. Upon the dis- 
banding of this regiment, he Joined a company from Chatham 
County; was lieutenant, then captain, and afterwards its major. 
This company belonged to the Forty-fourth North Carolina Regi- 
ment. He served with Lee's Army during the entire war: was three 
times wounded, and surrendered at Appomattox. He is one of the 
twelve soldiers who were engaged in the battle at Bethel and who 
surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. At the close of the Civil 
War he returned to Chatham County, where he taught school for a 
year; while there he studied law under Hon. John Manning and 
procured his license to practice. Married :Miss Catherine de Rosset 
Wright, January 8, 1866. In 1867 he moved to Wilmington, where 
he practiced law for many years; he was a member of the firm of 
Wright & Stedman. Delegate to the Democratic National Conven- 
tion, 1880. Elected Lieutenant Governor. 1884. In 1898 he moved to 
Greensboro and formed a copartnership with A. Wayland Cooke, 
under the firm name of Stedman & Cooke. Since residing in Greens- 
boro he has served as president of the North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion. In 1909 he was appointed by Governor Kitchin a director of 
the North Carolina Railroad Company, representing the State's in- 
terest, and was afterwards elected its president. For many years he 
was trustee of the University of North Carolina. He is a director 
of the Guilford Battle Ground Company; was elected to the Sixty- 
second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, and Sixty-fifth Congresses. 



HANNIBAL LAFAYETTE GODWIN. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick. Columbus. Cum- 
berland, Harnett. New Hanover, and Robeson. Population (1910), 
201,898.) 

Hanxikal Lafayette Godwix. Democrat, of Harnett County, was 
born November 3, 1873, on a farm near Dunn, in Harnett County, 
N. C. Educated in the schools of Dunn and at Trinity College, Dur- 
ham, N. C. Read law at the University of North Carolina and was 



Members of Coxcikess. 393 

admitted to the Bar in September, 1896. Married Miss Mattie 
Barnes. December 23, 1896. Member of the State Senate of the 
North Carolina Legislature in 1903. Elected in 1904 Democratic 
Presidential Elector for the Sixth Congressional District of North 
Carolina. iMember of the State Democratic Executive Committee 
from 1904 to 1906. Elected to the Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, 
Sixty-third. Sixty-fourth, and Sixty-fifth Congresses. Address: 
Dunn, N. C. 



LEONIDAS D. ROBINSON. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Davie, Hoke, Lee, 
Montgomery, Moore, Randolph, Richmond, Scotland, Union, Wilkes, 
and Yadkin. Population (1910), 224,448.) 

Leoxiuas D. Robinson. Democrat, of Anson County, was born en 
a farm in Anson County, North Carolina, April 22, 1867. He was 
educated in the public schools and at Anson Institute at Wadesboro. 
and also at Carolina College at Ansonville. After reading law under 
Judge R. T. Bennett of Wadesboro he was admitted to the Bar in 
1889 and settled at Wadesboro for the practice of his profession. 
In 1890 he was elected mayor of Wadesboro, serving three terms. 
He represented his county in the General Assembly of 1895 and 
1901. In 1916 he was elected to the Sixty-fifth Congress. Address: 
Wadesboro, N. C. 



ROBERT LEE DOUGHTON. 

(Eighth District. — Counties: Alexander. Allfeghany, Ashe, Cabar- 
rus, Caldwell, Iredell, Rowan Stanly, and Watauga. Population 
(1910), 220,813.) 

RoBEiJT L. Doi'GHTO.N. Democrat. Laurel Springs, N. C, was born 
at Laurel Springs, N. C, "November 7, 1863; was educated in the 
pu])lic schools and at Laurel Springs and Sparta High Schools; is 
a farmer and stock raiser; was appointed a member of the I^oard 
of Agriculture in 1903; elected to the Slate Senate from the Thirty- 
fifth District of North Carolina in 1908: served as a director of the 
State Prison fi'oni 1909 to 1911; elected to the Sixty-second, Sixty- 
third, Sixty-fourth, and Sixty-fifth Congresses. 



394 BiotiKAi'iiicAL Sketches. 

EDWIN YATES WEBB. 

{Ninth District. — Counties: Avery, Burke, Catawba, Cleveland, 
Gaston, Lincoln, Madison, Mecklenburg, Mitchell, and Yancey. Pop- 
ulation (1910), ir49,495.) 

Edwix Yates Webb, Democrat, of Cleveland County, was born in 
Shelby, N. C, May 23, 1872". Attended Shelby Military Institute; 
graduated at Wake Forest College, 1893. Studied law at University 
of North Carolina. Received license from the Supreme Court to 
practice, in February, 1894. Took post-graduate course in law at 
University of Virginia. 1896. Began practice of law February, 1894, 
forming partnership with his brother, J. L. Webb, then Solicitor of 
the Twelfth Judicial District, which partnership existed until De- 
cember. 1904, when it was dissolved by the appointment of his 
brother to the Superior Court Judgship. Elected State Senator in 
1900. Temporary Chairman of the State Democratic Convention in 
1900. Chairman of the Senatorial District in 1896. Chairman of 
the County Democratic Executive Committee, 1898-1902. Married Miss 
Willie Simmons, daughter of Dr. W. G. Simmons, of Wake Forest, 
N. C, November 15, 1894. Elected to the Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, 
Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third. Sixty-fourth, and 
Sixty-fifth Congresses. Address: Shelby, N. C. 



ZEBULON WEAVER. 

(Tenth District. — Counties: Cherokee, Buncombe, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood. Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Polk, Rutherford, 
Swain, Transylvania.^ Population (1910), 202,220.) 

Zebltox Weaver, Democrat, of Buncombe County, was born in 
Weaverville, N. C, May 12, 1872. He is the son of W. E. and Hannah 
E. (Baird) Weaver. A.B. of Weaverville College, 1889. Studied law 
at the University of North Carolina, 1894. Lawyer. Represented 
Buncombe County in the General Assembly of North Carolina in 
1907, and 1909. State Senator, 1913 and 1915. After a close con- 
test with James J. Britt, Republican, in 1916, he was declared elec- 
ted Representative in the Sixty-fifth Congress. :\Iethodist. Married 
Miss Anna Hyman. Five children. Address: Asheville, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 1917. 



OFFICERS OF THE SENATE. 



OLIVER MAX GARDNER. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE. 

Oliver Max Gahdnek, of Cleveland County, Democrat, Lieutenant- 
Governor, was born at Shelby. N. C, March 22, 1882. Son of Dr. 
O. P. and Margaret (Young) Gardner. B.S. of the N. C. A. and M. 
College 1903. Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 
1905-1906. Captain football teams, N. C. A. and M. College and Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Won debater's and orator's medal; two 
years Instructor in Chemistry at N. C. A. and M. College. Lawyer. 
In 1908, was State Organizer of Democratic Clubs; County Chair- 
man Cleveland County, 1908-1910. Member of the State Democratic 
Executive Committee; member of the Board of Trustees of the N. C. 
A. and M. College; member of the North Carolina Bar Association; 
State Senator, 1911-1915. President pro tempore of Senate, 1915. 
Lieutenant-Governor; term expires, 1920. Odd Fellow; Jr. O. U. A. 
M.; Sigma Nu Fraternity and Gorgon's Head (college fraternities). 
Baptist. Married, November 6. 1908, Miss Fay Lamar Webb, daugh- 
ter of Judge James L. Webb, Shelby, N. C. Three children. Address: 
Shelby, N. C. 



ROBERT OTTIS SELF. 

Robert Ottis Self. Democrat, w'as born at Webster, N. C, July 2, 
1884. Son of Dr. William and Octavia (Cowan) Self. Educated at 
Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School, 1897-1902. Superintendent 
of Public Instruction of Jackson County, 1909-1911. Calendar Clerk 
of the State Senate. 1905, 1908 (special session), 1909. Principal 
Clerk of the Senate, 1911. 1913, 1915, 1917. Appointed United States 
Deputy Collector November 1, 1913.; resigned December 1, 1914. 
Mason, Odd Fellow, K. of P. Baptist. Address: Hickory, N. C. 



396 BiocuAruK AL Skktc mes. 

SEXATOKS. 



MATTHEW HICKS ALLEN. 

{Eighth District. — County: Wayne. One Senator.) 

Mattiieav Hicks Aixex, Democrat, Senator from the Eighth Dis- 
trict, was born at Kenansville, November 29, 1884. Son of Oli- 
ver H. and Sarah C. (Moore) Allen. Educated at Horner's Military 
Academy, 1899-1900; Trinity College, 1900-1902; University of North 
Carolina, 1902-1903. 1905-1906. Lawyer. Practiced law in New Bern, 
N. C, as a member of the firm of Simmons, Ward & Allen, 1907-1911. 
Moved to Goldsboro, 1911, and became a member of the firm of Lang- 
ston & Allen; now Langston, Allen & Taylor. Member of Goldsboro 
Chamber of Commerce; Algonquin Club. Referee in Bankruptcy in 
1909. Trustee of North Carolina A. and M. College for the colored 
race, 1914. Lieutenant in Naval Brigade, North Carolina National 
Guard, 1910. Representative in General Assembly of 1915. Mason 
(32d degree. Shrine); I. O. O. P.; Jr. O. U. A. M. Exalted Ruler 
of Goldsboro Lodge, No. 139, B. P. O E., 1913-1914. Methodist. Ad- 
dress: Goldsboro, N. C. 

JOHN ADDISON EARNHARDT. 

{Tu-entii-fourth District. — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Two senatoi's.) 

John Addisox Bakxiiakdt. Democrat. Senator from the Twenty- 
fouith District, was born at Gold Hill, Rowan County, March 2, 1855. 
Son of Jacob C. and Jane A. (Melchor) Barnhardt. Received his 
preparatory education at Pioneer Mills Private School 1865-1870. At- 
tended Mount Pleasant Colloge, 1871-1873. Merchant and farmer. 
Justice of the peace 1896-1908. County Commissioner, 1911 and 
1912. Prebyterian. Married Miss Sallie E. McClellan. October 27, 
1878. Address: Harrisburg, N. C, R. F. D. 2. 



KELLY EDMOND BENNETT. 

(Thirty-seventh District. — Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Tran- 
sylvania and Swain. One senator.) 

Kelly Ed:moxd Bkxxett. Democrat, Senator from the Thirty- 
seventh District, was born at Bryson City, February 8. 1890. Son 



State Senators. 397 

of Aurelius McDonald and Mary Charlotte (Hyatt) Bennett. At- 
tended public schools of Ashevllle, 1904-1905; Bryson City High 
School, 1905-1909. Graduate of School of Pharmacy, University of 
North Carolina, 1910-1912. Druggist. Real estate and insurance 
agent. Member of American Pharmaceutical Association; North 
Carolina Pharmaceutical Association; National Highways Asso- 
ciaton; North Carolina Good Roads Association; Masonic Research 
Society; Secretary-Treasurer of Bryson City Board of Trade; 
Chairman North Carolina Membership Committee of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. Mason, I. 0. 0. P. Presbyterian. Mar- 
ried, December, 1913, to Miss Ola Tela Zachery. Two children. Ad- 
dress: Bryson City, N. C. 



DAUGHLIN McLAURIN BLUE. 

(Twenty-first District. — Counties: Chatham, Moore, Richmond, 
and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

Laltghlin McLauein Blue, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty- 
first Senatorial District, was born in Marlborough District, S. C, 
1865. Son of Angus and Mary Anne (McLaurin) Blue. Prepared for 
college at the Quackenbush High School. A.B. of Davidson College, 
1886. Banker. Farmer. Mayor of Gibson, 1908-1910. Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction of Scotland County. Representative in 
the General Assembly, 1893, 1915. Presbyterian. Married Miss Mat- 
tie James Mason. Four children. Address: Gibson, N. C. 



JAMES DAVID BRAS WELL. 

(Thirtii-flfth District. — Counties: Avery, Madison. ]\litchell, and 
Yancey. One Senator.) 

Joiix David Brarwell, Republican, Senator from the Thirty-fifth 
District, was born in Mitchell County, May 27, 1878. Son of S. B. 
and Sophia (English) Braswell. Educated in Toe River Academy, 
Bowman Academy, and Aaron Seminary. Farmer. Register of Deeds 
of Mitchell County, 1907-1912'. Baptist: Deacon, 1912-1916. Married, 
May, 1908, to Miss Mollie Byrd. Four children. Address: Hughes, 
N. C. 



398 BioGKAPiiicAL Sketches. 



CHASE BRENIZER. 



{Twenty-fourth District. — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Two Senators.) 

Chase Brexizer. Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-fourth Dis- 
trict, was born in Greensboro, February 21, 1872. Son of Addison 
G. and Frances (Gilmer) Brenizer. Graduate of Davidson College, 
A.B. 1890. University of North Carolina Law School, 1898. Lawyer. 
Member of Mecklenburg Bar Association; Law Library Association 
of Charlotte; Charlotte Chamber of Commerce; State Bar Associa- 
tion; Southern Manufacturer's Club of Charlotte; Charlotte Country 
Club; President Elizabeth Realty Company; Attorney Mutual Build- 
ing and Loan Association of Charlotte. 1900-1916; Attorney Peoples 
Bank and Trust Company of Charlotte; Attorney R. G. Dun & Com- 
pany; City Attorney of Charlotte, 1911-1915. Presidential Elector 
1904; Delegate to Democratic National Convention, 1912. Member 
State Militia, Queen City Guards, 1891-1893; Kappa Alpha Frater- 
nity (College). Mason; Odd Fellow; Elk. Presbyterian. ]\Iarried, 
October, 1915, to Miss Louisa Gregorie Norvell. Address: Char- 
lotte, N. C. 



FURNIFOLD BROCK. 

(SeventJi District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven. Greene, .lones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

FuRNiFOLD Brock, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh District, 
was born at Trenton, N. C. Son of Furnifold and Susan C. (Koonce) 
Brock. Attended Trenton High School; Trinity College. 1892; Uni- 
versity of Ohio, 1894, C.E. Farmer. Register of Deeds, 1900-1904. 
Chainiian Board of County Commissioners, 1904-1908. Mason. In 
1898 married to Miss Myrtle Foscue. Eight children. Address: 
Trenton, N. C. 



JULIAN WILBUR BUNN. 
(Fifteenth District. — County: Wake. One Senator.) 

JixiAX Wilbur Buxx. Democrat, Senator from the Fifteenth Dis- 
trict, was born at Wakefield, N. C. :\Iarch 24, 1883. Son of C. D. 



State Sexators. 39[-' 

and Bettie A. (Young) Bunn. Received his academic education in 
the Wakefield High School, 1900-1903. B.L. of Wake Forest College, 
1907. President of Law Class; Vice-chairman of Moot Court. Law- 
yer. Member General Assembly, 1913. Elected County Attorney, 
March, 1916; reelected, December, 1916. Baptist. Married Miss 
Maud Davis. One child. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM HYSLOP SUMNER BURGWYN. 

(Third District. — Counties: Northampton and Bertie. One Sena- 
tor.) 

William Hyslop Sumner Bl-rgwyx. Democrat, Senator from the 
Third District, was born in Jackson, N. C, June 2'2, 1886. Son of 
George Pollock and Emma W. (Ridley) Burgwyn. Received his 
preparatory education in the Warrenton High School, 1899-1900, and 
the Episcopal High School of Virginia, 1900-1902. Attended George- 
town University, 1904-1905; University of North Carolina Law 
School 1906-1908. Attorney at Law. Attorney for Farmers' Bank, 
Woodland, N. C. Mayor of Jackson, 1908-1810. Member of A. T. O. 
(college fraternity). Mason, Royal Arch, Knight Templar, Thirty- 
second Degree, Shriner. Odd Fellow. Episcopalian. Married, Jan- 
uary, 1911, to Miss Josephine Griffin. Two children. Address: 
Woodland, N. C. 



JOHN HENRY BURNETT. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Duplin and Pender. One Senator.) 
JoHx Hexry Burnett. Democrat, Senator from the Ninth District, 
was born in Pender County, September 18, 1888. Son of John W. H. 
and Katherine Ann (Cowan) Burnett. Attended Burgaw Graded 
School 1907, Wake Forest College, L.L.B., 1911. Winner of Orator's 
Medal, 1911, Wake Forest College; Principal Snow Hill High School, 
1911-1912. Law^-er. President Montgomery County Bar Association. 
1914-1915. Reading Clerk of State Senate, Extra Session of 1913 and 
Session of 1915. Methodist. Married, 1915, Miss Mamie Ruth Dea- 
ton. One child. Address: Burgaw, N. C. 



400 BiocuAi'iiu Ai. Skkkhks. 

BENNEHAN CAMERON. 

(Eighteenth Distrkt. — Counties: Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and 
Durham. Two Senators.) 

Bexneiia.n Cajieuox. Democrat, Senator from the Eighteenth Dis- 
trict, was born September 9, 1854, at "Fairntosh," Stagville, then 
Orange, now Durham County. Son of Paul Carrington and Anne 
(RufRn) Cameron. Prepared for college at Horner Military Acad- 
emy. 1868-1871; Eastman National Business College, 1871: graduated 
at Virginia Military Institute, 1875; Captain Co. C. Admitted to 
the Bar in 1877. Farmer. Director of the Morehead Banking Com- 
pany, Durham, X. C. Took an active part in organizing the First 
National Bank of Durhaim, and in the building of the Lynchburg 
and Durhaym Railroad, the Oxford and Clarksville Railroad, the 
Durham and Northern Railroad, and the Oxford and Dickerson 
branch. Director in the Raleigh and Augusta Air Line Railroad. 
One of the organizers of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company; 
president of the same, 1911-191:3. Director and vice president of 
the Rocky Mount Mills. President of the North Carolina State 
Agricultural Society, 1896-1897. Vice-president of the Southern 
Cotton Growers Protective Association, 1904-1906. Vice-president of 
the Farmers' National Congress, 1901-1907; president, 1907-1909. 
Member of Royal Agricultural Society of England. 1908-1914. Cap- 
tain of Orange County Guards, 1875-1876. Captain on the staffs of 
Governors Vance, Jarvis, and Scales. Colonel on the staffs of Gov- 
ernors Fowle, Holt, and Cam Represented North Carolina on the 
staff of General Phil Sheridan at the centennial celebration of the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, 1887. and on the staff of Gen- 
eral Schofield at the centennial celebration of the inauguration of 
President George Washington, 1889. Organizer and director of the 
Quebec-Miami International Highway. Organizer and vice-presi- 
dent of the Southern National Highway. Director of the American 
Automobile Association. President of the Scottish Society of Amer- 
ica. Assistant treasurer of the North Carolina Society of the Cin- 
cinnati. Vice-president of the North Carolina Sons of the Revolu- 
tion. Chairman of the Committee on the Cooperation of Patriotic 
Organizations under the American Committee for the Celebration 
of the Century of Peace among English-speaking Peoples under the 
Treaty of Ghent. Episcopalian. Married Miss Sallie P. Mayo. Two 
children. Address: Stagville, N. C. 



State Se.natoks. 401 

EDWARD HENRY CRANMER. 

{Tenth District. — Counties: New Hanover and Brunswick. One 
Senator.) 

Edward Henky Craxmeh. Democrat, Senator from the Tenth Dis- 
trict, was born at Southport, February 22, 1871. Son of Edward H. 
and Almira C. (Bensel) Cranmer. Attended the public schools of 
Southport ; Eastman Business College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Lawyer. 
Member North Carolina Bar Association. Vice-president Bank of 
Southport. Mayor of Southport several times. Freemason. Metho- 
dist. Married Miss Mary Elizabeth Pearce. Five children. Ad- 
dress: Southport. N. C. 



WILLIAM S. DAVENPORT. 

(Second District. — Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, 
Beaufort, Hyde and Pamlico. Two Senators.) 

William S. Dave^tpokt, Democrat, Senator from the Second Dis- 
trict, was born in Tyrrell County, August 16, 1859. Son of Tully and 
Eliza (Nonnan) Davenport. Educated in the Public Schools. Farmer. 
Clerk Superior Court, 1882-1886. Member Board of County Commis- 
sioners, 1911-1916. Chairman Democratic County Executive Commit- 
tee, 1912-1916. Mason. Methodist; Member Board of Stewards since 
1908; District Steward. Married, November 14, 1883, to Miss Henri- 
etta E. Blount. Seven children. Address: Mackeys, N. C. 



ABRAHAM GARFIELD DEWEESE. 

(Thirty-eighth District. — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, and 
Macon. Two Senators. 

Abraham Garfield Deweese. Republican, Senator from the Thirty- 
eighth District, was born at Murphy, N. C, November 29, 1881. Son 
of D. W. and Lurena (Davis) Deweese. Attended the public school 
at Murphy; University of North Carolina. Lumberman. Treasurer 
of Cherokee County. Mason; K. of P.; W. O. \V.; I. O. O. F. Married 
.Miss Bessie Stoner. Three children. Address: Murphy, N. C. 

26 



402 BiotiKAriiicAj. Sketches. 

WILLIAM NASH EVERETT. 

{Twenty-first District. — Counties: Chatham, I\Ioore, Richmond, 
and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

WiM.iAM Nash Evekett. Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-first 
District, was born in Rockingham, December 29, 1864. Son of Wil- 
liam I. and Fannie (LeGrand) Everett. Attended Rockingham High 
School, 1882; University of North Carolina, 1886. Farmer and Mer- 
chant. Member of the Hardware Association of the Carolinas; Presi- 
dent, 1907. Mayor of Rockingham, 1896-1913, except one year 
when he was Chairman of Finance Committee. Chaimian of Board 
of Education of Richmond County, since 1912. Private in Norfolk 
Light Artillery Blues, 1890-1891. Commander North Carolina Di- 
vision, Sons of Confederate Veterans. Methodist. Married Miss 
Lena Payne in 1888. Three children. Address: Rockingham, N. C. 



FRANK GOUGH. 

(Twelfth District. — County: Robeson. One Senator.) 
Frank Gough, Democrat, Senator from the Twelfth District, was 
born in Yadkin County in 1866. Son of Stephen and Pauline (Doug- 
las) Gongh. Received his education in the public schools. Merchant 
and Farmer. Mason; Odd Fellow; Knight of Pythias; Red Man; 
Junior Order of United American Mechanics; Woodmen of the 
World; National Union. Baptist. Married in 1887 to :\Iiss Lena 
Linkhauer. Two children. Address: Lumberton, N. C. 



JAMES A. GRAY. Ju. 

{Tiventp-sixth District. — County: Forsyth. One Senator.) 
James A. Gkay Jr., Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-sixth Dis- 
trict, was born in Winston-Salem, August 21, 1889. Son of James A 
and Aurelia (Bowman) Gray. Graduated from the Winston-Salem 
High School in 1904; A.B. of the University of North Carolina, 1908. 
Treasurer of Wachovia Bank and Trust Company. Chairman of For- 
syth County Board of Road Commissioners, 1915-1916. Trustee of the 
University of North Carolina. Methodist. Address: Winston-Sa- 
lem, N. C. 



State Senators, 403 



JAMES D. GREGG. 



{Twenty-second District. — Counties: Montgomery and Randolph. 
One Senator.) 

James D. Gregg, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-second Dis- 
trict, was born at Oak Dale, Alamance County, in 1877. Son of 
George W. and Minerva Ann Gregg. Educated in public schools. 
Studied medicine at University of North Carolina. D.D.S. of Balti- 
more Medical College, 1908. Dentist. Mason; J. O. U. A. M.; 
Knight of Pythias. Baptist. Married Miss Izonia Foster in 1904. 
Two children. Address: Liberty, N. C. 



JOHN W. HALL. 

(Twenty-seventh District. — Counties: Stokes and Surry. One 
Senator.) 

John W. Hall, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-seventh Dis- 
trict, was born in Yadkin County, near East Bend, N. C, July 24, 
1880. Son of James S. and Carrie E. (Hauser) Hall. Educated 
at Pinnacle High School, 1893-1897. Attorney at Law. Member of 
State Senate, 1913. Baptist. Married Miss Sarah Blanche Pepper, 
February, 1911. Address: Danbury, N. C. 



FORDYCE CUNNINGHAM HARDING. 

(Fifth District. — County: Pitt. One Senator.) 

FoRDYCE CuxxixciHAM Hai;i)in(i, Democrat, Senator from the Fifth 
District, was born at Aurora, N. C, February 12, 1879. Son of 
Henry and Susan Harding. Ph.B. (1893), L.L.B. (1894), University 
of North Carolina. Lawyer. Chairman Democratic County Execu-- 
tive Committee, 1906-1915. Chairman Board of Trustees Greenville 
Graded Schools. State Senator 1915. President irro tempore of the 
State Senate, 1917. Royal Arch Mason; K. of P.; Odd Fellow. 
Methodist. Married Miss Mary Harding. Address: Greenville, 
N. C. 



404 BioGKArHicAL Sketchks. 

GASTON SCALES HARRILL. 

(Thirty-second District. — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, 
and Rutherford, 'fwo Senators.) 

Gaston Scales Harkill, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty- 
second District, was born at Oak Spring, N. C, November 7. 1885. 
Son of John Baxter and Martha Louise (McFarland) Harrill. Edu- 
cated at Westminster School, Rutherfordton, 1904-1905. Banker. 
Mason; K. of P. Presbyterian. Married, November, 1906, to Miss 
Ellen G. Gettys. Address: Ellenboro, N. C. 



GEORGE ALLAN HOLDERNESS. 

(Fourth District. — Counties: Halifax and Edgecombe. Two 
Senators.) 

George Allan Holderness, Democrat, Senator from the Fourth 
Senatorial District, was born in Caswell County, June 15, 1867. Son 
of William Henry and Sarah (Foreman) Holderness. Educated in 
the public schools. Banker. President of North Carolina Bankers' 
Association. Member of the Board of Directors of the State Prison 
under Governor Kitchin. Married Miss Hattie Howard. Seven 
children. Address: Tarboro N. C. 



EDWIN R. JOHNSON. 

(B^irst District. — Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, 
Hertford, Pasquotank, and Perquimans. Two Senators.) 

Edwin R. Johnson, Democrat, of Currituck County, was born in 
Currituck County, N. C. Son of Silas P. and Carolina M. (Coulter) 
Johnson. Educated at Atlantic Collegiate Institute (Elizabeth City, 
N. C). iMerchant. Chairman Democratic Executive Committee of 
Currituck County, 1897-1916. Chairman Board of County Commis- 
sioners. 1905-1908. State Senator from First District, 1909. Chair- 
man Currituck Highway Commission, 1916. Address: Currituck, 
N. C. 



State Senators. 405 

CHARLES ANDREWS JONAS. 

{Thirtieth District. — Counties: Catawba and Lincoln. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Charles Axdrew.s Joxas, Republican, Senator from the Tliirtieth 
District, was born at Reepsville, Lincoln County, N. C, August 14, 
1876. Son of Cephus A. and Martha S. (Ronce) Jonas. Prepared 
for college at Ridge Academy, 1894-1895; Fallston, 1896-1899. Ph.B. 
of the University of North Carolina. 1902. Lawyer. City Attorney 
of Lincolton, N. C, since 1908. Trustee Lincolton Graded Schools, 
since 1912. K. of P.; Red Man. Methodist. Married Miss Rosa 
Petrie. Three children. Address: Lincolnton, N. C. 



THOMAS ATKINSON JONES. 
{Thirty-sixth District. — County: Buncombe. One Senator.) 
Thomas Atkinson Jones, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty- 
sixth District, was born in Danville, Va., October 8, 1860. Son of 
Benjamin Moseley and Agnes Poythress (Atkinson) Jones. At- 
tended public schools until 1875. Attorney at Law; member North 
Carolina Bar Association. Judge Criminal Court of Buncombe, 
1893-1895. Judge Police Court of Asheville. 1904-1906. Second Lieu- 
tenant in Asheville Light Infantry, 1886. Mason (Scottish Rite, 
Thirty-second Degree) ; Knight of Pythias; Elk; Modern Wood- 
men of America. Episcopalian. Married Miss Josephine Wright 
Myers in 1890. Three children. Address: Asheville. N. C. 



JOHN R. JOYCE. 
{Nineteenth, District. — County: Rockingham. One Senator.) 
John R. Joyce, Republican, Senator from the Nineteenth District, 
was born at Prestonville, Stokes County, December 15, 1865. Son of 
Robert J. and Mary A. (Jackson) Joyce. Attended public schools 
in Stokes County: Wake Forest Law School, 1914. Attorney at 
Law; member of Rockingham County Bar Association. President 
Reidsville Commercial and Agricultural Association. Postmaster at 
Reidsville, 1889-1894. Member Board of Aldermen of Reidsville, 1894, 



406 Biuc;uAi'iiKAL Sketches. 

1895, 1897. 1898. Member State Board of Agriculture, 1897-1903. 
Deputy Collector Internal Revenue in charge of Stamp Office at 
Reidsville, February, 1898, to September, 1906. Postmaster at Reirts- 
ville, 1906-1914. Republican candidate for Congress in Fifth Dis- 
trict in 1900. Mason; Odd Fellow; K. of P.; Modern W. O. W.; 
J. 0. U. A. M.; Knights of the Maccabees of the World. Baptist. Ad- 
dress: Reidsville, N. C. 



.JAMES FOY JUSTICE. 

iThirti/serond District. — Counties; Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, 
and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

James Foy Justice, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-second 
District, was born in Buncombe County, on September 8, 1886. Son 
of Rev A. I. and Minerva M. (Fisher) Justice. Received his pre- 
paratory education at Fruitland Institute, 1899-1905. A.B. of Wake 
Forest College, 1905-1908; Wake Forest Law School, 1910-1911. Law- 
yer. Member of North Carolina Bar Association; Hendersonville 
Chamber of Commerce; County Board of Education of Henderson 
County, 1915. Knight of Pythias. Baptist. Address: Henderson- 
ville, N. C. 



ARCHIBALD M. KELLY. 

(Eleventh District. — Counties: Bladen and Columbus. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Archibald M. Kelly. Democrat, Senator from the Eleventh Dis- 
trict, was born at Bladenboro, October 21, 1858. Son of John A. and 
Abigail ( Lennon ) Kelly. Educated in Ashpole Institute. Robeson 
County. 1886-1888. Farmer. Member of the County Board of Edu- 
cation, 1912-1916. Taught in public schools of Robeson, Columbus 
and Bladen counties for fifteen years. Baptist; Clerk and Deacon 
since 1887; Clerk of Cape Fear-Columbus Association for several 
years. Married in March. 1886, to Miss Hilbrun; second marriage 
to Miss Nye, in 1912. Ten children. Address: Abbottsburg, N. C. 
R. F. D. 1. 



State Senatoks. 407 



STAHLE LINN. 



{Ticenty-fifth District. — County: Rowan. One Senator.) 

Stahle Lixn, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-fifth District, 
was born in Salisbury, August 19, 1886. Son of Thomas Calvin and 
Anne (Doll) Linn. Attended Horner Military School, 1902-1903; 
University of North Carolina. Ph.B., 1907. Attorney at Law. Mem- 
ber of North Carolina Bar Association. Mason. Lutheran. Ad- 
dress: Salisbury, N. C. 



ROBERT EUGENE LITTLE. 

(Twenty-third District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and 
Union. Two Senators.) * 

Robert Eugene Little, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-third 
District, was born at Ansonville, November 21, 1852. Son of Wil- 
liam and Sarah (Ledbetter) Little. Received academic education 
in public schools. A.B. of Davidson College, 1873. Attended Chief 
Justice Pearson's Law School, 1877. B. L. of Columbia College 
Law School, 1879. Director First National Bank of Wadesboro 
since 1895. and vice-president since 1902. Counsel for the Board of 
County Commissioners, 1895-1908. Chairman Democratic Executive 
Committee of Anson County, 1891-1899. Member of State Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1888. Delegate to National Convention, 1888. 
State Senator, 1889, 1893, 1913. Address: Wadesboro, N. C. 



JACOB ELMER LONG. 

{Eighteenth District. — Counties: Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and 
Durham. Two Senators.) 

Jacob Elmer Loi\g, Democrat, Senator from the Eighteenth Dis- 
trict, was born in Yanceyville, N. C, July 31, 1889. Son of Jacob .\. 
and Esta T. Long. Educated at Graham College, 1888-1890; Elon 
College, 1891-1895; Horner Military School, 1896-1898; University of 
North Carolina. 1900-1903. LL.B. University of North Carolina. 1903. 
Lawyer. Chairman Township Executive Committee; Chairman of 
Democratic Congressional Executive Committee, Fifth District, 1912- 
1917. Private Secretary to Charles M. Stedman, member of Congress 



408 BiOGRAPHic^vL Sketches. 

from Fifth North Carolina District, 1912-1916. Representative in 
General Assembly, 1911-1913. Fraternal Orders: Sigma Nu Fra- 
ternity (college) ; Omega Tau Legal Fraternity (college) ; Order of 
Sphinx (college). Presbyterian. Married, November 10, 1909, Miss 
Lessie Ermine Peay. Address: Graham, N. C. 



WILLIAM LUNSFORD LONG. 

{Fourth District. — Counties: Halifax and Edgecombe. Two 
Senators.) 

William Lx^nsfokd Long. Democrat. Senator from the Fourth 
District, was born February 5, 1890, at Garysburg. Son of Lemuel 
McKinney and Bettie Gray (Mafson) Long. A.B., cf the University 
of North Carolina, 1909. Lawyer. Director First National Bank of 
Roanoke Rapids, N. C. Secretary-Treasurer Roanoke Rapids Build- 
ing and Loan Association. Director and Vice-president of the 
Northampton & Hertford Railroad Company. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1915. S. A. E. (college) Fraternity, Gimghoul, 
Phi Beta Kappa of University of North Carolina. Mason, K. of P. 
Married Miss Rosa Arrington Heath. Two children. Address: 
Roanoke Rapids, N. C. 



RUPUS SIDNEY McCOIN. 

{Sixteentli District. — Counties: Vance and Warren. One Sen- 
ator). 

Rrrrs Sidjv'ey McCoi.x. Democrat, Senator from the Sixteenth 
District, was born in Forsyth County, June 29, 1872. Son of George 
N. and Elizabeth (New^som) McCoin. Attended Pinnacle Academy, 
1891-1892; Salem Boys" School, 1893; Guilford College, 1894-1895; 
Dick and Dillard Law School, 1896-1897. Lawyer. Charter mem- 
ber of North Carolina Bar Association. President Gold Leaf Pub- 
lishing Company; Henderson Furniture Company. Vice-President 
Corbitt Automobile Company; Mixon Jewelry Company. Secretary- 
Treasurer Henderson Loan and Real Estate Company. City Alder- 
man and Mayor j)ro tern, of Henderson, 1911-1912. Served on Board 
of Directors, Eastern Hospital from 1903 to 1908. Democratic 
Presidential Elector, 1908. Served on Board of Directors. Central 



State Sexatoks. 409 

Hospital at Raleigh, 1909-1910. Chairman County Democratic Execu- 
tive Commitee Vance County 1900-1906. Mason; K. of P.; member 
Judiciary Committee of Grand Lodge K. of P. Presbyterian. Mar- 
ried, June 14, 1900, to Miss Emma M. Freeborn. Address: Hen- 
derson, N. C. 



JOHN ALLAN McLEOD. 

(F'ourteent,h District. — Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and 
Sampson. Two Senators.) 

John Axlan McLeod, Republican, Senator from the Fourteenth 
District, was born in Harnett County, December 28, 1887. Son of 
J. F. and Ludella (Stewart) McLeod. Prepared for college at Buies 
Creek Academy, 1905-1909. Attended Wake Forest College, 1909-1910; 
Wake Forest Law School summer of 1914. Lawyer; member North 
Carolina Bar Association. Judge of Recorder's Court of Harnett 
County, 1914-1916. Baptist. Taught in public schools of Harnett 
and Johnston Counties. Married, December. 1913, to Miss Bertha 
Elizabeth Eldridge. One child. Address: I^illington, N. C. 



JAMES SMALL McNIDER. 

(B'trst District. — Counties: I'erquimans, Currituck, Chowan, 
Gates, Pasquotank, Camden, and Hertford. Two Senators.) 

James Small McNideh, Democrat, Senator from the First District, 
was born at Durants Neck, N. C, January 25, 1880. Son of Thomas 
J. and Laura (White) McNider. Received his academic education at 
Hertford Academy, 1897: Atlantic Collegiate Institute, 1898; Whit- 
sett Institute, 1900; University of North Carolina, 1906. Was in- 
ter-society debater in junior year; society orator on Washington's 
Birthday. Studied law at University of North Carolina. Lawyer. 
Representative from Perquimans County in the General Assembly 
of 1913. Mason. Methodist: steward; president Epworth League; 
teacher in Sunday School. Made the response to address of welcome 
at Layman's Movement. Methodist Conference, in 1909: address of 
welcome, Epworth League Convention, 1910. Address: Hertford. 



410 Bi()(;hai'iiu Ai. Skktciies. 

CHARLES PARTEE MATHESON. 

{Thirty-third District. — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell 
and McDowell. Two Senators.) 

Charlks Partee Matiieson, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty- 
third District, was born at Taylorsville, October 16, 1875. Son of 
Robert Partee and Clarissa (Carson) Matheson. Attended David- 
son College for three years. Banker and farmer. President of 
Bank of Alexander. President Watts Manufacturing Company. Di- 
rector of the Western Hospital at Morganton. Town Commissioner; 
Clerk of Superior Court; Sheriff; County Chairman. Mason; Jr. 
0'. U. A. M.; Odd Fellow. Address: Taylorsville, N. C. 



JAMES LEE NELSON. 

(Thirty-third District. — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, 
and McDowell. Two Senators.) 

James Lee Nelson, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty:third Dis- 
trict, was born at Patterson, Caldwell County. . Son of John and 
Elizabeth (Penley) Nelson. Educated in the public schools. Direc- 
tor and Secretary-Treasurer of Lenoir Cotton Mill, Hudson :\Ianu- 
facturing Company, Whitnel Cotton Manufacturing Company and 
Moore Cotton Mill Company. Mayor of Lenoir, 1886. Member of 
House of Representatives in 1895 and in 1897. Member of the State 
Board of Agriculture, 1890-1892. Member of the Board of Trustees of 
A. and M. College, about 1890-1892. Member of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the State Normal and Industrial College. Methodist; Stew- 
ard and Trustee for several years; delegate to a number of Con- 
ferences. Married in 1884 to Miss Emily E. Scroggs. Four chil- 
dren. Address: Lenoir, N. C. 



JOHN ALEXANDER OATES. 

(Thirteenth District.— Counties: Cumberland and Hoke. One 
Senator). 

JoHX Alexander Oates, Democrat, Senator from the Thirteenth 
District, was born in Sampson County, June 2. 1870. Son of John 



State Sexatoks. 411 

A. and Mary Jewell (Ashford) Gates. Attended Faison Academy 
1876-1879. Public schools, 1880-1884; Clinton Academy, 1884- 
1887. Wake Forest College, A. B., 1895. Wake Forest Law 
School, 1910. Lawyer; member of North Carolina Bar Association. 
President Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce, 1908. Aldemian of 
Fayetteville, 1898-1910. Judge Cumberland County Court, 1913-1914. 
Chairman State Executive Committee in Prohibition Campaign. 1908. 
Director National Bank of Fayetteville since 1909. Chairman of 
Cumberland County Board of Education, 1902-1913. Member Board 
of Trustees Fayetteville Graded Schools for fifteen years and for 
past five years Chairman of Board. Trustee of Wake Forest Col- 
lege, 1906-1916; President of Board, 1913-1915. Trustee Dell School, 
1912-1916. Trustee Buies Creek Academy since 1915. Trustee 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1916. Member Board of 
Directors Virginia Baptist Summer Encampment. Chairman Board 
of Directors North Carolina Baptist Seaside Assembly. Member 
Baptist State Mission Board. President North Carolina Baptist 
State Convention, 1915. Baptist. J. 0. U. A. M,. Editor Xorth 
Carolina Baptist. 1892-1907. Married in 1897 to Miss Emma Estelle 
Cain. Address: Fayetteville, N. C. 



EZRA PARKER. 

(Fourteenth Distrirt. — Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and 
Sampson. Two Senators). 

Ezra Parker. Republican, Senator from the Fourteenth District, 
was born in Johnston County, July 4, 1889. Son of King Henry 
and Sarah Anne (Beasley) Parker. Prepared for college at Benson 
High School, 1907-1910. LL.B. of the University of North Carolina, 
1914. Lawyer. Mason. Married Miss Lovie Dora Denning. One 
child. Address: Benson, N. C. 



WILLIE MANGUINI PERSON. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Franklin, Nash and Wilson. Two 
Senators). 

Willie MA^orM Persox. Democrat, Senator from the Sixth Dis- 
trict, was born August 24, 1862. Son of Joseph A. and Alice (Mor- 



412 BiotiUAi'iiicAL Sketches. 

gan) Person. Attended the University of North Carolina. Studied 
law under Hon. C. M. Cooke. Attorney at law. Three times mayor 
of Louisburg. Episcopalian. Married, 1897, to Miss Prudence A. 
Person. Address: Louisburg, N. C. 



WILLIAJVr DURWARD POLLOCK. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators). 

William Durwakd Pollock. Democrat, Senator from the Seventh 
District, was born in Onslow County, October 24, 1862. Son of 
William Andrew Jackson and Rachel Anne (Loftin) Pollock. Re- 
ceived his primary education at Rev. Joseph H. Foy's School, Kin- 
ston, and at Dr. R. H. Lewis' School, Kinston. Attended Wake Forest 
College. Ph.B. of the University of North Carolina, 1885. Lawyer. 
Member North Carolina Bar Association. Mayor of Kinston, 1891- 
1893. City Attorney of Kinston 1901-1902. Lieutenant Command- 
ing Kinston Division Naval Reserves, 1897-1898. Married, January, 
1905, to Miss Frances Burton Hoke. Three children living. Ad- 
dress: Kinston. N. C. 



ROBERT R. RAY. 

(Thirty-first District. — County: Gaston. One Senator). 

Robert R. Ray, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-first District, 
was born in Charlotte, March 23, 1852. Son of Calvin M. and Mar- 
tha (McEachern) Ray. Educated in private schools in Charlotte. 
Manufacturer. Treasurer and Manager INlcAden Mills. Vice-presi- 
dent First National Bank of Gastonia. Member of the American 
Cotton Manufacturers' Association and The Cotton Manufacturers' 
Association of North Carolina. Member of the Board of Trustees 
of College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Ex-president of the 
Cotton Manufacturers Association of North Carolina. Member of 
State Democratic Executive Committee. Married Miss Mary Downs. 
Six children. Address: McAdenville, N. C. 



State Sexators. 413 

TERRELIUS THEODORE ROSS. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Franklin, Nash, and Wilson. Two 
Senators). 

Tekrelius Theodore Ross, Democrat, Senator from the Sixth Dis- 
trict, was born at Pleasant Garden, October 5, 1855. Son of A. S. 
and Nannie (Hendrix) Ross. Attended Pleasant Garden Academy. 
Dentist and farmer. Member of State Dental Association; National 
Dental Association. Mason; Knight Templar, and Pythian. Baptist. 
INIarried. 1880, to Miss Minnie Scott. Four children. Address: Nash- 
ville, N. C. 



ALFRED MOORE SCALES. 

(Tioentieth District. — Counties: Guilford. One Senator). 

Alfred Moore Scales, Democrat, Senator from the Twentieth Dis- 
trict, was born in Greensboro, August 20, 1870. Son of Junius Irv- 
ing and Effie Hamilton (Henderson) Scales. Educated at Greens- 
boro Graded Schools, Raleigh Male Academy; University of North 
Carolina; Law School of the University of North Carolina, 1892. 
Lawyer. General Counsel and Vice-president of Southern Life and 
Trust Company; North Carolina Trust Company; Southern Under- 
writers; Underwriters of Greensboro; Southern Stock Fire Insur- 
ance Company; Southern Real Estate Company; Irving Park Com- 
pany; General Counsel and member Finance Committee American 
Exchange National Bank. Member and Chairman of Grievance 
Committee North Carolina Bar Association; City Attorney of 
Greensboro, 1894; State Senate, 1897, 1905; President Commission on 
Constitutional Amendments, 1913; Visitor to U. S. Naval Academy, 
1910. Member Royal Arcanum, Odd Fellows and K. of P. Regent 
North Carolina Royal Arcanum. Presbyterian; elder since 1896; 
Moderator Orange Presbytery and Synod of North Carolina. Trus- 
tee University of North Carolina since 1897; Chairman Finance 
Committee. President North Carolina Children's Home Society; 
Member Board Regents Barium Springs Orphans' Home; 
Trustee Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va.; Peace Insti- 
tute; Flora McDonald College, and Glade Valley High School. Mar- 
ried, November, 1895. to Miss Bessie Taylor; September, 1914, to 
:\Iiss Mary Leigh Pell. Seven children. Address: Greensboro. N. C. 



414 Biographical SKirrcnKs. 

CHARLES MARCELLUS THOMPSON. 

{Twenty4hird District. — ^Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, 
and Union. Two Senators). 

Charles Marcellus Thompson. Democrat, Senator from Twenty- 
third District, was born in Tyro, Davidson County, October 15, 1843. 
Son of J. H. and Cynthia S. (Ratts) Thompson. Received his pre- 
paratory education in Yadkin Institute, 1860. Entered Mount Pleas- 
ant College in .January, 1861, and in April, 1861, volunteered in the 
Confederate Army. Manufacturer; retired in 1910. Member of 
House of Representatives in 1899. Private in Confederate Army 
from May, 1861, to May 1864. Lutheran. Married in 1867 to Miss 
M. A. Peebles. Five Children. Address: Lexington, N. C. 



EUGENE TRANSOU. 

{Tihirty-fourth District. — Counties: Alleghanj% Ashe, and Wa- 
tauga. One Senator). 

Eugene Tkansou, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-fourth Dis- 
trict, w^as born at Laurel Springs, January 21, 1872. Son of Sidney 
M. and Senesca A. (Mastin) Transou. Attended Sparta Institute, 
1886-1890. Farmer and dealer in live stock. Member County Board 
of Education, Alleghany County, 1909-1916, and chairman since July, 
1911. A. F. and A. M. Methodist. Married, 1894. to Miss Laura E. 
Cheek. Address: Sparta, N. C. 



EUGENE JACKSON TUCKER. 

{Seventeenth District. — Counties: Granville and Person. One 
Senator). 

Eugene Jackso.n Tic kek. Democrat, Senator from the Seventeenth 
District, was born in Charlotte County, Va., May 18, 1869. Son of 
John A. and Mary (Tatum) Tucker. Received his preparatory edu- 
cation in the public schools. Vanderbilt University, D.D.S., 1890. 
Dentist. Director in the Bank of Roxboro; President of the Bank 
of Roxboro: Vice-president of the North Carolina Dental Society: 
twice President of the North Carolina Dental Society; Member of 



State Senators. 415 

the Dental Board of Examiners for six years; Member of the Na- 
tional Dental Society; Representative in the General Assembly from 
Person County in 1915. JMason; K. of P.; Odd Fellow; W. O. W.; 
J. O. U. A. M. Baptist. Address: Roxboro, N. C. 



WILLIAM DENT TURNER. 

(Tiventy-ninth District. — County: Iredell. One Senator). 

William Dext Turner. Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-ninth 
District, was born in Iredell County, January 30, 1855. Son of 
William and Dorcas (Tomlinson) Turner. Prepared for college at 
the Olim Academy and Mount Airy High School. A. B., Trinity 
College, 1876. Lawyer. State Senator 1887, 1889, 1891. Lieutenant 
Governor, 1901-1904. Director of the North Carolina Normal and 
Industrial College for Women, 1896-1900. Married, January 30, 1878, 
Miss Ida Lanier; June 9, 1897, Miss Julia Harllee MacCall. Six 
children. Address: Statesville, N. C. 



LINDSAY CARTER WARREN. 

(Second District. — Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, 
Beaufort, Hyde, and Pamlico. Two Senators). 

Lindsay Carter Warren. Democrat, Senator from the Second Dis- 
trict, was born in Washington, N. C. December 16, 1889. Son of 
Charles Frederick and Elizabeth Miitter (Blount) Warren. Re- 
ceived his preparatory education at Bingham School, Asheville, 
1903-1906. Attended University of North Carolina, 1906-1908; Law 
School of University of North Carolina, 1911-1912. Attorney at law; 
member of North Carolina Bar Association. Alternate Delegate to 
American Bar Association, 1916. Chairman Democratic Executive 
Committee of Beaufort County since 1912. County Attorney of 
Beaufort County since 1912. Member Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity; 
B. P. O. E. Episcopalian. Married. January, 1916. to Miss Emily D. 
Harris. Address: Washington. N. C. 



416 BioGKAPiiicAL Skktciies. 

" S. CARTER WILLIAMS. 

(Tiventy-eighth District.— Counties: Davie, Wilkes and Yadkin. 
One Senator . 

S. Carter Williaais. Republican, Senator from the Twenty-eighth 
District, was born in Iredell County, July 12, 1878. Son of J. C. and 
Elizabeth J. (Templeton) Williams. Educated in the public schools 
and Harmony Academy. Attorney at law. Director of Statesville 
Air Line Railway Company since 1910. Director of Bank of Yad- 
kin since 1911. Attorney for Bank of Yadkin. Mayor of Yadkin- 
ville, 1911. Register of Deeds of Yadkin County. 1910. Representa- 
tive in General Assembly, 1915. County Attorney of Yadkin County. 
Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Grace B. Redman in 1901. Five 
children. Address: Yadkinville, N. C. 



OFFICERS OF HOFSE OF KEPRESENTATH ES. 



WALTER MURPHY, 

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

Walter Murphy, Democrat, Representative from Rowan County, 
was born in Salisbury, N. C, October 24, 1872. Son of Andrew and 
Helen (Long) Murphy. Educated at the University of North Caro- 
lina. Editor in Chief of Tar Heel; President U. N. C. Athletic Asso- 
ciation; President Law Class; football team, 1889-1893. Attended 
University Law School, 1892-1894. Lav/yer. Managing Editor Uni- 
versity of N. C. Alumni Revieiv. Trustee of University since 1903; 
Executive Committee of same. General Secretary of the Alumni of 
the University of North Carolina. Trustee of the North Carolina 
Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis, 1907-1914. Member 
of State Democratic Executive Committee, 1898, 1913. City Attorney 
for Salisbury. 1903-1908; member General Assembly, 1897, 1901, 1903, 
1905, 1907, 1913. Speaker ol the House of Representatives at the 
extra session, 1914; of the regular session, 1917. Reading Clerk of 
State Senate, 1899. Elector at large for North Carolina, 1908. B. 



Representatives in Genekal Assembly. 417 

P. 0. E.; P. O. E.; Red Men; K. of P.; Mason; Si-gma Nu (college) 
Fraternity. Episcopalian. Married Miss Maud Harvey, 1903. Two 
children. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



ALEXANDER LASSITER. 

PRINCIPAL CLEEK. 

Alexander Lassiter, Principal Clerk in the House of Represent- 
atives, was born August 19, 1874. Son of George W. and Sarah J. 
(Doughtie) Lassiter. Educated in public schools of Aulander, N. C., 
and Davis Military School, Winston, N. C, 1890-1891. Won orator's 
medal at Davis Military School in 1891; one of the declaimers at 
International Y. M. C. A. Convention. Studied law at University of 
North Carolina. Admitted to the Bar in 1895. Clerk in House of 
Representatives since 1899. Mason. Baptist. Married in 1898 to 
Miss Lizzie C. Minton. Five children. Address: Aulander N. C. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 



JOHN L. BAILEY. 

John L. Bailey, Democrat, Representative from Wilson County, 
was born in that county, June 28, 1850. Son of Birt and Mahala 
(Brasw'ell) Bailey. Educated in the common schools from 1859-1865. 
Merchant. President Elm City Bank. President Western Supply 
Company. Justice of the Peace, 1872-1880. Has been Alderman and 
Mayor of Elm City. Representative in the Genei'al Assembly from 
Wilson County, 1883, 1915. Mason. Married Miss Emma Braswell, 
1881. Five children. Address: Elm City, N. C. 



ALFRED BALDWIN. 

Alfred Baldwin, Democrat, Representative from Richmond 
County, was born in that county May 30, 1863. Son of Jesse and 

27 



418 BioGRAPHic^u. Sketches. 

Mary (Cook) Baldwin. Attended Mt. Gilead and Ellerbe Springs 
Schools, 1881-1882. Farmer. Woodman of the World. Methodist. 
Married, August, 1911, to Miss Beulah White. Two children. Ad- 
dress: Ellerbe N. C. 



JOSIAH WILLIAM BARNES. 

JosiAH William Barnes, Democrat, Representative from John- 
ston County, was born in Johnston County. Son of Josiah and 
Janie (Wilder) Barnes. Farmer. Representative in Legislature, 
1909. Mason. Baptist. Married Miss Liles. Address: Clayton, 
N. C. 



ROWLAND F. BEASLEY. 

Rowi^AND F. Beasley. Democrat, Representative from Union 
County, was born in New Hanover County, January 26, 1871. Son 
of J. J. and Antoinette (Montford) Beasley. A. B. of Wake Forest 
College, 1894. Editor Monroe Journal. Member of State Senate, 
1903. Superintendent of Schools of Union County, 1903-1907. Bap- 
tist. Married in 1895 to Miss Ellie J. Stewart; in 1909 to Mrs. Isa- 
belle Evans Fitzwater. Two children. Address: Monroe, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALBERT BOWMAN. 

WiLLLVii Albert Bowman, Democrat, Representative from Guil- 
ford County, was born at Liberty, N. C, January 7, 1864. Son of 
N. R. and Hannah (Kirne) Bowanan. Received his education at 
Mt. Pleasant and Love's Boarding School, 1886-1888. Farmer and 
preacher. Justice of the Peace since 1906. Represented Guilford 
County in Legislature of 1915. Woodman of the World. Methodist. 
Married August 1, 1889, to Miss Martha Elizabeth Greason. Three 
children. Address: Liberty, N. C. 



x\BNER BURTON BREECE. 

Abner Bltrton Breece, Democrat, Representative from Cumber- 
land County, was born at Fayetteville. January 31, 1886. Son of 



Repkesentatives IX General Assembly. 419 

David James and Hattie (Page) Breece. Attended Buies Creek 
Academy, 1906-1908. LL.B., Georgetown University of Law, 1909-1912. 
Lawyer. Solicitor of Recorder's Court for Cumberland County, 1914- 
1916. J. O. U. A. M. Married, April, 1916, to Miss Cora E. Sessions. 
Address: Fayetteville, N. C. 



BURR COLEY BROCK. 

BtJBE CoLEY Brock, Republican, Representative from Davie 
County, was born in Fannington, November 26, 1891. Son of Moses 
B. and Vert (Coley) Brock. Attended the public schools of Farm- 
ington, Cooleemee High School, Woodleaf, Clemmons High School; 
University of North Carolina in 1913; University of North Caro- 
lina Law School, 1913-1916; will get LL.B., degree with class of 1917. 
Lawyer. J. O. U. A. M.; Mason. Methodist. Address; Farmington, 
N. C. 



HENRY WARREN BROTHERS. 

Henry Warren Brothers. Democrat, Representative from Ivenoir 
County, was born at Institute, Lenoir County, September 16, 1873. 
Son of Joseph W. and Winnie (Rountree) Brown. Attended public 
schools at Institute, N. C. Farmer. Vice-president of Farmers' Bank 
and Trust Company, La Grange. 1914-1916; President of La Grange 
Supply Company, 1916. Mason; W. O. W. Christian Church. Mar- 
ried, December, 1894, to Miss Ruth Kennedy. Three children. Ad- 
dress: La Grange, N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



DENNIS GARFIELD BRUMMITT. 

Dennis Garfield Brlmmitt, Democrat, Representative from 
Granville Coiunty, was born in Granville County, Fel)ruary 7, 1881. 
Son of Thomas Jefferson and Carolina Victoria (Bradford) Brum- 
mitt. LL.B., of Wake Forest College, 1907. Lawyer. Secretary of 
the Democratic County Executive Committee, 1908-1910. Chairman, 
1910-1914. Member State Democratic Elxecutive Committee since 
1913. Mayor of Oxford, 1909-1913. Member of Board of Town Com- 



420 BiOGRAPHic^u. Sketches. 

missioners, 1913-1915. Mason. Representative in General Assem- 
bly of 1915. Odd Fellow; J. 0. U. A. M.; W. 0. W.; M. W. of A. 
Attorney for the Union Bank of Oxford. Baptist. Married, June, 
1912, to Miss Kate Hays Fleming. Address: Oxford, N. C. 



WILLIAM MILES BUTT. 

William Miles Butt, Democrat, Representative from Beaufort 
County, was born at Bonnerton, August 26, 1860. Son of Horace 
James and Olivia Ann (Creekmur) Butt. Attended Richland Acad- 
emy, 1879-1880. Farmer. Member of Board of Education of Beau- 
fort County since 1903. Episcopalian. Married Miss Annie V. Roba- 
son in April, 1890. Five children. Address: Bonnerton, N. C. 



AMBROSE CLARK. 

Ambrose Clakk, Republican, Representative from Aslie Countj% 
was born September 30, 1862, in Ashe County. Son of Armstrong 
and Mary (Miller) Clark. Educated at Sparta Institute, 1884-1885, 
and the University of North. Carolina. Fanner and lumber dealer. 
President of Bank of Lansing, 1916. County Commissioner, 1898- 
1899. Sheriff of Ashe County, 1900-1906. Mason. Baptist. Mar- 
ried in 1894 to Miss Agnes Miller. Eleven children. Address: 
Lansing, N. C. 



DAVID Mckenzie clark. 

David McKenzie Clark, Democrat, Representative from Pitt 
County, was born in Halifax in 1S85. Son of Edward Thorne and 
Margaret (Lillington) Clark. Attended Weldon Graded Schools, 
1899-1901. C.E., North Carolina A. and M. College, 1901-1905. 
County Engineer for the construction of steel bridges, City Engineer 
for Greenville, and construction engineer of the East Carolina 
Teachers' Training School, 1908-1911. Studied Law at Wake Forest 
College. Lawyer. Representative in the General Assembly, 1913- 
1915. Member Chamber of Commerce, Good Roads Association, 
North Carolina Bar Association, Knights of Pythias, Red Men. 
Methodist. Address: Greenville, N. C. 



Representatives in Genekai, Assembly. 421 

JOHN MONROE CLAYTON. 

John Monroe Clayton, Democrat, Representative from Hyde 
County, was born at Engelhard, N. C, October 18, 1851. Son of 
William P. and Susan Jane (Henry) Clayton. Educated at Amity 
Academy, Lake Landing, N. C. Farmer, school teacher, telegraph 
operator, chairman of Board of Shellfish Commissioners. Representa- 
tive in the Legislature, 1913 and 1915. Mason; J. O. U. A. M. Pres- 
ident of Farmers Union. President of United Sons of Hyde. Meth- 
odist. Married Miss Mary R. Midyette. Address: Engelhard, N. C. 



AUSTIN BLAINE COFFEY. 

Austin Blaine Coffey, Republican, Representative from Watauga 
County, was born in that county, January 14, 1887. Son of David N. 
and Caroline Coffey. Educated in the public schools and the Appa- 
lachian Training School. Farmer. Odd Fellow. Married, March, 
1913, to Miss Hailey Harris. One child. Address: Shulls Mills, 
R. F. D. 1. 



JAMES CASWELL COGGINS. 

James Caswell Coggins, Democrat, Representative from Washing- 
ton County, was born near Asheville, March 3, 1865. Son of John 
Wesley and Mary Jane (Melton) Coggins. Received his preparatory 
education at Bee Tree, 1878-1880; Piney Grove Academy, 1881-1882; 
Venable's Academy, 1883. A.B., Milligan College, Tennessee, 1894. 
Attended the University of Chicago, 1894, Ph.D., American Univer- 
sity of Harriman, 1897-1899; LL.B., Hamilton College of Law, 1913- 
1916. Lawyer. Member of Board of Trade, Plymouth, N. C. LL.D. Capi- 
tal University, Oklahoma, 1905. Odd Fellow, J. O. U. A. M. Char- 
itable Brotherhood. Christian (Disciple). First President of At- 
lantic Christian College, Wilson, 1902-1904. Author of "A New Phil- 
osophy of Life," "The Star Crowned Woman," "Christ's Place in the 
Old Testament." Married in 1882 to Miss Julia A. Crouch; in 1894 
to Miss Pearl E. Washburn, and in 1906 to Miss Kate Penn DeVore. 
Nine children. Address: Plymouth, N. C. 



422 BioGRAPHiCiVL Sketches. 

BRAXTON BRAGG COLLINS. 

Braxton Bragg Collins, Democrat, Representative from Jones 
County, was born in Maysville, October 17, 18G6. Son of John and 
Marlnda (Mattocks) Collins. Educated in the Pollocksville High 
School, 1885-1887. Farmer. Married, to Miss Katie Bell Gillette, 
March, 1894. Seven children. Address: Maysville, N. C. 



ALEXANDER McALISTER COUNCIL. 

Alexander McAllster Council. Democrat, Representative from 
Bladen County, was born in that county, December 18, 1859. Son 
of John Taylor and Mary Jane (McAllster) Council. Preparatory 
education was received in private schools, 1866-1876. Attended the 
University of North Carolina, 1877-1879. Farmer. County Com- 
missioner for five years; member of Board of Education, 1899-1910. 
County Treasurer, 1901-1915. K. of P. Methodist. Married, De- 
cember, 1897, to Miss Annie Mary Cromartie. Eight children. Ad- 
dress: White Oak, N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



WILLIAM THOMAS COVINGTON. 

William Thomas Covington, Democrat, Representative from Hoke 
County, was born in Scotland County, April 2^, 1875. Son of Robert 
Roland and Harriet (Winston) Covington. Attended the Laurinburg 
High School, 1885-1892. Farmer. Alderman of Raeford. 1910-1914. 
Member School Board Raeford District three years. Presbyterian. 
Married, 1904, to Miss Margaret Neal. Two children. Address: Rae- 
ford, N. C. 



ROBERT MARTIN COX. 

Robert Martin Cox, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth 
County, was born in that county, July 9, 1876. Son of Romulus L. 
and Susan E. (Barrow) Cox. Attended Oak Ridge Institute, 1894- 
1895. Farmer. Represented Forsyth County in Legislature, 1907, 
and in the special session of 1908. Methodist. Address: Rural 
Hall, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 423 

WILLIAM DAVID COX. 

William David Cox, Democrat, Representative from Currituck 
County, was born at Moyock, November 27, 1887. Son of David A. 
and Margaret (Gordon) Cox. Educated at the Atlantic Collegiate 
Institute, Elizabeth City; University of North Carolina, A.B., 1905- 
1909. Attended Summer Law School of Wake Forest College, 1913. 
Lawyer. Taught in Central Military Academy, Littleton, one year; 
in New Bern High School two years; Principal of Swan Quarter 
Graded School two years. Mason; B. P. O. E. Baptist. Married 
Miss Bessie Wester, December, 1913. Address: Moyock, N. C. 



RUSSELL CHURCHWELL CROWELL. 

Russell Churchwell Crowell, Democrat, Representative from 
Buncombe County, was born in Acton, N. C, January 27, 1871. Son 
of Watson W. and Emma (Jones) Crowell. Educated at Sand Hill 
High School; and Weaver College, 1889. Farmer. President of the 
Western Carolina Fair Association, 1914. Tax Collector of Bun- 
combe County, 1907-1913. K. of P.; I. 0. O. F.: J. O. U. A. M. Meth- 
odist. Married, October, 1893, to Miss Charlotte Johnson. Five chil- 
dren. Address: Acton, N. C. 



SAMUEL T. CROWSON. 

Samuel T. Crovs^vSon, Democrat, Representative from Alexander 
County, was born at Morganton, in 1878. Son of H. H. and Emma 
(Cobb) Crowson. Attended Statesville High School. M.D., Univer- 
sity of Tennessee, 1904. Physician. Member North Carolina Med- 
ical Society; Iredell-Alexander Medical Society. City Alderman two 
terms. County Superintendent of Health for Alexander County for 
six years. J. O. U. A. M.; Mason; Woodman of the World. Metho- 
dist. Married Miss Pearl Deal. Two children. Address: Taylors- 
ville, N. C. 

GEORGE DENVER D.4TL. 

George Denver Dail. Democrat, Representative from Craven 
County, was born in New Bern, October 17, 1872. Son of George F. 



424 Biographical Sketches. 

M. and Amy J. (Exum) Dail. Educated in New Bern private 
schools and New Bern Graded Schools, and Sadler, Bryant and 
Stratton Business College, 1891-1892. Farmer. Member of New 
Bern Chamber of Commerce. B. P. O. E. Address: New Bern, 
N. C. 



JOHN CALVIN DANIEL. 

John Calvin Daniel, Democrat, Representative from Greene 
County, was born in Wilson County, November 23, 1871. Son of 
George Thomas and Mary Eliza (Woodard) Daniel. Attended Wil- 
son Collegiate Institute, 1879-1881; Williamston Academy, 1886-1887. 
Farmer. Primitive Baptist. Married, first to Miss Mary Ellen 
Field; second, to Miss Annie V. Scarborough. Seven children. Ad- 
dress: Walstonburg, N. C. 



CARTER DALTON. 

Caeter Dalton, Democrat, Representative from Guilford County, 
was born in Greensboro, November 9, 1884. Son of Robert Frank 
and Caroline Blackwell (Sparrow) Dalton. Preparatory education 
received in Greensboro public schools. Ph.B., The University of North 
Carolina, 1906. University of North Carolina Summer Law School, 
1906 and 1908. Harvard Law School, 1906-1909; LL.B., 1909. Law- 
yer. Member of North Carolina Bar Association. American Bar 
Association. Harvard Law School Association. High Point Com- 
mercial Club. Director Commercial Club of High Point, 1916-1917. 
Judge Municipal Court of High Point, 1915-1916. Beta Theta Pi (col- 
lege) Fraternity; Mason; B. P. O. E.; J. O. U. A. M.; W. O. W.; K. 
of P. Presbyterian. Married, October, 1913, to Miss Mary Drew Land. 
Two children. Address: High Point, N. C. 



SAMUEL GARLAND DANIEL. 

Samuel Garland Daniel, Democrat, Representative from Warren 
County, was born in Brinkleyville, Halifax County, October 16, 1861. 
Son of Joseph John and Margaret E. (Neville) Daniel. Educated 



Representatives in General Assembly. 425 

at Wake Forest College and Trinity College, (A.B., 1883). Studied 
law under R. O. Burton, Halifax, N. C, and Dick and Dillard, 
Greensboro, N. C. Lawyer. Attorney for Warren County, and 
town of Littleton, N. C. Member of North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion. Represented Warren County in Legislature in 1901, 1903, 
1905. Member of Executive Committee of Central Hospital, 1910- 
1915. Mayor of Littleton. Director of Central Hospital. Mason; 
Odd Fellow. Methodist. Married Miss Lizzie Bost, October, 1895. 
Three children. Address: Littleton, N. C. 



JOHN H. DARDEN. 

John H. D.vrden, Democrat, Representative from Halifax County, 
was born February 21, 1850, in Washington County. Son of John 
J. and Hester (Everett) Darden. Attended common schools, 18C1- 
1865. Moved from Washington County to Halifax County in 1871. 
Justice of the Peace since 1885. Member of House of Representatives 
in 1915. A. F. and A. M. Episcopalian. Married Miss IMollie E. 
Pittman. Two children, one living. Address: Spring Hill, N. C. 



ISAAC PETER DAVIS. 

Isaac Peter Davis, Democrat, Representative from Dare County, 
was born in Wanchese, N. C, August 16, 1888. Son of Banister H. 
J. and Beatrice B. (Gallop) Davis. Preparatory education received 
in Wanchese High School (private). Attended University of North 
Carolina in class of 1910. Editor. Treasurer Summer School, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 1912. Secretary and treasurer Business 
Men's Association, Milton, N. C, 1912-1913. Founder Milton News, 
1912; editor and manager, 1912-1913. City editor Fredericksburg 
(Va.) Journal, 1914-1915. Business manager Hopewell Dail!/ Pre,<is, 
1916. A. P. and A. M.: B. P. 0. E.; J. O. U A. M. Methodist. Taught 
school five years. Address: Wanchese, N. C. 



WILLIAM ARCHIE DEES. 

WiLiLiam Archie Dees. Democrat, Representative from Wayne 
County, was born in Wayne County. Son of Charles Franklin and 



426 BioGKAPHicAX Skktciies. 

Lillie Ann (Smith) Dees. Attended Fremont High School, 1904; 
Buies Creek Academy, 1905-1907. A. 'B., University of North Carolina, 
1911. Lawyer. A. F. and A. M. Address: Goldsboro, N. C. 



RUFUS A. DOUGHTON. 

RuFiTs A. DouGHTOx. Democrat. Representative from Alleghany 
County, was born in that county, January 10, 1857. Son of J. Hor- 
ton and Rebecca (Jones) Doughton. Educated at Independence 
(Va.) High School, 1876-1877; University of North Carolina. 
Studied law at University of North Carolina, 1880. Lawyer, farmer 
and banker. President of Bank of Sparta. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1887, 1889, 1891, 1909, 1911. 1913, 1915. Lieuten- 
ant Governor, 1893-1897. Speaker of the House, 1891. Mason. Meth- 
odist. Married. January 3, 1883, Miss Sue B. Parks. Two children. 
Address: Sparta, N. C. 



JAMES TURNER FARISH. 

James Turner Farish. Democrat, Representative from Forsyth 
County, was born in Caswell County, February 8, 1868. Son of 
Thomas W. and Cornelia T. (Harris) Farish. Attended high 
schools at Jonesboro, Pittsboro, Haywood and Leaksville. Broker. 
Director of Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada, 1911-1913. Presi- 
dent of Granby "P. Quebec" Board of Trade, 1910-1913. President of 
the Protective Association of Canada, since its organization, 1907. 
Private in Forsyth Riflemen, 1887-1890. Mason. In November, 1890, 
married Miss Lily Blanche Bitting. Three children. Address: Win- 
sfon-Salem, N. C. 



MILES WHITEHURST FEREBEE. 

Miles WHiTEiirRSX Ferebee, Democrat, Representative from Cam- 
den County, was born in that county. June 27, 1878. Son of Willis 
G. and Minnie (Whitehurst) Ferebee. Received his education in 
the public schools and in Bayboro Collegiate Institute. Farmer and 
automobile dealer. Register of Deeds of Camden County, 1910-1916. 
Mason; Odd Fellow. Married. November 1906, to Miss Florence 
Gregory. Address: Camden, N. C. 



Repkesextatives in General Assembly. 427 

GOLA PEARSON FERGUSON. 

GoLA Pearson Ferguson, Republican, Representative from Swain 
County, was born at Kirkland Creek, June 28, 1887. Son of David 
Philetus and Fannie Reagan (Noland) Ferguson.' Attended the 
public schools in Swain County, 1895-1902; Bryson City Graded 
School, 1902-1904; Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School, 1907- 
1911. Farmer and teacher. Represented Swain County in the Legis- 
lature of 1913. Odd Fellow. Married in 1911 to Miss Jerdie Lillian 
Watson. Two children. Address: Bryson City, N. C. 



MILES P. FLACK. 

Miles P. Flack, Democrat, Representative from McDowell County, 
was born in Rutherford County, July 13, 1882. Son of C. J. and 
Zernah (Nanny) Flack. Educated at Round Hill High School, 1900- 
1902; Wake Forest College. Farmer. County Commissioner, 1915- 
1916. W. 0. W.; Odd Fellow. Baptist. Married .lune, 1908, to Miss 
Hettle Upton. Three children. Address: Vein Mountain, N. C. 



THOMAS R. FORREST. 

Thomas R. Forrest. Democrat, Representative from Stanly County, 
was born in that county. Son of James D. and Katherine (Mann) 
Forrest. Educated in the Albemarle High School, 1894-1896. Farmer. 
Sheriff of Stanly County, 1911-1914. Mason; Royal Arcanum. Metho- 
dist. Married, January. 1899, to Miss Daskie E. Pennington. Five 
children. Address: Albemarle, N. C. 



JAMES CLEVELAND GALLOWAY. 

Jajies Cleveland Galloway. Democrat, Representative from Pitt 
County, was born January 9, 1885, at Grimesland. Son of John 
Bryant and Alice Lillian (Rives) Galloway. Attended Winterville 
High School, 1899-1903; University of North Carolina, 1904-1905. 
Farmer. Mason; Red Man. Farmers' Union. Methodist. Married 
Miss Lena Mae Johnson. Two children. Address: Grimesland, N. C. 



t 



428 BioGRAi'Hic^vL Sketches. 



GASTON ELLIS GARDNER. 



Gaston Ellis Gardjsier, Democrat, Representative from Yancey 
County, was born at Burnsville, March, 22, 1858. Son of William 
and Nancey (Anderson) Gardner. Attended Burnsville Academy, 
1878-1881; Judge A. C. Avery's Law School at Morganton, 1897-1898. 
Lawyer. Solicitor Criminal Court for Yancey County, 1899-1900. 
Democratic Elector, Ninth North Carolina District, 1908; Elector 
at Large for the State, 1912; Assistant District Attorney for Fourth 
Judicial Division of Alaska, at Fairbanks, appointed 1914, resigned 
1915. Was Democratic County Chairman for 16 years prior to 1912. 
Odd Fellow and Knight of Pythias. Methodist. Married Miss Mol- 
lie C. Williams in 1882. Two children living. Address: Burns- 
ville, N. C. 



HORACE V. GRANT. 

Horace V. Grant, Democrat, Representative from Onslow County, 
was born in that county, June 13, 1873. Son of Daniel L. and Caro- 
lina (Finer) Grant. Was educated in the public schools. Farmer. 
Justice of the Peace, 1900-1910. Representative in General Assembly, 
1915. Mason. Married Miss Pearl Mattocks. Five children. Ad- 
dress: Snead's Ferry, N. C. 



L. CLAYTON GRANT. 

L. Clayton Grant, Democrat, Representative from New Hanover 
, County. Lawyer. Address: Wilmington, N. C. 



GEORGE KENNETH GRANTHAM. 

George Kenneth Grantham, Democrat, Representative from Har- 
nett County, was bom in Smithfield. May 24, 1862. Son of Michael 
K. and Caroline Easter (Bridgers) Grantham. Educated at Davis 
and Turlington High School, 1884-1886, in Smithfield. Public School 
teacher, 1883-1886. Druggist. Member of the North Carolina 
Pharmaceutical Association, of which he has been President and 
Treasurer. Chairman County Board of Commissioners, 1908. Mayor 



Repeesentatives in General Assembly. 429 

of Dunn, 1913. I. 0. 0. F. Methodist. Editor of Central Times, 
1889-1891. Married, February 19, 1893, to Miss Florence Woodall. 
Three children. Address: Dunn, N. C. 



HARRY P. GRIER. 

Harry P. Grier, Democrat, Representative from Iredell County, 
was born in Yorlvville, S. C, March 20, 1871. Son of William L. and 
Mary (Barron) Grier. Received academic education in Statesville, 
N. C. Read law under Major Harvey Bingham, of Statesville, and 
was licensed by the Supreme Court of North Carolina at September 
Term, 1893. Lawyer. Chairman of County Board of Elections from 
the creation of this office until May, 1907, when he was elected Mayor 
of Statesville for a term of two years. Again elected Mayor of 
Statesville, May, 1909, without opposition. Representative in the 
Legislature, 1913 and 1915. Associate Reformed Presbyterian. Mar- 
ried Miss Marietta Leinster. Three children. Address: States- 
ville, N. C. 



E. JORDAN GRIFFIN. 

E. Jordan Griffin, Democrat, Representative from Chowan County, 
was born in Woodland, Northampton County. Son of Exum Over- 
man and Ann E. (Baugham) Griffin. Attended the public school 
one session; Woodland High School, 1880-1881; Westtown Boarding 
School; Friends School, Pa.; 1887-1888; Philadelphia Dental College, 
graduating in 1896. Dentist. Member of North Carolina Dental 
Society; Garelsonian Society, Pee Dee College; Farmers' Union; 
President of Edenton Board of Trade since 1913. President County 
Farmers' Union, 1914-1915; Delegate to Farmers' Union State Con- 
vention, 1913, 1914, 1916. County Business Agent, 1914-1915. Presi- 
dent Virginia-Carolina Peanut Growers' Association. Mayor of 
North Edenton, 1911-1913. Quaker. Married Miss Imogen Vernon 
Story, October, 1904. One child. Address: Edenton, N. C. 



RUFUS LAFAYETTE HAYMORE. 

RuFus LxVFAYETTE Haymore, Republican, Representative from 
Surry County, was born in that county in 1851. Lawyer. County 



430 Biographical Sketches. 

Commissioner, 1883. Mayor of Mount Airy, N. C, 1897. Representa- 
tive in the General Assembly of 1909, 1913; State Senator in 1911, 
1915. Baptist. Address: Mount Airy, N. C. 



DEMSEY L. HEWETT. 

Demsey L. Hewlett, Republican, Representative from Brunswick 
County, was born October 18, 1868, in Brunswick County, N. C. Son 
of Llewellyn and Sarah Carolina (Mintz) Hewett. Attended Wake 
Forest College, 1904. Preacher. Representative in the General As- 
sembly, 1915. Mason. Jr. O. U. A. M. W. O. W. Fanners' Union. 
Baptist. Married to Miss Mattie D. Mintz. Eight children. Ad- 
dress: Shallotte, N. C. 



THOMAS C. HICKS. 

Thomas C. Hicks. Republican, Representative from Avery County, 
was born in Carter County, Tennessee, January 18, 1876. Son of 
Gordon and Adelaide (Oaks) Hicks. Educated in Elk Park High 
School and Montezuma High School. Farmer. County Commissioner 
in 1910; Justice of the Peace, 1908. I. 0. O. F. J. 0. U. A. M. Free- 
will Baptist. Acting INlinister for eight years. Married in 1906 to 
Miss Laura Franklin. Four children. Address: Elk Park, N. C. 



CHARLES RICHARD HINTOX. 

Charles Richard Hixtox. Democrat, Representative from Gates 
County, was born at Sunbury, N. C, January 28, 1871. Son of John 
Robert and Mary Elizabeth (Hofler) Hinton. Attended Elon Col- 
lege, 1891-1893. Fanner. Mason. Member of Christian Church. 
Married Miss Alberta Elizabeth Snellings, October, 1901. Six chil- 
dren. Address: Gatesville, X. C. 



THOMAS ELFORD HOLDING. 

Thomas Elford Holding, Democrat, Representative from Wake 
Coujity, was boriit at Wake Forest, in June, 1866. Son of Willis and 
Nancy Catharine (Pace) Holding. A.B. of Wake Forest College, 



Representatives in Gexerajl Assembly. 431 

1888. Banker. Once Mayor of Wake Forest; Chairman of Wake 
Forest school board for two years; Cashier of Bank of Walie Forest; 
Secretary-Treasurer of Wake Forest Loan and Real Estate Com- 
pany; President of T. E. Holding Company, druggists; Director in 
Royal Cotton Mills, Wake Mercantile Company, C. Y. Holding and 
Company, Standard Cloth and Shoe Company. Mason. Baptist. 
Married in 1890 to Miss Minta Royal. Six children living. Ad- 
dress: Wake Forest, N. C. 



FRANK B. HOOKER. 

Frank B. Hooker, Democrat, Representative ffom Pamlico County, 
was born at Bayboro, April 19, 1856. Son of Henry H. and Hannah 
(Twiford) Hooker. Educated in public schools. Merchant. County 
Commissioner of Beaufort County four years. Represented Beau- 
fort County in Legislature, 1895, 1907, 1909: Assistant Enrolling 
Clerk, 1898; Journal Clerk in Engrossing Office of the House, 1911, 
1913, 1915; Clerk to Judiciary Committee, 1905. Mason. Methodist. 
Married, in 1874. to RIlss Emma J. Rives; 1912 to Mrs. Laura A. 
Dixon. Six children. Address: Oriental, N. C. 



J. D. HORNE. 



J. D. Horxe, Democrat, Representative from Anson County. Ad- 
dress: Wadesboro, N. C. 



SAMUEL RICHARD HOYLE. 

Sa:muel Richard Hoyle, Democrat, Representative from Lee 
County, was born at Thomasville, June, 30, 1886. Son of Rev. S. V. 
and Nannie Jordan (Phillips) Hoyle. Attended .Jonesboro High 
School, 1892-1904: University of North Carolina Law School, 1908- 
1909. Lawyer. Member of Sanford Commercial Club. Chairman 
of Board of Elections of Lee Countj', 1914-1915. Mason: Odd Fellow; 
J. O. U. A. M. Methodist. Address: Sanford, N. C. 



432 Biographical Sketches. 

■ BOLIVAR STEADMAN HURLEY. 

BoLivEB Steadman Hitrley, Deoaiocrat, Representative from Mont- 
gomery, was born in Troy, May 16, 1888. Son of Welburn L. and 
Rebecca (Hines) Hurley. Attended Trinity Park School, 1904-1907; 
Trinity College, 1908-1911; Trinity Law School; Wake Forest Sum- 
mer Law School. Lawyer. Mason; W. O. W.; Pi Kappa Alpha. 
Methodist. Address: Troy, N. C. 



BROWNLOW JACKSON. 

Brownlow Jackson, Republican, Representative from Henderson 
County, was born at Fruitland, N. C, August 14, 1874. Son of 
James and Jane Jackson. Attended Fruitland and Dewitt schools. 
Banker and Real Estate Agent. Postmaster Hendersonville. Presi- 
dent Peoples' National Bank of Hendersonville. Vice-president 
Citizens National Bank of Hendersonville. Postmaster eight years 
and City Alderman six years. Mason; Odd Fellow; K. of P.; W. O. 
W. Baptist; Deacon. Married, November, 1905, to Miss Gertrude 
Williams. Three children. Address: Hendersonville, N. C. 



KEMP P. JOHNSON. 

Kemp P. Jopinson, Democrat, Representative from Wake County, 
was born near Cardenas, July 17, 1863. Son of John Lewis and 
Mary J. (Jones) Johnson. Educated at Holly Springs and Apex 
high schools. Manufacturer. President Bank of Fuquay since its 
organization. Trustee of Elon College. Christian Church. Mem- 
ber of Home Mission Board of Eastern North Carolina Conference. 
Member of Mission Board of Southern Christian Convention. Mar- 
ried in 1894 to Miss Alice Utley. Five children. Address: Car- 
denas, N. C. 



WILLIAM HENRY JOYNER. 

WiixiAM Henry Joyner, Democrat, Representative from North- 
ampton County was born in Enfield, September 16, 1867. Son of 
Henry and Ann E. (Pope) Joyner. Attended Fetters and Horners 



Representatives in Geneijal Assembly. 433 

School, 1881-1882'; Horners, 1883 and 1886. Farmer and merchant. 
President Farmers' Mutual Telephone Company of Garysburg, 1910- 
1916. Tax Collector, 1891 and 1892. Sheriff, 1900-1906. Chairman 
of Democratic Party, 1902-1916. Mayor Garysburg. 1912-1916. Mar- 
ried, September 11, 1901, to Miss Mary Annie Suiter. Address: 
Garysburg, N. C. 



ROBERT THOMAS KERNODLE. 

Robert Thomas Kernodle, Republican, Representative from Ala- 
mance County, was born in that county, June 28, 1855. Son of 
Josiah and Isabella Jane (Cummings) Kernodle. Educated in 
public schools. Farmer. Tobacconist, 1900-1904, 1912-1914. County 
-Business Agent for Alamance County Farmers' Alliance, 1890-1894; 
also agent for Sub-Alliance for several years; represented Alamance 
County in the State Alliance for a number of years. Sheriff of Ala- 
mance County, 1894-1898 and 1904-1908. Member of Chris- 
tian Church. Married Miss Martha E. Graham in 1876; Mrs. Nan- 
nie Graham Tabscott in 1914. Four children. Address: Burling- 
ton, N. C, R. F. D. 2. 



JOHN YATES KILLIAN. 

John Yates Killian, Republican, Representative from Catawba 
County, was born October 5, 1875. Son of William L. and Eva 
(Baker) Killian. Educated at Lenoir College, Hickory, N. C, A.B., 
1908. Valedictorian of the class. Nurseryman. Member of South- 
ern Nurserymen's Association. County Surveyor at twenty-one years 
of age. Representative in the General Assembly, 1909-1915. Super- 
visor of Census of the Ninth Congressional District, 1910. Mason. 
Baptist. ]\Iarried in 1910. One child. Address: Newton, N. C. 



GRAY RICHMOND KING. 

Gray Richmond King, Democrat, Representative from Nash 
County, was born at Belford. near Castalia, Nash County, May 18, 
1871. Son of William J. and Pattie S. (Sills) King. Prepared for 

28 



434 Biographical Sketches. 

college at Cedar Rock Academy, 1888-1889. A.B. of Wake Forest Col- 
lege, 1897. Valedictorian of his class. President and manager of 
the King Cooperative Company. Taught in the Rockingham Acad- 
emy, 1897-1900. Principal and Superintendent of Wilson City 
Schools, 1900-1907. Taught in Raleigh, 1907-1909. President of the 
Farmers Union of Nash County, 1910-1912. Representative from 
Nash in the General Assembly, 1915. Methodist. Address: Nash- 
ville, N. C. 



EDWIN KISER. 

Edwin Kisek, Republican, Representative from Stokes County, was 
born in that county, November 19, 1868. Son of James M. and Re- 
becca (Tuttle) Kiser. Attended Dalton Institute in 1887, 1888, and 
1889. Farmer. Treasurer of Stokes County, 1897 and 1898. Taught" 
in free schools for nine years. Member of Church of Christ. Mar- 
ried, September, 1893. to Miss Amy Florence Butner. Four children. 
Address: King, N. C. 



ROBERT G. KITTRELL. 

Robert Gillia.m Kittrell. Democrat, Representative from Vance 
County, was born in Vance County. Son of Geo. Wm. and Lucy 
(Crudup) Kittrell. Attended local private and public schools, and 
Hertford (N. C.) Academy. Ph.B. University of North Carolina, 
1899. Lawyer. Principal of academies at Windsor and Edenton; 
instructor Bingham School; Superintendent Public Schools of Ox- 
ford, N. C; Superintendent of Public Instruction of Granville 
County; Superintendent Public Instruction of Edgecombe County; 
Superintendent City Schools, Tarboro, N. C. Representative from 
Vance County in the General Assembly of 1915. Royal Arch Mason; 
I. O. 0. F.; .T. O. U. A. M. Address: Henderson, N. C. 



EDGAR LOVE. 

Edgar Love. Democrat, Representative from Lincoln County, was 
born in Gaston County, March 19, 1869. Son of R. C. G. and Susan 
(Rhyne) Love. Educated at Kings Mountain High School, 1881- 



Repkesextative.s in Genkkal Assembly. 435 

1883; Gastonia High School, 1883-1885; Catawba College, 1885; and 
University of North Carolina. Cotton Manufacturer. Alderman of 
Gastonia, 1897; Alderman of Lincolnton, 1903-1905; Mayor of Lin- 
colnton 1907-1909, 1915-1916. Chairman Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, Lincoln County, 1913. Member State Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1911. Knights of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married Miss 
Katie McLean in 1890. Pour children. Address: Lincolnton, N. C. 



LUECO LLOYD. 

LuEco Lloyd, Republican, Representative from Orange County, was 
born at Chapel Hill. Son of William R. and Harriett (Cutes) 
Lloyd. Farmer. Member of Chapel Hill Board of Trade. A. F. 
and A. M.; J. O. U. A. M. Farmers' Union. Baptist. Married in 
1883 to Miss Ella Phipps. Ten children. Address: Chapel Hill, 
N. C. 



JOHN CALHOUN McBEE. 

John Calhoun McBee, Republican, Representative from Mitchell 
County, was born at Mica in Mitchell County, August 19, 1876. Son 
of James A. and Rachel (Mace) McBee. LL.B., Wake Forest College, 
1911. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association. Mayor of 
Bakersville, 1912-1916. Private Co. B. 16th U. S. Infantry, 1899-1902. 
Served in army of Philippine Islands two and a half years during 
Philippine Insurrection; and seven years in Civil Service, Depart- 
ment of Education, Insular Government. Mason; Knight Templar; 
I. O. O. F.; J. 0. U. A. M. Baptist. Married Miss Margaret Thomas, 
July, 1904. Three children. Address: Bakersville, N. C. 



J. HERBERT McCALL. 

J. Herbert McCall. Republican, Representative from Cherokee, 
was born at North Cove, McDowell County. September 27, 1876. 
Son of William and Katie (Conley) McCall. Attended Greenlee 
Academy, 1895; Marion Academy, 1896; B.S., Young Harris College, 
Georgia, 1905-1907; Law School University of North Carolina, 1909. 



i36 Biographical Sketches. 

Lawyer. Member of Murphy Bar Association. Mason. Presbyte- 
rian. Married Miss Ettie M. Hunt, December, 1907. Address: Mur- 
phy, N. C. 



LENNOX POLK McLENDON. 

Lennox Polk McLendon. Democrat, Representative from Durham 
County, was born in Wadesboro, February 12, 1890. Son of Walter 
Jones and Sarah J. (Polk) McLendon. Academic education was 
received in Pee Dee Baptist Institute, Wadesboro, 1900-1905. B.S., 
North Carolina A. and M. College, 1910. B.L., University of North 
Carolina, 1912. Lawyer. Mayor of Chapel Hill, 1912-1913 Second 
Lieutenant National Guard, 1914-1916; promoted to First Lieuten- 
ancy, 1916. Mason: W. 0. W\; Baptist. Address: Durham, X. C. 



DONALD MacCRACKAN. 

Donald MacCrackan. Democrat, Representative from Columbus 
County, was born in that county, in 1866. Educated at Wake Forest 
College. Studied law at Greensboro under Judges Robert P. Dick 
and John H. Dillard. Lawyer. Representative in the General As- 
sembly, 1907; State Senator, 1915. Married Miss Ada McKeithan. 
Address: Whiteville, N. C. 



JOHN RAYMOND McRARY. 

John Ray.aioxd McRaky, Republican, Representative from David- 
son County, was born at Lexington, April 23, 1871. Son of John W. 
and Drusilla (Leonard) McRary. Received his preparatory educa- 
tion at Southern Normal School. Lexington, 1884-1887. A.B. Trinity 
College, 1891; A.M., University of Michigan, 1892; studied law at 
the University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Member North Caro- 
lina Bar Association. Historian of Daniel Boone Memorial Asso- 
ciation. Member of House of Representatives, 1897. Alderman of 
Lexington. 1910-1914. Referee in Bankruptcy, 1898-1905. Progres- 
sive candidate for Attorney General, 1912. Honorary Member of 



Representatives in Gh.nkhal Assembly. 437 

K. of P. Methodist. Author of "Sketch of Daniel Boone." Mar- 
ried in 1905 to Miss Mary Tatum. Three children. Address: Le.x- 
ington, N. C. 



WILLIAM LAFAYETTE MATHESON. 

WiLLiAir Lafayette Mathesox. Democrat, Representative from 
Iredell County, was born in Taylorsville, April 2, 1873. Son of W. 
B. and Mary (Ayers) Matheson. Educated at Taylorsville public 
schools and Smith Business College, Lexington, Ky. Farmer. Sec- 
retary-Treasurer of Statesville Oil Mill. Vice-president of Peoples 
Loan and Savings Bank of Statesville. County Commissioner for 
four years. Presbyterian. Married in January. 1900, to Miss Fairy 
Hurd. Address: Mooresville, N. C. 



JOHN HILARY MATTHEWS. 

John Hilary Matthews, Democrat, Representative from Bertie 
County, was born in Hertford County, November 2, 1873. Son of 
George M. and Lavenia C. (Taylor) Matthews. Attended Littleton 
Male Academy, 1891; Scotland Neck Military Academy, 1892; Bryant 
and Stratton Business College. Baltimore, 1894; University of North 
Carolina Law School, 1904. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar 
Association. Trustee Chowan College and Chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Board. Trustee of Windsor Graded School. 
Mayor of Colerain three years. Justice of the Peace. Mason. Bap- 
tist. Married, February 20, 1895, to Miss Minnie Watford. Five 
children. Address: Windsor, N. C. 



WILLIAM ROBERT MATTHEWS. 

William Robert Matthews. Democrat, Representative from ;\leck- 
lenburg County, was born in Rockingham County, November 30. 
1857. Son of J. T. and Ruth F. (Price) Matthews. Attended Oak 
Ridge Institute, 1878-1879. Real Estate Dealer. Alderman and 
School Commissioner in Charlotte, 1911-1912, 1915-191(i. W. O. W.; 
J. O. U. A. M. Married Miss Sallie E. Melton, :\Iay 23. 1888. Eight 
children. Address: Charlotte. N. C. 



438 BUKiHAIMlU Al. Skfti'chks. 

WILLIAM ANDREW MAUNEY. 

AVi].L]AM AxDHKW Mau.ney, Democrat, Representative from Cleve- 
land County, was born in that county December 18, 1841. Son of 
David and Fanny (Carpenter) Mauney. Attended common schools, 
1848-1858. Manufacturer, merchant and banker. Deputy Sheriff in 
1872, Mayor of Kings Mountain several terms. State Senator, 1907. 
Served in Confederate Army from July, 1861. to May, 1865; Commis- 
sary of the 28th N. C. Regiment. President of several Cotton Mills; 
Secretary-Treasurer of three. President of First National Bank of 
Kings Mountain and Vice-president of the First National Bank of 
Cherryville. Lutheran. Married in 1868 to Miss Susan Ramsaur; 
in 1886 to Miss Carrie Hoke; and in 1894 to Miss Candace Miller. 
Five children. Address: Kings Mountain, N. C. 



R. M. MOORE. 

R. M. MooRE. Diemocrat, Representative from Nash County, was 
born near Whitakers, August 1, 1867. Son of Moses and Esther 
(Peele) Moore. Attended Horner Military School, 1885; Davis Mili- 
tary School, 1886-1887. FaiTner. Episcopalian. Married, Novem- 
ber, 1893, to Miss Pattie Braswell. Six children. Address: Whita- 
kers. N. C. 



WILLIAM FOWLER MORGAN. 

WiLiJAM Fowler Morgax. Democrat, Representative from Perqui- 
mans County, was born in that county, August 9, 1885. Son of 
Thomas C. and Addie (Speight) Morgan. Farmer. Member of 
North Carolina National Guards, 1909-1912; enlisted as private, dis- 
charged as 1st Quartermaster. Member of Farmers' Educational 
and Cooperative Union of America. J. 0. U. A. M.; Member of 
State Council held at Durham, 1914. Baptist. Married, October, 
1907, to Miss Neva Clyde Osborne. Four children. Address: Win- 
fall, N. C. 



WALTER MURPHY. 

Walter Murphy, Democrat, Representative from Rowan County. 
(See page 416.) 



Repkesextatives IX General Assembly. 439 

SPEARMAN AT WOOD NEWELL. 

Spearman Atwood Newell, Democrat, Representative from Frank- 
lin County, was born in that \;oiinty September 6, 1879. Son of 
George W. and Sarah Elizabeth (Coppedge) Newell. Preparatory 
education was received in public schools, 1887-189G; Mapleville Acad- 
emy, 1896-1899. A.B. of Wake Forest College, 1903. Attended 
Wake Forest Law School, 1902-1903. Lawyer. Secretary Louisburg 
Chamber of Commerce. Attorney for Williamston, N. C, 1911-1913. 
A. F. and A. M. Baptist. Married, July, 1907, to Miss Nelle Vernon 
Simpson. Two children. Address: Louisburg, N. C. 



DAVID RUSSELL NOLAND. 

David Russell Noland Democrat, Representative from Haywood 
County, was born at Fines Creek, N. C, 1866. Son of James Hardy 
and Sarah (Owen) Noland. Attended Waynesville High School, and 
Weaverville College, 1889-1892. Farmer. First agricultural prize 
at County Fair, Western North Carolina Fair, and first county prize 
at State Fair. County Democratic Chairman, 1910 Sheriff of Hay- 
wood County, 1903-1905 and 1905-1907. Representative in General 
Assembly, 1913, 1915. Member Knights of Pythias. :\rethodist. 
Married in 1893 to Miss Etta Reeves. One child. Address: Crab- 
tree. N. C, R. F. D., No. 1. 



JAMES SHEPARD OLIVER. 

James Shepard Oliver. Democrat, Representative from Robeson 
County, was born in Marietta, N. C, August 6, 1855. Son of Wil- 
liam G. and Sybil (Page) Oliver. Attended Olivet School near 
Marietta, 1864-1874; Trinity College, 1876-1878. Fanner and mer- 
chant. County Commissioner of Robeson County, 1889-1890; Repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly, 1891, 1893, 1899, 1901. Methodist. 
Married Miss Annie McDufRe, April 19, 1882. Seven children. Ad- 
dress: Marietta, N. C. 



440 BioGUAj'HK Ai. Sketches. 



HENRY ALLISON PAGE. 



H.ENKY Ai.Msox Page. Democcrat, Representative from Moore 
County, was born at Gary, N. G., May 12, 1862. Son of Allison Fran- 
cis and Catherine Frances (Raboteau) Page. Received academic 
education in Gary, 1870-1878. Farmer. Representative in the Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1913, 1915. Methodist. Delegate to last two General 
Conferences, Birmingham (1906) and Asheville (1910). Married 
Miss Eva L. Pleasants, November 4, 1885. Six children. Address: 
Aberdeen, N. C. 



JOHN CAMPBELL PASS. 

JoHX Campbell Pass, Republican, Representative from Person 
County, was born in that county, June 1, 1852. Son of James M. and 
Harriet (Chambers) Pass. Farmer. Clerk Superior Court, 1882- 
1890. Treasurer of County, 1894-1898. Married Miss Ella Winstead. 
Address: Roxboro, N. C. 



JOHN HENRY PEARSON. 

.JoH.v Henky Pearson, Democrat, Representative from Burke 
County, was born at Morganton, August 24, 1852. Son of Robert 
Caldwell and Jane S. (Tate) Pearson. Educated in the public 
schools of Morganton up to 1868. Conductor on W. N. C. R. R. for 
five years. Mayor of IMorganton in 1894. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1897. Appointed Railroad Commissioner under 
the Russell Administration. Chairman Board of Trustees Morgan- 
ten High School for eight years. City Alderman for several terms. 
Episcopalian. Married in 1879 to Miss Florence Walton. Eight chil- 
dren. Address: Morganton, N. C. 



JOHN EDWARD PEGRAM. 

John Edwaud Pegram, Democrat, Representative from Durham 
County, was born at Trinity, Randolph County, N. C. Son of Wil- 
liam H. and Emma (Craven) Pegram. A.B. of Trinity College. 
Lawyer. Member of the North Carolina Bar Association; County 



Repkesea-tatives in General AssEiiBLY. 441 

Board of Elections, 1911-1912; Durham County Democratic Execu- 
tive Committee; Executive Committee of Trinity College Alumni 
Association. Secretary of the North Carolina Anti-Saloon League, 
1907. Representative in the General Assembly, 1915. Member of 
Kappa Sigma (college) Fraternity; Masonic Lodge; Knights of 
Pythias; J. O. U. A. M.; B. P. O. B. Secretary of the Durham 
Country Club. Methodist. Address: Durham, N. C. 



EDGAR WALKER PHARR. 

Edgar Walkek Pharr, Democrat, Representative from IMecklen- 
burg County, was born near Charlotte, March 4, 1889. Son of 
Walter S. and Jennie E. (Walkei) Pharr. Attended rural public 
schools until 1905; Charlotte University School, 1905-1906; A.B. 
Erskine College, Due West, S. C, 1909. Studied law at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. Lawyer. Member of Charlotte Bar Associa- 
tion. W. O. W.; Knights of Pythias: Mason. Associate Reformed 
Presbyterian. Married in 1914 to Alta Ruth Knox. One child. 
Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



OSCAR HUGH PHILLIPS. 

Oscar Hx'gii Piiillu's, Democrat, Representative from Rowan 
County, was born at Salisbury, N. C. Son of Paul M. and Lucy 
(Barringer) Phillips. Preparatory education was received at Cres- 
cent Academy, 1907-1909; Trinity Park School, 1910. Attended 
Trinity College, 1911-1912. Farmer. Member of Farmers' Educa- 
tional and Cooperative Union of America. President of Rowan 
County Division, 1915 and 1916. Mason. Methodist. Address: 
Salisbury, N. C. 



JAMES F. PICKETT. 

James F. Pkkktt, Republican, Representative from Randolph 
County, was born in Chatham County, October 3, 1854. Son of 
James P. M. and Angeline (Brewer) Pickett. Educated at Oak 
Spring Academy. Banker and real estate dealer. President of 
Liberty Development Association. Vice-president of the Bank of 



442 Biographical Sketches. 

Liberty since its organization in 1903. Methodist. Married in 1885 
to Miss Martha J. Wrightsell. Five children living. Address: 
Liberty, N. C. 



JOSEPH MILTON PREVETTE. 

Joseph Milton Pkevette, Republican, Representative from Wilkes 
County, was born at Wilkesboro, March, 1888. Son of John G. and 
Sarah Jane (McNeill) Prevette. Attended Wilkes High School; 
Wake Forest College. A.B., 1909, B.L., 1910. Lawyer. Member of 
Wilkesboro Bar Association. Town Commissioner of Wilkesboro, 
191,4. Mason. Baptist. Married in 1912 to Miss Lizzie A. Gill. 
One child. Address: Wilkesboro N. C. 



JAMES MADISON PRICE. 

James Madison Pkice, Democrat, Representative from Rocking- 
ham County, was born in Ridgeway, Va. Son of John P. and 
Mary E. (Hampton) Price. Attended public and high schools near 
Ridgeway, Va., from 1860-1867; Bryant and Stratton Commercial 
School, Baltimore, Md., 1869. Farmer. Postmaster of Leaksville, 
1893-1897; Justice of the Peace, 1916; Tax Assessor for Leaksville 
Township for last four years. A. F. and A. ]\I. Member of the 
Church of the Disciples of Christ. Married September. 1871, to 
Miss Mary Lyle Field. Six children. Address: Leaksville, N. C. 



JAMES NEWTON PRICE. 

James Nkwtox Price, Democrat, Representative from Union 
County, was born in Union County, September 26, 1866. Son of 
Andrew Joseph and Emily (Howey) Price. Received his prepara- 
tory education in the public schools from 1872 to 1880 and ^Monroe 
High School, 1880-1882. Attended Rutherford College in 1884 and in 
1887. Farmer and merchant. Justice of the Peace for Union County 
for about twenty years. Member of Township Road Commission. 
Member of County Board of Education. Represented Union County 



Representatives in Genekai. Assejihly. 44o 

in Legislature, 1897, and 1907. W. 0. W. Presbyterian. Married, 

July 4, 1888, to Miss Nancy C. Wincliester. Nine children. Address: 
Monroe, N. C, R. F. D. 5. 



GEORGE M. PRITCHARD. 

George M. Pritchard, Republican. Representative I'rom Madison 
County. Address: Marshall, N. C. '"■ 



JOHN FRONEBERGER PUETT. 

John Fronebergeir Pvett, Democrat, Representative from Gaston 
County, was born in Dallas, N. C, April 28, 1883. Son of John Col- 
lier and May Elizabeth (Froneberger) Puett. Received his pre- 
paratory education in the public schools of Dallas. Attended Gas- 
ton College. Farmer. Town Alderman, 1911-1913. Methodist. Mar- 
ried in December. 1916, to Miss Sallie Young Coppedge. Address: 
Dallas, N. C. 



ANDREW J. RANKIN. 

Andrew J. Rankin, Democrat, Representative from Gaston County, 
was born in Belmont, N. C, January 21, 1859. Son of William Rufus 
and Sarah E. (Stowe) Rankin. Educated in the public schools. 
Merchant and farmer. Member of the Greater Gaston County Asso- 
ciation. Methodist. Married Miss Emily A. Smith in December, 
1883. Three children. Address: Belmont, N. C. 



ARCHIBALD CORNELIUS RAY. 

ARciuiiALD Cornelius Ray, Democrat, Representative from Chat- 
ham County, was born at Jackson Springs, N. C, in January, 1868. 
Son of John and Nancy (Brown) Ray. Graduate of Wake Poorest 
Law School, 1912. Lawyer. Presbyterian. Married in 1899 to Miss 
Ida Cooper Cole. Seven children. Address: Pittsboro, N. C. 



■144 BioGRAPHUAi. Skh;tches. 



J. FRANK RAY. 



J. Fka.nk Ray, Democrat, Representative from Macon County, was 
born in Macon County, N. C. in 1856. Son of John and Nancy (Sum- 
ner) Ray. Educated in free schools of the county and at Franklin 
Academy. Lawyer. Representative in General Assembly, 1881, 1883, 
1891, 1893, 1895, 1897, 1899, 1911. and 1913. In the session of 1895 he 
was nominated for Speaker by the Democratic minority of the House 
and was defeated by the Fusionists by a very small vote. State 
Senator. 1897. Trustee of North Carolina A. and M. College many 
years. Baptist in principle. Married in 1889 Miss Josephine Fouts. 
Five children. Address: Franklin, N. C. 



THOMAS JEFFERSON RENFROW. 

Thomas Jeffersox Renfrow, Democrat, Representative from Meck- 
lenburg County, was born in Davidson County in 1849. Son of Wil- 
liam and Catharine (Greer) Renfrow. Educated in the common 
schools of Davidson and Guilford counties. Merchant and farmer. 
Chairman Board of Trustees Matthews State High School. Director 
of the Bank of Matthews. Member of State Prison Board, 1909-1913. 
Baptist. Married in 1870 to Miss Mary A. Kirkman. Eight children. 
Address: Matthews, N. C. 



GALLATIN ROBERTS. 

Gallatix Roberts, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe 
County, was born at Flat Creek, N. C, October 26, 1878. Son of J. R. 
and Mary Elizabeth (Buckner) Roberts. Educated at Weaverville 
College, 1895-1896; Washington College, Tenn., 1897; King College, 
Tenn., 1898-1899. Annual debater at King College, 1898-1899; Wake 
Forest College Law Department, 1902-1903. Lawyer. Member N. C. 
Bar Association. County Attorney, Buncombe County, 1911-1912. 
Representative in the General Assembly. 1911, 1913, 1915. I. 0. O. F. 
Presbyterian. Married, January 19. 1907, Miss Mary Altha Sams. 
Two children. Taught school six years before practicing law. Ad- 
dress: Asheville N. C. 



Representatives ix General Assembly. 445 

JESSE L. ROBERTS. 

Jesse L. Roberts, Democrat, Representative from Rockingham 
County, was born in Wentworth, May 25, 1888. Son of Tony J. and 
Mary (Williams) Roberts. Attended Sharpe Institute, 1906-1907; 
Reidsville Seminary, 1908-1910; University of North Carolina, 1911- 
1914. Lawyer. Representative in the General Assembly, 1915. Ad- 
dress: Reidsville, N. C. 



NELSON NEWTON ROGERS. 

Nelson Newton Rogers, Democrat, Representative from Clay 
County, was born at Shooting Creek, Clay County, N. C. Son of 
Archibald and Sarah (Jones) Rogers. Educated in the public 
schools. Farmer. Mason. Methodist. Married, October, 1878, to 
Miss Hassle Kitchens. Nine children. Address: Shooting Creek, 
N. C. 



NATHANIEL HANCOCK RUSSELL. 

Nathaniel Hancock Russell, Republican, Representative from 
Carteret County, was born at Swansboro, N. C, May 1, 1875. Son 
of Daniel Wright and Margaret Ann (Duffey) Russell. Attended 
country schools and Cronly High School. Locomotive Engineer; 
member of B. of L. E.; Mason. Methodist. Married, June, 1916, 
to IMiss Maude Lyttleton Frasier. Address: Beaufort, N. C. 



RUFUS SANDERS. 

RuFus Sanders, Democrat, Representative from Johnston County, 
was born in that county, February 1, 1853. Son of John F. and 
Martha E. (Edmondson) Sanders. Educated in common schools 
and, at Cedar Grove Academy in Orange County. Director of 
Johnston County Bank and Trust Company Smithfield, N. C. Mem- 
ber of State Legislature, 1895. Married Miss Mary E. Snead, 1896; 
Miss Celestie G. Smith, 1912. Three children. Address: Four Oaks. 
N. C. 



446 Biographical Sketches. 



P. M. SAWYER. 



P. M. Sawyer, Democrat, Representative from Graham County, 
was born in Brock, N. C, September 12', 1884. Attended Mars Hill 
College and Draughon's Business College. Bookkeeper. A. F. and 
A. M.; I. O. O. F. Baptist. Married, June, 1905 to Miss Edna O. 
Garland. Two children. Address: Robbinsville, N. C. 



EUGENE S SCOTT. 

Eugene S. Scott, Democrat Representative from Pasquotank 
County, Address: Elizabeth City, N. C. 



JACOB B. SCOTT. 

Jacob B. Scott, Democrat, Representative from Pender County, 
was born November 18, 1861, in Pender County, N. C. Son of John 
and Barbara J. (George) Scott. Farmer. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1915. Married Miss Hattie Wheeler. Nine 
children. Address: Rocky Point, N. C, R. F. D., No. 2. 



GILBERT BETHEA SELLERS. 

Gilbert Bi:thea Selleks, Democrat, Representative from Robe- 
son County, was born near Maxton, June 4, 1864. Son of William 
A. and Julia (Bethea) Sellers. Educated in Maxton public schools, 
1875-1878; Oak Ridge Institute, 1887. Farmer and miller. Mem- 
ber Farm Loan Association. President of Bank of Robeson. Chair- 
man Drainage Commission since organization in 1911. Town Com- 
missioner of Maxton for several terms. Chairman Water Company 
of Maxton, 1915-1916. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1915. Captain Maxton Co., State Guards, 1898-1899. K. of P, Pres- 
byterian. Married in December. 1895, to Miss Flora McKay. One 
child. Address: Maxton, N. C. 



Representatives in* Gexerai. Assembly. 447 

ALEXANDER EDWIN SHAW. 

AiEXANDEai Edwin Shaw, Democrat, Representative from Scot- 
land County, was born in that county, July 16, 1862. Son of Daniel 
and Mary Eliza (Purcell) Shaw. Educated at Spring Hill Academy. 
Farmer. Justice of the Peace since 1886. Presbyterian. Married 
first to Miss Helen Russell, 1886; second to Miss Addie Elizabeth 
Rone, 1912. Three children. Address: Laurinburg, N. C. 



PETER M. SOMERS. 

Petkk M. Someks, Democrat, Representative from Caswell County, 
was born in July, 1859. Son of Boston and Elizabeth (Hicks) 
Somers. Farmer. For eight years County Commissioner of Cas- 
well; chairman, 1913-1914. Represented Caswell County in the 
General Assembly of 1915. J. O. U. A. M. Baptist. Married Miss 
Ora Bell DeShong. Two children. Altamahaw, N. C, R. F. D. 2. 



JAMES BAXTER STIMPSON. 

James B.\xtei; Sttmpsox, Democrat, Representative from Yadkin 
County, was born in Forsyth County, August 27, 1868. Son of 
Thomas Baxter and Nancy Elizabeth (Matthews) Stimpson. At- 
tended public school, 1876-1885. Farmer ad merchant. J. 0. U. 
A. M. Methodist. Married November 30, 1891, to Miss Martha 
Elizabeth Poindexter. Three children living. Address. Siloam, 
X. C. 



HARRY W. STUBBS. 

Harry W. Stubhs, Democrat, Representative from Martin County, 
was born in Williamston, N. C, February 16, 1860. Received his 
education at Horner Military School and in Washington, N. C. 
Lawyer. State Senator in 1889, 1905, 1907, 1913, 1915; Representa- 
tive from Martin County in 1899. 1901, 1903, 1909. 1911, 1917. Ad- 
dress: Williamston, N. C. 



"^48 BlOGRAPHKAI. SkKTCHES. 

E. GARLAND SUTTLEMYRE. 

E. Garland Sutti.emyre, Democrat, Representative from Cald- 
well County, was born in July, lb78. Son of Phillip and Frances 
(Deal) Suttlemyre. Preparatory education was received at Gran 
ite Falls High School. A.B. of Lenoir College, 1898. Farmer. 
Principal of Wilkesboro High School 1904-1910. County Commis- 
sioner of Caldwell County, 1914-1916. Member of Farmers' Union. 
Lutheran. Married in 1910 to Miss Julia Miller. Two children. 
Address: Granite Falls, N. C. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON SUTTON. 

George Washington Sutton. Republican, Representative from 
Jackson County, was born in Jackson County, October 27, 1880. 
Son of Mitchell and Mary (Merser) Sutton. Educated at Cullo- 
whee Normal and Industrial School, 1901-1903; University of North 
Carolina, 1904. Teacher, 1904-1906. Took law course at Wake Forest 
Summer School, 1909. Lawyer. Mayor of the town of Sylva, 1914- 
1916. Postmaster of Webster, N. C, 1904-1912. Knights of Pythias; 
I. O. 0. P.; A. F. and A. M. Baptist. Married, 1909, to Miss Sadie J. 
Stillwell. Three children. Address: Sylva, N. C. 



HERBERT LINWOOD SWAIN. 

Herbert Linwood Swaix. Democrat, Representative from Tyrrell 
County, was born in January 1894. Son of J. Haywood and Kate 
(Bateman) Swain. Educated at Ayden Seminary, 1911-1914; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 1915-1916. Lawyer. J. O. U. A. M. Free 
Will Baptist. Address: Columbia, N. C. 



WILLIAM F. SWANN. 

William F. Swanx. Republican, Representative from Polk County, 
was born at Riceville, Buncombe County, June 13, 1869. Son of 
David H. and Mary E. (Clark) Swain. Attended Riceville Academy. 
1877-1890. Liveryman. Member of Tryon Forestry Association; 



Representatives ix General Assemrly. 449 

Tryon Board of Trade. General Superintendent of Tryon Hosiery 
Company 1899-1913. Alderman of town of Lynn two terms; Member 
of County Republican Executive Committee for several years. K. 
of P.; I. O. O. F.; J. 0. U. A. M. Presbyterian. Married, April 1891, 
to Miss Helena E. AVestall. Three children. Address: Lyrin, N. C. 



MALCOLM McINNIS TATOM. 

Malcolm McInnis Tatom, Democrat, Representative from Wayne 
County, was born in Bladen County. Son of Ollen and Catherine 
(McInnis) Tatom. M.D. from the Medical College of Virginia in 
1877. Practised medicine in Bladen County until 1893; in Mt. Olive 
since 1893. Formerly Membe*r Board of Trustees Eastern Hospital, 
Goldsboro, N. C. Represented Bladen County in Legislature of 1891. 
Nonaffiliated member of Masonic Order and I. O. O. F. Married in 
1882 to Miss Alice C. Williamson. Five children. Address: Mount 
Olive, N. C. 



FRANCIS M. TAYLOR. 

Fkancls M. Taylor. Democrat, Representative from Halifax 
County, was born in that County. Son of John R. and Martha 
(Marks) Taylor. Attended private and public schools of Halifax 
County, 1884-1895. Farmer, merchant, and real estate dealer. Jus- 
tice of the Peace, since 1899. Member of School Committee for last 
ten years. Tax Collector, 1906-1907. A. F. and A. M.; M. W. 0. A. 
Methodist. Married Miss Mattie E. Moore, January, 1902. Six chil- 
dren. Address: Brinkleyville, N. C. 



THOMAS JONES TAYLOR. 

Tho:\ias Jones Taylor. Democrat, Representative from Edgecombe 
County, was born in that county. October 18, 1867. Son of Thomas 
M. and Marina Taylor. Educated in the rural public schools. Farmer. 
County Surveyor of Martin County in 1888. A. F. and A. M. 
Christian (Disciple). Married in December. 1893, to Miss Lula V. 
Purvis. Six children. Address: . Bethel, X. C, R. F. D. 



450 Biographical Sketches. 

GEORGE ROBERT WARD. 

Geokge Robekt VVaku, Democrat, Representative irom Duplin 
County, was born at Joford, Duplin County, November 4, 1877. Son 
of George W. and Mary Priscilla (Alderman) Ward. Educated at 
Rockfi.sh Academy, 1895-1897: Johnson & Wyche, Atlantic, N. C, 1897- 
1898; Belvoir High School, 1898-1899. Ph.D., University of North 
Carolina. Attended University of North Carolina Law School, 190.3- 
1904. Lawyer. A. F. and A. M.; I. O. O. F.; K. of P. Presbyterian. 
Married Miss Bettie Williams, .June 24, 1908. One child. Address: 
Wallace. N. C. 



OTIS WARD. 

Otis W^vrd, Republican, Representative from Sampson County, was 
born in that county June 16, 1870. Son of Robinson and IMartha J. 
(West) Ward. Attended Bellevoir and Goshen High Schools of 
Sampson County, 1887-1890. Farmer. Delegate to Republican State 
Convention, 1902-1904. Census Enumerator, 1900 and 1910. Justice 
of the Peace, 1900. Married in October, 1901, to Miss Mittie Dudley. 
Two children. Address: Dunn, N. C, R. F. D., 6. 



THOMAS M. WIDENHOUSE. 

Thomas M. WiDEXHorsE. Republican, Representative from Cabar- 
rus County, was born in that county August 5, 1884. Son of Monroe 
and Catherine Widenhouse. Educated in the public schools of 
Cabarrus County. Merchant. Member of Merchants Association of 
Kannapolis. President of Merchants' Association of Kannapolis for 
last two years. Served three years as private in the State Guard. 
Woodman of the World. Methodist. Married on March 11, 1896. 
Four children. Address: Kannapolis, N. C. 



GEORGE W. WILSON. 



George W. Wilson. Democrat. Representative from Transylvania 
County, was born in Buncombe County. N. C, October. 10, 1838. Son 
of, William and Ruth (Clayton) Wilson. Educated in common 



Representatives ix General Assembly. 451 

schools. Farmer. Sheriff of Transylvania County. Representative 
in the General Assembly 1876, 1899, 1909. State Senator in 1887. 
United States Marshal. Presbtyerian. Married, April, 1867. Four 
children. Address: Brevard, N. C, R. F. D. 



STANLEY WINBORNE. 

Stanley Winborne, Democrat, Representative from Hertford 
County, was born August 25, 1886, at Murfreesboro. Son of Benjamin 
B. and Nellie (Vaughan) Winborne. Ph.B., University of North Caro- 
lina, 1907. Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 1907- 
1908. Lawyer. Vice-president of the Citizens Bank of Murfrees- 
boro since 1911. Member North Carolina Bar Association. Mayor 
of Murfreesboro, 1909-1910. Chairman of the Democratic County Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1912. County Attorney since 1909. Commissioner 
of the town of Murfreesboro since 1910. Representative in the Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1915. Pi Kappa Alpha (college) Fraternity; Mason. 
Methodist. Married Miss Francis Sharpe .lernigan. Two children. 
Address: Murreesboro, N. C. 



ROBERT WATSON WINSTON, JR. 

RoFiEKT Watson Wixston, .Ir., Democrat, Representative from 
Wake County, was born in Oxford, on December 17, 1891. Son of 
Robert Watson and Sophronia (Horner) Winston. Received his 
preparatory education at Horner Military School, 1905-1908. A.B., 
University of North Carolina, 1912. Lawyer. Episcopalian. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



J. P. WITHROW. 

J. P. Withrow. Democrat, Representative from Rutherford County, 
was born at Hollis, December 7, 1866. Son of .T. P. and Susan 
(Sweezy) Withrow. Attended Shelby High School, 1885-1886. :\rer- 
chant and farmer. Notary Public, 1900-1916. Justice of the Peace. 



452 Biographical Sketches. 

1890-1900. Member of Knights of Pythias; Mason; Red Men, Junior 
Order, I. O. O. F., Woodmen, D. 0. K. K. s. Baptist. Married in 
1888 to Miss Laura L. Hamrick. Address: Hollis, N. C. 



CLEM G. WRIGHT. 

Clkji G. Wright, Democrat, Representative from Guilford County. 
Educated at the University of i>:orth Carolina, class of 1886. Ad- 
dress: Greensboro, N. C. 



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